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Sample records for disease viral hepatitis

  1. Viral Hepatitis

    ... Home A-Z Health Topics Viral hepatitis Viral hepatitis > A-Z Health Topics Viral hepatitis (PDF, 90 ... liver. Source: National Cancer Institute Learn more about hepatitis Watch a video. Learn who is at risk ...

  2. Hepatitis A through E (Viral Hepatitis)

    ... Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Wilson Disease Hepatitis (Viral) View or Print All Sections What is Viral Hepatitis? Viral hepatitis is an infection that causes liver inflammation ...

  3. Alcohol Consumption and Viral Hepatitis in Chronic Liver Disease in ...

    Background: Precise assessment of the risks and interactions of alcohol consumption and viral hepatitis in the aetiology of chronic liver disease [CLD] are not locally available. Methodology: 74 patients with CLD and 74 controls were evaluated for Hepatitis B and C infection [anti-HCV, HBsAg]. The type and amount of ...

  4. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and hepatic cirrhosis: Comparison with viral hepatitis-associated steatosis.

    Haga, Yuki; Kanda, Tatsuo; Sasaki, Reina; Nakamura, Masato; Nakamoto, Shingo; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2015-12-14

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) including nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is globally increasing and has become a world-wide health problem. Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus (HCV) is associated with hepatic steatosis. Viral hepatitis-associated hepatic steatosis is often caused by metabolic syndrome including obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and/or dyslipidemia. It has been reported that HCV genotype 3 exerts direct metabolic effects that lead to hepatic steatosis. In this review, the differences between NAFLD/NASH and viral hepatitis-associated steatosis are discussed.

  5. Viral hepatitis as an occupational disease in Poland.

    Bilski, Bartosz

    2011-07-01

    In medical terms, occupational diseases are defined as health disorders specifically associated with the working environment of people and their occupational activity. From the medical and legal perspectives, the vast majority of European countries consider particular diseases to be of occupational origin if they are mentioned in the current list of occupational diseases and caused by exposure to factors in the working environment that are harmful to health. The aim of this study was to analyze the occurrence of cases of viral hepatitis certified as an occupational disease in Poland during 1979-2009. This article presents the medical, economic, and legal aspects of the epidemiology of hepatitis as an occupational disease in Poland. Publically available statistical data on certified occupational diseases in Poland and data contained in individual "occupational disease diagnosis cards" (based on data used in Poland statistical form), regarding certified cases of hepatitis among health care professionals, which were collected by the Department of Occupational Hygiene of the Polish Public Health Service, were analyzed in this study. In Poland, the highest number of cases of hepatitis certified as an occupational disease was observed in 1987. A gradual reduction in the number of cases of hepatitis as an occupational disease has been noted since then. Currently, hepatitis C as an occupational disease is certified more frequently than hepatitis B. In Poland, the number of women with hepatitis certified as an occupational disease is higher than that of men. However, among health care professionals, particularly nurses, this difference is insignificant because women outnumber the men. The existence of such a situation is due to the significant quantitative predominance of women over men among medical personnel, especially among nurses. Immunization of health care professionals against the hepatitis B virus (HBV), introduced in Poland in 1988, was an important factor

  6. Viral Hepatitis: A through E and Beyond

    ... National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse What is viral hepatitis? Viral hepatitis is inflammation of the liver caused by ... and serious. Drugs are available to treat chronic hepatitis. 4 Viral Hepatitis: A through E and Beyond What else ...

  7. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C

    2003-01-01

    The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness.......The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness....

  8. Immigration and viral hepatitis

    S. Sharma (Suraj); M. Carballo (Manuel); J.J. Feld (Jordan J.); H.L.A. Janssen (Harry)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractWHO estimates reveal that the global prevalence of viral hepatitis may be as high as 500 million, with an annual mortality rate of up to 1.3 million individuals. The majority of this global burden of disease is borne by nations of the developing world with high rates of vertical and

  9. HIV and Viral Hepatitis

    ... common causes of viral hepatitis are hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV). HBV and HCV are common ... gov/ mmwr/ preview/ mmwrhtml/ rr5516a1. htm? s_ cid= rr5516a1_ e. The Numbers • • Of people with HIV in the ...

  10. [Viral hepatitis in travellers].

    Abreu, Cândida

    2007-01-01

    Considering the geographical asymmetric distribution of viral hepatitis A, B and E, having a much higher prevalence in the less developed world, travellers from developed countries are exposed to a considerable and often underestimated risk of hepatitis infection. In fact a significant percentage of viral hepatitis occurring in developed countries is travel related. This results from globalization and increased mobility from tourism, international work, humanitarian and religious missions or other travel related activities. Several studies published in Europe and North America shown that more than 50% of reported cases of hepatitis A are travel related. On the other hand frequent outbreaks of hepatitis A and E in specific geographic areas raise the risk of infection in these restricted zones and that should be clearly identified. Selected aspects related with the distribution of hepatitis A, B and E are reviewed, particularly the situation in Portugal according to the published studies, as well as relevant clinical manifestations and differential diagnosis of viral hepatitis. Basic prevention rules considering enteric transmitted hepatitis (hepatitis A and hepatitis E) and parenteral transmitted (hepatitis B) are reviewed as well as hepatitis A and B immunoprophylaxis. Common clinical situations and daily practice "pre travel" advice issues are discussed according to WHO/CDC recommendations and the Portuguese National Vaccination Program. Implications from near future availability of a hepatitis E vaccine, a currently in phase 2 trial, are highlighted. Potential indications for travellers to endemic countries like India, Nepal and some regions of China, where up to 30% of sporadic cases of acute viral hepatitis are caused by hepatitis E virus, are considered. Continued epidemiological surveillance for viral hepatitis is essential to recognize and control possible outbreaks, but also to identify new viral hepatitis agents that may emerge as important global health

  11. [History of viral hepatitis].

    Fonseca, José Carlos Ferraz da

    2010-01-01

    The history of viral hepatitis goes back thousands of years and is a fascinating one. When humans were first infected by such agents, a natural repetitive cycle began, with the capacity to infect billions of humans, thus decimating the population and causing sequelae in thousands of lives. This article reviews the available scientific information on the history of viral hepatitis. All the information was obtained through extensive bibliographic review, including original and review articles and consultations on the internet. There are reports on outbreaks of jaundice epidemics in China 5,000 years ago and in Babylon more than 2,500 years ago. The catastrophic history of great jaundice epidemics and pandemics is well known and generally associated with major wars. In the American Civil War, 40,000 cases occurred among Union troops. In 1885, an outbreak of catarrhal jaundice affected 191 workers at the Bremen shipyard (Germany) after vaccination against smallpox. In 1942, 28,585 soldiers became infected with hepatitis after inoculation with the yellow fever vaccine. The number of cases of hepatitis during the Second World War was estimated to be 16 million. Only in the twentieth century were the main agents causing viral hepatitis identified. The hepatitis B virus was the first to be discovered. In this paper, through reviewing the history of major epidemics caused by hepatitis viruses and the history of discovery of these agents, singular peculiarities were revealed. Examples of this include the accidental or chance discovery of the hepatitis B and D viruses.

  12. The contribution of viral hepatitis to the burden of chronic liver disease in the United States.

    Roberts, Henry W; Utuama, Ovie A; Klevens, Monina; Teshale, Eyasu; Hughes, Elizabeth; Jiles, Ruth

    2014-03-01

    Chronic liver disease (CLD) is increasingly recognized as a major public health problem. However, in the United States, there are few nationally representative data on the contribution of viral hepatitis as an etiology of CLD. We applied a previously used International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification-based definition of CLD cases to the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey and National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey databases for 2006-2010. We estimated the mean number of CLD visits per year, prevalence ratio of visits by patient characteristics, and the percentage of CLD visits attributed to viral hepatitis and other selected etiologies. An estimated 6.0 billion ambulatory care visits occurred in the United States from 2006 to 2010, of which an estimated 25.8 million (0.43%) were CLD-related. Among adults aged 45-64 years, Medicaid and Medicare recipients were 3.9 (prevalence ratio (PR)=3.9, 95% confidence limit (CL; 2.8, 5.4)) and 2.3 (PR=2.3, 95% CL (1.6, 3.4)) times more likely to have a CLD-related ambulatory visit than those with private insurance, respectively. In the United States, from 2006 to 2010, an estimated 49.6% of all CLD-related ambulatory visits were attributed solely to viral hepatitis B and C diagnoses. In this unique application of health-care utilization data, we confirm that viral hepatitis is an important etiology of CLD in the United States, with hepatitis B and C contributing approximately one-half of the CLD burden. CLD ambulatory visits in the United States disproportionately occur among adults, aged 45-64 years, who are primarily minorities, men, and Medicare or Medicaid recipients.

  13. Microbiological diagnostics of viral hepatitis

    HASDEMİR, Ufuk

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is an infection that primarily affects the liverbut may also have systemic clinical manifestations. The vastmajority of viral hepatitis are caused by one of five hepatotropicviruses: hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV),hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis D (delta) virus (HDV), andhepatitis E virus (HEV) (Table I) [1]. HBV, HCV, and HDValso cause chronic hepatitis, whereas HAV does not. HEVcauses acute hepatitis in normal hosts but can cause protractedand chronic he...

  14. Hepatitis viral aguda

    Héctor Rubén Hernández Garcés

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica de las hepatitis virales agudas sobre aspectos vinculados a su etiología. Se tuvieron en cuenta además algunos datos epidemiológicos, las formas clínicas más importantes, los exámenes complementarios con especial énfasis en los marcadores virales y el diagnóstico positivoA bibliographical review of acute viral hepatitis was made taking into account those aspects connected with its etiology. Some epidemiological markers, the most important clinical forms, and the complementary examinations with special emphasis on the viral markers and the positive diagnosis were also considered

  15. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C

    2007-01-01

    Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness.......Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness....

  16. Alcoholic Liver Disease in the Asian–Pacific Region with High Prevalence of Chronic Viral Hepatitis

    Sien-Sing Yang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The hospitalized cases and mortality from alcoholic liver disease (ALD are increasing in Taiwan and worldwide. Meanwhile, the Asia–Pacific region also has a high prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. The Taiwanese have the highest percentage of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2 deficiency and the lowest amount of alcohol consumption. Based on the histological changes, ALD is clinically classified as steatosis, alcoholic hepatitis, alcoholic fibrosis, alcoholic cirrhosis, and alcoholic hepatitis on cirrhosis. Patients with overt alcoholic hepatitis often develop marked hepatomegaly, audible hepatic arterial bruit, mild leukocytosis, and mild fever. Patients having alcoholic cirrhosis had much more serious complications and mortality. It is clinically important to identify hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis earlier for early management. Active assessments for esophageal varices and ascites may help the diagnosis of cirrhosis. Sonography is helpful for exanimating features of cirrhosis including portal hypertension, ascites, increased hepatic portal flow, and collaterals. Synergistic damage of viral hepatitis on ALD patients lead to rapid progression to cirrhosis and HCC. Distinct from the Western population, 30% of Taiwanese alcoholics had concomitant chronic HBV regardless of the different histologic categories. Patient groups with combined alcoholics and HBV had fewer platelet counts and much more cirrhosis with Ishak Stage 5–6 fibrosis. The annual incidences of HCC were significantly higher in alcoholic cirrhotic patients having concomitant HBV infection than those with only HBV infection or alcoholism alone. Antiviral nucleotide and nucleoside analogs therapy reduces the prevalence of HCC to a similar level to those ALD patients without active HBV.

  17. Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis - United States, 2014

    ... Resource Center Anonymous Feedback Viral Hepatitis Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis – United States, 2014 Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Cases Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Discussion Hepatitis A virus Index PAGE DESCRIPTION Table 2.1 Reported ...

  18. [Summary of the practice guideline 'Viral hepatitis and other liver diseases' (second revision) from the Dutch College of General Practitioners].

    Bouma, M; van Geldrop, W J; Numans, M E; Wiersma, Tj; Goudswaard, A N

    2008-12-06

    The revised Dutch College of General Practitioners' practice guideline 'Viral hepatitis and other liver diseases' offers advice in the diagnosis and management of viral hepatitis A, B and C and other liver diseases. The guideline is important for general practitioners as well as specialists in internal medicine and gastroenterology. The emphasis is on the management of chronic hepatitis B en C, because the prevalence of these diseases has increased in the Netherlands and, in addition, the treatment options for chronic hepatitis have improved. Consequently, timely recognition and adequate referral of patients with chronic hepatitis B or hepatitis C have become more important. However, many patients with a chronic liver disease have no symptoms. Therefore, the general practitioner should be aware that a patient visiting the practice with fatigue and malaise could have a liver disease if he or she belongs to a high-risk group or has had high-risk contacts. If the general practitioner repeatedly finds increased liver transaminase values during routine examination of asymptomatic patients, additional diagnostic tests should be performed. Further tests should focus on viral hepatitis as well as on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis or, depending on the history-taking, liver damage due to excessive alcohol, medication or drug use.

  19. Viral hepatitis vaccination during pregnancy.

    Zhao, Yueyuan; Jin, Hui; Zhang, Xuefeng; Wang, Bei; Liu, Pei

    2016-04-02

    Viral hepatitis is a serious global public health problem. It is also a common cause of jaundice and gestational complications in pregnant women. Moreover, infected mothers can transmit the virus to their fetus or neonate, which may increase disease burden and decrease quality of life. To date, commercial vaccines have been developed for hepatitis A, B, and E and are available to the general population. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices currently accepts emergency vaccination against hepatitis A and B during pregnancy due to benefits that overweight the potential risks. While there are limited data from trials with limited numbers of samples that suggest the efficacy or safety of hepatitis B and E vaccines in pregnant women, additional data are necessary to provide evidence of vaccination during pregnancy.

  20. FastStats: Viral Hepatitis

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Viral Hepatitis Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are for the U.S. Morbidity Number of new hepatitis A cases: 1,239 (2014) Number of new ...

  1. The global burden of viral hepatitis from 1990 to 2013: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

    Stanaway, Jeffrey D; Flaxman, Abraham D; Naghavi, Mohsen; Fitzmaurice, Christina; Vos, Theo; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Abu-Raddad, Laith J; Assadi, Reza; Bhala, Neeraj; Cowie, Benjamin; Forouzanfour, Mohammad H; Groeger, Justina; Hanafiah, Khayriyyah Mohd; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; James, Spencer L; MacLachlan, Jennifer; Malekzadeh, Reza; Martin, Natasha K; Mokdad, Ali A; Mokdad, Ali H; Murray, Christopher J L; Plass, Dietrich; Rana, Saleem; Rein, David B; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Sanabria, Juan; Saylan, Mete; Shahraz, Saeid; So, Samuel; Vlassov, Vasiliy V; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Wiersma, Steven T; Younis, Mustafa; Yu, Chuanhua; Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; Cooke, Graham S

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background With recent improvements in vaccines and treatments against viral hepatitis, an improved understanding of the burden of viral hepatitis is needed to inform global intervention strategies. We used data from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study to estimate morbidity and mortality for acute viral hepatitis, and for cirrhosis and liver cancer caused by viral hepatitis, by age, sex, and country from 1990 to 2013. Methods We estimated mortality using natural history models for acute hepatitis infections and GBD’s cause-of-death ensemble model for cirrhosis and liver cancer. We used meta-regression to estimate total cirrhosis and total liver cancer prevalence, as well as the proportion of cirrhosis and liver cancer attributable to each cause. We then estimated cause-specific prevalence as the product of the total prevalence and the proportion attributable to a specific cause. Disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) were calculated as the sum of years of life lost (YLLs) and years lived with disability (YLDs). Findings Between 1990 and 2013, global viral hepatitis deaths increased from 0·89 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 0·86–0·94) to 1·45 million (1·38–1·54); YLLs from 31·0 million (29·6–32·6) to 41·6 million (39·1–44·7); YLDs from 0·65 million (0·45–0·89) to 0·87 million (0·61–1·18); and DALYs from 31·7 million (30·2–33·3) to 42·5 million (39·9–45·6). In 2013, viral hepatitis was the seventh (95% UI seventh to eighth) leading cause of death worldwide, compared with tenth (tenth to 12th) in 1990. Interpretation Viral hepatitis is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Unlike most communicable diseases, the absolute burden and relative rank of viral hepatitis increased between 1990 and 2013. The enormous health loss attributable to viral hepatitis, and the availability of effective vaccines and treatments, suggests an important opportunity to improve public health. Funding Bill & Melinda

  2. NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute) C

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute) C - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  3. NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute) - 2015.In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding year),...

  4. NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute) - 2016. In this Table, provisional* cases of selected† notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  5. The epidemiology of viral hepatitis in Qatar

    Bener Abdulbari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Viral hepatitis is a major public health problem in many countries all over the world and especially in Middle East, Asia, East-Europe, and Africa. The aim of our study was to assess the incidence of viral hepatitis A, B and C in Qatar and compare it with other countries. This is a retrospective cohort study, which was conducted at Hamad General Hospital, State of Qatar from 2002-2006. Patients who were screened and diagnosed with viral hepatitis were included in this study. The diagnostic classification of definite viral hepatitis was made in accordance with criteria based on the International Classification of Disease tenth revision (ICD-10. A total of 527 cases of hepatitis C, 396 cases of hepatitis B, 162 cases of hepatitis A and 108 cases of unspecified were reported during the year 2006. Reported incidence rate per 10,000 populations during the year 2006 for hepatitis A was 1.9, hepatitis B 4.7, and Hepatitis C 6.3. The proportion of hepatitis B and C was significantly higher in male population than females across the years (2002-2006. Hepatitis A was more prevalent in children below 15 years (72.3%, hepatitis B in adults aged above 15 years, and hepatitis C in the population above 35 years of age. The incidence of hepatitis A has been declining in Qataris and increasing in expatriates. There was a significant relationship in gender and age group of the patients with hepatitis A, B and C. We conclude that hepatitis has become a national health issue in Qatar. The incidence rate of hepatitis in Qatar is comparable to its neighboring countries, United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia. There is a need for further research on hepatitis and the associated risk factors.

  6. Viral hepatitis in the elderly.

    Carrion, Andres F; Martin, Paul

    2012-05-01

    As life expectancy continues to rise, elderly adults represent a rapidly growing proportion of the population. The likelihood of complications of acute and chronic liver disease and overall mortality are higher in elderly populations. Several physiological changes associated with aging, greater prevalence of co-morbid conditions, and cumulative exposure to hepatotropic viruses and environmental hepatotoxins may contribute to worse outcomes of viral hepatitis in the elderly. Although pharmacotherapy for hepatitis B and C continues to evolve, the efficacy, tolerability, and side effects of these agents have not been studied extensively in elderly adults. Immunization against hepatitis A and B in naïve elderly adults is an important public health intervention that needs to be revised and broadened.

  7. Viral persistence, liver disease and host response in Hepatitis C-like virus rat model

    Trivedi, Sheetal; Murthy, Satyapramod; Sharma, Himanshu

    2018-01-01

    The lack of a relevant, tractable, and immunocompetent animal model for hepatitis C virus (HCV) has severely impeded investigations of viral persistence, immunity and pathogenesis. In the absence of immunocompetent models with robust HCV infection, homolog hepaciviruses in their natural host could...... potentially provide useful surrogate models. We isolated a rodent hepacivirus (RHV) from wild rats (Rattus norvegicus), RHV-rn1, acquired the complete viral genome sequence and developed an infectious reverse genetics system. RHV-rn1 resembles HCV in genomic features including the pattern of polyprotein...... cleavage sites and secondary structures in the viral 5' and 3' UTRs. We used site-directed and random mutagenesis to determine that only the first of the two miR-122 seed sites in viral 5'UTR is required for viral replication and persistence in rats. Next, we used the clone derived virus progeny to infect...

  8. Hepatitis B viral load and risk of HBV-related liver disease: from East to West?

    Harkisoen, Soeradj; Arends, Joop E.; van Erpecum, Karel J.; van den Hoek, Anneke; Hoepelman, Andy I. M.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B has a variable course in disease activity with a risk of clinical complications like liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. As clinical symptoms present in a late stage of the disease, identification of risk factors is important for early detection and therefore

  9. APLASTIC ANEMIA AND VIRAL HEPATITIS

    Laura Cudillo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Acquired aplastic anemia(aAA is a severe and rare disease, characterized by hematopoietic bone marrow failure and peripheral cytopenia. The pathophysiology is immune mediated in most cases, activated T1 lymphocytes have been identified as effector cells . The disease can be successfully treated with combined immunosuppressive therapy or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Hepatitis-associated aplastic anemia (HAA  is a syndrome of bone marrow failure following the development of acute seronegative hepatitis. HAA syndrome most often affects young males who presented severe pancytopenia two to three months after an episode of acute hepatitis. The clinical course of hepatitis is more frequently benign but a fulminant severe course is also described. The bone marrow failure can be explosive and severe and it is usually fatal if untreated, no correlations have been observed between severity of hepatitis and AA.

    In none of the  studies a specific virus could be identified and most cases are seronegative for known hepatitis viruses. The clinical characteristics  and response to immunotherapy indicate a central role for immune-mediated mechanism in the pathogenesis of HAA. The initial

  10. APLASTIC ANEMIA AND VIRAL HEPATITIS

    Laura Cudillo

    2009-11-01

    Liver histology is characterized by T cell infiltrating the parenchyma as reported in acute hepatitis. Recently in HAA it has been demonstrated intrahepatic  and blood lymphocytes with  T cell repertoire similar to that of confirmed viral acute hepatitis. The expanded T cell clones return to a normal distribution after response to immunosuppressive treatment, suggesting the antigen or T cell clearance. Therapeutic options are the same as acquired aplastic anemia.

  11. hy viral hepatitis?

    jelivery.6 They may be confused with surgical conditions and apart from being an ... of the viruses, the diagnosis and treatment of chronic hepatitis, the relationship of .... myocarditis and cardiomyopathy, pancreatitis and CSF abnormalities!

  12. A Survey of Texas HIV, Sexually Transmitted Disease, Tuberculosis, and Viral Hepatitis Providers' Billing and Reimbursement Capabilities.

    Flynn, Matthew B; Atwood, Robin; Greenberg, Jennifer B; Ray, Tara; Harris, Karol Kaye

    2015-11-01

    The Affordable Care Act presents financial challenges and opportunities for publicly funded service providers. We assessed billing practices and anticipated barriers to third-party billing among organizations in Texas that provide publicly funded HIV, sexually transmitted diseases, tuberculosis, and viral hepatitis services. One third to one half of the organizations did not bill for medical services. The most common barrier to third-party billing was lack of staff knowledge about billing and coding. Future research must evaluate options for organizations and communities to maintain access to infectious disease services for vulnerable populations.

  13. A Survey of Texas HIV, Sexually Transmitted Disease, Tuberculosis, and Viral Hepatitis Providers’ Billing and Reimbursement Capabilities

    Atwood, Robin; Greenberg, Jennifer B.; Ray, Tara; Harris, Karol Kaye

    2015-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act presents financial challenges and opportunities for publicly funded service providers. We assessed billing practices and anticipated barriers to third-party billing among organizations in Texas that provide publicly funded HIV, sexually transmitted diseases, tuberculosis, and viral hepatitis services. One third to one half of the organizations did not bill for medical services. The most common barrier to third-party billing was lack of staff knowledge about billing and coding. Future research must evaluate options for organizations and communities to maintain access to infectious disease services for vulnerable populations. PMID:26447911

  14. Viral Hepatitis and Thrombosis: A Narrative Review

    Squizzato, Alessandro; Gerdes, Victor E. A.

    2012-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a multicausal disease. Among minor risk factors, acute infections in general are associated with a transient increased risk of VTE. However, acute hepatitis is usually not reported as a potential risk factor for VTE. Recent studies suggest a possible role of viral

  15. Viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma

    Juei-Low, Sung [ed.; National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei (Republic of China Taiwan). Department of Internal Medicine; Ding-Shinn, Chen [ed.; National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei (Republic of China Taiwan). Hepatitis Research Center National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei (Republic of China Taiwan). Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine

    1990-01-01

    Two papers in this volume are in INIS scope, respectively dealing with MRI in the study of viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma, and The use of {sup 131}I-labeled Lipidol in the diagnosis of hepato-cellular carcinoma. (H.W.). refs.; figs.; tabs.

  16. Viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma

    Sung Juei-Low; Chen Ding-Shinn

    1990-01-01

    Two papers in this volume are in INIS scope, respectively dealing with MRI in the study of viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma, and The use of 131 I-labeled Lipidol in the diagnosis of hepato-cellular carcinoma. (H.W.). refs.; figs.; tabs

  17. Multiplex diagnosis of viral infectious diseases (AIDS, hepatitis C, and hepatitis A) based on point of care lateral flow assay using engineered proteinticles.

    Lee, Jong-Hwan; Seo, Hyuk Seong; Kwon, Jung-Hyuk; Kim, Hee-Tae; Kwon, Koo Chul; Sim, Sang Jun; Cha, Young Joo; Lee, Jeewon

    2015-07-15

    Lateral flow assay (LFA) is an attractive method for rapid, simple, and cost-effective point of care diagnosis. For LFA-based multiplex diagnosis of three viral intractable diseases (acquired immune deficiency syndrome and hepatitis C and A), here we developed proteinticle-based 7 different 3D probes that display different viral antigens on their surface, which were synthesized in Escherichia coli by self-assembly of human ferritin heavy chain that was already engineered by genetically linking viral antigens to its C-terminus. Each of the three test lines on LFA strip contains the proteinticle probes to detect disease-specific anti-viral antibodies. Compared to peptide probes, the proteinticle probes were evidently more sensitive, and the proteinticle probe-based LFA successfully diagnosed all the 20 patient sera per each disease without a false negative signal, whereas the diagnostic sensitivities in the peptide probe-based LFAs were 65-90%. Duplex and triplex assays performed with randomly mixed patient sera gave only true positive signals for all the 20 serum mixtures without any false positive signals, indicating 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. It seems that on the proteinticle surface the antigenic peptides have homogeneous orientation and conformation without inter-peptide clustering and hence lead to the enhanced diagnostic performance with solving the problems of traditional diagnostic probes. Although the multiplex diagnosis of three viral diseases above was demonstrated as proof-of-concept here, the proposed LFA system can be applied to multiplex point of care diagnosis of other intractable diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Serum hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis B e antigen titers: disease phase influences correlation with viral load and intrahepatic hepatitis B virus markers.

    Thompson, Alexander J V; Nguyen, Tin; Iser, David; Ayres, Anna; Jackson, Kathy; Littlejohn, Margaret; Slavin, John; Bowden, Scott; Gane, Edward J; Abbott, William; Lau, George K K; Lewin, Sharon R; Visvanathan, Kumar; Desmond, Paul V; Locarnini, Stephen A

    2010-06-01

    Although threshold levels for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) titers have recently been proposed to guide therapy for chronic hepatitis B (CHB), their relationship to circulating hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA and intrahepatic HBV replicative intermediates, and the significance of emerging viral variants, remains unclear. We therefore tested the hypothesis that HBsAg and HBeAg titers may vary independently of viral replication in vivo. In all, 149 treatment-naïve CHB patients were recruited (HBeAg-positive, n = 71; HBeAg-negative, n = 78). Quantification of HBeAg and HBsAg was performed by enzyme immunoassay. Virological characterization included serum HBV DNA load, HBV genotype, basal core promoter (BCP)/precore (PC) sequence, and, in a subset (n = 44), measurement of intrahepatic covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) and total HBV DNA, as well as quantitative immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for HBsAg. In HBeAg-positive CHB, HBsAg was positively correlated with serum HBV DNA and intrahepatic cccDNA and total HBV DNA (r = 0.69, 0.71, 0.76, P < 0.01). HBeAg correlated with serum HBV DNA (r = 0.60, P < 0.0001), although emerging BCP/PC variants reduced HBeAg titer independent of viral replication. In HBeAg-negative CHB, HBsAg correlated poorly with serum HBV DNA (r = 0.28, P = 0.01) and did not correlate with intrahepatic cccDNA nor total HBV DNA. Quantitative IHC for hepatocyte HBsAg confirmed a relationship with viral replication only in HBeAg-positive patients. The correlation between quantitative HBsAg titer and serum and intrahepatic markers of HBV replication differs between patients with HBeAg-positive and HBeAg-negative CHB. HBeAg titers may fall independent of viral replication as HBeAg-defective variants emerge prior to HBeAg seroconversion. These findings provide new insights into viral pathogenesis and have practical implications for the use of quantitative serology as a clinical biomarker.

  19. Viral hepatitis in women of reproductive age

    I.A. Zaytsev

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Annually in Ukraine, about 17 thousands of newborns are at risk of vertical infection with hepatitis B and C. Identification of infected women at the stage of family planning is the best way to prevent infection in newborns, and therefore it must be performed strictly in accordance with established norms. In case of detection of hepatitis, further tactics depend on the variant of the virus: in case of hepatitis C, pre-pregnancy treatment is preferable. In case of hepatitis B — pregnancy with subsequent simultaneous vaccination of the newborn. Antiviral therapy is possible in women with high viral load to prevent intrauterine infection. Similar tactics should be followed in case of in vitro fertilisation too. The text of the lecture is illustrated by clinical examples. The lecture is intended for infectious disease physicians and obstetrician-gynecologists.

  20. Acute Pancreatitis in acute viral hepatitis

    S K.C.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The association of acute viral hepatitis and acute pancreatitis is well described. This study was conducted to find out the frequency of pancreatic involvement in acute viral hepatitis in the Nepalese population. Methods: Consecutive patients of acute viral hepatitis presenting with severe abdominal pain between January 2005 and April 2010 were studied. Patients with history of significant alcohol consumption and gall stones were excluded. Acute viral hepatitis was diagnosed by clinical examination, liver function test, ultrasound examination and confirmed by viral serology. Pancreatitis was diagnosed by clinical presentation, biochemistry, ultrasound examination and CT scan. Results: Severe abdominal pain was present in 38 of 382 serologically-confirmed acute viral hepatitis patients. Twenty five patients were diagnosed to have acute pancreatitis. The pancreatitis was mild in 14 and severe in 11 patients. The etiology of pancreatitis was hepatitis E virus in 18 and hepatitis A virus in 7 patients. Two patients died of complications secondary to shock. The remaining patients recovered from both pancreatitis and hepatitis on conservative treatment. Conclusions: Acute pancreatitis occurred in 6.5 % of patients with acute viral hepatitis. Cholelithiasis and gastric ulcers are the other causes of severe abdominal pain. The majority of the patients recover with conservative management. Keywords: acute viral hepatitis, acute pancreatitis, pain abdomen, hepatitis E, hepatitis A, endemic zone

  1. Impact of viral hepatitis co-infection on response to antiretroviral therapy and HIV disease progression in the HIV-NAT cohort

    Law, W. Phillip; Duncombe, Chris J.; Mahanontharit, Apicha; Boyd, Mark A.; Ruxrungtham, Kiat; Lange, Joep M. A.; Phanuphak, Praphan; Cooper, David A.; Dore, Gregory J.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of viral hepatitis co-infection on HIV disease outcomes following commencement of combination antiretroviral therapy in a developing country setting. METHODS: HIV RNA suppression, CD4 cell count recovery, and HIV disease progression were examined within a cohort of

  2. Experience of Using Mineral Water in the Treatment of Patients with Chronic Viral Hepatitis C with Concomitant Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    N.V. Dragomyretska

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper proved the feasibility of a course of mineral water intake (in double dosing regimen in combination treatment of patients with chronic viral hepatitis C and concomitant non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in order to improve the clinical course of the underlying disease and comorbidity, to restore the functional state of the liver, to reduce insulin resistance.

  3. Institute of Medicine's Report on Viral Hepatitis

    2010-05-18

    In this podcast, Dr. John Ward, Director of CDC’s Division of Viral Hepatitis, discusses the 2010 report, Hepatitis and Liver Cancer: A National Strategy for Prevention and Control of Hepatitis B and C, from the Institute of Medicine.  Created: 5/18/2010 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 5/18/2010.

  4. Early Detection of Viral Hepatitis Can Save Lives - PSA (:30)

    2010-05-12

    Early detection of viral hepatitis can help prevent liver damage, cirrhosis, and even liver cancer.  Created: 5/12/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 5/12/2010.

  5. NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute) A & B

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute) A & B - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the...

  6. NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute, by type) A & B

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute, by type) A & B - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during...

  7. NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute, by type) C

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute, by type) C - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the...

  8. Hepatitis C

    ... Workshops Follow Us Home Health Information Liver Disease Hepatitis (Viral) Hepatitis C Related Topics English English Español Section Navigation Hepatitis (Viral) What Is Viral Hepatitis? Hepatitis A Hepatitis B ...

  9. [Viral hepatitis A - possible diagnostic and therapeutic problems].

    Husa, Petr; Husa, Petr

    Viral hepatitis A (VHA) is the disease which has an ancient history. Reports of epidemic jaundice were described by Hippocrates in Greece during the 5th century B.C. Incidence of VHA in developed countries is dropping in last decades. What was once common disease is now very rare, usually emerging in local epidemies. With decreasing incidence of hepatitis A clinicians losing practical experiences with disease. Authors present possible diagnostic and therapeutic problems based on their experience with large epidemic of hepatitis A, which occurred in 2016-2017 in Brno area.Key words: hepatitis A (VHA) - hepatitis A virus (HAV).

  10. Institute of Medicine's Report on Viral Hepatitis

    In this podcast, Dr. John Ward, Director of CDC’s Division of Viral Hepatitis, discusses the 2010 report, Hepatitis and Liver Cancer: A National Strategy for Prevention and Control of Hepatitis B and C, from the Institute of Medicine.

  11. A review of hepatitis viral infections in Pakistan

    Bosan, A.; Qureshi, H.; Bile, K.M.; Ahmad, I.; Hafiz, R.

    2010-01-01

    A review of published literature on viral hepatitis infections in Pakistan is presented. A total of 220 abstracts available in the Pakmedinet and Medline have been searched. All relevant articles were reviewed to determine the prevalence of hepatitis viral infections in Pakistan. Two hundred and three (203) relevant articles/abstracts including twenty nine supporting references are included in this review. Of the articles on prevalence of hepatitis infection, seven were related to Hepatitis A, fifteen to Hepatitis E while the remaining articles were on frequency of hepatitis B and C in different disease and healthy population groups. These included eight studies on healthy children, three on vertical transmission, nineteen on pregnant women, fifteen on healthy individuals, six on army recruits, thirty one on blood donors, thirteen on health care workers, five on unsafe injections, seventeen on high risk groups, five on patients with provisional diagnosis of hepatitis, thirty three on patients with chronic liver disease, four on genotypes of HBV and five on genotypes of HCV. This review highlights the lack of community-based epidemiological work as the number of subjects studied were predominantly patients, high risk groups and healthy blood donors. High level of Hepatitis A seroconversion was found in children and this viral infection accounts for almost 50%- 60% of all cases of acute viral hepatitis in children in Pakistan. Hepatitis E is endemic in the country affecting mostly the adult population and epidemic situations have been reported from many parts of the country. The mean results of HBsAg and Anti-HCV prevalence on the basis of data aggregated from several studies was calculated which shows 2.3% and 2.5% prevalence of HBsAg and Anti-HCV in children, 2.5% and 5.2% among pregnant women, 2.6% and 5.3% in general population, 3.5% and 3.1% in army recruits, 2.4% and 3.6% in blood donors, 6.0% and 5.4% in health care workers, 13.0% and 10.3% in high risk groups

  12. Viral Hepatitis: Information for Gay and Bisexual Men

    VIRAL HEPATITIS Information for Gay and Bisexual Men What is viral hepatitis? Viral hepatitis is an infection of the liver caused by one of several ... each virus is spread in different ways. Are gay and bisexual men at risk for viral hepatitis? ...

  13. Hepatitis C Virus, Cholesterol and Lipoproteins — Impact for the Viral Life Cycle and Pathogenesis of Liver Disease

    Felmlee, Daniel J.; Hafirassou, Mohamed Lamine; Lefevre, Mathieu; Baumert, Thomas F.; Schuster, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading cause of chronic liver disease, including chronic hepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatitis C infection associates with lipid and lipoprotein metabolism disorders such as hepatic steatosis, hypobetalipoproteinemia, and hypocholesterolemia. Furthermore, virus production is dependent on hepatic very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) assembly, and circulating virions are physically associated with lipoproteins in complexes termed lipoviral particles. Evidence has indicated several functional roles for the formation of these complexes, including co-opting of lipoprotein receptors for attachment and entry, concealing epitopes to facilitate immune escape, and hijacking host factors for HCV maturation and secretion. Here, we review the evidence surrounding pathogenesis of the hepatitis C infection regarding lipoprotein engagement, cholesterol and triglyceride regulation, and the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects. PMID:23698400

  14. NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute) - 2014.In this Table, all conditions with a 5-year average annual national total of more than or equals 1,000 cases but...

  15. Viral Disease Networks?

    Gulbahce, Natali; Yan, Han; Vidal, Marc; Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo

    2010-03-01

    Viral infections induce multiple perturbations that spread along the links of the biological networks of the host cells. Understanding the impact of these cascading perturbations requires an exhaustive knowledge of the cellular machinery as well as a systems biology approach that reveals how individual components of the cellular system function together. Here we describe an integrative method that provides a new approach to studying virus-human interactions and its correlations with diseases. Our method involves the combined utilization of protein - protein interactions, protein -- DNA interactions, metabolomics and gene - disease associations to build a ``viraldiseasome''. By solely using high-throughput data, we map well-known viral associated diseases and predict new candidate viral diseases. We use microarray data of virus-infected tissues and patient medical history data to further test the implications of the viral diseasome. We apply this method to Epstein-Barr virus and Human Papillomavirus and shed light into molecular development of viral diseases and disease pathways.

  16. Glucocorticosteroids for viral hepatitis C

    Brok, J; Mellerup, M T; Krogsgaard, K

    2004-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus may cause liver inflammation and fibrosis. It is not known whether glucocorticosteroids are beneficial or harmful for patients with hepatitis C infection.......Hepatitis C virus may cause liver inflammation and fibrosis. It is not known whether glucocorticosteroids are beneficial or harmful for patients with hepatitis C infection....

  17. Late presentation of chronic viral hepatitis for medical care

    Mauss, Stefan; Pol, Stanislas; Buti, Maria

    2017-01-01

    , and relevant stakeholders including patient advocacy groups, health policy-makers, international health organisations and surveillance experts, met in 2014 and 2015 to develop a draft consensus definition of late presentation with viral hepatitis for medical care. This was refined through subsequent...... consultations among the group. RESULTS: Two definitions were agreed upon. Presentation with advanced liver disease caused by chronic viral hepatitis for medical care is defined as a patient with chronic hepatitis B and C and significant fibrosis (≥ F3 assessed by either APRI score > 1.5, FIB-4 > 3.25, Fibrotest...

  18. Clinical evaluation of the hepatic hemodynamics using [sup 99m]Tc-DTPA-HSA scintiangiography in patients with viral chronic liver disease

    Shimada, Kentaro [Toho Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1994-01-01

    [sup 99m]Tc-DTPA-HSA scintiangiography was performed in 81 cases of viral chronic liver disease, and a time-activity curve (TAC) of the liver was classified into three types (I, II, III). Furthermore, portal component of the total hepatic blood flow was calculated. The results were compared with those of [sup 99m]Tc-phytate scintigraphy. The TAC type changed from I through III according to the histological development of the liver. Esophageal varices was seen frequently in patients of type III, and in none of type I. The portal component significantly decreased in the order of chronic hepatitis without lobular distortion, with lobular distortion, and liver cirrhosis. However, the portal component obtained by using [sup 99m]Tc-phytate did not show a significant difference between chronic hepatitis without and with lobular distortion. [sup 99m]Tc-DTPA-HSA scintigraphy was thought to be a useful diagnostic procedure in patients with chronic liver disease. (author).

  19. Tissue viral load variability in chronic hepatitis C.

    Fanning, L

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: Liver biopsy is regarded as the gold standard for assessing disease activity in chronic hepatitis C, but sampling error is a potential limitation. Whether sampling variability applies equally to viral load assessment as it does to histology is uncertain. To examine this, we compared viral load between right- and left-lobe biopsy specimens from patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). METHODS: Bilobe biopsies were taken from 16 patients who were serum positive for HCV RNA by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Genotype was identified by reverse line probe hybridization. There was an absence of competing risk factors for infectious and other liver diseases in this patient group. Histology and hepatic viral load were assessed blindly. None of the patients had received antiviral therapy at the time of study. RESULTS: Detection of HCV in right and left lobes was concordant with serum positivity in all cases. The viral load between lobes was highly correlated (p = 0.0003, r = 0.79). In contrast, the histological activity indices of inflammation and fibrosis\\/cirrhosis were poorly correlated between lobes (p = 0.038, r = 0.60, and p = 0.098, r = 0.50, respectively). CONCLUSION: Hepatic viral load variability does not suffer from the same degree of heterogeneity of sampling variability as does histology.

  20. MicroRNAs: role and therapeutic targets in viral hepatitis

    van der Ree, Meike H.; de Bruijne, Joep; Kootstra, Neeltje A.; Jansen, Peter Lm; Reesink, Hendrik W.

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs regulate gene expression by binding to the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of target messenger RNAs (mRNAs). The importance of microRNAs has been shown for several liver diseases, for example, viral hepatitis. MicroRNA-122 is highly abundant in the liver and is involved in the regulation of

  1. Disparities in HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STDs, and TB

    ... Search The CDC Health Disparities in HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STDs, and TB Note: Javascript is disabled or ... Other Pacific Islanders MMWR Publications HIV and AIDS Viral Hepatitis STDs Tuberculosis Training and Networking Resources Call for ...

  2. Hemostatic System in Chronic Viral Hepatitis

    Natalia Borisova

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Hemostasis is balanced by pro- and anticoagulant and pro- and antifibrinolytic factors, most of these being synthesized by the liver. Advanced liver disease is associated with perturbations in the level of these factors due to secretory deficiencies. Thrombocytopenia, reduced levels of factor II-VII-X, and anti-fibrinolytic factors are all features of CHC infection, suggesting hypocoagulability. However, higher concentrations of VWF and factor VIII, as well as lower concentrations of anticoagulant factors including protein C and S, have also been reported in CHC infections, suggesting hypercoagulability. Thus, the hemostatic balance in the patient with liver disease is relatively unstable as evidenced by the occurrence of both bleeding and thrombotic complications in a significant proportion of patients with chronic viral hepatitis. In patients with chronic liver disease (CLD, in whom extremely complex alterations of hemostasis occur, one cannot rely on levels of individual coagulation factors, or on simplified tests of hemostasis such as the PT or APTT to predict the hemostatic status. To determine the hemostatic status in these patients, more complex tests and a more comprehensive overview of the hemostatic changes are required. In connection with the latest studies, a revision of the methods for correction of hemostatic system disorders in patients with acute and chronic liver diseases becomes urgent.

  3. Hepatitis A seroprevalence in patients with chronic viral hepatitis in Konya, Turkey.

    Özden, Hale T

    2016-03-01

    Hepatitis A is among the diseases that can be prevented with vaccination in our time. Acute hepatitis A progresses more severely in individuals with a liver disease. Therefore, patients with a chronic liver disease (because of hepatitis B or hepatitis C) are advised vaccination with the hepatitis A vaccine. This study is aimed to determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) antibodies in patients infected with hepatitis C virus or hepatitis B virus in Konya province of Turkey. A total of 537 patients who had chronic viral hepatitis between January 2011 and December 2014 were included in the study. Serum samples were collected from each patient and tested for anti-HAV using the chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. The overall seroprevalence of total anti-HAV IgG was 94.2%. The overall prevalence of anti-HAV IgG in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infection was 97.5 and 93.6%, respectively. Anti-HAV IgG positivity was 97.4% in cirrhotic patients and 93.9% in noncirrhotic individuals. At the end of the study, being older than 40 years and living in a rural area were found to be independent risk factors for anti-HAV IgG seropositivity. In conclusion, we recommend that patients younger than 40 years and/or those living in cities and having a chronic liver disease should be vaccinated with the hepatitis A vaccine.

  4. Hepatitis A seroprevalence in patients with chronic viral hepatitis in Konya, Turkey

    2016-01-01

    Aim Hepatitis A is among the diseases that can be prevented with vaccination in our time. Acute hepatitis A progresses more severely in individuals with a liver disease. Therefore, patients with a chronic liver disease (because of hepatitis B or hepatitis C) are advised vaccination with the hepatitis A vaccine. This study is aimed to determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) antibodies in patients infected with hepatitis C virus or hepatitis B virus in Konya province of Turkey. Methods A total of 537 patients who had chronic viral hepatitis between January 2011 and December 2014 were included in the study. Serum samples were collected from each patient and tested for anti-HAV using the chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. Results The overall seroprevalence of total anti-HAV IgG was 94.2%. The overall prevalence of anti-HAV IgG in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infection was 97.5 and 93.6%, respectively. Anti-HAV IgG positivity was 97.4% in cirrhotic patients and 93.9% in noncirrhotic individuals. Conclusion At the end of the study, being older than 40 years and living in a rural area were found to be independent risk factors for anti-HAV IgG seropositivity. In conclusion, we recommend that patients younger than 40 years and/or those living in cities and having a chronic liver disease should be vaccinated with the hepatitis A vaccine. PMID:26703930

  5. Meta-analyses on viral hepatitis

    Gluud, Lise L; Gluud, Christian

    2009-01-01

    This article summarizes the meta-analyses of interventions for viral hepatitis A, B, and C. Some of the interventions assessed are described in small trials with unclear bias control. Other interventions are supported by large, high-quality trials. Although attempts have been made to adjust...

  6. Viral hepatitis B- an overview

    1994-08-08

    Aug 8, 1994 ... of HBsAg.'o This excess HBsAg can be used to provide ... bound to aluminium hydroxide and thus do not produce detectable ..... formation of immune complexes or to other poorly ..... Australia-antigen-associated hepatitis.

  7. US findings in acute viral hepatitis

    Corsi, M; Lorenzon, G; Mesaglio, S

    1988-01-01

    Reports on colecystic alterations during acute viral hepatitis are more and more frequent; the pathogenesis and clinical meaning of these alterations are still debated. Consensual periportal lymphnode enlargment has been not yet reported. The authors describe four cases of acute viral hepatites in whichUS showed alterations of colecystic walls and/or contents; in two cases enlarged periportal lymphnodes were demonstrated too. Later US exams showed a complete regression of both colecystic and lymphnodal lesions. Clinical findings and laboratory out-comes are evaluated; the connection of US results with hepatitis and its meaning are discussed. The causes of colecystic alterations are still questionable; they might be related to blood disorders or to an increased portal pressure, or else they might be considered as phlogistic lesions. The authors conclude that both colecystic and lymphnodal alterations have a phlogistic nature; moreover, they are not related to a particulary evolution of hepatitis. The importance of distinguishing colecystic alterations from different pathology is stressed.

  8. US findings in acute viral hepatitis

    Corsi, M.; Lorenzon, G.; Mesaglio, S.

    1988-01-01

    Reports on colecystic alterations during acute viral hepatitis are more and more frequent; the pathogenesis and clinical meaning of these alterations are still debated. Consensual periportal lymphnode enlargment has been not yet reported. The authors describe four cases of acute viral hepatites in whichUS showed alterations of colecystic walls and/or contents; in two cases enlarged periportal lymphnodes were demonstrated too. Later US exams showed a complete regression of both colecystic and lymphnodal lesions. Clinical findings and laboratory out-comes are evaluated; the connection of US results with hepatitis and its meaning are discussed. The causes of colecystic alterations are still questionable; they might be related to blood disorders or to an increased portal pressure, or else they might be considered as phlogistic lesions. The authors conclude that both colecystic and lymphnodal alterations have a phlogistic nature; moreover, they are not related to a particulary evolution of hepatitis. The importance of distinguishing colecystic alterations from different pathology is stressed

  9. Hepatitis C Virus: Viral Quasispecies and Genotypes

    Kyoko Tsukiyama-Kohara

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV mainly replicates in the cytoplasm, where it easily establishes persistent infection, resulting in chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Due to its high rate of mutation, HCV forms viral quasispecies, categorized based on the highly variable regions in the envelope protein and nonstructural 5A protein. HCV possesses seven major genotypes, among which genotype 1 is the most prevalent globally. The distribution of HCV genotypes varies based on geography, and each genotype has a different sensitivity to interferon treatment. Recently-developed direct-acting antivirals (DAAs, which target viral proteases or polymerases, mediate drastically better antiviral effects than previous therapeutics. Although treatment with DAAs has led to the development of drug-resistant HCV mutants, the most recently approved DAAs show improved pan-genomic activity, with a higher barrier to viral resistance.

  10. Hepatitis C Virus: Viral Quasispecies and Genotypes.

    Tsukiyama-Kohara, Kyoko; Kohara, Michinori

    2017-12-22

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) mainly replicates in the cytoplasm, where it easily establishes persistent infection, resulting in chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Due to its high rate of mutation, HCV forms viral quasispecies, categorized based on the highly variable regions in the envelope protein and nonstructural 5A protein. HCV possesses seven major genotypes, among which genotype 1 is the most prevalent globally. The distribution of HCV genotypes varies based on geography, and each genotype has a different sensitivity to interferon treatment. Recently-developed direct-acting antivirals (DAAs), which target viral proteases or polymerases, mediate drastically better antiviral effects than previous therapeutics. Although treatment with DAAs has led to the development of drug-resistant HCV mutants, the most recently approved DAAs show improved pan-genomic activity, with a higher barrier to viral resistance.

  11. Disease burden and costs from excess alcohol consumption, obesity, and viral hepatitis: fourth report of the Lancet Standing Commission on Liver Disease in the UK.

    Williams, Roger; Alexander, Graeme; Armstrong, Iain; Baker, Alastair; Bhala, Neeraj; Camps-Walsh, Ginny; Cramp, Matthew E; de Lusignan, Simon; Day, Natalie; Dhawan, Anil; Dillon, John; Drummond, Colin; Dyson, Jessica; Foster, Graham; Gilmore, Ian; Hudson, Mark; Kelly, Deirdre; Langford, Andrew; McDougall, Neil; Meier, Petra; Moriarty, Kieran; Newsome, Philip; O'Grady, John; Pryke, Rachel; Rolfe, Liz; Rice, Peter; Rutter, Harry; Sheron, Nick; Taylor, Alison; Thompson, Jeremy; Thorburn, Douglas; Verne, Julia; Wass, John; Yeoman, Andrew

    2018-03-17

    This report contains new and follow-up metric data relating to the eight main recommendations of the Lancet Standing Commission on Liver Disease in the UK, which aim to reduce the unacceptable harmful consequences of excess alcohol consumption, obesity, and viral hepatitis. For alcohol, we provide data on alcohol dependence, damage to families, and the documented increase in alcohol consumption since removal of the above-inflation alcohol duty escalator. Alcoholic liver disease will shortly overtake ischaemic heart disease with regard to years of working life lost. The rising prevalence of overweight and obesity, affecting more than 60% of adults in the UK, is leading to an increasing liver disease burden. Favourable responses by industry to the UK Government's soft drinks industry levy have been seen, but the government cannot continue to ignore the number of adults being affected by diabetes, hypertension, and liver disease. New direct-acting antiviral drugs for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection have reduced mortality and the number of patients requiring liver transplantation, but more screening campaigns are needed for identification of infected people in high-risk migrant communities, prisons, and addiction centres. Provision of care continues to be worst in regions with the greatest socioeconomic deprivation, and deficiencies exist in training programmes in hepatology for specialist registrars. Firm guidance is needed for primary care on the use of liver blood tests in detection of early disease and the need for specialist referral. This report also brings together all the evidence on costs to the National Health Service and wider society, in addition to the loss of tax revenue, with alcohol misuse in England and Wales costing £21 billion a year (possibly up to £52 billion) and obesity costing £27 billion a year (treasury estimates are as high as £46 billion). Voluntary restraints by the food and drinks industry have had little effect on

  12. Hepatitis A infection in patients with chronic viral liver disease: a cross-sectional study in Jahrom, Iran.

    Ahmadi Vasmehjani, A; Javeshghani, D; Baharlou, R; Shayestehpour, M; Mousavinasab, S D; Joharinia, N; Enderami, S E

    2015-02-01

    Infection with hepatitis A virus (HAV) in patient with chronic liver disease (CLD; due to hepatitis B or hepatitis C) may cause severe disease and fulminant liver failure. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of HAV antibodies in patients infected with HCV or HBV in Iran (Jahrom city). A total of 159 patients with underlying CLD were recruited between September 2012 and February 2013. Serum samples were collected from each patient and tested for anti-HAV using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The overall seroprevalence of total anti-HAV was 79·2%. Patients aged 20-30 years had the lowest (28·3%) anti-HAV seropositivity and those aged >50 years had the highest (95%) seropositivity. The overall prevalence of anti-HAV in patients with chronic HCV and HBV infection was 93·7% and 77·1%, respectively. The anti-HAV seropositivity in liver cirrhosis patients was 100% compared to CLD patients. Because of low HAV immunity in younger CLD patients, vaccination against HAV should be considered.

  13. Counter-attack on viral hepatitis. [Hepatitis A; Hepatitis B

    Prozesky, O W [Pretoria Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Medical Virology; Jupp, P G; Joubert, J J; Taylor, M B; Grabow, W O.K.

    1985-07-01

    The most highly developed radioimmunoassay test system in medical virology is proving of exceptional value in research aimed at controlling and eventually eradicating the scourge of human hepatitis. The use of radioimmunoassay in detecting hepatitis A (HAV) and hepatitis B (HBV) viruses is discussed. The hepatitis A virus is an enterovirus which infects the gastrointestinal tract and is usually transmitted by contaminated food, milk or water. Hepatitis B spreads mainly by the parenteral rate. Bedbugs and ticks are considered as possible transmitters of HBV. Another important contribution of radioimmunoassay is the ability to monitor the immune response of persons at risk who are vaccinated against hepatitis B.

  14. Transient nephritis during resolution phase of acute virale hepatitis E

    Arden, Amir David

    2009-01-01

    Hepatitis E Virus is a causative agent of hepatitis. Viral E hepatitis is responsible for various clinical manifestations. However, immune reactions due to hepatitis E virus are rarely encountered. A case of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis associated with hepatitis E virus is reported her.

  15. [Knowledge about viral hepatitis in a sample of Brazilian students from Vale do Araguaia, Legal Amazonia].

    Ferrari, Carlos K B; Savazzi, Kamirri; Honorio-França, Adenilda C; Ferrari, Graziele S L; França, Eduardo L

    2012-06-01

    Viral and non-viral hepatitis are of great concern among developing nations because of their pathogenicity and virulence, and also their wide spreading by contaminated blood, food or water. The objective of this work was to evaluate the knowledge about hepatitis of academic students from three life/health sciences courses and also students from the last year of high school To measure the students' knowledge on hepatitis an instrument containing 22 questions was applied. Surprinsingly, it was verified that 41.9% of students had poor knowledge of viral hepatitis. Among the high school students, 31.8% ignored that viral hepatitis are infectious and transmissible diseases. Considering hepatitis symptomatology, just 18% of high school students declared knowledge of the symptons, but none of those cited the ictericia. Among the academic students, 75.9% of nursing students had adequate knowledge of hepatitis, followed by pharmacy (51.3%), and biology students (18.2%). Nursing students had also higher scores of right answers regarding viral hepatitis and chronic disease. On contrary, biology and high school students had poor knowledge of that matter (37% and 44.5%, respectively). Less than 15% of nursing and pharmacy students did not know that viral hepatitis are sexually transmissible, whereas 78.6% of the 3rd year and 52.4% of the 4th year biology course ignored the sexual transmission of viral hepatitis. Still considering the same question, 54.5% of the high school students also ignored that viral hepatitis are sexually transmitted diseases. Important conclusions can be drawn from this study, since the higher hepatitis knowledge scores were found among nursing students, followed by pharmacy academics. However, biology students, which will serve as high school teachers, had poor and insufficient knowledge on hepatitis. This finding could explain the same poor disease knowledge among high school pupils.

  16. Estimating Acute Viral Hepatitis Infections From Nationally Reported Cases

    Liu, Stephen; Roberts, Henry; Jiles, Ruth B.; Holmberg, Scott D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Because only a fraction of patients with acute viral hepatitis A, B, and C are reported through national surveillance to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, we estimated the true numbers. Methods. We applied a simple probabilistic model to estimate the fraction of patients with acute hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C who would have been symptomatic, would have sought health care tests, and would have been reported to health officials in 2011. Results. For hepatitis A, the frequencies of symptoms (85%), care seeking (88%), and reporting (69%) yielded an estimate of 2730 infections (2.0 infections per reported case). For hepatitis B, the frequencies of symptoms (39%), care seeking (88%), and reporting (45%) indicated 18 730 infections (6.5 infections per reported case). For hepatitis C, the frequency of symptoms among injection drug users (13%) and those infected otherwise (48%), proportion seeking care (88%), and percentage reported (53%) indicated 17 100 infections (12.3 infections per reported case). Conclusions. These adjustment factors will allow state and local health authorities to estimate acute hepatitis infections locally and plan prevention activities accordingly. PMID:24432918

  17. Emerging zoonotic viral diseases.

    Wang, L-F; Crameri, G

    2014-08-01

    Zoonotic diseases are infectious diseases that are naturally transmitted from vertebrate animals to humans and vice versa. They are caused by all types of pathogenic agents, including bacteria, parasites, fungi, viruses and prions. Although they have been recognised for many centuries, their impact on public health has increased in the last few decades due to a combination of the success in reducing the spread of human infectious diseases through vaccination and effective therapies and the emergence of novel zoonotic diseases. It is being increasingly recognised that a One Health approach at the human-animal-ecosystem interface is needed for effective investigation, prevention and control of any emerging zoonotic disease. Here, the authors will review the drivers for emergence, highlight some of the high-impact emerging zoonotic diseases of the last two decades and provide examples of novel One Health approaches for disease investigation, prevention and control. Although this review focuses on emerging zoonotic viral diseases, the authors consider that the discussions presented in this paper will be equally applicable to emerging zoonotic diseases of other pathogen types.

  18. VIRAL HEPATITIS B AND C AS COMORBIDITY IN RHEUMATIC DISEASES: ANALYSIS OF THE DATA OF THE V.A. NASONOVA RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF RHEUMATOLOGY CLINIC OVER 4 YEARS

    A. E. Karateev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is a serious problem that substantially hinders the treatment of patients with rheumatic diseases (RD particular when there is a need for using cytotoxic and biological agents (BAs.Objective: to estimate the rate of HBV and HCV infection in RD patients followed up at the V.A. Nasonova Research Institute of Rheumatology Clinic in 2011 to 2014.Subjects and methods. All case histories of the RD patients hospitalized in the given period were analyzed. Infection with HBV and HCV was assessed from the presence of HBsAg and anti-HCV, respectively.Results and discussion. There were a total of 16,553 admissions to the V.A. Nasonova Research Institute of Rheumatology Clinic over 4 years. HBV and HCV were detected in 0.33 and 0.74%, respectively; their combination was found in 0.03% (a total of 1.1% of the patients. About half of the patients took cytotoxic agents and glucocorticoids; 29.8% received BAs, mainly rituximab. Moderate and high chronic hepatitis activity was noted in 4.9% of the patients; liver cirrhosis was observed in 2.7%. Over the follow-up period, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels were not elevated in the vast majority of patients.Conclusion. HBV and HCV infection is often detected in patients with RD. The infected patients and persons with chronic viral hepatitis require careful follow-up and the decision whether to perform prophylactic antiviral therapy when using cytotoxic agents and BAs.

  19. [Decimeter-wave physiotherapy in viral hepatitis].

    Kents, V V; Mavrodiĭ, V M

    1995-01-01

    Effectiveness was evaluated of magnetotherapy, inductothermy, UNF electric field and electromagnetic waves of decimetric wave band (460 MHz) on the projection of the liver, adrenals and thyroid gland in controlled trials enrolling a total of 835 patients with viral hepatitis (type A, B, associated forms). A conclusion is reached that optimum effectiveness of decimetric field on the projection of the adrenals and thyroid gland can be achieved through the application of minimum power and everyday alternation of exposures. It has been estimated that as many as 69 percent of the patients derive benefit from the above treatment.

  20. Hepatitis C virus infection and risk of coronary artery disease

    Roed, Torsten; Lebech, Anne-Mette; Kjaer, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Several chronic infections have been associated with cardiovascular diseases, including Chlamydia pneumoniae, human immunodeficiency virus and viral hepatitis. This review evaluates the literature on the association between chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and the risk of coronary artery...

  1. Immunological and molecular epidemiological characteristics of acute and fulminant viral hepatitis A.

    Hussain, Zahid; Husain, Syed A; Almajhdi, Fahad N; Kar, Premashis

    2011-05-23

    Hepatitis A virus is an infection of liver; it is hyperendemic in vast areas of the world including India. In most cases it causes an acute self limited illness but rarely fulminant. There is growing concern about change in pattern from asymptomatic childhood infection to an increased incidence of symptomatic disease in the adult population. In-depth analysis of immunological, viral quantification and genotype of acute and fulminant hepatitis A virus. Serum samples obtained from 1009 cases of suspected acute viral hepatitis was employed for different biochemical and serological examination. RNA was extracted from blood serum, reverse transcribed into cDNA and amplified using nested PCR for viral quantification, sequencing and genotyping. Immunological cell count from freshly collected whole blood was carried out by fluorescence activated cell sorter. Fulminant hepatitis A was mostly detected with other hepatic viruses. CD8+ T cells count increases in fulminant hepatitis to a significantly high level (P = 0.005) compared to normal healthy control. The immunological helper/suppressor (CD4+/CD8+) ratio of fulminant hepatitis was significantly lower compared to acute cases. The serologically positive patients were confirmed by RT-PCR and total of 72 (69.2%) were quantified and sequenced. The average quantitative viral load of fulminant cases was significantly higher (P viral load defines the severity of the fulminant hepatitis A. Phylogenetic analysis of acute and fulminant hepatitis A confirmed genotypes IIIA as predominant against IA with no preference of disease severity.

  2. [Comparison of clinical and laboratory characteristics of viral hepatitis A and E in Montenegro].

    Terzić, Dragica; Mijović, Gordana; Dupanović, Brankica; Drasković, Nenad; Svirtlih, Neda

    2010-01-01

    Hepatitis E has many similarities in with hepatitis A concerning clinical picture, route of transmission and nonexistence of chronicity. Comparison of clinical and laboratory parameters of patients with hepatitis A and E to estimate characteristics of these diseases. Total of 54 patients divided into two groups was investigated: 27 had hepatitis A, others had hepatitis E. Detailed history past, clinical examination, liver function tests and ultrasonography of the upper abdomen, were done in all patients. Aetiology of viral hepatitis was investigated serologically by enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) using commercial kits for following viruses: Hepatitis A-E viruses, cytomegalovirus, and Epstein-Barr virus. Asymptomatic infections (29.6%) and clinical forms without jaundice (59.3%) were more frequent in patients with hepatitis E. Splenomegaly was found more frequent in patients with hepatitis A than in hepatitis E (66.7% vs. 33.3%). Patients with hepatitis E had significantly lower activity of aminotransferases than patients with hepatitis A. A significant increase of gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase was found in patients with hepatitis E (mean value: 120 IU/L). Our results are in concordance with other reports that hepatitis E virus infection is more common asymptomatic disease than hepatitis A. In addition, hepatocyte necrosis in hepatitis E is less extensive than in hepatitis A measured by the activity of aminotransferases. Contrary to that the value of gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase is more increased in hepatitis E than in hepatitis A without exact explanation so far: Viral hepatitis E and A have differences in some clinical features and laboratory parameters although both diseases principally have resolved without consequences after 6-8 weeks.

  3. MR imaging of acute viral hepatitis

    Sakai, Toyohiko; Itoh, Hisao; Takahashi, Norio; Kitada, Masahisa; Saito, Masayuki; Ohshiro, Kennwa; Ishimori, Masatoshi; Ishii, Yasushi.

    1991-01-01

    Twenty-three MR studies of 19 patients with acute viral hepatitis were reviewed. The findings of MR imaging including peripotal high intensity (PHI) on T 2 -weighted images and gallbladder wall thickening (GBWT) were compared with the level of serum GOT level and clinical phase which was determined by the interval between the peak of serum GOT level and MR study. PHI was found in 15 out of 23 studies (65%) and GBWT in 7 out of 22 studies (32%). The incidence of these findings were correlated well with the severity of serum GOT level and clinical phase. PHI became less prominent gradually as during the clinical recovery. While GBWT was found in the earlier phase and disappeared immediately. PHI seems to correspond to edema and infiltration of inflammatory cells in the periportal area of the liver. (author)

  4. MR imaging of acute viral hepatitis

    Sakai, Toyohiko; Itoh, Hisao; Takahashi, Norio; Kitada, Masahisa; Saito, Masayuki; Ohshiro, Kennwa; Ishimori, Masatoshi [Matsunami General Hospital, Kasamatsu, Gifu (Japan); Ishii, Yasushi

    1991-02-01

    Twenty-three MR studies of 19 patients with acute viral hepatitis were reviewed. The findings of MR imaging including peripotal high intensity (PHI) on T{sub 2}-weighted images and gallbladder wall thickening (GBWT) were compared with the level of serum GOT level and clinical phase which was determined by the interval between the peak of serum GOT level and MR study. PHI was found in 15 out of 23 studies (65%) and GBWT in 7 out of 22 studies (32%). The incidence of these findings were correlated well with the severity of serum GOT level and clinical phase. PHI became less prominent gradually as during the clinical recovery. While GBWT was found in the earlier phase and disappeared immediately. PHI seems to correspond to edema and infiltration of inflammatory cells in the periportal area of the liver. (author).

  5. Viral kinetics of the Hepatitis C virus

    F.C. Bekkering (Frank)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractHepatitis A virus and hepatitis B virus were identified as the cause of infectious hepatitis and serum hepatitis respectively in the beginning of the seventies. After introduction of screening tests for hepatitis A and B 4 only 25% of the cases of post transfusion hepatitis were found to

  6. Hepatitis A viral load in relation to severity of the infection.

    Fujiwara, Keiichi; Kojima, Hiroshige; Yasui, Shin; Okitsu, Koichiro; Yonemitsu, Yutaka; Omata, Masao; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2011-02-01

    A correlation between hepatitis A virus (HAV) genomes and the clinical severity of hepatitis A has not been established. The viral load in sera of hepatitis A patients was examined to determine the possible association between hepatitis A severity and HAV replication. One hundred sixty-four serum samples from 91 Japanese patients with sporadic hepatitis A, comprising 11 patients with fulminant hepatitis, 10 with severe acute hepatitis, and 70 with self-limited acute hepatitis, were tested for HAV RNA. The sera included 83 serial samples from 20 patients. Viral load was measured by real-time RT-PCR. The detection rates of HAV RNA from fulminant, severe acute, and acute hepatitis were 10/11 (91%), 10/10 (100%), and 55/70 (79%), respectively. Mean values of HAV RNA at admission were 3.48 ± 1.30 logcopies/ml in fulminant, 4.19 ± 1.03 in severe acute, and 2.65 ± 1.64 in acute hepatitis. Patients with severe infection such as fulminant hepatitis and severe acute hepatitis had higher initial viral load than patients with less severe infection (P hepatitis after clinical onset (P = 0.19). HAV RNA was detectable quantitatively in the majority of the sera of hepatitis A cases during the early convalescent phase by real-time PCR. Higher initial viral replication was found in severely infected patients. An excessive host immune response might follow, reducing the viral load rapidly as a result of the destruction of large numbers of HAV-infected hepatocytes, and in turn severe disease might be induced. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Current status and strategies for the control of viral hepatitis A in Korea.

    Yoon, Eileen L; Sinn, Dong Hyun; Lee, Hyun Woong; Kim, Ji Hoon

    2017-09-01

    Hepatitis A virus is one of the most frequent causes of foodborne infection, which is closely associated with sanitary conditions and hygienic practices. The clinical spectrum of acute hepatitis A is wide, ranging from mild case without any noticeable symptoms to severe case with acute liver failure leading to mortality. The severity and outcome are highly correlated with age at infection. In developing countries, most people are infected in early childhood without significant symptom. Ironically, in area where sanitary condition has improved rapidly, adults who do not have immunity for viral hepatitis A (VH-A) in early childhood is accumulating. Adults without immunity are exposed to risks of symptomatic disease and large outbreaks in society. In Korea, where hygiene has improved rapidly, acute hepatitis A is a significant health burden that needs to be managed with nationwide health policy. The incidence of symptomatic VH-A has increased since 2000 and peaked in 2009. Korea has designated hepatitis A as a group 1 nationally notifiable infectious disease in 2001. Since 2001, mandatory surveillance system has been established to detect every single case of acute hepatitis A. Universal, nationwide vaccination program for newborns was introduced in 2015. In this review, we will present the current epidemiologic status of viral hepatitis A, and evaluate the effectiveness of the current nationwide strategies for the control of viral hepatitis A in Korea. Furthermore, we presented some action proposals that can help eliminate viral hepatitis A, which is a significant health burden in Korea.

  8. Immunological and molecular epidemiological characteristics of acute and fulminant viral hepatitis A

    2011-01-01

    Background Hepatitis A virus is an infection of liver; it is hyperendemic in vast areas of the world including India. In most cases it causes an acute self limited illness but rarely fulminant. There is growing concern about change in pattern from asymptomatic childhood infection to an increased incidence of symptomatic disease in the adult population. Objective In-depth analysis of immunological, viral quantification and genotype of acute and fulminant hepatitis A virus. Methods Serum samples obtained from 1009 cases of suspected acute viral hepatitis was employed for different biochemical and serological examination. RNA was extracted from blood serum, reverse transcribed into cDNA and amplified using nested PCR for viral quantification, sequencing and genotyping. Immunological cell count from freshly collected whole blood was carried out by fluorescence activated cell sorter. Results Fulminant hepatitis A was mostly detected with other hepatic viruses. CD8+ T cells count increases in fulminant hepatitis to a significantly high level (P = 0.005) compared to normal healthy control. The immunological helper/suppressor (CD4+/CD8+) ratio of fulminant hepatitis was significantly lower compared to acute cases. The serologically positive patients were confirmed by RT-PCR and total of 72 (69.2%) were quantified and sequenced. The average quantitative viral load of fulminant cases was significantly higher (P hepatitis A. Phylogenetic analysis of acute and fulminant hepatitis A confirmed genotypes IIIA as predominant against IA with no preference of disease severity. PMID:21605420

  9. Hepatitis B viral infection with nephrotic syndrome treated with lamivudine.

    Banu, N A; Khatoon, S; Quadir, E; Rahman, M M; Khan, M A

    2007-07-01

    A 04 years old boy with 02 months history of generalized oedema and scanty micturition was diagnosed as nephrotic syndrome with hepatitis B viral infection. He had evidence of active viral replication. After 01 month treatment with oral lamivudine, his urine became protein free and after 04 months, he had seroconversion from HBeAg+ve to HBeAg-ve. Lamivudine was continued for 01 year. He had no relapse after discontinuation of therapy and remained well after 36 months of completion of therapy. He had no evidence of active viral replication during this period, however HBsAg remained positive indication carrier state. As most children with HBV associated nephropathy have no evidence of chronic hepatitis, all such children must undergo HBV screening and for chronic liver disease if HBV screening is positive. As such children do not respond to prednisolone or other immunosuppresive therapy which might harm them, antiviral therapy should be considered. Lamivudine is a suitable alternative to IFN alpha owing to its low cost, ease of administration and fewer side effects.

  10. Viral-Associated GN: Hepatitis C and HIV.

    Kupin, Warren L

    2017-08-07

    Viruses are capable of inducing a wide spectrum of glomerular disorders that can be categorized on the basis of the duration of active viremia: acute, subacute, or chronic. The variable responses of the adaptive immune system to each time period of viral infection results mechanistically in different histologic forms of glomerular injury. The unique presence of a chronic viremic carrier state with either hepatitis C (HCV) or HIV has led to the opportunity to study in detail various pathogenic mechanisms of viral-induced glomerular injury, including direct viral infection of renal tissue and the development of circulating immune complexes composed of viral antigens that deposit along the glomerular basement membrane. Epidemiologic data show that approximately 25%-30% of all HIV patients are coinfected with HCV and 5%-10% of all HCV patients are coinfected with HIV. This situation can often lead to a challenging differential diagnosis when glomerular disease occurs in this dual-infected population and requires the clinician to be familiar with the clinical presentation, laboratory workup, and pathophysiology behind the development of renal disease for both HCV and HIV. Both of these viruses can be categorized under the new classification of infection-associated GN as opposed to being listed as causes of postinfectious GN as has previously been applied to them. Neither of these viruses lead to renal injury after a latent period of controlled and inactive viremia. The geneses of HCV- and HIV-associated glomerular diseases share a total dependence on the presence of active viral replication to sustain renal injury so the renal disease cannot be listed under "postinfectious" GN. With the new availability of direct-acting antivirals for HCV and more effective combined antiretroviral therapy for HIV, successful remission and even regression of glomerular lesions can be achieved if initiated at an early stage. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  11. Health Inequities and HIV, Viral Hepatitis, TB, and STDs

    Dr. Kevin A. Fenton, Director of CDC's National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP), discusses health inequities in the United States and how NCHHSTP research, policies, and programs can address them.

  12. Dysplastic hepatocytes develop nuclear inclusions in a mouse model of viral hepatitis.

    Priyanka Thakur

    Full Text Available Viral hepatitis resulting in chronic liver disease is an important clinical challenge and insight into the cellular processes that drive pathogenesis will be critical in order to develop new diagnostic and therapeutic options. Nuclear inclusions in viral and non-viral hepatitis are well documented and have diagnostic significance in some disease contexts. However, the origins and functional consequences of these nuclear inclusions remain elusive. To date the clinical observation of nuclear inclusions in viral and non-viral hepatitis has not been explored at depth in murine models of liver disease. Herein, we report that in a transgenic model of hepatitis B surface antigen mediated hepatitis, murine hepatocytes exhibit nuclear inclusions. Cells bearing nuclear inclusions were more likely to express markers of cell proliferation. We also established a correlation between these inclusions and oxidative stress. N-acetyl cysteine treatment effectively reduced oxidative stress levels, relieved endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress, and the number of nuclear inclusions we observed in the transgenic mice. Our results suggest that the presence of nuclear inclusions in hepatocytes correlates with oxidative stress and cellular proliferation in a model of antigen mediated hepatitis.

  13. Markers of viral hepatitis in hemophiliacs

    Malik, N.; Hussain, Z.

    2006-01-01

    Sero prevalence of Hepatitis B surface antigen (HbsAg) and anti-HCV IgG was determined in 100 persons with Hemophilia (PWH), registered with Hemophilia Patient Welfare Society (HPWS), Lahore Zone, Pakistan. The study shows that 4% were positive for HBsAg. However, there was a high level of anti-HCV sero positivity (56%) in our PWH, including many patients in younger age groups. When compared with figures from PWH in other regions of Asia like 23% in Western India, 33% in Sri Lanka and 15% of those in Iran, this figure is one of the highest. This rate is a reflection of the same rising trend in our population that is now exceeding 10%. The practice of unscreened blood/blood-products transfusions in the backdrop of high prevalence of HCV in our population is responsible for high figures seen in PWH. The need is to increase awareness amongst the patients, health care workers and policy makers about the transfusion associated viral infections in a group of patients who already had a hereditary disorder of severe nature. (author)

  14. Health Inequities and HIV, Viral Hepatitis, TB, and STDs

    2010-09-15

    Dr. Kevin A. Fenton, Director of CDC's National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP), discusses health inequities in the United States and how NCHHSTP research, policies, and programs can address them.  Created: 9/15/2010 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention.   Date Released: 9/15/2010.

  15. Asthenia in Children with Chronic Viral Hepatitis

    I.S. Lembryk

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the article results of own researches concerning peculiarities of the course of asthenic syndrome in school-aged children with chronic hepatitis B, C and mixed forms are provided. It is established that chronic hepatitis C as well as a mixed hepatitis are accompanied by more evident symptoms of deadaptation and somatogenic asthenia than hepatitis B in which psychogenic manifestations prevailed. The degree of endogenous intoxication was also higher at hepatitis C.

  16. Diabetes mellitus and renal involvement in chronic viral liver disease.

    Iovanescu, V F; Streba, C T; Ionescu, M; Constantinescu, A F; Vere, C C; Rogoveanu, I; Moța, E

    2015-01-01

    Chronic viral liver disease is often associated with other conditions. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is frequently reported in this context and may play a role in the progression of the liver disease to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Renal disease is also an important extrahepatic manifestation of hepatitis viral infection and its presence is associated with poor prognosis and management issues. Our study had multiple purposes: to determine the frequency of the association between chronic viral liver disease and diabetes mellitus, evaluate the potential of diabetes mellitus as a risk factor for HCC and assess an eventual renal involvement. We included in our study a number of 246 patients with chronic liver disease, from whom 136 were diagnosed with chronic viral hepatitis and 110 with viral liver cirrhosis. These patients were assessed by using a clinical examination and a series of tests, including serum transaminase levels, serum bilirubin, serum albumin, markers of cholestasis, fasting plasma glucose levels, serum creatinine, urea, albuminuria, Addis-Hamburger test, electrophoresis of urinary proteins, abdominal ultrasound and, in some cases, CT examination. We obtained the following results: diabetes mellitus is often associated with chronic liver disease of viral etiology, having been identified in 18.29% of the patients in our study. Age above 60 in patients with chronic hepatitis (p=0.013diabetes mellitus. Renal disease was present in 13.4% of the patients with chronic liver disease and it was especially associated with liver cirrhosis and hepatitis C virus. The most common form of renal injury was glomerulonephritis. Acute kidney injury was diagnosed only in cirrhotic patients as hepatorenal syndrome, occurring in 7.27% of the subjects, while chronic kidney disease was identified only in two cases of chronic viral hepatitis. Four patients in our study were diagnosed with HCC and none of them presented diabetes mellitus. Our study revealed that there is a

  17. Viral Hepatitis Strategic Information to Achieve Elimination by 2030: Key Elements for HIV Program Managers.

    Hutin, Yvan; Low-Beer, Daniel; Bergeri, Isabel; Hess, Sarah; Garcia-Calleja, Jesus Maria; Hayashi, Chika; Mozalevskis, Antons; Rinder Stengaard, Annemarie; Sabin, Keith; Harmanci, Hande; Bulterys, Marc

    2017-12-15

    Evidence documenting the global burden of disease from viral hepatitis was essential for the World Health Assembly to endorse the first Global Health Sector Strategy (GHSS) on viral hepatitis in May 2016. The GHSS on viral hepatitis proposes to eliminate viral hepatitis as a public health threat by 2030. The GHSS on viral hepatitis is in line with targets for HIV infection and tuberculosis as part of the Sustainable Development Goals. As coordination between hepatitis and HIV programs aims to optimize the use of resources, guidance is also needed to align the strategic information components of the 2 programs. The World Health Organization monitoring and evaluation framework for viral hepatitis B and C follows an approach similar to the one of HIV, including components on the following: (1) context (prevalence of infection), (2) input, (3) output and outcome, including the cascade of prevention and treatment, and (4) impact (incidence and mortality). Data systems that are needed to inform this framework include (1) surveillance for acute hepatitis, chronic infections, and sequelae and (2) program data documenting prevention and treatment, which for the latter includes a database of patients. Overall, the commonalities between HIV and hepatitis at the strategic, policy, technical, and implementation levels justify coordination, strategic linkage, or integration, depending on the type of HIV and viral hepatitis epidemics. Strategic information is a critical area of this alignment under the principle of what gets measured gets done. It is facilitated because the monitoring and evaluation frameworks for HIV and viral hepatitis were constructed using a similar approach. However, for areas where elimination of viral hepatitis requires data that cannot be collected through the HIV program, collaborations are needed with immunization, communicable disease control, tuberculosis, and hepatology centers to ensure collection of information for the remaining indicators.

  18. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis C Viral Antibodies among Pregnant ...

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is an important health problem with an increasing number of patients acquiring the virus. Some infected patients are known to develop liver cirrhosis and /or possible hepatocellular carcinoma. This study was designed to find out the seroprevalence of hepatitis C viral antibodies among ...

  19. Experience with Hepatitis B viral load testing in Nigeria | Okwuraiwe ...

    Background: Quantification of the viral burden is an important laboratory tool in the management of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected patients. However, widespread use of assays is still hampered by the high cost. Treatment reduces viral load to undetectable levels. HBV infected patients tend to have high HBV DNA levels, ...

  20. 101 . experience with hepatitis b viral load testing in nigeria

    User

    ABSTRACT. Background: Quantification of the viral burden is an important laboratory tool in the management of hepatitis B virus. (HBV)-infected patients. However, widespread use of assays is still hampered by the high cost. Treatment reduces viral load to undetectable levels. HBV infected patients tend to have high HBV ...

  1. [Other viral food poisoning (hepatitis A and E)].

    Yano, Kunio

    2012-08-01

    Hepatitis A and E viruses are spread via the fecal-oral route. In the endemic area, restaurant and school outbreaks due to contaminated water or food have been reported. The clinical signs and symptoms in patients with typical hepatitis A and E are similar to those seen with other forms of acute viral hepatitis. Hepatitis A tends to be more severe when acquired at older ages. Hepatitis E appears to be relatively severe compared with hepatitis A. Although both hepatitis are self-limited illness, severe hepatits are rarely observed. Hepatitis A and E can be prevented by improved sanitary conditions, handwashing, heating foods appropriately. Avoidance of water and foods from endemic areas is also effective.

  2. Hepatitis C viral infection among prisoners.

    Kostić, Velimir; Radović, Jelena; Djordjević, Jovana; Vujić, Stevan

    2013-11-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is an important sociomedical problem worldwide because the chronification of the disease is frequent and the occurance of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma can be expected. The aim of this study was to determine the way of infection, pathohistological changes of the liver, virus genotype presence and sustained virological response after pegylated interferon and ribavirin therapy in prison inmates. The study included 52 patients with chronic HCV infection classified in two groups managed during 2008-2010. The first group consisted of prisoners (n = 22) and the second one of "non-prisoners" (n = 30). The patients from both groups underwent diagnostic preparation (biochemical analyses, liver biopsy, hepatitis virus detection and genotypisation using polymerase chain reaction issue). The treatment lasted for 24 weeks for virus genotypes 2 and 3, and 48 weeks for genotypes 1 and 4. All the patients were males, approximately the same age (35 +/- 4.1 and 31 +/- 7.6 years). Virus genotype 1 was significantly more frequent in the prisoners (p < 0.05), that demanded longer treatment (48 weeks). At the same time, statistically significant higher number of patients, "non-prisoners", achieved a sustained virological response (p < 0.01). Intravenous drug abuse and tattoos, separately or together, are the most frequent way of infection in prisoners. The dominant presence of virus genotype 1 resulted in lower number of patients with sustained virological response, probably regardless prison environment and regime.

  3. Hepatitis C virus genotypes: A plausible association with viral loads

    Salma Ghulam Nabi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The basic aim of this study was to find out the association of genotypes with host age, gender and viral load. Material and Methods: The present study was conducted at Social Security Hospital, Pakistan. This study included 320 patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection who were referred to the hospital between November 2011 and July 2012. HCV viral detection and genotyping was performed and the association was seen between genotypes and host age, gender and viral load. Results : The analysis revealed the presence of genotypes 1 and 3 with further subtypes 1a, 1b, 3a, 3b and mixed genotypes 1b + 3a, 1b + 3b and 3a + 3b. Viral load quantification was carried out in all 151 HCV ribonucleic acid (RNA positive patients. The genotype 3a was observed in 124 (82.12% patients, 3b was found in 21 (13.91%, 1a was seen in 2 (1.32%, 1b in 1 (0.66%, mixed infection with 1b + 3a in 1 (0.66%, 1b + 3b in 1 (0.66% and 3a + 3b was also found in 1 (0.66% patient. Viral load quantification was carried out in all 151 HCV RNA positive patients and was compared between the various genotypes. The mean viral load in patients infected with genotype 1a was 2.75 × 10 6 , 1b 3.9 × 10 6 , 3a 2.65 × 10 6 , 3b 2.51 × 10 6 , 1b + 3a 3.4 × 106, 1b + 3b 2.7 × 106 and 3a + 3b 3.5 × 10 6 . An association between different types of genotypes and viral load was observed. Conclusion : Further studies should be carried out to determine the association of viral load with different genotypes so that sufficient data is available and can be used to determine the type and duration of therapy needed and predict disease outcome.

  4. NATURAL KILLER T CELLS IN HEPATIC LEUCOCYTE INFILTRATES IN PATIENTS WITH MALIGNANT PROCESS AND VIRAL HEPATITIS

    O. V. Lebedinskaya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphology, topography, and immunohistochemical features of leukocyte infiltrates were studied in various sites of the liver samples from the patients with metastatic disease, been affected by hepatitis B and C viruses at different degree of activity. Liver of СВА mice with implanted САО-1 tumour was also under study. Histochemical, and functional features, as well as immune phenotype of these cells were investigated. It has been shown that the major fraction of leukocyte infiltrates, mostly associated with implanted tumours in experimental mice, and in the areas adjacent to the tumor in humans, like as on the peak of viral hepatitis activity, is composed of lymphocytes. They are presented by large numvers of activated proliferating and differentiating cells bearing specific antigens, as well as natural killers and T-lymphocytes, possessing high-level killer activity towards NK-sensitive, and autologous lines of cancer cells. Hence, the results of our study, generally, confirm the data from literature reporting on existence of a special lymphocyte subpopulation, NKT cells, in human or murine liver affected by hepatitis virus or malignant tumors. The data concerning functional properties of these cells may be used for development of immunotherapy methods of viral diseases and oncological conditions complicated by liver metastases.

  5. VIRAL HEPATITIS A TO E IN SOUTH MEDITERRANEAN COUNTRIES

    Sanaa M. Kamal

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Viral hepatitis represents an important health problem in the South Mediterranean countries, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco.  Emerging natural history and epidemiological information reveal differences in the overall epidemiology, risk factors and modes of transmission of viral hepatitis A, B, C, D, E infections in the South Mediterranean region. The differences in the in incidence and prevalence of viral hepatitis across North African countries is attributed to variations in health care  and sanitation standards, risk factors and immunization strategies. The active continuous population movement through travel, tourism and migration from and to the South Mediterranean countries contribute to the spread of infections due to hepatitis viruses across borders leading to outbreaks and emergence of new patterns of infection or introduction of uncommon genotypes in other countries, particularly in Europe.

  6. Viral hepatitis A, B, and C: grown-up issues.

    Sharapov, Umid M; Hu, Dale J

    2010-08-01

    Viral hepatitis is a major global health problem associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Although there are five major and distinct human hepatitis viruses characterized to date--referred to as hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E, respectively--only hepatitis A, B, and C are epidemiologically and clinically relevant for adolescents in North America. The clinical presentation of acute infection with each of these viruses is similar; thus, diagnosis depends on the use of specific serologic markers and viral nucleic acids. This review provides data on the epidemiology, clinical symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of each of these three viral infections, along with points that are important or unique to adolescent patients.

  7. Acute hepatitis e viral infection in pregnancy and maternal morbidity

    Khaskheli, M.N.; Baloch, S.

    2015-01-01

    To determine the maternal morbidity in pregnant women with acute hepatitis E viral infection. Study Design: Observational, cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Departments of Obstetrics and Gynaecology and Medicine, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro, Red Crescent General Hospital and Saint Elizabeth Hospital, Hyderabad, from January 2011 to December 2013. Methodology: The study population was pregnant women with acute hepatitis E infection confirmed by ELIZA technique. Pregnant women with other hepatic viral infections were excluded. All medical and obstetric conditions, and mortality were noted on the predesigned proforma. Results: Out of the total 45 admitted pregnant women with hepatitis E viral infection, 22 women (48.9%) had severe morbidity. The most common were hepatic coma in 8 (36.36%) cases and disseminated intravascular coagulation in 14 (63.63%) cases. Highest mortality rate was seen in women with hepatic coma (100%), while in those with disseminated intravascular coagulation, one out of the 14 cases (7.14%) died. Conclusion: The acute viral hepatitis E infection in pregnant women is associated with maternal morbidities and high mortality rate. (author)

  8. Viral hepatitis screening in transgender patients undergoing gender identity hormonal therapy.

    Mangla, Neeraj; Mamun, Rifat; Weisberg, Ilan S

    2017-11-01

    Viral hepatitis is a global health issue and can lead to cirrhosis, liver failure, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Guidelines for viral hepatitis screening in the transgender population do not exist. Transgender patients may be at higher risk for contracting viral hepatitis due to socioeconomic and behavioral factors. The aim of this study was to measure the quality of screening, prevalence, and susceptibility of viral hepatitis, and to identify barriers to screening in transgender patients undergoing gender identity hormonal therapy. LGBTQ-friendly clinic visits from transgender patients older than 18 years in New York City from 2012 to 2015 were reviewed. Approximately 13% of patients were screened for any viral hepatitis on initial consultation. Screening rates for hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis A virus (HAV) at any point were 27, 22, and 20%. HAV screening was performed in 28% of the female to male (FtM) patients and 16% of male to female (MtF) (P0.05). Prevalence of HCV, HBV, and HIV in FtM was 0, 0, and 0.44% and that in MtF was 1.78, 0.89, and 1.78%, respectively. Percentage of patients immune to hepatitis A in FtM and MtF subgroups were 55 and 47% (P>0.05). Percentage of patients immune to HBV in FtM and MtF subgroups were 54 and 48% (P>0.05). This study indicates a significant lack of hepatitis screening in the transgender population and a concerning proportion of patients susceptible to disease.

  9. Studies on some biochemical parameters in viral hepatitis patients

    El-Sherbiny, E.M.

    2002-01-01

    The present investigation deals with studying liver amino transferases (ALT. AST). Cholesterol and triglycerides. As well as testosterone and protection hormones in blood of Egyptian men infected with hepatitis C virus.hepatitis B virus and mixed B and C viruses. These biochemical parameters were evaluated to be used in diagnosis and prognosis of viral hepatitis. Which considered the most important health problem in Egypt and developing countries. Biochemical analysis were performed using spectrophotometric and radioimmunoassay techniques. All data will be subjected to statistical analysis in order to detect the most suitable biochemical analysis that can be used as specific tests for early diagnosis of viral hepatitis and to detect the parameters that show abnormalities among the different groups of infected patients. The data revealed that AST and ALT levels were increased in all patient groups. Concerning the level of triglycerides, it was increased only in the group of mixed viral hepatitis B and C, while cholesterol showed non-significant changes in all viral hepatitis groups. The sex hormone testosterone was decreased in all infected patients while the prolactin level was increased only in case of patients infected with mixed B and C viruses. However, these abnormal values in such sex hormones play a serious role in male sterility

  10. Scoring system in cirrhotics due to viral hepatitis

    Abbasi, A.; Bhutto, A.R.; Butt, N.; Lal, K.; Munir, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the association of serum cholesterol levels with Child-Pugh class in patients with decompensated chronic liver disease due to viral hepatitis. Methodology: Consecutive patients attending outpatient department or admitted in medical unit III were eligible if they had a diagnosis of cirrhosis secondary to viral hepatitis. Patients were excluded if alcoholic, diabetic, hypertensive, or with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, autoimmune, metabolic, cardiovascular, cerebrovascular or kidney diseases and recent use of lipid-regulating drugs. Serum lipid profile was determined after an overnight fast of 12 hours. On the basis of serum total cholesterol, patients were divided into four groups; Group I with serum total cholesterol = 100 mg/dl, Group II with level of 101-150 mg/dl, Group III with level of 151-200 mg/dl and Group IV with serum total cholesterol level of > 200 mg/dl. Hepatic dysfunction was categorized according to Child-Pugh scoring system. Chi-square and Spearman's correlation testing with p < 0.05 was accepted as significant. Results: One hundred and fourteen patients met the inclusion criteria with a mean age of 40.32 +- 13.59 years. Among these 32 were females (28.1%) while 82 were males (71.9%). According to Child-Pugh class; 34 patients (29.8%) presented with Child-Pugh class A, 34 (29.8%) in class B and 46 (40.4%) were in class C. Serum cholesterol (total) and triglycerides had significant association with Child-Pugh class (p = 0.0001 and p = 0.004 respectively) suggesting that as severity of liver dysfunction increases; serum cholesterol and triglycerides levels decrease. Results also revealed that males were significantly more hypocholesterolemic than females (p = 0.006). Conclusion: Hypocholesterolemia is a common finding in decompensated chronic liver disease and has got significant association with Child-Pugh class. It may increase the reliability of Child-Pugh classification in assessment of severity and prognosis in

  11. Epidemiological Investigation of an Outbreak of Viral Hepatitis.

    Singh, Pmp; Handa, S K; Banerjee, A

    2006-10-01

    There was a rise in the number of viral hepatitis cases in a regimental training centre in Mar 2003 and an epidemic of viral hepatitis was suspected. The clinical case sheets and preliminary investigations carried out in the local military hospital (MH) were reviewed. A cross sectional descriptive epidemiological study was undertaken with survey odf the suspected sewage and water pipelines. A total of 36 cases occurred from Mar 2003 to Apr 2003. There was clustering in time and space suggesting common source epidemic. All the 36 serum samples tested for IgM anti HEV antibodies were positive. Exploration of the water pipelines revealed sewage contamination due to leakage in the pipeline passing close to the sewage line. The overall attack rate was 1.44%. The outbreak of viral hepatitis in the regimental training centre occurred due to sewage contamination of drinking water pipeline.

  12. Viral hepatitis in Hawai'i--differing perspectives.

    Tice, Alan D; Bannan, Michael; Bauman, Kay; Collis, Tarquin; Hall, Alba; Haning, William; Hannemann, Shoshana; Hare, C Bradley; Humphry, Joseph; Jao, Robert; Leevy, Carroll; Lusk, Heather; Ochoa, Edward; Palafox, Neal; Withers, Nancy; Akinaka, Kenneth

    2010-04-01

    This publication contains information from a conference titled "Individual Perspectives on the Silent Epidemic of Viral Hepatitis in Hawai'i" held in October of 2007 with updates and additional contributions from annual conferences in 2008 and 2009. These conferences were sponsored by the Hepatitis Support Network of Hawai'i and held in Honolulu, Hawai'i at the Queen's Conference Center. The primary objectives of the conferences have been to heighten awareness of viral hepatitis in Hawai'i and to bring together health care professionals to learn about these infections and to help them respond to the challenges they bring to the people of Hawai'i. The initial conference was oriented to present the unique and individual perspectives of patients, physicians, and other healthcare providers specific to the complex issues of hepatitis in an effort to help them understand their role in the context of others and to develop a team approach in responding to this epidemic.

  13. Adsorption of viral particles from the blood plasma of patients with viral hepatitis on nanodiamonds.

    Baron, A V; Osipov, N V; Yashchenko, S V; Kokotukha, Yu A; Baron, I J; Puzyr, A P; Olkhovskiy, I A; Bondar, V S

    2016-07-01

    Adsorption of viral particles from the blood plasma of patients with viral hepatitis B and C on modified nanodiamonds (MNDs) was shown in the in vitro experiments. PCR method showed the treatment of plasma with MNDs leads to a decrease in the viral load by 2-3 orders of magnitude or more in both cases studied. These results make it possible to predict the applicability of MNDs for the development of new technologies of hemodialysis and plasmapheresis for binding and removal of viral particles from the blood of infected patients.

  14. Viral diseases and human evolution

    Leal Élcio de Souza

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of man with viral agents was possibly a key factor shaping human evolution, culture and civilization from its outset. Evidence of the effect of disease, since the early stages of human speciation, through pre-historical times to the present suggest that the types of viruses associated with man changed in time. As human populations progressed technologically, they grew in numbers and density. As a consequence different viruses found suitable conditions to thrive and establish long-lasting associations with man. Although not all viral agents cause disease and some may in fact be considered beneficial, the present situation of overpopulation, poverty and ecological inbalance may have devastating effets on human progress. Recently emerged diseases causing massive pandemics (eg., HIV-1 and HCV, dengue, etc. are becoming formidable challenges, which may have a direct impact on the fate of our species.

  15. Hepatic manifestations of celiac disease

    Hugh James Freeman

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Hugh James FreemanDepartment of Medicine (Gastroenterology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, CanadaAbstract: Different hepatic and biliary tract disorders may occur with celiac disease. Some have been hypothesized to share genetic or immunopathogenetic factors, such as primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, and autoimmune hepatitis. Other hepatic changes in celiac disease may occur with malnutrition resulting from impaired nutrient absorption, including hepatic steatosis. In addition, celiac disease may be associated with rare hepatic complications, such as hepatic T-cell lymphoma.Keywords: celiac disease, autoimmune liver disease, primary biliary cirrhosis, fatty liver, gluten-free diet

  16. Viral diseases of northern ungulates

    K. Frölich

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes viral diseases reported in northern ungulates and those that are a potential threat to these species. The following diseases are discussed: bovine viral diarrhoea/mucosal disease (BVD/MD, alphaherpesvirus infections, malignant catarrhal fever (MCF, poxvirus infections, parainfluenza type 3 virus infection, Alvsborg disease, foot-and-mouth disease, epizootic haemorrhage disease of deer and bluetongue disease, rabies, respiratory syncytial virus infection, adenovirus infection, hog-cholera, Aujeszky's disease and equine herpesvirus infections. There are no significant differences in antibody prevalence to BVDV among deer in habitats with high, intermediate and low density of cattle. In addition, sequence analysis from the BVDV isolated from roe deer (Capreolus capreolus showed that this strain was unique within BVDV group I. Distinct BVDV strains might circulate in free-ranging roe deer populations in Germany and virus transmission may be independent of domestic livestock. Similar results have been obtained in a serological survey of alpha-herpesviruses in deer in Germany. Malignant catarrhal fever was studied in fallow deer (Cervus dama in Germany: the seroprevalence and positive PCR results detected in sheep originating from the same area as the antibody-positive deer might indicate that sheep are the main reservoir animals. Contagious ecthyma (CE is a common disease in domestic sheep and goats caused by the orf virus. CE has been diagnosed in Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis, mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus, Dall sheep (Ovis dalli, chamois (Rupkapra rupi-capra, muskox {Ovibos moschatus and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus. Most parainfluenza type 3 virus infections are mild or clinically undetectable. Serological surveys in wildlife have been successfully conducted in many species. In 1985, a new disease was identified in Swedish moose (Alces alces, designated as Alvsborg disease. This wasting syndrome probably

  17. Carboxy terminal peptide of type I procollagen and epidermal growth factor in patients with different viral hepatitis

    Han Lihong; Gong Shoujun; Li Guangming; Li Yebing; Xu Bin

    2001-01-01

    The author observed the serum levels of carboxy terminal peptide of type I procollagen (PICP) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) in the patients with viral hepatitis and cirrhosis. The serum PICP and EGF were detected in 164 cases by RIA. The results indicated that two indexes increased significantly in patients with severe chronic hepatitis, chronic persistent hepatitis and post hepatitis cirrhosis compared with normal control (P 0.05). The results showed that detection of serum PICP and EGF may be valuable diagnostic markers to assess the degree of liver inflammation and fibrosis in viral liver diseases

  18. Expressions of renin, angiotensin II and aldosterone in patients with viral hepatitis or hepatic cirrhosis

    Huo Ying; Zhu Yalin; Liu Yun

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the changes of renin, angiotensin and aldosterone system in patients with hepatic disorders. Methods: Plasma renin activity (PRA), AT-II and Ald levels were measured with RIA in 31 patients with viral hepatitis, 35 patients with hepatic cirrhosis and 38 controls. Results: The levels of PRA, AT-II and Ald in patients with viral hepatitis were slightly but non-significantly higher than those in controls (P>0.05). The levels of PRA, AT-II and Ald in patients with cirrhosis were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.01). Conclusion: RAAS was activated during progression of hepatic disorders and participated in the development of hepatic fibrosis. (authors)

  19. Viral diseases of marine invertebrates

    Johnson, P. T.

    1984-03-01

    Approximately 40 viruses are known from marine sponges; turbellarian and monogenetic flatworms; cephalopod, bivalve, and gastropod mollusks; nereid polychaetes; and isopod and decapod crustaceans. Most of the viruses can be tentatively assigned to the Herpesviridae, Baculoviridae, Iridoviridae, Adenoviridae, Papovaviridae, Reoviridae, “Birnaviridae”, Bunyaviridae, Rhabdoviridae, and Picornaviridae. Viruslike particles found in oysters might be representatives of the Togaviridae and Retroviridae. Enveloped single-stranded RNA viruses from crustaceans have developmental and morphological characteristics intermediate between families, and some show evidence of relationships to the Paramyxoviridae as well as the Bunyaviridae or Rhabdoviridae. Certain small viruses of shrimp cannot be assigned, even tentatively, to a particular family. Some viruses cause disease in wild and captive hosts, others are associated with disease states but may not be primary instigators, and many occur in apparently normal animals. The frequency of viral disease in natural populations of marine invertebrates is unknown. Several viruses that cause disease in captive animals, with or without experimental intervention, have also been found in diseased wild hosts, including herpeslike viruses of crabs and oysters, iridovirus of octopus, and reolike and bunyalike viruses of crabs. Iridolike viruses have been implicated in massive mortalities of cultured oysters. Baculoviruses, and IHHN virus, which is of uncertain affinities, cause economically damaging diseases in cultured penaeid shrimp. Double or multiple viral infection is common in crabs. For example, a reolike virus and associated rhabdolike virus act synergistically to cause paralytic and fatal disease in Callinectes sapidus. Information on host range, most susceptible stage, and viral latency is available only for viruses of shrimp. One baculovirus attacks five species of New World penaeid shrimp. IHHN virus infects three species of

  20. Noninvasive estimation of fibrosis in chronic viral hepatitis

    Risum, Malene; Barfod, Toke Seierøe; Lindhardt, Bjarne Orskov

    2013-01-01

    In chronic viral hepatitis the liver biopsy helps the clinician to decide when to start treatment and plan follow-up. However, the execution of a liver biopsy is associated with discomfort, and sampling error can lead to misinterpretation. Serum markers and transient elastography (TE) are being...

  1. Noninvasiv vurdering af fibrose ved kronisk viral hepatitis

    Risum, Malene; Barfod, Toke Seierøe; Lindhardt, Bjarne Orskov

    2013-01-01

    In chronic viral hepatitis the liver biopsy helps the clinician to decide when to start treatment and plan follow-up. However, the execution of a liver biopsy is associated with discomfort, and sampling error can lead to misinterpretation. Serum markers and transient elastography (TE) are being...

  2. Viral Load Pattern Among Hepatitis B Surface Antigen‑positive ...

    2015-03-13

    Mar 13, 2015 ... Abstract. Background: Hepatitis B viral infection is an old medical problem with worldwide distribution. It is usually diagnosed using serologic methods. However, the decision as to which patient to treat or not remains challenging due to the poor sensitivity of serologic markers as prognostic or severity ...

  3. Chronic viral hepatitis: policy, regulation, and strategies for its control and elimination in Ethiopia

    Fassil Shiferaw

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis B and C are silent killers not yet recognized as major public health challenges in many developing countries with huge disease burden. In Ethiopia, Hepatitis B is endemic with an average prevalence of 10.8 %, and the prevalence of Hepatitis C is 2 %. The prevalence of both infections, however, is likely to be underreported due to the lack of diagnostic facilities and appropriate surveillance systems. Ethiopia is also among the many Sub-Sahara African countries lacking a coordinated and systematic national response to chronic viral hepatitis. The objective of this study is to examine the current level of response to viral Hepatitis B & C in Ethiopia with the aim to bring identified gaps to the attention of relevant stakeholders and policy makers. Methods This cross-sectional qualitative study was based on semi-structured in-depth interviews with 21 key informants from health facilities, health offices, pharmaceutical companies, regulatory bodies, professional association and blood bank units. Participants were selected purposively based on their role in the national hepatitis response. The investigators also reviewed available policy and strategy documents, standards of practice and surveys, and paid visits to pharmaceutical premises to check the availability of antiviral drugs. Thematic analysis was employed to make sense of the data. During the data analysis process, all the authors critically read the materials, and data was triangulated by source, interpreter view and thematic perspective to ensure accurate representation and comprehensiveness, and validation of the interviewees’ responses. Once each investigator reviewed the data independently, the team reached a common understanding of the scope and contexts of the information attained. Data were subsequently reduced to key concepts, and case stories were taken with successive revisions. The key concepts were later coded into most basic meaningful

  4. Chronic viral hepatitis: policy, regulation, and strategies for its control and elimination in Ethiopia.

    Shiferaw, Fassil; Letebo, Mekitew; Bane, Abate

    2016-08-11

    Hepatitis B and C are silent killers not yet recognized as major public health challenges in many developing countries with huge disease burden. In Ethiopia, Hepatitis B is endemic with an average prevalence of 10.8 %, and the prevalence of Hepatitis C is 2 %. The prevalence of both infections, however, is likely to be underreported due to the lack of diagnostic facilities and appropriate surveillance systems. Ethiopia is also among the many Sub-Sahara African countries lacking a coordinated and systematic national response to chronic viral hepatitis. The objective of this study is to examine the current level of response to viral Hepatitis B & C in Ethiopia with the aim to bring identified gaps to the attention of relevant stakeholders and policy makers. This cross-sectional qualitative study was based on semi-structured in-depth interviews with 21 key informants from health facilities, health offices, pharmaceutical companies, regulatory bodies, professional association and blood bank units. Participants were selected purposively based on their role in the national hepatitis response. The investigators also reviewed available policy and strategy documents, standards of practice and surveys, and paid visits to pharmaceutical premises to check the availability of antiviral drugs. Thematic analysis was employed to make sense of the data. During the data analysis process, all the authors critically read the materials, and data was triangulated by source, interpreter view and thematic perspective to ensure accurate representation and comprehensiveness, and validation of the interviewees' responses. Once each investigator reviewed the data independently, the team reached a common understanding of the scope and contexts of the information attained. Data were subsequently reduced to key concepts, and case stories were taken with successive revisions. The key concepts were later coded into most basic meaningful categories. The World Health Organization (WHO) global

  5. Efficacy and safety on tenofovire therapy in patients with hepatitis B viral infections resistent to lamivudin

    Katanić N.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic viral hepatitis B (CHB still represents a significant world health problem despite obligatory and worldwide immunization against infections of viral hepatitis B. In some patients with chronic viral hepatitis B infections, in the natural course of the disease, progression towards cirhossis and hepatocellular carcinoma is primarily targeted by antiviral CHB therapy stopping further progression of the disease. Today on the market there exist two classes of pharmnaceutical drugs for treatment of CHB: a immunomodulatory therapy with conventional interferon alpha (INF and PEGylated interferon alpha-2a, b and oral antiviral therapy with nucleos( tide analogues. Lamivudine was for quite a period the only medicament available on our market for the treatment of HVB and in most of our patients led to the development of resistance. As of two years ago, a new oral analogue from the group of nucleotides is being registered in Serbia for market use: tenofovir disoproxil (TDF. In our work we have analysed 69 patients with chronic viral hepatitis B treated in the Clinic for Infectious and Tropical Diseases KCS Belgrade in the period between years 2012 and 2014. All patients involved in this reasearch were previously treated with LAM, and on subsequent development of resistance to LAM, TDF was used. TDF showed an excellent efficacy, a high resistance barrier and very few unwanted side effects over several years of treatment. Our experience with the use of this drug does not pertain to and acount for its long term use, in view of its brief availability on our market.

  6. The laboratory diagnosis of acute viral hepatitis

    defined level and is thus indicative of recent infection as IgM anti-HBc may persist in low titres for a prolonged period. SAMJ. ARTICLES. Detection of HBeAg in the serum is important in the clinical evaluation of a patient with HBV infection as it usually correlates with viral replication, active liver damage and infectivity.3 ...

  7. Hepatitis E virus is the leading cause of acute viral hepatitis in Lothian, Scotland

    I. Kokki

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute viral hepatitis affects all ages worldwide. Hepatitis E virus (HEV is increasingly recognized as a major cause of acute hepatitis in Europe. Because knowledge of its characteristics is limited, we conducted a retrospective study to outline demographic and clinical features of acute HEV in comparison to hepatitis A, B and C in Lothian over 28 months (January 2012 to April 2014. A total of 3204 blood samples from patients with suspected acute hepatitis were screened for hepatitis A, B and C virus; 913 of these samples were also screened for HEV. Demographic and clinical information on patients with positive samples was gathered from electronic patient records. Confirmed HEV samples were genotyped. Of 82 patients with confirmed viral hepatitis, 48 (59% had acute HEV. These patients were older than those infected by hepatitis A, B or C viruses, were more often male and typically presented with jaundice, nausea, vomiting and/or malaise. Most HEV cases (70% had eaten pork or game meat in the few months before infection, and 14 HEV patients (29% had a recent history of foreign travel. The majority of samples were HEV genotype 3 (27/30, 90%; three were genotype 1. Acute HEV infection is currently the predominant cause of acute viral hepatitis in Lothian and presents clinically in older men. Most of these infections are autochthonous, and further studies confirming the sources of infection (i.e. food or blood transfusion are required.

  8. [IgM class antibodies against hepatitis A viruses in the differentiation of viral hepatitis].

    Zivanović-Marinković, V; Stanković, D; Parabucki, S; Lazarov, A; Marinković, V; Krstić, L; Letica, Z

    1982-01-01

    The sera of 64 patients with acute viral hepatitis which were previously HbsAG negative by rPHA were tested by RIA methods for the presence of HBsAG and anti-HBc, by EIA method for HBc and anti-HBc and also by RIA method for the presence of IgM antibodies against hepatitis A virus. The pairs of sera were tested also for the presence of antibodies against cytomegalovirus and EB viruses. Of the total of 64 patients, markers of fresh HB viral infection were proved in 5 patients, sera positive to IgM antibodies to hepatitis A virus were found in 51 and no positive tests to any of the tested viruses were found in 8. The authors consider that they belonged to "non-A, non-B" viral hepatitis.

  9. Nucleic Acid-Based Approaches for Detection of Viral Hepatitis

    Behzadi, Payam; Ranjbar, Reza; Alavian, Seyed Moayed

    2014-01-01

    Context: To determining suitable nucleic acid diagnostics for individual viral hepatitis agent, an extensive search using related keywords was done in major medical library and data were collected, categorized, and summarized in different sections. Results: Various types of molecular biology tools can be used to detect and quantify viral genomic elements and analyze the sequences. These molecular assays are proper technologies for rapidly detecting viral agents with high accuracy, high sensitivity, and high specificity. Nonetheless, the application of each diagnostic method is completely dependent on viral agent. Conclusions: Despite rapidity, automation, accuracy, cost-effectiveness, high sensitivity, and high specificity of molecular techniques, each type of molecular technology has its own advantages and disadvantages. PMID:25789132

  10. Sonographic changes of liver and gallbladder in acute viral hepatitis

    Ebrahimi Daryani N

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Hepatomegaly, decrease in the liver paranchymal echo and increase in the gallbladder wall thickness has been shown in acute viral hepatitis. The present study was done to determine sonographic changes in acute viral hepatitis. We performed liver and bile ducts sonography and specific tests on 42 patients (mean age: 31.5 and 61% male with acute viral hepatitis. Gallbladder wall thickness was seen in 45.2% and hepatomegaly in 33.3% of patients and liver paranchymal echo was decreased in 19.3%. Age, sex, type of hepatitis, cholecystitis like symptoms, aspartate aminotransfrase, alanine aminotransfrase, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin did not significantly corralate with these changes. Only raised prothrombin time was strongly correlated to the thickening of the gallbladder and decrease in the liver paranchymal echo and cholesistic like symptoms we can postulate that thickening of the gallbladder and decrease in the liver paranchymal echo is not dependent on the severity and speed of the paranchymal necrosis (as considered with ALT and AST but they depend on the liver function disturbance (as considered with PT because the thickening of the gall bladder is present in 45% of the patients and 10% of the normal population have gallbladder stones, one should not perform the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis, only on the basis of sonographic report without attention to the clinical and laboratory data.

  11. Hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses: a review of viral genomes, viral induced host immune responses, genotypic distributions and worldwide epidemiology

    Umar Saeed

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses (HCV are frequently propagating blood borne pathogens in global community. Viral hepatitis is primarily associated with severe health complications, such as liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatic fibrosis and steatosis. A literature review was conducted on hepatitis B virus (HBV, HBV genome, genotypic distribution and global epidemiology of HBV, HCV, HCV genome, HCV and host immune responses, HCV genotypic distribution and global epidemiology. The valued information was subjected for review. HBV has strict tissue tropism to liver. The virus infecting hepatocytes produces large amount of hepatitis B surface antigen particles which lack the DNA. It has capability to integrate into host genome. It has been found that genotype C is most emerging genotype associated with more severe liver diseases (cirrhosis. The approximate prevalence rate of genotype C is 27.7% which represents a major threat to future generations. Approximately 8% of population is chronic carrier of HBV in developing countries. The chronic carrier rate of HBV is 2%-7% in Middle East, Eastern and Southern Europe, South America and Japan. Among HCV infected individuals, 15% usually have natural tendency to overcome acute viral infection, where as 85% of individuals were unable to control HCV infection. The internal ribosomal entry site contains highly conserved structures important for binding and appropriate positioning of viral genome inside the host cell. HCV infects only in 1%-10% of hepatocytes, but production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (from CD8+ cells and interferon-gamma cause destruction of both infected cells and non-infected surrounding cells. Almost 11 genotypes and above 100 subtypes of HCV exists worldwide with different geographical distribution. Many efforts are still needed to minimize global burden of these infections. For the complete eradication of HBV (just like small pox and polio via vaccination strategies

  12. Early serological diagnosis of viral hepatitis A using radiosaturation analysis

    Zichova, M; Vodak, M; Pultar, J; Truksova, B; Stepanek, F

    1985-08-21

    The possibility was verified of utilizing the determination of specific IgM class antibodies to hepatitis A virus using the method of radiosaturation analysis, for early ethiological diagnosis of hepatitis A. The determination was made using the HAVAB-M kit by Abbott. A high and verifiable presence was found of these antibodies in the first to third weeks of the duration of the disease, positivity was observed up to day 125 from the onset of the diseases. Reliability of the determination of specific IgM antibodies to hepatitis A virus is high. Specific IgM antibodies to hepatitis A, determined using the radiosaturation analysis are a sensitive and specific indicator of the disease. The determination will mainly be used to advantage for identifying patients suffering from the anicteric form of the disease without any clinical manifestations, will substantially improve the ethiological diagnosis of acute hepatitis.

  13. Early serological diagnosis of viral hepatitis A using radiosaturation analysis

    Zichova, M.; Vodak, M.; Pultar, J.; Truksova, B.; Stepanek, F.

    1985-01-01

    The possibility was verified of utilizing the determination of specific IgM class antibodies to hepatitis A virus using the method of radiosaturation analysis, for early ethiological diagnosis of hepatitis A. The determination was made using the HAVAB-M kit by Abbott. A high and verifiable presence was found of these antibodies in the first to third weeks of the duration of the disease, positivity was observed up to day 125 from the onset of the diseases. Reliability of the determination of specific IgM antibodies to hepatitis A virus is high. Specific IgM antibodies to hepatitis A, determined using the radiosaturation analysis are a sensitive and specific indicator of the disease. The determination will mainly be used to advantage for identifying patients suffering from the anicteric form of the disease without any clinical manifestations, will substantially improve the ethiological diagnosis of acute hepatitis. (author)

  14. A better regulation is required in viral hepatitis smartphone applications

    M.ª R. Cantudo-Cuenca

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To describe the characteristics and content of the available viral hepatitis mobile applications, as well as assess the level of participation of medical professionals in their development. Methods. A descriptive observational study was carried out in September 2013. We searched smartphone apps specifically relating to the viral hepatitis for using a keyword search with the following terms; «hepatitis», «hepatology», «hbv» and «hcv» in the Google Play Store (Android and the Apple App Store (iOS. Data recorded included: name, platform, category, cost, user star rating, number of downloads, date the app was updated by the developer and target audience. We analysed the content of the applications, and these were then categorised based on the viral hepatitis type into three groups. We conducted an analysis in which we specifically examined the authorship in order to assess the prevalence of health professional participation in their development. Results. A total of 33 apps were included (from 232 that were identified, among which there were 10 duplicates. Most of these apps were uploaded under the medical category. Three had ratings less than 3.9 stars (out of 5. Only 6 apps had exceeded 1000 downloads. A total of 12 apps were aimed at health professionals, while 4 focused on patients (7 for both of them. The participation of health professionals in the development of apps was 56.6%. Conclusions. Viral hepatitis apps are available for both professionals and patients; however, much of the information contained within them is often not validated. They should be certificated.

  15. A better regulation is required in viral hepatitis smartphone applications.

    Cantudo-Cuenca, Ma R; Robustillo-Cortés, Ma A; Cantudo-Cuenca, Ma D; Morillo-Verdugo, R

    2014-04-01

    To describe the characteristics and content of the available viral hepatitis mobile applications, as well as assess the level of participation of medical professionals in their development. A descriptive observational study was carried out in September 2013. We searched smartphone apps specifically relating to the viral hepatitis for using a keyword search with the following terms; «hepatitis», «hepatology», «hbv» and «hcv» in the Google Play Store (Android) and the Apple App Store (iOS). Data recorded included: name, platform, category, cost, user star rating, number of downloads, date the app was updated by the developer and target audience. We analysed the content of the applications, and these were then categorised based on the viral hepatitis type into three groups. We conducted an analysis in which we specifically examined the authorship in order to assess the prevalence of health professional participation in their development. A total of 33 apps were included (from 232 that were identified), among which there were 10 duplicates. Most of these apps were uploaded under the medical category. Three had ratings less than 3.9 stars (out of 5). Only 6 apps had exceeded 1000 downloads. A total of 12 apps were aimed at health professionals, while 4 focused on patients (7 for both of them). The participation of health professionals in the development of apps was 56.6%. Viral hepatitis apps are available for both professionals and patients; however, much of the information contained within them is often not validated. They should be certificated. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  16. Natural Killer Cells in Viral HepatitisSummary

    Barbara Rehermann

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells are traditionally regarded as first-line effectors of the innate immune response, but they also have a distinct role in chronic infection. Here, we review the role of NK cells against hepatitis C virus (HCV and hepatitis B virus (HBV, two agents that cause acute and chronic hepatitis in humans. Interest in NK cells was initially sparked by genetic studies that demonstrated an association between NK cell–related genes and the outcome of HCV infection. Viral hepatitis also provides a model to study the NK cell response to both endogenous and exogenous type I interferon (IFN. Levels of IFN-stimulated genes increase in both acute and chronic HCV infection and pegylated IFNα has been the mainstay of HCV and HBV treatment for decades. In chronic viral hepatitis, NK cells display decreased production of antiviral cytokines. This phenotype is found in both HCV and HBV infection but is induced by different mechanisms. Potent antivirals now provide the opportunity to study the reversibility of the suppressed cytokine production of NK cells in comparison with the antigen-induced defect in IFNγ and tumor necrosis factor-α production of virus-specific T cells. This has implications for immune reconstitution in other conditions of chronic inflammation and immune exhaustion, such as human immunodeficiency virus infection and cancer. Keywords: HBV, HCV, Infection, Interferon, T Cell

  17. Emerging Viral Diseases of Tomato Crops

    Hanssen, I.M.; Lapidot, M.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Viral diseases are an important limiting factor in many crop production systems. Because antiviral products are not available, control strategies rely on genetic resistance or hygienic measures to prevent viral diseases, or on eradication of diseased crops to control such diseases. Increasing

  18. Viral hepatitis in a homeless shelter in Hawai'i.

    Boyce, Daniel E C; Tice, Alan D; Ona, Fernando V; Akinaka, Kenneth T; Lusk, Heather

    2009-06-01

    It is estimated that as many as 21,000 people in the state of Hawai'i may be infected with HCV Most of those infected with viral hepatitis are unaware they are infected. Complications from viral hepatitis include liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Hawai'i has the highest incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in the United States. In 2003 there were over 6000 homeless and over 155,000 people at-risk of becoming homeless living in the state of Hawai'i. Risk factors for hepatitis, such as drug use, tattoos, sexual contact, and sharing of personal hygiene equipment are more prevalent in the homeless population. To determine the incidence of hepatitis B and C among a population of homeless individuals, a health fair was held at a Honolulu area homeless shelter with approximately 200 residents. The incidence of hepatitis B and C was determined by anti-HCV and HBsAg blood tests. A survey was also conducted regarding risk factors and basic demographics. Fifty-nine homeless adults volunteered for testing and took the survey. Thirty-one (52%) volunteers were born in Micronesia, twenty-four (41%) were born in the United States, two (3%) were born in Samoa, one (2%) was born in the Philippines, and one (2%) was born in the Marshall Islands. Forty adults were tested for Hepatitis C antibody, three of which tested positive. The primary risk factor among this group was jail time (100%), followed by illegal drug injection (67%), tattoos (67%), ear/body piercing (67%), snorting drugs (33%), blood transfusions (33%), and a sex partner with hepatitis (33%). Forty adults were also tested for HBsAg, One of which tested positive. This was a recent immigrant from Micronesia. Homeless people in Hawai'i are more likely to have hepatitis B or C because risk factors are common among this population. Additionally a large proportion of Hawai'i's homeless people come from the Pacific Islands, where the prevalence of hepatitis B is one of the highest in the world. In addition there

  19. A Comparative Study of Hepatitis Caused by Scrub Typhus and Viral Hepatitis A in South Korea

    Lee, Jun; Kim, Dong-Min; Yun, Na Ra; Byeon, Yu Mi; Kim, Young Dae; Park, Chan Guk; Kim, Man Woo; Han, Mi Ah

    2011-01-01

    We compared clinical features and laboratory findings of 104 patients with hepatitis A and 197 patients with scrub typhus. Nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, hepatomegaly, and jaundice were common in patient with hepatitis A, and fever and headache were significantly more common in patients with scrub typhus. At presentation, an alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level ≥ 500 U/L was observed in 1% of scrub typhus patients and in 87.5% of hepatitis A patients (P hepatitis A patients. The ALT:lactate dehydrogenase ratio was ≤ 5 in 97.4% of the patients with scrub typhus and > 5 in 95.2% of those with hepatitis A (P 5, and hepatomegaly are indications of viral hepatitis A. PMID:22049041

  20. A comparative study of hepatitis caused by scrub typhus and viral hepatitis A in South Korea.

    Lee, Jun; Kim, Dong-Min; Yun, Na Ra; Byeon, Yu Mi; Kim, Young Dae; Park, Chan Guk; Kim, Man Woo; Han, Mi Ah

    2011-11-01

    We compared clinical features and laboratory findings of 104 patients with hepatitis A and 197 patients with scrub typhus. Nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, hepatomegaly, and jaundice were common in patient with hepatitis A, and fever and headache were significantly more common in patients with scrub typhus. At presentation, an alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level ≥ 500 U/L was observed in 1% of scrub typhus patients and in 87.5% of hepatitis A patients (P hepatitis A patients. The ALT:lactate dehydrogenase ratio was ≤ 5 in 97.4% of the patients with scrub typhus and > 5 in 95.2% of those with hepatitis A (P 5, and hepatomegaly are indications of viral hepatitis A.

  1. Viral (hepatitis C virus, hepatitis B virus, HIV) persistence and immune homeostasis

    Zhou, Yun; Zhang, Ying; Moorman, Jonathan P; Yao, Zhi Q; Jia, Zhan S

    2014-01-01

    Immune homeostasis is a host characteristic that maintains biological balance within a host. Humans have evolved many host defence mechanisms that ensure the survival of individuals upon encountering a pathogenic infection, with recovery or persistence from a viral infection being determined by both viral factors and host immunity. Chronic viral infections, such as hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and HIV, often result in chronic fluctuating viraemia in the face of host cellular and humoral immune responses, which are dysregulated by multi-faceted mechanisms that are incompletely understood. This review attempts to illuminate the mechanisms involved in this process, focusing on immune homeostasis in the setting of persistent viral infection from the aspects of host defence mechanism, including interferon-stimulated genes, apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide 3 (APOBEC3), autophagy and interactions of various immune cells, cytokines and regulatory molecules. PMID:24965611

  2. Ultrasonographic study of gallbladder wall thickness in acute viral hepatitis

    Lim, Jin Sook; Kim, Kyung Jung; Park, Yang Hee; Kang, Ik Won; Yoon, Jong Sup [Hanyang Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1984-09-15

    Prospective study of gallbladder wall thickness by ultrasonography was performed in 38 patients of acute viral hepatitis and 50 normal subjects as a control group from June 1983 to April 1984. The results were as follows; 1. In normal population, the range of gallbladder wall thickness is from 1 mm to 3 mm with peak incidence in 2 mm (66%, 33 case). Mean thickness of gallbladder wall is about 1.9 {+-} 0.6 mm. 2. In acute viral hepatitis, the range of gallbladder wall thickness is from 2 mm to 8 mm with peak incidence in 3 mm (34%, 13 case), second peak in 4 mm (29%, 11 case). Mean thickness of gallbladder wall is about 3.6 {+-} 1.6 mm, which is thicker than normal with statistical significance. (p<0.005) 3. In acute viral hepatitis, the mean thickness of gallbladder wall is about 4.4 {+-} 1.8 mm in the group of SGOT/SGPT level above 400 IU, and 2.8 {+-} 0.8 mm in the group of SGOT/ SGPT level below 400 IU. This difference is significant statistically. (p<0.05)

  3. Ultrasonographic study of gallbladder wall thickness in acute viral hepatitis

    Lim, Jin Sook; Kim, Kyung Jung; Park, Yang Hee; Kang, Ik Won; Yoon, Jong Sup

    1984-01-01

    Prospective study of gallbladder wall thickness by ultrasonography was performed in 38 patients of acute viral hepatitis and 50 normal subjects as a control group from June 1983 to April 1984. The results were as follows; 1. In normal population, the range of gallbladder wall thickness is from 1 mm to 3 mm with peak incidence in 2 mm (66%, 33 case). Mean thickness of gallbladder wall is about 1.9 ± 0.6 mm. 2. In acute viral hepatitis, the range of gallbladder wall thickness is from 2 mm to 8 mm with peak incidence in 3 mm (34%, 13 case), second peak in 4 mm (29%, 11 case). Mean thickness of gallbladder wall is about 3.6 ± 1.6 mm, which is thicker than normal with statistical significance. (p<0.005) 3. In acute viral hepatitis, the mean thickness of gallbladder wall is about 4.4 ± 1.8 mm in the group of SGOT/SGPT level above 400 IU, and 2.8 ± 0.8 mm in the group of SGOT/ SGPT level below 400 IU. This difference is significant statistically. (p<0.05)

  4. Mechanisms of Hepatitis C Viral Resistance to Direct Acting Antivirals.

    Ahmed, Asma; Felmlee, Daniel J

    2015-12-18

    There has been a remarkable transformation in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C in recent years with the development of direct acting antiviral agents targeting virus encoded proteins important for viral replication including NS3/4A, NS5A and NS5B. These agents have shown high sustained viral response (SVR) rates of more than 90% in phase 2 and phase 3 clinical trials; however, this is slightly lower in real-life cohorts. Hepatitis C virus resistant variants are seen in most patients who do not achieve SVR due to selection and outgrowth of resistant hepatitis C virus variants within a given host. These resistance associated mutations depend on the class of direct-acting antiviral drugs used and also vary between hepatitis C virus genotypes and subtypes. The understanding of these mutations has a clear clinical implication in terms of choice and combination of drugs used. In this review, we describe mechanism of action of currently available drugs and summarize clinically relevant resistance data.

  5. Mechanisms of Hepatitis C Viral Resistance to Direct Acting Antivirals

    Asma Ahmed

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There has been a remarkable transformation in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C in recent years with the development of direct acting antiviral agents targeting virus encoded proteins important for viral replication including NS3/4A, NS5A and NS5B. These agents have shown high sustained viral response (SVR rates of more than 90% in phase 2 and phase 3 clinical trials; however, this is slightly lower in real-life cohorts. Hepatitis C virus resistant variants are seen in most patients who do not achieve SVR due to selection and outgrowth of resistant hepatitis C virus variants within a given host. These resistance associated mutations depend on the class of direct-acting antiviral drugs used and also vary between hepatitis C virus genotypes and subtypes. The understanding of these mutations has a clear clinical implication in terms of choice and combination of drugs used. In this review, we describe mechanism of action of currently available drugs and summarize clinically relevant resistance data.

  6. Viral hepatitis in Latin America and the Caribbean: a public health challenge

    Núria Díez-Padrisa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Viral hepatitis (VH is an emergent concern in public health agendas worldwide. More than one million people die annually from hepatitis and 57% and 78% of global cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma cases, respectively, are caused by VH. The burden of disease caused by hepatitis in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC is high. Data on hepatitis has been collected in several countries, but more accurate and comparable studies are needed. Hepatitis B vaccination and screening of donated blood are routine practices in the region. However, integrated policies covering prevention and control of disease caused by all types of hepatitis viruses are scarce. Existing preventive measures need to be reinforced. Attention must be paid to at-risk populations, awareness campaigns, and water and food safety. Affordable access to diagnosis and treatment, population screening, referral to health services and monitoring of positive cases are among the main challenges currently posed by VH in LAC. The World Health Organization framework and Pan American Health Organization regional strategy, defined in response to resolution WHA63.18 of the World Health Assembly, may help to overcome these difficulties. Successful experiences in the fight against hepatitis in some LAC countries may also provide very interesting solutions for the region.

  7. APLASTIC ANEMIA ET CAUSA OF SUSPECT VIRAL HEPATITIS INFECTION: A CASE REPORT

    I Wayan Wawan Lismana

    2014-01-01

    Aplastic anemia is anemia that occurs because of a failure of hematopoiesis is relatively rarebut can be life threatening. The cause of aplastic anemia itself is still largely unknown oridiopathic. Minority of cases mainly due to a virus infection, one of which is viral hepatitishas long been known to cause symptoms of aplastic anemia. This report discusses thesuspected aplastic anemia caused by hepatitis virus infection. Course of the disease or theprognosis of aplastic anemia varies, but a ...

  8. [The incidence of viral hepatitis A in the Hradec Králové Region in the Czech Republic in the last decade].

    Šošovičková, R; Smetana, J; Beranová, E; Kučerová, K; Chlíbek, R

    Viral hepatitis A continues to occur in the Czech Republic due to the high susceptibility of the population and existing opportunities for the transmission of the disease. The aim was to describe and analyse the incidence of viral hepatitis A in the Hradec Králové Region in the Czech Republic in 2005-2014, including the study of two outbreaks that required a different approach of field epidemiologists. In 2015, a retrospective analysis was carried out of the data on the incidence of viral hepatitis A in Hradec Králové Region in 2005-2014. The EPIDAT system where cases of infectious diseases and data from epidemiological investigations are reported was used as a data source for the purposes of the present analysis. In addition, two final reports on epidemic outbreaks of viral hepatitis A from 2014 were assessed. The incidence of viral hepatitis A at the regional level follows, to a certain extent, the pattern of the incidence of this disease at the national level. The highest number of cases was reported in 2010 due to a country-wide epidemic. The most affected age groups were children, adolescents, and young adults. The incidence of viral hepatitis A in individual years has a significant effect on the emergence of local outbreaks. The incidence of viral hepatitis A in the Czech Republic has a fluctuating trend, at both the national and regional levels. The highest incidence of viral hepatitis A was observed in the younger and middle-age categories. The high susceptibility of these population groups suggests the importance of vaccination against viral hepatitis A that confers specific personal protection.Key words: viral hepatitis A - incidence - outbreak - Czech Republic.

  9. Prediction of fibrosis progression in chronic viral hepatitis

    Grace Lai-Hung Wong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of liver fibrosis progression has a key role in the management of chronic viral hepatitis, as it will be translated into the future risk of cirrhosis and its various complications including hepatocellular carcinoma. Both hepatitis B and C viruses mainly lead to fibrogenesis induced by chronic inflammation and a continuous wound healing response. At the same time direct and indirect profibrogenic responses are also elicited by the viral infection. There are a handful of well-established risk factors for fibrosis progression including older age, male gender, alcohol use, high viral load and co-infection with other viruses. Metabolic syndrome is an evolving risk factor of fibrosis progression. The new notion of regression of advanced fibrosis or even cirrhosis is now strongly supported various clinical studies. Even liver biopsy retains its important role in the assessment of fibrosis progression, various non-invasive assessments have been adopted widely because of their non-invasiveness, which facilitates serial applications in large cohorts of subjects. Transient elastography is one of the most validated tools which has both diagnostic and prognostic role. As there is no single perfect test for liver fibrosis assessment, algorithms combining the most validated noninvasive methods should be considered as initial screening tools.

  10. Hepatitis B viral factors and treatment responses in chronic hepatitis B

    Chih-Lin Lin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Baseline and on-treatment hepatitis B viral factors are reported to affect treatment responses. A lower baseline hepatitis B virus (HBV DNA level is a strong predictor of the response to antiviral therapy. HBV genotype A/B patients have better responses to interferon-based therapy than those with genotypes C/D. Regarding the association of HBV mutants with responses to antiviral therapy, current evidence is limited. On-treatment viral suppression is the most important predictor of response to nucleoside analogs. On-treatment hepatitis B surface antigen decline is significantly associated with response to pegylated interferon. In the future, individualized therapy should be based on treatment efficacy, adverse effects, baseline and on-treatment predictors of antiviral therapy.

  11. Erythrocytes 125I-Insulin Binding Studies in Viral Hepatitis and Schistosomiasis Patients

    Ahmed, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the alterations of insulin binding sites in human erythrocytes in patients with chronic viral B and C hepatitis and in schistosomiasis. Fifty men with ages ranged from 20-45 years were diagnosed into five groups; hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, mixed hepatitis B and C, schistosomiasis and normal healthy volunteers as a control group. Biochemical analyses as erythrocyte insulin radioreceptor, plasma insulin estimation, fasting and post prandial blood glucose levels and liver function tests were performed. The results revealed significant decrease in insulin binding sites/cell in patients with hepatitis C virus, mixed B and C viruses and in schistosomiasis compared to the control group. There were significant increase in fasting plasma glucose levels in groups of hepatitis C virus mixed B and C viruses, while there were highly significant increase in post prandial plasma glucose levels in patients with mixed B and C viruses and in schistosomiasis groups compared to the normal control. Also, fasting plasma insulin levels were significantly elevated in groups of hepatitis C mixed B and C viruses and in schistosomiasis group. The obtained results revealed the importance of laboratory follow up of glucose and insulin levels in patients with chronic liver diseases

  12. Use of telehealth to treat and manage chronic viral hepatitis in regional Queensland.

    Keogh, Kandice; Clark, Paul; Valery, Patricia C; McPhail, Steven M; Bradshaw, Candise; Day, Melany; Smith, Anthony C

    2016-12-01

    For regional and rural Queenslanders, chronic viral hepatitis treatment is a major unmet health need, with restricted access to specialists outside of tertiary, largely metropolitan hospitals. To increase treatment of chronic viral hepatitis in regional Queensland, a team-based telehealth model was expanded. This expansion embedded an initial nursing consultation prior to specialist telehealth consultation. We conducted a retrospective audit of the introduction and expansion of hepatology telehealth services. Activity from July 2014-June 2015 (pre-expansion) was compared with July 2015- June 2016 (post-expansion). Interviews were conducted with key staff to determine factors contributing to success of the service and identify ongoing challenges to the service model. A greater than four-fold increase in clinical consultation was observed (131 telehealth consultations pre-expansion vs 572 post-expansion; p Queensland. It may serve as a model to further expand telehealth management of chronic disease for regional Queenslanders. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Analysis of hepatitis C viral dynamics using Latin hypercube sampling

    Pachpute, Gaurav; Chakrabarty, Siddhartha P.

    2012-12-01

    We consider a mathematical model comprising four coupled ordinary differential equations (ODEs) to study hepatitis C viral dynamics. The model includes the efficacies of a combination therapy of interferon and ribavirin. There are two main objectives of this paper. The first one is to approximate the percentage of cases in which there is a viral clearance in absence of treatment as well as percentage of response to treatment for various efficacy levels. The other is to better understand and identify the parameters that play a key role in the decline of viral load and can be estimated in a clinical setting. A condition for the stability of the uninfected and the infected steady states is presented. A large number of sample points for the model parameters (which are physiologically feasible) are generated using Latin hypercube sampling. An analysis of the simulated values identifies that, approximately 29.85% cases result in clearance of the virus during the early phase of the infection. Results from the χ2 and the Spearman's tests done on the samples, indicate a distinctly different distribution for certain parameters for the cases exhibiting viral clearance under the combination therapy.

  14. Treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus by viral eradication in chronic hepatitis C: Myth or reality?

    Vanni, Ester; Bugianesi, Elisabetta; Saracco, Giorgio

    2016-02-01

    Chronic hepatitis C is a systemic disease inducing metabolic alterations leading to extrahepatic consequences. In particular, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection seems to increase the risk of incident type 2 diabetes mellitus in predisposed individuals, independently of liver disease stage. The mechanisms through which hepatitis C induces T2DM involve direct viral effects, insulin resistance, pro-inflammatory cytokines and other immune-mediated processes. Many studies have reported the clinical consequences of type 2 diabetes mellitus on hepatitis C outcome, but very few studies have addressed the issue of microangiopathic complications among patients with hepatitis C only, who develop type 2 diabetes mellitus. Moreover, clinical trials in HCV-positive patients have reported improvement in glucose metabolism after antiviral treatment; recent studies have suggested that this metabolic amelioration might have a clinical impact on type 2 diabetes mellitus-related complications. These observations raise the question as to whether the HCV eradication may also have an impact on the future morbidity and mortality due to type 2 diabetes mellitus. The scope of this review is to summarise the current evidence linking successful antiviral treatment and the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus and its complications in hepatitis C-infected patients. Copyright © 2015 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Use of medicinal plants as the additional therapy of viral hepatitis

    I.B. Ershova

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Dear colleagues, continuing the rubric of the journal about the treatment of infectious diseases by medicinal plants, we want to present the methods of using medicinal plants as an additional therapy for treatment of viral hepatitis in addition to the main treatment according to the generally clinical standards of antiviral therapy. Viral hepatitis compiles a large group of human infectious diseases characterized by a predominant liver damage. “Currently, viral hepatitis is recognized as a major public health problem requiring urgent action”, said Dr Margaret Chan, WHO Director-General (WHO Global hepatitis report, 2017. Treatment of viral hepatitis is a complex task and involves the use of generally clinical recommendations or standards. There are criteria for determining the need for pharmacotherapy and the most rational scheme for antiviral treatment in every case of viral hepatitis. The purpose of antiviral therapy is to achieve a stable virologic response, to prevent the progression of the disease, the development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. However, at the present stage a stable virologic response in the general population of patients can be achieved in approximately 60 % of cases. In addition, standard antiviral drugs have side effects, are of high cost and are contraindicated in a number of clinical situations, for example, with a decrease in the number of blood elements (thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, anemia, at the stage of decompensated liver cirrhosis. Probably, all this induces to use alternative methods of therapy, which remain popular both among general practitioners and patients with this infection. The question of the treatment of viral hepatitis with medicinal herbs has been studied for a long time. According to some authors, there is no scientific evidence that hepatitis C can be cured by herbs. The only scientifically proven method of fighting the virus is antiviral therapy. However, there are other points

  16. In situ hybridization studies of hepatitis A viral RNA in patients with acute hepatitis A

    Taylor, M; Goldin, R D; Ladva, S [Department of Histopathology, St. Mary' s Hospital Medical School, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Scheuer, P J [Department of Histopathology, Royal Free Hospital and School of Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Thomas, H C [Department of Medicine, St. Mary' s Hospital Medical School, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    1994-01-01

    In situ hybridization with oligonucleotide probes has been used to localise hepatitis A virus RNA genomic sequences in formalin-fixed and routinely processed human liver biopsies from three patients. Using radiolabelled Sulphur-35 antisense probes, viral genomic sequences were found in all three cases, but signal intensity was greatest in cases 1 and 2 with fulminant hepatitis, and was minimal in the third case of resolving hepatitis biopsied 2 months after acute illness. Localisation showed the viral RNA to be present in hepatocytes, sinusoidal cells and inflammatory cells in and around the portal tracts. Both cases showed signal in similar cell types, but the distribution of staining was predominantly periportal in case 1, whereas lobular staining was more apparent in case 2. Hybridization with sense polarity probes failed to detect any evidence of replicative intermediates of antigenomic viral RNA. The presence of hepatitis A RNA in phagocytic cells was confirmed using immunohistochemistryfor a macrophage marker, CD68, combined with in situ hybridization. In all cases the signal was predominantly cytoplasmic, and this was confirmed with the use of tritiated probes. (au).

  17. In situ hybridization studies of hepatitis A viral RNA in patients with acute hepatitis A

    Taylor, M.; Goldin, R.D.; Ladva, S.; Scheuer, P.J.; Thomas, H.C.

    1994-01-01

    In situ hybridization with oligonucleotide probes has been used to localise hepatitis A virus RNA genomic sequences in formalin-fixed and routinely processed human liver biopsies from three patients. Using radiolabelled Sulphur-35 antisense probes, viral genomic sequences were found in all three cases, but signal intensity was greatest in cases 1 and 2 with fulminant hepatitis, and was minimal in the third case of resolving hepatitis biopsied 2 months after acute illness. Localisation showed the viral RNA to be present in hepatocytes, sinusoidal cells and inflammatory cells in and around the portal tracts. Both cases showed signal in similar cell types, but the distribution of staining was predominantly periportal in case 1, whereas lobular staining was more apparent in case 2. Hybridization with sense polarity probes failed to detect any evidence of replicative intermediates of antigenomic viral RNA. The presence of hepatitis A RNA in phagocytic cells was confirmed using immunohistochemistryfor a macrophage marker, CD68, combined with in situ hybridization. In all cases the signal was predominantly cytoplasmic, and this was confirmed with the use of tritiated probes. (au)

  18. [Hepatitis E virus infection in patients with clinical diagnosis of viral hepatitis in Colombia].

    Peláez, Dioselina; Hoyos, María Cristina; Rendón, Julio César; Mantilla, Carolina; Ospina, Martha Cecilia; Cortés-Mancera, Fabián; Pérez, Olga Lucía; Contreras, Lady; Estepa, Yaneth; Arbeláez, María Patricia; Navas, María Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emergent virus of global importance; it is the etiological agent of sporadic cases and outbreaks of hepatitis. The epidemiology of this infection in Colombia is unknown. To determine the seropositivity for hepatitis E virus in Colombia in cases with clinical diagnosis of viral hepatitis. Serum samples from patients that were sent to the Instituto Nacional de Salud during the period 2005-2010 (group 1) and samples sent to the Laboratorio Departamental de Salud Pública de Antioquia during the 2008-2009 period were included in this study (group 2). Serum samples were analyzed by immunoassay with commercial kits. From the 344 analyzed samples, 8.7% were positive for anti-HEV; the frequency of anti-HEV IgM was 1.74% (6/344) and the frequency of anti-HEV IgG was 7.5% (26/344). A difference in frequency of anti-HEV between group 1 (6.3%) and group 2 (1.3%) was observed. The cases were identified in nine departments of Colombia. This is the first study of hepatitis E virus infection in patients with diagnosis of hepatitis in Colombia. The frequency of anti-HEV described in this population of patients in Colombia is similar to that described in other Latin American countries like Brazil, Perú and Uruguay. Considering the results of this study, it could be necessary to include hepatitis E virus infection serological markers in the differential diagnosis of viral hepatitis in Colombia.

  19. Quality of life and adherence to treatment of patients with chronic viral hepatitis C

    Mirkhaydarov R.Sh.

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. The problem of viral hepatitis C in the modern world is rather acute for public health service. The patients themselves, their striving for recovery, desire to have the quality of live on the same level as a healthy person has and the understanding of the necessity to obey the a doctor’s recommendations play the significant role in the successful treatment of this disease. The aim of the given work is the study of the quality of life and the adherence to treatment of young people with chronic viral hepatitis C and the following analysis of the results. Materials and methods. In the process of research, 138 men at the age of 18–45 with chronic viral hepatitis were ex- amined. The verification of the diagnosis occurred on the basis of international classification of chronic hepatitis (Los Angeles, 1994, and also ICD10 (B17.1, besides, the HCV RNA for more than 6 months was also taken into account. Twenty-five apparently healthy men 18–45 years old were included in this group. The quality of life was clarified with the help of short form of the adapted Russified specialized questionnaire “Medical Outcomes Study, Short Form” (SF36 Health Study Survey. Statistical data processing was carried out with the use of application package “Statistica for Windows”, version 7.0. Results. The minimum index in the group of the patients with chronical viral hepatitis C was the index of social activity (SF – 46.2 ± 0.8 points. In this group, the index of physical pain (BP was at its maximum. The study of the adherence to treatment depending on the quality of life stays acute. Conclusions. During the course of this work, the peculiarities of the quality of life scales were determined according to the SF-36 Health Study Survey among the patients with chronic viral hepatitis C and the correlations with the adher- ence to treatment.

  20. The ultrasonographic changes of gallbladder wall and the corresponding hepatic pathology in patients with chronic viral hepatitis

    Zhang Haiying; Meng Fankun; Ding Huiguo

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between the ultrasonographic changes of gallbladder wall and the hepatic inflammation grading as well as fibrostic staging using ultrasound examination in patients with chronic viral hepatitis, and to survey the diagnostic standard for viral related cholecystitis. Methods: Five hundreds and nineteen chronic viral hepatitis patients and 104 normal control subjects were enrolled in the study. Ultrasound guided liver biopsy was performed in all patients with chronic viral hepatitis, in which the hepatic fibrostic stages(S) were divided into SI (n=148), S2(n=170), S3-4(n 201 ); and hepatic inflammation grades (G) were divided into G1 (n=124 ), G2 (n=204), G3 (n=191). The ultrasound scan was performed within 7 days after liver biopsy. The relationship between ultrasonographic changes of gallbladder and the hepatic inflammation grades and fibrostic stages were analyzed using statistic soft ware SPSS 11.5 for windows. Results: The percentage of the thickened gallbladder wall were 55%, 87%, 96% in S1, S2, S3-4, respectively, and were 45%, 82%, 95% in G1, G2, G3-4, respectively. Significant difference was revealed between G1 and G2, as well as between G2 and G3-4, with P < 0.05. Conclusion: A significant, positive correlative relationship exists between the ultrasonographic changes of gall-bladder wall and the hepatic inflammation grading and fibrostic staging in patients with chronic viral hepatitis. (authors)

  1. Nonvisualization of the gallbladder lumen on sonogram: a sign of acute viral hepatitis

    Lim, Jae Hoon; Ko, Young Tae

    1986-01-01

    Six cases of nonvisulization of the gallbladder lumen in patients with acute viral hepatitis are presented. Follow-up ultrasonographic examinations done during the convalescent period in 2 patients showed normal gallbladders and this was correlated with improvement in enzyme levels. It is suggested that acute viral hepatitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of nonvisualization of the gallbladder lumen on sonogram.

  2. Viral kinetics in patients with chronic hepatitis C treated with the serine protease inhibitor BILN 2061

    Herrmann, Eva; Zeuzem, Stefan; Sarrazin, Christoph; Hinrichsen, Holger; Benhamou, Yves; Manns, Michael P.; Reiser, Markus; Reesink, Henk; Calleja, José L.; Forns, Xavier; Steinmann, Gerhard G.; Nehmiz, Gerhard

    2006-01-01

    We analysed viral kinetics from a 2-day treatment with BILN 2061, a serine protease inhibitor of hepatitis C virus, in patients chronically infected with genotype 1 hepatitis C virus. The efficiency (E), describing inhibition of viral production, was above 99.45% in all patients with minor or

  3. Nonvisualization of the gallbladder lumen on sonogram: a sign of acute viral hepatitis

    Lim, Jae Hoon; Ko, Young Tae [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-04-15

    Six cases of nonvisulization of the gallbladder lumen in patients with acute viral hepatitis are presented. Follow-up ultrasonographic examinations done during the convalescent period in 2 patients showed normal gallbladders and this was correlated with improvement in enzyme levels. It is suggested that acute viral hepatitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of nonvisualization of the gallbladder lumen on sonogram.

  4. Single-Domain Antibodies As Therapeutics against Human Viral Diseases

    Yanling Wu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In full-size formats, monoclonal antibodies have been highly successful as therapeutics against cancer and immune diseases. However, their large size leads to inaccessibility of some epitopes and relatively high production costs. As an alternative, single-domain antibodies (sdAbs offer special advantages compared to full-size antibodies, including smaller size, larger number of accessible epitopes, relatively low production costs and improved robustness. Currently, sdAbs are being developed against a number of viruses, including human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1, influenza viruses, hepatitis C virus (HCV, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, and enteric viruses. Although sdAbs are very potent inhibitors of viral infections, no sdAbs have been approved for clinical use against virial infection or any other diseases. In this review, we discuss the current state of research on sdAbs against viruses and their potential as therapeutics against human viral diseases.

  5. Associations between national viral hepatitis policies/programmes and country-level socioeconomic factors: a sub-analysis of data from the 2013 WHO viral hepatitis policy report

    Jeffrey V Lazarus

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As more countries worldwide develop national viral hepatitis strategies, it is important to ask whether context-specific factors affect their decision-making. This study aimed to determine whether country-level socioeconomic factors are associated with viral hepatitis programmes and policy responses across WHO Member States (MS. Methods WHO MS focal points completed a questionnaire on national viral hepatitis policies. This secondary analysis of data reported in the 2013 Global Policy Report on the Prevention and Control of Viral Hepatitis in WHO Member States used logistic regression to examine associations between four survey questions and four socioeconomic factors: country income level, Human Development Index (HDI, health expenditure and physician density. Results This analysis included 119 MS. MS were more likely to have routine viral hepatitis surveillance and to have a national strategy and/or policy/guidelines for preventing infection in healthcare settings if they were in the higher binary categories for income level, HDI, health expenditure and physician density. In multivariable analyses, the only significant finding was a positive association between having routine surveillance and being in the higher binary HDI category (adjusted odds ratio 26; 95% confidence interval 2.0–340. Conclusion Countries with differing socioeconomic status indicators did not appear to differ greatly regarding the existence of key national policies and programmes. A more nuanced understanding of the multifaceted interactions of socioeconomic factors, health policy, service delivery and health outcomes is needed to support country-level efforts to eliminate viral hepatitis.

  6. Associations between national viral hepatitis policies/programmes and country-level socioeconomic factors: a sub-analysis of data from the 2013 WHO viral hepatitis policy report.

    Lazarus, Jeffrey V; Sperle, Ida; Safreed-Harmon, Kelly; Gore, Charles; Cebolla, Beatriz; Spina, Alexander

    2017-07-26

    As more countries worldwide develop national viral hepatitis strategies, it is important to ask whether context-specific factors affect their decision-making. This study aimed to determine whether country-level socioeconomic factors are associated with viral hepatitis programmes and policy responses across WHO Member States (MS). WHO MS focal points completed a questionnaire on national viral hepatitis policies. This secondary analysis of data reported in the 2013 Global Policy Report on the Prevention and Control of Viral Hepatitis in WHO Member States used logistic regression to examine associations between four survey questions and four socioeconomic factors: country income level, Human Development Index (HDI), health expenditure and physician density. This analysis included 119 MS. MS were more likely to have routine viral hepatitis surveillance and to have a national strategy and/or policy/guidelines for preventing infection in healthcare settings if they were in the higher binary categories for income level, HDI, health expenditure and physician density. In multivariable analyses, the only significant finding was a positive association between having routine surveillance and being in the higher binary HDI category (adjusted odds ratio 26; 95% confidence interval 2.0-340). Countries with differing socioeconomic status indicators did not appear to differ greatly regarding the existence of key national policies and programmes. A more nuanced understanding of the multifaceted interactions of socioeconomic factors, health policy, service delivery and health outcomes is needed to support country-level efforts to eliminate viral hepatitis.

  7. Do serum ALAT values reflect the inflammatory activity in the liver of patients with chronic viral hepatitis?

    Cahen, D. L.; van Leeuwen, D. J.; ten Kate, F. J.; Blok, A. P.; Oosting, J.; Chamuleau, R. A.

    1996-01-01

    A retrospective study was carried out in 40 patients with chronic viral hepatitis, to assess whether serum alanine aminotransferase reflects the inflammatory process in the liver. Twenty liver biopsy specimens were included for each disease. Five histological aspects were scored: periportal

  8. Associations between national viral hepatitis policies/programmes and country-level socioeconomic factors

    Lazarus, Jeffrey V; Sperle, Ida; Safreed-Harmon, Kelly

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As more countries worldwide develop national viral hepatitis strategies, it is important to ask whether context-specific factors affect their decision-making. This study aimed to determine whether country-level socioeconomic factors are associated with viral hepatitis programmes...... and policy responses across WHO Member States (MS). METHODS: WHO MS focal points completed a questionnaire on national viral hepatitis policies. This secondary analysis of data reported in the 2013 Global Policy Report on the Prevention and Control of Viral Hepatitis in WHO Member States used logistic...... regression to examine associations between four survey questions and four socioeconomic factors: country income level, Human Development Index (HDI), health expenditure and physician density. RESULTS: This analysis included 119 MS. MS were more likely to have routine viral hepatitis surveillance and to have...

  9. Structure, sequence and expression of the hepatitis delta (δ) viral genome

    Wang, Kang-Sheng; Choo, Qui-Lim; Weiner, Amy J.; Ou, Jing-Hsiung; Najarian, Richard C.; Thayer, Richard M.; Mullenbach, Guy T.; Denniston, Katherine J.; Gerin, John L.; Houghton, Michael

    1986-10-01

    Biochemical and electron microscopic data indicate that the human hepatitis δ viral agent contains a covalently closed circular and single-stranded RNA genome that has certain similarities with viroid-like agents from plants. The sequence of the viral genome (1,678 nucleotides) has been determined and an open reading frame within the complementary strand has been shown to encode an antigen that binds specifically to antisera from patients with chronic hepatitis δ viral infections.

  10. [Outbreaks of viral hepatitis E in the Czech Republic?].

    Trmal, Josef; Pavlík, Ivo; Vasícková, Petra; Matejícková, Ladislava; Simůnková, Lenka; Luks, Stanislav; Pazderková, Jana

    2012-05-01

    Until recently, viral hepatitis E (VHE) has typically been an imported infection, related to travel to developing countries. A number of travel-unrelated VHE cases currently diagnosed in the Czech Republic. Outcomes of the epidemiological investigations of two VHE outbreaks associated with the consumption of pork and pork products at pig-slaughtering feasts are presented. Thirteen cases have been reported in the first outbreak and eight cases in the second outbreak. The epidemiological investigations are described and the experience gained in analysing suspected biological specimens is presented. The source of infection has not been identified in the first outbreak while in the other one, a link between human cases and infection in farm pigs was revealed for the first time. Although the epidemiological investigation may not always lead to the detection of the VHE source, it must be conducted in any outbreak and can only be successful when done in cooperation of the public health authorities with the veterinary health agency.

  11. Hepatitis

    ... most common types of viral hepatitis. What Is Hepatitis A? For kids, hep A is the most common ... they recover, it does not come back. Can Hepatitis A Be Prevented? The following will help keep people ...

  12. 78 FR 64221 - CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV, Viral Hepatitis and STD Prevention and Treatment; Notice of...

    2013-10-28

    ... Advisory Committee on HIV, Viral Hepatitis and STD Prevention and Treatment; Notice of Meeting In... Administrator, HRSA, regarding activities related to prevention and control of HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis and... professionals and the public about HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, and other STDs. Agenda: Agenda items include: (1...

  13. 78 FR 32392 - CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV, Viral Hepatitis and STD Prevention and Treatment

    2013-05-30

    ... Resources and Services Administration CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV, Viral Hepatitis and STD Prevention.../AIDS, Viral Hepatitis and other STDs, the support of health care services to persons living with HIV/AIDS, and education of health professionals and the public about HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis and other...

  14. 77 FR 66469 - CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV, Viral Hepatitis and STD Prevention and Treatment

    2012-11-05

    ... Advisory Committee on HIV, Viral Hepatitis and STD Prevention and Treatment In accordance with section 10(a...--Treatment as Prevention; (2) Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Client Level Data Update; (3) Viral Hepatitis... Person for More Information: Margie Scott-Cseh, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and...

  15. Salmonella Hepatitis: An Uncommon Complication of a Common Disease

    Ritu Karoli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Typhoid fever is a very common infectious disease of tropics, associated with high morbidity and mortality. Typhoid fever is often associated with hepatomegaly and mildly deranged liver functions; a clinical picture of acute hepatitis is a rare complication. We report a young patient who presented with fever and jaundice and was found to have acute hepatitis secondary to typhoid fever. Recognition of Salmonella hepatitis is of clinical importance as it can mimic acute viral hepatitis. Early institution of specific therapy can improve the prognosis in these patients.Typhoid fever is a very common infectious disease of tropics, associated with high morbidity and mortality. Typhoid fever is often associated with hepatomegaly and mildly deranged liver functions; a clinical picture of acute hepatitis is a rare complication. We report a young patient who presented with fever and jaundice and was found to have acute hepatitis secondary to typhoid fever. Recognition of Salmonella hepatitis is of clinical importance as it can mimic acute viral hepatitis. Early institution of specific therapy can improve the prognosis in these patients.

  16. Importance of viral diseases in irradiated persons

    Blaha, M.; Jebavy, L.; Merka, V.; Horacek, J.

    1988-01-01

    A preliminary study was performed aimed at establishing the incidence of some viral diseases in radiation syndrome patients and the significance of the diseases for prognosis. In the study, 77 patients with syndromologically identical acute hematological forms of radiation sickness, mainly leukemic patients suffering from severe blood formation suppression and/or hematoblastosis were examined for concurrent herpes simplex virus and cytomegalovirus infections. Active viruses were isolated in almost 30% of the patients; nearly 90% of the patients were serologically positive, shedding antibodies. The findings thus confirmed the view that viral disease, especially in immunocompromised patients, has a critical effect on the survival of radiation sickness sufferers. (L.O.). 12 refs

  17. Use of alternative product in patients with chronic viral hepatitis

    Mahmut Dulger

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Some of the patients with chronic hepatitis use both alternative product and/or antiviral treatment. These herbal products sometimes lead to clinical deterioration. In this study we aimed to determine the purpose of alternative product utilization and rate among the chronic hepatitis B (CHB and C (CHC patients. Methods: This prospective cohort study included 200 consecutive adult patients with chronic hepatitis B and C at the Department of Infectious Diseases, Ondokuz Mayis University, between 1 March 2012 and 30 July 2012. At enrollment, clinical information, demographics, laboratory variables and knowledge about alternative products were recorded. Results: Of the patients 150 had CHB, 50 had CHC. 54% of patients were male. Use of alternative products was 26%. Antiviral treatment rate was 48.5% for all patients. The most used alternative products were artichoke extract and honey. 67.3% of patients were using single alternative product whereas the others were using two or more alternative products. 46.2% of patients who use alternative product provided information about the alternative product usage, but the others did not. Conclusions: Majority of patients used alternative products. More than half of these patients did not give information to their physicians about their use of alternative medicine. Use of alternative product should be asked in all patients with chronic hepatitis. Herbal product usage was detected in majority of patients and also approximately half of these patients did not give information to their doctors about taking alternative medicine. In conclusion, it is necessary to take detailed information about herbal product usage in patients with chronic hepatitis. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2014; 4(3: 102-106

  18. The Role of Ursodeoxycholic Acid in Acute Viral Hepatitis: an Evidence-based Case Report.

    Wijaya, Indra

    2015-10-01

    to review the role of ursodeoxycholic acid in acute viral hepatitis. following literature searching according to the clinical question on Pubmed and Cochrane Library. After filtered with our inclusion and exclusion criteria, one meta-analysis and two randomized clinical trials are obtained. Through critical appraisal, it was concluded that the articles meet the criteria for validity and relevance. the article found that there is a positive effect of ursodeoxycholic acid on the activity of serum transaminases and cholestasis indexes. However, there is insufficient evidence to support or to refute effects of ursodeoxycholic acid on disease's course as well as the viral load. better method of clinical trials are needed to obtain a valid and applicable result for daily practice.

  19. A comparative review of HLA associations with hepatitis B and C viral infections across global populations

    Rashmi Singh; Rashmi Kaul; Anil Kaul; Khalid Khan

    2007-01-01

    Hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) viral infection or co-infection leads to risk of development of chronic infection, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Immigration and globalization have added to the challenges of public health concerns regarding chronic HBV and HCV infections worldwide. The aim of this study is to review existing global literature across ethnic populations on HBV and HCV related human leukocyte antigen (HLA) associations in relation to susceptibility, viral persistence and treatment. Extensive literature search was conducted to explore the HLA associations in HBV and HCV infections reported across global populations over the past decade to understand the knowledge status, weaknesses and strengths of this information in different ethnic populations. HLA DR13 is consistently associated with HBV clearance globally. HLADRB1*11/*12 alleles and DQB1*0301 are associated with HBV persistence but with HCV clearance worldwide. Consistent association of DRB1*03 and *07 is observed with HCV susceptibility and non-responsiveness to HBV vaccination across the population. HLA DR13 is protective for vertical HBV and HCV transmission in Chinese and Italian neonates, but different alleles are associated with their susceptibility in these populations. HLA class I molecule interactions with Killer cell immunoglobulin like receptors (KIR) of natural killer (NK) cells modulate HCV infection outcome via regulating immune regulatory cells and molecules. HLA associations with HBV vaccination, interferon therapy in HBV and HCV, and with extra hepatic manifestations of viral hepatitis are also discussed. Systematic studies in compliance with global regulatory standards are required to identify the HLA specific viral epitope, stage specific T cell populations interacting with different HLA alleles during disease progression and viral clearance ofchronic HBV or HCV infections among different ethnic populations. These studies would facilitate stage specific

  20. 76 FR 46181 - World Hepatitis Day, 2011

    2011-08-01

    ... Proclamation Across our Nation, millions of Americans are living with viral hepatitis. As many as three-fourths... save lives and prevent the spread of viral hepatitis. Viral hepatitis is inflammation of the liver, and.... While we have come far, work still needs to be done to prevent and treat this disease. Viral hepatitis...

  1. ViralEpi v1.0: a high-throughput spectrum of viral epigenomic methylation profiles from diverse diseases.

    Khan, Mohd Shoaib; Gupta, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    To develop a computational resource for viral epigenomic methylation profiles from diverse diseases. Methylation patterns of Epstein-Barr virus and hepatitis B virus genomic regions are provided as web platform developed using open source Linux-Apache-MySQL-PHP (LAMP) bundle: programming and scripting languages, that is, HTML, JavaScript and PERL. A comprehensive and integrated web resource ViralEpi v1.0 is developed providing well-organized compendium of methylation events and statistical analysis associated with several diseases. Additionally, it also facilitates 'Viral EpiGenome Browser' for user-affable browsing experience using JavaScript-based JBrowse. This web resource would be helpful for research community engaged in studying epigenetic biomarkers for appropriate prognosis and diagnosis of diseases and its various stages.

  2. Epidemiology of hepatitis E virus in China: results from the Third National Viral Hepatitis Prevalence Survey, 2005-2006.

    Zhiyuan Jia

    Full Text Available In China, hepatitis E virus (HEV is prevalent and causes disease, but its epidemiological profile is not well understood. We used a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect total antibodies to hepatitis E virus in 15,862 serum samples collected during the Third National Viral Hepatitis Prevalence Survey. The results were analyzed to calculate estimates of HEV seroprevalence and to examine the effects of some putative risk factors. The seroprevalence of HEV in the general Chinese population during the period from 2005 through 2006 was 23.46% (95% confidence interval [CI], 18.41%-28.50%. The farming population, the age group of 15-60 year olds, and those living in the Midwest or Mideast region and in Xinjiang province had the highest seroprevalence estimates. The prevalence of HEV is high in China. The seroprevalence rate of HEV shows an unbalanced distribution among areas with different geographic location and economic development levels. The characteristics of the distribution associated may be due to the route of HEV transmission (via contaminated water or animal reservoirs. Within the same region, the seroprevalence of HEV is generally increased with age.

  3. Angiohepatogram in diffuse hepatic disease

    Aburano, Tamio; Suzuki, Yutaka; Hisada, Kinichi; Matsudaira, Masamichi.

    1975-01-01

    A region of interest angiohepatogram was obtained with intravenous injection of 10mCi of sup(99m)Tc-Sn-colloid and a data processing system. Furthermore, the ratio of hepatic arterial blood flow volume to total hepatic blood flow volume was calculated according to Ueda's method, and the correlation of this calculated ratio and the degree of extrahepatic distribution of sup(99m)Tc-Sn-colloid (spleen to liver, and bone marrow to liver activity ratio) was examined. Most cases of liver cirrhosis and Banti's syndrome showed the increased hepatic arterial blood flow ratio (liver cirrhosis: 43.5+-9.5%, Banti's syndrome 48.8+-4.9%) in contrast with 18.1+-4.6% in normal cases, and its ratio showed much higher values in the presence of portal hypertension manifestations (esophageal varix and ascites). The hepatic arterial blood flow ratio showed increased values in the case of markedly increased extrahepatic activity, e.g. liver cirrhosis, and the correlation of the ratio and extrahepatic activity degree of sup(99m)Tc-Sn-colloid was significant statistically. From these results, a region of interest angiohepatogram was supposed to be useful for the prediction of the hemodynamic change, as well as, the improvement of diagnostic accuracy with radioisotope in diffuse hepatic disease, especially liver cirrhosis. Moreover, the hemodynamic change of liver, especially the reduction of the effective hepatic blood flow volume via the portal vein was considered to be closely concerned in the mechanism of increased extrahepatic activity of RI colloid in diffuse hepatic disease. (auth.)

  4. 77 FR 45895 - World Hepatitis Day, 2012

    2012-08-02

    ... Proclamation Worldwide, one in twelve people is living with viral hepatitis--a disease that threatens the... ourselves to the fight against viral hepatitis. Hepatitis prevention and control begins with awareness. Though all types of viral hepatitis are associated with serious health issues, hepatitis B and C can...

  5. The future of viral hepatitis testing: innovations in testing technologies and approaches.

    Peeling, Rosanna W; Boeras, Debrah I; Marinucci, Francesco; Easterbrook, Philippa

    2017-11-01

    A large burden of undiagnosed hepatitis virus cases remains globally. Despite the 257 million people living with chronic hepatitis B virus infection, and 71 million with chronic viraemic HCV infection, most people with hepatitis remain unaware of their infection. Advances in rapid detection technology have created new opportunities for enhancing access to testing and care, as well as monitoring of treatment. This article examines a range of other technological innovations that can be leveraged to provide more affordable and simplified approaches to testing for HBV and HCV infection and monitoring of treatment response. These include improved access to testing through alternative sampling methods (use of dried blood spots, oral fluids, self-testing) and combination rapid diagnostic tests for detection of HIV, HBV and HCV infection; more affordable options for confirmation of virological infection (HBV DNA and HCV RNA) such as point-of-care molecular assays, HCV core antigen and multi-disease polyvalent molecular platforms that make use of existing centralised laboratory based or decentralised TB and HIV instrumentation for viral hepatitis testing; and finally health system improvements such as integration of laboratory services for procurement and sample transportation and enhanced data connectivity to support quality assurance and supply chain management.

  6. Progress in diagnosis of viral hepatitis A, B, C, D and E

    Kurstak, E.; Hossain, A.; Kurstak, C.

    1996-01-01

    The effective use of new molecular biological techniques towards the reliable diagnosis of HCV and other viral liver infections has been updated in this review. The applications PCR techniques with amplification of reverse transcribed cDNA seems to prove an effective means for assaying HCV infections. A very recent one-stage PCR assay of HCV RNA combined with either liquid hybridization or Southern blot analysis, equal in sensitivity to the nested PCR assay but with sharply reduced potential for contamination appears to be promising. Future further development of reliable and automated RT-PCR assay would be particularly interesting for diagnosis of HCV infections. PCR apparently remains the most useful test for the appraisal of HBV infection in sera-negative patients with liver disease. It has now made possible the confirmation of observations made with the spot blot or Southern blot test and provided access to the nucleotide sequence analysis of these viral mutant forms. The rapidity and simplicity of these viral forms. The rapidity and simplicity of the the newly developed latex agglutination method using ISTA also makes it a viable alternative for the determination of HBsAg. Cloning of HEV, sequencing of the viral genome and expression of recombinant HEV proteins has undoubtedly facilitated significant progress in the development of methods for identification of HEV infection in patients. Recently the availability of specific, more sensitive assays as recombinant-based EIAs has made the diagnosis of hepatitis E very much practicable. (author)

  7. Viral skin diseases of the rabbit.

    Meredith, Anna L

    2013-09-01

    This article describes the viral skin diseases affecting the domestic rabbit, the most important being myxomatosis. Transmission and pathogenesis, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment, and control are described and the article will be of interest to veterinary practitioners who treat rabbits. Shope fibroma virus, Shope papilloma virus, and rabbitpox are also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Detection of serum leptin levels in patients with viral hepatitis and fatty liver

    Sun Shuhong; Sun Bingmei; Niu Airong; Lan Cuixia

    2007-01-01

    In order to find out the correlations between serum leptin levels and viral hepatitis, the serum leptin levels in 167 patients with viral chronic hepatitis, 87 patients with fatty liver, and 80 control subjects were determined by radioimmunoassay. The liver function (ALT, AST), glucose(Glu) and total cholesterol(TC) in these patients were also measured. Compared with controls and patients with fatty liver, the levels of serum leptin in patients with viral hepatitis were significantly increased (P 0.05). The increase of serum leptin levels in the patients with viral hepatitis was correlated positively with the severity of liver inflammation. Therefore, the leptin can be regarded as an indicator to reflect the severity of liver inflammation. (authors)

  9. Regulatory mechanisms of viral hepatitis B and C

    Abstract. Of all the hepatitis viruses, only the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) cause chronic hepatitis, which can progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. In this review, we discuss how these two biologically diverse viruses use common pathways to induce oxidative stress and activation of key ...

  10. Viral diseases in honey bee queens

    Francis, Roy Mathew

    Honey bees are important insects for human welfare, due to pollination as well as honey production. Viral diseases strongly impact honey bee health, especially since the spread of varroa mites. This dissertation deals with the interactions between honey bees, viruses and varroa mites. A new tool...... was developed to diagnose three viruses in honey bees. Quantitative PCR was used to investigate the distribution of two popular viruses in five different tissues of 86 honey bee queens. Seasonal variation of viral infection in honey bee workers and varroa mites were determined by sampling 23 colonies under...

  11. Evaluation of adults with acute viral hepatitis a and review of the literature.

    Tekin, R; Yolbas, I; Dal, T; Demirpençe, Ö; Kaya, S; Bozkurt, F; Deveci, Ö; Çelen, M K; Tekin, A

    2013-01-01

    In developing countries HAV infection is very common in the first years of life and it is often asymptomatic. However especially in regions of intermediate endemicity, exposure to the virus may delay and outbreaks of hepatitis A may be encountered in adults. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical and laboratory findings and risk factors of adults with acute viral hepatitis A. In present study we evaluated 203 patient with acute viral hepatitis A, who were admitted to four different hospitals of three cities of Turkey between January 2000-December 2011, retrospectively. The diagnosis of acute viral hepatitis A was performed by laboratory findings and clinically. In a total of 203 patients, 120 (59.1%) patients were male and 83 (40.9%) were female. Mean age of cases with acute viral hepatitis A was 24.7 +11.8 years (ranged 15 to 82 years old). Acute viral hepatitis A were seen in patient who were 15-20 years and 21-30 years old, commonly. Jaundice (74%), fatigue (68%), nausea- vomiting (56%) and dark urine (48%) were the most common symptoms in cases. Prolonged cholestasis (6.8%) was the most common atypical manifestation. Prolonged jaundice was more frequent in the cases with positive HBsAg (P viral hepatitis A can cause atypical presentations such as prolonged cholestasis, acute kidney injury and fulminant hepatitis. Some precautions such as routine vaccination program, improvement of hygiene conditions and informing people about it, should be taken for reducing of acute viral hepatitis A infection incidence.

  12. Angiohepatogram in diffuse hepatic disease

    Aburano, T; Suzuki, Y; Hisada, K [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Matsudaira, M

    1975-10-01

    A region of interest angiohepatogram was obtained with intravenous injection of 10mCi of sup(99m)Tc-Sn-colloid and a data processing system. Furthermore, the ratio of hepatic arterial blood flow volume to total hepatic blood flow volume was calculated according to Ueda's method, and the correlation of this calculated ratio and the degree of extrahepatic distribution of sup(99m)Tc-Sn-colloid (spleen to liver, and bone marrow to liver activity ratio) was examined. Most cases of liver cirrhosis and Banti's syndrome showed the increased hepatic arterial blood flow ratio (liver cirrhosis: 43.5+-9.5%, Banti's syndrome 48.8+-4.9%) in contrast with 18.1+-4.6% in normal cases, and its ratio showed much higher values in the presence of portal hypertension manifestations (esophageal varix and ascites). The hepatic arterial blood flow ratio showed increased values in the case of markedly increased extrahepatic activity, e.g. liver cirrhosis, and the correlation of the ratio and extrahepatic activity degree of sup(99m)Tc-Sn-colloid was significant statistically. From these results, a region of interest angiohepatogram was supposed to be useful for the prediction of the hemodynamic change, as well as, the improvement of diagnostic accuracy with radioisotope in diffuse hepatic disease, especially liver cirrhosis. Moreover, the hemodynamic change of liver, especially the reduction of the effectivehepatic blood flow volume via the portal vein was considered to be closely concerned in the mechanism of increased extrahepatic activity of RI colloid in diffuse hepatic disease.

  13. Prevalence of Hepatitis A virus (HAV) and Hepatitis E virus (HEV) in the patients presenting with acute viral hepatitis.

    Joon, A; Rao, P; Shenoy, S M; Baliga, S

    2015-02-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) and Hepatitis E virus (HEV) are both enterically transmitted, resulting in acute viral hepatitis (AVH) in developing countries. They pose major health problems in our country. This study was done to determine prevalence of HAV and HEV in patients presenting with AVH and the co-infection of HAV and HEV in these patients. A cross-sectional study of 2-years duration was conducted in the Department of Microbiology, KMC, Mangalore. A non-random sampling of 958 patients presenting with AVH was considered in the study. On the basis of history, serum samples were analysed for IgM anti-HAV and IgM anti-HEV for the detection of HAV and HEV, respectively using commercially available ELISA kits. Data collected was analysed by using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 11.5. The seroprevalence of HAV- and HEV-positive patients were 19.31% and 10.54%, respectively. The seroprevalence of both HAV and HEV in patients with acute viral hepatitis was 11.5%. The prevalence of HAV and HEV among males (68% and 31%) was higher than in females (31% and 20%) and was predominantly seen among young adults. These infections were predominantly seen during end of monsoons and beginning of winter. Though the prevalence of HAV is much higher than that of HEV, co-infection rate of 11.5% mandates the screening for HEV which will be of immense importance in pregnant women and improving levels of personal hygiene among higher socio-economic population. These data will be essential for planning of future vaccination strategies and for better sanitation programme in this part of the country.

  14. Anti-pre-S responses and viral clearance in chronic hepatitis B virus infection.

    Budkowska, A; Dubreuil, P; Poynard, T; Marcellin, P; Loriot, M A; Maillard, P; Pillot, J

    1992-01-01

    Serial sera were collected prospectively during the clinical course of 13 HBsAg carriers with chronic liver disease and analyzed for ALT levels, pre-S1 and pre-S2 antigens and corresponding antibodies and other serological hepatitis B virus markers. In five patients, anti-pre-S1 and anti-pre-S2 antibodies became detectable in multiple serum samples, whereas in eight patients anti-pre-S was never detected or only appeared transiently during the follow-up. The first pattern was associated with normalization of ALT levels and undetectable pre-S antigens and viral DNA by the polymerase chain reaction assay at final follow-up. HBsAg clearance occurred in two of the five patients. The second pattern was one of persistence of HBsAg and pre-S antigens, associated with the presence of serum HBV DNA detectable by spot hybridization or polymerase chain reaction regardless of clinical outcome. These findings demonstrate the occurrence of anti-pre-S antibodies in chronic hepatitis B virus-induced liver disease and associate anti-pre-S appearance with the clearance of hepatitis B virus from serum.

  15. Hepatitis B and C Viral Infections Among Blood Donors from Rural ...

    Hepatitis B and C Viral Infections Among Blood Donors from Rural Ghana. B Nkrumah, M Owusu, HO Frempong, P Averu. Abstract. Objective: To investigate the prevalence of Hepatitis B and C infections and co-infections among blood donors in a rural community of Ghana. Design: A retrospective study. Method: Samples ...

  16. [Latest Treatment of Viral Hepatitis--Overcoming Hepatitis C and Reactivation of Hepatitis B].

    Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2016-02-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), discovered as causative viruses of post-transfusion hepatitis, become persistent infections, leading to chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). For HCV, recent IFN-free direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapies have increased sustained virological response (SVR) rates and reduced adverse events. IFN-based therapies, still the standard of care in Asian countries, are influenced by IL28B genetic variants and the liver fibrosis stage, but the DAA combinations obscure the influence of these factors. These new therapies can eradicate HCV and prevent HCC development. On the other hand, it is difficult to eradicate HBV completely. Although HBV infection can be prevented by vaccination, reactivation of HBV following anti-cancer chemotherapy and immunosuppressive therapy is a well-known complication. HBV reactivation has been reported to be associated with anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab-containing chemotherapy and TNF-α inhibitor-containing immunosuppressive therapy in HBV-resolved patients. Our prospective observational study revealed that monthly monitoring of HBV DNA was useful for preventing HBV reactivation-related hepatitis among B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients with resolved HBV infection following rituximab-steroid-chemo, suggesting that preemptive therapy guided by serial HBV DNA monitoring should be recommended. Recently, highly sensitive HBsAg detection by Lumipulse HBsAg-HQ may be useful for several clinical applications. The sensitivity of this assay (5 mIU/mL) was approximately 10-fold higher than Abbott ARCHITECT, but still lower than HBV-DNA assays. The convenient HBsAg-HQ may be useful for detecting occult HBV infection and HBV reactivation in relatively low-risk groups except for those receiving rituximab-steroid-chemo. [

  17. Understanding the Innate Immune Response in Viral Hepatitis : Interferons and NK Cells

    R.A. de Groen (Rik)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractHBV and HCV infection are the two leading causes of chronic liver inflammation worldwide, affecting an approximate 370–390 million people. Currently, the viral and immunological mechanisms that underlie either the resolution or persistence of viral hepatitis infections are not fully

  18. The Management of Chronic Viral Hepatitis: A Canadian Consensus Conference 2004

    Morris Sherman

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Several government and nongovernment organizations held a consensus conference on the management of acute and chronic viral hepatitis to update previous management recommendations. The conference became necessary because of the introduction of new forms of therapy for both hepatitis B and hepatitis C. The conference issued recommendations on the investigation and management of chronic hepatitis B, including the use of lamivudine, adefovir and interferon. The treatment of hepatitis B in several special situations was also discussed. There were also recommendations on the investigation and treatment of chronic hepatitis C and hepatitis C-HIV coinfection. In addition, the document makes some recommendations about the provision of services by provincial governments to facilitate the delivery of care to patients with hepatitis virus infection. The present document is meant to be used by practitioners and other health care providers, including public health staff and others not directly involved in patient care.

  19. Changing trend of viral hepatitis -- 'A twenty one year report from Pakistan medical research council research centre, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi'

    Ahmed, W.; Qureshi, H.; Arif, A.; Alam, S.E.

    2010-01-01

    To determine the frequency and pattern of Hepatitis B and C over the past twenty one years, in a liver research unit of Karachi. Retrospective analysis of the records of PMRC, Research Centre, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, from 1987 to 2007 were reviewed. A special flow sheet was made where information of all patients with viral liver disease was entered. Patients having complete information of viral markers were included in the analysis. Cases with HBsAg, Anti HBc IgM positive and raised ALT were considered as acute Hepatitis B. HBs Ag/ Anti HBc IgG positive were considered as chronic Hepatitis B. Delta antibody positive with or without HBsAg were considered as Delta Hepatitis. Anti HCV positive and raised ALT more than ten times for less than 6 months were considered as acute Hepatitis C, whereas Anti HCV and HCV-RNA positive with or without raised ALT for more than six months were considered as chronic Hepatitis C. Anti HEV IgM and Anti HAV IgM positive were considered as acute Hepatitis E and A respectively. A total of 5193 cases fulfilling all criteria of viral hepatitis were seen in the past 21 years. Of the total 3247 (62.5 %) were males and 1946 (37.5 %) females giving a male to female ratio of 1.7:1 Hepatitis C was the most common infection seen in 2896 cases (55.8 %), followed by Hepatitis B in 1691 cases (32.6 %). Seventy five percent cases of Hepatitis B were males and 25 % females while 55% Hepatitis C cases were males and 45 % females. Hepatitis B was seen a decade earlier in different age groups than hepatitis C. Overall, out of the total 5193 cases, 2294 (44.2%) were of chronic hepatitis, 1430 (27.5%) cirrhosis, 1083 (20.8%) carriers and 346 (6.7%) had acute hepatitis (hepatitis B; 214 (61.8%), hepatitis C; 21 (6.0%). While hepatitis B and hepatitis C both were present in 3 (1.3%). Hepatitis E was 70 (20.2%) hepatitis A 12 (3.5%) and all markers were negative in 26 (7.5%) cases). Forty cases (0.8%) were of Hepatocellular carcinoma

  20. Dried blood spots, valid screening for viral hepatitis and human immunodeficiency virus in real-life

    Mössner, Belinda K; Staugaard, Benjamin; Jensen, Janne

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To detect chronic hepatitis B (CHB), chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections in dried blood spot (DBS) and compare these samples to venous blood sampling in real-life. METHODS: We included prospective patients with known viral infections from drug treatment......, but correctly classified 95% of the anti-HCV-positive patients with chronic and past infections. Anti-HBc and anti-HBS showed low sensitivity in DBS (68% and 42%). CONCLUSION: DBS sampling, combined with an automated analysis system, is a feasible screening method to diagnose chronic viral hepatitis and HIV...

  1. Hepatitis Vaccines

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B.

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B ...

  2. Vaginal microbiota and viral sexually transmitted diseases.

    Nardis, C; Mosca, L; Mastromarino, P

    2013-01-01

    Healthy vaginal microbiota is an important biological barrier to pathogenic microorganisms. When this predominantly Lactobacillus community is disrupted, decreased in abundance and replaced by different anaerobes, bacterial vaginosis (BV) may occur. BV is associated with prevalence and incidence of several sexually transmitted infections. This review provides background on BV, discusses the epidemiologic data to support a role of altered vaginal microbiota for acquisition of sexually transmitted diseases and analyzes mechanisms by which lactobacilli could counteract sexually transmitted viral infections.

  3. Hepatitis B

    ... B Entire Lesson Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For Veterans and the Public Veterans ... in their blood (sometimes referred to as the hepatitis B viral load) and an unusually high level of a ...

  4. Consequences of extrahepatic manifestations of hepatitis C viral infection (HCV

    Agnieszka Pawełczyk

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The hepatitis C virus (HCV is a primarily hepatotropic virus. However, numerous extrahepatic symptoms are observed in patients chronically infected with HCV, e.g. cryoglobulinemia, lymphoproliferative disorders, kidney diseases, disturbances of the central and peripheral nervous system, thyroid gland, pancreas, lymph nodes and pituitary gland, that develop at various times after the infection. Complex mechanisms underlie these processes, both molecular, related to direct effects of the virus on cells or tissues and indirect mechanisms, resulting from the response of the immune system to infection (via cytokines or oxidative stress, and from the antiviral treatment used. Understanding these mechanisms may contribute to the definition of new prognostic factors, important for the early diagnosis of the infection, which in turn may improve treatment efficacy.This paper is a review of the incidence of selected extrahepatic manifestations of HCV infection and their underlying pathogenetic mechanisms and risk factors.

  5. [Treatment of autoimmune hepatic diseases].

    Bueverov, A O

    2004-01-01

    The immunosuppresive drugs, primarily glucocorticosteroids, serve as the basis for the pathogenetic treatment of autoimmune diseases of the liver. In autoimmune hepatitis, immunosuppressive therapy induces and maintains persistent remission in most patients while in primary biliary cirrhosis and primary sclerosing cholangitis, its capacities are substantially limited. Ursodeoxycholic acid is used as the basic drug in predominantly occurring intrahepatic cholestasis. The treatment of cross autoimmune syndromes generally requires the choice of a combination of drugs.

  6. Recombinant viruses as vaccines against viral diseases

    A.P.D. Souza

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Vaccine approaches to infectious diseases are widely applied and appreciated. Amongst them, vectors based on recombinant viruses have shown great promise and play an important role in the development of new vaccines. Many viruses have been investigated for their ability to express proteins from foreign pathogens and induce specific immunological responses against these antigens in vivo. Generally, gene-based vaccines can stimulate potent humoral and cellular immune responses and viral vectors might be an effective strategy for both the delivery of antigen-encoding genes and the facilitation and enhancement of antigen presentation. In order to be utilized as a vaccine carrier, the ideal viral vector should be safe and enable efficient presentation of required pathogen-specific antigens to the immune system. It should also exhibit low intrinsic immunogenicity to allow for its re-administration in order to boost relevant specific immune responses. Furthermore, the vector system must meet criteria that enable its production on a large-scale basis. Several viral vaccine vectors have thus emerged to date, all of them having relative advantages and limits depending on the proposed application, and thus far none of them have proven to be ideal vaccine carriers. In this review we describe the potential, as well as some of the foreseeable obstacles associated with viral vaccine vectors and their use in preventive medicine.

  7. Hyaluronic acid levels predict risk of hepatic encephalopathy and liver-related death in HIV/viral hepatitis coinfected patients

    Peters, Lars; Mocroft, Amanda; Soriano, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Whereas it is well established that various soluble biomarkers can predict level of liver fibrosis, their ability to predict liver-related clinical outcomes is less clearly established, in particular among HIV/viral hepatitis co-infected persons. We investigated plasma hyaluronic acid's (HA......) ability to predict risk of liver-related events (LRE; hepatic coma or liver-related death) in the EuroSIDA study....

  8. The Role of Serum Leptin and IL-6 Levels in Post Viral Hepatitis Cirrhotic patients

    Mohamed, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic liver disease is characterized by numerous metabolic alterations resulting in the clinical picture of malnutrition or even cachexia and contributing to complications such as hepatic encephalopathy and ascites. Leptin is a hormone that plays an important role in regulating energy intake and expenditure including appetite and metabolism. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), on the other hand, is generally considered to be one of the important cytokines that regulate immunologic and metabolic actions. The aim of the present study was to investigate serum leptin and IL-6 levels in liver cirrhosis, as well as to determine their levels in relation to liver functions and lipid profile. This study was conducted on 25 patients with post- viral hepatic cirrhosis compared to 20 healthy matched individuals served as controls with the same age and sex. The severity of the disease assessed with Child-Pugh criteria yielded 8 patients (3 women, 5 men) with stage A, 10 patients (4 women, 6 men) with stage B and 7 patients (2 women, 5 men) with stage C. Compared to controls, body mass index (BMI) was decreased and reached statistical significance in group C liver cirrhosis (P< 0.05). Also, serum leptin level was highly significantly decreased in the three groups, while IL-6 level showed highly significant increase. Leptin level negatively correlated with aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and total bilirubin and positively correlated with serum albumin, triglycerides (TG), cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL). In contrast, serum IL-6 level positively correlated with parameters of liver functions and negatively correlated with parameters of lipid profile. Additionally, there was highly significant negative correlation between serum leptin and IL-6 levels (P < 0.001) in post-hepatic cirrhotic patients. We concluded that leptin and IL-6 have important role in diagnosis and prognosis of patients with post-hepatic liver cirrhosis

  9. The Role of Serum Leptin and IL-6 Levels in Post Viral Hepatitis Cirrhotic patients

    Mohamed, S.K., E-mail: Safaa-K-mohamed@hotmail.co [Health Radiation Research Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, P. O. Box:29 Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt)

    2010-07-01

    Chronic liver disease is characterized by numerous metabolic alterations resulting in the clinical picture of malnutrition or even cachexia and contributing to complications such as hepatic encephalopathy and ascites. Leptin is a hormone that plays an important role in regulating energy intake and expenditure including appetite and metabolism. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), on the other hand, is generally considered to be one of the important cytokines that regulate immunologic and metabolic actions. The aim of the present study was to investigate serum leptin and IL-6 levels in liver cirrhosis, as well as to determine their levels in relation to liver functions and lipid profile. This study was conducted on 25 patients with post- viral hepatic cirrhosis compared to 20 healthy matched individuals served as controls with the same age and sex. The severity of the disease assessed with Child-Pugh criteria yielded 8 patients (3 women, 5 men) with stage A, 10 patients (4 women, 6 men) with stage B and 7 patients (2 women, 5 men) with stage C. Compared to controls, body mass index (BMI) was decreased and reached statistical significance in group C liver cirrhosis (P< 0.05). Also, serum leptin level was highly significantly decreased in the three groups, while IL-6 level showed highly significant increase. Leptin level negatively correlated with aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and total bilirubin and positively correlated with serum albumin, triglycerides (TG), cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL). In contrast, serum IL-6 level positively correlated with parameters of liver functions and negatively correlated with parameters of lipid profile. Additionally, there was highly significant negative correlation between serum leptin and IL-6 levels (P < 0.001) in post-hepatic cirrhotic patients. We concluded that leptin and IL-6 have important role in diagnosis and prognosis of patients with post-hepatic liver cirrhosis

  10. Clinical experience with ursodeoxycholic acid (Urdoxa in complex therapy of chronic viral hepatitis

    E. V. Esaulenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with chronic virus hepatitis (32 patients, 13 with chronic hepatitis B and 19 with chronic hepatitis C ages from 20 to 72 with elevated levels of bilirubin and active alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma- glutamyl transpeptidase, received ursodeoxycholic acid (Urdoxa over the course of 12 weeks. During therapy alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, bilirubin and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase levels decreased. Urdoxa demonstrated good tolerance, efficacy and no visible side effects. Thus, Urdoxa could be used in treatment of chronic viral hepatitis with cytolytic and cholestatic syndromes.

  11. Prevalence of hepatitis A virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, hepatitis D virus and hepatitis E virus as causes of acute viral hepatitis in North India: a hospital based study.

    Jain, P; Prakash, S; Gupta, S; Singh, K P; Shrivastava, S; Singh, D D; Singh, J; Jain, A

    2013-01-01

    Acute viral hepatitis (AVH) is a major public health problem and is an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The aim of the present study is to determine the prevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis D virus (HDV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) as causes of AVH in a tertiary care hospital of North India. Blood samples and clinical information was collected from cases of AVH referred to the Grade I viral diagnostic laboratory over a 1-year period. Samples were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen, anti-HCV total antibodies, anti-HAV immunoglobulin M (IgM) and anti-HEV IgM by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. PCR for nucleic acid detection of HBV and HCV was also carried out. Those positive for HBV infection were tested for anti-HDV antibodies. Fisher's exact test was used and a P hepatitis cases, 62 (23.22%) patients presented as acute hepatic failure. HAV (26.96%) was identified as the most common cause of acute hepatitis followed by HEV (17.97%), HBV (16.10%) and HCV (11.98%). Co-infections with more than one virus were present in 34 cases; HAV-HEV co-infection being the most common. HEV was the most important cause of acute hepatic failure followed by co-infection with HAV and HEV. An indication towards epidemiological shift of HAV infection from children to adults with a rise in HAV prevalence was seen. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report indicating epidemiological shift of HAV in Uttar Pradesh.

  12. Viral respiratory diseases: vaccines and antivirals.

    Lennette, E H

    1981-01-01

    Acute respiratory diseases, most of which are generally attributed to viruses, account for about 6% of all deaths and for about 60% of the deaths associated with all respiratory disease. The huge cost attributable to viral respiratory infections as a result of absenteeism and the disruption of business and the burden of medical care makes control of these diseases an important objective. The viruses that infect the respiratory tract fall taxonomically into five viral families. Although immunoprophylaxis would appear to be the logical approach, the development of suitable vaccines has been confronted with numerous obstacles, including antigenic drift and shift in the influenzaviruses, the large number of antigenically distinct immunotypes among rhinoviruses, the occurrence after immunization of rare cases of a severe form of the disease following subsequent natural infection with respiratory syncytial virus, and the risk of oncogenicity of adenoviruses for man. Considerable expenditure on the development of new antiviral drugs has so far resulted in only three compounds that are at present officially approved and licensed for use in the USA. Efforts to improve the tools available for control should continue and imaginative and inventive approaches are called for. However, creativity and ingenuity must operate within the constraints imposed by economic, political, ethical, and legal considerations.

  13. TYPE A VIRAL HEPATITIS: EFFECT OF CHLORINE ON INFECTIVITY

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of (HOCl) treatment on the infectivity of hepatitis A virus (HAV). Prodromal chimpanzee feces, shown to induce hepatitis in marmosets (Saginus sp.), was clarified (JA 20/8K/30 min/5C), the virus precipitated with 7% PEG 6000...

  14. Viral hepatitis C therapy: pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic considerations

    de Kanter, Clara T. M. M.; Drenth, Joost P. H.; Arends, Joop E.; Reesink, Henk W.; van der Valk, Marc; de Knegt, Robert J.; Burger, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C is a global health problem. To prevent or reduce complications, the hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection needs to be eradicated. There have been several developments in treating these patients since the discovery of the virus. As of 1 January 2014, the drugs that are approved for

  15. Segmental Difference of the Hepatic Fibrosis from Chronic Viral Hepatitis due to Hepatitis B versus C Virus Infection: Comparison Using Dual Contrast Material-Enhanced MRI

    Shin, Jae Ho; Yu, Jeong Sik; Chung, Jae Joon; Kim, Joo Hee; Kim, Ki Whang [Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yensei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    We wanted to identify the geographic differences in hepatic fibrosis and their associations with the atrophy-hypertrophy complex in patients with chronic viral hepatitis using the dual-contrast material-enhanced MRI (DC-MRI) with gadopentetate dimeglumine and ferucarbotran. Patients with chronic C (n = 22) and B-viral hepatitis (n = 35) were enrolled for determining the subjective grade of fibrosis (the extent and thickness of fibrotic reticulations) in the right lobe (RL), the caudate lobe (CL), the medial segment (MS) and the lateral segment (LS) of the liver, with using a 5-grade scale, on the gradient echo T2-weighted images of DC-MRI. The fibrosis grades of different segments were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by post-hoc analysis to establish the segment-by-segment differences. The incidences of two pre-established morphologic signs of cirrhosis were also compared with each other between the two groups of patients. There were significant intersegmental differences in fibrosis grades of the C-viral group (p = 0.005), and the CL showed lower fibrosis grades as compared with the grades of the RL and MS, whereas all lobes were similarly affected in the B-viral group (p = 0.221). The presence of a right posterior hepatic notch was significantly higher in the patients with intersegmental differences of fibrosis between the RL and the CL (19 out of 25, 76%) than those without such differences (6 out of 32, 19%) (p < 0.001). An expanded gallbladder fossa showed no significant relationship (p = 0.327) with the segmental difference of the fibrosis grades between the LS and the MS. The relative lack of fibrosis in the CL with more advanced fibrosis in the RL can be a distinguishing feature to differentiate chronic C-viral hepatitis from chronic B-viral hepatitis and this is closely related to the presence of a right posterior hepatic notch.

  16. Segmental Difference of the Hepatic Fibrosis from Chronic Viral Hepatitis due to Hepatitis B versus C Virus Infection: Comparison Using Dual Contrast Material-Enhanced MRI

    Shin, Jae Ho; Yu, Jeong Sik; Chung, Jae Joon; Kim, Joo Hee; Kim, Ki Whang

    2011-01-01

    We wanted to identify the geographic differences in hepatic fibrosis and their associations with the atrophy-hypertrophy complex in patients with chronic viral hepatitis using the dual-contrast material-enhanced MRI (DC-MRI) with gadopentetate dimeglumine and ferucarbotran. Patients with chronic C (n = 22) and B-viral hepatitis (n = 35) were enrolled for determining the subjective grade of fibrosis (the extent and thickness of fibrotic reticulations) in the right lobe (RL), the caudate lobe (CL), the medial segment (MS) and the lateral segment (LS) of the liver, with using a 5-grade scale, on the gradient echo T2-weighted images of DC-MRI. The fibrosis grades of different segments were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by post-hoc analysis to establish the segment-by-segment differences. The incidences of two pre-established morphologic signs of cirrhosis were also compared with each other between the two groups of patients. There were significant intersegmental differences in fibrosis grades of the C-viral group (p = 0.005), and the CL showed lower fibrosis grades as compared with the grades of the RL and MS, whereas all lobes were similarly affected in the B-viral group (p = 0.221). The presence of a right posterior hepatic notch was significantly higher in the patients with intersegmental differences of fibrosis between the RL and the CL (19 out of 25, 76%) than those without such differences (6 out of 32, 19%) (p < 0.001). An expanded gallbladder fossa showed no significant relationship (p = 0.327) with the segmental difference of the fibrosis grades between the LS and the MS. The relative lack of fibrosis in the CL with more advanced fibrosis in the RL can be a distinguishing feature to differentiate chronic C-viral hepatitis from chronic B-viral hepatitis and this is closely related to the presence of a right posterior hepatic notch.

  17. 78 FR 46247 - World Hepatitis Day, 2013

    2013-07-31

    ... Hepatitis Day to bring attention to a disease that afflicts one in twelve people worldwide. Viral hepatitis... American deaths every year. Outcomes can significantly improve with treatment, but because viral hepatitis..., we raise awareness about preventing and treating viral hepatitis, and we renew our commitment to...

  18. Hepatitis C: Managing Pain

    ... Pain: Entire Lesson Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For Veterans and the Public Veterans and the Public Home Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis C Home Getting ...

  19. Effects of Arsenic in Drinking Water on Risk of Hepatitis or Cirrhosis in Persons With and Without Chronic Viral Hepatitis.

    Hsu, Ling-I; Wang, Yuan-Hung; Hsieh, Fang-I; Yang, Tse-Yen; Wen-Juei Jeng, Rachel; Liu, Chien-Ting; Chen, Chi-Ling; Hsu, Kuang-Hung; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Wu, Meei-Maan; Chen, Chien-Jen

    2016-09-01

    Arsenic in drinking water is associated with hepatomegaly and death from liver cancer. However, confounding factors related to liver diseases have not been carefully studied. We examined associations between exposure of arsenic in drinking water and risk of hepatitis and cirrhosis, and the interaction with chronic viral hepatitis, in people living in the Lanyang Basin of northeastern Taiwan, where well water has an arsenic content that ranges from undetectable to 3590 μg/L. We tested blood samples from 4387 people who lived in arseniasis-endemic areas in northeastern Taiwan from 1991 through 1994 for hepatitis B virus DNA, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), and antibodies against hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV). We measured arsenic concentrations in well water and collected information on residents' histories of major chronic diseases. Reports of chronic hepatitis or cirrhosis were ascertained using the Taiwan National Health Insurance database. Reports of liver cancer were ascertained using the Taiwan National Cancer Registry. Prevalence odds ratios in the overall study population for chronic hepatitis or cirrhosis for well water arsenic concentrations of ≤10 μg/L were 1.00 (reference), 0.93 for 10.1-49.9 μg/L (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.57-1.52), 1.24 for 50.0-99.9 μg/L (95% CI, 0.68-2.23), 0.98 for 100.0-299.9 (95% CI, 0.52-1.85), and 1.86 for ≥300.0 μg/L (95% CI, 1.08-3.20). Increasing levels of arsenic in drinking water were associated with increasing prevalence of chronic hepatitis or cirrhosis in residents who were seronegative for HBsAg and seronegative for anti-HCV, but not for seropositive for either HBsAg or anti-HCV. In individuals who were seropositive for HBsAg or anti-HCV, we observed an inverse association between hepatitis or cirrhosis and consumption of water with levels of arsenic ≥100.0 μg/L. Among participants who were seropositive for HBsAg or anti-HCV, consumption of water with levels of arsenic ≥100.0 μg/L was associated

  20. PREVALENCE OF ''TTV'' IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC VIRAL HEPATITIS ''B'' AND ''C''

    NOSSEIR, N.M.; MANSOUR, H.H.; FAHMY, N.M.

    2007-01-01

    Transfusion transmitted virus (TTV) is an enveloped single strand virus discovered in serum of patients with post-transfusion hepatitis of unknown etiology in Japan and designated as TT virus (TTV). To investigate the frequency of TTV infection in patients with viral hepatitis B or C, 25 Egyptian patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) aged 8-40 years and 25 patients with B virus (HBV) aged 8-57 years were tested. Detection of TTV-DNA was performed by semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using TTV-specific primers. Serum levels of transaminases were tested. The prevalence of TTV in patients with chronic viral hepatitis B or C was frequent and the co-infection of TTV with HCV or HBV was accompanied by a high level of transaminases as compared to that of HBV or HCV alone. The present study confirms and extends that infection alone doesn't cause significant liver damage

  1. Liver biopsy performance and histological findings among patients with chronic viral hepatitis

    Christensen, Peer Brehm; Krarup, Henrik Bygum; Møller, Axel

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the variance of liver biopsy frequency and histological findings among patients with chronic viral hepatitis attending 10 medical centres in Denmark. Patients who tested positive for HBsAg or HCV- RNA were retrieved from a national clinical database (DANHEP) and demographic data...... had developed in 23% after 20 y of infection. Age above 40 y was a better predictor of cirrhosis than elevated ALT. National database comparison may identify factors of importance for improved management of patients with chronic viral hepatitis......., laboratory analyses and liver biopsy results were collected. A total of 1586 patients were identified of whom 69.7% had hepatitis C, 28.9% hepatitis B, and 1.5% were coinfected. In total, 771 (48.6%) had a biopsy performed (range 33.3-78.7%). According to the Metavir classification, 29.3% had septal fibrosis...

  2. Liver biopsy performance and histological findings among patients with chronic viral hepatitis: a Danish database study

    Christensen, Peer Brehm; Krarup, Henrik Bygum; Møller, Axel

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the variance of liver biopsy frequency and histological findings among patients with chronic viral hepatitis attending 10 medical centres in Denmark. Patients who tested positive for HBsAg or HCV- RNA were retrieved from a national clinical database (DANHEP) and demographic data...... had developed in 23% after 20 y of infection. Age above 40 y was a better predictor of cirrhosis than elevated ALT. National database comparison may identify factors of importance for improved management of patients with chronic viral hepatitis. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-null......, laboratory analyses and liver biopsy results were collected. A total of 1586 patients were identified of whom 69.7% had hepatitis C, 28.9% hepatitis B, and 1.5% were coinfected. In total, 771 (48.6%) had a biopsy performed (range 33.3-78.7%). According to the Metavir classification, 29.3% had septal fibrosis...

  3. Detection of serum leptin levels in patients with viral hepatitis C

    Sun Shuhong; Yu Hua; Niu Airong; Wu Yuqing

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate changes of serum leptin levels in patients with viral hepatitis C(HCV), serum leptin levels were determined by RIA in 65 patients with viral chronic hepatitis C and in 80 control subjects ,liver function (ALT, AST) , glucose (Glu) , and total cholesterol (TC) were evaluated too. Campared with controls, the levels of serum leptin were significantly increased in patients with HCV (P 0.05). The levels of serum leptin increased in patients with HCV, which correlates positively with the severity of liver inflammation, so that leptin can be regarded as an index which reflects the severity of liver inflammation. (authors)

  4. Inorganic Nanoparticle as a Carrier for Hepatitis B Viral Capsids

    Dekhtyar, Yu.; Romanova, M.; Kachanovska, A.; Skrastiņa, D.; Reinhofa, R.; Pumpens, P.; Patmalnieks, A.

    Virus like particles (VLP) are used to transport immune response-modulating agents to target cells to treat them. In order to deliver a high concentration of VLP to the cell, a number of VLP can be attached to a nanoparticle to be used as a nanolorry. In this study, SiO2 nanoparticles were attached to Hepatitis B VLP. Spectrophotometry measurements, electron, and fluorescent microscopy evidence showed that the SiO2 - Hepatitis B VLP complexes were formed.

  5. A spot check on the prevalence of viral hepatitis B on the plateau ...

    Hepatitis B is a disease which is present globally and over 2 billion people have been infected with hepatitis b according to the World Health Organization. In Nigeria hepatitis B, chronic infection: which is defined as persistence of infection in a human being greater than six months is present in an endemic proportion.

  6. a spot check on the prevalence of viral hepatitis b on the plateau

    FOBUR

    Hepatitis B is a disease which is present globally and over 2 billion people have been infected with hepatitis b according to the World Health Organization. In Nigeria hepatitis B, chronic infection: which is defined as persistence of infection in a human being greater than six months is present in an endemic proportion. In fact.

  7. Vaccine, Transmission and Treatment: An Exploratory Study of Viral Hepatitis Knowledge among Attendees of a Metropolitan Australian University

    Hopwood, Max; Brener, Loren; Wilson, Hannah

    2012-01-01

    Aim: A cross-sectional study was conducted to explore knowledge of viral hepatitis among attendees of an Australian metropolitan university. Method: A short survey enquiring into viral hepatitis A, B and C (HAV, HBV and HCV, respectively) was administered to a convenience sample of people at a campus in Sydney, Australia during September 2011.…

  8. Diffuse and vascular hepatic diseases

    Kreimeyer, S.; Grenacher, L.

    2011-01-01

    In addition to focal liver lesions, diffuse and vascular disorders of the liver represent a wide spectrum of liver diseases which are from the radiological point of view often difficult or nearly impossible to diagnose. Classical diagnostic methods are computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in addition to ultrasound. Diffuse parenchymal damage caused by diseases of various etiologies is therefore difficult to evaluate because it often lacks characteristic morphological features. For hepatic steatosis, hemochromatosis/siderosis as an example of a diffuse storage disease and sarcoidosis and candidiasis as infectious/inflammatory diseases, an image-based diagnosis is appropriate in some cases. For most diffuse liver diseases, however only nonspecific changes are visualized. Vascular pathologies of the liver, such as the Budd-Chiari syndrome and portal vein thrombosis, however, can usually be diagnosed very clearly using radiology and there is also a very effective interventional radiological treatment. Chronic diseases very often culminate in liver cirrhosis which is highly associated with an increased risk of liver cancer. (orig.) [de

  9. Hepatic transcriptome analysis of hepatitis C virus infection in chimpanzees defines unique gene expression patterns associated with viral clearance.

    Santosh Nanda

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus infection leads to a high rate of chronicity. Mechanisms of viral clearance and persistence are still poorly understood. In this study, hepatic gene expression analysis was performed to identify any molecular signature associated with the outcome of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection in chimpanzees. Acutely HCV-infected chimpanzees with self-limited infection or progression to chronicity were studied. Interferon stimulated genes were induced irrespective of the outcome of infection. Early induction of a set of genes associated with cell proliferation and immune activation was associated with subsequent viral clearance. Specifically, two of the genes: interleukin binding factor 3 (ILF3 and cytotoxic granule-associated RNA binding protein (TIA1, associated with robust T-cell response, were highly induced early in chimpanzees with self-limited infection. Up-regulation of genes associated with CD8+ T cell response was evident only during the clearance phase of the acute self-limited infection. The induction of these genes may represent an initial response of cellular injury and proliferation that successfully translates to a "danger signal" leading to induction of adaptive immunity to control viral infection. This primary difference in hepatic gene expression between self-limited and chronic infections supports the concept that successful activation of HCV-specific T-cell response is critical in clearance of acute HCV infection.

  10. An investigation of an outbreak of viral hepatitis B in Modasa town, Gujarat, India

    Disha A Patel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Most outbreaks of viral hepatitis in India are caused by hepatitis E. Recently in the year 2009, Modasa town of Sabarkantha district in Gujarat witnessed the outbreak of hepatitis B. Purpose: An attempt was made to study the outbreak clinically and serologically, to estimate the seropositivity of hepatitis B Virus among the cases and their contacts and to know the seroprevalence of hepatitis B envelope antigen (HBeAg and IgM antibody against hepatitis B core antigen (IgM HBcAb out of all the Hepatitis B surface Antigen (HBsAg positive ones. Materials and Methods: Eight hundred and fifty-six (856 cases and 1145 contacts were evaluated for hepatitis B markers namely HBsAg, HBeAg and IgM HBcAb by enzyme-linked immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA test. Results: This outbreak of viral hepatitis B in Modasa, Gujarat was most likely due to unsafe injection practices. Evidence in support of this was collected by Government authorities. Most of the patients and approximately 40% of the surveyed population gave history of injections in last 1.5-6 months. Total 664/856 (77.57% cases and 20/1145 (1.75% contacts were found to be positive for HBsAg. 53.41% of the positive cases and 52.93% of the positive contacts were HBeAg-positive and thus in a highly infectious stage. Conclusions: Inadequately sterilized needles and syringes are an important cause of transmission of hepatitis B in India. Our data reflects the high positivity rate of a hepatitis B outbreak due to such unethical practices. There is a need to strengthen the routine surveillance system, and to organise a health education campaign targeting all health care workers including private practitioners, especially those working in rural areas, as well as the public at large, to take all possible measures to prevent this often fatal infection.

  11. PREVALENCE OF HEPATITIS B AND C VIRAL MARKERS AMONG THE TRIBAL POPULATION OF NILGIRIS, TAMIL NADU

    Krishnasamy Narayanasamy, Senthilkumar Ramalingam, Sathishkumar Elumalai, Jaya Lakshmi, Ramachandar S, Rameshkumar Manickam

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus and C viruses (HBV and HCV, respectively infects the liver which results in a wide range of disease outcomes. Worldwide, over 7% (350 million and 3% (170 million people are chronically infected with HBV and HCV, respectively.[1] HBV is transmitted through exposure to infective blood, semen, and other body fluids or through infected mothers to infants at the time of birth. Transmission may also occur through transfusions of HBV-contaminated blood and blood products, contaminated injections during medical procedures, and through transfusions of HCV-contaminated blood and blood products, contaminated injections during medical procedures, and through injection drug use. Sexual transmission is also possible.[2] Individuals with chronic hepatitis B and/or C virus infection remain infectious to others and are at risk of serious liver disease such as liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular cancer (HCC. [3,4] Study reports revealed that HBV and/or HCV infections are the major causes of morbidity and mortality in HIV positive population related to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.[5,6] Though studies on the prevalence of HBV (rarely on HCV among tribal population in India were available[7,8], there is no recent reports from southern part of India. Hence, the present study was conducted to assess the prevalence of HBV and HCV among tribal population in Kotagiri, Nilgiris. After obtaining the informed consent, blood samples (5 ml each from a total of 196 participants (103 males and 93 females were collected and sera were separated on site. Samples which showed positive for HBsAg and anti-HCV by rapid test were confirmed by ELISA technique using commercial kits Reliable Pro-detect Biomedical Ltd, India and Erba Lisa, Germany, respectively. Of the 196 individuals screened, none of them was positive for the viral markers. Several studies from India reported varying range of HBsAg and anti-HCV positivity among general and tribal

  12. Flow cytometry of fine-needle-aspiration biopsies: a new method to monitor the intrahepatic immunological environment in chronic viral hepatitis

    Sprengers, D.; van der Molen, R. G.; Kusters, J. G.; Kwekkeboom, J.; van der Laan, L. J. W.; Niesters, H. G. M.; Kuipers, E. J.; de Man, R. A.; Schalm, S. W.; Janssen, H. L. A.

    2005-01-01

    SUMMARY: Information about the character and grade of the intrahepatic immune response in viral hepatitis is important for the evaluation of disease stage and effect of therapy. Complications like haemorrhage limit the frequent performance of tissue-needle biopsies (TB), and the cells of peripheral

  13. Epidemiology and pathogenesis of fulminant viral hepatitis in pregnant women: a review.

    Tosone, Grazia; Simeone, Davide; Spera, Anna M; Viceconte, Giulio; Bianco, Vincenzo; Orlando, Raffaele

    2017-10-09

    The pregnancy-associated immunological and hormonal changes may alter the immune response to infectious agents, including hepatitis viruses. Therefore, this phenomenon may affect the clinical course and the outcome of acute viral hepatitis in pregnant women. For this reason, we have focused on epidemiological and pathogenetic aspects of the fulminant liver failure caused by acute viral hepatitis reviewing PubMED in April of 2017. Although all the viruses might cause a fulminant AVH in a pregnant woman, the large majority of fulminant failure reported in the literature had been related to Hepatits E Virus mainly and had been concentrated in Indian subcontinent and some African areas, whereas the problem seems to be very low or absent in the remaining geographical areas. However, the rate of maternal mortality due to fulminant E hepatitis may vary inside the endemic areas of India and Africa, likely due to the circulation of HEV genotypes with different degree of virulence. The other hepatitis viruses have not been reported to cause a greater risk for fulminant hepatitis in pregnant women respect to non pregnant ones, except Herpes Simplex Virus, that has been associated to some cases of fatal hepatitis in absence of a prompt antiviral therapy.

  14. Laparoscopic Management of Hepatic Hydatid Disease

    Palanivelu, C; Jani, Kalpesh; Malladi, Vijaykumar; Senthilkumar, R.; Rajan, P. S.; Sendhilkumar, K.; Parthasarthi, R.; Kavalakat, Alfie

    2006-01-01

    Background: Hydatid disease is an endemic condition in several parts of the world. Owing to ease of travel, even surgeons in nonendemic areas encounter the disease and should be aware of its optimum treatment. A safe, new method of laparoscopic management of hepatic hydatid disease is described along with a review of the relevant literature. Methods: Sixty-six cases of hepatic hydatid disease were operated on laparoscopically using the Palanivelu Hydatid System. The special trocar-cannula sys...

  15. Towards the elimination of chronic viral hepatitis in Europe : prevalence, risk groups and screening strategies

    A. Falla (Abby)

    2018-01-01

    markdownabstractThis thesis aims to contribute strategic information towards the elimination of chronic viral hepatitis in the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA). Many EU/EEA countries have successfully controlled the transmission of HBV/HCV and the incidence of new infections is

  16. Web-based Distributed Medical Information System for Chronic Viral Hepatitis

    Yang, Ying; Qin, Tuan-fa; Jiang, Jian-ning; Lu, Hui; Ma, Zong-e.; Meng, Hong-chang

    2008-11-01

    To make a long-term dynamic monitoring to the chronically ill, especially patients of HBV A, we build a distributed Medical Information System for Chronic Viral Hepatitis (MISCHV). The Web-based system architecture and its function are described, and the extensive application and important role are also presented.

  17. Detection of viral hepatitis B markers by radioimmunoassay in medical personnel

    Marievskij, V.F.; Lejbenzon, A.S.

    1990-01-01

    Results of revealing B markers of viral hepatitis (VHB) in medical personnel in the city of Zaporozhe by radioimmunoassay method are presented. By the frequency of revealing two markers (HB s Ag and anti-HB s ) risk groups are indicated depending on the profession, age (length of service) of medical personnel

  18. Use of N-Acetylcysteine in Children with Fulminant Hepatic Failure Caused by Acute Viral Hepatitis

    Saleem, A. F.; Abbas, Q.; Haque, A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in children aged > 1 month to 16 years admitted with Fulminant Hepatic Failure (FHF) secondary to Acute Viral Hepatitis (AVH) in a tertiary care center of a developing country. Study Design: Analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Paediatrics, The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan, from January 2007 to December 2011. Methodology: Medical records of children (> 1 month - 16 years) with FHF admitted with AVH of known etiology who received NAC were reviewed retrospectively. Liver function tests (mean ± SD) at baseline, 24 hours after NAC and before or at the time of discharge/death were recorded and compared via using repeated measures ANOVA(r-ANOVA). Efficacy of NAC is defined in improvement in biochemical markers, liver function test and discharge disposition (survived or died). Mortality associated risk factors were identified by using logistic regression analysis. P-value and 95 percentage confidence interval were recorded. Results: Forty children (mean age was 80 ± 40 months) with FHF secondary to AVH received NAC. Majority were males (n=25; 63 percentage). Vomiting (75 percentage) and jaundice (65 percentage) were the main presenting symptoms, one-third had hypoglycemic, while 40 percentage had altered sensorium at the time of admission. There was significant statistical difference in liver enzymes and prothrombin time on admission comparing at discharge in children received NAC (p < 0.001). Fifteen (38 percentage) children died. Severe vomiting (Odds Ratio (OR) 0.22, 95 percentage Confidence Interval (CI) 0.05 - 0.8), jaundice (OR 9.3, CI 1.1 - 82.6), inotropic support (OR 20.6, CI 3.5 - 118.3) and mechanical ventilation (OR 4.3, CI 1.1 - 16.6) at the time of admission are associated with risk factors for mortality in children with FHF secondary to AVH. Conclusion: NAC used in children with FHF secondary to AVH is associated with markedly improved liver function

  19. Liver transplantation for viral hepatitis - which patients will benefit?

    detection methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques ... maintainance of a safe blood supply and the likelihood that ... donors in relation to the risk of non-A non-B hepatitis in recipients: The ... Thus identification of subsets of.

  20. Hepatocellular Carcinoma after Sustained Viral Response to Interferon and Ribavirin Therapy in Cirrhosis Secondary to Chronic Hepatitis C

    Khokhar, N.; Qureshi, M.U.; Niazi, T.K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of development of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with chronic liver disease secondary to hepatitis C who had achieved sustained virological response with Interferon and Ribavirin therapy. Study Design: Retrospective descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan, from January 2007 to January 2012. Methodology: Hepatitis C related chronic liver disease patients who were treated with interferon and ribavirin, after they achieved sustained virological response, they were followed for a mean of 42 A+- 17 months. During this time, development of hepatocellular carcinoma was ascertained. All underwent surveillance with alpha-feto-protein and ultrasonography every 6 months. Results: Out of the 58 patients who had achieved sustained virological response, 3 developed hepatocellular carcinoma after a mean follow-up of 38 A+- 14 months. It was multifocal in 2 cases and was single lesion in the 3rd. Two patients ultimately died, one with upper GI bleeding and the other with hepatic encephalopathy, while 3rd patient with single lesion is still surviving. Conclusion: Three out of 58 patients of hepatitis C related chronic liver disease developed hepatocellular carcinoma during follow-up in patients who had achieved sustained virological response. These patients need closer follow-up, for development of complications, even if they have achieved sustained viral response. (author)

  1. Emerging viral diseases of fish and shrimp

    Winton, James R.; Walker, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    The rise of aquaculture has been one of the most profound changes in global food production of the past 100 years. Driven by population growth, rising demand for seafood and a levelling of production from capture fisheries, the practice of farming aquatic animals has expanded rapidly to become a major global industry. Aquaculture is now integral to the economies of many countries. It has provided employment and been a major driver of socio-economic development in poor rural and coastal communities, particularly in Asia, and has relieved pressure on the sustainability of the natural harvest from our rivers, lakes and oceans. However, the rapid growth of aquaculture has also been the source of anthropogenic change on a massive scale. Aquatic animals have been displaced from their natural environment, cultured in high density, exposed to environmental stress, provided artificial or unnatural feeds, and a prolific global trade has developed in both live aquatic animals and their products. At the same time, over-exploitation of fisheries and anthropogenic stress on aquatic ecosystems has placed pressure on wild fish populations. Not surprisingly, the consequence has been the emergence and spread of an increasing array of new diseases. This review examines the rise and characteristics of aquaculture, the major viral pathogens of fish and shrimp and their impacts, and the particular characteristics of disease emergence in an aquatic, rather than terrestrial, context. It also considers the potential for future disease emergence in aquatic animals as aquaculture continues to expand and faces the challenges presented by climate change.

  2. The Role of Ursodeoxycholic Acid in Acute Viral Hepatitis: an Evidence-based Case Report

    Indra Wijaya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to review the role of ursodeoxycholic acid in acute viral hepatitis. Methods: following literature searching according to the clinical question on Pubmed and Cochrane Library. After filtered with our inclusion and exclusion criteria, one meta-analysis and two randomized clinical trials are obtained. Through critical appraisal, it was concluded that the articles meet the criteria for validity and relevance. Results: the article found that there is a positive effect of ursodeoxycholic acid on the activity of serum transaminases and cholestasis indexes. However, there is insufficient evidence to support or to refute effects of  ursodeoxycholic acid on disease’s course as well as the viral load. Conclusion: better method of clinical trials are needed to obtain a valid and applicable result for daily practice. Key words: ursodeoxycholic acid, acute viral hepatitis

  3. Bridging basic science and clinical research: the EASL Monothematic Conference on Translational Research in Viral Hepatitis.

    Boettler, Tobias; Moradpour, Darius; Thimme, Robert; Zoulim, Fabien

    2014-09-01

    The EASL Monothematic Conference on Translational Research in Viral Hepatitis brought together a group of leading scientists and clinicians working on both, basic and clinical aspects of viral hepatitis, thereby building bridges from bench to bedside. This report recapitulates the presentations and discussions at the conference held in Lyon, France on November 29-30, 2013. In recent years, great advances have been made in the field of viral hepatitis, particularly in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The identification of IL28B genetic polymorphisms as a major determinant for spontaneous and treatment-induced HCV clearance was a seminal discovery. Currently, hepatologists are at the doorstep of even greater advances, with the advent of a wealth of directly acting antivirals (DAAs) against HCV. Indeed, promising results have accumulated over the last months and few years, showing sustained virological response (SVR) rates of up to 100% with interferon-free DAA combination therapies. Thus, less than 25 years after its identification, HCV infection may soon be curable in the vast majority of patients, highlighting the great success of HCV research over the last decades. However, viral hepatitis and its clinical complications such as liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain major global challenges. New therapeutic strategies to tackle hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection are needed, as current therapies have undeniable limitations. Nucleoside/nucleotide analogues (NUC) can efficiently control HBV replication and reduce or even reverse liver damage. However, these drugs have to be given for indefinite periods in most patients to maintain virological and biochemical responses. Although sustained responses off treatment can be achieved by treatment with (pegylated) interferon-α, only about 10-30% of patients effectively resolve chronic hepatitis B. It was the goal of this conference to review the progress made over the last

  4. An unusual association of pleural effusion with acute viral hepatitis A infection

    Dhakal AK

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ajaya Kumar Dhakal, Arati Shakya, Devendra Shrestha, Subhash Chandra Shah, Henish Shakya Department of Pediatrics, KIST Medical College Teaching Hospital, Imadol, Lalitpur, Nepal Abstract: Hepatitis A virus infection is a common public health problem in developing countries primarily due to poor hygiene and sanitation. The clinical features of hepatitis A virus are mostly related to the derangement of liver function with occasional extrahepatic complications. Herein, a 2.5-year-old girl presented with abdominal pain and decreased appetite for 4 days, high-colored urine for 3 days, and yellowish discoloration of the eyes for 2 days. On presentation, there was icterus along with hepatomegaly and diminished breath sounds on the right side were noted 1 day after admission. Chest X-ray revealed right sided pleural effusion; however, ultrasonography of chest and abdomen displayed bilateral pleural effusion (right more than left and minimal ascites with thickened gall bladder wall. Immunoglobulin M anti-hepatitis-A virus serology was positive. The pleural effusion in this child resolved spontaneously in 10 days. We report this case to highlight that hepatitis A infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pleural effusion in a patient with features of acute hepatitis. However, other common causes of pleural effusion such as tuberculosis and parapneumonic effusions that may coexist with hepatitis, especially in developing world, need to be excluded. Keywords: hepatitis A, pleural effusion, viral hepatitis

  5. Alcohol and Hepatitis

    ... Home » Living with Hepatitis » Daily Living: Alcohol Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... heavy drinking, most heavy drinkers have developed cirrhosis. Hepatitis C and cirrhosis In general, someone with hepatitis ...

  6. Hepatitis C: Treatment

    ... Public Home » Hepatitis C » Hepatitis C Treatment Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Hepatitis C Treatment for Veterans and the Public Treatment ...

  7. Changes in hepatic perfusion index determined by Tc-99m pertechnetate first pass scintigraphy in acute viral hepatitis

    Ali, M.K.

    1993-01-01

    Computerized sequential radionuclide angiography was used to analyze the first pass kinetics of peripherally injected bolus of Tc-99m-pertechnetate. The relative arterial/total hepatic blood flow, the Hepatic Perfusion Index (HPI%), was determined in normal subjects while 20 cases of Acute Viral Hepatitis (AVH) were studied serially. In addition, biochemical blood analysis as also carried out. The mean value of HPI in first study of all patients was 61.23% in comparison to 31.12% of control group. The patients were divided into three groups, based upon the duration elapsed between the onset of symptoms and the first study. HPI was found significantly high in first study of each group as compared to controls. In first group there was no significant correlation of mean HPI with other biochemical parameters. In second and third groups, significant correlation were observed between the mean HPI and serum bilirubin, serum alanine trans-aminase with mean HPI in the third group. The serum proteins correlated negatively with HPI in second group. This technique offers a simple, rapid, non-invasive and quantitative method to determine a new index which mostly behaves like other biochemical parameter and can be used to follow the course of acute viral hepatitis. (author)

  8. Viral hepatitis and HIV-associated tuberculosis: Risk factors and TB treatment outcomes in Thailand

    Likanonsakul Sirirat

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The occurrence of tuberculosis (TB, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, and viral hepatitis infections in the same patient poses unique clinical and public health challenges, because medications to treat TB and HIV are hepatotoxic. We conducted an observational study to evaluate risk factors for HBsAg and/or anti-HCV reactivity and to assess differences in adverse events and TB treatment outcomes among HIV-infected TB patients. Methods Patients were evaluated at the beginning, during, and at the end of TB treatment. Blood samples were tested for aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, total bilirubin (BR, complete blood count, and CD4+ T lymphocyte cell count. TB treatment outcomes were assessed at the end of TB treatment according to international guidelines. Results Of 769 enrolled patients, 752 (98% had serologic testing performed for viral hepatitis: 70 (9% were reactive for HBsAg, 237 (31% for anti-HCV, and 472 (63% non-reactive for both markers. At the beginning of TB treatment, 18 (26% patients with HBsAg reactivity had elevated liver function tests compared with 69 (15% patients non-reactive to any viral marker (p = 0.02. At the end of TB treatment, 493 (64% were successfully treated. Factors independently associated with HBsAg reactivity included being a man who had sex with men (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1–4.3 and having low TB knowledge (AOR, 1.8; CI, 1.0–3.0. Factors most strongly associated with anti-HCV reactivity were having injection drug use history (AOR, 12.8; CI, 7.0–23.2 and living in Bangkok (AOR, 15.8; CI, 9.4–26.5. The rate of clinical hepatitis and death during TB treatment was similar in patients HBsAg reactive, anti-HCV reactive, both HBsAg and anti-HCV reactive, and non-reactive to any viral marker. Conclusion Among HIV-infected TB patients living in Thailand, markers of viral hepatitis infection, particularly hepatitis C virus

  9. Phytotherapy of Acute Respiratory Viral Diseases

    I.B. Ershova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays phytotherapy is increasingly being implemented into medical practice, especially for the prevention and treatment of many diseases. Acute respiratory viral infections are most common in childhood and in adults. Acute rhinitis, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, sinusitis, nasopharyngitis and acute laryngitis refer to diseases of the upper respiratory tract. The main reason for respiratory diseases in recurrent respiratory infection child is disorders of mucociliary and immune protection. The therapeutic value of medicinal plants is determined by their biologically active substances. The method of application of phytotherpy is an integral part of traditional medicine. Herbal medicine can be used at home and does not require special equipment. The main indications for the herbal medicine use in pediatrics are the initial stage of the disease as a primary method of treatment due to mild and low toxicity; as a supporting treatment for enhancing the protective forces of the child’s body during the disease deterioration. During the recovery period herbal medicine again occupies a leading position, especially in case of chronic diseases because it can be used for a long time and is well combined with synthetic drugs. The terms of appointment of herbs for children: prescription of medicinal plants for children must be individual according to indications, taking into account the child’s age; it is recommended to take into account the form and nature of the course of the main disease and comorbidities as well; at the initial stage of the treatment it is better to use some medicinal plants or species consisting of 2–3 plants and in the future a more complex composition; therapy with medicinal plants requires a long period to be used use, especially in chronic diseases; in the treatment of chronic diseases a good effect preventive courses of herbal medicine was revealed, which are appointed during seasonal exacerbations; in case of intolerance

  10. Distribution, incidence and severity of viral diseases of yam ...

    A survey was conducted in major yam cultivation zones in Côte d'Ivoire in 2009 to determine the incidence, severity of viral diseases, and viruses associated with the infected plants. Incidence and severity of the viral diseases were estimated based on symptoms. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and ...

  11. Features of Intestinal Microbiocenosis in Viral Hepatitis and Possibilities of Its Correction

    I.B. Yershova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the correction of intestinal microbiocenosis in patients with viral hepatitis. There is presented a study on the state of the intestinal microflora in children who had hepatitis A virus (HAV, patients with chronic viral hepatitis B or C (HBV, HCV. Materials and Methods. The study involved 39 children: 12 persons who had HAV, 19 persons with chronic HCV, 8 persons with chronic HBV infection. All the children were randomized into two groups. The first group included 18 children who, along with basic therapy, received probiotic agent Subalin, the second group — 21 people who received only basic therapy. Results and Discussion. Inclusion in the complex treatment of probiotic agent Subalin allowed to stop such clinical symptoms as asthenovegetative syndrome, chronic intoxication syndrome, to reduce dyspeptic syndrome and hepatomegaly, as well as to restore intestinal microflora and to eliminate pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms. We noted high tolerability of Subalin and no side effects. Conclusions. Application of Subalin in the complex therapy of children with viral hepatitis eliminates intoxication syndrome and contributes to the rapid regression of clinical symptoms, the recovery of the intestinal microflora, normalizes the immune status.

  12. CHOLECYSTITIS AS A CAUSE OF ABDOMINAL PAIN IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE VIRAL HEPATITIS A AND B

    Miodrag Radunović

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute cholecystitis is an inflammation of the gallbladder wall, usually caused by gallstones in the cystic duct, which causes attacks of severe pain. At least 95% of the population with acute inflammation of the gallbladder have gallstones. Acute viral hepatitis is the liver inflammation accompanied by nausea, faintness, vomiting, pain below the right rib arch, jaundice. The presence of acute cholecystitis intensifies the existing symptoms. The aim of the paper was to show the incidence of the gallbladder inflammation in patients with acute hepatitis A or B. This retrospective-prospective study involved 110 patients treated for viral hepatitis A or B and had severe abdominal pain during hospitalization. The selected sample involved more male examinees - 63 (62% compared to female ones - 47 (38%. The most frequent age of examinees was 30-50 years, 82 (83%, and cholecystitis during hepatitis was also most common in the age group 30-50 years, 28 (73% patients. Cholecystitis was more common in patients with acute hepatitis B - 21 (55% examinees than in patients with acute hepatitis A - 17 (45% examinees. Ultrasound examination, performed in 24 (63% examinees showed gallstones in inflamed gallbladder, while 14 (37% examinees had the inflammation of the gallbladder without gallstones. The most common cause of severe abdominal pain in patients with acute liver infection caused by HAV and HBV infection was the gallbladder, 38 (34.5% patients. Cholecystitis was more common in patients with acute hepatitis B, 21 (55% examinees, than in those with an acute hepatitis A, 17 (45% examinees.

  13. Viral hepatitis B and C. Cure or treatment?

    Dimitrios A. Kountouras

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available HBV and HCV infections are among the most important global health problems; both represent also the leading cause of cirrhosis and HCC worldwide. HBV treatment cannot be considered cure but effective viral suppression can be achieved and remains the current principal goal of therapy. Talking about HCV treatment today equals to talking about total cure of the patient, with treatments of very high SVR rates, shorter if not shortest duration, minimal risk for resistance, pangenotypic and practically with no serious adverse events, no fibrosis or previous treatment status limitations, but also with a very high cost.

  14. White spot viral disease in penaeid shrimp-a review

    Sangamaheswaran, A.P.; Jeyaseelan, M.J.P.

    2001-01-01

    The white spot viral disease in penaeid shrimp affects the development of the global shrimp industry. This paper reviews the viruses that cause the disease, the transmission of the virus, diagnosis and preventive measures.

  15. /sup 131/I-Bromsulphalein in the evaluation of hepatic function during reconvalescence after viral hepatitis

    Chernysheva, N N; Pal' tseva, T F; Nonikova, T B; Aleshkovich, T V; Kuandykova, S Zh; Rumyantseva, L A; Kal' nitskaya, E F [Tsentral' nyj Inst. Usovershenstvovaniya Vrachej, Moscow (USSR)

    1982-10-01

    The combined use of biochemical and radionuclide tests (the clearance of /sup 131/I-bromsulphalein) made it possible to reveal significant differences in 53 patients in the time of complete reparation of hepatic function and the period of reconvalescence after hepatitis A and B. The period of reconvalescence in patients with hepatitis B was more prolonged. Dynamic observation and appropriate treatment is recommended for these patients.

  16. Detection and characterization of the hepatitis C virus

    L-J. van Doorn (Leendert-Jan)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe term hepatitis literally means 'inflammation of the liver', Hepatitis can be caused by toxic substances. metabolic disorders or viral infections. Most clinical hepatitis cases have a viral etiology. Viral hepatitis appears to be an ancient disease (Deinhardt, 1991) and has

  17. Clinical Factors and Viral Load Influencing Severity of Acute Hepatitis A.

    Lee, Hyun Woong; Chang, Dong-Yeop; Moon, Hong Ju; Chang, Hye Young; Shin, Eui-Cheol; Lee, June Sung; Kim, Kyung-Ah; Kim, Hyung Joon

    2015-01-01

    Clinical manifestations of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection vary from mild to fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) in adults. We investigated the relationship between laboratory findings, including viral load, and clinical outcomes in patients with acute hepatitis A (AHA) and evaluated predictive factors for severe acute hepatitis (s-AH). We analyzed the clinical manifestations of AHA in 770 patients. Patients with a prothrombin time (PT) of less than 40% of normal were classified as s-AH and included 4 patients with FHF, 11 patients with acute renal failure, and 3 patients with prolonged jaundice (n = 128). Other patients were defined as mild acute hepatitis (m-AH) (n = 642). Serum samples were obtained from 48 patients with acute hepatitis A. Among them, 20 with s-AH, and 28 with m-AH, were tested for HAV RNA titer. In a multivariate analysis, age (HR = 1.042, P = 0.041), peak creatinine (HR = 4.014, P = 0.001), bilirubin (HR = 1.153, P = 0.003), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (HR = 1.001, P hepatitis A.

  18. Histomorphological changes in hepatitis C non-responders with respect to viral genotypes

    Adnan, U.; Mirza, T.; Naz, E.; Aziz, S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the distinct histopathological changes of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) non-responders in association with viral genotypes. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at the histopathology section of the Dow Diagnostic Research and Reference Laboratory, Dow University of Health Sciences in collaboration with Sarwar Zuberi Liver Centre, Civil Hospital, Karachi from September 2009 to August 2011. Seventy-five non-responders (end-treatment-response [ETR] positive patients) from a consecutive series of viral-RNA positive CHC patients with known genotypes were selected. Their genotypes and pertinent clinical history was recorded. They were subjected to liver biopsies which were assessed for grade, stage, steatosis, stainable iron and characteristic histological lesions. Results: Majority of the patients (63, 84%) had genotype 3 while 12(16%) cases had genotype 1. The genotype 1 patients had significantly higher scores of inflammation (p<0.03) and fibrosis (p<0.04) as compared to genotype 3. Steatosis was significantly present in all genotype 3 patients in higher scores (p<0.001) compared to genotype 1. Stainable iron scores were generally low in the patients in this study, however, it was more commonly seen in genotype 3. The distribution of characteristic histological lesions was noteworthy in both the groups, irrespective of genotype. Conclusion: In this series, the predominant genotype was 3. However, genotype 1 patients were more prone to the aggressive nature of the disease with significantly higher scores of inflammation and fibrosis. Steatosis was characteristically observed in genotype 3 group. Stainable iron could not be attributed as a cause of non-response. (author)

  19. Biochemical Comparative study on viral hepatitis (B) and schistosomiasis in Egyptian patients

    Ahmed, A.M.; Fahim, F.A.; Abo-Arab, S.

    2001-01-01

    This study included 50 patients, out of which 25 patients suffering from viral hepatitis B (10 acute and 15 chronic patients), 25 schistosomiasis patients and 20 individuals as control healthy group, (5 hepatitis carriers and 15 normal healthy). Elevation in serum ALT and AST activities were noticed in all patient groups and the highest levels were recorded in acute HBV, (368.6 and 364 U/L respectively, P< 0.001). Also, serum total protein and albumin showed significant in acute, chronic and schistosomiasis by changes reached 200, 93.3 and 134.0%, respectively,

  20. Transmission of viral hepatitis by blood and blood derivatives: current risks, past heritage.

    Prati, D

    2002-11-01

    For more than 40 years in the history of transfusion medicine, transmission of viral hepatitis from infected donors to recipients has been a frequent and serious adverse effect of the administration of blood components and plasma derivatives. This epidemic is now over, at least in developed and resource-rich countries. Hence, the attention of clinicians and investigators now focuses mainly on the measures to reduce the residual risk, on the possible emergence of novel or undiscovered agents causing post-transfusion hepatitis, and on the long-term outcome of patients who became infected more than ten years ago. The present article reviews these issues.

  1. Uncommon and Neglected Venezuelan Viral Diseases: Etiologic Agents, Physiopathological, Clinical and Epidemiological Characteristics

    Juan C. Gabaldon-Figueira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract (english Viral infectious diseases are common in Venezuela, influenza, dengue, yellow fever, HIV infection, viral Hepatitis, chikungunya fever and many others represent public health problems in the country and therefore, have been well documented. However, other rarer and even unique or lethal viral illnesses present in Venezuela are usually poorly understood or even unknown. This review described Venezuelan Hemorrhagic Fever, Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis, Hantavirus Infections and Mayaro fever, named as neglected diseases, emphasizing the etiologic agents and their most relevant pathogenic mechanisms, clinical and epidemiological characteristics. Although there is not an official report about the re-emergence of these diseases, falling living standards and unsanitary conditions, together with limited accessibility to hygiene products and medical supplies, put us on alert about the re-emergence of these neglected diseases. Resumen (español Las enfermedades infecciosas virales son comunes en Venezuela, influenza, dengue, fiebre amarilla, infección por VIH, hepatitis viral, fiebre chikungunya y muchas otras representan problemas de salud pública en el país y por lo tanto, han sido bien documentadas. Sin embargo, otras enfermedades virales más raras e incluso únicas y letales presentes en Venezuela son generalmente poco estudiadas y hasta desconocidas. Esta revisión describe alguna de estas enfermedades olvidadas tales como la fiebre hemorrágica venezolana, la encefalitis equina venezolana, las infecciones por hantavirus y la fiebre de Mayaro, haciendo hincapié en los agentes etiológicos y en sus mecanismos patogénicos más relevantes, características clínicas y epidemiológicas. Aunque no hay informes oficiales sobre el resurgimiento de estas enfermedades, la caída de los niveles de vida y las condiciones insalubres, junto con el acceso limitado a los productos de higiene y suministros médicos, debe alertar sobre el

  2. Clinical relevance of precore mutations of hepatitis B virus in chronic liver disease

    Chaloska-Ivanova Viktorija

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hepatitis B is one of the most frequent etiological factors for chronic liver diseases worldwide. Recent studies have suggested the important role of the genetic diversity of the virus on natural course of hepatitis B. Hepatitis B e-antigen negative type of chronic hepatitis is associated with mutations in the precore region and basic core promoter of hepatitis B viral genome. Aim of study was to identify precore mutations in viral genome of patients with chronic hepatitis B and to evaluate clinical patterns of liver disease related to this type of hepatitis B. Methods: Sixty seven patients with hepatitis B were included in the study. In order to evaluate the clinical patterns of chronic liver disease related to hepatitis B viral infection, biochemical and virological investigations were done, as well as a quantification of serum viral load. All patients underwent liver biopsy and semiquantification of necroinflammation and/or fibrosis according to Knodell scoring was done. In the group of e antigen-negative patients, molecular analysis was performed in order to identify presence of mutations in precore region of the virus. Results: Study group was divided in 25 HBeAg-positive and 42 HBeAg-negative subjects. Al anin-aminotransferase activity and level of viral load were higher in HBeAg-positive (p < 0.05, but average age and histology activity index were significantly higher in the HBeAg-negative patients (p < 0.01. Precore mutants were found in 38 of 42 patients with HBeAg-negative hepatitis (90%. Fibrosis was found in 30/38 cases with mutations. Discussion: Mutations in precore region of HBV in HBeAg-negative patients were more prevalent in older age and were associated with higher rate of fibrosis in liver tissue, meaning more advanced stage of the disease. This could be a consequence of longer duration of HBV infection or more severe clinical course of the disease. Conclusion: Our results suggest that precore mutations are

  3. Disclosure behaviour and experienced reactions in patients with HIV versus chronic viral hepatitis or diabetes mellitus in Germany.

    Kittner, J M; Brokamp, F; Jäger, B; Wulff, W; Schwandt, B; Jasinski, J; Wedemeyer, H; Schmidt, R E; Schattenberg, J M; Galle, P R; Schuchmann, M

    2013-01-01

    Disclosure is a prerequisite to receive disease-specific social support. However, in the case of a stigmatised disease, it can also lead to discrimination. We aimed to assess disclosure rates of HIV patients and the reactions they encountered in comparison to patients with chronic viral hepatitis or diabetes mellitus and patients' general perception of disease-specific discrimination. We constructed a self-report questionnaire, anonymously assessing the size of the social environment, the persons who had been informed, and the experienced reactions as perceived by the disclosing patients, to be rated on 1-4 point Likert scales. In addition, patients were asked whether they perceive general discrimination in Germany. One hundred and seventy-one patients were asked to participate. Five rejected, thus questionnaires from 83 patients with HIV, 42 patients with chronic viral hepatitis B (n = 9) or C (n = 33), and 41 patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (type I n = 14, type II n = 27) were analysed. Whereas the size of the social environment did not differ, HIV-infected patients were least likely to disclose their disease (60.7%, SD ± 31.9) to their social environment as compared to patients with chronic viral hepatitis (84.2 ± 23.3%, pdiabetes mellitus (94.4 ± 10.3%, ppatient group, the mean disclosure rate was highest to partners (90.9%), followed by the public environment (65.2%), friends (59.4%) and family members (43.8%). HIV patients experienced supportive reactions after 79.3 ± 26.4% of disclosures, which was the case in 91.4 ± 19.6% and 75.7 ± 36.1% of patients with hepatitis or diabetes mellitus, respectively. 69.5% of HIV patients stated to perceive general discrimination in Germany. We conclude that HIV patients had experienced supportive reactions after the majority of disclosures, but the low rate points out that their information strategy had been very selective. Societal discrimination of HIV patients is still an issue and needs to be

  4. Positive serology for viral hepatitis and donor self-exclusion in Southern Brazil

    Julia De Luca Maccarini

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Despite the great advances in serological testing for transfusion-transmitted infections, the selection of blood donors by blood bank operators remains the only way to avoid transmission within the testing window period. Part of this selection is the self-exclusion form, on which the donors can exclude their blood from donation without any explanation. This study assessed the clinical and epidemiological characteristics related to positivity for viral hepatitis and to the use of the confidential self-exclusion (CSE form. Methods This transversal study analyzed the data collected from blood donors' files in a hospital in Southern Brazil. Univariate and multivariate analyses identified the clinical and epidemiological variables related to positive serologies of viral hepatitis and to whether the donor was self-excluded. Results Of the 3,180 donors included in this study, 0.1% tested positive for HBsAg, 2.1% for anti-HBc, and 0.9% for anti-HCV. When the 93 donors with positive serologies for viral hepatitis were compared with those who were negative, a greater proportion of the positive serology group was found to have had a history of blood transfusions (OR=4.908; 95%CI=1.628 - 14.799; p<0.01, had repeatedly donated (OR=2.147; 95%CI=1.236 - 3.729; p<0.01, and used the CSE form for self-exclusion (OR=7.139; 95%CI=2.045 - 24.923; p<0.01. No variables were independently associated with self-exclusion. Conclusions A history of blood transfusion, repeated donations, and self-exclusion are factors that should be considered during viral hepatitis screenings in blood banks.

  5. Ebselen Inhibits Hepatitis C Virus NS3 Helicase Binding to Nucleic Acid and Prevents Viral Replication

    Mukherjee, Sourav; Weiner, Warren S.; Schroeder, Chad E.; Simpson, Denise S.; Hanson, Alicia M.; Sweeney, Noreena L.; Marvin, Rachel K.; Ndjomou, Jean; Kolli, Rajesh; Isailovic, Dragan; Schoenen, Frank J.; Frick, David N.

    2014-01-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) is both a protease, which cleaves viral and host proteins, and a helicase that separates nucleic acid strands, using ATP hydrolysis to fuel the reaction. Many antiviral drugs, and compounds in clinical trials, target the NS3 protease, but few helicase inhibitors that function as antivirals have been reported. This study focuses on the analysis of the mechanism by which ebselen (2-phenyl-1,2-benzisoselenazol-3-one), a compound previousl...

  6. Viral hepatitis E during offshore deployment -A case report

    M Indrakanth Reddy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 20-year-old young serving sailor presented with a two day history of loss of appetite, mild grade fever and yellow discoloration of both eyes and urine, while sailing, off the home port. He had icterus and tender Grade I hepatomegaly and was provisionally diagnosed as a case of clinical jaundice. As there was no facility for investigation on board, the severity of jaundice, as well as the type of infection were not known. The patient was isolated in a separate compartment and universal precautions were taken for the nursing members. Proper handwashing, chlorination of the water tanks, boiling of drinking water for the ships' company and disinfection procedures for the sick bay were followed. The crew was educated on reporting to the sick bay whenever any signs or symptoms of jaundice appear in them. After five days, the sailor was referred to a tertiary care hospital when the ship reached the nearest port. He was found to be having high bilirubin level and his liver enzymes and PT/INR were deranged. He was positive for Hepatitis E. Prompt control measures undertaken by the Medical Officer of the ship ensured that there were no other cases of jaundice reporting from the ship.

  7. Seroprevalence occurrence of viral hepatitis and HIV among hemodialysis patients

    Kamal, Inass Mahmood; Mutar Mahdi, Batool

    2018-05-01

    Background: Patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) were on maintenance invasive haemodialysis (HD) procedure. This procedure by itself affects immunity of the patients and became more susceptible to viral infections. Aim of the study: to investigate the occurrence of HBV, HCV and HIV infections in patients with hemodialysis. Patients and methods: A retrospective study of 430 end-stage renal failure patients, referred to hemodialysis department at Al-Kindy Teaching Hospital, Baghdad-Iraq from Junuary-2015 to Junuary-2017. Patients were investigated for HBs-Ag using enzyme-labeled antigen test (Foresight-EIA-USA ), HCV- Abs (IgG) specific immunoglobulin using a HCV enzyme-labeled antigen test (Foresight-EIA-USA) and anti HIV Abs (IgG) using enzyme-labeled antigen test (Foresight-EIA-USA). Results: The frequency of HBV infection in the first year was not significant between males (1.11%) and females (0.00%)(P = 0.295). About HCV also there are no significant differences between males (12.63%) and females (9.31%)(P = 0.347). After one year of follow up the frequencies of HBV and HCV were not significant between two sexes. Additionally, no any one of the patients had HIV infection. Conclusions: This study brings a light on that HBV and HCV were having the same frequencies in both genders and lower occurrence with time. Furthermore, HIV was not detected in those patients.

  8. Seroprevalence occurrence of viral hepatitis and HIV among hemodialysis patients.

    Kamal, Inass Mahmood Abid; Mahdi, Batool Mutar

    2018-05-01

    Patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) were on maintenance invasive hemodialysis (HD) procedure. This procedure by itself affects immunity of the patients and became more susceptible to viral infections. to investigate the occurrence of HBV, HCV and HIV infections in patients with hemodialysis. A retrospective study of 430 end-stage renal failure patients, referred to hemodialysis department at XXXX Teaching Hospital, Baghdad-Iraq from January-2015 to January-2017. Patients were investigated for HBs-Ag using enzyme-labeled antigen test (Foresight-EIA-USA), HCV- Abs (IgG) specific immunoglobulin using an HCV enzyme-labeled antigen test (Foresight-EIA-USA)and anti - HIV Abs (IgG) using enzyme-labeled antigen test (Foresight-EIA-USA). The frequency of HBV infection in the first year was not significant between males (1.11%) and females (0.00%) (P = 0.295). About HCV also there are no significant differences between males (12.63%) and females (9.31%) (P = 0.347). After one year of follow up the frequencies of HBV and HCV were not significant between two sexes. Additionally, no any one of the patients had HIV infection. This study brings a light on that HBV and HCV were having the same frequencies in both genders and lower occurrence with time. Furthermore, HIV was not detected in those patients.

  9. Seroprevalence occurrence of viral hepatitis and HIV among hemodialysis patients

    Inass Mahmood Abid Kamal

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with chronic renal failure (CRF were on maintenance invasive hemodialysis (HD procedure. This procedure by itself affects immunity of the patients and became more susceptible to viral infections. Aim of the study: to investigate the occurrence of HBV, HCV and HIV infections in patients with hemodialysis. Patients and methods: A retrospective study of 430 end-stage renal failure patients, referred to hemodialysis department at XXXX Teaching Hospital, Baghdad-Iraq from January-2015 to January-2017. Patients were investigated for HBs-Ag using enzyme-labeled antigen test (Foresight-EIA-USA, HCV- Abs (IgG specific immunoglobulin using an HCV enzyme-labeled antigen test (Foresight-EIA-USAand anti - HIV Abs (IgG using enzyme-labeled antigen test (Foresight-EIA-USA. Results: The frequency of HBV infection in the first year was not significant between males (1.11% and females (0.00% (P = 0.295. About HCV also there are no significant differences between males (12.63% and females (9.31% (P = 0.347. After one year of follow up the frequencies of HBV and HCV were not significant between two sexes. Additionally, no any one of the patients had HIV infection. Conclusions: This study brings a light on that HBV and HCV were having the same frequencies in both genders and lower occurrence with time. Furthermore, HIV was not detected in those patients. Keywords: Virus, Hemodialysis, Infection

  10. HBeAg and not genotypes predicts viral load in patients with hepatitis B in Denmark: A nationwide cohort study

    Krarup, Henrik; Andersen, Stig; Madsen, Poul Henning

    2011-01-01

    To explore the influence of HBV genotype on viral load in patients with HBV infection, and to investigate the relation to gender, age and country of origin or antibodies against hepatitis Be antigen (anti-HBe).......To explore the influence of HBV genotype on viral load in patients with HBV infection, and to investigate the relation to gender, age and country of origin or antibodies against hepatitis Be antigen (anti-HBe)....

  11. HBeAg and not genotypes predicts viral load in patients with hepatitis B in Denmark: a nationwide cohort study

    Krarup, Henrik Bygum; Andersen, Stig; Madsen, Poul Henning

    2011-01-01

    To explore the influence of HBV genotype on viral load in patients with HBV infection, and to investigate the relation to gender, age and country of origin or antibodies against hepatitis Be antigen (anti-HBe).......To explore the influence of HBV genotype on viral load in patients with HBV infection, and to investigate the relation to gender, age and country of origin or antibodies against hepatitis Be antigen (anti-HBe)....

  12. Clinical Factors and Viral Load Influencing Severity of Acute Hepatitis A

    Lee, Hyun Woong; Chang, Dong-Yeop; Moon, Hong Ju; Chang, Hye Young; Shin, Eui-Cheol; Lee, June Sung; Kim, Kyung-Ah; Kim, Hyung Joon

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Clinical manifestations of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection vary from mild to fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) in adults. We investigated the relationship between laboratory findings, including viral load, and clinical outcomes in patients with acute hepatitis A (AHA) and evaluated predictive factors for severe acute hepatitis (s-AH). Methods We analyzed the clinical manifestations of AHA in 770 patients. Patients with a prothrombin time (PT) of less than 40% of normal were classified as s-AH and included 4 patients with FHF, 11 patients with acute renal failure, and 3 patients with prolonged jaundice (n = 128). Other patients were defined as mild acute hepatitis (m-AH) (n = 642). Serum samples were obtained from 48 patients with acute hepatitis A. Among them, 20 with s-AH, and 28 with m-AH, were tested for HAV RNA titer. Results In a multivariate analysis, age (HR = 1.042, P = 0.041), peak creatinine (HR = 4.014, P = 0.001), bilirubin (HR = 1.153, P = 0.003), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (HR = 1.001, Phepatitis A. PMID:26090677

  13. Host Innate Immunity against Hepatitis E Virus and Viral Evasion Mechanisms.

    Kang, Sangmin; Myoung, Jinjong

    2017-10-28

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections cause epidemic or sporadic acute hepatitis, which are mostly self-limiting. However, viral infection in immunocompromised patients and pregnant women may result in serious consequences, such as chronic hepatitis and liver damage, mortality of the latter of which reaches up to 20-30%. Type I interferon (IFN)-induced antiviral immunity is known to be the first-line defense against virus infection. Upon HEV infection in the cell, the virus genome is recognized by pathogen recognition receptors, leading to rapid activation of intracellular signaling cascades. Expression of type I IFN triggers induction of a barrage of IFN-stimulated genes, helping the cells cope with viral infection. Interestingly, some of the HEV-encoded genes seem to be involved in disrupting signaling cascades for antiviral immune responses, and thus crippling cytokine/chemokine production. Antagonistic mechanisms of type I IFN responses by HEV have only recently begun to emerge, and in this review, we summarize known HEV evasion strategies and compare them with those of other hepatitis viruses.

  14. The influence of the human genome on chronic viral hepatitis outcome A influência do genoma humano no curso das hepatites virais crônicas

    Dahir Ramos de Andrade Júnior

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms that determine viral clearance or viral persistence in chronic viral hepatitis have yet to be identified. Recent advances in molecular genetics have permitted the detection of variations in immune response, often associated with polymorphism in the human genome. Differences in host susceptibility to infectious disease and disease severity cannot be attributed solely to the virulence of microbial agents. Several recent advances concerning the influence of human genes in chronic viral hepatitis B and C are discussed in this article: a the associations between human leukocyte antigen polymorphism and viral hepatic disease susceptibility or resistance; b protective alleles influencing hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV evolution; c prejudicial alleles influencing HBV and HCV; d candidate genes associated with HBV and HCV evolution; d other genetic factors that may contribute to chronic hepatitis C evolution (genes influencing hepatic stellate cells, TGF-beta1 and TNF-alpha production, hepatic iron deposits and angiotensin II production, among others. Recent discoveries regarding genetic associations with chronic viral hepatitis may provide clues to understanding the development of end-stage complications such as cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. In the near future, analysis of the human genome will allow the elucidation of both the natural course of viral hepatitis and its response to therapy.Os mecanismos que determinam o clearance ou a persistência da infecção viral nas hepatites virais crônicas não estão ainda bem identificados. O progresso no conhecimento sobre as ferramentas genéticas moleculares tem permitido detectar variações na resposta imune, que freqüentemente são associadas com polimorfismos do genoma humano. As diferenças na susceptibilidade do hospedeiro para as doenças infecciosas e a intensidade das doenças não podem ser atribuídas apenas à virulência do agente microbiano. Neste

  15. HBsAg level and hepatitis B viral load correlation with focus on pregnancy

    Belopolskaya, Maria; Avrutin, Viktor; Firsov, Sergey; Yakovlev, Alexey

    2015-01-01

    Background Viral load measurement is necessary to estimate mother-to-child transmission risk for women with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), however, it is expensive. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between HBsAg and hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA levels, and to determine potential applications of HBsAg level monitoring for estimating viral load. Methods 85 patients with CHB (31 pregnant women, 26 non-pregnant women, 28 men) were included in the study. HBV DNA level was measured by real-time PCR, and HBsAg level by chemiluminescent immunoassay method. Dependency between viral load and HBsAg level was determined by Spearman correlation coefficient ρ. Results The correlation between HBsAg and HBV DNA levels was significant for all patients [ρ=0.3762 (P<0.0005; n=85)]. In the group of pregnant women, a low (unmeasurable) HBV DNA level led to a decrease in the Spearman coefficient ρ. In almost all cases a low level of the HBsAg corresponded to a low HBV DNA level. Only 2 patients had a low level of HBsAg and a relatively high viral load. By contrast, a high HBsAg level was observed in patients both with high and low viral load. Conclusions Correlation between HBsAg and HBV DNA levels is significant. In most cases, a low level of HBsAg indicates a low HBV DNA level, whereas a high HBsAg level does not always correspond to a high viral load. The measurement of HBV DNA level is necessary for pregnant women with a high HBsAg level. PMID:26127004

  16. Ebola Viral Hemorrhagic Disease Outbreak in West Africa- Lessons ...

    ... to contain the Ebola epidemic. Key words: Ebola, viral hemorrhagic fever, West Africa, lessons, Uganda .... the corresponding surveillance systems for detecting priority diseases. ... A major outbreak of Yellow Fe- ver was reported in five ...

  17. Autoimmune hepatitis-specific antibodies against soluble liver antigen and liver cytosol type 1 in patients with chronic viral hepatitis.

    Rigopoulou, Eirini I; Mytilinaiou, Maria; Romanidou, Ourania; Liaskos, Christos; Dalekos, George N

    2007-02-04

    Non-organ specific autoantibodies are highly prevalent in patients with chronic hepatitis C (HCV). Among them, anti-liver kidney microsomal type 1 (LKM1) antibody--the serological marker of type 2 autoimmune hepatitis (AIH-2)--is detected in up to 11% of the HCV-infected subjects. On the other hand, anti-liver cytosol type 1 antibodies (anti-LC1)--either in association with anti-LKM1, or in isolation--and anti-soluble liver antigen antibodies (anti-SLA) have been considered as useful and specific diagnostic markers for AIH. However, their specificity for AIH has been questioned by some recent studies, which have shown the detection of anti-LC1 and anti-SLA by immunoprecipitation assays in HCV patients irrespective of their anti-LKM1 status. The aim of the present study was to test the anti-LC1 and anti-SLA presence by specific enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), in a large group of Greek HCV-infected patients with or without anti-LKM1 reactivity as firstly, immunoprecipitation assays are limited to few specialized laboratories worldwide and cannot be used routinely and secondly, to assess whether application of such tests has any relevance in the context of patients with viral hepatitis since antibody detection based on such ELISAs has not been described in detail in large groups of HCV patients. One hundred and thirty eight consecutive HCV patients (120 anti-LKM1 negative and 18 anti-LKM1 positive) were investigated for the presence of anti-LC1 and anti-SLA by commercial ELISAs. A similar number (120) of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infected patients seronegative for anti-LKM1 was also tested as pathological controls. Six out of 18 (33%) anti-LKM(pos)/HCV(pos) patients tested positive for anti-LC1 compared to 1/120 (0.83%) anti-LKM(neg)/HCV(pos) patients and 0/120 (0%) of the anti-LKM1(neg)/HBV(pos) patients (p LKM1) or HBV-infected patients. We showed that anti-LC1 and anti-SLA autoantibodies are not detected by conventional assays in a large group of

  18. Hepatitis C: Clinical Trials

    ... and Public Home » Hepatitis C » Treatment Decisions Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... can I find out about participating in a hepatitis C clinical trial? Many trials are being conducted ...

  19. RECENT THEORIES OF PATHOGENESIS OF HEPATIC ENCEPHALOPATHY IN HEPATITIS C VIRAL INFECTION

    Lidija Popović Dragonjić

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic encephalopathy is potentially reversible, or progressive neuropsychiatric syndrome characterized by changes in cognitive function, behavior and personality changes, and transient neurologic symptoms and characteristic electroencephalographic patterns associated with acute and chronic liver failure. For some time, there has been controversy regarding the origin of toxins responsible for the change of mental state. It was found that the occurrence of hepatic encephalopathy is responsible for multiple organ peripheral changes (intestinal changes, abnormalities of portal-systemic circulation, liver failure, loss of muscle tissue, changes in brain intracellular communication (osmotic changes, astrocytes and axonal abnormalities in communication, changes in cerebral perfusion and ammonia, endogenous benzodiazepines, gamma amino butyric acid, derivatives of methionine and false neurotransmitters. The aforementioned metabolic factors that contribute to the development of hepatic encephalopathy are not mutually exclusive and multiple factors may be present at the same time.

  20. [Bilateral non-arteritic ischemic optic neuropathy during treatment of viral hepatitis C with pegylated interferon and Ribavirin].

    Iferkhass, S; Elasri, F; Chatioui, S; Khoyaali, A; Bargach, T; Reda, K; Oubaaz, A

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C is a serious viral infection, for which the current treatment is based on the combination of pegylated interferon (IFN) and Ribavirin(®). Ophthalmic complications observed with PEG-IFN are infrequent and of variable prognosis. They often include an ischemic retinopathy with typical cotton-wool spots, hemorrhage and retinal edema, and rarely acute non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy as illustrated by our report. We report the case of a 51-year-old man followed for chronic active hepatitis C, who presented in the fourth month of treatment with pegylated interferon and vidarabine with a sharp decline in visual acuity secondary to acute bilateral non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. The hepatitis C treatment was discontinued. His course was notable by the third week for a significant regression of papilledema with improvement in visual acuity in the right eye and no change in the left eye, remaining at counting fingers. After regressing for four years, the disease progressed to bilateral temporal optic atrophy without change in visual acuity. Pegylated interferon and Ribavirin(®) are commonly used in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C. They are the source of various ophthalmologic complications of varied severity. The pathophysiology of this ocular toxicity currently remains hypothetical. Non-arteritic ischemic optic neuropathy is still a relatively rare complication with a poor functional prognosis, often requiring discontinuation of treatment. Thus, careful ophthalmologic monitoring before and during antiviral treatment of patients with hepatitis C appears necessary. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Sequence elements correlating with circulating viral load in genotype 1b hepatitis C virus infection

    Watanabe, Hideki; Nagayama, Kazuyoshi; Enomoto, Nobuyuki; Itakura, Jun; Tanabe, Yoko; Hamano, Kosei; Izumi, Namiki; Sato, Chifumi; Watanabe, Mamoru

    2003-01-01

    The correlation between hepatitis C virus (HCV) genomic sequences and circulating HCV RNA levels was assessed to investigate the genetic elements affecting viral load. The interferon sensitivity-determining region (ISDR) sequence and the serum viral load were strongly correlated in 226 patients examined. Analysis of the entire HCV genome from six patients (three with a high and the others with a low viral load) with similar ISDR sequences identified several candidate residues associated with viral load. The amino acid (aa) sequences of these candidate residues and flanking regions in 67 additional patients revealed that only the residue at aa 962 varied significantly between the HCV patients with low and high serum loads (P 0.042). At this position, alanine was observed more frequently in the patients with a high viral load. In conclusion, our results strongly suggest that serum HCV RNA loads are inversely correlated with amino acid substitutions in the ISDR, and aa 962 was identified as a possible second determinant of serum HCV RNA load

  2. [Role of hepatitis A and E viruses in the development of autoimmune diseases].

    Iakimchuk, K S; Malinnikova, E Iu; Poleshchuk, V F; Mikhaĭlov, M I

    2011-01-01

    The mechanisms of development of autoimmune diseases may be associated with a complex of genetic, immune, hormonal, and infectious factors. Autoimmune diseases include a wide range of systemic and organ-specific diseases, including autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). It is currently assumed that the pathogenesis of AIH is due to compromised immune regulation in the presence of an exogenous triggering factor. Exogenous factors, such as viruses, may be triggers of AIH. There may be different ways of initiating an autoimmune response by viruses, which includes nonspecific T-lymphocyte activation and molecular mimicry. There is much evidence supporting the initiating role of hepatitis viruses in the development of AIH and other autoimmune diseases. The development of AIH symptoms during hepatitis A and E virus infections has been described elsewhere. The creation of animal models of viral hepatitis is required to confirm the hypothesis that the viruses trigger the development of AIH and other autoimmune manifestations.

  3. Hepatitis C: Sex and Sexuality

    ... with Hepatitis » Sex and Sexuality: Entire Lesson Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... hepatitis C virus through sex. Can you pass hepatitis C to a sex partner? Yes, but it ...

  4. Hepatitis C: Diet and Nutrition

    ... with Hepatitis » Daily Living: Diet and Nutrition Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... have high cholesterol and have fatty liver. How hepatitis C affects diet If you have hepatitis, you ...

  5. Liver shear-wave velocity and serum fibrosis markers to diagnose hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic viral hepatitis B

    Liu, Jian Xue; Ji, Yong Hao; Zhao Junzhi; Zhang, Yao Ren; Dun, Guo Liang; Ning, Bo [Dept. of Ultrasonography, Baoji Central Hospital, Baoji (China); Ai, Hong [Dept. of Ultrasonography, The First Affiliated Hospital of Medical College, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China)

    2016-06-15

    To compare several noninvasive indices of fibrosis in chronic viral hepatitis B, including liver shear-wave velocity (SWV), hyaluronic acid (HA), collagen type IV (CIV), procollagen type III (PCIII), and laminin (LN). Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) was performed in 157 patients with chronic viral hepatitis B and in 30 healthy volunteers to measure hepatic SWV (m/s) in a prospective study. Serum markers were acquired on the morning of the same day of the ARFI evaluation. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to evaluate and compare the accuracies of SWV and serum markers using METAVIR scoring from liver biopsy as a reference standard. The most accurate test for diagnosing fibrosis F ≥ 1 was SWV with the area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.913, followed by LN (0.744), HA (0.701), CIV (0.690), and PCIII (0.524). The best test for diagnosing F ≥ 2 was SWV (AUC of 0.851), followed by CIV (0.671), HA (0.668), LN (0.562), and PCIII (0.550). The best test for diagnosing F ≥ 3 was SWV (0.854), followed by CIV (0.693), HA (0.675), PCIII (0.591), and LN (0.548). The best test for diagnosing F = 4 was SWV (0.965), followed by CIV (0.804), PCIII (0.752), HA (0.744), and LN (0.662). SWV combined with HA and CIV did not improve diagnostic accuracy (AUC = 0.931 for F ≥ 1, 0.863 for F ≥ 2, 0.855 for F ≥ 3, 0.960 for F = 4). The performance of SWV in diagnosing liver fibrosis is superior to that of serum markers. However, the combination of SWV, HA, and CIV does not increase the accuracy of diagnosing liver fibrosis and cirrhosis.

  6. Liver shear-wave velocity and serum fibrosis markers to diagnose hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic viral hepatitis B

    Liu, Jian Xue; Ji, Yong Hao; Zhao Junzhi; Zhang, Yao Ren; Dun, Guo Liang; Ning, Bo; Ai, Hong

    2016-01-01

    To compare several noninvasive indices of fibrosis in chronic viral hepatitis B, including liver shear-wave velocity (SWV), hyaluronic acid (HA), collagen type IV (CIV), procollagen type III (PCIII), and laminin (LN). Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) was performed in 157 patients with chronic viral hepatitis B and in 30 healthy volunteers to measure hepatic SWV (m/s) in a prospective study. Serum markers were acquired on the morning of the same day of the ARFI evaluation. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to evaluate and compare the accuracies of SWV and serum markers using METAVIR scoring from liver biopsy as a reference standard. The most accurate test for diagnosing fibrosis F ≥ 1 was SWV with the area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.913, followed by LN (0.744), HA (0.701), CIV (0.690), and PCIII (0.524). The best test for diagnosing F ≥ 2 was SWV (AUC of 0.851), followed by CIV (0.671), HA (0.668), LN (0.562), and PCIII (0.550). The best test for diagnosing F ≥ 3 was SWV (0.854), followed by CIV (0.693), HA (0.675), PCIII (0.591), and LN (0.548). The best test for diagnosing F = 4 was SWV (0.965), followed by CIV (0.804), PCIII (0.752), HA (0.744), and LN (0.662). SWV combined with HA and CIV did not improve diagnostic accuracy (AUC = 0.931 for F ≥ 1, 0.863 for F ≥ 2, 0.855 for F ≥ 3, 0.960 for F = 4). The performance of SWV in diagnosing liver fibrosis is superior to that of serum markers. However, the combination of SWV, HA, and CIV does not increase the accuracy of diagnosing liver fibrosis and cirrhosis

  7. Value of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging for assessing severity of liver cirrhosis secondary to viral hepatitis

    Saygili, O. Barutcu; Tarhan, N.C.; Yildirim, T.; Serin, E.; Ozer, B.; Agildere, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the value of abdominal CT and MRI in determining the severity of cirrhosis secondary to hepatitis compared to Child-Pugh classification. Materials and methods: The study included 23 patients who were clinically and histologically diagnosed with chronic liver disease secondary to viral hepatitis. Each patient underwent dynamic abdominal CT imaging and MRI within the same week. CT and MRI findings were retrospectively reviewed. The same parameters were used from the CT and the MR images for each patient. The parameters included liver volume index (posterior segment of the right lobe, medial and lateral segments of the left lobe), spleen volume index, ascites, portosystemic collaterals, contour irregularities of the liver and confluent fibrosis within the liver. The findings were compared with the patients' Child-Pugh grades. Multiple regression analysis was used for statistical analysis. Results: On MRI, liver volume index (P = 0.0001), and ascites (P = 0.009) were strongly correlated with Child-Pugh grades. With CT, only ascites was correlated with Child-Pugh grades (P = 0.002). Conclusion: This study indicates that liver volume index on MRI, and ascites on CT and MRI are good indicators of clinical severity of cirrhosis secondary to hepatitis. To show the effect of the other parameters, more research is needed with larger patient groups

  8. Value of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging for assessing severity of liver cirrhosis secondary to viral hepatitis

    Saygili, O. Barutcu [Departments of Radiology and Gastroenterology, Adana Research and Teaching Center, Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Adana (Turkey)]. E-mail: obarutcu@yahoo.com; Tarhan, N.C. [Departments of Radiology and Gastroenterology, Adana Research and Teaching Center, Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Adana (Turkey); Yildirim, T. [Departments of Radiology and Gastroenterology, Adana Research and Teaching Center, Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Adana (Turkey); Serin, E. [Departments of Radiology and Gastroenterology, Adana Research and Teaching Center, Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Adana (Turkey); Ozer, B. [Departments of Radiology and Gastroenterology, Adana Research and Teaching Center, Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Adana (Turkey); Agildere, A.M. [Departments of Radiology and Gastroenterology, Adana Research and Teaching Center, Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Adana (Turkey)

    2005-06-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the value of abdominal CT and MRI in determining the severity of cirrhosis secondary to hepatitis compared to Child-Pugh classification. Materials and methods: The study included 23 patients who were clinically and histologically diagnosed with chronic liver disease secondary to viral hepatitis. Each patient underwent dynamic abdominal CT imaging and MRI within the same week. CT and MRI findings were retrospectively reviewed. The same parameters were used from the CT and the MR images for each patient. The parameters included liver volume index (posterior segment of the right lobe, medial and lateral segments of the left lobe), spleen volume index, ascites, portosystemic collaterals, contour irregularities of the liver and confluent fibrosis within the liver. The findings were compared with the patients' Child-Pugh grades. Multiple regression analysis was used for statistical analysis. Results: On MRI, liver volume index (P = 0.0001), and ascites (P = 0.009) were strongly correlated with Child-Pugh grades. With CT, only ascites was correlated with Child-Pugh grades (P = 0.002). Conclusion: This study indicates that liver volume index on MRI, and ascites on CT and MRI are good indicators of clinical severity of cirrhosis secondary to hepatitis. To show the effect of the other parameters, more research is needed with larger patient groups.

  9. Restored Circulating Invariant NKT Cells Are Associated with Viral Control in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B

    Jiang, Xiaotao; Zhang, Mingxia; Lai, Qintao; Huang, Xuan; Li, Yongyin; Sun, Jian; Abbott, William G.H.; Ma, Shiwu; Hou, Jinlin

    2011-01-01

    Invariant NKT (iNKT) cells are involved in the pathogenesis of various infectious diseases. However, their role in hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is not fully understood, especially in human species. In this study, 35 chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients, 25 inactive carriers (IC) and 36 healthy controls (HC) were enrolled and the proportions of circulating iNKT cells in fresh isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were detected by flow cytometry. A longitudinal analysis was also conducted in 19 CHB patients who received antiviral therapy with telbivudine. Thereafter, the immune functions of iNKT cells were evaluated by cytokine secretion and a two-chamber technique. The median frequency of circulating iNKT cells in CHB patients (0.13%) was lower than that in HC (0.24%, P = 0.01) and IC (0.19%, P = 0.02), and increased significantly during antiviral therapy with telbivudine (P = 0.0176). The expressions of CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) and CCR6 were dramatically higher on iNKT cells (82.83%±9.87%, 67.67%±16.83% respectively) than on conventional T cells (30.5%±5.65%, 14.02%±5.92%, both P<0.001) in CHB patients. Furthermore, iNKT cells could migrate toward the CC chemokine ligand 5. Patients with a high ratio (≥1.0) of CD4−/CD4+ iNKT cells at baseline had a higher rate (58.33%) of HBeAg seroconversion than those with a low ratio (<1.0, 0%, P = 0.0174). In conclusion, there is a low frequency of peripheral iNKT cells in CHB patients, which increases to normal levels with viral control. The ratio of CD4−/CD4+ iNKT cells at baseline may be a useful predictor for HBeAg seroconversion in CHB patients on telbivudine therapy. PMID:22194934

  10. Zinc Salts Block Hepatitis E Virus Replication by Inhibiting the Activity of Viral RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase.

    Kaushik, Nidhi; Subramani, Chandru; Anang, Saumya; Muthumohan, Rajagopalan; Shalimar; Nayak, Baibaswata; Ranjith-Kumar, C T; Surjit, Milan

    2017-11-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes an acute, self-limiting hepatitis in healthy individuals and leads to chronic disease in immunocompromised individuals. HEV infection in pregnant women results in a more severe outcome, with the mortality rate going up to 30%. Though the virus usually causes sporadic infection, epidemics have been reported in developing and resource-starved countries. No specific antiviral exists against HEV. A combination of interferon and ribavirin therapy has been used to control the disease with some success. Zinc is an essential micronutrient that plays crucial roles in multiple cellular processes. Zinc salts are known to be effective in reducing infections caused by few viruses. Here, we investigated the effect of zinc salts on HEV replication. In a human hepatoma cell (Huh7) culture model, zinc salts inhibited the replication of genotype 1 (g-1) and g-3 HEV replicons and g-1 HEV infectious genomic RNA in a dose-dependent manner. Analysis of a replication-defective mutant of g-1 HEV genomic RNA under similar conditions ruled out the possibility of zinc salts acting on replication-independent processes. An ORF4-Huh7 cell line-based infection model of g-1 HEV further confirmed the above observations. Zinc salts did not show any effect on the entry of g-1 HEV into the host cell. Furthermore, our data reveal that zinc salts directly inhibit the activity of viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), leading to inhibition of viral replication. Taken together, these studies unravel the ability of zinc salts in inhibiting HEV replication, suggesting their possible therapeutic value in controlling HEV infection. IMPORTANCE Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a public health concern in resource-starved countries due to frequent outbreaks. It is also emerging as a health concern in developed countries owing to its ability to cause acute and chronic infection in organ transplant and immunocompromised individuals. Although antivirals such as ribavirin have been used

  11. Redox Imbalance and Viral Infections in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Dolores Limongi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS are essential molecules for many physiological functions and act as second messengers in a large variety of tissues. An imbalance in the production and elimination of ROS is associated with human diseases including neurodegenerative disorders. In the last years the notion that neurodegenerative diseases are accompanied by chronic viral infections, which may result in an increase of neurodegenerative diseases progression, emerged. It is known in literature that enhanced viral infection risk, observed during neurodegeneration, is partly due to the increase of ROS accumulation in brain cells. However, the molecular mechanisms of viral infection, occurring during the progression of neurodegeneration, remain unclear. In this review, we discuss the recent knowledge regarding the role of influenza, herpes simplex virus type-1, and retroviruses infection in ROS/RNS-mediated Parkinson’s disease (PD, Alzheimer’s disease (AD, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS.

  12. [Comparison of various noninvasive serum markers of liver fibrosis in chronic viral liver disease].

    Kim, Sun Min; Sohn, Joo Hyun; Kim, Tae Yeob; Roh, Young Wook; Eun, Chang Soo; Jeon, Yong Cheol; Han, Dong Soo; Oh, Young Ha

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the clinical performances of noninvasive serum markers for the prediction of liver fibrosis in chronic viral liver diseases. We analyzed a total of 225 patients with chronic viral liver diseases (180 with hepatitis B virus, 43 with hepatitis C virus, and 2 with hepatitis B+C virus) who underwent a liver biopsy procedure at the Hanyang University Guri Hospital between March 2002 and February 2007. Serum was also obtained at the time of liver biopsy. Liver fibrosis was staged according to the scoring system proposed by the Korean Study Group for the Pathology of Digestive Diseases. Various noninvasive serum markers were evaluated, including the aspartate aminotransferase (AST)/alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ratio (AAR), age-platelet (AP) index, AST/platelet ratio index (APRI), cirrhosis discriminant score (CDS), platelet count, hyaluronic acid (HA), and type IV collagen. There were 17, 40, 61, 74, and 33 patients at stages F0, F1, F2, F3, and F4, respectively. The overall diagnostic accuracies of each marker, as determined by the area under receiver operating characteristics curves, were APRI=0.822, CDS=0.776, platelet count=0.773, AP index=0.756, HA=0.749, type IV collagen=0.718, and AAR=0.642 for predicting significant fibrosis (> or =F2); and CDS=0.835, platelet count=0.795, AP index=0.794, HA=0.766, AAR=0.711, type IV collagen=0.697, and APRI=0.691 for predicting extensive fibrosis (> or =F3). All noninvasive serum markers evaluated in this study were useful for predicting significant or extensive liver fibrosis in chronic viral liver diseases. In particular, APRI was most useful for the prediction of significant fibrosis, and CDS was most useful for the prediction of extensive fibrosis.

  13. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Full Text Available ... Disease Type 1 (von Gierke) Hemochromatosis Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy ( ... Disease Type 1 (von Gierke) Hemochromatosis Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy ( ...

  14. Hepatitis B and C viral infections among blood donors. A retrospective study from a rural community of Ghana.

    Nkrumah, Bernard; Owusu, Michael; Averu, Paul

    2011-12-12

    Infection by Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) cause serious mortality, morbidity and financial burden and are thus a major global health problem. The study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of Hepatitis B and C infections and co-infections among blood donors in a rural community of Ghana.This was a retrospective study conducted at the Agogo Presbyterian Hospital in the Asanti Akim North District of Ghana to investigate the prevalence of these infections over a three year period among 2773 blood donors. Males constituted a larger proportion of the study population (92.2%). Majority of the study population (43.9%) were within 26-35 age group. The disease prevalence was calculated at a 95% confidence interval. The prevalence of Hepatitis B viral (HBV) infection was highest in females- 21.4% (95% CI: 11.6-34.4) in 2006 than males in the same year- 13.2% (95% CI: 10.8-15.9). Hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection was highest among males- 11.6% (95% CI: 9.5-13.8) in 2007. HBV and HCV co-infection was higher in males- 2.6% (95% CI: 1.6-3.8) than females- 1.3% (95% CI: 0-7.0) in 2007. The overall prevalence of HBV and HCV was 13.8% (95% CI: 11.4- 16.4) and 9.4% (95% CI: 7.4-11.6) respectively in 2006. The rate of co-infection of HBV and HCV however increased from 1.6% (95% CI: 0.8-2.7) in 2006 to 2.2% (95% CI: 1.3-3.2) in 2008 in males and from 0% (95% CI: 0-6.4) in 2006 to 1.2% (95% CI: 0-6.5) in 2008 in females. The single infections of HBV and HCV reduced but co-infection of these transfusion transmitted infections increased. Measures such as more sensitive techniques for effective diagnosis and sanitary education to enlighten the population must be implemented.

  15. Fibroscore for the non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis in chronic viral hepatitis

    Ashraf, S.; Ahmed, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the predictive value of a set of laboratory markers for the assessment of liver fibrosis in chronic viral hepatitis patients. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Baqai Medical University, Combined Military Hospital, Malir, Karachi, from November 2006 to May 2008. Methodology: Twenty laboratory parameters were measured in 100 treatment-native chronic viral hepatitis patients who also had liver biopsy performed. Descriptive statistics, areas under the ROC's curves, and multivariate logistic regression analysis identified a fibrosis panel, a set of five most useful markers, for the assessment of stages of fibrosis, stage 0 to stage 4. The fibrosis index, FibroScore, consisted of bilirubin, Gamma glutamyl transferase, Hyaluronic acid, alpha 2 macroglobulin, and platelets evaluation. Results: A score of > 0.5 predicted stages 2, 3 and 4, with a sensitivity of 82%, and specificity of 92%. A score > 0.5 for stages 3 and 4 had a sensitivity of 85%, and specificity of 89%. At a score of > 0.80, for stages 3 and 4, the sensitivity was 70%, specificity was 97%, and PPV 87% (there was > 85% possibility of presence of stage 3 or 4). A score of < 0.20 predicted the absence of stages 2, 3, and 4 with a sensitivity of 91%, specificity of 86%, and NPV of 96%. Scores from 0.00 to 0.10 almost certainly ruled out the presence of stages 2-4 (NPV=98%). The areas under the ROC curve were: 0.808 for stage 2; 0.938 for stage 3; and 0.959 for stage 4. Conclusion: A combination of 5 markers is very useful in predicting various stages of liver fibrosis, and is helpful in the non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis in chronic viral hepatitis patients. (author)

  16. Kupffer cells hasten resolution of liver immunopathology in mouse models of viral hepatitis.

    Giovanni Sitia

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Kupffer cells (KCs are widely considered important contributors to liver injury during viral hepatitis due to their pro-inflammatory activity. Herein we utilized hepatitis B virus (HBV-replication competent transgenic mice and wild-type mice infected with a hepatotropic adenovirus to demonstrate that KCs do not directly induce hepatocellular injury nor do they affect the pathogenic potential of virus-specific CD8 T cells. Instead, KCs limit the severity of liver immunopathology. Mechanistically, our results are most compatible with the hypothesis that KCs contain liver immunopathology by removing apoptotic hepatocytes in a manner largely dependent on scavenger receptors. Apoptotic hepatocytes not readily removed by KCs become secondarily necrotic and release high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB-1 protein, promoting organ infiltration by inflammatory cells, particularly neutrophils. Overall, these results indicate that KCs resolve rather than worsen liver immunopathology.

  17. Novel microRNA-like viral small regulatory RNAs arising during human hepatitis A virus infection.

    Shi, Jiandong; Sun, Jing; Wang, Bin; Wu, Meini; Zhang, Jing; Duan, Zhiqing; Wang, Haixuan; Hu, Ningzhu; Hu, Yunzhang

    2014-10-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), including host miRNAs and viral miRNAs, play vital roles in regulating host-virus interactions. DNA viruses encode miRNAs that regulate the viral life cycle. However, it is generally believed that cytoplasmic RNA viruses do not encode miRNAs, owing to inaccessible cellular miRNA processing machinery. Here, we provide a comprehensive genome-wide analysis and identification of miRNAs that were derived from hepatitis A virus (HAV; Hu/China/H2/1982), which is a typical cytoplasmic RNA virus. Using deep-sequencing and in silico approaches, we identified 2 novel virally encoded miRNAs, named hav-miR-1-5p and hav-miR-2-5p. Both of the novel virally encoded miRNAs were clearly detected in infected cells. Analysis of Dicer enzyme silencing demonstrated that HAV-derived miRNA biogenesis is Dicer dependent. Furthermore, we confirmed that HAV mature miRNAs were generated from viral miRNA precursors (pre-miRNAs) in host cells. Notably, naturally derived HAV miRNAs were biologically and functionally active and induced post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS). Genomic location analysis revealed novel miRNAs located in the coding region of the viral genome. Overall, our results show that HAV naturally generates functional miRNA-like small regulatory RNAs during infection. This is the first report of miRNAs derived from the coding region of genomic RNA of a cytoplasmic RNA virus. These observations demonstrate that a cytoplasmic RNA virus can naturally generate functional miRNAs, as DNA viruses do. These findings also contribute to improved understanding of host-RNA virus interactions mediated by RNA virus-derived miRNAs. © FASEB.

  18. Genetic drift in hypervariable region 1 of the viral genome in persistent hepatitis C virus infection.

    Kato, N; Ootsuyama, Y; Sekiya, H; Ohkoshi, S; Nakazawa, T; Hijikata, M; Shimotohno, K

    1994-01-01

    The hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) of the putative second envelope glycoprotein (gp70) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) contains a sequence-specific immunological B-cell epitope that induces the production of antibodies restricted to the specific viral isolate, and anti-HVR1 antibodies are involved in the genetic drift of HVR1 driven by immunoselection (N. Kato, H. Sekiya, Y. Ootsuyama, T. Nakazawa, M. Hijikata, S. Ohkoshi, and K. Shimotohno, J. Virol. 67:3923-3930, 1993). We further investigated th...

  19. Hepatitis B and C viral infections among blood donors from rural Ghana.

    Nkrumah, B; Owusu, M; Frempong, H O; Averu, P

    2011-09-01

    To investigate the prevalence of Hepatitis B and C infections and co-infections among blood donors in a rural community of Ghana. A retrospective study. Samples of blood donated between January 2007 and December 2008 were screen for Hepatitis B and C viruses at the Agogo Presbyterian Hospital. The prevalence of Hepatitis B viral (HBV) infection was highest in females 21.4% (95% CI: 11.6-34.4) in 2006 than males in the same year 13.2% (95% CI: 10.8-15.9). Hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection was highest among males at 11.6% (95% CI: 9.5-13.8) in 2007. HBV and HCV co-infection was higher in males 2.6% (95% CI: 1.6-3.8) than females 1.3% (95% CI: 0-7.0) in 2007. The overall prevalence of HBV and HCV was 13.8% (95% CI: 11.4-16.4) and 9.4% (95% CI: 7.4-11.6) respectively in 2006. The rate of co-infection of HBV and HCV however increased from 1.6% (95% CI: 0.8-2.7) in 2006 to 2.2% (95% CI: 1.3-3.2) in 2008 in males and from 0% (95% CI: 0-6.4) in 2006 to 1.2% (95% CI: 0-6.5) in 2008 in females. The single infections of HBV and HCV reduced but co-infection of these transfusion transmitted infections (TTI) increased. Measures such as more sensitive techniques and education must be employed in these areas.

  20. A multi-scale spatial model of hepatitis-B viral dynamics.

    Quentin Cangelosi

    Full Text Available Chronic hepatitis B viral infection (HBV afflicts around 250 million individuals globally and few options for treatment exist. Once infected, the virus entrenches itself in the liver with a notoriously resilient colonisation of viral DNA (covalently-closed circular DNA, cccDNA. The majority of infections are cleared, yet we do not understand why 5% of adult immune responses fail leading to the chronic state with its collateral morbid effects such as cirrhosis and eventual hepatic carcinoma. The liver environment exhibits particularly complex spatial structures for metabolic processing and corresponding distributions of nutrients and transporters that may influence successful HBV entrenchment. We assembled a multi-scaled mathematical model of the fundamental hepatic processing unit, the sinusoid, into a whole-liver representation to investigate the impact of this intrinsic spatial heterogeneity on the HBV dynamic. Our results suggest HBV may be exploiting spatial aspects of the liver environment. We distributed increased HBV replication rates coincident with elevated levels of nutrients in the sinusoid entry point (the periportal region in tandem with similar distributions of hepatocyte transporters key to HBV invasion (e.g., the sodium-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide or NTCP, or immune system activity. According to our results, such co-alignment of spatial distributions may contribute to persistence of HBV infections, depending on spatial distributions and intensity of immune response as well. Moreover, inspired by previous HBV models and experimentalist suggestions of extra-hepatic HBV replication, we tested in our model influence of HBV blood replication and observe an overall nominal effect on persistent liver infection. Regardless, we confirm prior results showing a solo cccDNA is sufficient to re-infect an entire liver, with corresponding concerns for transplantation and treatment.

  1. Viral hepatitis

    Gottwein, Judith M; Bukh, Jens

    2013-01-01

    With millions of humans infected yearly with HCV, leading to cirrhosis and cancer, a vaccine is urgently needed. Cultured virus particles constitute the antigen in most antiviral vaccines. A study in mice demonstrated induction of neutralizing antibodies by immunization with cell-culture-derived ...

  2. Viral Hepatitis

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  3. The effect of antioxidant supplementation on hepatitis C viral load, transaminases and oxidative status: a randomized trial among chronic hepatitis C virus-infected patients

    Groenbaek, K.; Friis, H.; Hansen, Max

    2006-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of antioxidant supplementation on hepatitis C viral load, transaminases and oxidative status. Methods We performed a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial to assess the effect of antioxidant supplementation on serum alanine aminotransferase, plasma...... hepatitis C viral load as well as oxidative and antioxidant markers in patients with hepatitis C virus infection. The participants received a daily dose of ascorbic acid (500 mg), D-alpha-tocopherol (9451 U) and selenium (200 mu g) or placebo tablets for 6 months. Results Twenty-three patients were included...... aminotransferase and logo-transformed plasma hepatitis C virus-RNA between the groups or changes from the baseline at any time. No consistent differences between groups or changes from the baseline with respect to erythrocyte activities of antioxidative enzymes (glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase...

  4. Histórico das hepatites virais History of viral hepatitis

    José Carlos Ferraz da Fonseca

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A história das hepatites virais remonta milhares de anos e é fascinante. Quando o ser humano sofreu pela primeira vez a invasão do seu organismo por tais agentes, iniciou-se um ciclo natural e repetitivo capaz de infectar bilhões de seres humanos, dizimar e sequelar milhares de vida. MÉTODOS: Este artigo rever informações científicas disponíveis sobre o histórico das hepatites virais. Todas as informações foram obtidas através de extensa revisão bibliográfica, compreendendo artigos originais e de revisão e consultas na rede internet. RESULTADOS: Existem relatos de surtos de icterícia epidêmica na China há mais de 5.000 anos e na Babilônia, há mais de 2.500 anos. A história catastrófica das grandes epidemias ou pandemias ictéricas são conhecidas e geralmente estão associadas às grandes guerras. Na guerra da Secessão Americana, 40 mil casos ocorreram entre militares da União. Em 1885, um surto de icterícia catarral acometeu 191 trabalhadores do estaleiro de Bremen (Alemanha após vacinação contra varíola. Em 1942, 28.585 soldados contraíram hepatite após inoculação da vacina contra a febre amarela. O número de casos de hepatite durante a Segunda Grande Guerra foi estimado em 16 milhões. Somente no século XX, foram identificados os principais agentes causadores das hepatites virais. O vírus da hepatite B foi o primeiro a ser descoberto. CONCLUSÕES: Neste artigo, a revisão da história das grandes epidemias ocasionadas pelos vírus das hepatites e a descoberta desses agentes revelam singulares peculiaridades, citando como exemplo, a descoberta acidental ou por acaso dos vírus da hepatite B e D.INTRODUCTION: The history of viral hepatitis goes back thousands of years and is a fascinating one. When humans were first infected by such agents, a natural repetitive cycle began, with the capacity to infect billions of humans, thus decimating the population and causing sequelae in thousands of lives

  5. The role of gender dimorphism in the development and outcome of chronic viral hepatitis

    V.B. Yagmur

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Chronic viral liver diseases still have a leading place in the structure of mortality from hepatobiliary diseases and causes of liver transplantation. Search for factors influencing the progression of fibrosis and the prognosis of the disease are of public health priority. The article provides an overview of the research on the influence of sex hormones on the progression of liver fibrosis, the likelihood of hepatocellular carcinoma development in men and women of reproductive age and menopausal state.

  6. Hepatitis B virus core antigen determines viral persistence in a C57BL/6 mouse model.

    Lin, Yi-Jiun; Huang, Li-Rung; Yang, Hung-Chih; Tzeng, Horng-Tay; Hsu, Ping-Ning; Wu, Hui-Lin; Chen, Pei-Jer; Chen, Ding-Shinn

    2010-05-18

    We recently developed a mouse model of hepatitis B virus (HBV) persistence, in which a single i.v. hydrodynamic injection of HBV DNA to C57BL/6 mice allows HBV replication and induces a partial immune response, so that about 20-30% of the mice carry HBV for more than 6 months. The model was used to identify the viral antigen crucial for HBV persistence. We knocked out individual HBV genes by introducing a premature termination codon to the HBV core, HBeAg, HBx, and polymerase ORFs. The specific-gene-deficient HBV mutants were hydrodynamically injected into mice and the HBV profiles of the mice were monitored. About 90% of the mice that received the HBcAg-mutated HBV plasmid exhibited high levels of hepatitis B surface antigenemia and maintained HBsAg expression for more than 6 months after injection. To map the region of HBcAg essential for viral clearance, we constructed a set of serial HBcAg deletion mutants for hydrodynamic injection. We localized the essential region of HBcAg to the carboxyl terminus, specifically to the 10 terminal amino acids (HBcAg176-185). The majority of mice receiving this HBV mutant DNA did not elicit a proper HBcAg-specific IFN-gamma response and expressed HBV virions for 6 months. These results indicate that the immune response triggered in mice by HBcAg during exposure to HBV is important in determining HBV persistence.

  7. Emerging infectious diseases with cutaneous manifestations: Viral and bacterial infections.

    Nawas, Zeena Y; Tong, Yun; Kollipara, Ramya; Peranteau, Andrew J; Woc-Colburn, Laila; Yan, Albert C; Lupi, Omar; Tyring, Stephen K

    2016-07-01

    Given increased international travel, immigration, and climate change, bacterial and viral infections that were once unrecognized or uncommon are being seen more frequently in the Western Hemisphere. A delay in diagnosis and treatment of these diseases can lead to significant patient morbidity and mortality. However, the diagnosis and management of these infections is fraught with a lack of consistency because there is a dearth of dermatology literature on the cutaneous manifestations of these infections. We review the epidemiology, cutaneous manifestations, diagnosis, and management of these emerging bacterial and viral diseases. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Occult hepatitis B virus infection is not associated with disease progression of chronic hepatitis C virus infection.

    Cho, Junhyeon; Lee, Sang Soo; Choi, Yun Suk; Jeon, Yejoo; Chung, Jung Wha; Baeg, Joo Yeong; Si, Won Keun; Jang, Eun Sun; Kim, Jin-Wook; Jeong, Sook-Hyang

    2016-11-14

    To clarify the prevalence of occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (OBI) and the association between OBI and liver disease progression, defined as development of liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), worsening of Child-Pugh class, or mortality in cases of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. This prospective cohort study enrolled 174 patients with chronic HCV infection (chronic hepatitis, n = 83; cirrhosis, n = 47; HCC, n = 44), and evaluated disease progression during a mean follow-up of 38.7 mo. OBI was defined as HBV DNA positivity in 2 or more different viral genomic regions by nested polymerase chain reaction using 4 sets of primers in the S, C, P and X open reading frame of the HBV genome. The overall OBI prevalence in chronic HCV patients at enrollment was 18.4%, with 16.9%, 25.5% and 13.6% in the chronic hepatitis C, liver cirrhosis and HCC groups, respectively ( P = 0.845). During follow-up, 52 patients showed disease progression, which was independently associated with aspartate aminotransferase > 40 IU/L, Child-Pugh score and sustained virologic response (SVR), but not with OBI positivity. In 136 patients who were not in the SVR state during the study period, OBI positivity was associated with neither disease progression, nor HCC development. The prevalence of OBI in chronic HCV patients was 18.4%, and OBI was not associated with disease progression in South Koreans.

  9. Laparoscopic management of hepatic hydatid disease.

    Palanivelu, C; Jani, Kalpesh; Malladi, Vijaykumar; Senthilkumar, R; Rajan, P S; Sendhilkumar, K; Parthasarthi, R; Kavalakat, Alfie

    2006-01-01

    Hydatid disease is an endemic condition in several parts of the world. Owing to ease of travel, even surgeons in nonendemic areas encounter the disease and should be aware of its optimum treatment. A safe, new method of laparoscopic management of hepatic hydatid disease is described along with a review of the relevant literature. Sixty-six cases of hepatic hydatid disease were operated on laparoscopically using the Palanivelu Hydatid System. The special trocar-cannula system used and the technique of operation are described. The majority of the patients presented with pain. Most of the patients had only a single cyst. The right lobe of the liver was most commonly involved. Cysts were bilateral in 4 patients. In 83.3%, simply evacuation of the hydatid cyst by the Palanivelu Hydatid System was done. In 13.7%, this was followed by a left lobectomy, as the cysts were large occupying almost the entire left lobe of the liver. The remnant cavity was dealt with by omentoplasty. The average follow-up period is 5.8 years. There have been no recurrences to date. We recommend Palanivelu Hydatid System for management of hepatic hydatid disease. We have found its efficacy to be optimum for preventing spillage, evacuating hydatid cyst contents, performing transcystic fenestration, and for dealing with cyst-biliary communications.

  10. Physician perspectives on the management of viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma in Myanmar

    Kim, Yoona A.; Trinh, Sam; Thura, Si; Kyi, Khin Pyone; Lee, Thomas; Sze, Stan; Richards, Adam; Aronsohn, Andrew; Wong, Grace L. H.; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Dusheiko, Geoffrey

    2017-01-01

    Background In Myanmar, over five million people are infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). Hepatitis has been a recent focus with the development of a National Strategic Plan on Hepatitis and plans to subsidize HCV treatment. Methods During a two-day national liver disease symposium covering HCV, HBV, hepatocellular (HCC), and end-stage liver disease (ESLD), physician surveys were administered using the automated response system (ARS) to assess physician knowledge, perceptions of barriers to screening and treatment, and proposed solutions. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratio (OR) relating demography and practice factors with higher provider knowledge and improvement. Results One hundred two physicians attending from various specialty areas (31.0% specializing in gastroenterology/hepatology and/or infectious disease) were of mixed gender (46.8% male), were younger than or equal to 40 years old (51.1% 20 to 40 years), had less experience (61.6% with ≤10 years of medical practice), were from the metropolitan area of Yangon (72.1%), and saw <10 liver disease patients per week (74.3%). The majority of physicians were not comfortable with treating or managing patients with liver disease. The post-test scores demonstrated an improvement in liver disease knowledge (9.0% ± 27.0) compared to the baseline pre-test scores; no variables were associated with significant improvement in hepatitis knowledge. Physicians identified the cost of diagnostic blood tests and treatment as the most significant barrier to treatment. Top solutions proposed were universal screening policies (46%), removal of financial barriers for treatment (29%), patient education (14%) and provider education (11%). Conclusions Physician knowledge improved after this symposium, and many other needs were revealed by the physician input on barriers to care and their solutions. These survey results are important in guiding the next steps to improve

  11. [Control, elimination and eradication of viral immuno preventable diseases in Venezuela].

    Valero, Nereida; Maldonado, Mery

    2005-09-01

    Vaccination has demonstrated the capacity for the drastic decrease of the prevalence and incidence of several diseases of viral etiology and it has allowed their eradication. Among these human immuno preventable diseases are included poliomyelitis, measles, mumps, chicken pox, rubella, hepatitis A and B, influenza A and yellow fever. In residents, travelers to endemic areas and personal at risk, the vaccines to Japanese and equine encephalitis, rabies and adenovirus can be applied. Venezuela has not escaped from the positive impact in the epidemiology of these illnesses as a consequence of the organization and implementation of big national vaccination campaigns; however, and in spite of these efforts, important outbreaks of measles, yellow fever, chicken pox and hepatitis have occurred in the last few years. The tools to eliminate the majority of these viral diseases exist in Venezuela as well as in other countries, and are readily available, effective and relatively not expensive, but require on the whole of an effort of authorities and communities. The implementation of these strategies should have the support of the World Health Organization and the Panamerican Health Organization. This is a priority for the next few years if our aim is the eradication of these illnesses from Venezuela, the continent and the world.

  12. A SELEX-screened aptamer of human hepatitis B virus RNA encapsidation signal suppresses viral replication.

    Hui Feng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The specific interaction between hepatitis B virus (HBV polymerase (P protein and the ε RNA stem-loop on pregenomic (pg RNA is crucial for viral replication. It triggers both pgRNA packaging and reverse transcription and thus represents an attractive antiviral target. RNA decoys mimicking ε in P protein binding but not supporting replication might represent novel HBV inhibitors. However, because generation of recombinant enzymatically active HBV polymerase is notoriously difficult, such decoys have as yet not been identified. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we used a SELEX approach, based on a new in vitro reconstitution system exploiting a recombinant truncated HBV P protein (miniP, to identify potential ε decoys in two large ε RNA pools with randomized upper stem. Selection of strongly P protein binding RNAs correlated with an unexpected strong enrichment of A residues. Two aptamers, S6 and S9, displayed particularly high affinity and specificity for miniP in vitro, yet did not support viral replication when part of a complete HBV genome. Introducing S9 RNA into transiently HBV producing HepG2 cells strongly suppressed pgRNA packaging and DNA synthesis, indicating the S9 RNA can indeed act as an ε decoy that competitively inhibits P protein binding to the authentic ε signal on pgRNA. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study demonstrates the first successful identification of human HBV ε aptamers by an in vitro SELEX approach. Effective suppression of HBV replication by the S9 aptamer provides proof-of-principle for the ability of ε decoy RNAs to interfere with viral P-ε complex formation and suggests that S9-like RNAs may further be developed into useful therapeutics against chronic hepatitis B.

  13. New Approaches to Attenuated Hepatitis a Vaccine Development: Cloning and Sequencing of Cell-Culture Adapted Viral cDNA.

    1987-10-13

    after multiple passages in vivo and in vitro. J. Gen. Virol. 67, 1741- 1744. Sabin , A.B. (1985). Oral poliovirus vaccine : history of its development...IN (N NEW APPROACHES TO ATTENUATED HEPATITIS A VACCINE DEVELOPMENT: Q) CLONING AND SEQUENCING OF CELL-CULTURE ADAPTED VIRAL cDNA I ANNUAL REPORT...6ll02Bsl0 A 055 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) New Approaches to Attenuated Hepatitis A Vaccine Development: Cloning and Sequencing of Cell

  14. Mutagenic Effects of Ribavirin on Hepatitis E Virus-Viral Extinction versus Selection of Fitness-Enhancing Mutations.

    Todt, Daniel; Walter, Stephanie; Brown, Richard J P; Steinmann, Eike

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV), an important agent of viral hepatitis worldwide, can cause severe courses of infection in pregnant women and immunosuppressed patients. To date, HEV infections can only be treated with ribavirin (RBV). Major drawbacks of this therapy are that RBV is not approved for administration to pregnant women and that the virus can acquire mutations, which render the intra-host population less sensitive or even resistant to RBV. One of the proposed modes of action of RBV is a di...

  15. Physician perspectives on the management of viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma in Myanmar.

    Kim, Yoona A; Trinh, Sam; Thura, Si; Kyi, Khin Pyone; Lee, Thomas; Sze, Stan; Richards, Adam; Aronsohn, Andrew; Wong, Grace L H; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Dusheiko, Geoffrey; Nguyen, Mindie H

    2017-01-01

    In Myanmar, over five million people are infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). Hepatitis has been a recent focus with the development of a National Strategic Plan on Hepatitis and plans to subsidize HCV treatment. During a two-day national liver disease symposium covering HCV, HBV, hepatocellular (HCC), and end-stage liver disease (ESLD), physician surveys were administered using the automated response system (ARS) to assess physician knowledge, perceptions of barriers to screening and treatment, and proposed solutions. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratio (OR) relating demography and practice factors with higher provider knowledge and improvement. One hundred two physicians attending from various specialty areas (31.0% specializing in gastroenterology/hepatology and/or infectious disease) were of mixed gender (46.8% male), were younger than or equal to 40 years old (51.1% 20 to 40 years), had less experience (61.6% with ≤10 years of medical practice), were from the metropolitan area of Yangon (72.1%), and saw managing patients with liver disease. The post-test scores demonstrated an improvement in liver disease knowledge (9.0% ± 27.0) compared to the baseline pre-test scores; no variables were associated with significant improvement in hepatitis knowledge. Physicians identified the cost of diagnostic blood tests and treatment as the most significant barrier to treatment. Top solutions proposed were universal screening policies (46%), removal of financial barriers for treatment (29%), patient education (14%) and provider education (11%). Physician knowledge improved after this symposium, and many other needs were revealed by the physician input on barriers to care and their solutions. These survey results are important in guiding the next steps to improve liver disease management and future medical education efforts in Myanmar.

  16. Hepatitis C virus genotypes and viral ribonucleic acid titers in Nigeria

    Background and Objectives: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic liver disease, cirrhosis and hepatocellular cancer worldwide, with associated significant morbidity and mortality. It is estimated that 3% of the world population have HCV, and in Nigeria, prevalence rates of between 4.7-20% have been reported ...

  17. Hepatic diseases related to triglyceride metabolism.

    Aguilera-Méndez, Asdrubal; Álvarez-Delgado, Carolina; Hernández-Godinez, Daniel; Fernandez-Mejia, Cristina

    2013-10-01

    Triglycerides participate in key metabolic functions such as energy storage, thermal insulation and as deposit for essential and non-essential fatty acids that can be used as precursors for the synthesis of structural and functional phospholipids. The liver is a central organ in the regulation of triglyceride metabolism, and it participates in triglyceride synthesis, export, uptake and oxidation. The metabolic syndrome and associated diseases are among the main concerns of public health worldwide. One of the metabolic syndrome components is impaired triglyceride metabolism. Diseases associated with the metabolic syndrome promote the appearance of hepatic alterations e.g., non-alcoholic steatosis, steatohepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis and cancer. In this article, we review the molecular actions involved in impaired triglyceride metabolism and its association with hepatic diseases. We discuss mechanisms that reconcile the chronic inflammation and insulin resistance, and new concepts on the role of intestinal micro-flora permeability and proliferation in fatty liver etiology. We also describe the participation of oxidative stress in the progression of events leading from steatosis to steatohepatitis and fibrosis. Finally, we provide information regarding the mechanisms that link fatty acid accumulation during steatosis with changes in growth factors and cytokines that lead to the development of neoplastic cells. One of the main medical concerns vis-a-vis hepatic diseases is the lack of symptoms at the onset of the illness and, as result, its late diagnosis. The understandings of the molecular mechanisms that underlie hepatic diseases could help design strategies towards establishing markers for their accurate and timely diagnosis.

  18. Utilisation of hepatocellular carcinoma screening in Australians at risk of hepatitis B virus-related carcinoma and prescribed anti-viral therapy.

    Sheppard-Law, Suzanne; Zablotska-Manos, Iryna; Kermeen, Melissa; Holdaway, Susan; Lee, Alice; George, Jacob; Zekry, Amany; Maher, Lisa

    2018-07-01

    To investigate hepatocellular carcinoma screening utilisation and factors associated with utilisation among patients prescribed hepatitis B virus anti-viral therapy and at risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma has increased in Australia over the past three decades with chronic hepatitis B virus infection a major contributor. hepatocellular carcinoma surveillance programs aim to detect cancers early enabling curative treatment options, longer survival and longer times to recurrence. Multi-site cross-sectional survey. An online study questionnaire was administered to eligible participants attending three Sydney tertiary hospitals. Data were grouped into six mutually exclusive hepatocellular carcinoma risk factor categories as per American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases guidelines. All analyses were undertaken in STATA. Logistic regression was used to assess the associations between covariates and screening utilisation. Multivariate models described were assessed using the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness of fit. Of the 177 participants, 137 (77.4%) self-reported that US had been performed in the last six months. Awareness that screening should be performed and knowing the correct frequency of US screening were independently associated with screening utilisation. Participants who knew that screening should be undertaken were three times more likely to have had pretreatment education or were prescribed hepatitis B virus anti-viral treatment for >4 years. Participants reporting a family history of hepatocellular carcinoma were less likely to know that screening should be undertaken every 6 months. While utilisation of hepatocellular carcinoma surveillance programs was higher in this study than in previous reports, strategies to further improve surveillance remain necessary. Findings from this research form the basis for proposing strategies to improve utilisation of hepatocellular carcinoma screening, inform hepatitis B virus

  19. Viral kinetics of hepatitis C virus RNA in patients with chronic hepatitis C treated with 18 MU of interferon alpha daily

    Sentjens, Roel E.; Weegink, Christine J.; Beld, Marcel G.; Cooreman, Michel C.; Reesink, Henk W.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A rapid decrease of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA is interferon (IFN) dose-dependent, and a 3-log decline of HCV-RNA is a strong predictor of sustained virological response. In this study, viral kinetics of HCV RNA in patients treated with 18 MU interferon alpha (IFN-alpha) daily for 2

  20. Vaccines for viral and parasitic diseases produced with baculovirus vectors

    Oers, van M.M.

    2006-01-01

    The baculovirus¿insect cell expression system is an approved system for the production of viral antigens with vaccine potential for humans and animals and has been used for production of subunit vaccines against parasitic diseases as well. Many candidate subunit vaccines have been expressed in this

  1. Transient elastography for diagnosis of stages of hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis in people with alcoholic liver disease

    Pavlov, Chavdar S; Casazza, Giovanni; Nikolova, Dimitrinka

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The presence and progression of hepatic (liver) fibrosis into cirrhosis is a prognostic variable having impact on survival in people with alcoholic liver disease. Liver biopsy, although an invasive method, is the recommended 'reference standard' for diagnosis and staging of hepatic...... fibrosis in people with liver diseases. Transient elastography is a non-invasive method for assessing and staging hepatic fibrosis. OBJECTIVES: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of transient elastography for diagnosis and staging hepatic fibrosis in people with alcoholic liver disease when compared...... participants could be of any sex and ethnic origin, above 16 years old, hospitalised or managed as outpatients. We excluded participants with viral hepatitis, autoimmunity, metabolic diseases, and toxins. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We followed the guidelines in the draft Cochrane Handbook for Systematic...

  2. Viral diseases affecting chickpea crops in Eritrea

    SAFAA G. KUMARI

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available A survey to identify virus diseases affecting chickpea crops in the major production areas of Eritrea was conducted during November 2005. The survey covered 31 randomly selected chickpea fi elds. Virus disease incidence was determined on the basis of laboratory testing of 100–200 randomly collected samples from each fi eld against antisera of 9 legume viruses. Serological tests indicated that the Luteoviruses were the most common, with an overall incidence of 5.6%, followed by Faba bean necrotic yellows virus (FBNYV, genus Nanovirus, family Nanoviridae (4.1% and Chickpea chlorotic dwarf virus (CpCDV, genus Mastrevirus, family Geminiviridae (0.9%. The reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR test showed that the most common luteoviruses in Eritrea are Chickpea chlorotic stunt virus (CpCSV followed by Beet western yellows virus (BWYV, genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae. Based on the fi eld symptoms observed, 29 fi elds had, at the time of the survey, a virus disease incidence of 1% or less and only two fi elds had an incidence of about 5%, whereas on the basis of laboratory testing, 19 fi elds had more than 6% virus incidence (three of these had an incidence of 29.5, 34.5 and 40.5%. This is the fi rst survey of chickpea viruses in Eritrea and the fi rst report of BWYV, CpCDV, CpCSV and FBNYV naturally infecting chickpea in Eritrea.

  3. Viral infections in acute graft-versus-host disease: a review of diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.

    Tong, Lana X; Worswick, Scott D

    2015-04-01

    While immunosuppressive therapy for acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) advances, viral reactivation has been found to be an increasingly common complication in these patients. Dermatologists may often be consulted on inpatient services for evaluation. We investigated the literature for the role of viral infections in aGVHD and review the current evidence regarding management. Articles in the public domain regarding aGVHD, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, varicella zoster virus, hepatitis viruses, parvovirus B19, and respiratory viruses were included. Dermatologic findings vary between different viral antigens, and some infections may be a marker for the development of aGVHD or worsen prognosis. The heterogeneous cohorts of the studies reviewed often preclude direct comparison between results. The relationship between viral reactivation and aGVHD may be bidirectional and is worthy of further exploration. Additional studies are needed to determine appropriate prophylaxis and treatment. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevalence of Viral Hepatitis (A, B and C among Haemophilic Children

    Mohammed Salah Ali

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Haemophilia is a rare haematological disease characterized by prolonged bleeding due to deficiency of coagulating factor 8 and factor 9. This is cross sectional study carried out at paediatric haematology unit Al-Azhar university hospital, Cairo, Egypt, and paediatric haematology unit of El Mabarah-Hospital-Health Insurance Organization, Zagazig, Egypt, during March 2014 to March 2016. One hundred male patients were screened for hepatitis (A, B, and C. Mean age was 11.47 ± 4.4 years old. About 95% with haemophilia A, 4% haemophilia B and 1 patient had combined haemophilia A and family history of hepatitis was 21%. Consanguinity was 28%. Similar condition in the family was 36%. Ecchymosis as clinical manifestation was 64%, haemarthrosis was 62% and jaundice detected in 35% of cases. Severity was mild 20%, moderate 47% and severe was 33%. Most affected joint was knee joint and represented 41%. Blood transfusion, cryoprecipitate were major risk factors for transmitting of hepatitis C positive cases. HAV was 7%, HBV was 0% and hepatitis C was 65%. Conclusion: HCV is still high in haemophilic and represent a major problem. Recommendation: Early detection, treatment, and further investigation of hepatitis C virus in haemophilic children.

  5. Pest control through viral disease: mathematical modeling and analysis.

    Bhattacharyya, S; Bhattacharya, D K

    2006-01-07

    This paper deals with the mathematical modeling of pest management under viral infection (i.e. using viral pesticide) and analysis of its essential mathematical features. As the viral infection induces host lysis which releases more virus into the environment, on the average 'kappa' viruses per host, kappain(1,infinity), the 'virus replication parameter' is chosen as the main parameter on which the dynamics of the infection depends. We prove that there exists a threshold value kappa(0) beyond which the endemic equilibrium bifurcates from the free disease one. Still for increasing kappa values, the endemic equilibrium bifurcates towards a periodic solution. We further analyse the orbital stability of the periodic orbits arising from bifurcation by applying Poor's condition. A concluding discussion with numerical simulation of the model is then presented.

  6. Acute viral hemorrhage disease: A summary on new viruses

    Somsri Wiwanitkit

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Acute hemorrhagic disease is an important problem in medicine that can be seen in many countries, especially those in tropical world. There are many causes of acute hemorrhagic disease and the viral infection seems to be the common cause. The well-known infection is dengue, however, there are many new identified viruses that can cause acute hemorrhagic diseases. In this specific short review, the authors present and discuss on those new virus diseases that present as “acute hemorrhagic fever”.

  7. A Cross-Sectional Study of Viral Hepatitis Perception among Residents from Southeast and North Regions of Brazil

    Cruz, Helena Medina; de Paula, Vanessa Salete; Villar, Livia Melo

    2018-01-01

    Few data are available regarding viral hepatitis perception among the general global population. The present study aims to estimate the perception of viral hepatitis in a cohort of individuals living in two geographical regions of Brazil: North (Manaus city (MA)) and Southeast (Rio de Janeiro city (RJ)). A cross-sectional, descriptive study was carried out among 287 subjects recruited in MA (134) and RJ (153). All individuals answered a questionnaire assessing socio-demographic characteristics and viral hepatitis awareness. Participants’ responses were scored and divided using interquartile values. Associations between socio-demographic characteristics and knowledge were also evaluated. Interquartile analysis scored 0–21 correct answers as “Very Weak”; 22–27 as “Weak”; 28–31 as “Intermediate”; and 32–47 as “Desirable”. Mean ± standard deviations (SD) of correct responses were weak in both MA (24.1 ± 7.0) and RJ (26.3 ± 7.3). Bivariate analysis showed an association between viral hepatitis awareness and both education level (p < 0.001) and family income (p < 0.01). Desirable scores were more common in female participants (61%), those aged between 21–30 years (40%), those with a secondary education (51.7%), those who received high income (31.6%), and those from RJ (70.0%). Health education campaigns in these cities are recommended to increase knowledge and reduce the transmission of these viruses. PMID:29364166

  8. Peg-interferon plus nucleotide analogue treatment versus no treatment in patients with chronic hepatitis B with a low viral load: a randomised controlled, open-label trial

    de Niet, Annikki; Jansen, Louis; Stelma, Femke; Willemse, Sophie B.; Kuiken, Sjoerd D.; Weijer, Sebastiaan; van Nieuwkerk, Carin M. J.; Zaaijer, Hans L.; Molenkamp, Richard; Takkenberg, R. Bart; Koot, Maarten; Verheij, Joanne; Beuers, Ulrich; Reesink, Hendrik W.

    2017-01-01

    Antiviral treatment is currently not recommended for patients with chronic hepatitis B with a low viral load. However, they might benefit from acquiring a functional cure (hepatitis B surface antigen [HBsAg] loss with or without formation of antibodies against hepatitis B surface antigen

  9. Viral Response to Specifically Targeted Antiviral Therapy for Hepatitis C and the Implications for Treatment Success

    Curtis L Cooper

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, hepatitis C virus (HCV antiviral therapy is characterized by long duration, a multitude of side effects, difficult administration and suboptimal success; clearly, alternatives are needed. Collectively, specifically targeted antiviral therapy for HCV (STAT-C molecules achieve rapid viral suppression and very high rapid virological response rates, and improve sustained virological response rates. The attrition rate of agents within this class has been high due to various toxicities. Regardless, several STAT-C molecules are poised to become the standard of care for HCV treatment in the foreseeable future. Optimism must be tempered with concerns related to the rapid development of drug resistance with resulting HCV rebound. Strategies including induction dosing with interferon and ribavirin, use of combination high-potency STAT-C molecules and an intensive emphasis on adherence to HCV antiviral therapy will be critical to the success of this promising advance in HCV therapy.

  10. Behavior of the viral hepatitis type A according to risk factors in Trinidad municipality.

    Martha Quesada Concepción

    2010-09-01

    of the viral hepatitis type A on the four health areas in Trinidad municipality in the period betwen january 1 st and 31 st , 2009. The sample was formed by 100 sick persons that keep the inclusion criteria. Some variable were used: incidence, age, sex, healt area and risk factors. It was observed that the highest rates concerning 100 000 inhabitans were found in: the health area of Caracusey (23,1, the masculine sex ( 134,3; Condado gave the lower index under the water potability (94,1%, Policlinic l was the most affected by the presence of uncleaned graves (40% and by garbage deemp (39,0%. There was greater incidence of the desease in the Condado health area, the bad handling of the solid residue and liquids influenced in the morbility of the desease.

  11. Type A viral hepatitis: A summary and update on the molecular virology, epidemiology, pathogenesis and prevention.

    Lemon, Stanley M; Ott, Jördis J; Van Damme, Pierre; Shouval, Daniel

    2017-09-05

    Although epidemic jaundice was well known to physicians of antiquity, it is only in recent years that medical science has begun to unravel the origins of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and the unique pathobiology underlying acute hepatitis A in humans. Improvements in sanitation and the successful development of highly efficacious vaccines have markedly reduced the worldwide prevalence and incidence of this enterically-transmitted infection over the past quarter century, yet the virus persists in vulnerable populations and remains a common cause of food-borne disease outbreaks in economically-advantaged societies. Reductions in the prevalence of HAV have led to increases in the median age at which infection occurs, often resulting in more severe disease in affected persons and paradoxical increases in disease burden in some developing nations. Here, we summarize recent advances in the molecular virology of HAV, an atypical member of the Picornaviridae family, survey what is known of the pathogenesis of hepatitis A in humans and the host-pathogen interactions that typify the infection, and review medical and public health aspects of immunisation and disease prevention. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Information from teachers on viral hepatitis transmission and prevention in Brazil Información de los maestros sobre la transmisión y la prevención de las hepatitis virales en el Brasil

    Rosangela Gaze

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess school teachers' level of knowledge on prevention of viral hepatitis (VH. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in three cities of Brazil, from August to November of 1999. The sample was composed of 360 subjects: 334 women and 26 men, 81 (22.5% from Belém, 123 (34.2% from Natal and 156 (43.3% from Rio de Janeiro. Cultural differences in knowledge were identified using a questionnaire to classify, according to semantic content, categories of transmission and preventive practices. Responses were scored as right or wrong. Data were tabulated and analyzed using EPIINFO 6.04 and open answers were classified according to semantic content. Comparison of the answer frequencies between cities was done through the chi-square test. RESULTS: Transmission category (TC (n=837 answers and prevention category (PC (n=771 answers "food-and waterborne" transmission items were the most frequently mentioned (40%. For TC, "food-and waterborne" answers were followed by "bloodborne" (16%, "inadequate knowledge" (9%, "possible causes of hepatic disease" (9%, and "sexual transmission" (7% answers. For PC items, "food-and waterborne" answers were followed by "general aspects of prevention" (13%, "immunization" (9%, "quality of health services" (8% and "sexual prevention" (5% items. "Right" scores for transmission mechanisms and prevention practices varied from zero to 80%. CONCLUSIONS: Study findings suggest that investments should be made to disseminate appropriate knowledge on VH prevention, mainly addressing sexual transmission and intravenous drug use.OBJETIVO: Evaluar los conocimientos y prácticas de profesores escolares en la prevención de hepatitis viral. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se llevó a cabo un estudio transversal en tres ciudades de Brasil, de agosto a noviembre de 1999. La muestra estuvo constituida por 360 sujetos: 334 mujeres y 26 hombres, 81 (22.5% de Belém, 123 (34.2% de Nataly 156 (43.3% de Río de Janeiro. Se

  13. Hepatitis C: What Happens in End-Stage Liver Disease?

    ... 2015. Chopra S. Clinical manifestations and natural history of hepatitis C virus infection. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Jan. 27, 2015. March 25, 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/hepatitis-c/expert-answers/hepatitis-c/FAQ-20058533 . Mayo ...

  14. PREVALENCE OF MARKERS OF VIRAL HEPATITIS B AND D FROM HEALTHY POPULATION IN REPUBLIC TYVA

    T. V. Kozhanova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to estimate prevalence of markers, genetic diversity, risk factors of HBV and HDV infections in all age groups among healthy population in Republic Tyva. Serum samples obtained from healthy population in Republic Tyva (N = 1086 were tested (aged from birth to older 60 years. The markers of HBV and HDV infections were determined by enzyme immunoassay and PCR. HBsAg was detected in 7,7% (84/1086, anti-HBc — in 47,8% (519/1086 and HBeAg — in 0,3% (3/1086 cases. Prevalence of HBsAg in children under 9 years was 1,3%, no positive results of anti-HDV were determined among children aged up to 9 year. Prevalence of anti-HDV among HBsAg-positive individuals of healthy population was 32,1% (27/84. HBV DNA was detected in 2,9% (31/1086 cases; HDV RNA — in 32,1% (14/84 HBsAg-positive individuals. The obtained data showed high prevalence of HBV ang HDV infections among healthy population of Republic Tyva. Thus, it is necessary to extend screening program in this region to improve viral hepatitis surveillance and diagnostics. The sharp decline in the prevalence of these infections in children up to 9 years in the surveyed endemic region is an evidence of effective protection against HBV and HDV with vaccination against hepatitis B. 

  15. Quantitative Analysis of Hepatitis C NS5A Viral Protein Dynamics on the ER Surface

    Nägel, Arne; Reiter, Sebastian; Vogel, Andreas; McLauchlan, John; Herrmann, Eva; Wittum, Gabriel

    2018-01-01

    Exploring biophysical properties of virus-encoded components and their requirement for virus replication is an exciting new area of interdisciplinary virological research. To date, spatial resolution has only rarely been analyzed in computational/biophysical descriptions of virus replication dynamics. However, it is widely acknowledged that intracellular spatial dependence is a crucial component of virus life cycles. The hepatitis C virus-encoded NS5A protein is an endoplasmatic reticulum (ER)-anchored viral protein and an essential component of the virus replication machinery. Therefore, we simulate NS5A dynamics on realistic reconstructed, curved ER surfaces by means of surface partial differential equations (sPDE) upon unstructured grids. We match the in silico NS5A diffusion constant such that the NS5A sPDE simulation data reproduce experimental NS5A fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) time series data. This parameter estimation yields the NS5A diffusion constant. Such parameters are needed for spatial models of HCV dynamics, which we are developing in parallel but remain qualitative at this stage. Thus, our present study likely provides the first quantitative biophysical description of the movement of a viral component. Our spatio-temporal resolved ansatz paves new ways for understanding intricate spatial-defined processes central to specfic aspects of virus life cycles. PMID:29316722

  16. Quantitative Analysis of Hepatitis C NS5A Viral Protein Dynamics on the ER Surface

    Knodel, Markus

    2018-01-08

    Exploring biophysical properties of virus-encoded components and their requirement for virus replication is an exciting new area of interdisciplinary virological research. To date, spatial resolution has only rarely been analyzed in computational/biophysical descriptions of virus replication dynamics. However, it is widely acknowledged that intracellular spatial dependence is a crucial component of virus life cycles. The hepatitis C virus-encoded NS5A protein is an endoplasmatic reticulum (ER)-anchored viral protein and an essential component of the virus replication machinery. Therefore, we simulate NS5A dynamics on realistic reconstructed, curved ER surfaces by means of surface partial differential equations (sPDE) upon unstructured grids. We match the in silico NS5A diffusion constant such that the NS5A sPDE simulation data reproduce experimental NS5A fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) time series data. This parameter estimation yields the NS5A diffusion constant. Such parameters are needed for spatial models of HCV dynamics, which we are developing in parallel but remain qualitative at this stage. Thus, our present study likely provides the first quantitative biophysical description of the movement of a viral component. Our spatio-temporal resolved ansatz paves new ways for understanding intricate spatial-defined processes central to specfic aspects of virus life cycles.

  17. Quantitative Analysis of Hepatitis C NS5A Viral Protein Dynamics on the ER Surface

    Markus M. Knodel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Exploring biophysical properties of virus-encoded components and their requirement for virus replication is an exciting new area of interdisciplinary virological research. To date, spatial resolution has only rarely been analyzed in computational/biophysical descriptions of virus replication dynamics. However, it is widely acknowledged that intracellular spatial dependence is a crucial component of virus life cycles. The hepatitis C virus-encoded NS5A protein is an endoplasmatic reticulum (ER-anchored viral protein and an essential component of the virus replication machinery. Therefore, we simulate NS5A dynamics on realistic reconstructed, curved ER surfaces by means of surface partial differential equations (sPDE upon unstructured grids. We match the in silico NS5A diffusion constant such that the NS5A sPDE simulation data reproduce experimental NS5A fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP time series data. This parameter estimation yields the NS5A diffusion constant. Such parameters are needed for spatial models of HCV dynamics, which we are developing in parallel but remain qualitative at this stage. Thus, our present study likely provides the first quantitative biophysical description of the movement of a viral component. Our spatio-temporal resolved ansatz paves new ways for understanding intricate spatial-defined processes central to specfic aspects of virus life cycles.

  18. Quantitative Analysis of Hepatitis C NS5A Viral Protein Dynamics on the ER Surface.

    Knodel, Markus M; Nägel, Arne; Reiter, Sebastian; Vogel, Andreas; Targett-Adams, Paul; McLauchlan, John; Herrmann, Eva; Wittum, Gabriel

    2018-01-08

    Exploring biophysical properties of virus-encoded components and their requirement for virus replication is an exciting new area of interdisciplinary virological research. To date, spatial resolution has only rarely been analyzed in computational/biophysical descriptions of virus replication dynamics. However, it is widely acknowledged that intracellular spatial dependence is a crucial component of virus life cycles. The hepatitis C virus-encoded NS5A protein is an endoplasmatic reticulum (ER)-anchored viral protein and an essential component of the virus replication machinery. Therefore, we simulate NS5A dynamics on realistic reconstructed, curved ER surfaces by means of surface partial differential equations (sPDE) upon unstructured grids. We match the in silico NS5A diffusion constant such that the NS5A sPDE simulation data reproduce experimental NS5A fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) time series data. This parameter estimation yields the NS5A diffusion constant. Such parameters are needed for spatial models of HCV dynamics, which we are developing in parallel but remain qualitative at this stage. Thus, our present study likely provides the first quantitative biophysical description of the movement of a viral component. Our spatio-temporal resolved ansatz paves new ways for understanding intricate spatial-defined processes central to specfic aspects of virus life cycles.

  19. A hepatocellular carcinoma cell line producing mature hepatitis B viral particles

    Fellig, Yakov; Almogy, Gidon; Galun, Eithan; Ketzinel-Gilad, Mali

    2004-01-01

    Current in vitro models for hepatitis B virus (HBV) are based on human hepatoblastoma cell lines transfected with HBV genome. The objective of this work was to develop an in vitro, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)-based system supporting HBV full replication and producing mature viral particles. The FLC4 human HCC cell line was stably transfected with a plasmid carrying a head-to-tail dimer of the adwHBV genome. One of the clones, FLC4A10 II , exhibited prolonged expression of HBV, as was demonstrated by secreted levels of HBsAg, HBeAg, and HBV DNA in the culture medium of the growing cells. Furthermore, the cells produced HBV particles that were detected by a cesium chloride density gradient performed on the culture medium. Analysis by Southern blot revealed that HBV DNA has integrated into the FLC4A10 II cell genome. The presence of HBV in the FLC4A10 II cells did not cause alterations in cell morphology and the cells continued to resemble mature hepatocytes. They do exhibit a high mitotic activity. The new HBV stably transfected cell line, FLC4A10 II , can serve as an important tool for further exploration of HBV host-pathogen interaction, viral life cycle, and for assessing new antiviral agents

  20. [Epidemiological analysis of viral hepatitis A in China, 2004-2015].

    Sun, X J; Wang, F Z; Zheng, H; Miao, N; Yuan, Q L; Wang, H Q; Yin, Z D; Zhang, G M

    2017-12-06

    Objective: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of hepatitis A cases in China from 2004 to 2015. Methods: Data of hepatitis A were reported through national notifiable disease information reporting system, which covered the 31 provinces (Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan excluded). The inclusion criteria was: date of illness onset was between January 1(st) 2004 and December 31(st) 2015, the status of reported card was confirmed, the case was classified as laboratory confirmed or clinical diagnosed, the disease was Hepatitis A. The information such as sex, date of birth, date of illness onset, place of residence was collected. The data was divided into three phases, 2004-2007, 2008-2011, 2012-2015, which represented the phase before expanded program on immunization (EPI), first 4 years after EPI, second 4 years after EPI. Results: From 2004 to 2015, there were totally 574 697 hepatitis A cases in China, the mean annual incidence was 3.62/100 000. The risk ratio of hepatitis A in 2015 was 0.23 when compared with 2004. Sichuan, Xinjiang and Yunnan contributed to 27.27% of the total cases in China. In 2012-2015, the incidence of western (3.46/100 000) region was significantly higher than that in central (1.21/100 000) and eastern (1.08/100 000) regions. From 2004-2015, number of cases in each age group declined greatly, with number of cases declining from 43 711 to 5 938 in the age group of 5-9 years, from 29 722 to 3 438 in 10-14, from 23 212 to 3 646 in 15-19. The number of cases declined from 24 079 to 10 304 in the age group of 0-4 (declined by 57.21%), but in 2012-2015, the incidence of 0-4 age group was still the highest, with 77.72% cases in Xinjiang and Sichuan. Famers, students and scattered children accounted for 69.95% of total cases, with student cases declined from 24.08% (2004-2007) to 8.67% (2012-2015). Conclusion: The incidence of hepatitis A in China is decreasing year by year, the risk has been decreasing to a relatively low level. However, in

  1. Role of hepatic resection for patients with carcinoid heart disease

    Bernheim, A.M.; Connolly, H.M.; Rubin, J.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of resection of hepatic carcinoid metastases on progression and prognosis of carcinoid heart disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From our database of 265 consecutive patients diagnosed as having carcinoid heart disease from January 1, 1980, through December 31, 2005...... nonrandomized study, our data suggest that patients with carcinoid heart disease who undergo hepatic resection have decreased cardiac progression and improved prognosis. Eligible patients should be considered for hepatic surgery Udgivelsesdato: 2008/2...

  2. Mutagenic Effects of Ribavirin on Hepatitis E Virus—Viral Extinction versus Selection of Fitness-Enhancing Mutations

    Daniel Todt

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis E virus (HEV, an important agent of viral hepatitis worldwide, can cause severe courses of infection in pregnant women and immunosuppressed patients. To date, HEV infections can only be treated with ribavirin (RBV. Major drawbacks of this therapy are that RBV is not approved for administration to pregnant women and that the virus can acquire mutations, which render the intra-host population less sensitive or even resistant to RBV. One of the proposed modes of action of RBV is a direct mutagenic effect on viral genomes, inducing mismatches and subsequent nucleotide substitutions. These transition events can drive the already error-prone viral replication beyond an error threshold, causing viral population extinction. In contrast, the expanded heterogeneous viral population can facilitate selection of mutant viruses with enhanced replication fitness. Emergence of these mutant viruses can lead to therapeutic failure. Consequently, the onset of RBV treatment in chronically HEV-infected individuals can result in two divergent outcomes: viral extinction versus selection of fitness-enhanced viruses. Following an overview of RNA viruses treated with RBV in clinics and a summary of the different antiviral modes of action of this drug, we focus on the mutagenic effect of RBV on HEV intrahost populations, and how HEV is able to overcome lethal mutagenesis.

  3. Mutagenic Effects of Ribavirin on Hepatitis E Virus-Viral Extinction versus Selection of Fitness-Enhancing Mutations.

    Todt, Daniel; Walter, Stephanie; Brown, Richard J P; Steinmann, Eike

    2016-10-13

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV), an important agent of viral hepatitis worldwide, can cause severe courses of infection in pregnant women and immunosuppressed patients. To date, HEV infections can only be treated with ribavirin (RBV). Major drawbacks of this therapy are that RBV is not approved for administration to pregnant women and that the virus can acquire mutations, which render the intra-host population less sensitive or even resistant to RBV. One of the proposed modes of action of RBV is a direct mutagenic effect on viral genomes, inducing mismatches and subsequent nucleotide substitutions. These transition events can drive the already error-prone viral replication beyond an error threshold, causing viral population extinction. In contrast, the expanded heterogeneous viral population can facilitate selection of mutant viruses with enhanced replication fitness. Emergence of these mutant viruses can lead to therapeutic failure. Consequently, the onset of RBV treatment in chronically HEV-infected individuals can result in two divergent outcomes: viral extinction versus selection of fitness-enhanced viruses. Following an overview of RNA viruses treated with RBV in clinics and a summary of the different antiviral modes of action of this drug, we focus on the mutagenic effect of RBV on HEV intrahost populations, and how HEV is able to overcome lethal mutagenesis.

  4. COMPARATIVE RESULTS OF LIVER TRANSPLANTATION IN PATIENTS WITH VIRAL CIRRHOSIS AND AUTOIMMUNE LIVER DISEASES AT A SINGLE CENTER

    O.A Gerasimova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Russian Scientist Centre for Radiology and Surgical Technology has sufficient experience of orthotopic liver transplantation (100 OLT, which allowed comparing the outcomes of the terminal stages of liver disease in the two most numerous groups of patients: viral cirrhosis (VH and autoimmune liver diseases (AILD. Despite the fact that patients with VH indicator of urgency performing OLT (MELD lower, rate of deaths on the waiting list higher than AILD, due to more favorable course of immune disease. After OLT significant differences during the early and last posttransplant periods were not found, although the recurrences of viral hepatitis are recorded much more frequently than AILD. One-year and a three-year survival rates were comparable. To prevent reinfection of the hepatitis B successfully used nucleoside analogues (telbivudine, which allowed minimizing recurrence of the disease. Prevention and treatment of hepatitis C after the OLT is a relevant problem, despite the low efficiency of antiviral therapy. Relapses AILD not represent a real threat to the life of the patients, because the modification of immunosuppressive therapy can limit the progression of the disease

  5. Parvovirus B19 in an Immunocompetent Adult Patient with Acute Liver Failure: An Underdiagnosed Cause of Acute Non-A-E Viral Hepatitis

    J Kee Ho

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available There are occasional pediatric reports of parvovirus B19-associated transient acute hepatitis and hepatic failure. A case of a 34-year-old immunocompetent woman who developed severe and prolonged but self-limited acute hepatitis and myelosuppression following acute parvovirus B19 infection is reported. Parvovirus B19 may be the causative agent in some adult cases of acute non-A-E viral hepatitis and acute liver failure.

  6. Hepatitis A virus-encoded miRNAs attenuate the accumulation of viral genomic RNAs in infected cells.

    Shi, Jiandong; Sun, Jing; Wu, Meini; Hu, Ningzhu; Hu, Yunzhang

    2016-06-01

    The establishment of persistent infection with hepatitis A virus (HAV) is the common result of most HAV/cell culture systems. Previous observations show that the synthesis of viral RNAs is reduced during infection. However, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. We characterized three HAV-encoded miRNAs in our previous study. In this study, we aim to investigate the impact of these miRNAs on the accumulation of viral RNAs. The results indicated that the synthesis of viral genomic RNAs was dramatically reduced (more than 75 % reduction, P viral miRNA mimics. Conversely, they were significantly increased (more than 3.3-fold addition, P viral miRNA inhibitors. The luciferase reporter assay of miRNA targets showed that viral miRNAs were fully complementary to specific sites of the viral plus or minus strand RNA and strongly inhibited their expressions. Further data showed that the relative abundance of viral genomic RNA fragments that contain miRNA targets was also dramatically reduced (more than 80 % reduction, P viral miRNAs were overexpressed with miRNA mimics. In contrast, they were significantly increased (approximately 2-fold addition, P viral miRNAs were inhibited with miRNA inhibitors. In conclusion, these data suggest a possible mechanism for the reduction of viral RNA synthesis during HAV infection. Thus, we propose that it is likely that RNA virus-derived miRNA could serve as a self-mediated feedback regulator during infection.

  7. Differential expression of viral PAMP receptors mRNA in peripheral blood of patients with chronic hepatitis C infection

    Riñón Marta

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP receptors play a key role in the early host response to viruses. In this work, we determined mRNA levels of two members of the Toll-like Receptors family, (TLR3 and TLR7 and the helicase RIG-I, all of three recognizing viral RNA products, in peripheral blood of healthy donors and hepatitis C virus (HCV patients, to observe if their transcripts are altered in this disease. Methods IFN-α, TLR3, TLR7 and RIG-I levels in peripheral blood from healthy controls (n = 18 and chronic HCV patients (n = 18 were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results Our results show that IFN-α, TLR3, TLR7 and RIG-I mRNA levels are significantly down-regulated in patients with chronic HCV infection when compared with healthy controls. We also found that the measured levels of TLR3 and TLR7, but not RIG-I, correlated significantly with those of IFN-α Conclusion Monitoring the expression of RNA-sensing receptors like TLR3, TLR7 and RIG-I during the different clinical stages of infection could bring a new source of data about the prognosis of disease.

  8. DMPD: Toll-like receptors regulation of viral infection and disease. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Full Text Available 18280610 Toll-like receptors regulation of viral infection and disease. Thompson JM...how Toll-like receptors regulation of viral infection and disease. PubmedID 18280610 Title Toll-like recepto...rs regulation of viral infection and disease. Authors Thompson JM, Iwasaki A. Pub

  9. Noninvasive assessment of hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatic B viral Infection using magnetic resonance elastography

    Lee, Jeong Eun [Dept. of Radiology, Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Min; Yoon, Jeong Hee; Shin, Cheong Il; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyung Bun [Dept. of Pathology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) for staging hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Patients with chronic HBV infection who were suspected of having focal or diffuse liver diseases (n = 195) and living donor candidates (n = 166) underwent MRE as part of the routine liver MRI examination. We measured liver stiffness (LS) values on quantitative shear stiffness maps. The technical success rate of MRE was then determined. Liver cell necroinflammatory activity and fibrosis were assessed using histopathologic examinations as the reference. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (Az) were calculated in order to predict the liver fibrosis stage. The technical success rate of MRE was 92.5% (334/361). The causes of technical failure were poor wave propagation (n = 12), severe respiratory motion (n = 3), or the presence of iron deposits in the liver (n = 12). The mean LS values, as measured by MRE, increased significantly along with an increase in the fibrosis stage (r = 0.901, p < 0.001); however, the mean LS values did not increase significantly along with the degree of necroinflammatory activity. The cutoff values of LS for ≥ F1, ≥ F2, ≥ F3, and F4 were 2.45 kPa, 2.69 kPa, 3.0 kPa, and 3.94 kPa, respectively, and with Az values of 0.987-0.988. MRE has a high technical success rate and excellent diagnostic accuracy for staging hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic HBV infection.

  10. Prevalence of viral hepatitis (B and C serological markers in healthy working population

    José Luis Calleja-Panero

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objectives: prevalence of viral hepatitis (B and C changes geographically. Our aim was to determinate the prevalence of hepatitis B (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV serological markers in healthy working population and to describe the epidemiological characteristics associated to its presence. Methods: blood samples and epidemiological data of 5,017 healthy workers from Murcia and Madrid were recorded prospectively. Results: a total of 5,017 healthy volunteers participated. Mean age 39 ± 11 years, men predominance (73 %. Prevalence of serological markers of HCV and HBV was 0.6 % and 0.7 %. Age of patients with HCV antibody was significantly higher (43 ± 9 years vs. 39 ± 11 years; p = 0.03. We observed significant differences in liver test values (alanine aminotransferase [ALT] 64 ± 56 IU/L vs. 28 ± 20 IU/L; p < 0.001; aspartate aminotransferase [AST] (51 ± 45 IU/L vs. 23 ± 12 IU/L; p < 0.001 and in gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT value (104 ± 122 IU/L vs. 37 ± 46 IU/L; p < 0.001. The presence of HCV antibody was related significantly to previous transfusion (13 % vs. 5 %; p = 0.03, tattoos (29 % vs. 13 %; p < 0.01, intravenous drug addiction (13 % vs. 0.2 %; p < 0.001 and coexistence with people with positive HCV antibody (16 % vs. 4 %; p < 0.001. In HBV no differences in basal characteristics were observed with exception in AST values (29 ± 15 IU/L vs. 23 ± 12 IU/L; p < 0.01. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg was related significantly to previous transfusion (15 % vs. 5 %; p < 0.01, tattoos (26 % vs. 14 %; p = 0.04 and coexistence with people with positive HBsAg (17 % vs. 4 %; p < 0.001. Conclusions: prevalence of serological markers in healthy working population is low. Risk factors for infection were previous transfusion and tattoos. Intravenous drug addiction was only a risk factor in HCV.

  11. Influence of maintained hemodialysis on viral load in patients with end-stage renal disease with HBV infection

    ZHANG Huifang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD with hepatitis B virus (HBV infection who underwent hemodialysis, the viral load of HBV DNA is relatively low and stable. For this phenomenon, some studies suggest that hemodialysis can reduce the HBV DNA load. The mechanism, which remains unclear, may be as follows: when HBV DNA enters the dialysate through the dialysis membrane, it was adsorbed onto the dialysis membrane; some virus particles were destroyed, and antiviral substances were produced in the course of hemodialysis. At present, there is no consensus on the mechanism responsible for the influence of maintained hemodialysis on the viral load of HBV DNA. This article reviews the factors involved in the influence of maintained hemodialysis on the viral load in ESRD patients with HBV infection and the recent progress.

  12. Shrimp viral diseases, import risk assessment and international trade.

    Karunasagar, Iddya; Ababouch, Lahsen

    2012-09-01

    Shrimp is an important commodity in international trade accounting for 15 % in terms of value of internationally traded seafood products which reached $102.00 billion in 2008. Aquaculture contributes to over 50 % of global shrimp production. One of the major constraints faced by shrimp aquaculture is the loss due to viral diseases like white spot syndrome, yellow head disease, and Taura syndrome. There are several examples of global spread of shrimp diseases due to importation of live shrimp for aquaculture. Though millions of tonnes of frozen or processed shrimp have been traded internationally during the last two decades despite prevalence of viral diseases in shrimp producing areas in Asia and the Americas, there is no evidence of diseases having been transmitted through shrimp imported for human consumption. The guidelines developed by the World Animal Health Organisation for movement of live animals for aquaculture, frozen crustaceans for human consumption, and the regulations implemented by some shrimp importing regions in the world are reviewed.

  13. Hatchery Vaccination Against Poultry Viral Diseases: Potential Mechanisms and Limitations.

    Abdul-Cader, Mohamed Sarjoon; Palomino-Tapia, Victor; Amarasinghe, Aruna; Ahmed-Hassan, Hanaa; De Silva Senapathi, Upasama; Abdul-Careem, Mohamed Faizal

    Commercial broiler and layer chickens are heavily vaccinated against economically important viral diseases with a view of preventing morbidity, mortality, and production impacts encountered during short production cycles. Hatchery vaccination is performed through in ovo embryo vaccination prehatch or spray and subcutaneous vaccinations performed at the day of hatch before the day-old chickens are being placed in barns with potentially contaminated environments. Commercially, multiple vaccines (e.g., live, live attenuated, and viral vectored vaccines) are available to administer through these routes within a short period (embryo day 18 prehatch to day 1 posthatch). Although the ability to mount immune response, especially the adaptive immune response, is not optimal around the hatch, it is possible that the efficacy of these vaccines depends partly on innate host responses elicited in response to replicating vaccine viruses. This review focuses on the current knowledge of hatchery vaccination in poultry and potential mechanisms of hatchery vaccine-mediated protective responses and limitations.

  14. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Hepatitis C

    Mekov Evgeni V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a preventable, treatable disease with significant extrapulmonary manifestations that could affect negatively its course in some patients. Hepatitis C virus infection (HCV, on the other hand, is associated with a number of extrahepatic manifestations. COPD patients have increased prevalence of HCV and patients with HCV, especially older ones, have increased prevalence and faster progression of COPD. HCV infection exerts long-term effects on lung tissue and is an additional risk factor for the development of COPD. The presence of HCV is associated with an accelerated loss of lung function in COPD patients, especially in current smokers. COPD could represent extrahepatic manifestation associated with HCV infection. The aim of this article was to review the literature on prevalence of HCV in COPD and vice versa, pathogenetic link and the consequences of their mutual existence.

  15. Encephalitis, acute renal failure, and acute hepatitis triggered by a viral infection in an immunocompetent young adult: a case report

    Khattab Mahmoud

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Cytomegalovirus generally causes self-limited, mild and asymptomatic infections in immunocompetent patients. An aggressive course in immunocompetent healthy patients is unusual. Case presentation We report the case of an immunocompetent 16-year-old Egyptian boy with encephalitis, acute renal failure, and acute hepatitis triggered by viral infection with a complete recovery following antiviral treatment. Conclusion We believe that this case adds to the understanding of the molecular biology, clinical presentation and increasing index of suspicion of many viral infections.

  16. Coevolution analysis of Hepatitis C virus genome to identify the structural and functional dependency network of viral proteins

    Champeimont, Raphaël; Laine, Elodie; Hu, Shuang-Wei; Penin, Francois; Carbone, Alessandra

    2016-05-01

    A novel computational approach of coevolution analysis allowed us to reconstruct the protein-protein interaction network of the Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) at the residue resolution. For the first time, coevolution analysis of an entire viral genome was realized, based on a limited set of protein sequences with high sequence identity within genotypes. The identified coevolving residues constitute highly relevant predictions of protein-protein interactions for further experimental identification of HCV protein complexes. The method can be used to analyse other viral genomes and to predict the associated protein interaction networks.

  17. Unilateral Adie's tonic pupil and viral hepatitis: Report of two cases

    Karadžić Jelena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Adie’s (tonic pupil is a neuro-ophthalmological disorder characterized by a tonically dilated pupil, which is unresponsive to light. It is caused by damage to postganglionic fibers of the parasympathetic innervation of the eye, usually by a viral or bacterial infection. Adie’s syndrome includes diminished deep tendon reflexes. Outline of Cases. We report data of a 59-year-old female with unequal pupil sizes. She complained of blurred vision and headache mainly while reading. She had a 35-year history of hepatitis B and liver cirrhosis. On exam, left pupil was mydriatic and there was no response to light and at slit lamp we saw segments of the sphincter constrict. We performed 0.125% pilocarpine test and there was a remarkable reduction of size in the left pupil. The second case is a 55-year-old female who was referred to the University Eye Clinic because of a headache and mydriatic left pupil. She had diabetes mellitus type 2, as well as hepatitis A virus 20 years earlier. On exam, the left pupil was mydriatic, with no response to light. Test with diluted pilocarpine was positive. Neurological examinations revealed no abnormality in either case so we excluded Adie’s syndrome. Conclusion. Adie’s tonic pupil is benign neuro-ophthalmological disorder of unknown etiology. Most patients commonly present no symptoms and anisocoria is noticed accidentally. Although the etiology is unknown, there are some conditions that cause tonic pupil. It may be a part of a syndrome in which tonic pupil is associated with absent deep tendon reflexes.

  18. Augmentation of DHCR24 expression by hepatitis C virus infection facilitates viral replication in hepatocytes.

    Takano, Takashi; Tsukiyama-Kohara, Kyoko; Hayashi, Masahiro; Hirata, Yuichi; Satoh, Masaaki; Tokunaga, Yuko; Tateno, Chise; Hayashi, Yukiko; Hishima, Tsunekazu; Funata, Nobuaki; Sudoh, Masayuki; Kohara, Michinori

    2011-09-01

    We characterized the role of 24-dehydrocholesterol reductase (DHCR24) in hepatitis C virus infection (HCV). DHCR24 is a cholesterol biosynthetic enzyme and cholesterol is a major component of lipid rafts, which is reported to play an important role in HCV replication. Therefore, we examined the potential of DHCR24 as a target for novel HCV therapeutic agents. We examined DHCR24 expression in human hepatocytes in both the livers of HCV-infected patients and those of chimeric mice with human hepatocytes. We targeted DHCR24 with siRNA and U18666A which is an inhibitor of both DHCR24 and cholesterol synthesis. We measured the level of HCV replication in these HCV replicon cell lines and HCV infected cells. U18666A was administrated into chimeric mice with humanized liver, and anti-viral effects were assessed. Expression of DHCR24 was induced by HCV infection in human hepatocytes in vitro, and in human hepatocytes of chimeric mouse liver. Silencing of DHCR24 by siRNA decreased HCV replication in replicon cell lines and HCV JFH-1 strain-infected cells. Treatment with U18666A suppressed HCV replication in the replicon cell lines. Moreover, to evaluate the anti-viral effect of U18666A in vivo, we administrated U18666A with or without pegylated interferon to chimeric mice and observed an inhibitory effect of U18666A on HCV infection and a synergistic effect with interferon. DHCR24 is an essential host factor which augmented its expression by HCV infection, and plays a significant role in HCV replication. DHCR24 may serve as a novel anti-HCV drug target. Copyright © 2010 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. PD-1 expression on peripheral CD8+ TEM/TEMRA subsets closely correlated with HCV viral load in chronic hepatitis C patients

    Zhang Weidong

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tight correlation between host circulating CD8+ T cell-mediated immune response and control of viral replication is classical characteristic of long-term HCV infection. CD8+ T cell maturation/activation markers are expected to be associated with viral replication and disease progression in chronic HCV infection. The aim of the present study was to explore novel markers on CD8+ T cells with ability to evaluate HCV viral replication and disease progression. Methods PBMCs were isolated from 37 chronic HCV-infected patients and 17 healthy controls. Distributed pattern of CD8+ T cells subsets and expression of PD-1, CD38, HLA-DR and CD127 were analyzed by flow cytometry. The correlation between expression of surface markers and HCV viral load or ALT was studied. Results Declined naïve and increased TEMRA CD8+ T subsets were found in HCV-infected individuals compared with healthy controls. Percentage and MFI of PD-1, CD38 and HLA-DR on all CD8+ T cell subsets were higher in HCV-infected patients than healthy controls. In contrast, CD127 expression on CD8+ TCM showed an opposite trend as PD-1, CD38 and HLA-DR did. In chronic HCV infection, MFI of PD-1 on CD8+ TEM (p Conclusion PD-1 level on peripheral CD8+ TEM/TEMRA was highly correlated with HCV viral load in chronic HCV-infected patients, which made PD-1 a novel indicator to evaluate HCV replication and disease progression in chronic hepatitis C patients.

  20. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF DECOMPENSATION PATTERN IN ALCOHOLIC AND VIRAL LIVER DISEASE AND ANALYSIS OF DECOMPENSATION OF MORTALITY

    Susrutha C. Suresh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Cirrhosis is defined as the histological development of regenerative nodules surrounded by fibrous bands in response to chronic liver injury, which leads to portal hypertension and end-stage liver disease. The aim of the study is to compare various decompensation patterns in alcohol-related and hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus-related chronic liver disease and to analyse the mortality after decompensation. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was conducted in a tertiary referral hospital between June 2014 - April 2016. It is a prospective observational study of the 385 patients who were diagnosed as suffering from chronic liver disease and managed for various decompensations both on an outpatient and as well on an inpatient basis. RESULTS During the study period, a total of 385 patients were diagnosed with chronic liver disease. Among the patients with the diagnosis of CLD, 152 (77.2% were diagnosed of alcoholic aetiology and 45 (22.8% of viral aetiology liver disease. The most common forms of decompensation in alcoholic chronic liver disease were found to be ascites (71.7%, jaundice (56.6% and oesophageal varices (32.2%. The most common forms of decompensations in viral-related chronic liver disease were jaundice (42.2%, ascites (35.6% and oesophageal varices (28.9%. Patients with viral-related CLD were diagnosed with higher incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma of (24.4% compared to only 5.3% of patients of alcoholic liver disease. Ascites was found to be the most common form of decompensation associated with mortality (76%. Jaundice (56%, hepatorenal syndrome (44% and hepatic encephalopathy (24% were the other common decompensations associated with mortality. CONCLUSION In this study, ascites was found to be most common form of decompensation patterns in alcoholic liver disease and jaundice in viral-related CLD. The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma was found to be higher in viral aetiology CLD. Ascites was found to be the most

  1. High burden of hepatocellular carcinoma and viral hepatitis in Southern and Central Vietnam: Experience of a large tertiary referral center, 2010 to 2016.

    Nguyen-Dinh, Song-Huy; Do, Albert; Pham, Trang Ngoc Doan; Dao, Doan Y; Nguy, Trinh Nhu; Chen, Moon S

    2018-01-27

    To examine the largest tertiary referral center in southern and central Vietnam from 2010 to 2016, evaluating epidemiological trends of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and viral hepatitis B-C in this resource-limited setting. We extracted data of patients receiving care from Cho Ray Hospital (Ho Chi Minh City), the largest oncology referral center in southern and central Vietnam, from 2010 to 2016. We collected information on patient age, gender, geographic distribution, and disease characteristics including disease stage, tumor biomarker levels [serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), AFP-L3 isoform percentage, and prothrombin induced by induced by vitamin K absence-II], and serological testing for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. Data from 24091 HCC patients were extracted, with sample demographics comprising mostly male (81.8%) and older age (however with 8.5% younger than 40 years old). This patient sample included a geographic catchment population of 56 million people (60% of the country's total population of 92.7 million), derived from 38 provinces and municipalities in Vietnam. Chronic HBV infection was found in 62.3% of cases, and chronic HCV infection in 26.0%. HBV and HCV co-infection was seen in 2.7%. Cirrhosis was found in an estimated 30% to 40% of cases. Nine percent of patients were not found to have chronic viral hepatitis. Twenty three point two percent of the patients had a normal AFP level. A total of 2199 patients were tested with AFP-L3 and PIVKA II over two years, with 57.7% having elevated AFP-L3%, and 88.5% with elevated PIVKA II levels. Over this 7-year period, the incidence of HCC increased, with a large proportion of cases (overall 40.8%) presenting initially an advanced stage, not amendable to surgical or locoregional therapy. HCC contributes significant health care burden in southern and central Vietnam, with increasing case volume over this seven-year period. Viral hepatitis likely explains this high HCC prevalence.

  2. Alternative and Complementary Therapies for Hepatitis C

    ... and Complementary Therapies Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For Veterans and the Public Veterans ... treatments which have been proven to reduce the hepatitis C viral load. Just because something is "natural" (an herb, ...

  3. Host transcription factor Speckled 110 kDa (Sp110), a nuclear body protein, is hijacked by hepatitis B virus protein X for viral persistence.

    Sengupta, Isha; Das, Dipanwita; Singh, Shivaram Prasad; Chakravarty, Runu; Das, Chandrima

    2017-12-15

    Promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (PML-NB) are sub-nuclear organelles that are the hub of numerous proteins. DNA/RNA viruses often hijack the cellular factors resident in PML-NBs to promote their proliferation in host cells. Hepatitis B virus (HBV), belonging to Hepadnaviridae family, remains undetected in early infection as it does not induce the innate immune response and is known to be the cause of several hepatic diseases leading to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The association of PML-NB proteins and HBV is being addressed in a number of recent studies. Here, we report that the PML-NB protein Speckled 110 kDa (Sp110) is SUMO1-modified and undergoes a deSUMOylation-driven release from the PML-NB in the presence of HBV. Intriguingly, Sp110 knockdown significantly reduced viral DNA load in the culture supernatant by activation of the type I interferon-response pathway. Furthermore, we found that Sp110 differentially regulates several direct target genes of hepatitis B virus protein X (HBx), a viral co-factor. Subsequently, we identified Sp110 as a novel interactor of HBx and found this association to be essential for the exit of Sp110 from the PML-NB during HBV infection and HBx recruitment on the promoter of these genes. HBx, in turn, modulates the recruitment of its associated transcription cofactors p300/HDAC1 to these co-regulated genes, thereby altering the host gene expression program in favor of viral persistence. Thus, we report a mechanism by which HBV can evade host immune response by hijacking the PML-NB protein Sp110, and therefore, we propose it to be a novel target for antiviral therapy. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Hepatic progenitors for liver disease: current position

    Alice Conigliaro

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Alice Conigliaro1, David A Brenner2, Tatiana Kisseleva21University “La Sapienza”, Dipartimento di Biotecnologie Cellulari ed Ematologia Policlinico Umberto I, V Clinica Medica, Rome, Italy; 2Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USAAbstract: Liver regeneration restores the original functionality of hepatocytes and cholangiocytes in response to injury. It is regulated on several levels, with different cellular populations contributing to this process, eg, hepatocytes, liver precursor cells, intrahepatic stem cells. In response to injury, mature hepatocytes have the capability to proliferate and give rise to new hepatocytes and cholangiocytes. Meanwhile, liver precursor cells (oval cells have become the most recognized bipotential precursor cells in the damaged liver. They rapidly proliferate, change their cellular composition, and differentiate into hepatocytes and cholangiocytes to compensate for the cellular loss and maintain liver homeostasis. There is a growing body of evidence that oval cells originate from the intrahepatic stem cell(s, which in turn give(s rise to epithelial, including oval cells, and/or other hepatic cells of nonepithelial origin. Since there is a close relationship between the liver and hematopoiesis, bone marrow derived cells can also contribute to liver regeneration by the fusion of myeloid cells with damaged hepatocytes, or differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into hepatocyte-like cells. The current review discusses the contribution of different cells to liver regeneration and their characteristics.Keywords: hepatic progenitor, liver disease, liver precursor cells, oval cells, hepatocytes, intrahepatic stem cells, cholangiocytes

  5. Making the invisible visible: searching for human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 (HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 in Brazilian patients with viral hepatitis B and C

    Adele Caterino-de-Araujo

    Full Text Available With this study, the authors hope to alert clinicians regarding the presence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 and 2 (HTLV-1/-2 infections in patients with viral hepatitis B and C in Brazil. HTLV-1/-2 were detected in 1.3% of hepatitis B virus (HBV- and 5.3% of hepatitis C virus (HCV-infected blood samples sent for laboratory viral load measurements. A partial association of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 and HTLV-1/-2 infection was detected in patients with HCV (HIV+, 27.3%, whereas this association was almost 100% in HBV-infected patients (HIV+, all except one. The high prevalence of HTLV-1/-2 infection among patients with hepatitis C was of concern, as HTLV-1/-2 could change the natural course of subsequent liver disease. The authors suggest including HTLV-1/-2 serology in the battery of tests used when following patients with viral hepatitis in Brazil, regardless of the HIV status.

  6. Making the invisible visible: searching for human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 (HTLV-1 and HTLV-2) in Brazilian patients with viral hepatitis B and C.

    Caterino-de-Araujo, Adele; Alves, Fabiana Aparecida; Campos, Karoline Rodrigues; Lemos, Marcílio Figueiredo; Moreira, Regina Célia

    2018-02-01

    With this study, the authors hope to alert clinicians regarding the presence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 and 2 (HTLV-1/-2) infections in patients with viral hepatitis B and C in Brazil. HTLV-1/-2 were detected in 1.3% of hepatitis B virus (HBV)- and 5.3% of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected blood samples sent for laboratory viral load measurements. A partial association of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 and HTLV-1/-2 infection was detected in patients with HCV (HIV+, 27.3%), whereas this association was almost 100% in HBV-infected patients (HIV+, all except one). The high prevalence of HTLV-1/-2 infection among patients with hepatitis C was of concern, as HTLV-1/-2 could change the natural course of subsequent liver disease. The authors suggest including HTLV-1/-2 serology in the battery of tests used when following patients with viral hepatitis in Brazil, regardless of the HIV status.

  7. Hepatic and erythrocytic glutathione peroxidase activity in liver diseases.

    Cordero, R; Ortiz, A; Hernández, R; López, V; Gómez, M M; Mena, P

    1996-09-01

    Hepatic and erythrocytic glutathione peroxidase activity, together with malondialdehyde levels, were determined as indicators of peroxidation in 83 patients from whom liver biopsies had been taken for diagnostic purposes. On histological study, the patients were classified into groups as minimal changes (including normal liver), steatosis, alcoholic hepatitis, hepatic cirrhosis, light to moderately active chronic hepatitis, and severe chronic active hepatitis. The glutathione peroxidase activity in erythrocytes showed no significant changes in any liver disease group. In the hepatic study, an increased activity was observed in steatosis with respect to the minimal changes group, this increased activity induced by the toxic agent in the initial stages of the alcoholic hepatic disease declining as the hepatic damage progressed. There was a negative correlation between the levels of hepatic malondialdehyde and hepatic glutathione peroxidase in subjects with minimal changes. This suggested the existence of an oxidative equilibrium in this group. This equilibrium is broken in the liver disease groups as was manifest in a positive correlation between malondialdehyde and glutathione peroxidase activity.

  8. Application of Serum Hepatic Fibrosis Indices in the Diagnosis of Hepatic Disease

    Lu Yanting; Wang Taisong; Gu Xin

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the significance of combined detection of laminin (LN), collagen type IV (CIV), hyaluronic acid (HA) and precollagen type III (PCIII) in the diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis. The serum levels of LN, CIV, HA and PCIII in 143 patients with hepatic disease and 41 healthy controls were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The results showed that the serum levels of LN, CIV, HA and PCIII in patients with hepatic disease were significantly higher than those of the control group (P<0.01), and the serum levels of those markers were related to the severity of the chronic hepatic disease. The highest serum levels were found in serious chronic hepatitis group and hepatic fibrosis group,and the increase of serum HA and PCIII was most remarkable. Combined detection of LN, CIV, HA and PCIII is a sensitive and reliable method in the diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis, but the four serum indices can not be used in differentiating serious chronic hepatitis and hepatic fibrosis. (authors)

  9. Psychometric properties of a questionnaire assessing nursing professionals′ knowledge regarding etiology and prevention of viral hepatitis B and C

    Anita Thakur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Viral hepatitis B and C are a global public health problem. For better targeting their detection and prevention, nursing professionals′ should have adequate knowledge and skills. Aims and Objectives: This study aimed at developing a "viral hepatitis questionnaire" and then validating it among nursing professionals′ working in a Medical College of North India. Materials and Methods: A fifteen-item questionnaire was developed by the principal investigator. This was based on a systematic search in database namely "PubMed" "IndMed" "Directory of Open Access journals" and "Google scholar". It was then administered to 318 nursing professionals′. The psychometric properties of the questionnaire were assessed in terms of construct validity and reliability. Results: The average age of the study subjects was 23.4 years (SD = 17.2, range = 18 years-54 years. Sampling adequacy as measured by Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO test was 0.82. This indicated relevance of the factorial model. Varimax rotation revealed that all items had achieved the required loading of 0.3. The internal consistency ranged from 0.81 to 0.87. The intra class correlation coefficient ranged from 0.67 to 0.71. Conclusion: " Viral hepatitis questionnaire" (VHQ appears to be a reliable and valid measure of assessing nursing professionals′ knowledge about viral hepatitis B and C. Its periodic use can serve the purpose of assessing nursing professionals′ training needs. It is further recommended that it should be tested among nursing staff in different healthcare facilities of India, in order to assess its wider performance.

  10. Frequency of hepatitis B (HBV) viral markers in sixth year dental students after three years clinical exposure

    Buxt, P; Fairbairn, P J.M.; Stern, S R; Treisman, B [University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Dept. of Oral Pathology

    1981-08-01

    The frequency of Hepatitis B viral markers was studied in 40 6th year dental students at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, after three years clinical exposure, using the radioimmunoassay technique. Three were anti-HBs positive; none was HBsAg positive. The frequency of the anti-HBs positive cases did not differ significantly from a group of blood donors, nor were there any statistically significant associated risk factors.

  11. Clinical application of high magnetic field strength of MRI for the study of viral hepatitis and HCC

    Fuji, K.; Furukawa, T.; Mizuno, K.; Matumoto, N.

    1990-01-01

    The current image of 1.5 Tesla MRI for the study of viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma, is discussed. The chain/program is not available in the 1.5 Tesla Sigma machine. The simple transverse image of the upper abdominal scanning is performed as the routine method of image acquisition, while the exposure method should be studied for more attractive image acquisition. The projection angle, pulse sequence difference and respiratory controlled exposure methods have also been examined. (author). 4 figs

  12. The frequency of hepatitis B (HBV) viral markers in sixth year dental students after three years clinical exposure

    Buxt, P.; Fairbairn, P.J.M.; Stern, S.R.; Treisman, B.

    1981-01-01

    The frequency of Hepatitis B viral markers was studied in 40 6th year dental students at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, after three years clinical exposure, using the radioimmunoassay technique. Three were anti-HBs positive; none was HBsAg positive. The frequency of the anti-HBs positive cases did not differ significantly from a group of blood donors, nor were there any statistically significant associated risk factors [af

  13. Viral replication. Structural basis for RNA replication by the hepatitis C virus polymerase.

    Appleby, Todd C; Perry, Jason K; Murakami, Eisuke; Barauskas, Ona; Feng, Joy; Cho, Aesop; Fox, David; Wetmore, Diana R; McGrath, Mary E; Ray, Adrian S; Sofia, Michael J; Swaminathan, S; Edwards, Thomas E

    2015-02-13

    Nucleotide analog inhibitors have shown clinical success in the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, despite an incomplete mechanistic understanding of NS5B, the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Here we study the details of HCV RNA replication by determining crystal structures of stalled polymerase ternary complexes with enzymes, RNA templates, RNA primers, incoming nucleotides, and catalytic metal ions during both primed initiation and elongation of RNA synthesis. Our analysis revealed that highly conserved active-site residues in NS5B position the primer for in-line attack on the incoming nucleotide. A β loop and a C-terminal membrane-anchoring linker occlude the active-site cavity in the apo state, retract in the primed initiation assembly to enforce replication of the HCV genome from the 3' terminus, and vacate the active-site cavity during elongation. We investigated the incorporation of nucleotide analog inhibitors, including the clinically active metabolite formed by sofosbuvir, to elucidate key molecular interactions in the active site. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  14. Human hepatitis B viral e antigen and its precursor P20 inhibit T lymphocyte proliferation

    Purvina, Maija; Hoste, Astrid; Rossignol, Jean-Michel; Lagaudrière-Gesbert, Cécile

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► P20, precursor of the HBeAg, interacts with the cellular protein gC1qR. ► HBeAg and P20 bind to T cell surface and inhibit mitogen-induced T cell division. ► HBeAg and P20 inhibition of T cell proliferation is gC1qR and IL-1RAcP-independent. -- Abstract: The hepatitis B virus (HBV) Precore protein is processed through the secretory pathway directly as HBeAg or with the generation of an intermediate (P20). Precore gene has been shown to be implicated in viral persistence, but the functions of HBeAg and its precursors have not been fully elucidated. We show that the secreted proteins HBeAg and P20 interact with T cell surface and alter Kit-225 and primary T cells proliferation, a process which may facilitate the establishment of HBV persistence. Our data indicate that the N-terminal end of Precore is important for these inhibitory effects and exclude that they are dependent on the association of HBeAg and P20 with two characterized cell surface ligands, the Interleukin-1 Receptor Accessory Protein and gC1qR (present study).

  15. Human hepatitis B viral e antigen and its precursor P20 inhibit T lymphocyte proliferation

    Purvina, Maija; Hoste, Astrid; Rossignol, Jean-Michel [Universite de Versailles-Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Laboratoire de Genetique et Biologie Cellulaire, EA 4589, 45 avenue des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles (France); Lagaudriere-Gesbert, Cecile, E-mail: cecile.lagaudriere-gesbert@u-psud.fr [Universite de Versailles-Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Laboratoire de Genetique et Biologie Cellulaire, EA 4589, 45 avenue des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles (France)

    2012-01-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer P20, precursor of the HBeAg, interacts with the cellular protein gC1qR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HBeAg and P20 bind to T cell surface and inhibit mitogen-induced T cell division. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HBeAg and P20 inhibition of T cell proliferation is gC1qR and IL-1RAcP-independent. -- Abstract: The hepatitis B virus (HBV) Precore protein is processed through the secretory pathway directly as HBeAg or with the generation of an intermediate (P20). Precore gene has been shown to be implicated in viral persistence, but the functions of HBeAg and its precursors have not been fully elucidated. We show that the secreted proteins HBeAg and P20 interact with T cell surface and alter Kit-225 and primary T cells proliferation, a process which may facilitate the establishment of HBV persistence. Our data indicate that the N-terminal end of Precore is important for these inhibitory effects and exclude that they are dependent on the association of HBeAg and P20 with two characterized cell surface ligands, the Interleukin-1 Receptor Accessory Protein and gC1qR (present study).

  16. PDW Index - A Simple Model for the Prediction of Liver Fibrosis in Chronic Viral Hepatitis

    Ashraf, S.; Ali, N.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the accuracy of platelets, platelet morphological parameters, mean platelet volume(MPV) and platelet distribution width, (PDW) to diagnose advanced fibrosis. Study Design: Validation study. Place and Duration of Study: Combined Military Hospital, Malir, from Jun 2008 to Jun 2009. Patients and Methods: Simple laboratory tests, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) alanine aminotransferase (ALT) platelet count and platelet morphological parameters were measured in 91 chronic viral hepatitis patients. All patients had liver biopsy performed. A new index, PDW index was derived to detect the opposing effects of liver fibrosis on platelet count, MPV, and PDW. The predictive value of the index for advanced fibrosis (F3-F4) was assessed through descriptive statistics and area under the ROC curves. Results: Two cut-offs were chosen to qualify different stages of fibrosis. A value of > 8.00 predicted advanced fibrosis, F3-F4, with a specificity of 94% and positive predictive value of 78%. A value of < 6.00 ruled out advanced fibrosis with a negative predictive value of 93% and a sensitivity of 82%. The area under the ROC curve for advanced fibrosis was 0.840. PDW Index values outside of these cut-offs correctly classified 60% of patients. Conclusion: A simple index comprising platelet as only parameters have high diagnostic value for the advanced stages of fibrosis. (author)

  17. Clinical significance of determination of serum IGF-I, TNF-α and SS levels in patients with chronic viral hepatitis

    Zhu Peiming

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of changes of serum IGF-I, TNF-α and somatostatin(SS) levels in patients with chronic viral hepatitis. Methods: Serum IGF-I, TNF-α and SS levels were determined with RIA in 30 patients with chronic viral hepatitis (B hepatitis, n=24,C hepatitis, n=6) and 30 controls.Results The serum IGF-I, TNF-α and SS levels in the patients were all significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.01). Conclusion: Serum IGF-I, TNF-α and SS levels were markedly increased in patients with chronic viral hepatitis, the exact mechanism and consequence of the changes required further study. (authors)

  18. EPA-Registered Repellents for Mosquitoes Transmitting Emerging Viral Disease.

    Patel, Radha V; Shaeer, Kristy M; Patel, Pooja; Garmaza, Aleksey; Wiangkham, Kornwalee; Franks, Rachel B; Pane, Olivia; Carris, Nicholas W

    2016-12-01

    In many parts of the United States, mosquitoes were previously nuisance pests. However, they now represent a potential threat in the spread of viral diseases. The Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, and Culex species mosquitoes are endemic to the United States and together may transmit a variety of viral diseases of growing concern, including West Nile virus, chikungunya, dengue fever, and Zika virus. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommend N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET) as a first-line mosquito repellent, but for patients refusing to use DEET or other conventional repellents, guidance is limited to any EPA-registered product. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of the literature to identify which EPA-registered personal mosquito repellent provides the best protection from A. aegypti, A. albopictus, and Culex spp. mosquitoes. We abstracted data from 62 published reports of EPA-registered mosquito repellents. The conventional repellent picaridin has the strongest data to support its use as a second-line agent, while IR3535 and oil of lemon eucalyptus are reasonably effective natural products. Citronella, catnip, and 2-undecanone offer limited protection or have limited data. These results can be used by pharmacists and other health care professionals to advise patients on the selection of an EPA-registered mosquito repellent. Regardless of the repellent chosen, it is vital for patients to follow all instructions/precautions in the product labeling to ensure safe and effective use. © 2016 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  19. Detection of entero viruses and hepatitis A in treated wastewater and Correlation between viral and bacterial contamination

    Dridi, Soumaya

    2010-01-01

    The main human viruses likely to contaminate waste water are Non-enveloped viruses able to resist in the environment, so essentially the viruses presenting an enteric cycle of multiplication. Many of these viruses, namely entero virus, hepatitis Avirus are excreted in the saddles of patients or of carriers and meet in waste water. To fight against the viral risk it is necessary to have a methodology allowing the control and the surveillance of virological and Hydric contamination. For the revealing of enteric virus, the reference technique remains the isolation on cellular culture. However, the disadvantage of this technique is the fact that it is difficult for certain viruses. Thus, the rise of molecular biology allowed the focusing of reliable and significant methods for detection of the enteric viruses in the environmental takings. The aim of this work was to detect hepatitis A virus and entero virus in waste water. A total of 20 samples were concentrated then precipitated by Polyethylene glycol 6000 according to the method of EPA. Extraction and purification of the viral ARN are made by the Kit QIAmp Viral RNA (Qiagen). The analysis of nucleic acids extracted by RT-PCR allowed to detect Entero virus with a 15 pour cent frequency (3/20) and 10 pour cent (2/20) for the hepatitis A virus.

  20. Ample spectrum of vascular hepatic disease

    Camacho, Juan C; Marquez Adriana; Romero, Javier; Aguirre Diego

    2010-01-01

    Hepatic vascular diseases (HVD) are a broad spectrum of entities of low prevalence but with different clinical manifestations that may even lead to death. Its early detection and timely treatment may change the prognosis. Diagnostic imaging plays a key role and imaging findings may be typical. However, in most cases, radiologists must take into account a wide range of differential diagnosis. Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen is one of the most useful tools for the diagnosis of HVD taking also into account the value of other imaging methods such as Doppler Ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). HVD can be classified according to the compromised vascular structure and can be divided into venous, portal, arterial, sinusoidal and others disorders. The objective of this review is to describe the most common presentation HVD. The major imaging findings and differential diagnosis recognizing its correlation with the pathophysiological mechanisms.

  1. Altered oral viral ecology in association with periodontal disease.

    Ly, Melissa; Abeles, Shira R; Boehm, Tobias K; Robles-Sikisaka, Refugio; Naidu, Mayuri; Santiago-Rodriguez, Tasha; Pride, David T

    2014-05-20

    The human oral cavity is home to a large and diverse community of viruses that have yet to be characterized in patients with periodontal disease. We recruited and sampled saliva and oral biofilm from a cohort of humans either periodontally healthy or with mild or significant periodontal disease to discern whether there are differences in viral communities that reflect their oral health status. We found communities of viruses inhabiting saliva and the subgingival and supragingival biofilms of each subject that were composed largely of bacteriophage. While there were homologous viruses common to different subjects and biogeographic sites, for most of the subjects, virome compositions were significantly associated with the oral sites from which they were derived. The largest distinctions between virome compositions were found when comparing the subgingival and supragingival biofilms to those of planktonic saliva. Differences in virome composition were significantly associated with oral health status for both subgingival and supragingival biofilm viruses but not for salivary viruses. Among the differences identified in virome compositions was a significant expansion of myoviruses in subgingival biofilm, suggesting that periodontal disease favors lytic phage. We also characterized the bacterial communities in each subject at each biogeographic site by using the V3 hypervariable segment of the 16S rRNA and did not identify distinctions between oral health and disease similar to those found in viral communities. The significantly altered ecology of viruses of oral biofilm in subjects with periodontal disease compared to that of relatively periodontally healthy ones suggests that viruses may serve as useful indicators of oral health status. Little is known about the role or the constituents of viruses as members of the human microbiome. We investigated the composition of human oral viral communities in a group of relatively periodontally healthy subjects or significant

  2. General epidemiological parameters of viral hepatitis A, B, C, and E in six regions of China: a cross-sectional study in 2007.

    Lu, Jian; Zhou, Yongdong; Lin, Xiaojing; Jiang, Yongzhen; Tian, Ruiguang; Zhang, Yonghui; Wu, Jia; Zhang, Fengwei; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Yue; Bi, Shengli

    2009-12-24

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health burden worldwide. To date, few reports have addressed the prevalence of hepatitis A, B, C, and E in China. Therefore, the general epidemiological parameters of viral hepatitis remain unknown. In this cross-sectional study, we performed a serological prevalence analysis of viral hepatitis A, B, C, and E in 8,762 randomly selected Chinese subjects, which represented six areas of China. The overall prevalence of anti-Hepatitis C virus antibody (anti-HCV) was 0.58%, which was much lower than was estimated by WHO. The prevalences of Hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg), anti-Hepatitis B virus surface protein antibody (HBsAb), and anti-Hepatitis B virus core protein antibody (HBcAb) were 5.84%, 41.31%, and 35.92%, respectively, whereas in the group of subjects less than 5 years old, these prevalences were 1.16%, 46.77%, and 8.69% respectively, which suggests that the Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-carrier population is decreasing, and the nationwide HBV vaccine program has contributed to the lowered HBV prevalence in the younger generation in China. Meanwhile, a large deficit remains in coverage provided by the national HBV immune program. In addition, our data suggested the possibility that HBsAb may not last long enough to protect people from HBV infection throughout life. The overall prevalence of anti-Hepatitis A virus antibody (anti-HAV) and anti-Hepatitis E virus antibody (anti-HEV) were as high as 72.87% and 17.66%, respectively. The indices increased with age, which suggests that a large proportion of Chinese adults are protected by latent infection. Furthermore, the pattern of HEV infection was significantly different among ethnic groups in China. Our study provided much important information concerning hepatitis A, B, C, and E prevalence in China and will contribute to worldwide oversight of viral hepatitis.

  3. Liver damage caused by hepatitis C viral infection and ethyl alcohol consumption

    Kostić Velimir

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Hepatitis C virus infection (HCV is a complex disease, most commonly chronicle (80-85%. The aim of this research was to determinate the level of the liver damage in the patients cansed by HCV in conjunction with consuming ethyl alcohol. Methods. The research included 15 patients with chronic HCV infection supported by the misuse of ethyl alcohol, as well. The diagnosis of C infection hepatitis was proved using the ELISA test and PCR method. Results. The results of the study showed the liver damage by both HCV infection and ethyl alcohol, which was verified by the presence of biochemical changes and patohystological processing of the patients (liver biopsy and prosection. Patohystological changes were at the level of liver cirrhosis and carcinoma (2 patients. There was a signficant difference between the two subgroups (p < 0.001 regarding the examined values γ-GT, PLT and PTV. The basic therapeutic procedure was to introduce this category of patients into alcohol abstinence, and, in a few patients, to apply the antivirus therapy, as well. Conclusion. Based on the number of the examined patients (n = 15, we could conclude that a prolonged ethyl alcohol misuse with the presence of HCV infection was in a correlation with the liver disease progression.

  4. Inhibition of viral replication reduces regulatory T cells and enhances the antiviral immune response in chronic hepatitis B

    Stoop, Jeroen N.; Molen, Renate G. van der; Kuipers, Ernst J.; Kusters, Johannes G.; Janssen, Harry L.A.

    2007-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Treg) play a key role in the impaired immune response that is typical for a chronic Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. To gain more insight in the mechanism that is responsible for this impaired immune response, the effect of viral load reduction resulting from treatment with the nucleotide analogue adefovir dipivoxil on the percentages of Treg and HBV-specific T-cell responses was analyzed. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of 12 patients were collected at baseline and during treatment. In parallel to the decline in viral load, we found a decline in circulating Treg, combined with an increase in HBV core antigen-specific IFN-γ production and proliferation. The production of IL10 did not decrease during therapy. In conclusion, adefovir induced viral load reduction results in a decline of circulating Treg together with a partial recovery of the immune response

  5. Syphilitic hepatitis: An uncommon manifestation of a common disease

    Sukriti Baveja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis being first manifestation of secondary syphilis is rare. Here in we report a case of 39 years old male who was being treated for hepatitis and presented to us subsequently with itchy maculopapular rash. Venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL titre was 1:16. Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay (TPHA was positive. He was treated with intramuscular Benzathine Penicillin. His hepatitis improved rapidly.

  6. Policy responses to viral hepatitis B and C among people who inject drugs in Member States of the WHO European region

    Spina, Alexander; Eramova, Irina; Lazarus, Jeffrey V

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Unsafe injections, through infectious bodily fluids, are a major route of transmission for hepatitis B and C. Viral hepatitis burden among people who inject drugs is particularly high in many Member States of central and Eastern Europe while national capacity and willingness to address......, with less than one-third reportedly conducting regular serosurveys among people who inject drugs. CONCLUSIONS: Findings highlight key gaps requiring attention in order to improve national policies and programmes in the region and ensure an adequate response to injection drug use-associated viral hepatitis...... of a national policy for hepatitis prevention and control; however less than one-third (27%) reported having written national strategies. Under half of the responding Member States reported holding events for World Hepatitis Day 2012. One-fifth reported offering hepatitis B and C testing free of charge...

  7. Dynamic changes in HCV RNA levels and viral quasispecies in a patient with chronic hepatitis C after telaprevir-based treatment

    de Bruijne, Joep; Sullivan, James C.; Kieffer, Tara L.; Botfield, Martyn; Shames, Ben; Schinkel, Janke; Molenkamp, Richard; Weegink, Christine; Reesink, Henk

    2012-01-01

    Background: Telaprevir is a selective inhibitor of the hepatitis C virus NS3 center dot 4A serine protease. Treatment with telaprevir resulted in a rapid HCV-RNA decline in chronic hepatitis C genotype 1 patients. Objectives: To report the clinical and viral course of a patient treated with

  8. A Different Perspective for Management of Diabetes Mellitus: Controlling Viral Liver Diseases.

    Zhao, Yingying; Xing, Huichun

    2017-01-01

    Knowing how to prevent and treat diabetes mellitus (DM) earlier is essential to improving outcomes. Through participating in synthesis and catabolism of glycogen, the liver helps to regulate glucose homeostasis. Viral related liver diseases are associated with glycometabolism disorders, which means effective management of viral liver diseases may be a therapeutic strategy for DM. The present article reviews the correlation between DM and liver diseases to give an update of the management of DM rooted by viral liver diseases.

  9. [ALAT and viral RNA as risk factors in 68 blood donors with anti-hepatitis C antibodies].

    Tullen, E; De Saussure, P; Soulier-Lauper, M

    1993-01-23

    Determine the risk factors in blood donors with anti hepatitis C antibodies (anti-HCV ab) possible liver involvement and evaluation of their infectious potential by a search for viral RNA in blood. Between July 1990 and October 1991, 19,632 blood donors were screened for hepatitis C. Antibodies to HCV were detected in 74 donors (2nd generation ELISA, Abbott). We evaluated the risk factors, determined ALAT levels and looked for circulating RNA virus by amplification of the non-coding region of the viral genome (RTPCR) in 68 of these 74 donors screened. A control was chosen arbitrarily from 103 donors with high ALAT levels, but with no antibodies to HCV nor detectable circulating viral DNA. The prevalence of anti-HCV ab in blood donors in 0.37%. No risk factor was found in 29 donors (43%). Parenteral exposure (former i.v. drug addiction and history of transfusions) was found to be the mode of transmission of hepatitis C in 23 donors (34%). History of NANB jaundice (non-post transfusion) was reported in 1 donor (1%). The remaining 15 donors (22%) were found to have minor risk factors - either isolated or in combination (exposure, tatoos, multiple sexual partners). Former i.v. drug addiction (p = 0.0000006) as well as a history of transfusions (p = 0.0071) are significantly more frequent in the group of donors with antibodies to HCV. None of the 35 sexual partners of the tested donors proved to be positive. 21 donors (30%) had high ALAT (+2 SD). Viral RNA was detected in blood of 26 donors (38%). The proportion of cases with positive viral RNA was 61% if only those donors with high ALAT levels were taken into consideration (13 positive of 21). Risk factors were found in 39 donors (57%) with antibodies to HCV. History of parenteral exposure was found to be significantly more frequent than in the control group (p = 0.0000054). Sexual transmission within couples was not demonstrated in the population tested. A positive PCR test is a probable indicator of a continuous

  10. Major viral diseases affecting fish aquaculture in Spain.

    Pérez, S I; Rodríguez, S

    1997-06-01

    The number of viruses isolated from fish has grown in the last few years as a reflection of the increasing interest in fish diseases, particularly those occurring in aquaculture facilities. Of all the described viruses, only a few are considered to be of serious concern and economic importance; they are described in this review, drawing special attention to the four families of viruses (Birnaviridae, Rhabdoviridae, Iridoviridae and Reoviridae) that have been reported in Spanish aquaculture. Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, a member of the first family, is the most spread virus with a prevalence of 39%. Viral diseases are untreatable and because effective and safe vaccines for fish are not yet commercially available, a great care needs to be exercised when moving fish or eggs from one site or country to another. Some fish health control regulations have been legislated in Europe and USA.

  11. New antiviral agents and new treatments on the horizon for the management of viral hepatitis

    M. Sönmezoğlu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Transfusion dependant patients are at risk of acquiring transfusiontransmitted viral infections including Hepatitis B virus (HBV and Hepatitis C (HCV. These infections can lead to cirrhosis and hepatic cancer. Standard treatment, although with improved therapeutic results still exhibits resistance and relapses. New antiviral agents have been developed to further improve results and reduce adverse events. For hepatitis B, along with pegylated interferon a-2a, other drugs that have been approved include lamivudine, adefovir, entecavir, telbivudine and tenofovir, while emtricitabine and clevudine are awaiting FDA approval. Possible combination drug therapy may improve efficacy without engendering resistance. For hepatitis C, standard therapy has been the combination of Peg-IFN/Ribavarin. Genotype 1 of the virus, which is widespread in the USA and Europe, can be resistant to treatment especially with high viral load. Directly acting antiviral agents (DAAs, are being developed. These are: i HCV NS3 protease inhibitors, such as telaprevir and boceprevir, which are currently approved by the FDA. Several other compounds are in phase I-II development; ii NS5B polymerase inhibitors, which target HCV replication. These include mericitabine (a nucleoside analogue inhibitor currently in phase III trials, and nonnucleiside inhibitors; iii New intreferons such as pgylated interferonl, which are also on trial. Triple therapy using pegylated IFNa/ Ribavarin along with telaprevir or boceprevir are also under trial. 输血依赖型患者面临输血传播病毒感染的风险,包括乙型肝炎病毒(HBV)和丙型肝炎病毒(HCV)。 这些感染可导致肝硬化和肝癌。 标准治疗,尽管具有改善的治疗效果,但是仍然表现出抗病性和复发性 已研发出新的抗病毒药物,进一步完善结果和降低不良事件。 关于乙型肝炎,和聚乙二醇化干扰素a-2a一起,其他已获批准的药物包括拉米夫

  12. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Induced Synthesis of a Novel Viral Factor Mediates Efficient Replication of Genotype-1 Hepatitis E Virus.

    Vidya P Nair

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis E virus (HEV causes acute hepatitis in many parts of the world including Asia, Africa and Latin America. Though self-limiting in normal individuals, it results in ~30% mortality in infected pregnant women. It has also been reported to cause acute and chronic hepatitis in organ transplant patients. Of the seven viral genotypes, genotype-1 virus infects humans and is a major public health concern in South Asian countries. Sporadic cases of genotype-3 and 4 infection in human and animals such as pigs, deer, mongeese have been reported primarily from industrialized countries. Genotype-5, 6 and 7 viruses are known to infect animals such as wild boar and camel, respectively. Genotype-3 and 4 viruses have been successfully propagated in the laboratory in mammalian cell culture. However, genotype-1 virus replicates poorly in mammalian cell culture and no other efficient model exists to study its life cycle. Here, we report that endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress promotes genotype-1 HEV replication by inducing cap-independent, internal initiation mediated translation of a novel viral protein (named ORF4. Importantly, ORF4 expression and stimulatory effect of ER stress inducers on viral replication is specific to genotype-1. ORF4 protein sequence is mostly conserved among genotype-1 HEV isolates and ORF4 specific antibodies were detected in genotype-1 HEV patient serum. ORF4 interacted with multiple viral and host proteins and assembled a protein complex consisting of viral helicase, RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp, X, host eEF1α1 (eukaryotic elongation factor 1 isoform-1 and tubulinβ. In association with eEF1α1, ORF4 stimulated viral RdRp activity. Furthermore, human hepatoma cells that stably express ORF4 or engineered proteasome resistant ORF4 mutant genome permitted enhanced viral replication. These findings reveal a positive role of ER stress in promoting genotype-1 HEV replication and pave the way towards development of an efficient

  13. Hepatic telangiectasia in Osler's disease treated with arterial embolization

    Goethlin, J H; Nordgard, K; Jonsson, K; Nyman, U

    1982-02-01

    Hepatic hereditary telangiectasia in 2 females was treated with hepatic artery embolization. In one patient both peripheral and central arterial occlusion was performed; the patient died of massive gastro-intestinal bleeding 2 months later. Autopsy showed extensive regions with necrosis in the right liver lobe. In the next patient only central occlusion of the right hepatic artery was performed and the arterio-venous shunting in the left liver lobe left remaining. After a long reconvalescence period the patient recovered completely. It is advocated to centrally occlude only that hepatic artery supplying the most affected parts of the liver in Osler's disease. Thus extensive necrosis with possible ensuing death may be avoided.

  14. Acute hepatitis A virus infection is associated with a limited type I interferon response and persistence of intrahepatic viral RNA.

    Lanford, Robert E; Feng, Zongdi; Chavez, Deborah; Guerra, Bernadette; Brasky, Kathleen M; Zhou, Yan; Yamane, Daisuke; Perelson, Alan S; Walker, Christopher M; Lemon, Stanley M

    2011-07-05

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is an hepatotropic human picornavirus that is associated only with acute infection. Its pathogenesis is not well understood because there are few studies in animal models using modern methodologies. We characterized HAV infections in three chimpanzees, quantifying viral RNA by quantitative RT-PCR and examining critical aspects of the innate immune response including intrahepatic IFN-stimulated gene expression. We compared these infection profiles with similar studies of chimpanzees infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), an hepatotropic flavivirus that frequently causes persistent infection. Surprisingly, HAV-infected animals exhibited very limited induction of type I IFN-stimulated genes in the liver compared with chimpanzees with acute resolving HCV infection, despite similar levels of viremia and 100-fold greater quantities of viral RNA in the liver. Minimal IFN-stimulated gene 15 and IFIT1 responses peaked 1-2 wk after HAV challenge and then subsided despite continuing high hepatic viral RNA. An acute inflammatory response at 3-4 wk correlated with the appearance of virus-specific antibodies and apoptosis and proliferation of hepatocytes. Despite this, HAV RNA persisted in the liver for months, remaining present long after clearance from serum and feces and revealing dramatic differences in the kinetics of clearance in the three compartments. Viral RNA was detected in the liver for significantly longer (35 to >48 wk) than HCV RNA in animals with acute resolving HCV infection (10-20 wk). Collectively, these findings indicate that HAV is far stealthier than HCV early in the course of acute resolving infection. HAV infections represent a distinctly different paradigm in virus-host interactions within the liver.

  15. Ebselen inhibits hepatitis C virus NS3 helicase binding to nucleic acid and prevents viral replication.

    Mukherjee, Sourav; Weiner, Warren S; Schroeder, Chad E; Simpson, Denise S; Hanson, Alicia M; Sweeney, Noreena L; Marvin, Rachel K; Ndjomou, Jean; Kolli, Rajesh; Isailovic, Dragan; Schoenen, Frank J; Frick, David N

    2014-10-17

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) is both a protease, which cleaves viral and host proteins, and a helicase that separates nucleic acid strands, using ATP hydrolysis to fuel the reaction. Many antiviral drugs, and compounds in clinical trials, target the NS3 protease, but few helicase inhibitors that function as antivirals have been reported. This study focuses on the analysis of the mechanism by which ebselen (2-phenyl-1,2-benzisoselenazol-3-one), a compound previously shown to be a HCV antiviral agent, inhibits the NS3 helicase. Ebselen inhibited the abilities of NS3 to unwind nucleic acids, to bind nucleic acids, and to hydrolyze ATP, and about 1 μM ebselen was sufficient to inhibit each of these activities by 50%. However, ebselen had no effect on the activity of the NS3 protease, even at 100 times higher ebselen concentrations. At concentrations below 10 μM, the ability of ebselen to inhibit HCV helicase was reversible, but prolonged incubation of HCV helicase with higher ebselen concentrations led to irreversible inhibition and the formation of covalent adducts between ebselen and all 14 cysteines present in HCV helicase. Ebselen analogues with sulfur replacing the selenium were just as potent HCV helicase inhibitors as ebselen, but the length of the linker between the phenyl and benzisoselenazol rings was critical. Modifications of the phenyl ring also affected compound potency over 30-fold, and ebselen was a far more potent helicase inhibitor than other, structurally unrelated, thiol-modifying agents. Ebselen analogues were also more effective antiviral agents, and they were less toxic to hepatocytes than ebselen. Although the above structure-activity relationship studies suggest that ebselen targets a specific site on NS3, we were unable to confirm binding to either the NS3 ATP binding site or nucleic acid binding cleft by examining the effects of ebselen on NS3 proteins lacking key cysteines.

  16. Viral Hepatitis A in 108 Adult Patients During an Eight-Year Observation at a Single Center in Poland.

    Bura, Maciej; Michalak, Michał; Chojnicki, Michał K; Kowala-Piaskowska, Arleta; Mozer-Lisewska, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis A is related to significant morbidity and occasional mortality. Based on data from the Polish National Institute of Hygiene, from 2000 to 2013 a mean of 213 hepatitis A cases were reported yearly. The aim of the study was to assess selected data in adults hospitalized for symptomatic hepatitis A during an eight-year period in a single center in the Wielkopolska Region of Poland. All the hepatitis A patients hospitalized in the center from 2005 to 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. Data were extracted from the medical records of these individuals. The disease was confirmed by anti-HAV IgM testing. In total, 108 patients (71 men and 37 women), aged 18-65 years, were identified. All but 1 patient recovered (99.1%) and in 6 cases (5.6%) a relapse occurred. Risk factors for hepatitis A were identified in 56 patients (52%), with travel abroad being the most common one (32 patients); 19 cases were secondary and 5 patients were men who have sex with men. One hepatitis A outbreak was noted in the region during the study period. Acalculous cholecystitis was found in 33.3% of the patients who underwent abdominal ultrasound. This tended to be more common among older individuals (47.8% in patients over 40 vs. 22.6% in patients aged 18-40, p=0.0521). Patients with this finding had significantly higher mean peak ALT in comparison to those with no gallbladder abnormalities. Although hepatitis A in adults is typically a benign, self-limited disease, it can occasionally have a fatal course. In a significant proportion of patients with an evident risk factor for hepatitis A, the possibility of active prophylaxis was not used. Hepatitis A should be regarded as a sexually transmitted infection. Acalculous cholecystitis is a frequent finding among adults with symptomatic hepatitis A.

  17. Diagnosing norovirus-associated infectious intestinal disease using viral load

    Tam Clarence C

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR is the main method for laboratory diagnosis of norovirus-associated infectious intestinal disease (IID. However, up to 16% of healthy individuals in the community, with no recent history of IID, may be RT-PCR positive; so it is unclear whether norovirus is actually the cause of illness in an IID case when they are RT-PCR positive. It is important to identify the pathogen causing illness in sporadic IID cases, for clinical management and for community based incidence studies. The aim of this study was to investigate how faecal viral load can be used to determine when norovirus is the most likely cause of illness in an IID case. Methods Real-time RT-PCR was used to determine the viral load in faecal specimens collected from 589 IID cases and 159 healthy controls, who were infected with genogroup II noroviruses. Cycle threshold (Ct values from the real-time RT-PCR were used as a proxy measure of viral load. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC analysis was used to identify a cut-off in viral load for attributing illness to norovirus in IID cases. Results One hundred and sixty-nine IID cases and 159 controls met the inclusion criteria for the ROC analysis. The optimal Ct value cut-off for attributing IID to norovirus was 31. The same cut-off was selected when using healthy controls, or IID cases who were positive by culture for bacterial pathogens, as the reference negative group. This alternative reference negative group can be identified amongst specimens routinely received in clinical virology laboratories. Conclusion We demonstrated that ROC analysis can be used to select a cut-off for a norovirus real time RT-PCR assay, to aid clinical interpretation and diagnose when norovirus is the cause of IID. Specimens routinely received for diagnosis in clinical virology laboratories can be used to select an appropriate cut-off. Individual laboratories can use this method to

  18. Protein intake in renal and hepatic disease.

    Ambühl, Patrice M

    2011-03-01

    The kidney and the liver play a central role in protein metabolism. Synthesis of albumin and other proteins occurs mainly in the liver, whereas protein breakdown and excretion are handled through an intricate interaction between these two organ systems. Thus, disease states of either the liver and/or the kidney invariably result in clinically relevant disturbances of protein metabolism. Conversely, metabolic processes regulated by these two organs are directly affected by dietary protein intake. Of particular importance in this respect is the maintenance of acid/base homeostasis. Finally, both the amount and composition of ingested proteins have a direct impact on renal function, especially in a state of diseased kidneys. Consequently, dietary protein intake is of paramount importance in patients with chronic nephropathy and renal insufficiency. Limitation of ingested protein, particularly from animal sources, is crucial in order to slow the progression of chronic kidney disease and impaired renal function. In contrast, patients with chronic renal failure undergoing renal replacement therapy by hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis, have an increased protein demand. The syndrome of "protein-energy malnutrition" is a relevant factor for morbidity and mortality in this population and requires early detection and vigorous treatment. Protein intake in patients with cirrhosis of the liver should not be diminished as has been earlier suggested but rather increased to 1.0 - 1.2 g/kg body weight/day, in order to prevent protein malnutrition. Moderate restriction depending on protein tolerance (0.5 - 1.2 g/kg body weight/day), with the possible addition of branched chain amino acids (BCAA), has been recommended only in patients with advanced hepatic encephalopathy. Proteins of plant origin are theoretically superior to animal proteins.

  19. Hepatitis C viral load, genotype 3 and interleukin-28B CC genotype predict mortality in HIV and hepatitis C-coinfected individuals

    Clausen, Louise Nygaard; Astvad, Karen; Ladelund, Steen

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that hepatitis C virus (HCV) load and genotype may influence all-cause mortality in HIV-HCV-coinfected individuals. DESIGN AND METHODS: Observational prospective cohort study. Mortality rates were compared in a time-updated multivariate Poisson regression analysis....... RESULTS: We included 264 consecutive HIV-HCV-coinfected individuals. During 1143 person years at risk (PYR) 118 individuals died [overall mortality rate 10 (95% confidence interval; 8, 12)/100 PYR]. In multivariate analysis, a 1 log increase in HCV viral load was associated with a 30% higher mortality......) CC genotype was associated with 54% higher mortality risk [aMRR: 1.54 (0.89, 3.82] compared to TT genotype. CONCLUSION: High-HCV viral load, HCV genotype 3 and IL28B genotype CC had a significant influence on the risk of all-cause mortality among individuals coinfected with HIV-1. This may have...

  20. Long-term follow-up of patients with spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C: does viral clearance mean cure?

    Iqbal, M

    2017-06-01

    Up to 40% of patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies are negative for HCV RNA at initial evaluation. If there is a risk of viral re-activation, long term follow-up is required with attendant financial, psychological and medical implications. We investigated the risk of re-activation in the Irish anti-D cohort. Information was obtained from the national hepatitis C database which includes data on patients infected by anti-D immunoglobulin in two large outbreaks, 1977-9 and 1991-94. As part of a screening programme, starting in 1994, 64,907 females exposed to anti-D immunoglobulin were evaluated. Three hundred and forty-seven were found to be antibody positive but HCV RNA negative at initial assessment. 93% had subsequent RNA tests. There was no evidence of HCV recurrence in patients whose infection resolved spontaneously. It appears that two initial sequential negative results for HCV RNA are sufficient to confirm spontaneous viral clearance and probable cure of hepatitis C virus infection.

  1. Imaging of gastrointestinal and hepatic diseases during pregnancy.

    Hodnett, Philip A

    2012-02-03

    Imaging of the abdomen for suspected gastrointestinal and hepatic disease during pregnancy is assuming greater importance. Like clinical evaluation, imaging of the abdomen and pelvis is challenging but is vitally important to prevent delayed diagnosis or unnecessary interventions. Also choice of imaging modality is influenced by factors which could impact on fetal safety such as the use of ionising radiation and magnetic resonance imaging. This article discusses important issues in imaging of gastrointestinal and hepatic disease in pregnancy and the puerperium.

  2. Mapping Determinants of Virus Neutralization and Viral Escape for Rational Design of a Hepatitis C Virus Vaccine

    Mei-Le Keck

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV continues to spread worldwide with an annual increase of 1.75 million new infections. The number of HCV cases in the U.S. is now greater than the number of HIV cases and is increasing in young adults because of the opioid epidemic sweeping the country. HCV-related liver disease is the leading indication of liver transplantation. An effective vaccine is of paramount importance to control and prevent HCV infection. While this vaccine will need to induce both cellular and humoral immunity, this review is focused on the required antibody responses. For highly variable viruses, such as HCV, isolation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies mediating broad virus neutralization are an important guide for vaccine design. The viral envelope glycoproteins, E1 and E2, are the main targets of these antibodies. Epitopes on the E2 protein have been studied more extensively than epitopes on E1, due to higher antibody targeting that reflects these epitopes having higher degrees of immunogenicity. E2 epitopes are overall organized in discrete clusters of overlapping epitopes that ranged from high conservation to high variability. Other epitopes on E1 and E1E2 also are targets of neutralizing antibodies. Taken together, these regions are important for vaccine design. Another element in vaccine design is based on information on how the virus escapes from broadly neutralizing antibodies. Escape mutations can occur within the epitopes that are involved in antibody binding and in regions that are not involved in their epitopes, but nonetheless reduce the efficiency of neutralizing antibodies. An understanding on the specificities of a protective B cell response, the molecular locations of these epitopes on E1, E2, and E1E2, and the mechanisms, which enable the virus to negatively modulate neutralizing antibody responses to these regions will provide the necessary guidance for vaccine design.

  3. Detecting exact breakpoints of deletions with diversity in hepatitis B viral genomic DNA from next-generation sequencing data.

    Cheng, Ji-Hong; Liu, Wen-Chun; Chang, Ting-Tsung; Hsieh, Sun-Yuan; Tseng, Vincent S

    2017-10-01

    Many studies have suggested that deletions of Hepatitis B Viral (HBV) are associated with the development of progressive liver diseases, even ultimately resulting in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Among the methods for detecting deletions from next-generation sequencing (NGS) data, few methods considered the characteristics of virus, such as high evolution rates and high divergence among the different HBV genomes. Sequencing high divergence HBV genome sequences using the NGS technology outputs millions of reads. Thus, detecting exact breakpoints of deletions from these big and complex data incurs very high computational cost. We proposed a novel analytical method named VirDelect (Virus Deletion Detect), which uses split read alignment base to detect exact breakpoint and diversity variable to consider high divergence in single-end reads data, such that the computational cost can be reduced without losing accuracy. We use four simulated reads datasets and two real pair-end reads datasets of HBV genome sequence to verify VirDelect accuracy by score functions. The experimental results show that VirDelect outperforms the state-of-the-art method Pindel in terms of accuracy score for all simulated datasets and VirDelect had only two base errors even in real datasets. VirDelect is also shown to deliver high accuracy in analyzing the single-end read data as well as pair-end data. VirDelect can serve as an effective and efficient bioinformatics tool for physiologists with high accuracy and efficient performance and applicable to further analysis with characteristics similar to HBV on genome length and high divergence. The software program of VirDelect can be downloaded at https://sourceforge.net/projects/virdelect/. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Viral-specific T-cell transfer from HSCT donor for the treatment of viral infections or diseases after HSCT.

    Qian, C; Wang, Y; Reppel, L; D'aveni, M; Campidelli, A; Decot, V; Bensoussan, D

    2018-02-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a curative option for treatment of some malignant and non-malignant hematological diseases. However, post-HSCT patients are severely immunocompromised and susceptible to viral infections, which are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Although antiviral agents are now available for most types of viral infections, they are not devoid of side effects and their efficacy is limited when there is no concomitant antiviral immune reconstitution. In recent decades, adoptive transfer of viral-specific T cells (VSTs) became an alternative treatment for viral infection after HSCT. However, two major issues are concerned in VST transfer: the risk of GVHD and antiviral efficacy. We report an exhaustive review of the published studies that focus on prophylactic and/or curative therapy by donor VST transfer for post-HSCT common viral infections. A low incidence of GVHD and a good antiviral efficacy was observed after adoptive transfer of VSTs from HSCT donor. Viral-specific T-cell transfer is a promising approach for a broad clinical application. Nevertheless, a randomized controlled study in a large cohort of patients comparing antiviral treatment alone to antiviral treatment combined with VSTs is still needed to demonstrate efficacy and safety.

  5. Hepatitis C seroprevalence and correlation between viral load and viral genotype among primary care clients in Mexico Seroprevalencia de hepatitis C y correlación entre la carga viral y el genotipo viral en asistentes al nivel primario de atención enMéxico

    Ana I Burguete-Garcia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To measure hepatitis C virus (HCV sero-prevalence, prevalence, hepatitis risk characteristics frequency, and genotype correlation with viral load among clients attending health care clinics. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Venous blood samples from l12 226 consecutive consenting adults were collected from January 2006 through December 2009. HCV antibodies were detected by immunoassay. HCV RNA was detected by qRT-PCR and viral genotype was performed by PCR and LIPA test. RESULTS: The HCV seroprevalence observed was l.5 % (C.I. 95% l.3-l.7, from seropositive individuals 60.9 % reported previous blood transfusion, 28.3% declared to have relatives with cirrhosis, 25.2% had tattoos or piercings, and 6.9% referred to have used drugs. Male gender and transfusion (pOBJETIVO: Medir la seroprevalencia y prevalencia del virus de hepatitis C (VHC, la frecuencia de caracteristicas de riesgo y la correlacion genotipica con la carga viral en sujetos asistentes a clinicas de medicina familiar. MATERIAL Y METODOS: muestras de sangre venosa se colectaron de l12 226 adultos, previo consentimiento informado, de enero 2006 hasta diciembre 2009, para la deteccion de anticuerpos contra VHC por ELISA. La deteccion de RNA-VHC y el genotipo viral se realizo mediante qRT-PCR. RESULTADOS: La seroprevalencia de VHC fue l.5 % (C.I. 95% l.3-l.7, 60.9% reportaron transfusion sanguinea previa, 28.3% dijo tener familiares cercanos con cirrosis, 25.2% tenian tatuajes o piercing y 6.9% refirio ser usuario de drogas intravenosas. El ser hombre, el antecedente de transfusiones y el uso de drogas (p<0.00l, fueron los factores con mayor frecuencia en el grupo VHC seropositivo. La prevalencia del RNA-VHC en seropositivos fue de 48.3%. El genotipo mas frecuente en todas las areas geograficas de Mexico fue el l (subtipo lA, 33%; subtipo lB, 21.4% seguido por el genotipo 2 (subtipo 2A, 8.50%. Se observó una correlación positiva de 51% con la carga viral más alta y el genotipo viral 1A

  6. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Full Text Available ... Related Liver Disease Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Autoimmune Hepatitis Benign Liver Tumors Biliary Atresia Cirrhosis of the ... Disease Type 1 (von Gierke) Hemochromatosis Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of ...

  7. Usefulness of B-mode and doppler sonography for the diagnosis of severe acute viral hepatitis A.

    Shin, Sang Wook; Kim, Tae Yeob; Jeong, Woo Kyoung; Kim, Yongsoo; Kim, Jinoo; Kim, Young Hwan; Park, Hwan Cheol; Sohn, Joo Hyun

    2015-01-01

    To investigate B-mode and Doppler ultrasonography (US) features correlating with laboratory findings for the diagnosis of severe acute hepatitis (SAH) in patients with hepatitis A virus infection. Thirty-nine consecutive serologically proven patients were enrolled. Decreased parenchymal echotexture, periportal tracking, gallbladder wall change, and splenomegaly were assessed on B-mode images. Blood flow velocities were measured in the main portal (V(PORTAL)) and in the hepatic veins, and the hepatic venous pulsatility index was calculated. SAH was defined as high model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score ≥ 15 with or without coagulopathy. The relationship between US features and laboratory findings was assessed, and SAH diagnosis was evaluated. Serum alanine transaminase and prothrombin time were significantly different depending on the presence of gallbladder wall change and splenomegaly (p hepatic venous waveform and hepatic venous pulsatility index were significantly correlated with MELD score. For the diagnosis of SAH, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of V(PORTAL) was 0.798. It reached 0.869 in the patients with typical GB change. Both B-mode and Doppler US correlated well with several laboratory variables and may be helpful to diagnose SAH in patients with hepatitis A virus infection. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Association between Leptin and Complement in Hepatitis C Patients with Viral Clearance: Homeostasis of Metabolism and Immunity.

    Chang, Ming-Ling; Kuo, Chia-Jung; Huang, Hsin-Chih; Chu, Yin-Yi; Chiu, Cheng-Tang

    2016-01-01

    The association between leptin and complement in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remains unknown. A prospective study was conducted including 474 (250 genotype 1, 224 genotype 2) consecutive chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients who had completed an anti-HCV therapy course and undergone pre-therapy and 24-week post-therapy assessments of interferon λ3-rs12979860 and HCV RNA/genotypes, anthropometric measurements, metabolic and liver profiles, and complement component 3 (C3), C4, and leptin levels. Of the 474 patients, 395 had a sustained virological response (SVR). Pre-therapy leptin levels did not differ between patients with and without an SVR. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that sex (pre- and post-therapy, pimmune and metabolic homeostasis through association with C4 and TC. Positive alterations in C4 and TC levels reflect viral clearance after therapy in CHC patients.

  9. Interleukin-28B polymorphisms are associated with hepatitis C virus clearance and viral load in a HIV-1-infected cohort

    Clausen, L N; Weis, N; Astvad, K

    2011-01-01

    Summary. Twenty-five per cent of individuals infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) are able to clear HCV spontaneously. Differences in host genetics are believed to affect the outcome of HCV infection. We analysed an exonic, a promoter and an intronic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the i......Summary. Twenty-five per cent of individuals infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) are able to clear HCV spontaneously. Differences in host genetics are believed to affect the outcome of HCV infection. We analysed an exonic, a promoter and an intronic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP...... higher median HCV RNA levels than individuals with unfavourable haplotype blocks (P = 0.05). Our findings suggest that IL28B may account for some differences in HCV outcome but that other factors including the viral genotype, host genetics and the host-virus interaction are likely to influence...

  10. Acute viral hepatitis in adults. Comparison of the radioimmunoassay and counterimmunoelectrophoresis methods of detecting HB/sub s/Ag

    Wenzel, R.P.; Teates, C.D.; Galapon, Q.; Barczak, R.; Ling, C.M.; Overby, L.R.

    1975-01-01

    The radioimmunoassay (RIA) and counterimmunoelectrophoretic (CIE) methods were compared in detecting hepatitis B antigen (HB/sub s/Ag) in 407 acute and 336 convalescent sera of adults with viral hepatitis. The CIE method demonstrated that 41 percent of acute and 28 percent of 14- to 17-day serum specimens were HB/sub s/Ag-positive. The RIA method demonstrated seropositivity in 60 percent of acute and 56 percent of convalescent specimens (P less than .001). Eighty-four percent of coded specimens initially positive for HB/sub s/Ag by RIA were found to have subtype antigenic determinants d or y; 92 percent of the HB/sub s/Ag-negative controls were negative for subtype antigens, confirming the specificity of the RIA test. RIA subtyping data corroborated earlier work with immunodiffusion techniques. (U.S.)

  11. Multicentric Castleman's Disease in a Hepatitis C-Positive Intravenous Drug User: A Case Report

    D. Y. Talukder

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We report a rare presentation of Castleman's disease in a hepatitis C-positive patient and present a short review of treatments described in other similar case reports and studies. Case Presentation. A 46-year-old male with untreated hepatitis C and a 16-year history of intravenous drug use presented with pleuritic chest pain and bony pain in the knee, hip, and lower back, on a background of unexplained weight loss of 40 kilograms, fevers, night sweats, and repeated infections over the last two years. Examination discovered tender hepatomegaly, a warm right knee effusion, and painless lymphadenopathy. The patient was reactive to Epstein Barr virus and cytomegalovirus; however, HIV and HHV-8 viral testing was negative. Osteomyelitis of vertebrae T8–T11 and septic arthritis of the knee were found on investigation. A lymph node biopsy revealed histology suggestive of plasmacytic Castleman's disease. The patient is to commence rituximab treatment. Conclusion. Castleman's disease continues to present in novel ways, which may lead to difficulties in clinicopathologic diagnosis. A growing body of evidence suggests larger studies are required to determine the best treatment for multicentric Castleman's disease, particularly in patients with a concomitant disease, including hepatitis C.

  12. Emerging sexually transmitted viral infections: 1. Review of Ebola virus disease.

    Caswell, Rachel J; Manavi, Kaveh

    2017-11-01

    This is the first in a series of articles reviewing four viral infections, Ebola virus, Zika virus, human T-cell lymphotropic virus, type 1 and hepatitis C virus, with an emphasis on recent advances in our understanding of their sexual transmission. With current day speed and ease of travel it is important for staff in sexual healthcare services to know and understand these infections when patients present to them and also to be able to advise those travelling to endemic regions. Following the recent resurgence in West Africa, this first article looks at Ebola virus disease (EVD). EVD has a high mortality rate and, of note, has been detected in the semen of those who have cleared the virus from their blood and have clinically recovered from the disease. As the result of emerging data, the WHO now recommends safe sex practices for all male survivors of EVD for 12 months after the onset of the disease or after having had two consecutive negative tests of semen specimens for the virus. This review provides an up-to-date summary of what is currently known about EVD and its implications for sexual health practice.

  13. Influence of recombinant interferon alpha on nutritional status and growth pattern in children with chronic viral hepatitis.

    Gottrand, F; Michaud, L; Guimber, D; Ategbo, S; Dubar, G; Turck, D; Farriaux, J P

    1996-12-01

    Anorexia and weight loss are frequently reported as adverse effects during recombinant interferon alpha (rIFN-alpha) treatment. The aim of the present study was to assess both nutritional status and growth of children and adolescents treated with rIFN-alpha for chronic viral hepatitis. Eleven patients aged 4-16 years with histologically proven chronic active hepatitis (hepatitis B, n = 9; hepatitis C, n = 2) receiving rIFN-alpha subcutaneously thrice a week for 6 months were studied. Weight and height increments were assessed during the 6 months before starting rIFN-alpha. Weight and height were measured every 3 months (M0, M3, M6) during the 6 months of rIFN-alpha treatment, then every 6 months during the follow up period (6-36 months). Weight decreased in every child during rIFN-alpha treatment (weight loss varies from 0.5 to 2.6 kg after 3 months of treatment). Weight/age Z-score decreased from 0.12 at M0 to -0.69 at M3 (P Nutritional status was significantly impaired during treatment (Z-score for weight/height decreased from 0.18 at M0 to -0.74 at M3, P nutritional status are encountered constantly at the beginning of rIFN-alpha therapy without any deleterious effect on growth. Information of the families and nutritional intervention during treatment should be required, in order to limit the importance of weight loss.

  14. Prediction of therapy response to interferon-alpha in chronic viral hepatitis-B by liver and hepatobiliary scintigraphy

    Caglar, M.; Sari, O.; Akcan, Y.

    2002-01-01

    Interferon (IFN) provides effective treatment in some patients with chronic hepatitis. The clarification of factors predictive of therapy response would be helpful in identifying patients who would benefit from treatment. In this study, we evaluated the potential utility of Tc-99m sulfur colloid liver/spleen and Tc-99m-disofenin hepatobiliary scintigraphy to predict therapy response to IFN in patients with chronic active hepatitis. The study group consisted of ten patients with chronic viral hepatitis B who were treated with 4.5 units of interferon alpha for 12 months. Prior to the start of the therapy, sulfur colloid scintigraphy was obtained by which the liver/spleen ratios were derived. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy was performed on a separate day and time-activity curves were generated from regions of interest drawn over the liver, heart and gall-bladder. The index of blood and liver clearance time was calculated. Histological grading and laboratory values were obtained for clinical correlation. Responders (n=6) to IFN were defined as those who improved clinically with normalized transaminase levels and had hepatitis B envelope antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion. On sulfur colloid (SC) scintigraphy, the liver/spleen ratio of non-responders was significantly lower than responders (median values: 0.69 vs. 1.16, p=0.01) but on hepatobiliary scintigraphy no statistically significant parameters were found to predict response to interferon therapy. (author)

  15. Factors relating to transmission of viral hepatitis in a United States military population stationed in Thailand.

    Scott, R M; Schneider, R J; Snitbhan, R; Karwacki, J J

    1981-05-01

    To determine the incidence of clinical and inapparent hepatitis in a US military population stationed in Thailand, the authors prospectively studied a cohort of 326 men during one year. Clinical hepatitis A occurred in one man (clinical attack rate = 3.1/1000 men/year), and clinical hepatitis B was found in four men (clinical attack rate = 12.3/1000 men/year). No non-A, non-B hepatitis was identified. There was no serologically identified inapparent hepatitis A but inapparent hepatitis B occurred in 17 men. The apparent/inapparent ratio for hepatitis B was 1:4.25. Serotype analysis suggested that hepatitis B virus largely originated from Thai contacts, although 23% of cases were derived from western sources. To determine the relative contribution of 16 statistically significant (out of 67 studied) behavioral variables to the transmission of HBV, a factor analysis and a multivariate correlation analysis were employed. Factor analysis indicated that social and sexual contact with the indigenous population, including prostitutes, residence within the Thai community and marijuana use were behavioral areas that were associated with the acquisition of hepatitis B. Residence in the Thai community during the first four-month period in Thailand, sexual contact with a prostitute during the third four-month period, and ever having maintained a Thai mistress were found to be significant and independent risk factors by multiple regression analysis.

  16. Hepatitis Vaccines

    Sina Ogholikhan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver.

  17. Hepatitis Vaccines

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B.

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver. PMID:26978406

  18. Autoimmune hepatitis-specific antibodies against soluble liver antigen and liver cytosol type 1 in patients with chronic viral hepatitis

    Rigopoulou, Eirini I; Mytilinaiou, Maria; Romanidou, Ourania; Liaskos, Christos; Dalekos, George N

    2007-01-01

    Background Non-organ specific autoantibodies are highly prevalent in patients with chronic hepatitis C (HCV). Among them, anti-liver kidney microsomal type 1 (LKM1) antibody – the serological marker of type 2 autoimmune hepatitis (AIH-2)- is detected in up to 11% of the HCV-infected subjects. On the other hand, anti-liver cytosol type 1 antibodies (anti-LC1) – either in association with anti-LKM1, or in isolation- and anti-soluble liver antigen antibodies (anti-SLA) have been considered as us...

  19. Plasma hydroxy-metronidazole/ metronidazole ratio in hepatitis C virus-induced liver disease

    M.A.M. Marchioretto

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that the measurement of metronidazole clearance is a sensitive method for evaluating liver function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of plasma hydroxy-metronidazole/metronidazole ratios as indicators of dynamic liver function to detect changes resulting from the various forms of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. A total of 139 individuals were studied: 14 healthy volunteers, 22 healthy, asymptomatic, consecutive anti-HCV-positive HCV-RNA negative subjects, 81 patients with chronic hepatitis C (49 with moderate/severe chronic hepatitis and 34 with mild hepatitis, and 20 patients with cirrhosis of the liver. HCV status was determined by the polymerase chain reaction. Plasma concentrations of metronidazole and its hydroxy-metabolite were measured by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection in a blood sample collected 10 min after the end of a metronidazole infusion. Anti-HCV-positive HCV-RNA-negative individuals demonstrated a significantly reduced capacity to metabolize intravenously infused metronidazole compared to healthy individuals (0.0478 ± 0.0044 vs 0.0742 ± 0.0232. Liver cirrhosis patients also had a reduced plasma hydroxy-metronidazole/metronidazole ratio when compared to the other groups of anti-HCV-positive individuals (0.0300 ± 0.0032 vs 0.0438 ± 0.0027 (moderate/severe chronic hepatitis vs 0.0455 ± 0.0026 (mild chronic hepatitis and vs 0.0478 ± 0.0044 (anti-HCV-positive, HCV-RNA-negative individuals. These results suggest an impairment of the metronidazole metabolizing system induced by HCV infection that lasts after viral clearance. In those patients with chronic hepatitis C, this impairment is paralleled by progression of the disease to liver cirrhosis.

  20. End-of-Treatment-Response in Patients Treated for Hepatitis C Virus with Standard Interferon and Ribavirin Based on Viral Load

    Rathore, M. A.; Hussain, A. B.; Ghani, E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the End-of-Treatment-Response (ETR) to standard interferon and ribavirin based regimen in patients of chronic hepatitis C and to compare the ETR response in low and high viral load groups. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Virology Department, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP), Rawalpindi, from March 2012 to May 2013. Methodology: Patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection were included in the study. Pre-treatment viral load was determined by RoboGene Quantification kit. Based on viral load, the 400 patients were divided into two equal groups of low viral load (< 800,000 IU/ml) and high viral load (> 800,000 IU/ml). The patients were treated with standard interferon alpha (3 million units subcutaneously thrice weekly) and ribavirin (10.6 mg/kg body weight) for 6 months. ETR was measured using Sacace Biotechnologies Qualitative kit. Chi-square test was used to compare the ETR in the two viral load groups. P-value < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Out of 400 patients, 206 (51.5%) were males and 194 (48.5%) were females. Two hundred seventy (67.5%) patients achieved ETR and 130 (35.5%) failed to do so. In low viral load group, 145 (72.5%) patients achieved and 55 (27.5%) patients did not achieve ETR. In high viral load group, 123 (61.5%) patients achieved and 77 (38.5%) did not achieve ETR. The difference in ETR between low and high viral load groups was statistically significant (p=0.019). Conclusion: End-of-treatment-response in patients treated for hepatitis C virus with standard interferon and ribavirin was greater in patients with low viral load as compared to patients with high viral load. (author)

  1. Hepatitis C virus in sickle cell disease.

    Hassan, Mohamed; Hasan, Syed; Giday, Samuel; Alamgir, Laila; Banks, Alpha; Frederick, Winston; Smoot, Duane; Castro, Oswaldo

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of hepatitis C virus antibodies (anti-HCV) in patients with sickle cell disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 1983 and 2001, 150 patients from the Howard University Hospital Center for Sickle Cell Disease were screened for HCV antibody (52% women, 48% men, mean age 34 years). Frozen serum samples from 56 adult sickle cell patients who had participated in previous surveys (1983-92) of HIV and HTLV-1 serology and who were tested in 1992 for anti-HCV antibody--when commercial ELISA test (Ortho) became available--were included in this paper. Of the 150 patients in the study, 132 had sickle cell anemia genotype (SS), 15 had sickle cell hemoglobin-C disease (SC) and three had sickle beta thalassemia. Clinical charts were reviewed for history of blood transfusion, IV drug abuse, homosexuality, tattooing, iron overload, and alcohol abuse. RESULTS: Antibodies to HCV were detected in 53 patients (35.3%). Of the 55 patients who had frozen serum samples tested in 1992, 32 (58%) were reactive for anti-HCV, while only 21 of the 95 patients (22%) tested after 1992 were positive for HCV antibodies (P<0.001). Thirty-nine of 77 patients (51%) who received more than 10 units of packed red blood cells were positive for HCV antibody, and only 14 of 61 patients (23%) who received less than 10 units of packed red blood cells transfusion were positive for HCV antibodies (P<0.001). None of the 12 patients who never received transfusion were positive for HCV antibody. In the 53 anti-HCV positive patients, the mean alanine amino-transferase (ALT) value was 98- and 81 U/L, respectively, for males and females. These values were normal for the HCV-antibody negative patients. The aspartate amino-transferase (AST) and the total bilirubin were also higher in the anti-HCV positive patients compared to patients in the anti-HCV negative group. Forty-four patients (57.1%) who were transfused more than 10 units developed iron overload defined by a serum ferritin

  2. Interferon alfa for chronic hepatitis B infection: increased efficacy of prolonged treatment. The European Concerted Action on Viral Hepatitis (EUROHEP)

    Janssen, H. L.; Gerken, G.; Carreño, V.; Marcellin, P.; Naoumov, N. V.; Craxi, A.; Ring-Larsen, H.; Kitis, G.; van Hattum, J.; de Vries, R. A.; Michielsen, P. P.; ten Kate, F. J.; Hop, W. C.; Heijtink, R. A.; Honkoop, P.; Schalm, S. W.

    1999-01-01

    Interferon alfa (IFN-alpha) is the primary treatment for chronic hepatitis B. The standard duration of IFN-alpha therapy is considered 16 weeks; however, the optimal treatment length is still poorly defined. We evaluated the efficacy and acceptability of prolonged IFN-alpha treatment in patients

  3. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B and C Viral Infections among Type 2 ...

    Background: Type 2 diabetes comes with various complications and this may be compounded by morbidities of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. Aims: This study examined the prevalence of HBV and HCV infectionst among type 2 diabetics as well as its associated factors. This randomized ...

  4. and B type In of hepatitis A viral The frequency viruses as the ...

    in 43% of the White patients and 50% of the Black patients in the study. ... defined and bears the non-committal name of non-A, n~n-B hepatitis. .... TABLE 11. PREVALENCE OF ANTI-HBs IN PATIENTS WITH. SUSPECTED HEPATITIS. Whites. Blacks. Anti-HBs-. Anti-HBs-. Age group reactive reactive. (yrs). No_ tested. No_.

  5. Possible Relevance of Receptor-Receptor Interactions between Viral- and Host-Coded Receptors for Viral-Induced Disease

    Luigi F. Agnati

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that some viruses, such as the cytomegalovirus, code for G-protein coupled receptors not only to elude the immune system, but also to redirect cellular signaling in the receptor networks of the host cells. In view of the existence of receptor-receptor interactions, the hypothesis is introduced that these viral-coded receptors not only operate as constitutively active monomers, but also can affect other receptor function by interacting with receptors of the host cell. Furthermore, it is suggested that viruses could also insert not single receptors (monomers, but clusters of receptors (receptor mosaics, altering the cell metabolism in a profound way. The prevention of viral receptor-induced changes in host receptor networks may give rise to novel antiviral drugs that counteract viral-induced disease.

  6. Hepatic cholesterol ester hydrolase in human liver disease.

    Simon, J B; Poon, R W

    1978-09-01

    Human liver contains an acid cholesterol ester hydrolase (CEH) of presumed lysosomal origin, but its significance is unknown. We developed a modified CEH radioassay suitable for needle biopsy specimens and measured hepatic activity of this enzyme in 69 patients undergoing percutaneous liver biopsy. Histologically normal livers hydrolyzed 5.80 +/- 0.78 SEM mumoles of cholesterol ester per hr per g of liver protein (n, 10). Values were similar in alcoholic liver disease (n, 17), obstructive jaundice (n, 9), and miscellaneous hepatic disorders (n, 21). In contrast, mean hepatic CEH activity was more than 3-fold elevated in 12 patients with acute hepatitis, 21.05 +/- 2.45 SEM mumoles per hr per g of protein (P less than 0.01). In 2 patients studied serially, CEH returned to normal as hepatitis resolved. CEH activity in all patients paralleled SGOT levels (r, 0.84; P less than 0.01). There was no correlation with serum levels of free or esterified cholesterol nor with serum activity of lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase, the enzyme responsible for cholesterol esterification in plasma. These studies confirm the presence of CEH activity in human liver and show markedly increased activity in acute hepatitis. The pathogenesis and clinical significance of altered hepatic CEH activity in liver disease require further study.

  7. Five-year follow-up of patients with chronic C hepatitis and sustained virological response Seguimiento a 5 años de pacientes con hepatitis crónica C y respuesta viral sostenida

    I. Puig-del-Castillo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess persistence of sustained viral response at 5 years of follow-up in patients with chronic viral hepatitis C treated with pegylated interferon and ribavirin. Design: a descriptive study. Patients: from August 2001 to May 2004, all patients treated at our center with pegylated interferon and ribavirin who achieved a sustained viral response were consecutively enrolled (93 patients. Demographic, histological, biochemical, and virological data were collected during treatment and 5 years after achievement of the sustained viral response. Eighty-six percent of patients enrolled (n = 80 attended the control visit at 5 years. Results: mean age of enrolled patients was 41 years (standard deviation = 10 years, and 30.1% (n = 28 were women. Liver biopsy had been performed before treatment in 68.8% of patients (n = 64, showing no or mild fibrosis in 62.3% (F0 and F1 and significant fibrosis and cirrhosis in 37.7% (F ≥ 3. Genotype distribution was: 58.1% genotype 1 (n = 54; 8.6% genotype 2 (n = 8; 24.7% genotype 3 (n = 23; 7.5% genotype 4 (n = 7, and indeterminate in one patient. Only one patient experienced virological recurrence. All other patients had negative HCV RNA levels and, in the absence of other liver diseases, normal ALT levels. Conclusion: in patients treated with pegylated interferon and ribavirin with sustained viral response, long-term recurrence rate was very low.Objetivo: evaluar la persistencia de respuesta viral sostenida a los 5 años de seguimiento en pacientes con hepatitis crónica por virus C tratados con interferón pegilado y ribavirina. Diseño: estudio descriptivo. Pacientes: desde agosto de 2001 hasta mayo de 2004, se incluyeron de forma consecutiva todos los pacientes de nuestro centro tratados con interferón pegilado y ribavirina que alcanzaron respuesta viral sostenida (93 pacientes. Se recogieron datos demográficos, histológicos, bioquímicos y virológicos durante el tratamiento y a los 5 años de

  8. Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B

    ... Clinical Trials Physician Directory HBV Meeting What Is Hepatitis B? What Is Hepatitis B? The ABCs of Viral Hepatitis Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B Hepatitis Delta Coinfection Hepatitis C Coinfection HIV/AIDS ...

  9. Fine-needle aspirate cytology suggesting hepatic lipidosis in four cats with infiltrative hepatic disease.

    Willard, M D; Weeks, B R; Johnson, M

    1999-12-01

    Four cats are reported in which cytology smears obtained by ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration of the liver were interpreted as indicative of hepatic lipidosis. However, histopathology of hepatic tissue samples obtained with Tru-Cut-like needles or wedge biopsy revealed that the cats had inflammatory or neoplastic hepatic disease causing their clinical signs. Fine needle aspiration and cytology may not detect infiltrative lesions, particularly those that are nodular, multifocal, or localised around the portal regions. Fine needle aspirate cytology is a useful diagnostic procedure with many advantages, but care must be taken to avoid diagnosing hepatic lipidosis as the cause of illness when an infiltrative lesion is responsible. Copyright 1999 European Society of Feline Medicine.

  10. Hepatic Falciform Ligament Artery in Patients with Chronic Liver Diseases: Detection on Computed Tomography Hepatic Arteriography

    Tajima, T.; Yoshimitsu, K.; Irie, H.; Nishie, A.; Hirakawa, M.; Ishigami, K.; Ushijima, Y.; Okamoto, D.; Honda, H.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The detection rate of hepatic falciform ligament artery (FLA) has been reported as ranging from 2-25%. The rate of FLA on laparotomy, however, is reported to be higher, at 68%. Purpose: To compare the detection rate of FLA on computed tomography hepatic arteriography (CTHA) with that on angiography and dynamic CT, and to clarify the clinical significance of FLA in patients with chronic liver disease. Material and Methods: 126 consecutive patients underwent CTHA angiography and dynamic CT to evaluate suspected liver tumors. Liver function was classified as follows: normal, n=5; Child-Pugh class A, n=94; B, n=21; and C, n=6. All CT images were obtained using multidetector (MDCT) scanners (Aquilion; Toshiba, Tokyo (JP)). For CTHA, CT images were obtained during contrast material injection through the left hepatic, proper, or common hepatic artery. On CT, FLAs were retrospectively identified within the hepatic falciform ligament and the hepatic round ligament by the paging method on a workstation (TWS-5000; Toshiba, Tokyo (JP)). The detection rates were compared among the three modalities (hepatic arterial phase of dynamic CT, CTHA, and angiography). The calibers of FLA were also correlated with the hepatic function of the patients. Results: The detection rates of FLA by angiography, dynamic CT, and CTHA were 37% (47/126), 10% (13/126), and 77% (97/126), respectively. The calibers of FLA increased as the hepatic function deteriorated (P=0.001). Conclusion: The detection rates of FLA with CTHA are far higher than those with angiography and dynamic CT. Careful interpretation with recognition of FLA on CTHA images is important, as inadvertent embolization or chemotherapeutic infusion of the FLA may result in supraumbilical skin rash

  11. Hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 2 (HAVCR2) is decreased with viral infection and regulates pro-labour mediators OA.

    Liong, Stella; Lim, Ratana; Barker, Gillian; Lappas, Martha

    2017-07-01

    Intrauterine infection caused by viral infection has been implicated to contribute to preterm birth. Hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 2 (HAVCR2) regulates inflammation in non-gestational tissues in response to viral infection. The aims of this study were to determine the effect of: (i) viral dsRNA analogue polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) on HAVCR2 expression; and (ii) HAVCR2 silencing by siRNA (siHAVCR2) in primary amnion and myometrial cells on poly(I:C)-induced inflammation. In human foetal membranes and myometrium, HAVCR2 mRNA and protein expression was decreased when exposed to poly(I:C). Treatment of primary amnion and myometrial cells with poly(I:C) significantly increased the expression and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF, IL1A, IL1B and IL6; the expression of chemokines CXCL8 and CCL2; the expression and secretion of adhesion molecules ICAM1 and VCAM1; and PTGS2 and PTGFR mRNA expression and the release of prostaglandin PGF 2α . This increase was significantly augmented in cells transfected with siHAVCR2. Furthermore, mRNA expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL4 and IL10 was significantly decreased. Collectively, our data suggest that HAVCR2 regulates cytokines, chemokines, prostaglandins and cell adhesion molecules in the presence of viral infection. This suggests a potential for HAVCR2 activators as therapeutics for the management of preterm birth associated with viral infections. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Mutational analysis of the hypervariable region of hepatitis e virus reveals its involvement in the efficiency of viral RNA replication.

    Pudupakam, R S; Kenney, Scott P; Córdoba, Laura; Huang, Yao-Wei; Dryman, Barbara A; Leroith, Tanya; Pierson, F William; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2011-10-01

    The RNA genome of the hepatitis E virus (HEV) contains a hypervariable region (HVR) in ORF1 that tolerates small deletions with respect to infectivity. To further investigate the role of the HVR in HEV replication, we constructed a panel of mutants with overlapping deletions in the N-terminal, central, and C-terminal regions of the HVR by using a genotype 1 human HEV luciferase replicon and analyzed the effects of deletions on viral RNA replication in Huh7 cells. We found that the replication levels of the HVR deletion mutants were markedly reduced in Huh7 cells, suggesting a role of the HVR in viral replication efficiency. To further verify the results, we constructed HVR deletion mutants by using a genetically divergent, nonmammalian avian HEV, and similar effects on viral replication efficiency were observed when the avian HEV mutants were tested in LMH cells. Furthermore, the impact of complete HVR deletion on virus infectivity was tested in chickens, using an avian HEV mutant with a complete HVR deletion. Although the deletion mutant was still replication competent in LMH cells, the complete HVR deletion resulted in a loss of avian HEV infectivity in chickens. Since the HVR exhibits extensive variations in sequence and length among different HEV genotypes, we further examined the interchangeability of HVRs and demonstrated that HVR sequences are functionally exchangeable between HEV genotypes with regard to viral replication and infectivity in vitro, although genotype-specific HVR differences in replication efficiency were observed. The results showed that although the HVR tolerates small deletions with regard to infectivity, it may interact with viral and host factors to modulate the efficiency of HEV replication.

  13. Development of a second generation monoclonal immunoradiometric assay. Increased sensitivity leads to enhanced detection of hepatitis B viral infection

    Takahashi, H; Wands, J R; Kameda, H

    1988-09-13

    The authors have developed and employed a second generation monoclonal immunoradiometric assay (M2-IRMA) using antibodies of high affinity for epitopes that reside on hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). This assay is capable of detecting as little as 15 pg/ml of HBsAg in serum. Improvements in sensitivity over a first generation immunoradiometric assay (MI-IRMA) was achieved by increasing the sample volume and time of incubation, and subjecting the reaction to a mechanical rotary device. 164 subjects with chronic hepatitis, 105 with cirrhosis, 67 with hepatocellular carcinoma, six with acute hepatitis A, seven with acute hepatitis B, 167 chronic carriers of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and 235 healthy individuals from Japan were studied and the results of the M2-IRMA were compared to a conventional polyclonal radioimmunoassay (P-RIA). By using a more sensitive assay design (M2-IRMA), a significant number of additional cases of HBV infection heretofore unsuspected in the etiology of chronic liver disease were identified. It is concluded that improvement in assay sensitivity for HBsAg is important in the serologic diagnosis of HBV in patients with chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. 14 refs.; 6 figs.; 6 tabs.

  14. Relative effects of heavy alcohol use and hepatitis C in decompensated chronic liver disease in a hospital inpatient population.

    Mankal, Pavan Kumar; Abed, Jean; Aristy, Jose David; Munot, Khushboo; Suneja, Upma; Engelson, Ellen S; Kotler, Donald P

    2015-03-01

    Heavy alcohol use has been hypothesized to accelerate disease progression to end-stage liver disease in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. In this study, we estimated the relative influences of heavy alcohol use and HCV in decompensated chronic liver disease (CLD). Retrospectively, 904 patients with cirrhotic disease admitted to our hospitals during January 2010-December 2012 were identified based on ICD9 codes. A thorough chart review captured information on demographics, viral hepatitis status, alcohol use and progression of liver disease (i.e. decompensation). Decompensation was defined as the presence of ascites due to portal hypertension, bleeding esophageal varices, hepatic encephalopathy or hepatorenal syndrome. Heavy alcohol use was defined as a chart entry of greater than six daily units of alcohol or its equivalent. 347 patients were included based on our selection criteria of documented heavy alcohol use (n = 215; 62.0%), hepatitis titers (HCV: n = 182; 52.5%) and radiological evidence of CLD with or without decompensation (decompensation: n = 225; 64.8%). Independent of HCV infection, heavy alcohol use significantly increased the risk of decompensation (OR = 1.75, 95% CI 1.11-2.75, p < 0.02) relative to no heavy alcohol use. No significance was seen with age, sex, race, HIV, viral hepatitis and moderate alcohol use for risk for decompensation. Additionally, dose-relationship regression analysis revealed that heavy, but not moderate alcohol use, resulted in a three-fold increase (p = 0.013) in the risk of decompensation relative to abstinence. While both heavy alcohol use and HCV infection are associated with risk of developing CLD, our data suggest that heavy, but not moderate, alcohol consumption is associated with a greater risk for hepatic decompensation in patients with cirrhosis than does HCV infection.

  15. Single-Dose Universal Hepatitis A Immunization in Argentina: Low Viral Circulation and High Persistence of Protective Antibodies Up to 4 Years.

    Vizzotti, C; González, J; Rearte, A; Urueña, A; Pérez Carrega, M; Calli, R; Gentile, A; Uboldi, A; Ramonet, M; Cañero-Velasco, M; Diosque, M

    2015-12-01

    Single-dose hepatitis A virus (HAV) vaccination was implemented in all Argentinean children aged 12 months in 2005. Between 2005 and 2011, a dramatic decline was observed in HAV infection rates, fulminant hepatitis, and liver transplantation. This study assessed current viral circulation and estimated protective antibody persistence 4 years after vaccination. Prevalence of prevaccination anti-HAV antibodies in 12-month-old children was evaluated as an indirect estimation of viral circulation (Group A). Seroprevalence was also measured in 5-year-old children who received 1 dose of HAV vaccine at 1 year of age (Group B). Blood samples were tested for immunoglobulin (Ig)G anti-HAV antibodies (seroprotection = ≥10 mIU/mL). All Group A-positive samples were tested for IgM anti-HAV antibodies to identify recent infections. Logistic regression analysis was done to evaluate associations between demographic and socioeconomic variables and seroprotection. Of 433 children from Group A, 29.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 25.2-33.8) were positive for IgG anti-HAV antibodies with a geometric mean concentration (GMC) of 6.17 mIU/mL (95% CI, 5.33-7.15 mIU/mL); all IgM anti-HAV were negative. From 1139 in Group B, 93% (95% CI, 91.7-94.6) maintained seroprotection with a GMC of 97.96 mIU/mL (95% CI, 89.21-107.57 mIU/mL). Kindergarten attendance was associated with seroprotection in Group B (odds ratio [OR], 2.0; 95% CI, 1.26-3.3). In contrast, high maternal educational level was associated with a lack of seroprotection in this group (OR, .26; 95% CI, .09-.8). Single-dose, universal hepatitis A immunization in infants resulted in low HAV circulation and persistent immunologic protection up to 4 years in Argentina. Variables associated with presence or absence of seroprotection in vaccinated children could be related to differences in hygiene habits in settings with residual viral circulation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Pediatric

  16. Hepatic veno-occlusive disease associated with comfrey ingestion.

    Yeong, M L; Swinburn, B; Kennedy, M; Nicholson, G

    1990-01-01

    A 23 year old man presented with hepatic veno-occlusive disease and severe portal hypertension and subsequently died from liver failure. Light microscopy and hepatic angiography showed occlusion of sublobular veins and small venous radicles of the liver, associated with widespread haemorrhagic necrosis of hepatocytes. The patient had been on a predominantly vegetarian diet and, prior to his illness, took comfrey leaves which are known to contain hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Comfrey is widely used as a herbal remedy, but so far has only been implicated in two other documented cases of human hepatic veno-occlusive disease. A possible causal association of comfrey and this patient's veno-occlusive disease is suggested by the temporal relationship of the ingestion of comfrey to his presentation, the histological changes in the liver and the exclusion of other known causes of the disease.

  17. Marijuana use in hepatitis C infection does not affect liver biopsy histology or treatment outcomes

    Liu, Theresa; Howell, Glen T; Turner, Lucy; Corace, Kimberley; Garber, Gary; Cooper, Curtis

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Marijuana smoking is prevalent among hepatitis C virus-infected patients. The literature assessing the influence of marijuana on liver disease progression and hepatitis C virus antiviral treatment outcomes is conflicting.METHODS: The authors evaluated hepatitis C virus RNA-positive patients followed at The Ottawa Hospital Viral Hepatitis Clinic (Ottawa, Ontario) from 2000 to 2009. Using The Ottawa Hospital Viral Hepatitis Clinic database and charts, information regarding demograph...

  18. Viral excretion and antibody titers in children infected with hepatitis A virus from an orphanage in western India.

    Hundekar, Supriya; Thorat, Neeta; Gurav, Yogesh; Lole, Kavita

    2015-12-01

    Hepatitis A is endemic in India and mainly causes sporadic infections. However, children in childcare centers, schools and orphanages are vulnerable to common-source outbreaks as they have naive hosts. To investigate hepatitis A outbreak in an orphanage from Pune, India. Monitoring of virus excretion and anti-HAV antibody levels in hepatitis A virus (HAV) infected children. The orphanage housed 93 children of the age 1 month-6.5 years. Analysis of the collected serum (n=78) and stool samples (n=63) revealed 20 children to be either positive for anti-HAV IgM antibodies or excreting HAV, 14 being symptomatic and 6 asymptomatic, while 32 were already anti-HAV IgG positive either due to past HAV exposure (n=7, mean log antibody titers: 2.96) or maternal antibodies (n=25, mean log antibody titers: 1.13). Serum samples, taken 4 weeks apart, did not show any significant difference in the IgM and IgG antibody levels either. However, virus excretion decreased significantly after 15 days in symptomatic children (mean log HAV RNA copies/ml 1.03+0.30), while asymptomatic children continued to excrete higher viral loads, at constant levels (mean log HAV RNA copies/ml 2.33+0.33), for up to 90 days. Though virus excretion continued up to 90 days in all HAV infected children, asymptomatic children excreted higher viral loads for longer period and hence can contribute significantly in person-to-person virus transmission. All children should be vaccinated in such set ups. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Using Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) As Surrogate for Human Hepatitis C Virus

    This test is designed to validate virucidal effectiveness claims for a product to be registered as a virucide. It determines the potential of the test agent to disinfect hard surfaces contaminated with human Hepatitis C virus (HCV).

  20. Complexity of the HVR-1 quasispecies and disease activity in patients with hepatitis C.

    Kumagai, N; Kaneko, F; Tsunematsu, S; Tsuchimoto, K; Tada, S; Saito, H; Hibi, T

    2007-07-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) easily undergoes genomic changes, especially in the hypervariable region (HVR) in the N-terminus of the E2/NS1 region. The quasispecies nature of HCV may have important biological implications in relation to viral persistence; however, the relationship between disease activity of chronic HCV infection and development of the genomic complexity have yielded conflicting results. We explored the changes in the complexity of the HVR-1 in the natural course of chronic HCV infection with and without elevation of serum alanine transaminase (ALT) levels. Ten patients with chronic hepatitis C proven by liver biopsy, who showed persistent elevation of the serum ALT levels, and 15 patients with chronic HCV infection and persistently normal serum ALT levels (PNAL) were enrolled in this study. The number of the HCV quasispecies was determined twice for each patient at an interval of mean 2.5 years by fluorescence single-strand conformation polymorphism and sequence analysis. There was no significant difference in the changes in the number of quasispecies during the follow-up period between chronic hepatitis C and PNAL. There was also no significant difference in the change in the number of variable nucleotides sites between the two groups. In these patients, the number of quasispecies and the diversity of HVR-1 were correlated with platelet counts and serum hyaluronic acid levels previously shown to be associated with disease progression. Our results suggested that the disease activity is not always related to the generation of the HVR-1 quasispecies complexity.

  1. Pseudothrombocytopenia or platelet clumping as a possible cause of low platelet count in patients with viral infection: a case series from single institution focusing on hepatitis A virus infection.

    Choe, W-H; Cho, Y-U; Chae, J-D; Kim, S-H

    2013-02-01

    Pseudothrombocytopenia (PTCP) is the phenomenon of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid anticoagulant-activated platelet clumping, which results in artificially low platelet counts. Other investigators have reported a few cases of PTCP associated with viral infections. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the association of viral infection with PTCP. Medical records of patients with thrombocytopenia who were tested for peripheral blood smear examination between March 2009 and February 2011 were reviewed for platelet clumping and viral infection. Thrombocytopenic patients with viral infection had a higher frequency of platelet clumping than those with other diseases, which was statistically significant (13.8% vs. 6.5%, respectively: P = 0.003). Among the 18 cases where PTCP or platelet clumping was related to viral infection, hepatitis A virus infection (72.2%) was most common, followed by cytomegalovirus (11.1%) and influenza A H1N1 infections (5.6%). A third (33.3%) of the patients had platelet counts viral infection, particularly if the platelet count is unexpectedly low, because failure to recognize PTCP may lead to unnecessary diagnostic tests and patient mismanagement. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Epidemiological studies on viral infections and co-infections : Human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus and human papillomavirus

    van Santen, D.K.

    2018-01-01

    The research described in this thesis aimed to increase our understanding of the incidence, disease progression and treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and co-infections in key populations. Chapter 1 contains an overview

  3. Mortality in patients with chronic and cleared hepatitis C viral infection: a nationwide cohort study

    Omland, Lars Haukali; Krarup, Henrik; Jepsen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    It is unknown whether mortality differs between patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication and those who cleared the virus after infection. We examined the impact of chronic HCV replication on mortality among Danish patients testing positive for HCV antibodies.......It is unknown whether mortality differs between patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication and those who cleared the virus after infection. We examined the impact of chronic HCV replication on mortality among Danish patients testing positive for HCV antibodies....

  4. An unusual association of pleural effusion with acute viral hepatitis A infection

    Dhakal, Ajaya Kumar; Shakya,Arati; Shrestha,Devendra; Shah,Subhash Chandra; Shakya,Henish

    2014-01-01

    Ajaya Kumar Dhakal, Arati Shakya, Devendra Shrestha, Subhash Chandra Shah, Henish Shakya Department of Pediatrics, KIST Medical College Teaching Hospital, Imadol, Lalitpur, Nepal Abstract: Hepatitis A virus infection is a common public health problem in developing countries primarily due to poor hygiene and sanitation. The clinical features of hepatitis A virus are mostly related to the derangement of liver function with occasional extrahepatic complications. Herein, a 2.5-year-old girl pres...

  5. Role of organic phosphorous in diagnosis of viral hepatitis patients B and C

    Ahmed, A.M.; Abdel Aziz, S.M.; El Sherbin, E.M.

    2002-01-01

    Biochemical and radiochemical analysis were performed on blood of egyptian men infected with hepatitis B, C and mixed B and C viruses as well as normal controls. The results revealed remarkable significant and very highly significant increases in ALT and AST activities in all patient groups. Regarding ALP enzyme, it showed significant increases in hepatitis C (Gr.III) and mixed hepatitis B and C (Gr. IV), whereas it showed a highly significant decrease in hepatitis B virus (Gr.II). GGT activity was highly significantly increased in Gr.II and Gr.III while non-significant change in Gr.IV was detected. Some biochemical compounds in blood especially phosphorus might taken as an early diagnostic tool for hepatitis phosphorus might taken as an early diagnostic tool for hepatitis B and C viruses. Inorganic phosphorus showed very high significant decreases in Gr.III and Gr.IV and a significant decrease in Gr.II. In respect with organic phosphorus, there were very high significant decrease in Gr.III, significant decrease in Gr.II and high significant decrease in Gr.IV

  6. Viral hepatitis A, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2007-2016.

    Stahlman, Shauna; Williams, Valerie F; Oetting, Alexis A

    2017-05-01

    During 2007-2016, there were 237 incident diagnoses of acute hepatitis A, with an overall incidence rate of 1.88 cases per 100,000 person-years (p-yrs). Crude overall rates of hepatitis A were highest among service members in the youngest age group, those in healthcare occupations, and among Air Force and Navy members. Service members of "other" or unknown race/ethnicity and non-Hispanic black service members had higher overall incidence rates of hepatitis A, compared to their non-Hispanic white and Hispanic counterparts. Annual incidence rates of hepatitis A were relatively stable until 2012 when rates peaked at 2.94 per 100,000. Rates dipped to 1.41 per 100,000 p-yrs in 2015 and then increased to 2.22 per 100,000 p-yrs in 2016. During the 10-year period, annual rates among male service members were relatively stable. The low rates of acute hepatitis A among U.S. service members overall reflect the widespread use of the hepatitis A virus vaccine.

  7. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Full Text Available ... Hemochromatosis Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy (ICP) Jaundice In Newborns ... are the common causes of cirrhosis? Hepatitis B & C Alcohol-related Liver Disease Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver ...

  8. Interaction of vinyl chloride monomer exposure and hepatitis B viral infection on liver cancer.

    Wong, Ruey-Hong; Chen, Pau-Chung; Wang, Jung-Der; Du, Chung-Li; Cheng, Tsun-Jen

    2003-04-01

    Vinyl-chloride monomer (VCM), a human carcinogen, has caused angiosarcoma of the liver. Recent studies have shown that VCM exposure is associated with hepatocellular cancer. In Taiwanese studies, the majority of VCM-exposed workers with liver cancer had history of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. To determine the role of HBV on the development of liver cancer in the VCM-exposed workers, we conducted a case-control study from a previously established polyvinyl chloride (PVC) cohort consisting of 4096 male workers from six PVC polymerization plants. A total of 18 patients with liver cancer, and 68 control subjects matched for age and specific plant of employment were selected. Detailed history of the participants that included alcohol consumption status, cigarette use, occupation, and family history of chronic liver disease were obtained using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. When the HBV surface antigen (HBsAg)-negative subjects without history of tank-cleaning were used as the reference, the HBsAg-negative subjects with history of tank-cleaning demonstrated a 4.0-fold greater risk of liver cancer (95% confidence interval: 95% CI = 0.2-69.1). The HBsAg carriers without history of tank-cleaning revealed a 25.7-fold greater risk of liver cancer (95% CI = 2.9-229.4). Whereas the HBsAg carriers with history of tank-cleaning revealed the greatest risk (matched odds ratio (ORm) 396.0, 95% CI = 22.6 -infinity) of developing liver cancer among subjects with different VCM-exposure status and HBsAg status categories. Further analysis showed the interaction term was significant (P < .01). Therefore, our results suggest an interaction between occupational VCM exposure and HBV infection for the development of liver cancer.

  9. Effect of viral suppression on hepatic venous pressure gradient in hepatitis C with cirrhosis and portal hypertension.

    Afdhal, N; Everson, G T; Calleja, J L; McCaughan, G W; Bosch, J; Brainard, D M; McHutchison, J G; De-Oertel, S; An, D; Charlton, M; Reddy, K R; Asselah, T; Gane, E; Curry, M P; Forns, X

    2017-10-01

    Portal hypertension is a predictor of liver-related clinical events and mortality in patients with hepatitis C and cirrhosis. The effect of interferon-free hepatitis C treatment on portal pressure is unknown. Fifty patients with Child-Pugh-Turcotte (CPT) A and B cirrhosis and portal hypertension (hepatic venous pressure gradient [HVPG] >6 mm Hg) were randomized to receive 48 weeks of open-label sofosbuvir plus ribavirin at Day 1 or after a 24-week observation period. The primary endpoint was sustained virologic response 12 weeks after therapy (SVR12) in patients who received ≥1 dose of treatment. Secondary endpoints included changes in HVPG, laboratory parameters, and MELD and CPT scores. A subset of patients was followed 48 weeks posttreatment to determine late changes in HVPG. SVR12 occurred in 72% of patients (33/46). In the 37 patients with paired HVPG measurements at baseline and the end of treatment, mean HVPG decreased by -1.0 (SD 3.97) mm Hg. Nine patients (24%) had ≥20% decreases in HVPG during treatment. Among 39 patients with pretreatment HVPG ≥12 mm Hg, 27 (69%) achieved SVR12. Four of the 33 (12%) patients with baseline HVPG ≥12 mm Hg had HVPG <12 mm Hg at the end of treatment. Of nine patients with pretreatment HVPG ≥12 mm Hg who achieved SVR12 and completed 48 weeks of follow-up, eight (89%) had a ≥20% reduction in HVPG, and three reduced their pressure to <12 mm Hg. Patients with chronic HCV and compensated or decompensated cirrhosis who achieve SVR can have clinically meaningful reductions in HVPG at long-term follow-up. (EudraCT 2012-002457-29). © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Hepatitis B virus-specific miRNAs and Argonaute2 play a role in the viral life cycle.

    C Nelson Hayes

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Disease-specific serum miRNA profiles may serve as biomarkers and might reveal potential new avenues for therapy. An HBV-specific serum miRNA profile associated with HBV surface antigen (HBsAg particles has recently been reported, and AGO2 and miRNAs have been shown to be stably associated with HBsAg in serum. We identified HBV-associated serum miRNAs using the Toray 3D array system in 10 healthy controls and 10 patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection. 19 selected miRNAs were then measured by quantitative RT-PCR in 248 chronic HBV patients and 22 healthy controls. MiRNA expression in serum versus liver tissue was also compared using biopsy samples. To examine the role of AGO2 during the HBV life cycle, we analyzed intracellular co-localization of AGO2 and HBV core (HBcAg and surface (HBsAg antigens using immunocytochemistry and proximity ligation assays in stably transfected HepG2 cells. The effect of AGO2 ablation on viral replication was assessed using siRNA. Several miRNAs, including miR-122, miR-22, and miR-99a, were up-regulated at least 1.5 fold (P<2E-08 in serum of HBV-infected patients. AGO2 and HBcAg were found to physically interact and co-localize in the ER and other subcellular compartments. HBs was also found to co-localize with AGO2 and was detected in multiple subcellular compartments. Conversely, HBx localized non-specifically in the nucleus and cytoplasm, and no interaction between AGO2 and HBx was detected. SiRNA ablation of AGO2 suppressed production of HBV DNA and HBs antigen in the supernatant. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that AGO2 and HBV-specific miRNAs might play a role in the HBV life cycle.

  11. Immunisation strategies for viral diseases in developing countries.

    Ruff, T A

    1999-01-01

    In just under a quarter of a century, the Expanded Programme on Immunisation has been associated with an increase in infant immunisation coverage from around 5% to 80%, and the prevention of at least 3 million deaths annually, at very low cost. The global target of poliomyelitis eradication by the year 2000 appears feasible. Measles is the next likely target for eradication via immunisation, through 'catch-up', 'keep up' and 'follow-up' strategies which have proven highly effective in the Americas. Yet much needs to be done in order to extend readily achievable immunisation benefits equitably to all the world's people and to realise the potential of existing and soon to be available vaccines for disease control and eradication, as experience with yellow fever and hepatitis B vaccines demonstrates. Unsafe injection practices are widespread, have received inadequate attention, and cause a substantial global burden of blood-borne infections. The risk of increasing global inequity in immunisation highlights the centrality of resource allocation priorities in determining the extent to which the benefits of immunisation will be realised, particularly for new vaccines which are significantly more costly than established EPI vaccines. WHO/UNICEF strategies to target more effectively immunisation support to the neediest countries, to prioritise new vaccines, and to target carefully vaccine procurement and encourage sharply tiered vaccine pricing support both equity and sustainability. However, increasing the resources available to immunisation is vital and requires powerful advocacy on public health, moral, cost-effectiveness and legal grounds. More appropriate resource allocation priorities could readily provide the means necessary to address both technical and operational immunisation challenges.

  12. Hepatic deficiency of the pioneer transcription factor FoxA restricts hepatitis B virus biosynthesis by the developmental regulation of viral DNA methylation.

    Vanessa C McFadden

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The FoxA family of pioneer transcription factors regulates hepatitis B virus (HBV transcription, and hence viral replication. Hepatocyte-specific FoxA-deficiency in the HBV transgenic mouse model of chronic infection prevents the transcription of the viral DNA genome as a result of the failure of the developmentally controlled conversion of 5-methylcytosine residues to cytosine during postnatal hepatic maturation. These observations suggest that pioneer transcription factors such as FoxA, which mark genes for expression at subsequent developmental steps in the cellular differentiation program, mediate their effects by reversing the DNA methylation status of their target genes to permit their ensuing expression when the appropriate tissue-specific transcription factor combinations arise during development. Furthermore, as the FoxA-deficient HBV transgenic mice are viable, the specific developmental timing, abundance and isoform type of pioneer factor expression must permit all essential liver gene expression to occur at a level sufficient to support adequate liver function. This implies that pioneer transcription factors can recognize and mark their target genes in distinct developmental manners dependent upon, at least in part, the concentration and affinity of FoxA for its binding sites within enhancer and promoter regulatory sequence elements. This selective marking of cellular genes for expression by the FoxA pioneer factor compared to HBV may offer the opportunity for the specific silencing of HBV gene expression and hence the resolution of chronic HBV infections which are responsible for approximately one million deaths worldwide annually due to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.

  13. Variation in the Viral Hepatitis and HIV Policies and Practices of Methadone Maintenance Programs.

    Jessop, Amy B; Hom, Jeffrey K; Burke, Monika

    Patients prescribed methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) demonstrate elevated prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus, and HIV. Government agencies recommend testing for these infections in MMT programs, but uptake is limited. We audited infection-related policies and practices of all 14 MMT programs in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 2015. Results were tabulated and compared with the results from a 2010 audit of 10 of 12 MMT programs. The audit focused on which patients are tested, timing and frequency, specific tests ordered, vaccination, and communication of test results. Written policies were nonspecific, offering little guidance on appropriate testing. The principal change in policy between 2010 and 2015 involved adding clearer guidance for communication of results to patients. In 2010 and 2015, all MMT programs tested new patients for hepatitis C virus antibodies, although retesting of existing patients varied. HBV testing increased from 2010 to 2015, though it was not uniform, with 5 programs testing for HBV surface antibodies and 10 programs testing for HBV surface antigens. Six programs assessed hepatitis vaccination status, but only 1 administered vaccines. In 2010, city-sponsored HIV antibody testing was available at all MMT programs. Without this program in 2015, few MMT programs conducted HIV testing. Despite limited hepatitis and HIV screening in MMT programs nationally, this study shows that testing can be incorporated into routine procedures. MMT programs are positioned to play an integral role in the identification of patients with chronic infections, but additional guidance and resources are required to maximize their impact.

  14. Prevalencia de los marcadores serológicos de hepatitis viral B y C en retardados mentales

    Georgina Ma. Suárez Mendoza

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron 200 pacientes retrasados mentales del Hospital "La Castellana", a los cuales se les determinaron los marcadores serológicos: antígeno de superficie para el virus de la hepatitis B y anticuerpo para el virus de la hepatitis C, donde se encontró una seroprevalencia para el VHB de un 5 % y de un 17 % para el VHC; se comprueba que los pacientes con un régimen interno, con mayor tiempo de institucionalización y con enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles son más susceptibles a adquirir estos virusSUMMARY: 200 mentally retarded patients from «La Castellana» Hospital were studied. The following serological markers were determined: hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis C antibody. A seroprevalence of hepatitis B and C of 5 % and 17 %, respectively, was found. It was proved that interned patients with longer length of institutionalization and with non-communicable chronic diseases are more susceptible to get these viruses

  15. Hepatitis A, B and C viral co-infections among HIV-infected adults presenting for care and treatment at Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Matee Mecky

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tanzania is currently scaling-up access to anti-retro viral therapy (ART to reach as many eligible persons as possible. Hepatitis viral co-infections are known to influence progression, management as well as outcome of HIV infection. However, information is scarce regarding the prevalence and predictors of viral hepatitis co-infection among HIV-infected individuals presenting at the HIV care and treatment clinics in the country. Methods A cross-sectional study conducted between April and September 2006 enrolled 260 HIV-1 infected, HAART naïve patients aged ≥18 years presenting at the HIV care and treatment clinic (CTC of the Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH. The evaluation included clinical assessment and determination of CD4+ T-lymphocyte count, serum transaminases and serology for Hepatitis A, B and C markers by ELISA. Results The prevalence of anti HAV IgM, HBsAg, anti-HBc IgM and anti-HCV IgG antibodies were 3.1%, 17.3%, 2.3% and 18.1%, respectively. Dual co-infection with HBV and HCV occurred in 10 individuals (3.9%, while that of HAV and HBV was detected in two subjects (0.8%. None of the patients had all the three hepatitis viruses. Most patients (81.1% with hepatitis co-infection neither had specific clinical features nor raised serum transaminases. History of blood transfusion and jaundice were independent predictors for HBsAg and anti-HBc IgM positivity, respectively. Conclusion There is high prevalence of markers for hepatitis B and C infections among HIV infected patients seeking care and treatment at MNH. Clinical features and a raise in serum alanine aminotransferase were of limited predictive values for the viral co-infections. Efforts to scale up HAART should also address co-infections with Hepatitis B and C viruses.

  16. Down-regulation of viral replication by adenoviral-mediated expression of siRNA against cellular cofactors for hepatitis C virus

    Zhang Jing; Yamada, Osamu; Sakamoto, Takashi; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Iwai, Takahiro; Matsushita, Yoshihisa; Shimamura, Hideo; Araki, Hiromasa; Shimotohno, Kunitada

    2004-01-01

    Small interfering RNA (siRNA) is currently being evaluated not only as a powerful tool for functional genomics, but also as a potentially promising therapeutic agent for cancer and infectious diseases. Inhibitory effect of siRNA on viral replication has been demonstrated in multiple pathogenic viruses. However, because of the high sequence specificity of siRNA-mediated RNA degradation, antiviral efficacy of siRNA directed to viral genome will be largely limited by emergence of escape variants resistant to siRNA due to high mutation rates of virus, especially RNA viruses such as poliovirus and hepatitis C virus (HCV). To investigate the therapeutic feasibility of siRNAs specific for the putative cellular cofactors for HCV, we constructed adenovirus vectors expressing siRNAs against La, polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB), subunit gamma of human eukaryotic initiation factors 2B (eIF2Bγ), and human VAMP-associated protein of 33 kDa (hVAP-33). Adenoviral-mediated expression of siRNAs markedly diminished expression of the endogenous genes, and silencing of La, PTB, and hVAP-33 by siRNAs substantially blocked HCV replication in Huh-7 cells. Thus, our studies demonstrate the feasibility and potential of adenoviral-delivered siRNAs specific for cellular cofactors in combating HCV infection, which can be used either alone or in combination with siRNA against viral genome to prevent the escape of mutant variants and provide additive or synergistic anti-HCV effects

  17. Change in fibrosis score as a predictor of mortality among HIV-infected patients with viral hepatitis.

    Jain, Mamta K; Seremba, Emmanuel; Bhore, Rafia; Dao, Doan; Joshi, Reeti; Attar, Nahid; Yuan, He-Jun; Lee, William M

    2012-02-01

    Noninvasive markers of liver fibrosis, measured at baseline, have been shown to predict liver-related mortality. It remains unknown if a change in the value of the scores over time predicts mortality in patients with HIV and viral hepatitis. In this retrospective study, survival in HIV/hepatitis B virus (HBV; n = 67), HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV; n = 43), and HIV/HBV/HCV (n = 41) patients was examined using Kaplan-Meier life table analysis. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST)-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) and FIB-4 scores, two noninvasive markers of liver fibrosis, were calculated at baseline and at last available clinical follow-up to determine the change in fibrosis score. Factors associated with mortality were assessed by Cox proportional hazards, including the change in the noninvasive marker score between the two time points. All-cause mortality was determined by Social Security Death Index and chart review. Sixty-seven were coinfected with HIV/HBV, 43 with HIV/HCV, and 41 were triply infected (HIV/HBV/HCV). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed similar survival for the three groups at 7 years of follow-up (p = 0.10). However, median length of follow-up was lower in HIV/HCV (60.5; range 0-102) compared to HIV/HBV (75.7; 12.3-126.5) and HIV/HBV/HCV (80.0; 2.7-123) months, respectively, p = 0.02. Baseline fibrosis score (p = 0.002), an increase in the value for noninvasive measurements for fibrosis (p < 0.001), and the presence of HIV/HCV coinfection (p = 0.041) were each associated with higher risk for mortality. Baseline fibrosis score (p = 0.03) and an increase in FIB-4 score (p = 0.05) were independent predictors of all-cause mortality, but liver-related mortality was not evaluated. In this study, baseline fibrosis score was predictive of 7-year all-cause mortality. Further studies are needed in a prospective cohort to evaluate the predictive value of monitoring changes in fibrosis scores over time to predict mortality in patients with viral hepatitis.

  18. Detection of TT Virus Among Thalassaemic Children With Chronic Viral Hepatitis B and C Receiving Irradiated and Non Irradiated RBCs

    El-Maghraby, D.F.; EL-Shafie, A.I.; El-Sayed, S.A.; Alkady, M.M.

    2010-01-01

    TTV was first identified in the serum of a patient with post transfusion hepatitis of unknown etiology in 1997.As a consequence of the high prevalence of TTV in blood donors, thalassemia patients frequently acquire various genotypes of this virus through therapeutic blood transfusions.TTV as a cause of chronic hepatitis has not yet determined . Ten healthy and twenty-eight poly-transfused thalassemia children were evolved in this study where ten patients were receiving irradiated RBCs and eighteen receiving non irradiated ones.TTV was detected in serum samples by semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using TTV-specific primer. Transaminases levels, hepatitis B and C virus markers were interpreted for possible association with TTV infection. As a result, TTV was found in 50% of thalassemia patients and in 20 % of the controls. Among thalassemia patients, isolated HBsAG, isolated HCV-AB, HBsAG and TTV-DNA and HCV-AB and TTV-DNA distributions were: 6 (21.43%) ,8 ( 28.57%) , 4 ( 14.29%) and 10 (35.7%) respectively. Regarding thalassemia patients receiving irradiated RBCs, the frequency of viral infections were 8(80%), 2(20%) and 0% for TTV co-infections, isolated HBV and isolated HCV, respectively. On the other hand, the prevalence of viral infections among patients receiving non irradiated RBCs were 6(33.3%), 4(22.2%) and 8(44.5%) for TTV co-infection, isolated HBV and isolated HCV, respectively. These data may give evidence that radiation raises the levels of blood safety especially regarding HCV. Furthermore, liver transaminase levels were significantly higher in all patients versus the controls, meanwhile, transaminase values were not different in HBsAG-positive subjects as compared with subjects who had both HBsAG and TTV-DNA positive. Also, there was no significant difference between isolated HCV infection and HCV and TTV co-infection. So, no convincing evidence was found to support TTV involvement in the D. F. EL-MAGHRABY, et al. / J. Rad. Res. Appl. Sci

  19. Evaluation of diffuse hepatic disease by computed tomography, 1

    Tada, Akira; Shikae, Mikio; Morinaga, Kenichi; Morikawa, Toshihiro; Nei, Hirokazu.

    1979-01-01

    Liver attenuation values of 53 diffuse hepatic disease were measured, and compared with those of normal subjects. In normal subjects mean CT values of the liver was 62.3, that of the spleen was 53.2. But in diffuse hepatic disease, all group's mean CT values of the liver was decreased, especially at fatty liver and acute hepatitis. In all cases of fatty liver, CT values of the liver were lower than that of the spleen. In 39 cases of 53 patients, change of CT values of the liver were measured using biliary tract contrast agents. In another 39 cases of 53 patients, were evaluated histological fat deposit and CT values of the liver. Correlation between histological fat deposit and CT values was good. Diagnosis of the moderate fatty liver and quantitative analysis was possible by CT values alone. (author)

  20. Detection of viral hepatitis B markers by radioimmunoassay in medical personnel. Vyyavlenie markerov virusnogo gepatita B u meditsinskogo personala radioimmunologicheskim metodom

    Marievskij, V F; Lejbenzon, A S

    1990-10-01

    Results of revealing B markers of viral hepatitis (VHB) in medical personnel in the city of Zaporozhe by radioimmunoassay method are presented. By the frequency of revealing two markers (HB {sub s}Ag and anti-HB{sub s}) risk groups are indicated depending on the profession, age (length of service) of medical personnel.

  1. Hepatitis B virus infection in Chinese patients with hepatitis C virus infection: prevalence, clinical characteristics, viral interactions and host genotypes: a nationwide cross-sectional study.

    Yan, Li-Bo; Rao, Hui-Ying; Ma, Yuan-Ji; Bai, Lang; Chen, En-Qiang; Du, Ling-Yao; Yang, Rui-Feng; Wei, Lai; Tang, Hong

    2016-10-12

    Little is known about hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in China. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence, clinical characteristics, viral interactions and host genotypes of HBV/HCV dual infection compared with HCV monoinfection. A cross-sectional study. China. 997 patients with HCV from 28 university-affiliated hospitals in China were enrolled in this research. Patients were divided into two subgroups. The prevalence of HBV infection in patients with HCV was 4.11% (41/997). The age-specific prevalence of HBsAg was 0.70%, 3.97% and 5.85% in groups aged 18-30, 30-50 and >50 years old (p=0.057), respectively. Patients with HBV/HCV dual infection and patients with HCV monoinfection had similar HCV viral loads (5.80±0.89 vs 5.83±1.00 log10 IU/mL, p=0.904). The dominant HCV genotype was 1b in both groups (53.65% vs 56.90%, p=0.493). The protective C allele in IL-28B (rs12979860) was also the dominant allele type in both patient groups (85.36% vs 83.99%, p=0.814). Patients with HBV/HCV dual infection had a higher ratio of liver cirrhosis and hepatic decompensation than patients with HCV monoinfection (39.02% vs 17.69%, p=0.001; 31.70% vs 12.13%, p=0.001). The HBV burden was moderate in HCV-infected patients in China. Liver cirrhosis was more common in patients with HBV/HCV dual infection, suggesting the need for closer monitoring of dual-infected individuals. NCT01293279; Post-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. Non-viral ex vivo hepatic gene transfer by in situ lipofection of liver and intraperitoneal transplantation of hepatocytes.

    Rangarajan, P N; Vatsala, P G; Ashok, M S; Srinivas, V K; Habibullah, C M; Padmanaban, G

    1997-04-29

    Perfusion of liver with plasmid DNA-lipofectin complexes via the portal vein results in efficient accumulation of the vector in hepatocytes. Such hepatocytes, when administered intraperitoneally into a hepatectomized rat, repopulate the liver and express the transgene efficiently. This procedure obviates the need for large-scale hepatocyte culture for ex vivo gene transfer. Further, intraperitoneal transplantation is a simple and cost-effective strategy of introducing genetically modified hepatocytes into liver. Thus, in situ lipofection of liver and intraperitoneal transfer of hepatocytes can be developed into a novel method of non-viral ex vivo gene transfer technique that has applications in the treatment of metabolic disorders of liver and hepatic gene therapy.

  3. Efficacy of combined hepatitis B immunoglobulin and hepatitis B vaccine in blocking father-infant transmission of hepatitis B viral infection.

    Cao, L-H; Liu, Z-M; Zhao, P-L; Sun, S-C; Xu, D-B; Shao, M-H; Zhang, J-D

    2015-05-04

    The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of combined immunization of hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) and hepatitis B vaccine (HBVac) in blocking father-infant transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV). Newborns positive at birth for blood HBV sur-face antigen (HBsAg) and/or HBV DNA were selected and immunized with HBIG combination HBVac. At 7 months, HBV markers and HBV DNA of each neonate were measured using electrochemiluminescence with the Cobas-e-411 Automatic Electrochemiluminescence Immuno-assay Analyzer and fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Among all 7-month-old subjects, the negative conversion rates of HBV DNA and HBsAg were 48/61 (78.7%) and 19/41 (46.3%), respectively. Therefore, this study demonstrated that prompt combination injection of HBIG and HBVac can protect some of the HBV DNA- and/ or HBsAg-positive newborns from HBV.

  4. The effect of interferons and viral proteins on antigen-presenting cells in chronic hepatitis B

    A. Boltjes (Arjan)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The innate immune system forms the so-called first line of defense against invading pathogens like viruses. Innate immune cells include phagocytes like monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells (DC). Phagocytes sample their environments, binding and taking up viral

  5. Dry Blood Spots a Reliable Method for Measurement of Hepatitis B Viral Load in Resource-Limited Settings.

    Kathrine Stene-Johansen

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV quantification is essential in the management of chronic hepatitis B, both to determine treatment eligibility and in the monitoring of treatment effect. This test, however, is rarely available in resource-limited settings due to high costs and stringent requirements for shipment and storage of plasma. Dried Blood Spots (DBS can be a convenient alternative to plasma, but its use for HBV monitoring has not been investigated under real-life conditions in Africa.The performance of DBS in HBV quantification was investigated using a modified commercial test (Abbott RealTime HBV assay. Paired DBS and plasma samples were collected from an HBV positive cohort in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. DBS were stored at ambient temperature for 4-39 days before shipment to the laboratory.Twenty-six paired samples were selected covering the total range of quantification, from 2.14 log IU/ml to >7 log IU/ml. HBV was detected in 21 of 21 (100% DBS from patients with a corresponding plasma viral load above 2.70 log IU/ml. The mean difference between plasma and DBS was 0.59 log IU/ml, and the correlation was strong (R2 = 0.92. In stability studies there was no significant change in DBS viral load after storage at room temperature for up to 12 weeks.This study suggests that DBS can be a feasible and reliable alternative to plasma for quantification of HBV in resource-limited settings. DBS can expand access to antiviral treatment for patients in low- and middle-income countries.

  6. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Full Text Available ... A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy (ICP) Jaundice In Newborns Diseases of the Liver ... A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy (ICP) Jaundice In Newborns Diseases of the Liver ...

  7. Strategies to manage hepatitis C virus (HCV) disease burden

    Wedemeyer, H; Duberg, A S; Buti, M

    2014-01-01

    The number of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections is projected to decline while those with advanced liver disease will increase. A modeling approach was used to forecast two treatment scenarios: (i) the impact of increased treatment efficacy while keeping the number of treated patients constant...

  8. Stable cytotoxic T cell escape mutation in hepatitis C virus is linked to maintenance of viral fitness.

    Luke Uebelhoer

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms by which hepatitis C virus (HCV evades cellular immunity to establish persistence in chronically infected individuals are not clear. Mutations in human leukocyte antigen (HLA class I-restricted epitopes targeted by CD8(+ T cells are associated with persistence, but the extent to which these mutations affect viral fitness is not fully understood. Previous work showed that the HCV quasispecies in a persistently infected chimpanzee accumulated multiple mutations in numerous class I epitopes over a period of 7 years. During the acute phase of infection, one representative epitope in the C-terminal region of the NS3/4A helicase, NS3(1629-1637, displayed multiple serial amino acid substitutions in major histocompatibility complex (MHC anchor and T cell receptor (TCR contact residues. Only one of these amino acid substitutions at position 9 (P9 of the epitope was stable in the quasispecies. We therefore assessed the effect of each mutation observed during in vivo infection on viral fitness and T cell responses using an HCV subgenomic replicon system and a recently developed in vitro infectious virus cell culture model. Mutation of a position 7 (P7 TCR-contact residue, I1635T, expectedly ablated the T cell response without affecting viral RNA replication or virion production. In contrast, two mutations at the P9 MHC-anchor residue abrogated antigen-specific T cell responses, but additionally decreased viral RNA replication and virion production. The first escape mutation, L1637P, detected in vivo only transiently at 3 mo after infection, decreased viral production, and reverted to the parental sequence in vitro. The second P9 variant, L1637S, which was stable in vivo through 7 years of follow-up, evaded the antigen-specific T cell response and did not revert in vitro despite being less optimal in virion production compared to the parental virus. These studies suggest that HCV escape mutants emerging early in infection are not necessarily

  9. [Characteristic situation on prevention of nosocomial infection in the hospital for the severely multi-disabled--experiences in care and treatment of 4 kinds of viral hepatitis].

    Machida, Y; Tanaka, H; Yano, Y; Yano, T; Yoshida, K

    1997-12-01

    We experienced Hepatitis A, B, C and fulminant hepatitis due to Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in our hospital for the severely multi-disabled (SMD) who had both severe motor and intellectual disabilities, and some of whom might be further complicated by blindness and/or deafness. In this hospital, 100 SMDs are hospitalized. Case 1: The disabled, 25 year old male, was transmitted Hepatitis A from a nurse. Case 2: The disabled, 60 year old female carrier of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) who has been cared for more than 10 years. Case 3: The disabled, 46 year old male carrier of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) (RNA type 3), has been cared for more than 4 years. Case 4: The disabled, 39 year old male, had a fever of 39 degrees C for 9 days and suddenly died. He was diagnosed as fulminant hepatitis due to HSV-1 by necropsy. The hospitals for SMD are characteristic in prevention of nosocomial infections; 1) The disabled infected is not aware of the fact that he or she is the source of infection and that the other disabled living with him or her are in risk of infection, because of their severe mental condition. 2) All of the disabled need complete or incomplete helps for activities of daily life (ADL), so that the disabled who is the carrier of some pathogen constantly gives risk of infection to staffs, including medical staffs (doctor, nurse and therapist), psychologist and helpers by bloody secretion from wounds, saliva, urine, feces as well as menstrual blood. 3) If a carrier of some pathogen is hospitalized, the staffs should serve under risk of infection involving blood-mediated infectious disease for many years, because SMDs are permitted lifelong stay in the hospitals for SMD, which also play a role of care house or institution, by public expense in Japan. In case of an outbreak of Hepatitis A, nosocomial infection ended in the original case (a nurse), another nurse and a case of the disabled by general treatment and care against communicable diseases of the digestive

  10. Simultaneous splenectomy during liver transplantation augments anti-viral therapy in patients infected with hepatitis C virus.

    Chu, Heng-Cheng; Hsieh, Chung-Bao; Hsu, Kuo-Feng; Fan, Hsiu-Lung; Hsieh, Tsai-Yuan; Chen, Teng-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous splenectomy in liver transplantation (LT) is selectively indicated because of splenoportal venous thromboses and increased sepsis. Therefore, its impact should be further investigated. Of the 160 liver transplant patients, only 40 underwent simultaneous splenectomy. Clinicopathologic characteristics and outcomes were compared between the splenectomy and non-splenectomy group using retrospective analysis. Although the groups were similar and had no significant difference in the intra- and postoperative data, non-splenectomy group had more male patients. However, splenectomy group showed significantly higher platelet and leukocyte counts at 1 month and 6 months after the transplantation and higher hepatitis C virus anti-viral therapy completion. Furthermore, 3 patients developed portal or splenic vein thrombosis during the postoperative follow-up, but the overall survival rate did not significantly differ between these groups. Simultaneous splenectomy in LT can be safely performed, particularly in patients with hepatitis C virus cirrhosis, small-for-size grafts, hypersplenism, and ABO blood group incompatible (ABO - incompatible) LT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. 6-Hydroxydopamine Inhibits the Hepatitis C Virus through Alkylation of Host and Viral Proteins and the Induction of Oxidative Stress.

    Lafreniere, Matthew A; Powdrill, Megan H; Singaravelu, Ragunath; Pezacki, John Paul

    2016-11-11

    Many viruses, including the hepatitis C virus (HCV), are dependent on the host RNA silencing pathway for replication. In this study, we screened small molecule probes, previously reported to disrupt loading of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), including 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), suramin (SUR), and aurintricarboxylic acid (ATA), to examine their effects on viral replication. We found that 6-OHDA inhibited HCV replication; however, 6-OHDA was a less potent inhibitor of RISC than either SUR or ATA. By generating a novel chemical probe (6-OHDA-yne), we determined that 6-OHDA covalently modifies host and virus proteins. Moreover, 6-OHDA was shown to be an alkylating agent that is capable of generating adducts with a number of enzymes involved in the oxidative stress response. Furthermore, modification of viral enzymes with 6-OHDA and 6-OHDA-yne was found to inhibit their enzymatic activity. Our findings suggest that 6-OHDA is a probe for oxidative stress as well as protein alkylation, and these properties together contribute to the antiviral effects of this compound.

  12. Identification of cellular and viral factors related to anti-hepatitis C virus activity of cyclophilin inhibitor.

    Goto, Kaku; Watashi, Koichi; Inoue, Daisuke; Hijikata, Makoto; Shimotohno, Kunitada

    2009-10-01

    We have so far reported that an immunosuppressant cyclosporin A (CsA), a well-known cyclophilin (CyP) inhibitor (CPI), strongly suppressed hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication in cell culture, and that CyPB was a cellular cofactor for viral replication. To further investigate antiviral mechanisms of CPI, we here developed cells carrying CsA-resistant HCV replicons, by culturing the HCV subgenomic replicon cells for 4 weeks in the presence of CsA with G418. Transfection of total RNA from the isolated CsA-resistant cells to naïve Huh7 cells conferred CsA resistance, suggesting that the replicon RNA itself was responsible for the resistant phenotype. Of the identified amino acid mutations, D320E in NS5A conferred the CsA resistance. The replicon carrying the D320E mutation was sensitive to interferon-alpha, but was resistant to CsA and other CPIs including NIM811 and sanglifehrin A. Knockdown of individual CyP subtypes revealed CyP40, in addition to CyPA and CyPB, contributed to viral replication, and CsA-resistant replicons acquired independence from CyPA for efficient replication. These data provide important evidence on the mechanisms underlying the regulation of HCV replication by CyP and for designing novel and specific anti-HCV strategies with CPIs.

  13. Boronic acid-modified lipid nanocapsules: a novel platform for the highly efficient inhibition of hepatitis C viral entry

    Khanal, Manakamana; Barras, Alexandre; Vausselin, Thibaut; Fénéant, Lucie; Boukherroub, Rabah; Siriwardena, Aloysius; Dubuisson, Jean; Szunerits, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    The search for viral entry inhibitors that selectively target viral envelope glycoproteins has attracted increasing interest in recent years. Amongst the handful of molecules reported to show activity as hepatitis C virus (HCV) entry inhibitors are a variety of glycan-binding proteins including the lectins, cyanovirin-N (CV-N) and griffithsin. We recently demonstrated that boronic acid-modified nanoparticles are able to reduce HCV entry through a similar mechanism to that of lectins. A major obstacle to any further development of these nanostructures as viral entry inhibitors is their only moderate maximal inhibition potential. In the present study, we report that lipid nanocapsules (LNCs), surface-functionalized with amphiphilic boronic acid (BA) through their post-insertion into the semi-rigid shell of the LNCs, are indeed far superior as HCV entry inhibitors when compared with previously reported nanostructures. These 2nd generation particles (BA-LNCs) are shown to prevent HCV infection in the micromolar range (IC50 = 5.4 μM of BA moieties), whereas the corresponding BA monomers show no significant effects even at the highest analyzed concentration (20 μM). The new BA-LNCs are the most promising boronolectin-based HCV entry inhibitors reported to date and are thus observed to show great promise in the development of a pseudolectin-based therapeutic agent.The search for viral entry inhibitors that selectively target viral envelope glycoproteins has attracted increasing interest in recent years. Amongst the handful of molecules reported to show activity as hepatitis C virus (HCV) entry inhibitors are a variety of glycan-binding proteins including the lectins, cyanovirin-N (CV-N) and griffithsin. We recently demonstrated that boronic acid-modified nanoparticles are able to reduce HCV entry through a similar mechanism to that of lectins. A major obstacle to any further development of these nanostructures as viral entry inhibitors is their only moderate maximal

  14. Myxovirus resistance 1 gene polymorphisms and outcomes of viral hepatitis B and C infections in Moroccan patients.

    Rebbani, Khadija; Ababou, Mostafa; Nadifi, Sellama; Kandil, Mostafa; Marchio, Agnès; Pineau, Pascal; Ezzikouri, Sayeh; Benjelloun, Soumaya

    2017-04-01

    Host genetic factors may influence the establishment of chronicity or spontaneous clearance in viral hepatitis B and C infections. More light was shed on the role played by interferon-stimulated genes in the innate immunity. Myxovirus resistance 1 (MX1) is one of those key genes that have reported to inhibit several viruses. The present study aims to explore the possible association of -88G/T and -123C/A promoter variants of MX1 with susceptibility to chronic hepatitis B and C and/or with spontaneous clearance in a Moroccan population. The -88G/T and -123C/A SNPs were genotyped by PCR-RFLP in 538 individuals stratified into HBV chronically infected patients (n = 120), HCV-chronically infected patients (n = 115), HBV spontaneously resolved subjects (n = 114), HCV spontaneously resolved group (n = 52), and healthy controls (n = 137). A significant association of -123C allele with HBV spontaneous clearance has been found (P = 0.002, OR = 2.34; 95%CI [1.36-4]). In addition, a significant correlation between the MX1-GC haplotype and HBV spontaneous clearance (P C/A polymorphisms with regard to HCV infection was observed in this study. Here, we show that for North African patients with chronic hepatitis, MX1 gene variation at position -123 may influence the outcome of HBV infection but not HCV infection. J. Med. Virol. 89:647-652, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Structure of Hepatitis E Virion-Sized Particle Reveals an RNA-Dependent Viral Assembly Pathway

    Xing, L.; Wall, J.; Li, T.-C.; Mayazaki, N.; Simon, M. N.; Moore, M.; Wang, C.-Y.; Takeda, N.; Wakita, T.; Miyamura, T.; Cheng, R. H.

    2010-10-22

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) induces acute hepatitis in humans with a high fatality rate in pregnant women. There is a need for anti-HEV research to understand the assembly process of HEV native capsid. Here, we produced a large virion-sized and a small T=1 capsid by expressing the HEV capsid protein in insect cells with and without the N-terminal 111 residues, respectively, for comparative structural analysis. The virion-sized capsid demonstrates a T=3 icosahedral lattice and contains RNA fragment in contrast to the RNA-free T=1 capsid. However, both capsids shared common decameric organization. The in vitro assembly further demonstrated that HEV capsid protein had the intrinsic ability to form decameric intermediate. Our data suggest that RNA binding is the extrinsic factor essential for the assembly of HEV native capsids.

  16. Gravimetric Viral Diagnostics: : QCM Based Biosensors for Early Detection of Viruses

    Afzal, Adeel; Mujahid, Adnan; Schirhagl, Romana; Bajwa, Sadia Z.; Latif, Usman; Feroz, Saima

    2017-01-01

    Viruses are pathogenic microorganisms that can inhabit and replicate in human bodies causing a number of widespread infectious diseases such as influenza, gastroenteritis, hepatitis, meningitis, pneumonia, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) etc. A majority of these viral diseases are

  17. Cytokines: their pathogenic and therapeutic role in chronic viral hepatitis Citoquinas: papel patogénico y terapéutico de las hepatitis crónicas víricas

    J. R. Larrubia

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Cytokines make up a network of molecules involved in the regulation of immune response and organ functional homeostasis. Cytokines coordinate both physiological and pathological processes occurring in the liver during viral infection, including infection control, inflammation, regeneration, and fibrosis. Hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses interfere with the complex cytokine network brought about by the immune system and liver cells in order to prevent an effective immune response, capable of viral control. This situation leads to intrahepatic sequestration of nonspecific inflammatory infiltrates that release proinflammatory cytokines, which in turn favor chronic inflammation and fibrosis. The therapeutical administration of cytokines such as interferon alpha may result in viral clearance during persistent infection, and revert this process.

  18. Vertically acquired hepatitis C virus infection: Correlates of transmission and disease progression.

    Tovo, Pier-Angelo; Calitri, Carmelina; Scolfaro, Carlo; Gabiano, Clara; Garazzino, Silvia

    2016-01-28

    The worldwide prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in children is 0.05%-0.4% in developed countries and 2%-5% in resource-limited settings, where inadequately tested blood products or un-sterile medical injections still remain important routes of infection. After the screening of blood donors, mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HCV has become the leading cause of pediatric infection, at a rate of 5%. Maternal HIV co-infection is a significant risk factor for MTCT and anti-HIV therapy during pregnancy seemingly can reduce the transmission rate of both viruses. Conversely, a high maternal viral load is an important, but not preventable risk factor, because at present no anti-HCV treatment can be administered to pregnant women to block viral replication. Caution is needed in adopting obstetric procedures, such as amniocentesis or internal fetal monitoring, that can favor fetal exposure to HCV contaminated maternal blood, though evidence is lacking on the real risk of single obstetric practices. Mode of delivery and type of feeding do not represent significant risk factors for MTCT. Therefore, there is no reason to offer elective caesarean section or discourage breast-feeding to HCV infected parturients. Information on the natural history of vertical HCV infection is limited. The primary infection is asymptomatic in infants. At least one quarter of infected children shows a spontaneous viral clearance (SVC) that usually occurs within 6 years of life. IL-28B polymorphims and genotype 3 infection have been associated with greater chances of SVC. In general, HCV progression is mild or moderate in children with chronic infection who grow regularly, though cases with marked liver fibrosis or hepatic failure have been described. Non-organ specific autoantibodies and cryoglobulins are frequently found in children with chronic infection, but autoimmune diseases or HCV associated extrahepatic manifestations are rare.

  19. A case of severe autoimmune hepatitis associated with Graves' disease

    Samia Abdulla Bokhari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Graves' disease is a common condition and is known to have a wide range of effects on a variety of organs. Hepatic dysfunction ranging from mild to severe due to direct effect of high circulating thyroid hormones as well as a deleterious effect of antithyroid medications (methimazole and propylthiouracil has been well - documented in literature. However, severe autoimmune hepatitis (AIH associated with Graves' disease is rare and limited to few case reports only. A 38-year-old woman presented with abdominal pain and yellowish discolouration of conjunctivae. On investigation, she was found to have Graves' disease and AIH. The liver histopathology showed typical features of AIH. She responded excellently to glucocorticoid therapy with normalisation of thyroid function and liver histology. The case is discussed with relevant literature review.

  20. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction test for the diagnosis of acute viral hepatitis A.

    Heo, Nae-Yun; Lim, Young-Suk; An, Jihyun; Ko, Sun-Young; Oh, Heung-Bum

    2012-12-01

    The early diagnosis of acute hepatitis A (AHA) is hindered because serum IgM against hepatitis A virus (HAV) can yield false-negative results during the window period. This study evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) kit for HAV RNA for the diagnosis of AHA. Samples were collected from 136 patients with acute severe hepatitis at their admission to Asan Medical Center between June 2010 and July 2010. Samples were analyzed for serum IgM anti-HAV using an immunoassay test and for qualitative HAV RNA using the Magicplex HepaTrio PCR test kit. The diagnostic accuracies of these methods were tested on the basis of clinical and laboratory diagnoses of AHA. The concordance rate and kappa value between IgM anti-HAV and HAV RNA PCR were 88.2% and 0.707, respectively. For the diagnosis of AHA, the sensitivity and specificity of IgM anti-HAV were 90.7% and 100%, respectively, when an "equivocal" result was regarded as positive; and 79.1% and 100%, respectively, when an "equivocal" result was regarded as negative. The sensitivity and specificity of HAV RNA PCR were 81.4% and 100%, respectively. All four patients with negative IgM anti-HAV and positive HAV RNA PCR results and all four patients with equivocal IgM anti-HAV RNA and positive HAV RNA PCR results were eventually diagnosed with AHA. The qualitative HAV RNA PCR test has an equivalent diagnostic accuracy for AHA compared to IgM anti-HAV and may be more sensitive during the window period.

  1. Seroprevalence of viral and bacterial diseases among the bovines in Himachal Pradesh, India

    Shailja Katoch

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was designed to measure the seroprevalence of viral and bacterial diseases: Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhea, bovine leukemia, bovine parainfluenza, bovine respiratory syncytial disease, brucellosis, and paratuberculosis among bovine of Himachal Pradesh during the year 2013-2015. Materials and Methods: The serum samples were collected from seven districts of state, namely, Bilaspur, Kangra, Kinnaur, Lahul and Spiti, Mandi, Sirmour, and Solan. The samples were screened using indirect ELISA kits to measure the seroprevalence of viral and bacterial diseases. Results: The overall seroprevalence of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis was 24.24%, bovine viral diarrhea 1.52%, bovine leukemia 9.09%, bovine parainfluenza 57.58%, bovine respiratory syncytial disease 50%, brucellosis 19.69%, and paratuberculosis 9.09% in Himachal Pradesh. The seroprevalence of bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine leukemia, bovine parainfluenza, bovine respiratory syncytial disease, and paratuberculosis in the state varied significantly (p0.01. Multiple seropositivity has been observed in this study. Bovine parainfluenza virus 3 was observed commonly in mixed infection with almost all viruses and bacteria under study. Conclusion: The viral and bacterial diseases are prevalent in the seven districts of Himachal Pradesh investigated in the study. Therefore, appropriate management practices and routine vaccination programs should be adopted to reduce the prevalence of these diseases.

  2. Fluorographic determination of /sup 3/H-labelled hepatitis B virus DNA and other viral DNAs

    Jantschak, J; Meisel, H

    1986-01-01

    The radioactivity of aqueous samples of /sup 3/H-labelled DNA can easily be determined by a quantitative fluorographic assay. 25 samples were collected and fixed simultaneously onto a membrane filter. Their fluorographic film blackening is compared densitometrically or visually to that of standard samples. The lower limit of detection is 1.7 Bq (100 dpm). This procedure is very effective when dealing with high numbers of samples and presents an economically favorable alternative to scintillation counting. The efficiency of the method for the assay of different DNA polymerase activities (hepatitis B virus, bovine leukemia virus, bacteriophage T 4) could be demonstrated.

  3. Autoimmune Hepatitis and Celiac Disease: Case Report Showing an Entero-Hepatic Link

    Francesco Tovoli

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder primarily targeting the small bowel, although extraintestinal extensions have been reported. The autoimmune processes can affect the liver with manifestations such as primary biliary cirrhosis and autoimmune hepatitis. We describe a 61-year-old woman with celiac disease and an increased levels of aminotransferases. The persistence of increased levels of aminotransferases after 1 year of gluten-free diet and the positivity for an anti-nuclear and anti-double-strand DNA antibodies led to a misdiagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus-related hepatitis. Based on these findings the patient was placed on steroids, which after a few months were stopped because of the onset of diabetes mellitus. Soon after steroid withdrawal, the patient had a marked increase in aminotransferases and γ-globulins, and a liver biopsy revealed chronic active hepatitis. A course of three months of steroids and azathioprine normalized both biochemical and clinical parameters. Currently the patient is symptom-free and doing well. In conclusion, a hypertransaminasemia persisting after a gluten-free diet should be interpreted as a sign of coexisting autoimmune liver disease. Any autoantibody positivity (in this case to ANA and anti-dsDNA should be carefully considered in order to avoid misdiagnosis delaying appropriate clinical management.

  4. Epstein-Barr viral load before a liver transplant in children with chronic liver disease.

    Shakibazad, Nader; Honar, Naser; Dehghani, Seyed Mohsen; Alborzi, Abdolvahab

    2014-12-01

    Many children with chronic liver disease require a liver transplant. These patients are prone to various infections, including Epstein-Barr virus infection. This study sought to measure the Epstein-Barr viral load by polymerase chain reaction before a liver transplant. This cross-sectional study was done at the Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran, in 2011. All patients were aged younger than 18 years with chronic liver disease and were candidates for a liver transplant at the Shiraz Nemazee Hospital Organ Transplant Center. They had been investigated regarding their demographic characteristics, underlying disease, laboratory findings, and Epstein-Barr viral load by real-time TaqMan polymerase chain reaction. Ninety-eight patients were studied and the mean age was 6.5 ± 5.9 years. Cryptogenic cirrhosis was the most-prevalent reason for liver transplant, and the death rate before a transplant was 15%. Among the study subjects, 6 had measurable Epstein-Barr viral load by polymerase chain reaction before the transplant, and 4 of them had considerably higher Epstein-Barr viral loads (more than 1000 copies/mL). With respect to the close prevalence of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease (6%) and the high Epstein-Barr viral load in the patients before a transplant (4%), high pretransplant Epstein-Barr viral load can be considered a risk factor for posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder.

  5. An out break of more than 1300 cases of acute viral hepatitis in a tertiary care hospital in Rawalpindi in summer of 2009

    Farooq, M.A.; Saeed, S.; Mirza, S.A.; Khan, W.A.

    2011-01-01

    To find out the short-term clinical course including common clinical features, laboratory parameters, treatment provided and outcome of cases of acute viral hepatitis hospitalized in a tertiary care hospital. Study Design: Descriptive observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Military Hospital in Rawalpindi from May to July 2009. Patients and Methods: Patients hospitalized with acute viral hepatitis, both male and female, older than 12 years of age were included in the study. A detailed proforma including patients' particulars, clinical features; laboratory parameters, treatment provided, disposal/ outcome was designed and filled for each patient. Results: During the study period a total 1334 patients were hospitalized, 1279 (95.87%) were male while only 55 (4.13%) were female. Majority of patients were young adults. Mean age was 26 years with a range of 12 to 85 years. Maximum serum bilirubin levels of 559 micromoles and serum alanine aminotransferas (ALT) levels of 7750 IU/L were observed. Maximum prothrombin time (PT) ranged from 105 seconds to failed to clot, against a control of 13 seconds. Thrombocytopenia was observed in some patients especially those with coagulopathy and encephalopathy but recovered with improvement in LFTs. Anti HEV serology was sent in a third of all admitted patients and was positive for IgM in patients tested. Five patients were pregnant ladies. Two patients also had laboratory proven malaria along with acute viral hepatitis. Majority of patients had uneventful recovery. A total of 13 patients went in to hepatic encephalopathy while three unfortunate patients died. Conclusion: HEV has been an important cause of acute viral hepatitis in Pakistan, particularly in adults from lower socioeconomic groups. The problem is more serious for those living in military camps, residential institutions and in segregated areas who consume untreated water from a common source. Outbreaks like the one described have significant morbidity and not

  6. Hepatitis C: Questions to Ask Your Doctor about Your Diagnosis

    ... to Ask Your Doctor about Your Diagnosis Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... me? Other questions you want to ask: ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ Search Hepatitis Search this website Submit Share this page Related ...

  7. Hepatitis C: Questions to Ask Your Doctor about Treatment

    ... Questions to Ask Your Doctor about Treatment Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... treatment? Other questions you want to ask: _______________________________________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________ Search Hepatitis Search this website Submit Share this page Related ...

  8. Viral and host factors related with histopathologyc activity in patients with chronic hepatitis B and moderate or intermittently elevated alanine aminotransferase levels Influencia de factores virales y del huésped en la actividad histológica en pacientes con hepatitis crónica por virus de la hepatitis B y elevación moderada o intermitente de alanina aminotransferasa

    E. Molina Pérez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: viral and host factors are related with progression of pathological lesion in chronic hepatitis B. We analyzed these factors in patients with moderate or intermittently elevated ALT levels, and its threshold that determinate significant histological activity. Patients and methods: retrospective analyses of viral and host parameters in 89 consecutive chronic hepatitis B patients biopsied because of moderate or intermittently elevated ALT levels [1-2 x ULN (ULN = 39 IU/mL] and/or DNA-HBV > 2 x 10³ IU/mL in AntiHBe+ patients. It was analyzed age, gender, ALT levels, HBeAg, viral load and genotype. It was considered advanced histological lesion a Knodell Score (KS > 7 and histological lesion indicating treatment, lobular inflammation ≥ 2 or fibrosis ≥ 2 according to Scheuer Classification. Results: KS > 7 and histological lesion indicating treatment was found in 47.8 and 60.7% respectively. It was observed relationship between age, male gender, ALT levels and viral load with histological damage (p ULN (69.1 vs. 47.1%, p = 0.04. There were not significant upper frequencies of advanced lesion when a cut-off of 40 years or DNA-HBV > 2 x 10³ IU/mL viral load or serological status HBeAg was considerate. Histological activity was lesser in genotype D patients than those infected with others genotypes (p Objetivo: analizar factores virales y del huésped relacionados con actividad histológica en un subgrupo de pacientes con hepatitis crónica B y elevación intermitente o moderada de alanina aminotransferasa (ALT, y el umbral que determine daño histológico indicativo de tratamiento. Pacientes y métodos: análisis retrospectivo de parámetros virales y del huésped en 89 pacientes con hepatitis crónica B biopsiados consecutivamente por elevación intermitente o moderada de ALT [1-2 x USN (USN = 39 UI/mL]. Fueron analizados edad, sexo, ALT, HBeAg, carga viral y genotipo. Se consideró como lesion histologica avanzada un Índice de

  9. Prevalence of hepatitis A viral RNA and antibodies among Chinese blood donors.

    Sun, P; Su, N; Lin, F Z; Ma, L; Wang, H J; Rong, X; Dai, Y D; Li, J; Jian, Z W; Tang, L H; Xiao, W; Li, C Q

    2015-12-09

    Like other developing countries, China was reported to have a relatively high seroprevalence of anti-hepatitis A antibodies (anti-HAV). However, no studies have evaluated the prevalence of anti-HAV and HAV RNA among voluntary blood donors with or without elevated serum alanine transaminase (ALT) levels. Anti-HAV antibodies were detected using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction was carried out for detection of HAV RNA. In the current study, we analyzed a total of 450 serum samples with elevated ALT levels (≥40 U/L) and 278 serum samples with non-elevated ALT levels. Seroprevalence rates of anti-HAV were 51.6% in donors with elevated ALT and 41.4% in donors with non-elevated ALT; however, none of the samples was positive for HAV RNA. The results of our study showed lower seroprevalence rates of anti-HAV in blood donors (irrespective of ALT levels) than those in published data on Chinese populations. Although donors with elevated ALT had statistically higher prevalence rates of anti- HAV than did those with non-elevated ALT, none of the serum samples had detectable levels of the active virus. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the transmission of hepatitis A by blood transfusion will occur rarely.

  10. Viral hepatitis C gets personal--the value of human genomics to public health.

    Zhang, L; Gwinn, M; Hu, D J

    2013-01-01

    About 180 million people worldwide are chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), with 3-4 million newly infected each year. Only 15-25% of acute HCV infections clear spontaneously, and the remainder persists as chronic HCV infection. More than 350,000 people die every year from hepatitis C-related liver failure and cancer. There is currently no vaccine and the standard-of-care therapies--peg-interferon alpha (pegIFN) plus ribavirin (RBV)--are expensive and have serious side effects. Also, they may be effective in only 40-50% of patients infected with HCV genotype 1, the most common HCV genotype in the US. Interleukin 28B (IL28B) genotype was recently and convincingly associated with response to pegIFN and RBV therapy. It has emerged as a robust pretreatment predictor of sustained virological response (SVR, i.e. virologic clearance) to pegIFN and RBV as well as to new triple therapy regimens that include a direct-acting antiviral agent with pegIFN and RBV and increase SVR rates as much as 75% in patients infected with HCV genotype 1. Testing for IL28B genotype may contribute to clinical decision-making and could inform clinical guidelines and public health policies. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Hepatitis B Foundation Newsletter: B Informed

    ... Clinical Trials Physician Directory HBV Meeting What Is Hepatitis B? What Is Hepatitis B? The ABCs of Viral Hepatitis Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B Hepatitis Delta Coinfection Hepatitis C Coinfection HIV/AIDS ...

  12. The small delta antigen of hepatitis delta virus is an acetylated protein and acetylation of lysine 72 may influence its cellular localization and viral RNA synthesis

    Mu, J.-J.; Tsay, Y.-G.; Juan, L.-J.; Fu, T.-F.; Huang, W.-H.; Chen, D.-S.; Chen, P.-J.

    2004-01-01

    Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a single-stranded RNA virus that encodes two viral nucleocapsid proteins named small and large form hepatitis delta antigen (S-HDAg and L-HDAg). The S-HDAg is essential for viral RNA replication while the L-HDAg is required for viral assembly. In this study, we demonstrated that HDAg are acetylated proteins. Metabolic labeling with [ 3 H]acetate revealed that both forms of HDAg could be acetylated in vivo. The histone acetyltransferase (HAT) domain of cellular acetyltransferase p300 could acetylate the full-length and the N-terminal 88 amino acids of S-HDAg in vitro. By mass spectrometric analysis of the modified protein, Lys-72 of S-HDAg was identified as one of the acetylation sites. Substitution of Lys-72 to Arg caused the mutant S-HDAg to redistribute from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. The mutant reduced viral RNA accumulation and resulted in the earlier appearance of L-HDAg. These results demonstrated that HDAg is an acetylated protein and mutation of HDAg at Lys-72 modulates HDAg subcellular localization and may participate in viral RNA nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and replication

  13. Correlations of Hepatic Hemodynamics, Liver Function, and Fibrosis Markers in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Comparison with Chronic Hepatitis Related to Hepatitis C Virus

    Shigefuku, Ryuta; Takahashi, Hideaki; Nakano, Hiroyasu; Watanabe, Tsunamasa; Matsunaga, Kotaro; Matsumoto, Nobuyuki; Kato, Masaki; Morita, Ryo; Michikawa, Yousuke; Tamura, Tomohiro; Hiraishi, Tetsuya; Hattori, Nobuhiro; Noguchi, Yohei; Nakahara, Kazunari; Ikeda, Hiroki

    2016-01-01

    The progression of chronic liver disease differs by etiology. The aim of this study was to elucidate the difference in disease progression between chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) by means of fibrosis markers, liver function, and hepatic tissue blood flow (TBF). Xenon computed tomography (Xe-CT) was performed in 139 patients with NAFLD and 152 patients with CHC (including liver cirrhosis (LC)). The cutoff values for fibrosis markers were compared between ...

  14. Antifibrotic effect of aloe vera in viral infection-induced hepatic periportal fibrosis

    Hegazy, Sahar K; El-Bedewy, Mohamed; Yagi, Akira

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the anti-oxidative and anti-fibrotic effects of aloe vera in patients with liver fibrosis. METHODS: Aloe vera high molecular weight fractions (AHM) were processed by patented hyper-dry system in combination of freeze-dry technique with microwave and far infrared-ray radiation. Fifteen healthy volunteers as the control group and 40 patients were included. The patients were randomly subdivided into two equal groups: the conventional group was treated with placebo (starch), and AHM group was treated with 0.15 gm/d AHM, both for 12 consecutive weeks. The patients were investigated before and after treatment. Serum activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), hyaluronic acid (HA), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and matrixmetalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) were determined. The reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in liver were assayed and the expression of hepatic α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) was identified by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: At the start of the study, the hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed fibro-proliferated bile ductules, thick fibrous septa and dense inflammatory cellular infiltration in the patients before treatment. The use of AHM for 12 wk significantly ameliorated the fibrosis, inhibited the inflammation, and resulted in minimal infiltration and minimal fibrosis compared to the conventional group. The enzyme activities of the liver (ALT, AST and ALP) were attenuated after treatment in both groups, and the decrease in the AHM group was more significant as compared with the conventional group. Similar to the AST, the MDA levels were significantly higher before treatment, and were attenuated after treatment in both groups. In contrast, the hepatic glutathione content in the patients were decreased significantly in the AHM group compared to the controls. The serum levels of the fibrosis markers (HA, TGF-β and MMP-2) were also reduced

  15. [Vaccination against viral hepatitis A and B in adults aged over 40 years--antibody persistence and immune memory].

    Chlibek, R; Smetana, J; Bostíková, V; Splino, M

    2011-09-01

    Primary vaccination with combined vaccine against viral hepatitis A (VHA) and viral hepatitis B (VHB) induces higher anti-hepatitis B surface (anti-HBs) antibody responses and similar anti-hepatitis A virus (anti-HAV) antibody responses in adults aged over 40 years in comparison with concomitant monovalent vaccines against VHA and VHB. Th e objectives were to assess, in a clinical study, persistence of anti-HAV and anti-HBs antibodies in adults aged over 40 years four years after primary VHA/VHB vaccination and antibody response following a booster dose of the vaccine. Five hundred and ninety-six subjects aged > 40 years were vaccinated with three doses of the combined VHA/VHB vaccine at Months 0, 1, 6 (HAB group) or with concomitant VHA and VHB vaccines at Months 0, 6 and 0, 1, 6 (ENG+HAV and HBVX+VAQ, respectively). Blood samples were collected one month following primary vaccination (Month 7) and then at one-year intervals for four years after the booster dose with the same vaccine as used for the primary vaccination. The anti-HBs and anti-HAV antibody levels were determined prior to the booster dose and at days 14 and 30 after the booster dose. At Month 7, > 97% of study subjects were seropositive for anti-HAV antibodies in all groups analyzed. Four years after primary vaccination, anti-HAV antibody seropositivity persisted in > 93% of study subjects, increasing to > 99% after the booster dose. At Month 7, the highest proportion of study subjects with anti-HBs antibody levels > or = 10 mIU/ml was found in the HAB group (91.7% versus 79.7% in the ENG+HAV group versus 71.0% in the HBVX+VAQ group). Four years after vaccination, anti-HBs antibody levels of 10 mIU/ml persisted in 57.1% of the HAB study subjects in comparison with 40.1% and 26.6% of the study subjects in the ENG+HAV and HBVX+VAQ groups, respectively. One month after the booster dose, anti-HBs antibody levels increased and antibody levels > or = 10 mIU/ml was achived in 95.2% of study subjects in the

  16. Hepatitis E - a “new” foodborne disease

    Kirbiš, A.; Raspor Lainšček, P.

    2017-09-01

    Hepatitis E (HE) is a zoonosis caused by hepatitis E virus (HEV). The disease that used to be problematic only in developing regions with inadequate water supplies and poor sanitary conditions is now considered one of the foodborne diseases in industrialized countries as well. According to current knowledge, the main reservoir of the virus is linked to domestic swine and wild boar. Consumption of raw or undercooked pork meat and liver is considered as a risk factor for HE human infection, together with some other sources of infection like blood transfusion or organ transplantation. Although the number of cases has been rising in the last decade, HEV is still a generally unknown virus among the general public. Consumers need to be warned and educated about HEV and its potential sources of contamination within the food supply chain.

  17. Defibrotide in the treatment of hepatic veno-occlusive disease

    Fulgenzi A

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Alessandro Fulgenzi, Maria Elena Ferrero Department of Biomedical Sciences for Health, University of Milan, Milan, Italy Abstract: Hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD, also known as sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS, represents the most frequent complication in patients in early phase following hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT. In its severe form, VOD/SOS can be associated with multiorgan failure and with a mortality rate >80% by day +100. Defibrotide (DF (a mixture of 90% single-stranded phosphodiester oligonucleotides and 10% double-stranded phosphodiester oligonucleotides derived from controlled depolarization of porcine intestinal mucosal DNA has been proposed for the treatment of SOS due to its ability to restore thrombo-fibrinolytic balance and protect endothelial cells. The present review highlights why the mechanisms of action of DF allow its successful use in the prevention and treatment of SOS following HSCT. Keywords: hepatic veno-occlusive disease, hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation, defibrotide

  18. Role of pentraxin 3 in shaping arthritogenic alphaviral disease: from enhanced viral replication to immunomodulation.

    Suan-Sin Foo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The rising prevalence of arthritogenic alphavirus infections, including chikungunya virus (CHIKV and Ross River virus (RRV, and the lack of antiviral treatments highlight the potential threat of a global alphavirus pandemic. The immune responses underlying alphavirus virulence remain enigmatic. We found that pentraxin 3 (PTX3 was highly expressed in CHIKV and RRV patients during acute disease. Overt expression of PTX3 in CHIKV patients was associated with increased viral load and disease severity. PTX3-deficient (PTX3(-/- mice acutely infected with RRV exhibited delayed disease progression and rapid recovery through diminished inflammatory responses and viral replication. Furthermore, binding of the N-terminal domain of PTX3 to RRV facilitated viral entry and replication. Thus, our study demonstrates the pivotal role of PTX3 in shaping alphavirus-triggered immunity and disease and provides new insights into alphavirus pathogenesis.

  19. Nonstructural 3 Protein of Hepatitis C Virus Modulates the Tribbles Homolog 3/Akt Signaling Pathway for Persistent Viral Infection

    Tran, Si C.; Pham, Tu M.; Nguyen, Lam N.; Park, Eun-Mee; Lim, Yun-Sook

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection often causes chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and ultimately hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the mechanisms underlying HCV-induced liver pathogenesis are still not fully understood. By transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) analysis, we recently identified host genes that were significantly differentially expressed in cell culture-grown HCV (HCVcc)-infected cells. Of these, tribbles homolog 3 (TRIB3) was selected for further characterization. TRIB3 was initially identified as a binding partner of protein kinase B (also known as Akt). TRIB3 blocks the phosphorylation of Akt and induces apoptosis under endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress conditions. HCV has been shown to enhance Akt phosphorylation for its own propagation. In the present study, we demonstrated that both mRNA and protein levels of TRIB3 were increased in the context of HCV replication. We further showed that promoter activity of TRIB3 was increased by HCV-induced ER stress. Silencing of TRIB3 resulted in increased RNA and protein levels of HCV, whereas overexpression of TRIB3 decreased HCV replication. By employing an HCV pseudoparticle entry assay, we further showed that TRIB3 was a negative host factor involved in HCV entry. Both in vitro binding and immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that HCV NS3 specifically interacted with TRIB3. Consequently, the association of TRIB3 and Akt was disrupted by HCV NS3, and thus, TRIB3-Akt signaling was impaired in HCV-infected cells. Moreover, HCV modulated TRIB3 to promote extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation, activator protein 1 (AP-1) activity, and cell migration. Collectively, these data indicate that HCV exploits the TRIB3-Akt signaling pathway to promote persistent viral infection and may contribute to HCV-mediated pathogenesis. IMPORTANCE TRIB3 is a pseudokinase protein that acts as an adaptor in signaling pathways for important cellular processes. So far, the functional involvement of

  20. Replication-competent infectious hepatitis B virus vectors carrying substantially sized transgenes by redesigned viral polymerase translation.

    Zihua Wang

    Full Text Available Viral vectors are engineered virus variants able to deliver nonviral genetic information into cells, usually by the same routes as the parental viruses. For several virus families, replication-competent vectors carrying reporter genes have become invaluable tools for easy and quantitative monitoring of replication and infection, and thus also for identifying antivirals and virus susceptible cells. For hepatitis B virus (HBV, a small enveloped DNA virus causing B-type hepatitis, such vectors are not available because insertions into its tiny 3.2 kb genome almost inevitably affect essential replication elements. HBV replicates by reverse transcription of the pregenomic (pg RNA which is also required as bicistronic mRNA for the capsid (core protein and the reverse transcriptase (Pol; their open reading frames (ORFs overlap by some 150 basepairs. Translation of the downstream Pol ORF does not involve a conventional internal ribosome entry site (IRES. We reasoned that duplicating the overlap region and providing artificial IRES control for translation of both Pol and an in-between inserted transgene might yield a functional tricistronic pgRNA, without interfering with envelope protein expression. As IRESs we used a 22 nucleotide element termed Rbm3 IRES to minimize genome size increase. Model plasmids confirmed its activity even in tricistronic arrangements. Analogous plasmids for complete HBV genomes carrying 399 bp and 720 bp transgenes for blasticidin resistance (BsdR and humanized Renilla green fluorescent protein (hrGFP produced core and envelope proteins like wild-type HBV; while the hrGFP vector replicated poorly, the BsdR vector generated around 40% as much replicative DNA as wild-type HBV. Both vectors, however, formed enveloped virions which were infectious for HBV-susceptible HepaRG cells. Because numerous reporter and effector genes with sizes of around 500 bp or less are available, the new HBV vectors should become highly useful tools to