WorldWideScience

Sample records for diseases special reference

  1. Childhood Antecedents to Adult Coronary Artery Diseases. Special Reference Briefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winick, Myron

    This reference brief deals with the childhood antecedents to atherosclerosis and hypertension. While diet is related to the development of coronary artery diseases, there is some disagreement about what dietary changes are necessary or desirable in children to prevent their development, and at what age such changes should be made. Fifty-five…

  2. heart disease in southern africa with special reference to ischaemic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-06-12

    Jun 12, 1971 ... The cities of. Cape Town ... nition of cardiac disease, both during life and in the registration of .... cardiac failure, cardiac arrhythmias, and sudden death. Moreover ... young females, a great difference in the prevalence of the disease ...... have an increased risk of coronary disease under American conditions.

  3. Graves' disease with special reference to radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seegenschmidt, M. H.; Heyd, R.; Esser, J.; Mould, R.F.

    2006-01-01

    Graves' disease, although not malignant, nevertheless can lead to serious events such as permanent loss of vision if it remains untreated. This review article describes the clinical symptoms of the disease, includes a commentary on the Graves' disease subgroup of thyroid-associated orbitipathy (TAO), and defines clinical activity scoring systems which grade the severity of the disease in patients (clinical activity, NOSPECS and LEMO scoring ). An review of radiotherapy in the 1980s is followed by a summary of the 2003 German national survey on radiotherapy for Graves' disease. Radiation therapy technique is then described and discussed. Case histories are from the Alfred Krupp Hospital in Essen. (author)

  4. Multifactorial diseases and risk estimations: special reference of mutation component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, Norikazu

    1995-01-01

    Genetic effects of radiation in man have been tractable such aspects as genes, chromosomes, genomes, individuals and populations. In spite of enormous interest from an academic view point on the mechanism studies, it is rather a little study on incidence or prevalence of genetic diseases as hereditary effects when human population in general have been exposed by radiation. Such studies are valuable for radiation protection as well as radiation public health. In this review, I have attempted to reconcile some fragments evidences to derive an important conclusion: the hereditary effects of radiation could not be detected from examination of disease incidence (or prevalence) for the genetic risk. (J.P.N.)

  5. PTPN22 gene polymorphisms in autoimmune diseases with special reference to systemic lupus erythematosus disease susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradhan V

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a prototype autoimmune disease. SLE is a result of one or more immune mechanisms, like autoantibody production, complement activation, multiple inflammation and immune complex deposition leading to organ tissue damage. SLE affected patients are susceptible to common and opportunistic infections. There are several reports suggesting that Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection precipitates SLE in patients from endemic areas. Genetic factors and environmental factors also play an important role in the overall susceptibility to SLE pathophysiology. Recently, protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 22 (PTPN22 gene, has been found to be associated with several autoimmune diseases like SLE, Grave′s disease and Hashimoto thyroiditis. The missense R620W polymorphism, rs 2476601, in PTPN22 gene at the nucleotide 1858 in codon 620 (620Arg > Trp has been associated with autoimmune diseases. The PTPN22 locus is also found to be responsible for development of pulmonary tuberculosis in certain populations. The PTPN22 1858C/T gene locus will be ideal to look for SLE susceptibility to tuberculosis in the Indian population. In this review, we focus on human PTPN22 gene structure and function as well as the association of PTPN22 gene polymorphisms with SLE susceptibility

  6. [Psychosomatic aspects of hyperthyroidism with special reference to Basedow's disease. An overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodewig, K

    1993-08-01

    The following paper deals with the current research in hyperthyroidism, with special accent to Graves' disease. Besides severe psychological trauma a breakdown of neurotic defense mechanism on the ground of a special personality structure was thought to be the trigger of the disease. The metabolic changes became the main point of interest. The influence of thyrostatic, surgical and radioactive therapies on psychological symptoms, was investigated. Thereby, the previously anticipated emotional factors became less significant in the aetiology of the disease. A recent study (Paschke 1990) suggests that patient with hyperthyroidism have, even in an euthyrotic state, an increased vulnerability to anxiety provoking situations. At this point it is not clear, due to the retrospective nature of the study, whether the vulnerability exists prior to the unset of the disease or is a result of the metabolic disorder. Both thyroxin and TRH are being successfully used in the treatment of major depression. TRH acts as a neurotransmitter in the autonomic nervous system and can be demonstrated in the peripheral lymphocytes. However, the exact mechanisms of action of thyroxin and TRH are still unknown. Graves' disease is an autoimmune disease, that can be caused by specific HLA antigens. Thereby, a changed subpopulation of lymphocytes can be demonstrated, as well as there disturbed functions. A correlation between high scores for anxiety and depression on one hand and the occurrence of an abnormal T4/T8 ratio on the other hand, have been reported in a small number of cases (Paschke 1990). The psychological symptoms in hyperthyroidism are similar to the symptomatology of neurotic anxiety and the anxious depressive syndrome.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Role of Sex Hormones on Brain Mitochondrial Function, with Special Reference to Aging and Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Gaignard

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The mitochondria have a fundamental role in both cellular energy supply and oxidative stress regulation and are target of the effects of sex steroids, particularly the neuroprotective ones. Aging is associated with a decline in the levels of different steroid hormones, and this decrease may underline some neural dysfunctions. Besides, modifications in mitochondrial functions associated with aging processes are also well documented. In this review, we will discuss studies that describe the modifications of brain mitochondrial function and of steroid levels associated with physiological aging and with neurodegenerative diseases. A special emphasis will be placed on describing and discussing our recent findings concerning the concomitant study of mitochondrial function (oxidative phosphorylation, oxidative stress and brain steroid levels in both young (3-month-old and aged (20-month-old male and female mice.

  8. Complications in autopsy cases of Hashimoto's disease with special reference to A-bomb exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Masahide; Kato, Hiroo

    1978-01-01

    To clarify a relationship between A-bomb exposure and Hashimoto's disease and that between Hashimoto's disease and carcinoma of the thyroid gland, autopsy cases of Hashimoto's disease (112 cases in Hiroshima and 43 cases in Nagasaki) were examined. Incidence of Hashimoto's disease was not related to exposure doses and ages at the time of exposure. Incidence of carcinoma of the thyroid gland from Hashimoto's disease was 1.3% (2 cases), and there was no relationship between them. Incidence of ovarian cancer as cancer accompanied with Hashimoto's disease was significantly high, but that of stomach cancer was significantly low. Incidence of total cancer from Hashimoto's disease was also significantly low. Incidences of rheumatic fever and rheumatoid arthritis which were collagen diseases and diseases similar to them complicated by Hashimoto's disease was significantly high. (Tsunoda, M.)

  9. Prognostic factors in Hodgkin's disease stage III with special reference to tumour burden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, L.; Nissen, N.I.

    1988-01-01

    of lymphographically involved regions), histologic subtype, B-symptoms, number of involved regions, mediastinal involvement, pretreatment ESR, sex, age, laparotomy, and substage were examined in multivariate analysis. With regard to disease-free survival, total tumour burden (intraabdominal and peripheral...... regarding early stage disease to the effect that tumour burden is the single most important prognostic factor in Hodgkin's disease....

  10. Prognostic factors in Hodgkin's disease stage III with special reference to tumour burden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, L; Nissen, N I

    1988-01-01

    143 patients with Hodgkin's disease stage III (65 PS III, 78 CS III) were treated with radiotherapy alone (33 patients), combination chemotherapy alone (56 patients), or radiotherapy plus combination chemotherapy (54 patients). They were followed till death or from 7 to 191 months. Prognostic fac...... regarding early stage disease to the effect that tumour burden is the single most important prognostic factor in Hodgkin's disease....

  11. Hospital morbidity in the Fiji islands with special reference to the saccharine disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, M

    1975-08-23

    The concept of the excessive consumption of carbohydrates as a cause of many diseases of civilisation has previously been proposed under the name of the 'saccharine disease'. A review of the hospital morbidity figures for these diseases in a divisional hospital in the Fiji Islands is presented. The hospital serves a population comprised of Indians and Fijians, suggesting comparison with the province of Natal, South Africa. Indians have a higher incidence of diabetes melitus, myocardial infarction, duodenal ulcer, acute appendicitis, gallstones, renal stones and eclampsia. Their diets differ mainly in the higher consumption of refined fibre-depleted carbohydrates, and it is suggested that the association is compatible with the concept of the "saccharine disease".

  12. Evaluation of pleural disease using MR and CT: With special reference to malignant pleural mesothelioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knuuttila, A.; Kivisaari, L.; Kivisaari, A.; Palomaeki, M.; Tervahartiala, P.; Mattson, K.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate MR imaging and CT in differentiating malignant pleural mesothelioma from other malignancies or benign pleural disease. Material and Methods: Thirty-four patients (18 pleural mesothelioma, 9 other malignancies, 7 benign pleural diseases) were examined using enhanced CT and MR. Two radiologists reviewed the CT and two others the MR images. Comparisons were made between the diagnostic groups and the imaging methods. Results: The abnormalities commonly found in malignant disease, but significantly less frequently in benign pleural disease, were focal thickening and enhancement of inter lobar fissures. In mesothelioma, enhancement of inter lobar fissures, tumour invasion of the diaphragm, mediastinal soft tissue or chest wall, were significantly more often observed than in other malignancies and MR was the most sensitive method. In other malignancies, invasion of bony structures was a more common finding and was also better shown by MR. The contrast-enhanced T1 fat-suppressed (CET1fs) sequence detected these features better than other MR sequences. Conclusion: MR, especially the CET1fs sequence in three planes, gave more information than enhanced CT. Focal thickening and enhancement of inter lobar fissures were early abnormalities indicating malignant pleural disease. MR could be clinically useful for differentiating mesothelioma from other pleural diseases

  13. Evaluation of pleural disease using MR and CT: With special reference to malignant pleural mesothelioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knuuttila, A. [Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Medicine; Kivisaari, L.; Kivisaari, A.; Palomaeki, M.; Tervahartiala, P. [Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Radiology; Mattson, K. [Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Medicine

    2001-09-01

    Purpose: To evaluate MR imaging and CT in differentiating malignant pleural mesothelioma from other malignancies or benign pleural disease. Material and Methods: Thirty-four patients (18 pleural mesothelioma, 9 other malignancies, 7 benign pleural diseases) were examined using enhanced CT and MR. Two radiologists reviewed the CT and two others the MR images. Comparisons were made between the diagnostic groups and the imaging methods. Results: The abnormalities commonly found in malignant disease, but significantly less frequently in benign pleural disease, were focal thickening and enhancement of inter lobar fissures. In mesothelioma, enhancement of inter lobar fissures, tumour invasion of the diaphragm, mediastinal soft tissue or chest wall, were significantly more often observed than in other malignancies and MR was the most sensitive method. In other malignancies, invasion of bony structures was a more common finding and was also better shown by MR. The contrast-enhanced T1 fat-suppressed (CET1fs) sequence detected these features better than other MR sequences. Conclusion: MR, especially the CET1fs sequence in three planes, gave more information than enhanced CT. Focal thickening and enhancement of inter lobar fissures were early abnormalities indicating malignant pleural disease. MR could be clinically useful for differentiating mesothelioma from other pleural diseases.

  14. AETIOPATHOGENESIS OF FEVER IN HOSPITALISED SICKLE CELL DISEASE CHILDREN REVISITED WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO BLOOD CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadhana Panda

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Sickle Cell Disease (SCD poses a considerable health burden in India. The sickle gene is widespread among many tribal population groups in India with prevalence of heterozygotes varying from 1-40 percent. The disease has multiple acute and chronic complications, including haemolytic crises, severe pain, renal complications, thromboembolic phenomenon and overwhelming infections; some complications of SCD generate high mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a cross-sectional, hospital inpatient based, observational study. Convenience sampling technique was used to include 74 consecutively diagnosed cases of sickle cell disease children less than 14 years of age and suffering from fever. A blood culture was performed in each case prior to starting of antibiotics. RESULTS The present study comprised of 74 children with confirmed sickle cell disease admitted to ward with fever. The largest numbers of cases were between 1 to 3 years age group. Febrile episodes decreased as the age advanced. Around 30% of febrile patients presented with cough followed by 24% with pain in limbs. Anaemia was the most common physical finding (92% followed by splenomegaly in 86% cases. URTI being most common aetiology. Most common organism isolated by blood culture was Staph. aureus in 8 samples. CONCLUSION As because fever is a consistent finding in severe bacterial infections, extensive evaluation, early intervention in febrile SCD children may reduce the morbidity and mortality rates. Although, the greatest concern has traditionally been S. pneumoniae, effective vaccination has reduced its incidence. It is probably wise to treat all highly febrile children with sickle cell disease with antibiotics pending the results of blood culture. Strengthening of routine immunisation programme is needed.

  15. Animal in vivo models of EBV-associated lymphoproliferative diseases: special references to rabbit models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, K; Teramoto, N; Akagi, T

    2002-10-01

    Animal models of human EBV-associated diseases are essential to elucidate the pathogenesis of EBV-associated diseases. Here we review those previous models using EBV or EBV-like herpesviruses and describe the details on our two newly-developed rabbit models of lymphoproliferative diseases (LPD) induced by simian EBV-like viruses. The first is Cynomolgus-EBV-induced T-cell lymphomas in rabbits inoculated intravenously (77-90%) and orally (82-89%) during 2-5 months. EBV-DNA was detected in peripheral blood by PCR from 2 days after oral inoculation, while anti-EBV-VCA IgG was raised 3 weeks later. Rabbit lymphomas and their cell lines contained EBV-DNA and expressed EBV-encoded RNA-1 (EBER-1). Rabbit lymphoma cell lines, most of which have specific chromosomal abnormality, showed tumorigenicity in nude mice. The second is the first animal model for EBV-infected T-cell LPD with virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (VAHS), using rabbits infected with an EBV-like herpesvirus, Herpesvirus papio (HVP). Rabbits inoculated intravenously with HVP-producing cells showed increased anti-EBV-VCA-IgG titers, and most (85%) subsequently died of fatal LPD and VAHS, with bleeding and hepatosplenomegaly, during 22-105 days. Peroral spray of cell-free HVP induced viral infection with seroconversion in 3 out of 5 rabbits, with 2 of the 3 infected rabbits dying of LPD with VAHS. Atypical T lymphocytes containing HVP-DNA and expressing EBER-1 were observed in many organs. Hemophagocytic histiocytosis was observed in the lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, and thymus. These rabbit models are also useful and inexpensive alternative experimental model systems for studying the biology and pathogenesis of EBV, and prophylactic and therapeutic regimens.

  16. Daytime napping and mortality, with a special reference to cardiovascular disease: the JACC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Naohito; Iso, Hiroyasu; Seki, Nao; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Toyoshima, Hideaki; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2010-02-01

    Daytime napping is associated with elevated risk of all-cause mortality in the elderly. However, the association with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk is inconsistent. From 1988 to 1990, a total of 67 129 Japanese non-workers or daytime workers (27 755 men and 39 374 women) aged 40-79 years, without a history of stroke, heart disease or cancer, completed a lifestyle questionnaire. They were followed for mortality until the end of 2003. During the 879 244 person-year follow-up, 9643 deaths (2852 from CVD, 3643 from cancer, 2392 from other internal causes, 738 from external causes and 18 from unspecified causes) were observed. After adjustment for possible confounders, subjects with a daytime napping habit had elevated hazard ratios (HRs) for mortality from all causes [HR 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14-1.24, P napping was diminished among overweight subjects, but pronounced in those with weight loss after age 20 years, with non-regular employment, with lower education level and with a follow-up period napping is associated with elevated risk of CVD mortality as well as non-cardiovascular/non-cancer and external deaths. Daytime napping may elevate risk of CVD death through some biological effects but, to a larger extent, some comorbid disorders causing weight loss or associated with non-regular employment and low education level could explain this association.

  17. Addition computed tomography with stable xenon; Special reference to ischemic cerebrovascular diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Touho, Hajime; Karasawa, Jun; Shishido, Hisashi; Yamada, Keisuke; Shibamoto, Keiji [Osaka Neurological Inst., Toyonaka (Japan)

    1990-09-01

    Stable xenon (Xe{sup s}) is used as a contrast agent because it freely diffuses to cerebral tissues through the blood-brain barrier. In this study, 2 axial levels for Xe{sup s} enhancement analysis were selected from a baseline series of computed tomographic (CT) scans and 6 serial CT scans were obtained every 20 seconds for each scan level during the 240 seconds inhalation period of 30% Xe{sup s} in 10 volunteer controls and in 52 patients with ischemic cerebrovascular diseases (ICVD). The serial CT scans were added and averaged in each pixel. This was used to make a new CT picture (addition CT scans). The CT scans before the Xe{sup s} inhalation, the scan at the end of the Xe{sup s} inhalation, and the addition CT scan were compared to see whether gray matter and ischemic areas could be differentiated from white matter. The addition CT scans could differentiate the three structures very well in both the acute and chronic stages of ICVD. This technique is thought to be a very simple and useful method to detect the small infarcted areas and low perfusion areas that cannot be visualized on precontrast CT scans. (author).

  18. Economic Aspects of Disease Monitoring with Special Reference to Bovine Paratuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paisley Larry G

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Monte Carlo simulation models were used to evaluate the feasibility and potential results of a proposed national survey of the prevalence of bovine paratuberculosis (PTB in dairy herds in Norway. The expected herd prevalence was assumed to be 0.2% in the simulations. Infected herds were classified as detected if 1 animal was sero-positive. With a sample size of 6000 herds at least 1 truly infected herd was detected in 99% of the iterations. The low sensitivity of the ELISA test, the assumed low herd prevalence, the typical low within-herd prevalence of PTB and the small herd sizes in Norway all present problems in detection of the disease. The results showed that the ratio between false-positive herds and true positive herds detected had a median of 70:1. At the assumed herd prevalence of 0.2% and a cost/test of 70 NOK the median cost of detecting 1 infected herd was approximately 900,000 NOK. If 2 positive reactors were needed to classify a herd "infected" the median cost of detecting 1 infected herd was 5,055,000 NOK. Our results suggest that a randomized national prevalence survey would not be feasible, due to the low probability of detecting infected herds and because of the high number of false-positive reactions that would be expected.

  19. Frame of Reference: Special Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetsch, Lori A.

    2010-01-01

    Rare, distinctive, unique--academic libraries are exploring new ways to describe and define what they've traditionally called special collections: incunabula, manuscripts, rare books, cultural artifacts and more. These valuable, historically important, and often one-of-a-kind artifacts can be a treasure trove for scholars and students. Technology…

  20. Importance of intersectoral co-ordination in the control of communicable diseases, with special reference to plague in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilonzo, B S

    1994-07-01

    Human health, agriculture, including livestock, energy, education, wildlife, construction, forestry and trade sectors are inter-related and their co-ordination is an important pre-requisite for successful control of most communicable diseases including plague. Similar linkage between research, policy, training and extension activities in each sector are essential for any successful control strategy. Inadequate agricultural produce, inaccessibility of people to the available food and ignorance on proper preparation and usage of available food materials are responsible for malnutrition, and malnourished people are very vulnerable to disease. Irrigation schemes facilitate breeding of various disease vectors and transmission of some communicable diseases. Forests are ecologically favourable for some disease vectors and reservoirs for tsetse flies and rodents, while deforestation leads to soil erosion, lack of rainfall and consequently reduced productivity in agriculture which may result in poor nutrition of the population. Wildlife and livestock serve as reservoirs and/or carriers of various zoonoses including plague, trypanosomiasis and rabies. Lack of proper co-ordination of these sectors in communicable disease control programmes can result in serious and undesirable consequences. Indiscriminate killing of rodents in order to minimize food damage by these vermin forces their flea ectoparasites to seek alternative hosts, including man, a development which may result in transmission of plague from rodents to man. Similarly, avoidance of proper quarantine during plague epidemics, an undertaking which is usually aimed at maintaining economic and social links with places outside the affected focus, can result in the disease becoming widespread and consequently make any control strategies more difficult and expensive.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Cerebrovascular diseases in a fixed population Hiroshima and Nagasaki with special reference to relationship between type and risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chow-How; Shimizu, Yukiko; Kato, Hiroo; Robertson, T.L.; Furonaka, Hiroshi.

    1980-10-01

    A study was made of the incidence of cerebrovascular diseases, their chronological trend, and relationship between the disease types and risk factors on 16,491 subjects of Hiroshima and Nagasaki who underwent medical examination at least once between 1958 - 74, and who were free of cerebrovascular disease at the initial examination. During the 16-year period, 1,162 cases of cerebrovascular disease developed in this study population with the diagnosis definite in 621, and the annual incidence was 3.2 per 1,000 population. By type, there were 108 cases of cerebral hemorrhage, 469 cases of cerebral infarction, 33 cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage, and 11 cases of other unclassifiable types, with cerebral infarction occurring more frequently than cerebral hemorrhage at the ratio of 4.5 : 1. The incidence of cerebrovascular diseases increased with age in both types, but the proportion of younger subjects in cerebral hemorrhage was greater than that in cerebral infarction. A secular trend of declining incidence was noted for both cerebral hemorrhage and cerebral infarction. As a risk factor of cerebral hemorrhage, elevation of systolic and diastolic blood pressure was the most closely related to onset, and left ventricular hypertrophy on electrocardiogram (ECG) and proteinuria were also related. However, a tendency was seen for the risk to be somewhat higher the lower the levels of serum cholesterol. In cerebral infarction, aging, like systolic blood pressure, was a most important risk factor. Left ventricular hypertrophy on ECG, proteinuria, and diabetes could also be risk factors. However, the relation to blood pressure, especially diastolic blood pressure, was not so great as in the case of cerebral hemorrhage. (author)

  2. Genetic factors in human sleep disorders with special reference to Norrie disease, Prader-Willi syndrome and Moebius syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, J D

    1999-06-01

    Sleep-wake problems are common in specific inborn errors of metabolism and structure of the central nervous system. Psychological factors, behavioural difficulties, metabolic disturbances, and widespread rather than focal damage to the nervous system are present in many of these diseases and all influence the sleep-wake cycle. However, a number of conditions cause relatively focal damage to the neuroanatomical substrate of sleeping and waking. These include fatal familial insomnia, with involvement of the prion protein gene on chromosome 20, Norrie disease, the Prader-Willi syndrome and the Moebius syndrome. The last three important conditions, although rare, are considered in detail in this review. They result in sensory deprivation, hypothalamic and mid-brain damage, and involve the X-chromosome, chromosome 15, and chromosome 13, respectively. These conditions cause a wide variety of sleep disturbance, including parasomnias, daytime sleepiness, and a condition like cataplexy. The place of the relevant gene products in normal sleep regulation needs further exploration.

  3. Scintigraphy versus radiography in the early diagnosis of experimental bone necrosis with special reference to caisson disease of bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregg, P.J.; Walder, D.N.

    1980-01-01

    The early diagnosis of caisson disease of bone is hindered by the long delay which must elapse before an abnormality becomes apparent on a radiograph. The possible use of bone scintigraphy for this purpose was investigated. Necrosis of the bone and marrow was produced in rabbits by glass microspheres to simulate persistent gas-bubble emboli and then serial radiographs and scintigrams using sup(99m)Tc-diphosphonate were obtained. Regions of necrosis could be detected as 'hot spots' on the scintigrams as early as three weeks after the causative insult, which was many weeks before any abnormality could be detected on the radiographs. Histological examination of excised femora suggested that the scintigraphic abnormality might depend on the new bone formation established during a reactive or repair process. It is suggested that scintigraphy may have clinical value in caisson disease. (author)

  4. Scintigraphy versus radiography in the early diagnosis of experimental bone necrosis, with special reference to caisson disease of bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, P J; Walder, D N

    1980-05-01

    The early diagnosis of caisson disease of bone is hindered by the long delay which must elapse before an abnormality becomes apparent on a radiograph. The possible use of bone scintigraphy for this purpose was investigated. Necrosis of the bone and marrow was produced in rabbits by glass microspheres to simulate persistent gas-bubble emboli and then serial radiographs and scintigrams using 99mTc-diphosphonate were obtained. Regions of necrosis could be detected as "hot-spots" on the scintigrams as early as three weeks after the causative insult, which was many weeks before any abnormality could be detected on the radiographs. Histological examination of excised femora suggested that the scintigraphic abnormality might depend on the new bone formation during a reactive or repair process. It is suggested that scintigraphy may have clinical value in caisson disease.

  5. Peer support of complex health behaviors in prevention and disease management with special reference to diabetes: systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Edwin B; Boothroyd, Renée I; Elstad, Emily A; Hays, Laura; Henes, Amy; Maslow, Gary R; Velicer, Clayton

    2017-01-01

    Examine Peer Support (PS) for complex, sustained health behaviors in prevention or disease management with emphasis on diabetes prevention and management. PS was defined as emotional, motivational and practical assistance provided by nonprofessionals for complex health behaviors. Initial review examined 65 studies drawn from 1442 abstracts identified through PubMed, published 1/1/2000-7/15/2011. From this search, 24 reviews were also identified. Extension of the search in diabetes identified 30 studies published 1/1/2000-12/31/2015. In initial review, 54 of all 65 studies (83.1%) reported significant impacts of PS, 40 (61.5%) reporting between-group differences and another 14 (21.5%) reporting significant within-group changes. Across 19 of 24 reviews providing quantifiable findings, a median of 64.5% of studies reviewed reported significant effects of PS. In extended review of diabetes, 26 of all 30 studies (86.7%) reported significant impacts of PS, 17 (56.7%) reporting between-group differences and another nine (30.0%) reporting significant within-group changes. Among 19 of these 30 reporting HbA1c data, average reduction was 0.76 points. Studies that did not find effects of PS included other sources of support, implementation or methodological problems, lack of acceptance of interventions, poor fit to recipient needs, and possible harm of unmoderated PS. Across diverse settings, including under-resourced countries and health care systems, PS is effective in improving complex health behaviors in disease prevention and management including in diabetes.

  6. Healthy and diseased striated muscle studied by analytical scanning electron microscopy with special reference to fibre type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wroblewski, R.

    1982-01-01

    X-ray microanalytical investigations of striated muscles in the scanning electron microscope are reviewed. The main part of the studies was performed on cryosections cut with a conventional cryostat operating at -20 degrees C to -40 degrees C. The preparation procedure including different types of attachment of the sections to the specimen holder is described in detail. The elemental changes in muscle are related to the muscle fibre type as demonstrated by histochemical methods or to histochemically demonstrated inclusions in diseased muscles. This is of great importance, because muscle disorders are often characterised by selective involvement of different muscle fibre types. The preparation methods of muscle for analytical scanning electron microscopy and the obtained results are compared with studies performed on thin cryo and epoxy sections, analysed in the transmission and scanning-transmission electron microscope. It is evident that X-ray microanalysis performed on thick cryosections provide a quick survey of the elemental composition of whole cells, and should be followed in interesting cases by close examination on the organelle level studied in thin cryosections in the transmission and scanning-transmission electron microscope

  7. Variation of body fat percentage with special reference to diet modification in patients with chronic kidney disease: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Neha; Singh, Rana Gopal; Alok, Kumar; Singh, Shivendra

    2014-07-01

    Visceral adiposity causes hypertension, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia. This study was conducted to evaluate whether a correlation exists between body fat percentage (BFP) of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients and their dietary intake. In this hospital-based, quasi-experimental study, 135 incident cases of CKD were included, of whom 76 completed the study. The patients included were aged 18 years and above and had a body mass index (BMI) between 18 and 25 kg/m [2] , had CKD of any etiology and serum creatinine of up to 5 mg/dL. Patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, active hepatitis B or C, malignancy, previous kidney transplantation, current participation in any trial, diabetes mellitus and those who were on dia-lysis were excluded. The study patients were put on a diet of 25-30 kcal/kg/day, with 60% of the calories coming from carbohydrates and 20% each from protein and fat. Assessment was made at baseline (BL) and at 12 months (TM) for anthropometric parameters, skin-fold thickness, nutritional parameters, serum albumin and dietary intake (3-day dietary record) and clinical characteristics. No significant change was seen in BFP, waist circumference (WC) and BMI at BS and at TM. There was significant improvement in serum albumin (P intake was within the prescribed limit, with significant improvement in energy intake between BS and TM (P intake of delta dietary protein and fat positively correlated with delta e-GFR (P patients. This study supports the fact that dietary counseling is an important part of treatment in patients with CKD.

  8. Variation of body fat percentage with special reference to diet modification in patients with chronic kidney disease: A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Srivastava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Visceral adiposity causes hypertension, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia. This study was conducted to evaluate whether a correlation exists between body fat percentage (BFP of chronic kidney disease (CKD patients and their dietary intake. In this hospital-based, quasi-experimental study, 135 incident cases of CKD were included, of whom 76 completed the study. The patients included were aged 18 years and above and had a body mass index (BMI between 18 and 25 kg/m [2] , had CKD of any etiology and serum creatinine of up to 5 mg/dL. Patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, active hepatitis B or C, malignancy, previous kidney transplantation, current participation in any trial, diabetes mellitus and those who were on dia-lysis were excluded. The study patients were put on a diet of 25-30 kcal/kg/day, with 60% of the calories coming from carbohydrates and 20% each from protein and fat. Assessment was made at baseline (BL and at 12 months (TM for anthropometric parameters, skin-fold thickness, nutri-tional parameters, serum albumin and dietary intake (3-day dietary record and clinical charac-teristics. No significant change was seen in BFP, waist circumference (WC and BMI at BS and at TM. There was significant improvement in serum albumin (P <0.05 and e-GFR (P <0.01 while CRP was elevated both at BL and TM. The dietary intake was within the prescribed limit, with significant improvement in energy intake between BS and TM (P <0.05. The intake of delta dietary protein and fat positively correlated with delta e-GFR (P <0.001. There was a significant association between change in BFP and change in BMI (P <0.005. During follow-up, there was no significant change in biochemical parameters and BFP as well as stage of CKD of the study patients. This study supports the fact that dietary counseling is an important part of treatment in patients with CKD.

  9. Fundamental discrepancies in abortion estimates and abortion-related mortality: A reevaluation of recent studies in Mexico with special reference to the International Classification of Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Elard; Aracena, Paula; Gatica, Sebastián; Bravo, Miguel; Huerta-Zepeda, Alejandra; Calhoun, Byron C

    2012-01-01

    In countries where induced abortion is legally restricted, as in most of Latin America, evaluation of statistics related to induced abortions and abortion-related mortality is challenging. The present article reexamines recent reports estimating the number of induced abortions and abortion-related mortality in Mexico, with special reference to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD). We found significant overestimations of abortion figures in the Federal District of Mexico (up to 10-fold), where elective abortion has been legal since 2007. Significant overestimation of maternal and abortion-related mortality during the last 20 years in the entire Mexican country (up to 35%) was also found. Such overestimations are most likely due to the use of incomplete in-hospital records as well as subjective opinion surveys regarding induced abortion figures, and due to the consideration of causes of death that are unrelated to induced abortion, including flawed denominators of live births. Contrary to previous publications, we found important progress in maternal health, reflected by the decrease in overall maternal mortality (30.6%) from 1990 to 2010. The use of specific ICD codes revealed that the mortality ratio associated with induced abortion decreased 22.9% between 2002 and 2008 (from 1.48 to 1.14 deaths per 100,000 live births). Currently, approximately 98% of maternal deaths in Mexico are related to causes other than induced abortion, such as hemorrhage, hypertension and eclampsia, indirect causes, and other pathological conditions. Therefore, only marginal or null effects would be expected from changes in the legal status of abortion on overall maternal mortality rates. Rather, maternal health in Mexico would greatly benefit from increasing access to emergency and specialized obstetric care. Finally, more reliable methodologies to assess abortion-related deaths are clearly required. PMID:23271925

  10. Fundamental discrepancies in abortion estimates and abortion-related mortality: A reevaluation of recent studies in Mexico with special reference to the International Classification of Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koch E

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Elard Koch,1,2 Paula Aracena,1 Sebastián Gatica,1 Miguel Bravo,1 Alejandra Huerta-Zepeda,3 Byron C Calhoun41Institute of Molecular Epidemiology (MELISA, Center of Embryonic Medicine and Maternal Health, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Católica de la Santísima Concepción, Concepción, Chile; 2Faculty of Medicine, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile; 3Universidad Popular Autónoma del Estado de Puebla UPAEP, Puebla, México; 4Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, West Virginia University, Charleston, WV, USAAbstract: In countries where induced abortion is legally restricted, as in most of Latin America, evaluation of statistics related to induced abortions and abortion-related mortality is challenging. The present article reexamines recent reports estimating the number of induced abortions and abortion-related mortality in Mexico, with special reference to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD. We found significant overestimations of abortion figures in the Federal District of Mexico (up to 10-fold, where elective abortion has been legal since 2007. Significant overestimation of maternal and abortion-related mortality during the last 20 years in the entire Mexican country (up to 35% was also found. Such overestimations are most likely due to the use of incomplete in-hospital records as well as subjective opinion surveys regarding induced abortion figures, and due to the consideration of causes of death that are unrelated to induced abortion, including flawed denominators of live births. Contrary to previous publications, we found important progress in maternal health, reflected by the decrease in overall maternal mortality (30.6% from 1990 to 2010. The use of specific ICD codes revealed that the mortality ratio associated with induced abortion decreased 22.9% between 2002 and 2008 (from 1.48 to 1.14 deaths per 100,000 live births. Currently, approximately 98% of maternal deaths in Mexico are related to causes other than

  11. The clinical value and limitation of exercise electrocardiography and exercise thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease, with special reference to single vessel disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujioka, Tatsuo; Shibata, Nitaro; Shimizu, Yoichi; Itoh, Yukiyoshi; Abe, Mitsuki; Tanaka, Toshihide; Matsuda, Mitsukazu; Obunai, Yoshio

    1984-01-01

    The clinical value and limitation of exercise electrocardiography and exercise thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy were studied in 40 patients with no previous history of myocardial infarction. Coronary angiography was performed on all the patients. Compared with thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy, treadmill exercise electrocardiography showed greater sensitivity (84% versus 63%) in diagnosing coronary stenosis of more than 50%. In patients with single vessel discase, the results of sensitivities were similar (75% to 65%). However, the specificity of thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy was higher than that of exercise electrocardiography (100% compared to 63%). Nine patients with evidence of significant lesions using coronary angiography, showed normal conditions using exercise electrocardiography and thallium myocardial scintigraphy examinations as well. All these patients had a history of chest pain, and 4 of them experienced chest pain during exercise. In cases with false negative exercise tests, the clinical symptoms and exercise-induced chest pain seem to be important diagnostic signs when evaluating patients with coronary artery disease. In 15 patients with isolated single vessel coronary artery disease (more than 75% stenosis of luminal diameter in only one vessel), the site of ST segment depression did not coincide with the stenotic lesion. The site of reversible perfusion defect on thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy did, however, coincide with the site of myocardial ishemia and the stenotic lesion in most cases. (author)

  12. An observational study of complications in chickenpox with special reference to unusual complications in an apex infectious disease hospital, Kolkata, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A K Kole

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chickenpox can cause serious complications and even death in persons without any risk factors. Aims: To observe the different complications with special reference to unusual complications of chickenpox and their outcomes. Materials and Methods: The present study was a prospective observational study where 300 patients suffering from chickenpox were evaluated with special reference to unusual complications and outcomes. Results: The usual complications of chickenpox commonly observed were acute hepatitis in 30 (10% and cerebellar ataxia in 22 patients (7.3%, whereas common unusual complications were acute pancreatitis in 45 (15%, hemorrhagic rash in 10 (3.3%, Guillain-Barrι syndrome in 4 (1.3%, disseminated intravascular coagulation in 4 (1.3%, necrotizing fasciitis in 4 (1.3%, and acute renal failure in 3 patients (1%. It had been observed that most of these unusual complications occurred in patients without any risk factor. A total of 18 patients (6% died in this study and of them 12 patients (4% died due to unusual complications. Conclusions: Compulsory childhood varicella vaccination including vaccination of risk groups and susceptible individuals are all essential to reduce the incidence of chickenpox, associated complications, and subsequent death.

  13. Special Operations Forces Reference Manual. Fourth Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    activities that support an adversary’s ability to negatively affect U.S. interests. CTF support can assist SOF in the execution of core activities in...the split team concept making up two six-man teams. Assistant Detachment Operations Sergeant Methods of Infiltration Special Forces soldiers possess...Twelve ODAs per SFG can infil- trate and exfiltrate by surface swim techniques. Unless specifically identified, the only teams with designated specialty

  14. Decolonisation and Teaching Law in Africa with Special Reference ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJM Venter

    2017-10-26

    Oct 26, 2017 ... decolonisation of law to how law is taught, with special reference to living ...... 44. Ponnusamy and Pandurangan Hand Book on University System 13. ... Ehrlich E Fundamental Principles of the Sociology of Law (Harvard.

  15. Genetics Home Reference: celiac disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do not have celiac disease . On average, a diagnosis of celiac disease is not made until 6 to 10 years ... and tissues and leads to the signs and symptoms of celiac disease . Almost all people with celiac disease have specific ...

  16. Genetics Home Reference: Alzheimer disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Alzheimer disease Alzheimer disease Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Alzheimer disease is a degenerative disease of the brain ...

  17. Genetics Home Reference: Parkinson disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Parkinson disease Parkinson disease Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Parkinson disease is a progressive disorder of the nervous ...

  18. Genetics Home Reference: Cole disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Cole disease Cole disease Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Cole disease is a disorder that affects the skin. People ...

  19. Genetics Home Reference: Fabry disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke: Fabry's Disease Information Page National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke: Lipid Storage Diseases Fact Sheet Educational Resources (8 links) Children Living With Inherited Metabolic Diseases (CLIMB) (UK): Fabry ...

  20. Genetics Home Reference: Norrie disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Norrie disease Norrie disease Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Norrie disease is an inherited eye disorder that leads to ...

  1. Genetics Home Reference: Graves disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Graves disease Graves disease Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Graves disease is a condition that affects the function of ...

  2. Genetics Home Reference: Hirschsprung disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... occur in combination with other conditions, such as Waardenburg syndrome , type IV; Mowat-Wilson syndrome ; or congenital central ... Disease MalaCards: hirschsprung disease 1 Orphanet: Hirschsprung disease Patient Support and Advocacy Resources (4 links) Bowel Group ...

  3. Genetics Home Reference: moyamoya disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as neurofibromatosis type 1 , sickle cell disease , or Graves disease . These individuals are said to have moyamoya syndrome. ... altered gene in each cell is sufficient to cause the disorder. However, some people who have a ...

  4. Completeness of the disease recording systems for dairy cows in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden with special reference to clinical mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolff Cecilia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Nordic countries Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, the majority of dairy herds are covered by disease recording systems, in general based on veterinary registration of diagnoses and treatments. Disease data are submitted to the national cattle databases where they are combined with, e.g., production data at cow level, and used for breeding programmes, advisory work and herd health management. Previous studies have raised questions about the quality of the disease data. The main aim of this study was to examine the country-specific completeness of the disease data, regarding clinical mastitis (CM diagnosis, in each of the national cattle databases. A second aim was to estimate country-specific CM incidence rates (IRs. Results Over 4 months in 2008, farmers in the four Nordic countries recorded clinical diseases in their dairy cows. Their registrations were matched to registrations in the central cattle databases. The country-specific completeness of disease registrations was calculated as the proportion of farmer-recorded cases that could be found in the central database. The completeness (95% confidence interval for veterinary-supervised cases of CM was 0.94 (0.92, 0.97, 0.56 (0.48, 0.64, 0.82 (0.75, 0.90 and 0.78 (0.70, 0.85 in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, respectively. The completeness of registration of all CM cases, which includes all cases noted by farmers, regardless of whether the cows were seen or treated by a veterinarian or not, was 0.90 (0.87, 0.93, 0.51 (0.43, 0.59, 0.75 (0.67, 0.83 and 0.67 (0.60, 0.75, respectively, in the same countries. The IRs, estimated by Poisson regression in cases per 100 cow-years, based on the farmers’ recordings, were 46.9 (41.7, 52.7, 38.6 (34.2, 43.5, 31.3 (27.2, 35.9 and 26.2 (23.2, 26.9, respectively, which was between 20% (DK and 100% (FI higher than the IRs based on recordings in the central cattle databases. Conclusions The completeness for veterinary

  5. Completeness of the disease recording systems for dairy cows in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden with special reference to clinical mastitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In the Nordic countries Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, the majority of dairy herds are covered by disease recording systems, in general based on veterinary registration of diagnoses and treatments. Disease data are submitted to the national cattle databases where they are combined with, e.g., production data at cow level, and used for breeding programmes, advisory work and herd health management. Previous studies have raised questions about the quality of the disease data. The main aim of this study was to examine the country-specific completeness of the disease data, regarding clinical mastitis (CM) diagnosis, in each of the national cattle databases. A second aim was to estimate country-specific CM incidence rates (IRs). Results Over 4 months in 2008, farmers in the four Nordic countries recorded clinical diseases in their dairy cows. Their registrations were matched to registrations in the central cattle databases. The country-specific completeness of disease registrations was calculated as the proportion of farmer-recorded cases that could be found in the central database. The completeness (95% confidence interval) for veterinary-supervised cases of CM was 0.94 (0.92, 0.97), 0.56 (0.48, 0.64), 0.82 (0.75, 0.90) and 0.78 (0.70, 0.85) in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, respectively. The completeness of registration of all CM cases, which includes all cases noted by farmers, regardless of whether the cows were seen or treated by a veterinarian or not, was 0.90 (0.87, 0.93), 0.51 (0.43, 0.59), 0.75 (0.67, 0.83) and 0.67 (0.60, 0.75), respectively, in the same countries. The IRs, estimated by Poisson regression in cases per 100 cow-years, based on the farmers’ recordings, were 46.9 (41.7, 52.7), 38.6 (34.2, 43.5), 31.3 (27.2, 35.9) and 26.2 (23.2, 26.9), respectively, which was between 20% (DK) and 100% (FI) higher than the IRs based on recordings in the central cattle databases. Conclusions The completeness for veterinary-supervised cases of

  6. Genetics Home Reference: prion disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... which have overlapping signs and symptoms, include familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS), and fatal ... Sc . Sporadic forms of prion disease include sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD), sporadic fatal insomnia (sFI), and variably protease- ...

  7. Reference and access innovative practices for archives and special collections

    CERN Document Server

    Theimer, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Reference and Access: Innovative Practices for Archives and Special Collections explores how archives of different sizes and types are increasing their effectiveness in serving the public and meeting internal needs. The book features twelve case studies that demonstrate new ways to interact with users to answer their questions, provide access to materials, support patrons in the research room, and manage reference and access processes. This volume will be useful to those working in archives and special collections as well as other cultural heritage organizations, and provides ideas ranging fro

  8. The economic impact of foot and mouth disease and its control in South-East Asia: a preliminary assessment with special reference to Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, B D; Kalpravidh, W; Coleman, P G; Horst, H S; McDermott, J J; Randolph, T F; Gleeson, L J

    1999-08-01

    A pilot study of the economic impact of foot and mouth disease (FMD) in the countries and region of South-East Asia is described. Previous economic impact assessments are reviewed and summarised and a synthesis of these contributions is constructed. A framework for the future economic impact of the disease is then developed, incorporating analyses at the sectoral (production system), national and regional levels. Data requirements for such studies are also identified. Integrated epidemiological and economic models for impact assessment were developed and applied to the case study country of Thailand. The models were used to evaluate the economic viability of FMD control programmes in the country. Scenarios evaluated include the effect of improving vaccination coverage and thus reducing productivity losses, and the effect of eventual eradication of the disease. The results indicate that economic returns to the high expenditures incurred in FMD control could be achieved in the short term if greater international trade in pork products was made possible and export prices higher than those in the domestic market could be attained. If FMD were to be eradicated from Thailand in 2010, the eradication would be economically viable, even without exports, with a predicted benefit-cost ratio of 3.73. With additional exports, the economic justification for control becomes much stronger with a benefit-cost ratio of up to 15:1 being achieved. If eradication is not achieved until 2020, returns remain positive without exports, but at a lower rate. The authors propose that the integrated epidemiological and economic models developed be applied to other countries of the region to gain a more accurate insight into the future benefits of FMD control and eradication in the region.

  9. Stereotactic body radiotherapy for Stage I lung cancer with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Special reference to survival and radiation-induced pneumonitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Toshihiko; Shiomi, Hiroya; Oh, Ryoong-Jin

    2015-01-01

    This retrospective study aimed to evaluate radiation-induced pneumonitis (RIP) and a related condition that we define in this report — prolonged minimal RIP (pmRIP) — after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for Stage I primary lung cancer in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We assessed 136 Stage I lung cancer patients with COPD who underwent SBRT. Airflow limitation on spirometry was classified into four Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) grades, with minor modifications: GOLD 1 (mild), GOLD 2 (moderate), GOLD 3 (severe) and GOLD 4 (very severe). On this basis, we defined two subgroups: COPD-free (COPD -) and COPD-positive (COPD +). There was no significant difference in overall survival or cause-specific–survival between these groups. Of the 136 patients, 44 (32%) had pmRIP. Multivariate analysis showed that COPD and the Brinkman index were statistically significant risk factors for the development of pmRIP. COPD and the Brinkman index were predictive factors for pmRIP, although our findings also indicate that SBRT can be tolerated in early lung cancer patients with COPD. (author)

  10. Genetics Home Reference: Sandhoff disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cooper A, Ferrie CD. Juvenile Sandhoff disease--nine new cases and a review of the literature. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2004;27(2):241-9. Review. Citation on PubMed Tay SK, Low PS, Ong HT, Loke KY. Sandhoff disease--a case report of 3 siblings and a review of potential therapies. Ann Acad ...

  11. Genetics Home Reference: Tangier disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Maxfield FR, Tabas I. Role of cholesterol and lipid organization in disease. Nature. 2005 Dec 1;438(7068):612-21. ... Hubácek JA. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in human metabolism and diseases. Physiol Res. 2004;53(3):235-43. Review. ...

  12. Differences in traditional and non-traditional risk factors with special reference to nutritional factors in patients with coronary artery disease with or without diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namita P Mahalle

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is an increase in awareness about the role of nutritional factors in chronic non-communicable diseases. We therefore conducted this study with an aim to assess the relationship between nutritional factor (vitamin B12 and homocysteine [Hcy] and its association with insulin resistance and inflammatory markers, and differences in traditional and non-traditional risk factors among diabetics and non-diabetics in known cases of coronary artery disease (CAD. Materials and Methods: Three hundred consecutive patients with known coronary disease on coronary angiography, who were >25 years old were included in this study. All cases were interviewed using a questionnaire. Blood samples were analyzed for insulin, vitamin B12, Hcy and inflammatory markers (highly sensitive C-reactive protein [hsCRP], interleukin-6 [IL-6], Tumor necrosis factor-alfa [TNF-α]. Insulin resistance was calculated with homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. Results: Mean age of the patients was 60.95 ± 12.3 years. Body mass index and waist hip ratio were comparable in both groups. Triglyceride, very low-density lipoprotein and HbA1C were significantly higher and high-density lipoprotein (HDL was significantly lower in patients with diabetes. Patients with diabetes had significantly high levels of IL-6, hsCRP and TNF-α compared with non-diabetic patients. Insulin resistance was twofold higher in diabetic patients. Serum vitamin B12 levels were significantly lower and Hcy was significantly higher in the diabetic group compared with the non-diabetic patients. HbA1C, HOMA-IR and Hcy levels were positively correlated with inflammatory markers in the total study population and in the non-diabetic patients; but, in diabetic patients, HbA1C and Hcy showed this relation. Conclusions: Vitamin B12 deficiency is common in the diabetic population. Hcy levels were higher in diabetics compared with non-diabetics, and were related to glycemic level and

  13. Genetics Home Reference: Dent disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body effectively. Some people with Dent disease develop rickets , a bone disorder that results when the levels ... including calcium) in the blood become too low. Rickets can be associated with weakening and softening of ...

  14. Genetics Home Reference: Caffey disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mundlos S, Sillence D, Ala Kokko L, Seidman JG, Cole WG, Jüppner H. A novel COL1A1 mutation in infantile cortical hyperostosis (Caffey disease) expands the spectrum of collagen-related disorders. J ...

  15. Genetics Home Reference: Refsum disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease is caused by an eye disorder called retinitis pigmentosa . This disorder affects the retina , the light-sensitive ... the retina gradually deteriorate. The first sign of retinitis pigmentosa is usually a loss of night vision, which ...

  16. Genetics Home Reference: Danon disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are compartments in the cell that digest and recycle materials. The role the LAMP-2 protein plays ... Page Boucek D, Jirikowic J, Taylor M. Natural history of Danon disease. Genet Med. 2011 Jun;13( ...

  17. Genetics Home Reference: Kawasaki disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... how do mutations occur? How can gene mutations affect health and development? More about ... but the inheritance pattern is unknown. Children of parents who have had Kawasaki disease have twice the ...

  18. Genetics Home Reference: Crohn disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... JH. Host-microbe interactions have shaped the genetic architecture of inflammatory bowel disease. Nature. 2012 Nov 1; ... Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical ...

  19. Genetics Home Reference: Darier disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... when they are exposed to heat and humidity. UV light; minor injury or friction, such as rubbing or ... the social stigma experienced by people with numerous skin blemishes. A form of Darier disease known as ...

  20. Bridging the digital divide: with special reference to Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes the digital divide in Africa with special reference to Nigeria. It presents the causes of digital divided such as; the general poor economic conditions in Africa; local content; telecommunications constraints; lack of investment in ICT infrastructure, etc. Benefits derivable from bridging the digital divide such ...

  1. Evaluation of Reference Centers for Special Immunobiologicals implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Andrade Lagôa Nóbrega

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the Reference Centers for Special Immunobiologicals and evaluate their implementation considering formal regulations. METHODS We conducted a program evaluation, of evaluative research type. From August 2011 to January 2012, a questionnaire was applied to the 42 Reference Centers for Special Immunobiologicals existing in the Country, approaching the structure, human resources, and developed activities dimensions. We conducted a descriptive analysis of data and used a clustering for binary data with the squared Euclidean distance, by the farthest neighbor method, to aggregate services with similar features. RESULTS We observed great diversity among the services in the three dimensions. The clustering resulted in five service profiles, named according to their characteristics. 1 Best structure: 12 Reference Centers for Special Immunobiologicals with the highest proportion of services with the minimum of rooms recommended, purpose-built vaccine refrigerators, preventive maintenance of the cold chain, and oxygen source. 2 Immunobiologicals distributor: six Reference Centers for Special Immunobiologicals that distributed more than applied immunogens; no doctor present for more than half of the working hours and no purpose-built vaccine refrigerators . 3 Incipient implementation: five Reference Centers for Special Immunobiologicals with inadequate structure, such as absence of purpose-built vaccine refrigerators, preventive maintenance of the cold chain and oxygen source; none had computer. 4 Vaccination rooms: 13 Reference Centers for Special Immunobiologicals, everyone did routine immunization, most participated in vaccination campaigns. 5 Teaching and research: six services, all inserted into teaching hospitals, developed researches and received trainees; most had doctors in more than half of the working hours. CONCLUSIONS The evaluation of the Reference Centers for Special Immunobiologicals implementation was based on

  2. Genetics Home Reference: Gaucher disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 500 to 1,000 people of Ashkenazi Jewish heritage. The other forms of Gaucher disease are uncommon and do not occur more frequently in people of Ashkenazi Jewish descent. Related Information What information about a genetic condition can statistics provide? Why are some genetic ...

  3. Bibliographic Citations With Special Reference Indian Bibliographic Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshmi Sarkar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Bibliographic citation is playing an important role today to ensure the completeness of all research activities. They occupy an integral part as a reference in all types of resources need. The author while writing a paper takes the references from a number of documents and finally quotes them with its bibliographic details to recognize the work of earlier authors in the same field of study. With the virtually exponential growth in the research literatures throughout the 20th century it has become clear that the larger the literature the more difficult are the problems caused by poorly crafted bibliographic references. Scholarly societies like publishers of research journals have either produced their own or have endorsed common bibliographic style manuals or standards. In this study we have studied several style manuals and standards for bibliographic referencing and several editorial guidelines for this purpose to compare them. Indian bibliographic standard gets special attention.

  4. Evaluation of Reference Centers for Special Immunobiologicals implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nóbrega, Laura Andrade Lagôa; Novaes, Hillegonda Maria Dutilh; Sartori, Ana Marli Christovam

    2016-09-01

    To describe the Reference Centers for Special Immunobiologicals and evaluate their implementation considering formal regulations. We conducted a program evaluation, of evaluative research type. From August 2011 to January 2012, a questionnaire was applied to the 42 Reference Centers for Special Immunobiologicals existing in the Country, approaching the structure, human resources, and developed activities dimensions. We conducted a descriptive analysis of data and used a clustering for binary data with the squared Euclidean distance, by the farthest neighbor method, to aggregate services with similar features. We observed great diversity among the services in the three dimensions. The clustering resulted in five service profiles, named according to their characteristics. 1) Best structure: 12 Reference Centers for Special Immunobiologicals with the highest proportion of services with the minimum of rooms recommended, purpose-built vaccine refrigerators, preventive maintenance of the cold chain, and oxygen source. 2) Immunobiologicals distributor: six Reference Centers for Special Immunobiologicals that distributed more than applied immunogens; no doctor present for more than half of the working hours and no purpose-built vaccine refrigerators . 3) Incipient implementation: five Reference Centers for Special Immunobiologicals with inadequate structure, such as absence of purpose-built vaccine refrigerators, preventive maintenance of the cold chain and oxygen source; none had computer. 4) Vaccination rooms: 13 Reference Centers for Special Immunobiologicals, everyone did routine immunization, most participated in vaccination campaigns. 5) Teaching and research: six services, all inserted into teaching hospitals, developed researches and received trainees; most had doctors in more than half of the working hours. The evaluation of the Reference Centers for Special Immunobiologicals implementation was based on the profiles found and considered the official regulations

  5. [The heart of Italians. A population survey on the perception and evaluation of the National Health Service by citizens with heart disease and without heart disease (with special reference to cardiology)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottani, Filippo; La Vecchia, Luigi; Diamanti, Ilvo; Pozzati, Andrea; Gardani, Ludovico; Fresco, Claudio; Lettino, Maddalena; Cuccia, Claudio

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to collect information to understand how citizens perceive the National Health System (NHS), and what is the degree of confidence they have in the NHS. We carried out an opinion poll with the Demos & Pi group on the perception of the NHS by Italian citizens, with particular reference to the activities related to cardiology, by interviewing 2311 people with a set of 33 questions, about the perception of their health status, lifestyles, the propensity to use public or private services, consideration of the level of the NHS, and the trust in the medical profession. The subjects included were also preliminarily stratified according to the presence or absence of heart disease. Overall, Italian citizens express a high level of satisfaction for the NHS (on average, 65% of approval rating), including the whole professional staff, hoping that the NHS will be kept appropriately funded. The result is even better in the subset of interviewed citizens, who suffered from cardiovascular disease. People also consider the NHS an essential requirement to ensure equity in access to medical treatment and to keep costs competitive, even compared to private healthcare. The NHS major weakness remains the waiting lists, which are considered too long for diagnostic procedures and ordinary interventions. There is a widespread positive feeling among Italian citizens concerning the role and functioning of the NHS. Such opinion, shared by the whole country, should be taken into account when the time will come to define strategies for health policy of the Italian society in the near future.

  6. Periodontal disease and the special needs patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Louise F; Ford, Pauline J; Symons, Anne L

    2017-06-01

    Individuals with special needs are at more risk of dental disease, including periodontal diseases, and have a greater prevalence and incidence of periodontal diseases than the rest of the population. Genetic or medical conditions, and/or the use of prescription medication or recreational substances, may further increase the risk for susceptibility to periodontal disease. The success of preventing or controlling periodontal diseases amongst this group of patients has not been established. Even those individuals who access regular and comprehensive dental care appear to develop periodontal diseases as they age, and this development occurs at a rate comparable to the natural history of the disease. The reasons behind the lack of success of interventions in reducing the incidence of periodontal diseases are complex and part of the lack of success may relate to the professional challenges in treating individuals with special needs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Providing quality reference services at a special library

    OpenAIRE

    Semertzaki, Eva

    2006-01-01

    The paper deals with the traditional vs. modern reference service and with the reference interview and its value. It analyzes new channels of communication: the virtual reference service. It explores the advantages and disadvantages of face-to-face vs. virtual reference and touches issues of user education, information literacy, user satisfaction and evaluation of reference services. Finally, it highlights the competencies of the reference librarian.

  8. [Cancer chemotherapy with special reference to pharmacokinetics of nitrosoureas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakui, A

    1982-08-01

    This paper provides an overview of cancer chemotherapy with special reference to the pharmacokinetics of the nitrosoureas. At physiological PH, the chloroethylnitrosoureas can be decomposed into an isocyanate and 2-chloroethyl diazene hydroxide. Therefore, it is clear that they have both alkylation and carbamoylation actions. In addition to the spontaneous chemical dissociation, the nitrosoureas can be metabolized by liver microsomal enzymes to more polar hydroxylated products, and certain nitrosoureas can be denitrosated by these enzymes to the parent urea. Since the lipid-soluble nitrosoureas and some of the water-soluble nitrosoureas such as ACNU and MCNU demonstrated to cross the blood-brain barrier, they have been used in the treatment of primary brain tumors and tumors and tumors of metastatic origin. It has been demonstrated from the results of our study and other reports that the alkylation of DNA by ACNU progresses more slowly as compared with that of other alkylating agents. This is an important finding in relation to the appearance of delayed myelosuppression of the nitrosoureas and in the design of dose schedules of these agents. The major clinical emphasis has been directed towards the more active chloroethylnitrosoureas with reduced myelosuppression, and attempts are now made for this purpose. Unfortunately, the results of phase I and II trials of the newly developed nitrosoureas suggest that these agents produce delayed and cumulative bone marrow toxicity. Antitumor activity of the nitrosoureas is frequestly observed in chronic myelocytic leukemia, malignant lymphoma, brain tumors and small cell carcinoma of the lung, and less frequently in gastrointestinal carcinoma, multiple myeloma and malignant melanoma. In order to enhance clinical effects of the nitrosoureas, further investigation of the design in therapeutic schedules on the basis of their pharmacokinetic characteristics will be needed.

  9. Atherosclerosis and Nutrition with Special Reference to Populations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Severe atherosclerosis and its sequelae-coronary heart disease, cerebral vascular disease, and peripheral vascular disease-share major responsibility for half the mortality rate in affluent Western populations. In Africa, particularly South Africa, a study of the extent and severity of lesions is particularly interesting because of ...

  10. Genetics Home Reference: critical congenital heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Critical congenital heart disease Critical congenital heart disease Printable PDF Open All Close All ... for Disease Control and Prevention: Congenital Heart Defects Disease InfoSearch: Congenital Heart Defects KidsHealth from Nemours Lucile Packard Children's ...

  11. COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION IN TOURISM DEVELOPMENT WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO MANIPUR

    OpenAIRE

    Asha Thokchom

    2014-01-01

    Community based tourism is tourism in which local residents (often rural, poor and economically marginalized) invite tourists to visit their communities with the provision of overnight accommodation. The residents earn income as land managers, entrepreneurs, service and produce providers, and employees. At least part of the tourist income is set aside for projects which provide benefits to the community as a whole. When we come to ‘Community participation’ it refers to a form of voluntary act...

  12. German rules and regulations eith special reference to application documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraut, A.

    1979-01-01

    Regulations and standards play an essential role in achieving a safe and economic technology and in making the licensing procedure systematic, effective and clear. German rules and regulations applicable to the nuclear field are presented in this paper together with references to the rulemaking organizations. Detailed information is given on those rules and regulations, which prescribe the requirements concerning necessary documents for the nuclear licensing procedure. (author)

  13. Zoonoses from dogs with special reference to Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabry, Abdel-Hameed A; Morsy, Ayman T A; Morsy, Tosson A

    2012-12-01

    A zoonosis is an animal disease that is transmissible to humans. Humans are usually an accidental host that acquires disease through close contact with an infected animal, who may or may not be symptomatic. Children are at highest risk for infection because they are more likely to have close contact with pets. Dogs are responsible for transmission of an extensive array of bacterial and parasitic zoonotic pathogens. The route of transmission can be through the feces, urine, saliva (eg, bites or contaminated scratches), or respiratory secretions of the animal, or by the dog or cat acting as a vehicle and source of tick or flea exposure or reservoir for vector borne disease. Although dogs have been implicated in transmission of zoonoses to their owners, risk of transmission from contact with dogs is low and may be further reduced by simple precautions.

  14. Poverty, health & intellectual property rights with special reference to India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyanarayana, K; Srivastava, S

    2007-10-01

    This paper examines the nexus between poverty and global health with specific focus on IPR protection and attempts to highlight the current global endeavours to overcome barriers to access to medicines for diseases of the poor. The number of very poor people in the world has increased by 10.4 per cent between 1987 and 2001 to 2735 million. India is now home to the largest number of millionaires in the developing countries. But over 800 million Indians who still survive on Rs 20.0 (US$0.5) a day, and rural poverty is on the rise. The link between poverty and health is well established with the underprivileged are more vulnerable to major health risks due to poor nutrition, inadequate access to clean drinking water, sanitation, exposure to indoor smoke, etc. all of which contribute to the huge and growing burden of disease in the poor countries. The global disease burden is not just huge but growing: over 10 million children die of preventable conditions including vaccine-preventable diseases, about 14 million are killed by infectious diseases every year, 90-95 per cent in poor countries. An estimated third of global population has limited or no access to essential medicines. While the number of poor and unhealthy is growing, Government expenditure on health is dwindling. Many of the diseases of the poor require new medicines and none are forthcoming as there is little R&D for these infections. There are several barriers to access to existing and the newly discovered drugs. One major reason is the general lack of interest by the pharma industry to discover new medicines for diseases of the poor due to very limited market in developing countries. In addition, global intellectual property rights (IPR) protection regimes like the Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) are considered a major obstacle for the poor access to medicines. There have been some global initiatives on the need to improve affordability and accessibility of medicines. Some strategies to

  15. Zoonoses from cats: with special reference to Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabry, Abdel-Hameed A; Fouad, Mahmoud A H; Morsy, Ayman T A

    2013-08-01

    A zoonosis is an animal disease that is transmissible to humans. Humans are usually an accidental host that acquires disease through close contact with an infected animal, who may or may not be symptomatic. Children are at highest risk for infection because they are more likely to have close contact with pets. Cats are responsible for transmission of an extensive array of bacterial, fungal, and parasitic zoonotic pathogens. The route of transmission can be through the saliva (e.g., bites or contaminated scratches), feces, respiratory secretions, direct contact, or by the cat acting as a vehicle and source of tick or flea exposure. Although cats have been implicated in transmission of zoonosis to their owners, risk of transmission from contact with cats is low and may be further reduced by simple precautions. There is a need for education on zoonotic disease prevention practices for pet-owning households with individuals at higher risk of infection, and to educate future veterinarians during their early years in veterinary school about the risks associated with their future jobs. Also, zoonotic disease awareness training is a valuable service to animal shelter workers.

  16. Atherosclerosis and Nutrition with Special Reference to Populations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Severe atherosclerosis and its sequelae-coronary heart disease, cerebral ... the different population groups in various stages of tran- sition. ... 'These data show how emotional challenges may produce conspicuous .... and coronary arteries of White men. ... evidence of left ventricular hypertrophy, and glucose in- tolerance ...

  17. Genetics Home Reference: Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... condition worsens, affected children develop spasticity leading to joint deformities (contractures) that restrict movement. Individuals with connatal ... Topic: Leukodystrophies Health Topic: Neurologic Diseases Health Topic: Neuromuscular Disorders Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (1 ...

  18. Genetics Home Reference: CLN3 disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... age, and people with CLN3 disease are often blind by late childhood or adolescence. Also around age 4 to 8, children with CLN3 disease start to fall behind in school. They have difficulty learning new information and lose ...

  19. Genetics Home Reference: adult polyglucosan body disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Additional NIH Resources (1 link) National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke: Spasticity Information Page Educational Resources (6 links) Boston Children's Hospital: Neurogenic Bladder Disease InfoSearch: Polyglucosan body disease, ...

  20. Liens on aircraft with special reference on statutory liens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Svetislav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines three types of liens on aircraft: mortgage (as contractual lien, statutory and judicial lien on aircraft. Special attention is paid to statutory liens and its relationship with mortgage and judicial lien on same aircraft. The author highlights the problem of priority of different type of secured creditors due to the fact of existing competition between their interests. This problem is especially enlarged because of simultaneously applying three different source of law: Cape Town Convention 2001, Serbian Law of Air Transport 2011 and Geneva Convention on the Recognition of Rights in Aircraft 1948. Conclusion is that the creditor with statutory lien on aircraft has the biggest priority in realization of his right over other creditors and even creditors secured with mortgage and judicial lien which have priority between themselves in comply with principle 'first in time, first in right'. In order to achieve the ideas of this conclusion in practice it is necessary for courts to use teleological interpretation in applying laws. This is especially because of certain inconsistencies between different legal sources in regard of notion, order of priority and effect of different type of liens on aircraft.

  1. OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO LUNG PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihir Kumar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available INTRODCUTION: WHO’s definition of Physical, social and mental well - being is explained below. A positive mental health state indicates that the individual enjoys his routine; there are no undue conflicts. Health reiteration become s more imperative than health maintenanc e, where society’s responsibility is paramount. Health economics enables us to examine the burden caused by illness. In India, 620 million people live in rural area; only 9% of every one billion populatio n is covered under health schemes. Only 2% of GDP is spent on health, where the recommended percentage is 5%. In addition to this only 5% of annual family income is spent on curative health care. In the recent past rapid deterioration in the quality of environment has over - burdened the health problem. Occu pational Health is one of the environmental health sciences, concerned broadly with the health effects of work and of working conditions. Occupational illnesses and injuries have long been a preventable blight to health. A part from occupational diseases t here are some hazards which will impair health of employees in industries. Workers in every Occupation are faced with a multitude of hazards in the work place. Ronald Blake has classified occupational hazards into the following four categories. The most pr essing environmental health problems today, in terms of death and illness worldwide are those associated with poor households and communities in the development countries. According to WHO and the World Bank, environmental improvement at the household and community level would make the greatest difference for global health. This Article also focuses on the lung disease mainly occurring du e to hazards caused by the patient occupation. A good number of diseases like COAD, asthma and pneumoconiosis afflict the concerned population. Discussion has been made in threadbare about these problems in this article

  2. Phytomedicinal value of moringa oleifera with special reference to antiparasitics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatima, T.; Sajid, M.S.; Hassan, M.J.; Iqbal, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Plants are claimed as folk medicine for their therapeutic activity. Moringa (M.) oleifera, known as the 'miracle tree' is greatly esteemed for its unique nutritional and medicinal value. Nutritively, it contains essential, disease-preventing nutrients. The methanolic and ethanolic extracts of plants have anthelmintic activity through paralysis of helminths. The compounds found responsible so far for their anthelmintic activities include: niazirinin, glycoside, niazirin and three glycosides from mustard oil, niaziminin A, B and 4- (4'-O-acetyl- alpha -L-rhamnosyloxy) benzyl) isothiocyanate isolated from leaves; D-glucose, D-mannose, ascorbic acid, protein and polysaccharide isolated from mature flowers; 0-(2'-hydroxy-3'-(2'-heptenyloxy)) propylundecanoate, methyl-p-hydroxybenzoate, thiocarbanates, isothiocyanate, nitriles, 0-ethyl-4-((alpha-1-rhamnosyloxy)-benzyl) carbamate, and beta-sitosterol isolated from whole pods of M. oleifera. Parasites are one of the major causes of diseases in human and animals. Due to parasitic infections livestock industry suffers from huge conomic losses. The parasites which have been treated using different parts of M. oleifera include: Dracunculiasis (guinea worm), schistosomes and trypanosomes. Plant extracts may serve as potential candidates in future to exterminate helminthiasis in human and livestock populations. Hence, isolation, characterization and in vivo and in vitro efficacy trials of M. oleifera derivatives on scientific grounds are direly needed to elucidate it as a noteworthy candidate as neutraceutical and anthelmintic. (author)

  3. Schistosomiasis with special references to the mechanisms of evasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawras M. El-Saghier Mowafy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a disease caused by infection with Schistosoma spp. It affects 200 million people worldwide, especially in the developing countries. There are five known species of Schistosoma which currently infect humans in various geographical locations. Infection with Schistosoma spp. leads to two forms of the disease: acute and chronic. Chronic infection can affect various organs within the human body including the brain, lungs, gut and the reproductive organs, which leads to neuroschistosomiasis, pulmonary schistosomiasis, hepatointestinal schistosomiasis and urinary genital schistosomiasis, respectively. All Schistosoma spp. have a common denominator that they have the ability to infect, invade and evade the host’s immune mechanism. Schistosoma sp. is a very complex organism that requires two hosts, mollusk and mammalian, to survive, propagate and complete its life cycle. Hence, it has developed specific immune evasion mechanisms for each of them. Once Schistosoma sp. has infected and established itself within its mammalian host as an adult worm, it evades the immune mechanism of that host. However, the antigens released by the eggs can elicit an immune response with formation of granuloma around eggs. Granuloma formation is the main characteristic lesion in schistosomiasis, which in the liver can cause hepatomegaly in hepatointestinal schistosomiasis. This paper will summarize various immune responses against the parasite as well as varieties of strategies which developed by the Schistosoma spp. to persist within human hosts.

  4. Genetics Home Reference: Tay-Sachs disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIH Resources (4 links) GeneEd National Human Genome Research Institute National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke: Lipid Storage Diseases Fact Sheet National Institute of Neurological ...

  5. Genetics Home Reference: autoimmune Addison disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... common in particular ethnic groups? Genetic Changes The cause of autoimmune Addison disease is complex and not completely understood. A combination ... is not caused by an autoimmune reaction. Other causes include infections that ... adrenal glands. Addison disease can also be one of several features of ...

  6. Computation and brain processes, with special reference to neuroendocrine systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toni, Roberto; Spaletta, Giulia; Casa, Claudia Della; Ravera, Simone; Sandri, Giorgio

    2007-01-01

    The development of neural networks and brain automata has made neuroscientists aware that the performance limits of these brain-like devices lies, at least in part, in their computational power. The computational basis of a. standard cybernetic design, in fact, refers to that of a discrete and finite state machine or Turing Machine (TM). In contrast, it has been suggested that a number of human cerebral activites, from feedback controls up to mental processes, rely on a mixing of both finitary, digital-like and infinitary, continuous-like procedures. Therefore, the central nervous system (CNS) of man would exploit a form of computation going beyond that of a TM. This "non conventional" computation has been called hybrid computation. Some basic structures for hybrid brain computation are believed to be the brain computational maps, in which both Turing-like (digital) computation and continuous (analog) forms of calculus might occur. The cerebral cortex and brain stem appears primary candidate for this processing. However, also neuroendocrine structures like the hypothalamus are believed to exhibit hybrid computional processes, and might give rise to computational maps. Current theories on neural activity, including wiring and volume transmission, neuronal group selection and dynamic evolving models of brain automata, bring fuel to the existence of natural hybrid computation, stressing a cooperation between discrete and continuous forms of communication in the CNS. In addition, the recent advent of neuromorphic chips, like those to restore activity in damaged retina and visual cortex, suggests that assumption of a discrete-continuum polarity in designing biocompatible neural circuitries is crucial for their ensuing performance. In these bionic structures, in fact, a correspondence exists between the original anatomical architecture and synthetic wiring of the chip, resulting in a correspondence between natural and cybernetic neural activity. Thus, chip "form

  7. Ethical issues in genetic counselling with special reference to haemoglobinopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthuswamy, Vasantha

    2011-10-01

    Genetic counselling is provided in places where genetic tests are carried out. The process involves pre-test counselling as well as post-test counselling to enable the individuals to face the situation and take appropriate decisions with the right frame of mind. Major ethical principles which govern the attitudes and actions of counsellors include: respect for patient autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, or taking action to help benefit others and prevent harm, both physical and mental, and justice, which requires that services be distributed fairly to those in need. Other moral issues include veracity, the duty to disclose information or to be truthful, and respect for patient confidentiality. Nondirective counselling, a hallmark of this profession, is in accordance with the principle of individual autonomy. High prevalence of haemoglobinopathies with availability of good and sensitive carrier detection tests and prenatal diagnostic techniques makes these good candidates for population screening of carriers along with genetic counselling for primary prevention of the disease. Screening of the extended family members of the affected child, high risk communities and general population screening including antenatal women are the main target groups for planning a Haemoglobinopathy control programme. A critical mass of trained genetic counsellors who have understanding of the ethical issues and its appropriate handling with the required sensitivity is needed in India.

  8. Genetics Home Reference: von Willebrand disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mildest and most common of the three types, accounting for 75 percent of affected individuals. Type 3 ... diseases that affect bone marrow or immune cell function. This rare form of the condition is characterized ...

  9. Genetics Home Reference: Niemann-Pick disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are compartments within cells that break down and recycle different types of molecules. Acid sphingomyelinase is responsible ... A, Brodie SE, Desnick RJ, Wasserstein MP. Natural history of Type A Niemann-Pick disease: possible endpoints ...

  10. Genetics Home Reference: CLN8 disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about four to six times per year. By middle age, seizures become even less frequent. In addition to ... What is precision medicine? What is newborn screening? New Pages RAB18 deficiency Depression Pelizaeus-Merzbacher-like disease ...

  11. Genetics Home Reference: Dowling-Degos disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be triggered by UV light, sweating, or friction on the skin. The pigmentation changes characteristic of ... A, Ruzicka T, Betz RC, Hanneken S. The First Report of KRT5 Mutation Underlying Acantholytic Dowling-Degos Disease ...

  12. Genetics Home Reference: CLN10 disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Foundation CLIMB: Children Living with Inherited Metabolic Diseases March of Dimes: Neonatal Death The ... Sources for This Page Anderson GW, Goebel HH, Simonati A. Human pathology in NCL. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013 Nov;1832( ...

  13. Genetics Home Reference: CLN6 disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the accumulation of proteins and other substances in lysosomes , which are cell structures that digest and recycle ... are involved in the buildup of substances in lysosomes in CLN6 disease . These accumulations occur in more ...

  14. Epidemiology of malignant melanoma of the skin in Norway with special reference to the effect of solar radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnus, K.

    1976-01-01

    This study deals with the epidemiology of malignant melanoma of the skin with special reference to the effect of solar radiation. It studies the time trends and geographical variations in incidence and mortality, and the marked differences in the topographic distribution of the tumors according to sex and age. The study indicates that the increasing exposure of the human skin to sunlight leads to a substantial rise in the incidence of a serious malignant disease

  15. Genetics Home Reference: sickle cell disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Shizukuda Y, Plehn JF, Minter K, Brown B, Coles WA, Nichols JS, Ernst I, Hunter LA, Blackwelder WC, Schechter AN, Rodgers GP, Castro O, Ognibene FP. Pulmonary hypertension as a risk factor for death in patients with sickle cell disease. N Engl J Med. 2004 Feb 26;350( ...

  16. Genetics Home Reference: chronic granulomatous disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other common areas of infection in people with chronic granulomatous disease include the skin, liver , and lymph nodes . Inflammation can occur in ... Other common areas of inflammation in people with chronic granulomatous ... and skin. Additionally, granulomas within the gastrointestinal tract can lead ...

  17. Genetics Home Reference: Unverricht-Lundborg disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease is believed to be the most common cause of this type of epilepsy, but its worldwide prevalence is unknown. Unverricht-Lundborg ... V, Zerovnik E. Protein aggregation as a possible cause for pathology in a subset of familial ... progressive myoclonus epilepsy (EPM1). J Neurobiol. 2003 Sep 15;56(4): ...

  18. Genetics Home Reference: Paget disease of bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is most common in people of western European heritage. Early-onset Paget disease of bone is much rarer. This form of the disorder has been reported in only a few families. Related Information What information about a genetic condition can statistics provide? Why are some genetic ...

  19. 42 CFR 61.15 - Moral character or loyalty; reference to Special Review Committee; review and recommendation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Moral character or loyalty; reference to Special... § 61.15 Moral character or loyalty; reference to Special Review Committee; review and recommendation. (a) Moral character or loyalty; reference to Special Review Committee. Whenever the Surgeon General...

  20. Skeletal-muscle CT, with special reference to polymyositis and myasthenia gravis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higashi, Yasuto; Ono, Shimato; Yasuda, Takeshi; Morimoto, Kenji; Terao, Akira; Shirabe, Teruo; Yokobayashi, Tsuneo (Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan))

    1984-10-01

    We here report on skeletal-muscle CT at the thigh level as studied using a whole-body CT scanner, with special reference to polymyositis (PM) and myasthenia gravis (MG). Early diseased muscles appeared homogenous and were likely to be almost normal. The first sign of muscular atrophy was the appearance of small, patchy or linear, low-density tissues in several muscles. These low-density tissues gradually increased in number until finally the diseased muscles were totally replaced by low-density tissue. These pathological findings were more severe in PM than in MG. There was a maldistribution of low-density tissue in several cases of PM. According to these findings, skeletal-muscle CT was thought to be of great help for the recognition of the general condition of muscles and for the follow-up on the patients. We think skeletal-muscle CT has a very practical application for the better selection of suitable muscular biopsy and EMG sites and for the better clinical interpretation of these findings.

  1. Skeletal-muscle CT, with special reference to polymyositis and myasthenia gravis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashi, Yasuto; Ono, Shimato; Yasuda, Takeshi; Morimoto, Kenji; Terao, Akira; Shirabe, Teruo; Yokobayashi, Tsuneo

    1984-01-01

    We here report on skeletal-muscle CT at the thigh level as studied using a whole-body CT scanner, with special reference to polymyositis (PM) and myasthenia gravis (MG). Early diseased muscles appeared homogenous and were likely to be almost normal. The first sign of muscular atrophy was the apperance of small, patchy or linear, low-density tissues in several muscles. These low-density tissues gradually increased in number until finally the diseased muscles were totally replaced by low-density tissue. These pathological findings were more severe in PM than in MG. There was a maldistribution of low-density tissue in several cases of PM. According to these findings, skeletal-muscle CT was thought to be of great help for the recognition of the general condition of muscles and for the follow-up on the patients. We think skeletal-muscle CT has a very practical application for the better selection of suitable muscular biopsy and EMG sites and for the better clinical interpretation of these findings. (author)

  2. Special issue “International Geomagnetic Reference Field—the twelfth generation”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thébault, E.; Finlay, C. C.; Toh, H.

    2015-01-01

    This special issue of Earth, Planets and Space, synthesizes the efforts made during the construction of the twelfth generation of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF-12) that was released online in December 2014 (http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/IAGA/vmod/ igrf.html). The IGRF-12 is a ser......This special issue of Earth, Planets and Space, synthesizes the efforts made during the construction of the twelfth generation of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF-12) that was released online in December 2014 (http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/IAGA/vmod/ igrf.html). The IGRF-12...

  3. HIV/AIDS reference questions in an AIDS service organization special library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deevey, Sharon; Behring, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Librarians in many venues may anticipate a wide range of reference questions related to HIV and AIDS. Information on HIV/ AIDS is now available in medical, academic, and public libraries and on the Internet, and ranges from the most complex science to the most private disclosures about personal behavior. In this article, the 913 reference questions asked between May 2002 and August 2004 in a special library in a mid-western community-based AIDS service organization are described and analyzed.

  4. Studies on asymptomatic cerebral ischemia in coronary heart disease with special reference to evaluation of postural changes in cerebral blood flow with {sup 99m}Tc-ECD brain SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinozaki, Hideko [Teikyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    2001-03-01

    Postural changes in cerebral blood flow in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) were evaluated with SPECT to detect asymptomaic cerebral ischemia (ACI). {sup 99m}Tc-ECD was used as a tracer. We developed a new analysis system for the processing of multiple images, making it possible to avoid the spatial shift in ROIs in different positions. The severity of ACI was classified into 3 groups based on SPECT findings in the supine position: group 1 without any abnormalities in cerebral perfusion, group 2 with a single perfusion defect, and group 3 with a number of perfusion defects. No cerebral siteobserved in any group showed a significant difference between the supine and upright positions in cerebral perfusion. Each group in each position, however, revealed a consistent perfusion pattern characterized by a significant decrease in perfusion in the occipital, temporal and frontal lobes. Moreover, the decrease in the latter two sites was significantly greater than in the former site. Concerning clinical profiles, hypertension and the thickness of the intima and media complex (TIMC) of the common carotid artery significantly correlated with the severity of ACI. Furthermore, in multiple regression analysis, only TIMC was identified as a significant determinant of ACI. In conclusion, cerebral blood flow determined with {sup 99m}Tc-ECD SPECT could accurately detect ACI in patients with CHD. (author)

  5. Regional cerebral blood flow of Moyamoya disease in the chronic state as studied using a three-dimensional method. With special reference to CO/sub 2/ response and autoregulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ejiri, Takao; Endo, Hideo; Kubo, Naohiko; Kanaya, Haruyuki

    1986-02-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in six adult and five juvenile cases with moyamoya disease, using single-photon-emission CT and the Xe-133 inhalation method. In the resting state, the rCBF value in the basal moyamoya region was within normal limits. The characteristic of rCBF was a decrease in the cerebral cortex, especially in the temporal region of the juvenile cases. CO/sub 2/ response by 5 % CO/sub 2/ inhalation was disturbed not only in the cerebral cortex, but also in the basal moyamoya region; also the degree of such impairment showed site-to-site differences. On the other hand, rCBF changes under hyperventilation showed a good response in the cerebral cortex, but was mostly absent in the basal moyamoya region. Autoregulation under induced hypertension seemed to be preserved both in the cerebral cortex and in the basal moyamoya region. Under induced hypotension, however, an impairment of autoregulation was shown both in the cerebral cortex and in the basal moyamoya region. The rCBF value in the cerebellum was slightly higher than that in the cerebrum. The vascular response of the cerebellum was not preserved under hypercapnia and hypotension; however, it showed almost normal behavior under hypocapnia and hypertension. In summary, it might be concluded that the impairment of vascular response in the basal moyamoya region during various functional tests was not due to the secondary effects following the decrease in the rCBF. It may also be speculated that these impairments of vascular response may be directly attributed to various pathological alterations in the arterial vascular wall, i.e., the maximal dilatation and rigidity of the vessels in the moyamoya region, as evidenced in the previous reports.

  6. Alluvial architecture of fluvio-deltaic successions: a review with special reference to Holocene settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouw, M.J.P.

    2007-01-01

    Alluvial architecture has been subject of many studies because of the occurrence of natural resources in ancient fluvial successions. This paperprovides an overview of the current state of research on alluvial architecture with special reference to Holocene fluvio-deltaic settings. Severalexamples

  7. Special immunobiologicals’ schedule applied to infants at a reference service in Ceará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joselany Áfio Caetano

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the vaccine schedule for preterm infants in a program of special immunobiologicals. Methods: A documental study conducted at a Reference Center of Special Immunobiologicals (CREATE situated in a general hospital of tertiary care in pediatrics. The sample consisted of 112 newborns with gestational age below 37 weeks and weighing less than 2500g, suitable for vaccination, assisted in 2006-2007. Data collection was done from registration forms, reference records and registers of control of special immunobiologicals’ administration, in year 2008. Results: The results showed that 22 (20% newborns were weighing between 1000 and 1499g. Regarding gestational age, 39 (35% were born between 30 and 34 weeks of pregnancy. Most proceeded from public institutions, 37 (69%. The vaccination schedule of most children, 68 (61%, was incomplete. The main clinical indications for special immunobiologicals were prematurity and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. It was observed that 89% (n = 100 of preterm infants received the pneumococcal vaccine (Prevenar. For preterm infants who were at risk of developing serious events related to the tetravalent vaccine, it was elected the scheme Prevenar + DTPa + Hib. Simultaneous administration of meningococcal conjugate vaccines - C (MncC with Prevenar was indicated for candidates for cochlear implants. Conclusion: The integral care to the preterm newborn involves early immunization, that is, the one that starts in the neonatal unit, and requires the inclusion of special immunobiologicals, which should be criteriously recommended.

  8. Some aspects to GIS modeling of environmental problems caused by mining - with special reference to China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, G.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents some major points in modeling the environmental problems caused by ground surface subsidence due to mining in a geographic information system (GIS). Special attention has been paid in the paper to the management of the ground subsidence and deformation data in a GIS. The method taken in this paper is through Digital Terrain Model (DTM). With a special reference to China, the method to evaluate the damage of the buildings and pipelines using the analysis tools of a GIS is discussed. Furthermore, the possibilities of the application of GIS to land reclamation planning in the mining influenced areas are studied. 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  9. A review of airborne particle sampling with special reference to long-lived radioactive dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigu, J.

    1990-03-01

    This report reviews some basic aspects related to the sampling of airborne particles with special reference to Long-Lived Radioactive Dust (LLRD). The report covers a number of areas of practical interest such as the production of aerosols, the dynamics of suspended particles, the physical and chemical characteristics and properties of dust clouds, and the inhalation and measurement of dust. It is followed with a brief review of dust sampling instrumentation, and with a short account of the work done on LLRD in Canada with a few references to work done outside this country. (34 figs., 7 tabs., 117 refs.)

  10. Influence of Fragrances on Human Psychophysiological Activity: With Special Reference to Human Electroencephalographic Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandhasamy Sowndhararajan

    2016-11-01

    psychophysiological activities of humans with special reference to EEG changes.

  11. Influence of Fragrances on Human Psychophysiological Activity: With Special Reference to Human Electroencephalographic Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowndhararajan, Kandhasamy; Kim, Songmun

    2016-01-01

    psychophysiological activities of humans with special reference to EEG changes. PMID:27916830

  12. CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACT ON MOUNTAIN BIODIVERSITY: A SPECIAL REFERENCE TO GILGIT-BALTISTAN OF PAKISTAN

    OpenAIRE

    S. Ishaq; M. Z. Khan; F. Begum; K. Hussain; R. Amir; A. Hussain; S. Ali

    2016-01-01

    Climate Change is not a stationary phenomenon; it moves from time to time, it represents a major threat to mountainous biodiversity and to ecosystem integrity. The present study is an attempt to identify the current knowledge gap and the effects of climate change on mountainous biodiversity, a special reference to the Gilgit-Baltistan is briefly reviewed. Measuring the impact of climate change on mountain biodiversity is quite challenging, because climate change interacts with every phenomeno...

  13. Four distinct immune microenvironment subtypes in gastric adenocarcinoma with special reference to microsatellite instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Junhun; Chang, Young Hwan; Heo, You Jeong; Kim, Seungtae; Kim, Nayoung Kd; Park, Joon Oh; Kang, Won Ki; Lee, Jeeyun; Kim, Kyoung-Mee

    2018-01-01

    Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) can be overexpressed in tumours other than Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive (EBV + ) or microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) gastric cancer (GC) subtypes. We aimed to determine the tumour immune microenvironment (TME) classification of GC to better understand tumour-immune interactions and help patient selection for future immunotherapy with special reference to MSI-H. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) for PD-L1 and CD8 + T cells in three distinct subtypes of GC (43 EBV + , 79 MSI-H and 125 EBV - /MSS) were performed and analysed. In 66 MSI-H GC, mutation counts were compared with PD-L1 expression and survival of the patients. GC TME divided by PD-L1 IHC and tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) measured by intratumoural CD8 density showed: (1) about 40% of GC are type I (PD-L1 + /TIL + ) consisting ~70% of MSI-H or EBV + GC, and ~15% of EBV - /microsatellite stable (MSS) GC patients show the best survival in both disease-free (HR 2.044) and overall survival (HR 1.993); this type would respond to a checkpoint blockade therapy; (2) almost 30% of GC are type II (PD-L1 - /TIL - ) with the worst survival; (3) approximately 10% of GC are type III (PD-L1 + /TIL - ); and (4) up to 20% are type IV (PD-L1 - /TIL + ) and, unexpectedly, ~25% of EBV + or MSI-H GC are within this subtype. In MSI-H GC, frequent frameshift mutations were observed in ARID1A , RNF43 , NF1 , MSH6 , BRD3 , NCOA3 , BCORL1 , TNKS2 and NPM1 and the numbers of frameshift mutation correlated significantly with PD-L1 expression (P<0.05). GC can be classified into four TME types based on PD-L1 and TIL, and numbers of frameshift mutation correlate well with PD-L1 expression in MSI-H GC.

  14. Special issue “International Geomagnetic Reference Field—the twelfth generation”

    OpenAIRE

    Thébault, E.; Finlay, C. C.; Toh, H.

    2015-01-01

    This special issue of Earth, Planets and Space, synthesizes the efforts made during the construction of the twelfth generation of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF-12) that was released online in December 2014 (http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/IAGA/vmod/ igrf.html). The IGRF-12 is a series of standard mathematical models describing the large scale internal part of the Earth’s magnetic field between epochs 1900.0 and 2015.0 with a forecast to epoch 2020.0. This activity has been main...

  15. Benefit on motor and non-motor behavior in a specialized unit for Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Thomas; Öhm, Gabi; Eilert, Kathrin; Möhr, Katharina; Rotter, Stephanie; Haas, Thomas; Küchler, Matthias; Lütge, Sven; Marg, Marion; Rothe, Hartmut

    2017-06-01

    Treatment of patients with Parkinson's disease in specialized units is quite common in Germany. Data on the benefit of this hospitalization of patients with Parkinson's disease on motor and non-motor symptoms in conjunction with standardized tests are rare. Objective was to determine the efficacy of this therapeutic setting. We scored disease severity and performed clinical tests, respectively, instrumental procedures under standardized conditions in consecutively referred in-patients initially and at the end of their hospital stay. There was a decrease of motor and non-motor symptoms. The extent of improvement of non-motor and motor symptoms correlated to each other. Performance of complex movement sequences became better, whereas execution of simple movement series did not ameliorate. The interval for the timed up and go test went down. We demonstrate the effectiveness of an in-patient stay in a specialized unit for Parkinson's disease. Objective standardized testing supplements subjective clinical scoring with established rating scales.

  16. Health-related biological effects of electric, magnetic, and electro-magnetic fields with special reference to nonthermal effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, A.F.G.

    1993-02-01

    This expert report is a supplement to the report by L. von Klitzing (The actions and effects of electric, magnetic, and electro-magnetic fields in man with special reference to athermal effects) and concerns in particular the biological effects on cationic homeostasis and cell regulation with special reference to calcium and the effects on the pineal gland. The report concludes with statements on teratogenicity, concerogenicity, mutagenicity and a bibliography of literature. (VHE) [de

  17. STATE OF FAUNAL STATUS WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO BENGAL TIGER (Panthera tigris tigris IN SUNDARBAN DELTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivaji Bhattacharya

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The mangrove ecology of Sundarban delta is one of the global biodiversity hotspots. The ecology harbours the Bengal Tiger (Panthera tigris tigris besides other. The species is highly threatened as per Red Data Book. The ecology has suffered huge degradation over the years by many known and unknown forces of varying magnitude. Though various efforts are being made to conserve the ecology but yet the degradation could not be checked up to expectation. The effect of degradation is clearly reflected through the status of Panthera tigris tigris in its natural habitat. Hence the different aspects of faunal status with special reference to Bengal Tiger in Sundarban ecology during about last two decades has been searched and discussed briefly.

  18. Radioisotope techniques in water resources research and management with special reference to India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerji, S.

    1977-01-01

    Nuclear techniques using radioisotopes finding applications in research and management of water resources are described briefly with special reference to and representative illustrations of their applications in hydrologic studies in India. As environmental isotopes including the man-made ones i.e. those released in nuclear explosions are intimately tied with the moisture and water in circulation pattern in nature, measurement of their variation provides diagnostic information about the hydrologic parameters of three phases, namely, atmospheric, surface and subsurface, of the hydrologic cycle. Artificial radioisotopes are used for measurement of water flow, sediment transport and seepage. Sealed radioisotope sources are employed in snow gauging, suspended sediment gauging and hydrologic logging. Areas for further research are suggested and need for emphasis on their use in India is indicated. (M.G.B.)

  19. Role of antioxidants in phytomedicine with special reference to antidiabetic herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papiya Mitra Mazumder

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a severe health problem with continuously increasing rates of incidence and mortality and it may rise tremendously by 2025. This disease is characterized by elevated plasma glucose concentrations resulting from insufficient insulin and insulin resistance, or both, leading to metabolic abnormalities in carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. Free radicals are well known for their dual role as beneficial and toxic components, higher levels of free radicals causing damage to cellular proteins, membrane lipids and nucleic acids leads to cell death. Antioxidants are effective against free radicals by donating their own electrons. There is an increasing evidence confirmed that free radicals plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus. Herbs are the well known source of non toxic antioxidants. The aim of the present review is to establish the role of free radicals in pathogenesis of various diseases with special consideration to diabetes mellitus. Further more recently reported herbs with antidiabetic action having antioxidant capacity is also with in the scope of this article..

  20. ATTRACTING FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT IN TRANSITION ECONOMIES WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Gogova Samonikov

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is an analysis of foreign direct investment and their impact and scale in countries in transition, with special reference to Macedonia. The main aim of this article is to show the investment in Macedonia, in the period before and after the crisis of 2007 and to provide guidance for future activities that will help improve the economic situation in general. The results show that the Macedonian economy is especially supported by active government action on this issue. Government and its activities significantly improve the position of Macedonia in relation to neighboring countries, but there are still areas that need to act. Such domain infrastructure is an issue that would fulfill the image of Macedonian policy for attracting foreign investors. The conclusion is that despite all activities there are determinants that affect traditional markets. The most important of them is the level of gross domestic product. Macedonia has taken many measures to increase the level of GDP and in the level of attracting foreign capital has introduced tax benefits, customs benefits and other benefits with which is competitive with neighboring countries. However, GDP and employment are still not satisfactorily reflected.

  1. Scientific And Literary Progress During Medieval Period With Special Reference To Medicine (750-945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashaq Hussain

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available During the Abbasid period, Muslim culture and civilization was at its zenith. It was a period of economic prosperity and of great intellectual awakening. The Abbasid Caliphate provided the most congenial atmosphere for the advancement of learning and education. In fact, the reign of Mamun-ar-Rashid who has deservedly been called the 'Augustus of Arabs' formed the culmination of the intellectual achievements of the Muslims. He was followed by a brilliant succession of Caliphs who continued his work. Muslims gained access to the Greek medical knowledge of Hippocrates, Discords, and Galen through the translations of their works in the seventh and eighth centuries. These initiatives by Muslims could be seen in the different aspects of the healing arts that were developed. The translation movement of the twelfth century in Latin Europe affected every known field of science, none more so than medicine. The present paper is an attempt to give a detailed contribution of Muslims to science with special reference to medicine. It is in this context the present paper has been analyzed.

  2. 77 FR 39497 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Nutrition and Obesity Policy Research and...

  3. Complex reference values for endocrine and special chemistry biomarkers across pediatric, adult, and geriatric ages: establishment of robust pediatric and adult reference intervals on the basis of the Canadian Health Measures Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeli, Khosrow; Higgins, Victoria; Nieuwesteeg, Michelle; Raizman, Joshua E; Chen, Yunqi; Wong, Suzy L; Blais, David

    2015-08-01

    Defining laboratory biomarker reference values in a healthy population and understanding the fluctuations in biomarker concentrations throughout life and between sexes are critical to clinical interpretation of laboratory test results in different disease states. The Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) has collected blood samples and health information from the Canadian household population. In collaboration with the Canadian Laboratory Initiative on Pediatric Reference Intervals (CALIPER), the data have been analyzed to determine reference value distributions and reference intervals for several endocrine and special chemistry biomarkers in pediatric, adult, and geriatric age groups. CHMS collected data and blood samples from thousands of community participants aged 3 to 79 years. We used serum samples to measure 13 immunoassay-based special chemistry and endocrine markers. We assessed reference value distributions and, after excluding outliers, calculated age- and sex-specific reference intervals, along with corresponding 90% CIs, according to CLSI C28-A3 guidelines. We observed fluctuations in biomarker reference values across the pediatric, adult, and geriatric age range, with stratification required on the basis of age for all analytes. Additional sex partitions were required for apolipoprotein AI, homocysteine, ferritin, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein. The unique collaboration between CALIPER and CHMS has enabled, for the first time, a detailed examination of the changes in various immunochemical markers that occur in healthy individuals of different ages. The robust age- and sex-specific reference intervals established in this study provide insight into the complex biological changes that take place throughout development and aging and will contribute to improved clinical test interpretation. © 2015 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  4. Disease dynamics in a specialized parasite of ant societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sandra Breum; Ferrari, Matthew; Evans, Harry C.

    2012-01-01

    Coevolution between ant colonies and their rare specialized parasites are intriguing, because lethal infections of workers may correspond to tolerable chronic diseases of colonies, but the parasite adaptations that allow stable coexistence with ants are virtually unknown. We explore the trade......-offs experienced by Ophiocordyceps parasites manipulating ants into dying in nearby graveyards. We used field data from Brazil and Thailand to parameterize and fit a model for the growth rate of graveyards. We show that parasite pressure is much lower than the abundance of ant cadavers suggests...

  5. Genetics Home Reference: glycogen storage disease type VII

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions Glycogen storage disease type VII Glycogen storage disease type VII Printable PDF Open All ... Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Glycogen storage disease type VII (GSDVII) is an inherited ...

  6. Genetics Home Reference: glycogen storage disease type IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions Glycogen storage disease type IV Glycogen storage disease type IV Printable PDF Open All ... Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Glycogen storage disease type IV (GSD IV) is an ...

  7. Physiological adaptation to the humid tropics with special reference to the West African Dwarf (WAD) goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daramola, J O; Adeloye, A A

    2009-10-01

    West African Dwarf (WAD) goats are widely distributed in the subhumid and humid zones of Africa but are particularly associated with less favourable environments. Adaptive features such as feeding behaviour, efficiency of feed use and disease tolerance enable WAD goats to thrive on natural resources left untouched by other domestic ruminants. In marginal environments this goat remains the only domestic species that is able to survive. Among its physiological features small body size and low metabolic requirements are important traits that enable the animal to minimize its requirements in area or season where food sources are limited in quality and quantity. Specialized feeding behaviour and an efficient digestive system enable the animal to maximize food intake. Coat colour plays an important role in the evolved adaptation of this goat type. Reproductive fitness as manifested by prolific breeding is a major factor of adaptation. Defence mechanisms against infectious agents enable this type to thrive well in the hot humid tropics. The mechanisms involved in the regulation of these physiological functions of WAD goat are discussed. An understanding of these mechanisms could result in the development of improved techniques for enhancing goat productivity in humid environments.

  8. CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACT ON MOUNTAIN BIODIVERSITY: A SPECIAL REFERENCE TO GILGIT-BALTISTAN OF PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ishaq

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Climate Change is not a stationary phenomenon; it moves from time to time, it represents a major threat to mountainous biodiversity and to ecosystem integrity. The present study is an attempt to identify the current knowledge gap and the effects of climate change on mountainous biodiversity, a special reference to the Gilgit-Baltistan is briefly reviewed. Measuring the impact of climate change on mountain biodiversity is quite challenging, because climate change interacts with every phenomenon of ecosystem. The scale of this change is so large and very adverse so strongly connected to ecosystem services, and all communities who use natural resources. This study aims to provide the evidences on the basis of previous literature, in particular context to mountain biodiversity of Gilgit-Baltistan (GB. Mountains of Gilgit-Baltistan have most fragile ecosystem and are more vulnerable to climate change. These mountains host variety of wild fauna and flora, with many endangered species of the world. There are still many gaps in our knowledge of literature we studied because very little research has been conducted in Gilgit-Baltistan about climate change particular to biodiversity. Recommendations are made for increased research efforts in future this including jointly monitoring programs, climate change models and ecological research. Understanding the impact of climate change particular to biodiversity of GB is very important for sustainable management of these natural resources. The Government organizations, NGOs and the research agencies must fill the knowledge gap, so that it will help them for policy making, which will be based on scientific findings and research based.

  9. The Development of Altruism with Special Reference to Human Relationships: A 10-Stage Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hing Keung Ma

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available All human relationships involve some form of cost and benefit and altruism forms the foundation upon which human relationships are built. In this paper, a taxonomy of human relationships in terms of altruism was constructed. In the proposed taxonomy, human relationships are categorized into three major groups: primary group, secondary group, and tertiary group. The primary group consists of members that are very closely related to each other either by genetic relatedness (e.g., parents, siblings, and cousins or social relatedness (e.g., mate and close friends or both. The secondary group consists of members that are socially related but also less closely related with each other (e.g., people of the same political or religious group, teachers, mentors, acquaintances, neighbors, working colleagues, and strangers. Lastly, the tertiary group consists of members of other species. A 10-stage theory of altruism with special reference to human relationships is proposed. The affective, cognitive, and relationship aspects of each stage are delineated in details. There are two developmental principles of altruism. The first principle states that the development of altruism follows the 10-stage theory and moves from Stage 1: Egoism toward the higher stages of altruism slowly. The second developmental principle states that the taxonomy of human relationships is valid at any stage of altruism development. In other words, people at any stage of altruism are more altruistic toward their kin and mate, and then close friends, extended family members, and so on. They are least altruistic toward enemies and members of non-human species. In summary, the proposed developmental principle of altruism and human relationships is logical and robust. It is formulated based on the major developmental and social psychological theories. The theory has the potential in providing a useful framework for future studies on the development and evolution of human relationships.

  10. The Development of Altruism with Special Reference to Human Relationships: A 10-Stage Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hing Keung

    2017-01-01

    All human relationships involve some form of cost and benefit and altruism forms the foundation upon which human relationships are built. In this paper, a taxonomy of human relationships in terms of altruism was constructed. In the proposed taxonomy, human relationships are categorized into three major groups: primary group, secondary group, and tertiary group. The primary group consists of members that are very closely related to each other either by genetic relatedness (e.g., parents, siblings, and cousins) or social relatedness (e.g., mate and close friends) or both. The secondary group consists of members that are socially related but also less closely related with each other (e.g., people of the same political or religious group, teachers, mentors, acquaintances, neighbors, working colleagues, and strangers). Lastly, the tertiary group consists of members of other species. A 10-stage theory of altruism with special reference to human relationships is proposed. The affective, cognitive, and relationship aspects of each stage are delineated in details. There are two developmental principles of altruism. The first principle states that the development of altruism follows the 10-stage theory and moves from Stage 1: Egoism toward the higher stages of altruism slowly. The second developmental principle states that the taxonomy of human relationships is valid at any stage of altruism development. In other words, people at any stage of altruism are more altruistic toward their kin and mate, and then close friends, extended family members, and so on. They are least altruistic toward enemies and members of non-human species. In summary, the proposed developmental principle of altruism and human relationships is logical and robust. It is formulated based on the major developmental and social psychological theories. The theory has the potential in providing a useful framework for future studies on the development and evolution of human relationships.

  11. The Development of Altruism with Special Reference to Human Relationships: A 10-Stage Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hing Keung

    2017-01-01

    All human relationships involve some form of cost and benefit and altruism forms the foundation upon which human relationships are built. In this paper, a taxonomy of human relationships in terms of altruism was constructed. In the proposed taxonomy, human relationships are categorized into three major groups: primary group, secondary group, and tertiary group. The primary group consists of members that are very closely related to each other either by genetic relatedness (e.g., parents, siblings, and cousins) or social relatedness (e.g., mate and close friends) or both. The secondary group consists of members that are socially related but also less closely related with each other (e.g., people of the same political or religious group, teachers, mentors, acquaintances, neighbors, working colleagues, and strangers). Lastly, the tertiary group consists of members of other species. A 10-stage theory of altruism with special reference to human relationships is proposed. The affective, cognitive, and relationship aspects of each stage are delineated in details. There are two developmental principles of altruism. The first principle states that the development of altruism follows the 10-stage theory and moves from Stage 1: Egoism toward the higher stages of altruism slowly. The second developmental principle states that the taxonomy of human relationships is valid at any stage of altruism development. In other words, people at any stage of altruism are more altruistic toward their kin and mate, and then close friends, extended family members, and so on. They are least altruistic toward enemies and members of non-human species. In summary, the proposed developmental principle of altruism and human relationships is logical and robust. It is formulated based on the major developmental and social psychological theories. The theory has the potential in providing a useful framework for future studies on the development and evolution of human relationships. PMID:29085818

  12. Biliary tract variations of the left liver with special reference to the left medial sectional bile duct in 500 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furusawa, Norihiko; Kobayashi, Akira; Yokoyama, Takahide; Shimizu, Akira; Motoyama, Hiroaki; Kanai, Keita; Arakura, Norikazu; Yamada, Akira; Kitou, Yoshihiro; Miyagawa, Shin-Ichi

    2015-08-01

    Among the intrahepatic bile ducts, the biliary system of the left medial sectional bile duct (B4) is known to have relatively complex patterns. The records of 500 patients who had been diagnosed as having hepato-pancreatico-biliary disease were retrospectively studied for anatomical biliary variations of the left liver with special reference to the drainage system of B4 using magnetic resonance images. The left hepatic duct was present in 494 patients (98.8%), whereas it was lacking in 6 patients (1.2%), and these patients exhibited the following B4 confluence patterns: B4 drained into the common hepatic duct in 2 patients (.4%), the right anterior sectional bile duct in 3 patients (.6%), and the right posterior sectional bile duct in 1 patient (.2%). The left hepatic duct was absent more frequently in patients with portal venous variations than in patients with a common branching pattern (8.2% vs .4%, P = .0011). The presently reported data are useful for obtaining a better understanding of the surgical anatomy of the biliary system of the left liver. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Learning, Adjustment and Stress Disorders: With Special Reference to Tsunami Affected Regions. Beitrage zur Padagogischen und Rehabilitationspsychologie. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witruk, Evelin, Ed.; Riha, David, Ed.; Teichert, Alexandra, Ed.; Haase, Norman, Ed.; Stueck, Marcus, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This book contains selected contributions from the international workshop Learning, "Adjustment and Stress Disorders--with special reference to Tsunami affected Regions" organised by Evelin Witruk and the team of Educational and Rehabilitative Psychology at the University of Leipzig in January 2006. The book contains new results and the…

  14. Juggling with Indianness in the Gestation of Translation with Special Reference to the English Translation of a Hindi Story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya K

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to look closely at the process of translating dramas with special reference to the Hindi story Aadmi ka Baccha (The Child of a Man by Yashpal in India and the role and significance of prose transcreations in today’s changing global scenario.

  15. Bioscience-bioethics and life factors affecting reproduction with special reference to the Indigenous Australian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Irina

    2005-04-01

    The demand for equality of recognition or respect is the dominant passion of modernity. The 20th century experienced a giant leap in technological inventiveness and ruthless use of technological power. In the 21st century, human welfare and environmental wellbeing demand fundamental political appraisal. We have the means, if we choose, to eradicate poverty and to responsibly protect the global environment. However, economic, political and cultural systems act to differentially allocate the benefits and risks for growth between socioeconomic groups. For example, it is a matter of pride that the neonatal mortality rate in affluent societies has dropped substantially since the late 1970s. However, the level of infant mortality (three times the national average) and low birthweight (13%) among the Indigenous Australian population is the highest in the country. With hindsight we now know that is the inevitable legacy of Australia's colonial history. Chronic physical and psychological stress is recognized as an important etiological factor in many lifestyle diseases of the cardiovascular, immune and reproductive systems. Diseases of adaptation are further advanced by non-adaptive lifestyle choices, depression, alcoholism and other drug dependencies. This review describes the principles of bioscience ethics and targets equity issues as they affect human reproduction across generations with particular reference to the Indigenous population of Australia. The review also considers ways we may advance global and cultural maturity from the Indigenous Australian perspective and proposes an ecologically based model of preventative care. If we are to embrace fundamental social change and protect future children without threatening parents' basic freedoms, then new beliefs and priorities--based on a compassionate understanding of biological systems--must evolve from the general public. Belief in human rights arising from a sense of human dignity is a collective outcome originating

  16. Genetics Home Reference: uromodulin-associated kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease Related Information How are genetic conditions and genes named? Additional Information & Resources MedlinePlus (3 links) Health Topic: Gout Health Topic: Kidney Diseases Health Topic: Kidney Failure ...

  17. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked lymphoproliferative disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... my area? Other Names for This Condition Duncan disease Epstein-Barr virus-induced lymphoproliferative disease in males familial fatal ... the proapoptotic SAP function in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease aggravates Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) induced mononucleosis and promotes lymphoma development. ...

  18. Diseases of corals with particular reference to Indian reefs

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ravindran, J.; Raghukumar, C.

    Diseases are one of the factors that change the structure and functioning of coral-reef communities as they cause irreversible damage to the corals Reports on coral diseases describe the etiological agents responsible for the disease and in a few...

  19. Control of Huanglongbing (HLB) disease with reference to its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    WBDL is a phloem limited phytoplasma disease of lime. HLB disease causing citrus greening (Candidatus liberibacter spp.) is the second most severe disease on citrus industry all over the world. HLB has destroyed an estimated 60 million trees in Africa and Asia. More than 40 countries were infected by HLB in Africa, Asia ...

  20. Disease dynamics in a specialized parasite of ant societies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra B Andersen

    Full Text Available Coevolution between ant colonies and their rare specialized parasites are intriguing, because lethal infections of workers may correspond to tolerable chronic diseases of colonies, but the parasite adaptations that allow stable coexistence with ants are virtually unknown. We explore the trade-offs experienced by Ophiocordyceps parasites manipulating ants into dying in nearby graveyards. We used field data from Brazil and Thailand to parameterize and fit a model for the growth rate of graveyards. We show that parasite pressure is much lower than the abundance of ant cadavers suggests and that hyperparasites often castrate Ophiocordyceps. However, once fruiting bodies become sexually mature they appear robust. Such parasite life-history traits are consistent with iteroparity--a reproductive strategy rarely considered in fungi. We discuss how tropical habitats with high biodiversity of hyperparasites and high spore mortality has likely been crucial for the evolution and maintenance of iteroparity in parasites with low dispersal potential.

  1. 76 FR 29756 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Centers for Agricultural Disease and Injury Research, Education, and Prevention...

  2. 78 FR 60878 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Research Centers, Funding Opportunity...

  3. 75 FR 76987 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Epidemiologic and Ecologic...), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Time and...

  4. Vulnerability of Cochin Backwaters to meteorological disturbances with special reference to tidal propagation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, A.; Balachandran, K.K.; Mehra, P.; Desai, R.G.P.; Dabholkar, N.; Kumar, V.; Revichandran, C.; Agarvadekar, Y.

    to meteorological disturbances has significant implications on its ecological and environmental health. Spectral analysis of tides revealed some of the special features of a complex shallow estuary. As the tide propagates into the interior estuary, it undergoes...

  5. The Feasibility of Utilizing Wind Energy in Commercial Buildings With Special Reference to the Kingdom of Bahrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulrahim Saeed, Saeed

    2017-11-01

    This article shall investigate the feasibility of utilizing wind energy for commercial buildings with special reference to the Kingdom of Bahrain. Bahrain World Trade Center which was built in 2008, is located in the city of Manama. The fifty-story complex contains identical twin towers that rise over 240 meters in height. The towers are connected by three bridges which hold three turbines each 29 meters long. The three turbines were originally design to provide electric energy required for lighting. The Bahrain World Trade Center was selected as a case study to investigate the feasibility of utilizing wind energy technologies in skyscrapers with special reference to the Kingdom of Bahrain. It is hoped that the findings and conclusion of the study shall be of some value for future utilization of wind energy in the GCC countries and the world at large.

  6. Future global manpower shortages in nuclear industries with special reference to india including remedial measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh Hazra, G.S.

    2008-01-01

    -2050. Service sector in India accounts for about 50% of GDP which will continue to increase further and will provide more jobs and better paid jobs than core industries and there will be continued shift of choice of employment towards service sector creating deep gap of manpower resource requirement in basic and core industries. There are reports that some countries may have to abandon some future projects because of non availability skilled manpower in core industries. The installed capacity of nuclear power in India in the year 2052 will be about 200 G We from the present about 4 G We which will be a manifold increase. This will need about estimated 1,30,000 skilled manpower from the present about 12,000 persons in nuclear industries. Moreover, the need for competent persons in nuclear industries because of high safety requirements of nuclear installations will further add to the problem. The following short-term strategies to retain and attract new employees in nuclear industries may be envisaged amongst others: - Recruit employees prior to the departure of experienced technical staff to facilitate knowledge transfer in time. - Increase compensation and the number of higher level positions. - Increase permanent entry-level intake of skilled manpower taking into account historical turn-over rate. - Implement attractive student loan repayment programs by tying up with banks and financial institutions. - Implement well researched strategies and measures including reassessing the practical capacity which nations including India can achieve in power generation in future taking practical aspects of manpower shortage. - Implement advanced technology which requires lesser manpower. - Implement higher level of automation in nuclear industries. The paper aims to highlight the acute problems of future manpower shortages in nuclear industries globally with special reference to India and discusses some remedial measures which may be taken to address the issue. (author)

  7. Bacterial blight (Pseudomonas pisi Sackett) of peas in South Africa, with special reference to frost as a predisposing factor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelema, B.H.

    1972-01-01

    In the beginning of the nineteen fifties bacterial blight caused much damage to pea crops in South Africa, particularly to those grown for seed production. A study has been made of the causal organism and the conditioning factors of the disease, special attention being paid to frost as a

  8. Genetics Home Reference: neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... named? Additional Information & Resources MedlinePlus (6 links) Encyclopedia: Hypothyroidism Encyclopedia: Type 2 Diabetes Health Topic: Cardiomyopathy Health Topic: Lipid Metabolism Disorders Health Topic: Muscle Disorders Health Topic: Pancreatitis Genetic and Rare Diseases ...

  9. Genetics Home Reference: Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CMT1 or CMT4. CMTX5 is also known as Rosenberg-Chutorian syndrome. Some researchers believe that this condition ... Dejerine Sottas Disease National Organization for Rare Disorders: Rosenberg-Chutorian Syndrome National Organization for Rare Disorders: Roussy- ...

  10. Genetics Home Reference: REN-related kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2 Related Information How are genetic conditions and genes named? Additional Information & Resources MedlinePlus (5 links) Encyclopedia: Hyperkalemia Encyclopedia: Renin Health Topic: Anemia Health Topic: Gout Health Topic: Kidney Diseases Additional NIH Resources (2 ...

  11. Genetics Home Reference: non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... individual is considered to have a fatty liver (hepatic steatosis) if the liver contains more than 5 to ... Resources Genetic Testing (2 links) Genetic Testing Registry: Fatty liver disease, nonalcoholic 1 Genetic Testing Registry: Fatty liver ...

  12. Reference materials for nondestructive assay of special nuclear material. Volume 1. Uranium oxide plus graphite powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprinkle, J.K.; Likes, R.N.; Parker, J.L.; Smith, H.A.

    1983-10-01

    This manual describes the fabrication of reference materials for use in gamma-ray-based nondestructive assay of low-density uranium-bearing samples. The sample containers are 2-l bottles. The reference materials consist of small amounts of UO 2 spread throughout a graphite matrix. The 235 U content ranges from 0 to 100 g. The manual also describes the far-field assay procedure used with low-resolution detectors

  13. Student Understanding of Time in Special Relativity: Simultaneity and Reference Frames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Shaffer, Peter S.; Vokos, Stamatis

    2001-01-01

    Reports on an investigation of students' understanding of the concept of time in special relativity. Discusses a series of research tasks to illustrate how student reasoning of fundamental concepts of relativity was probed. Indicates that after standard instruction, students have serious difficulties with the relativity of simultaneity and the…

  14. An Update on the Epidemiology of Schizophrenia with a Special Reference to Clinically Important Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Missiry, Ahmed; Aboraya, Ahmed Sayed; Manseur, Hader; Manchester, Johnna; France, Cheryl; Border, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a chronic mental illness which poses a tremendous burden on the families, caregivers and the society. The purpose of this paper is to provide an updated review of the epidemiology of schizophrenia with a special attention to the clinically important risk factors such as drug abuse, hormonal factors and the new advances in genetic…

  15. Using special functions to model the propagation of airborne diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolaños, Daniela

    2014-06-01

    Some special functions of the mathematical physics are using to obtain a mathematical model of the propagation of airborne diseases. In particular we study the propagation of tuberculosis in closed rooms and we model the propagation using the error function and the Bessel function. In the model, infected individual emit pathogens to the environment and this infect others individuals who absorb it. The evolution in time of the concentration of pathogens in the environment is computed in terms of error functions. The evolution in time of the number of susceptible individuals is expressed by a differential equation that contains the error function and it is solved numerically for different parametric simulations. The evolution in time of the number of infected individuals is plotted for each numerical simulation. On the other hand, the spatial distribution of the pathogen around the source of infection is represented by the Bessel function K0. The spatial and temporal distribution of the number of infected individuals is computed and plotted for some numerical simulations. All computations were made using software Computer algebra, specifically Maple. It is expected that the analytical results that we obtained allow the design of treatment rooms and ventilation systems that reduce the risk of spread of tuberculosis.

  16. Exploring students' understanding of reference frames and time in Galilean and special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Hosson, C; Kermen, I; Parizot, E

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims at exploring prospective physics teachers' reasoning associated with the concepts of reference frame, time and event which form the framework of the classical kinematics and that of the relativistic kinematics. About 100 prospective physics teachers were surveyed by means of a questionnaire involving classical kinematics situations and relativistic ones. The analysis of the answers shows a deep lack of understanding of both concepts of reference frame and event. Some students think that events may be simultaneous for an observer and not simultaneous for another one, even when both observers are located in the same reference frame. Most of the students surveyed cannot give an answer only depending on the location of the observer when his/her velocity is mentioned as if the movement contaminated the event. This lack of understanding is embodied in reasoning implemented by the population surveyed to address classical kinematics questions and seems to form a major obstacle to grasping relativistic kinematics.

  17. Genetics Home Reference: glycogen storage disease type I

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resulting from uric acid crystals in the joints (gout), kidney disease, and high blood pressure in the ... particular ethnic groups? Genetic Changes Mutations in two genes, G6PC and SLC37A4 , cause GSDI. G6PC gene mutations ...

  18. An overview on "cellular cannibalism" with special reference to oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, M

    2015-12-01

    Cellular cannibalism has been defined as a large cell engulfing a slightly smaller one within its cytoplasm. It has been described in various cancers like bladder cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer, gastric cancer, oral squamous cell carcinoma. Cellular cannibalism has been well correlated with anaplasia, tumor aggressiveness, grading and metastatic potential. Present review focuses on significance of cannibalism in relation to cancer with special emphasis on oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  19. Requirements for a cocitation similarity measure, with special reference to Pearson's correlation coefficient

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlgren, P.; Jarneving, B.; ROUSSEAU, Ronald

    2003-01-01

    Author cocitation analysis (ACA), a special type of cocitation analysis, was introduced by White and Griffith in 1981. This technique is used to analyze the intellectual structure of a given scientific field. In 1990, McCain published a technical overview that has been largely adopted as a standard. Here, McCain notes that Pearson's correlation coefficient (Pearson's r) is often used as a similarity measure in ACA and presents some advantages of its use. The present article criticizes the use...

  20. The Legacy of Christianity in West Africa, with Special Reference to Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouedraogo, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    In the following paper, I am going to discuss education and religion and consider the legacy of Christianity in education in West Africa with particular reference to the Evangelical churches in Burkina Faso. The paper will start with a general introduction to West Africa and the place of missionaries' activities in the region. I will then attempt…

  1. Rapid urbanisation in the third world, with special reference to Tropical Africa: social impact and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankerl, G

    1983-01-01

    A review of current urbanization trends around the world is presented, with particular reference to the situation in Tropical Africa. Topics considered include overurbanization, development, and migration. The elements of both short- and long-term policies concerning urbanization are outlined.

  2. Influences of temperature on Arachis hypogaea L. : with special reference to its pollen viability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beer, de J.F.

    1963-01-01

    The influence was investigated of temperature on growth and development of groundnut, cv. Schwarz 21, Mallorca and Ukraine. Except where stated, all conclusions refer to Schwarz 21. Seed germination was not seriously influenced between 24° and 33°C, although the higher temperatures favoured

  3. Offender Characteristics in Lethal Violence with Special Reference to Antisocial and Autistic Personality Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlund, Katarina; Kristiansson, Marianne

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the study is to assess the relationships between personality traits, lifetime psychosocial functioning, and crime scene behavior. Thirty-five male offenders referred for forensic psychiatric assessment in Sweden (1996-2001) and assigned a main diagnosis of either antisocial personality disorder (APD) or autism spectrum disorder…

  4. 78 FR 19490 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panels (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panels (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Monitoring Cause-Specific School Absenteeism for Estimating Community Wide...

  5. 77 FR 25180 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Conducting Research on Moderate Acute Malnutrition in Humanitarian Emergencies...

  6. 76 FR 18766 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Epidemiologic Research and Surveillance in Epilepsy, Funding Opportunity...

  7. 78 FR 13677 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Funding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Funding Opportunity Announcement, Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Indoor Environment of Low- Income Renovated...

  8. 77 FR 20822 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Detecting Emerging Vector- Borne Zoonotic Pathogens in Indonesia, Funding...

  9. 77 FR 19018 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Conducting Public Health Research in South Africa, Funding Opportunity Announcement...

  10. 78 FR 15015 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panels (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panels (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Epidemiology, Prevention and Treatment of Influenza and other Respiratory...

  11. 77 FR 14806 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Epidemiology, Prevention and Treatment of Influenza and Other Respiratory...

  12. 78 FR 78966 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Epidemiology, Prevention, and Treatment of Influenza and Other Respiratory...

  13. 77 FR 4048 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Evaluation of Dengue Epidemiology, Outcomes, and Prevention in Sentinel...

  14. 77 FR 4047 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Epidemiology, Prevention and Treatment of Influenza and Other Respiratory...

  15. 78 FR 62636 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Cooperative Agreement on Occupational Health with the World Health Organization...

  16. 78 FR 13677 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panels (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panels (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Monitoring Cause-Specific School Absenteeism for Estimating Community Wide...

  17. 78 FR 17412 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Funding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Funding Opportunity Announcement, Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Indoor Environment of Low- Income Renovated...

  18. 77 FR 12844 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Detecting Emerging Vector- Borne Zoonotic Pathogens in Indonesia, Funding...

  19. Developmental Disorders of Communication With Special Reference to Deaf Children With Additional Handicaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denmark, John C.

    1971-01-01

    Reviews 9 examples of "non-communicating children" whose probelms stem from: 1) intellectual impairment; 2) mental illness; 3) congenital verbal agnosia; 4) physical disease; or, 5) early profound deafness. (MB)

  20. Rapid Advance Tunnelling with special reference to its implications for repository excavation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkes, D.B.

    1986-02-01

    The feasibility of Rapid Advance Tunnelling techniques was examined for application to the construction of radioactive waste repositories. A study of information provided by clients, consulting engineers and contractors engaged in tunnelling operations on over sixty international projects was analysed. A report is given, based on this data, and reveals a wide range of levels of performances. The findings suggest that Rapid Advance Tunnelling is likely to satisfy the special requirements for stability needed for long-term storage of radioactive waste. (U.K.)

  1. The Yoruba's cultural perspective of death with special reference to twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaleye-Oruene, Taiwo O

    2002-06-01

    To the Yoruba people of South-West Nigeria, on the West Coast of Africa, death, or transition from one level of existence to another, is well accepted as part of life. Rites of passage are seen as an opportunity for saying farewell to the deceased and seeking their continuous protection of the living members of the families. After the death of a twin, a twin statuette, symbolically representing the departed twin, also acts as a companion and solace to the living twin. This paper examines these subjects including the special rites performed for twins, the relationship of the family to the deceased and the question of reincarnation

  2. Damage to greenhouse plants caused by town fogs with special reference to sulfur dioxide and light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metcalfe, C R

    1941-11-01

    This paper describes a series of experiments carried out on greenhouse plants to assess the effects of urban air pollution. The approach was to place fuming sulfuric acid in a greenhouse, then circulate the fumes throughout the greehouse with fans. Symptoms produced were then compared with those found on plants in urban areas. The symptoms matched well and sulfur dioxide was declared the culprit. 14 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  3. Nucleation and growth of oxides on metals with special reference to mild steel and zirconium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadiyar, H S [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Metallurgy Div.

    1977-01-01

    The oxidation of metals is a complex phenomenon of metal-gas interface for the understanding of which a multidisciplinary approach is necessary. Some aspects of this phenomena are discussed with reference to oxygen or steam as the oxidant. As a case study, the nucleation of oxide through microstructural characterisation, the kinetics and mechanism involved in the case of oxidation of Zr and its alloys have been examined.

  4. NWTS conceptual reference repository description (CRRD). Volume III. Criteria, bases, special studies, and codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-05-01

    This volume documents the criteria, design bases, and special studies and provides the backup for the design presented in Volume II. The criteria presented here were developed by ONWI as a draft version for consideration in this conceptual report. Since these criteria were developed subsequent to preparation of the reports used as a basis for the CRRD, not all of the criteria could be fully considered in preparation of the CRRD. However, they were used as guidelines wherever possible. The criteria for terminal storage of waste are still in development. The chapter on the design bases identifies the important design considerations and provides the justification for their selection. The design bases were developed not so much to give exact values for parameters as to identify the parameters that are significant to the design. They also serve as a common basis for coordinating analysis and design studies unitl the next design phase is completed. Some of the design bases presented here were taken directly from the Stearns-Roger NWTS-R1 Conceptual Design Report. The special studies document technical aspects of the design that are of particular importance or that furnish additional information pertaining to the design

  5. 77 FR 39498 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Special Interest Project (SIP): Assessing the Pregnancy Prevention Needs of HIV...

  6. Alcoholic Pancreatitis: Pathogenesis, Incidence and Treatment with Special Reference to the Associated Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio M. Morselli-Labate

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholic pancreatitis continues to stir up controversy. One of the most debated points is whether from onset it is a chronic disease or whether it progresses to a chronic form after repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis. Histological studies on patients with alcoholic pancreatitis have shown that the disease is chronic from onset and that alcoholic acute pancreatitis occurs in a pancreas already damaged by chronic lesions. Genetic factors may also play a role in the pathogenesis of alcoholic disease. The incidence of chronic alcoholic pancreatitis seems to have decreased in the last twenty years. Finally, recent therapeutic studies which have shown medical or surgical approaches capable of reducing the pain episodes in chronic pancreatitis patients will be described.

  7. African trypanosomiasis with special reference to Egyptian Trypanosoma evansi: is it a neglected zoonosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bahnasawy, Mamdouh M M; Khater, Mai Kh A; Morsy, Tosson A

    2014-12-01

    Trypanosomes (including humans) are blood and sometimes tissue parasites of the order Kinetoplastida, family Trypanosomatidae, genus Trypanosoma, principally transmitted by biting insects where most of them undergo a biological cycle. They are divided into Stercoraria with the posterior station inoculation, including T. cruzi, both an extra- and intracellular parasite that causes Chagas disease, a major human disease affecting 15 million people and threatening 100 million people in Latin America, and the Salivaria with the anterior station inoculation, mainly African livestock pathogenic trypanosomes, including the agents of sleeping sickness, a major human disease affecting around half a million people and threatening 60 million people in Africa. Now, T. evansi was reported in man is it required to investigate its zoonotic potential?

  8. On the nesting biology of Pirhosigma Giordani Soika (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae, with special reference to the use of vegetable matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel G. Hermes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available On the nesting biology of Pirhosigma Giordani Soika (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae, with special reference to the use of vegetable matter. The use of vegetable matter in nest building is not widespread among the Eumeninae, and is reported for the first time for the two species of potter wasps Pirhosigma superficiale and P. limpidum. These wasps make mostly spherical mud nests over which they attach small pieces of unmasticated plant matter. Use of plant fragments in this group of wasps is interpreted as camouflage behavior.

  9. Some interesting aspects of water, with special reference to nuclear desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inam-ur-Rahman

    2002-01-01

    A brief review is given of the formation, importance, resources and some unique characteristics of water. A reference has been made about the available water racecourse of Pakistan and urgent need of acquiring additional water resources in the county. Importance of water for energy production and energy for acquiring additional water resources is mentioned. Attractive features and feasibility of nuclear desalination, using dual purpose nuclear power plants are discussed. Criteria for selection of suitable reactor type and desalination process are discussed for desired water to power ratios. The world wide growth of desalination capacity, using various desalination processes are listed. (author)

  10. Experiences in radioisotope production in the German Democratic Republic with special reference to radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muenze, R.

    1988-01-01

    Radioisotope production has been carried out in the German Democratic Republic for 30 years. Based on a 10 MW research reactor, a cyclotron and certain irradiation facilities at units of national nuclear power stations, a widespread assortment of radioisotopes is produced with emphasis to radiopharmaceuticals as the main materials. Domestic production covers the national demand in these products where the production is technologically feasible under our conditions. A complete supply of the users in the country (more than 7000 licences) is accomplished by an intense co-operation with neighbouring countries, including mutual assistance in reactor shut down periods and supply with special radioactive materials and products. International co-operation within the framework of the IAEA takes place, mainly as scientific and technological assistance to many developing countries. (author)

  11. Landscape planning and management of spas in Serbia with special reference to the selected case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crnčević Tijana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper is presented the overview of the legal requirements in Serbia covering planning and as well landscape planning. It is stress that Serbia is in the process of the ratification of the European Landscape Convention (ELC and adoption of the Spatial Plan of the Republic of Serbia (SPRS where is included the obligation of the production of the study 'Characterization of the landscape in Serbia' and as well pilot projects 'Characterization of the landscape' where are separated priority areas and where are specially stressed as tourist destinations spas. Taking into consideration that important step towards development of the methodological framework for landscape planning and management in Serbia was made with the inclusion of this subject within the process of formulating of the SPRS, besides the overview of the main obligations set by this document covering landscape planning and management, as an example of the current practice, two case studies of Vrnjacka spa and Pribojska spa are presented where special attention within planning documents was given to the protection and enhancement of the landscape. Beside that, as a contribution, it is given the proposal of the preliminary typology of the landscape of Vrnjacke spa within the borders of the Master plan and Pribojska spa within the borders of the Plan of detailed regulation. Taking into consideration the scope of these plans, the landscape is defined as cultural and by more detailed analyses as urban and rural. Within these two types of landscape are separated urban area, the 'core' of the spa, peri-urban area, and within rural forest and agricultural area. One of the main conclusions of this paper is that the inclusion of the landscape within legal framework which is promoting spatial and urban planning, nature and environmental protection is very important prerequisite for adequate planning and management of the landscape in Serbia.

  12. The marketing of health products, with special reference to do-it-yourself tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gevers, Sjef

    2003-01-01

    At a rapid pace, in vitro diagnostic medical devices are being developed to detect risk factors for disease; to a growing extent, these test kits are also directly marketed to the public for use at home. While at first sight serving a good cause, self testing may have considerable drawbacks relating

  13. Lung cancer: Diagnostic procedures and therapeutic management, with special reference to radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarantino, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    This book on lung cancer provides a good overview of this very common cause of death in both men and women. The eight chapters in this book review a number of aspects of the disease including epidemiology, pathology, diagnostic workup, and treatment by radiation and chemotherapy. The two introductory chapters provide a summary of the epidemiology of this disease and an approach to each individual patient. Included are chapters on the many methods of treating lung cancer and the results of clinical trials as well as a brief discussion given to surgical treatment. A chapter on clinical research is directed primarily at ideas relating to chemotherapy. This brief book provides an overview of the many aspects involved in diagnosing and treating lung cancer

  14. Zoonoses from pets horses, donkeys and mules: with special references to Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, Ayman T A; Saleh, Mostafa S M; Morsy, Tosson A

    2014-04-01

    A zoonosis is an animal disease that is transmissible to humans. Humans are usually an accidental host that acquires disease through close contact with an infected animal, who may or may not be symptomatic. Children are at highest risk for infection because they are more likely to have close contact with pets. Pets are responsible for transmission of an extensive array of bacterial, fungal, and parasitic zoonotic pathogens. The route of transmission can be through the saliva (e.g., bites or contaminated scratches), feces, respiratory secretions, direct contact, or by the animal acting as a vehicle and source of tick or flea exposure. Although pets have been implicated in transmission of zoonoses to their owners, risk of transmission from contact with pets is low and may be further reduced by simple precautions.

  15. Determinants of thyroid nodularity in a community with special reference to gamma radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The health effects from chronic low-level radiation exposure are the subject of major scientific controversy. Since 1910 a uranium waste site has been located in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, 25 miles southwest of Pittsburgh. Aerial and ground measurements show gamma radiation levels to range from two to three times the background level of 8-11 μR/hr within a one-third mile radius of the site. Because studies have shown the thyroid gland to be sensitive to low-level ionizing radiation exposure, a cross-sectional study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of thyroid disease, particularly neoplastic conditions, among current residents 21 years or older living within this area for 15+ years. Residents of Muse, PA, approximately five miles away and exposed to background levels of radiation, served as the comparison group. A health questionnaire was administered and a clinical thyroid examination was conducted by two endocrinologists blinded to the participant's town of residence. Among women the rate of total thyroid disease was similar for the two communities, 25.4% vs 26.8%. However, the rate of neoplastic thyroid disease (adenoma, carcinoma, solitary nodule) was two-fold greater in the study vs. comparison females. To further elucidate the exposure-disease relationship a nested case-control study was conducted within the exposed community. Assuming the population to be exposed to a doubling of the background rate for all years lived in the exposed area, and a definition of exposure of greater than 9 rads, the odds ratio (OR) was 4.31

  16. EFFECT OF MASHADI TAILAM ANUVASAN BASTI IN MANAGEMENT OF KATIVATA WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO LUMBAR SPONDYLOSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Ukhalkar V. P.

    2013-01-01

    Approach of human being towards life has created various dissonances in his biological system. Busy, professional and communal life, important sitting posture in offices, factories, unremitting and physical exertion, jerking activities during travelling and sports-all these factors create too much pressure to the spinal cord and play a vital role in producing low backache. The disease Kativata correlated with lumbar spondylosis has become a huge problem, in spite of advances in modern science...

  17. Psoriasis Uncovered – Comorbid Conditions with Special Reference to Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belliappa Pemmanda Raju

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Psoriasis is a chronic immune-inflammatory-mediated disease affecting approximately 1-3% of the population worldwide. All around the world, there is growing evidence of the association between psoriasis and comorbidities, especially metabolic syndrome which increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. Co-morbidities are likely linked to underlying chronic inflammatory nature of psoriasis. Aim: The objectives of our study were to determine the prevalence of diabetes, lipid abnormalities, and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with plaque psoriasis, and also to investigate metabolic syndrome associated with plaque psoriasis. Material and Methods: One hundred and twenty patients with psoriasis vulgaris diagnosed clinically and histopathologically were recruited. A detailed history and examination was recorded for all study subjects, including the age and gender of the patients, extent of psoriasis, duration, and age at onset. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in the presence of three or more criteria of abdominal obesity, blood pressure >130/85 mmHg, fasting blood glucose ≥100 mg/dl, hypertriglyceridemia >150 mg/dl, and low HDL cholesterol (<40 mg/dl for males, <50mg/dl for females. Results: Prevalence of various comorbidities was: central obesity (58.3%, hypertension (46.79%, dyslipidaemia (43.3%, diabetes mellitus (26.7%, metabolic syndrome (25%, ischaemic heart disease (5% and stroke (2.4%. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was more in patients who had longer mean disease duration of psoriasis. Conclusions: The perception of psoriasis being merely ‘skin deep’ has to change among clinicians. Active screening for these cardiovascular comorbidities in all psoriasis patients is highly recommended..

  18. Evolution of invasive placentation with special reference to non-human primates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Anthony Michael; Pijnenborg, Robert

    2011-01-01

    It is now possible to view human placentation in an evolutionary context because advances in molecular phylogenetics provide a reliable scenario for the evolution of mammals. Perhaps the most striking finding is the uniqueness of human placenta. The lower primates have non-invasive placentae......-eclampsia also occurs in these species, such information may reveal the evolutionary roots of this disease of impaired maternal-fetal interaction....

  19. [Ethical aspects of regenerative medicine, with special reference to embryonic stem cells and therapeutic cloning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imura, Hiroo

    2003-03-01

    Regenerative medicine is expected to be new therapeutic means for treating incurable diseases but requires serious bioethical consideration. Embryonic stem(ES) cells, that are pleuripotent cells suitable to regenerative medicine, can be used in Japan for investigative use under a strict control by guide-lines. On the other hand, use of embryo produced by nuclear transfer has not been allowed in Japan and further serious consideration is required. Some other ethical aspects of regenerative medicine are also discussed.

  20. Endocarditis in Greenland with special reference to endocarditis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Rasmus Gaarde; Ladefoged, Karin; Kjaergaard, Jens Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    in studies on Caucasian populations, where pneumococcal infection was seen in 1-3% of endocarditis cases. The overall mortality rate was 12%. Pneumococcal endocarditis (PE) had the clinical characteristics of fulminant disease with frequent heart failure, complications and need for surgery. Among cases...... with PE, 67% needed acute valve replacement and the mortality rate was 33%. CONCLUSIONS: The high incidence rate, clinical characteristics and grave prognosis of PE are consistent with another study of an Inuit population in Alaska....

  1. Comparative studies of Bhanumati and Nibandha Samgraha with special reference to Arista Vijnana (prognostic science)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Pradip Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Ayurveda is serving the mankind for centuries with a holistic approach. This system has preached to treat the diseases which are only curable by the physicians. It has advised the physicians to strictly avoid treating the incurable diseases. In order to assess the incurability of the diseases or the incurable state of a patient; this system has preached the signs and symptoms of incurability which are known as arista-vijnana, which have been described in Brhattrayi of Ayurveda. Though Caraka has placed them in a separate section of his treatise, Cakrapani and Dalhana have also spent a considerable portion in their commentaries dealing with arista-vijnana. They were two renowned scholars who have commented with a depth of wisdom on Susruta Samhita. In this paper, the author has tried to present the comparative and critical comments of both commentators based on Bhanumati and Nibandha Samgraha, respectively, over arista-vijnana as described in Sutrasthana of Susruta Samhita. Dalhana was greatly influenced by Caraka Samhita with regard to the prognostic science. On the other hand, Cakrapani repeatedly recognized the superiority of the indriya-sthana of Caraka Samhita with regard to analysis of prognostic science. PMID:22408294

  2. The Cholevinae of Romania (exclusive of Leptodirini) (Coleoptera, Leiodidae) with special reference to the hypogeal records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitzu, Eugen

    2013-01-01

    The first catalogue of the Romanian Cholevinae (excluding Leptodirini) is presented, based on revised and new records. The overall distribution and distribution in Romania are documented for every species, with particular reference to subterranean environment (caves and subterranean superficial environment). Epigeal and hypogeal records are listed separately. Thirty two of forty nine species group taxa recorded in the Romanian fauna occur both in the epigeal and subterranean environment, 14 of them frequently recorded in the latter. Many species, dependant on the subterranean environment during certain stages of their life cycle, are considered troglophilic or subtroglophilic: Choleva cisteloides dacica Jeannel 1922, Ch. glauca Britten, 1918, Catops picipes Fabricius, 1792, C. longulus Kellner, 1846 and C. tristis Panzer, 1874. The Romanian fauna of Cholevinae is more similar to that of the Central Europe than the Balkan Peninsula.

  3. Healthy puppies and kittens as carriers of Campylobacter spp., with special reference to Campylobacter upsaliensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Madsen, Mogens

    1997-01-01

    at 4 mg/liter, and amphotericin at 10 mg/liter, Additionally, with respect to the C. upsaliensis transmission potential of poultry, a chicken cloacal swab sample from each of 100 different broiler flocks was included in the study for comparison, We found 21 (29%) of the puppies positive......Living in a household with a dog or cat has previously been identified as a significant risk factor for acquiring campylobacteriosis, in particular, with reference to Campylobacter upsaliensis infection. In a cross-sectional study carried out in Denmark between August and December 1996, 72 healthy...... puppies and 42 healthy kittens, aged between 11 and 17 weeks, were sampled for fecal campylobacter shedding by culture of rectal swab specimens on blood-free agar base with cefoperazone at 32 mg/liter and amphotericin at 10 mg/liter and on blood-free agar base with cefoperazone at 8 mg/liter, teicoplanin...

  4. Special topics reports for the reference tandem mirror fusion breeder: beryllium lifetime assessment. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, L.G.; Beeston, J.M.; Harris, B.L.; Wong, C.P.C.

    1984-10-01

    The lifetime of beryllium pebbles in the Reference Tandem Mirror Fusion Breeder blanket is estimated on the basis of the maximum stress generated in the pebbles. The forces due to stacking height, lithium flow, and the internal stresses due to thermal expansion and differential swelling are considered. The total stresses are calculated for three positions in the blanket, at a first wall neutron wall loading of 1.3 MW/m 2 . These positions are: (a) near the first fuel zone wall, (b) near the center, and (c) near the back wall. The average lifetime of the pebbles is estimated to be 6.5 years. The specific estimated lifetimes are 2.4 years, 5.4 years, and 15 years for the first fuel zone wall, center and near the back wall, respectively

  5. Special topics reports for the reference tandem mirror fusion breeder. Volume 2. Reactor safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maya, I.; Hoot, C.G.; Wong, C.P.C.; Schultz, K.R.; Garner, J.K.; Bradbury, S.J.; Steele, W.G.; Berwald, D.H.

    1984-09-01

    The safety features of the reference fission suppressed fusion breeder reactor are presented. These include redundancy and overcapacity in primary coolant system components to minimize failure probability, an improved valve location logic to provide for failed component isolation, and double-walled coolant piping and steel guard vessel protection to further limit the extent of any leak. In addition to the primary coolant and decay heat removal system, reactor safety systems also include an independent shield cooling system, the module safety/fuel transfer coolant system, an auxiliary first wall cooling system, a psssive dump tank cooling system based on the use of heat pipes, and several lithium fire suppression systems. Safety system specifications are justified based on the results of thermal analysis, event tree construction, consequence calculations, and risk analysis. The result is a reactor design concept with an acceptably low probability of a major radioactivity release. Dose consequences of maximum credible accidents appear to be below 10CFR100 regulatory limits

  6. Special topics reports for the reference tandem mirror fusion breeder. Volume 4. Structural analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orient, G.; Westmann, R.A.; Ghoniem, N.M.; Garner, J.K.; Gromada, R.G.

    1984-12-01

    This report presents a structural analysis of the reference fission suppressed fusion breeder blanket. An axisymmetric structural model is used to analyze thermal and pressure stresses in the blanket. Results indicate that the first wall must be decoupled from the back of the blanket to avoid large thermal stresses. The composite first wall appears to be adequate to resist buckling, and is further strengthened by radial diaphragms. Semieliptical closures for the module ends appear to be feasible, although the attachment of these end closures to the composite first wall has not been analyzed. Radiation effects have not been included in the structural model, but an assessment of creep and swelling indicates a 4 to 5 year blanket life at an assumed strain limit of 2%. Design modifications which will reduce thermal stresses and simplify manufacturing are recommended

  7. Mobile computing with special reference to readability task under the impact of vibration, colour combination and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Zulquernain; Siddiquee, Arshad Noor; Haleem, Abid

    2008-12-01

    The last 20 years have seen a tremendous growth in the field of computing with special reference to mobile computing. Ergonomic issues pertaining to this theme remains unexplored. With special reference to readability in mobile computing, an experimental research was conducted to study the gender effect on human performance under the impact of vibration in a human computer interaction environment. Fourteen subjects (7 males and 7 females) participated in the study. Three independent variables, namely gender, level of vibration and screen text/background colour, were selected for the experimental investigation while the dependent variable was the number of characters read per minute. The data collected were analyzed statistically through an experimental design for repeated measures. Results indicated that gender as an organismic variable, the level of vibration and screen text/background colour revealed statistically significant differences. However, the second order interaction was found to be statistically non-significant. These findings are discussed in light of the previous studies undertaken on the topic.

  8. The socio-psychological factors of family planning with special reference to Iran: a theoretical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheykhi, M T

    1995-03-01

    Iran's explosive population growth, which increases the country's population by about 1.9 million people annually, is causing a considerable strain on resources and the environment, and the coming generations will be facing a serious situation unless this trend is reversed. The strength of cultural values has not encouraged a declining population growth rate in parallel with the Iranian wave of modernization before and after the revolution. A special cultural revolution is the prerequisite for a demographic revolution. This study is placing main emphasis on the social and psychological factors involved in family planning. The general findings of surveys conducted so far demonstrate that few people know anything about family planning and methods of contraception. Social, cultural, and religious institutions seem to inhibit the expansion of family planning. Moreover, the lack of economic and social security promotes a large family size and prevents contraceptive use. However, social change in Iranian society will eventually be brought about by urbanization, industrialization, and education, and the ensuing modernization of values is expected to increase the use of contraceptives and lead to changes in the associated social and cultural institutions.

  9. Bionomics and vectorial capacity of Anopheles annularis with special reference to India: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R K; Haq, S; Kumar, Gaurav; Dhiman, R C

    2013-01-01

    Anopheles annularis is widely distributed mosquito species all over the country. An. annularis has been incriminated as a malaria vector in India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Indonesia, Malaysia and China. In India, it has been reported to play an important role in malaria transmission as a secondary vector in certain parts of Assam, West Bengal and U.P. In Odisha and some neighbouring countries such as Sri Lanka, Nepal and Myanmar it has been recognised as a primary vector of malaria. This is a species complex of two sibling species A and B but the role of these sibling species in malaria transmission is not clearly known. An. annularis is resistant to DDT and dieldrin/HCH and susceptible to malathion and synthetic pyrethorides in most of the parts of India. In view of rapid change in ecological conditions, further studies are required on the bionomics of An. annularis and its role in malaria transmission in other parts of the country. Considering the importance of An. annularis as a malaria vector, the bionomics and its role in malaria transmission has been reviewed in this paper. In this communication, an attempt has been made to review its bionomics and its role as malaria vector. An. annularis is a competent vector of malaria, thus, due attention should be paid for its control under the vector control programmes specially in border states where it is playing a primary role in malaria transmission.

  10. [The clinical classification of acute otitis media with special reference to tympanometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbotina, M V

    We have developed a new clinical classification of acute otitis media (AOM) based on the previously proposed classifications of V.T. Palchun with co-workers (1997) and J. Jeger (1970) in which the letter near the stage of the pathological process roughly corresponds to the type of the tympanogram as follows: stage I (acute tubootitis): A, B, C; stage II (acute catarrhal otitis media): A, B, C; stage III (acute purulent otitis media, perforation stage); stage IV (acute purulent otitis media, post-perforation stage); stage V (resolution of otitis media): A - convalescence or recovery, B1 - exudate present in the tympanic cavity; B2 - persisting perforation; C - block of the auditory tube, O - the development of complications. This classification implies the necessity of tympanometry at the stage of diagnostics of AOM although it is not mandatory because the detection of exudate as a result of paracentesis at any of the stages of otitis media will allow to designate the stage of otitis either by letter A, B or C. The application of the new classification described in this article permits to more accurately than before determine the character of the pathological process in the middle ear during the course of acute otitis media which is of special importance in the clinical pediatric practice for the timely and adequate treatment of the children.

  11. Personal equations: reflections on the history of fieldwork, with special reference to sociocultural anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuklick, Henrika

    2011-03-01

    In the latter part of the nineteenth century, diverse sciences grounded in natural history made a virtue of field research that somehow tested scientists' endurance; disciplinary change derived from the premise that witnesses were made reliable by character-molding trials. The turn to the field was a function of structural transformations in various quarters, including (but hardly limited to) global politics, communications systems, and scientific institutions, and it conduced to biogeographical explanations, taxonomic schemes that admitted of heterogeneity, and affective research styles. Sociocultural anthropology, which took specialized shape at the beginning of the twentieth century, shared many properties with other field sciences, but its method--participant observation-was distinctive. Critical to the method's definition were the efforts of the British experimental psychologist-anthropologist W. H. R. Rivers, who relied on notions then widespread in Europe and the United States. The discipline's future mythic hero, Bronislaw Malinowski, embraced Rivers's model. For both men, proper fieldwork meant using the researcher's body as an instrument and entailed understanding both the anthropologist's body and the research subject's body as energy systems; this symmetry facilitated a relativist perspective. Participant observation remains central to sociocultural anthropology, but the discipline's pedagogic habits contributed to loss of memory of its energetic conceptualization.

  12. Roentgenological investigation of cavernous sinus structure with special reference to paracavernous cranial nerves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuha, M.; Aoki, H.; Okamura, T.

    1987-01-01

    We have evaluated the anatomical structure of cavernous sinuses in parasellar blocks obtained from adult cadavers to gain clinically useful information. Ten microdissectional studies of parasellar blocks (20 sides of cavernous sinus) were carried out with special emphasis on the course of paracavernous cranial nerves (3rd to 6th). These were also examined on plain radiographs. Secondly, CT investigations of the cavernous sinuses (notably as to paracavernous cranial nerves) were undertaken in twenty clinical cases having presumed parasellar lesions and in three parasellar blocks from cadavers. The results from microdisectional studies and plain radiographs were as follows. It was found that the 3rd cranial nerve entered the lateral wall of the cavernous sinus close to the antero-inferior part of the posterior clinoid on lateral projection. The 4th cranial nerve, on the other hand, entered near the postero-inferior portion of the posterior clinoid on the same view. Variations in Parkinson's triangle were fairly often noted, although marked asymmetry was not seen in individual cases. From CT findings, it was found that a postenhanced, magnified direct coronal study was essential for identifying paracavernous cranial nerves more clearly. The 3rd and 5th cranial nerves were fairly well identified on axial and coronal projections. Careful radiological investigation including plain skull radiographs and CT seems to be of value for those who diagnose or treat parasellar lesions. (orig.)

  13. The market for reproductive tourism: an analysis with special reference to Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskou, Anastasia; George, Babu P

    2017-01-01

    For many people, the need for parenthood remains unfulfilled due to biological reasons and a remedy for these individuals is assisted reproduction (AR). Because of widely differing and sometimes incompatible legislations around the world related to AR, there is considerable confusion across national borders. Within Europe, Greece seems to be in a comparatively favorable position because of lower restrictions and the availability of decent quality specialized medical facilities. This research is a market study with a business perspective and explores the emerging landscape of reproductive tourism (RT) in Greece. The research adopted mixed methods. First, open-ended questions were used to interview foreign medical tourists and staff in various AR clinics. Based on the insights from these interviews and guided by the extent literature, a survey instrument was prepared and administered among 130 patients. Findings indicate that Greece still lack policies that nurture transparency and dynamic response to technological changes in AR. Also, the travel industry lack specialists who can effectively liaison with clinics, who understand the availability of AR technologies, regulations, and the unique needs of AR tourists. Globally, the need for assisted reproduction has tremendously increased; yet, the supply of facilities is lagging far behind. There is a unique advantage for clinics located in touristic locations in countries that offer cheaper treatment options. Given the shape of its debt-ridden economy, Greece needs foreign exchange inflows and gaining first mover advantage in reproductive tourism is probably an important way to achieve this. This research draws up a reproductive tourism strategy for Greece.

  14. Some health effects of aircraft noise with special reference to shift work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizk, Sanaa A M; Sharaf, Nevin E; Mahdy-Abdallah, Heba; ElGelil, Khalid S Abd

    2016-06-01

    Aircraft noise is an environmental stressor. A positive relationship exists between noise and high blood pressure. Shift work is an additional hazardous working condition with negative effect on the behavior attitude of workers. This study aimed at investigating some health hazards for shift work on workers at Cairo International Airport (CIA), Egypt, as a strategic work place, with more than one stressor. Assessment of noise effects were carried out in four working sites at the airport besides control sites. The average noise level in the exposure sites was 106.5 dB compared with 54 dB at the control sites. The study comprised a group of 200 male workers exposed to aircraft noise and 110 male workers not exposed to noise as control group. All workers had full general medical examination after filling specially formulated questionnaire. Hearing impairment, raised blood pressure, headaches, disturbed sleep, and symptoms of anxiety were more prominent among the exposed workers than the control. Symptoms of upper respiratory tract were reported among night shifters of both groups with high tendency for smoking. Thus, night-shift workers at CIA work under more than one stressor. Hypertension and smoking might act as intermediate factors on the causal pathway of complaints, making aircraft noise and night shift acting as two synergistic stressors. Airport workers are in need for aggressive hearing conservation programs. Organization of the working hours schedule is mandatory to avoid excessive noise exposure. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Notes on the Epidemiology of Multiple Sclerosis, with Special Reference to Dietary Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    A hypothesis, based primarily on the occurrence of multiple sclerosis (MS) in the Faroe Islands and supported by numerous analytical epidemiological studies, is described. It proposes that MS is caused by the interaction of a virus disease with intestinal pathology, e.g., infectious mononucleosis, and application of smoked and nitrate/nitrite-cured meat products in the diet during circumscribed time intervals. The biological mechanisms might involve a break of tolerance by an alteration of self within the central nervous system, by nitrophenylated compounds conjugated to animal tissue, in particular to proteins occurring in the central nervous system. Further research is needed. PMID:24577315

  16. The effects of hurricanes on birds, with special reference to Caribbean islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, J.W.; Wunderle, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Cyclonic storms, variously called typhoons, cyclones, or hurricanes (henceforth, hurricanes), are common in many parts of the world, where their frequent occurrence can have both direct and indirect effects on bird populations. Direct effects of hurricanes include mortality from exposure to hurricane winds, rains, and storm surges, and geographic displacement of individuals by storm winds. Indirect effects become apparent in the storm's aftermath and include loss of food supplies or foraging substrates; loss of nests and nest or roost sites; increased vulnerability to predation; microclimate changes; and increased conflict with humans. The short-term response of bird populations to hurricane damage, before changes in plant succession, includes shifts in diet, foraging sites or habitats, and reproductive changes. Bird populations may show long-term responses to changes in plant succession as second-growth vegetation increases in storm-damaged old-growth forests. The greatest stress of a hurricane to most upland terrestrial bird populations occurs after its passage rather than during its impact. The most important effect of a hurricane is the destruction of vegetation, which secondarily affects wildlife in the storm's aftermath. The most vulnerable terrestrial wildlife populations have a diet of nectar, fruit, or seeds; nest, roost, or forage on large old trees; require a closed forest canopy; have special microclimate requirements and/or live in a habitat in which vegetation has a slow recovery rate. Small populations with these traits are at greatest risk to hurricane-induced extinction, particularly if they exist in small isolated habitat fragments. Recovery of avian populations from hurricane effects is partially dependent on the extent and degree of vegetation damage as well as its rate of recovery. Also, the reproductive rate of the remnant local population and recruitment from undisturbed habitat patches influence the rate at which wildlife populations recover

  17. The causes of skin lesions in the returning travelers: with special reference to Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, Tosson A

    2012-04-01

    Often people yearn of a greater travel adventure like a year in Africa to get away from their routine situations and locations, for a quick vacation or as a means of finding one's self, to enjoy new experiences, to learn and experience new languages, new food, and new cultures. While most people associate Sub-Saharan Africa with safaris, there are endless other possibilities for adventure. Some African countries have actual entry requirements and won't let you in unless you have proof you've been vaccinated against a specific disease. Every African country is unique in the quality of its parks and reserves, roads and other infrastructure, visitor accommodations and receptivity to tourists. Creating an itinerary and arranging travel logistics can intimidate even the most enthusiastic tourist. Others travel more nowadays for the better economy and the advancements in transportation make it easier to do so. If family members do not reside in the same country or are probably working abroad, other family members would want to visit them and would do so as frequently as their resources would allow. Visiting families and friends in different states or countries are probably the most important reasons for taking time off to travel. No doubt, travelling to different climates, cultures and environments abroad can expose to tropical infectious diseases and health risks. This review dealt with skin lesions in the returning travelers.

  18. Aspiration pneumonia: With special reference to pathological and epidemiological aspects, a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayo Kuyama

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Silent aspiration plays an important role in the pathogenesis of bacterial pneumonia in the elderly. Defense of the airway is impaired in the elderly by alteration in respiratory mechanics; decreased mucociliary clearance and immunosenescence. And, the number of microorganisms in the oral cavity of the elderly is usually larger than that of young adults because of gradual reduction in production of saliva. A relationship between poor oral health and respiratory disease has been suggested by a number of recent microbiologic and epidemiologic studies, especially in elder subjects; who requiring help with feeding, wearing denture/edentate, with periodontal disease, and so on. Several researchers have reported that using professional oral health care (POHC can prevent pneumonia. Oral/respiratory mucosal tissues produced cytokine that stimulated by oral microorganisms and were altered expression of various cell adhesion molecules on their surface in response to cytokine stimulation. Then, aspiration pneumonia histopathologically characterized with inflammatory response including macrophage infiltration was caused by aspiration of oral microorganisms, acid and food particle. In conclusion, silent aspiration may be a key risk factor for the pathogenesis of pneumonia in the elderly patients with poor oral hygiene.

  19. A quantitative analysis of Tl-201 myocardial perfusion image with special reference to circumferential profile method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyanaga, Hajime

    1982-01-01

    A quantitative analysis of thallium-201 myocardial perfusion image (MPI) was attempted by using circumferential profile method (CPM) and the first purpose of this study is to assess the clinical utility of this method for the detection of myocardial ischemia. In patients with coronary artery disease, CPM analysis to exercise T1-MPI showed high sensitivity (9/12, 75%) and specificity (9/9, 100%), whereas exercise ECG showed high sensitivity (9/12, 75%), but relatively low specificity (7/9, 78%). In patients with myocardial infarction, CPM also showed high sensitivity (34/38, 89%) for the detection of myocardial necrosis, compared with visual interpretation (31/38, 81%) and with ECG (31/38, 81%). Defect score was correlated well with the number of abnormal Q waves. In exercise study, CPM was also sensitive to the change of perfusion defect in T1-MPI produced by exercise. So the results indicate that CPM is a good method not only quantitatively but also objectively to analyze T1-MPI. Although ECG is the most commonly used diagnostic tool for ischemic heart disease, several exercise induced ischemic changes in ECG have been still on discussion as criteria. So the second purpose of this study is to evaluate these ischemic ECG changes by exercise T1-MPI analized quantitatively. ST depression (ischemic 1 mm and junctional 2 mm or more), ST elevation (1 mm or more), and coronary T wave reversion in exercise ECG were though to be ischemic changes. (J.P.N.)

  20. Potential effects of diurnal temperature oscillations on potato late blight with special reference to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, S K; Goss, E M; Dufault, N S; van Bruggen, A H C

    2015-02-01

    Global climate change will have effects on diurnal temperature oscillations as well as on average temperatures. Studies on potato late blight (Phytophthora infestans) development have not considered daily temperature oscillations. We hypothesize that growth and development rates of P. infestans would be less influenced by change in average temperature as the magnitude of fluctuations in daily temperatures increases. We investigated the effects of seven constant (10, 12, 15, 17, 20, 23, and 27°C) and diurnally oscillating (±5 and ±10°C) temperatures around the same means on number of lesions, incubation period, latent period, radial lesion growth rate, and sporulation intensity on detached potato leaves inoculated with two P. infestans isolates from clonal lineages US-8 and US-23. A four-parameter thermodynamic model was used to describe relationships between temperature and disease development measurements. Incubation and latency progression accelerated with increasing oscillations at low mean temperatures but slowed down with increasing oscillations at high mean temperatures (P effects of global climate change on disease development.

  1. Quantitative analysis of Tl-201 myocardial perfusion image with special reference to circumferential profile method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyanaga, Hajime [Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan)

    1982-08-01

    A quantitative analysis of thallium-201 myocardial perfusion image (MPI) was attempted by using circumferential profile method (CPM) and the first purpose of this study is to assess the clinical utility of this method for the detection of myocardial ischemia. In patients with coronary artery disease, CPM analysis to exercise T1-MPI showed high sensitivity (9/12, 75%) and specificity (9/9, 100%), whereas exercise ECG showed high sensitivity (9/12, 75%), but relatively low specificity (7/9, 78%). In patients with myocardial infarction, CPM also showed high sensitivity (34/38, 89%) for the detection of myocardial necrosis, compared with visual interpretation (31/38, 81%) and with ECG (31/38, 81%). Defect score was correlated well with the number of abnormal Q waves. In exercise study, CPM was also sensitive to the change of perfusion defect in T1-MPI produced by exercise. So the results indicate that CPM is a good method not only quantitatively but also objectively to analyze T1-MPI. Although ECG is the most commonly used diagnostic tool for ischemic heart disease, several exercise induced ischemic changes in ECG have been still on discussion as criteria. So the second purpose of this study is to evaluate these ischemic ECG changes by exercise T1-MPI analized quantitatively. ST depression (ischemic 1 mm and junctional 2 mm or more), ST elevation (1 mm or more), and coronary T wave reversion in exercise ECG were though to be ischemic changes.

  2. Measurements of hard cosmic X-rays with special reference to burst phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, J.S.

    1978-06-01

    The bulk of this work is concerned with the development and subsequent flights of two balloon-borne gamma-burst detectors. The first was a 1 m 2 device which accumulated a total of 13 1/2 hours flying time at a latitude of 40 0 . The second was a large 7 m 2 detector which was flown from Alice Springs, N. Australia. Both detectors were sensitive to 50 keV to 2 MeV X-rays. The results of these flights are discussed with particular reference to the origin of gamma-bursts. The nature of X-ray bursts is also discussed, together with the results of observations by Experiment F on Ariel V, of the region of the sky centred on the rapid burster MXB1730-335. The last chapter is concerned with the development of a large area hard X-ray detector. This device is designed to be built in modular form and have a total collecting area up to 1 m 2 . It is sensitive to X-rays in the range 20 to 200 keV and is collimated by a tantalum honeycomb which has a field of view of 2 0 FWHM. A small version of this detector was flown on the same platform as the large burst detector. (author)

  3. Catalog of NBS standard reference materials, 1975--76 edition. Special pub

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seward, R.W.

    1975-06-01

    This Catalog lists and describes the Standard Reference Materials (SRM's), Research Materials (RM's), and General Materials (GM's) currently distributed by the National Bureau of Standards, as well as many of the materials currently in preparation. SRM's are used to calibrate measurement systems and to provide a central basis for uniformity and accuracy of measurement. The unit and quantity, the type, and the certified characterization are listed for each SRM, as well as directions for ordering. The RM's are not certified, but are issued to meet the needs of scientists engaged in materials research. RM's are issued with a 'Report of Investigation', the sole authority of which is the author of the report. The GM's are standardized by some agency other than NBS. NBS acts only as a distribution point and does not participate in the standardization of these materials. Announcements of new and renewal SRM's, RM's and GM's are made in the semi-annual supplements of this Catalog, SRM Price List, and in scientific and trade journals

  4. Minerals in cow milk with special reference to elevated calcium and its radiological implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, E. Mahiban; Rajan, M.P.; Godwin Wesley, S.

    2012-01-01

    In Kudankulam, South India, a mega nuclear power plant station is under construction. Baseline studies have been carried out in this project site; however, there is no literature pertaining to the minerals in cow milk. Milk samples from 10 sampling locations (n=25) in the study area were analysed for macro- (K, Mg and Ca) and micro-minerals (Zn, Cu and Mn) using an ZSOOO series Hitachi atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The performance of the method was evaluated by analysing the reference material, IAEA fish tissue (IAEA-407). The concentrations of major and trace minerals in the samples were in the order Ca>K>Mg and Zn>Cu>Mn respectively. The concentration of Ca was comparatively higher than that of K and reported values of Mg. The high water Ca levels and the prevailing tropical semi-arid climatic conditions are the reasons behind the high Ca levels in milk samples. Studies are necessary to find out the exact reason behind the high Ca levels in cow milk. It is also evident from literature that elevated Ca levels would have immense impact on the levels of natural and fallout radionuclides in cow's milk. (author)

  5. A Reflection on the Aesthetics of Indian Music, With Special Reference to Hindustani Raga-Sangita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar Pudaruth

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Like in any other heteronomous art-forms, the practitioners of Indian music and dance (Bharatiya Sangita aim at expressing emotions and creating the aesthetic or the “beautiful.” Indian thinkers and musicologists have gone a step further in declaring that Indian classical music (Raga-Sangita is the most appropriate means for attaining aesthetic experience and delight, and the most suitable pathway, if not, downright, short-cut, toward self-realization or realization of the Ultimate Reality or Truth. Thus, aesthetics and spirituality make up the very woof and warp of the Indian arts, in general, and Raga-Sangita, in particular. Raga-Sangita is, thus, considered a spiritual exercise (nada sadhana to attain salvation (moksha through sound. This conceptual article reflects upon and sheds light on the Theory of Rasa, as propounded in Indian Aesthetics, and attempts to make an assessment of it in relation to Hindustani Raga-Sangita. Through this theory, the author examines and explains the different causes leading to an aesthetic experience, referred to as “out-of-this-world” (alaukika. In doing so, he also brings to light the possible pitfalls which both the performer and the listener should avoid.

  6. Biochemical evaluation in human saliva with special reference to ovulation detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alagendran S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : The aim of the present study was to investigate the level of salivary sialic acids and glycosaminoglycans with reference to salivary hormones during the normal menstrual cycle. Settings and Design: Fifty women volunteers were selected for the present study. Materials and Methods : Saliva was collected from 50 women and ovulation was detected in women with normal menstrual cycles through basal body temperature (BBT, ultrasound and salivary ferning. Samples were divided into five categories, as prepubertal (6-9 years, pre-ovulatory phase (6-12 days, ovulatory phase (13-14 days, postovulatory phase (15-26 days and menopause (above 45 years. Each sample was subjected to evaluation of the sialic acids and glycosaminoglycans along with salivary hormones. Results : The result revealed that the ovulatory phase has increased sialic acid and glycosaminoglycans during the menstrual cycle when compared with that of the other phases. Consequently, an increased level of hormones such as luteinizing hormone and estrogen during the ovulatory period when compared to that of the pre-ovulatory and postovulatory periods appeared to be noteworthy. Statistically, analysis was performed using one way-ANOVA (LSD; post hoc method to determine the significance as P < 0.001, 0.01, 0.05 in between the reproductive phases of the menstrual cycle. Conclusion : This study concluded that saliva-specific carbohydrates in the ovulatory saliva make the possibility to develop a biomarker for detection of ovulation by non-invasive methods.

  7. A review on alum sludge reuse with special reference to agricultural applications and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassanayake, K B; Jayasinghe, G Y; Surapaneni, A; Hetherington, C

    2015-04-01

    Alum salts are commonly used in the water industry to promote coagulation in the production of clean drinking water, which results in the generation and accumulation of 'waste' by-product 'alum sludge' in large volumes. Effective and efficient management of alum sludge in an economically and environmentally sustainable manner remains a significant social and environmental concern with ever increasing demand for potable water as a result of rapidly escalating world population and urban expansion. Various intensive practices have been employed to reuse the alum sludge in an attempt to figure out how to fill the gap between successful drinking water treatment process and environmentally friendly alum sludge management for over the years. This paper primarily aimed at comprehensive review of the existing literature on alum sludge characteristics, its environmental concerns and their potential utilization, especially in agricultural and horticultural sectors leading to update our recent state of knowledge and formulate a compendium of present and past developments. Different types of alum sludge utilizations in various fields were recognized and examined. The strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and potential risks of alum sludge reuse options with particular reference to agriculture were highlighted and knowledge gaps were identified. Research priorities and future challenges that will support in the development of effective alumsludgemanagement practices in agriculture with multi-prong strategies were discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Attraction to mammals of male mosquitoes with special reference to Aedes diantaeus in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaenson, T G

    1985-06-01

    During investigations in central Sweden on the ecology of mosquito vectors of Ockelbo disease, large numbers of Aedes diantaeus males and lesser numbers of Ae. communis, Ae. excrucians and Ae. intrudens males were captured in animal-baited (rabbit, guinea pig, hen, dove, unbaited control) suction- and net-traps. In the five suction-traps, 57% of the diantaeus captured (N = 1,896) were males. Although the guinea pig-baited suction-trap captured the highest mean number of diantaeus males, data showed that these males, like the females, were mainly attracted to the largest mammal, i.e., the rabbit. These males assembled in the vicinity of the rabbit presumably to intercept females coming to feed. The net-trap data showed that orientation by the males to the rabbit presumably involved olfactory cues emanating from the mammal.

  9. Endocarditis in Greenland with special reference to endocarditis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Rasmus Gaarde; Ladefoged, Karin; Kjaergaard, Jens Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the incidence and outcome of infectious endocarditis in Greenland with an emphasis on pneumococcal endocarditis. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective, non-interventional study. METHODS: Review of files and medical history of all patients...... with infectious endocarditis from the Patient Registry in Greenland in the 11-year period 1995-2005. RESULTS: There were 25 cases of endocarditis, giving an incidence rate of 4.0/100,000 per year. Twenty-four percent of these cases were caused by Streptoccous pneumonia, which is significantly more frequent than...... in studies on Caucasian populations, where pneumococcal infection was seen in 1-3% of endocarditis cases. The overall mortality rate was 12%. Pneumococcal endocarditis (PE) had the clinical characteristics of fulminant disease with frequent heart failure, complications and need for surgery. Among cases...

  10. Internal nasal floor configuration in Homo with special reference to the evolution of Neandertal facial form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franciscus, Robert G

    2003-06-01

    The presence of a steeply sloping or depressed nasal floor within the nasal cavity of Neandertals is frequently mentioned as a likely specialization or autapomorphy. The depressed nasal floor has also been seen as contributing to a relatively more capacious nasal cavity in Neandertals, which is tied to cold-climate respiratory adaptation and energetics. These observations have been limited largely to a relatively few intact crania, and the character states associated with this trait have not been as precisely codified or analyzed as those published for Plio-Pleistocene hominins (McCollum et al., 1993, J. Hum. Evol. 24, 87; McCollum, 2000, Am. J. Phys. Anthrop. 112, 275). This study examines the internal nasal floor topography in complete crania and isolated maxillae in European, west Asian, and African fossil Homo (n=158) including 25 Neandertals, and a wide range of recent humans from Europe, the Near East, and Africa (n=522). The configuration of the internal nasal floor relative to the nasal cavity entrance is codified as: 1) level, forming a smooth continuous plane; 2) sloped or mildly stepped; or 3) bilevel with a pronounced vertical depression. The frequency of these nasal floor configurations, and their relationship to both nasal margin cresting patterning and a comprehensive set of nasofacial metrics is examined. Neandertals show a high frequency of the bilevel (depressed) configuration in both adults and subadults (80%), but this configuration is also present in lower frequencies in Middle Pleistocene African, Late Pleistocene non-Neandertal (Skhul, Qafzeh), and European Later Upper Paleolithic samples (15%-50%). The bilevel configuration is also present in lower frequencies (ca. 10%) in all recent human samples, but attains nearly 20% in some sub-Saharan African samples. Across extinct and extant Homo (excluding Neandertals), internal nasal floor configuration is not associated with piriform aperture nasal margin patterning, but the two are strongly

  11. FINANCIAL INCLUSION STRATEGIES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIN SANGMI MOHI - UD

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Day in and day out, the gap between the haves and have-nots is widening, not only at inter- country level but also at the intra – country level. In this process, a large chunk of population does not have access to the formal financial markets, institutions and instruments. It is estimated that as many as eighty seven percent of marginal households in the world lack access to formal finance, and to fulfill their credit needs, they are resorting to the means of informal and unregulated finance, through money lenders, who charge them as much as hundred percent rate of interest. Thus, this stratum of population, in midst of financial exclusion, has been pushed to the vicious circle of poverty and, therefore, remain outside the growth parameters always. However, recently, the governments in about one hundred and forty two countries have become serious to overcome this menace and decided to design strategies to make formal finance available to the un-bankable at cheaper (price interest. In this way, Financial Inclusion became a buzzword of these strategies. Financial inclusion, as a pre-condition to inclusive development, refers to the process of ensuring the accessibility, availability and usage of formal financial system for all members of an economy. In this paper, an attempt has been made to examine the financial inclusion efforts made at the global level and highlight the progress made on the subject in SAARC countries, and what strategies were designed and implemented in the fast developing economy like India in the past two decades have been discussed in detail.

  12. Visceral sensation and irritable bowel syndrome; with special reference to comparison with functional abdominal pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozu, Tsukasa; Okumura, Toshikatsu

    2011-04-01

    Stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity may play an important role in the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) but not in functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS). We examined rectal sensation in those patients. Experiment 1: Rectal thresholds of pain (PT) and maximum tolerance were assessed by barostat with ramp distention before and after repetitive rectal painful distention (RRD). Experiment 2, PT was measured in basal state and after intravenous CRF (100 µg) or vehicle, together with or without RRD. Experiment 3: Three phasic distentions at physiological range were randomly loaded. The subjects were asked to mark the visual analogue scale (VAS) in reference to subjective intensity of sensation. Experiment 1: Majority of IBS patients showed rectal hypersensitivity before RRD in contrast to FAPS. All IBS patients developed hypersensitivity after RRD, however, none of the FAPS patients did. RRD significantly reduced both thresholds in IBS (n=7) but did not change in controls (n=14) and FAPS (n=6). Experiment 2: PT was not modified by RRD in placebo group (n=6), while it was significantly reduced in CRF-treated group (n=5). On the other hand, CRF (n=5) or vehicle (n=5) without RRD did not alter PT. Experiment 3: The VAS ratings were increased in IBS (n=7) but significantly decreased in FAPS (n=6) as compared to controls (n=14). RRD-induced rectal hypersensitivity seems to be reliable marker for IBS, and CRF may contribute to this response. FAPS patients may have hyposensitivity to non-noxious physiological distention, suggesting FAPS has different pathogenesis from IBS. © 2011 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. Natural history of diabetes mellitus with special reference to age of onset and vascular complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Y; Toyota, T; Masuda, M; Komatsu, K; Kuriki, A

    1976-06-01

    Age and sex distribution of diabetics, seasonal incidence of diabetes, grade of hyperglycemia, frequency of vascular complications and daily living conditions were studied of 2771 diabetic patients experienced at five clinics. The cases consisted of 1587 male and 1184 female diabetics. The distribution of age of diabetes onset revealed that males predominate among diabetics but females predominate among child diabetics, and that the precentage of child was extremely low. This pattern was emphasized as characteristic of Japanese diabetic population. Distribution of fasting blood sugar at the diagnosis of diabetes was compared among the age groups of diabetes-onset and the results showed that percentage of the value exceeding 300 mg/100 ml was highest in the under 10 year-onset cases and decreased with age. The frequency of diabetic retinopathy and of ischemic ECG changes was analysed from the view point of age of diabetes onset and also the duration of the disease. The frequency of the retinopathy at the diabetes-onset was zero in the under 10 year-onset cases, 4.2% in the 10s-onset cases and increased with age. The longer the duration of the disease the higher the frequency of the retinopathy was. This increase along with the duration was most remarkable in the 10s- and 20s-onset cases and less remarkable in the 30s-onset cases. The retinopathy was significantly more frequent in female diabetics. Daily of the patients were studied by a questionnaire and the analysis of 1022 cases with diabetes of more than three years revealed that cases of patients working uneventfully and/or feeling fit were most frequent among the 30s- or 40s-onset cases and that cases of bed-disability were frequent among the cases whose diabetes was found in their twenties or younger. This study showed that the prognosis of the patients is quite different according to whether their diabetes occurred before of after 30 years of age.

  14. Kikuchi's lymphadenitis. A morphologic analysis of 75 cases with special reference to unusual features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, W Y; Chan, J K; Ng, C S

    1994-03-01

    Seventy-five cases of Kikuchi's lymphadenitis, a self-limiting pseudomalignant condition, were reviewed to determine the spectrum of histologic findings. There were 55 females and 20 males; ages ranged from 9 to 57 years (mean, 25.5). Most patients presented with cervical lymphadenopathy (68 cases). Associated clinical findings were fever (20/52) and leukopenia (15/33). Serum antinuclear antibodies were negative in 15 patients among 16 tested. Among 32 patients with follow-up information, 31 remained well, including one who developed recurrence after 2 years. One patient died of fatal myocardial disease during the active disease. Histologically, the lymph nodes showed paracortical hyperplasia, often associated with a starry-sky appearance resulting from interspersed histiocytes and immunoblasts. The consistent finding was the presence of variable-sized discrete or confluent nodules in the paracortex composed of the following: (a) karyorrhectic and eosinophilic granular debris; (b) histiocytes, many of which were phagocytic and possessed distinctive peripherally placed crescentic nuclei and voluminous cytoplasm containing eosinophilic or karyorrhectic debris (for which we propose the designation crescentic histiocytes), mixed with nonphagocytic histiocytes having twisted or reniform nuclei which were often centrally placed; (c) plasmacytoid monocytes, which were medium-sized cells with eccentrically placed round nuclei and amphophilic cytoplasm; and (d) variable numbers of immunoblasts, which sometimes showed atypia such as irregular nuclear foldings and coarse chromatin. Neutrophils were absent or very sparse. In some nodules, coagulative necrosis was present in the center (45 cases). Foamy histiocytes were found in 23 cases, and they predominated in 11. Small clusters of plasmacytoid monocytes were noted in the paracortex in 40 cases. Perinodal inflammation was a common finding, and perinodal involvement by the karyorrhectic process occurred in 15 cases. In

  15. Depression among older people in Sri Lanka: With special reference to ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaltar, Amartuvshin; Priyadarshani, Neelawala Gw; Delpitiya, Nisansala Y; Jayasinghe, Chandrika; Jayasinghe, Ananda; Arai, Asuna; Tamashiro, Hiko

    2017-12-01

    To ascertain if the factors associated with depression differ among ethnic groups in community-dwelling older people in Kandy District, Sri Lanka. A cross-sectional survey was carried out of people aged ≥60 years living in a single divisional secretariat of Kandy District. The participants were asked about ethnicity (Sinhalese, Tamil and Muslim), sociodemographic characteristics and depression status by face-to-face interviews with a structured questionnaire. Depression was measured by the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale, and the total score of ≥6 was considered as depression. The χ 2 -test and multivariate logistic regression with two-way interaction terms between sociodemographic characteristics and ethnicity were carried out. Participants (n = 778) consisted of 56.6% Sinhalese, 22.1% Tamils and 21.3% Muslims. Of the participants, the prevalence of depression was 31.8% (27.3% in Sinhalese, 42.1% in Tamils and 32.9% in Muslims). Multivariate analyses showed that there were no significant interactions between sociodemographic characteristics and ethnicity. However, low economic status, low perceived social support and more than two self-reported diseases were significantly associated with depression in all ethnic groups. Some factors were found to be significantly associated with depression, but did not differ among ethnic groups. The findings would help practitioners to identify older people with a high risk of depression, and to intervene in its development or exacerbation. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 2414-2420. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  16. Effects of heat and cold on health, with special reference to Finnish sauna bathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, Ilkka; Laukkanen, Jari A

    2018-05-01

    Environmental stress such as extremely warm or cold temperature is often considered a challenge to human health and body homeostasis. However, the human body can adapt relatively well to heat and cold environments, and recent studies have also elucidated that particularly heat stress might be even highly beneficial for human health. Consequently, the aim of the present brief review is first to discuss general cardiovascular and other responses to acute heat stress, followed by a review of beneficial effects of Finnish sauna bathing on general and cardiovascular health and mortality as well as dementia and Alzheimer's disease risk. Plausible mechanisms included are improved endothelial and microvascular function, reduced blood pressure and arterial stiffness, and possibly increased angiogenesis in humans, which are likely to mediate the health benefits of sauna bathing. In addition to heat exposure with physiological adaptations, cold stress-induced physiological responses and brown fat activation on health are also discussed. This is important to take into consideration, as sauna bathing is frequently associated with cooling periods in cold(er) environments, but their combination remains poorly investigated. We finally propose, therefore, that possible additive effects of heat- and cold-stress-induced adaptations and effects on health would be worthy of further investigation.

  17. Insects associated with hospital environment in Egypt with special reference to the medically important species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenawy, Mohamed A; Amer, Hanan S; Lotfy, Nadia M; Khamis, Nagwa; Abdel-Hamid, Yousrya M

    2014-12-01

    A study was planned to examine the insect fauna associated with two hospitals: urban (A) in Cairo and rural (B) in Banha, Egypt with varying hygienic levels and their adjacent residential areas (AC) and (BC), respectively and to investigate the effect of hygienic level on species composition and relative abundance. A total of 22 species belonging to 7 orders and 15 families were reported in the four study areas of which, Dipterous flies were the most common (8/22, 36.36% species). A total of 5257 adults were collected of which Dipterous flies were the abundant (3800, 72.28% insect) and Musca domestica was the most abundant species (3535, 67.24% insect) which was present in all areas where it was more common / predominant species (21.94%-90.91% insect). Moreover, higher densities of M domestica were in (B) and BC than in (A) or (AC). The heavily infested area was AC (54.55% species) followed by (A), (BC) and (B) however, the total number of the collected insects was higher in (BC) and (B) than in (AC) and (A). This was confirmed by finding maximum diversity indices in (AC) and minimum ones in B. In all areas, means of M domestica was more common during summer/autumn and spring than in the winter. Periplaneta americana collected oily during autumn in AC and was more common in autumn in (BC) while Blatella germanica collected only during summer in (AC) and was more common in autumn in (B). The prevalence and higher abundance of the medically important species mainly M domestica, P. americana and B. germanica in rural hospital than in urban one attribute mainly to the lower hygienic level of rural hospital This require a control program based mainly on sanitation supplemented by other measures to overcome the risk of disease transmission by such insects

  18. Epidemiological study of dilated cardiomyopathy from eastern India with special reference to left atrial size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudrajit Paul, Saumen Nandi, Pradip K Sinha

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM is a common cause of emergency visit in our country. The disease is often misdiagnosed and mistreated. There are very few studies on DCM from India. We undertook a small study on DCM patients from Eastern India to find the demographic and echocardiographic characteristics. Patients and methods: We under took this study in a tertiary care Medical College of Eastern India. All patients coming to the emergency with dyspnea were evaluated for cardiac dysfunction. Emergency echocardiography was done to diagnose dilated cardiomyopathy. Patients with DCM were then evaluated as per protocol. After stabilization, echocardiography was repeated to note the study parameters like left atrial diameter. Standard statistical tests were used. Results: we had a total of 70 patients in our study with a male: female ratio of 43:27. Most patients were aged over 40 years. Patients with COPD, history of radiation, malignancy or drug abuse were excluded. Most patients (47% were on NYHA stage 3 at the time of presentation. In our patient cohort, 24% were alcoholic and 46% were smokers. Atrial fibrillation was present in 15.7% of the patients and right and left bundle branch block had been present in 8 and 15 patients respectively. In echocardiography, increased left atrial (LA size (>40 mm was found in 45 patients. Many patients had valvular regurgitation, mitral, aortic or tricuspid. LA size was positively correlated with left ventricular systolic diameter (r=0.403 and negatively correlated with ejection fraction (r= -0.23. Analysis and conclusion: different ECG abnormalities like bundle branch block and arrhythmias like atrial fibrillation are quite common in DCM. In echocardiography, left atrial size is an important prognostic marker and correlates with left ventricular function.

  19. Studies on the gamma radiation environment in Sweden with special reference to 137Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almgren, Sara

    2008-09-01

    Gamma radiation in the environment today mainly originates from naturally occurring radionuclides, but anthropogenic radionuclides, such as 137 Cs, contribute in some areas. In order to assess population exposure in case of fallout from nuclear weapons (NWF) or accidents, knowledge and monitoring of external gamma radiation and radionuclide concentrations in the environment is important. For this purpose 34 sampling sites were established in western Sweden and repeated soil sampling, field gamma spectrometry (in situ measurements), and dose rate measurements were performed. The variations in the activities between the different sampling occasions were found to be quite large. The naturally occurring radionuclides were the main source of outdoor dose rates. The uranium and thorium decay series contributed about equally to the total dose while the contribution from 40 K was somewhat higher. The dose rates were mainly correlated to the ground cover, with higher levels on asphalt and cobble stones than on grass. The large scale deposition densities from NWF and the Chernobyl accident could be relatively well estimated by a model including the amount of precipitation and measured deposition at few reference sites. The deposition density from nuclear weapons tests in Sweden between 1962 and 1966 was found to be 1.42-2.70 kBq/m 2 and the deposition density from Chernobyl in western Sweden ranged between 0.82-2.61 kBq/m 2 . The vertical migration of 137 Cs was studied at the sampling sites in western Sweden and a solution to the convection-diffusion equation (CDE) was fitted to depth profiles. The vertical migration of 137 Cs was found to be very slow and diffusive transport was dominant at most locations. The apparent convection velocity and diffusion coefficient were found to be 0-0.35 cm/year and 0.06-2.63 cm 2 /year, respectively. The average depth of the maximum activity was 5.4±2.2 cm. The fitted depth distributions for each location were used to correct in situ

  20. The economic impact of Bluetongue and other orbiviruses in sub-Saharan Africa, with special reference to Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewar, John Duncan

    2016-09-30

    Bluetongue (BT) and African horse sickness (AHS) are considered the most important orbiviral diseases in Southern Africans countries. The general endemic status makes these diseases challenging to be quanti ed in terms of their economic impact. Using country reported data from BT and AHS outbreaks and cases, as well as international trade data, the economic impact of BT and AHS is evaluated on local, regional, and global scales. Local scale impact in the Southern African region is underestimated as shown by the underreporting of BT and AHS. Exceptions occur during epidemic cycles of the diseases and when the diseases impact regional animal movement and global trade, as in the case of AHS in South Africa. While BT is not directly implicated as a signi cant non-tari barrier for regional movement, there are unspeci ed clauses in import permits which refer to the 'OIE listed diseases' and the freedom thereof includes endemic diseases like BT. African horse sickness has a much more tangible regional and global economic impact because of movement restrictions within AHS control zones in South Africa and through international movement of horses from this country.

  1. 76 FR 13413 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP); Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP); Meeting Studies at the Animal-Human Interface of Influenza and Other Zoonotic Diseases in Vietnam, Funding Opportunity Announcement...

  2. 76 FR 27327 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Meeting Studies at the Animal-Human Interface of Influenza and Other Zoonotic Diseases in Vietnam, Funding Opportunity Announcement...

  3. 78 FR 35035 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial review The meeting announced below concerns Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Public Health Preparedness and Response...

  4. 78 FR 36785 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Public Health Preparedness and Response...

  5. 78 FR 23768 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned SEP: Time and Date: 1:00 p.m...

  6. 76 FR 4911 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel: Occupational...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel: Occupational Safety and Health...)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and...

  7. 75 FR 4406 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel: Occupational...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... recommendations to the Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control SEP: Occupational Safety and Health... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel: Occupational Safety and Health Training...

  8. 76 FR 10908 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Maternal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Maternal Vitamin D Status and... 17, 2011. Elaine L. Baker, Director, Management Analysis and Services Office, Centers for Disease...

  9. 76 FR 9018 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Emerging...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Emerging Infections Sentinel... with Section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease...

  10. 76 FR 27649 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial Review The meeting... Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the...

  11. 75 FR 30410 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Project (SIP): Provider...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Project (SIP): Provider and Public Health... Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC...

  12. 76 FR 28437 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Project (SIP): Initial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Project (SIP): Initial Review The meeting... Disease or Treated by Assisted Reproductive Technology, SIP11-048, Panel F,'' initial review In accordance...

  13. 75 FR 28626 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): SIP 10...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): SIP 10-029, Pilot Study... Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the...

  14. 77 FR 30292 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Project (SIP): Initial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Project (SIP): Initial Review The meeting...)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and...

  15. 75 FR 30410 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Outcomes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Outcomes of Screening... 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92- 463), the Centers for Disease Control and...

  16. 77 FR 29351 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control; Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control; Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial Review The meeting.... L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned...

  17. 75 FR 32190 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Examining the Impact of... Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the...

  18. 75 FR 32190 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): SIP 10...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): SIP 10-033, Innovative... with Section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease...

  19. Progress towards malaria elimination in Zimbabwe with special reference to the period 2003-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sande, Shadreck; Zimba, Moses; Mberikunashe, Joseph; Tangwena, Andrew; Chimusoro, Anderson

    2017-07-24

    An intensive effort to control malaria in Zimbabwe has produced dramatic reductions in the burden of the disease over the past 13 years. The successes have prompted the Zimbabwe's National Malaria Control Programme to commit to elimination of malaria. It is critical to analyse the changes in the morbidity trends based on surveillance data, and scrutinize reorientation to strategies for elimination. This is a retrospective study of available Ministry of Health surveillance data and programme reports, mostly from 2003 to 2015. Malaria epidemiological data were drawn from the National Health Information System database. Data on available resources, malaria control strategies, morbidity and mortality trends were analysed, and opportunities for Zimbabwe malaria elimination agenda was perused. With strong government commitment and partner support, the financial gap for malaria programming shrank by 91.4% from about US$13 million in 2012 to US$1 million in 2015. Vector control comprises indoor residual house spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticidal nets, and spray coverage increased from 28% in 2003 to 95% in 2015. Population protected by IRS increased also from 20 to 96% for the same period. In 2009, diagnostics improved from clinical to parasitological confirmation either by rapid diagnostic tests or microscopy. Artemisinin-based combination therapy was used to treat malaria following chloroquine resistance in 2000, and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in 2004. In 2003, there were 155 malaria cases per 1000 populations reported from all health facilities throughout the country. The following decade witnessed a substantial decline in cases to only 22 per 1000 populations in 2012. A resurgence was reported in 2013 (29/1000) and 2014 (39/1000), thereafter morbidity declined to 29 cases per 1000 populations, only to the same level as in 2013. Overall, morbidity declined by 81% from 2003 to 2015. Inpatient malaria deaths per 100,000 populations doubled in 4 years, from 2

  20. A PROSPECTIVE STUDY OF CENTCHROMAN USERS WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ITS CONTRACEPTIVE BENEFIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hema Sreedharan Nair

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Centchroman is a novel nonsteroidal contraceptive that offers a unique combination of weak estrogenic and potent antiestrogenic properties. Centchroman inhibits the fertilised ovum from implantation and thus prevents pregnancy. The development of the steroidal contraceptive in the late 1950s was a big event in reproductive research. The pill has, however, some inherent logistic limitations such as the need for continuous administration and thus associated likelihood of side effects. This underscored the need for a safer alternative for preventing pregnancy such as postcoital contraceptives and those that interfere with events between ovulation and implantation. Hence, in this study, a clinical evaluation of centchroman for its contraceptive study was carried out on 153 women and the contraceptive benefit was evaluated at monthly intervals. MATERIALS AND METHODS It was a prospective study done in the family planning department of Sree Avittom Thirunal Hospital. Postnatal patients reporting to the family planning department at 6 weeks postpartum and also patients opting for medical termination of pregnancy or cases following spontaneous abortion were selected for the study. Contraceptive efficacy of centchroman was studied over a 12-month period. RESULTS 153 subjects were studied. 63% of the subjects were in the age group of 20-24 years. 93% subjects used centchroman as a spacing method after first delivery and 6% after second delivery. 43% of acceptors were following MTP or abortion, 35% were postpartum cases and 22% were interval acceptors. 5.2% of subjects in the study group had rheumatic heart disease, 2% had hypertension and 2.6% had diabetes mellitus. Duration of use ranged from 3 months in 153 subjects to 12 months in 130 subjects. The main cause for discontinuation of centchroman was menstrual irregularity. Menstrual complaints were noted in 45% of the subjects. The major menstrual complaint was delayed cycle in 26% subjects and

  1. Assessment of brain reference genes for RT-qPCR studies in neurodegenerative diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Rydbirk, Rasmus; Folke, Jonas; Winge, Kristian; Aznar, Susana; Pakkenberg, Bente; Brudek, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of gene expression levels by reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) has for many years been the favourite approach for discovering disease-associated alterations. Normalization of results to stably expressed reference genes (RGs) is pivotal to obtain reliable results. This is especially important in relation to neurodegenerative diseases where disease-related structural changes may affect the most commonly used RGs. We analysed 15 candidate RGs in 98 brain sampl...

  2. Food functionality research as a new national project in special reference to improvement of cognitive and locomotive abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Keiko; Misaka, Takumi

    2018-04-01

    In Japan, where a super-aging society is realized, we are most concerned about healthy longevity, which would ascertain the wellness of people by improving their quality of life (QOL). In 2014, the Cabinet Office proposed a strategic innovation promotion programme, launching a national project for the development of the agricultural-forestry-fisheries food products with new functionalities for the next generation. In addition to focusing on a conventional prevention of lifestyle-associated metabolic syndromes, the project targets the scientific evidence of the activation of brain cognitive ability and the improvement of bodily locomotive function. The project also involves the analysis of the foods-sports interrelation of chronic importance, and the development of devices for the verification of QOL-associated maintenance of homeostasis. In this review, we provide an overview of these studies, with special reference to cognition as a case of the gut-brain axis which the author is particularly interested in.

  3. Special Communication The spectrum of heart disease in adults in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    burden” of disease, with high levels of both communicable and noncommunicable pathologies.4,5 The ..... Mathers CD, Loncar D. Projections of Global Mortality and Burden of Disease from 2002 to 2030. Samet J, editor. PLoS Med. 2006 Nov.

  4. Uranium isotopic composition and uranium concentration in special reference material SRM A (uranium in KCl/LiCl salt matrix)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graczyk, D.G.; Essling, A.M.; Sabau, C.S.; Smith, F.P.; Bowers, D.L.; Ackerman, J.P.

    1997-07-01

    To help assure that analysis data of known quality will be produced in support of demonstration programs at the Fuel Conditioning Facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West (Idaho Falls, ID), a special reference material has been prepared and characterized. Designated SRM A, the material consists of individual units of LiCl/KCl eutectic salt containing a nominal concentration of 2.5 wt. % enriched uranium. Analyses were performed at Argonne National Laboratory-East (Argonne, IL) to determine the uniformity of the material and to establish reference values for the uranium concentration and uranium isotopic composition. Ten units from a batch of approximately 190 units were analyzed by the mass spectrometric isotope dilution technique to determine their uranium concentration. These measurements provided a mean value of 2.5058 ± 0.0052 wt. % U, where the uncertainty includes estimated limits to both random and systematic errors that might have affected the measurements. Evidence was found of a small, apparently random, non-uniformity in uranium content of the individual SRM A units, which exhibits a standard deviation of 0.078% of the mean uranium concentration. Isotopic analysis of the uranium from three units, by means of thermal ionization mass spectrometry with a special, internal-standard procedure, indicated that the uranium isotopy is uniform among the pellets with a composition corresponding to 0.1115 ± 0.0006 wt. % 234 U, 19.8336 ± 0.0059 wt. % 235 U, 0.1337 ± 0.0006 wt. % 236 U, and 79.9171 ± 0.0057 wt. % 238 U

  5. Green infrastructure planning for cooling urban communities: Overview of the contemporary approaches with special reference to Serbian experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Igor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates contemporary approaches defined by the policies, programs or standards that favor green infrastructure in urban planning for cooling urban environments with special reference to Serbian experiences. The research results reveal an increasing emphasis on the multifunctionality of green infrastructure as well the determination to the development of policies, guidelines and standards with the support of the overall community. Further, special importance is given to policies that promote ‘cool communities’ strategies resulting in the increase of vegetation-covered areas, what has contributed in adapting urban environments to the impacts of climate change. In addition, this research indicates the important role of local authorities and planners in Serbia in promoting planning policies and programs that take into consideration the role of green infrastructure in terms of improving climatic conditions, quality of life and reducing energy needed for cooling and heating. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 36035: Spatial, ecological, energy, and social aspects of developing settlements and climate change - mutual impacts i br. 43007: The investigation of climate change and its impacts, climate change adaptation and mitigation

  6. Radiotherapy in the treatment of malignant mesothelioma of the pleura, with special reference to its use in palliation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, S.R.; Tan, L.; Ball, D.L.

    1994-01-01

    Most patients presenting with malignant mesothelioma of the pleura (MMP) are only suitable for palliative treatment. Radiotherapy has not been shown in improve survival in patients with this disease, but is of use in the palliation of symptoms. In this retrospective review of 111 patients with MMP referred to the Peter MacCallum Cancer Institute, the palliative effect of radiotherapy was analysed. More than half of the patients whose response could be assessed had some symptomatic relief from the radiotherapy treatment. No dose-response relationship could be found. 8 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig

  7. The provision of technical assistance by the Agency with special reference to 1971. Report by the Director General

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-07-01

    Following its usual practice, the Board of Governors has requested the communication to the General Conference of the material it used in reviewing the provision of technical assistance by the Agency, with special reference to 1971; this material is accordingly reproduced in the present document. The review was carried out pursuant to paragraph 20 of the Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules to Govern the Provision of Technical Assistance by the Agency. 2. The use of the resources placed at the Agency's disposal, in the form of voluntary contributions, gifts in kind, UNDP(SF) and UNDP(TA) funds, for the provision of technical assistance is reviewed in this document; data on UNDP(SF) assistance in respect of projects for which the IAEA was the executing agent have been incorporated in the statistical tables and figures for the first time. This has been done to establish a broader basis for comparison of the data that will be included in the report to be submitted one year hence, in which special reference will be made to the technical assistance provided by the Agency in 1972, which will reflect the full integration of the Special Fund and Technical Assistance components of UNDP, In addition, information is given with regard to the UNDP(SF) projects for which the Agency served as sub-contractor in 1971 in Annex III. 3. The three principal elements of the technical assistance provided are expert services, equipment and fellowships. The main objectives of the assistance are to promote the transfer of skills and knowledge relating to the peaceful uses of atomic energy, to support the efforts made by recipient countries to carry out their atomic energy activities more efficiently, and to ensure that the knowledge acquired can continue to be applied after Agency projects have been completed. The achievement of the latter objective, however, depends largely on the ability of Governments to make adequate facilities available and to recruit and retain the requisite

  8. The provision of technical assistance by the Agency with special reference to 1971. Report by the Director General

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1972-07-15

    Following its usual practice, the Board of Governors has requested the communication to the General Conference of the material it used in reviewing the provision of technical assistance by the Agency, with special reference to 1971; this material is accordingly reproduced in the present document. The review was carried out pursuant to paragraph 20 of the Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules to Govern the Provision of Technical Assistance by the Agency. 2. The use of the resources placed at the Agency's disposal, in the form of voluntary contributions, gifts in kind, UNDP(SF) and UNDP(TA) funds, for the provision of technical assistance is reviewed in this document; data on UNDP(SF) assistance in respect of projects for which the IAEA was the executing agent have been incorporated in the statistical tables and figures for the first time. This has been done to establish a broader basis for comparison of the data that will be included in the report to be submitted one year hence, in which special reference will be made to the technical assistance provided by the Agency in 1972, which will reflect the full integration of the Special Fund and Technical Assistance components of UNDP, In addition, information is given with regard to the UNDP(SF) projects for which the Agency served as sub-contractor in 1971 in Annex III. 3. The three principal elements of the technical assistance provided are expert services, equipment and fellowships. The main objectives of the assistance are to promote the transfer of skills and knowledge relating to the peaceful uses of atomic energy, to support the efforts made by recipient countries to carry out their atomic energy activities more efficiently, and to ensure that the knowledge acquired can continue to be applied after Agency projects have been completed. The achievement of the latter objective, however, depends largely on the ability of Governments to make adequate facilities available and to recruit and retain the requisite

  9. Growth Hormone Resistance—Special Focus on Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoffer Soendergaard

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone (GH plays major anabolic and catabolic roles in the body and is important for regulating several aspects of growth. During an inflammatory process, cells may develop a state of GH resistance during which their response to GH stimulation is limited. In this review, we will emphasize specific mechanisms governing the formation of GH resistance in the active phase of inflammatory bowel disease. The specific molecular effects mediated through individual inflammatory mediators and processes will be highlighted to provide an overview of the transcriptional, translational and post-translational inflammation-mediated impacts on the GH receptor (GHR along with the impacts on GH-induced intracellular signaling. We also will review GH’s effects on mucosal healing and immune cells in the context of experimental colitis, human inflammatory bowel disease and in patients with short bowel syndrome.

  10. 76 FR 32213 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP); Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP); Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Prevention Projects for Young Men of Color...

  11. 76 FR 52330 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Member Conflict Review, Program Announcement (PA) 07-318, initial review. In...

  12. 77 FR 28392 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Alcohol-related Motor Vehicle Injury Research, FOA CE12-006, initial review. In...

  13. 78 FR 19269 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review Notice of Cancellation: This document corrects a notice that was published in the Federal Register on March 21, 2013 (78...

  14. 78 FR 20319 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review. The meeting... aforementioned SEP: Time and Date: 9:00 a.m.-6:00 p.m., May 15-16, 2013 (Closed). Place: Georgian Terrace, 659...

  15. 78 FR 60879 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns National Center for Construction Safety and Health Research and Translation (U60...

  16. 76 FR 78263 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Occupational Safety and Health Training Project Grants, Program Announcement PAR 10...

  17. 77 FR 291 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns National HIV Behavioral Surveillance For Young Men Who Have Sex With Men, Funding...

  18. 78 FR 78964 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns The Cooperative Re-Engagement Controlled Trial (CoRECT), Funding Opportunity...

  19. 78 FR 66938 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review Notice of..., Number 181, Page 57391). This SEP, scheduled to convene on November 12-15, 2013, is canceled. Notice will...

  20. 78 FR 60877 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Occupational Safety and Health Training Project Grants (T03), PAR-10-288, initial...

  1. 77 FR 30015 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Characterizing the Short and Long Term Consequences of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI...

  2. 78 FR 24751 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting... Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned SEP: Time and Date: 12:00 p.m.-3:30 p.m., June...

  3. 77 FR 31018 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Member Conflict Review, Program Announcement (PA) 07-318, and Centers of Excellence...

  4. 78 FR 19490 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review Notice of Cancellation: A notice was published in the Federal Register on February 12, 2013, Volume 78, Number 29, page...

  5. 76 FR 18555 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Virologic Evaluation of the Modes of Influenza Virus Transmission among Humans...

  6. 76 FR 33304 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Strategies to Improve Vaccination Coverage of Children in Child Care Centers (CCCs...

  7. 78 FR 25743 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Member Conflict Review, Program Announcement (PA) 07-318, initial review. In...

  8. 77 FR 7164 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Member Conflict Review, Program Announcement (PA) 07-318, initial review. In...

  9. 78 FR 66937 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review Notice of... Volume 78, Number 191, Page 60877). This SEP, scheduled to convene on November 6, 2013, is canceled...

  10. 77 FR 22326 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Extension of the World Trade Center Health Registry (U50) Request for Applications...

  11. 78 FR 17412 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Strengthening the Monitoring and Evaluation of Programs for the Elimination and...

  12. 77 FR 28393 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Research to Prevent Prescription Drug Overdoses, FOA CE12-007, initial review. In...

  13. 77 FR 25181 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Research Technical Assistance To The Ministry Of Public Health Of Haiti To Support...

  14. 78 FR 1212 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Natural History and Prevention of Viral Hepatitis Among Alaska Natives, Funding...

  15. 78 FR 60875 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Occupational Safety and Health Training Project Grants (T03), PAR-10-288, initial...

  16. 76 FR 24031 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Strategies to Improve Vaccination Coverage of Children in Child Care Centers (CCCs...

  17. 76 FR 28790 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Member Conflict Review, Program Announcement (PA) 07-318, initial review. In...

  18. 76 FR 39879 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Prevention Projects for Young Men of Color Who...

  19. 77 FR 27460 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Conducting Public Health Research in China RFA GH-12-005, and Conducting Public...

  20. 76 FR 59133 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Prevention Projects for Young Men of Color Who...

  1. 76 FR 67458 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Emerging Infections Programs, Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) CK12-1202...

  2. 77 FR 48986 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Member Conflict Review, Program Announcement (PA) 07-318, initial review. In...

  3. 78 FR 9926 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Medicaid Expansion and Reproductive Health Care for Women, FOA DP 13-002, initial...

  4. 77 FR 61756 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Occupational Safety and Health Training Project Grant, PAR 10-288, initial review...

  5. 78 FR 17410 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panels (SEP): Initial review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panels (SEP): Initial review The meeting announced below concerns Epi-Centers for the Prevention of Healthcare-Associated Infections, Antimicrobial...

  6. 78 FR 17411 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Monitoring and Evaluation of Malaria Control and Elimination Activities, FOA GH13...

  7. 78 FR 37542 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns NIOSH Cooperative Agreement Research to Aid Recovery from Hurricane Sandy, Request...

  8. 76 FR 45575 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Prevention Projects for Young Men of Color Who...

  9. 78 FR 56236 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns NIOSH Member Conflict Review, PA 07-318, initial review. In accordance with Section...

  10. 78 FR 28221 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting... aforementioned SEP: Time and Date: 12:30 p.m.-5:00 p.m. EDT, July 24, 2013 (Closed). Place: Teleconference...

  11. 77 FR 36544 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Coordinating Center for Research and Training to Promote the Health of People with...

  12. 77 FR 5026 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting... SEP: Occupational Safety and Health Education and Research Centers, PAR 10-217. Contact Person For...

  13. 78 FR 732 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Identification, Surveillance, and Control of Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Infectious...

  14. 76 FR 33305 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Program to Support New Implementation of State or Territorial Public Health...

  15. 78 FR 57391 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting... aforementioned SEP: Times and Dates: 8:00 a.m.-8:00 p.m., November 12-15, 2013 (Closed). Place: Teleconference...

  16. 76 FR 3909 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Family...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Family History and Diamond..., discussion, and evaluation of ``Family History and Diamond Blackfan Anemia, DD11-010, initial review...

  17. 75 FR 41872 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Surveillance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Surveillance, Natural History... evaluation of ``Surveillance, Natural History, Quality of Care and Outcomes of Diabetes Mellitus with Onset...

  18. 75 FR 13560 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Surveillance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Surveillance, Natural History... evaluation of ``Surveillance, Natural History, Quality of Care and Outcomes of Diabetes Mellitus With Onset...

  19. 76 FR 13621 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Family...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Family History and Diamond Blackfan Anemia, DD11- 010, Initial Review Correction: This notice was published in the Federal Register on...

  20. 75 FR 29561 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Surveillance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Surveillance, Natural History, Quality of Care and Outcomes of Diabetes Mellitus with Onset in Childhood and Adolescence, RFA DP 10-001...

  1. The synthesis and analysis of diuloses and deoxydiuloses with special reference to the radiolysis products of fructose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Den Drijver, L.

    1979-12-01

    The exposure of fruit to γ-irradiation is a technique that is receiving increasing attention as a practical and economic preservation method. The analysis of irradiated fruit is necessary in order to identify and quantify possible mutagenic and toxic products formed during irradiation. Water and carbohydrates are the main components of fruit, the carbohydrates consisting mainly of mono- and disaccharides. An investigation of the radiolysis products of sugars, with special reference to hexosuloses and hexosdiuloses as possible toxic and/or mutagenic agents, formed the basis of the work described in this thesis. A number of diuloses formally derived from D-fructose was synthesized for mutagenicity tests and as standards for an investigation of the radiolysis products of D-fructose. High pressure liquid chromatography was used as analytical technique. The investigation represents the first application of the technique for the analysis of radiolysis products of sugars. It was succesfully applied to a study of the diuloses formed by the radiolysis of D-fructose in the presence of oxygen. The results obtained confirmed earlier work carried out with GC-MS as analytical technique. In addition, a previously unknown radiolysis product of D-fructose was identified as D-erythrohexos-2,3-diulose

  2. Intellectual function and radiological images in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Special reference to single photon emission computed tomography images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichikawa, Hiroo; Kanda, Mikio; Fukui, Toshiya; Sugita, Koujiro [Showa Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1994-10-01

    To clarify cognitive decline in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), we compared cognitive and motor signs with neuroradiological features, with special reference to single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), in 23 patients with ALS. Of these 23 patients, five demented patients (ALS-D) showed a decrease in voluntary speech output, abnormal behavior or character change. SPECT images in these patients were specifically characterized by marked uptake reduction in the frontal lobes. ALS patients with normal mentality (ALS-N) showed either a normal pattern or non-specific patchy uptake reduction on SPECT, but never showed the diffuse frontal uptake reduction that was observed in ALS-D patients. None of the ALS-N patients showed cognitive decline or frontal uptake reduction during the follow-up period of up to 29 months. There was no relation in either ALS-D or ALS-N patients between the degree of tracer uptake reduction and clinical features of ALS including severity and duration of illness. Clinical and neuroradiological features in ALS-D patients were compatible with those of `frontal lobe dementia`. ALS-D patients may compose a distinct group because cognitive decline is unlikely to occur in ALS-N patients with a long clinical course. ALS-D patients may be differentiated from other non-demented ALS patients in the early clinical course by the characteristic diffuse frontal uptake reduction on SPECT. (author).

  3. Intellectual function and radiological images in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Special reference to single photon emission computed tomography images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Hiroo; Kanda, Mikio; Fukui, Toshiya; Sugita, Koujiro

    1994-01-01

    To clarify cognitive decline in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), we compared cognitive and motor signs with neuroradiological features, with special reference to single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), in 23 patients with ALS. Of these 23 patients, five demented patients (ALS-D) showed a decrease in voluntary speech output, abnormal behavior or character change. SPECT images in these patients were specifically characterized by marked uptake reduction in the frontal lobes. ALS patients with normal mentality (ALS-N) showed either a normal pattern or non-specific patchy uptake reduction on SPECT, but never showed the diffuse frontal uptake reduction that was observed in ALS-D patients. None of the ALS-N patients showed cognitive decline or frontal uptake reduction during the follow-up period of up to 29 months. There was no relation in either ALS-D or ALS-N patients between the degree of tracer uptake reduction and clinical features of ALS including severity and duration of illness. Clinical and neuroradiological features in ALS-D patients were compatible with those of 'frontal lobe dementia'. ALS-D patients may compose a distinct group because cognitive decline is unlikely to occur in ALS-N patients with a long clinical course. ALS-D patients may be differentiated from other non-demented ALS patients in the early clinical course by the characteristic diffuse frontal uptake reduction on SPECT. (author)

  4. Prophylactic role of melatonin against radiation induced damage in mouse cerebellum with special reference to Purkinje cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisodia, Rashmi; Kumari, Seema; Verma, Rajesh Kumar; Bhatia, A L [Neurobiology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur 302004 (India)

    2006-06-15

    Melatonin, a hormone with a proven antioxidative efficacy, crosses all morphophysiological barriers, including the blood-brain barrier, and distributes throughout the cell. The present study is an attempt to investigate the prophylactic influence of a chronic low level of melatonin against an acute radiation induced oxidative stress in the cerebellum of Swiss albino mice, with special reference to Purkinje cells. After 15 days of treatment the mice were sacrificed at various intervals from 1 to 30 days. Biochemical parameters included lipid peroxidation (LPO) and glutathione (GSH) levels as the endpoints. The quantitative study included alterations in number and volume of Purkinje cells. Swiss albino mice were orally administered a very low dose of melatonin (0.25 mg/mouse/day) for 15 consecutive days before single exposure to 4 Gy gamma radiation. Melatonin checked the augmented levels of LPO, by approximately 55%, by day 30 day post-exposure. Radiation induced depleted levels of GSH could be raised by 68.9% by day 30 post-exposure. Radiation exposure resulted in a reduction of the volume of Purkinje cells and their total number. The administration of melatonin significantly protected against the radiation induced decreases in Purkinje cell volume and number. Results indicate the antioxidative properties of melatonin resulting in its prophylactic property against radiation induced biochemical and cellular alterations in the cerebellum. The findings support the idea that melatonin may be used as an anti-irradiation drug due to its potent free radical scavenging and antioxidative efficacy.

  5. Reliability, reference values and predictor variables of the ulnar sensory nerve in disease free adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruediger, T M; Allison, S C; Moore, J M; Wainner, R S

    2014-09-01

    The purposes of this descriptive and exploratory study were to examine electrophysiological measures of ulnar sensory nerve function in disease free adults to determine reliability, determine reference values computed with appropriate statistical methods, and examine predictive ability of anthropometric variables. Antidromic sensory nerve conduction studies of the ulnar nerve using surface electrodes were performed on 100 volunteers. Reference values were computed from optimally transformed data. Reliability was computed from 30 subjects. Multiple linear regression models were constructed from four predictor variables. Reliability was greater than 0.85 for all paired measures. Responses were elicited in all subjects; reference values for sensory nerve action potential (SNAP) amplitude from above elbow stimulation are 3.3 μV and decrement across-elbow less than 46%. No single predictor variable accounted for more than 15% of the variance in the response. Electrophysiologic measures of the ulnar sensory nerve are reliable. Absent SNAP responses are inconsistent with disease free individuals. Reference values recommended in this report are based on appropriate transformations of non-normally distributed data. No strong statistical model of prediction could be derived from the limited set of predictor variables. Reliability analyses combined with relatively low level of measurement error suggest that ulnar sensory reference values may be used with confidence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Disease effects on lobster fisheries, ecology, and culture: overview of DAO Special 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behringer, Donald C; Butler, Mark J; Stentiford, Grant D

    2012-08-27

    Lobsters are prized by commercial and recreational fishermen worldwide, and their populations are therefore buffeted by fishery practices. But lobsters also remain integral members of their benthic communities where predator-prey relationships, competitive interactions, and host-pathogen dynamics push and pull at their population dynamics. Although lobsters have few reported pathogens and parasites relative to other decapod crustaceans, the rise of diseases with consequences for lobster fisheries and aquaculture has spotlighted the importance of disease for lobster biology, population dynamics and ecology. Researchers, managers, and fishers thus increasingly recognize the need to understand lobster pathogens and parasites so they can be managed proactively and their impacts minimized where possible. At the 2011 International Conference and Workshop on Lobster Biology and Management a special session on lobster diseases was convened and this special issue of Diseases of Aquatic Organisms highlights those proceedings with a suite of articles focused on diseases discussed during that session.

  7. Double-bouquet cells in the monkey and human cerebral cortex with special reference to areas 17 and 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFelipe, Javier; Ballesteros-Yáñez, Inmaculada; Inda, Maria Carmen; Muñoz, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    The detailed microanatomical study of the human cerebral cortex began in 1899 with the experiments of Santiago Ramón y Cajal, who applied the Golgi method to define the structure of the visual, motor, auditory and olfactory cortex. In the first article of this series, he described a special type of interneuron in the visual cortex capable of exerting its influence in the vertical dimension. These neurons are now more commonly referred to as double-bouquet cells (DBCs). The DBCs are readily distinguished owing to their characteristic axons that give rise to tightly interwoven bundles of long, vertically oriented axonal collaterals resembling a horsetail (DBC horsetail). Nevertheless, the most striking characteristic of these neurons is that they are so numerous and regularly distributed that the DBC horsetails form a microcolumnar structure. In addition, DBCs establish hundreds of inhibitory synapses within a very narrow column of cortical tissue. These features have generated considerable interest in DBCs over recent years, principally among those researchers interested in the analysis of cortical circuits. In the present chapter, we shall discuss the morphology, synaptic connections and neurochemical features of DBCs that have been defined through the study of these cells in different cortical areas and species. We will mainly consider the immunocytochemical studies of DBCs that have been carried out in the visual cortex (areas 17 and 18) of human and macaque monkey. We will see that there are important differences in the morphology, number and distribution of DBC horsetails between areas 17 and 18 in the primate. This suggests important differences in the microcolumnar organization between these areas, the functional significance of which awaits detailed correlative physiological and microanatomical studies.

  8. Early ultrastructural changes in the dorsal mucosa of rat tongue after irradiation, with special reference to the microvasculature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obinata, Ken-ichi; Ohshima, Hayato; Ito, Jusuke; Takano, Yoshiro.

    1997-01-01

    To clarify the acute effects of irradiation on the ultrastructural conformation of the dorsal mucosa of the rat tongue, with special reference to the changes in microvasculature. The proboscis of seventy rats were irradiated. The animals were then perfusion-fixed, followed by India ink-injection or resin casting at 3 to 7 days after irradiation. The bulk, frozen sections, or plastic embedded sections of the treated rat tongues were examined by light and electron microscopy. In the dorsal epithelium of the rat tongue, multi-nucleated cells appeared in the basal layer at 3 days after irradiation. At day 5, the thickness of the epithelial layer and connective tissue papillae decreased dramatically, concomitant with the shortening of the capillary loops. At day 7, lingual papillae and connective tissue papillae disappeared, leaving dissociated epithelial cells and numerous neutrophils migrating throughout the tissue. Subepithelial blood vessels displayed drastic dilation with a number of neutrophils adhering to the endothelial surface, but without ultrastructural abnormalities in its cellular components. Early changes in the dorsal mucosa of the irradiated rat tongue were limited to the basal epithelial cells, leading to a total disruption of the epithelial layer. Atrophic changes of the capillary loops is due to the loss of the connective tissue papillae. Dilation and conformational changes of the subepithelial capillaries appear to result from the inflammatory reaction, taking place secondarily to the loss of the epithelial barrier of the irradiated tongue. A difference in radiosensitivity among the epithelial, endothelial, and mesenchymal cell components of the rat tongue in vivo is suggested. (author)

  9. Pediatric reference value distributions and covariate-stratified reference intervals for 29 endocrine and special chemistry biomarkers on the Beckman Coulter Immunoassay Systems: a CALIPER study of healthy community children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbasy, Kimiya; Lin, Danny C C; Stoianov, Alexandra; Chan, Man Khun; Bevilacqua, Victoria; Chen, Yunqi; Adeli, Khosrow

    2016-04-01

    The CALIPER program is a national research initiative aimed at closing the gaps in pediatric reference intervals. CALIPER previously reported reference intervals for endocrine and special chemistry markers on Abbott immunoassays. We now report new pediatric reference intervals for immunoassays on the Beckman Coulter Immunoassay Systems and assess platform-specific differences in reference values. A total of 711 healthy children and adolescents from birth to reference intervals calculated in accordance with Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) EP28-A3c guidelines. Complex profiles were observed for all 29 analytes, necessitating unique age and/or sex-specific partitions. Overall, changes in analyte concentrations observed over the course of development were similar to trends previously reported, and are consistent with biochemical and physiological changes that occur during childhood. Marked differences were observed for some assays including progesterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone where reference intervals were higher than those reported on Abbott immunoassays and parathyroid hormone where intervals were lower. This study highlights the importance of determining reference intervals specific for each analytical platform. The CALIPER Pediatric Reference Interval database will enable accurate diagnosis and laboratory assessment of children monitored by Beckman Coulter Immunoassay Systems in health care institutions worldwide. These reference intervals must however be validated by individual labs for the local pediatric population as recommended by CLSI.

  10. Effect of cooking on the chemical composition of low-salt, low-fat Wakame/olive oil added beef patties with special reference to fatty acid content

    OpenAIRE

    López-López, I.; Cofrades, Susana; Cañeque, V.; Díaz, M. Teresa; López, O.; Jiménez Colmenero, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Changes in chemical composition, with special reference to fatty acids, as affected by cooking, were studied in low-salt (0.5%)/low-fat patties (10%) with added Wakame (3%) and partial or total replacement of pork backfat with olive oil-in-water emulsion. The addition of Wakame and olive oil-in-water emulsion improved (P

  11. Immune complex modulation by plasma proteins. With special reference to the complement system and autoimmune diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baatrup, G

    1989-01-01

    The complement (C) system consists of two activation pathways, the classical and the alternative, which may both be activated by immune complexes (IC). C activation products become attached to the IC during activation leading to profound changes in the properties of the complexes. The common...... inflammation. 5) Tissue damage by activation and/or lysis of bystanding cells. 6) Modulation of B-cell proliferation and differentiation. Activation of the C system by IC is an essential normal component in the clearance of invading foreign material. However, in conditions with a persistent high concentration...... preformed, fluid phase IC (CMS assay). The CMS was found to be dependent upon the alternative pathway of C and facilitated by the classical. Further studies concerning the influence of C deficiencies or depletion of C factors, the concentration of divalent metallions, the temperature and the ionic strength...

  12. Classification deficits in Alzheimer's disease with special reference to living and nonliving things.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanes, P; Goldblum, M C; Boller, F

    1996-08-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the hypothesis that visual similarity between exemplars within a semantic category may affect differentially the recognition process of living and nonliving things, according to task demands, in patients with semantic memory disorders. Thirty-nine Alzheimer's patients and 39 normal elderly subjects were presented with a task in which they had to classify pictures and words, depicting either living or nonliving things, at two levels of classification: subordinate (e.g., mammals versus birds or tools versus vehicles) and attribute (e.g., wild versus domestic animals or fast versus slow vehicles). Contrary to previous results (Montañes, Goldblum, & Boller, 1995) in a naming task, but as expected, living things were better classified than nonliving ones by both controls and patients. As expected, classifications at the subordinate level also gave rise to better performance than classifications at the attribute level. Although (and somewhat unexpectedly) no advantage of picture over word classification emerged, some effects consistent with the hypothesis that visual similarity affects picture classification emerged, in particular within a subgroup of patients with predominant verbal deficits and the most severe semantic memory disorders. This subgroup obtained a better score on classification of pictures than of words depicting living items (that share many visual features) when classification is at the subordinate level (for which visual similarity is a reliable clue to classification), but met with major difficulties when classifying those pictures at the attribute level (for which shared visual features are not reliable clues to classification). These results emphasize the fact that some "normal" effects specific to items in living and nonliving categories have to be considered among the factors causing selective category-specific deficits in patients, as well as their relevance in achieving tasks which require either differentiation between competing exemplars in the same semantic category (naming) or detection of resemblance between those exemplars (categorization).

  13. Induced mutation for disease resistance in rice with special reference to blast, bacterial blight and tungro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, S.C.

    1983-01-01

    Rice varieties Ratna, Pusa 2-21, Vijaya and Pankaj have been treated with gamma rays, EMS or sodium azide to improve their resistance against blast, bacterial leaf blight or tungro virus. For blast and tungro, mutants with improved resistance were selected. Variation in reaction to bacterial leaf blight has been used in crossbreeding to accumulate genes for resistance. (author)

  14. Customized Internal Reference Controls for Improved Assessment of Circulating MicroRNAs in Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenny Schlosser

    Full Text Available Altered levels of circulating extracellular miRNA in plasma and serum have shown promise as non-invasive biomarkers of disease. However, unlike the assessment of cellular miRNA levels for which there are accepted housekeeping genes, analogous reference controls for normalization of circulating miRNA are lacking. Here, we provide an approach to identify and validate circulating miRNA reference controls on a de novo basis, and demonstrate the advantages of these customized internal controls in different disease settings. Importantly, these internal controls overcome key limitations of external spike-in controls.Using a global RT-qPCR screen of 1066 miRNAs in plasma from pulmonary hypertension patients (PAH and healthy subjects as a case example, we identified a large pool of initial candidate miRNAs that were systematically ranked according to their plasma level stability using a predefined algorithm. The performance of the top candidates was validated against multiple comparators, and in a second independent cohort of PAH and control subjects. The broader utility of this approach was demonstrated in a completely different disease setting with 372 miRNAs screened in plasma from septic shock patients and healthy controls.Normalization of data with specific internal reference controls significantly reduced the overall variation in circulating miRNA levels between subjects (relative to raw data, provided a more balanced distribution of up- and down-regulated miRNAs, replicated the results obtained by the benchmark geometric averaging of all detected miRNAs, and outperformed the commonly used external spike-in strategy.We demonstrate the feasibility of identifying circulating reference controls that can reduce extraneous technical variations, and improve the assessment of disease-related changes in plasma miRNA levels. This study provides a novel conceptual framework that addresses a critical and previously unmet need if circulating miRNAs are to

  15. Using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF to describe children referred to special care or paediatric dental services.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Faulks

    Full Text Available Children in dentistry are traditionally described in terms of medical diagnosis and prevalence of oral disease. This approach gives little information regarding a child's capacity to maintain oral health or regarding the social determinants of oral health. The biopsychosocial approach, embodied in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health - Child and Youth version (ICF-CY (WHO, provides a wider picture of a child's real-life experience, but practical tools for the application of this model are lacking. This article describes the preliminary empirical study necessary for development of such a tool - an ICF-CY Core Set for Oral Health. An ICF-CY questionnaire was used to identify the medical, functional, social and environmental context of 218 children and adolescents referred to special care or paediatric dental services in France, Sweden, Argentina and Ireland (mean age 8 years ± 3.6 yrs. International Classification of Disease (ICD-10 diagnoses included disorders of the nervous system (26.1%, Down syndrome (22.0%, mental retardation (17.0%, autistic disorders (16.1%, and dental anxiety alone (11.0%. The most frequently impaired items in the ICF Body functions domain were 'Intellectual functions', 'High-level cognitive functions', and 'Attention functions'. In the Activities and Participation domain, participation restriction was frequently reported for 25 items including 'Handling stress', 'Caring for body parts', 'Looking after one's health' and 'Speaking'. In the Environment domain, facilitating items included 'Support of friends', 'Attitude of friends' and 'Support of immediate family'. One item was reported as an environmental barrier - 'Societal attitudes'. The ICF-CY can be used to highlight common profiles of functioning, activities, participation and environment shared by children in relation to oral health, despite widely differing medical, social and geographical contexts. The results of this empirical

  16. 75 FR 78999 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Maternal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ..., Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Maternal Vitamin D Status and... Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the..., discussion, and evaluation of ``Maternal Vitamin D Status and Preterm Birth, DP11-002, initial review...

  17. Conceptual and applied study of Snigdha and Ruksa Guna with special reference to Rasa-raktagata Sneha (hyperlipidemia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sangram; Dwivedi, R R; Ravishankar, B

    2011-04-01

    Ayurveda as well as Philosophy accepted the Guna as the basic entity of the Sristi. The Maha Gunas, i.e., Sattva, Raja, and Tama are the prime energy, from where the universe evolves, along with human beings. Dravya and Guna both have a Samavayi relationship in which Gunas reside in Dravya and have a secondary place to it. Guna has multifold meanings according to its use, in social, cultural, philosophical, and literary fields. The concepts of Ayurveda are expressed with Gunas. Samanya and Visesa are usually expressed in terms of Gunas; the classification, description, and function of Dravyas depends upon Guna; Karmas are manifested forms of Guna and Samavaya is the eternal, intimate relation of Dravya and Guna. The principles like Triskandha (Hetu, linga, ousadhi) of Ayurveda also narrated by Gunas, Hetus are narrated in the terms of Guna; the Laksanas are the reflections in the status of Gunas of bodily elements, and Cikitsa is in the form of administration of Viparita Gunas. The increased elements are treated by opposite Guna. So if Ruksa Guna is increased then it is to be managed by Snigdha Guna and vice-versa. So diseases can be treated by applying the Gunas, and drugs for the required patient can be selected by applying these Gunas. In support of the above concept, a study on the persons of Rasa-raktagata Sneha (hyperlipidemia) has been carried out assuming that the condition is an increased state of Snigdha Guna and treatment is done using Ruksa property drugs. Patients were divided into two groups, i.e., treatment group (Ruksa Guna drugs) and control group (placebo). The results were assessed after 45 days with the help of a specially prepared pro forma. All the important hematological, biochemical, and urine investigations were done. According to subjective and objective criteria, significant results were found for Group A as compared to Group B.

  18. The relevance of geoethics to under-developed and developing Nations wth special reference to India.i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desikachari, Vasudevan

    2015-04-01

    Relevance of Geoethics to underdeveloped And developing Nations, with special reference to India ------- The application of ethical principles to results of scientific investigations which will have direct impact on the well being of human kind is well amplified by medical sciences (eg.,the laws governing testing of new medications and anti-viral vaccination on humans and their subsequent usage to preserve and protect humanity), and its application to Geoscience, which is very important,however, is very recent.Geoscientific investigations involve such wide and varying aspects of our mother Earth that most of it find applications directly to the welfare and development of civilized society, such as mining of natural resources,like coal,minerals and building stones;exploration for petroleum and natural gas;or geo-engineering investigations for major civil engineering projects like construction of dams,tunnels or work related to mitigation of effects of natural hazards (earthquakes,tsunamis or landslides).The Geoscientists, since their work will contribute to the resource development and economic progress of a country,will have to be very conscientious in parting their knowledge to user agency.This involves,true and practical reporting of data without succumbing to corrupt practices or doing away tendency to over-emphasising the results to the point of creating unnecessary panic to public.In all these geoscientific investigations therefore ethics plays a vital role.For, instance,both the loss of life and property in the 2001 earthquake of Gujerat,India could have been kept at a minimum if the planning authorities had applied their mind to designs for construction of houses for city dwellers, based on geological investigation of rocks,soils and geologic structures of the area.As Pointed out succinctly by Lambert(2014),since corruption plays a negative role in formulating geologic results in developing/underdeveloping countries,combating this using a forceful geoethical

  19. The Treatment of Polysemy and Homonymy in Monolingual General-purpose Dictionaries with Special Reference to Isichazamazwi SesiNdebele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eventhough Ndlovu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT: This article focuses on the treatment of polysemy and homonymy in general-purpose monolingual dictionaries with special reference to Isichazamazwi SesiNdebele. It was found that there are some inconsistencies in the treatment of polysemous and homonymous entries in this dictionary. The article shows that an overreliance on one criterion, particularly etymology, to distinguish polysemy and homonymy is often misleading and unreliable. Polysemy itself has its own inherent complexities, among these being the problem of determining the exact number of meanings of a polysemous lemma. When the meanings of a polysemous lemma are listed, the central or primary meaning, which is not always easily ascertainable, should come first. A holistic approach is proposed to distinguish polysemy and homonymy, which entails the use of the following criteria: etymology, relatedness vs unrelatedness of meaning, componential analysis, the identification of the central or core meaning and the test of ambiguity. Whatever results are obtained from a particular criterion, these findings must be compared with those of other criteria, and verified against native speakers' intuitive knowledge and introspective judgements.

    OPSOMMING: Die behandeling van polisemie en homonimie in eentalige algemene woordeboeke met spesiale verwysing na Isichazamazwi SesiNdebele. Hierdie artikel fokus op die behandeling van polisemie en homonimie in algemene eentalige woordeboeke met spesiale verwysing na Isichazamazwi SesiNdebele. Daar is vasgestel dat daar 'n aantal inkonsekwensies in die behandeling van poliseme en homonieme inskrywings in hierdie woordeboek is. Die artikel toon dat 'n te groot steun op een kriterium, veral etimologie, om polisemie en homonimie te onderskei, dikwels misleidend en onbetroubaar is. Polisemie self het sy eie inherente gekompliseerdhede waarvan sommige die probleem is om die presiese aantal betekenisse van 'n poliseme lemma te bepaal. Wanneer

  20. ENTREPRENEURIAL OPPORTUNITIES IN FOOD PROCESSING UNITS (WITH SPECIAL REFERENCES TO BYADGI RED CHILLI COLD STORAGE UNITS IN THE KARNATAKA STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. ISHWARA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available After the green revolution, we are now ushering in the evergreen revolution in the country; food processing is an evergreen activity. It is the key to the agricultural sector. In this paper an attempt has been made to study the workings of food processing units with special references to Red Chilli Cold Storage units in the Byadgi district of Karnataka State. Byadgi has been famous for Red Chilli since the days it’s of antiquity. The vast and extensive market yard in Byadagi taluk is famous as the second largest Red Chilli dealing market in the country. However, the most common and recurring problem faced by the farmer is inability to store enough red chilli from one harvest to another. Red chilli that was locally abundant for only a short period of time had to be stored against times of scarcity. In recent years, due to Oleoresin, demand for Red Chilli has grow from other countries like Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, America, Europe, Nepal, Indonesia, Mexico etc. The study reveals that all the cold storage units of the study area have been using vapour compression refrigeration system or method. All entrepreneurs have satisfied with their turnover and profit and they are in a good economic position. Even though the average turnover and profits are increased, few units have shown negligible amount of decrease in turnover and profit. This is due to the competition from increasing number of cold storages and early established units. The cold storages of the study area have been storing Red chilli, Chilli seeds, Chilli powder, Tamarind, Jeera, Dania, Turmeric, Sunflower, Zinger, Channa, Flower seeds etc,. But the 80 per cent of the each cold storage is filled by the red chilli this is due to the existence of vast and extensivered chilli market yard in the Byadgi. There is no business without problems. In the same way the entrepreneurs who are chosen for the study are facing a few problems in their business like skilled labour, technical and management

  1. Orphan drugs for rare diseases: is it time to revisit their special market access status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoens, Steven; Cassiman, David; Dooms, Marc; Picavet, Eline

    2012-07-30

    Orphan drugs are intended for diseases with a very low prevalence, and many countries have implemented legislation to support market access of orphan drugs. We argue that it is time to revisit the special market access status of orphan drugs. Indeed, evidence suggests that there is no societal preference for treating rare diseases. Although society appears to assign a greater value to severity of disease, this criterion is equally relevant to many common diseases. Furthermore, the criterion of equity in access to treatment, which underpins orphan drug legislation, puts more value on health improvement in rare diseases than in common diseases and implies that population health is not maximized. Finally, incentives for the development, pricing and reimbursement of orphan drugs have created market failures, including monopolistic prices and the artificial creation of rare diseases. We argue that, instead of awarding special market access status to orphan drugs, there is scope to optimize research and development (R&D) of orphan drugs and to control prices of orphan drugs by means of, for example, patent auctions, advance purchase commitments, pay-as-you-go schemes and dose-modification studies. Governments should consider carefully the right incentive strategy for R&D of orphan drugs in rare diseases.

  2. Lifelong Teacher Education in the Czechoslovakian Socialist Republic with Especial Reference to the Training of Teachers in Special Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerna, Marie

    1987-01-01

    The structure of the Czechoslovak system of preservice and inservice teacher education introduced by Education Act No. 29 of 1984 is described. The preparation of special education teachers is given particular emphasis. (Author/MT)

  3. Assessment of brain reference genes for RT-qPCR studies in neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydbirk, Rasmus; Folke, Jonas; Winge, Kristian; Aznar, Susana; Pakkenberg, Bente; Brudek, Tomasz

    2016-11-17

    Evaluation of gene expression levels by reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) has for many years been the favourite approach for discovering disease-associated alterations. Normalization of results to stably expressed reference genes (RGs) is pivotal to obtain reliable results. This is especially important in relation to neurodegenerative diseases where disease-related structural changes may affect the most commonly used RGs. We analysed 15 candidate RGs in 98 brain samples from two brain regions from Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Multiple System Atrophy, and Progressive Supranuclear Palsy patients. Using RefFinder, a web-based tool for evaluating RG stability, we identified the most stable RGs to be UBE2D2, CYC1, and RPL13 which we recommend for future RT-qPCR studies on human brain tissue from these patients. None of the investigated genes were affected by experimental variables such as RIN, PMI, or age. Findings were further validated by expression analyses of a target gene GSK3B, known to be affected by AD and PD. We obtained high variations in GSK3B levels when contrasting the results using different sets of common RG underlining the importance of a priori validation of RGs for RT-qPCR studies.

  4. Physical and anatomical data, and part of physiological and metabolic data for normal Japanese with special reference to establishing Reference Asian Man model for the anatomical characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, G.; Kawamura, H.

    1998-01-01

    Studies on the physical, anatomical, and partial metabolic as well as physiological characteristics on Reference Japanese Man were undertaken to establish reference values for use in internal dose assessment and to assign annual limits on intakes of radionuclides for Japanese workers and members of the general public. Secular trends in, and/or probable influences of nutritional conditions on the organ mass were examined by comparing the present results with the other normal Japanese data. The average height of male and female adults (20-50 y) were 168 and 155 cm, respectively. The body weights for males and females, 20-50 y, were - 64 and 52 kg. The data on the weight and size of twelve organs in normal males and eleven in normal females were obtained from autopsy, 12 to 24 h after sudden death. The per caput intake of foodstuffs and principal nutrients were taken from the annual report of the National nutrition Survey for households in the urban and rural areas in all districts of Japan. Determination of elemental intake was made by collecting, one full day of meals for adult males from 31 prefectures in practically all districts of Japan. Pulmonary function parameters studied include total lung capacity, vital capacity, minute volume and 8 h working volume at various levels of exertion - resting, light and heavy activity. The subjects were healthy, normal Japanese males and females. Water balance data were obtained for 9 males and 6 females in Tokyo, under conditions of controlled energy and salt intake. The lengths of the study period were 6 and 10 days, respectively. Daily intakes of energy and salt were determined for the male student athletes for whom an indoor physical training was assigned. (author)

  5. PERIODONTAL DISEASE IN DOGS AND CATS REFERRED TO THE VETERINARY HOSPITAL OF UFMT, CAMPUS SINOP, MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Camargo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Canine and feline oral cavity was examined, referred to the small animal surgery and obstetric classes of the school veterinary hospital, between 2013, August and December. The study was conducted using a dental chart developed to enable proper oral assessment. The data were compared to the information relayed by the owners, mostly based on the type of food that was given to their pets and used dental care to keep the oral health of their animals. The results showed a lack of owners interest and knowledge about their pets dental care and, additionally, that most animals was not receiving adequate pet meal, what caused accumulation of food between the teeth and the early onset of periodontal disease. Finally, it was concluded that age is an important predisposing factor for the disease.

  6. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children With Sickle Cell Disease Referred for an Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquazzino, Melissa A; Miller, Meghan; Myrvik, Matthew; Newby, Robert; Scott, John Paul

    2017-07-01

    Neuropsychological deficits, including difficulties with attention, are well described in children with sickle cell disease (SCD). Very little is known about attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with SCD. The objective of this study was to determine the proportion of ADHD in children with SCD referred for neuropsychological evaluation. This prospective, cross-sectional study included patients (age, 4 to 18 y) with SCD and completion of a neuropsychological evaluation between December 2013 and March 2016. Patients were referred for neuropsychological evaluation because of concern regarding school performance, development, and/or behavior. The diagnosis of ADHD was made by a neuropsychologist on the basis of the diagnostic criteria in the Diagnostic Statistical Manual-Fourth or Fifth Editions. ADHD medication usage rate was obtained by medical record review. Of the 89 patients with SCD referred for neuropsychological evaluation, 25% (95% confidence interval, 16%-35%) met diagnostic criteria for ADHD. Only 21% of the patients with SCD and ADHD were prescribed an ADHD medication. Our study supports routine ADHD screening in children with SCD who have poor school performance or behavioral concerns. Despite the benefits of pharmacologic treatment, the majority of patients with SCD and ADHD did not receive a medication for management of their ADHD.

  7. The Public Community College in America: Its History, Present Condition, and Future Outlook with Special Reference to Finance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Nancy Joan

    The development, current status, and future prospects of community colleges are examined in this study with special emphasis on finance and funding concerns. Introductory material outlines study objectives, methodology, and purposes; defines key terms; and emphasizes the importance of college planning. Chapter 1 presents a history of the community…

  8. The technology of surface coatings by electron-beam (EB) with special reference to the wood industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlan bin Haji Mohd

    1989-01-01

    The use of electron-beam as a processing means in surface coatings is discussed. Special attention has been given to this technology in relation to the surface coatings of wood. The main features of its technology and industrial requirements are outlined. (author)

  9. A preliminary outcome analysis of the patterns of care study in Japan for esophageal cancer patients with special reference to age: non surgery group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanisada, Kazuaki; Teshima, Teruki; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Abe, Mitsuyuki; Owen, Jean B.; Hanks, Gerald E.; Yamashita, Takashi; Nishio, Masamichi; Yamada, Shogo; Sakai, Kunio; Hiraoka, Masahiro; Hirokawa, Yutaka; Oguchi, Masahiko; Inoue, Toshihiko

    2000-01-01

    Background: The Patterns of Care Study (PCS) was imported to Japan from the United States in July 1996. A preliminary outcome analysis of the PCS for esophageal cancer patients in Japan was made with special reference to age, because the elderly population is rapidly increasing in Japan. Patients and Methods: From July 1996 to February 1998, external PCS audits were performed for 37 institutions nationwide and detailed information of 561 esophageal cancer patients treated during the period 1992-1994 was collected by using the fifth PCS data format developed in the United States. This format was provided courtesy of the American College of Radiology. For this study, patients who had not undergone surgery (n = 336) were selected. The patients were classified into three age groups: < 65 years old (n = 119), between 65 and 74 years (n = 93), and 75 years or older (n =123). Cox's proportional hazards model was used for the statistical analysis, with survival, acute/subacute complication and late complication of grade 3 or more based on RTOG criteria, as the endpoints. Results: Significant prognostic factors for the entire non-surgery group were Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) (p 0.0007), stage (p = 0.0001), and external irradiation dose (p = 0.0001). For the younger group, KPS (p = 0.0004), stage (p = 0.0197), and utilization of brachytherapy (p = 0.0010) were significant, while for the intermediate age group it was KPS (p = 0.0027), history of pulmonary disease (p = 0.0339), stage (p = 0.0001), and external dose (p = 0.0001), and for the elderly group, stage (p = 0.0001) and external irradiation dose (p = 0.0224) were significant. Significant risk factors for complications for the entire group were stage (p = 0.0411), external dose (p = 0.0163), and stratification of institution (academic vs. nonacademic) (p = 0.0114). Significant risk factors for the younger group were history of pulmonary disease (p = 0.0495) and external dose (p = 0.0037), and the other age

  10. Congenital heart diseases in a reference service: clinical evolution and associated illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Janaína; Peres, Vivian Catarino; Santos, Tiago Jeronimo dos; Beltrão, Lauro da Fontoura; Baumont, Angélica Cerveira de; Cañedo, Andrés Delgado; Schaan, Beatriz D'Agord; Pellanda, Lucia Campos

    2010-03-01

    Several factors, which include prenatal diagnosis and availability of new therapeutic procedures, have contributed to change the profile of patients with congenital heart disease (CHD). Knowing these changes is important to a better health care. Description of profile of patients with CHD in a reference service in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. It is a cross-sectional study including 684 patients with CHD in a service of pediatric cardiology from January 2007 to May 2008. We interviewed the patients (and/or their parents) and examined these patients (congenital malformations, anthropometric measures). Moreover, their charts were reviewed in order to detail heart diseases, procedures and echocardiography. Patients were from 16 days to 66 years old, 51.8% were female, and 93.7% were Caucasian. The mean age at diagnosis was 15.8 +/- 46.8 months. Ventricular septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus and Tetralogy of Fallot were the most prevalent CHD. 59.1% of examined patients, whose average age was 44.3 +/- 71.2 months, have been undergoing therapeutic procedures; 30.4% had congenital extracardiac malformations; and 12 patients had genetic syndrome. Regarding development, 46.6% had low weight and height gain, and 13.7% had neuropsychomotor delay. Furthermore, 18.4% had family history of congenital heart disease. Neuropsychomotor delay and low weight and height gain may be related to CHD. Establishing a profile of patients with CHD, who were treated at an institution of reference, may function as a basis in which health care of this population can be planed appropriately.

  11. Temperamental reactivity and negative emotionality in uncooperative children referred to specialized paediatric dentistry compared to children in ordinary dental care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnrup, Kristina; Broberg, Anders G; Berggren, Ulf; Bodin, Lennart

    2007-11-01

    Current treatment of children with dental behaviour management problems (DBMP) is based on the presupposition that their difficulties are caused by dental fear, but is this always the case? The aim of this study was to study temperamental reactivity, negative emotionality, and other personal characteristics in relation to DBMP in 8- to 12-year-old children. Forty-six children referred because of DBMP (study group) and 110 children in ordinary dental care (reference group) participated. The EASI tempramental survey assessed temperamental reactivity and negative emotionality, the Child Behaviour Questionnaire internalizing and externalizing behaviour problems, and the Children's Fear Survey Schedule general and dental fears. Cluster analyses and tree-based modelling were used for data analysis. Among the five clusters identified, one could be characterized as 'balanced temperament'. Thirty-five per cent of the reference group compared to only 7% of the study group belonged to this cluster. Negative emotionality was the most important sorting variable. Children referred because of DBMP differed from children in ordinary dental care, not only in dental fear level, but also in personal characteristics. Few of the referred children were characterized by a balanced temperament profile. It is important to consider the dual impact of emotion dysregulation and emotional reactivity in the development of DBMP.

  12. The new German regulatory system of monitoring workers for intakes of radioactivity with special reference to thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henrichs, K.

    1995-01-01

    In Germany, the Association for Radiation Protection (member of IRPA) defined a new standard for the monitoring of workers occupationally exposed to radioactive material. During the last two years this draft has been accepted by the German government in the form of three directives. The purpose of our approach was the installation of a system defining clear criteria for the necessity of regular and special monitoring programs, giving directives for monitoring programs ensuring that dose assessments are as reliable as necessary with the lowest possible expenses, standardizing as far as possible the procedures of dose assessments, and guaranteeing the necessary quality standards. The most important features of these regulations will be discussed in this contribution and their application will be exemplified for the specially difficult monitoring of thorium intakes. (author). 2 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Specialized Nursing Practice for Chronic Disease Management in the Primary Care Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In response to the increasing demand for better chronic disease management and improved health care efficiency in Ontario, nursing roles have expanded in the primary health care setting. Objectives To determine the effectiveness of specialized nurses who have a clinical role in patient care in optimizing chronic disease management among adults in the primary health care setting. Data Sources and Review Methods A literature search was performed using OVID MEDLINE, OVID MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, OVID EMBASE, EBSCO Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Wiley Cochrane Library, and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination database. Results were limited to randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews and were divided into 2 models: Model 1 (nurse alone versus physician alone) and Model 2 (nurse and physician versus physician alone). Effectiveness was determined by comparable outcomes between groups in Model 1, or improved outcomes or efficiency in Model 2. Results Six studies were included. In Model 1, there were no significant differences in health resource use, disease-specific measures, quality of life, or patient satisfaction. In Model 2, there was a reduction in hospitalizations and improved management of blood pressure and lipids among patients with coronary artery disease. Among patients with diabetes, there was a reduction in hemoglobin A1c but no difference in other disease-specific measures. There was a trend toward improved process measures, including medication prescribing and clinical assessments. Results related to quality of life were inconsistent, but patient satisfaction with the nurse-physician team was improved. Overall, there were more and longer visits to the nurse, and physician workload did not change. Limitations There was heterogeneity across patient populations, and in the titles, roles, and scope of practice of the specialized nurses. Conclusions Specialized nurses with

  14. How Have European Union Regulation Tools on Maritime Safety Developed After the Prestige Catastrophe? A Special Reference to Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando González Laxe

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Maritime transport (specially when it comes to carrying hydrocarbons and dangerous products is included in the economic globalisation process. The Prestige accident in the Galician coast, Spain, has shown the existence of significant failures on part of both the market and the public sector, which leads to conclude that maritime security should be considered as a global public good. Consequently, this paper shows the advances and the still unfinished tasks according to the aforementioned view, mainly in the European Union.

  15. Application of radioisotope tracer techniques in studies on host-parasite relationships, with special reference to larval trematodes. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, N.Oe.

    1981-01-01

    The application of radioisotope tracer techniques in studies on various host-parasite relationships between larval trematodes and their intermediate and definite hosts is reviewed. Such studies comprise, for example, the reproduction and nutrition of various developmental stages of trematodes in relation to host and environment. The preparation and application of radiolabelled larvae are also discussed with special emphasis on their use in studies on free-living ecology and migration in hosts. (author)

  16. Determinants of total and high density lipoprotein cholesterol in boys and men with special reference to diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knuiman, J.T.

    1983-01-01

    At present it is assumed that atherosclerosis begins in childhood and that this process may ultimately result in the manifestations of coronary heart disease later in life. For this reason it is relevant to study the distribution of risk indicators for coronary heart disease (CHD) in children from

  17. The role of the special educator and rehabilitator with a child with a rare disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkovska, Ana

    2014-01-01

    In the case of a child with a rare disease the role of the special educator and rehabilitator is important if in addition to the primary disease the child is affected by motor, sensory, mental or emotional deficiency. The special educator and rehabilitator participates in the discovery on their first visit to the health institution. For each child the special educator and rehabilitator prepares a file with all the relevant data, takes anamnestic data, or complements it, to get a complete picture of the problem, and inputs data from the observation. S/he collaborates with members of the professional team. S/he provides advice, assists and works with the parents. S/he assesses the psycho-motor abilities of the person and how the person functions in the environment. The special educator and rehabilitator performs the following assessments: assessment of dominant lateralization; assessment of psycho-motor abilities of the upper extremities; assessment of psycho-motor abilities of the lower extremities; differentiation of the motor abilities of the fingers; assessment of the possibilities for maintaining the equilibrium of the body; assessment of coordination of the upper and lower extremities in rhythm. The special educator and rehabilitator assesses and examines the praxical organization, specifically melokinetic, ideomotory, ideatory and constructive praxis. This includes assessment of the graphomotoric as a practical activity through testing for quality of lineation, graphomotoric array through analysis of the maturity of the manuscript and the disgraphy of the manuscript. Gnostic organization is examined through assessment of knowledge of body parts, assessment of knowledge of lateralization on themselves and others, assessment of experience and orientation in space and time. Practognostic organization is examined with tests for imitation of movements. Evaluation of the organization of speech through the test of articulation on voices, semantic test and evaluation

  18. Canine distemper infections, with special reference to South Africa, with a review of the literature : review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. Leisewitz

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Canine distemper virus is a member of the genus Morbillivirus of the family Paramyxoviridaethat causes severe disease in dogs and a range of wild mammals. The clinical signs relate essentially to the respiratory, gastrointestinal and central nervous systems. In South Africa, infection with Ehrlichia canis and canine parvovirus may present similarly. Many dogs will initially present with a wide range of central nervous system signs without any history of systemic disease. A recent South African study evaluating ante mortem diagnosis highlighted the importance of recognising clinical signs, cerebrospinal fluid IgG titres, serum IgM titres and immunocytochemistry of epithelial tissue. A 2-year retrospective evaluation of cerebrospinal fluid samples collected from dogs presented to the Onderstepoort Veterinary Academic Hospital indicates that distemper infection is common, and this disease should routinely be suspected in cases of diverse neurological disease in dogs. The South African dog population is specifically at high risk for the disease because of the large pool of unvaccinated, reproductively-active dogs that expose the wildlife resources of the country to risk of fatal disease. Outbreaks of disease in dogs continue to occur in developed and developing communities in both vaccinated and unvaccinated dogs worldwide, and have also been described in a wide range of free-ranging wildlife, including seals, dolphins and lions, and in endangered zoo animals. Modified live virus vaccines have contributed markedly to disease control in the dog population but have caused mortality in some wild carnivores. New recombinant vaccines are being developed that will be safe in wild animals. The pathogenesis of CNS demyelination has been compared to various important demyelinating diseases in humans and, amongst other things, relates to down-regulation of the oligodendrocyte gene coding for myelin synthesis and non-immunocyte CNS cell expression of type II

  19. School-Age Test Proficiency and Special Education After Congenital Heart Disease Surgery in Infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulkey, Sarah B; Bai, Shasha; Luo, Chunqiao; Cleavenger, Jordyn E; Gibson, Neal; Holland, Greg; Mosley, Bridget S; Kaiser, Jeffrey R; Bhutta, Adnan T

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate test proficiency and the receipt of special education services in school-age children who had undergone surgery for congenital heart disease (CHD) at age Education longitudinal database containing achievement test scores in literacy and mathematics for grades 3-4 and special education codes. The primary negative outcome was not achieving grade-level proficiency on achievement tests. Logistic regression accounting for repeated measures was used to evaluate for associations between achieving proficiency and demographic data, maternal education, and clinical factors. A total of 362 of 458 (79%) children who underwent surgery for CHD were matched to the Arkansas Department of Education database, 285 of whom had grade 3 and/or 4 achievement tests scores. Fewer students with CHD achieved proficiency in literacy and mathematics (P education predicted proficiency in literacy (P special education services (26.9% vs 11.6%; P special education services than all state students. Results from this study support the need for neurodevelopmental evaluations as standard practice in children with CHD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessment of brain reference genes for RT-qPCR studies in neurodegenerative diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rydbirk, Rasmus; Folke, Jonas; Winge, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of gene expression levels by reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) has for many years been the favourite approach for discovering disease-associated alterations. Normalization of results to stably expressed reference genes (RGs) is pivotal to obtain reliable results......, and Progressive Supranuclear Palsy patients. Using RefFinder, a web-based tool for evaluating RG stability, we identified the most stable RGs to be UBE2D2, CYC1, and RPL13 which we recommend for future RT-qPCR studies on human brain tissue from these patients. None of the investigated genes were affected...... by experimental variables such as RIN, PMI, or age. Findings were further validated by expression analyses of a target gene GSK3B, known to be affected by AD and PD. We obtained high variations in GSK3B levels when contrasting the results using different sets of common RG underlining the importance of a priori...

  1. Indirect revascularization surgery for moyamoya disease in children and its special considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu-Chang Wang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Moyamoya disease (MMD is the most common pediatric cerebrovascular disease in Far Eastern countries. In children, MMD frequently manifests as ischemic symptomatology. Cerebral perfusion gradually decreases as the disease progresses, which often leads to cerebral infarction. The benefits of revascularization surgery, whether direct or indirect, have been well established in MMD patients with ischemic symptoms. In adults, the increase in cerebral blood flow achieved with indirect revascularization is often unsatisfactory, and direct revascularization is usually feasible. In children, however, direct revascularization is frequently technically not feasible, whereas the response to indirect revascularization is excellent, although 1 or 2 weeks are required for stabilization of symptoms. The authors describe surgical procedures and perioperative care in indirect revascularization for MMD. In addition, special considerations with regard to very young patients, patients with recent cerebral infarction, and patients with hyperthyroidism are discussed.

  2. Pathogenesis and pathology of shoulder ulcerations in sows with special reference to peripheral nerves and behavioural responses to palpation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl-Pedersen, Kirstin; Bonde, Marianne Kjær; Herskin, Mette S.

    2013-01-01

    Shoulder ulcerations are common in breeding sows in production systems but the consequences for the animals in terms of pain or discomfort are not well-described. This study presents data from a histopathological examination of shoulders of sows, specially focusing on the peripheral nerves...... the lesions have healed. This is further supported by the behavioural finding that rubbing behaviour in response to palpation was increased on the day of sample collection of the shoulders in sows with traumatic neuromas but without shoulder ulcers (P=0.053). Further studies are needed for final confirmation...

  3. Long-term exposure to jet fuel. An investigation on occupationally exposed workers with special reference to the nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knave, B; Persson, H E; Goldberg, M; Westerholm, P

    1976-09-01

    Chronic solvent intoxication due to jet fuel vapor was diagnosed after tests on 29 aircraft factory workers. The exposed subjects were classified into (1) heavily exposed and (2) less heavily exposed groups. Tests included a clinical neurological examination, measurements of the peipheral nerve conduction velocities and threshold determination of vibratory sensations in the extremities. All 13 examined in the first group and 7 of 16 in the second group stated that, on repeated occasions, they had experienced acute effects (dizziness, dyspnoea, heart palpitations, chest striction, nausea, headaches) of the jet fuel vapors in the inhaled air. Air overrepresentation of symptoms of neurasthenia and physical disturbances, polyneuropathic symptoms and plyneuropathic findings were evident from the neurological status both in the heavily exposed group and in the two groups taken as a whole when comparison was made with reference groups. Moreover, relatively lower nerve conduction velocities and higher vibration thresholds were witnessed in both groups compared with a reference group from the heavy metal industry.

  4. Analysis for the radionuclides of the natural uranium and thorium decay chains with special reference to uranium mine tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowson, R.T.; Short, S.A.

    1986-08-01

    A detailed review is made of the experimental techniques that are available, or are in the process of development, for the determination of 238 U, 235 U, 234 U, 231 Pa, 232 Th, 230 Th, 228 Th, 228 Ra, 226 Ra, 223 Ra, 210 Po and 210 Pb. These products of the uranium and thorium decay chains are found in uranium mine tailings. Reference is also made to a procedure for the selective phase extraction of mineral phases from uranium mine tailings

  5. The church's missionary efforts among domestic workers with special reference to Johannesburg West / by Malatsi Samuel Mofokeng

    OpenAIRE

    Mofokeng, Malatsi Samuel

    2007-01-01

    This research deals with the role of the church in its efforts to bring the gospel to domestic workers with reference to five church denominations in Johannesburg-West namely, the Methodist, Lutheran, Roman Catholic, Anglican and the Uniting Reformed Church in Southern Africa. Church leaders of the above mentioned church denominations used the integrated ministry by introducing programmes, projects and skills training along side the preaching of the gospel to empower domestic workers spiritua...

  6. Breast cancer screening activity in the Mie medical network, with special reference to the actual circumstances of detailed examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, Masahiro; Kawaguchi, Kanako; Kobayashi, Shigeki

    2009-01-01

    For clarifying both the current circumstances and problems of closed examination performed at facilities equipped for detailed examination in Mie Prefecture, we analyzed the results of closed examinations carried out on 1,001 responders who were selected by primary mammography screening done at 87 facilities in 2006. The overall breast cancer detection rate was 3.3%, with a range of 0-10.3%, for facilities that included family doctors, and 13 hospitals having performed the closed examination on 21 women or more. Although the location of a facility for closed examination and the background of examinees might be taken into consideration, it appeared that a higher cancer detection rate was obtained when more pathological examinations were carried out, and that the indications for pathological examination varied among physicians. At facilities where pathological examinations were frequently performed, mostly clinicians specializing in breast cancer performed either fine-needle aspiration biopsy or large-needle biopsy (a specific aspiration biopsy technique for calcified lesions), whereas at facilities with low rates of pathological examination, most surgeons not specializing in breast cancer performed open biopsy. These results suggest a need to draw up guidelines for detailed examination, including the standard of facilities for closed examination, clinicians who perform the examinations, and the examination methods. (author)

  7. Pulmonary Rehabilitation: The Reference Therapy for Undernourished Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Samaras

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD combines the deleterious effects of chronic hypoxia, chronic inflammation, insulin-resistance, increased energy expenditure, muscle wasting, and exercise deconditioning. As for other chronic disorders, loss of fat-free mass decreased survival. The preservation of muscle mass and function, through the protection of the mitochondrial oxidative metabolism, is an important challenge in the management of COPD patients. As the prevalence of the disease is increasing and the medical advances make COPD patients live longer, the prevalence of COPD-associated nutritional disorders is expected to increase in future decades. Androgenopenia is observed in 40% of COPD patients. Due to the stimulating effects of androgens on muscle anabolism, androgenopenia favors loss of muscle mass. Studies have shown that androgen substitution could improve muscle mass in COPD patients, but alone, was insufficient to improve lung function. Two multicentric randomized clinical trials have shown that the association of androgen therapy with physical exercise and oral nutritional supplements containing omega-3 polyinsaturated fatty acids, during at least three months, is associated with an improved clinical outcome and survival. These approaches are optimized in the field of pulmonary rehabilitation which is the reference therapy of COPD-associated undernutrition.

  8. Effects of vacuum ultraviolet radiation on deoxyoligonucleotides in solids in the wavelength region around and above ionization potential -with special reference to the chain scission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Takashi; Saito, Mikio

    1991-01-01

    Photoproducts arising from exposure of deoxyoligonucleotides of adenine, d(pA) n (n = 2 ∼ 5), as solids to vacuum-u.v. radiation at the wavelengths around and above ionization potential were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography. The main decomposition products were identified as adenine and all possible oligonucleotide and mononucleotide components for k satisfying n - k ≥ 1. These results and previous findings on the related compounds were discussed with special reference to the rules on the induction of chain scission by superexcitation. (author)

  9. Unraveling systematic inventory of Echinops (Asteraceae) with special reference to nrDNA ITS sequence-based molecular typing of Echinops abuzinadianus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M A; Al-Hemaid, F M; Lee, J; Hatamleh, A A; Gyulai, G; Rahman, M O

    2015-10-02

    The present study explored the systematic inventory of Echinops L. (Asteraceae) of Saudi Arabia, with special reference to the molecular typing of Echinops abuzinadianus Chaudhary, an endemic species to Saudi Arabia, based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA. A sequence similarity search using BLAST and a phylogenetic analysis of the ITS sequence of E. abuzinadianus revealed a high level of sequence similarity with E. glaberrimus DC. (section Ritropsis). The novel primary sequence and the secondary structure of ITS2 of E. abuzinadianus could potentially be used for molecular genotyping.

  10. IgA nephropathy and Henoch-Schönlein nephritis in adults : with special reference to factors affecting outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Rauta, Virpi

    2006-01-01

    IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common primary glomerulonephritis. In one third of the patients the disease progresses, and they eventually need renal replacement therapy. IgAN is in most cases a slowly progressing disease, and the prediction of progression has been difficult, and the results of studies have been conflicting. Henoch-Schönlein nephritis (HSN) is rare in adults, and prediction of the outcome is even more difficult than in IgAN. This study was conducted to evaluate the c...

  11. Greenpeace and the EIA process with special reference to the siting of a repository for spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredriksson, A.

    1995-01-01

    The author argues as follows: The legislation which currently regulates EIS, does not give any party other than the proponent the possibility of exercising influence over the EIA. Therefore, an extensive review and amendment of the existing legislation is necessary if the general public is to participate in the process. This should be regarded as necessary, if SKB is to gain general acceptance of its work. Work on developing a suitable method and identifying a suitable site is going on, but is not conducted in such a manner that it gives the general public an adequate possibility of participating. Furthermore, decision-makers in the candidate municipalities are not being given insight into the work. A specially established EIA authority, charged with the task of supervising the EIA, may lead to that the problems will be investigated in a better way, that can lead to the selection of the best method as well as the best site

  12. Robust Control of Industrial Hydraulic Cylinder Drives - with Special Reference to Sliding Mode- & Finite-Time Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lasse

    In industry, performance requirements regarding machinery, applications etc., are constantly increasing, and with the development of reliable proportional flow control components to reasonable prices, the market is increasingly turning its attention toward controllable fluid power solutions....... For series produced systems such as presses etc., dedicated controls are often developed. However, the great majority of the hydraulic systems developed, are produced in limited numbers for specialized applications, and here stand alone economically feasible digital controllers with ease-of-use interfaces...... are widely used. Such controllers typically provide the possibility to employ traditional linear controls such as PID schemes, and variants of this, with parameters tunable via graphical user interfaces. However, due to the intrinsic nonlinearities of hydraulic systems as well as the often limited knowledge...

  13. Greenpeace and the EIA process with special reference to the siting of a repository for spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredriksson, A. [Greenpeace (Sweden)

    1995-12-01

    The author argues as follows: The legislation which currently regulates EIS, does not give any party other than the proponent the possibility of exercising influence over the EIA. Therefore, an extensive review and amendment of the existing legislation is necessary if the general public is to participate in the process. This should be regarded as necessary, if SKB is to gain general acceptance of its work. Work on developing a suitable method and identifying a suitable site is going on, but is not conducted in such a manner that it gives the general public an adequate possibility of participating. Furthermore, decision-makers in the candidate municipalities are not being given insight into the work. A specially established EIA authority, charged with the task of supervising the EIA, may lead to that the problems will be investigated in a better way, that can lead to the selection of the best method as well as the best site.

  14. Reference Aid: Glossary of Acronyms, Abbreviations, and Special Terms Used in the Western Europe Romance-Language Press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-11-25

    Artistic Agency for Cultural Exchange (Fr) Ground Forces Tactical Air Support (Fr) Association for the Struggle Against Kidney Diseases (Spa...Union for the New Republic (Fr) National Union of Italian Univer- sity Representa- tives (Ita) Popular Unity (Ita) Peoples Artist Union (Spa...of beiges Societes Luxembourg Luxembour- Gymnastic Socie- geoises de ties (Lux) Gymnastique 124 uso Union Workers Trade Sindical Union (Spa

  15. Listeria monocytogenes infection in poultry and its public health importance with special reference to food borne zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhama, Kuldeep; Verma, Amit Kumar; Rajagunalan, S; Kumar, Amit; Tiwari, Ruchi; Chakraborty, Sandip; Kumar, Rajesh

    2013-04-01

    Listeriosis is a disease that causes septicemia or encephalitis in humans, animals and birds. Although, the disease is rare and sporadic in poultry but if occurs then causes septicemia or sometimes localized encephalitis. Occasionally, the disease is seen in young chicks and the causative agent, like in humans and animals, is Listeria monocytogenes. The organism is capable to infect almost all animals and poultry; however, outbreaks of listeriosis are infrequent in birds. It is widely distributed among avian species and chickens, turkeys, waterfowl (geese, ducks), game birds, pigeons, parrots, wood grouse, snowy owl, eagle, canaries, which appear to be the most commonly affected. Chickens are thought to be the carriers of Listeria and also the prime reservoirs for the infection and thus contaminate the litter and environment of the poultry production units. Listeriosis is often noticed along with other poultry diseases such as coccidiosis, infectious coryza, salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis and parasitic infections, signifying the opportunistic nature of the organism. Intestinal colonization of poultry and the presence of L. monocytogenes in feces represent a potential source of the organism for listeriosis in ruminants. Man gets infection from raw broiler meat due to Listeria contamination and unhygienic conditions of the processing area, rather than acquiring direct infection from birds. With the changing food habits of the people, the health consciousness is also increasing and since listeriosis has now been recognized as an emerging food borne zoonoses. Therefore, this review has been compiled to make aware the poultry producers and the consumers of poultry meat/products regarding the importance of the disease and its public health significance.

  16. Periodontal status of HIV infected patients with special reference to CD4 cell count in West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shallu Rozra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the periodontal status of HIV seropositive patients and to find out if any correlation exists between the severity of periodontal disease and the CD4 cell count in HIV patients. Methods: One hundred and thirty patients attending the Viral Diseases OPD, Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine, Kolkata were examined. They were grouped according to the CD4 cell count as Group A - Subjects with CD4 Cell count < 200/ 毺 L and Group B - Subjects with CD4 Cell count 曒 200/ 毺 L. Their community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITN score were recorded. Results: It was found that most of the patients in each group were having score ‘2’ (i.e. presence of supra or subgingival calculus, as their highest score. A statistically significant association was found between immune status as depicted by CD4 cell count and periodontal status as shown by highest CPITN score in the present study. Conclusions: The present study confirms the effect of immunosuppression on periodontal diseases in HIV infected patients.

  17. The prevalence of protozoa in the gut of German cockroaches (Blattella germanica) with special reference to Lophomonas blattarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Girón, Rafael; Martínez-Torre, Cristina; van Woerden, Hugo Cornelis

    2017-11-01

    The German cockroach (Blattella germanica) is a common domestic pest, which produces allergens that have been associated with broncho-pulmonary disease. Various protozoan species have been identified in the intestine of this cockroach and it has been hypothesised that these protozoa, or their proteases, may contribute to the burden of cockroach-associated allergens and adjuvants present in domestic dust. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the prevalence of protozoan species in the intestine of Blattella germanica. German cockroaches were anesthetised and dissected and gut contents are used to produce wet slides for microscopy. Both, Giemsa and Papanicolaou stains were used to confirm correct identification of Lophomonas blattarum. Representatives of four genera of protozoa were identified in 110 cockroaches: Nyctoterus sp. was observed in 91.8% of cases, Gregarina sp. in 64.5%, Amoeba sp. in 25.4% and Lophomonas blattarum in 13.6%. Nyctoterus and Gregarina were statistically significantly more likely to be found in diseased cockroaches compared to Amoeba or Lophomonas. The prevalence of Lophomonas blattarum was similar to that in published studies of a different species of cockroach, Periplaneta americana. Further work is needed to assess the interplay between protozoa, cockroaches and broncho-pulmonary diseases.

  18. Physical fitness training reference manual for security force personnel at fuel cycle facilities possessing formula quantities of special nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arzino, P.A.; Caplan, C.S.; Goold, R.E.

    1991-09-01

    The recommendations contained throughout this NUREG are being provided to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as a reference manual which can be used by licensee management as they develop a program plan for the safe participation of guards, Tactical Response Team members (TRTs), and all other armed response personnel in physical fitness training and in physical performance standards testing. The information provided in this NUREG will help licensees to determine if guards, TRTs, and other armed response personnel can effectively perform their normal and emergency duties without undue hazard to themselves, to fellow employees, to the plant site, and to the general public. The recommendations in this NUREG are similar in part to those contained within the Department of Energy (DOE) Medical and Fitness Implementation Guide which was published in March 1991. The guidelines contained in this NUREG are not requirements, and compliance is not required. 25 refs

  19. Physical fitness training reference manual for security force personnel at fuel cycle facilities possessing formula quantities of special nuclear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arzino, P.A.; Caplan, C.S.; Goold, R.E. (California State Univ., Hayward, CA (United States). Foundation)

    1991-09-01

    The recommendations contained throughout this NUREG are being provided to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as a reference manual which can be used by licensee management as they develop a program plan for the safe participation of guards, Tactical Response Team members (TRTs), and all other armed response personnel in physical fitness training and in physical performance standards testing. The information provided in this NUREG will help licensees to determine if guards, TRTs, and other armed response personnel can effectively perform their normal and emergency duties without undue hazard to themselves, to fellow employees, to the plant site, and to the general public. The recommendations in this NUREG are similar in part to those contained within the Department of Energy (DOE) Medical and Fitness Implementation Guide which was published in March 1991. The guidelines contained in this NUREG are not requirements, and compliance is not required. 25 refs.

  20. Nuclear and isotopic techniques for addressing nutritional problems, with special reference to current applications in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyengar, Venkatesh

    2002-03-01

    Nuclear and isotopic techniques are valuable tools in human nutritional research studies. Isotopes, both radioactive and nonradioactive, enable detailed evaluations of nutrient intake, body composition, energy expenditure, status of micronutrients, and nutrient bioavailability. In recent times, isotopic methods have been widely used in a number of coordinated research projects and technical cooperation projects of the International Atomic Energy Agency's Nutrition Programme. The doubly labeled water technique combines the use of the stable isotopes oxygen-18 and hydrogen-2 (deuterium) to measure total energy expenditure in free-living human subjects, and to investigate the magnitude and causes of both undernutrition and the emergence of obesity in developing countries. The deuterium dilution technique is a reliable tool to measure breastmilk intake and thereby infant growth and development. In collaboration with the World Health Organization's Growth Monitoring Program, this technique is being used to generate new data on growth standards for children in developing countries. This technique is also used in the measurement of body composition by the estimation of lean body mass and fat mass in individuals. Stable isotopes of iron and zinc have been successfully used to assess the nutritional impact of several nationwide food supplementation-programs conducted on pregnant and lactating women and children in both industrialized and developing countries. Isotopic techniques are especially suitable for monitoring changes in body composition, energy metabolism, and mineral status (with particular reference to osteoporosis) in the elderly. Nuclear methods have also served to develop models for a physiological reference man in Asia in support of radiological health and safety issues, for establishing elemental composition of foods, and for measurement of pollutants in the environment.

  1. Assessment of reference gene stability influenced by extremely divergent disease symptoms in Solanum lycopersicum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Przemysław; Wrzesińska, Barbara; Obrępalska-Stęplowska, Aleksandra

    2013-12-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is one of the most important vegetables of great worldwide economic value. The scientific importance of the vegetable results from the fact that the genome of S. lycopersicum has been sequenced. This allows researchers to study fundamental mechanisms playing an essential role during tomato development and response to environmental factors contributing significantly to cell metabolism alterations. Parallel with the development of contemporary genetics and the constant increase in sequencing data, progress has to be aligned with improvement of experimental methods used for studying genes functions and gene expression levels, of which the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is still the most reliable. As well as with other nucleic acid-based methods used for comparison of the abundance of specific RNAs, the RT-qPCR data have to be normalised to the levels of RNAs represented stably in a cell. To achieve the goal, the so-called housekeeping genes (i.e., RNAs encoding, for instance, proteins playing an important role in the cell metabolism or structure maintenance), are used for normalisation of the target gene expression data. However, a number of studies have indicated the transcriptional instability of commonly used reference genes analysed in different situations or conditions; for instance, the origin of cells, tissue types, or environmental or other experimental conditions. The expression of ten common housekeeping genes of S. lycopersicum, namely EF1α, TUB, CAC, EXP, RPL8, GAPDH, TBP, ACT, SAND and 18S rRNA were examined during viral infections of tomato. Changes in the expression levels of the genes were estimated by comparison of the non-inoculated tomato plants with those infected with commonly known tomato viral pathogens, Tomato torrado virus, Cucumber mosaic virus, Tobacco mosaic virus and Pepino mosaic virus, inducing a diverse range of disease symptoms on the common host, ranging from mild leaves chlorosis to

  2. Catastrophic health expenditure among households with members with special diseases: A case study in Kurdistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Ghobad; Safari, Hossein; Piroozi, Bakhtiar; Qanbari, Laila; Farshadi, Salahadin; Qasri, Homan; Farhadifar, Fariba

    2017-01-01

    Background: One of the main goals of health systems is to protect people against financial risks associated with diseases that can be catastrophic for patients. In 2014, Health Sector Evolution Plan (HSEP) was implemented in Iran; one of the objectives of HSEP was to reduce out-of-pocket payments and provide more financial protection for people. Therefore, the present study aimed at exploring the likelihood of facing catastrophic health expenditures (CHE) among households with members suffering from dialysis, kidney transplant, or multiple sclerosis (MS) after the implementation of HSEP. Methods: A total number of 385 households were selected using stratified random sampling and were asked to complete the World Health Survey questionnaire through telephone conversations. As outlined by the World Health Organization (WHO), when household out-of-pocket expense for health services is ≥40% of its capacity to pay, then that household is considered to be facing CHE. Furthermore, determinants of CHE were identified using logistic regression. Results: The percentage of facing catastrophic health care expenditures for households with a MS, dialysis, and kidney transplant patient was 20.6%, 18.7%, and 13.8%, respectively. Results of logistic regression analysis revealed that patient's economic status, level of education, supplementary insurance status, type of disease, multiple members with special diseases in the household, rural residence, use of inpatient, dental, and rehabilitation services were effective factors for determining the likelihood of facing CHE. Conclusion: Despite the implementation of HSEP, the percentage of CHE is still high for households that have members who suffer from special diseases. However, basic health insurance packages should be amended and more cost-sharing exemptions should be granted to provide more financial protection for the vulnerable households.

  3. A Review On Accuracy and Uncertainty of Spatial Data and Analyses with special reference to Urban and Hydrological Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendran, A. A.; Lakshmanan, G.

    2014-11-01

    Data quality for GIS processing and analysis is becoming an increased concern due to the accelerated application of GIS technology for problem solving and decision making roles. Uncertainty in the geographic representation of the real world arises as these representations are incomplete. Identification of the sources of these uncertainties and the ways in which they operate in GIS based representations become crucial in any spatial data representation and geospatial analysis applied to any field of application. This paper reviews the articles on the various components of spatial data quality and various uncertainties inherent in them and special focus is paid to two fields of application such as Urban Simulation and Hydrological Modelling. Urban growth is a complicated process involving the spatio-temporal changes of all socio-economic and physical components at different scales. Cellular Automata (CA) model is one of the simulation models, which randomly selects potential cells for urbanisation and the transition rules evaluate the properties of the cell and its neighbour. Uncertainty arising from CA modelling is assessed mainly using sensitivity analysis including Monte Carlo simulation method. Likewise, the importance of hydrological uncertainty analysis has been emphasized in recent years and there is an urgent need to incorporate uncertainty estimation into water resources assessment procedures. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is a continuous time watershed model to evaluate various impacts of land use management and climate on hydrology and water quality. Hydrological model uncertainties using SWAT model are dealt primarily by Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE) method.

  4. Afforestation in Serbia in the period 1961-2007 with special reference to Austrian pine and Scots pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranković Nenad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The significance of afforestation in Serbia is high because only in this way the forest area can be increased and brought to the level which corresponds to the demands of the population. This is also indicated by the content of some documents, such as 'Professional base for the design of the National Forest Action Programme', which emphasises this problem from the very beginning. Special significance is assigned to afforestation with Austrian pine and Scots pine, which are most frequently applied in the afforestation of the most unfavourable terrains. This study analyses the scope of afforestation over the period 1961-2007, the percentage of Austrian pine and Scots pine and the relationship of the afforested areas, and generates the forecasts of the changes in the future period. In this way, the socialeconomic significance of afforestation can be assessed from the aspect of satisfying the objectives of forest policy, and particularly of afforestation with Austrian pine and Scots pine, as the specific tree species.

  5. Isotope effect in monolayer, localised, immobilised adsorption with special reference to neon adsorption on porous glass at cryogenic temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srisaila, S.; Bajpai, M.B.

    1980-01-01

    Using statistical mechanics, a general formula for the separation factor of two isotopes between gas and adsorbate phases in a monolayer, localised, immobile adsorption on a heterogeneous surface, is derived. Special forms of this are discussed for which the familiar Bigeleisen form is one. Purer, Kalplan and Smith, in their work on neon isotopes separation by gas chromatography through porous glass column at cryogenic temperatures, have reported that the separation factor first increased and then decreased as the temperature was decreased, whereas monotonic increase was the normally expected behaviour. Moiseyev has attempted to explain the anomaly after assuming two types of adsorption sites. The present theory gives the conditions in which monotonic and nonmonotonic variations can occur and after making some assumptions, the experimental curve of Purer et al could be reproduced computationally using one form of the general expression. This theoretical treatment highlights the importance of both potential energy and force constant in isotope effect whereas it is only the potential energy that is much involved in most adsorption studies. (auth.)

  6. Thermal comfort requirements in hot dry regions with special reference to Riyadh Part 2: for Friday prayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeed, S.A.R. [King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Architecture and Building Science

    1996-01-01

    This study is an attempt to define thermal comfort requirements for Friday prayer during the hot season of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. According to Islam, a Muslim should perform his prayers five times a day. The obligatory five prayers are Subuh prayer immediately before dawn, Thohor prayer in the afternoon, Assor prayer in late afternoon, Maghreb prayer immediately after sunset, and Ishaa prayer early evening. Generally, Muslims are encouraged to perform all five prayers in a mosque. Friday prayer that replaces Thohor prayer once a week, should take place in one of the main mosques of the neighbourhood. The mosque where Friday prayer could be performed is known as Friday mosque. Usually Friday prayer is attended by hundreds of worshippers and takes place in the afternoon. Since the summer of Riyadh is characterised by a very high temperature and a very low relative humidity, the indoor climate of the Friday mosque (Al-Masjed Al-Gamae) need a special study. This is the second part of a series of field investigations dealing with thermal comfort requirements in the hot-dry region of Saudi Arabia. (author)

  7. Prognostic factors of craniopharyngioma with special reference to autocrine/paracrine signaling: underestimated implication of growth hormone receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Yoshikazu; Watanabe, Mika; Tominaga, Teiji

    2015-10-01

    Craniopharyngioma is a slow-growing tumor classified as benign, but tight adhesion and significant local infiltration to the vital structures are common. In spite of improvement of modern microsurgery techniques and precise anatomical understanding not few cases of this tumor recur, and long-term tumor control and maintenance of quality of life are sometimes difficult. However, very little is known about the effects of the molecular characters of craniopharyngioma on the prognosis. Ninety eight cases of craniopharyngioma surgically treated at the Department of Neurosurgery, Tohoku University Hospital and Kohnan Hospital from April 1996 to May 2014, 45 males and 53 females aged from 2 to 80 years (mean, 40.84 years) were retrospectively reviewed, and postoperative outcomes and the possible involvement of the autocrine/paracrine mechanism were investigated. The patients were followed up at intervals of 6 months to assess tumor recurrence, and clinical outcomes were correlated with the findings of immunohistochemical examinations used growth hormone receptor (GHR) and downstream hormones. The follow-up period ranged from 3 to 209 months. Hormone expression was examined in 88 patients, of which 46 specimens (52.3 %) showed high expression of GHR. The GHR high expression group had a significantly shorter duration of postoperative stable disease compared with the low expression group (logrank test, p = 0.007). Simultaneous high expression of growth hormone (GH) and GHR was found in 33 specimens (37.5 %), and the high expression group had a significantly shorter duration of postoperative stable disease compared with the low expression group (logrank test, p = 0.011). No other hormones showed statistically significant differences in outcomes. High expression of GHR is associated with shorter duration of postoperative stable disease in patients with craniopharyngioma. If the surgical specimens were craniopharyngiomas with high GHR expression, GH supplementation

  8. X-ray and proton induced ultrastructural changes in Chlamydomonas reinhardi, with special reference to the dividing cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, H.E.

    1976-01-01

    Liquid cultures were exposed to 9000 R x-irradiation delivered at approximately 600 R/min. This produced 69 percent mortality in the 137c wild type strain and 71 percent mortality in the acetate-requiring strain ac-31. Irradiated and control cells were fixed for electron microscopic examination at intervals up to five days post exposure. Proton-irradiations using a positive ion Van de Graff accelerator were administered to monolayers of cells attached to Millipore filters. Irradiated and control cells were later resuspended and incubated in liquid culture medium. The dose rate was approximately 20 kilorad/second for thin targets with the dose monitored with a solid state detector. Distinctive fine structural responses were observed for the two kinds of radiation at the indicated exposure levels. Alterations affecting the nucleus were prominent after x-irradiation. Nuclei were observed in which non-nucleolar condensations and swollen nuclear envelopes were evident. Nuclear envelope rupture was noted when cells were in an advanced state of disorganization. Multiple nuclei per cell were also observed. Proton-irradiation often resulted in both live and dead daughter cells within the same mother cell wall. Changes in the chloroplast and mitochondria were seen after both types of irradiation. Two features absent in control cells were of special interest. Following x- and proton-irradiation, cells were observed which remained joined in configurations closely resembling division profiles or division conformations. Irradiated cells also possessed chromosomes and spindle fibers at a time not characteristic for such events in control cells

  9. Chemistry and biology of reactive species with special reference to the antioxidative defence status in pancreatic β-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzen, Sigurd

    2017-08-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a serious metabolic disease. Dysfunction and subsequent loss of the β-cells in the islets of Langerhans through apoptosis ultimately cause a life-threatening insulin deficiency. The underlying reason for the particular vulnerability of the β-cells is an extraordinary sensitivity to the toxicity of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) due to its low antioxidative defense status. This review considers the different aspects of the chemistry and biology of the biologically most important reactive species and their chemico-biological interactions in the β-cell toxicity of proinflammatory cytokines in type 1 diabetes and of lipotoxicity in type 2 diabetes development. The weak antioxidative defense equipment in the different subcellular organelles makes the β-cells particularly vulnerable and prone to mitochondrial, peroxisomal and ER stress. Looking upon the enzyme deficiencies which are responsible for the low antioxidative defense status of the pancreatic β-cells it is the lack of enzymatic capacity for H 2 O 2 inactivation at all major subcellular sites. Diabetes is the most prevalent metabolic disorder with a steadily increasing incidence of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes worldwide. The weak protection of the pancreatic β-cells against oxidative stress is a major reason for their particular vulnerability. Thus, careful protection of the β-cells is required for prevention of the disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Central cervical cord syndrome: a case report on rehabilitation, with special references to accidental falls in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ina, G; Eto, F; Furuichi, T; Suzuki, H; Shibuya, K

    1995-03-01

    An 81-year-old man with Parkinson's disease was admitted to our hospital with impaired function of all extremities. Four weeks before his symptoms developed, he had tripped on the steps, fallen and bruised his jaw. Following this episode he experienced a few more falls inside his house. On examination his greatest weakness was in the hands and wrists. He was hyper-reflexic in all extremities and had bilateral Babinski's sign. He could not walk and needed physical assistance in most of his daily living activities. X-ray films of the cervical spine showed significant degenerative changes. The magnetic resonance images suggested central cervical cord damage at the level of the C6 vertebral body. After three months' rehabilitation treatment, he became able to walk with a cane and became independent in all the basic activities of daily living except for bathing. He never regained skillful function of his hands despite later levodopa treatment of Parkinson's disease. His clinical features were consistent with the central cervical cord syndrome, described by Schnneider and co-workers in 1954. This syndrome may occur as a result of hyperextension neck injury, occasionally associated with an accidental fall in the elderly with cervical spondylosis. Thirteen patients with cervical spinal cord injury above 65 of age were admitted to our department from 1983 to 1993. Six of them presented with the central cervical cord syndrome, and all patients had a history of accidental injuries related to falling.

  11. The impact of financial crisis on accounting reform with special reference to the situation in the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kikanović Ramiz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The global economic crisis that first gripped housing market at the USA and then spread to the other parts of the world, pointed out to the necessity of the reforms in all areas. One of the areas where the reforms are necessary is the area of accounting. These reforms are important for all interested users in a way that they provide them with all the necessary information's at the right time. Accounting, as one of the main pillars of society, can strengthen or weaken the confidence of shareholders, institutional investors and economic policy makers of the country. So it is necessary that financial information are accurate and reliable. In order to eliminate the economic phenomena that have arisen as a result of the crisis, like the economic stagnation and reduction of financial resources, we must find out causes of their origin and manifestations. This is possible by using the well-defined economic policies and accounting regulations, which takes place at predefined and prescribed by IAS and IFRS. This paper will highlight the impact of the financial crisis on accounting and the International Accounting Standards, with particular reference to the situation in Serbia. One of the necessary conditions that Serbia has to fulfill to become a member of the EU is to harmonize its accounting policies and practices regulative to those applied in the EU.

  12. The reading of scientific texts: questions on interpretation and evaluation, with special reference to the scientific writings of Ludwik Fleck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedfors, Eva

    2007-03-01

    Ludwik Fleck is remembered for his monograph published in German in 1935. Reissued in 1979 as Genesis and development of a scientific fact Fleck's monograph has been claimed to expound relativistic views of science. Fleck has also been portrayed as a prominent scientist. The description of his production of a vaccine against typhus during World War II, when imprisoned in Buchenwald, is legendary in the scholarly literature. The claims about Fleck's scientific achievements have been justified by referring to his numerous publications in international scientific journals. Though frequently mentioned, these publications have scarcely been studied. The present article discusses differences in interpretation and evaluation of science in relation to the background of the interpreters. For this purpose Fleck's scientific publications have been scrutinized. In conjunction with further sources reflecting the desperate situation at the time in question, the results of the study account for a more restrained picture of Fleck's scientific accomplishments. Furthermore, based on the review of the latter, certain demands characterizing good science could be articulated. The restricted possibilities of those not trained in science or not possessing field specific knowledge, evaluating science are discussed, as are also formal aspects of scientific papers and questions related to research ethics.

  13. A de novo transcriptome of European pollen beetle populations and its analysis, with special reference to insecticide action and resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, C T; Maiwald, F; Schorn, C; Bass, C; Ott, M-C; Nauen, R

    2014-08-01

    The pollen beetle Meligethes aeneus is the most important coleopteran pest in European oilseed rape cultivation, annually infesting millions of hectares and responsible for substantial yield losses if not kept under economic damage thresholds. This species is primarily controlled with insecticides but has recently developed high levels of resistance to the pyrethroid class. The aim of the present study was to provide a transcriptomic resource to investigate mechanisms of resistance. cDNA was sequenced on both Roche (Indianapolis, IN, USA) and Illumina (LGC Genomics, Berlin, Germany) platforms, resulting in a total of ∼53 m reads which assembled into 43 396 expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Manual annotation revealed good coverage of genes encoding insecticide target sites and detoxification enzymes. A total of 77 nonredundant cytochrome P450 genes were identified. Mapping of Illumina RNAseq sequences (from susceptible and pyrethroid-resistant strains) against the reference transcriptome identified a cytochrome P450 (CYP6BQ23) as highly overexpressed in pyrethroid resistance strains. Single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis confirmed the presence of a target-site resistance mutation (L1014F) in the voltage-gated sodium channel of one resistant strain. Our results provide new insights into the important genes associated with pyrethroid resistance in M. aeneus. Furthermore, a comprehensive EST resource is provided for future studies on insecticide modes of action and resistance mechanisms in pollen beetle. © 2014 The Royal Entomological Society.

  14. Investigations on the performance of ultrasonic drilling process with special reference to precision machining of advanced ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adithan, M.; Laroiya, S.C.

    1997-01-01

    Advanced ceramics are assuming an important role in modern industrial technology. The applications and advantages of using advanced ceramics are many. There are several reasons why we should go in for machining of advanced ceramics after their compacting and sintering. These are discussed in this paper. However, precision machining of advanced ceramics must be economical. Critical technological issues to be addressed in cost effective machining of ceramics include design of machine tools, tooling arrangements, improved yield and precision, relationship of part dimensions and finish specifications to functional performance, and on-line inspection. Considering the above ultrasonic drilling is an important process used for the precision machining of advanced ceramics. Extensive studies on tool wear occurring in the ultrasonic machining of advanced ceramics have been carried out. In addition, production accuracy of holes drilled, surface finish obtained and surface integrity aspects in the machining of advanced ceramics have also been investigated. Some specific findings with reference to surface integrity are: a) there were no cracks or micro-cracks developed during or after ultrasonic machining of advanced ceramics, b) while machining Hexoloy alpha silicon carbide a recast layer is formed as a result of ultrasonic machining. This is attributed to the viscous heating resulting from high energy impacts during ultrasonic machining. While machining all other types of ceramics no such formation of recast layer was observed, and , c) there is no change in the microstructure of the advanced ceramics as a result of ultrasonic machining

  15. Definitions, Criteria and Global Classification of Mast Cell Disorders with Special Reference to Mast Cell Activation Syndromes: A Consensus Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valent, Peter; Akin, Cem; Arock, Michel; Brockow, Knut; Butterfield, Joseph H.; Carter, Melody C.; Castells, Mariana; Escribano, Luis; Hartmann, Karin; Lieberman, Philip; Nedoszytko, Boguslaw; Orfao, Alberto; Schwartz, Lawrence B.; Sotlar, Karl; Sperr, Wolfgang R.; Triggiani, Massimo; Valenta, Rudolf; Horny, Hans-Peter; Metcalfe, Dean D.

    2012-01-01

    Activation of tissue mast cells (MCs) and their abnormal growth and accumulation in various organs are typically found in primary MC disorders also referred to as mastocytosis. However, increasing numbers of patients are now being informed that their clinical findings are due to MC activation (MCA) that is neither associated with mastocytosis nor with a defined allergic or inflammatory reaction. In other patients with MCA, MCs appear to be clonal cells, but criteria for diagnosing mastocytosis are not met. A working conference was organized in 2010 with the aim to define criteria for diagnosing MCA and related disorders, and to propose a global unifying classification of all MC disorders and pathologic MC reactions. This classification includes three types of ‘MCA syndromes’ (MCASs), namely primary MCAS, secondary MCAS and idiopathic MCAS. MCA is now defined by robust and generally applicable criteria, including (1) typical clinical symptoms, (2) a substantial transient increase in serum total tryptase level or an increase in other MC-derived mediators, such as histamine or prostaglandin D2, or their urinary metabolites, and (3) a response of clinical symptoms to agents that attenuate the production or activities of MC mediators. These criteria should assist in the identification and diagnosis of patients with MCAS, and in avoiding misdiagnoses or overinterpretation of clinical symptoms in daily practice. Moreover, the MCAS concept should stimulate research in order to identify and exploit new molecular mechanisms and therapeutic targets. PMID:22041891

  16. The mnemonic oral tradition with special reference to the management and expression of conflict in Zulu-speaking communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Turner

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The identification of features of oral studies and especially the issue of conflict and their terms of reference, have recently become a topic of increasing interest among researchers in Southern Africa. The National Research Foundation is nowadays encouraging academics to focus on the area of indigenous knowledge systems. Included in that focus area is the recommendation that research should be done on the impact that indigenous knowledge has on lifestyles and the ways in which societies operate. The study of ways in which specific societies articulate issues of conflict is inextricably linked with the way in which language is used in particular communities. This study deals with African and specifically Zulu communities, and how the mnemonic oral tradition plays an essential role in the oral strategies used as a means of dealing with issues of conflict. These strategies are based on an age-old mnemonic oral tradition which is socialised and used as an acceptable norm of group behaviour. Furthermore it is an acceptable way of managing and expressing conflict in social situations where direct verbal confrontation is frowned upon and deemed unacceptable.

  17. Socio-Economic Conditions and Quality of Life in the Tribal Areas of Orissa with Special Reference to Mayurbhanj District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr N.C. Jana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Odisha (previously known as Orissa, being socio-economically backward but culturally sound, is one of the important states in Eastern India. Out of 30 districts 9 are considered as tribal districts (according to Location Quotient value and of the total population (41,947,358 in 2011 a significant share (22.1% goes to tribal people (8,145,081in 2011. This tribal group of Odisha has special significance because they are one of the most backward and geographically isolated communities. That’s why their life style and economy is confined to the direct utilization of natural resources, pre-agricultural level of technology and specific indigenous type of work. But now with the emergence of industry and market economy, the age-old relationship between tribes and nature has disturbed. Keeping this in backdrop, the present study tried to explore the changing scenario of socio-economic condition in the tribal areas of Odisha. In this regard, various socio-economic indicators have been analyzed and compared for representing district-level patterns of quality of life and finding out the variation among the Primitive tribal households in the study area. In addition, Mayurbhanj has also been taken as a case study to represent the socio-economic condition and quality of life at the block level. It may be pointed out in this context that out of 30 districts in Odisha, according to Location Quotient value Mayurbhanj is the highest tribal concentrated district. The overall objective of this study is to obtain a better understanding of disparities and variations in socio-economic status in Odisha as well as in Mayurbhanj and also find out some remedial measures to overcome the problems to bring the Primitive tribal community in the main stream of the society. Maps have been prepared on the above-mentioned indicators based on secondary data using Arc-GIS 9.3. From the analysis of the health-related indicators it is clear from the analysis that the quality of life

  18. Carcinogenesis and low-level ionizing radiation with special reference to lung cancer and exposure to radon daughters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1982-04-01

    Of the important health effects of ionizing radiation, three important late effects - carcinogenesis, teratogenesis and mutagenesis are of greatest concern. This is because any exposure, even at low levels, carries some risk of such deleterious effects. As the dose of radiation increases above very low levels, the risk of health effects increases. Cancer-induction is the most important late somatic effect of low-dose ionizing radiation. Solid cancers, rather than leukemia, are principal late effects in exposed individuals. Tissues vary greatly in their susceptibility to radiation carcinogenesis. The most frequently occurring radiation-induced cancers in man include, in decreasing order of susceptibility: the female breast, the thyroid gland, the blood-forming tissues, the lung, certain organs of the gastrointestinal tract, and the bones. A number of biological and physical factors affect the cancer risk, such as age, sex, life-style, LET, and RBE. Despite uncertainty about low-level radiation risks, regulatory and advisory bodies must set standards for exposure, and individuals need information to be able to make informed judgments for themselves. From the point of view of the policy maker, the overriding concern is the fact that small doses of radiation can cause people to have more cancers than would otherwise be expected. While concern for all radiation effects exists, our human experience is limited to cancer-induction in exposed populations. This discussion is limited to cancer risk estimation and decision-making in relation to the health effects on populations of exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation. Here, low-level radiation will refer to yearly whole-body doses up to 5 rems or 0.05 Sv, or to cumulative doses up to 50 rems or 0.5 Sv from low-LET radiation and from high-LET radiation. (ERB)

  19. The effects of heavy ion particles on the developing murine cerebellum, with special reference to cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Chikako; Yaoi, Takeshi; Fushiki, Shinji; Nojima, Kumie

    2003-01-01

    We report here the effects of heavy ion beams on postnatal mouse cerebellar development, with reference to cell death. Eight-day-old B6C3F1 mice were irradiated with single doses of 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 Gy, using a carbon beam of 290 MeV delivered from a heavy ion medical accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC). To compare the effects of X-rays with those of accelerated carbon ions, 8-day-old mice were exposed to X-rays single doses of 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 Gy, respectively. Pups were fixed at 1, 6, 12 and 24 hr after exposure to HIMAC beams or X-rays. Four-μm-thick parasagittal sections of the cerebella were processed for hematoxylin-eosin staining as well as for staining with the TUNEL (terminal dUTP nick-end labeling) technique. The density of fragmented nuclei in the external granular layer increased with time, peaking at 6 hr after exposure, in both the HIMAC and X-irradiated groups. In the HIMAC groups, the density was significantly higher in those animals exposed to 0.25 Gy or more compared to 0 Gy, whereas in the X-irradiated groups it was significantly higher in those mice exposed to 0.5 Gy or more. Electron microscopic examinations revealed chromatin condensation in the cell nuclei in the HIMAC groups. This is the first in vivo evidence that apoptotic cell death is induced in developing mouse cerebellum after exposure to heavy ion particles. The difference in the frequency of dying cells between exposure to heavy ion particles and to X-rays may reflect the high linear energy transfer (LET) associated with a heavy ion beam. (author)

  20. Carcinogenesis and low-level ionizing radiation with special reference to lung cancer and exposure to radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1982-04-01

    Of the important health effects of ionizing radiation, three important late effects - carcinogenesis, teratogenesis and mutagenesis are of greatest concern. This is because any exposure, even at low levels, carries some risk of such deleterious effects. As the dose of radiation increases above very low levels, the risk of health effects increases. Cancer-induction is the most important late somatic effect of low-dose ionizing radiation. Solid cancers, rather than leukemia, are principal late effects in exposed individuals. Tissues vary greatly in their susceptibility to radiation carcinogenesis. The most frequently occurring radiation-induced cancers in man include, in decreasing order of susceptibility: the female breast, the thyroid gland, the blood-forming tissues, the lung, certain organs of the gastrointestinal tract, and the bones. A number of biological and physical factors affect the cancer risk, such as age, sex, life-style, LET, and RBE. Despite uncertainty about low-level radiation risks, regulatory and advisory bodies must set standards for exposure, and individuals need information to be able to make informed judgments for themselves. From the point of view of the policy maker, the overriding concern is the fact that small doses of radiation can cause people to have more cancers than would otherwise be expected. While concern for all radiation effects exists, our human experience is limited to cancer-induction in exposed populations. This discussion is limited to cancer risk estimation and decision-making in relation to the health effects on populations of exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation. Here, low-level radiation will refer to yearly whole-body doses up to 5 rems or 0.05 Sv, or to cumulative doses up to 50 rems or 0.5 Sv from low-LET radiation and from high-LET radiation

  1. The importance of religion in shaping volcanic risk perception in Italy, with special reference to Vesuvius and Etna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, David K.; Duncan, Angus M.; Dibben, Christopher J. L.

    2008-05-01

    With the exception of societies that are relatively untouched by modernism, the academic consensus holds that since the Eighteenth Century Enlightenment popular perception of divine responsibility for disasters has been progressively replaced by a perspective that views losses as resulting from the effects of extreme natural events upon vulnerable human populations. Nature is considered to be de-moralised. By means of examples of volcanic eruptions that have occurred over the past one hundred and fifty years and which transcend place, culture and faith tradition, the present authors have maintained a contrasting position, by arguing that religious perspectives are still important features of the ways in which people in many societies perceive volcanic eruptions. In the present paper it is argued that religious terms of reference have been and remain vital elements in the perceptions held by a significant proportion of the population in southern Italy when confronted by volcanic eruptions, particularly those that have occurred on Vesuvius and Etna. Within the context of what is termed popular Catholicism, the development of distinctive religious responses in pre-industrial times is first described. Next, through bibliographic research and social surveys, it is argued that the idiosyncratic religious character of disaster responses has been maintained following eruptions that have occurred during the past one hundred years, including the small number of eruptions of Etna that have taken place in the early years of the twenty-first century. The implications of these religious perceptions and behaviours are discussed within the context of emergency planning and the suggestion is made that they form part of a 'parallel practice' in response to volcanic threat, where actions to encourage the miraculous take place at the same time as more 'rationally' grounded protective measures such as evacuation.

  2. Hospital registry in special department for patients with acute cerebrovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maslyuk О.А.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: organization and follow-up of a registry of patients with cerebrovascular disease in in special department. Materials and methods. In the period from January 2011 to December 2013 all cases of cerebrovascular disease in the special department were recorded. Each patient had an electronic case book and thematic record, developed on the basis of the materials of the National Stoke Association of "Registry of stroke." Results. 418 cases of cerebral stroke were registered. Male to female ratio was 3.7: 1. Patients with initial diagnosed cerebral stroke were 78%, secondary 22%. The average age of patients was 63. The big number of strokes was observed in men aged 56-57 years; in women aged 75-77 years. TOAST criteria for subtypes of ischemic stroke were distributed to: atherothrombotic (29,3%, cardioembolic (29,1 %, 22,4% lacunar ischemic stroke due to other established reasons (8,8%, crptogenic (10,4%. Hemorrhagic stroke was observed in 16.8% of cases. Parenchymal hemorrhage was observed in 10.7% of cases, nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (4,5%. Among the risk factors in patients with ischemic stroke identified: arterial hypertension (88,9%, coronary heart disease (43%, heart rhythm disorders (28,4%, diabetes (18,6%. The proportion of endovascular interventions performed for 3 years was 31.2%. Mortality rate was 3.74% (10 people in 2011; 4.65% (14 people in 2012; 2.48% (7 people in 2013. Conclusion. Follow up the hospital stroke registry allowed to estimate the structure andcourse of cerebral stroke, found the risk factors to identify the most important factors of death.

  3. [Reference citation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brkić, Silvija

    2013-01-01

    Scientific and professional papers represent the information basis for scientific research and professional work. References important for the paper should be cited within the text, and listed at the end of the paper. This paper deals with different styles of reference citation. Special emphasis was placed on the Vancouver Style for reference citation in biomedical journals established by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. It includes original samples for citing various types of articles, both printed and electronic, as well as recommendations related to reference citation in accordance with the methodology and ethics of scientific research and guidelines for preparing manuscripts for publication.

  4. Free energy of activation. Definition, properties, and dependent variables with special reference to linear free energy relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    The reaction rate constant is expressed as Z exp(-G/sub a//RT). Z is the binary collision frequency. G/sub a/, the free energy of activation, is shown to be the difference between the free energy of the reactive reactants and the free energy of all reactants. The results are derived from both a statistical mechanical and a collision theoretic point of view. While the later is more suitable for an ab-initio computation of the reaction rate, it is the former that lends itself to the search of systematics and of correlations and to compaction of data. Different thermodynamic-like routes to the characterization of G/sub a/ are thus explored. The two most promising ones appear to be the use of thermodynamic type cycles and the changes of dependent variables using the Legendre transform technique. The dependence of G/sub a/ on ΔG 0 , the standard free energy change in the reaction, is examined from the later point of view. It is shown that one can rigorously express this dependence as G/sub a/ = αΔG 0 + G/sub a/ 0 M(α). Here α is the Bronsted slope, α = -par. delta ln k(T)/par. delta(ΔG 0 /RT), G/sub a/ 0 is independent of ΔG 0 and M(α), the Legendre transform of G/sub a/, is a function only of α. For small changes in ΔG 0 , the general result reduces to the familiar ''linear'' free energy relation delta G/sub a/ = α delta ΔG 0 . It is concluded from general considerations that M(α) is a symmetric, convex function of α and hence that α is a monotonically increasing function of ΔG 0 . Experimental data appear to conform well to the form α = 1/[1 + exp(-ΔG 0 /G/sub s/ 0 )]. A simple interpretation of the ΔG 0 dependence of G/sub a/, based on an interpolation of the free energy from that of the reagents to that of the products, is offered. 4 figures, 69 references

  5. The overall situation of female street children (11-18 years) engaged in commercial sex work in Dire Dawa - Ethiopia : survey in case study with special reference to child prostitution

    OpenAIRE

    Mekuria, Melkem Lengereh

    2004-01-01

    THE OVERALL SITUATION OF FEMALE STREET CHILDREN (11 18 YEARS) ENGAGED IN COMMERCIAL SEX WORK IN DIRE DAWA - ETHIOPIA (SURVEY IN CASE STUDY WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO CHILD PROSTITUTION) By MELKAM LENGEREH MEKURIA 2004 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE MASTER OF PHILOSOPHY IN SPECIAL NEEDS EDUCATION UNIVERSITY OF OSLO FACULTY OF EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF SPECIAL NEEDS EDUCATION ABSTRACT Prostitution in gene...

  6. Scintigraphic assessment of cardiac sympathetic innervation with I-123-metaiodobenzylguanidine in cardiomyopathy. Special reference to cardiac arrhythmia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asano, Takahisa; Otsuka, Nobuaki; Sone, Teruki; Mimura, Hiroaki; Yanagimoto, Shinichi; Tomomitsu, Tatsushi; Fukunaga, Masao [Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan); Morita, Koichi

    1999-07-01

    Cardiac sympathetic imagings with I-123-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) were carried out in 5 cases with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), 26 cases with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), and 4 cases without cardiac disease as a control to assess cardiac sympathetic innervation qualitatively and quantitatively, and to clarify the relation of MIBG accumulation to arrhythmia. MIBG scintigraphy was performed at 15 min. (early image) and 4 hr. (delayed image) after intravenous injection of MIBG 111 MBq. The MIBG uptake ratio of mediastinum (H/M) and the cardiac washout rate (WR) from early to delayed images were calculated. On both early and delayed SPECTs, MIBG uptake was assessed by defect scores (DSs). Regarding the cases with HCM, the MIBG uptake ratio, WR, and DS were also compared in cases with and without arrhythmia. In DCM, the MIBG uptake on delayed SPECT was markedly low, the H/M ratio was significantly lower, and the DS was significantly higher than in the control (all p<0.05). As for the WR, there was no significant difference between HCM, DCM and the control. In HCM, significantly reduced MIBG uptake was observed in cases with ventricular techycardia (VT) and in cases with atrial fibrillation (Af), as compared with cases without arrhythmia (all p<0.05). There results suggest that MIBG scintigraphy might be a useful tool in the assessment of cardiac sympathetic abnormalities in cardiomyopathy, especially in cases with arrhythmia. (author)

  7. Drinking water quality in six small tea gardens of Sonitpur District of Assam, India, with special reference to heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Joydev; Chetia, Mridul; Misra, A K

    2011-10-01

    Contamination of drinking water by arsenic and other heavy metals and their related toxicology is a serious concern now-a-days. Millions of individual world-wide are suffering from the arsenic and other heavy metal related diseases due to the consumption of contaminated groundwater. 60 water samples from different sources of 6 small tea gardens of Sonitpur district were collected to study the potability of water for drinking purposes. The water samples collected from sources like tube wells, ring wells and ponds were analyzed for arsenic, heavy metals like iron, manganese and mercury with sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, pH, total hardness, chloride, fluoride and sulphate. Some drain water samples of the tea garden areas were also collected to analyze the above mentioned water parameters to see the contamination level. Experiments revealed that 78% samples of total collection had arsenic content above the permissible limit (0.01 ppm) of WHO guideline value for drinking water. The highest arsenic was observed 0.09 ppm at one sample of Gobindra Dahal tea garden of Gohpur sub division of Sonitpur district. 94% samples had contamination due to manganese 39% samples had iron and 44% samples had Hg. The water quality data was subjected to some statistical treatments like NDA, cluster analysis and pearson correlation to observe the distribution pattern of the different water quality parameters. A strong pearson correlation coefficient was observed between parameters-arsenic and manganese (0.865) and arsenic and mercury (0.837) at 0.01 level, indicated the same sources of drinking water contamination.

  8. Assessing perceived risk and STI prevention behavior: a national population-based study with special reference to HPV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Leval

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: To better understand trends in sexually transmitted infection (STI prevention, specifically low prevalence of condom use with temporary partners, the aim of this study was to examine factors associated with condom use and perceptions of STI risk amongst individuals at risk, with the underlying assumption that STI risk perceptions and STI prevention behaviors are correlated. METHODS: A national population-based survey on human papillomavirus (HPV and sexual habits of young adults aged 18-30 was conducted in Sweden in 2007, with 1712 men and 8855 women participating. Regression analyses stratified by gender were performed to measure condom use with temporary partners and STI risk perception. RESULTS: Men's condom use was not associated with STI risk perception while women's was. Awareness of and disease severity perceptions were not associated with either condom use or risk perception though education level correlated with condom use. Women's young age at sexual debut was associated with a higher risk of non-condom use later in life (OR 1.95 95% CI: 1.46-2.60. Women with immigrant mothers were less likely to report seldom/never use of condoms with temporary partners compared to women with Swedish-born mothers (OR 0.53 95% CI: 0.37-0.77. Correlates to STI risk perception differ substantially between sexes. Number of reported temporary partners was the only factor associated for both men and women with condom use and STI risk perception. CONCLUSIONS: Public health interventions advocating condom use with new partners could consider employing tactics besides those which primarily aim to increase knowledge or self-perceived risk if they are to be more effective in STI reduction. Gender-specific prevention strategies could be effective considering the differences found in this study.

  9. Appraisal of the 14C-glycocholate acid test with special reference to the measurement of faecal 14C excretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarpello, J.H.B.; Sladen, G.E.

    1977-01-01

    The 14 C-glycocholate test, including the measurement of marker corrected faecal 14 C, has been assessed in the following groups of subjects: normal controls (18), patients with diarrhoea not attributable to altered bile acid metabolism (21), patients with diverticula of the small intestine (12), patients with previous resection of ileum and often proximal colon (34), and established ileostomists (10). Patients with diverticular disease had increased breath 14 CO 2 excretion, but normal faecal excretion of 14 C, and this test was more frequently abnormal than the Schilling test. Ileostomists excreted increased amounts of faecal 14 C, even when the ileum was intact and apparently normal. The pattern after resection was complex. Breath 14 C output was normal if the ileal resection was less than 25 cm in length, although some of these patients had increased faecal 14 C excretion if, in addition, at least 15 cm of proximal colon had been resected or by-passed. Longer ileal resections were associated with increased breath and/or faecal 14 C excretion, depending in part on the length of colon resected or by-passed and the 24 hour faecal volume. Fewer than half these patients had both increased breath and faecal excretion of isotope and faecal 14 C alone was occasionally normal with an ileal resection of 50 cm or more. The 14 C-glycocholate test was more frequently abnormal than the Schilling test in this group. The use of faecal marker correction had only a minor impact on the results. These data suggest that, in patients with ileal resection, faecal 14 C, like faecal weight, is determined by the extent of colonic resection as well as by the amount of ileum resected. (author)

  10. Current Status of the Systematics of Astragalus L. (Fabaceae with Special Reference to the Himalayan Species in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lal Babu Chaudhary

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Astragalus is considered one of the most diverse genera in the family Leguminosae (nom. alt. Fabaceae. Although a large number of works have been carried out on the genus, no monograph is available except some regional accounts and revisions chiefly at sectional level. It may be due to the sheer size of the genus (ca. 3000 spp. and diverse nature, the genus is quite variable in habit and habitats, size of the plants, nature of indumentums, stipules, leaf rachis, types of inflorescence, relative length of petals, pods etc. Usually, genus is divided into eight to ten subgenera and more than 245 sections. In recently conducted molecular phylogenetic studies it has been shown that none of the subgenera and large sections are monophyletic. However, it has been clearly demonstrated that Astragalus is monophyletic except some outlier species. The chromosome numbers are also quite interesting and significant in Astragalus for its phylogenetic studies. There is a strong correlation between its geographic distribution and chromosome numbers. Currently about 80 species have been recorded from India chiefly from the Himalayas. Except some of our recent publications, not much studies have been carried out on the genus in India after 'The Flora of British India'. Astragalus is not of much economic importance, however, some of its species are well known for commercial gum tragacanth production especially in Iran and China. In India, A. candolleanus is a well known drug as ‘Rudanti’ or ‘Rudravanti’used for tuberculosis, skin diseases, coughs and blood purifier. The aim of this article is to review the entire work carried out on Astragalus and to bring out scattered information at one place for better understanding of the subject and to find out the future prospective of the research in India on the genus.

  11. A Systematic Review of Arsenic Exposure and Its Social and Mental Health Effects with Special Reference to Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Kraemer

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Undergroundwater in many regions of the world is contaminated with high concentrations of arsenic and the resulting toxicity has created a major environmental and public health problem in the affected regions. Chronic arsenic exposure can cause many diseases, including various physical and psychological harms. Although the physical problems caused by arsenic toxicity are well reported in literature, unfortunately the consequences of arsenic exposure on mental health are not adequately studied. Therefore we conducted a review of the available literature focusing on the social consequences and detrimental effects of arsenic toxicity on mental health. Chronic arsenic exposures have serious implications for its victims (i.e. arsenicosis patients and their families including social instability, social discrimination, refusal of victims by community and families, and marriage-related problems. Some studies conducted in arsenic affected areas revealed that arsenic exposures are associated with various neurologic problems. Chronic arsenic exposure can lead to mental retardation and developmental disabilities such as physical, cognitive, psychological, sensory and speech impairments. As health is defined by the World Health Organization as “a state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing”, the social dimensions have a large impact on individual’s mental health. Furthermore studies in China und Bangladesh have shown that mental health problems (e.g. depression are more common among the people affected by arsenic contamination. Our study indicates various neurological, mental and social consequences among arsenic affected victims. Further studies are recommended in arsenic-affected areas to understand the underlying mechanisms of poor mental health caused by arsenic exposure.

  12. Asthma and Pregnancy: Possible to prevent complications?- With Special reference to the impact of obesity and type of airwayinflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Zarqa

    2017-12-01

    Background Asthma is a serious global health issue and the most prevalent chronic disorder among Danish pregnant women. Exacerbations of asthma during pregnancy have been associated with increased risk of adverse pregnancy and perinatal outcomes, and by that making asthma a potential serious medical condition during pregnancy. Monitoring of asthma every four to six weeks is recommended during pregnancy, although evidence is lacking that following this recommendation will improve pregnancy outcome and, not least, be beneficial for all pregnant women with asthma. Aim The overall aim of the present thesis was to gain more knowledge of the interaction between asthma and pregnancy. The specific research questions were to identify pregnancies with low risk of an exacerbation during pregnancy, to identify risk factors for an exacerbation during pregnancy, and to compare the adverse pregnancy and perinatal outcomes in women without asthma and women with asthma monitored closely as recommended during pregnancy. Methods In study I and II, determinants of pregnancies with low risk of an exacerbation and maternal pregnancy-related risk factors for an exacerbations were investigated in a large prospective cohort study with 1.283 women with asthma. The Management of Asthma during Pregnancy (MAP) was initiated in 2007, and all pregnant women referred to Hvidovre Hospital have since then received an invitation to participate. Women were followed-up every four weeks with assessment of asthma control and adjustment of medication if necessary. In study III, the potential differences in airway hyperresponsiveness and airway inflammation, in participants (n=50) from the MAP cohort, were investigated in a post-partum examination. In study IV, the effect of maternal asthma on obstetrical and perinatal outcomes was investigated in a large case-control study, with 938 cases i.e. women with asthma from the MAP cohort, and 2.778 controls i.e. women without asthma. Results No history of pre

  13. Serum protein profiles predict coronary artery disease in symptomatic patients referred for coronary angiography

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    LaFramboise William A

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More than a million diagnostic cardiac catheterizations are performed annually in the US for evaluation of coronary artery anatomy and the presence of atherosclerosis. Nearly half of these patients have no significant coronary lesions or do not require mechanical or surgical revascularization. Consequently, the ability to rule out clinically significant coronary artery disease (CAD using low cost, low risk tests of serum biomarkers in even a small percentage of patients with normal coronary arteries could be highly beneficial. Methods Serum from 359 symptomatic subjects referred for catheterization was interrogated for proteins involved in atherogenesis, atherosclerosis, and plaque vulnerability. Coronary angiography classified 150 patients without flow-limiting CAD who did not require percutaneous intervention (PCI while 209 required coronary revascularization (stents, angioplasty, or coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Continuous variables were compared across the two patient groups for each analyte including calculation of false discovery rate (FDR ≤ 1% and Q value (P value for statistical significance adjusted to ≤ 0.01. Results Significant differences were detected in circulating proteins from patients requiring revascularization including increased apolipoprotein B100 (APO-B100, C-reactive protein (CRP, fibrinogen, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1, myeloperoxidase (MPO, resistin, osteopontin, interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 and N-terminal fragment protein precursor brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pBNP and decreased apolipoprotein A1 (APO-A1. Biomarker classification signatures comprising up to 5 analytes were identified using a tunable scoring function trained against 239 samples and validated with 120 additional samples. A total of 14 overlapping signatures classified patients without significant coronary disease (38% to 59% specificity while maintaining 95% sensitivity for patients requiring

  14. COAGULATION PROFILE IN PATIENTS PRESENTING WITH MALIGNANCIES WITH SPECIAL REFERENCES TO HEAD AND NECK EPITHELIAL CANCERS, LEUKAEMIAS AND LYMPHOMAS

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    Kaberee Bhuyan

    2016-04-01

    coagulation(DIC. The abnormalities were more pronounced in the metastatic cases. CONCLUSION We can conclude that various haemostatic abnormalities explaining the disturbed haemostatic-fibrinolytic balance are frequently associated with malignant diseases giving an impetus for development of various researches, prophylactic and therapeutic approaches.

  15. Spatial, socio-economic and demographic variation of childlessness in India: A special reference to reproductive health and marital breakdown

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    Praween Agrawal

    2012-01-01

    problems and violence against women also emerged significantly higher among childless women than fertile women. Autonomy, examined in terms of women’s decision-making on what to cook and obtaining health care, we found childless women in both type of decision-making are behind the fertile women. The study also found that there is a more than five-fold gap in childlessness between divorced women (37.8% and currently married women (7%. GJMEDPH 2012; Vol. 1, issue 6 1Population Council, New Delhi, India 2 South Asia Network for Chronic Disease, Public Health Foundation of India, New Delhi, India 3 Dept. of Mathematical Demography and Statistics, International Institute for Population Sciences, Mumbai, India *Corresponding Author South Asia Network for Chronic Disease (SANCD, Public Health Foundation of India (PHFI, First Floor, C-1/52 Safdarjung Development Area, New Delhi 110016, INDIA sutapaiips@rediffmail.com or sutapa.agrawal@phfi.org Conflict of Interest—none Author’s Contribution PA conceived and designed the study, analyzed and interpreted the data, and wrote and drafted the manuscript; SU and SA helped for important intellectual content of the manuscript; all authors are responsible for final editing and approval of the manuscript. 1 www.gjmedph.com Vol. 1, No. 6 2012 Conclusion The study has clearly brought out various dimensions of childlessness at the national and state level. Our study indicates wide differences in the prevalence of childlessness among women by their place of residence, religion, caste/tribe status, educational attainment and standard of living. Along with population problems of high fertility in India, the issue of childlessness should also be considered in a more rational manner. More medical facilities especially infertility clinics are needed to address the problems. Going through the miserable situation of childless women in India regarding their poor health, lack of autonomy and social problems, attention is needed to mitigate the

  16. The bilateral trade agreements and export performance of South Asian nations with special reference to India Sri Lanka Free Trade Agreement

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    Suhail P

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The regional trade agreements (RTA have been one of the important developments in the world trading system in 1990s. There are number of studies on the effects trade agreements in different contexts. This study is an attempt to analyse the effects of bilateral trade agreements in the intraregional trade in the SAARC region with special reference to the Free Trade Agreements (FTA between India Sri Lanka. The study uses a panel regression analysis by using balance panel data. The study concludes that the FTA between India and Sri Lanka has brought positive results in the trade between these two nations by improving the bilateral trade in goods. The results of the study are important in the context of looking for the prospects of a free trade area in the region by member nations.

  17. Evaluation of surface contamination of bacteria in various dental clinics with special reference to obligate and facultative anaerobic spore bearing bacilli

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    Kannan I, Jessica Yolanda Jeevitha, Sambandam Cecilia, Jayalakshmi M, Premavathy RK and Shantha S

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The occupational health and safety is an important prerequisite in dental clinic setup for well being of both the doctor and patient. Both the patient and dentist are always at the risk of infections. Aim and objectives: There is no proper literature on the survey of bacterial spores, especially of Clostridium species in dental clinics. Hence an attempt has been made in the present pilot study to evaluate the surface contamination with special reference to bacterial spores. Materials and methods: Various dental clinics from Chennai city, India were selected for the present study. Samples were collected from two clinics each from endodontic, prosthodontic, orthodontic, and periodontic. In each clinic important places were selected for sampling. The samples were collected in the form of swabs. The swabs thus obtained were inoculated into Robertson Cooked Meat Medium and was incubated in anaerobic condition at 370C for 7 days. Each day the tubes were examined for turbidity and colour change and were noted. At the end of 7th day the smear was prepared from each tube and gram staining was performed. The gram stained slides were examined microscopically for the presence of spore bearing bacilli especially with special reference to terminal spore bearing bacilli. Results and conclusion: From the present study it is clear that the dental clinics invariably posses a lot of aerobic and anaerobic spores irrespective of stringent disinfection procedures. Hence it is mandatory for the dental clinics to undergo periodical microbiological surveillance and to take proper steps in the control of bacterial spores.

  18. Clinical characteristics and usage of statins in patients with stable ischemic heart disease referred for angiography or coronary artery bypass grafting

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    I.V. Shklianka

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim – to compare the clinical characteristics and frequency of statins usage in real clinical practice in patients referred to a specialized clinic for angiography or coronary artery bypass grafting. Materials and methods. In a retrospective slice single-center study data from a primary examination of 155 patients with stable ischemic heart disease, consecutively selected for coronary artery bypass grafting surgery, were analyzed. Depending on the inclusion of statins in the list of medicinal prescriptions, patients were retrospectively divided into two groups: those who had been prescribed statins while they were initially referred to a specialized cardiac surgery center for angiography or revascularization (n = 84 and those who were not prescribed statins (n ​​= 71. Results. The studied patients’ cohort was characterized by earlier coronary events, signs of the peripheral artery atherosclerosis and other absolute indications for treatment with statins in vast majority of cases. At the same time, groups of patients who had been and had not been prescribed statins, did not differ by vast majority of demographic, clinical and instrumental characteristics, concomitant diseases and risk factors. No statin therapy was associated with higher levels of total cholesterol and interleukin-6 compared with the group of patients taking statins (total cholesterol, respectively, 4.8 versus 4.2 mmol/l (p = 0.016 and interleukin-6, respectively, 4.4 versus. 3.1 p/ml (p = 0.022. In general, statins were prescribed in 54,2 % of patients, among them high doses – in 17 patients (20.2 %, moderate – 46 patients (54.8 %, low – 21 patients (25 %. Conclusions. The obtained data show the insufficient level of ambulatory statins usage in patients with ischemic heart disease referred for myocardial revascularization and significant discrepancy between clinical characteristics and real statins usage. Therefore, there is a great need to determine the

  19. Genetics Home Reference: inclusion body myopathy with early-onset Paget disease and frontotemporal dementia

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    ... Share: Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions IBMPFD Inclusion body myopathy with early-onset Paget disease and ... Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Inclusion body myopathy with early-onset Paget disease and ...

  20. Identification of a set of endogenous reference genes for miRNA expression studies in Parkinson's disease blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, Alice; Foco, Luisa; Blankenburg, Hagen; Picard, Anne; Zanigni, Stefano; Zanon, Alessandra; Pramstaller, Peter P; Hicks, Andrew A; Schwienbacher, Christine

    2014-10-10

    Research on microRNAs (miRNAs) is becoming an increasingly attractive field, as these small RNA molecules are involved in several physiological functions and diseases. To date, only few studies have assessed the expression of blood miRNAs related to Parkinson's disease (PD) using microarray and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Measuring miRNA expression involves normalization of qRT-PCR data using endogenous reference genes for calibration, but their choice remains a delicate problem with serious impact on the resulting expression levels. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the suitability of a set of commonly used small RNAs as normalizers and to identify which of these miRNAs might be considered reliable reference genes in qRT-PCR expression analyses on PD blood samples. Commonly used reference genes snoRNA RNU24, snRNA RNU6B, snoRNA Z30 and miR-103a-3p were selected from the literature. We then analyzed the effect of using these genes as reference, alone or in any possible combination, on the measured expression levels of the target genes miR-30b-5p and miR-29a-3p, which have been previously reported to be deregulated in PD blood samples. We identified RNU24 and Z30 as a reliable and stable pair of reference genes in PD blood samples.

  1. Orthopaedic measurements with computed radiography: Methodological development, accuracy, and radiation dose with special reference to the weight-bearing lower extremity and the dislocating patella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanfridsson, J.

    2001-01-01

    The overall aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a measurement system for computed radiography and Picture Archiving and Communication Systems, permitting measurements of long distances and angles in and between related images. The developed measurement system, which was based on the QUESTOR Precision Radiography system, was applied to the weight-bearing knee with special reference to the dislocating patella. The QPR system modified for CR fulfilled the criteria for measuring the weight-bearing knee. The special measuring assistance tools that were developed were important for the implementation of CR and PACS, particularly in workstations programmed for musculoskeletal radiology. The energy imparted to the patient was reduced by 98% at the lowest exposure of the CR-system, compared with our conventional analogue method, without loss of diagnostic accuracy. The CR technique creates a possibility, to an extent not previously feasible, to differentiate the exposure parameters (and thus minimise the radiation dose to the patient) by carefully considering the purpose of the examination. A radiographic method for measuring the rotation of the femur and the tibia, and the patellar translation was developed and applied to healthy volunteers. The introduced patellar variables have yielded new insights into the complex sequence of motions between the femur, tibia, and patella. The patients with a dislocating patella were subdivided into one 'clean' group of spontaneous dislocations and one group with various traumas in the history, which thus resulted in two groups with distinct radiographic differences. The Q-angle was decreased in knees that had suffered dislocations, and the traditional surgical treatment with a further reduction of the Q-angle must be challenged. The use of clinical measurements of the Q-angle was not an optimal way to evaluate the mechanical alignment in the patellofemoral joint under physiological conditions. In this study, we have proved

  2. The special features of response on the disease and victim behavior in women with thyroid pathologies

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    Олена Вікторівна Варібрус

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid pathologies are characterized with an expressed somatic distress and transformations of psychic sphere. Elimination of hormonal imbalance as pathogenetic mechanism levels the clinic symptomatology to a great extent. That is why the problem of inclination to treatment in endocrinological patients becomes particularly topical.The aim of research was the study of the special features of response on treatment and manifestations of victim behavior connected with chronic somatic pathology in women with the different types of thyroid pathologies.Contingent and methods of research. There were used the clinical methodology of diagnostics of the type of an attitude to disease (TAD and the Andronnikova modified questionnaire of inclination to victim behavior.Results. Most of all interrogated patients with thyroid pathologies had intrapsychic (49,6 % against 32,0 % and combined maladjustment (18,6 % against 8,0 %, the lesser part of them had adaptive types of response on disease comparing with healthy women (9,7 % against 40,0 %. The intragroup differences were expressed in prevalence of types with intrapsychic maladjustment in women with hypothyroidism (57,4 % against 42,4 %, and interpsychic and combined at hyperthyroidism (27,1 % against 16,7 % and 22,0 % against 14,8 %. The main types of response on disease in persons with thyroid pathologies were anxious and sensitive (10,6 %, anxious (8,8 %, sensitive (8,8 % and anosognosic (8,8 %, in healthy women – ergopathic (16,0 %, anosognosic (14,0 %, energopathic and sensitive (12,0 % and harmonic types (10,0 %.An intensity of the victim behavior was higher in patients with thyroid pathologies, in women with hyperthyroidism took place aggressive, self-destructive and hypersocial ones, in patients with hypothyroidism – dependent and uncritical types of victimhood that indicated the presence of somatogenic victimhood as a factor of psychological and psychosocial maladjustment.Conclusions. The

  3. Maternal and neonatal outcomes in pregnant patients with cardiac diseases referred for labour in northwest Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaghoubi, A.; Mirinazhad, M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity rates in women with different types of significant heart diseases. Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted at a tertiary heart care centre in Tabriz, Iran, and comprised 200 pregnant women between March 2007 and March 2012 who had different cardiac diseases and were admitted in labour wards first and then transferred to the heart center for child-bearing (vaginal delivery or caesarean section). They were categorised based on the underlying etiology into valvular heart disease, dilated cardiomyopathy, congenital heart disease and other etiologies. SPSS 18 was used for statistical analysis. Results: The mean age of the 200 subjects was 29.4+-4.28 years. Caesarean section was performed on 152 (76%) cases, while 48 (24%) underwent vaginal delivery. There were 216 neonates as 16 (8%) women had twins. Overall, 164 (75.9%) were female, and 52 (24.1%) male. Maternal and neonatal mortality rates were 4.0% (n=8) and 10% (n=22) respectively. Pregnant women with Congenital heart disease experienced more maternal (p<0.022) and neonatal (p<0.031) mortality rates than other cardiac diseases. Conclusion: Pregnant women with cardiac diseases are prone to higher maternal and neonatal mortality rates in northwest Iran. (author)

  4. Genetics Home Reference: COL4A1-related brain small-vessel disease

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    ... hemorrhage Johns Hopkins Medicine Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery: Intracerebral Hemorrhage Johns Hopkins Medicine Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery: Stroke MalaCards: col4a1-related brain small-vessel disease ...

  5. Sickle cell disease: reference values and interhemispheric differences of nonimaging transcranial Doppler blood flow parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkuszewski, M; Krejza, J; Chen, R; Kwiatkowski, J L; Ichord, R; Zimmerman, R; Ohene-Frempong, K; Desiderio, L; Melhem, E R

    2011-09-01

    TCD screening is widely used to identify children with SCD at high risk of stroke. Those with high mean flow velocities in major brain arteries have increased risk of stroke. Thus, our aim was to establish reference values of interhemispheric differences and ratios of blood flow Doppler parameters in the tICA, MCA, and ACA as determined by conventional TCD in children with sickle cell anemia. Reference limits of blood flow parameters were established on the basis of a consecutive cohort of 56 children (mean age, 100 ± 40 months; range, 29-180 months; 30 females) free of neurologic deficits and intracranial stenosis detectable by MRA, with blood flow velocities <170 cm/s by conventional TCD. Reference limits were estimated by using tolerance intervals, within which are included with a probability of .90 of all possible data values from 95% of a population. Average peak systolic velocities were significantly higher in the right hemisphere in the MCA and ACA (185 ± 28 cm/s versus 179 ± 27 and 152 ± 30 cm/s versus 143 ± 34 cm/s respectively). Reference limits for left-to-right differences in the mean flow velocities were the following: -43 to 33 cm/s for the MCA; -49 to 38 cm/s for the ACA, and -38 to 34 cm/s for the tICA, respectively. Respective reference limits for left-to-right velocity ratios were the following: 0.72 to 1.25 cm/s for the MCA; 0.62 to 1.39 cm/s for the ACA, and 0.69 to 1.27 cm/s for the tICA. Flow velocities in major arteries were inversely related to age and Hct or Hgb. The study provides reference intervals of TCD flow velocities and their interhemispheric differences and ratios that may be helpful in identification of intracranial arterial stenosis in children with SCD undergoing sonographic screening for stroke prevention.

  6. Implications of domestic food practices for the presence of bioactive components in meats with special reference to meat-based functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Colmenero, Francisco; Cofrades, Susana; Herrero, Ana M; Ruiz-Capillas, Claudia

    2017-06-14

    Although an essential component of the diet, the consumption of meat is in question. Meat is a major source of beneficial compounds but it also contains other substances with negative health implications. Functional foods, which are leading trends in the food industry, constitute an excellent opportunity for the meat sector to improve healthier meat options. Most studies on meat-based functional foods have focused mainly on the application of different strategies (animal production practices and meat transformation systems) to improve (increase/reduce) the presence of bioactive (healthy/unhealthy) compounds; these have led to the development of numerous products, many of them by the meat industry. However, like other foods, after purchase meats undergo certain processes before they are consumed, and these affect their composition. Although domestic handling practices can significantly alter the make-up of the marketed product in terms of healthy/unhealthy compounds, there are very few studies on their consequences. This paper provides an overview of the influence of different domestic practices (from shopping to eating) habitually followed by consumers on the presence of, and consequently on the levels of exposure to, (healthy and unhealthy) food components associated with the consumption of meats, with special reference to meat-based functional foods.

  7. Molecular phylogeny and systematics of the banana family (Musaceae) inferred from multiple nuclear and chloroplast DNA fragments, with a special reference to the genus Musa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin-Feng; Häkkinen, Markku; Yuan, Yong-Ming; Hao, Gang; Ge, Xue-Jun

    2010-10-01

    Musaceae is a small paleotropical family. Three genera have been recognised within this family although the generic delimitations remain controversial. Most species of the family (around 65 species) have been placed under the genus Musa and its infrageneric classification has long been disputed. In this study, we obtained nuclear ribosomal ITS and chloroplast (atpB-rbcL, rps16, and trnL-F) DNA sequences of 36 species (42 accessions of ingroups representing three genera) together with 10 accessions of ingroups retrieved from GenBank database and 4 accessions of outgroups, to construct the phylogeny of the family, with a special reference to the infrageneric classification of the genus Musa. Our phylogenetic analyses elaborated previous results in supporting the monophyly of the family and suggested that Musella and Ensete may be congeneric or at least closely related, but refuted the previous infrageneric classification of Musa. None of the five sections of Musa previously defined based on morphology was recovered as monophyletic group in the molecular phylogeny. Two infrageneric clades were identified, which corresponded well to the basic chromosome numbers of x=11 and 10/9/7, respectively: the former clade comprises species from the sections Musa and Rhodochlamys while the latter contains sections of Callimusa, Australimusa, and Ingentimusa. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Recent references

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramavataram, S.

    1991-01-01

    In support of a continuing program of systematic evaluation of nuclear structure data, the National Nuclear Data Center maintains a complete computer file of references to the nuclear physics literature. Each reference is tagged by a keyword string, which indicates the kinds of data contained in the article. This master file of Nuclear Structure References (NSR) contains complete keyword indexes to literature published since 1969, with partial indexing of older references. Any reader who finds errors in the keyword descriptions is urged to report them to the National Nuclear Data Center so that the master NSR file can be corrected. In 1966, the first collection of Recent References was published as a separate issue of Nuclear Data Sheets. Every four months since 1970, a similar indexed bibliography to new nuclear experiments has been prepared from additions to the NSR file and published. Beginning in 1978, Recent References was cumulated annually, with the third issue completely superseding the two issues previously published during a given year. Due to publication policy changes, cumulation of Recent Reference was discontinued in 1986. The volume and issue number of all the cumulative issues published to date are given. NNDC will continue to respond to individual requests for special bibliographies on nuclear physics topics, in addition to those easily obtained from Recent References. If the required information is available from the keyword string, a reference list can be prepared automatically from the computer files. This service can be provided on request, in exchange for the timely communication of new nuclear physics results (e.g., preprints). A current copy of the NSR file may also be obtained in a standard format on magnetic tape from NNDC. Requests for special searches of the NSR file may also be directed to the National Nuclear Data Center

  9. Traditional Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Their Relation to Future Surgery for Valvular Heart Disease or Ascending Aortic Disease: A Case-Referent Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungberg, Johan; Johansson, Bengt; Engström, Karl Gunnar; Albertsson, Elin; Holmer, Paul; Norberg, Margareta; Bergdahl, Ingvar A; Söderberg, Stefan

    2017-05-05

    Risk factors for developing heart valve and ascending aortic disease are based mainly on retrospective data. To elucidate these factors in a prospective manner, we have performed a nested case-referent study using data from large, population-based surveys. A total of 777 patients operated for heart valve disease or disease of the ascending aorta had previously participated in population-based health surveys in Northern Sweden. Median time (interquartile range) from survey to surgery was 10.5 (9.0) years. Primary indications for surgery were aortic stenosis (41%), aortic regurgitation (12%), mitral regurgitation (23%), and dilatation/dissection of the ascending aorta (17%). For each case, referents were allocated, matched for age, sex, and geographical area. In multivariable models, surgery for aortic stenosis was predicted by hypertension, high cholesterol levels, diabetes mellitus, and active smoking. Surgery for aortic regurgitation was associated with a low cholesterol level, whereas a high cholesterol level predicted surgery for mitral regurgitation. Hypertension, blood pressure, and previous smoking predicted surgery for disease of the ascending aorta whereas diabetes mellitus was associated with reduced risk. After exclusion of cases with coronary atherosclerosis, only the inverse associations between cholesterol and aortic regurgitation and between diabetes mellitus and disease of the ascending aorta remained. This is the first truly prospective study of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and their association with valvular heart disease and disease of the ascending aorta. We confirm the strong association between traditional risk factors and aortic stenosis, but only in patients with concomitant coronary artery disease. In isolated valvular heart disease, the impact of traditional risk factors is varying. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  10. Doença de Coats: perfil de casos encaminhados para serviço referência em oncologia ocular Coats Disease: profile of patients referred to a reference ocular oncology service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Ferrari Marback

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relatar o perfil de pacientes com doença de Coats encaminhados para afastar o diagnóstico de retinoblastoma. MÉTODOS: Realizado estudo retrospectivo, com base na revisão de prontuários e exames de imagem, de dez pacientes consecutivos. Foram avaliados os dados referentes à idade, sexo, queixa principal, estágio da doença à apresentação, tratamento e evolução. RESULTADOS: A média de idade à apresentação foi de 43,9 meses. Oito pacientes eram do sexo masculino. Leucocoria ou estrabismo foram as principais queixas, presentes em nove casos. Oito pacientes tinham doença em estágio 3B, um estágio 3A e um estágio 2B. Dos oito casos com descolamento total de retina (3B em sete foi optado apenas pela observação e um submetido a retinopexia sem sucesso. O caso com descolamento parcial (3A foi tratado por crioterapia e depois feita fotocoagulação por laser diodo, evoluindo com reaplicação da retina e obliteração das teleangiectasias. O caso sem descolamento associado (2B foi tratado por fotocoagulação por laser de argônio, com boa obliteração dos vasos anormais. A acuidade visual final foi de percepção luminosa em 3 e ausência de percepção luminosa em 5 dos 8 casos com doença 3B, os casos com doença 3A e 2B mantiveram visão de movimentos de mão. Nenhum dos casos evoluiu para glaucoma neovascular no segmento médio de 26,7 meses. CONCLUSÃO: A maioria dos pacientes com doença de Coats encaminhados para afastar a suspeita de retinoblastoma apresenta doença avançada ao diagnóstico. Nestes casos, devido ao péssimo prognóstico visual e alta complexidade do tratamento cirúrgico, pode-se optar apenas pela observação.PURPOSE: To report the profile of Coats' disease patients, referred to exclude retinoblastoma. METHODS: Retrospective study of medical charts from ten consecutive patients. Data evaluated include age at diagnosis, gender, chief complain, disease stage, treatment and evolution. RESULTS: Mean

  11. The self-reference effect on episodic memory recollection in young and older adults and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalanne, Jennifer; Rozenberg, Johanna; Grolleau, Pauline; Piolino, Pascale

    2013-12-01

    The Self-reference effect (SRE) on long-term episodic memory and autonoetic consciousness has been investigated in young adults, scarcely in older adults, but never in Alzheimer's patients. Is the functional influence of Selfreference still present when the individual's memory and identity are impaired? We investigated this issue in 60 young subjects, 41 elderly subjects, and 28 patients with Alzheimer's disease, by using 1) an incidental learning task of personality traits in three encoding conditions, inducing variable degrees of depth of processing and personal involvement, 2) a 2- minute retention interval free recall task, and 3) a 20-minute delayed recognition task, combined with a remember-know paradigm. Each recorded score was corrected for errors (intrusions in free recall, false alarms in recognition, and false source memory in remember responses). Compared with alternative encodings, the Self-reference significantly enhanced performance on the free recall task in the young group, and on the recognition task both in the young and older groups but not in the Alzheimer group. The most important finding in the Alzheimer group is that the Self-reference led the most often to a subjective sense of remembering (especially for the positive words) with the retrieval of the correct encoding source. This Self-reference recollection effect in patients was related to independent subjective measures of a positive and definite sense of Self (measured by the Tennessee Self Concept Scale), and to memory complaints in daily life. In conclusion, these results demonstrated the power and robustness of the Self-reference effect on recollection in long-term episodic memory in Alzheimer's disease, albeit the retrieval is considerably reduced. These results should open new perspectives for the development of rehabilitation programs for memory deficits.

  12. Retinal diseases in a reference center from a Western Amazon capital city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malerbi, Fernando Korn; Matsudo, Nilson Hideo; Carneiro, Adriano Biondi Monteiro; Lottenberg, Claudio Luiz

    2015-01-01

    To describe retinal diseases found in patients who were waiting for treatment at a tertiary care hospital in Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil. Patients underwent slit lamp biomicroscopy, dilated fundus exam and ocular ultrasound. Patients were classified according to phakic status and retinal disease of the most severely affected eye. A total of 138 patients were examined. The mean age was 51.3 years. Diabetes was present in 35.3% and hypertension in 45.4% of these patients. Cataract was found in 23.2% of patients, in at least one eye. Retinal examination was possible in 129 patients. The main retinal diseases identified were rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (n=23; 17.8%) and diabetic retinopathy (n=32; 24.8%). Out of 40 patients evaluated due to diabetes, 13 (32.5%) had absent or mild forms of diabetic retinopathy and did not need further treatment, only observation. Diabetic retinopathy was the main retinal disease in this population. It is an avoidable cause of blindness and can be remotely evaluated, in its initial stages, by telemedicine strategies. In remote Brazilian areas, telemedicine may be an important tool for retinal diseases diagnosis and follow-up.

  13. Orthopaedic measurements with computed radiography: Methodological development, accuracy, and radiation dose with special reference to the weight-bearing lower extremity and the dislocating patella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfridsson, J. [Univ. Hospital, Lund (Sweden). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology

    2001-03-01

    The overall aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a measurement system for computed radiography and Picture Archiving and Communication Systems, permitting measurements of long distances and angles in and between related images. The developed measurement system, which was based on the QUESTOR Precision Radiography system, was applied to the weight-bearing knee with special reference to the dislocating patella. The QPR system modified for CR fulfilled the criteria for measuring the weight-bearing knee. The special measuring assistance tools that were developed were important for the implementation of CR and PACS, particularly in workstations programmed for musculoskeletal radiology. The energy imparted to the patient was reduced by 98% at the lowest exposure of the CR-system, compared with our conventional analogue method, without loss of diagnostic accuracy. The CR technique creates a possibility, to an extent not previously feasible, to differentiate the exposure parameters (and thus minimise the radiation dose to the patient) by carefully considering the purpose of the examination. A radiographic method for measuring the rotation of the femur and the tibia, and the patellar translation was developed and applied to healthy volunteers. The introduced patellar variables have yielded new insights into the complex sequence of motions between the femur, tibia, and patella. The patients with a dislocating patella were subdivided into one 'clean' group of spontaneous dislocations and one group with various traumas in the history, which thus resulted in two groups with distinct radiographic differences. The Q-angle was decreased in knees that had suffered dislocations, and the traditional surgical treatment with a further reduction of the Q-angle must be challenged. The use of clinical measurements of the Q-angle was not an optimal way to evaluate the mechanical alignment in the patellofemoral joint under physiological conditions. In this study, we have

  14. Collateral Damage and Communicable Disease with Particular Reference to Tactical Nuclear War in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-10-31

    incidence of communicable disease attrib- utable to the radiation exposure. Measles, chicken pox , etc., did occur but were within the normal range. 4.4...SMALLPOX MEXICO MILLIONS 50 1603 BUBONIC PLAGUE LONDON 34,000 14 1628 TYPHUS LYONS, FRANCE 60,000 1665 BUBONIC PLAGUE LONDON 100,000 27 1711 BUBONIC PLAGUE

  15. Clinical features and prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease in infants attending a pediatric gastroenterology reference service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koda, Yu Kar Ling; Ozaki, Marcos J; Murasca, Kelly; Vidolin, Eliana

    2010-01-01

    In infants, it is not always easy to distinguish between pathological and physiological gastroesophageal reflux based only on clinical criteria. In Brazil, studies about gastroesophageal reflux disease in infants are few and are even rare those that used prolonged esophageal pH monitoring for its evaluation. To describe the clinical features of gastroesophageal reflux disease and to determine its prevalence in infants with gastroesophageal reflux attending a tertiary Pediatric Gastroenterology Service and submitted to esophageal pH monitoring for investigation. Descriptive study in 307 infants in whom esophageal pH monitoring (Mark III Digitrapper, Synectics Medical AB, Sweden) was performed during the period December, 1998-December, 2008. The clinical features studied were age group (1-12 months and 13-24 months), and clinical manifestations that motivated the indication of pH monitoring. One hundred twenty-four (40.4%) were female and 183 (59.6%) male with mean age 12.2 +/- 6.2 months (1-23 months). The prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease was 18.2% (56/307). One hundred forty-eight (48.2%) were 1-12 months old and 159 (51.8%), 13-24 months. No significant difference was found between the prevalence of these two age groups (P = 0.3006). Gastroesophageal reflux disease was more frequent in those with digestive manifestations (24.2%), crisis of cyanosis/apnea (23.8%) and mixed manifestations (21.5%). Respiratory manifestations were the most frequent indication (39.1%) of pH monitoring. However, the prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease was lower (12.5%) in this group compared with in those with digestive manifestations (P = 0.0574), crisis of cyanosis/apnea (P = 0.0882) and mixed manifestations (P = 0.1377). All infants that presented clinical manifestations as crisis of cyanosis/apnea and abnormal pH-metry were Service, the prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease associated with acid reflux in infants revealed elevated. Infants with crisis

  16. H_2-receptor Antagonist Therapy : With Special Reference to Ranitidine(Current Medical Therapy for Upper Gastrointestinal Ulcer Disease)

    OpenAIRE

    渡辺, 裕; 村山, 久夫; Watanabe, Yutaka; Murayama, Hisao

    1988-01-01

    The cure rate for endoscopic therapy was determined in 61 patients with a gastroduodenal ulcer who received Ranitidine at a dose of 150 mg twice daily, in the morning and evening. The ulcer patients were classified into initial-, recurrent-and intractable-ulcer groups, and the cumulative cure rate was compared among the three types of ulcers. The cure rate was 93% for the initial ulcer, 78% for recurrent and 50% for intractable. Uncured ulcers accounted for about 10% of the patients, and the ...

  17. Rationale for Possible Targeting of Histone Deacetylase Signaling in Cancer Diseases with a Special Reference to Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ouaïssi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is ongoing interest to identify signaling pathways and genes that play a key role in carcinogenesis and the development of resistance to antitumoral drugs. Given that histone deacetylases (HDACs interact with various partners through complex molecular mechanims leading to the control of gene expression, they have captured the attention of a large number of researchers. As a family of transcriptional corepressors, they have emerged as important regulators of cell differentiation, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis. Several HDAC inhibitors (HDACis have been shown to efficiently protect against the growth of tumor cells in vitro as well as in vivo. The pancreatic cancer which represents one of the most aggressive cancer still suffers from inefficient therapy. Recent data, although using in vitro tumor cell cultures and in vivo chimeric mouse model, have shown that some of the HDACi do express antipancreatic tumor activity. This provides hope that some of the HDACi could be potential efficient anti-pancreatic cancer drugs. The purpose of this review is to analyze some of the current data of HDACi as possible targets of drug development and to provide some insight into the current problems with pancreatic cancer and points of interest for further study of HDACi as potential molecules for pancreatic cancer adjuvant therapy.

  18. Prevalence of Neoplastic Diseases in Pet Birds Referred for Surgical Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia F. Castro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neoplastic disease is common in pet birds, particularly in psittacines, and treatment should be primarily aimed at tumor eradication. Nineteen cases of pet birds submitted to diagnostic and/or therapeutic surgical procedures due to neoplastic disease characterized by the presence of visible masses were retrospectively analyzed; affected species, types of neoplasms and respective locations, and outcomes of surgical procedures were determined. All birds undergoing surgery belonged to the order Psittaciformes; the Blue-fronted parrot (Amazona aestiva was the prevalent species. Lipoma was the most frequent neoplasm in the sample studied. Most neoplasms affected the integumentary system, particularly the pericloacal area. Tumor resection was the most common surgical procedure performed, with high resolution and low recurrence rates.

  19. Prevalence of Neoplastic Diseases in Pet Birds Referred for Surgical Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Patrícia F.; Fantoni, Denise T.; Miranda, Bruna C.; Matera, Julia M.

    2016-01-01

    Neoplastic disease is common in pet birds, particularly in psittacines, and treatment should be primarily aimed at tumor eradication. Nineteen cases of pet birds submitted to diagnostic and/or therapeutic surgical procedures due to neoplastic disease characterized by the presence of visible masses were retrospectively analyzed; affected species, types of neoplasms and respective locations, and outcomes of surgical procedures were determined. All birds undergoing surgery belonged to the order Psittaciformes; the Blue-fronted parrot (Amazona aestiva) was the prevalent species. Lipoma was the most frequent neoplasm in the sample studied. Most neoplasms affected the integumentary system, particularly the pericloacal area. Tumor resection was the most common surgical procedure performed, with high resolution and low recurrence rates. PMID:26981315

  20. Neuroanatomy of pars intercerebralis neurons with special reference to their connections with neurons immunoreactive for pigment-dispersing factor in the blow fly Protophormia terraenovae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuyama, Kouji; Hase, Hiroaki; Shiga, Sakiko

    2015-10-01

    Input regions of pars intercerebralis (PI) neurons are examined by confocal and electron microscopies with special reference to their connections with neurons immunoreactive for pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) in the blow fly, Protophormia terraenovae. PI neurons are a prerequisite for ovarian development under long-day conditions. Backfills from the cardiac recurrent nerve after severance of the posterior lateral tracts labeled thin fibers derived from the PI neurons in the superior medial protocerebrum. These PI fibers were mainly synapsin-negative and postsynaptic to unknown varicose profiles containing dense-core vesicles. Backfilled fibers in the periesophageal neuropils, derived from the PI neurons or neurons with somata in the subesophageal zone, were varicose and some were synapsin-positive. Electron microscopy revealed the presence of both presynaptic and postsynaptic sites in backfilled fibers in the periesophageal neuropils. Many PDF-immunoreactive varicosities were found in the superior medial and lateral protocerebrum and double-labeling showed that 60-88 % of PDF-immunoreactive varicosities were also synapsin-immunoreactive. Double-labeling with the backfills and PDF immunocytochemistry showed that the PI fibers and PDF-immunoreactive varicosities were located close to each other in the superior medial protocerebrum. Results of triple-labeling of PI neurons, PDF-immunoreactive neurons and synapsin-immunoreactive terminals demonstrated that the synapsin-positive PDF-immunoreactive varicosities contacted the PI fibers. These data suggest that PI neurons receive synaptic contacts from PDF-immunoreactive fibers, which are derived from circadian clock neurons, of small ventral lateral neurons (previously called OL2) or posterior dorsal (PD) neurons with somata in the pars lateralis.

  1. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in sickle cell disease: patient selection and special considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatia M

    2015-07-01

    be donors. Matched siblings should be referred to an experienced transplant center for evaluation and counseling. In this review, we will discuss the rationale for these opinions and make recommendations for patient selection.Keywords: sickle cell disease, morbidity, stem cell transplantation, patient selection, matched sibling donor

  2. The OIE World Animal Health Information System: the role of OIE Reference Laboratories and Collaborating Centres in disease reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Jebara, K

    2010-12-01

    One of the main objectives of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) is to ensure transparency in and knowledge of the world animal health situation. To achieve this objective, the OIE relies on its network of Member Countries, which is complemented by the activities of 221 Reference Laboratories (RLs) and Collaborating Centres. The RL mandate states that, in the case of positive results for diseases notifiable to the OIE, the laboratory should inform the OIE Delegate of the Member Country from which the samples originated and send a copy of the information to OIE Headquarters. However, since 2006 the OIE has received a lower than expected number of notifications from RLs, which implies eitherthat the majority of samples are sent to national laboratories or that some RLs are not fully complying with their mandate. The OIE sent a questionnaire to RLs in preparation for the Second Global Conference of OIE Reference Laboratories and Collaborating Centres (Paris, France, 21-23 June 2010). Two main factors emerged: the need for RLs to clarify their role and responsibilities in disease reporting and the need for an awareness campaign to sensitise national Veterinary Services to the importance of conducting more surveillance (and consequently of submitting samples to RLs) for all OIE-listed diseases. Reference laboratories indicated two main reasons for not sharing more data on positive samples with the OIE: i) a perceived contradiction between their mandate as OIE RLs and the standards of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) dealing with confidentiality; and ii) certain Member Countries or stakeholders asking RLs not to share positive results with the OIE, for political or economic reasons. The OIE has put forward proposals to help RLs resolve these problems in future. The use of ISO standards must be clarified and there must be improved communication between the OIE and its RLs. A lack of transparency about a significant disease event can

  3. Role of the nucleolus in neurodegenerative diseases with particular reference to the retina: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sia, Paul I; Wood, John Pm; Chidlow, Glyn; Sharma, Shiwani; Craig, Jamie; Casson, Robert J

    2016-04-01

    The nucleolus has emerged as a key regulator of cellular growth and the response to stress, in addition to its traditionally understood function in ribosome biogenesis. The association between nucleolar function and neurodegenerative disease is increasingly being explored. There is also recent evidence indicating that the nucleolus may well be crucial in the development of the eye. In this present review, the role of the nucleolus in retinal development as well as in neurodegeneration with an emphasis on the retina is discussed. © 2015 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  4. Prevalence of Celiac Disease and Helicobacter Pylori in Patients Referred to Endoscopy Section of Taleghani Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Mohammadi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: According to previous studies celiac disease(CD is frequently associated with chronic gastritis. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of CD and Helicobacter pylori in patients with dyspepsia. Methods: 325 patients were studied from April 2008 to April 2009 who underwent endoscopic procedures for dyspepsia. Gastric antrum, duodenal biopsies, serology with tissue Transglutaminase Antibodies(tTGA and total IgA were performed for detection of H. pylori and CD. Results: Out of 325 patients 312(96% had a positive H. pylori. Heart burn and bloating were the most prevalent symptoms in this study. Twenty one of 25 patients with positive histology for CD who had gastric biopsies were positive for H. pylori(84%. Duodenal biopsy specimens results have shown normal histology in 213(65.5%, hyperplastic polyps in 1(0.4%, duodenitis in 79(24.3% and abnormality in small bowel (Marsh I-IIIc in 25(10%. In term of the serological analysis, 9 of 26 tTGA positive patients had abnormal histology (Marsh I-IIIc(2.7%. Conclusion: Similar to previous reports, we found a high prevalence of H. pylori infection and celiac disease in dyspeptic patients. Therefore, further studies for screening occult CD in dyspeptic patients is seems necessary.

  5. Evaluation of Methacholine Challenge Test Results in Chronic Cough Patients Referring to Clinic of Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derakhshan Deilami Gholamreza

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic cough is a common problem in patients visiting physicians and its prevalence in different populations range from 3 to 40%. Postnasal drip, asthma and gastroesophageal reflux are the known cause of chronic cough. Although diagnosis of asthma is usually made by clinical signs and spirometeric results, methacholine challenge test is a good diagnostic test in patients who show normal physical examination and spirometeric results. In this study, the results of methacholine challenge test in chronic cough patients are investigated. This is a cross sectional study performed on patients suffering from chronic cough (over 8 weeks, who went to Pulmonary Disease Clinic of Imam Khomeini Hospital in 2006. Postnasal drip, gastroesophageal reflux was evaluated and ruled out in all patients. Then they were tested by methacholine inhalation using low to high doses of methacholine. The results of test was defined as 20% fall in FEV1 and its relationship with age, sex, history of allergic disease, family history of asthma and smoking status was investigated. 81 patients (36 female and 45 male entered this study who had mean age of 32.5 ± 13.06 years. 81.5% of patients had never smoked or closed contact with smokers, 6.2% were passive smokers, 8.6% were smokers and 3.7% had quit smoking. 37% had suffered from chronic cough less than 6 months, 11% for 6-11 months and 52% for more than 12 months. In 26% of patients, family history of asthma was present and 34.5% had a history of one type of allergy. In 29.5% the results of methacholine challenge test was positive, among them 45.8% showed an intense response and 54.2% a moderate response. The test results and its intensity had no statistically significant relationship with age, sex, smoking status, the duration of cough and family history of asthma, but the relationship between methacholine challenge test and the history of allergic disease was significant. Methacholine challenge test can be used as a

  6. The sequential development of type I and type II ostertagiasis in young cattle with special reference to biochemical and serological changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entrocasso, C; McKellar, Q; Parkins, J J; Bairden, K; Armour, J; Kloosterman, A

    1986-08-01

    The sequential development of Type I and Type II ostertagiasis over a 2-year period in the same naturally infected cattle is described for the first time. Particular reference is made to biochemical and serological changes. Positive relationships were demonstrated between the clinical signs of both Type I and Type II disease, and marked increases in the levels of plasma pepsinogen, plasma gastrin and antibody titres to adult Ostertagia antigen. At necropsy, there were significant relationships between the combined total of adult and developing 5th stage larvae of Ostertagia spp. and the levels of both plasma pepsinogen and gastrin. By the end of the second grazing season the cattle had acquired an immunity to infection with Ostertagia spp. and had very low burdens of this parasite at necropsy. However some of these cattle maintained elevated plasma pepsinogen levels when under natural challenge by Ostertagia spp. larvae and the aetiology of these changes and the problems of diagnosis using this parameter are discussed. Similar trends of infection were observed for Cooperia oncophora, although resistance to the parasite developed more rapidly.

  7. Paediatric gastroenterology evaluation of overweight and obese children referred from primary care for suspected non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwimmer, J B; Newton, K P; Awai, H I; Choi, L J; Garcia, M A; Ellis, L L; Vanderwall, K; Fontanesi, J

    2013-01-01

    Background Screening overweight and obese children for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is recommended by paediatric and endocrinology societies. However, gastroenterology societies have called for more data before making a formal recommendation. Aim To determine whether the detection of suspected NAFLD in overweight and obese children through screening in primary care and referral to paediatric gastroenterology resulted in a correct diagnosis of NAFLD. Methods Information generated in the clinical evaluation of 347 children identified with suspected NAFLD through screening in primary care and referral to paediatric gastroenterology was captured prospectively. Diagnostic outcomes were reported. The diagnostic performance of two times the upper limit of normal (ULN) for alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was assessed. Results Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was diagnosed in 55% of children identified by screening and referral. Liver disease other than NAFLD was present in 18% of those referred. Autoimmune hepatitis was the most common alternative diagnosis. Children with NAFLD had significantly (P gastroenterology has the potential to identify clinically relevant liver pathology. Consensus is needed on how to value the risk and rewards of screening and referral, to identify children with liver disease in the most appropriate manner. PMID:24117728

  8. Relative frequency and estimated minimal frequency of Lysosomal Storage Diseases in Brazil: Report from a Reference Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Giugliani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs comprise a heterogeneous group of more than 50 genetic conditions of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM caused by a defect in lysosomal function. Although there are screening tests for some of these conditions, diagnosis usually depends on specific enzyme assays, which are only available in a few laboratories around the world. A pioneer facility for the diagnosis of IEM and LSDs was established in the South of Brazil in 1982 and has served as a reference service since then. Over the past 34 years, samples from 72,797 patients were referred for investigation of IEM, and 3,211 were confirmed as having an LSD (4.41%, or 1 in 22, with 3,099 of these patients originating from Brazil. The rate of diagnosis has increased over time, in part due to the creation of diagnostic networks involving a large number of Brazilian services. These cases, referred from Brazilian regions, provide insight about the relative frequency of LSDs in the country. The large amount of data available allows for the estimation of the minimal frequency of specific LSDs in Brazil. The reported data could help to plan health care policies, as there are specific therapies available for most of the cases diagnosed.

  9. Monitoring of left ventricular ejection fraction with a miniature, nonimaging nuclear detector: accuracy and reliability over time with special reference to blood labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhardt, T B; Hesse, B; Gadsbøll, N

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of determinations of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) by a nonimaging miniature nuclear detector system (Cardioscint) and to evaluate the feasibility of long-term LVEF monitoring in patients admitted to the coronary care unit, with special reference to the blood-labeling technique. Cardioscint LVEF values were compared with measurements of LVEF by conventional gamma camera radionuclide ventriculography in 33 patients with a wide range of LVEF values. In 21 of the 33 patients, long-term monitoring was carried out for 1 to 4 hours (mean 186 minutes), with three different kits: one for in vivo and two for in vitro red blood cell labeling. The stability of the labeling was assessed by determination of the activity of blood samples taken during the first 24 hours after blood labeling. The agreement between Cardioscint LVEF and gamma camera LVEF was good with automatic background correction (r = 0.82; regression equation y = 1.04x + 3.88) but poor with manual background correction (r = 0.50; y = 0.88x - 0.55). The agreement was highest in patients without wall motion abnormalities. The long-term monitoring showed no difference between morning and afternoon Cardioscint LVEF values. Short-lasting fluctuations in LVEFs greater than 10 EF units were observed in the majority of the patients. After 24 hours, the mean reduction in the physical decay-corrected count rate of the blood samples was most pronounced for the two in vitro blood-labeling kits (57% +/- 9% and 41% +/- 3%) and less for the in vivo blood-labeling kit (32% +/- 26%). This "biologic decay" had a marked influence on the Cardioscint monitoring results, demanding frequent background correction. A fairly accurate estimate of LVEF can be obtained with the nonimaging Cardioscint system, and continuous bedside LVEF monitoring can proceed for hours with little inconvenience to the patients. Instability of the red blood cell labeling during long

  10. Comparative evaluation of bivalent malaria rapid diagnostic tests versus traditional methods in field with special reference to heat stability testing in Central India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeru Singh

    Full Text Available Malaria presents a diagnostic challenge in areas where both Plasmodium falciparum and P.vivax are co-endemic. Bivalent Rapid Diagnostic tests (RDTs showed promise as diagnostic tools for P.falciparum and P.vivax. To assist national malaria control programme in the selection of RDTs, commercially available seven malaria RDTs were evaluated in terms of their performance with special reference to heat stability.This study was undertaken in four forested districts of central India (July, 2011- March, 2012. All RDTs were tested simultaneously in field along with microscopy as gold standard. These RDTs were stored in their original packing at 25°C before transport to the field or they were stored at 35°C and 45°C upto 100 days for testing the performance of RDTs at high temperature. In all 2841 patients with fever were screened for malaria of which 26% were positive for P.falciparum, and 17% for P.vivax. The highest sensitivity of any RDT for P.falciparum was 98% (95% CI; 95.9-98.8 and lowest sensitivity was 76% (95% CI; 71.7-79.6. For P.vivax highest and lowest sensitivity for any RDT was 80% (95% CI; 94.9 - 83.9 and 20% (95% CI; 15.6-24.5 respectively. Heat stability experiments showed that most RDTs for P.falciparum showed high sensitivity at 45°C upto 90 days. While for P.vivax only two RDTs maintained good sensitivity upto day 90 when compared with RDTs kept at room temperature. Agreement between observers was excellent for positive and negative readings for both P.falciparum and P.vivax (Kappa >0.6-0.9.This is first field evaluation of RDTs regarding their temperature stability. Although RDTs are useful as diagnostic tool for P.falciparum and P.vivax even at high temperature, the quality of RDTs should be regulated and monitored more closely.

  11. Use of enzyme immunoassays in disease diagnosis, with particular reference to rinderpest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowther, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    The wider principles of the use of enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) in diagnosis are illustrated. The development of an antirinderpest antibody assay is explained in order to demonstrate the relative ease with which the test can be set up and used in various countries. The various stages of the test can be standardized in central laboratories; for example, antigen (inactivated) can be prepared and passively attached to microplates. Purchasing and titration of conjugates and selection of negative control sera could also be done centrally. Thus 'kits' for the initiation of diagnosis could be rapidly made available. When assays have been used in specific countries to study antibody populations in large numbers of animals, it may be found necessary to modify the above procedures; for example, different negative sera may be necessary, reflecting the mean (and distribution) of the country. Relatively simple standardization steps to titrate antigen, conjugates and sera would allow assays to be set up in individual countries with no need for outside standardization. However, it may be useful to obtain sero-negative and sero-positive standards from an outside source which could be used on a worldwide basis for interlaboratory standardization. The provision of washing solution, blocking buffers, plates, pipettes and readers is the only requisite for the versatility of ELISA to be fully realized in the study of many disease agents. (author)

  12. 77 FR 20822 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... in response to ``Identifying Modifiable Protective Factors for Intimate Partner Violence or Sexual... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease... announced below concerns Identifying Modifiable Protective Factors for Intimate Partner Violence or Sexual...

  13. 76 FR 28438 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... announced below concerns ``Affordable Care Act (ACA): Childhood Obesity Research Funding Opportunity..., discussion, and evaluation of ``Affordable Care Act (ACA): Childhood Obesity Research Funding Opportunity... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease...

  14. 76 FR 9020 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control; Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Ability of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ... Integrated Tick Management (ITM) Technologies To Reduce the Entomological Risk of Lyme Disease, Funding... Tick Management (ITM) Technologies To Reduce the Entomological Risk of Lyme Disease, FOA CK11-005...

  15. Reference values for the incremental shuttle walk test in patients with cardiovascular disease entering exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Fernando M F; Almodhy, Meshal; Pepera, Garyfalia; Stasinopoulos, Dimitrios M; Sandercock, Gavin R H

    2017-01-01

    The incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT) is used to assess functional capacity of patients entering cardiac rehabilitation. Factors such as age and sex account for a proportion of the variance in test performance in healthy individuals but there are no reference values for patients with cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to produce reference values for the ISWT. Participants were n = 548 patients referred to outpatient cardiac rehabilitation who underwent a clinical examination and performed the ISWT. We used regression to identify predictors of performance and produced centile values using the generalised additive model for location, scale and shape model. Men walked significantly further than women (395 ± 165 vs. 269 ± 118 m; t = 9.5, P < 0.001) so data were analysed separately by sex. Age (years) was the strongest predictor of performance in men (β = -5.9; 95% CI: -7.1 to -4.6 m) and women (β = -4.8; 95% CI: -6.3 to 3.3). Centile curves demonstrated a broadly linear decrease in expected ISWT values in males (25-85 years) and a more curvilinear trend in females. Patients entering cardiac rehabilitation present with highly heterogeneous ISWT values. Much of the variance in performance can be explained by patients' age and sex. Comparing absolute values with age-and sex-specific reference values may aid interpretation of ISWT performance during initial patient assessment at entry to cardiac rehabilitation.

  16. Specialized nursing practice for chronic disease management in the primary care setting: an evidence-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    In response to the increasing demand for better chronic disease management and improved health care efficiency in Ontario, nursing roles have expanded in the primary health care setting. To determine the effectiveness of specialized nurses who have a clinical role in patient care in optimizing chronic disease management among adults in the primary health care setting. A literature search was performed using OVID MEDLINE, OVID MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, OVID EMBASE, EBSCO Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Wiley Cochrane Library, and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination database. Results were limited to randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews and were divided into 2 models: Model 1 (nurse alone versus physician alone) and Model 2 (nurse and physician versus physician alone). Effectiveness was determined by comparable outcomes between groups in Model 1, or improved outcomes or efficiency in Model 2. Six studies were included. In Model 1, there were no significant differences in health resource use, disease-specific measures, quality of life, or patient satisfaction. In Model 2, there was a reduction in hospitalizations and improved management of blood pressure and lipids among patients with coronary artery disease. Among patients with diabetes, there was a reduction in hemoglobin A1c but no difference in other disease-specific measures. There was a trend toward improved process measures, including medication prescribing and clinical assessments. Results related to quality of life were inconsistent, but patient satisfaction with the nurse-physician team was improved. Overall, there were more and longer visits to the nurse, and physician workload did not change. There was heterogeneity across patient populations, and in the titles, roles, and scope of practice of the specialized nurses. Specialized nurses with an autonomous role in patient care had comparable outcomes to physicians alone (Model

  17. 78 FR 75923 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease... announced below concerns Clinical, Epidemiologic and Ecologic Factors Impacting the Burden and Distribution... Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the...

  18. Polycystic ovarian disease: endocrinological parameters with specific reference to growth hormone and somatomedin-C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urdl, W

    1988-01-01

    Thirty-three women (22-38 years old) with polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) were included in this study. The criteria for diagnosis were: an LH/FSH ratio greater than 2.0; polycystic ovaries, diagnosed by means of palpation and ultrasound; androgenism and menstrual cycle abnormalities. Using endocrine parameters, we attempted to define distinct forms of PCOD. The patients were placed in three groups according to serum levels of testosterone (T) and 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17 alpha OHP) and the estrone/androstendione (E1/delta 4A) ratio. Patients in group I (n = 18) had an elevated T level (greater than 1.0 ng/ml) and a 17 alpha OHP level under 4.0 ng/ml. This type of POCD was called the "androgen" type. Patients in group II (n = 7) had normal T- and 17 alpha OHP levels under 4.0 ng/ml and an elevated (E1/delta 4A) ratio. This type of PCOD was called the "estrogen" type. Group III (n = 8) comprised patients with 17 alpha OHP levels over 4.0 ng/ml. This type of PCOD was called the "adrenocortical" type. In two patients of this group, a modified ACTH test revealed late-onset congenital hyperplasia. The endocrine parameters of the patients with PCOD were compared with those of 17 adult without signs of PCOD. Statistical evaluation was done by variance analysis. Women with acromegaly often show signs of androgenism as well as menstrual cycle abnormalities. This may indicate an association between the growth factors human growth hormone (HGH) and somatomedin-C (Sm-C) and the biosynthese and metabolism of steroid hormone. Recent experiments have demonstrated such associations. Our study showed an association between the HGH and Sm-C levels and abnormal steroid hormone concentrations in women with androgen type PCOD (group I). These patients had a significantly decreased HGH level, a significantly decreased HGH/Sm-C ratio, and an increased average Sm-C level. These data suggest that elevated Sm-C levels can, by a negative-feedback mechanism, inhibit pituitary HGH

  19. 76 FR 20355 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Funding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ..., Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Funding Opportunity Announcement... Research Network (MD STARnet); Feasibility of Expansion to Other Muscular Dystrophies (FOA) DD11-006... Network (MD STARnet); Feasibility of Expansion to Other Muscular Dystrophies (FOA) DD11-006, initial...

  20. A review of data on the effects of low and low dose-rate radiation with special reference to the dose limit problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsudaira, Hiromichi

    1977-01-01

    This is a review of data pertaining to detection and quantification of the effects after exposure to low LET radiations delivered at low and low dose-rate, i.e., at a level of maximum permissible dose for the radiation workers, on experimental materials ranging from plant to rodents and on some human populations. Irradiation at a dose of a few rad is reported to induce mutation or malignant transformation in some selected model systems, with a linear dose-effect relationship. Moreover, the incidence of the chromosome aberrations in spermatocytes is reported to be elevated in the scorpiones (Tityus bahiensis) collected in a region of high natural background radiations (several rem/year). An increase in the incidence of childhood malignancies is reported among children exposed in utero to diagnostic X-rays. Appreciable increase in the incidence of genetic diseases due possibly to chromosome aberrations is also reported among population living in a region of high natural background radiations. Points are raised and discussed as to the interpretation and particularly application of these data to the estimation of somatic and genetic risks of human population from man-made radiations. Recent attempts of risk-benefit analysis with populations subjected to mass X-ray examination of the chest and stomac are referred to. Since we are unaware of the actual injuries due to the exposure even at the level of radiation workers (5 rem/year), it is out of the capacity of a biologist to afford the basis for the decision of limiting the exposure of general population due to the light water reactor operation to 5 mrem/year. (auth.)

  1. An integrated database on ticks and tick-borne zoonoses in the tropics and subtropics with special reference to developing and emerging countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesco, Umberto; Knap, Nataša; Labruna, Marcelo B; Avšič-Županc, Tatjana; Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Guglielmone, Alberto A; Bechara, Gervasio H; Gueye, Arona; Lakos, Andras; Grindatto, Anna; Conte, Valeria; De Meneghi, Daniele

    2011-05-01

    Tick-borne zoonoses (TBZ) are emerging diseases worldwide. A large amount of information (e.g. case reports, results of epidemiological surveillance, etc.) is dispersed through various reference sources (ISI and non-ISI journals, conference proceedings, technical reports, etc.). An integrated database-derived from the ICTTD-3 project ( http://www.icttd.nl )-was developed in order to gather TBZ records in the (sub-)tropics, collected both by the authors and collaborators worldwide. A dedicated website ( http://www.tickbornezoonoses.org ) was created to promote collaboration and circulate information. Data collected are made freely available to researchers for analysis by spatial methods, integrating mapped ecological factors for predicting TBZ risk. The authors present the assembly process of the TBZ database: the compilation of an updated list of TBZ relevant for (sub-)tropics, the database design and its structure, the method of bibliographic search, the assessment of spatial precision of geo-referenced records. At the time of writing, 725 records extracted from 337 publications related to 59 countries in the (sub-)tropics, have been entered in the database. TBZ distribution maps were also produced. Imported cases have been also accounted for. The most important datasets with geo-referenced records were those on Spotted Fever Group rickettsiosis in Latin-America and Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever in Africa. The authors stress the need for international collaboration in data collection to update and improve the database. Supervision of data entered remains always necessary. Means to foster collaboration are discussed. The paper is also intended to describe the challenges encountered to assemble spatial data from various sources and to help develop similar data collections.

  2. Stress and quality of life among parents of children with congenital heart disease referred for psychological services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaugars, Astrida; Shields, Clarissa; Brosig, Cheryl

    2018-01-01

    The study examined parent stress and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among families of children with congenital heart disease (CHD) referred for psychological services. Parents of 54 children (85% boys) aged 3 to 13 (M age  = 7.48, SD = 2.38) completed measures to assess parenting stress (Parenting Stress Index - Short Form; Pediatric Inventory for Parents) and the PedsQL Family Impact Module. Medical information was retrieved from medical record review. Half of parents of children with single ventricle anatomy had clinically significant levels of parenting stress. Parents of children with single ventricle anatomy reported more frequent illness-related stress and more difficulty dealing with illness-related stress than parents of children with two ventricle anatomy. Younger gestational age at birth and referral for attention or behavior problems were associated with greater likelihood of parent at-risk psychosocial functioning. Among children referred for psychological services, many parents report significant stress and significant negative impact of the child's medical condition on the family. Results underscore the need to consider assessing parent psychosocial functioning and providing additional support for parents of children with CHD. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Prevalence and sonographic changes compatible with fatty liver disease in patients referred for abdominal ultrasound examination in Aracaju, SE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josilda Ferreira Cruz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To estimate the prevalence and evaluate sonographic findings compatible with changes consistent with hepatic steatosis in patients referred for abdominal ultrasonography at four reference centers in Aracaju, SE, Brazil. Materials and Methods: Prospective, descriptive survey, with analytical and quantitative approach, comprising abdominal ultrasonography scans performed with a convex, dynamic 3.75 MHz transducer. Liver dimensions and parenchymal echotexture were evaluated, classifying hepatic steatosis into grades (1, 2 or 3. The SPSS® 22.0 software was used for statistical analysis, adopting p < 0.05 as significance level. Results: A total of 800 individuals (561 women and 239 men were evaluated. The prevalence of steatosis was 29.1%, and the male patients were most affected, presenting with more advanced grades of disease (p = 0.021, as follows: 119 grade 1 (51.0%; 94 grade 2 (40.4%; and 20 grade 3 (8.6%. The median age patients' was 46 years. Conclusion: In the present study sample, the prevalence of hepatic steatosis was high, particularly in the male patients. Ultrasonography is suggested as a first choice for the diagnosis of this condition, considering its wide availability, low cost and absence of side effects or risks to the patient.

  4. Viral Diseases of Public Health Importance in India: Current Priorities with Special Emphasis on Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mageshbabu Ramamurthy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available India faces problems with both communicable and non communicable diseases. The major non communicable diseases are cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. This article focuses on communicable diseases (infectious diseases especially viral infections of public health importance. The infections include bacterial, parasitic and viruses. It could be said that fungal infections by the nature of the spread are not of public health concern. The viral infections are transmitted by the respiratory route, water and food borne route, vectors and blood and blood products, sexual route and are of major concern. Efforts are aimed at early detection, prevention by use of vaccines and sentinel surveillance. For the success of public health programmes sentinel surveillance of diseases is mandatory. India has got several programme initiatives addressing the problem. The programs include IDSP, VBDCP and NACO. The approximate cumulative annual prevalence of infectious disease in India ranges from 100 to 200 million individuals affected in one year. India should aim to improve case detection by strengthening laboratory services with manpower training and nationwide quality control scheme, sentinel surveillance activity and prevention by improving the efficiency and scope of UIP. Also, creation of a single portal of infectious disease data handling hub to collect information from different sources will help avoid overlap and duplication of reporting.

  5. 75 FR 7283 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-18

    ... Interface Activities for Avian Influenza and Other Zoonotic Diseases, Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA... Interface Activities for Avian Influenza and other Zoonotic Diseases, FOA CK10-001.'' Contact Person for... Office, has been delegated the authority to sign Federal Register notices pertaining to announcements of...

  6. 78 FR 19489 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... Increase Breast and Cervical Cancer Population--Based Prevention Activities SIP13-066, Panel A, initial... Colorectal Cancer Screening, SIP13-065; and Using Small Media to Increase Breast and Cervical Cancer... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease...

  7. 76 FR 28790 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... announced below concerns Affordable Care Act (ACA): Childhood Obesity Research Funding Opportunity... ``Affordable Care Act (ACA): Childhood Obesity Research Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) DP11-007, Panel... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease...

  8. 76 FR 4702 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Cooperative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... the National Academic Centers of Excellence in Youth Violence Prevention (U01), Funding Opportunity... Centers of Excellence in Youth Violence Prevention (U01), FOA CE10-004, initial review''. Agenda items are... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease...

  9. Congenital Heart Disease: Guidelines of Care for Children with Special Health Care Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota State Dept. of Health, Minneapolis. Services for Children with Handicaps.

    These guidelines were written to help families coordinate the health care that may be needed by a child with congenital heart disease. The booklet begins with general information about congenital heart disease. It then discusses the goals of health care, the health care team, the importance of periodic health care, and record keeping procedures.…

  10. Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera, Hesperioidea from Ponta Grossa, Paraná, Brazil: 70 years of records with special reference to faunal composition of Vila Velha State Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf H. H. Mielke

    2012-03-01

    from Ponta Grossa, Paraná, Brazil: 70 years of records with special reference to faunal composition of Vila Velha State Park. The municipality of Ponta Grossa has a peculiar ecosystem, originally composed of Mixed Ombrophilous Forest and natural isolated fragments of Araucaria forest interconnected by large areas of the steppe phytophysionomy known as the Brazilian "campos" (grasslands. However, both ecosystems have been continually reduced by human occupation, with remnants still found in the Vila Velha State Park, whose floristic composition has been recently related to the Cerrado biome. Few studies have been dedicated to recognize the characteristic fauna of these grasslands and its relationship with other Brazilian vegetation types, which has motivated this study. After gathering information from more than 70 years of collecting in the region, a list of 225 species of Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera, Hesperioidea recorded within the municipality is provided, of which 162 are indicator species of forest environments and 53 of open areas. The Vila Velha State Park contributes to the conservation of 65% of the species and its skipper community shows a closer affinity to the Pampas and Cerrado instead of forested habitats. This relation may be attributed to its precise localization between both ecosystems, since geographical distances affect similarities on Hesperiidae assemblages. The flora of Vila Velha can also influence the observed pattern, since a considerably number of species found in the region are also found in Cerrado. Further studies are still required among Brazilian grassland habitats, especially in the Cerrado enclaves within the states of Paraná and São Paulo in attempt to better understand the mechanisms that drive the community dynamics in those areas.

  11. Principles of dispensary observation of patients with Parkinson's disease in a specialized clinical diagnostic room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krivonos О.V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to develop and implement of the order of the dispensary observation of Parkinson's disease patients. Material and methods, the dispensary observation of Parkinson's disease patients had been performed by neurologist and diagnostic room (CDR based on the outpatient department of health care institutions obeyed by FMBA of Russia in six Closed Administrative-Territorial Units: Seversk, Zarechniy, Ozersk, Lesnoy, Sarov and Zheleznogorsk. Neurologist examined of patients and put data to the Register's database. Register's database had 588 Parkinson's disease examined patients, 112 of them (19,1% had stage II of the disease by Hoehn and Yahr, 231 (39,3% patients — stage III by Hoehn and Yahr, 187 (31,8% patients — stage IV byHoehn and Yahr, 58 (9,9% patients — stage V by Hoehn and Yahr. The duration of the dispensary observation of Parkinson's disease patients was 4 years (2009-2012. Results. There are and implement the order of the observed and accounting of adult's group of Parkinson's disease patients were developed, who are registered in the clinical and diagnostic rooms, including the frequency of physician's visits, the list of diagnostic and treatment activities and efficiency endpoint of the dispensary observation. Conclusion. Implementation of the order of the dispensary observation according to the Register allowed to identify the main disabling PD's symptoms (depression, dementia, motor fluctuations and dyskinesia and timely correction of therapy.

  12. Stratigraphy of Neogene deposits in the Khania province, Crete, with special reference to foraminifera of the family Planorbulinidae and the genus Heterostegina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freudenthal, T.

    1969-01-01

    In this paper the stratigraphy of the Neogene deposits in the Khania Province, Crete, Greece, is described. Special attention is paid to the evolution and taxonomy of foraminiferal genera assigned previously to the family Planorbulinidae. This partial revision of the Planorbulinidae is based not

  13. Medical comorbidity in polycystic ovary syndrome with special focus on cardiometabolic, autoimmune, hepatic and cancer diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Andersen, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is defined by hyperandrogenism, irregular menses and polycystic ovaries when other causes are excluded. The possible implication of increased morbidity in PCOS for screening and follow-up is uncertain and is reviewed in this article. RECENT...... FINDINGS: The increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in PCOS is closely associated with BMI. Women with PCOS should be screened for the elements of the metabolic syndrome upon diagnosis. Measurement of HbA1c and the lipid accumulation product could be important tools to differentiate...... women with high metabolic risk. The immune function in PCOS is impaired with increased secretion of autoantibodies and increased risk of type 1 diabetes, asthma and thyroid disease. The occurrence of thyroid disease could be modified by BMI and D-vitamin status. Screening for diabetes and thyroid...

  14. Clinical studies on combined ventilation (sup(81m)Kr)/perfusion (sup(99m)Tc-MAA) scintigraphy. With special reference to the 'mismatch' patterns and their significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Keiichiro; Miyamae, Tatsuya [Saitama Medical School (Japan)

    1983-01-01

    One hundred fifty patients having pulmonary disease underwent pulmonary scintigraphy sequentially with sup(99m)Tc-MAA and sup(81m)Kr gases. Scintigrams of matched defect were obtained from 113 (75.3%) of the 150 patients, considered to be nonspecific universal pattern of a pulmonary disease. Scintigrams of mismatched defect (absent perfusion and homogeneous ventilation) were obtained from 20 patients (13.3%), including 6 with lung carcinoma, 3 with pulmonary embolism, 3 with connective tissue disease, 2 with aortitis syndrome and 6 with other diseases. Scintigrams of mismatch with impaired ventilation and normal perfusion were mainly seen in chronic obstructive lung diseases. Of the 10 patients with bronchial asthma, 5 had scintigrams of improved ventilation after intravenous injection of 250 mg aminophilline, but none of patients with emphysema. The combined scintigraphy has made significant contributions to diagnosis and management of patients with pulmonary disease where the chest X-ray is unhelpful.

  15. Optimization of special heart disease diagnosis by combined computerized tomography, echocardiography and intracardiac scintiscanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitag, J.; Schmidt, H.; Otto, H.J.; Punrich, R.; Gunkel, H.; Mann, D.; Freitag, G.; Waigand, J.; Eger, H.; Zentralklinik fuer Herz- u. Lungenkrankheiten, Bad Berka; Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Berlin-Buch. Zentralinstitut fuer Herz-Kreislaufforschung)

    1986-01-01

    Cardiac computer tomography, echocardiography and radionuclide heart diagnosis are growing more and more important in cardiologic diagnostics. The value of the procedures was tested in 74 patients by combined application. Concordant morphologic findings could be obtained with echocardiography and cardiac computer tomography in the cases of chronic ischemic heart disease, cardiomyopathy and valvular heart diseases. Localized kinetic disturbances could be registered echocardiographically and by scintiscanning. The passableness of an aortocoronary bypass can be controlled first of all non-invasively by cardiac computer tomography. (author)

  16. Novos encontros de flebotomíneos no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, com especial referência à Lutzomyia longipalpis New finding of Phlebotominae in the State of S. Paulo, Brazil, with special reference to Lutzomyia longipalpis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1976-03-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se o encontro de várias espécies de Phleboteminae, no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, até agora raramente ou mesmo não assinaladas nessa região. São registrados novos achados de Lutzomyia longipalpis e fornecidos alguns dados sobre as circunstâncias desses encontros.New records on Phlebotominae in the State of S. Paulo, Brazil, are reported. Special attention is dedicated to Lutzomyia longipalpis. Several behavioural aspects of these observations were recorded.

  17. Self-reference effect on memory in healthy aging, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: Influence of identity valence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblond, Mona; Laisney, Mickaël; Lamidey, Virginie; Egret, Stéphanie; de La Sayette, Vincent; Chételat, Gaël; Piolino, Pascale; Rauchs, Géraldine; Desgranges, Béatrice; Eustache, Francis

    2016-01-01

    The self-reference effect (SRE) has been shown to benefit episodic memory in healthy individuals. In healthy aging, its preservation is acknowledged, but in Alzheimer's disease (AD), the jury is still out. Furthermore, there has yet to be a study of the SRE in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). As self-reference implies subjective self-representations, and positive information enhance memory performance, we set out to examine the effects of 1) material and 2) identity valence on the SRE across the early stages of AD. Twenty healthy older individuals and 40 patients (20 diagnosed with aMCI and 20 diagnosed with mild AD) performed a memory task. Participants had to judge positive and negative personality trait adjectives with reference to themselves or to another person, or else process these adjectives semantically. We then administered a recognition task. Participants also completed a questionnaire on identity valence. Among healthy older individuals, the SRE benefited episodic memory independently of material and identity valence. By contrast, among aMCI patients, we only observed the SRE when the material was positive. When self-referential material was negative, patients' performance depended on the valence of their self-representations: negative self-representations correlated with poor recognition of negative self-referential adjectives. Finally, performance of patients with mild AD by condition and material valence were too low and inappropriate to be subjected to relevant analyses. The persistence of an SRE for positive adjectives in aMCI suggests the existence of a positivity effect for self-related information, which contributes to wellbeing. The absence of an SRE for negative adjectives, which led aMCI patients to dismiss negative self-related information, could be due to low self-esteem. These results corroborate the mnenic neglect model and point out the importance of the psychoaffective dimension in patients with aMCI, which could constitute a

  18. Host specialization in ticks and transmission of tick-borne diseases: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Karen D; Léger, Elsa; Dietrich, Muriel

    2013-01-01

    Determining patterns of host use, and the frequency at which these patterns change, are of key importance if we are to understand tick population dynamics, the evolution of tick biodiversity, and the circulation and evolution of associated pathogens. The question of whether ticks are typically host specialists or host generalists has been subject to much debate over the last half-century. Indeed, early research proposed that morphological diversity in ticks was linked to host specific adaptations and that most ticks were specialists. Later work disputed this idea and suggested that ticks are largely limited by biogeographic conditions and tend to use all locally available host species. The work presented in this review suggests that the actual answer likely lies somewhere between these two extremes. Although recent observational studies support the view that phylogenetically diverse host species share ticks when found on similar ecological ranges, theory on host range evolution predicts that host specialization should evolve in ticks given their life history characteristics. Contemporary work employing population genetic tools to examine host-associated population structure in several tick systems support this prediction and show that simple species records are not enough to determine whether a parasite is a true host generalist; host specialization does evolve in ticks at local scales, but may not always lead to speciation. Ticks therefore seem to follow a pattern of being global generalists, local specialists. Given this, the notion of host range needs to be modified from an evolutionary perspective, where one simply counts the number of hosts used across the geographic distribution, to a more ecological view, where one considers host use at a local scale, if we are to better understand the circulation of tick-borne pathogens and exposure risks for humans and livestock.

  19. Preventing the cure from being worse than the disease: special issues in hospital outsourcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beardwood, John; Alleyne, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    Like private sector organizations, hospitals are increasingly outsourcing services from food/cafeteria and security and facilities maintenance to the consulting and training of personnel and information technology (IT) functions. Also like private sector organizations, while hospitals seek the cure that will improve services at less cost, without careful management, the cure can be worse than the disease.

  20. 75 FR 28810 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Addressing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-24

    ... Diseases and Related Public Health Concerns in India, Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) GH10-002... Public Health Concerns in India,'' FOA GH10-002. Contact Person for More Information: Hylan D. Shoob, PhD, M.S.P.H., Scientific Review Officer, CDC, 1600 Clifton Road, NE., Mailstop D72, Atlanta, GA 30333...

  1. Potential emissions of radiatively active gases from soil to atmosphere with special reference to methane: Development of a global database (WISE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batjes, N.H.

    1994-01-01

    The role of soil in controlling production and fluxes of biotic greenhouse gases is the focus of research in progress at the International Soil Reference and Information Centre (ISRIC). There are two main goals in this project on World Inventory of Soil Emission Potentials (WISE). The first is to

  2. A review of the status of nuclear safety in the Central and East European Countries with special reference to the evaluation of the situation in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, Simon

    2001-01-01

    This paper briefly presents the status of nuclear safety in the candidate countries in the light of the progress towards accession to the European Union, and draws particular attention to the recent evaluation made by the Atomic Questions Group of the Council of Ministers by reference to the general recommendations and the specific recommendations addressed to Romania appearing in the evaluation report. (author)

  3. Equipes de referência e apoio especializado matricial: um ensaio sobre a reorganização do trabalho em saúde Local reference teams and specialized matrix support: an essay about reorganizing work in health services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gastão Wagner de Sousa Campos

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo propõe um novo arranjo organizacional para o trabalho em saúde. É desenvolvido e ampliado o conceito de equipe de referência - proposto e experimentado pelo autor desde 1989. É também reelaborado o conceito de organização matricial do trabalho, invertendo-se em relação ao esquema original o que seria permanente e aquilo que seria transitório (recorte matricial nos serviços de saúde. São também apresentadas considerações teóricas que autorizam e justificam a construção desta nova proposta.A new organizational settlement for the work in the health services is proposed. An original concept is developed to defining the profile of a local reference team, as created and experimented by the author sice 1989. The classical organizational structure in matrix is realaborated to encompass this new approach. Theoretical consideration that subsidize and give basis to building this new proposal are presented.

  4. Gender-specific issues in cardiac rehabilitation: do women with ischaemic heart disease need specially tailored programmes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjarnason-Wehrens, Birna; Grande, Gesine; Loewel, Hannelore; Völler, Heinz; Mittag, Oskar

    2007-04-01

    Ischaemic heart disease (IHD) has changed from a disease of middle-aged men in the late 1970s to a disease of elderly women in the 2000s. Most clinical studies during the past three decades have been conducted with men. Cardiac rehabilitation programmes were also developed with special regard to improving the rate of return to work in middle-aged men. The rehabilitation needs of older patients and women in particular have been largely neglected. The aim of this review is briefly to outline our present knowledge on gender issues in cardiac rehabilitation, and to specify barriers with regard to physical activities especially in (older) women. Coping with a cardiac event, women tend to minimize or play down the impact of their health situation and avoid burdening their social contacts. After a first cardiac event, women report greater psychological distress and lower self-efficacy and self-esteem. In addition, older age, lower exercise levels and reduced functional capacity or co-morbid conditions such as osteoporosis and urinary incontinence are barriers to physical activities in women with IHD. Recent studies on psychosocial intervention revealed less favourable results in women compared with men. These findings have not yet been well explained. This emphasizes our current lack of knowledge about the processes and determinants of successful psychosocial interventions in men and women with IHD. A large (European) trial on gender-specific coping styles, needs, and preferences of older women, and the effects of psychosocial intervention is proposed.

  5. Cryptic etiopathological conditions of equine nervous system with special emphasis on viral diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of horse (Equus caballus to equine practitioners and researchers cannot be ignored. An unevenly distributed population of equids harbors numerous diseases, which can affect horses of any age and breed. Among these, the affections of nervous system are potent reason for death and euthanasia in equids. Many episodes associated with the emergence of equine encephalitic conditions have also pose a threat to human population as well, which signifies their pathogenic zoonotic potential. Intensification of most of the arboviruses is associated with sophisticated interaction between vectors and hosts, which supports their transmission. The alphaviruses, bunyaviruses, and flaviviruses are the major implicated groups of viruses involved with equines/humans epizootic/epidemic. In recent years, many outbreaks of deadly zoonotic diseases such as Nipah virus, Hendra virus, and Japanese encephalitis in many parts of the globe addresses their alarming significance. The equine encephalitic viruses differ in their global distribution, transmission and main vector species involved, as discussed in this article. The current review summarizes the status, pathogenesis, pathology, and impact of equine neuro-invasive conditions of viral origin. A greater understanding of these aspects might be able to provide development of advances in neuro-protective strategies in equine population.

  6. Supply of essential drugs in units specialized in the treatment of chronic diseases in Mexico in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Contreras-Loya

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To quantify the supply of essential drugs and the fully filled-in prescription level in the Units Specialized in the Treatment of Chronic Diseases (UNEMES-EC in Mexico. Materials and methods. The supply and prescription indicators were measured in 30 of the 86 existing UNEMES-EC. The supply of drugs was recorded using a list of 17 essential drugs related to the treatment of diabetes, hypertension, overweight and obesity. The information on fully filled-in prescriptions was obtained through a questionnaire applied to 1 200 health care users. Results. Only 13.3% of these units showed a complete supply of the 17 essential drugs: Supply levels were higher in units with external drugstore service. 35% of the interviewed patients reported out-of-pocket expenditures in medicines. Conclusion. UNEMES-EC should improve their levels of drug supply and fully filled-in prescriptions to reduce out-of-pocket expenditures.

  7. Rare and special indications for nuclear medicine evaluation of infective disease; Seltene und spezielle Indikationen fuer eine nuklearmedizinische Entzuendungsdiagnostik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tesche, S.; Siefker, U.; Hamann, A.; Sahlmann, C.O.; Meller, J. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Abt. Nuklearmedizin; Meller, B. [Luebeck Univ. (Germany). Abt. Nuklearmedizin

    2007-06-15

    This article gives an evidence-based overview about several special indications for scintigraphy in imaging infection and inflammation. In diagnosing and evaluating the extent of inflammatory bowel disease, the scintigraphy with {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO labelled leucocytes remains the standard evaluation in Nuclear Medicine. Appendicitis can be proven or excluded with a high grade of certainty both by {sup 99m}Tc-labelled monoclonal antigranulocytic antibodies and FAb'-fragments and by in-vitro labelled leucocytes. In endocarditis a late SPECT (20-24 h p. i.) with a {sup 99m}Tc-labeled anti-CD66 monoclonal antibody is a useful adjunct to echocardiographic techniques. In infected vascular prostheses, {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-labelled autologous leucocytes remain the standard of Nuclear Medicine although [{sup 18}F]FDG-PET or [{sup 18}F]FDG-PET / CT may exhibit a higher diagnostic accuracy. (orig.)

  8. Serodiagnosis of celiac disease in children referred for evaluation of anemia: A pediatric hematology unit′s experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Bansal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children presenting with typical clinical features of celiac disease (CD are diagnosed relatively easily, however, diagnosis remains challenging and is often delayed when they present with ′difficult to treat anemia′ without overt gastrointestinal manifestations. Index study was undertaken to report profile of patients referred to pediatric hematology unit with ′difficult anemia′ who subsequently were diagnosed with CD. Materials and Methods: The records of 83 patients (1988-2008 with CD were scrutinized retrospectively who had presented with predominant hematological manifestations. Results: CD was confirmed histologically in 31 (37%, while 52 (63% were diagnosed by serology alone. The mean age at diagnosis was 8.0 ± 2.8 years. The mean duration of symptom-diagnosis interval was 40.9 ± 30.6 months. Eighty-one (98% children had anemia (Hb < 11 g/dl and 55 (66% had received iron supplements without discernible benefit. Thirty-nine (47% patients received a blood transfusion. Thirty-six (43% patients did not have diarrhea. Majority of the patients had either a microcytic-hypochromic (48% or dimorphic (43% anemia. Twenty-four (33% had thrombocytosis, while 5 (7% had thrombocytopenia. Mean duration of follow-up for patients on roll in the clinic for more than six months was 17.7 ± 20.9 months. Conclusion: Pediatricians and hematologists need to be aware of the extra-intestinal manifestations of CD. Prolonged duration of symptoms and a diagnosis at a relatively older age is striking in children presenting with predominantly hematological manifestations. Investigations for CD are recommended in children presenting with iron deficiency anemia refractory to hematinics or who have coexisting growth retardation. Necessity for biopsy in overtly symptomatic cases is discussed.

  9. Discriminative Power of the HEART Score for Obstructive Coronary Artery Disease in Acute Chest Pain Patients Referred for CCTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolff, Adriana Q; Bom, Michiel J; Knol, Remco J J; van de Zant, Friso M; van der Zee, Petrus M; Cornel, Jan H

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the ability of the HEART score to predict the presence of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) determined by coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) and its ability to predict the occurrence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in patients referred for CCTA after emergency department (ED) presentation. From December 2011 to August 2014, 710 ED patients with chest pain who underwent CCTA within 30 days were included. The HEART score was retrospectively calculated and patients were followed for MACE, comprised of death, myocardial infarction, and revascularization. Association of CAD at CCTA in the different categories of the HEART score was analyzed using χ test. The performance of the HEART score in discriminating between those with and without obstructive CAD was evaluated by receiver operating characteristics. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to assess MACE-free survival stratified by HEART-score categories. During median follow-up of 826 days (interquartile range: 563-1056), MACE occurred in 46 (6.5%) patients; 3 (0.4%) myocardial infarction, 8 (1.1%) death, and 36 (5.1%) revascularizations. A low HEART score was a significant predictor for MACE-free survival (P = 0.010). CCTA revealed obstructive CAD in 11.7% of patients, with no significant difference between patients with a low and intermediate/high HEART score, respectively 10.7% and 13.2% (P = 0.29). The ability of the HEART score to identify obstructive CAD was poor with an AUC of the receiver operating characteristics curve of 0.53. The HEART score does not adequately identify patients with obstructive CAD at CCTA. It does however predict occurrence of MACE in medium-term follow-up. Excluding patients from additional testing based solely on a low HEART score may lead to suboptimal patient management. CCTA had important implications on patient management and may be a more appropriate tool to further stratify risk in ED chest pain patients.

  10. Estimation of Hydrodynamic Impact Loads and Pressure Distributions on Bodies Approximating Elliptical Cylinders with Special Reference to Water Landings of Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzer, Emanuel; Hathaway, Melvin E

    1953-01-01

    An approximate method for computing water loads and pressure distributions on lightly loaded elliptical cylinders during oblique water impacts is presented. The method is of special interest for the case of emergency water landings of helicopters. This method makes use of theory developed and checked for landing impacts of seaplanes having bottom cross sections of V and scalloped contours. An illustrative example is given to show typical results obtained from the use of the proposed method of computation. The accuracy of the approximate method was evaluated through comparison with limited experimental data for two-dimensional drops of a rigid circular cylinder at a trim of 0 degrees and a flight -path angle of 90 degrees. The applicability of the proposed formulas to the design of rigid hulls is indicated by the rough agreement obtained between the computed and experimental results. A detailed computational procedure is included as an appendix.

  11. The international face of sports science through the window of the Journal of Sports Sciences--with a special reference to kinanthropometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Thomas

    2008-02-15

    The history of the Journal of Sports Sciences is traced from the antecedents of its initiation to the current time. The developments of the sports sciences at large are reflected in the content of the journal. Its links with the international agenda are described, and related to landmark publications. Special attention is given to the relationships with international bodies, the International Society for Advancement of Kinanthropometry and the World Commission of Science and Sports. The expansion of sport and exercise sciences, both nationally and internationally, was reflected in the increased frequency of publication of the journal. Key areas in the kinanthropometric content are identified and placed in context. The review culminates in the highlighting of likely areas for future research.

  12. Study of /sup 201/Tl uptake by bone and bone marrow on /sup 201/Tl scintigraphy. With special reference to bone marrow abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Tadashige; Tanaka, Masao; Hirose, Yoshiki; Hirayama, Jiro; Handa, Kenjiro; Nakanishi, Fumiko; Yano, Kesato; Ueda, Hitoshi

    1989-04-01

    Thallium-201 (Tl-201) uptake in the bone and bone marrow was examined in a total of 93 patients with various diseases. Sternal uptake of Tl-201 was observed when patients had bone marrow abnormality especially associated with hematopoietic disease. It was associated with proliferation of immature cells and of various types of bone marrow cells, especially erythroblastic and plasma cells. Whole-body Tl-201 scanning showed a high uptake (82%) in the sternum, chest, lumbar vertebrae, and pelvis. Thallium-201 was definitively taken up by the sternum in polycythemia (5/41), hemolytic anemia (2/2), iron deficiency anemia (2/2), and multiple myeloma (2/5). For leukemia, Tl-201 uptake was slight or negative. Thallium-201 scanning proved useful in visualizing bone marrow abnormality, although careful interpretation of bone and bone marrow uptake is required. (Namekawa, K).

  13. [Changes in stress to the knee joint in skiing from a medical viewpoint with special reference to the modern ski shoe and the skiing technic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörterer, H

    1982-01-21

    The changed skiing-technique with more knee flexion (so called jet-position) has lead to rising pressures in the femoro-patellar joint. The danger of traumatic and arthritic diseases has increased as well. We suggest to avoid extreme anteflexed crural position in the ski-boots (more than 5 degrees). It should be possible to walk and stand in ski-boots without pressure on the knee-joint. This problem is most important in the growing locomotor system.

  14. Some factors in the calculation of the neutron intensity from (α,n) reactions with reference to the assay of special nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, D.

    1985-07-01

    The application of neutron coincidence counting to the assay of special nuclear material involves a major correction for neutron multiplication. The correction commonly used at present requires an accurate knowledge of the intensity ratio of neutrons from (α,n) reactions to those from spontaneous fission. This paper covers various factors, which need to be evaluated in order to assess their importance, in the calculation of (α,n) neutron production using measured thick target yields. They include: accuracy of (α,n) thick target yield measurements; errors introduced by deriving yields in compounds from the measured yields in the constituents and vice-versa; the likely effect of neglecting the difference of α-particle stopping power between Pu and U on the calculated neutron yield from mixed oxide fuel pellets; the intensity of neutrons produced from 1 to 2% of Al used to alloy plutonium metal; the intensity of neutrons produced in Al, used as canning material, from α-particles escaping from the surface layers of oxide or metal fuel; and neutron production from oxygen in the air spaces of powdered PuO 2 prior to sintering. (author)

  15. Is Early Experience Destiny? Review of Research on Long-Term Outcomes following International Adoption with Special Reference to the British Chinese Adoption Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Margaret; Rushton, Alan; Simmonds, John

    2016-01-01

    The pathway from adverse early experience to adulthood for internationally adopted children is complex in identifying key influences, impacts, and outcomes. This review arose from the authors' involvement in the British Chinese Adoption Study, a recent outcomes study that explored the links between early orphanage care, adoptive experiences, and midadulthood. It differs from previous reviews in focusing on a greater length of time since adoption. Both quantitative and qualitative studies were included to allow for examination of a fuller range of adult-related outcomes rather than mental health scores alone. The sampling, methods, and results of reviewed articles are summarised and a critical commentary is provided. Despite methodological differences and identified strengths and weaknesses, conclusions are drawn on the basis of the evidence available. Special attention is paid to the interpretation of negative outcomes. Findings identify areas that should be explored further in order to gain a fuller understanding of midlife outcomes of people who experienced a poor start in life followed by international adoption. Such studies help in refining lifespan developmental theories.

  16. Resource management plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation. Volume 30, Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park natural areas and reference areas--Oak Ridge Reservation environmentally sensitive sites containing special plants, animals, and communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pounds, L.R. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (US); Parr, P.D.; Ryon, M.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-08-01

    Areas on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) that contain rare plant or animal species or are special habitats are protected through National Environmental Research Park Natural Area (NA) or Reference Area (RA) designations. The US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park program is responsible for identifying species of vascular plants that are endangered, threatened, or rare and, as much as possible, for conserving those areas in which such species grow. This report includes a listing of Research Park NAs and RAs with general habitat descriptions and a computer-generated map with the areas identified. These are the locations of rare plant or animal species or special habitats that are known at this time. As the Reservation continues to be surveyed, it is expected that additional sites will be designated as Research Park NAs or RAs. This document is a component of a larger effort to identify environmentally sensitive areas on ORR. This report identifies the currently known locations of rare plant species, rare animal species, and special biological communities. Floodplains, wetlands (except those in RAs or NAs), and cultural resources are not included in this report.

  17. The efficacy of an oxidation pond in mineralizing some industrial waste products with special reference to fluorene degradation: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, M.T.; Dewedar, A.; Mekki, L.; Diab, A.

    1999-07-01

    The efficacy of the oxidation pond on the outskirts of the 10th of Ramadan, the main industrial city in Egypt, was examined. Samples of wastewater collected from the inlet and the outlet were screened for some priority pollutants. Acenaphethene and fluorene were the most frequently detected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, while dimethyl phthalate was the most frequently detected phthalate ester. The spectrum of pollutants, their concentrations and frequencies were similar in the inlet and the outlet, indicating an inferior mineralization capability of the pond. Several degradative bacterial strains were isolated from the pond and grown on M56 minimal media supplemented with different pollutants as the carbon source. The efficacy of pure and mixed cultures to break down fluorene, the most frequently detected pollutant was examined. Fluorene degradation was fast in the first 10 days, the followed by a slow phase. Mixed culture had a higher rate of fluorene degradation in comparison to pure cultures. High performance liquid chromatography analysis of fluorene degradation showed three degradative metabolites. But GC/MS analysis detected one compound, identified as acetamide. The present work has indicated the poor efficacy of the pond. Lack of primary treatment of industrial effluent at factory level, coupled with shock loads of toxicants that may damage the microorganisms and their degradative capabilities are presumably main factors behind such inferior performance. Moreover, the type of pollutants discharged into the pond tend to fluctuate and change depending on the rate from the factories discharge and work shifts. Such irregular feeding of persistent pollutants may have led to a wash out of specialized strains of bacteria capable to degrade such persistent pollutants.

  18. [A psychopathological study on three-dimensional computer graphics (3DCGs): special reference to pictures made by a schizophrenic patient before and after the onset].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashizawa, Yuko; Tachikawa, Hirokazu; Hori, Masashi; Hori, Takafumi; Mizukami, Katsuyoshi; Asada, Takashi

    2004-01-01

    A patient with catatonic type schizophrenia drawing 3-dimensional computer graphics (3DCGs) before and after the onset is reported. His 3DCGs are discussed from the view of psychopathology. A 21-year-old male was admitted to our hospital. He was an art student. For three months before admission, he had been absorbed in drawing 3DCGs. When he was asked to draw handmade pictures by his teacher, he experienced a bizarre mood and took an overdose of aspirin. At the time of admission, he was in a stupor state, and was diagnosed with catatonic type schizophrenia. After admission, he exhibited excitement and disorganized speech. These symptoms disappeared after administration of neuroleptics, and he was discharged. The 3DCGs he drew before and after the onset revealed several special characteristics. First, the compositions of his pictures were too geometric and too precise. Secondly, the themes of his pictures changed from romantic before the onset to symbolic after it, and the styles changed from realistic to abstractive after the onset. Finally, histograms of the 3DCGs revealed many colors before onset, which converged to simple colors after. Therefore, it was suggested that the latent pathological process at the beginning of schizophrenia might be reflected in his 3DCGs. 3DCGs are a new type of fine art. They can express beautiful and cool images more simply than handmade pictures. Due to these features, artists can create images of their innerworld, with less effort and talent than picture drawings, by computer assistance. This case suggests that the geometric working space, change-free viewpoints, and computer assistance, which are characteristics of the methods in making 3DCGs may be suitable for schizophrenic artists to create images of their innerworld. However, being absorbed in making 3DCGs could also promote the latent schizophrenic process to the onset.

  19. [An autopsied case of dominantly affecting upper motor neuron with atrophy of the frontal and temporal lobes--with special reference to primary lateral sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konagaya, M; Sakai, M; Iida, M; Hashizume, Y

    1995-04-01

    In this paper, the autopsy findings of a 78-year-old man mimicking primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) are reported. His clinical symptoms were slowly progressive spasticity, pseudobulbar palsy and character change. He died of sepsis 32 months after protracting the disease. The autopsy revealed severe atrophy of the frontal and temporal lobes. The histological findings were severe neuronal loss with gliosis in the precentral gyrus and left temporal lobe tip, loss of Betz cell, prominent demyelination throughout of the corticospinal tract, axonal swelling in the cerebral peduncule, severe degeneration of the amygdala, mild degeneration of the Ammon horn, normal substantia nigra, a few neuronal cells with central chromatolysis in the facial nerve nucleus and very mild neuronal cell loss in the spinal anterior horn. The anterior horn cell only occasionally demonstrated Bunina body by H & E and cystatin-C stainings, as well as, skein-like inclusion by ubiquitin staining. Thus, this is a case of uncommon amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) dominantly affecting the upper motor neuron including the motor cortex and temporal limbic system. In analysis of nine cases of putative primary lateral sclerosis in the literature, six cases showed loss of Betz cell in the precentral gyrus, and four cases very mild involvement of the lower motor neuron such as central chromatolysis and eosinophilic inclusion body. Degeneration of the limbic system was observed in two cases. We indicated a possible subgroup with concomitant involvement in the motor cortex and temporal lobe in motor neuron disease dominantly affecting the upper motor neuron.

  20. An analysis of autopsy cases of non-Hodgkin lymphoma-with special reference to those masquerading as acute febrile illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraf, Sonali Rajesh; Naphade, Nilesh S; Kalgutkar, Alka D

    2016-01-01

    As in any medical disorder, in non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs) also, precise analysis of causes of death is needed to focus research efforts and improve morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to review the clinical presentation, mode of death and the immunophenotype of the autopsy cases of NHL. Autopsy cases wherein NHL was diagnosed, were selected for study. Autopsy cases which were diagnosed as NHL, either antemortem or after autopsy during a 7 years period at a tertiary care referral centre were studied and reviewed. Descriptive statistical analysis used. The autopsy findings seen in eight cases of NHL were reviewed. Except one, all cases were above 40 years age. Infective etiology (62%) followed by cardiorespiratory failure (38%) was the cause of death observed in these patients. In three cases, the antemortem diagnosis of NHL was missed as the patients were being treated for acute febrile illness and were referred late to the Tertiary Care Centre. One of these was a case of extra-nodal primary splenic lymphoma. As NHL present with nonspecific symptoms, these tumours may not be detected in early stages and hence may not be treated appropriately. These patients have weakened immunity and hence are prone to infection and sepsis which can be a major cause of mortality. This autopsy study experience has shown that NHL can masquerade as acute febrile illness which if not detected early and treated adequately can turn fatal.