WorldWideScience

Sample records for discrete morphological characters

  1. The impact of fossil data on annelid phylogeny inferred from discrete morphological characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Luke A; Edgecombe, Gregory D; Eibye-Jacobsen, Danny; Vinther, Jakob

    2016-08-31

    As a result of their plastic body plan, the relationships of the annelid worms and even the taxonomic makeup of the phylum have long been contentious. Morphological cladistic analyses have typically recovered a monophyletic Polychaeta, with the simple-bodied forms assigned to an early-diverging clade or grade. This is in stark contrast to molecular trees, in which polychaetes are paraphyletic and include clitellates, echiurans and sipunculans. Cambrian stem group annelid body fossils are complex-bodied polychaetes that possess well-developed parapodia and paired head appendages (palps), suggesting that the root of annelids is misplaced in morphological trees. We present a reinvestigation of the morphology of key fossil taxa and include them in a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of annelids. Analyses using probabilistic methods and both equal- and implied-weights parsimony recover paraphyletic polychaetes and support the conclusion that echiurans and clitellates are derived polychaetes. Morphological trees including fossils depict two main clades of crown-group annelids that are similar, but not identical, to Errantia and Sedentaria, the fundamental groupings in transcriptomic analyses. Removing fossils yields trees that are often less resolved and/or root the tree in greater conflict with molecular topologies. While there are many topological similarities between the analyses herein and recent phylogenomic hypotheses, differences include the exclusion of Sipuncula from Annelida and the taxa forming the deepest crown-group divergences. © 2016 The Authors.

  2. On the information content of discrete phylogenetic characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordewich, Magnus; Deutschmann, Ina Maria; Fischer, Mareike; Kasbohm, Elisa; Semple, Charles; Steel, Mike

    2017-12-16

    Phylogenetic inference aims to reconstruct the evolutionary relationships of different species based on genetic (or other) data. Discrete characters are a particular type of data, which contain information on how the species should be grouped together. However, it has long been known that some characters contain more information than others. For instance, a character that assigns the same state to each species groups all of them together and so provides no insight into the relationships of the species considered. At the other extreme, a character that assigns a different state to each species also conveys no phylogenetic signal. In this manuscript, we study a natural combinatorial measure of the information content of an individual character and analyse properties of characters that provide the maximum phylogenetic information, particularly, the number of states such a character uses and how the different states have to be distributed among the species or taxa of the phylogenetic tree.

  3. Morphological Characters and Histology of Pheretima darnleiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDY DARMAWAN

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Pheretima darnleiensis is a native earthworm of Southeast Asia, India, and Japan. Although it is commonly found in Indonesia, the earthworm has never been studied well. This study was aimed to examine the morphological characters and structure of its several organs for an identification purpose, which is important for the earthworm culture. Earthworms were collected in a plot of 55-150 × 55-150 cm width and 20 cm depth at Bogor Agricultural University in Darmaga and Baranangsiang Campuses by hand sorting method. Examinations were carried out on its external as well as internal characters. The histology of the organs was studied using paraffin method. The observed characters on P. darnleiensis were the presence of prostate gland, one pair of male pores on segment XVIII, a cylindrical body with perichaetine setae, caeca on segment XXVII, copulatory pouches without diverticula and stalked glands, bithecal spermatheca with nephridia, and the first spermathecal pore on segment 4/5. In addition, other characters found on P. darnleiensis were the presence of an annular clitellum on segment XIV-XVI, an epilobus prostomium with open base, approximately 40 single pointed setae on segment XIII, one midventral female pore on segment XIV, one pair of lateroventral male pores on segment XVIII, four pairs of lateroventral spermathecal pores on segment 4/5, 5/6, 6/7, 7/8, and the first middorsal dorsal pore on segment 12/13. The histology of P. darnleiensis showed basic structure as found in other earthworms.

  4. STUDIES ON SOME MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS IN BIGHEAD CARP FRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELENA CIORNEA

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper investigates some morphological characters (total length, standard bodily length, head length, maxim height and bodily circumference in representatives of bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis occurring in their first growing summer. Biometric analyses were performed on 100 individuals, in the end the morphological characters under investigations being statistically processed. Explanation of the experimental results evidences low values of the standard error of the mean, which is indicative of a grouping of all external bodily variables under investigation close to the average value.

  5. Character evolution and missing (morphological) data across Asteridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stull, Gregory W; Schori, Melanie; Soltis, Douglas E; Soltis, Pamela S

    2018-04-14

    Our current understanding of flowering plant phylogeny provides an excellent framework for exploring various aspects of character evolution through comparative analyses. However, attempts to synthesize this phylogenetic framework with extensive morphological data sets have been surprisingly rare. Here, we explore character evolution in Asteridae (asterids), a major angiosperm clade, using an extensive morphological data set and a well-resolved phylogeny. We scored 15 phenotypic characters (spanning chemistry, vegetative anatomy, and floral, fruit, and seed features) across 248 species for ancestral state reconstruction using a phylogenetic framework based on 73 plastid genes and the same 248 species. Iridoid production, unitegmic ovules, and cellular endosperm were all reconstructed as synapomorphic for Asteridae. Sympetaly, long associated with asterids, shows complex patterns of evolution, suggesting it arose several times independently within the clade. Stamens equal in number to the petals is likely a synapomorphy for Gentianidae, a major asterid subclade. Members of Lamianae, a major gentianid subclade, are potentially diagnosed by adnate stamens, unilacunar nodes, and simple perforation plates. The analyses presented here provide a greatly improved understanding of character evolution across Asteridae, highlighting multiple characters potentially synapomorphic for major clades. However, several important parts of the asterid tree are poorly known for several key phenotypic features (e.g., degree of petal fusion, integument number, nucellus type, endosperm type, iridoid production). Further morphological, anatomical, developmental, and chemical investigations of these poorly known asterids are critical for a more detailed understanding of early asterid evolution. © 2018 Botanical Society of America.

  6. Use of morphological characters to identify cassava mosaic disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diseases are among the major constraints that prevent cassava's (Manihot esculenta L.) optimum yield. Both the improved cassava breeds and local germplasms in the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan expressed wide genetic variability in morphological characters and diseases resistance. The current ...

  7. Revised phylogenetic analysis of the Aetosauria (Archosauria: Pseudosuchia; assessing the effects of incongruent morphological character sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William G. Parker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aetosauria is an early-diverging clade of pseudosuchians (crocodile-line archosaurs that had a global distribution and high species diversity as a key component of various Late Triassic terrestrial faunas. It is one of only two Late Triassic clades of large herbivorous archosaurs, and thus served a critical ecological role. Nonetheless, aetosaur phylogenetic relationships are still poorly understood, owing to an overreliance on osteoderm characters, which are often poorly constructed and suspected to be highly homoplastic. A new phylogenetic analysis of the Aetosauria, comprising 27 taxa and 83 characters, includes more than 40 new characters that focus on better sampling the cranial and endoskeletal regions, and represents the most comprenhensive phylogeny of the clade to date. Parsimony analysis recovered three most parsimonious trees; the strict consensus of these trees finds an Aetosauria that is divided into two main clades: Desmatosuchia, which includes the Desmatosuchinae and the Stagonolepidinae, and Aetosaurinae, which includes the Typothoracinae. As defined Desmatosuchinae now contains Neoaetosauroides engaeus and several taxa that were previously referred to the genus Stagonolepis, and a new clade, Desmatosuchini, is erected for taxa more closely related to Desmatosuchus. Overall support for some clades is still weak, and Partitioned Bremer Support (PBS is applied for the first time to a strictly morphological dataset demonstrating that this weak support is in part because of conflict in the phylogenetic signals of cranial versus postcranial characters. PBS helps identify homoplasy among characters from various body regions, presumably the result of convergent evolution within discrete anatomical modules. It is likely that at least some of this character conflict results from different body regions evolving at different rates, which may have been under different selective pressures.

  8. Phylogeny of the Acanthocephala based on morphological characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monks, S

    2001-02-01

    Only four previous studies of relationships among acanthocephalans have included cladistic analyses, and knowledge of the phylogeny of the group has not kept pace with that of other taxa. The purpose of this study is to provide a more comprehensive analysis of the phylogenetic relationships among members of the phylum Acanthocephala using morphological characters. The most appropriate outgroups are those that share a common early cell-cleavage pattern (polar placement of centrioles), such as the Rotifera, rather than the Priapulida (meridional placement of centrioles) to provide character polarity based on common ancestry rather than a general similarity likely due to convergence of body shapes. The phylogeny of 22 species of the Acanthocephala was evaluated based on 138 binary and multistate characters derived from comparative morphological and ontogenetic studies. Three assumptions of cement gland structure were tested: (i) the plesiomorphic type of cement glands in the Rotifera, as the sister group, is undetermined; (ii) non-syncytial cement glands are plesiomorphic; and (iii) syncytial cement glands are plesiomorphic. The results were used to test an early move of Tegorhynchus pectinarius to Koronacantha and to evaluate the relationship between Tegorhynchus and Illiosentis. Analysis of the data-set for each of these assumptions of cement gland structure produced the same single most parsimonious tree topology. Using Assumptions i and ii for the cement glands, the trees were the same length (length = 404 steps, CI = 0.545, CIX = 0.517, HI = 0.455, HIX = 0.483, RI = 0.670, RC = 0.365). Using Assumption iii, the tree was three steps longer (length = 408 steps, CI = 0.539, CIX = 0.512, HI = 0.461, HIX = 0.488, RI = 0.665, RC = 0.359). The tree indicates that the Palaeacanthocephala and Eoacanthocephala both are monophyletic and are sister taxa. The members of the Archiacanthocephala are basal to the other two clades, but do not themselves form a clade. The results

  9. Different morphological characters of Spathoglottis plicata induced by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimonrat, P.; Suraninpong, P.; Wuthisuthimethavee, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Spathoglottis plicata of purple color available as pot plant in the market was used in this study. The in vitro seedlings of 3-month olds were radiated with gamma rays (Cs-137 source) at the doses of 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 krad. Only seedlings treated with 2 krad survived and showed morphological variations of 5 different clones namely clone 13, 19, 22, 23 and 25, whereas the control plants were divided into three (3) groups. Clone 19, 22, 23 and 25 showed flower structures that were significantly different from those of the control groups. Clone 25 gave flowers of different size from the control, more intense fragrance with incomplete blooming petals. Clone 23 showed long spots on sepals and petals, undulate petal margin, malformation of petal and malformation of essential organs. Clone 19 gave flowers of brighter color with no petal and essential organs clinging to sepals. Clone 22 gave flower of darker color with no essential organs. All clones were found significantly different from the control plants in terms of plant height, leaf length, leaf width and inflorescence length except clone 13. As to the morphological characters, mutant clone 23 is potentially to be released as a new variety of pot plant in the market

  10. Modelling rate distributions using character compatibility: implications for morphological evolution among fossil invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Peter J

    2012-02-23

    Rate distributions are important considerations when testing hypotheses about morphological evolution or phylogeny. They also have implications about general processes underlying character evolution. Molecular systematists often assume that rates are Poisson processes with gamma distributions. However, morphological change is the product of multiple probabilistic processes and should theoretically be affected by hierarchical integration of characters. Both factors predict lognormal rate distributions. Here, a simple inverse modelling approach assesses the best single-rate, gamma and lognormal models given observed character compatibility for 115 invertebrate groups. Tests reject the single-rate model for nearly all cases. Moreover, the lognormal outperforms the gamma for character change rates and (especially) state derivation rates. The latter in particular is consistent with integration affecting morphological character evolution.

  11. Speculation with spiculation? - Three independent gene fragments and biochemical characters versus morphology in demosponge higher classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erpenbeck, D.J.G.; Breeuwer, J.A.J.; Parra-Velandia, F.J.; van Soest, R.W.M.

    2006-01-01

    Demosponge higher-level systematics is currently a subject of major changes due to the simplicity and paucity of complex morphological characters. Still, sponge classification is primarily based on morphological features. The systematics of the demosponge order Agelasida has been exceptionally

  12. Study of Some Morphological Characters of Three Trout Breed Farmed in Salmonid Exploitations from Moldova

    OpenAIRE

    Cătălin Emilian Nistor; Ionuţ Bogdan Pagu; Emanuel Magdici; Benone Pasarin

    2014-01-01

    Study of morphological characters at fish by means of biometry is a frequently utilized method and consists in determining the variability of characters in groups of individuals, by direct measurement, weighting and statistical processing of obtained data. Effectuation of body measurements and weighting is used to determine the increase in length of fish and to evaluate the general physiological condition. Brook trout, rainbow trout, and brown trout were the object of the current study by...

  13. Effect of seed-irradiation on morphological characters yield components of brassica campestris var. sarson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokhari, F.S.; Ahmad, S.

    1996-01-01

    Seed of Brassica campestris (var. Sarson) were used to study the effect of radiation of different morphological and yield parameters. Survival percentage showed drastic decrease at higher doses (75 Kr and 100 Kr). Similarly all characters showed a trend of decrease with increasing dose. LD50 for Brassica was about 50 Kr. (author)

  14. Phylogeny of kemenyan (Styrax sp.) from North Sumatra based on morphological characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilowati, A.; Kholibrina, C. R.; Rachmat, H. H.; Munthe, M. A.

    2018-02-01

    Kemenyan is the most famous local tree species from North Sumatra. Kemenyan is known as rosin producer that very valuable for pharmacheutical, cosmetic, food preservatives and vernis. Based on its history, there were only two species of kemenyan those were kemenyan durame and toba, but in its the natural distribution we also found others species showing different characteristics with previously known ones. The objectives of this research were:The objectives of this research were: (1). To determine the morphological diversity of kemenyan in North Sumatra and (2). To determine phylogeny clustering based on the morphological characters. Data was collected from direct observation and morphological characterization, based on purposive sampling technique to those samples trees atPakpak Bharat, North Sumatra. Morphological characters were examined using descriptive analysis, phenotypic variability using standard deviation, and cluster analysis. The result showed that there was a difference between 4 species kemenyen (batak, minyak, durame and toba) according to 75 observed characters including flower, fruits, leaf, stem, bark, crown type, wood and the resin. Analysis and both quantitative and qualitative characters kemenyan clustered into two groups. In which, kemenyan toba separated with other clusters.

  15. Anatomy and morphology character of five Indonesian banana cultivars (Musa spp. of different ploidy level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISSIREP SUMARDI

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Sumardi I, Wulandari M (2011 Anatomy and morphology character of five Indonesian banana cultivars (Musa spp. of different ploidy level. Biodiversitas 12: 167-175. In Indonesia there are many cultivars of banana, and some of them produce edible fruits. Beside their morphology, the character which necessary as a tool for classification is anatomical character. The aim of this research were to describe the anatomical character and morphology of fives Indonesian banana cultivars based on their level of ploidy. The cultivars were collected from Banana Germplasm Plantation, Yogyakarta District, Indonesia. The samples of roots, rhizome, and leaf were collected from five banana cultivars i.e.: Musa acuminata cv Penjalin, M.balbisiana cv Kluthuk warangan, M.acuminata cv Ambon warangan, M.paradisiaca cv Raja nangka , and M. paradisiaca cv Kluthuk susu. For anatomy observation samples were prepared using paraffin method, stained with 1% safranin in 70% ethanol. To observe the structure of stomata and epidermis surface, slide were prepared using modification of whole mount method. Slides were observed using Olympus BHB microscope completed with Olympus camera BM-10A. Stem and leaf morphology character of diploid level (AA and BB genome is different with triploid level (AAA, AAB, and ABB genome. Anatomy and morphology character of root and rhizome of banana in diploid level (AA and BB genome and triploid level (AAA, AAB, and ABB genome is quite similar. Distribution of stomata is found in leaf and pseudostem. Stomata is found in adaxial and abaxial epidermis layer. The size of guard cells in triploid cultivars was longer than that diploid cultivars. The root composse of epidermis layer, cortex and cylinder vascular of five cultivar’s root show anomalous structure. Rhizome consist of peripheric and centre zone. Anatomically, this was no differences in the rizome structur among five banana cultivars. The row of vascular bundles act as demarcation area

  16. Re-Evaluation of Morphological Characters Questions Current Views of Pinniped Origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koretsky I. A.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The origin of pinnipeds has been a contentious issue, with opposite sides debating monophyly or diphyly. This review uses evidence from the fossil record, combined with comparative morphology, molecular and cytogenetic investigations to evaluate the evolutionary history and phylogenetic relationships of living and fossil otarioid and phocoid pinnipeds. Molecular investigations support a monophyletic origin of pinnipeds, but disregard vital morphological data. Likewise, morphological studies support diphyly, but overlook molecular analyses. This review will demonstrate that a monophyletic origin of pinnipeds should not be completely accepted, as is the current ideology, and a diphyletic origin remains viable due to morphological and paleobiological analyses. Critical examination of certain characters, used by supporters of pinniped monophyly, reveals different polarities, variability, or simply convergence. The paleontological record and our morphological analysis of important characters supports a diphyletic origin of pinnipeds, with otarioids likely arising in the North Pacific from large, bear-like animals and phocids arising in the North Atlantic from smaller, otter-like ancestors. Although members of both groups are known by Late Oligocene time, each developed and invaded the aquatic environment separately from their much earlier, common arctoid ancestor. Therefore, we treat the superfamily Otarioidea as being monophyletic, including the families Enaliarctidae, Otariidae (fur seals/sea lions, Desmatophocidae, and Odobenidae (walruses and extinct relatives, and the superfamily Phocoidea as monophyletic, including only the family Phocidae, with four subfamilies (Devinophocinae, Phocinae, Monachinae, and Cystophorinae.

  17. Molecular phylogenetics and character evolution of morphologically diverse groups, Dendrobium section Dendrobium and allies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamiya, Tomoko; Wongsawad, Pheravut; Sathapattayanon, Apirada; Tajima, Natsuko; Suzuki, Shunichiro; Kitamura, Saki; Shioda, Nao; Handa, Takashi; Kitanaka, Susumu; Iijima, Hiroshi; Yukawa, Tomohisa

    2014-01-01

    It is always difficult to construct coherent classification systems for plant lineages having diverse morphological characters. The genus Dendrobium, one of the largest genera in the Orchidaceae, includes ∼1100 species, and enormous morphological diversification has hindered the establishment of consistent classification systems covering all major groups of this genus. Given the particular importance of species in Dendrobium section Dendrobium and allied groups as floriculture and crude drug genetic resources, there is an urgent need to establish a stable classification system. To clarify phylogenetic relationships in Dendrobium section Dendrobium and allied groups, we analysed the macromolecular characters of the group. Phylogenetic analyses of 210 taxa of Dendrobium were conducted on DNA sequences of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of 18S–26S nuclear ribosomal DNA and the maturase-coding gene (matK) located in an intron of the plastid gene trnK using maximum parsimony and Bayesian methods. The parsimony and Bayesian analyses revealed 13 distinct clades in the group comprising section Dendrobium and its allied groups. Results also showed paraphyly or polyphyly of sections Amblyanthus, Aporum, Breviflores, Calcarifera, Crumenata, Dendrobium, Densiflora, Distichophyllae, Dolichocentrum, Holochrysa, Oxyglossum and Pedilonum. On the other hand, the monophyly of section Stachyobium was well supported. It was found that many of the morphological characters that have been believed to reflect phylogenetic relationships are, in fact, the result of convergence. As such, many of the sections that have been recognized up to this point were found to not be monophyletic, so recircumscription of sections is required. PMID:25107672

  18. Phenetic relationships of nine varieties of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) based on morphological characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, Topik; Barlian, Andri; Kusdianti, R.; Kirana, Rinda

    2017-05-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.; Solanaceae) is an important commodity in Indonesia as one of the main crop after rice. Recently some new varieties have been released, but their relationship have not been studied yet. The purpose of this research was to determine the relationship among nine varieties of potatoes. Phenetic analysis was conducted using 27 morphological character states, which was derived from stems, leaves, and tubers. The character states observed were scored, and further analyzed based on Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) method. The results showed a high diversity of morphological character states, of which 20 states were significantly different across the varieties. Phenogram indicated that the nine varieties of potato were classified into three main groups. While the first group was consisted of varieties of Cipanas, Granola, Atlantic, and Repita, the second group was housed of Manohara and GM 05. The third group was composed of Margahayu, Mb 17, and Maglia. This pattern of relationships can be used as one of the basis in the process of crossbreeding to assemble the new varieties. The crossbreeding will be better if it is made between distantly related varieties.

  19. EVALUATION OF THREE WILD SPECIES OF ALMOND ON THE BASIS OF THEIR MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B BANINASAB

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the suitable climatic conditions, Iran is one of the most important growing centre for wild and domesticated species/varieties of almond. Because of the adaptability of wild almond species to severe environmental conditions and resistance to drought, salinity and some pest and diseases, these can be used as rootstock for almond cultivars and in breeding programs for rootstock improvement in Iran. In this study, seeds of Amygdalous scoparia, A.webbii and A. orientalis were planted. The analysis of variance showed a significant difference between species. However, A. scoparia had highest stem height and leaf length. At the end of the experiment, the thickest stems were developed by A. scoparia, whereas the thinnest stems by A. orientalis. A. webbii produced more number and longer roots per seedling than the other two species. The correlation between various morphological traits showed that a few shoot characters were significantly correlated with root traits. However, leaf length, leaf width, leaf area, root number and root diameter for P. webbii, and leaf number, leaf length, leaf width, petiole length and root number characters for P.scoparia, and stem height, leaf number, leaf length, petiole length, internode length and root number for P. orientalis were found to be important morphological traits to evaluate seedling charactristics of wild almond genotypes before their nursery test.

  20. Morphological Characterization and Assessment of Genetic Variability, Character Association, and Divergence in Soybean Mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Malek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity is important for crop improvement. An experiment was conducted during 2011 to study genetic variability, character association, and genetic diversity among 27 soybean mutants and four mother genotypes. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences among the mutants and mothers for nine morphological traits. Eighteen mutants performed superiorly to their mothers in respect to seed yield and some morphological traits including yield attributes. Narrow differences between phenotypic and genotypic coefficients of variation (PCV and GCV for most of the characters revealed less environmental influence on their expression. High values of heritability and genetic advance with high GCV for branch number, plant height, pod number, and seed weight can be considered as favorable attributes for soybean improvement through phenotypic selection and high expected genetic gain can be achieved. Pod and seed number and maturity period appeared to be the first order traits for higher yield and priority should be given in selection due to their strong associations and high magnitudes of direct effects on yield. Cluster analysis grouped 31 genotypes into five groups at the coefficient value of 235. The mutants/genotypes from cluster I and cluster II could be used for hybridization program with the mutants of clusters IV and V in order to develop high yielding mutant-derived soybean varieties for further improvement.

  1. Relationship of species Piper based on morphological and leaf essential oils characters in Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PURNOMO

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Some of Piper species were used for traditional medicines and condiments. The leaf essential oil (terpenoid of those Piper species usually were used as a main component in traditional medicine. The taxonomycal study was aimed to determined Piper species relationships based on morphological and leaf essential oils characters. The plants were obtained by exploring this province, and samples were collected for identification and leaf essential oils isolation purposes. Species identification were carried out based on identification key (Backer and Bakhuizen v.d. Brink, 1965; Heyne, 1987; Shaorong, 1982. The isolation of leaf essential oils was carried out using Stahl destillation method, and their composition were interpreted with liquid gas chromatography, using caryophyllene and -pinene as a standard of essential oils component. Dendrogram, which showed phenetic relationships among those species, were obtained by hierarchical cluster analysis method. Results of the research showed that there were 8 species found as cultivated plants in Yogyakarta, which were P. miniatum Bl., P. betle L., P. recurvum Bl., P. aduncum L., P. nigrum L., P. cubeba L.f., P. retrofractum Vahl., and P. sarmentosum Roxb. Ex Hunter. Relationship between species of Piper based on morphological character showed that P. aduncum and P. sarmentosum at the same cluster on 69.2% similarity level, and 40.4% similarity level to the other clusters. Relationsips between species of Piper based on leaf essential oils character resulted the difference cluster among the species, P. retrofractum separated from the other species at 45.5% similarity level, P. aduncum and P. cubeba indicated the higest similarity level (81.5%.

  2. A descriptor list of Silybum marianum (L. Gaertner – morphological and biological characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušková, Elena

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Silybum marianum (L. Gaertn (Milk thistle is an important medicinal plant which fruits are used for treatment of various liver diseases. In an effort to utilize the genetic potential of cultivated plants in the best way, the breeding of new high-performance cultivars is underway all over the world. Genetic improvement in Silybum can only be, as with all other plants, achieved through a clear understanding of the plant´s behaviour and the amount of variability presented in wild populations. Surprisingly no descriptor list has been compiled up to now, which would permit an objective and easily repeatable description an evaluation of the different Silybum genotypes. The first part of such a descriptor list, which is intended mainly for evaluation of genotypes perspective for fruit production, is presented here and it contains both the morphological and biological characters.

  3. Study of Some Morphological Characters of Three Trout Breed Farmed in Salmonid Exploitations from Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin Emilian Nistor

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Study of morphological characters at fish by means of biometry is a frequently utilized method and consists in determining the variability of characters in groups of individuals, by direct measurement, weighting and statistical processing of obtained data. Effectuation of body measurements and weighting is used to determine the increase in length of fish and to evaluate the general physiological condition. Brook trout, rainbow trout, and brown trout were the object of the current study by analyzing of 50 individuals, 10 individuals in each batch (F1, F2, C1 C2 and I1, from two trout farms from Moldova. After processing the obtained data were calculated the most representative indexes and maintenance coefficients. The obtained values were between 3.49 at batch F1 and 3.94 at batch I1 for profile index; 1.5 at batch I1 and 1.75 at batch F1 for Fulton coefficient; 1.47 at batch F2 and 1.6 at batch I1 for Kiselev index; 41.36 for batch F1 and 47.94 at batch C2 for thickness index; 19.94 C1 batch and 22.08 at F1 batch for fleshy index I, and 19.05 C2 batch and 21.2 at I1 batch for fleshy index II. Having in view the obtained results we can conclude that the analyzed fishes had a good state of maintenance.

  4. Synthetic Brassica napus L.: Development and Studies on Morphological Characters, Yield Attributes, and Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Malek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brassica napus was synthesized by hybridization between its diploid progenitor species B. rapa and B. oleracea followed by chromosome doubling. Cross with B. rapa as a female parent was only successful. Among three colchicine treatments (0.10, 0.15, and 0.20%, 0.15% gave the highest success (86% of chromosome doubling in the hybrids (AC; 2=19. Synthetic B. napus (AACC, 2=38 was identified with bigger petals, fertile pollens and seed setting. Synthetic B. napus had increased growth over parents and exhibited wider ranges with higher coefficients of variations than parents for morphological and yield contributing characters, and yield per plant. Siliqua length as well as beak length in synthetic B. napus was longer than those of the parents. Number of seeds per siliqua, 1000-seed weight and seed yield per plant in synthetic B. napus were higher than those of the parents. Although flowering time in synthetic B. napus was earlier than both parents, however the days to maturity was little higher over early maturing B. rapa parent. The synthesized B. napus has great potential to produce higher seed yield. Further screening and evaluation is needed for selection of desirable genotypes having improved yield contributing characters and higher seed yield.

  5. A priori assumptions about characters as a cause of incongruence between molecular and morphological hypotheses of primate interrelationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornow, Matthew A; Skelton, Randall R

    2012-01-01

    When molecules and morphology produce incongruent hypotheses of primate interrelationships, the data are typically viewed as incompatible, and molecular hypotheses are often considered to be better indicators of phylogenetic history. However, it has been demonstrated that the choice of which taxa to include in cladistic analysis as well as assumptions about character weighting, character state transformation order, and outgroup choice all influence hypotheses of relationships and may positively influence tree topology, so that relationships between extant taxa are consistent with those found using molecular data. Thus, the source of incongruence between morphological and molecular trees may lie not in the morphological data themselves but in assumptions surrounding the ways characters evolve and their impact on cladistic analysis. In this study, we investigate the role that assumptions about character polarity and transformation order play in creating incongruence between primate phylogenies based on morphological data and those supported by multiple lines of molecular data. By releasing constraints imposed on published morphological analyses of primates from disparate clades and subjecting those data to parsimony analysis, we test the hypothesis that incongruence between morphology and molecules results from inherent flaws in morphological data. To quantify the difference between incongruent trees, we introduce a new method called branch slide distance (BSD). BSD mitigates many of the limitations attributed to other tree comparison methods, thus allowing for a more accurate measure of topological similarity. We find that releasing a priori constraints on character behavior often produces trees that are consistent with molecular trees. Case studies are presented that illustrate how congruence between molecules and unconstrained morphological data may provide insight into issues of polarity, transformation order, homology, and homoplasy.

  6. Screening for eri silkworm (Samia ricini Donovan ecoraces using morphological characters, growth, yields, and ISSR marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duanpen Wongsorn

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The selection of eri silkworm ecoraces with high yield and distinct morphological characters is necessary for variety improvement. The five ecoraces SaKKU1, SaKKU2, SaKKU3, SaKKU4 and SaKKU5 were derived mostly by international academic cooperation. They were cultured using castor leaves of TCO 101 cultivar as food plant at 25±2°C, 80±5% R.H. Based on morphological characters, they are similar, except the body of the 5th instar larva of SaKKU1 is clearly covered with more creamy white powder and the mature larva has a shiny dominant yellow color. The duration of the life cycle among ecoraces was also similar; 46-53 days (SaKKU1, 42-53 days (SaKKU2, 42-52 days (SaKKU3, 40-56 days (SaKKU4 and 41-52 days (SaKKU5. SaKKU1 had the highest survival rate at larval stage (1st – 5th instar (100.00% and larva (1st – 5th instar - adult (88.89%, including the predominant heaviest average larva weight of all instars, 0.0317 g (2nd instar, 0.2206 g (3rd instar, 1.0788 g (4th instar, 4.0102 g (5th instar, and 8.9940 g (5 days of 5th instar, which was significantly different (P<0.05 to other ecoraces. Moreover, this ecorace gave the highest average yields: fresh cocoon weight (3.8016 g, pupa weight (3.2532 g, shell weight (0.5287 g, shell ratio (14.01%, fresh cocoon weight/10,000 larvae (38.01 kg, eggs/moth (531.13 eggs, total eggs (6,375.27 eggs and total hatching eggs (6,006.13 eggs, which was also significantly different (P<0.05 than other ecoraces. Of those properties, especially survival rates and yields, this ecorace (SaKKU1 is favored for further varietal improvement program. In parallel, genetic relationship analysis of eri silkworm ecoraces using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR technique was also carried out. The result revealed from dendrogram analysis that SaKKU1 was the farthest distance than other ecoraces, especially against SaKKU3. Based on all above results, the SaKKU1 ecorace was considered to be the most suitable for heat tolerant

  7. Some Morphological Characters and Yield of Common Field Bean (Vicia faba.L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Golchin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To evalauate the influences of irrigation time with wastewater of Iran mayhes factory (producing leaven on some morphological characters and yield of faba bean, a factorial experiment carried out on the base of randomized complete block design (CRBD in Iran Mayehs factory farm in spring2012. Experimental factors consisted of irrigation times at 3 levels I1 = one irrigation with determined amount of wastewater, I2 = two irrigations with determined amount of wastewater, I3 = irrigation during the growth period of plants with determined amount of wastewater and wastewater concentration at 6 levels (P0 = irrigation with normal water (control, P15=15% wastewaters + normal water, P30= 30% wastewaters + normal, P45= 45% wastewaters + normal water, P60= 60% wastewaters + normal water, P100= all wastewater with three replications. Results showed that the effect irrigation numbers on traits such as plant height, number of pods per plant and seed yield was significant. Results also revealed that the effect of weastwater concentration on1000seed weight was significant. The interaction of number of irrigations by weastwater concentrations on stem dry weight was also signification. Evaluation of different treatments showed that 45 percent concentration of wastewater was increased traits under study. It seems, that controlled irrigation of bean with wastewater of factory (producing yeast can be effective in improving its yield in the region.

  8. Convergent and divergent patterns of morphological differentiation provide more evidence for reproductive character displacement in a wood cricket Gryllus fultoni (Orthoptera: Gryllidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choe Jae

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In ecological character displacement, traits involved in reproductive isolation may not evolve in arbitrary directions when changes in these traits are by-products of adaptation to an ecological niche. In reproductive character displacement, however, selection acts directly on reproductive characters to enhance the degree of reproductive isolation between sympatric populations. Thus, the direction of change in reproductive characters may be arbitrary in relation to changes in other morphological characters. We characterized both tegminal characters and characters indicative of body size in sympatric and allopatric populations of Gryllus fultoni, a species displaying character displacement in its calling song characters in areas of sympatry with G. vernalis populations, to infer the nature and direction of selection acting on reproductive and morphological characters in sympatry. Results Except for mirror area, the number of teeth in a file, and ovipositor length of G. fultoni, all male and female morphological characters in G. fultoni and G. vernalis exhibited a uniform tendency to decrease in size with increasing latitude. There was no significant variation in female morphological characters between sympatric and allopatric G. fultoni populations. However, males of sympatric and allopatric G. fultoni populations significantly differed in head width, hind femur length, and mirror area even after controlling for clinal factors. Head width and hind femur length of G. fultoni were more similar to those of G. vernalis in sympatric populations than in allopatric populations, resulting in morphological convergence of G. fultoni and G. vernalis in sympatry. However, the mirror area of G. fultoni displayed the divergent pattern in relation to the sympatric G. vernalis populations. Conclusion Divergence-enhancing selection may be acting on mirror area as well as calling song characters, whereas local adaptation or clinal effects may

  9. Phylogeny of Celastraceae tribe Euonymeae inferred from morphological characters and nuclear and plastid genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Mark P; McKenna, Miles J; Bacon, Christine D; Yakobson, Kendra; Cappa, Jennifer J; Archer, Robert H; Ford, Andrew J

    2012-01-01

    The phylogeny of Celastraceae tribe Euonymeae (≈ 230 species in eight genera in both the Old and New Worlds) was inferred using morphological characters together with plastid (matK, trnL-F) and nuclear (ITS and 26S rDNA) genes. Tribe Euonymeae has been defined as those genera of Celastraceae with generally opposite leaves, isomerous carpels, loculicidally dehiscent capsules, and arillate seeds (except Microtropis). Euonymus is the most diverse (129 species) and widely cultivated genus in the tribe. We infer that tribe Euonymeae consists of at least six separate lineages within Celastraceae and that a revised natural classification of the family is needed. Microtropis and Quetzalia are inferred to be distinct sister groups that together are sister to Zinowiewia. The endangered Monimopetalum chinense is an isolated and early derived lineage of Celastraceae that represents an important component of phylogenetic diversity within the family. Hedraianthera is sister to Brassiantha, and we describe a second species (Brassiantha hedraiantheroides A.J. Ford) that represents the first reported occurrence of this genus in Australia. Euonymus globularis, from eastern Australia, is sister to Menepetalum, which is endemic to New Caledonia, and we erect a new genus (Dinghoua R.H. Archer) for it. The Madagascan species of Euonymus are sister to Pleurostylia and recognized as a distinct genus (Astrocassine ined.). Glyptopetalum, Torralbasia, and Xylonymus are all closely related to Euonymus sensu stricto and are questionably distinct from it. Current intrageneric classifications of Euonymus are not completely natural and require revision. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Phylogeny of Celastraceae subfamily Hippocrateoideae inferred from morphological characters and nuclear and plastid loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughenour, Jennifer M; Simmons, Mark P; Lombardi, Julio A; Yakobson, Kendra; Archer, Robert H

    2011-05-01

    The phylogeny of Celastraceae subfamily Hippocrateoideae (∼ 100 species and 19 genera in the Old and New World tropics) was inferred using morphological characters together with plastid (matK, trnL-F) and nuclear (ITS and 26S rDNA) genes. The subfamily is easily recognized by the synapomorphies of transversely flattened, deeply lobed capsules and seeds with membranous basal wings or narrow stipes together with bisexual, 5-merous flowers that generally have an extrastaminal disk and three stamens. Hippocrateoideae, like Salacioideae, are inferred to have an Old World origin. The narrow stipes of Neotropical species that are water-dispersed are inferred to be derived within the subfamily from ancestral species with wind-dispersed winged seeds. Helictonema, a monotypic genus endemic to tropical Africa, has a small, white, spongy aril that is located at the base of the seed wing and appears to be unique within Hippocrateoideae. Our inference that Helictonema is sister to the remaining members of the subfamily, considered in the context of Sarawakodendron being sister to Salacioideae, suggests that small arils and capsular fruit were primitive within both subfamilies. The aril became dramatically enlarged within Salacioideae, in which the fruits are berries, and lost entirely within Hippocrateoideae, in which the fruits are transversely flattened capsules. All five Old World taxa of Prionostemma and all eight currently recognized species within Simirestis are transferred to Pristimera, one South African variety of Pristimera is raised to species level, and all three taxa in Pristimera subgenus Trochantha are transferred to the new genus Trochantha. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of plant densities on yield, yield components and some morphological characters of two cultivators of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Barzinjy, M.; Stölen, O.; Christiansen, Jørgen Lindskrog

    2003-01-01

    Effects of Plant Densities on Yield, Yield Components and some Morphological Characters of two Cultivators of Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.)......Effects of Plant Densities on Yield, Yield Components and some Morphological Characters of two Cultivators of Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.)...

  12. Integration of morphological data sets for phylogenetic analysis of Amniota: the importance of integumentary characters and increased taxonomic sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Robert V

    2005-08-01

    Several mutually exclusive hypotheses have been advanced to explain the phylogenetic position of turtles among amniotes. Traditional morphology-based analyses place turtles among extinct anapsids (reptiles with a solid skull roof), whereas more recent studies of both morphological and molecular data support an origin of turtles from within Diapsida (reptiles with a doubly fenestrated skull roof). Evaluation of these conflicting hypotheses has been hampered by nonoverlapping taxonomic samples and the exclusion of significant taxa from published analyses. Furthermore, although data from soft tissues and anatomical systems such as the integument may be particularly relevant to this problem, they are often excluded from large-scale analyses of morphological systematics. Here, conflicting hypotheses of turtle relationships are tested by (1) combining published data into a supermatrix of morphological characters to address issues of character conflict and missing data; (2) increasing taxonomic sampling by more than doubling the number of operational taxonomic units to test internal relationships within suprageneric ingroup taxa; and (3) increasing character sampling by approximately 25% by adding new data on the osteology and histology of the integument, an anatomical system that has been historically underrepresented in morphological systematics. The morphological data set assembled here represents the largest yet compiled for Amniota. Reevaluation of character data from prior studies of amniote phylogeny favors the hypothesis that turtles indeed have diapsid affinities. Addition of new ingroup taxa alone leads to a decrease in overall phylogenetic resolution, indicating that existing characters used for amniote phylogeny are insufficient to explain the evolution of more highly nested taxa. Incorporation of new data from the soft and osseous components of the integument, however, helps resolve relationships among both basal and highly nested amniote taxa. Analysis of a

  13. Innovative Bayesian and Parsimony Phylogeny of Dung Beetles (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Scarabaeinae) Enhanced by Ontology-Based Partitioning of Morphological Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, Sergei; Génier, François

    2015-01-01

    Scarabaeine dung beetles are the dominant dung feeding group of insects and are widely used as model organisms in conservation, ecology and developmental biology. Due to the conflicts among 13 recently published phylogenies dealing with the higher-level relationships of dung beetles, the phylogeny of this lineage remains largely unresolved. In this study, we conduct rigorous phylogenetic analyses of dung beetles, based on an unprecedented taxon sample (110 taxa) and detailed investigation of morphology (205 characters). We provide the description of morphology and thoroughly illustrate the used characters. Along with parsimony, traditionally used in the analysis of morphological data, we also apply the Bayesian method with a novel approach that uses anatomy ontology for matrix partitioning. This approach allows for heterogeneity in evolutionary rates among characters from different anatomical regions. Anatomy ontology generates a number of parameter-partition schemes which we compare using Bayes factor. We also test the effect of inclusion of autapomorphies in the morphological analysis, which hitherto has not been examined. Generally, schemes with more parameters were favored in the Bayesian comparison suggesting that characters located on different body regions evolve at different rates and that partitioning of the data matrix using anatomy ontology is reasonable; however, trees from the parsimony and all the Bayesian analyses were quite consistent. The hypothesized phylogeny reveals many novel clades and provides additional support for some clades recovered in previous analyses. Our results provide a solid basis for a new classification of dung beetles, in which the taxonomic limits of the tribes Dichotomiini, Deltochilini and Coprini are restricted and many new tribes must be described. Based on the consistency of the phylogeny with biogeography, we speculate that dung beetles may have originated in the Mesozoic contrary to the traditional view pointing to a

  14. [Magnetic resonance imaging study of effects of accommodation on human lens morphological characters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Sui-lian; Zhang, Ai; Shi, Jian-jing; Zhou, Yun-xin

    2013-11-05

    To evaluate the effects of accommodation on lens morphological characters. From January 2011 to June 2011, magnetic resonance images of eyes were acquired from 30 subjects aged 20 to 24 years during accommodation and at rest. The optimal images were analyzed by Autocad 2010 to obtain the total lens cross-sectional area (CSA) and CSA of anterior and posterior portions of lens, anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, lens diameter, vitreous chamber depth and axial length during accommodation and at rest. Paired-t test was performed. The anterior curvature radius (mm), posterior curvature radius (mm), CSA of anterior portion (mm(2)), CSA of posterior portion (mm(2)), total lens CSA (mm(2)) was (8.7 ± 0.8), (6.2 ± 0.5), (7.5 ± 2.1), (12.0 ± 2.6), (20 ± 4) during relaxed accommodation; anterior curvature radius (mm), posterior curvature radius (mm), CSA of anterior portion (mm(2)), CSA of posterior portion (mm(2)), total lens CSA (mm(2)) was (7.1 ± 1.3), (5.6 ± 0.5), (14.7 ± 2.9), (12.2 ± 2.1) and (27 ± 4) during accommodation. The total lens CSA (t = -11.556, P 0.05) under a statistically independent accommodative state. There was significant difference in the anterior chamber depth (t = 4.366, P 0.05) and axial length (t = 0.418, P > 0.05) under accommodative states. During accommodation, the anterior chamber depth decreases, lens thickness increases and diameter of lens decreases while anterior portions and total lens CSA increase. There are insignificant changes in posterior portions of lens CSA, vitreous chamber depth and axial length. The accommodative changes in CSA indicate that the anterior portion of lens may be related with the properties of anterior capsule and lens material, the position of zonular attachments and the location of fetal nucleus. Helmholtz theory is supported.

  15. The phylogeny of the social wasp subfamily Polistinae: evidence from microsatellite flanking sequences, mitochondrial COI sequence, and morphological characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strassmann Joan E

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social wasps in the subfamily Polistinae (Hymenoptera: Vespidae have been important in studies of the evolution of sociality, kin selection, and within colony conflicts of interest. These studies have generally been conducted within species, because a resolved phylogeny among species is lacking. We used nuclear DNA microsatellite flanking sequences, mitochondrial COI sequence, and morphological characters to generate a phylogeny for the Polistinae (Hymenoptera using 69 species. Results Our phylogeny is largely concordant with previous phylogenies at higher levels, and is more resolved at the species level. Our results support the monophyly of the New World subgenera of Polistini, while the Old World subgenera are a paraphyletic group. All genera for which we had more than one exemplar were supported as monophyletic except Polybia which is not resolved, and may be paraphyletic. Conclusion The combination of DNA sequences from flanks of microsatellite repeats with mtCOI sequences and morphological characters proved to be useful characters establishing relationships among the different subgenera and species of the Polistini. This is the first detailed hypothesis for the species of this important group.

  16. PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS WHITHIN THE PRISTIMANTIS UNISTRIGATUS (ANURA, CRAUGASTORIDAE GROUP BASED ON MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIO MARIO HOYOS

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a phylogenetic analysis within the Pristimantis unistrigatus group (Anura, Craugastoridae of Colombia . Characters from the superficial muscles of the hands and feet as well as external characters were taken for analysis. Most of the muscle characters were observed directly, and some were taken from the literature. Similarly, the external ones were taken mostly from the original descriptions and others from the literature as well. Two matrices were constructed, as the species belonging to this group have changed in recent years with respect to the initially proposed when the group was defined. The results lead us to conclude that the group is not monophyletic, although there are some relationships that are worth to survey because they are kept in the very last cladograms obtained for both proposals. It is suggested that these last relationships should be explored in particular, and the overall group in general, increasing the number of characters and taxa that belong to P. unistrigatus. An open question we left is whether actually is worth to keep these informal taxonomic hierarchy called group within the genera of anurans.

  17. Association mapping of agro-morphological characters among the global collection of finger millet genotypes using genomic SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyana Babu, B; Agrawal, P K; Pandey, Dinesh; Jaiswal, J P; Kumar, Anil

    2014-08-01

    Identification of alleles responsible for various agro-morphological characters is a major concern to further improve the finger millet germplasm. Forty-six genomic SSRs were used for genetic analysis and population structure analysis of a global collection of 190 finger millet genotypes and fifteen agro-morphological characters were evaluated. The overall results showed that Asian genotypes were smaller in height, smaller flag leaf length, less basal tiller number, early flowering and early maturity nature, small ear head length, and smaller in length of longest finger. The 46 SSRs yielded 90 scorable alleles and the polymorphism information content values varied from 0.292 to 0.703 at an average of 0.442. The gene diversity was in the range of 0.355 to 0.750 with an average value of 0.528. The 46 genomic SSR loci grouped the 190 finger millet genotypes into two major clusters based on their geographical origin by the both phylogenetic clustering and population structure analysis by STRUCTURE software. Association mapping of QTLs for 15 agro-morphological characters with 46 genomic SSRs resulted in identification of five markers were linked to QTLs of four traits at a significant threshold (P) level of ≤ 0.01 and ≤ 0.001. The QTL for basal tiller number was strongly associated with the locus UGEP81 at a P value of 0.001 by explaining the phenotypic variance (R (2)) of 10.8%. The QTL for days to 50% flowering was linked by two SSR loci UGEP77 and UGEP90, explained 10 and 8.7% of R (2) respectively at a P value of 0.01. The SSR marker, FM9 found to have strong association to two agro-morphological traits, flag leaf width (P-0.001, R(2)-14.1 %) and plant height (P-0.001, R(2)-11.2%). The markers linked to the QTLs for above agro-morphological characters found in the present study can be further used for cloning of the full length gene, fine mapping and their further use in the marker assisted breeding programmes for introgression of alleles into locally well

  18. Variability, heritability, character association, path analysis and morphological diversity in snake gourd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S.M. Mahbubur Rahman Khan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Genetic variability, heritability and path coefficient analysis were studied in 21 genotypes of snake gourd. The phenotypic coefficient of variations was found slightly higher than the genotypic coefficient of variations for all characters studied, indicating that the apparent variation is not only genetic but also influenced by the growing environment in the expression of the traits. The genotypic coefficient of variation was high for the fruit yield, number of fruits per vine, length of fruit and single fruit weight. High heritability coupled with high-to-moderate genetic advance was estimated for all characters studied. Correlation studies revealed that the fruit yield had a significant, positive correlation with the number of fruits per vine, length of fruit and single fruit weight. Importantly, more than 90% of the genotypic total variation was contributed by the characters included in the path analysis. The highest, direct, positive effect was recorded for the number of fruits per vine. The divergence value for cluster analysis indicated that the genotypes from clusters II and III had the highest inter-cluster distance and were expected to provide high heterosis in hybridization and to show wide variability in genetic architecture. The selection of high yielding genotypes should give emphasis to the number of fruits per vine, length of fruit and single fruit weight.

  19. The effects of gamma irradiation on morphological, cytological and biochemical characters of double-low rape (Brassica napus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Huajun; He Yuanhui; Chen Xuifang

    1992-01-01

    The dormant seeds of three varieties of double-low rape were treated with 0, 80, 100, 120, 140 and 160 krad of γ-ray. The dose-effect curves of survival rate, yield, length of pod, rate of bearing pods and oil content in rapeseed fit the equation: y = Exp (-Ax-Bx 2 ). The dose-effect curves of field germination rate, seed bearing rate, number of seeds per pod and chromosome aberration rate fit the equation: y = A + Bx. The dose-effect curve of morphological malformation rate fit the equation: y = Ae Bx . The contents of erucic acid, linolenic acid, glucosinolates and protein in rapeseed changed irregularly with the increase of doses of gamma irradiation. Close correlation were found among the effects of irradiation on morphological, cytological and biochemical characters. The radiosensitivities of rape varieties were apparently different

  20. Inferring speciation modes in a clade of Iberian chafers from rates of morphological evolution in different character systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahrens Dirk

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies of speciation mode based on phylogenies usually test the predicted effect on diversification patterns or on geographical distribution of closely related species. Here we outline an approach to infer the prevalent speciation mode in Iberian Hymenoplia chafers through the comparison of the evolutionary rates of morphological character systems likely to be related to sexual or ecological selection. Assuming that mitochondrial evolution is neutral and not related to measured phenotypic differences among the species, we contrast hypothetic outcomes of three speciation modes: 1 geographic isolation with subsequent random morphological divergence, resulting in overall change proportional to the mtDNA rate; 2 sexual selection on size and shape of the male intromittent organs, resulting in an evolutionary rate decoupled to that of the mtDNA; and 3 ecological segregation, reflected in character systems presumably related to ecological or biological adaptations, with rates decoupled from that of the mtDNA. Results The evolutionary rate of qualitative external body characters was significantly correlated to that of the mtDNA both for the overall root-to-tip patristic distances and the individual inter-node branches, as measured with standard statistics and the randomization of a global comparison metric (the z-score. The rate of the body morphospace was significantly correlated to that of the mtDNA only for the individual branches, but not for the patristic distances, while that of the paramere outline was significantly correlated with mtDNA rates only for the patristic distances but not for the individual branches. Conclusion Structural morphological characters, often used for species recognition, have evolved at a rate proportional to that of the mtDNA, with no evidence of directional or stabilising selection according to our measures. The change in body morphospace seems to have evolved randomly at short term, but the overall

  1. Morphological characters are compatible with mitogenomic data in resolving the phylogeny of nymphalid butterflies (lepidoptera: papilionoidea: nymphalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qing-Hui; Sun, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Yun-Liang; Hao, Jia-Sheng; Yang, Qun

    2015-01-01

    Nymphalidae is the largest family of butterflies with their phylogenetic relationships not adequately approached to date. The mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) of 11 new nymphalid species were reported and a comparative mitogenomic analysis was conducted together with other 22 available nymphalid mitogenomes. A phylogenetic analysis of the 33 species from all 13 currently recognized nymphalid subfamilies was done based on the mitogenomic data set with three Lycaenidae species as the outgroups. The mitogenome comparison showed that the eleven new mitogenomes were similar with those of other butterflies in gene content and order. The reconstructed phylogenetic trees reveal that the nymphalids are made up of five major clades (the nymphaline, heliconiine, satyrine, danaine and libytheine clades), with sister relationship between subfamilies Cyrestinae and Biblidinae, and most likely between subfamilies Morphinae and Satyrinae. This whole mitogenome-based phylogeny is generally congruent with those of former studies based on nuclear-gene and mitogenomic analyses, but differs considerably from the result of morphological cladistic analysis, such as the basal position of Libytheinae in morpho-phylogeny is not confirmed in molecular studies. However, we found that the mitogenomic phylogeny established herein is compatible with selected morphological characters (including developmental and adult morpho-characters).

  2. Morphological and histological characters of penile organization in eleven species of molossid bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comelis, Manuela T; Bueno, Larissa M; Góes, Rejane M; Taboga, S R; Morielle-Versute, Eliana

    2018-04-01

    The penis is the reproductive organ that ensures efficient copulation and success of internal fertilization in all species of mammals, with special challenges for bats, where copulation can occur during flight. Comparative anatomical analyses of different species of bats can contribute to a better understanding of morphological diversity of this organ, concerning organization and function. In this study, we describe the external morphology and histomorphology of the penis and baculum in eleven species of molossid bats. The present study showed that penile organization in these species displayed the basic vascular mammalian pattern and had a similar pattern concerning the presence of the tissues constituting the penis, exhibiting three types of erectile tissue (the corpus cavernosum, accessory cavernous tissue, and corpus spongiosum) around the urethra. However, certain features varied among the species, demonstrating that most species are distinguishable by glans and baculum morphology and glans histological organization. Major variations in glans morphology were genus-specific, and the greatest similarities were shared by Eumops species and N. laticaudatus. The greatest interspecific similarities occurred between M. molossus and M. rufus and between Eumops species. Save for M. molossus and M. rufus, morphology of the baculum was species-specific; and in E. perotis, it did not occur in all specimens, indicating that it is probably under selection. In the histological organization, the most evident differences were number of septa and localization of the corpora cavernosa. In species with a baculum (Molossus, Eumops and Nyctinomops species), the corpora cavernosa predominantly occupied the dorsal region of the penile glans and is associated with the proximal (basal) portion of the baculum. In species that do not have a baculum (Cynomops, Molossops and Neoplatymops species), the corpora cavernosa predominantly occupied the ventro-lateral region of the glans

  3. Tadpole morphology of Leptodactylus plaumanni (Anura: Leptodactylidae, with comments on the phylogenetic significance of larval characters in Leptodactylus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimena R. Grosso

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I summarize the morphology of the Leptodactylus plaumanni tadpoles, describing the external morphology, buccal cavity, and cranial skeleton and associated muscles. A distinctive combination of traits include the truncated snout in dorsal view, dorsal fin originated anterior to the body-tail junction, submarginal papillae present in some specimens, two slight indentations in the lower lip, ceratobranchial III free from the hypobranchial plate, small ventrolateral projections of the corpus of the suprarostral cartilage, m. subarcualis rectus I with three heads, and m. subarcualis rectus II-IV inserting in ceratobranchial I and connective tissue between branchial processes II and III. The buccal cavity shares the typical features in species of the group, namely four lingual papillae, two pairs of infralabial papillae, two postnarial papillae, and one pair of not branched lateral ridge papillae. Attending to the increasing role of larval characters in phylogenetic analyses, further research is needed to understand the evolution of tadpole morphology in this genus.

  4. Genetic Diversity and Taxonomic Studies of Allium Akaka and A. Elburzense Native to Iran Using Morphological Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafari Sajad

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Two Allium species (A. akaka S.G. Gmelin and A. elburzense W. native to Iran are used locally as the fresh vegetables and in medical therapy. They are not cultivated, but are collected from the wild, thus, will soon be threatened with extinction. In this study, the diversity of 15 wild accessions (4 accessions of A. elburzense endemic of Iran and 11 accessions of A. akaka collected from the north-western part of Iran were evaluated with the use of 16 qualitative and 16 quantitative characteristics. The morphological characters with high heritability included leaf length, flower number in umbel, inflorescence diameter, leaf dry weight, bulb fresh weight, weight of 100 seeds, seed length and seed length/width. Results of the principal component analysis indicated that 92.52% of the observed variability was explained by the first six components. The first two components explained about 64.74% of the total observed variability. The first and third hierarchical cluster analysis included all accessions of A. akaka. The accessions of A. elburzense, except one, were placed in a separate cluster. These morphological descriptors can successfully apply for evaluating morphological diversity of Allium wild accessions and can help in horticultural usage.

  5. Systematics and morphological evolution within the moss family Bryaceae: a comparison between parsimony and Bayesian methods for reconstruction of ancestral character states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Niklas; Holyoak, David T; Newton, Angela E

    2007-06-01

    The Bryaceae are a large cosmopolitan moss family including genera of significant morphological and taxonomic complexity. Phylogenetic relationships within the Bryaceae were reconstructed based on DNA sequence data from all three genomic compartments. In addition, maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference were employed to reconstruct ancestral character states of 38 morphological plus four habitat characters and eight insertion/deletion events. The recovered phylogenetic patterns are generally in accord with previous phylogenies based on chloroplast DNA sequence data and three major clades are identified. The first clade comprises Bryum bornholmense, B. rubens, B. caespiticium, and Plagiobryum. This corroborates the hypothesis suggested by previous studies that several Bryum species are more closely related to Plagiobryum than to the core Bryum species. The second clade includes Acidodontium, Anomobryum, and Haplodontium, while the third clade contains the core Bryum species plus Imbribryum. Within the latter clade, B. subapiculatum and B. tenuisetum form the sister clade to Imbribryum. Reconstructions of ancestral character states under maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference suggest fourteen morphological synapomorphies for the ingroup and synapomorphies are detected for most clades within the ingroup. Maximum parsimony and Bayesian reconstructions of ancestral character states are mostly congruent although Bayesian inference shows that the posterior probability of ancestral character states may decrease dramatically when node support is taken into account. Bayesian inference also indicates that reconstructions may be ambiguous at internal nodes for highly polymorphic characters.

  6. Identification of Morphological Character and Esterase Isozyme Pattern in Second-Generation Black Rice Plant Irradiated to Gamma Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartanti, R. S.; Putri, T. A. N.; Zulfa, F.; Sutarno; Suranto

    2017-04-01

    Black rice is one of the functional foods due to its high anthocyanin content. Black rice grain was irradiated by gamma rays with a dose of 200 Gy and 300 Gy. The main purpose of this irradiation is to induce mutation to the black rice plant in order to achieve the improved organism. This study was undertaken to elucidate the morphological character and esterase isozyme pattern of black rice plant after irradiated by gamma rays. There were morphological differences on leaves, stems and grains between irradiated and non irradiated black rice plant. Gamma radiation dose of 200 Gy showed the significant influence of the length of the stem, number of internodes, and length of leaves. The radiation dose of 300 Gy showed the significant influence of the decrease value of diameter of 3rd internodes, number of branches and width of leaves. Flowering time is getting faster as increasing radiation dose. At the age of 74 days after planting there are 9.15% plants of 200 Gy radiation dose that have flowered faster than normal plants. This value increased into 11.45% at the dose of radiation 300 Gy. There were differences in the esterase banding pattern between radiation dose of 200 Gy and 300 Gy than the control plants, indicated that randomly mutation has occurred.

  7. Allochronic speciation, secondary contact, and reproductive character displacement in periodical cicadas (Hemiptera: Magicicada spp.): genetic, morphological, and behavioural evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, J R; Simon, C; Marshall, D C; Slon, K; Ehrhardt, C

    2001-03-01

    Periodical cicadas have proven useful in testing a variety of ecological and evolutionary hypotheses because of their unusual life history, extraordinary abundance, and wide geographical range. Periodical cicadas provide the best examples of synchronous periodicity and predator satiation in the animal kingdom, and are excellent illustrations of habitat partitioning (by the three morphologically distinct species groups), incipient species (the year classes or broods), and cryptic species (a newly discovered 13-year species, Magicicada neotredecim). They are particularly useful for exploring questions regarding speciation via temporal isolation, or allochronic speciation. Recently, data were presented that provided strong support for an instance of allochronic speciation by life-cycle switching. This speciation event resulted in the formation of a new 13-year species from a 17-year species and led to secondary contact between two formerly separated lineages, one represented by the new 13-year cicadas (and their 17-year ancestors), and the other represented by the pre-existing 13-year cicadas. Allozyme frequency data, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and abdominal colour were shown to be correlated genetic markers supporting the life-cycle switching/allochronic speciation hypothesis. In addition, a striking pattern of reproductive character displacement in male call pitch and female pitch preference between the two 13-year species was discovered. In this paper we report a strong association between calling song pitch and mtDNA haplotype for 101 individuals from a single locality within the M. tredecim/M. neotredecim contact zone and a strong association between abdomen colour and mtDNA haplotype. We conclude by reviewing proposed mechanisms for allochronic speciation and reproductive character displacement.

  8. The Anatomy of the Role of Morphological Awareness in Chinese Character Learning: The Mediation of Vocabulary and Semantic Radical Knowledge and the Moderation of Morpheme Family Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Duo; Li, Hong; Wong, Kwok Shing Richard

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, the mediating roles of syllable awareness, orthographic knowledge, and vocabulary skills and the moderating role of morpheme family size in the association between morphological awareness and Chinese character reading were investigated with 176 second-grade Hong Kong Chinese children. In the path analyses, the results…

  9. Low-copy nuclear gene and McGISH resolves polyploid history of Eleusine coracana and morphological character evolution in Eleusine

    OpenAIRE

    LIU, Qing; JIANG, Bin; WEN, Jun; PETERSON, Paul Michael

    2014-01-01

    Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn. (finger millet) is the third most important cereal crop in semiarid regions of the world, but the degree of relatedness of finger millet with other species in the genus is unverified. The study of morphological character evolution in Eleusine Gaertn. has lagged behind due to lack of relevant research. Polyploidy history of finger millet was analyzed using waxy sequences together with multicolor genomic in situ hybridization (McGISH). In the waxy phylogenetic tre...

  10. Identification of SSR and retrotransposon-based molecular markers linked to morphological characters in oily sunfl ower (Helianthus annuus L.) under natural and water-limited states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Soleimani Gezeljeh; Darvishzadeh, Reza; Ebrahimi, Asa; Bihamta, Mohammad Reza

    2018-03-01

    Sunflower is an important source of edible oil. Drought is known as an important factor limiting the growth and productivity of field crops in most parts of the world. Agricultural biotechnology mainly aims at developing crops with higher tolerance to the challenging environmental conditions, such as drought. This study examined a number of morphological characters, along with relative water content (RWC) in 100 inbred sunflower lines. A 10 × 10 simple lattice design with two replications was employed to measure the mentioned parameters under natural and water-limited states during two successive years. In molecular trial, 30 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primer pairs, as well as 14 inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism (IRAP) and 14 retrotransposon-microsatellite amplified polymorphism (REMAP) primer combinations were used for DNA fingerprinting of the lines. Most of the examined characters had lower average values under water-limited than natural states. Maximum and minimum reductions were observed in the cases of yield and oil percentage, respectively. The broad-sense heritabilities for all the examined characters were 0.20-0.73 and 0.10-0.34 under natural and water-limited states, respectively. In the studied samples, 8.97% of the 435 possible locus pairs of the SSRs represented significant linkage disequilibrium (LD) levels. In the association analysis using SSR markers, 22 and 21 markers were identified (P ≤ 0.05) for the studied characters under natural and water-limited states, respectively. The corresponding values were 50 and 37 using retrotransposon-based molecular markers. Some detected markers were communal between the characters under water-limited and natural states. This was in line with the phenotypic correlations detected between the characters. Communal markers facilitate the simultaneous selection of several characters and can thus improve the efficacy of selection based on markers in the plant-breeding activities.

  11. Utility of combining morphological characters, nuclear and mitochondrial genes: An attempt to resolve the conflicts of species identification for ciliated protists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Yi, Zhenzhen; Gentekaki, Eleni; Zhan, Aibin; Al-Farraj, Saleh A; Song, Weibo

    2016-01-01

    Ciliates comprise a highly diverse protozoan lineage inhabiting all biotopes and playing crucial roles in regulating microbial food webs. Nevertheless, subtle morphological differences and tiny sizes hinder proper species identification for many ciliates. Here, we use the species-rich taxon Frontonia and employ both nuclear and mitochondrial loci. We attempt to assess the level of genetic diversity and evaluate the potential of each marker in delineating species of Frontonia. Morphological features and ecological characteristics are also integrated into genetic results, in an attempt to resolve conflicts of species identification based on morphological and molecular methods. Our studies reveal: (1) the mitochondrial cox1 gene, nuclear ITS1 and ITS2 as well as the hypervariable D2 region of LSU rDNA are promising candidates for species delineation; (2) the cox1 gene provides the best resolution for analyses below the species level; (3) the V2 and V4 hypervariable regions of SSU rDNA, and D1 of LSU rDNA as well as the 5.8S rDNA gene do not show distinct barcoding gap due to overlap between intra- and inter-specific genetic divergences; (4) morphological character-based analysis shows promise for delimitation of Frontonia species; and (5) all gene markers and character-based analyses demonstrate that the genus Frontonia consists of three groups and monophyly of the genus Frontonia is questionable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Identifying hidden rate changes in the evolution of a binary morphological character: the evolution of plant habit in campanulid angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Jeremy M; O'Meara, Brian C; Donoghue, Michael J

    2013-09-01

    The growth of phylogenetic trees in scope and in size is promising from the standpoint of understanding a wide variety of evolutionary patterns and processes. With trees comprised of larger, older, and globally distributed clades, it is likely that the lability of a binary character will differ significantly among lineages, which could lead to errors in estimating transition rates and the associated inference of ancestral states. Here we develop and implement a new method for identifying different rates of evolution in a binary character along different branches of a phylogeny. We illustrate this approach by exploring the evolution of growth habit in Campanulidae, a flowering plant clade containing some 35,000 species. The distribution of woody versus herbaceous species calls into question the use of traditional models of binary character evolution. The recognition and accommodation of changes in the rate of growth form evolution in different lineages demonstrates, for the first time, a robust picture of growth form evolution across a very large, very old, and very widespread flowering plant clade.

  13. Effects of internal mixing and aggregate morphology on optical properties of black carbon using a discrete dipole approximation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. V. Scarnato

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available According to recent studies, internal mixing of black carbon (BC with other aerosol materials in the atmosphere alters its aggregate shape, absorption of solar radiation, and radiative forcing. These mixing state effects are not yet fully understood. In this study, we characterize the morphology and mixing state of bare BC and BC internally mixed with sodium chloride (NaCl using electron microscopy and examine the sensitivity of optical properties to BC mixing state and aggregate morphology using a discrete dipole approximation model (DDSCAT. DDSCAT is flexible in simulating the geometry and refractive index of particle aggregates. DDSCAT predicts a higher mass absorption coefficient (MAC, lower single scattering albedo (SSA, and higher absorption Angstrom exponent (AAE for bare BC aggregates that are lacy rather than compact. Predicted values of SSA at 550 nm range between 0.16 and 0.27 for lacy and compact aggregates, respectively, in agreement with reported experimental values of 0.25 ± 0.05. The variation in absorption with wavelength does not adhere precisely to a power law relationship over the 200 to 1000 nm range. Consequently, AAE values depend on the wavelength region over which they are computed. The MAC of BC (averaged over the 200–1000 nm range is amplified when internally mixed with NaCl (100–300 nm in radius by factors ranging from 1.0 for lacy BC aggregates partially immersed in NaCl to 2.2 for compact BC aggregates fully immersed in NaCl. The SSA of BC internally mixed with NaCl is higher than for bare BC and increases with the embedding in the NaCl. Internally mixed BC SSA values decrease in the 200–400 nm wavelength range, a feature also common to the optical properties of dust and organics. Linear polarization features are also predicted in DDSCAT and are dependent on particle size and morphology. This study shows that DDSCAT predicts complex morphology and mixing state dependent aerosol optical properties that have

  14. Morphological Characters of the Thickbody Skate Amblyraja frerichsi (Krefft 1968) (Rajiformes: Rajidae), with Notes on Its Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, Carlos; Lamilla, Julio; Concha, Francisco; Ebert, David A.; Bennett, Michael B.

    2012-01-01

    Detailed descriptions of morphological features, morphometrics, neurocranium anatomy, clasper structure and egg case descriptions are provided for the thickbody skate Amblyraja frerichsi; a rare, deep-water species from Chile, Argentina and Falkland Islands. The species diagnosis is complemented from new observations and aspects such as colour, size and distribution are described. Geographic and bathymetric distributional ranges are discussed as relevant features of this taxońs biology. Additionally, the conservation status is assessed including bycatch records from Chilean fisheries. PMID:22768186

  15. Morphological characters of the thickbody skate Amblyraja frerichsi (Krefft 1968) (Rajiformes: Rajidae), with notes on its biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, Carlos; Lamilla, Julio; Concha, Francisco; Ebert, David A; Bennett, Michael B

    2012-01-01

    Detailed descriptions of morphological features, morphometrics, neurocranium anatomy, clasper structure and egg case descriptions are provided for the thickbody skate Amblyraja frerichsi; a rare, deep-water species from Chile, Argentina and Falkland Islands. The species diagnosis is complemented from new observations and aspects such as colour, size and distribution are described. Geographic and bathymetric distributional ranges are discussed as relevant features of this taxońs biology. Additionally, the conservation status is assessed including bycatch records from Chilean fisheries.

  16. Phylogenetic relationship of asam gelugur (Garcinia atroviridis Griff. ex T. Anders) based on morphological characters in Langkat and Serdang Berdagai, Sumatera Utara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayu, E. S.; Lestami, A.; Kardhinata, E. H.; Rosemary

    2018-02-01

    Garcinia atroviridis plant is a commodity that has the potential to become an export commodity in Sumatera Utara. Characterization is an activity in germplasm to determine the morphological properties that can be utilized in differentiating between accessions and assessing the magnitude of genetic diversity. The magnitude of genetic diversity based on morphological properties can support breeding programs. The research was conducted in several areas of G. atroviridis plant, i.e. Gebang, Bahorok, Padang Tualang, Pegajahan, Sei Rampah, Pantai Cermin, and Perbaungan sub-districts in September 2016 with direct observation method. The aim of this research is to explore and characterization between G. atroviridis plant in Langkat and Serdang Berdagai. Parameters morphology characters were observed based on IPGRI, and observation data were analyzed by using SPSS version 21 to obtain the dendogram. The dendogram results showed that there are four groups of kinship relationships on the scale of the spacing (euclidean distance scale) 17. The lowest unequal value (closest kinship) in accessions G3(Bahorok) and G7(Sei Rampah) is 16.328 while the highest value of inequality (farthest kinship) in G5( Padang Tualang) and G6 (Pegajahan) is equal to 54.187. It needs the conservation of G. atroviridis although must be done next observation.

  17. A new species of freshwater Chaetonotidae (Gastrotricha, Chaetonotida from Obodska Cave (Montenegro based on morphological and molecular characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Kolicka

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Gastrotricha is a cosmopolitan phylum of aquatic and semi-aquatic invertebrates that comprises about 820 described species. Current knowledge regarding freshwater gastrotrichs inhabiting caves is extremely poor and there are no extant data regarding Gastrotricha from Montenegro. We describe a new species from Obodska Cave, which is also the first record of a gastrotrich from this region. Due to its unusual habitat and morphological characteristics, this species may be important when considering the evolution and dispersion routes of Chaetonotidae Gosse, 1864 (sensu Leasi & Todaro 2008. We provide morphometric, molecular and phylogenetic data for the new species, together with photomicrographs and drawings.

  18. Morphological characters of the thickbody skate Amblyraja frerichsi (Krefft 1968 (Rajiformes: Rajidae, with notes on its biology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Bustamante

    Full Text Available Detailed descriptions of morphological features, morphometrics, neurocranium anatomy, clasper structure and egg case descriptions are provided for the thickbody skate Amblyraja frerichsi; a rare, deep-water species from Chile, Argentina and Falkland Islands. The species diagnosis is complemented from new observations and aspects such as colour, size and distribution are described. Geographic and bathymetric distributional ranges are discussed as relevant features of this taxońs biology. Additionally, the conservation status is assessed including bycatch records from Chilean fisheries.

  19. Cambrian archaeocyathan metazoans: revision of morphological characters and standardization of genus descriptions to establish an online identification tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeline Kerner

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Archaeocyatha represent the oldest calcified sponges and the first metazoans to build bioconstructions in association with calcimicrobes. They are a key group in biology, evolutionary studies, biostratigraphy, paleoecology and paleogeography of the early Cambrian times. The establishing of a new standardized terminology for archaeocyathans description has permitted the creation of the first knowledge base in English including descriptions of all archaeocyathan genera. This base, using the XPER² software package, is an integral part of the -Archaeocyatha- a knowledge base website, freely available at url http://www.infosyslab.fr/archaeocyatha. The website is composed of common information about Archaeocyatha, general remarks about the knowledge base, the description of the 307 genera recognized with images of type-specimens of type-species for each genus, as well as additional morphological data, an interactive free access key and its user guide.The automatic analysis and comparison of the digitized descriptions have identified some genera with highly similar morphology. These results are a great help for future taxonomic revisions and suggest a number of possible synonymies that require further study.

  20. A large 28S rDNA-based phylogeny confirms the limitations of established morphological characters for classification of proteocephalidean tapeworms (Platyhelminthes, Cestoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain de Chambrier

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Proteocephalidean tapeworms form a diverse group of parasites currently known from 315 valid species. Most of the diversity of adult proteocephalideans can be found in freshwater fishes (predominantly catfishes, a large proportion infects reptiles, but only a few infect amphibians, and a single species has been found to parasitize possums. Although they have a cosmopolitan distribution, a large proportion of taxa are exclusively found in South America. We analyzed the largest proteocephalidean cestode molecular dataset to date comprising more than 100 species (30 new, including representatives from 54 genera (80% and all subfamilies, thus significantly improving upon previous works to develop a molecular phylogeny for the group. The Old World origin of proteocephalideans is confirmed, with their more recent expansion in South America. The earliest diverging lineages are composed of Acanthotaeniinae and Gangesiinae but most of the presently recognized subfamilies (and genera appear not to be monophyletic; a deep systematic reorganization of the order is thus needed and the present subfamilial system should be abandoned. The main characters on which the classical systematics of the group has been built, such as scolex morphology or relative position of genital organs in relation to the longitudinal musculature, are of limited value, as demonstrated by the very weak support for morphologically-defined subfamilies. However, new characters, such as the pattern of uterus development, relative ovary size, and egg structure have been identified, which may be useful in defining phylogenetically well-supported subgroups. A strongly supported lineage infecting various snakes from a wide geographical distribution was found. Although several improvements over previous works regarding phylogenetic resolution and taxon coverage were achieved in this study, the major polytomy in our tree, composed largely of siluriform parasites from the Neotropics, remained

  1. A large 28S rDNA-based phylogeny confirms the limitations of established morphological characters for classification of proteocephalidean tapeworms (Platyhelminthes, Cestoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chambrier, Alain; Waeschenbach, Andrea; Fisseha, Makda; Scholz, Tomáš; Mariaux, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Proteocephalidean tapeworms form a diverse group of parasites currently known from 315 valid species. Most of the diversity of adult proteocephalideans can be found in freshwater fishes (predominantly catfishes), a large proportion infects reptiles, but only a few infect amphibians, and a single species has been found to parasitize possums. Although they have a cosmopolitan distribution, a large proportion of taxa are exclusively found in South America. We analyzed the largest proteocephalidean cestode molecular dataset to date comprising more than 100 species (30 new), including representatives from 54 genera (80%) and all subfamilies, thus significantly improving upon previous works to develop a molecular phylogeny for the group. The Old World origin of proteocephalideans is confirmed, with their more recent expansion in South America. The earliest diverging lineages are composed of Acanthotaeniinae and Gangesiinae but most of the presently recognized subfamilies (and genera) appear not to be monophyletic; a deep systematic reorganization of the order is thus needed and the present subfamilial system should be abandoned. The main characters on which the classical systematics of the group has been built, such as scolex morphology or relative position of genital organs in relation to the longitudinal musculature, are of limited value, as demonstrated by the very weak support for morphologically-defined subfamilies. However, new characters, such as the pattern of uterus development, relative ovary size, and egg structure have been identified, which may be useful in defining phylogenetically well-supported subgroups. A strongly supported lineage infecting various snakes from a wide geographical distribution was found. Although several improvements over previous works regarding phylogenetic resolution and taxon coverage were achieved in this study, the major polytomy in our tree, composed largely of siluriform parasites from the Neotropics, remained unresolved and

  2. STUDIES ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOME MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS AND JUMPING PARAMETERS OVER A VERTICAL FENCE IN SPORT HORSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLAVIA BOCHIŞ

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Looking for the form-function principle, the present study proposed to analyze the morphological traits of the equine athletes and the jumping over obstacles parameters. The intension was to focuses some guide lines in selecting the future potential champion. Indeed, this is only a basic item, not a guarantee, in a future career, where a lot of aspects take part. Even that, if a horse had a good rider and an excellent trainer, if it is not described by some basic biometrical and biomechanical reports (Duel, 1987, Lewczuk, 2002, it is impossible to reach very good results. In most of cases, when horses refused some exercising elements, we think about temperament, but in the same time, the aspect could be generated by a pain, or effectively by them incapacity due to an equilibrium fault (Lagarde, 2005.

  3. Description of morphologic characters in avocado trees (Persea americana. Mill) var. Hass, submitted to gamma radiation of 60 Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandoval R, L.

    2004-01-01

    It was carried out the characterization of 77 trees of avocado ''Hass'' subjected to gamma radiation of Co 60 , in doses of 0, 5, 10,15, 20 and 25 Gy based on previous studies of radiosensitivity with ends of improvement located in the experimental center ''La Labor'' belonging to the foundation Salvador Sanchez Colin. CICTAMEX. S C. in Temascaltepec, Mexico. It was carried out the morphological characterization of this variety according to the nomenclature settled down by the International Office of Genetic Resources (IBPGRI), registering 27 variables for the description of the tree, 33 for description of the fruit and 14 for the characterization of the seed. Regarding the architectural characterization 10 variables were evaluated. Using gamma radiation of Co 60 in the doses of 15 and 20 Gy it was detected a reduction of 22% in the portage of the tree, likewise had reduction the diameter of the trunk and of the foliage. It was found that the reduction in the behavior of the tree induces to a bigger variation of the form of the same one, in the distribution of the branches in the form of the fruit and in the form of the seed you Also detects a remarkable increment in the productivity of some hoist irradiated regarding the architecture of the tree one observes that the angle of inclination of the branches increase when being increased the radiation dose and that the longitude of the annual section of growth decreased significantly in the doses of 20 and 25 Gy. One observes a significant Increment in the I number of buds prolepticos in those hoist irradiated in the I finish mbdulo of rhythmic growth. Io that indicates a change substantial in the I inhabit of growth With the purpose of determining if the changes in morphology and architecture of the tree corresponded with the modification at level meristematico, they were carried out observations to the court microscope of having knitted apical vegetative meristematico in samples of you hoist of all the treatments

  4. Physio-biochemical and morphological characters of halophyte legume shrub, Acacia ampliceps seedlings in response to salt stress under greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cattarin eTheerawitaya

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Acacia ampliceps (salt wattle, a leguminous shrub, has been introduced in salt-affected areas in northeast of Thailand for remediation of saline soils. However, the defense mechanisms underlying salt tolerance A. ampliceps are unknown. We investigated various physio-biochemical and morphological attributes of A. ampliceps in response to varying levels of salt treatment (200 to 600 mM NaCl. Seedlings of A. ampliceps (252 cm in plant height raised from seeds were treated with 200 mM (mild stress, 400 and 600 mM (extreme stress of salt treatment (NaCl under greenhouse conditions. Na+ and Ca2+ contents in the leaf tissues increased significantly under salt treatment, whereas K+ content declined in salt-stressed plants. Free proline and soluble sugar contents in plant grown under extreme salt stress (600 mM NaCl for 9 days significantly increased by 28.7 (53.33 mol g1 FW and 3.2 (42.11 mg g1 DW folds, respectively over the control, thereby playing a major role as osmotic adjustment. Na+ enrichment in the phyllode tissues of salt-stressed seedlings positively related to total chlorophyll degradation (R2=0.72. Photosynthetic pigments and chlorophyll fluorescence in salt-stressed plants increased under mild salt stress (200 mM NaCl. However, these declined under high level of salinity (400-600 mM NaCl, consequently resulting in reduced net photosynthetic rate (R2=0.81 and plant dry weight (R2= 0.91. The study concludes that A. ampliceps has an osmotic adjustment and Na+ compartmentation as effective salt defense mechanisms, and thus it could be an excellent species to grow in salt-affected soils.

  5. Characterization and genetic relatedness among 37 yardlong bean and cowpea accessions based on morphological characters and RAPD analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinich Saereeprasert

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Twenty four yardlong bean and 13 cowpea accessions were planted in the field to characterize their morphology and genetic relatedness. A randomized complete block design (RCBD with two replicationswas used. Growth habit, days to flowering, pod color, pod length, number of pods/plant, yield/plant and consumption quality were recorded. The results showed that pod length, number of pods/plant and podyield/plant among 37 accessions were highly significant differerence. Mean pod yield and pod length of 24 yardlong bean accessions were 212.1 g/plant and 48.7 cm, respectively, while mean pod yield and pod lengthof 13 cowpea accessions were 117.4 g/plant and 21.3 cm, respectively. Twenty two yardlong bean accessions exhibited indeterminate growth habit while 10 of 13 cowpea had determinate growth habit and the restsexhibited semi-determinate growth. Genetic variation and relationships among accessions were investigated based on RAPD technique. Total DNA was extracted from young leaf samples of all accessions using CTAB buffer. One hundred and twenty decamer oligonucleotide primers were screened and 5 primers (OPC-06,OPR-12, OPZ-03, OPZ-08, OPZ-13 were chosen for further evaluation. A dendrogram of genetic similarity was constructed based on 23 polymorphic bands obtained from 5 primers using UPGMA in SPSS program,which revealed separate groups between yardlong bean and cowpea. The similarity coefficient among yardlong bean and cowpea accessions ranged from 0.515 to 1.000 and 0.548 to 1.000, respectively.

  6. Morphological covariance in anatomical MRI scans can identify discrete neural pathways in the brain and their disturbances in persons with neuropsychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Ravi; Hao, Xuejun; Peterson, Bradley S

    2015-05-01

    We hypothesize that coordinated functional activity within discrete neural circuits induces morphological organization and plasticity within those circuits. Identifying regions of morphological covariation that are independent of morphological covariation in other regions therefore may therefore allow us to identify discrete neural systems within the brain. Comparing the magnitude of these variations in individuals who have psychiatric disorders with the magnitude of variations in healthy controls may allow us to identify aberrant neural pathways in psychiatric illnesses. We measured surface morphological features by applying nonlinear, high-dimensional warping algorithms to manually defined brain regions. We transferred those measures onto the surface of a unit sphere via conformal mapping and then used spherical wavelets and their scaling coefficients to simplify the data structure representing these surface morphological features of each brain region. We used principal component analysis (PCA) to calculate covariation in these morphological measures, as represented by their scaling coefficients, across several brain regions. We then assessed whether brain subregions that covaried in morphology, as identified by large eigenvalues in the PCA, identified specific neural pathways of the brain. To do so, we spatially registered the subnuclei for each eigenvector into the coordinate space of a Diffusion Tensor Imaging dataset; we used these subnuclei as seed regions to track and compare fiber pathways with known fiber pathways identified in neuroanatomical atlases. We applied these procedures to anatomical MRI data in a cohort of 82 healthy participants (42 children, 18 males, age 10.5 ± 2.43 years; 40 adults, 22 males, age 32.42 ± 10.7 years) and 107 participants with Tourette's Syndrome (TS) (71 children, 59 males, age 11.19 ± 2.2 years; 36 adults, 21 males, age 37.34 ± 10.9 years). We evaluated the construct validity of the identified covariation in morphology

  7. Leaf Morphological Characters Can Be a Factor for Intra-Varietal Preference of Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae among Eggplant Varieties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Tayeb Mohammad Hasanuzzaman

    Full Text Available The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae MEAM1, is considered a serious pest of horticultural and many other crops. While eggplant (Solanum melongena is one of the most favored host plants, the whiteflies exhibit preferences among different varieties. We hypothesized that certain morphological leaf characteristics of different varieties, like leaf trichome density, trichome length, leaf lamina thickness and leaf color, may affect whitefly landing, feeding and oviposition. In this study, we investigated the variation in leaf morphological characters among selected eggplant varieties and evaluated the effect of these leaf characteristics in rendering eggplant varieties either susceptible or resistant to B. tabaci. We evaluated eight eggplant varieties in choice feeding tests, and we found that the varieties JinSheng Zilongchangqie (JSZ and H149 were the highly preferred varieties with the highest numbers of whitefly adults and eggs. Significantly lower numbers of whitefly adult eggs were found on the resistant variety Tuo Lu Bamu (TLB. The varieties JinGuangbo Luqie (JGL, JinGuangbo Ziquanqie (JGZ, DaYang Ziguanqie (DYZ, QinXing Ziguanqie (QXZ, and QinXing Niuxinqie (QXN were moderately favored by B. tabaci. Leaf trichome density, trichome length and leaf lamina thickness were positively correlated with numbers of whitefly adults and eggs. B. tabaci was less attracted to the leaves that reflect long and middle wavelength light (higher R and G values than to the bright green leaves (medium G value, but the short wavelength light (higher B value had no significant effect on whitefly preference. The degree of hue had a positive effect, and saturation and brightness had a negative effect on whitefly attraction.

  8. Taxonomic study of Onobrychis transcaspica V. Nikitin (Fabaceae in northeastern of Iran with emphasis on altitudinal effect on morphological characters using floristic marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Toluei

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Onobrychis Miller is the second largest genus of Fabaceae in Iran with nearly 60 species. These species are used as valuable forage plants. Onobrychis sect. Onobrychis with nearly 15 species in Iran is one of the important sections of the genus. Onobrychis transcaspica V. Nikitin, is one of the species of this section that is distributed in NE of Iran. To determine intraspecific variations in O. transcaspica from taxonomic point of view and effective ecological factor, data were collected using special station method. In this way, four special stations were recognized for O. transcaspica in NE of Iran. Results from floristic data (Floristic composition of each special station analysis with MVSP software by PCO method, led to identification of 3 separate groups that was indicative of existence of intraspecific diversity. Morphometric data analysis of individual collected from each special station, by using 65 vegetative and reproductive characters, with PCO and UPGMA methods, confirmed 3 mentioned floristic groups. Ecologic data analysis with CCA Method showed the presence of 3 phenoecodeme based on 3 morphologic groups resulting from altitudinal variations.

  9. Phylogeny of the Celastreae (Celastraceae) and the relationships of Catha edulis (qat) inferred from morphological characters and nuclear and plastid genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Mark P; Cappa, Jennifer J; Archer, Robert H; Ford, Andrew J; Eichstedt, Dedra; Clevinger, Curtis C

    2008-08-01

    The phylogeny of Celastraceae tribe Celastreae, which includes about 350 species of trees and shrubs in 15 genera, was inferred in a simultaneous analysis of morphological characters together with nuclear (ITS and 26S rDNA) and plastid (matK, trnL-F) genes. A strong correlation was found between the geography of the species sampled and their inferred relationships. Species of Maytenus and Gymnosporia from different regions were resolved as polyphyletic groups. Maytenus was resolved in three lineages (New World, African, and Austral-Pacific), while Gymnosporia was resolved in two lineages (New World and Old World). Putterlickia was resolved as nested within the Old World Gymnosporia. Catha edulis (qat, khat) was resolved as sister to the clade of Allocassine, Cassine, Lauridia, and Maurocenia. Gymnosporia cassinoides, which is reportedly chewed as a stimulant in the Canary Islands, was resolved as a derived member of Gymnosporia and is more closely related to Lydenburgia and Putterlickia than it is to Catha. Therefore, all eight of these genera are candidates for containing cathinone- and/or cathine-related alkaloids.

  10. Bayesian methods outperform parsimony but at the expense of precision in the estimation of phylogeny from discrete morphological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Joseph E; Puttick, Mark N; Parry, Luke; Tanner, Alastair R; Tarver, James E; Fleming, James; Pisani, Davide; Donoghue, Philip C J

    2016-04-01

    Different analytical methods can yield competing interpretations of evolutionary history and, currently, there is no definitive method for phylogenetic reconstruction using morphological data. Parsimony has been the primary method for analysing morphological data, but there has been a resurgence of interest in the likelihood-based Mk-model. Here, we test the performance of the Bayesian implementation of the Mk-model relative to both equal and implied-weight implementations of parsimony. Using simulated morphological data, we demonstrate that the Mk-model outperforms equal-weights parsimony in terms of topological accuracy, and implied-weights performs the most poorly. However, the Mk-model produces phylogenies that have less resolution than parsimony methods. This difference in the accuracy and precision of parsimony and Bayesian approaches to topology estimation needs to be considered when selecting a method for phylogeny reconstruction. © 2016 The Authors.

  11. Next-generation morphological character discovery and evaluation: an X-ray micro-CT enhanced revision of the ant genus Zasphinctus Wheeler (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Dorylinae) in the Afrotropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Francisco Hita; Fischer, Georg; Liu, Cong; Audisio, Tracy L; Economo, Evan P

    2017-01-01

    New technologies for imaging and analysis of morphological characters offer opportunities to enhance revisionary taxonomy and better integrate it with the rest of biology. In this study, we revise the Afrotropical fauna of the ant genus Zasphinctus Wheeler, and use high-resolution X-ray microtomography (micro-CT) to analyse a number of morphological characters of taxonomic and biological interest. We recognise and describe three new species: Z. obamai sp. n. , Z. sarowiwai sp. n. , and Z. wilsoni sp. n. The species delimitations are based on the morphological examination of all physical specimens in combination with 3D scans and volume reconstructions. Based on this approach, we present a new taxonomic discrimination system for the regional fauna that consists of a combination of easily observable morphological characters visible at magnifications of around 80-100 ×, less observable characters that require higher magnifications, as well as characters made visible through virtual dissections that would otherwise require destructive treatment. Zasphinctus are rarely collected ants and the material available to us is comparatively scarce. Consequently, we explore the use of micro-CT as a non-invasive tool for the virtual examination, manipulation, and dissection of such rare material. Furthermore, we delineate the treated species by providing a diagnostic character matrix illustrated by numerous images and supplement that with additional evidence in the form of stacked montage images, 3D PDFs and 3D rotation videos of scans of major body parts and full body (in total we provide 16 stacked montage photographs, 116 images of 3D reconstructions, 15 3D rotation videos, and 13 3D PDFs). In addition to the comparative morphology analyses used for species delimitations, we also apply micro-CT data to examine certain traits, such as mouthparts, cuticle thickness, and thoracic and abdominal muscles in order to assess their taxonomic usefulness or gain insights into the

  12. Knowing Chinese character grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, James

    2016-02-01

    Chinese character structure has often been described as representing a kind of grammar, but the notion of character grammar has hardly been explored. Patterns in character element reduplication are particularly grammar-like, displaying discrete combinatoriality, binarity, phonology-like final prominence, and potentially the need for symbolic rules (X→XX). To test knowledge of these patterns, Chinese readers were asked to judge the acceptability of fake characters varying both in grammaticality (obeying or violating reduplication constraints) and in lexicality (of the reduplicative configurations). While lexical knowledge was important (lexicality improved acceptability and grammatical configurations were accepted more quickly when also lexical), grammatical knowledge was important as well, with grammaticality improving acceptability equally for lexical and nonlexical configurations. Acceptability was also higher for more frequent reduplicative elements, suggesting that the reduplicative configurations were decomposed. Chinese characters present an as-yet untapped resource for exploring fundamental questions about the nature of the human capacity for grammar. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. EVALUATING THE MORPHOLOGY OF THE LOCAL INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM: USING NEW DATA TO DISTINGUISH BETWEEN MULTIPLE DISCRETE CLOUDS AND A CONTINUOUS MEDIUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redfield, Seth [Astronomy Department and Van Vleck Observatory, Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT 06459-0123 (United States); Linsky, Jeffrey L., E-mail: sredfield@wesleyan.edu, E-mail: jlinsky@jila.colorado.edu [JILA, University of Colorado and NIST, Boulder, CO 80309-0440 (United States)

    2015-10-20

    Ultraviolet and optical spectra of interstellar gas along the lines of sight to nearby stars have been interpreted by Redfield and Linsky and previous studies as a set of discrete warm, partially ionized clouds each with a different flow vector, temperature, and metal depletion. Recently, Gry and Jenkins proposed a fundamentally different model consisting of a single cloud with nonrigid flows filling space out to 9 pc from the Sun that they propose better describes the local ISM. Here we test these fundamentally different morphological models against the spatially unbiased Malamut et al. spectroscopic data set, and find that the multiple cloud morphology model provides a better fit to both the new and old data sets. The detection of three or more velocity components along the lines of sight to many nearby stars, the presence of nearby scattering screens, the observed thin elongated structures of warm interstellar gas, and the likely presence of strong interstellar magnetic fields also support the multiple cloud model. The detection and identification of intercloud gas and the measurement of neutral hydrogen density in clouds beyond the Local Interstellar Cloud could provide future morphological tests.

  14. A phylogenetic framework for root lesion nematodes of the genus Pratylenchus (Nematoda): Evidence from 18S and D2-D3 expansion segments of 28S ribosomal RNA genes and morphological characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbotin, Sergei A; Ragsdale, Erik J; Mullens, Teresa; Roberts, Philip A; Mundo-Ocampo, Manuel; Baldwin, James G

    2008-08-01

    The root lesion nematodes of the genus Pratylenchus Filipjev, 1936 are migratory endoparasites of plant roots, considered among the most widespread and important nematode parasites in a variety of crops. We obtained gene sequences from the D2 and D3 expansion segments of 28S rRNA partial and 18S rRNA from 31 populations belonging to 11 valid and two unidentified species of root lesion nematodes and five outgroup taxa. These datasets were analyzed using maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference. The alignments were generated using the secondary structure models for these molecules and analyzed with Bayesian inference under the standard models and the complex model, considering helices under the doublet model and loops and bulges under the general time reversible model. The phylogenetic informativeness of morphological characters is tested by reconstruction of their histories on rRNA based trees using parallel parsimony and Bayesian approaches. Phylogenetic and sequence analyses of the 28S D2-D3 dataset with 145 accessions for 28 species and 18S dataset with 68 accessions for 15 species confirmed among large numbers of geographical diverse isolates that most classical morphospecies are monophyletic. Phylogenetic analyses revealed at least six distinct major clades of examined Pratylenchus species and these clades are generally congruent with those defined by characters derived from lip patterns, numbers of lip annules, and spermatheca shape. Morphological results suggest the need for sophisticated character discovery and analysis for morphology based phylogenetics in nematodes.

  15. A combinatorial approach to angiosperm pollen morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mander, Luke

    2016-11-30

    Angiosperms (flowering plants) are strikingly diverse. This is clearly expressed in the morphology of their pollen grains, which are characterized by enormous variety in their shape and patterning. In this paper, I approach angiosperm pollen morphology from the perspective of enumerative combinatorics. This involves generating angiosperm pollen morphotypes by algorithmically combining character states and enumerating the results of these combinations. I use this approach to generate 3 643 200 pollen morphotypes, which I visualize using a parallel-coordinates plot. This represents a raw morphospace. To compare real-world and theoretical morphologies, I map the pollen of 1008 species of Neotropical angiosperms growing on Barro Colorado Island (BCI), Panama, onto this raw morphospace. This highlights that, in addition to their well-documented taxonomic diversity, Neotropical rainforests also represent an enormous reservoir of morphological diversity. Angiosperm pollen morphospace at BCI has been filled mostly by pollen morphotypes that are unique to single plant species. Repetition of pollen morphotypes among higher taxa at BCI reflects both constraint and convergence. This combinatorial approach to morphology addresses the complexity that results from large numbers of discrete character combinations and could be employed in any situation where organismal form can be captured by discrete morphological characters. © 2016 The Author(s).

  16. Repeat Mapping in the Lower Monterey Submarine Canyon Sheds Light on Morphological Change During Discrete Sediment Density Flow Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, K.; Lundsten, E. M.; Caress, D. W.; Thomas, H. J.; Paull, C. K.; Maier, K. L.; Gales, J. A.; Gwiazda, R.; Talling, P.; Xu, J.; Parsons, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    The Coordinated Canyon Experiment (CCE), a multi-institutional collaboration effort, was designed to monitor the passage of sediment density flows along the axis of Monterey Canyon, offshore California, between 200 and 1850 m water depth. An array of moorings and sensors were deployed for three 6-month periods from October 2015 to April 2017. Aligned with the CCE deployments, repeat high-resolution multibeam bathymetric surveys of the Monterey Canyon floor were conducted with a mapping AUV (Autonomous Underwater Vehicle). The AUV carried a Reson 7125 multibeam echosounder (vertical precision of 0.15 m and horizontal resolution of 1.0 m). An inertial navigation system combined with a Doppler velocity logger allowed the AUV to fly pre-programmed grids at 3 knots, while maintaining an altitude of 50 m above the seafloor, to obtain a nominal line spacing of 130 m. The floor and lower flanks of the canyon between 200 to 540 m and 1350 to 1880 m water depths were mapped six times during the CCE. These repeat maps are subtracted to create bathymetry difference grids to show morphological change. Coupling the sensor observations with the bathymetric surveys, the CCE successfully documented sediment density flow events as well as the associated changes in seafloor morphology. Between repeat surveys, three sediment density flow events reached the lower canyon, extending to at least 1850 m water depth. On January 15, 2016, a particularly large density flow traveled more than 50 km down Monterey Canyon. Unlike in the upper canyon where this event caused wholesale reorganization of geomorphological features, changes to the lower canyon morphology involved a more moderate re-sculpting of the features. The effect of a sediment density flow of known magnitude and duration on the seafloor morphology has never been documented in a deep-sea setting before.

  17. Character & Cane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorius, Tara Cady

    2009-01-01

    They say first impressions can be deceiving. The difficulty of getting to know someone increases when that person is mostly fictional. Whatever the author writes is all readers can know. Whatever they read about the character is all they have to go on. Now take it another step back, and imagine a portrait drawing, painting or print of that…

  18. Believable Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nasr, Magy Seif; Bishko, Leslie; Zammitto, Veronica; Nixon, Michael; Vasiliakos, Athanasios V.; Wei, Huaxin

    The interactive entertainment industry is one of the fastest growing industries in the world. In 1996, the U.S. entertainment software industry reported 2.6 billion in sales revenue, this figure has more than tripled in 2007 yielding 9.5 billion in revenues [1]. In addition, gamers, the target market for interactive entertainment products, are now reaching beyond the traditional 8-34 year old male to include women, Hispanics, and African Americans [2]. This trend has been observed in several markets, including Japan, China, Korea, and India, who has just published their first international AAA title (defined as high quality games with high budget), a 3D third person action game: Ghajini - The Game [3]. The topic of believable characters is becoming a central issue when designing and developing games for today's game industry. While narrative and character were considered secondary to game mechanics, games are currently evolving to integrate characters, narrative, and drama as part of their design. One can see this pattern through the emergence of games like Assassin's Creed (published by Ubisoft 2008), Hotel Dusk (published by Nintendo 2007), and Prince of Persia series (published by Ubisoft), which emphasized character and narrative as part of their design.

  19. Radiating despite a Lack of Character: Ecological Divergence among Closely Related, Morphologically Similar Honeyeaters (Aves: Meliphagidae) Co-occurring in Arid Australian Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Eliot T; Wagner, Sarah K; Harmon, Luke J; Ricklefs, Robert E

    2017-02-01

    Quantifying the relationship between form and function can inform use of morphology as a surrogate for ecology. How the strength of this relationship varies continentally can inform understanding of evolutionary radiations; for example, does the relationship break down when certain lineages invade and diversify in novel habitats? The 75 species of Australian honeyeaters (Meliphagidae) are morphologically and ecologically diverse, with species feeding on nectar, insects, fruit, and other resources. We investigated Meliphagidae ecomorphology and community structure by (1) quantifying the concordance between morphology and ecology (foraging behavior), (2) estimating rates of trait evolution in relation to the packing of ecological space, and (3) comparing phylogenetic and trait community structure across the broad environmental gradients of the continent. We found that morphology explained 37% of the variance in ecology (and 62% vice versa), and we uncovered well-known bivariate relationships among the multivariate ecomorphological data. Ecological trait diversity declined less rapidly than phylogenetic diversity along a gradient of decreasing precipitation. We employ a new method (trait fields) and extend another (phylogenetic fields) to show that while species in phylogenetically clustered, arid-environment assemblages are similar morphologically, they are as varied in foraging behavior as those from more diverse assemblages. Thus, although closely related and similar morphologically, these arid-adapted species have diverged in ecological space to a similar degree as their mesic counterparts.

  20. Revision of the genus Dinotoperla Tillyard, 1921 (Plecoptera: Gripopterygidae) using morphological characters and molecular data: Establishes two new genera, three new species and updates the larval taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mynott, Julia H; Suter, Phillip J; Theischinger, Gunther

    2017-01-23

    The larval taxonomy of Australian stoneflies (Plecoptera) shows a large disparity in knowledge when compared to the adult taxonomy with many species having undescribed larval forms. The importance of stoneflies as an indicator group for monitoring aquatic ecosystems means knowledge of the larval taxonomy and the ability to identify species is essential. This study combined morphology and mitochondrial gene sequences to associate the adult and larval life-stages for species of Dinotoperla Tillyard. Morphological identification of adult males was recognised for 17 of the 35 Dinotoperla species and combining molecular data with morphology confirmed eight new adult-larval life stage associations. Further, molecular data supported the larval taxonomy for five morphospecies which remain unassociated. The combination of molecular and morphological methods enabled the larval morphology to be reassessed for the genus Dinotoperla and this has led to the establishment of two new genera, Odontoperla, gen. nov. and Oedemaperla, gen. nov., and the new species Dinotoperla aryballoi, sp. nov, D. tasmaniensis, sp. nov. and Oedemaperla shackletoni, sp. nov. as well as the new or updated descriptions of the larvae of 31 species and a comprehensive dichotomous key to these larvae.

  1. Description of three new species of Hepatozoon (Apicomplexa, Hepatozoidae) from Rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus terrificus) based on molecular, morphometric and morphologic characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dwyer, Lucia Helena; Moço, Tatiana Cristina; Paduan, Karina dos Santos; Spenassatto, Carine; da Silva, Reinaldo José; Ribolla, Paulo Eduardo Martins

    2013-10-01

    Hepatozoon spp. are commonly found infecting snakes. Since the latter are parasitized by diverse forms and data in the literature show divergence, we studied Hepatozoon spp. diversity on Crotalus durissus terrificus snakes using both molecular and morphological approaches. Naturally infected animals were employed. Blood was collected, blood smears were prepared and an aliquot was stored at -20°C for DNA extraction. Five specimens of C. durissus terrificus were selected, each of them infected with one gamont type. Morphological and morphometric analyses of the found gamonts led to their grouping into three populations. For molecular characterization, seven oligonucleotide pairs that amplify distinct regions of rDNA gene were tested by adopting the PCR technique. Only the oligonucleotide pairs HepF300/Hep900 and HEMO1/HEMO2 were efficient in amplifying and distinguishing different isolates of Hepatozoon spp. from snakes. The better results were obtained when both oligonucleotide pairs were used in association. Based on the molecular and morphologic differences, three new species were proposed: Hepatozoon cuestensis sp. nov.; Hepatozoon cevapii sp. nov. and Hepatozoon massardii sp. nov. This is the first description of new Hepatozoon species from snakes, based on molecular characterization and morphological data, in South America. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A hybrid swarm population of Pinus densiflora x P. sylvestris hybrids inferred from sequence analysis of chloroplast DNA and morphological characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    To confirm a hybrid swarm population of Pinus densiflora × P. sylvestris in Jilin, China and to study whether shoot apex morphology of 4-year old seedlings can be correlated with the sequence of a chloroplast DNA simple sequence repeat marker (cpDNA SSR), needles and seeds from P. densiflora, P. syl...

  3. Discrete Exterior Calculus Discretization of Incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Mohamed, Mamdouh S.

    2017-05-23

    A conservative discretization of incompressible Navier-Stokes equations over surface simplicial meshes is developed using discrete exterior calculus (DEC). Numerical experiments for flows over surfaces reveal a second order accuracy for the developed scheme when using structured-triangular meshes, and first order accuracy otherwise. The mimetic character of many of the DEC operators provides exact conservation of both mass and vorticity, in addition to superior kinetic energy conservation. The employment of barycentric Hodge star allows the discretization to admit arbitrary simplicial meshes. The discretization scheme is presented along with various numerical test cases demonstrating its main characteristics.

  4. Redescription of Haemogregarina garnhami (Apicomplexa: Adeleorina) from the blood of Psammophis schokari (Serpentes: Colubridae) as Hepatozoon garnhami n. comb. based on molecular, morphometric and morphologic characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem S; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Zhang, J Y

    2014-06-01

    Hepatozoon garnhami n. comb. was redescribed from Schokari sand snakes (Psammophis schokari) collected from Riyadh city in Saudi Arabia. Gametocytes were found in the peripheral blood of 2 of 15 snakes examined. Based on the similar morphological and morphometric characteristics, the same host and a similar host habitat environment, it can be concluded for the first time that the present species is conspecific with Haemogregarina garnhami previously reported from Psammophis shokari aegyptius. To further characterize this parasite, the partial 18S rRNA gene was amplified and sequenced. The sequence analysis also showed that Haemogregarina garnhami should be reassigned into the genus Hepatozoon as Hepatozoon garnhami which has 99.5% (859/863 bp) sequence similarity to Hepatozoon ayorgbor, infecting the erythrocytes of Python regius in Ghana. Phylogenetic analysis showed that H. garnhami formed a mixed clade with Hepatozoon spp. from geckos, snakes and rodents and ophidian Hepatozoon spp. did not form a separated phylogenetic unit. Also, Psammophis schokari-infecting Hepatozoon contained several different genetic lineages. To our knowledge, the present work extends the geographic distribution of H. garnhami and is the first report of Hepatozoon infection in snakes from Saudi Arabia.

  5. Head capsule characters in the Hymenoptera and their phylogenetic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Vilhelmsen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The head capsule of a taxon sample of three outgroup and 86 ingroup taxa is examined for characters of possible phylogenetic significance within Hymenoptera. 21 morphological characters are illustrated and scored, and their character evolution explored by mapping them onto a phylogeny recently produced from a large morphological data set. Many of the characters are informative and display unambiguous changes. Most of the character support demonstrated is supportive at the superfamily or family level. In contrast, only few characters corroborate deeper nodes in the phylogeny of Hymenoptera.

  6. Discrete Mathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Aasted

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of Discrete Mathematics (IDISM2) are: The introduction of the mathematics needed for analysis, design and verification of discrete systems, including the application within programming languages for computer systems. Having passed the IDISM2 course, the student will be able...... to accomplish the following: -Understand and apply formal representations in discrete mathematics. -Understand and apply formal representations in problems within discrete mathematics. -Understand methods for solving problems in discrete mathematics. -Apply methods for solving problems in discrete mathematics......; construct a finite state machine for a given application. Apply these concepts to new problems. The teaching in Discrete Mathematics is a combination of sessions with lectures and students solving problems, either manually or by using Matlab. Furthermore a selection of projects must be solved and handed...

  7. Characters with personality!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, K. van den; Brandenburgh, A.; Muller, T.J.; Heuvelink, A.

    2012-01-01

    Serious games offer an opportunity for learning communication skills by practicing conversations with one or more virtual characters, provided that the character(s) behave in accordance with their assigned properties and strate-gies. This paper presents an approach for developing virtual characters

  8. Correlation between morphological characters and estimated bunch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The methodology of multiple linear regression (MLR) was used to estimate bunch weight. The most significant variables that were measured included number of leaves at harvest, number of fruits per bunch, FW, FL, rachis weight (RW) and stalk length (SL), generating the following prediction equation: BW= -5.249 + ...

  9. Morphological Characters, Occurrence and Distribution among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Key words: Solanaceae, Solanum, Stomata, trichomes, Complements, Comparative. .... kind of oil secretory function which gave the leaves and stems glossary outlook. .... 25. 96. 20.66%. Anomocyti c. CWO13. Capsicum frutescens. Linn. 5. 78.

  10. Discrete Mathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Aasted

    2011-01-01

    ; construct a finite state machine for a given application. Apply these concepts to new problems. The teaching in Discrete Mathematics is a combination of sessions with lectures and students solving problems, either manually or by using Matlab. Furthermore a selection of projects must be solved and handed...... to accomplish the following: -Understand and apply formal representations in discrete mathematics. -Understand and apply formal representations in problems within discrete mathematics. -Understand methods for solving problems in discrete mathematics. -Apply methods for solving problems in discrete mathematics...... to new problems. Relations and functions: Define a product set; define and apply equivalence relations; construct and apply functions. Apply these concepts to new problems. Natural numbers and induction: Define the natural numbers; apply the principle of induction to verify a selection of properties...

  11. Digital Discretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch, Peter Andre; Zinner Henriksen, Helle

    2018-01-01

    discretion is suggested to reduce this footprint by influencing or replacing their discretionary practices using ICT. What is less researched is whether digital discretion can cause changes in public policy outcomes, and under what conditions such changes can occur. Using the concept of public service values......This study reviews 44 peer-reviewed articles on digital discretion published in the period from 1998 to January 2017. Street-level bureaucrats have traditionally had a wide ability to exercise discretion stirring debate since they can add their personal footprint on public policies. Digital......, we suggest that digital discretion can strengthen ethical and democratic values but weaken professional and relational values. Furthermore, we conclude that contextual factors such as considerations made by policy makers on the macro-level and the degree of professionalization of street...

  12. The character of free topological groups II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Nickolas

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A systematic analysis is made of the character of the free and free abelian topological groups on metrizable spaces and compact spaces, and on certain other closely related spaces. In the first case, it is shown that the characters of the free and the free abelian topological groups on X are both equal to the “small cardinal” d if X is compact and metrizable, but also, more generally, if X is a non-discrete k!-space all of whose compact subsets are metrizable, or if X is a non-discrete Polish space. An example is given of a zero-dimensional separable metric space for which both characters are equal to the cardinal of the continuum. In the case of a compact space X, an explicit formula is derived for the character of the free topological group on X involving no cardinal invariant of X other than its weight; in particular the character is fully determined by the weight in the compact case. This paper is a sequel to a paper by the same authors in which the characters of the free groups were analysed under less restrictive topological assumptions.

  13. Actor/Character Dualism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Our perception of agency may be inherently fallible, and this may explain not only our general awareness of actors when engaged in fictional characters but also the specific case of paradoxical characters...

  14. Discrete Mathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Aasted

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of the mathematics needed for analysis, design and verification of discrete systems, including applications within programming languages for computer systems. Course sessions and project work. Semester: Spring 2010 Ectent: 5 ects Class size: 18......The introduction of the mathematics needed for analysis, design and verification of discrete systems, including applications within programming languages for computer systems. Course sessions and project work. Semester: Spring 2010 Ectent: 5 ects Class size: 18...

  15. Discrete Mathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Aasted

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of the mathematics needed for analysis, design and verification of discrete systems, including applications within programming languages for computer systems. Course sessions and project work. Semester: Autumn 2010 Ectent: 5 ects Class size: 15......The introduction of the mathematics needed for analysis, design and verification of discrete systems, including applications within programming languages for computer systems. Course sessions and project work. Semester: Autumn 2010 Ectent: 5 ects Class size: 15...

  16. Partially incorrect fossil data augment analyses of discrete trait evolution in living species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttick, Mark N

    2016-08-01

    Ancestral state reconstruction of discrete character traits is often vital when attempting to understand the origins and homology of traits in living species. The addition of fossils has been shown to alter our understanding of trait evolution in extant taxa, but researchers may avoid using fossils alongside extant species if only few are known, or if the designation of the trait of interest is uncertain. Here, I investigate the impacts of fossils and incorrectly coded fossils in the ancestral state reconstruction of discrete morphological characters under a likelihood model. Under simulated phylogenies and data, likelihood-based models are generally accurate when estimating ancestral node values. Analyses with combined fossil and extant data always outperform analyses with extant species alone, even when around one quarter of the fossil information is incorrect. These results are especially pronounced when model assumptions are violated, such as when there is a trend away from the root value. Fossil data are of particular importance when attempting to estimate the root node character state. Attempts should be made to include fossils in analysis of discrete traits under likelihood, even if there is uncertainty in the fossil trait data. © 2016 The Authors.

  17. Discrete mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Caltagirone, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    This book presents the fundamental principles of mechanics to re-establish the equations of Discrete Mechanics. It introduces physics and thermodynamics associated to the physical modeling.  The development and the complementarity of sciences lead to review today the old concepts that were the basis for the development of continuum mechanics. The differential geometry is used to review the conservation laws of mechanics. For instance, this formalism requires a different location of vector and scalar quantities in space. The equations of Discrete Mechanics form a system of equations where the H

  18. Discrete mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.D.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews the role of time throughout all phases of mechanics: classical mechanics, non-relativistic quantum mechanics, and relativistic quantum theory. As an example of the relativistic quantum field theory, the case of a massless scalar field interacting with an arbitrary external current is discussed. The comparison between the new discrete theory and the usual continuum formalism is presented. An example is given of a two-dimensional random lattice and its duel. The author notes that there is no evidence that the discrete mechanics is more appropriate than the usual continuum mechanics

  19. Essays on Character & Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center on Children and Families at Brookings, 2014

    2014-01-01

    These essays provide richer set of writings on the philosophical, empirical and practical issues raised by a focus on character, and in particular its relationship to questions of opportunity. Each one is an intellectual pemmican: sharp and to the point. Two scholars draw attention to the gendered nature of character formation (Segal and Lexmond);…

  20. Social character of materialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, A; Hunt, J M; Kernan, J B

    2000-06-01

    Scores for 170 undergraduates on Richins and Dawson's Materialism scale were correlated with scores on Kassarjian's Social Preference Scale, designed to measure individuals' character structure. A correlation of .26 between materialism and other-directed social character suggested that an externally oriented reference system guides materialists' perceptions, judgments, acquisitions, and possessions.

  1. Character Development in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Glenn R.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Explored the effects of a program consisting of communication and counseling skills, assertiveness training and moral dilemmas on the character development of high school students. The results demonstrated that the character development of the students in the experimental treatment group was affected significantly over time by the program.…

  2. Discrete optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, R Gary

    1988-01-01

    This book treats the fundamental issues and algorithmic strategies emerging as the core of the discipline of discrete optimization in a comprehensive and rigorous fashion. Following an introductory chapter on computational complexity, the basic algorithmic results for the two major models of polynomial algorithms are introduced--models using matroids and linear programming. Further chapters treat the major non-polynomial algorithms: branch-and-bound and cutting planes. The text concludes with a chapter on heuristic algorithms.Several appendixes are included which review the fundamental ideas o

  3. Madness in Shakespeare's Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Borja-Santos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper begins with an introduction where the aims are explained: a psychopathological analysis of a Shakespearean character - Othello – followed by the discussion of the English dramatist’s importance in helping us understand madness in the emergent world of Renaissance. The main characteristics of Othello’s personality, which allowed the development of his jealousy delusion, are described. Finally, the conclusions underline the overlap of the symptoms developed by the character with the DSM-IV classification.

  4. Character, attitude and disposition

    OpenAIRE

    Webber, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Recent debate over the empirical psychological presuppositions of virtue ethics has focused on reactive behavioural dispositions. But there are many character traits that cannot be understood properly in this way. Such traits are well described by attitude psychology. Moreover, the findings of attitude psychology support virtue ethics in three ways. First, they confirm the role of habituation in the development of character. Further, they show virtue ethics to be compatible with the situation...

  5. Discrete gradients in discrete classical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renna, L.

    1987-01-01

    A simple model of discrete classical mechanics is given where, starting from the continuous Hamilton equations, discrete equations of motion are established together with a proper discrete gradient definition. The conservation laws of the total discrete momentum, angular momentum, and energy are demonstrated

  6. Avaliação de caracteres morfológicos úteis na identificação de plantas poliplóides de melancia Evaluation of morphological characters useful in the identification of poliploid watermelon plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio de F. Souza

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Visando ao estudo da variação quantitativa de caracteres morfológicos em genótipos diplóides, triplóides e tetraplóides de melancia [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. & Nakai], três linhagens diplóides, três linhagens tetraplóides e três híbridos triplóides foram avaliados quanto ao número de cloroplastos por estômato foliar (NCF; largura e comprimento foliar (LFH e CFH; relação largura/comprimento foliar (LF/CF; diâmetro de caule (DCE; diâmetro da corola em flores masculinas e femininas (DCM e DCF; diâmetro do ovário (DOV; peso de fruto (PMF, diâmetro transversal e longitudinal de fruto (DTF e DLF; relação diâmetro transversal/diâmetro longitudinal (DT/DL e espessura média da casca (EMC. Foi utilizado delineamento de blocos casualizados com três repetições e parcelas de cinco plantas. Realizou-se análise univariada, segundo o modelo hierárquico, considerando-se o nível de ploidia como o fator principal. Os genótipos foram agrupados em dendrograma baseado na distância generalizada de Mahalanobis e também dispostos em um plano cartesiano, utilizando-se os escores das duas primeiras variáveis canônicas. A contribuição relativa das variáveis para a composição dos grupos de divergência foi estimada por meio do método de Singh e a matriz de correlação foi obtida utilizando a análise de componentes principais. O NCF apresentou maior importância relativa (41% para a formação dos grupos de divergência, enquanto, os caracteres DMF, EMC e PMF apresentaram contribuição inferior a 1,0%. As variáveis NCF, LF/CF, DCP, DCF, DCM, DOV e DT/DL, analisadas conjuntamente, mostraram-se eficientes para a discriminação de plantas diplóides, triplóides e tetraplóides, e, portanto são recomendadas para auxiliar nos programas de melhoramento de melancia, que visem à obtenção de plantas poliplóides.The quantitative variation of the morphological characters in diploid, triploid and tetraploid genotypes of

  7. Discrete transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Firth, Jean M

    1992-01-01

    The analysis of signals and systems using transform methods is a very important aspect of the examination of processes and problems in an increasingly wide range of applications. Whereas the initial impetus in the development of methods appropriate for handling discrete sets of data occurred mainly in an electrical engineering context (for example in the design of digital filters), the same techniques are in use in such disciplines as cardiology, optics, speech analysis and management, as well as in other branches of science and engineering. This text is aimed at a readership whose mathematical background includes some acquaintance with complex numbers, linear differen­ tial equations, matrix algebra, and series. Specifically, a familiarity with Fourier series (in trigonometric and exponential forms) is assumed, and an exposure to the concept of a continuous integral transform is desirable. Such a background can be expected, for example, on completion of the first year of a science or engineering degree cour...

  8. Boolean logic and character state identity: pitfalls of character coding in metazoan cladistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenner, Ronald A.

    2002-01-01

    A critical study of the morphological data sets used for the most recent analyses of metazoan cladistics exposes a rather cavalier attitude towards character coding. Binary absence/presence coding is ubiquitous, but without any explicit justification. This uncompromising application of Boolean logic

  9. Optical Character Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Converso, L.; Hocek, S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes computer-based optical character recognition (OCR) systems, focusing on their components (the computer, the scanner, the OCR, and the output device); how the systems work; and features to consider in selecting a system. A list of 26 questions to ask to evaluate systems for potential purchase is included. (JDD)

  10. About Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    It is perhaps a facet of human nature that makes a person want to beking, and to control others. The character "王" was originally"王",symbolizing the emerald prayer beads worn exclusively by the king. Inthe course of this character’s evolution, however, new connotations were

  11. Discrete Curvatures and Discrete Minimal Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Xiang

    2012-01-01

    This thesis presents an overview of some approaches to compute Gaussian and mean curvature on discrete surfaces and discusses discrete minimal surfaces. The variety of applications of differential geometry in visualization and shape design leads

  12. A new molecular phylogeny of the Laurencia complex (Rhodophyta, Rhodomelaceae) and a review of key morphological characters result in a new genus, Coronaphycus, and a description of C. novus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metti, Yola; Millar, Alan J K; Steinberg, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Within the Laurencia complex (Rhodophyta, Rhodomelaceae), six genera have been recognized based on both molecular analyses and morphology: Laurencia, Osmundea, Chondrophycus, Palisada, Yuzurua, and Laurenciella. Recently, new material from Australia has been collected and included in the current molecular phylogeny, resulting in a new clade. This study examined the generic delineations using a combination of morphological comparisons and phylogenetic analysis of chloroplast (rbcL) nucleotide sequence. The molecular phylogeny recovered eight (rather than six) clades; Yuzurua, Laurenciella, Palisada, and Chondrophycus showed as monophyletic clades each with strong support. However, the genera Osmundea and Laurencia were polyphyletic. Consequently, the new genus Coronaphycus is proposed, resulting in the new combination Coronaphycus elatus and a description of the new species C. novus. © 2015 Phycological Society of America.

  13. [The character of the morphological changes of the mucous membrane of the large intestine and the genetic polymorphism of IL-1RA, IL-1B, IL-4 TNFA in patient with irritable bowel syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarsenbaeva, A S; Ivanova, E L; Burmistrova, A L; Drozdov, I V

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence or absence of a relationship between the variants of the course of IBS and their association with genetic polymorphisms of genes and intergenic interaction of cytokines. The sample consisted of 81 patients, the diagnosis was verified according to the criteria of the Rome III, were isolated psychopathological, morphological complications, extra-intestinal symptoms. Polymorphism genotyping IL-1Ra, IL-b, IL-4, TNFa performed by PCR. Statistical treatment are a non-parametric analysis of multiple comparisons, hierarchical log-linear analysis. It is found out the relation between the clinical variants with morphological changes of the mucous membrane of the large intestine, the association between gender characteristics of patients with IBS is established and with genetic polymorphisms of cytokines.

  14. Cinematography and character depiction

    OpenAIRE

    William Francis Nicholson

    2011-01-01

    This essay investigates the ways in which cinematography can be used in depicting characters effectively in the motion picture medium. Since an aspiring filmmaker may be overwhelmed by the expansive field of cinematography, this essay aims to demystify and systematise this aspect of filmmaking. It combines information from written sources (mostly text books on filmmaking and cinematography) with observations made from viewing recent and older feature films. The knowledge is organised under th...

  15. Discrete Curvatures and Discrete Minimal Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Xiang

    2012-06-01

    This thesis presents an overview of some approaches to compute Gaussian and mean curvature on discrete surfaces and discusses discrete minimal surfaces. The variety of applications of differential geometry in visualization and shape design leads to great interest in studying discrete surfaces. With the rich smooth surface theory in hand, one would hope that this elegant theory can still be applied to the discrete counter part. Such a generalization, however, is not always successful. While discrete surfaces have the advantage of being finite dimensional, thus easier to treat, their geometric properties such as curvatures are not well defined in the classical sense. Furthermore, the powerful calculus tool can hardly be applied. The methods in this thesis, including angular defect formula, cotangent formula, parallel meshes, relative geometry etc. are approaches based on offset meshes or generalized offset meshes. As an important application, we discuss discrete minimal surfaces and discrete Koenigs meshes.

  16. A REVIEW: OPTICAL CHARACTER RECOGNITION

    OpenAIRE

    Swati Tomar*1 & Amit Kishore2

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents detailed review in the field of Optical Character Recognition. Various techniques are determine that have been proposed to realize the center of character recognition in an optical character recognition system. Even though, sufficient studies and papers are describes the techniques for converting textual content from a paper document into machine readable form. Optical character recognition is a process where the computer understands automatically the image of handwritten ...

  17. Actualism and Fictional Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Leclerc

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1808-1711.2016v20n1p61 In what follows, I present only part of a program that consists in developing a version of actualism as an adequate framework for the metaphysics of intentionality. I will try to accommodate in that framework suggestions found in Kripke’s works and some positions developed by Amie Thomasson. What should we change if we accept “fictional entities” in the domain of the actual world? Actualism is the thesis that everything that exists belongs to the domain of the actual world and that there are no possibilia. I shall defend that there are abstract artefacts, like fictional characters, and institutions. My argument could be seen as a version of Moore’s paradox: it is paradoxical to say: “I made (created it, but I do not believe it exists”. Moreover, there are true sentences about them. I will examine what it means to include abstract artefacts in the domain of the actual world. I favour a use of “exist” that includes beings with no concrete occupation of tri-dimensional space; to exist, it is enough to have been introduced at some moment in history. Abstract artefacts, like fictional characters, exist in that sense. I argue that it is important to distinguish two perspectives (internal and external in order to clarify the kind of knowledge we have of fictional characters. However, their existence presupposes a relation of dependence to a material basis and the mental activities of many people.

  18. The typeface character

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie

    2015-01-01

    Research from the fields of neuroscience and psychology, shows that typefaces can carry different semantic associations. However, to be able to read a text, the reader can no longer focus on the character of the typeface, as the human mind is incapable of simultaneously giving full attention to d...... to different matters. This results in the inherent conflict of typefaces that they on one hand need to draw attention to themselves, and on the other hand need to let go of this attention for the content to be read....

  19. Morphology and function of the ovipositor mechanism in Ceraphronoidea (Hymenoptera, Apocrita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Ernst

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The ovipositor of apocritan Hymenoptera is an invaluable source of phylogenetically relevant characters, and our understanding of its functional morphology stands to enlighten us about parasitoid life history strategies. Although Ceraphronoidea is one of the most commonly collected Hymenoptera taxa with considerable economic importance, our knowledge about their natural history and phylogenetic relationships, both to other apocritan lineages and within the superfamily itself, is limited. As a first step towards revealing ceraphronoid natural diversity we describe the skeletomuscular system of the ceraphronoid ovipositor for the first time. Dissections and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy 3D media files were used to visualize the ovipositor complex and to develop character concepts. Morphological structures were described in natural language and then translated into a character-character state format, whose terminology was linked to phenotype-relevant ontologies. Four unique anatomical phenotypes were revealed: 1. The first valvifer (gonangulum of the genus Trassedia is composed of two articulating sclerites, a condition present only in a few basal insect taxa. The bipartition of the first valvifer in Trassedia is most likely secondary and might allow more rapid oviposition. 2. Ceraphronoids, unlike other Hymenoptera, lack the retractor muscle of the terebra; instead the egg laying device is retracted by the seventh sternite. 3. Also unlike other Hymenoptera, the cordate apodeme and the anterior flange of the second valvifer are fused and compose one ridge that serves as the site of attachment for the dorsal and ventral T9-second valvifer muscles. Overall, the ceraphronoid ovipositor system is highly variable and can be described by discrete, distinguishable character states. However, these differences, despite their discrete nature, do not reflect the present classification of the superfamily and might represent parallelisms driven by host

  20. WARACS: Wrappers to Automate the Reconstruction of Ancestral Character States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruenstaeudl, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Reconstructions of ancestral character states are among the most widely used analyses for evaluating the morphological, cytological, or ecological evolution of an organismic lineage. The software application Mesquite remains the most popular application for such reconstructions among plant scientists, even though its support for automating complex analyses is limited. A software tool is needed that automates the reconstruction and visualization of ancestral character states with Mesquite and similar applications. A set of command line-based Python scripts was developed that (a) communicates standardized input to and output from the software applications Mesquite, BayesTraits, and TreeGraph2; (b) automates the process of ancestral character state reconstruction; and (c) facilitates the visualization of reconstruction results. WARACS provides a simple tool that streamlines the reconstruction and visualization of ancestral character states over a wide array of parameters, including tree distribution, character state, and optimality criterion.

  1. Mimetic discretization methods

    CERN Document Server

    Castillo, Jose E

    2013-01-01

    To help solve physical and engineering problems, mimetic or compatible algebraic discretization methods employ discrete constructs to mimic the continuous identities and theorems found in vector calculus. Mimetic Discretization Methods focuses on the recent mimetic discretization method co-developed by the first author. Based on the Castillo-Grone operators, this simple mimetic discretization method is invariably valid for spatial dimensions no greater than three. The book also presents a numerical method for obtaining corresponding discrete operators that mimic the continuum differential and

  2. Time Discretization Techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Gottlieb, S.; Ketcheson, David I.

    2016-01-01

    The time discretization of hyperbolic partial differential equations is typically the evolution of a system of ordinary differential equations obtained by spatial discretization of the original problem. Methods for this time evolution include

  3. Maya Studio Projects Photorealistic Characters

    CERN Document Server

    Palamar, Todd

    2011-01-01

    Create realistic characters with Maya tools and this project-based book Maya character generation tools are extremely sophisticated, and there's no better way to learn all their capabilities than by working through the projects in this hands-on book. This official guide focuses on understanding and implementing Maya's powerful tools for creating realistic characters for film, games, and TV. Use a variety of tools to create characters from skeleton to clothing, including hairstyles and facial hair, and learn how to use Performance Capture. A DVD includes supplementary videos, project support fi

  4. Which "Character" Should Sport Develop?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, Andy

    2005-01-01

    For years, strong claims have been made that sport builds character. Despite such claims, a "winning at all cost" mentality can frequently be seen within all of sport. The reason for this paradox may relate to confusion around what it means to demonstrate character. The purpose of this article is to show that there are indeed two distinct types of…

  5. THE NEED FOR CHARACTER EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aynur Pala

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Character education is a national movement creatingschools that foster ethical,responsible and caring young people by modelling and teaching good characterthrough emphasis on universal values that we all share. It is the intentional,proactive effort by schools, districts and states to instil in their students importantcore ethical values such as caring, honesty, fairness, responsibility and respect forself and others.Good character is not formed automatically; it is developed over time through asustained process of teaching, example, learning and practice. It is developedthrough character education. The intentional teaching of good character isparticularly important in today’s society since ouryouth face many opportunitiesand dangers unknown to earlier generations. They are bombarded with many morenegative influences through the media and other external sources prevalent intoday’s culture. Since children spend about 900 hours a year in school, it isessential that schools resume a proactive role in assisting families andcommunities by developing caring, respectful environments where students learncore, ethical values. When a comprehensive approachto character education isused, a positive moral culture is created in the school—a total school environmentthat supports the values taught in the classroom (Character Education Partnership,2010.The aim of this study is to provide guidelines forthe elements need for effectiveand comprehensive character education. And to emphasize the need of charactereducation to help students develop good character, which includes knowing,caring about and acting upon core ethical values such as respect, responsibility,honesty, fairness and compassion.

  6. Holistic Processing of Chinese Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Chun-Nang Wong

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced holistic processing (obligatory attention to all parts of an object has been associated with different types of perceptual expertise involving faces, cars, fingerprints, musical notes, English words, etc. Curiously Chinese characters are regarded as an exception, as indicated by the lack of holistic processing found for experts (Hsiao and Cottrell, 2009. The ceiling performance of experts, however, may have caused this null effect. We revisit this issue by adopting the often-used face-composite sequential-matching task to two-part Chinese characters. Participants matched the target halves (left or right of two characters while ignoring the irrelevant halves. Both Chinese readers (experts and non-Chinese readers (novices showed holistic processing. Follow-up experiments suggested different origins of the effects for the two groups. For experts, holistic processing was sensitive to the amount of experience with the characters, as it was larger for words than non-words (formed by swapping the two parts of a valid character. Novices, however, showed similar degree of holistic processing to words and non-words, suggesting that their effects were more related to their inefficient decomposition of a complex, character-like pattern into parts. Overall these findings suggest that holistic processing may be a marker of expertise with Chinese characters, contrary to previous claims.

  7. How to discretize differential systems in a systematic way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, M; Satsuma, J; Ramani, A; Grammaticos, B

    2010-01-01

    We present a systematic approach to the construction of discrete analogues for differential systems. Our method is tailored to first-order differential equations and relies on a formal linearization, followed by a Pade-like rational approximation of an exponential evolution operator. We apply our method to a host of systems for which there exist discretization results obtained by what we call the 'intuitive' method and compare the discretizations obtained. A discussion of our method as compared to one of the Mickens is also presented. Finally we apply our method to a system of coupled Riccati equations with emphasis on the preservation of the integrable character of the differential system.

  8. Studies on some morphological characters and yield attributes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flora IDB

    2012-07-17

    Jul 17, 2012 ... 3Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, ... Allopolyploidy plays an important role in plant evolution and confers better ... seed yield potential than its parents, tetraploid wheat ...

  9. Character profiles and life satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hwanjin; Suh, Byung Seong; Kim, Won Sool; Lee, Hye-Kyung; Park, Seon-Cheol; Lee, Kounseok

    2015-04-01

    There is a surge of interest in subjective well-being (SWB), which concerns how individuals feel about their happiness. Life satisfaction tends to be influenced by individual psychological traits and external social factors. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between individual character and SWB. Data from 3522 university students were analyzed in this study. Character profiles were evaluated using the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised Short version (TCI-RS). Life satisfaction was assessed using the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). All statistical tests regarding the correlations between each character profile and life satisfaction were conducted using ANOVAs, t-tests, multiple linear regression models and correlation analyses. The creative (SCT) profile was associated with the highest levels of life satisfaction, whereas the depressive (sct) profile was associated with the lowest levels of life satisfaction. Additionally, high self-directedness, self-transcendence and cooperation were associated with high life satisfaction. The results of gender-adjusted multiple regression analysis showed that the effects of self-directedness were the strongest in the assessment of one's quality of life, followed by self-transcendence and cooperativeness, in that order. All of the three-character profiles were significantly correlated with one's quality of life, and the character profiles of TCI-RS explained 27.6% of life satisfaction in total. Among the three-character profiles, the self-directedness profile was most associated with life satisfaction. Our study was cross-sectional, and self-reported data from students at a single university were analyzed. The results of this study showed that, among the character profiles, the effects of self-directedness were the strongest for predicting life satisfaction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Why should we investigate the morphological disparity of plant clades?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyston, Jack W; Hughes, Martin; Gerber, Sylvain; Wills, Matthew A

    2016-04-01

    Disparity refers to the morphological variation in a sample of taxa, and is distinct from diversity or taxonomic richness. Diversity and disparity are fundamentally decoupled; many groups attain high levels of disparity early in their evolution, while diversity is still comparatively low. Diversity may subsequently increase even in the face of static or declining disparity by increasingly fine sub-division of morphological 'design' space (morphospace). Many animal clades reached high levels of disparity early in their evolution, but there have been few comparable studies of plant clades, despite their profound ecological and evolutionary importance. This study offers a prospective and some preliminary macroevolutionary analyses. Classical morphometric methods are most suitable when there is reasonable conservation of form, but lose traction where morphological differences become greater (e.g. in comparisons across higher taxa). Discrete character matrices offer one means to compare a greater diversity of forms. This study explores morphospaces derived from eight discrete data sets for major plant clades, and discusses their macroevolutionary implications. Most of the plant clades in this study show initial, high levels of disparity that approach or attain the maximum levels reached subsequently. These plant clades are characterized by an initial phase of evolution during which most regions of their empirical morphospaces are colonized. Angiosperms, palms, pines and ferns show remarkably little variation in disparity through time. Conifers furnish the most marked exception, appearing at relatively low disparity in the latest Carboniferous, before expanding incrementally with the radiation of successive, tightly clustered constituent sub-clades. Many cladistic data sets can be repurposed for investigating the morphological disparity of plant clades through time, and offer insights that are complementary to more focused morphometric studies. The unique structural and

  11. Baecklund transformations for discrete Painleve equations: Discrete PII-PV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakka, A.; Mugan, U.

    2006-01-01

    Transformation properties of discrete Painleve equations are investigated by using an algorithmic method. This method yields explicit transformations which relates the solutions of discrete Painleve equations, discrete P II -P V , with different values of parameters. The particular solutions which are expressible in terms of the discrete analogue of the classical special functions of discrete Painleve equations can also be obtained from these transformations

  12. Discrete Gabor transform and discrete Zak transform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaans, M.J.; Namazi, N.M.; Matthews, K.

    1996-01-01

    Gabor's expansion of a discrete-time signal into a set of shifted and modulated versions of an elementary signal or synthesis window is introduced, along with the inverse operation, i.e. the Gabor transform, which uses an analysis window that is related to the synthesis window and with the help of

  13. Discrete Mathematics Re "Tooled."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassl, Richard M.; Mingus, Tabitha T. Y.

    1999-01-01

    Indicates the importance of teaching discrete mathematics. Describes how the use of technology can enhance the teaching and learning of discrete mathematics. Explorations using Excel, Derive, and the TI-92 proved how preservice and inservice teachers experienced a new dimension in problem solving and discovery. (ASK)

  14. Homogenization of discrete media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradel, F.; Sab, K.

    1998-01-01

    Material such as granular media, beam assembly are easily seen as discrete media. They look like geometrical points linked together thanks to energetic expressions. Our purpose is to extend discrete kinematics to the one of an equivalent continuous material. First we explain how we build the localisation tool for periodic materials according to estimated continuum medium type (classical Cauchy, and Cosserat media). Once the bridge built between discrete and continuum media, we exhibit its application over two bidimensional beam assembly structures : the honey comb and a structural reinforced variation. The new behavior is then applied for the simple plan shear problem in a Cosserat continuum and compared with the real discrete solution. By the mean of this example, we establish the agreement of our new model with real structures. The exposed method has a longer range than mechanics and can be applied to every discrete problems like electromagnetism in which relationship between geometrical points can be summed up by an energetic function. (orig.)

  15. Discrete density of states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydin, Alhun; Sisman, Altug

    2016-01-01

    By considering the quantum-mechanically minimum allowable energy interval, we exactly count number of states (NOS) and introduce discrete density of states (DOS) concept for a particle in a box for various dimensions. Expressions for bounded and unbounded continua are analytically recovered from discrete ones. Even though substantial fluctuations prevail in discrete DOS, they're almost completely flattened out after summation or integration operation. It's seen that relative errors of analytical expressions of bounded/unbounded continua rapidly decrease for high NOS values (weak confinement or high energy conditions), while the proposed analytical expressions based on Weyl's conjecture always preserve their lower error characteristic. - Highlights: • Discrete density of states considering minimum energy difference is proposed. • Analytical DOS and NOS formulas based on Weyl conjecture are given. • Discrete DOS and NOS functions are examined for various dimensions. • Relative errors of analytical formulas are much better than the conventional ones.

  16. Discrete density of states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydin, Alhun; Sisman, Altug, E-mail: sismanal@itu.edu.tr

    2016-03-22

    By considering the quantum-mechanically minimum allowable energy interval, we exactly count number of states (NOS) and introduce discrete density of states (DOS) concept for a particle in a box for various dimensions. Expressions for bounded and unbounded continua are analytically recovered from discrete ones. Even though substantial fluctuations prevail in discrete DOS, they're almost completely flattened out after summation or integration operation. It's seen that relative errors of analytical expressions of bounded/unbounded continua rapidly decrease for high NOS values (weak confinement or high energy conditions), while the proposed analytical expressions based on Weyl's conjecture always preserve their lower error characteristic. - Highlights: • Discrete density of states considering minimum energy difference is proposed. • Analytical DOS and NOS formulas based on Weyl conjecture are given. • Discrete DOS and NOS functions are examined for various dimensions. • Relative errors of analytical formulas are much better than the conventional ones.

  17. Discrete control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Okuyama, Yoshifumi

    2014-01-01

    Discrete Control Systems establishes a basis for the analysis and design of discretized/quantized control systemsfor continuous physical systems. Beginning with the necessary mathematical foundations and system-model descriptions, the text moves on to derive a robust stability condition. To keep a practical perspective on the uncertain physical systems considered, most of the methods treated are carried out in the frequency domain. As part of the design procedure, modified Nyquist–Hall and Nichols diagrams are presented and discretized proportional–integral–derivative control schemes are reconsidered. Schemes for model-reference feedback and discrete-type observers are proposed. Although single-loop feedback systems form the core of the text, some consideration is given to multiple loops and nonlinearities. The robust control performance and stability of interval systems (with multiple uncertainties) are outlined. Finally, the monograph describes the relationship between feedback-control and discrete ev...

  18. Discrete repulsive oscillator wavefunctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz, Carlos A; Rueda-Paz, Juvenal; Wolf, Kurt Bernardo

    2009-01-01

    For the study of infinite discrete systems on phase space, the three-dimensional Lorentz algebra and group, so(2,1) and SO(2,1), provide a discrete model of the repulsive oscillator. Its eigenfunctions are found in the principal irreducible representation series, where the compact generator-that we identify with the position operator-has the infinite discrete spectrum of the integers Z, while the spectrum of energies is a double continuum. The right- and left-moving wavefunctions are given by hypergeometric functions that form a Dirac basis for l 2 (Z). Under contraction, the discrete system limits to the well-known quantum repulsive oscillator. Numerical computations of finite approximations raise further questions on the use of Dirac bases for infinite discrete systems.

  19. Discrete Element Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, J; Johnson, S

    2007-12-03

    The Distinct Element Method (also frequently referred to as the Discrete Element Method) (DEM) is a Lagrangian numerical technique where the computational domain consists of discrete solid elements which interact via compliant contacts. This can be contrasted with Finite Element Methods where the computational domain is assumed to represent a continuum (although many modern implementations of the FEM can accommodate some Distinct Element capabilities). Often the terms Discrete Element Method and Distinct Element Method are used interchangeably in the literature, although Cundall and Hart (1992) suggested that Discrete Element Methods should be a more inclusive term covering Distinct Element Methods, Displacement Discontinuity Analysis and Modal Methods. In this work, DEM specifically refers to the Distinct Element Method, where the discrete elements interact via compliant contacts, in contrast with Displacement Discontinuity Analysis where the contacts are rigid and all compliance is taken up by the adjacent intact material.

  20. Moral character in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Taya R; Panter, A T; Turan, Nazli; Morse, Lily; Kim, Yeonjeong

    2014-11-01

    Using two 3-month diary studies and a large cross-sectional survey, we identified distinguishing features of adults with low versus high levels of moral character. Adults with high levels of moral character tend to: consider the needs and interests of others and how their actions affect other people (e.g., they have high levels of Honesty-Humility, empathic concern, guilt proneness); regulate their behavior effectively, specifically with reference to behaviors that have positive short-term consequences but negative long-term consequences (e.g., they have high levels of Conscientiousness, self-control, consideration of future consequences); and value being moral (e.g., they have high levels of moral identity-internalization). Cognitive moral development, Emotionality, and social value orientation were found to be relatively undiagnostic of moral character. Studies 1 and 2 revealed that employees with low moral character committed harmful work behaviors more frequently and helpful work behaviors less frequently than did employees with high moral character, according to their own admissions and coworkers' observations. Study 3 revealed that adults with low moral character committed more delinquent behavior and had more lenient attitudes toward unethical negotiation tactics than did adults with high moral character. By showing that individual differences have consistent, meaningful effects on employees' behaviors, after controlling for demographic variables (e.g., gender, age, income) and basic attributes of the work setting (e.g., enforcement of an ethics code), our results contest situationist perspectives that deemphasize the importance of personality. Moral people can be identified by self-reports in surveys, and these self-reports predict consequential behaviors months after the initial assessment.

  1. Factorized combinations of Virasoro characters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bytsko, A.G.; Fring, A.

    2000-01-01

    We investigate linear combinations of characters for minimal Virasoro models which are representable as a product of several basic blocks. Our analysis is based on consideration of asymptotic behaviour of the characters in the quasi-classical limit. In particular, we introduce a notion of the secondary effective central charge. We find all possible cases for which factorization occurs on the base of the Gauss-Jacobi or the Watson identities. Exploiting these results, we establish various types of identities between different characters. In particular, we present several identities generalizing the Rogers-Ramanujan identities. Applications to quasi-particle representations, modular invariant partition functions, super-conformal theories and conformal models with boundaries are briefly discussed. (orig.)

  2. Discrete Calculus by Analogy

    CERN Document Server

    Izadi, F A; Bagirov, G

    2009-01-01

    With its origins stretching back several centuries, discrete calculus is now an increasingly central methodology for many problems related to discrete systems and algorithms. The topics covered here usually arise in many branches of science and technology, especially in discrete mathematics, numerical analysis, statistics and probability theory as well as in electrical engineering, but our viewpoint here is that these topics belong to a much more general realm of mathematics; namely calculus and differential equations because of the remarkable analogy of the subject to this branch of mathemati

  3. Introducing Character Animation with Blender

    CERN Document Server

    Mullen, Tony

    2011-01-01

    Introducing Character Animation with Blender, 2nd Edition is written in a friendly but professional tone, with clear descriptions and numerous illustrative screenshots. Throughout the book, tutorials focus on how to accomplish actual animation goals, while illustrating the necessary technical methods along the way. These are reinforced by clear descriptions of how each specific aspect of Blender works and fits together with the rest of the package. By following all the tutorials, the reader will gain all the skills necessary to build and animate a well-modeled, fully-rigged character of their

  4. Finite Discrete Gabor Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Peter Lempel

    2007-01-01

    frequency bands at certain times. Gabor theory can be formulated for both functions on the real line and for discrete signals of finite length. The two theories are largely the same because many aspects come from the same underlying theory of locally compact Abelian groups. The two types of Gabor systems...... can also be related by sampling and periodization. This thesis extends on this theory by showing new results for window construction. It also provides a discussion of the problems associated to discrete Gabor bases. The sampling and periodization connection is handy because it allows Gabor systems...... on the real line to be well approximated by finite and discrete Gabor frames. This method of approximation is especially attractive because efficient numerical methods exists for doing computations with finite, discrete Gabor systems. This thesis presents new algorithms for the efficient computation of finite...

  5. Adaptive Discrete Hypergraph Matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Junchi; Li, Changsheng; Li, Yin; Cao, Guitao

    2018-02-01

    This paper addresses the problem of hypergraph matching using higher-order affinity information. We propose a solver that iteratively updates the solution in the discrete domain by linear assignment approximation. The proposed method is guaranteed to converge to a stationary discrete solution and avoids the annealing procedure and ad-hoc post binarization step that are required in several previous methods. Specifically, we start with a simple iterative discrete gradient assignment solver. This solver can be trapped in an -circle sequence under moderate conditions, where is the order of the graph matching problem. We then devise an adaptive relaxation mechanism to jump out this degenerating case and show that the resulting new path will converge to a fixed solution in the discrete domain. The proposed method is tested on both synthetic and real-world benchmarks. The experimental results corroborate the efficacy of our method.

  6. Discrete fractional calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Goodrich, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This text provides the first comprehensive treatment of the discrete fractional calculus. Experienced researchers will find the text useful as a reference for discrete fractional calculus and topics of current interest. Students who are interested in learning about discrete fractional calculus will find this text to provide a useful starting point. Several exercises are offered at the end of each chapter and select answers have been provided at the end of the book. The presentation of the content is designed to give ample flexibility for potential use in a myriad of courses and for independent study. The novel approach taken by the authors includes a simultaneous treatment of the fractional- and integer-order difference calculus (on a variety of time scales, including both the usual forward and backwards difference operators). The reader will acquire a solid foundation in the classical topics of the discrete calculus while being introduced to exciting recent developments, bringing them to the frontiers of the...

  7. Discrete quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Ruth M

    2006-01-01

    A review is given of a number of approaches to discrete quantum gravity, with a restriction to those likely to be relevant in four dimensions. This paper is dedicated to Rafael Sorkin on the occasion of his sixtieth birthday

  8. Validity of the growth model of the 'computerized visual perception assessment tool for Chinese characters structures'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huey-Min; Li, Cheng-Hsaun; Kuo, Bor-Chen; Yang, Yu-Mao; Lin, Chin-Kai; Wan, Wei-Hsiang

    2017-08-01

    Morphological awareness is the foundation for the important developmental skills involved with vocabulary, as well as understanding the meaning of words, orthographic knowledge, reading, and writing. Visual perception of space and radicals in two-dimensional positions of Chinese characters' morphology is very important in identifying Chinese characters. The important predictive variables of special and visual perception in Chinese characters identification were investigated in the growth model in this research. The assessment tool is the "Computerized Visual Perception Assessment Tool for Chinese Characters Structures" developed by this study. There are two constructs, basic stroke and character structure. In the basic stroke, there are three subtests of one, two, and more than three strokes. In the character structure, there are three subtests of single-component character, horizontal-compound character, and vertical-compound character. This study used purposive sampling. In the first year, 551 children 4-6 years old participated in the study and were monitored for one year. In the second year, 388 children remained in the study and the successful follow-up rate was 70.4%. This study used a two-wave cross-lagged panel design to validate the growth model of the basic stroke and the character structure. There was significant correlation of the basic stroke and the character structure at different time points. The abilities in the basic stroke and in the character structure steadily developed over time for preschool children. Children's knowledge of the basic stroke effectively predicted their knowledge of the basic stroke and the character structure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Seed morphology and its taxonomic significance in the family malvaceae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abid, R.; Ather, A.

    2016-01-01

    The seed morphological studies of 75 taxa belonging to 6 sub-families of the family Malvaceae were carried out from Pakistan. In Pakistan the family Malvaceae is represented by 6 sub-families viz., Byttnerioideae, Dombeyoideae, Malvoideae, Bombacoideae, Helicteroideae and Sterculioideae. The seed macro and micro morphological characters are examined, using light (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Detailed seed morphological descriptions, micrographs and keys based on seed characters are also provided. A variety in various quantitative and qualitative seed characters was observed. The micro-morphological characters of seeds are quite significant to strengthen the taxonomic decisions within the family Malvaceae at various levels. The data obtained from the seed morphological characters were analyzed numerically to trace out the phylogenetic affinities for the taxa within the family Malvaceae from Pakistan. (author)

  10. Morphological differentiation of Carollia brevicauda and C. perspicillata (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae from Peru and Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennisse Ruelas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the bat genus Carollia, C. brevicauda and C. perspicillata are the most abundant and widely distributed in South America; also, their distributional ranges are almost completely overlapped. Because these species are morphologically very similar, they are frequently misidentified. The aims of this study were to determine the morphological and morphometric differences of C. brevicauda and C. perspicillata. For that reason, I employed a detail morphological assessment and several multivariate morphometric tools. I evaluated 26 normally craniodental variables in 375 adult specimens from Peruvian and Ecuadorian populations. In addition, 54 specimens of C. benkeithi, C. manu, and Carollia sp. were included for comparisons. I found that C. brevicauda and C. perspicillata are differentiated by 28 discrete characters, and are significantly different in 25 morphometric variables. Also, C. brevicauda, C. perspicillata, and C. manu are clustered in a different group from the group of C. benkeithi and Carollia sp. My results complement previous studies adding several characters that confidently differentiate C. brevicauda from C. perspicillata; which needs to be tested in other regions.

  11. Discrete computational structures

    CERN Document Server

    Korfhage, Robert R

    1974-01-01

    Discrete Computational Structures describes discrete mathematical concepts that are important to computing, covering necessary mathematical fundamentals, computer representation of sets, graph theory, storage minimization, and bandwidth. The book also explains conceptual framework (Gorn trees, searching, subroutines) and directed graphs (flowcharts, critical paths, information network). The text discusses algebra particularly as it applies to concentrates on semigroups, groups, lattices, propositional calculus, including a new tabular method of Boolean function minimization. The text emphasize

  12. A Study of Character among Collegiate Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heupel, Jill D.

    2017-01-01

    The idea that sport builds character has been around for a long time. However, sports may not build the type of character once thought. Character of athletes was defined based on differing views held by sport scholars, coaches, athletes, and sport enthusiast. Sport scholars tend to view character of athletes from a moral perspective. Coaches,…

  13. Building Character through Literacy with Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almerico, Gina M.

    2014-01-01

    Character education is described as curriculum specifically developed to teach children about the quality and traits of good character. One means in which children can learn about good character is through the pages of high quality children's literature. In this study, the author defines the characteristics of an effective character development…

  14. Identification Of Minangkabau Landscape Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asrina, M.; Gunawan, A.; Aris, Munandar

    2017-10-01

    Minangkabau is one of cultures in indonesia which occupies landscape intact. Landscape of Minangkabau have a very close relationship with the culture of the people. Uniqueness of Minangkabau culture and landscape forming an inseparable characterunity. The landscape is necessarily identified to know the inherent landscape characters. The objective of this study was to identify the character of the Minangkabau landscape characterizes its uniqueness. The study was conducted by using descriptive method comprised literature review and field observasion. Observed the landscape characters comprised two main features, they were major and minor features. Indetification of the features was conducted in two original areas (darek) of the Minangkabau traditional society. The research results showed that major features or natural features of the landscape were predominantly landform, landcover, and hidrology. All luhak (districts) of Minangkabau showed similar main features such as hill, canyon, lake, valley, and forest. The existence of natural features such as hills, canyon and valleys characterizes the nature of minangkabau landscape. Minor features formed by Minangkabau cultural society were agricultural land and settlement. Rumah gadang (big house) is one of famous minor features characterizes the Minangkabau culture. In addition, several historical artefacts of building and others structure may strengthen uniqueness of the Minangkabau landscape character, such as The royal palace, inscription, and tunnels.

  15. Recognition of isolated handprinted characters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bo

    1996-01-01

    Handprinted characters are of unequal complexity and a common description of all alphabet symbols seems therefore unobtainable. However, letters which confuse human beings and man-made OCR systems usually have approximately the same appearance and may therefore be modeled jointly. We part the set...

  16. Understanding Agency and Educating Character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Klas

    2011-01-01

    How can we understand human agency, and what does it mean to educate character? In this essay Klas Roth develops a Kantian notion, one that suggests we render ourselves efficacious and autonomous in education and elsewhere. This requires, among other things, that we are successful in bringing about the intended result through our actions and the…

  17. Character Toys as Psychological Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Elena O.

    2011-01-01

    The main characteristic of children's play is its mental aspect--the fact that it is based on thoughts and feelings and not on objective reality. During imaginary play, children go beyond the limits of reality, and toys are tools that help them to do this. Children need character toys--toys that play the role of companion or partner--in the early…

  18. Can Youth Sport Build Character?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, David Light; Bredemeier, Brenda Light; Power, F. Clark

    2001-01-01

    Participation and competition in some sports are associated with lower stages of moral reasoning. Coaches can foster moral development by starting with the right mental model, holding benchmark meetings about team values, setting goals for physical and character skills, making time for guided discussion sessions, building community, modeling…

  19. Braille Character Recognition Using Artificial Neural Network

    OpenAIRE

    Subur, Joko; Sardjono, Tri Arief; Mardiyanto, Ronny

    2015-01-01

    Braille letter is characters designed for the blind, consist of six embossed points, arranged in a standard braille character. Braille letters is touched and read using fingers, therefore the sensitivity of the fingers is important. Those characters need to be memorized, so it is very difficult to be learned. The aim of this research is to create a braille characters recognition system and translate it to alpha-numeric text. Webcam camera is used to capture braille image from braille characte...

  20. Homogenization of discrete media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradel, F.; Sab, K. [CERAM-ENPC, Marne-la-Vallee (France)

    1998-11-01

    Material such as granular media, beam assembly are easily seen as discrete media. They look like geometrical points linked together thanks to energetic expressions. Our purpose is to extend discrete kinematics to the one of an equivalent continuous material. First we explain how we build the localisation tool for periodic materials according to estimated continuum medium type (classical Cauchy, and Cosserat media). Once the bridge built between discrete and continuum media, we exhibit its application over two bidimensional beam assembly structures : the honey comb and a structural reinforced variation. The new behavior is then applied for the simple plan shear problem in a Cosserat continuum and compared with the real discrete solution. By the mean of this example, we establish the agreement of our new model with real structures. The exposed method has a longer range than mechanics and can be applied to every discrete problems like electromagnetism in which relationship between geometrical points can be summed up by an energetic function. (orig.) 7 refs.

  1. On characters of finite groups

    CERN Document Server

    Broué, Michel

    2017-01-01

    This book explores the classical and beautiful character theory of finite groups. It does it by using some rudiments of the language of categories. Originally emerging from two courses offered at Peking University (PKU), primarily for third-year students, it is now better suited for graduate courses, and provides broader coverage than books that focus almost exclusively on groups. The book presents the basic tools, notions and theorems of character theory (including a new treatment of the control of fusion and isometries), and introduces readers to the categorical language at several levels. It includes and proves the major results on characteristic zero representations without any assumptions about the base field. The book includes a dedicated chapter on graded representations and applications of polynomial invariants of finite groups, and its closing chapter addresses the more recent notion of the Drinfeld double of a finite group and the corresponding representation of GL_2(Z).

  2. DISCRETE MATHEMATICS/NUMBER THEORY

    OpenAIRE

    Mrs. Manju Devi*

    2017-01-01

    Discrete mathematics is the study of mathematical structures that are fundamentally discrete rather than continuous. In contrast to real numbers that have the property of varying "smoothly", the objects studied in discrete mathematics such as integers, graphs, and statements do not vary smoothly in this way, but have distinct, separated values. Discrete mathematics therefore excludes topics in "continuous mathematics" such as calculus and analysis. Discrete objects can often be enumerated by ...

  3. Discrete-Event Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prateek Sharma

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Simulation can be regarded as the emulation of the behavior of a real-world system over an interval of time. The process of simulation relies upon the generation of the history of a system and then analyzing that history to predict the outcome and improve the working of real systems. Simulations can be of various kinds but the topic of interest here is one of the most important kind of simulation which is Discrete-Event Simulation which models the system as a discrete sequence of events in time. So this paper aims at introducing about Discrete-Event Simulation and analyzing how it is beneficial to the real world systems.

  4. Discrete systems and integrability

    CERN Document Server

    Hietarinta, J; Nijhoff, F W

    2016-01-01

    This first introductory text to discrete integrable systems introduces key notions of integrability from the vantage point of discrete systems, also making connections with the continuous theory where relevant. While treating the material at an elementary level, the book also highlights many recent developments. Topics include: Darboux and Bäcklund transformations; difference equations and special functions; multidimensional consistency of integrable lattice equations; associated linear problems (Lax pairs); connections with Padé approximants and convergence algorithms; singularities and geometry; Hirota's bilinear formalism for lattices; intriguing properties of discrete Painlevé equations; and the novel theory of Lagrangian multiforms. The book builds the material in an organic way, emphasizing interconnections between the various approaches, while the exposition is mostly done through explicit computations on key examples. Written by respected experts in the field, the numerous exercises and the thoroug...

  5. Diradical character of some fluoranthenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SVETLANA MARKOVIĆ

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that some Kekuléan fluoranthenes are diradicals and that their ground state is a triplet. In the energetically less favorable singlet state, these hydrocarbons also exhibit pronounced diradical character. The diradical character y of the compounds under investigation was estimated using the unrestricted symmetry-broken (yPUHF and complete active space (yNOON methods. It was found that the yPUHF values better reproduce the diradical character of the investigated hydrocarbons. It was shown that singly occupied molecular orbital (SOMO and SOMO-1 of a diradical structure occupy different parts of space with a small shared region, resulting in a spin density distribution over the entire molecule. The spatial diradical distribution in the singlet diradical structures was examined by inspecting the HOMOs and LUMOs for a and b spin electrons. It was shown that the a-HOMO and the b-LUMO (as well as the b-HOMO and the a-LUMO occupy practically the same part of space. In this way, there are no unpaired electrons in a singlet diradical structure, yet two of them occupy different parts of space, thus allowing the p-electrons to delocalize.

  6. Discrete Sparse Coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exarchakis, Georgios; Lücke, Jörg

    2017-11-01

    Sparse coding algorithms with continuous latent variables have been the subject of a large number of studies. However, discrete latent spaces for sparse coding have been largely ignored. In this work, we study sparse coding with latents described by discrete instead of continuous prior distributions. We consider the general case in which the latents (while being sparse) can take on any value of a finite set of possible values and in which we learn the prior probability of any value from data. This approach can be applied to any data generated by discrete causes, and it can be applied as an approximation of continuous causes. As the prior probabilities are learned, the approach then allows for estimating the prior shape without assuming specific functional forms. To efficiently train the parameters of our probabilistic generative model, we apply a truncated expectation-maximization approach (expectation truncation) that we modify to work with a general discrete prior. We evaluate the performance of the algorithm by applying it to a variety of tasks: (1) we use artificial data to verify that the algorithm can recover the generating parameters from a random initialization, (2) use image patches of natural images and discuss the role of the prior for the extraction of image components, (3) use extracellular recordings of neurons to present a novel method of analysis for spiking neurons that includes an intuitive discretization strategy, and (4) apply the algorithm on the task of encoding audio waveforms of human speech. The diverse set of numerical experiments presented in this letter suggests that discrete sparse coding algorithms can scale efficiently to work with realistic data sets and provide novel statistical quantities to describe the structure of the data.

  7. Introductory discrete mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Balakrishnan, V K

    2010-01-01

    This concise text offers an introduction to discrete mathematics for undergraduate students in computer science and mathematics. Mathematics educators consider it vital that their students be exposed to a course in discrete methods that introduces them to combinatorial mathematics and to algebraic and logical structures focusing on the interplay between computer science and mathematics. The present volume emphasizes combinatorics, graph theory with applications to some stand network optimization problems, and algorithms to solve these problems.Chapters 0-3 cover fundamental operations involv

  8. Discrete-Event Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Prateek Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Simulation can be regarded as the emulation of the behavior of a real-world system over an interval of time. The process of simulation relies upon the generation of the history of a system and then analyzing that history to predict the outcome and improve the working of real systems. Simulations can be of various kinds but the topic of interest here is one of the most important kind of simulation which is Discrete-Event Simulation which models the system as a discrete sequence of ev...

  9. Discrete-Time Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We also describe discrete-time systems in terms of difference ... A more modern alternative, especially for larger systems, is to convert ... In other words, ..... picture?) State-variable equations are also called state-space equations because the ...

  10. Discrete Lorentzian quantum gravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loll, R.

    2000-01-01

    Just as for non-abelian gauge theories at strong coupling, discrete lattice methods are a natural tool in the study of non-perturbative quantum gravity. They have to reflect the fact that the geometric degrees of freedom are dynamical, and that therefore also the lattice theory must be formulated

  11. What Is Discrete Mathematics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Karen Tobey

    This paper cites information received from a number of sources, e.g., mathematics teachers in two-year colleges, publishers, and convention speakers, about the nature of discrete mathematics and about what topics a course in this subject should contain. Note is taken of the book edited by Ralston and Young which discusses the future of college…

  12. Artificial Neural Network Based Optical Character Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Vivek Shrivastava; Navdeep Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Optical Character Recognition deals in recognition and classification of characters from an image. For the recognition to be accurate, certain topological and geometrical properties are calculated, based on which a character is classified and recognized. Also, the Human psychology perceives characters by its overall shape and features such as strokes, curves, protrusions, enclosures etc. These properties, also called Features are extracted from the image by means of spatial pixel-...

  13. Discrete Exterior Calculus Discretization of Incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Mohamed, Mamdouh S.; Hirani, Anil N.; Samtaney, Ravi

    2017-01-01

    A conservative discretization of incompressible Navier-Stokes equations over surface simplicial meshes is developed using discrete exterior calculus (DEC). Numerical experiments for flows over surfaces reveal a second order accuracy

  14. Understanding the Properties of Interactive Televised Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claxton, Laura J.; Ponto, Katelyn C.

    2013-01-01

    Children's television programming frequently uses interactive characters that appear to directly engage the viewers. These characters encourage children to answer questions and perform actions to help the characters solve problems in the televised world. Children readily engage in these interactions; however, it is unclear why they do so. To…

  15. A Review of Virtual Character's Emotion Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen

    2008-11-01

    Emotional virtual characters are essential to digital entertainment, an emotion is related to virtual environment and a virtual character's inner variables, emotion model of virtual character is a hot topic in many fields, domain knowledge is very important for modeling emotion, and the current research of emotion expression in the world was also summarized, and some new research directions of emotion model are presented.

  16. Promoting Character Development through Coach Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, F. Clark; Seroczynski, A. D.

    2015-01-01

    Can youth sports build character? Research suggests that the answer to this question leads to 2 further questions: (1) can youth sport coaches be effectively prepared to become character educators, and (2) can character education take place in today's competitive youth sport environment? (Bredemeier & Shields, 2006; Power, 2015; Power &…

  17. Discrete symmetries in the Weyl expansion for quantum billiards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavloff, N.

    1994-01-01

    2 and 3 dimensional quantum billiards with discrete symmetries are considered. The boundary condition is either Dirichlet or Neumann. The first terms of the Weyl expansion are derived for the level density projected onto the irreducible representations of the symmetry group. The formulae require only the knowledge of the character table of the group and the geometrical properties (such as surface, perimeter etc.) of sub-parts of the billiard invariant under a group transformation. (author). 17 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  18. Discrete mKdV and discrete sine-Gordon flows on discrete space curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoguchi, Jun-ichi; Kajiwara, Kenji; Matsuura, Nozomu; Ohta, Yasuhiro

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the discrete deformation of the discrete space curves with constant torsion described by the discrete mKdV or the discrete sine-Gordon equations, and show that it is formulated as the torsion-preserving equidistant deformation on the osculating plane which satisfies the isoperimetric condition. The curve is reconstructed from the deformation data by using the Sym–Tafel formula. The isoperimetric equidistant deformation of the space curves does not preserve the torsion in general. However, it is possible to construct the torsion-preserving deformation by tuning the deformation parameters. Further, it is also possible to make an arbitrary choice of the deformation described by the discrete mKdV equation or by the discrete sine-Gordon equation at each step. We finally show that the discrete deformation of discrete space curves yields the discrete K-surfaces. (paper)

  19. Phylogenetic Applications of the Minimum Contradiction Approach on Continuous Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Thuillard

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the conditions under which a set of continuous variables or characters can be described as an X-tree or a split network. A distance matrix corresponds exactly to a split network or a valued X-tree if, after ordering of the taxa, the variables values can be embedded into a function with at most a local maximum and a local minimum, and crossing any horizontal line at most twice. In real applications, the order of the taxa best satisfying the above conditions can be obtained using the Minimum Contradiction method. This approach is applied to 2 sets of continuous characters. The first set corresponds to craniofacial landmarks in Hominids. The contradiction matrix is used to identify possible tree structures and some alternatives when they exist. We explain how to discover the main structuring characters in a tree. The second set consists of a sample of 100 galaxies. In that second example one shows how to discretize the continuous variables describing physical properties of the galaxies without disrupting the underlying tree structure.

  20. Data set for Tifinagh handwriting character recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Bencharef

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Tifinagh alphabet-IRCAM is the official alphabet of the Amazigh language widely used in North Africa [1]. It includes thirty-one basic letter and two letters each composed of a base letter followed by the sign of labialization. Normalized only in 2003 (Unicode [2], ICRAM-Tifinagh is a young character repertoire. Which needs more work on all levels. In this context we propose a data set for handwritten Tifinagh characters composed of 1376 image; 43 Image For Each character. The dataset can be used to train a Tifinagh character recognition system, or to extract the meaning characteristics of each character.

  1. Body Language Advanced 3D Character Rigging

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Eric; Fong, Jared; Sidwell, Adam G

    2011-01-01

    Whether you're a professional Character TD or just like to create 3D characters, this detailed guide reveals the techniques you need to create sophisticated 3D character rigs that range from basic to breathtaking. Packed with step-by-step instructions and full-color illustrations, Body Language walks you through rigging techniques for all the body parts to help you create realistic and believable movements in every character you design. You'll learn advanced rigging concepts that involve MEL scripting and advanced deformation techniques and even how to set up a character pipeline.

  2. Discrete mathematics with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Koshy, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    This approachable text studies discrete objects and the relationsips that bind them. It helps students understand and apply the power of discrete math to digital computer systems and other modern applications. It provides excellent preparation for courses in linear algebra, number theory, and modern/abstract algebra and for computer science courses in data structures, algorithms, programming languages, compilers, databases, and computation.* Covers all recommended topics in a self-contained, comprehensive, and understandable format for students and new professionals * Emphasizes problem-solving techniques, pattern recognition, conjecturing, induction, applications of varying nature, proof techniques, algorithm development and correctness, and numeric computations* Weaves numerous applications into the text* Helps students learn by doing with a wealth of examples and exercises: - 560 examples worked out in detail - More than 3,700 exercises - More than 150 computer assignments - More than 600 writing projects*...

  3. Discrete and computational geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Devadoss, Satyan L

    2011-01-01

    Discrete geometry is a relatively new development in pure mathematics, while computational geometry is an emerging area in applications-driven computer science. Their intermingling has yielded exciting advances in recent years, yet what has been lacking until now is an undergraduate textbook that bridges the gap between the two. Discrete and Computational Geometry offers a comprehensive yet accessible introduction to this cutting-edge frontier of mathematics and computer science. This book covers traditional topics such as convex hulls, triangulations, and Voronoi diagrams, as well as more recent subjects like pseudotriangulations, curve reconstruction, and locked chains. It also touches on more advanced material, including Dehn invariants, associahedra, quasigeodesics, Morse theory, and the recent resolution of the Poincaré conjecture. Connections to real-world applications are made throughout, and algorithms are presented independently of any programming language. This richly illustrated textbook also fe...

  4. Lectures on discrete geometry

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Discrete geometry investigates combinatorial properties of configurations of geometric objects. To a working mathematician or computer scientist, it offers sophisticated results and techniques of great diversity and it is a foundation for fields such as computational geometry or combinatorial optimization. This book is primarily a textbook introduction to various areas of discrete geometry. In each area, it explains several key results and methods, in an accessible and concrete manner. It also contains more advanced material in separate sections and thus it can serve as a collection of surveys in several narrower subfields. The main topics include: basics on convex sets, convex polytopes, and hyperplane arrangements; combinatorial complexity of geometric configurations; intersection patterns and transversals of convex sets; geometric Ramsey-type results; polyhedral combinatorics and high-dimensional convexity; and lastly, embeddings of finite metric spaces into normed spaces. Jiri Matousek is Professor of Com...

  5. Time Discretization Techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Gottlieb, S.

    2016-10-12

    The time discretization of hyperbolic partial differential equations is typically the evolution of a system of ordinary differential equations obtained by spatial discretization of the original problem. Methods for this time evolution include multistep, multistage, or multiderivative methods, as well as a combination of these approaches. The time step constraint is mainly a result of the absolute stability requirement, as well as additional conditions that mimic physical properties of the solution, such as positivity or total variation stability. These conditions may be required for stability when the solution develops shocks or sharp gradients. This chapter contains a review of some of the methods historically used for the evolution of hyperbolic PDEs, as well as cutting edge methods that are now commonly used.

  6. WARACS: Wrappers to Automate the Reconstruction of Ancestral Character States1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruenstaeudl, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Reconstructions of ancestral character states are among the most widely used analyses for evaluating the morphological, cytological, or ecological evolution of an organismic lineage. The software application Mesquite remains the most popular application for such reconstructions among plant scientists, even though its support for automating complex analyses is limited. A software tool is needed that automates the reconstruction and visualization of ancestral character states with Mesquite and similar applications. Methods and Results: A set of command line–based Python scripts was developed that (a) communicates standardized input to and output from the software applications Mesquite, BayesTraits, and TreeGraph2; (b) automates the process of ancestral character state reconstruction; and (c) facilitates the visualization of reconstruction results. Conclusions: WARACS provides a simple tool that streamlines the reconstruction and visualization of ancestral character states over a wide array of parameters, including tree distribution, character state, and optimality criterion. PMID:26949580

  7. Handwritten Sindhi Character Recognition Using Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafique Ahmed Awan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available OCR (OpticalCharacter Recognition is a technology in which text image is used to understand and write text by machines. The work on languages containing isolated characters such as German, English, French and others is at its peak. The OCR and ICR (Intelligent Character Recognition research in Sindhi script is currently at in starting stages and not sufficient work have been cited in this area even though Sindhi language is rich in culture and history. This paper presents one of the initial steps in recognizing Sindhi handwritten characters. The isolated characters of Sindhi script written by thesubjects have been recognized. The various subjects were asked to write Sindhi characters in unconstrained form and then the written samples were collected and scanned through a flatbed scanner. The scanned documents were preprocessedwith the help of binary conversion, removing noise by pepper noise and the lines were segmented with the help of horizontal profile technique. The segmented lines were used to extract characters from scanned pages.This character segmentation was done by vertical projection. The extracted characters have been used to extract features so that the characters can be classified easily. Zoning was used for the feature extraction technique. For the classification, neural network has been used. The recognized characters converted into editable text with an average accuracy of 85%.

  8. Marvel and DC Characters Inspired by Arachnids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elidiomar Ribeiro Da-Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article compares arachnid-based Marvel and DC comics characters. The composition of a comic book character often has interesting ‘real-life’ influences. Given the strong connection between arachnids (especially spiders, scorpions and mites, all belonging to the zoological class 'Arachnida' and human beings it is not surprising that they have inspired many fictional characters. We recorded 84 Marvel Comics characters and 40 DC Comics characters, detailed in the dataset that accompanies the article (Da-Silva 2014. Most characters have been created recently, since the 1990s. Marvel has significantly more arachnid characters than DC. As for taxonomic classification, the characters were based mostly on spiders (zoological order 'Araneae'. Of the total characters, the majority are human beings, but an overwhelming number have at least some typical arachnid features. Villains (60.91% of total are significantly more numerous, considering the sum of the two publishers. Arachnids have bad reputation for being dangerous (Thorp and Woodson 1976; Ruppert and Barnes 1996. Since the public usually considers spiders, scorpions and mites “harmful” in general, we expected a larger contingent of villains. However, there was no statistical difference between the amount of villains and heroes in Marvel characters. It did not happen probably due to the success of one character: the Amazing Spider-Man.

  9. Discrete pseudo-integrals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mesiar, Radko; Li, J.; Pap, E.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 3 (2013), s. 357-364 ISSN 0888-613X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP402/11/0378 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : concave integral * pseudo-addition * pseudo-multiplication Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.977, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/E/mesiar-discrete pseudo-integrals.pdf

  10. Discrete variational Hamiltonian mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lall, S; West, M

    2006-01-01

    The main contribution of this paper is to present a canonical choice of a Hamiltonian theory corresponding to the theory of discrete Lagrangian mechanics. We make use of Lagrange duality and follow a path parallel to that used for construction of the Pontryagin principle in optimal control theory. We use duality results regarding sensitivity and separability to show the relationship between generating functions and symplectic integrators. We also discuss connections to optimal control theory and numerical algorithms

  11. Discrete Routh reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalnapurkar, Sameer M; Leok, Melvin; Marsden, Jerrold E; West, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    This paper develops the theory of Abelian Routh reduction for discrete mechanical systems and applies it to the variational integration of mechanical systems with Abelian symmetry. The reduction of variational Runge-Kutta discretizations is considered, as well as the extent to which symmetry reduction and discretization commute. These reduced methods allow the direct simulation of dynamical features such as relative equilibria and relative periodic orbits that can be obscured or difficult to identify in the unreduced dynamics. The methods are demonstrated for the dynamics of an Earth orbiting satellite with a non-spherical J 2 correction, as well as the double spherical pendulum. The J 2 problem is interesting because in the unreduced picture, geometric phases inherent in the model and those due to numerical discretization can be hard to distinguish, but this issue does not appear in the reduced algorithm, where one can directly observe interesting dynamical structures in the reduced phase space (the cotangent bundle of shape space), in which the geometric phases have been removed. The main feature of the double spherical pendulum example is that it has a non-trivial magnetic term in its reduced symplectic form. Our method is still efficient as it can directly handle the essential non-canonical nature of the symplectic structure. In contrast, a traditional symplectic method for canonical systems could require repeated coordinate changes if one is evoking Darboux' theorem to transform the symplectic structure into canonical form, thereby incurring additional computational cost. Our method allows one to design reduced symplectic integrators in a natural way, despite the non-canonical nature of the symplectic structure

  12. Degraded character recognition based on gradient pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, D. R. Ramesh; Ravishankar, M.; Kumar, Manish; Wadera, Kevin; Raj, Aakash

    2010-02-01

    Degraded character recognition is a challenging problem in the field of Optical Character Recognition (OCR). The performance of an optical character recognition depends upon printed quality of the input documents. Many OCRs have been designed which correctly identifies the fine printed documents. But, very few reported work has been found on the recognition of the degraded documents. The efficiency of the OCRs system decreases if the input image is degraded. In this paper, a novel approach based on gradient pattern for recognizing degraded printed character is proposed. The approach makes use of gradient pattern of an individual character for recognition. Experiments were conducted on character image that is either digitally written or a degraded character extracted from historical documents and the results are found to be satisfactory.

  13. Discrete port-Hamiltonian systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talasila, V.; Clemente-Gallardo, J.; Schaft, A.J. van der

    2006-01-01

    Either from a control theoretic viewpoint or from an analysis viewpoint it is necessary to convert smooth systems to discrete systems, which can then be implemented on computers for numerical simulations. Discrete models can be obtained either by discretizing a smooth model, or by directly modeling

  14. A paradigm for discrete physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noyes, H.P.; McGoveran, D.; Etter, T.; Manthey, M.J.; Gefwert, C.

    1987-01-01

    An example is outlined for constructing a discrete physics using as a starting point the insight from quantum physics that events are discrete, indivisible and non-local. Initial postulates are finiteness, discreteness, finite computability, absolute nonuniqueness (i.e., homogeneity in the absence of specific cause) and additivity

  15. Character animation fundamentals developing skills for 2D and 3D character animation

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Expand your animation toolkit and remain competitive in the industry with this leading resource for 2D and 3D character animation techniques. Apply the industry's best practices to your own workflows and develop 2D, 3D and hybrid characters with ease. With side by side comparisons of 2D and 3D character design, improve your character animation and master traditional principles and processes including weight and balance, timing and walks. Develop characters inspired by humans, birds, fish, snakes and four legged animals. Breathe life into your character and develop a characters personality w

  16. EPIDERMAL CHARACTERS OF BACCHARIS (ASTERACEAE SPECIES USED IN TRADITIONAL MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FREIRE SUSANA E.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A morphological study of 38 species of Baccharis used in traditional medicinewas carried out to provide some epidermal characters that will contribute to theknowledge of the genus. The present study revealed: 1 seven different types oftrichomes: conical, aseptate fl agellate, fi liform fl agellate, 1-armed, 2-4-armed,bulbiferous fl agellate, and glandular biseriate; 2 that 28 of the total of 38 specieshave trichomes in tufts; 3 six different types of stomata: anomocytic, anisocytic,cyclocytic, actinocytic, tetracytic, and staurocytic; 4 that some trichome types,such as 2-4-armed (B. dracunculifolia and aseptate fl agellate branched (B. trinervis,show a high diagnostic value; 5 that the stomata types can be used to differentiatespecies with similar trichomes type (e.g. B. trimera and B. articulata.Illustrations of the studied characters are provided.

  17. Synthetic biology character and impact

    CERN Document Server

    Pade, Christian; Wigger, Henning; Gleich, Arnim

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic Biology is already an object of intensive debate. However, to a great extent the discussion to date has been concerned with fundamental ethical, religious and philosophical questions. By contrast, based on an investigation of the field’s scientific and technological character, this book focuses on new functionalities provided by synthetic biology and explores the associated opportunities and risks. Following an introduction to the subject and a discussion of the most central paradigms and methodologies, the book provides an overview of the structure of this field of science and technology. It informs the reader about the current stage of development, as well as topical problems and potential opportunities in important fields of application. But not only the science itself is in focus. In order to investigate its broader impact, ecological as well as ethical implications will be considered, paving the way for a discussion of responsibilities in the context of a field at a transitional crossroads be...

  18. Two new discrete integrable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiao-Hong; Zhang Hong-Qing

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on the construction of new (1+1)-dimensional discrete integrable systems according to a subalgebra of loop algebra à 1 . By designing two new (1+1)-dimensional discrete spectral problems, two new discrete integrable systems are obtained, namely, a 2-field lattice hierarchy and a 3-field lattice hierarchy. When deriving the two new discrete integrable systems, we find the generalized relativistic Toda lattice hierarchy and the generalized modified Toda lattice hierarchy. Moreover, we also obtain the Hamiltonian structures of the two lattice hierarchies by means of the discrete trace identity

  19. Discrete symmetries in periodic-orbit theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbins, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    The application of periodic-orbit theory to systems which possess a discrete symmetry is considered. A semiclassical expression for the symmetry-projected Green's function is obtained; it involves a sum over classical periodic orbits on a symmetry-reduced phase space, weighted by characters of the symmetry group. These periodic orbits correspond to trajectories on the full phase space which are not necessarily periodic, but whose end points are related by symmetry. If the symmetry-projected Green's functions are summed, the contributions of the unperiodic orbits cancel, and one recovers the usual periodic-orbit sum for the full Green's function. Several examples are considered, including the stadium billiard, a particle in a periodic potential, the Sinai billiard, the quartic oscillator, and the rotational spectrum of SF 6

  20. Extended SL(2,R)/U(1) characters, or modular properties of a simple non-rational conformal field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Israel, D.; Pakman, A.; Troost, J.

    2004-01-01

    We define extended SL(2,R)/U(1) characters which include a sum over winding sectors. By embedding these characters into similarly extended characters of N=2 algebras, we show that they have nice modular transformation properties. We calculate the modular matrices of this simple but non-trivial non-rational conformal field theory explicitly. As a result, we show that discrete SL(2,R) representations mix with continuous SL(2,R) representations under modular transformations in the coset conformal field theory. We comment upon the significance of our results for a general theory of non-rational conformal field theories. (author)

  1. Discrete dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Hirsch, M; Peinado, E; Valle, J W F

    2010-01-01

    We propose a new motivation for the stability of dark matter (DM). We suggest that the same non-abelian discrete flavor symmetry which accounts for the observed pattern of neutrino oscillations, spontaneously breaks to a Z2 subgroup which renders DM stable. The simplest scheme leads to a scalar doublet DM potentially detectable in nuclear recoil experiments, inverse neutrino mass hierarchy, hence a neutrinoless double beta decay rate accessible to upcoming searches, while reactor angle equal to zero gives no CP violation in neutrino oscillations.

  2. Discrete Dynamics Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuensche, Andrew

    DDLab is interactive graphics software for creating, visualizing, and analyzing many aspects of Cellular Automata, Random Boolean Networks, and Discrete Dynamical Networks in general and studying their behavior, both from the time-series perspective — space-time patterns, and from the state-space perspective — attractor basins. DDLab is relevant to research, applications, and education in the fields of complexity, self-organization, emergent phenomena, chaos, collision-based computing, neural networks, content addressable memory, genetic regulatory networks, dynamical encryption, generative art and music, and the study of the abstract mathematical/physical/dynamical phenomena in their own right.

  3. Building innovative and creative character through mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyitno, Hardi; Suyitno, Amin

    2018-03-01

    21st century is predicted as the century with rapid development in all aspects of life. People require creative and innovative character to exist. Specifically, mathematics has been given to students from the kindergarten until the middle school. Thus, building character through mathematics should begin since the early age. The problem is how to build creative and innovative character through mathematics education? The goal expected from this question is to build innovative and creative characters to face the challenges of the 21st century. This article discusses the values of mathematics, the values in mathematics education, innovative and creative character, and the integration of these values in teaching mathematics that support the innovative and creative character building, and applying the values in structurely programmed, measurable, and applicable learning activities.

  4. Differential morphology and image processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maragos, P

    1996-01-01

    Image processing via mathematical morphology has traditionally used geometry to intuitively understand morphological signal operators and set or lattice algebra to analyze them in the space domain. We provide a unified view and analytic tools for morphological image processing that is based on ideas from differential calculus and dynamical systems. This includes ideas on using partial differential or difference equations (PDEs) to model distance propagation or nonlinear multiscale processes in images. We briefly review some nonlinear difference equations that implement discrete distance transforms and relate them to numerical solutions of the eikonal equation of optics. We also review some nonlinear PDEs that model the evolution of multiscale morphological operators and use morphological derivatives. Among the new ideas presented, we develop some general 2-D max/min-sum difference equations that model the space dynamics of 2-D morphological systems (including the distance computations) and some nonlinear signal transforms, called slope transforms, that can analyze these systems in a transform domain in ways conceptually similar to the application of Fourier transforms to linear systems. Thus, distance transforms are shown to be bandpass slope filters. We view the analysis of the multiscale morphological PDEs and of the eikonal PDE solved via weighted distance transforms as a unified area in nonlinear image processing, which we call differential morphology, and briefly discuss its potential applications to image processing and computer vision.

  5. Evaluating morphological variability of Artemisia herba-alba Asso ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... This work was interested on the study of the morphological variability of 120 individuals of ... stations in western Algeria , which was assessed through 15 quantitative and qualitative characters.

  6. Finite discrete field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Manoelito M. de

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the physical meaning and the geometric interpretation of implementation in classical field theories. The origin of infinities and other inconsistencies in field theories is traced to fields defined with support on the light cone; a finite and consistent field theory requires a light-cone generator as the field support. Then, we introduce a classical field theory with support on the light cone generators. It results on a description of discrete (point-like) interactions in terms of localized particle-like fields. We find the propagators of these particle-like fields and discuss their physical meaning, properties and consequences. They are conformally invariant, singularity-free, and describing a manifestly covariant (1 + 1)-dimensional dynamics in a (3 = 1) spacetime. Remarkably this conformal symmetry remains even for the propagation of a massive field in four spacetime dimensions. We apply this formalism to Classical electrodynamics and to the General Relativity Theory. The standard formalism with its distributed fields is retrieved in terms of spacetime average of the discrete field. Singularities are the by-products of the averaging process. This new formalism enlighten the meaning and the problem of field theory, and may allow a softer transition to a quantum theory. (author)

  7. Abusive families and character formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, J B

    1990-06-01

    Family research studies confirm that abusive parents tend to be undifferentiated partners who compete with each other and with their children for attention and nurturance. More or less healthy parents make demands on children to counteract their own injured narcissism, but they do so largely without devaluation and the sadistic use of projective identification. Under sufficient stress abusive parents attack the child who fails to gratify their needs, thereby giving vent to longstanding frustrations and feelings of being threatened by the child's individuation and competency. The emotional atmosphere in such families facilitates ego deficits like those of the borderline personality as it molds the child's efforts to avoid anxiety. Devaluation, loss, and defenses against mourning partially account for depression and paranoid traits in abused youngsters. Early neglect and abuse exposes them to influential models who act out rage and primitive defenses. Some abused individuals project their rage and later become paranoid or antisocial, whereas others fragment or retain infantile defenses. The destructiveness of severe psychological abuse lies in the constriction of the experiencing self and healthy character development, together with the conditioning to repeat abusive relationships and to avoid intimacy. Achieving individuation under these circumstances entails overcoming the internalized abusive relationships and relinquishing the unconscious wish to be transformed from the abused into the abuser.

  8. On the character of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arto eAnnila

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The human brain is a particularly demanding system to infer its nature from observations. Thus, there is on one hand plenty of room for theorizing and on the other hand a pressing need for a rigorous theory. We apply statistical mechanics of open systems to describe the brain as a hierarchical system in consuming free energy in least time. This holistic tenet accounts for cellular metabolism, neuronal signaling, cognitive processes all together or any other process by a formal equation of motion that extends down to the ultimate precision of one quantum of action. According to this general thermodynamic theory cognitive processes are no different by their operational and organizational principle from other natural processes. Cognition too will emerge and evolve along path-dependent and non-determinate trajectories by consuming free energy in least time to attain thermodynamic balance within the nervous system itself and with its surrounding systems. Specifically, consciousness can be ascribed to a natural process that integrates various neural networks for coherent consumption of free energy, i.e., for meaningful deeds. The whole hierarchy of integrated systems can be formally summed up to thermodynamic entropy. The holistic tenet provides insight to the character of consciousness also by acknowledging awareness in other systems at other levels of nature’s hierarchy.

  9. Morphological modeling of terrains and volume data

    CERN Document Server

    Comic, Lidija; Magillo, Paola; Iuricich, Federico

    2014-01-01

    This book describes the mathematical background behind discrete approaches to morphological analysis of scalar fields, with a focus on Morse theory and on the discrete theories due to Banchoff and Forman. The algorithms and data structures presented are used for terrain modeling and analysis, molecular shape analysis, and for analysis or visualization of sensor and simulation 3D data sets. It covers a variety of application domains including geography, geology, environmental sciences, medicine and biology. The authors classify the different approaches to morphological analysis which are all ba

  10. A Nonstationary Markov Model Detects Directional Evolution in Hymenopteran Morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopfstein, Seraina; Vilhelmsen, Lars; Ronquist, Fredrik

    2015-11-01

    Directional evolution has played an important role in shaping the morphological, ecological, and molecular diversity of life. However, standard substitution models assume stationarity of the evolutionary process over the time scale examined, thus impeding the study of directionality. Here we explore a simple, nonstationary model of evolution for discrete data, which assumes that the state frequencies at the root differ from the equilibrium frequencies of the homogeneous evolutionary process along the rest of the tree (i.e., the process is nonstationary, nonreversible, but homogeneous). Within this framework, we develop a Bayesian approach for testing directional versus stationary evolution using a reversible-jump algorithm. Simulations show that when only data from extant taxa are available, the success in inferring directionality is strongly dependent on the evolutionary rate, the shape of the tree, the relative branch lengths, and the number of taxa. Given suitable evolutionary rates (0.1-0.5 expected substitutions between root and tips), accounting for directionality improves tree inference and often allows correct rooting of the tree without the use of an outgroup. As an empirical test, we apply our method to study directional evolution in hymenopteran morphology. We focus on three character systems: wing veins, muscles, and sclerites. We find strong support for a trend toward loss of wing veins and muscles, while stationarity cannot be ruled out for sclerites. Adding fossil and time information in a total-evidence dating approach, we show that accounting for directionality results in more precise estimates not only of the ancestral state at the root of the tree, but also of the divergence times. Our model relaxes the assumption of stationarity and reversibility by adding a minimum of additional parameters, and is thus well suited to studying the nature of the evolutionary process in data sets of limited size, such as morphology and ecology. © The Author

  11. Advances in discrete differential geometry

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This is one of the first books on a newly emerging field of discrete differential geometry and an excellent way to access this exciting area. It surveys the fascinating connections between discrete models in differential geometry and complex analysis, integrable systems and applications in computer graphics. The authors take a closer look at discrete models in differential geometry and dynamical systems. Their curves are polygonal, surfaces are made from triangles and quadrilaterals, and time is discrete. Nevertheless, the difference between the corresponding smooth curves, surfaces and classical dynamical systems with continuous time can hardly be seen. This is the paradigm of structure-preserving discretizations. Current advances in this field are stimulated to a large extent by its relevance for computer graphics and mathematical physics. This book is written by specialists working together on a common research project. It is about differential geometry and dynamical systems, smooth and discrete theories, ...

  12. Poisson hierarchy of discrete strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioannidou, Theodora; Niemi, Antti J.

    2016-01-01

    The Poisson geometry of a discrete string in three dimensional Euclidean space is investigated. For this the Frenet frames are converted into a spinorial representation, the discrete spinor Frenet equation is interpreted in terms of a transfer matrix formalism, and Poisson brackets are introduced in terms of the spinor components. The construction is then generalised, in a self-similar manner, into an infinite hierarchy of Poisson algebras. As an example, the classical Virasoro (Witt) algebra that determines reparametrisation diffeomorphism along a continuous string, is identified as a particular sub-algebra, in the hierarchy of the discrete string Poisson algebra. - Highlights: • Witt (classical Virasoro) algebra is derived in the case of discrete string. • Infinite dimensional hierarchy of Poisson bracket algebras is constructed for discrete strings. • Spinor representation of discrete Frenet equations is developed.

  13. Poisson hierarchy of discrete strings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ioannidou, Theodora, E-mail: ti3@auth.gr [Faculty of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54249, Thessaloniki (Greece); Niemi, Antti J., E-mail: Antti.Niemi@physics.uu.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 803, S-75108, Uppsala (Sweden); Laboratoire de Mathematiques et Physique Theorique CNRS UMR 6083, Fédération Denis Poisson, Université de Tours, Parc de Grandmont, F37200, Tours (France); Department of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Haidian District, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2016-01-28

    The Poisson geometry of a discrete string in three dimensional Euclidean space is investigated. For this the Frenet frames are converted into a spinorial representation, the discrete spinor Frenet equation is interpreted in terms of a transfer matrix formalism, and Poisson brackets are introduced in terms of the spinor components. The construction is then generalised, in a self-similar manner, into an infinite hierarchy of Poisson algebras. As an example, the classical Virasoro (Witt) algebra that determines reparametrisation diffeomorphism along a continuous string, is identified as a particular sub-algebra, in the hierarchy of the discrete string Poisson algebra. - Highlights: • Witt (classical Virasoro) algebra is derived in the case of discrete string. • Infinite dimensional hierarchy of Poisson bracket algebras is constructed for discrete strings. • Spinor representation of discrete Frenet equations is developed.

  14. Principles of discrete time mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Jaroszkiewicz, George

    2014-01-01

    Could time be discrete on some unimaginably small scale? Exploring the idea in depth, this unique introduction to discrete time mechanics systematically builds the theory up from scratch, beginning with the historical, physical and mathematical background to the chronon hypothesis. Covering classical and quantum discrete time mechanics, this book presents all the tools needed to formulate and develop applications of discrete time mechanics in a number of areas, including spreadsheet mechanics, classical and quantum register mechanics, and classical and quantum mechanics and field theories. A consistent emphasis on contextuality and the observer-system relationship is maintained throughout.

  15. Morphological demosaicking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Shuxue

    2009-02-01

    Bayer patterns, in which a single value of red, green or blue is available for each pixel, are widely used in digital color cameras. The reconstruction of the full color image is often referred to as demosaicking. This paper introduced a new approach - morphological demosaicking. The approach is based on strong edge directionality selection and interpolation, followed by morphological operations to refine edge directionality selection and reduce color aliasing. Finally performance evaluation and examples of color artifacts reduction are shown.

  16. DIALOGUE AND CHARACTER CLASSIFICATION IN WOLE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    position, level of education, character and habits of a character are reflected in the speech .... Dictators are averse to any form of ... breaks out shouting slogans of praises of himself. ..... Task easier if I can get all the Obas settled before our.

  17. Character order processing in Chinese reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Junjuan; Li, Xingshan; Liversedge, Simon P

    2015-02-01

    We explored how character order information is encoded in isolated word processing or Chinese sentence reading in 2 experiments using a masked priming paradigm and a gaze-contingent display-change paradigm. The results showed that response latencies in the lexical decision task and reading times on the target word region were longer in the unrelated condition (the prime or the preview was unrelated with the target word) than the transposed-character condition (the prime or the preview was a transposition of the 2 characters of the target word), which were respectively longer than in the identity condition (the prime or preview was identical to the target word). These results show that character order is encoded at an early stage of processing in Chinese reading, but character position encoding was not strict. We also found that character order encoding was similar for single-morpheme and multiple-morpheme words, suggesting that morphemic status does not affect character order encoding. The current results represent an early contribution to our understanding of character order encoding during Chinese reading.

  18. Aristotelian versus Virtue Ethical Character Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curren, Randall

    2016-01-01

    This article examines some central aspects of Kristján Kristjánsson's book, "Aristotelian Character Education," beginning with the claim that contemporary virtue ethics provides methodological, ontological, epistemological, and moral foundations for Aristotelian character education. It considers three different formulations of what…

  19. Relationships between Character Education and School Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaburk, Hasan

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between character education and school climate based on the lived experiences and beliefs of teachers. The research was conducted in a public middle school to explore understandings and beliefs of teachers about character education and its perceived impact on school climate. Social…

  20. A database application for wilderness character monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley Adams; Peter Landres; Simon Kingston

    2012-01-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) Wilderness Stewardship Division, in collaboration with the Aldo Leopold Wilderness Research Institute and the NPS Inventory and Monitoring Program, developed a database application to facilitate tracking and trend reporting in wilderness character. The Wilderness Character Monitoring Database allows consistent, scientifically based...

  1. Developing Individual and Team Character in Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Stacey A.

    2012-01-01

    The idea that participation in sport builds character is a long-standing one. Advocates of sport participation believe that sport provides an appropriate context for the learning of social skills such as cooperation and the development of prosocial behavior (Weiss, Smith, & Stuntz, 2008). Research in sport regarding character development has…

  2. On character amenability of semigroup algebras | Maepa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We study the character amenability of semigroup algebras. We work on general semigroups and certain semigroups such as inverse semigroups with a nite number of idempotents, inverse semigroups with uniformly locally nite idempotent set, Brandt and Rees semigroup and study the character amenability of the ...

  3. First Course in Japanese: Character Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Tamako

    This character workbook is an introduction to Japanese writing designed to be used in conjunction with Parts One and Two of this introductory course in Japanese. All the "hiragana", several "katakana", and 88 Japanese characters are introduced in this text. The workbook, consisting of 30 lessons, is divided into three parts.…

  4. Landscape Character of Pongkor Mining Ecotourism Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumoarto, A.; Gunawan, A.; Machfud; Hikmat, A.

    2017-10-01

    Pongkor Mining Ecotourism Area has a diverse landscape character as a potential landscape resources for the development of ecotourism destination. This area is part of the Mount of Botol Resort, Halimun Salak National Park (HSNP). This area also has a fairly high biodiversity. This study aims to identify and analysis the category of landscape character in the Pongkor Mining Ecotourism Area for the development of ecotourism destination. This study used a descriptive approach through field surveys and interviews, was carried out through two steps : 1) identify the landscape character, and 2) analysis of the landscape character. The results showed that in areas set aside for ecotourism destination in Pongkor Mining, landscape character category scattered forests, tailing ponds, river, plain, and the built environment. The Category of landscape character most dominant scattered in the area is forest, here is the river, plain, tailing ponds, the built environment, and plain. The landscape character in a natural environment most preferred for ecotourism activities. The landscape character that spread in the natural environment and the built environment is a potential that must be protected and modified such as elimination of incongruous element, accentuation of natural form, alteration of the natural form, intensification and enhanced visual quality intensively to be developed as a ecotourism destination area.

  5. Do Rural Schools Need Character Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Janice Carner

    Studies suggest that the challenge of violence in public schools can be met through character education, whether by providing a school culture in which core values are practiced or some form of moral training (indoctrination). To assess the need for character education in rural schools, small-school superintendents and board members in central…

  6. Dark discrete gauge symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batell, Brian

    2011-01-01

    We investigate scenarios in which dark matter is stabilized by an Abelian Z N discrete gauge symmetry. Models are surveyed according to symmetries and matter content. Multicomponent dark matter arises when N is not prime and Z N contains one or more subgroups. The dark sector interacts with the visible sector through the renormalizable kinetic mixing and Higgs portal operators, and we highlight the basic phenomenology in these scenarios. In particular, multiple species of dark matter can lead to an unconventional nuclear recoil spectrum in direct detection experiments, while the presence of new light states in the dark sector can dramatically affect the decays of the Higgs at the Tevatron and LHC, thus providing a window into the gauge origin of the stability of dark matter.

  7. Discrete anti-gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noyes, H.P.; Starson, S.

    1991-03-01

    Discrete physics, because it replaces time evolution generated by the energy operator with a global bit-string generator (program universe) and replaces ''fields'' with the relativistic Wheeler-Feynman ''action at a distance,'' allows the consistent formulation of the concept of signed gravitational charge for massive particles. The resulting prediction made by this version of the theory is that free anti-particles near the surface of the earth will ''fall'' up with the same acceleration that the corresponding particles fall down. So far as we can see, no current experimental information is in conflict with this prediction of our theory. The experiment crusis will be one of the anti-proton or anti-hydrogen experiments at CERN. Our prediction should be much easier to test than the small effects which those experiments are currently designed to detect or bound. 23 refs

  8. Learning Motion Features for Example-Based Finger Motion Estimation for Virtual Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousas, Christos; Anagnostopoulos, Christos-Nikolaos

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents a methodology for estimating the motion of a character's fingers based on the use of motion features provided by a virtual character's hand. In the presented methodology, firstly, the motion data is segmented into discrete phases. Then, a number of motion features are computed for each motion segment of a character's hand. The motion features are pre-processed using restricted Boltzmann machines, and by using the different variations of semantically similar finger gestures in a support vector machine learning mechanism, the optimal weights for each feature assigned to a metric are computed. The advantages of the presented methodology in comparison to previous solutions are the following: First, we automate the computation of optimal weights that are assigned to each motion feature counted in our metric. Second, the presented methodology achieves an increase (about 17%) in correctly estimated finger gestures in comparison to a previous method.

  9. Moral character effects in endorser perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Joseph W.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research consists of two experimental studies investigating the influence of moral character on endorser perception, and the influence of perceiver characteristics on tarnished endorser perception and brand evaluations. Perceiver characteristics are discussed from the perspectives of dispositional tendency, innate moral intuitions and self-location. The first study compared the influences of moral character and warmth on endorser perception. The second study examined the impact of perceiver characteristics on tarnished endorsers and brand evaluations. The findings reveal that moral character is more influential than warmth on endorser evaluations. Tarnished endorsers with immoral character exert more negative influence than tarnished endorsers with coldness character on brand evaluations. Innate moral intuitions and self-location moderate brand evaluations. High-morality consumers and heart-locators are more vulnerable than low-morality and brain-locators to the brands endorsed by tarnished endorsers, respectively.

  10. Character Education and Students Social Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamsu A. Kamaruddin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    In an educational environment, in the form of character education program has been done both formally and informally. It's intended as one of the supporting ideas for follow-up in the form of design activities. Character education should basically refers to the vision and mission of the institution concerned. It shows the orientation of the two things in the character of the students are: aspects of human character and individual learners hallmark institution. In this paper, these two aspects is the author trying to ideas by referring to some other writings. The end result, the authors expect the birth of a design patent as early referral to spearhead a character development program learners.

  11. A Missing Piece of the Contemporary Character Education Puzzle: The Individualisation of Moral Character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Lin

    2013-01-01

    The different sorts of virtuous people who display various virtues to a remarkable degree have brought the issue of individualisation of moral character to the forefront. It signals a more personal dimension of character development which is notoriously ignored in the current discourse on character education. The case is made that since in…

  12. Character Recognition Using Genetically Trained Neural Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diniz, C.; Stantz, K.M.; Trahan, M.W.; Wagner, J.S.

    1998-10-01

    Computationally intelligent recognition of characters and symbols addresses a wide range of applications including foreign language translation and chemical formula identification. The combination of intelligent learning and optimization algorithms with layered neural structures offers powerful techniques for character recognition. These techniques were originally developed by Sandia National Laboratories for pattern and spectral analysis; however, their ability to optimize vast amounts of data make them ideal for character recognition. An adaptation of the Neural Network Designer soflsvare allows the user to create a neural network (NN_) trained by a genetic algorithm (GA) that correctly identifies multiple distinct characters. The initial successfid recognition of standard capital letters can be expanded to include chemical and mathematical symbols and alphabets of foreign languages, especially Arabic and Chinese. The FIN model constructed for this project uses a three layer feed-forward architecture. To facilitate the input of characters and symbols, a graphic user interface (GUI) has been developed to convert the traditional representation of each character or symbol to a bitmap. The 8 x 8 bitmap representations used for these tests are mapped onto the input nodes of the feed-forward neural network (FFNN) in a one-to-one correspondence. The input nodes feed forward into a hidden layer, and the hidden layer feeds into five output nodes correlated to possible character outcomes. During the training period the GA optimizes the weights of the NN until it can successfully recognize distinct characters. Systematic deviations from the base design test the network's range of applicability. Increasing capacity, the number of letters to be recognized, requires a nonlinear increase in the number of hidden layer neurodes. Optimal character recognition performance necessitates a minimum threshold for the number of cases when genetically training the net. And, the

  13. Control of Discrete Event Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smedinga, Rein

    1989-01-01

    Systemen met discrete gebeurtenissen spelen in vele gebieden een rol. In dit proefschrift staat de volgorde van gebeurtenissen centraal en worden tijdsaspecten buiten beschouwing gelaten. In dat geval kunnen systemen met discrete gebeurtenissen goed worden gemodelleerd door gebruik te maken van

  14. Discrete Mathematics and Its Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxley, Alan

    2010-01-01

    The article gives ideas that lecturers of undergraduate Discrete Mathematics courses can use in order to make the subject more interesting for students and encourage them to undertake further studies in the subject. It is possible to teach Discrete Mathematics with little or no reference to computing. However, students are more likely to be…

  15. Discrete Mathematics and Curriculum Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Margaret J.

    1996-01-01

    Defines discrete mathematics as the mathematics necessary to effect reasoned decision making in finite situations and explains how its use supports the current view of mathematics education. Discrete mathematics can be used by curriculum developers to improve the curriculum for students of all ages and abilities. (SLD)

  16. Connections on discrete fibre bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manton, N.S.; Cambridge Univ.

    1987-01-01

    A new approach to gauge fields on a discrete space-time is proposed, in which the fundamental object is a discrete version of a principal fibre bundle. If the bundle is twisted, the gauge fields are topologically non-trivial automatically. (orig.)

  17. MORPHOLOGICAL EVALUATION AND PROTEIN PROFILING OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    characterizing Nigerian Corchorus species. Keywords: Vegetative characters, SDS-PAGE, Corchorus ... In regions like China, India, Nepal and Bangladesh. Corchorus species is of great economic importance and bulk of ... The morphological characterization of the. Corchorus samples was conducted in the experimental.

  18. Video Game Characters. Theory and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Schröter

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay develops a method for the analysis of video game characters based on a theoretical understanding of their medium-specific representation and the mental processes involved in their intersubjective construction by video game players. We propose to distinguish, first, between narration, simulation, and communication as three modes of representation particularly salient for contemporary video games and the characters they represent, second, between narrative, ludic, and social experience as three ways in which players perceive video game characters and their representations, and, third, between three dimensions of video game characters as ‘intersubjective constructs’, which usually are to be analyzed not only as fictional beings with certain diegetic properties but also as game pieces with certain ludic properties and, in those cases in which they function as avatars in the social space of a multiplayer game, as representations of other players. Having established these basic distinctions, we proceed to analyze their realization and interrelation by reference to the character of Martin Walker from the third-person shooter Spec Ops: The Line (Yager Development 2012, the highly customizable player-controlled characters from the role-playing game The Elder Scrolls V: Skyrim (Bethesda 2011, and the complex multidimensional characters in the massively multiplayer online role-playing game Star Wars: The Old Republic (BioWare 2011-2014.

  19. Discrete dynamics versus analytic dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toxværd, Søren

    2014-01-01

    For discrete classical Molecular dynamics obtained by the “Verlet” algorithm (VA) with the time increment h there exists a shadow Hamiltonian H˜ with energy E˜(h) , for which the discrete particle positions lie on the analytic trajectories for H˜ . Here, we proof that there, independent...... of such an analytic analogy, exists an exact hidden energy invariance E * for VA dynamics. The fact that the discrete VA dynamics has the same invariances as Newtonian dynamics raises the question, which of the formulations that are correct, or alternatively, the most appropriate formulation of classical dynamics....... In this context the relation between the discrete VA dynamics and the (general) discrete dynamics investigated by Lee [Phys. Lett. B122, 217 (1983)] is presented and discussed....

  20. Modern approaches to discrete curvature

    CERN Document Server

    Romon, Pascal

    2017-01-01

     This book provides a valuable glimpse into discrete curvature, a rich new field of research which blends discrete mathematics, differential geometry, probability and computer graphics. It includes a vast collection of ideas and tools which will offer something new to all interested readers. Discrete geometry has arisen as much as a theoretical development as in response to unforeseen challenges coming from applications. Discrete and continuous geometries have turned out to be intimately connected. Discrete curvature is the key concept connecting them through many bridges in numerous fields: metric spaces, Riemannian and Euclidean geometries, geometric measure theory, topology, partial differential equations, calculus of variations, gradient flows, asymptotic analysis, probability, harmonic analysis, graph theory, etc. In spite of its crucial importance both in theoretical mathematics and in applications, up to now, almost no books have provided a coherent outlook on this emerging field.

  1. A structural query system for Han characters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skala, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    The IDSgrep structural query system for Han character dictionaries is presented. This dictionary search system represents the spatial structure of Han characters using Extended Ideographic Description Sequences (EIDSes), a data model and syntax based on the Unicode IDS concept. It includes a query...... language for EIDS databases, with a freely available implementation and format translation from popular third-party IDS and XML character databases. The system is designed to suit the needs of font developers and foreign language learners. The search algorithm includes a bit vector index inspired by Bloom...... filters to support faster query operations. Experimental results are presented, evaluating the effect of the indexing on query performance....

  2. Submatrices of character tables and basic sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bessenrodt, Christine; Olsson, Jørn Børling

    2012-01-01

    In this investigation of character tables of nite groups we study basic sets and associated representation theoretic data for complementary sets of conjugacy lasses. For the symmetric groups we nd unexpected properties of characters on restricted sets of conjugacy classes, like beautiful...... combinatorial determinant formulae for submatrices of the character table and Cartan matrices with respect to basic sets; we observe that similar phenomena occur for the transition matrices between power sum symmetric functions to bounded partitions and the k-Schur functions dened by Lapointe and Morse...

  3. On Hemingway’s Literary Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Miruna Ciocoi-Pop

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is a brief outline of Hemingway’s characters and the way in which they correspond to the author himself. It is known for a fact that Hemingway evinced a tendency to imitate his characters when they were coming to grips with diverse situations. Thus I have tried to briefly pinpoint the fading boundaries between reality and imagination in his work. By doing so, I have focused on both male and female characters, underlining the major dissimilarities between these two categories, as well as their main features.

  4. Discretion and Disproportionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason A. Grissom

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Students of color are underrepresented in gifted programs relative to White students, but the reasons for this underrepresentation are poorly understood. We investigate the predictors of gifted assignment using nationally representative, longitudinal data on elementary students. We document that even among students with high standardized test scores, Black students are less likely to be assigned to gifted services in both math and reading, a pattern that persists when controlling for other background factors, such as health and socioeconomic status, and characteristics of classrooms and schools. We then investigate the role of teacher discretion, leveraging research from political science suggesting that clients of government services from traditionally underrepresented groups benefit from diversity in the providers of those services, including teachers. Even after conditioning on test scores and other factors, Black students indeed are referred to gifted programs, particularly in reading, at significantly lower rates when taught by non-Black teachers, a concerning result given the relatively low incidence of assignment to own-race teachers among Black students.

  5. Discrete Planck spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlad, Valentin I.; Ionescu-Pallas, Nicholas

    2000-10-01

    The Planck radiation spectrum of ideal cubic and spherical cavities, in the region of small adiabatic invariance, γ = TV 1/3 , is shown to be discrete and strongly dependent on the cavity geometry and temperature. This behavior is the consequence of the random distribution of the state weights in the cubic cavity and of the random overlapping of the successive multiplet components, for the spherical cavity. The total energy (obtained by summing up the exact contributions of the eigenvalues and their weights, for low values of the adiabatic invariance) does not obey any longer Stefan-Boltzmann law. The new law includes a corrective factor depending on γ and imposes a faster decrease of the total energy to zero, for γ → 0. We have defined the double quantized regime both for cubic and spherical cavities by the superior and inferior limits put on the principal quantum numbers or the adiabatic invariance. The total energy of the double quantized cavities shows large differences from the classical calculations over unexpected large intervals, which are measurable and put in evidence important macroscopic quantum effects. (author)

  6. Ecomorphology of the moray bite: relationship between dietary extremes and morphological diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Rita S

    2009-01-01

    The pharyngeal jaws of moray eels function exclusively to transport prey from the oral jaws into the esophagus. This functional innovation in the moray pharyngeal jaw system occurred through the loss of some ancestral functions that presumably included prey processing. Therefore, the oral jaws of morays are used to capture and process prey. Dietary accounts suggest that morays can be categorized as either piscivorous or durophagous in feeding habits. These extreme feeding specializations that select for conflicting biomechanical demands on the oral jaws should result in two discrete clusters of cranial form and diet in morphospace. When functional characters underlying the oral jaws were examined for 10 muraenid species, piscivorous and durophagous morays occupied distinct areas of morphospace. Piscivores exhibited longer jaws, narrower heads, and long recurved teeth, while durophagous morays exhibited shorter jaws, greater dentary depths, and short blunt teeth. Durophagous morays process prey in their oral jaws, and their jaw-opening and jaw-closing ratios, along with their enlarged adductors, revealed jaws modified for force transmission. Pharyngeal jaw characters also separated moray species into different areas of morphospace. For example, Gymnomuraena zebra, a molluscivore, had more teeth on its pharyngobranchials than all other morays, and these teeth were long and thin compared with those of piscivores. The overall patterns of morphological variation corresponded well with moray dietary breadth. In addition, the range of jaw-opening and jaw-closing ratios revealed that for a clade of obligate carnivores, morays exhibit diverse biting behaviors.

  7. How jurors use and misuse character evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Jennifer S; Budesheim, Thomas Lee

    2004-04-01

    The Federal Rules of Evidence allow defendants to offer testimony about their good character, but that testimony can be impeached with cross-examination or a rebuttal witness. It is assumed that jurors use the defense's character evidence (CE) to form guilt and conviction judgments but use impeachment evidence only to assess the character witness's credibility. Two experiments tested these assumptions by presenting mock jurors with various forms of CE and impeachment. Participants made trait ratings for the character witness and defendant and guilt and conviction judgments. Positive CE did not affect guilt or conviction judgments, but cross-examination caused a backlash in which judgments were harsher than when no CE was given. Using path analysis, the authors tested a model of the process by which CE and impeachment affect defendant and witness impressions and guilt and conviction judgments. Implications for juror decision making are discussed.

  8. Molecular characters and recombinant expression of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-03-07

    Mar 7, 2011 ... Full Length Research Paper. Molecular characters ... 1State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of .... Characterization and model building of the 3-D.

  9. Some Correlates of the Arab Character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moracco, John

    1983-01-01

    Describes cultural correlates of the Arab character in terms of family patterns, international relations, and implications for therapists and other human service personnel. Discusses the Bedouin influence and religious values and suggests that cultural stereotypes may restrict true understanding. (JAC)

  10. Alterations in subspecific characters of groundnut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouli, C.; Patil, S.H.; Kale, D.M.

    1983-01-01

    Recombination of beneficial characters associated in the cultivars of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea, L.) belonging to the two subspecies hypogaea and fastigiata had little success in conventional breeding programme. The cultures of ssp. hypogaea have the desirable characters for the crop improvement viz; various growth habits, profuse branching, large pod, seed dormancy and stress tolerance. Sequential flowering, early maturity, compact fruiting habit and high kernel outturn are the other useful characters present in ssp. fastigiata cultures. Mutation research in a popular variety, Spanish Improved belonging to ssp. fastigiata led to the selection of various mutants. One among the mutants had large pod, a characteristic of hypogaea ssp. Hybridization among the mutants and improved cultivars as well as radiation treatment of selected cultures resulted in the isolation of cultures having not only combinations and alterations of characters in both subspecies, but also modifications. These cultures are classified into major groups and their significance in the groundnut improvement is discussed. (author)

  11. Brains with character: Reading and writing neuronarrative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yaczo, T.F.

    2015-01-01

    Brains with Character: Reading and Writing Neuronarrative tracks the concept of neuronarrative by analyzing the reciprocal and catalytic relationships between neuroscience and literary media. Crucial to understanding the contemporary stakes in these two cultural endeavors is how their relationships

  12. On discretization of tori of compact simple Lie groups: II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrivnák, Jiří; Motlochová, Lenka; Patera, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    The discrete orthogonality of special function families, called C- and S-functions, which are derived from the characters of compact simple Lie groups, is described in Hrivnák and Patera (2009 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 42 385208). Here, the results of Hrivnák and Patera are extended to two additional recently discovered families of special functions, called S s - and S l -functions. The main result is an explicit description of their pairwise discrete orthogonality within each family, when the functions are sampled on finite fragments F s M and F l M of a lattice in any dimension n ⩾ 2 and of any density controlled by M, and of the symmetry of the weight lattice of any compact simple Lie group with two different lengths of roots. (paper)

  13. ECONOMIC ETHICS: APPLIED AND PROFESSIONAL CHARACTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella Gordova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In given article economic ethics are considered as set of norms of behavior of the businessman, the requirements shown by a cultural society to its style of work, to character of dialogue between participants of business, to their social shape. The conclusion becomes that economic ethics have applied character in relation to theoretical, to obschenormativnoy ethics, hence, represent section of applied ethics. On the other hand, the specific standard maintenance characterizes economic ethics as ethics professional.

  14. A STUDY ON OPTICAL CHARACTER RECOGNITION TECHNIQUES

    OpenAIRE

    Narendra Sahu; Manoj Sonkusare

    2018-01-01

    Optical Character Recognition (OCR) is the process which enables a system to without human intervention identifies the scripts or alphabets written into the users’ verbal communication. Optical Character identification has grown to be individual of the mainly flourishing applications of knowledge in the field of pattern detection and artificial intelligence. In our survey we study on the various OCR techniques. In this paper we resolve and examine the hypothetical and numerical models of Opti...

  15. Use of Splines in Handwritten Character Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Sunil Kumar; Gopinath S,; Satish Kumar; Rajesh Chhikara

    2010-01-01

    Handwritten Character Recognition is software used to identify the handwritten characters and receive and interpret intelligible andwritten input from sources such as manuscript documents. The recent past several years has seen the development of many systems which are able to simulate the human brain actions. Among the many, the neural networks and the artificial intelligence are the most two important paradigms used. In this paper we propose a new algorithm for recognition of handwritten t...

  16. Video Game Characters. Theory and Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Felix Schröter; Jan-Noël Thon

    2014-01-01

    This essay develops a method for the analysis of video game characters based on a theoretical understanding of their medium-specific representation and the mental processes involved in their intersubjective construction by video game players. We propose to distinguish, first, between narration, simulation, and communication as three modes of representation particularly salient for contemporary video games and the characters they represent, second, between narrative, ludic, and social experien...

  17. Perfect discretization of path integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhaus, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    In order to obtain a well-defined path integral one often employs discretizations. In the case of General Relativity these generically break diffeomorphism symmetry, which has severe consequences since these symmetries determine the dynamics of the corresponding system. In this article we consider the path integral of reparametrization invariant systems as a toy example and present an improvement procedure for the discretized propagator. Fixed points and convergence of the procedure are discussed. Furthermore we show that a reparametrization invariant path integral implies discretization independence and acts as a projector onto physical states.

  18. Perfect discretization of path integrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhaus, Sebastian

    2012-05-01

    In order to obtain a well-defined path integral one often employs discretizations. In the case of General Relativity these generically break diffeomorphism symmetry, which has severe consequences since these symmetries determine the dynamics of the corresponding system. In this article we consider the path integral of reparametrization invariant systems as a toy example and present an improvement procedure for the discretized propagator. Fixed points and convergence of the procedure are discussed. Furthermore we show that a reparametrization invariant path integral implies discretization independence and acts as a projector onto physical states.

  19. The origin of discrete particles

    CERN Document Server

    Bastin, T

    2009-01-01

    This book is a unique summary of the results of a long research project undertaken by the authors on discreteness in modern physics. In contrast with the usual expectation that discreteness is the result of mathematical tools for insertion into a continuous theory, this more basic treatment builds up the world from the discrimination of discrete entities. This gives an algebraic structure in which certain fixed numbers arise. As such, one agrees with the measured value of the fine-structure constant to one part in 10,000,000 (10 7 ). Sample Chapter(s). Foreword (56 KB). Chapter 1: Introduction

  20. Synchronization Techniques in Parallel Discrete Event Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Lindén, Jonatan

    2018-01-01

    Discrete event simulation is an important tool for evaluating system models in many fields of science and engineering. To improve the performance of large-scale discrete event simulations, several techniques to parallelize discrete event simulation have been developed. In parallel discrete event simulation, the work of a single discrete event simulation is distributed over multiple processing elements. A key challenge in parallel discrete event simulation is to ensure that causally dependent ...

  1. 3-D Discrete Analytical Ridgelet Transform

    OpenAIRE

    Helbert , David; Carré , Philippe; Andrès , Éric

    2006-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we propose an implementation of the 3-D Ridgelet transform: the 3-D discrete analytical Ridgelet transform (3-D DART). This transform uses the Fourier strategy for the computation of the associated 3-D discrete Radon transform. The innovative step is the definition of a discrete 3-D transform with the discrete analytical geometry theory by the construction of 3-D discrete analytical lines in the Fourier domain. We propose two types of 3-D discrete lines:...

  2. Exact analysis of discrete data

    CERN Document Server

    Hirji, Karim F

    2005-01-01

    Researchers in fields ranging from biology and medicine to the social sciences, law, and economics regularly encounter variables that are discrete or categorical in nature. While there is no dearth of books on the analysis and interpretation of such data, these generally focus on large sample methods. When sample sizes are not large or the data are otherwise sparse, exact methods--methods not based on asymptotic theory--are more accurate and therefore preferable.This book introduces the statistical theory, analysis methods, and computation techniques for exact analysis of discrete data. After reviewing the relevant discrete distributions, the author develops the exact methods from the ground up in a conceptually integrated manner. The topics covered range from univariate discrete data analysis, a single and several 2 x 2 tables, a single and several 2 x K tables, incidence density and inverse sampling designs, unmatched and matched case -control studies, paired binary and trinomial response models, and Markov...

  3. Discrete geometric structures for architecture

    KAUST Repository

    Pottmann, Helmut

    2010-01-01

    . The talk will provide an overview of recent progress in this field, with a particular focus on discrete geometric structures. Most of these result from practical requirements on segmenting a freeform shape into planar panels and on the physical realization

  4. Causal Dynamics of Discrete Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Arrighi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We formalize the intuitive idea of a labelled discrete surface which evolves in time, subject to two natural constraints: the evolution does not propagate information too fast; and it acts everywhere the same.

  5. An attempt to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships within Caribbean nummulitids: simulating relationships and tracing character evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, Wolfgang; Ives Torres-Silva, Ana; Hohenegger, Johann

    2017-04-01

    Phylogenetic analysis and trees based on molecular data are broadly applied and used to infer genetical and biogeographic relationship in recent larger foraminifera. Molecular phylogenetic is intensively used within recent nummulitids, however for fossil representatives these trees are only of minor informational value. Hence, within paleontological studies a phylogenetic approach through morphometric analysis is of much higher value. To tackle phylogenetic relationships within the nummulitid family, a much higher number of morphological character must be measured than are commonly used in biometric studies, where mostly parameters describing embryonic size (e.g., proloculus diameter, deuteroloculus diameter) and/or the marginal spiral (e.g., spiral diagrams, spiral indices) are studied. For this purpose 11 growth-independent and/or growth-invariant characters have been used to describe the morphological variability of equatorial thin sections of seven Carribbean nummulitid taxa (Nummulites striatoreticulatus, N. macgillavry, Palaeonummulites willcoxi, P.floridensis, P. soldadensis, P.trinitatensis and P.ocalanus) and one outgroup taxon (Ranikothalia bermudezi). Using these characters, phylogenetic trees were calculated using a restricted maximum likelihood algorithm (REML), and results are cross-checked by ordination and cluster analysis. Square-change parsimony method has been run to reconstruct ancestral states, as well as to simulate the evolution of the chosen characters along the calculated phylogenetic tree and, independent - contrast analysis was used to estimate confidence intervals. Based on these simulations, phylogenetic tendencies of certain characters proposed for nummulitids (e.g., Cope's rule or nepionic acceleration) can be tested, whether these tendencies are valid for the whole family or only for certain clades. At least, within the Carribean nummulitids, phylogenetic trends along some growth-independent characters of the embryo (e.g., first

  6. Leading Character?s Antisocial Personality Disorder In James B Stewart?s Blind Eye

    OpenAIRE

    Lestari, Ayu

    2016-01-01

    110705043 The title of this thesis isLeading Character?s Antisocial Personality Disorder in James B Stewart?s Blind Eyethat is research about antisocial personality of leading character in the novel, namely Dr. Michael Swango. The purpose of this thesis is to find out characteristic of Swango that show he has antisocial personality disorder and to know the causes of his disorder. The writer refers to theory antisocial personality disorder that take in a research of APA (American Psychiatri...

  7. EREM: Parameter Estimation and Ancestral Reconstruction by Expectation-Maximization Algorithm for a Probabilistic Model of Genomic Binary Characters Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liran Carmel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary binary characters are features of species or genes, indicating the absence (value zero or presence (value one of some property. Examples include eukaryotic gene architecture (the presence or absence of an intron in a particular locus, gene content, and morphological characters. In many studies, the acquisition of such binary characters is assumed to represent a rare evolutionary event, and consequently, their evolution is analyzed using various flavors of parsimony. However, when gain and loss of the character are not rare enough, a probabilistic analysis becomes essential. Here, we present a comprehensive probabilistic model to describe the evolution of binary characters on a bifurcating phylogenetic tree. A fast software tool, EREM, is provided, using maximum likelihood to estimate the parameters of the model and to reconstruct ancestral states (presence and absence in internal nodes and events (gain and loss events along branches.

  8. EREM: Parameter Estimation and Ancestral Reconstruction by Expectation-Maximization Algorithm for a Probabilistic Model of Genomic Binary Characters Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmel, Liran; Wolf, Yuri I; Rogozin, Igor B; Koonin, Eugene V

    2010-01-01

    Evolutionary binary characters are features of species or genes, indicating the absence (value zero) or presence (value one) of some property. Examples include eukaryotic gene architecture (the presence or absence of an intron in a particular locus), gene content, and morphological characters. In many studies, the acquisition of such binary characters is assumed to represent a rare evolutionary event, and consequently, their evolution is analyzed using various flavors of parsimony. However, when gain and loss of the character are not rare enough, a probabilistic analysis becomes essential. Here, we present a comprehensive probabilistic model to describe the evolution of binary characters on a bifurcating phylogenetic tree. A fast software tool, EREM, is provided, using maximum likelihood to estimate the parameters of the model and to reconstruct ancestral states (presence and absence in internal nodes) and events (gain and loss events along branches).

  9. Perfect discretization of path integrals

    OpenAIRE

    Steinhaus, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    In order to obtain a well-defined path integral one often employs discretizations. In the case of General Relativity these generically break diffeomorphism symmetry, which has severe consequences since these symmetries determine the dynamics of the corresponding system. In this article we consider the path integral of reparametrization invariant systems as a toy example and present an improvement procedure for the discretized propagator. Fixed points and convergence of the procedure are discu...

  10. Ultrastructural characters of a Physarum melleum on living leaves of Dendrobium candidum in China*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing-ze; Liu, Lu-ning; Fiore-Donno, Anna-Maria; Xu, Tong

    2007-01-01

    A known species, Physarum melleum, was found fruiting on living leaves of Dendrobium candidum, which was collected in China in 2004. Its morphological characters were revealed by light microscopy (LM), environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Character variations were distinguished by its olive-yellow peridium and its always thinner capillitium containing globulose granular material between the large calcareous nodes. The calcium carbonate granules, deposited on stalks, peridium and hypothallus as well as within stalks, were globose and smooth. PMID:18257124

  11. Character Play – The use of game characters in multi- player Role Playing Games across platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; Hitchens, M.; Brolund, T.

    2008-01-01

    histories of game characters. This article presents results from a comprehensive empirical study of the way complex game characters are utilized by players in multiplayer role-playing games across two different media platforms. The results indicate that adult players are capable of comprehending...... and utilizing game characters with well-defined personalities and backgrounds, as well as rules-based components. Furthermore, that the game format plays a significant role in the pattern of usage of the character elements. This pattern appears directly linked with variations in the way that the different game...

  12. Applied discrete-time queues

    CERN Document Server

    Alfa, Attahiru S

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces the theoretical fundamentals for modeling queues in discrete-time, and the basic procedures for developing queuing models in discrete-time. There is a focus on applications in modern telecommunication systems. It presents how most queueing models in discrete-time can be set up as discrete-time Markov chains. Techniques such as matrix-analytic methods (MAM) that can used to analyze the resulting Markov chains are included. This book covers single node systems, tandem system and queueing networks. It shows how queues with time-varying parameters can be analyzed, and illustrates numerical issues associated with computations for the discrete-time queueing systems. Optimal control of queues is also covered. Applied Discrete-Time Queues targets researchers, advanced-level students and analysts in the field of telecommunication networks. It is suitable as a reference book and can also be used as a secondary text book in computer engineering and computer science. Examples and exercises are includ...

  13. IMAGE PROCESSING BASED OPTICAL CHARACTER RECOGNITION USING MATLAB

    OpenAIRE

    Jyoti Dalal*1 & Sumiran Daiya2

    2018-01-01

    Character recognition techniques associate a symbolic identity with the image of character. In a typical OCR systems input characters are digitized by an optical scanner. Each character is then located and segmented, and the resulting character image is fed into a pre-processor for noise reduction and normalization. Certain characteristics are the extracted from the character for classification. The feature extraction is critical and many different techniques exist, each having its strengths ...

  14. Systematics of Cladophora spp. (Chlorophyta) from North Carolina, USA, based upon morphology and DNA sequence data with a description of Cladophora subtilissima sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Robin L; Bailey, Jeffrey Craig; Freshwater, David Wilson

    2017-06-01

    Identification of Cladophora species is challenging due to conservation of gross morphology, few discrete autapomorphies, and environmental influences on morphology. Twelve species of marine Cladophora were reported from North Carolina waters. Cladophora specimens were collected from inshore and offshore marine waters for DNA sequence and morphological analyses. The nuclear-encoded rRNA internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS) were sequenced for 105 specimens and used in molecular assisted identification. The ITS1 and ITS2 region was highly variable, and sequences were sorted into ITS Sets of Alignable Sequences (SASs). Sequencing of short hyper-variable ITS1 sections from Cladophora type specimens was used to positively identify species represented by SASs when the types were made available. Secondary structures for the ITS1 locus were also predicted for each specimen and compared to predicted structures from Cladophora sequences available in GenBank. Nine ITS SASs were identified and representative specimens chosen for phylogenetic analyses of 18S and 28S rRNA gene sequences to reveal relationships with other Cladophora species. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that marine Cladophorales were polyphyletic and separated into two clades, the Cladophora clade and the "Siphonocladales" clade. Morphological analyses were performed to assess the consistency of character states within species, and complement the DNA sequence analyses. These analyses revealed intra- and interspecific character state variation, and that combined molecular and morphological analyses were required for the identification of species. One new report, Cladophora dotyana, and one new species Cladophora subtilissima sp. nov., were revealed, and increased the biodiversity of North Carolina marine Cladophora to 14 species. © 2017 Phycological Society of America.

  15. A Classification Scheme for Literary Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Berry

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available There is no established classification scheme for literary characters in narrative theory short of generic categories like protagonist vs. antagonist or round vs. flat. This is so despite the ubiquity of stock characters that recur across media, cultures, and historical time periods. We present here a proposal of a systematic psychological scheme for classifying characters from the literary and dramatic fields based on a modification of the Thomas-Kilmann (TK Conflict Mode Instrument used in applied studies of personality. The TK scheme classifies personality along the two orthogonal dimensions of assertiveness and cooperativeness. To examine the validity of a modified version of this scheme, we had 142 participants provide personality ratings for 40 characters using two of the Big Five personality traits as well as assertiveness and cooperativeness from the TK scheme. The results showed that assertiveness and cooperativeness were orthogonal dimensions, thereby supporting the validity of using a modified version of TK’s two-dimensional scheme for classifying characters.

  16. Benchmark for license plate character segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Gabriel Resende; da Silva, Sirlene Pio Gomes; Menotti, David; Shwartz, William Robson

    2016-09-01

    Automatic license plate recognition (ALPR) has been the focus of many researches in the past years. In general, ALPR is divided into the following problems: detection of on-track vehicles, license plate detection, segmentation of license plate characters, and optical character recognition (OCR). Even though commercial solutions are available for controlled acquisition conditions, e.g., the entrance of a parking lot, ALPR is still an open problem when dealing with data acquired from uncontrolled environments, such as roads and highways when relying only on imaging sensors. Due to the multiple orientations and scales of the license plates captured by the camera, a very challenging task of the ALPR is the license plate character segmentation (LPCS) step, because its effectiveness is required to be (near) optimal to achieve a high recognition rate by the OCR. To tackle the LPCS problem, this work proposes a benchmark composed of a dataset designed to focus specifically on the character segmentation step of the ALPR within an evaluation protocol. Furthermore, we propose the Jaccard-centroid coefficient, an evaluation measure more suitable than the Jaccard coefficient regarding the location of the bounding box within the ground-truth annotation. The dataset is composed of 2000 Brazilian license plates consisting of 14000 alphanumeric symbols and their corresponding bounding box annotations. We also present a straightforward approach to perform LPCS efficiently. Finally, we provide an experimental evaluation for the dataset based on five LPCS approaches and demonstrate the importance of character segmentation for achieving an accurate OCR.

  17. Discrete Curvature Theories and Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Xiang

    2016-08-25

    Discrete Di erential Geometry (DDG) concerns discrete counterparts of notions and methods in di erential geometry. This thesis deals with a core subject in DDG, discrete curvature theories on various types of polyhedral surfaces that are practically important for free-form architecture, sunlight-redirecting shading systems, and face recognition. Modeled as polyhedral surfaces, the shapes of free-form structures may have to satisfy di erent geometric or physical constraints. We study a combination of geometry and physics { the discrete surfaces that can stand on their own, as well as having proper shapes for the manufacture. These proper shapes, known as circular and conical meshes, are closely related to discrete principal curvatures. We study curvature theories that make such surfaces possible. Shading systems of freeform building skins are new types of energy-saving structures that can re-direct the sunlight. From these systems, discrete line congruences across polyhedral surfaces can be abstracted. We develop a new curvature theory for polyhedral surfaces equipped with normal congruences { a particular type of congruences de ned by linear interpolation of vertex normals. The main results are a discussion of various de nitions of normality, a detailed study of the geometry of such congruences, and a concept of curvatures and shape operators associated with the faces of a triangle mesh. These curvatures are compatible with both normal congruences and the Steiner formula. In addition to architecture, we consider the role of discrete curvatures in face recognition. We use geometric measure theory to introduce the notion of asymptotic cones associated with a singular subspace of a Riemannian manifold, which is an extension of the classical notion of asymptotic directions. We get a simple expression of these cones for polyhedral surfaces, as well as convergence and approximation theorems. We use the asymptotic cones as facial descriptors and demonstrate the

  18. The Inaccuracy of National Character Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrae, Robert R.; Chan, Wayne; Jussim, Lee; De Fruyt, Filip; Löckenhoff, Corinna E.; De Bolle, Marleen; Costa, Paul T.; Hřebíčková, Martina; Graf, Sylvie; Realo, Anu; Allik, Jüri; Nakazato, Katsuharu; Shimonaka, Yoshiko; Yik, Michelle; Ficková, Emília; Brunner-Sciarra, Marina; Reátigui, Norma; de Figueora, Nora Leibovich; Schmidt, Vanina; Ahn, Chang-kyu; Ahn, Hyun-nie; Aguilar-Vafaie, Maria E.; Siuta, Jerzy; Szmigielska, Barbara; Cain, Thomas R.; Crawford, Jarret T.; Mastor, Khairul Anwar; Rolland, Jean-Pierre; Nansubuga, Florence; Miramontez, Daniel R.; Benet-Martínez, Veronica; Rossier, Jérôme; Bratko, Denis; Marušić, Iris; Halberstadt, Jamin; Yamaguchi, Mami; Knežević, Goran; Purić, Danka; Martin, Thomas A.; Gheorghiu, Mirona; Smith, Peter B.; Barbaranelli, Claudio; Wang, Lei; Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; Lima, Margarida P.; Klinkosz, Waldemar; Sekowski, Andrzej; Alcalay, Lidia; Simonetti, Franco; Avdeyeva, Tatyana V.; Pramila, V. S.; Terracciano, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Consensual stereotypes of some groups are relatively accurate, whereas others are not. Previous work suggesting that national character stereotypes are inaccurate has been criticized on several grounds. In this article we (a) provide arguments for the validity of assessed national mean trait levels as criteria for evaluating stereotype accuracy; and (b) report new data on national character in 26 cultures from descriptions (N=3,323) of the typical male or female adolescent, adult, or old person in each. The average ratings were internally consistent and converged with independent stereotypes of the typical culture member, but were weakly related to objective assessments of personality. We argue that this conclusion is consistent with the broader literature on the inaccuracy of national character stereotypes. PMID:24187394

  19. Transliterating non-ASCII characters with Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Bernstein

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This lesson shows how to use Python to transliterate automatically a list of words from a language with a non-Latin alphabet to a standardized format using the American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII characters. It builds on readers’ understanding of Python from the lessons “Viewing HTML Files,” “Working with Web Pages,” “From HTML to List of Words (part 1” and “Intro to Beautiful Soup.” At the end of the lesson, we will use the transliteration dictionary to convert the names from a database of the Russian organization Memorial from Cyrillic into Latin characters. Although the example uses Cyrillic characters, the technique can be reproduced with other alphabets using Unicode.

  20. APLIKASI SPOKES-CHARACTERS DALAM KAITAN DENGAN MEREK PRODUK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Widjoyo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Advertisement by using spokes-characters have potency to alter the choice of consumer brand with the compared to bigger impact which do not use the spokes-character. A lot of producer which hence spokes-character to increase assess to sell from a product. Spokes-Characters experience of the evolution from time to time keep abreast of the era%2C now emerge the new type of spokes-character and its application. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Iklan dengan spokes-characters berpotensi mengubah pilihan merek konsumen dengan dampak lebih besar dibanding yang tidak menggunakan spokes-character. Banyak produsen yang memakai spokes-character untuk meningkatkan nilai jual dari sebuah produk. Spokes-characters mengalami evolusi dari masa ke masa mengikuti perkembangan jaman%2C sekarang muncul jenis baru spokes-character dan aplikasinya. spokes-characters%2C advertising%2C branding.

  1. Character Issues: Reality Character Problems and Solutions through Education in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidek, Abdul Rahim; Islami, Raisul; Abdoludin

    2016-01-01

    Weak character education raises the problem of corruption, a fight between students, free sex, drugs and rape/abortion indicate that the issue of character education of the nation must be improved and the concern of all parties, the nation's leaders, law enforcement officers, educators, religious leaders, groups and other etc. There are two…

  2. Character Education in Print: Content Analysis of Character Education in Introduction to Education Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protz, Babette Marisa

    2013-01-01

    Albert Einstein is credited with saying that the most important component of education is the development of students' character. While debate exists as to the delivery of character education in the public schools, it must be recognized that not all students have a support system outside of the schoolhouse. Consequently, when character…

  3. Morphological identification of Lucilia sericata, Lucilia cuprina and their hybrids (Diptera, Calliphoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kirstin A.; Villet, Martin H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Hybrids of Lucilia sericata and Lucilia cuprina have been shown to exist in previous studies using molecular methods, but no study has shown explicitly that these hybrids can be identified morphologically. Published morphological characters used to identify L. sericata and L. cuprina were reviewed, and then scored and tested using specimens of both species and known hybrids. Ordination by multi-dimensional scaling indicated that the species were separable, and that hybrids resembled L. cuprina, whatever their origin. Discriminant function analysis of the characters successfully separated the specimens into three unambiguous groups – L. sericata, L. cuprina and hybrids. The hybrids were morphologically similar irrespective of whether they were from an ancient introgressed lineage or more modern. This is the first evidence that hybrids of these two species can be identified from their morphology. The usefulness of the morphological characters is also discussed and photographs of several characters are included to facilitate their assessment. PMID:25061373

  4. Analysis of Discrete Mittag - Leffler Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Shobanadevi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Discrete Mittag - Leffler functions play a major role in the development of the theory of discrete fractional calculus. In the present article, we analyze qualitative properties of discrete Mittag - Leffler functions and establish sufficient conditions for convergence, oscillation and summability of the infinite series associated with discrete Mittag - Leffler functions.

  5. Mixed signals? Morphological and molecular evidence suggest a color polymorphism in some neotropical polythore damselflies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Sánchez Herrera

    Full Text Available The study of color polymorphisms (CP has provided profound insights into the maintenance of genetic variation in natural populations. We here offer the first evidence for an elaborate wing polymorphism in the Neotropical damselfly genus Polythore, which consists of 21 described species, distributed along the eastern slopes of the Andes in South America. These damselflies display highly complex wing colors and patterning, incorporating black, white, yellow, and orange in multiple wing bands. Wing colors, along with some components of the male genitalia, have been the primary characters used in species description; few other morphological traits vary within the group, and so there are few useful diagnostic characters. Previous research has indicated the possibility of a cryptic species existing in P. procera in Colombia, despite there being no significant differences in wing color and pattern between the populations of the two putative species. Here we analyze the complexity and diversity of wing color patterns of individuals from five described Polythore species in the Central Amazon Basin of Peru using a novel suite of morphological analyses to quantify wing color and pattern: geometric morphometrics, chromaticity analysis, and Gabor wavelet transformation. We then test whether these color patterns are good predictors of species by recovering the phylogenetic relationships among the 5 species using the barcode gene (COI. Our results suggest that, while highly distinct and discrete wing patterns exist in Polythore, these "wingforms" do not represent monophyletic clades in the recovered topology. The wingforms identified as P. victoria and P. ornata are both involved in a polymorphism with P. neopicta; also, cryptic speciation may have taking place among individuals with the P. victoria wingform. Only P. aurora and P. spateri represent monophyletic species with a single wingform in our molecular phylogeny. We discuss the implications of this

  6. Mixed signals? Morphological and molecular evidence suggest a color polymorphism in some neotropical polythore damselflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Herrera, Melissa; Kuhn, William R; Lorenzo-Carballa, Maria Olalla; Harding, Kathleen M; Ankrom, Nikole; Sherratt, Thomas N; Hoffmann, Joachim; Van Gossum, Hans; Ware, Jessica L; Cordero-Rivera, Adolfo; Beatty, Christopher D

    2015-01-01

    The study of color polymorphisms (CP) has provided profound insights into the maintenance of genetic variation in natural populations. We here offer the first evidence for an elaborate wing polymorphism in the Neotropical damselfly genus Polythore, which consists of 21 described species, distributed along the eastern slopes of the Andes in South America. These damselflies display highly complex wing colors and patterning, incorporating black, white, yellow, and orange in multiple wing bands. Wing colors, along with some components of the male genitalia, have been the primary characters used in species description; few other morphological traits vary within the group, and so there are few useful diagnostic characters. Previous research has indicated the possibility of a cryptic species existing in P. procera in Colombia, despite there being no significant differences in wing color and pattern between the populations of the two putative species. Here we analyze the complexity and diversity of wing color patterns of individuals from five described Polythore species in the Central Amazon Basin of Peru using a novel suite of morphological analyses to quantify wing color and pattern: geometric morphometrics, chromaticity analysis, and Gabor wavelet transformation. We then test whether these color patterns are good predictors of species by recovering the phylogenetic relationships among the 5 species using the barcode gene (COI). Our results suggest that, while highly distinct and discrete wing patterns exist in Polythore, these "wingforms" do not represent monophyletic clades in the recovered topology. The wingforms identified as P. victoria and P. ornata are both involved in a polymorphism with P. neopicta; also, cryptic speciation may have taking place among individuals with the P. victoria wingform. Only P. aurora and P. spateri represent monophyletic species with a single wingform in our molecular phylogeny. We discuss the implications of this polymorphism, and the

  7. Refined geometric transition and qq-characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Taro; Mori, Hironori; Sugimoto, Yuji

    2018-01-01

    We show the refinement of the prescription for the geometric transition in the refined topological string theory and, as its application, discuss a possibility to describe qq-characters from the string theory point of view. Though the suggested way to operate the refined geometric transition has passed through several checks, it is additionally found in this paper that the presence of the preferred direction brings a nontrivial effect. We provide the modified formula involving this point. We then apply our prescription of the refined geometric transition to proposing the stringy description of doubly quantized Seiberg-Witten curves called qq-characters in certain cases.

  8. Foundations of a discrete physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGoveran, D.; Noyes, P.

    1988-01-01

    Starting from the principles of finiteness, discreteness, finite computability and absolute nonuniqueness, we develop the ordering operator calculus, a strictly constructive mathematical system having the empirical properties required by quantum mechanical and special relativistic phenomena. We show how to construct discrete distance functions, and both rectangular and spherical coordinate systems(with a discrete version of ''π''). The richest discrete space constructible without a preferred axis and preserving translational and rotational invariance is shown to be a discrete 3-space with the usual symmetries. We introduce a local ordering parameter with local (proper) time-like properties and universal ordering parameters with global (cosmological) time-like properties. Constructed ''attribute velocities'' connect ensembles with attributes that are invariant as the appropriate time-like parameter increases. For each such attribute, we show how to construct attribute velocities which must satisfy the '' relativistic Doppler shift'' and the ''relativistic velocity composition law,'' as well as the Lorentz transformations. By construction, these velocities have finite maximum and minimum values. In the space of all attributes, the minimum of these maximum velocities will predominate in all multiple attribute computations, and hence can be identified as a fundamental limiting velocity, General commutation relations are constructed which under the physical interpretation are shown to reduce to the usual quantum mechanical commutation relations. 50 refs., 18 figs

  9. Character Apps for Children's Snacks: Effects of Character Awareness on Snack Selection and Consumption Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Marisa M; Cotto, Caroline E; Calvert, Sandra L

    2018-04-01

    Media characters are used to market snacks that are typically of poor nutritional value, which has been linked to childhood obesity. This study examines whether children's snack selections and consumption patterns are influenced by an app depicting a popular children's media character, as well as the role that children's awareness of the character plays. The results can increase our understanding of how to encourage healthier snack selection and consumption in newer game-based marketing venues, such as apps. Four- and 5-year-old children (N = 132) played a bowling game on an iPad with no character or with a character holding either healthier or unhealthy snacks. After app-play, children selected and consumed healthier or unhealthy snacks. Children's awareness of the character was measured by children's verbalizations of the character's name during or after app-play. An ordered logistic regression found no significant effect of treatment conditions compared with the control group. Within treatment conditions, awareness of the character led to selection and consumption of more healthy snacks in the healthier condition (odds ratio β = 10.340, P = 0.008), and of unhealthy snacks in the unhealthy condition (odds ratio β = 0.228, P = 0.033), but children were unaware that the character influenced their decisions. Results suggest that young children will choose and consume healthier, not just unhealthy, products when they are aware that a popular character in an app is associated with the snack, potentially leading to healthier eating patterns.

  10. The effect of the spaceship carrying on the biological characters and sod activity of eggplant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shiheng; Zhang Ya; Zhu Shuijin; Wang Yanfan

    2004-01-01

    The effects of the space shuttle carrying on the growth and biological characters of eggplant SP 1 population were studied. The results showed that the effect of space shuttle carrying on the growth and development of eggplant SP 1 were very significant on the characters such as the plant height, reproductive development, leaf size, fruit length, fruit quality and fruiting rate etc, especially on the plant development and the fruit size, and it is hopeful to select some good eggplant germplasm or cultivars from the population. The SOD activity showed that the SOD level in the mutant-1 plant was one time more than that in control plant, indicating that the space shuttle carrying may increase the expression of some genes and lead to the great change in morphological characters

  11. Segmentation and selection of appropriate Chinese characters in writing place names in Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokimoto, S; Flores d'Arcais, G B

    2001-03-01

    This paper explores the relation between an unknown place name written in hiragana (a Japanese syllabary) and its corresponding written representation in kanji (Chinese characters). We propose three principles as those operating in the selection of the appropriate Chinese characters in writing unknown place names. The three principles are concerned with the combination of on and kun readings (zyuubako-yomi), the number of segmentations, and the bimoraicity characteristics of kanji chosen. We performed two experiments to test the principles; the results supported our hypotheses. These results have some implications for the structure of the Japanese mental lexicon, for the processing load in the use of Chinese characters, and for Japanese prosody and morphology.

  12. Characters of infertility expression on autotetraploid rice with nucleus male sterility via N+ implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Qunce; Li Guoping; Li Yufeng

    2006-01-01

    The N + implantation experiment, taking autotetraploid rice with nucleus male sterility as materials, was finished. The off-spring colonies via N + implantation were selected, gaining some mutants in autotetraploid rice. The characters of infertility expression of the variant single plants, treated by the abnormal low temperature during male differentiation, were studied. As a result of 25 keV N + ion implantation with a low dose (1 x 10 17 cm - '2), there were some variant single plants in the autotetraploid rice. The variant single plants represented specially in infertility. Treated by the abnormal low temperature during male differentiation, some mutants showed obviously variant charactersin infertility following the morphological variation, but others preserved infertility of its parent. The segregation phenomena in the agronomic characters were visible in the lines of M 3 generation, but they kept the stable infertility. It is though that the characters of the infertility variation in the mutants may be allocated in the M 3 generation. (authors)

  13. Discrete differential geometry. Consistency as integrability

    OpenAIRE

    Bobenko, Alexander I.; Suris, Yuri B.

    2005-01-01

    A new field of discrete differential geometry is presently emerging on the border between differential and discrete geometry. Whereas classical differential geometry investigates smooth geometric shapes (such as surfaces), and discrete geometry studies geometric shapes with finite number of elements (such as polyhedra), the discrete differential geometry aims at the development of discrete equivalents of notions and methods of smooth surface theory. Current interest in this field derives not ...

  14. Integrable structure in discrete shell membrane theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schief, W K

    2014-05-08

    We present natural discrete analogues of two integrable classes of shell membranes. By construction, these discrete shell membranes are in equilibrium with respect to suitably chosen internal stresses and external forces. The integrability of the underlying equilibrium equations is proved by relating the geometry of the discrete shell membranes to discrete O surface theory. We establish connections with generalized barycentric coordinates and nine-point centres and identify a discrete version of the classical Gauss equation of surface theory.

  15. Degree distribution in discrete case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Li-Na; Chen, Bin; Yan, Zai-Zai

    2011-01-01

    Vertex degree of many network models and real-life networks is limited to non-negative integer. By means of measure and integral, the relation of the degree distribution and the cumulative degree distribution in discrete case is analyzed. The degree distribution, obtained by the differential of its cumulative, is only suitable for continuous case or discrete case with constant degree change. When degree change is not a constant but proportional to degree itself, power-law degree distribution and its cumulative have the same exponent and the mean value is finite for power-law exponent greater than 1. -- Highlights: → Degree change is the crux for using the cumulative degree distribution method. → It suits for discrete case with constant degree change. → If degree change is proportional to degree, power-law degree distribution and its cumulative have the same exponent. → In addition, the mean value is finite for power-law exponent greater than 1.

  16. Technical guide for monitoring selected conditions related to wilderness character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Landres; Steve Boutcher; Liese Dean; Troy Hall; Tamara Blett; Terry Carlson; Ann Mebane; Carol Hardy; Susan Rinehart; Linda Merigliano; David N. Cole; Andy Leach; Pam Wright; Deb Bumpus

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of monitoring wilderness character is to improve wilderness stewardship by providing managers a tool to assess how selected actions and conditions related to wilderness character are changing over time. Wilderness character monitoring provides information to help answer two key questions about wilderness character and wilderness stewardship: 1. How is...

  17. Guideline for Optical Character Recognition Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Bureau of Standards (DOC), Washington, DC.

    This publication provides materials relating to the design, preparation, acquisition, inspection, and application of Optical Character Recognition (OCR) forms in data entry systems. Since the materials are advisory and tutorial in nature, this publication has been issued as a guideline rather than as a standard in the Federal Information…

  18. A New Experiment on Bengali Character Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Sumana; Bhattacharyya, Debnath; Jeon, Seung-Whan; Kim, Tai-Hoon; Kim, Haeng-Kon

    This paper presents a method to use View based approach in Bangla Optical Character Recognition (OCR) system providing reduced data set to the ANN classification engine rather than the traditional OCR methods. It describes how Bangla characters are processed, trained and then recognized with the use of a Backpropagation Artificial neural network. This is the first published account of using a segmentation-free optical character recognition system for Bangla using a view based approach. The methodology presented here assumes that the OCR pre-processor has presented the input images to the classification engine described here. The size and the font face used to render the characters are also significant in both training and classification. The images are first converted into greyscale and then to binary images; these images are then scaled to a fit a pre-determined area with a fixed but significant number of pixels. The feature vectors are then formed extracting the characteristics points, which in this case is simply a series of 0s and 1s of fixed length. Finally, an artificial neural network is chosen for the training and classification process.

  19. Movement and Character. Lecture, London, 1946

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesorri, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Dr. Montessori's words from the 1946 London Lectures describe principles of intelligence and character, the work of the hand, and movement with a purpose as being integral to self-construction. The perfection of movement is spiritual, says Dr. Montessori. Repetition of practical life exercises are exercises in movement with the dignity of human…

  20. Computational Design of Animated Mechanical Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coros, Stelian; Thomaszewski, Bernhard; DRZ Team Team

    2014-03-01

    A factor key to the appeal of modern CG movies and video-games is that the virtual worlds they portray place no bounds on what can be imagined. Rapid manufacturing devices hold the promise of bringing this type of freedom to our own world, by enabling the fabrication of physical objects whose appearance, deformation behaviors and motions can be precisely specified. In order to unleash the full potential of this technology however, computational design methods that create digital content suitable for fabrication need to be developed. In recent work, we presented a computational design system that allows casual users to create animated mechanical characters. Given an articulated character as input, the user designs the animated character by sketching motion curves indicating how they should move. For each motion curve, our framework creates an optimized mechanism that reproduces it as closely as possible. The resulting mechanisms are attached to the character and then connected to each other using gear trains, which are created in a semi-automated fashion. The mechanical assemblies generated with our system can be driven with a single input driver, such as a hand-operated crank or an electric motor, and they can be fabricated using rapid prototyping devices.

  1. Reflecting on Character (Reflexionando Sobre el Caracter).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candelaria, Cordelia

    1980-01-01

    Responding to the "Proyecto Resolana" article in the July/August 1980 issue of this journal, the article notes the heterogeneity of Hispanic Americans, the three main effects of the European conquest on people of the Western Hemisphere, and attempts to further define the character of Hispanic Americans. (SB)

  2. Theological Education and Character Formation in Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents theological education and character formation in Nigerian Christianity. Some theologians and religious scholars do not offer any practical recipes in dealing with the major pressing problems of theological training for Christian ministry today in the 21st century Nigerian society. Some priests, lay workers ...

  3. Emotional characters for automatic plot creation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theune, Mariet; Rensen, S.; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Nijholt, Antinus; Göbel, S.; Spierling, U.; Hoffmann, A.; Iurgel, I.; Schneider, O.; Dechau, J.; Feix, A.

    The Virtual Storyteller is a multi-agent framework for automatic story generation. In this paper we describe how plots emerge from the actions of semi-autonomous character agents, focusing on the influence of the characters’ emotions on plot development.

  4. Moral-Character Development for Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapsley, Daniel; Woodbury, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    In this article the authors accept the common view that moral-character education is immanent to the life of classroom and schools and inevitable even when remanded to the hidden curriculum. Most schools claim to address the moral formation of students, and many educators enter the profession for values-laden reasons. Yet the language of values,…

  5. On Repairing Generated Behaviors for Graphical Characters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corradini, Andrea; Mehta, Manish

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we continue our work on the creation of artificial intelligence (AI) behaviors for graphical interactive characters by novice users. We refer to novice users as any persons who do not have any particular skills, training and experience in both programming and design. The focus...

  6. Character Education: A Relationship with Building Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crider, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the relationship between the use of character education programming and school health. Measuring and improving school health is a process that supports social, emotional, ethical and civic education. Hoy, Tarter, and Kottkamp define this concept as a healthy school is one in which the institutional,…

  7. Computer Animation for Articulated 3D Characters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiss, S.

    2002-01-01

    We present a review of the computer animation literature, mainly concentrating on articulated characters and at least some degree of interactivity or real time simulation. Advances in dierent techniques such as key-frame, motion capture (also known as mocap), dynamics, inverse kinematics (IK),

  8. Honesty, Cheating, and Character in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Most college faculty care about the characters of their students, especially when it comes to questions of honesty. But can students today be trusted not to cheat when completing papers and exams, and not to do so for the right reasons? In section one of this article, the author reviews some of the leading research on cheating behavior, and in…

  9. Interactive Character Deformation Using Simplified Elastic Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, Z.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis describes the results of our research into realistic skin and model deformation methods aimed at the field of character deformation and animation. The main contributions lie in the properties of our deformation scheme. Our approach preserves the volume of the deformed object while

  10. DIAGNOSTIC CHARACTERS OF TOMOPTERNA AND RANA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    five-toed stage, of a spur on the hind foot, giving a six-toed appearance when the spur first appears. This feature ... In the main key, besides the spur on the foot, tail and spiracle characters were used, the former with the .... and is generally pale ... ' (p. 96) and 'They reach a maximum of 70 mm, and are flat, heavy tadpoles ..•.

  11. Amharic Character Generator | Gessesse | Zede Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zede Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 7 (1986) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Amharic Character Generator. GA Gessesse. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text:.

  12. [The aesthetic character of caring knowledge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Yun

    2013-08-01

    The identity of nursing is founded on caring knowledge, which is derived from our understanding of its experience-revealed essence. This purposive knowledge differs from scientific knowledge because validity guides the latter and ethics guides the former. Therefore, justifying the objectivity of caring knowledge should be based on the aesthetic character of this knowledge rather than on a general social-science explanation.

  13. Building Character through Sports: Myth or Possibility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Timothy J. L.; Goldberg, Alan D.

    1990-01-01

    Asks whether striving to win in sports is compatible with belief participation in sports builds character. Identifies viewpoints on winning (winning as consequence and winning as experience). Suggests ways counselors might encourage athletes, coaches, and parents to perceive winning as experience so participation in sports can foster…

  14. Face of America Character Education Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World T.E.A.M. Sports, Charlotte, NC.

    This document presents a description of the Face of America Classroom Program, a character education program based on a mission to bridge and build communities through sports. Three language arts lesson plans are provided on three themes: achievement, stereotypes (especially of people with disabilities), and strategies for healthy minds and…

  15. The Problem of Loyalty in Teaching Character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Sharon K.

    2012-01-01

    In the last year, two prominent, famous, and revered coaches, Jim Tressel and Joe Paterno, committed disastrous lapses of ethics. Both coaches preached that sport and athletics build character. They either taught ethics or leadership courses at their institutions or were exemplars of ethical behavior in their personal and professional lives. Both…

  16. Cyberethics: Envisioning Character Education in Cyberspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittier, David B.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents theory and research forming the framework of a graduate course in cyberethics education. The course content includes theory and research on the psychology of the Internet, moral development, and character education. Discussion includes application of these constructs to issues such as empathy, privacy, and other issues as…

  17. The inaccuracy of national character stereotypes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    McCrae, R. R.; Chan, W.; Jussim, L.; De Fruyt, F.; Löckenhoff, C.E.; De Bolle, M.; Costa Jr., P.T.; Hřebíčková, Martina; Graf, Sylvie; Realo, A.; Allik, J.; Nakazato, K.; Shimonaka, Y.; Yik, M.; Ficková, E.; Brunner-Sciarra, M.; Reátigui, N.; Leibovich de Figueroa, N.; Schmidt, V.; Ahn, Ch.; Ahn, H.; Aguilar-Vafaie, M.E.; Siuta, J.; Szmigielska, B.; Cain, T.R.; Crawford, J.T.; Mastor, K.A.; Rolland, J. P.; Nansubuga, F.; Miramontez, D.R.; Benet-Martínez, V.; Rossier, J.; Bratko, D.; Marušić, I.; Halberstadt, J.; Yamaguchi, N.; Knežević, G.; Purić, D.; Martin, T. A.; Gheorghiu, M.; Smith, P.B.; Barbaranelli, C.; Wang, L.; Shakespeare-Finch, J.; Lima, M.P.; Klinkosz, W.; Sekowski, A.; Alcalay, L.; Simonetti, F.; Avdeyeva, T.V.; Pramila, V.S.; Terracciano, A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 6 (2013), s. 831-842 ISSN 0092-6566 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-25656S Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : national character * stereotypes * Five-Factor Model of Personality Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 2.011, year: 2013

  18. Animal regeneration: ancestral character or evolutionary novelty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, Jonathan Mw

    2017-09-01

    An old question about regeneration is whether it is an ancestral character which is a general property of living matter, or whether it represents a set of specific adaptations to the different circumstances faced by different types of animal. In this review, some recent results on regeneration are assessed to see if they can throw any new light on this question. Evidence in favour of an ancestral character comes from the role of Wnt and bone morphogenetic protein signalling in controlling the pattern of whole-body regeneration in acoels, which are a basal group of bilaterian animals. On the other hand, there is some evidence for adaptive acquisition or maintenance of the regeneration of appendages based on the occurrence of severe non-lethal predation, the existence of some novel genes in regenerating organisms, and differences at the molecular level between apparently similar forms of regeneration. It is tentatively concluded that whole-body regeneration is an ancestral character although has been lost from most animal lineages. Appendage regeneration is more likely to represent a derived character resulting from many specific adaptations. © 2017 The Author.

  19. Public and Constitutional Support for Character Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessels, Gordon G.; Boyd, Stephen M.

    1996-01-01

    Character education thrives on an informed understanding of constitutional principles and an inclusive commitment-building process. U.S. Supreme Court opinions that clarify public school students' free speech rights have established values education as a constitutionally acceptable practice. Challenges might lie in possible violations of the First…

  20. Mapping wilderness character in Olympic National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Tricker; Peter Landres; Jennifer Chenoweth; Roger Hoffman; Scott Ruth

    2013-01-01

    The Olympic Wilderness was established November 16, 1988 when President Ronald Reagan signed the Washington Park Wilderness Act. A total of 876,447 acres or 95% of Olympic National Park (OLYM) was designated as wilderness and became a part of the National Wilderness Preservation System, wherein wilderness character would be preserved. The purpose of this project was to...

  1. Inheritance of characters in kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-04-03

    David and Adam, 1988). The plant belongs to the order Malvales, the family Malvaceae and the genus Hibiscus ... The varieties in relation to the character studied are as follows: NRG-NG-R5: Pink flowers with resistance to root ...

  2. Educating for Character in the Sexual Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lickona, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Changes in American sexual behavior brought about by the sexual revolution have been linked to the breakdown of the family and other social ills. Because sex has profound consequences for self, others, and society, sex education is an important part of character education. Sexual abstinence before marriage is associated with better physical and…

  3. On the discrete Gabor transform and the discrete Zak transform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaans, M.J.; Geilen, M.C.W.

    1996-01-01

    Gabor's expansion of a discrete-time signal into a set of shifted and modulated versions of an elementary signal (or synthesis window) and the inverse operation -- the Gabor transform -- with which Gabor's expansion coefficients can be determined, are introduced. It is shown how, in the case of a

  4. Discrete Choice and Rational Inattention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Melo, Emerson; de Palma, André

    2017-01-01

    This paper establishes a general equivalence between discrete choice and rational inattention models. Matejka and McKay (2015, AER) showed that when information costs are modelled using the Shannon entropy, the result- ing choice probabilities in the rational inattention model take the multinomial...... logit form. We show that when information costs are modelled using a class of generalized entropies, then the choice probabilities in any rational inattention model are observationally equivalent to some additive random utility discrete choice model and vice versa. This equivalence arises from convex...

  5. Description of morphologic characters in avocado trees (Persea americana. Mill) var. Hass, submitted to gamma radiation of {sup 60} Co; Descripcion de caracteres morfologicos en arboles de aguacate (Persea americana. Mill) var. Hass, sometidos a radiacion gama de {sup 60} Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval R, L

    2004-07-01

    It was carried out the characterization of 77 trees of avocado ''Hass'' subjected to gamma radiation of Co{sup 60}, in doses of 0, 5, 10,15, 20 and 25 Gy based on previous studies of radiosensitivity with ends of improvement located in the experimental center ''La Labor'' belonging to the foundation Salvador Sanchez Colin. CICTAMEX. S C. in Temascaltepec, Mexico. It was carried out the morphological characterization of this variety according to the nomenclature settled down by the International Office of Genetic Resources (IBPGRI), registering 27 variables for the description of the tree, 33 for description of the fruit and 14 for the characterization of the seed. Regarding the architectural characterization 10 variables were evaluated. Using gamma radiation of Co{sup 60} in the doses of 15 and 20 Gy it was detected a reduction of 22% in the portage of the tree, likewise had reduction the diameter of the trunk and of the foliage. It was found that the reduction in the behavior of the tree induces to a bigger variation of the form of the same one, in the distribution of the branches in the form of the fruit and in the form of the seed you Also detects a remarkable increment in the productivity of some hoist irradiated regarding the architecture of the tree one observes that the angle of inclination of the branches increase when being increased the radiation dose and that the longitude of the annual section of growth decreased significantly in the doses of 20 and 25 Gy. One observes a significant Increment in the I number of buds prolepticos in those hoist irradiated in the I finish mbdulo of rhythmic growth. Io that indicates a change substantial in the I inhabit of growth With the purpose of determining if the changes in morphology and architecture of the tree corresponded with the modification at level meristematico, they were carried out observations to the court microscope of having knitted apical vegetative meristematico in samples of you hoist of all the

  6. Description of morphologic characters in avocado trees (Persea americana. Mill) var. Hass, submitted to gamma radiation of {sup 60} Co; Descripcion de caracteres morfologicos en arboles de aguacate (Persea americana. Mill) var. Hass, sometidos a radiacion gama de {sup 60} Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval R, L

    2004-07-01

    It was carried out the characterization of 77 trees of avocado ''Hass'' subjected to gamma radiation of Co{sup 60}, in doses of 0, 5, 10,15, 20 and 25 Gy based on previous studies of radiosensitivity with ends of improvement located in the experimental center ''La Labor'' belonging to the foundation Salvador Sanchez Colin. CICTAMEX. S C. in Temascaltepec, Mexico. It was carried out the morphological characterization of this variety according to the nomenclature settled down by the International Office of Genetic Resources (IBPGRI), registering 27 variables for the description of the tree, 33 for description of the fruit and 14 for the characterization of the seed. Regarding the architectural characterization 10 variables were evaluated. Using gamma radiation of Co{sup 60} in the doses of 15 and 20 Gy it was detected a reduction of 22% in the portage of the tree, likewise had reduction the diameter of the trunk and of the foliage. It was found that the reduction in the behavior of the tree induces to a bigger variation of the form of the same one, in the distribution of the branches in the form of the fruit and in the form of the seed you Also detects a remarkable increment in the productivity of some hoist irradiated regarding the architecture of the tree one observes that the angle of inclination of the branches increase when being increased the radiation dose and that the longitude of the annual section of growth decreased significantly in the doses of 20 and 25 Gy. One observes a significant Increment in the I number of buds prolepticos in those hoist irradiated in the I finish mbdulo of rhythmic growth. Io that indicates a change substantial in the I inhabit of growth With the purpose of determining if the changes in morphology and architecture of the tree corresponded with the modification at level meristematico, they were carried out observations to the court microscope of having knitted apical vegetative meristematico

  7. Pollen morphology of the Onobrychis sect. Heliobrychis in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Karamian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollen morphology of 20 species belonging to Onobrychis sect. Heliobrychis was studied in Iran. The pollen grains from the herbarium specimens were prepared by acetolysis method and then 8 quantitative characters were studied by light microscopy. Data analysis was carried out by cluster analysis and principal component analysis methods. Pollen grains of the sections were 3-colpate with reticulate ornamentation. Results of the study showed that although the pollen grains in the section were comparatively homogenous, but had a considerable variation in the studied quantitative characters. However among the studied characters, equatorial and polar diameters of pollen grains were the most significant characters. The members of the section can be divided into 3 groups based on these characters.

  8. Epidermal characters of Tamarix L. (Tamaricaceae) from Northwest China and their taxonomic and palaeogeographic implications

    OpenAIRE

    Jian-Wei Zhang; Ashalata D'Rozario; Shi-Min Duan; Xi-Yong Wang; Xiao-Qing Liang; Bo-Rong Pan

    2018-01-01

    The taxonomical position of species of the genus Tamarix (Tamaricaceae) has been criticized because of their gross morphological similarities (such as slender, smooth and reddish–brown branches, grey–green foliage and scale leaves), and their systematic relationships remain unclear. In this paper, the leaf epidermal features of 17 species from China are studied based on the micro-morphological characters of the epidermal cells, stomata, salt glands, papillae and epidermal hairs. According to ...

  9. Discrete Hamiltonian evolution and quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husain, Viqar; Winkler, Oliver

    2004-01-01

    We study constrained Hamiltonian systems by utilizing general forms of time discretization. We show that for explicit discretizations, the requirement of preserving the canonical Poisson bracket under discrete evolution imposes strong conditions on both allowable discretizations and Hamiltonians. These conditions permit time discretizations for a limited class of Hamiltonians, which does not include homogeneous cosmological models. We also present two general classes of implicit discretizations which preserve Poisson brackets for any Hamiltonian. Both types of discretizations generically do not preserve first class constraint algebras. Using this observation, we show that time discretization provides a complicated time gauge fixing for quantum gravity models, which may be compared with the alternative procedure of gauge fixing before discretization

  10. Stasis and convergence characterize morphological evolution in eupolypod II ferns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundue, Michael A; Rothfels, Carl J

    2014-01-01

    Patterns of morphological evolution at levels above family rank remain underexplored in the ferns. The present study seeks to address this gap through analysis of 79 morphological characters for 81 taxa, including representatives of all ten families of eupolypod II ferns. Recent molecular phylogenetic studies demonstrate that the evolution of the large eupolypod II clade (which includes nearly one-third of extant fern species) features unexpected patterns. The traditional 'athyrioid' ferns are scattered across the phylogeny despite their apparent morphological cohesiveness, and mixed among these seemingly conservative taxa are morphologically dissimilar groups that lack any obvious features uniting them with their relatives. Maximum-likelihood and maximum-parsimony character optimizations are used to determine characters that unite the seemingly disparate groups, and to test whether the polyphyly of the traditional athyrioid ferns is due to evolutionary stasis (symplesiomorphy) or convergent evolution. The major events in eupolypod II character evolution are reviewed, and character and character state concepts are reappraised, as a basis for further inquiries into fern morphology. Characters were scored from the literature, live plants and herbarium specimens, and optimized using maximum-parsimony and maximum-likelihood, onto a highly supported topology derived from maximum-likelihood and Bayesian analysis of molecular data. Phylogenetic signal of characters were tested for using randomization methods and fitdiscrete. The majority of character state changes within the eupolypod II phylogeny occur at the family level or above. Relative branch lengths for the morphological data resemble those from molecular data and fit an ancient rapid radiation model (long branches subtended by very short backbone internodes), with few characters uniting the morphologically disparate clades. The traditional athyrioid ferns were circumscribed based upon a combination of

  11. Discrete exterior calculus discretization of incompressible Navier–Stokes equations over surface simplicial meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Mohamed, Mamdouh S.; Hirani, Anil N.; Samtaney, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    A conservative discretization of incompressible Navier–Stokes equations is developed based on discrete exterior calculus (DEC). A distinguishing feature of our method is the use of an algebraic discretization of the interior product operator and a

  12. Solving discrete zero point problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, G.; Talman, A.J.J.; Yang, Z.F.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper an algorithm is proposed to .nd a discrete zero point of a function on the collection of integral points in the n-dimensional Euclidean space IRn.Starting with a given integral point, the algorithm generates a .nite sequence of adjacent integral simplices of varying dimension and

  13. Succinct Sampling from Discrete Distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bringmann, Karl; Larsen, Kasper Green

    2013-01-01

    We revisit the classic problem of sampling from a discrete distribution: Given n non-negative w-bit integers x_1,...,x_n, the task is to build a data structure that allows sampling i with probability proportional to x_i. The classic solution is Walker's alias method that takes, when implemented...

  14. Symplectomorphisms and discrete braid invariants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czechowski, Aleksander; Vandervorst, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Area and orientation preserving diffeomorphisms of the standard 2-disc, referred to as symplectomorphisms of D2, allow decompositions in terms of positive twist diffeomorphisms. Using the latter decomposition, we utilize the Conley index theory of discrete braid classes as introduced in Ghrist et

  15. The remarkable discreteness of being

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Life is a discrete, stochastic phenomenon: for a biological organism, the time of the two most important events of its life (reproduction and death) is random and these events change the number of individuals of the species by single units. These facts can have surprising, counterintuitive consequences. I review here three ...

  16. Discrete tomography in neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuba, Attila; Rodek, Lajos; Kiss, Zoltan; Rusko, Laszlo; Nagy, Antal; Balasko, Marton

    2005-01-01

    Discrete tomography (DT) is an imaging technique for reconstructing discrete images from their projections using the knowledge that the object to be reconstructed contains only a few homogeneous materials characterized by known discrete absorption values. One of the main reasons for applying DT is that we will hopefully require relatively few projections. Using discreteness and some a priori information (such as an approximate shape of the object) we can apply two DT methods in neutron imaging by reducing the problem to an optimization task. The first method is a special one because it is only suitable if the object is composed of cylinders and sphere shapes. The second method is a general one in the sense that it can be used for reconstructing objects of any shape. Software was developed and physical experiments performed in order to investigate the effects of several reconstruction parameters: the number of projections, noise levels, and complexity of the object to be reconstructed. We give a summary of the experimental results and make a comparison of the results obtained using a classical reconstruction technique (FBP). The programs we developed are available in our DT reconstruction program package DIRECT

  17. The First Comprehensive Phylogeny of Coptis (Ranunculaceae) and Its Implications for Character Evolution and Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Kun-Li; Wu, Sheng-Dan; Yu, Sheng-Xian; Liu, Yang; Jabbour, Florian; Erst, Andrey S.; Zhao, Liang; Wang, Wei; Chen, Zhi-Duan

    2016-01-01

    Coptis (Ranunculaceae) contains 15 species and is one of the pharmaceutically most important plant genera in eastern Asia. Understanding of the evolution of morphological characters and phylogenetic relationships within the genus is very limited. Here, we present the first comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the genus based on two plastid and one nuclear markers. The phylogeny was reconstructed using Bayesian inference, as well as maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood methods. The Swofford-Olsen-Waddell-Hillis and Bayesian tests were used to assess the strength of the conflicts between traditional taxonomic units and those suggested by the phylogenetic inferences. Evolution of morphological characters was inferred using Bayesian method to identify synapomorphies for the infrageneric lineages. Our data recognize two strongly supported clades within Coptis. The first clade contains subgenus Coptis and section Japonocoptis of subgenus Metacoptis, supported by morphological characters, such as traits of the central leaflet base, petal color, and petal shape. The second clade consists of section Japonocoptis of subgenus Metacoptis. Coptis morii is not united with C. quinquefolia, in contrast with the view that C. morii is a synonym of C. quinquefolia. Two varieties of C. chinensis do not cluster together. Coptis groenlandica and C. lutescens are reduced to C. trifolia and C. japonica, respectively. Central leaflet base, sepal shape, and petal blade carry a strong phylogenetic signal in Coptis, while leaf type, sepal and petal color, and petal shape exhibit relatively higher levels of evolutionary flexibility. PMID:27044035

  18. Auroral morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deehr, C.S.; Romick, G.J.; Sivjee, G.G.

    1981-01-01

    The aurora is a radiant manifestation of solar particle emissions and their control by intervening electromagnetic fields. The analogy with a television system was first made, we believe, by Elvey, (1958). The latest concepts of solar-terrestrial control are included in description by Akasofu (1979) showing the phosphor screen as the upper atmosphere with an auroral image produced by particles from a source on the sun, modulated by electric and magnetic fields with the magnetohydrodynamic (MDH) generator formed by electrons and protons from the solar wind across the geomagnetic tail as the power supply. Thus, the size and shape of the aurora must reflect all the forces acting in the auroral particles on their way from the sun to the earth. Auroral morphology, therefore, is the study of the occurence of aurora in space and time for the purpose of describing the origin of solar particels and the forces acting upon them between the time of their production on the sun and their loss in the atmosphere. The advantage of using the aurora as a television monitor of this process over any conceivable system of in situ measurements is obvious when one considers the large number of space vehicles which would be necessary to record the information concentrated in the auroral oval which differs in scale with the magnetosphere by perhaps 10 6 . (orig.)

  19. Contribution to automatic handwritten characters recognition. Application to optical moving characters recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokana, Denis

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes a research work on computer aided vision relating to the design of a vision system which can recognize isolated handwritten characters written on a mobile support. We use a technique which consists in analyzing information contained in the contours of the polygon circumscribed to the character's shape. These contours are segmented and labelled to give a new set of features constituted by: - right and left 'profiles', - topological and algebraic unvarying properties. A new method of character's recognition induced from this representation based on a multilevel hierarchical technique is then described. In the primary level, we use a fuzzy classification with dynamic programming technique using 'profiles'. The other levels adjust the recognition by using topological and algebraic unvarying properties. Several results are presented and an accuracy of 99 pc was reached for handwritten numeral characters, thereby attesting the robustness of our algorithm. (author) [fr

  20. Discrete elements method of neutron transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, K.A.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper a new neutron transport method, called discrete elements (L N ) is derived and compared to discrete ordinates methods, theoretically and by numerical experimentation. The discrete elements method is based on discretizing the Boltzmann equation over a set of elements of angle. The discrete elements method is shown to be more cost-effective than discrete ordinates, in terms of accuracy versus execution time and storage, for the cases tested. In a two-dimensional test case, a vacuum duct in a shield, the L N method is more consistently convergent toward a Monte Carlo benchmark solution

  1. Cultivating characters (moral value) through internalization strategy in science classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, M.; Abadi

    2018-01-01

    It is still in a crucial debate that characters play an important learning outcome to be realized by design. So far, most people think that characters were reached as nurturance effect with the assumption that students who are knowledgeable and skillful will have good characters automatically. Lately, obtained evidence that this assumption is not true. Characters should be taught deliberately or by design. This study was designed to culture elementary school students’ characters through science classroom. The teaching-learning process was conducted to facilitate and bridge the students from the known (concrete images: Science phenomena) to the unknown (abstract ideas: characters: care, and tolerance. Characters were observed five weeks before and after the intervention. Data were analyzed from observation of 24 students in internalization strategy-based courses. Qualitative and quantitative data suggested that the internalization strategy that use of science phenomena to represent abstract ideas (characters) in science classroom positively cultivating characters.

  2. Seismic echo character northern Hatteras Abyssal Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCreery, C.J.; Laine, E.P.

    1985-01-01

    Latest efforts in echo-character mapping of the northern Hatteras Abyssal Plain have discerned variations in thickness in a near-surface sedimentary sequence which has been designated seismic unit A. This unit probably represents the last episode of progradation of the Hatteras Deep Sea Fan in the southern part of the study area, and has infilled probable paleochannels from the Wilmington Canyon and Sohm Gap in the north. Unit A thins to a minimum in the central part of the plain, where older sediments come within 1 meter of the surface. Variations in the character of the surface reflector probably represent differing degrees of microtopography developed on a Late Pleistocene surface overlain by Holocene sediments. With the exception of one area identified as a relict surface outcropping in the western plain, this microtopography seems related to present-day thalweg locations on the abyssal plain. 11 references, 13 figures

  3. On the total character of finite groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Prajapati

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available For a finite group $G$, we study the total character $tau_G$ afforded by the direct sum of all the non-isomorphic irreducible complex representations of $G$. We resolve for several classes of groups (the Camina $p$-groups, the generalized Camina $p$-groups, the groups which admit $(G,Z(G$ as a generalized Camina pair, the problem of existence of a polynomial $f(x in mathbb{Q}[x]$ such that $f(chi = tau_G$ for some irreducible character $chi$ of $G$. As a consequence, we completely determine the $p$-groups of order at most $p^5$ (with $p$ odd which admit such a polynomial. We deduce the characterization that these are the groups $G$ for which $Z(G$ is cyclic and $(G,Z(G$ is a generalized Camina pair and, we conjecture that this holds good for $p$-groups of any order.

  4. The Character, Organization Change and Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santo Fernandi Wijaya

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The success of building an integrated information system is an expectation of every company management to achieve effective and efficient working system. However, in the real business practices, not a few companies failed in building an integrated information system caused by the absence of several factors: strong commitment, hard work and smart effort conducted by a team. The team determines the success level in building an integrated information system. A factor of intelligence and mental maturity of users in running a new information system that has not been known is also another key to success. Therefore, it takes a good user’s character supported by a management decision to make management changes to achieve the building success level. This study aims to address the role of character and organization changes in achieving a success building an integrated information system. 

  5. Correlators in tensor models from character calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mironov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We explain how the calculations of [20], which provided the first evidence for non-trivial structures of Gaussian correlators in tensor models, are efficiently performed with the help of the (Hurwitz character calculus. This emphasizes a close similarity between technical methods in matrix and tensor models and supports a hope to understand the emerging structures in very similar terms. We claim that the 2m-fold Gaussian correlators of rank r tensors are given by r-linear combinations of dimensions with the Young diagrams of size m. The coefficients are made from the characters of the symmetric group Sm and their exact form depends on the choice of the correlator and on the symmetries of the model. As the simplest application of this new knowledge, we provide simple expressions for correlators in the Aristotelian tensor model as tri-linear combinations of dimensions.

  6. USO DE MÉTODOS MULTIVARIANTES PARA LA AGRUPACIÓN DE AISLAMIENTOS DE Colletotrichum spp. CON BASE EN CARACTERÍSTICAS MORFOLÓGICAS Y CULTURALES USE OF MULTIVARIATE METHODS FOR GROUPING STRAINS OF Colletotrichum spp. BASED ON CULTURAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Correa Londoño

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron 15 variables morfológicas y culturales, con mezcla de variables cuantitativas y cualitativas, a 58 aislamientos de Colletotrichum spp. con cuatro repeticiones. Se generó una agrupación guiada por el Análisis de Coordenadas Principales (ACOP, basado en el coeficiente de similitud de Gower. Las dos primeras dimensiones del ACOP permitieron la perfecta discriminación de tres grandes grupos: la primera dimensión separaba a Colletotrichum gloeosporioides y su teleomorfo Glomerella cingulata de C. dematium; la segunda dimensión permitía separar a C. gloeosporioides de su teleomorfo G. cingulata. Mediante el análisis simultáneo de los tres primeros ejes factoriales, se detectaron 21 grupos menores. Para la caracterización de los grupos se usó la representación Biplot de la tabla de contingencia de los grupos y las variables. Se trabajó con las frecuencias relativas al tamaño de los grupos para evitar la alta influencia que de otra forma tendrían los grupos más numerosos sobre las configuraciones Biplot.Fifteen cultural and morphological characteristics, with a mix of quantitative and qualitative variables, were evaluated on 58 strains of Colletotrichum spp. repeated four times. Using Principal Coordinates Analysis (PCOA, based on Gower’s similarity coefficient, a grouping was obtained. The two first dimensions of PCOA allowed the perfect discrimination of three big groups: the first dimension separated Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and its teleomorph Glomerella cingulata from C. dematium; the second dimension discriminated between C. gloeosporioides and its teleomorph G. cingulata. By analyzing simultaneously the first three factorial axis, 21 minor groups were detected. In order to characterize the groups, a Biplot representation of the groups and variables contingency table was used. Relative frequencies to the size of the groups were used to avoid the high influence that otherwise the more numerous groups would have

  7. Optical Character Recognition: Application for Android

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez Manzanero, Joaquin Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Treball realitzat a Tongji University El projecte és el desenvolupament d'una aplicació per Android basat en OCR(Optical Character Recognition) que consisteix en traduir frases d'un idioma a un altre a través de fotografiar el text amb el mòbil, després reconéixer els caràcters i finalment traduïnt al llenguatge desitjat.

  8. Hybrid Motion Graphs for Character Animation

    OpenAIRE

    Kalouache Saida; Cherif Foudil

    2016-01-01

    Many works in the literature have improved the performance of motion graphs for synthesis the humanlike results in limited domains that necessity few constraints like dance, navigation in small game like environments or in games by the gesture of feedback on a snowboard tutorial. The humanlike cannot exist in an environment without interacting with the world surrounding them; the naturalness of the entire motion extremely depends on the animation of the walking character, the chosen path and ...

  9. Harmonic hopping, and both punctuated and gradual evolution of acoustic characters in Selasphorus hummingbird tail-feathers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher James Clark

    Full Text Available Models of character evolution often assume a single mode of evolutionary change, such as continuous, or discrete. Here I provide an example in which a character exhibits both types of change. Hummingbirds in the genus Selasphorus produce sound with fluttering tail-feathers during courtship. The ancestral character state within Selasphorus is production of sound with an inner tail-feather, R2, in which the sound usually evolves gradually. Calliope and Allen's Hummingbirds have evolved autapomorphic acoustic mechanisms that involve feather-feather interactions. I develop a source-filter model of these interactions. The 'source' comprises feather(s that are both necessary and sufficient for sound production, and are aerodynamically coupled to neighboring feathers, which act as filters. Filters are unnecessary or insufficient for sound production, but may evolve to become sources. Allen's Hummingbird has evolved to produce sound with two sources, one with feather R3, another frequency-modulated sound with R4, and their interaction frequencies. Allen's R2 retains the ancestral character state, a ∼1 kHz "ghost" fundamental frequency masked by R3, which is revealed when R3 is experimentally removed. In the ancestor to Allen's Hummingbird, the dominant frequency has 'hopped' to the second harmonic without passing through intermediate frequencies. This demonstrates that although the fundamental frequency of a communication sound may usually evolve gradually, occasional jumps from one character state to another can occur in a discrete fashion. Accordingly, mapping acoustic characters on a phylogeny may produce misleading results if the physical mechanism of production is not known.

  10. Font generation of personal handwritten Chinese characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jeng-Wei; Wang, Chih-Yin; Ting, Chao-Lung; Chang, Ray-I.

    2014-01-01

    Today, digital multimedia messages have drawn more and more attention due to the great achievement of computer and network techniques. Nevertheless, text is still the most popular media for people to communicate with others. Many fonts have been developed so that product designers can choose unique fonts to demonstrate their idea gracefully. It is commonly believed that handwritings can reflect one's personality, emotion, feeling, education level, and so on. This is especially true in Chinese calligraphy. However, it is not easy for ordinary users to customize a font of their personal handwritings. In this study, we performed a process reengineering in font generation. We present a new method to create font in a batch mode. Rather than to create glyphs of characters one by one according to their codepoints, people create glyphs incrementally in an on-demand manner. A Java Implementation is developed to read a document image of user handwritten Chinese characters, and make a vector font of these handwritten Chinese characters. Preliminary experiment result shows that the proposed method can help ordinary users create their personal handwritten fonts easily and quickly.

  11. Vocal analysis of suicidal movie characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palinkas-Sanches, Elaine; Sanches, Marsal; Ferrari, Maria Cristina C; Oliveira, Gisele; Behlau, Mara

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the auditory-perceptive evaluation and the psychodynamic aspects of voice samples among suicidal movie characters. Voice samples of 48 characters (27 male, 21 female), extracted from 36 movies produced between 1968 and 2006, were analyzed. The samples were evaluated through a specific protocol focusing on the auditory-perceptive evaluation (voice quality, resonance, pitch, loudness, modulation, pauses, articulation and rhythm) and the psychodynamic aspects of voice. 85.5% of the samples exhibited abnormal findings in at least five parameters of the auditory-perceptive analysis, such as breathiness (n=42; 87.5% of the samples), hoarseness (n=39; 81.2%) and strain (n=29; 60.4%), as well as laryngopharingeal resonance (n=39; 81.2%), either high pitch (n=14; 29.2%), or decreased loudness (n=31; 64.6%). With respect to the psychodynamic aspects, dismay was detected in 50% (n=24) of the samples, hopelessness in 47.9% (n=23), resignation in 37.5% (n=18), and sadness in 33.3% (n=16). Our findings suggest the existence of specific patterns used by actors during the interpretation of suicidal characters. The replication of these findings among real patients may contribute to improvement in the evaluation of potential suicidal patients, as well as the implementation of preventive measures.

  12. Discrete gauge symmetries in discrete MSSM-like orientifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibáñez, L.E.; Schellekens, A.N.; Uranga, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by the necessity of discrete Z N symmetries in the MSSM to insure baryon stability, we study the origin of discrete gauge symmetries from open string sector U(1)'s in orientifolds based on rational conformal field theory. By means of an explicit construction, we find an integral basis for the couplings of axions and U(1) factors for all simple current MIPFs and orientifolds of all 168 Gepner models, a total of 32 990 distinct cases. We discuss how the presence of discrete symmetries surviving as a subgroup of broken U(1)'s can be derived using this basis. We apply this procedure to models with MSSM chiral spectrum, concretely to all known U(3)×U(2)×U(1)×U(1) and U(3)×Sp(2)×U(1)×U(1) configurations with chiral bi-fundamentals, but no chiral tensors, as well as some SU(5) GUT models. We find examples of models with Z 2 (R-parity) and Z 3 symmetries that forbid certain B and/or L violating MSSM couplings. Their presence is however relatively rare, at the level of a few percent of all cases.

  13. Optical character recognition based on nonredundant correlation measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunecker, B; Hauck, R; Lohmann, A W

    1979-08-15

    The essence of character recognition is a comparison between the unknown character and a set of reference patterns. Usually, these reference patterns are all possible characters themselves, the whole alphabet in the case of letter characters. Obviously, N analog measurements are highly redundant, since only K = log(2)N binary decisions are enough to identify one out of N characters. Therefore, we devised K reference patterns accordingly. These patterns, called principal components, are found by digital image processing, but used in an optical analog computer. We will explain the concept of principal components, and we will describe experiments with several optical character recognition systems, based on this concept.

  14. Leadership, character and its development: A qualitative exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roslyn de Braine

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore (1 what organisational leaders consider to be character elements of leaders within the workplace, (2 what influences leaders’ character development, and (3 how an organisation can continue the process of character development. The literature review and findings revealed that leadership, integrity, industriousness, empathy, loyalty, optimism, fairness and compassion are the most sought after character elements within leaders in the workplace. Leadership and integrity were found to be the most supported character elements. The findings also indicate that work environmental factors, a person’s own efforts, and the daily experiences of work life contribute towards character development.

  15. Positivity for Convective Semi-discretizations

    KAUST Repository

    Fekete, Imre; Ketcheson, David I.; Loczi, Lajos

    2017-01-01

    We propose a technique for investigating stability properties like positivity and forward invariance of an interval for method-of-lines discretizations, and apply the technique to study positivity preservation for a class of TVD semi-discretizations

  16. Quantum chaos on discrete graphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smilansky, Uzy

    2007-01-01

    Adapting a method developed for the study of quantum chaos on quantum (metric) graphs (Kottos and Smilansky 1997 Phys. Rev. Lett. 79 4794, Kottos and Smilansky 1999 Ann. Phys., NY 274 76), spectral ζ functions and trace formulae for discrete Laplacians on graphs are derived. This is achieved by expressing the spectral secular equation in terms of the periodic orbits of the graph and obtaining functions which belong to the class of ζ functions proposed originally by Ihara (1966 J. Mat. Soc. Japan 18 219) and expanded by subsequent authors (Stark and Terras 1996 Adv. Math. 121 124, Kotani and Sunada 2000 J. Math. Sci. Univ. Tokyo 7 7). Finally, a model of 'classical dynamics' on the discrete graph is proposed. It is analogous to the corresponding classical dynamics derived for quantum graphs (Kottos and Smilansky 1997 Phys. Rev. Lett. 79 4794, Kottos and Smilansky 1999 Ann. Phys., NY 274 76). (fast track communication)

  17. Dark energy from discrete spacetime.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron D Trout

    Full Text Available Dark energy accounts for most of the matter-energy content of our universe, yet current theories of its origin rely on radical physical assumptions such as the holographic principle or controversial anthropic arguments. We give a better motivated explanation for dark energy, claiming that it arises from a small negative scalar-curvature present even in empty spacetime. The vacuum has this curvature because spacetime is fundamentally discrete and there are more ways for a discrete geometry to have negative curvature than positive. We explicitly compute this effect using a variant of the well known dynamical-triangulations (DT model for quantum gravity. Our model predicts a time-varying non-zero cosmological constant with a current value, [Formula: see text] in natural units, in agreement with observation. This calculation is made possible by a novel characterization of the possible DT action values combined with numerical evidence concerning their degeneracies.

  18. Applied geometry and discrete mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Sturm; Gritzmann, Peter; Sturmfels, Bernd

    1991-01-01

    This volume, published jointly with the Association for Computing Machinery, comprises a collection of research articles celebrating the occasion of Victor Klee's sixty-fifth birthday in September 1990. During his long career, Klee has made contributions to a wide variety of areas, such as discrete and computational geometry, convexity, combinatorics, graph theory, functional analysis, mathematical programming and optimization, and theoretical computer science. In addition, Klee made important contributions to mathematics education, mathematical methods in economics and the decision sciences, applications of discrete mathematics in the biological and social sciences, and the transfer of knowledge from applied mathematics to industry. In honor of Klee's achievements, this volume presents more than forty papers on topics related to Klee's research. While the majority of the papers are research articles, a number of survey articles are also included. Mirroring the breadth of Klee's mathematical contributions, th...

  19. Emissivity of discretized diffusion problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Densmore, Jeffery D.; Davidson, Gregory; Carrington, David B.

    2006-01-01

    The numerical modeling of radiative transfer by the diffusion approximation can produce artificially damped radiation propagation if spatial cells are too optically thick. In this paper, we investigate this nonphysical behavior at external problem boundaries by examining the emissivity of the discretized diffusion approximation. We demonstrate that the standard cell-centered discretization produces an emissivity that is too low for optically thick cells, a situation that leads to the lack of radiation propagation. We then present a modified boundary condition that yields an accurate emissivity regardless of cell size. This modified boundary condition can be used with a deterministic calculation or as part of a hybrid transport-diffusion method for increasing the efficiency of Monte Carlo simulations. We also discuss the range of applicability, as a function of cell size and material properties, when this modified boundary condition is employed in a hybrid technique. With a set of numerical calculations, we demonstrate the accuracy and usefulness of this modified boundary condition

  20. Discrete symmetries in the MSSM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schieren, Roland

    2010-12-02

    The use of discrete symmetries, especially abelian ones, in physics beyond the standard model of particle physics is discussed. A method is developed how a general, abelian, discrete symmetry can be obtained via spontaneous symmetry breaking. In addition, anomalies are treated in the path integral approach with special attention to anomaly cancellation via the Green-Schwarz mechanism. All this is applied to the minimal supersymmetric standard model. A unique Z{sup R}{sub 4} symmetry is discovered which solves the {mu}-problem as well as problems with proton decay and allows to embed the standard model gauge group into a simple group, i.e. the Z{sup R}{sub 4} is compatible with grand unification. Also the flavor problem in the context of minimal flavor violation is addressed. Finally, a string theory model is presented which exhibits the mentioned Z{sup R}{sub 4} symmetry and other desirable features. (orig.)

  1. Domain Discretization and Circle Packings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Kealey

    A circle packing is a configuration of circles which are tangent with one another in a prescribed pattern determined by a combinatorial triangulation, where the configuration fills a planar domain or a two-dimensional surface. The vertices in the triangulation correspond to centers of circles...... to domain discretization problems such as triangulation and unstructured mesh generation techniques. We wish to ask ourselves the question: given a cloud of points in the plane (we restrict ourselves to planar domains), is it possible to construct a circle packing preserving the positions of the vertices...... and constrained meshes having predefined vertices as constraints. A standard method of two-dimensional mesh generation involves conformal mapping of the surface or domain to standardized shapes, such as a disk. Since circle packing is a new technique for constructing discrete conformal mappings, it is possible...

  2. Discrete Bose-Einstein spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlad, Valentin I.; Ionescu-Pallas, Nicholas

    2001-03-01

    The Bose-Einstein energy spectrum of a quantum gas, confined in a rigid cubic box, is shown to become discrete and strongly dependent on the box geometry (size L), temperature, T and atomic mass number, A at , in the region of small γ=A at TV 1/3 . This behavior is the consequence of the random state degeneracy in the box. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the total energy does not obey the conventional law any longer, but a new law, which depends on γ and on the quantum gas fugacity. This energy law imposes a faster decrease to zero than it is classically expected, for γ→0. The lighter the gas atoms, the higher the temperatures or the box size, for the same effects in the discrete Bose-Einstein regime. (author)

  3. Discrete symmetries in the MSSM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schieren, Roland

    2010-01-01

    The use of discrete symmetries, especially abelian ones, in physics beyond the standard model of particle physics is discussed. A method is developed how a general, abelian, discrete symmetry can be obtained via spontaneous symmetry breaking. In addition, anomalies are treated in the path integral approach with special attention to anomaly cancellation via the Green-Schwarz mechanism. All this is applied to the minimal supersymmetric standard model. A unique Z R 4 symmetry is discovered which solves the μ-problem as well as problems with proton decay and allows to embed the standard model gauge group into a simple group, i.e. the Z R 4 is compatible with grand unification. Also the flavor problem in the context of minimal flavor violation is addressed. Finally, a string theory model is presented which exhibits the mentioned Z R 4 symmetry and other desirable features. (orig.)

  4. Dark energy from discrete spacetime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trout, Aaron D

    2013-01-01

    Dark energy accounts for most of the matter-energy content of our universe, yet current theories of its origin rely on radical physical assumptions such as the holographic principle or controversial anthropic arguments. We give a better motivated explanation for dark energy, claiming that it arises from a small negative scalar-curvature present even in empty spacetime. The vacuum has this curvature because spacetime is fundamentally discrete and there are more ways for a discrete geometry to have negative curvature than positive. We explicitly compute this effect using a variant of the well known dynamical-triangulations (DT) model for quantum gravity. Our model predicts a time-varying non-zero cosmological constant with a current value, [Formula: see text] in natural units, in agreement with observation. This calculation is made possible by a novel characterization of the possible DT action values combined with numerical evidence concerning their degeneracies.

  5. Discrete mathematics using a computer

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Cordelia

    2000-01-01

    Several areas of mathematics find application throughout computer science, and all students of computer science need a practical working understanding of them. These core subjects are centred on logic, sets, recursion, induction, relations and functions. The material is often called discrete mathematics, to distinguish it from the traditional topics of continuous mathematics such as integration and differential equations. The central theme of this book is the connection between computing and discrete mathematics. This connection is useful in both directions: • Mathematics is used in many branches of computer science, in applica­ tions including program specification, datastructures,design and analysis of algorithms, database systems, hardware design, reasoning about the correctness of implementations, and much more; • Computers can help to make the mathematics easier to learn and use, by making mathematical terms executable, making abstract concepts more concrete, and through the use of software tools su...

  6. Duality for discrete integrable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quispel, G R W; Capel, H W; Roberts, J A G

    2005-01-01

    A new class of discrete dynamical systems is introduced via a duality relation for discrete dynamical systems with a number of explicitly known integrals. The dual equation can be defined via the difference of an arbitrary linear combination of integrals and its upshifted version. We give an example of an integrable mapping with two parameters and four integrals leading to a (four-dimensional) dual mapping with four parameters and two integrals. We also consider a more general class of higher-dimensional mappings arising via a travelling-wave reduction from the (integrable) MKdV partial-difference equation. By differencing the trace of the monodromy matrix we obtain a class of novel dual mappings which is shown to be integrable as level-set-dependent versions of the original ones

  7. Observability of discretized partial differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Stephen E.; Dee, Dick P.

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that complete observability of the discrete model used to assimilate data from a linear partial differential equation (PDE) system is necessary and sufficient for asymptotic stability of the data assimilation process. The observability theory for discrete systems is reviewed and applied to obtain simple observability tests for discretized constant-coefficient PDEs. Examples are used to show how numerical dispersion can result in discrete dynamics with multiple eigenvalues, thereby detracting from observability.

  8. Effective lagrangian description on discrete gauge symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banks, T.

    1989-01-01

    We exhibit a simple low-energy lagrangian which describes a system with a discrete remnant of a spontaneously broken continuous gauge symmetry. The lagrangian gives a simple description of the effects ascribed to such systems by Krauss and Wilczek: black holes carry discrete hair and interact with cosmic strings, and wormholes cannot lead to violation of discrete gauge symmetries. (orig.)

  9. Discrete port-Hamiltonian systems : mixed interconnections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talasila, Viswanath; Clemente-Gallardo, J.; Schaft, A.J. van der

    2005-01-01

    Either from a control theoretic viewpoint or from an analysis viewpoint it is necessary to convert smooth systems to discrete systems, which can then be implemented on computers for numerical simulations. Discrete models can be obtained either by discretizing a smooth model, or by directly modeling

  10. Discrete fractional solutions of a Legendre equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmazer, Resat

    2018-01-01

    One of the most popular research interests of science and engineering is the fractional calculus theory in recent times. Discrete fractional calculus has also an important position in fractional calculus. In this work, we acquire new discrete fractional solutions of the homogeneous and non homogeneous Legendre differential equation by using discrete fractional nabla operator.

  11. Astragalar Morphology of Selected Giraffidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos Solounias

    Full Text Available The artiodactyl astragalus has been modified to exhibit two trochleae, creating a double pullied structure allowing for significant dorso-plantar motion, and limited mediolateral motion. The astragalus structure is partly influenced by environmental substrates, and correspondingly, morphometric studies can yield paleohabitat information. The present study establishes terminology and describes detailed morphological features on giraffid astragali. Each giraffid astragalus exhibits a unique combination of anatomical characteristics. The giraffid astragalar morphologies reinforce previously established phylogenetic relationships. We find that the enlargement of the navicular head is a feature shared by all giraffids, and that the primitive giraffids possess exceptionally tall astragalar heads in relation to the total astragalar height. The sivatheres and the okapi share a reduced notch on the lateral edge of the astragalus. We find that Samotherium is more primitive in astragalar morphologies than Palaeotragus, which is reinforced by tooth characteristics and ossicone position. Diagnostic anatomical characters on the astragalus allow for giraffid species identifications and a better understanding of Giraffidae.

  12. Morphometric relationship, phylogenetic correlation, and character evolution in the species-rich genus Aphis (Hemiptera: Aphididae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyojoong Kim

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The species-rich genus Aphis consists of more than 500 species, many of them host-specific on a wide range of plants, yet very similar in general appearance due to convergence toward particular morphological types. Most species have been historically clustered into four main phenotypic groups (gossypii, craccivora, fabae, and spiraecola groups. To confirm the morphological hypotheses between these groups and to examine the characteristics that determine them, multivariate morphometric analyses were performed using 28 characters measured/counted from 40 species. To infer whether the morphological relationships are correlated with the genetic relationships, we compared the morphometric dataset with a phylogeny reconstructed from the combined dataset of three mtDNA and one nuclear DNA regions.Based on a comparison of morphological and molecular datasets, we confirmed morphological reduction or regression in the gossypii group unlike in related groups. Most morphological characteristics of the gossypii group were less variable than for the other groups. Due to these, the gossypii group could be morphologically well separated from the craccivora, fabae, and spiraecola groups. In addition, the correlation of the rates of evolution between morphological and DNA datasets was highly significant in their diversification.The morphological separation between the gossypii group and the other species-groups are congruent with their phylogenetic relationships. Analysis of trait evolution revealed that the morphological traits found to be significant based on the morphometric analyses were confidently correlated with the phylogeny. The dominant patterns of trait evolution resulting in increased rates of short branches and temporally later evolution are likely suitable for the modality of Aphis speciation because they have adapted species-specifically, rapidly, and more recently on many different host plants.

  13. A novel handwritten character recognition system using gradient ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The issues faced by the handwritten character recognition systems are the similarity. ∗ ... tical/structural features have also been successfully used in character ..... The coordinates (xc, yc) of centroid are calculated by equations (4) and (5). xc =.

  14. Continuous versus discrete structures II -- Discrete Hamiltonian systems and Helmholtz conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Cresson, Jacky; Pierret, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    We define discrete Hamiltonian systems in the framework of discrete embeddings. An explicit comparison with previous attempts is given. We then solve the discrete Helmholtz's inverse problem for the discrete calculus of variation in the Hamiltonian setting. Several applications are discussed.

  15. Asymptotic behavior of discrete holomorphic maps z^c, log(z) and discrete Painleve transcedents

    OpenAIRE

    Agafonov, S. I.

    2005-01-01

    It is shown that discrete analogs of z^c and log(z) have the same asymptotic behavior as their smooth counterparts. These discrete maps are described in terms of special solutions of discrete Painleve-II equations, asymptotics of these solutions providing the behaviour of discrete z^c and log(z) at infinity.

  16. Discrete integrable couplings associated with Toda-type lattice and two hierarchies of discrete soliton equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yufeng; Fan Engui; Zhang Yongqing

    2006-01-01

    With the help of two semi-direct sum Lie algebras, an efficient way to construct discrete integrable couplings is proposed. As its applications, the discrete integrable couplings of the Toda-type lattice equations are obtained. The approach can be devoted to establishing other discrete integrable couplings of the discrete lattice integrable hierarchies of evolution equations

  17. Discrete element modeling of microstructure of nacre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Mei Qiang; Cheng, Jing-Ru C.

    2018-04-01

    The microstructure of nacre consists of polygon-shaped aragonite mineral tablets bonded by very thin layers of organic materials and is organized in a brick-mortar morphology. In this research, the discrete element method was utilized to model this structure. The aragonite mineral tablets were modeled with three-dimensional polygon particles generated by the Voronoi tessellation method to represent the Voronoi-like patterns of mineral tablets assembly observed in experiments. The organic matrix was modeled with a group of spring elements. The constitutive relations of the spring elements were inspired from the experimental results of organic molecules from the literature. The mineral bridges were modeled with simple elastic bonds with the parameters based on experimental data from the literature. The bulk stress-strain responses from the models agreed well with experimental results. The model results show that the mineral bridges play important roles in providing the stiffness and yield strength for the nacre, while the organic matrix in providing the ductility for the nacre. This work demonstrated the suitability of particle methods for modeling microstructures of nacre.

  18. Animated Character Analysis and Costume Design with Structured Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yıldırım Artaç, Berna; Ağaç, Saliha

    2016-01-01

    In various genres, costumes complement fictional characters and not onlyconstitute the external appearance of the fictional character, but are alsoused for purposes of fun or style by fans who dress up as the character andinternalize that character’s state of mind. This phenomenon is calledcosplay. A literature review of the field has revealed no study made previouslyon the cosplay costume design process according to character analysis. Thepresent study emphasizes the link between an...

  19. Dynamic Obstacle Clearing for Real-time Character Animation

    OpenAIRE

    Glardon, Pascal; Boulic, Ronan; Thalmann, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel method to control virtual characters in dynamic environments. A virtual character is animated by a locomotion and jumping engine, enabling production of continuous parameterized motions. At any time during runtime, flat obstacles (e.g. a puddle of water) can be created and placed in front of a character. The method first decides whether the character is able to get around or jump over the obstacle. Then the motion parameters are accordingly modified. The transition...

  20. Integrating Character Education In Teaching Speaking For Business Administration Students

    OpenAIRE

    Woro Prastiwi, Chyntia Heru

    2016-01-01

    Globalization along with the advancement of information and communication technology has brought tremendous effects on students' character. Education field as a place of community has to contribute in developing students' character traits. Integrating character education in curriculum is the key for qualified education. This research aimed to describe the way to integrate character education in teaching speaking for Business Administration students. The data was obtained from teaching and lea...

  1. The Character Strengths of Class Clowns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willibald F. Ruch

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Class clowns traditionally were studied as a type concept and identified via sociometric procedures. In the present study a variable-centered approach was favored and class clown behaviors were studied in the context of character strengths, orientations to happiness and satisfaction with life. A sample of 672 Swiss children and adolescents filled in an 18 item self-report instrument depicting class clown behaviors. A hierarchical model of class clown behaviors was developed distinguishing a general factor and the four positively correlated dimensions of identified as a class clown, comic talent, disruptive rule-breaker, and subversive joker. Analysis of the general factor showed that class clowns were primarily male, and tended to be seen as class clowns by the teacher. Analyses of the 24 character strengths of the VIA-Youth (Park & Peterson, 2006 showed that class clowns were high in humor and leadership, and low in strengths like prudence, self-regulation, modesty, honesty, fairness, perseverance, and love of learning. An inspection of signature strengths revealed that 75% of class clowns had humor as a signature strength. Furthermore, generally class clown behaviors were shown by students indulging in a life of pleasure, but low life of engagement. The four dimensions yielded different character strengths profiles. While all dimensions of class clowns behaviors were low in temperance strengths, the factors identified as the class clown and comic talent were correlated with leadership strengths and the two negative factors (disruptive rule-breaker, subversive joker were low in other directed strengths. The disruptive rule breaking class clown was additionally low in intellectual strengths. While humor predicted life satisfaction, class clowning tended to go along with diminished satisfaction with life. It is concluded that different types of class clowns need to be kept apart and need different attention by teachers.

  2. The character strengths of class clowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruch, Willibald; Platt, Tracey; Hofmann, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Class clowns traditionally were studied as a type concept and identified via sociometric procedures. In the present study a variable-centered approach was favored and class clown behaviors were studied in the context of character strengths, orientations to happiness and satisfaction with life. A sample of 672 Swiss children and adolescents filled in an 18 item self-report instrument depicting class clown behaviors. A hierarchical model of class clown behaviors was developed distinguishing a general factor and the four positively correlated dimensions of "identified as a class clown," "comic talent," "disruptive rule-breaker," and "subversive joker." Analysis of the general factor showed that class clowns were primarily male, and tended to be seen as class clowns by the teacher. Analyses of the 24 character strengths of the VIA-Youth (Park and Peterson, 2006) showed that class clowns were high in humor and leadership, and low in strengths like prudence, self-regulation, modesty, honesty, fairness, perseverance, and love of learning. An inspection of signature strengths revealed that 75% of class clowns had humor as a signature strength. Furthermore, class clown behaviors were generally shown by students indulging in a life of pleasure, but low life of engagement. The four dimensions yielded different character strengths profiles. While all dimensions of class clowns behaviors were low in temperance strengths, the factors "identified as the class clown" and "comic talent" were correlated with leadership strengths and the two negative factors ("disruptive rule-breaker," "subversive joker") were low in other directed strengths. The disruptive rule breaking class clown was additionally low in intellectual strengths. While humor predicted life satisfaction, class clowning tended to go along with diminished satisfaction with life. It is concluded that different types of class clowns need to be kept apart and need different attention by teachers.

  3. On character amenability of Banach algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaniuth, E.; Lau, A. T.; Pym, J.

    2008-08-01

    We continue our work [E. Kaniuth, A.T. Lau, J. Pym, On [phi]-amenability of Banach algebras, Math. Proc. Cambridge Philos. Soc. 144 (2008) 85-96] in the study of amenability of a Banach algebra A defined with respect to a character [phi] of A. Various necessary and sufficient conditions of a global and a pointwise nature are found for a Banach algebra to possess a [phi]-mean of norm 1. We also completely determine the size of the set of [phi]-means for a separable weakly sequentially complete Banach algebra A with no [phi]-mean in A itself. A number of illustrative examples are discussed.

  4. ZBrush Character Creation Advanced Digital Sculpting

    CERN Document Server

    Spencer, Scott

    2011-01-01

    A stunning, content-rich update to this top-selling ZBrush guide! This second edition of ZBrush Character Creation has been fully updated for ZBrush 4, the newest version of this fascinating and popular 3D sculpting software. ZBrush enables users to create detailed organic models using a brush-based toolset and tablet. The startling results look as though they've been painted with real brushes and oils, and ZBrush is increasingly popular for use in film, game, and broadcast pipelines. Author Scott Spencer is embedded in the ZBrush community and his movie credits include Harry Potter and The Or

  5. Cuspidal discrete series for projective hyperbolic spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nils Byrial; Flensted-Jensen, Mogens

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. We have in [1] proposed a definition of cusp forms on semisimple symmetric spaces G/H, involving the notion of a Radon transform and a related Abel transform. For the real non-Riemannian hyperbolic spaces, we showed that there exists an infinite number of cuspidal discrete series......, and at most finitely many non-cuspidal discrete series, including in particular the spherical discrete series. For the projective spaces, the spherical discrete series are the only non-cuspidal discrete series. Below, we extend these results to the other hyperbolic spaces, and we also study the question...

  6. Space-Time Discrete KPZ Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannizzaro, G.; Matetski, K.

    2018-03-01

    We study a general family of space-time discretizations of the KPZ equation and show that they converge to its solution. The approach we follow makes use of basic elements of the theory of regularity structures (Hairer in Invent Math 198(2):269-504, 2014) as well as its discrete counterpart (Hairer and Matetski in Discretizations of rough stochastic PDEs, 2015. arXiv:1511.06937). Since the discretization is in both space and time and we allow non-standard discretization for the product, the methods mentioned above have to be suitably modified in order to accommodate the structure of the models under study.

  7. WWC Evidence Review Protocol for Character Education Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Character education is an inclusive concept regarding all aspects of how families, schools, and related social institutions support the positive character development of children and adults. "Character" in this context refers to the moral and ethical qualities of persons as well as the demonstration of those qualities in their emotional…

  8. Character Education of the Most Developed Countries in ASEAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istiningsih

    2016-01-01

    Character education into an international issue, especially in developing countries. More specifically in Indonesia, character education is a major issue in the 2012's to the present. What kind of education that may build character? To be able to answer this question, we need a broad and deep research. Research simpler related to character…

  9. Resolving Conflict: Methods Used by TV Characters and Teenage Viewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roloff, Michael E.; Greenberg, Bradley S.

    1979-01-01

    Tested hypotheses that action/adventure characters are perceived by teenagers as likely to engage in antisocial conflict resolution; situation comedy/family drama characters, in prosocial modes. Also tested was hypothesis that, as favorite character's perceived use of a mode increases, so does the viewer's intention to use the same mode. (SW)

  10. Once Upon a Time: A Grimm Approach to Character Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Laura

    2005-01-01

    Many school districts have implemented "packaged" programs designed to teach character education. Millions of dollars have been spent on these programs, yet society continues to produce more "characters" than students "with character." This article describes a shift from the "programmatic" mindset to a solution that is not packaged or purchased.…

  11. The Importance of Character Development: An Interview with Ron Kinnamon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnamon, Ron

    2003-01-01

    Building good character in today's youth is an adult issue because children learn values from adults. Adults must demonstrate the core values: trustworthiness, respect, responsibility, fairness, caring, and citizenship. Camps have developed expertise in character development and can provide leadership in the community in character education.…

  12. Character Education in Three Schools: Catholic, Quaker and Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meidl, Christopher; Meidl, Tynisha

    2013-01-01

    Character education has always played a role in the purpose of schools. Most US states have a statement about character education as a part of the mission of the schools. This research studied how character education was perceived by participants in regards to school mission statements/philosophies, school atmosphere and curriculum in a Catholic…

  13. Picture This Character: Using Imagery To Teach a Japanese Syllabary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Joyce D.; Wakefield, John F.

    This study examined the effectiveness of imagery to teach native English speakers to associate hiragana characters (a Japanese script) with the spoken Japanese syllables that the characters represent. Twenty-one adults in a psychology of learning class for teachers were taught to picture a hiragana character in such a way as to establish an…

  14. Good character at school: positive classroom behavior mediates the link between character strengths and school achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Lisa; Ruch, Willibald

    2015-01-01

    Character strengths have been found to be substantially related to children's and adolescents' well-being. Initial evidence suggests that they also matter for school success (e.g., Weber and Ruch, 2012). The present set of two studies aimed at replicating and extending these findings in two different age groups, primary school students (N = 179; mean age = 11.6 years) and secondary school students (N = 199; mean age = 14.4 years). The students completed the VIA-Youth (Values in Action Inventory of Strengths for Youth), a self-report measure of the 24 character strengths in the VIA classification. Their teachers rated the students' positive behavior in the classroom. Additionally, school achievement was assessed: For the primary school students (Study 1), teachers rated the students' overall school achievement and for the secondary school students (Study 2), we used their grades as a measure of school achievement. We found that several character strengths were associated with both positive classroom behavior and school achievement. Across both samples, school achievement was correlated with love of learning, perseverance, zest, gratitude, hope, and perspective. The strongest correlations with positive classroom behavior were found for perseverance, self-regulation, prudence, social intelligence, and hope. For both samples, there were indirect effects of some of the character strengths on school achievement through teacher-rated positive classroom behavior. The converging findings from the two samples support the notion that character strengths contribute to positive classroom behavior, which in turn enhances school achievement. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for future research and for school interventions based on character strengths.

  15. Good character at school: Positive classroom behavior mediates the link between character strengths and school achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa eWagner

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Character strengths have been found to be substantially related to children’s and adolescents’ well-being. Initial evidence suggests that they also matter for school success (e.g., Weber and Ruch, 2012. The present set of two studies aimed at replicating and extending these findings in two different age groups, primary school students (N = 179; mean age = 11.6 years and secondary school students (N = 199; mean age = 14.4 years. The students completed the VIA-Youth, a self-report measure of the 24 character strengths in the VIA classification. Their teachers rated the students’ positive behavior in the classroom. Additionally, school achievement was assessed: For the primary school students (Study 1, teachers rated the students’ overall school achievement and for the secondary school students (Study 2, we used their grades as a measure of school achievement. We found that several character strengths were associated with both positive classroom behavior and school achievement. Across both samples school achievement was correlated with love of learning, perseverance, zest, gratitude, hope, and perspective. The strongest correlations with positive classroom behavior were found for perseverance, self-regulation, prudence, social intelligence, and hope. For both samples, there were indirect effects of most of the character strengths on school achievement through teacher-rated positive classroom behavior. The converging findings from the two samples support the notion that character strengths contribute to positive classroom behavior, which in turn enhances school achievement. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for future research and for school interventions based on character strengths.

  16. Integrable discretizations of the short pulse equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Baofeng; Maruno, Ken-ichi; Ohta, Yasuhiro

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose integrable semi-discrete and full-discrete analogues of the short pulse (SP) equation. The key construction is the bilinear form and determinant structure of solutions of the SP equation. We also give the determinant formulas of N-soliton solutions of the semi-discrete and full-discrete analogues of the SP equations, from which the multi-loop and multi-breather solutions can be generated. In the continuous limit, the full-discrete SP equation converges to the semi-discrete SP equation, and then to the continuous SP equation. Based on the semi-discrete SP equation, an integrable numerical scheme, i.e. a self-adaptive moving mesh scheme, is proposed and used for the numerical computation of the short pulse equation.

  17. Morphology captures diet and locomotor types in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verde Arregoitia, Luis D; Fisher, Diana O; Schweizer, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    To understand the functional meaning of morphological features, we need to relate what we know about morphology and ecology in a meaningful, quantitative framework. Closely related species usually share more phenotypic features than distant ones, but close relatives do not necessarily have the same ecologies. Rodents are the most diverse group of living mammals, with impressive ecomorphological diversification. We used museum collections and ecological literature to gather data on morphology, diet and locomotion for 208 species of rodents from different bioregions to investigate how morphological similarity and phylogenetic relatedness are associated with ecology. After considering differences in body size and shared evolutionary history, we find that unrelated species with similar ecologies can be characterized by a well-defined suite of morphological features. Our results validate the hypothesized ecological relevance of the chosen traits. These cranial, dental and external (e.g. ears) characters predicted diet and locomotion and showed consistent differences among species with different feeding and substrate use strategies. We conclude that when ecological characters do not show strong phylogenetic patterns, we cannot simply assume that close relatives are ecologically similar. Museum specimens are valuable records of species' phenotypes and with the characters proposed here, morphology can reflect functional similarity, an important component of community ecology and macroevolution.

  18. Phylogenetic relationships, character evolution, and taxonomic implications within the slipper lobsters (Crustacea: Decapoda: Scyllaridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chien-Hui; Bracken-Grissom, Heather; Kim, Dohyup; Crandall, Keith A; Chan, Tin-Yam

    2012-01-01

    The slipper lobsters belong to the family Scyllaridae which contains a total of 20 genera and 89 species distributed across four subfamilies (Arctidinae, Ibacinae, Scyllarinae, and Theninae). We have collected nucleotide sequence data from regions of five different genes (16S, 18S, COI, 28S, H3) to estimate phylogenetic relationships among 54 species from the Scyllaridae with a focus on the species rich subfamily Scyllarinae. We have included in our analyses at least one representative from all 20 genera in the Scyllaridae and 35 of the 52 species within the Scyllarinae. Our resulting phylogenetic estimate shows the subfamilies are monophyletic, except for Ibacinae, which has paraphyletic relationships among genera. Many of the genera within the Scyllarinae form non-monophyletic groups, while the genera from all other subfamilies form well supported clades. We discuss the implications of this history on the evolution of morphological characters and ecological transitions (nearshore vs. offshore) within the slipper lobsters. Finally, we identify, through ancestral state character reconstructions, key morphological features diagnostic of the major clades of diversity within the Scyllaridae and relate this character evolution to current taxonomy and classification. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Phylogeny, character evolution, and biogeography of Cuscuta (dodders; Convolvulaceae) inferred from coding plastid and nuclear sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Miguel A; Costea, Mihai; Kuzmina, Maria; Stefanović, Saša

    2014-04-01

    The parasitic genus Cuscuta, containing some 200 species circumscribed traditionally in three subgenera, is nearly cosmopolitan, occurring in a wide range of habitats and hosts. Previous molecular studies, on subgenera Grammica and Cuscuta, delimited major clades within these groups. However, the sequences used were unalignable among subgenera, preventing the phylogenetic comparison across the genus. We conducted a broad phylogenetic study using rbcL and nrLSU sequences covering the morphological, physiological, and geographical diversity of Cuscuta. We used parsimony methods to reconstruct ancestral states for taxonomically important characters. Biogeographical inferences were obtained using statistical and Bayesian approaches. Four well-supported major clades are resolved. Two of them correspond to subgenera Monogynella and Grammica. Subgenus Cuscuta is paraphyletic, with section Pachystigma sister to subgenus Grammica. Previously described cases of strongly supported discordance between plastid and nuclear phylogenies, interpreted as reticulation events, are confirmed here and three new cases are detected. Dehiscent fruits and globose stigmas are inferred as ancestral character states, whereas the ancestral style number is ambiguous. Biogeographical reconstructions suggest an Old World origin for the genus and subsequent spread to the Americas as a consequence of one long-distance dispersal. Hybridization may play an important yet underestimated role in the evolution of Cuscuta. Our results disagree with scenarios of evolution (polarity) previously proposed for several taxonomically important morphological characters, and with their usage and significance. While several cases of long-distance dispersal are inferred, vicariance or dispersal to adjacent areas emerges as the dominant biogeographical pattern.

  20. Nematode taxonomy: from morphology to metabarcoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M.; Sapp, M.; Prior, T.; Karssen, G.; Back, M.

    2015-11-01

    Nematodes represent a species rich and morphologically diverse group of metazoans inhabiting both aquatic and terrestrial environments. Their role as biological indicators and as key players in nutrient cycling has been well documented. Some groups of nematodes are also known to cause significant losses to crop production. In spite of this, knowledge of their diversity is still limited due to the difficulty in achieving species identification using morphological characters. Molecular methodology has provided very useful means of circumventing the numerous limitations associated with classical morphology based identification. We discuss herein the history and the progress made within the field of nematode systematics, the limitations of classical taxonomy and how the advent of high throughput sequencing is facilitating advanced ecological and molecular studies.

  1. Discrete geometric structures for architecture

    KAUST Repository

    Pottmann, Helmut

    2010-06-13

    The emergence of freeform structures in contemporary architecture raises numerous challenging research problems, most of which are related to the actual fabrication and are a rich source of research topics in geometry and geometric computing. The talk will provide an overview of recent progress in this field, with a particular focus on discrete geometric structures. Most of these result from practical requirements on segmenting a freeform shape into planar panels and on the physical realization of supporting beams and nodes. A study of quadrilateral meshes with planar faces reveals beautiful relations to discrete differential geometry. In particular, we discuss meshes which discretize the network of principal curvature lines. Conical meshes are among these meshes; they possess conical offset meshes at a constant face/face distance, which in turn leads to a supporting beam layout with so-called torsion free nodes. This work can be generalized to a variety of multilayer structures and laid the ground for an adapted curvature theory for these meshes. There are also efforts on segmenting surfaces into planar hexagonal panels. Though these are less constrained than planar quadrilateral panels, this problem is still waiting for an elegant solution. Inspired by freeform designs in architecture which involve circles and spheres, we present a new kind of triangle mesh whose faces\\' in-circles form a packing, i.e., the in-circles of two triangles with a common edge have the same contact point on that edge. These "circle packing (CP) meshes" exhibit an aesthetic balance of shape and size of their faces. They are closely tied to sphere packings on surfaces and to various remarkable structures and patterns which are of interest in art, architecture, and design. CP meshes constitute a new link between architectural freeform design and computational conformal geometry. Recently, certain timber structures motivated us to study discrete patterns of geodesics on surfaces. This

  2. Radiative transfer on discrete spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Preisendorfer, Rudolph W; Stark, M; Ulam, S

    1965-01-01

    Pure and Applied Mathematics, Volume 74: Radiative Transfer on Discrete Spaces presents the geometrical structure of natural light fields. This book describes in detail with mathematical precision the radiometric interactions of light-scattering media in terms of a few well established principles.Organized into four parts encompassing 15 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the derivations of the practical formulas and the arrangement of formulas leading to numerical solution procedures of radiative transfer problems in plane-parallel media. This text then constructs radiative tran

  3. Modeling the Semiotic Structure of Player-Characters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vella, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    When game studies has tackled the player-character, it has tended to do so by means of an opposition to the notion of the avatar, with the result that the ontological and semiotic nature of the character in itself has not been given due attention. This paper draws on understandings of character...... from the fields of narratology and literary theory to highlight the double-layered ontology of character as both a possible individual and as a semiotic construction. Uri Margolin’s narratological model of character signification is used as the basis for developing a semiotic-structural model...

  4. Molecules, morphology, and the monophyly of diapsid reptiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Michael S.Y.

    2001-01-01

    The morphological and molecular evidence for higher-level reptile relationships is reassessed, A combined analysis of 176 osteological, 40 soft anatomical, and 2903 (1783 aligned) molecular characters in 28 amniote taxa yields the traditional reptile tree. Synapsids (including mammals) are the

  5. Morphological diversity of wild medicinal Paris L. from China and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Paris L. (Trilliaceae) is a temperate genus of about 24 perennial herbaceous species distributed from Europe to Eastern Asia. Paris is notable in China for its medicinal value. An investigation was conducted to determine the variations of 27 morphological characters of 196 accessions from 8 populations of medicinal Paris ...

  6. READING LITERATURE, TAKING PHILOSOPHICAL IDEAS, AND OBTAINING CHARACTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Maisaroh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to describe the philosophical ideas and characters containing in trilogy of 'RaraMendut's' novel by YB Mangunwijaya. The method used is the knowledge archeology of Michel Foucault. The research proves that the philosophical ideas as follows: 1 wife's faithfulness contains characters of wife’s strong determination and true faithfulness sense; 2 The women seizing fate's  contains the character of high struggle spirit;3 women as a glory’s symbol contains character of self-actualization ability; 4 women and a country's defense contains a character of clever to take on the role / responsive; 5 women and their benefits contains the character as a source of love and life spirit; 6 women as good mothers contains the character of conciliatory, reassuring, joyful, sincere, and full of love; 7 the anxiety to old age contains the character of religious and strong self-awareness; 8 the glory contains the character of the glory of battle with themselves; 9 the child's nature contains the character of belief in the skill/ creativity of children and believe to God the Evolver; And 10 the essence of wisdom and usefulness of life contain  the characters of uniting the scattered things, receiving and embracing sincerely things bad/ broken/ waste, understanding and forgiving, voice sincerity and excitement, not easy to complain.

  7. Handwritten Javanese Character Recognition Using Several Artificial Neural Network Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorius Satia Budhi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Javanese characters are traditional characters that are used to write the Javanese language. The Javanese language is a language used by many people on the island of Java, Indonesia. The use of Javanese characters is diminishing more and more because of the difficulty of studying the Javanese characters themselves. The Javanese character set consists of basic characters, numbers, complementary characters, and so on. In this research we have developed a system to recognize Javanese characters. Input for the system is a digital image containing several handwritten Javanese characters. Preprocessing and segmentation are performed on the input image to get each character. For each character, feature extraction is done using the ICZ-ZCZ method. The output from feature extraction will become input for an artificial neural network. We used several artificial neural networks, namely a bidirectional associative memory network, a counterpropagation network, an evolutionary network, a backpropagation network, and a backpropagation network combined with chi2. From the experimental results it can be seen that the combination of chi2 and backpropagation achieved better recognition accuracy than the other methods.

  8. Character education in perspective of chemistry pre-service teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merdekawati, Krisna

    2017-12-01

    As one of the pre-service teacher education programs, Chemistry Education Department Islamic University of Indonesia (UII) is committed to providing quality education. It is an education that can produce competent and characteristic chemistry pre-service teacher. The focus of research is to describe the perception of students as a potential teacher of chemistry on character education and achievement of character education. The research instruments include questionnaires and observation sheets. Research data show that students have understood the importance of character education and committed to organizing character education later in schools. Students have understood the ways in which character education can be used. The students stated that Chemistry Education Department has tried to equip students with character education. The observation result shows that students generally have character as a pre-service teacher.

  9. Explaining the role of character development in the evaluation of morally ambiguous characters in entertainment media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleemans, M.; Eden, A.; Daalmans, S.; Ommen, M.E. van; Weijers, G.W.M.

    2017-01-01

    The current project aims at better understanding how narrative characteristics in stories function in the liking, moral evaluation, and enjoyment of narratives featuring morally ambiguous characters (MACs). Shafer and Raney (2012) found that viewers differently enjoyed a heroic versus MAC-centered

  10. 3-D discrete analytical ridgelet transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbert, David; Carré, Philippe; Andres, Eric

    2006-12-01

    In this paper, we propose an implementation of the 3-D Ridgelet transform: the 3-D discrete analytical Ridgelet transform (3-D DART). This transform uses the Fourier strategy for the computation of the associated 3-D discrete Radon transform. The innovative step is the definition of a discrete 3-D transform with the discrete analytical geometry theory by the construction of 3-D discrete analytical lines in the Fourier domain. We propose two types of 3-D discrete lines: 3-D discrete radial lines going through the origin defined from their orthogonal projections and 3-D planes covered with 2-D discrete line segments. These discrete analytical lines have a parameter called arithmetical thickness, allowing us to define a 3-D DART adapted to a specific application. Indeed, the 3-D DART representation is not orthogonal, It is associated with a flexible redundancy factor. The 3-D DART has a very simple forward/inverse algorithm that provides an exact reconstruction without any iterative method. In order to illustrate the potentiality of this new discrete transform, we apply the 3-D DART and its extension to the Local-DART (with smooth windowing) to the denoising of 3-D image and color video. These experimental results show that the simple thresholding of the 3-D DART coefficients is efficient.

  11. Profitability and morphological characters of inter-cropping of different vegetables in tea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waheed, A.; Hamid, F.S.; Ahmad, N.; Khan, B.M.

    2007-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted at National Tea Research Institute, Shinkiari, Mansehra, during 2006-07 to find out the most productive and profitable tea-based intercropping system with different vegetable crops. The vegetables included were brinjal solanum melongena , chilies Capsicum annum, okra Ahle moselous, potato Solanum tuberosum, spinach Spinacia oleracea, garlic Allium sativum, onion Allium cepa, peas Pisum sativum and tomato Lycopersicon esculentum, as intercrop combination in newly planted tea. Intercropping of peas showed up poorest among all other treatments, in net income of Rs. 4,800.0, whereas intercrops significantly affected no. of branches, leaves, fresh and dry weight/plant of tea crop respectively. Considering the net return and total expenditure incurred on raising of intercrops, the highest net profit of Rs. 6,669.0/acre was obtained from potato, followed by garlic at Rs. 6,200.0. All treatments combination is more or less similar in net return, except T/sub 5/. Yield and yield-attributes in all treatments were significantly affected. Whereas branches and fresh weight remained significant among each other except sole tea crop. Agronomic data showed that the cropping days were also varies from 45 to 150 days in all treatments. Therefore it might be more economically viable than sole tea crop, upto complete bush formation. (author)

  12. Daedalea americana sp nov (Polyporales, Basidiomycota) evidenced by morphological characters and phylogenetic analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Han, M.L.; Vlasák, Josef; Cui, B.-K.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 204, č. 4 (2015), s. 277-286 ISSN 1179-3155 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : brown-rot fungi * taxonomy * Fomitopsidaceae * Phylogeny Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.087, year: 2015

  13. Study of Phenotypic Correlations between Morphologic Characters and Body Parameters at River Male Lobsters (Astacus Fluviatilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Bura

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The body measurements was made on 20 males of river lobster (Astacus fluviatilis or Astacus astacus. The lobsters on witch the study was made had an average total length of body of 12.72 cm ±0.19 cm (formed from: 6.07±0.10cm the length of cefalothorax, 4.73 ±0.10 cm the length of abdomen and 1.91 ±0.07 cm length of telson, and a body weight of 55.70±3.07 g. the males present a length of antennas of 8.53±0.34 cm, a feelers of 2.20±0.05 cm, and the stems of the eyes of 0.51±0.02 cm. The body of males present a average width of 3.35±0.07 cm at level of cefalothorax, and 2.40±0.05 cm at abdomen level. Average deepness of cefalothorax was 2.85±0.07cm, and abdomen deepness of 1.34±0.03cm. The 5 pairs of periopodes had an average length of 10.91±0.42 cm, 6.06±0.22 cm, 7.21±0.21 cm, 6.57±0.16 cm and 5.85±0.15cm. The average length of pleopods was at first pears of 2.00±0.06 cm, at second pair of 2.11±0.05 cm, at third of 1.85±0.05 cm, at fourth of 1.73±0.04 cm and at fifth pair of 1.55±0.04 cm.

  14. Hispidaedalea gen. nov and Griseoporia taiwanense sp nov (Gloeophyllales, Basidiomycota) based on morphological and molecular characters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    He, S.H.; Vlasák, Josef; Dai, Y.C.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 3 (2014), s. 833-839 ISSN 1617-416X Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Brown rot * Hispidaedalea * Wood-decaying fungi Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.913, year: 2014

  15. Phylogeny of Maculinea blues (Lepidoptera : Lycaenidae) based on morphological and ecological characters: evolution of parasitic myrmecophily

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pech, P.; Fric, Zdeněk; Konvička, Martin; Zrzavý, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 4 (2004), s. 362-375 ISSN 0748-3007 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114; GA ČR GD206/03/H034 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : Host-plant specialization * myrmica and nests Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.414, year: 2004

  16. Morphological characters of the flowers and the structure of the nectaries of Acer platanoides L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The micromorphology of the nectaries and of other elements of the flower was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The anatomy of the nectaries was determined using light microscopy (LM. The inflorescences of A. platanoides comprise flowers included in two categories: functionally male and female. Nectaries of similar structure are found in both types of these flowers. The nectary gland located on the surface of the receptacle belongs to interstaminal nectaries. It has the form of a fleshy ring situated between the petals and the pistil. The bases of the staminal filaments are located in the depressions of the nectary. The outer diameter of the nectary reaches ca. 5 mm, while the thickness of this gland's tissues is 400-700 μm. In the epidermis of the nectary gland, there are numerous, evenly distributed stomata through which nectar release occurs. The stomata function asynchronously. In some stomata, we could observe nectar drops flowing out and a layer of this secretion around the stomata. The secretory parenchyma of the nectary is composed of several layers of thick-walled cells, whereas the ends of the vascular bundles with xylem and phloem elements are situated in the subglandular parenchyma. Chloroplasts are found both in the epidermal cells and in the glandular parenchyma cells and photosynthesis can take place in them due to the nectary's good exposure to light. The presence of starch grains was found in the chloroplasts; they can be energy material for nectar production.

  17. Braille character discrimination in blindfolded human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Thomas; Théoret, Hugo; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2002-04-16

    Visual deprivation may lead to enhanced performance in other sensory modalities. Whether this is the case in the tactile modality is controversial and may depend upon specific training and experience. We compared the performance of sighted subjects on a Braille character discrimination task to that of normal individuals blindfolded for a period of five days. Some participants in each group (blindfolded and sighted) received intensive Braille training to offset the effects of experience. Blindfolded subjects performed better than sighted subjects in the Braille discrimination task, irrespective of tactile training. For the left index finger, which had not been used in the formal Braille classes, blindfolding had no effect on performance while subjects who underwent tactile training outperformed non-stimulated participants. These results suggest that visual deprivation speeds up Braille learning and may be associated with behaviorally relevant neuroplastic changes.

  18. Evaluation of the fossil fish-specific diversity in a chadian continental assemblage: Exploration of morphological continuous variation in Synodontis (Ostariophysi, Siluriformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinton, Aurélie; Le Fur, Soizic; Otero, Olga

    2016-11-01

    In the fossil record, the quantification of continuous morphological variation has become a central issue when dealing with species identification and speciation. In this context, fossil taxa with living representatives hold great promise, because of the potential to characterise patterns of intraspecific morphological variation in extant species prior to any interpretation in the fossil record. The vast majority of catfish families fulfil this prerequisite, as most of them are represented by extant genera. However, although they constitute a major fish group in terms of distribution, and ecological and taxonomic diversity, the quantitative study of their past morphological variation has been neglected, as fossil specimens are generally identified based on the scarcest remains, that is, complete neurocrania that bear discrete characters. Consequently, a part of freshwater catfish history is unprospected and unknown. In this study, we explored the morphological continuous variation of the humeral plate shape in Synodontis catfishes using Elliptic Fourier Analysis (EFA), and compared extant members and fossil counterparts. We analysed 153 extant specimens of 11 Synodontis species present in the Chad basin, in addition to 23 fossil specimens from the Chadian fossiliferous area of Toros Menalla which is dated around 7 Ma. This highly speciose genus, which is one of the most diversified in Africa, exhibits a rich fossil record with several hundred remains mostly identified as Synodontis sp. The analysis of the outline of the humeral plate reveals that some living morphological types were already represented in the Chad Basin 7 My ago, and allows for the discovery of extinct species. Beside illuminating the complex Neogene evolutionary history of Synodontis, these results underline the interest in the ability of isolated remains to reconstruct a past dynamic history and to validate the relevance of EFA as a tool to explore specific diversity through time. J. Morphol. 277

  19. Fermion systems in discrete space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finster, Felix

    2007-01-01

    Fermion systems in discrete space-time are introduced as a model for physics on the Planck scale. We set up a variational principle which describes a non-local interaction of all fermions. This variational principle is symmetric under permutations of the discrete space-time points. We explain how for minimizers of the variational principle, the fermions spontaneously break this permutation symmetry and induce on space-time a discrete causal structure

  20. Fermion systems in discrete space-time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finster, Felix [NWF I - Mathematik, Universitaet Regensburg, 93040 Regensburg (Germany)

    2007-05-15

    Fermion systems in discrete space-time are introduced as a model for physics on the Planck scale. We set up a variational principle which describes a non-local interaction of all fermions. This variational principle is symmetric under permutations of the discrete space-time points. We explain how for minimizers of the variational principle, the fermions spontaneously break this permutation symmetry and induce on space-time a discrete causal structure.

  1. Fermion Systems in Discrete Space-Time

    OpenAIRE

    Finster, Felix

    2006-01-01

    Fermion systems in discrete space-time are introduced as a model for physics on the Planck scale. We set up a variational principle which describes a non-local interaction of all fermions. This variational principle is symmetric under permutations of the discrete space-time points. We explain how for minimizers of the variational principle, the fermions spontaneously break this permutation symmetry and induce on space-time a discrete causal structure.

  2. Fermion systems in discrete space-time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finster, Felix

    2007-05-01

    Fermion systems in discrete space-time are introduced as a model for physics on the Planck scale. We set up a variational principle which describes a non-local interaction of all fermions. This variational principle is symmetric under permutations of the discrete space-time points. We explain how for minimizers of the variational principle, the fermions spontaneously break this permutation symmetry and induce on space-time a discrete causal structure.

  3. Drawing and Recognizing Chinese Characters with Recurrent Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu-Yao; Yin, Fei; Zhang, Yan-Ming; Liu, Cheng-Lin; Bengio, Yoshua

    2018-04-01

    Recent deep learning based approaches have achieved great success on handwriting recognition. Chinese characters are among the most widely adopted writing systems in the world. Previous research has mainly focused on recognizing handwritten Chinese characters. However, recognition is only one aspect for understanding a language, another challenging and interesting task is to teach a machine to automatically write (pictographic) Chinese characters. In this paper, we propose a framework by using the recurrent neural network (RNN) as both a discriminative model for recognizing Chinese characters and a generative model for drawing (generating) Chinese characters. To recognize Chinese characters, previous methods usually adopt the convolutional neural network (CNN) models which require transforming the online handwriting trajectory into image-like representations. Instead, our RNN based approach is an end-to-end system which directly deals with the sequential structure and does not require any domain-specific knowledge. With the RNN system (combining an LSTM and GRU), state-of-the-art performance can be achieved on the ICDAR-2013 competition database. Furthermore, under the RNN framework, a conditional generative model with character embedding is proposed for automatically drawing recognizable Chinese characters. The generated characters (in vector format) are human-readable and also can be recognized by the discriminative RNN model with high accuracy. Experimental results verify the effectiveness of using RNNs as both generative and discriminative models for the tasks of drawing and recognizing Chinese characters.

  4. The influence of media characters on children's food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Jennifer A; Schiffman, Jennifer M; Hanson, Katherine G

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess the role of media characters in influencing children's food choices; the first focused on children's self-reported preference, whereas the second focused on actual choice. The results of the experiments suggest that popular characters can make a difference in encouraging children to select one food over another. In the first experiment, children were more likely to indicate a preference for one food over another when one was associated with characters that they liked and with whom they were familiar. This effect was particularly strong when a sugary or salty snack branded by a favored character was competing with a healthier option branded by an unknown character or no character. Alternatively, when children were asked to choose between a healthy food and a sugary or salty snack, branding of the healthy food with a favored character did not significantly change appeal of that healthy snack. However, when foods within the same category (i.e., 2 vegetables, 2 fruits, or 2 grains) were asked to compete against each other, character branding strongly influenced children's food choice. Findings from the second experiment suggest that children are more willing to try more pieces of a healthy food if a favored character, in comparison with an unknown character, is promoting that food.

  5. THE CHARACTER ANALYSIS OF GLEN HANSARD IN ONCE FILM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nani Rosnani Thamrin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzed the characterization of talented actor named Glen Hansard in Once film. This study employed a descriptive qualitative research design based on theories of Rahardjo (1985, Robert (1965, and Card (1988. Primary data sources were whole Once scenes film directed by John Carney which had low-budgeting production with two stars, Glen Hansard and Irglova, while secondary data sources were collected from the articles related to this study. This research mainly investigated two aspects involved two character analyses of the main actor, Hansard. The first one was the construction of Hansard’s characters and the second one was the effect between his character and another actors’ character. The study showed that Hansard’s characters were constructed by five factors: from what the character did and said, what the other characters said about him, how the appearance and its milieu were, influencing one and another.The study also found that he had struggle, visionary, ambitious, introvert, sensitive, straightforward and curious characters, but more characters that showed strong characters of his were struggle, visionary and ambitious, because the scenes reflected them more.

  6. Inevitable randomness in discrete mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, Jozsef

    2009-01-01

    Mathematics has been called the science of order. The subject is remarkably good for generalizing specific cases to create abstract theories. However, mathematics has little to say when faced with highly complex systems, where disorder reigns. This disorder can be found in pure mathematical arenas, such as the distribution of primes, the 3n+1 conjecture, and class field theory. The purpose of this book is to provide examples--and rigorous proofs--of the complexity law: (1) discrete systems are either simple or they exhibit advanced pseudorandomness; (2) a priori probabilities often exist even when there is no intrinsic symmetry. Part of the difficulty in achieving this purpose is in trying to clarify these vague statements. The examples turn out to be fascinating instances of deep or mysterious results in number theory and combinatorics. This book considers randomness and complexity. The traditional approach to complexity--computational complexity theory--is to study very general complexity classes, such as P...

  7. Quantum evolution by discrete measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roa, L; Guevara, M L Ladron de; Delgado, A; Olivares-RenterIa, G; Klimov, A B

    2007-01-01

    In this article we review two ways of driving a quantum system to a known pure state via a sequence discrete of von Neumann measurements. The first of them assumes that the initial state of the system is unknown, and the evolution is attained only with the help of two non-commuting observables. For this method, the overall success probability is maximized when the eigentstates of the involved observables constitute mutually unbiased bases. The second method assumes the initial state is known and it uses N observables which are consecutively measured to make the state of the system approach the target state. The probability of success of this procedure converges to 1 as the number of observables increases

  8. Quantum evolution by discrete measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roa, L [Center for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile); Guevara, M L Ladron de [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Catolica del Norte, Casilla 1280, Antofagasta (Chile); Delgado, A [Center for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile); Olivares-RenterIa, G [Center for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile); Klimov, A B [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Guadalajara, Revolucion 1500, 44420 Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico)

    2007-10-15

    In this article we review two ways of driving a quantum system to a known pure state via a sequence discrete of von Neumann measurements. The first of them assumes that the initial state of the system is unknown, and the evolution is attained only with the help of two non-commuting observables. For this method, the overall success probability is maximized when the eigentstates of the involved observables constitute mutually unbiased bases. The second method assumes the initial state is known and it uses N observables which are consecutively measured to make the state of the system approach the target state. The probability of success of this procedure converges to 1 as the number of observables increases.

  9. Discrete stochastic processes and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Collet, Jean-François

    2018-01-01

    This unique text for beginning graduate students gives a self-contained introduction to the mathematical properties of stochastics and presents their applications to Markov processes, coding theory, population dynamics, and search engine design. The book is ideal for a newly designed course in an introduction to probability and information theory. Prerequisites include working knowledge of linear algebra, calculus, and probability theory. The first part of the text focuses on the rigorous theory of Markov processes on countable spaces (Markov chains) and provides the basis to developing solid probabilistic intuition without the need for a course in measure theory. The approach taken is gradual beginning with the case of discrete time and moving on to that of continuous time. The second part of this text is more applied; its core introduces various uses of convexity in probability and presents a nice treatment of entropy.

  10. Discrete calculus methods for counting

    CERN Document Server

    Mariconda, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to combinatorics, finite calculus, formal series, recurrences, and approximations of sums. Readers will find not only coverage of the basic elements of the subjects but also deep insights into a range of less common topics rarely considered within a single book, such as counting with occupancy constraints, a clear distinction between algebraic and analytical properties of formal power series, an introduction to discrete dynamical systems with a thorough description of Sarkovskii’s theorem, symbolic calculus, and a complete description of the Euler-Maclaurin formulas and their applications. Although several books touch on one or more of these aspects, precious few cover all of them. The authors, both pure mathematicians, have attempted to develop methods that will allow the student to formulate a given problem in a precise mathematical framework. The aim is to equip readers with a sound strategy for classifying and solving problems by pursuing a mathematically rigorous yet ...

  11. Modeling discrete competitive facility location

    CERN Document Server

    Karakitsiou, Athanasia

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an up-to-date review of modeling and optimization approaches for location problems along with a new bi-level programming methodology which captures the effect of competition of both producers and customers on facility location decisions. While many optimization approaches simplify location problems by assuming decision making in isolation, this monograph focuses on models which take into account the competitive environment in which such decisions are made. New insights in modeling, algorithmic and theoretical possibilities are opened by this approach and new applications are possible. Competition on equal term plus competition between market leader and followers are considered in this study, consequently bi-level optimization methodology is emphasized and further developed. This book provides insights regarding modeling complexity and algorithmic approaches to discrete competitive location problems. In traditional location modeling, assignment of customer demands to supply sources are made ...

  12. Discrete modelling of drapery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoeni, Klaus; Giacomini, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Drapery systems are an efficient and cost-effective measure in preventing and controlling rockfall hazards on rock slopes. The simplest form consists of a row of ground anchors along the top of the slope connected to a horizontal support cable from which a wire mesh is suspended down the face of the slope. Such systems are generally referred to as simple or unsecured draperies (Badger and Duffy 2012). Variations such as secured draperies, where a pattern of ground anchors is incorporated within the field of the mesh, and hybrid systems, where the upper part of an unsecured drapery is elevated to intercept rockfalls originating upslope of the installation, are becoming more and more popular. This work presents a discrete element framework for simulation of unsecured drapery systems and its variations. The numerical model is based on the classical discrete element method (DEM) and implemented into the open-source framework YADE (Šmilauer et al., 2010). The model takes all relevant interactions between block, drapery and slope into account (Thoeni et al., 2014) and was calibrated and validated based on full-scale experiments (Giacomini et al., 2012).The block is modelled as a rigid clump made of spherical particles which allows any shape to be approximated. The drapery is represented by a set of spherical particle with remote interactions. The behaviour of the remote interactions is governed by the constitutive behaviour of the wire and generally corresponds to a piecewise linear stress-strain relation (Thoeni et al., 2013). The same concept is used to model wire ropes. The rock slope is represented by rigid triangular elements where material properties (e.g., normal coefficient of restitution, friction angle) are assigned to each triangle. The capabilities of the developed model to simulate drapery systems and estimate the residual hazard involved with such systems is shown. References Badger, T.C., Duffy, J.D. (2012) Drapery systems. In: Turner, A.K., Schuster R

  13. Molecular phylogenetic evaluation of classification and scenarios of character evolution in calcareous sponges (Porifera, Class Calcarea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Voigt

    Full Text Available Calcareous sponges (Phylum Porifera, Class Calcarea are known to be taxonomically difficult. Previous molecular studies have revealed many discrepancies between classically recognized taxa and the observed relationships at the order, family and genus levels; these inconsistencies question underlying hypotheses regarding the evolution of certain morphological characters. Therefore, we extended the available taxa and character set by sequencing the complete small subunit (SSU rDNA and the almost complete large subunit (LSU rDNA of additional key species and complemented this dataset by substantially increasing the length of available LSU sequences. Phylogenetic analyses provided new hypotheses about the relationships of Calcarea and about the evolution of certain morphological characters. We tested our phylogeny against competing phylogenetic hypotheses presented by previous classification systems. Our data reject the current order-level classification by again finding non-monophyletic Leucosolenida, Clathrinida and Murrayonida. In the subclass Calcinea, we recovered a clade that includes all species with a cortex, which is largely consistent with the previously proposed order Leucettida. Other orders that had been rejected in the current system were not found, but could not be rejected in our tests either. We found several additional families and genera polyphyletic: the families Leucascidae and Leucaltidae and the genus Leucetta in Calcinea, and in Calcaronea the family Amphoriscidae and the genus Ute. Our phylogeny also provided support for the vaguely suspected close relationship of several members of Grantiidae with giantortical diactines to members of Heteropiidae. Similarly, our analyses revealed several unexpected affinities, such as a sister group relationship between Leucettusa (Leucaltidae and Leucettidae and between Leucascandra (Jenkinidae and Sycon carteri (Sycettidae. According to our results, the taxonomy of Calcarea is in

  14. Character feature integration of Chinese calligraphy and font

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Cao; Xiao, Jianguo; Jia, Wenhua; Xu, Canhui

    2013-01-01

    A framework is proposed in this paper to effectively generate a new hybrid character type by means of integrating local contour feature of Chinese calligraphy with structural feature of font in computer system. To explore traditional art manifestation of calligraphy, multi-directional spatial filter is applied for local contour feature extraction. Then the contour of character image is divided into sub-images. The sub-images in the identical position from various characters are estimated by Gaussian distribution. According to its probability distribution, the dilation operator and erosion operator are designed to adjust the boundary of font image. And then new Chinese character images are generated which possess both contour feature of artistical calligraphy and elaborate structural feature of font. Experimental results demonstrate the new characters are visually acceptable, and the proposed framework is an effective and efficient strategy to automatically generate the new hybrid character of calligraphy and font.

  15. A Japanese logographic character frequency list for cognitive science research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikamatsu, N; Yokoyama, S; Nozaki, H; Long, E; Fukuda, S

    2000-08-01

    This paper describes a Japanese logographic character (kanji) frequency list, which is based on an analysis of the largest recently available corpus of Japanese words and characters. This corpus comprised a full year of morning and evening editions of a major newspaper, containing more than 23 million kanji characters and more than 4,000 different kanji characters. This paper lists the 3,000 most frequent kanji characters, as well as an analysis of kanji usage and correlations between the present list and previous Japanese frequency lists. The authors believe that the present list will help researchers more accurately and efficiently control the selection of kanji characters in cognitive science research and interpret related psycholinguistic data.

  16. Evidence for ontogenetically and morphologically distinct alternative reproductive tactics in the invasive round Goby Neogobius melanostomus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleeker, Katinka; Jong, De Karen; Kessel, Van Nils; Hinde, Camilla A.; Nagelkerke, Leopold A.J.

    2017-01-01

    Alternative reproductive tactics are characterized by the occurrence of discrete alternative morphs that differ in behavioural, morphological and physiological traits within the same sex. Although much effort has been made to describe the behaviour, morphology and physiology of such alternative

  17. Stroop phenomena in the Japanese language: the case of ideographic characters (kanji) and syllabic characters (kana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Y

    1981-08-01

    Utilizing a unique feature of the Japanese languages--that besides two syllabic orthographies, which have identical pronunciations, words with the same pronunciation may also be written in an orthography composed of ideographic characters--we have conducted an investigation of Stroop phenomena. The fact that pronunciations of the three Japanese orthographies are identical means that, if there are any differences between them in the Stroop phenomena observed, we can place the locus of this interference effect in the perceptual process. Five color names were written in the ideographic characters (kanji) and the two syllabic orthographies (hiragana and katakana). Color-congruent cards and incongruent cards were utilized in a color-naming task and a word-reading task. Mean required times for the color-naming condition and the word-reading conditions were compared with those for control conditions. Stroop phenomena were observed in both ideographic and syllabic orthographies. Significant differences in mean required times were observed between the ideographic and syllabic orthographies but not between the two syllabic orthographies. Interferences in comparisons of Japanese orthographies and color patch control conditions were much smaller than in the case of Stroop's (1935) experiment. A "Reverse Stroop Phenomenon" was observed only in the case of kanji on incongruent cards in the word-reading condition. The results support the hypothesis that both ideographic characters (in this case, kanji) and colors are processed in a parallel fashion in the non-dominant right cerebral hemisphere, while syllabic or phonetic characters are processed in the dominant left cerebral hemisphere.

  18. A Modified Back propagation Algorithm for Optical Character Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Jitendra Shrivastav; Prof. Ravindra Kumar Gupta; Dr. Shailendra Singh

    2013-01-01

    Character Recognition (CR) has been an active area of research and due to its diverse applicable environment; it continues to be a challenging research topic. There is a clear need for optical character recognition in order to provide a fast and accurate method to search both existing images as well as large archives of existing paper documents. However, existing optical character recognition programs suffer from a flawed tradeoff between speed and accuracy, making it less attractive for larg...

  19. Sherlock Holmes: From literary character to pop culture symbol

    OpenAIRE

    HULCOVÁ, Anna

    2013-01-01

    The bachelor thesis Sherlock Holmes: From literary character to pop culture symbol deals with the collection of sixty detective stories by Arthur Conan Doyle, the canon. The aim of the thesis is to highlight the aspects that contributed to the popularity of Sherlock Holmes and the series as such. The character of Sherlock Holmes became one of the most adapted literary characters, which is reflected in many areas of popular culture. Special attention is paid to the recent adaptations presentin...

  20. The Strategies for Character Building through Sports Participation

    OpenAIRE

    M.S. Omar-Fauzee; Mohd Nizam Nazarudin; Yudha M. Saputra; Nina Sutresna; Duangkrai Taweesuk; Wipoj Chansem; Rozita Abd. Latif; Soh Kim Geok

    2012-01-01

    The sport participation has been a major part of our life in the societies. Studies on sports participation have found that sports have both positive and negative influence on character buildings. It has been on-going debate on whether ‘sports build character’ but through literature analysis, author had found that ‘with the intention, sports do build character.’ Therefore, strategies of building character through sports are suggested in this paper.

  1. A Discrete Spectral Problem and Related Hierarchy of Discrete Hamiltonian Lattice Equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xixiang; Cao Weili

    2007-01-01

    Staring from a discrete matrix spectral problem, a hierarchy of lattice soliton equations is presented though discrete zero curvature representation. The resulting lattice soliton equations possess non-local Lax pairs. The Hamiltonian structures are established for the resulting hierarchy by the discrete trace identity. Liouville integrability of resulting hierarchy is demonstrated.

  2. ECOLOGICAL CULTURE IN THE UKRAINIAN NATIONAL CHARACTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SKLADANOVSKAYA M.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The ecological security of our country, the possibility of a balanced sustainable development depends on the level of formation of ecological culture of society. Purpose of the article is to analyze the ethnic origins of ecological culture of modern Ukrainian. Nature of Ukraine is the most important point of the historical development of the national character. The installation, stereotypes, archetypes influence on its formation. The aesthetic human needs are met first in the perception of the beauty of unspoiled nature, its comprehension, reflection on the eternal themes: man's place in the natural world, awareness of human relationships and nature, its impact on the individual, man's relation to the world; an effort to recreate the beauty of the surrounding environment. Development of individual aesthetic needs, a sense of harmony and disharmony is the first step of the creativity development, the creative personality possibilities, creativity abilities, which is urgently needed as a modern social development and personal improvement. This is a necessary component of ecological consciousness, ecological culture of modern man.

  3. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF WILD AND CULTIVATED Mucuna pruriens (L. DC. ACCESSIONS ANALYZED USING THIRTY MORPHO-AGRONOMICAL CHARACTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Sathyanarayana

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity and relatedness among 31 wild and 9 cultivated Mucuna pruriens accessions collected from diverse eco-climatic regions in India were evaluated using 30 morpho-agronomical characters. The experiments were carried by growing the plants in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD in four replications for two seasons. The results of PCA for 22 quantitative and 8 qualitative characters indicated that the first two PCs together explained 65.18% and 67.50% of the total variation respectively, which were drawn across a range of traits. Cluster analysis demonstrated on the whole high morphological diversity (63.05% amongst wild and cultivated accessions and low diversity (36.95% within cultivated accessions. Analysis of six yield traits based on LSD5% values revealed distinct genotypes under each category which are of potential value in breeding programs. Low morphological diversity within cultivated accessions emphasizes the need for expanding its genetic base in India.

  4. Taxonomic evaluation using pollen grain sculpture and seed coat characters of 11 taxa of genus Hibiscus (Malvaceae in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. El-Kholy

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pollen grain morphology and seed coat characters of 11 cultivars belonging to two species of genus Hibiscus (Family Malvaceae namely H. esculentus, H. abelmoschus and H. sabdariffa were investigated. This study was carried out using light microscope (LM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Pollen morphology of this genus is fairly uniform. Generally radially symmetrical apolar, mostly spheroidal, pantoporate. Seed exomorphic characters revealed four types of ornamentations; reticulate, ocealate, foveolate and ruminate. Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS–PAGE was employed to characterize those taxa. Thirty-one bands of seed protein profiles have been constructed from the gel. The produced dendrograms that were analyzed by STATISCA program using UPGMA clustering method showed a close affinity among the seven H. esculentus cultivars and the four H. sabdariffa cultivars.

  5. Study of the heritability of some agronomic characters in sulla (Hedysarum spinosissimum subsp. Capitatum (Desf.) Asch. And Gr)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemissi, Imen

    2007-01-01

    In order to safeguard and to improve the fodder species Hedysarum spinosissimum L subsp.capitatum (desf.) asch. et Gr., we estimated the heritability of certain morphological natures. The model used requires, as a preliminary, the analysis of the variance for the estimate of its components. Families of plants half-sibs, resulting from natural pollination, were analysed. The test of ANOVA shows that the familiy effect is significant for five agronomic characters: l ength of the principal axis ( LO); N umber of the secondary branches ( NTP); (length of the longest secondary branch ( LPL); Date of flowering ( DF); N umber of inflorescences ( NIF). To support the idea of use of these variables in a breeding program, we estimated their heritability. The analysis of the significance of this genetic parameter shows that ultimately three characters only are significantly heritable. They are morphological markers NTP, LPL and which can be retained for any project of family's selection's at H. capitatum.

  6. Geometry and Hamiltonian mechanics on discrete spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talasila, V; Clemente-Gallardo, J; Schaft, A J van der

    2004-01-01

    Numerical simulation is often crucial for analysing the behaviour of many complex systems which do not admit analytic solutions. To this end, one either converts a 'smooth' model into a discrete (in space and time) model, or models systems directly at a discrete level. The goal of this paper is to provide a discrete analogue of differential geometry, and to define on these discrete models a formal discrete Hamiltonian structure-in doing so we try to bring together various fundamental concepts from numerical analysis, differential geometry, algebraic geometry, simplicial homology and classical Hamiltonian mechanics. For example, the concept of a twisted derivation is borrowed from algebraic geometry for developing a discrete calculus. The theory is applied to a nonlinear pendulum and we compare the dynamics obtained through a discrete modelling approach with the dynamics obtained via the usual discretization procedures. Also an example of an energy-conserving algorithm on a simple harmonic oscillator is presented, and its effect on the Poisson structure is discussed

  7. Cuspidal discrete series for semisimple symmetric spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nils Byrial; Flensted-Jensen, Mogens; Schlichtkrull, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    We propose a notion of cusp forms on semisimple symmetric spaces. We then study the real hyperbolic spaces in detail, and show that there exists both cuspidal and non-cuspidal discrete series. In particular, we show that all the spherical discrete series are non-cuspidal. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All...

  8. Discrete Riccati equation solutions: Distributed algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Lainiotis

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper new distributed algorithms for the solution of the discrete Riccati equation are introduced. The algorithms are used to provide robust and computational efficient solutions to the discrete Riccati equation. The proposed distributed algorithms are theoretically interesting and computationally attractive.

  9. Painleve test and discrete Boltzmann equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Euler, N.; Steeb, W.H.

    1989-01-01

    The Painleve test for various discrete Boltzmann equations is performed. The connection with integrability is discussed. Furthermore the Lie symmetry vector fields are derived and group-theoretical reduction of the discrete Boltzmann equations to ordinary differentiable equations is performed. Lie Backlund transformations are gained by performing the Painleve analysis for the ordinary differential equations. 16 refs

  10. Variance Swap Replication: Discrete or Continuous?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Le Floc’h

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The popular replication formula to price variance swaps assumes continuity of traded option strikes. In practice, however, there is only a discrete set of option strikes traded on the market. We present here different discrete replication strategies and explain why the continuous replication price is more relevant.

  11. Discretization vs. Rounding Error in Euler's Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Carlos F.

    2011-01-01

    Euler's method for solving initial value problems is an excellent vehicle for observing the relationship between discretization error and rounding error in numerical computation. Reductions in stepsize, in order to decrease discretization error, necessarily increase the number of steps and so introduce additional rounding error. The problem is…

  12. Discrete/PWM Ballast-Resistor Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Roger J.

    1994-01-01

    Circuit offers low switching loss and automatic compensation for failure of ballast resistor. Discrete/PWM ballast-resistor controller improved shunt voltage-regulator circuit designed to supply power from high-resistance source to low-impedance bus. Provides both coarse discrete voltage levels (by switching of ballast resistors) and continuous fine control of voltage via pulse-width modulation.

  13. Current Density and Continuity in Discretized Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boykin, Timothy B.; Luisier, Mathieu; Klimeck, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    Discrete approaches have long been used in numerical modelling of physical systems in both research and teaching. Discrete versions of the Schrodinger equation employing either one or several basis functions per mesh point are often used by senior undergraduates and beginning graduate students in computational physics projects. In studying…

  14. Geometry and Hamiltonian mechanics on discrete spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talasila, V.; Clemente-Gallardo, J.; Schaft, A.J. van der

    2004-01-01

    Numerical simulation is often crucial for analysing the behaviour of many complex systems which do not admit analytic solutions. To this end, one either converts a ‘smooth’ model into a discrete (in space and time) model, or models systems directly at a discrete level. The goal of this paper is to

  15. Geometry and Hamiltonian mechanics on discrete spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talasila, V.; Clemente Gallardo, J.J.; Clemente-Gallardo, J.; van der Schaft, Arjan

    2004-01-01

    Numerical simulation is often crucial for analysing the behaviour of many complex systems which do not admit analytic solutions. To this end, one either converts a 'smooth' model into a discrete (in space and time) model, or models systems directly at a discrete level. The goal of this paper is to

  16. Discrete mathematics in the high school curriculum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, I.; Asch, van A.G.; van Lint, J.H.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we present some topics from the field of discrete mathematics which might be suitable for the high school curriculum. These topics yield both easy to understand challenging problems and important applications of discrete mathematics. We choose elements from number theory and various

  17. Discrete Fourier analysis of multigrid algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vegt, Jacobus J.W.; Rhebergen, Sander

    2011-01-01

    The main topic of this report is a detailed discussion of the discrete Fourier multilevel analysis of multigrid algorithms. First, a brief overview of multigrid methods is given for discretizations of both linear and nonlinear partial differential equations. Special attention is given to the

  18. Morphology study of refractory carbide powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavrda, J.; Blazhikova, Ya.

    1982-01-01

    Refractory carbides were investigated using JSM-U3 electron microscope of Joelco company at 27 KV accelerating voltage. Some photographs of each powder were taken with different enlargements to characterise the sample upon the whole. It was shown that morphological and especially topographic study of powders enables to learn their past history (way of fabrication and treatment). The presence of steps of compact particle fractures and cracks is accompanied by occurence of fine dispersion of carbides subjected to machining after facrication. On the contrary, the character of crystallographic surfaces and features of surface growth testify to the way of crystallization

  19. Dan Brown: Morphology of a Bestsellersaurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Calabrese

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dan Brown’s success finds reasons in multiple factors, social, morphological, cognitive and commercial: the cross-medial restructuring of aesthetic communication on a global scale; the use of zero-sum homeostatic mechanisms in shaping themes, characters and meanings; the mixing of history and fiction; the disappearance of naturalistic elements; the time structuring of plots in «packs», cognitively easy to comprehend; the presence of urban settings, recognizable and meaningful for the global tourist; the elimination of ambiguous elements, favouring an aesthetic orientation to problem solving.

  20. Ulcerative Colitis: Are We Neglecting Its Progressive Character

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Massinha

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ulcerative colitis (UC is a chronic disease but its progressive character, with structural damage, is insufficiently studied. Objectives: To analyze a group of patients without referral bias, regarding its clinical course, the morphological damage, and functional status. Methods: We evaluated UC patients diagnosed between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2004, living in the direct referral area of the hospital and determined the medication use, colectomy rate, structural damage (“lead pipe,” stenosis, pseudopolyps, fibrous bridges, and anorectal function (prospective evaluation with the Cleveland Clinic Incontinence Score [CCIS] and the Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scale. Results: We identified 104 patients, 47% female, with a mean age at diagnosis of 38 ± 17 years, 24% with proctitis, 57% with left colitis, and 19% with pancolitis. In 3 patients, it was not possible to obtain follow-up data. Of the studied patients, 56% needed corticosteroid therapy, 38% immunosuppressants, and 16% anti-tumor necrosis factors (anti-TNFs. After a mean follow-up of 13 ± 2 years, we found structural damage in 25 patients (24%: 5% with proctocolectomy, 15% with “lead pipe,” 16% with pseudopolyps, and 3% with stenosis and fibrous bridges. Reference to functional anorectal disorders was identified in 49%, mostly previous and self-limited episodes of incontinence, but including persistent incontinence in 10% (CCIS 8 ± 4.8. There was an increased incidence of structural damage and anorectal dysfunction in patients who needed corticosteroid therapy (p = 0.001, immunosuppressants (p p = 0.002 and an association of structural damage with anorectal dysfunction (p Conclusions: UC is a disease with structural and functional consequences in a significant subset of patients. This should be incorporated when defining the therapeutic strategy.

  1. Handbook on modelling for discrete optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Pitsoulis, Leonidas; Williams, H

    2006-01-01

    The primary objective underlying the Handbook on Modelling for Discrete Optimization is to demonstrate and detail the pervasive nature of Discrete Optimization. While its applications cut across an incredibly wide range of activities, many of the applications are only known to specialists. It is the aim of this handbook to correct this. It has long been recognized that "modelling" is a critically important mathematical activity in designing algorithms for solving these discrete optimization problems. Nevertheless solving the resultant models is also often far from straightforward. In recent years it has become possible to solve many large-scale discrete optimization problems. However, some problems remain a challenge, even though advances in mathematical methods, hardware, and software technology have pushed the frontiers forward. This handbook couples the difficult, critical-thinking aspects of mathematical modeling with the hot area of discrete optimization. It will be done in an academic handbook treatment...

  2. Discrete elements method of neutral particle transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, K.A.

    1983-01-01

    A new discrete elements (L/sub N/) transport method is derived and compared to the discrete ordinates S/sub N/ method, theoretically and by numerical experimentation. The discrete elements method is more accurate than discrete ordinates and strongly ameliorates ray effects for the practical problems studied. The discrete elements method is shown to be more cost effective, in terms of execution time with comparable storage to attain the same accuracy, for a one-dimensional test case using linear characteristic spatial quadrature. In a two-dimensional test case, a vacuum duct in a shield, L/sub N/ is more consistently convergent toward a Monte Carlo benchmark solution than S/sub N/, using step characteristic spatial quadrature. An analysis of the interaction of angular and spatial quadrature in xy-geometry indicates the desirability of using linear characteristic spatial quadrature with the L/sub N/ method

  3. Spatially localized, temporally quasiperiodic, discrete nonlinear excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, D.; Bishop, A.R.; Gronbech-Jensen, N.

    1995-01-01

    In contrast to the commonly discussed discrete breather, which is a spatially localized, time-periodic solution, we present an exact solution of a discrete nonlinear Schroedinger breather which is a spatially localized, temporally quasiperiodic nonlinear coherent excitation. This breather is a multiple-soliton solution in the sense of the inverse scattering transform. A discrete breather of multiple frequencies is conceptually important in studies of nonlinear lattice systems. We point out that, for this breather, the incommensurability of its frequencies is a discrete lattice effect and these frequencies become commensurate in the continuum limit. To understand the dynamical properties of the breather, we also discuss its stability and its behavior in the presence of an external potential. Finally, we indicate how to obtain an exact N-soliton breather as a discrete generalization of the continuum multiple-soliton solution

  4. Laplacians on discrete and quantum geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcagni, Gianluca; Oriti, Daniele; Thürigen, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    We extend discrete calculus for arbitrary (p-form) fields on embedded lattices to abstract discrete geometries based on combinatorial complexes. We then provide a general definition of discrete Laplacian using both the primal cellular complex and its combinatorial dual. The precise implementation of geometric volume factors is not unique and, comparing the definition with a circumcentric and a barycentric dual, we argue that the latter is, in general, more appropriate because it induces a Laplacian with more desirable properties. We give the expression of the discrete Laplacian in several different sets of geometric variables, suitable for computations in different quantum gravity formalisms. Furthermore, we investigate the possibility of transforming from position to momentum space for scalar fields, thus setting the stage for the calculation of heat kernel and spectral dimension in discrete quantum geometries. (paper)

  5. Discrete breathers in graphane: Effect of temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baimova, J. A., E-mail: julia.a.baimova@gmail.com [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Branch (Russian Federation); Murzaev, R. T.; Lobzenko, I. P.; Dmitriev, S. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Metals Superplasticity Problems (Russian Federation); Zhou, Kun [Nanyang Technological University, School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering (Singapore)

    2016-05-15

    The discrete breathers in graphane in thermodynamic equilibrium in the temperature range 50–600 K are studied by molecular dynamics simulation. A discrete breather is a hydrogen atom vibrating along the normal to a sheet of graphane at a high amplitude. As was found earlier, the lifetime of a discrete breather at zero temperature corresponds to several tens of thousands of vibrations. The effect of temperature on the decay time of discrete breathers and the probability of their detachment from a sheet of graphane are studied in this work. It is shown that closely spaced breathers can exchange energy with each other at zero temperature. The data obtained suggest that thermally activated discrete breathers can be involved in the dehydrogenation of graphane, which is important for hydrogen energetics.

  6. Gross morphology betrays phylogeny

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alström, Per; Fjeldså, Jon; Fregin, Silke

    2011-01-01

    .). Superficial morphological similarity to cisticolid warblers has previously clouded the species true relationship. Detailed morphology, such as facial bristles and claw and footpad structure, also supports a closer relationship to Cettiidae and some other non-cisticolid warblers....

  7. Molecular phylogeny and character evolution of the chthamaloid barnacles (Cirripedia:Thoracica)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pérez-Losada, Marcos; Høeg, Jens Thorvald; Crandall, Keith A.

    2012-01-01

    surrounded by whorls of small imbricating plates; but this hypothesis has never been subjected to a rigorous phylogenetic test. Here we used multilocus sequence data and extensive taxon sampling to build a comprehensive phylogeny of the Chthamaloidea as a basis for understanding their morphological evolution......The Chthamaloidea (Balanomorpha) present the most plesiomorphic characters in shell plates and cirri, mouthparts, and oral cone within the acorn barnacles (Thoracica: Sessilia). Due to their importance in understanding both the origin and diversification of the Balanomorpha, the evolution...... of the Chthamaloidea has been debated since Darwin's seminal monographs. Theories of morphological and ontogenetic evolution suggest that the group could have evolved multiple times from pedunculated relatives and that shell plate number diminished gradually (8¿6¿4) from an ancestral state with eight wall plates...

  8. CHARACTER EDUCATION IN ISLAMIC BOARDING SCHOOL- BASED SMA AMANAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Herdiana Abdurrahman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to describe findings of the study in pesantren-based SMA Amanah covering: 1 the principal policy in developing character education, 2 the methods used in developing character education, 3 students’ characteristics as the result of the character education process, 4 the problems encountered in the implementation of character education and the efforts made in addressing the implementation of character education at the school. This study applied qualitative method using descriptive technique. The data were collected through observation, interviews, and documentation. The findings of study showed that: 1 the principal’s policy in developing character education was carried out by implementing government policies in line with the school’s vision, mission, and programs; 2 the methods used in the process of character education were through role-modelling, assignments and nurturing, habituation, training programs, and  students’ participation in various types of activities, as well as the application of rewards and punishments; 3 the student's characteristics resulted from the character  education process were piousness and devotion as well as being able to apply their knowledge and piety in everyday life; 4 problems encountered in the implementation of character education  were different values and norms students brought from home; imbalance of facilities compared to the number of students; as well as teachers’ readiness to actually implement the new program, which  was character education. Meanwhile the efforts made to overcome those problems were namely developing personal, family, neighborhood or community characters, and making commitment of all related parties/stakeholdres of SMA Amanah.

  9. Chaotic properties between the nonintegrable discrete nonlinear Schroedinger equation and a nonintegrable discrete Heisenberg model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Qing

    2007-01-01

    We prove that the integrable-nonintegrable discrete nonlinear Schroedinger equation (AL-DNLS) introduced by Cai, Bishop and Gronbech-Jensen (Phys. Rev. Lett. 72 591(1994)) is the discrete gauge equivalent to an integrable-nonintegrable discrete Heisenberg model from the geometric point of view. Then we study whether the transmission and bifurcation properties of the AL-DNLS equation are preserved under the action of discrete gauge transformations. Our results reveal that the transmission property of the AL-DNLS equation is completely preserved and the bifurcation property is conditionally preserved to those of the integrable-nonintegrable discrete Heisenberg model

  10. Novel Approaches for Phylogenetic Inference from Morphological Data and Total-Evidence Dating in Squamate Reptiles (Lizards, Snakes, and Amphisbaenians).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyron, R Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Here, I combine previously underutilized models and priors to perform more biologically realistic phylogenetic inference from morphological data, with an example from squamate reptiles. When coding morphological characters, it is often possible to denote ordered states with explicit reference to observed or hypothetical ancestral conditions. Using this logic, we can integrate across character-state labels and estimate meaningful rates of forward and backward transitions from plesiomorphy to apomorphy. I refer to this approach as MkA, for “asymmetric.” The MkA model incorporates the biological reality of limited reversal for many phylogenetically informative characters, and significantly increases likelihoods in the empirical data sets. Despite this, the phylogeny of Squamata remains contentious. Total-evidence analyses using combined morphological and molecular data and the MkA approach tend toward recent consensus estimates supporting a nested Iguania. However, support for this topology is not unambiguous across data sets or analyses, and no mechanism has been proposed to explain the widespread incongruence between partitions, or the hidden support for various topologies in those partitions. Furthermore, different morphological data sets produced by different authors contain both different characters and different states for the same or similar characters, resulting in drastically different placements for many important fossil lineages. Effort is needed to standardize ontology for morphology, resolve incongruence, and estimate a robust phylogeny. The MkA approach provides a preliminary avenue for investigating morphological evolution while accounting for temporal evidence and asymmetry in character-state changes.

  11. [Neotropical plant morphology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-García, Blanca; Mendoza, Aniceto

    2002-01-01

    An analysis on plant morphology and the sources that are important to the morphologic interpretations is done. An additional analysis is presented on all published papers in this subject by the Revista de Biología Tropical since its foundation, as well as its contribution to the plant morphology development in the neotropics.

  12. Evaluation of indicators for the early selection of the height character in Musa spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes García Rodríguez

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available In the plant breeding programs attended by Biotechnology and using the induction of mutations becomes necessary to work with big populations of plants to guarantee bigger possibilities to be successful in the work. For what to have a selection system that allows to carry out the same one in acclimatization phase would allow to shorten the outlines of improvement and to diminish the population’s size notably to evaluate in field phase, what would bear to diminish the expenses in the whole process of studies clones them. With the aim of determining possible morphological indicators that could be used as markers for the selection of low bearing in the clones of the FHIA were studied in conditions of acclimatization different cultivars and banana mutants, being evaluated several morphological characters as: the height of the plant, number of leaves, long and wide of the penultimate emitted leaf, as well as the long of their petiole and the distance between two serial leaves. It was also evaluated the height of the plants under conditions in vitro when they were subcultivate in a culture medium with different concentration of AG3. The results indicate that inside the evaluated morphological characters, those that more early allowed to distinguish among plants of low bearing were: the long of the petiole and the height of the plants and that the moment of the selection should be to the 60 days. Not differences were observed between genotypes when they were subcultivate in the culture medium enriched with AG3. Key words: banana, early selection, low bearing, morphological markers, plantain

  13. Character and Characterization in “Palms and Men” novel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Khajeh pour

    Full Text Available Nowadays one of the most significant elements in story writing is character and characterization. Character in a narrative or a play, is a person that his mental and moral qualities reflect in his deeds and what he says and does. Creating such characters in a story or a novel that seem to be like real people to the reader is called characterization (Mir Sadeghi, 1382: p 85. In this article character and characterization in one of the novels about the eight year war between Iran and Iraq, calling “Palms and Men”, is investigated. Character types, methods of characterization, character appearance, prototype, the relation of character with other elements, and characterization defects are some of the subjects studied in this article.Character types: these characters are generally categorized in two groups of stereotype and type. Samir, Touraj, Reza, Hamid etc. all belong to Sepah forces category which are type characters. Some women characters such as Zeinab, Samir’s mother, Kolsoum, Hanieh’s mother etc. are stereotype characters.Methods of characterization in “Palms and Men” novel:The description of characters is done in two methods by Mr. Nematollah Soleimani:aDirect characterization: If not all the characters, most of them are certainly characterized in this way. For example in expressing Hamid’s characteristic who is the commander of the mission, he writes, “Hamid didn’t bat an eyelid in any incidents. Hamid was lion-hearted”. (Soleimani, 1380: 128. In describing uncle Heidar, he writes, “wisdom and insight, and the effects of years of suffering, difficulty, and experiencing could be clearly seen in his limpid eyes. The rural man was indeed a wise and experienced man” (the same: 264_265.bIndirect Characterization: Although in novels and long stories, direct characterization method is often used, in “Palms and Men” this kind of characterization is also appeared in different conversations, stream of consciousness, deeds

  14. Character and Characterization in “Palms and Men” novel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariedeh Khajehpour

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nowadays one of the most significant elements in story writing is character and characterization. Character in a narrative or a play, is a person that his mental and moral qualities reflect in his deeds and what he says and does. Creating such characters in a story or a novel that seem to be like real people to the reader is called characterization (Mir Sadeghi, 1382: p 85. In this article character and characterization in one of the novels about the eight year war between Iran and Iraq, calling “Palms and Men”, is investigated. Character types, methods of characterization, character appearance, prototype, the relation of character with other elements, and characterization defects are some of the subjects studied in this article.  Character types: these characters are generally categorized in two groups of stereotype and type. Samir, Touraj, Reza, Hamid etc. all belong to Sepah forces category which are type characters. Some women characters such as Zeinab, Samir’s mother, Kolsoum, Hanieh’s mother etc. are stereotype characters.   Methods of characterization in “Palms and Men” novel:   The description of characters is done in two methods by Mr. Nematollah Soleimani:   a Direct characterization: If not all the characters, most of them are certainly characterized in this way. For example in expressing Hamid’s characteristic who is the commander of the mission, he writes, “Hamid didn’t bat an eyelid in any incidents. Hamid was lion-hearted”. (Soleimani, 1380: 128. In describing uncle Heidar, he writes, “wisdom and insight, and the effects of years of suffering, difficulty, and experiencing could be clearly seen in his limpid eyes. The rural man was indeed a wise and experienced man” (the same: 264_265.   b Indirect Characterization: Although in novels and long stories, direct characterization method is often used, in “Palms and Men” this kind of characterization is also appeared in different conversations

  15. Compatible Spatial Discretizations for Partial Differential Equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, Douglas, N, ed.

    2004-11-25

    From May 11--15, 2004, the Institute for Mathematics and its Applications held a hot topics workshop on Compatible Spatial Discretizations for Partial Differential Equations. The numerical solution of partial differential equations (PDE) is a fundamental task in science and engineering. The goal of the workshop was to bring together a spectrum of scientists at the forefront of the research in the numerical solution of PDEs to discuss compatible spatial discretizations. We define compatible spatial discretizations as those that inherit or mimic fundamental properties of the PDE such as topology, conservation, symmetries, and positivity structures and maximum principles. A wide variety of discretization methods applied across a wide range of scientific and engineering applications have been designed to or found to inherit or mimic intrinsic spatial structure and reproduce fundamental properties of the solution of the continuous PDE model at the finite dimensional level. A profusion of such methods and concepts relevant to understanding them have been developed and explored: mixed finite element methods, mimetic finite differences, support operator methods, control volume methods, discrete differential forms, Whitney forms, conservative differencing, discrete Hodge operators, discrete Helmholtz decomposition, finite integration techniques, staggered grid and dual grid methods, etc. This workshop seeks to foster communication among the diverse groups of researchers designing, applying, and studying such methods as well as researchers involved in practical solution of large scale problems that may benefit from advancements in such discretizations; to help elucidate the relations between the different methods and concepts; and to generally advance our understanding in the area of compatible spatial discretization methods for PDE. Particular points of emphasis included: + Identification of intrinsic properties of PDE models that are critical for the fidelity of numerical

  16. The Implementation of Character Education at Senior High School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at analyzing the implementation of character education at Senior High School in Sumedang Regency, West Java, Indonesia. A content analysis method was employed to collect the data with interviews with six teachers from six different senior high schools, which represent the rural, transitional, and urban areas. The findings revealed that: (1 not all teachers understand the concept of character education; (2 the character education has not been done systematically or has not had the specific design/model for the teaching and learning process. Most teachers embedded the character values during the teaching and learning process as a form of character education. For example, through Qur’an recitation, learning tasks, group discussion, lecture, socio-drama, observation and admonition, and even through teachers’ model. Meanwhile, outside the class, character education was implemented through competition and extracurricular activities; (3 the evaluation of character education was relatively varied, such as an observation followed by admonition, group guidance, and also focusing on behavior and affective assessment in the classroom learning process. This research implied that it is needed to make a policy on a program development through the Bureau of Education to improve Senior High School teachers’ knowledge and skills in implementing the character education.

  17. Features fusion based approach for handwritten Gujarati character recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Sharma

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Handwritten character recognition is a challenging area of research. Lots of research activities in the area of character recognition are already done for Indian languages such as Hindi, Bangla, Kannada, Tamil and Telugu. Literature review on handwritten character recognition indicates that in comparison with other Indian scripts research activities on Gujarati handwritten character recognition are very less.  This paper aims to bring Gujarati character recognition in attention. Recognition of isolated Gujarati handwritten characters is proposed using three different kinds of features and their fusion. Chain code based, zone based and projection profiles based features are utilized as individual features. One of the significant contribution of proposed work is towards the generation of large and representative dataset of 88,000 handwritten Gujarati characters. Experiments are carried out on this developed dataset. Artificial Neural Network (ANN, Support Vector Machine (SVM and Naive Bayes (NB classifier based methods are implemented for handwritten Gujarati character recognition. Experimental results show substantial enhancement over state-of-the-art and authenticate our proposals.

  18. Character combinations, convergence and diversification in ectoparasitic arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin, Robert

    2009-08-01

    Different lineages of organisms diversify over time at different rates, in part as a consequence of the characteristics of the species in these lineages. Certain suites of traits possessed by species within a clade may determine rates of diversification, with some particular combinations of characters acting synergistically to either limit or promote diversification; the most successful combinations may also emerge repeatedly in different clades via convergent evolution. Here, the association between species characters and diversification is investigated amongst 21 independent lineages of arthropods ectoparasitic on vertebrate hosts. Using nine characters (each with two to four states) that capture general life history strategy, transmission mode and host-parasite interaction, each lineage was described by the set of character states it possesses. The results show, firstly, that most possible pair-wise combinations of character states have been adopted at least once, sometimes several times independently by different lineages; thus, ectoparasitic arthropods have explored most of the life history character space available to them. Secondly, lineages possessing commonly observed combinations of character states are not necessarily the ones that have experienced the highest rates of diversification (measured as a clade's species-per-genus ratio). Thirdly, some specific traits are associated with higher rates of diversification. Using more than one host per generation, laying eggs away from the host and intermediate levels of fecundity are features that appear to have promoted diversification. These findings indicate that particular species characters may be evolutionary drivers of diversity, whose effects could also apply in other taxa.

  19. Sex-Role Portrayals of Selected Female Television Characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, David H.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Examines the relationship between both the sex-role and the sex of viewers and viewer perception of the sex-role depicted by five female characters in prime-time television programs. Perception of character sex-role was significantly related to subject sex-role, yet unrelated to subject sex or gender. (MER)

  20. Representations of Deaf Characters in Children's Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golos, Debbie B.; Moses, Annie M.

    2011-01-01

    Picture books can influence how children perceive people of different backgrounds, including people with disabilities whose cultures differ from their own. Researchers have examined the portrayal of multicultural characters with disabilities in children's literature. However, few have specifically considered the portrayal of deaf characters,…

  1. Affective affordances: Improving interface characters engagement through interaction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Vugt, H.C.; Hoorn, J.F.; Konijn, E.A.; De Bie Dimitriadou, A.

    2006-01-01

    The nature of humans interacting with interface characters (e.g. embodied agents) is not well understood. The I-PEFiC model provides an integrative perspective on human-character interaction, assuming that the processes of engagement and user interaction exchange information in explaining user

  2. Affective affordances: Improving interface character engagement through interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vugt, H.C.; Hoorn, J.F.; Konijn, E.A.; de Bie Dimitriadou, A.

    2006-01-01

    The nature of humans interacting with interface characters (e.g. embodied agents) is not well understood. The I-PEFiC model provides an integrative perspective on human-character interaction, assuming that the processes of engagement and user interaction exchange information in explaining user

  3. Inculcating Character Education through EFL Teaching in Indonesian State Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qoyyimah, Uswatun

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes how English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers in Indonesia have implemented the recent character education policy within an era of school-based curriculum reform. The character education policy required all teachers, EFL teachers included, to instil certain values in every lesson whilst the school-based curriculum reform…

  4. Building Strengths of Character: Keys to Positive Youth Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Nansook

    2009-01-01

    Character is vital force for positive development and societal well-being. Character strengths play important roles in positive youth development, not only as broad-protective factors, preventing or mitigating psychopathology and problems, but also as enabling conditions that promote thriving and flourishing. Recent research findings show that…

  5. Adult Age Differences in Processing Narrative Text: Managing Character Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Soo Rim

    2009-01-01

    Understanding a narrative situation depends on keeping track of multiple characters that enter and exit dynamically as the plot unfolds. Because there has been no systematic investigation of age differences in the ability to manage multiple characters during narrative comprehension, this project was designed to examine those differences in this…

  6. Dialogue and character classification in Wole Soyinka's Kongi's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines Wole Soyinka's use of dialogue-one of the major elements of drama to paint portraits of various characters in his play, Kongi's Harvest. It explores the playwright's artistic realisation of characters that can be identified and classified by what they say and what is said of them. The study concludes that with ...

  7. An interpretation of suicide and murder character elimination in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is noticed that women characters in particular are most likely to commit suicide when they are frustrated by something. In the selected texts, the characters who commit suicide or murder do not do so by choice, but as a result of reaching a point of absolute desperation in their lives or because of having to be loyal to ...

  8. Player-Character Dynamics in Multi- Player Role Playing Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; McIlwain, D.; Brolund, T.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a comprehensive empirical study of the impact of integrating complex game characters in multi-player Role Playing Games across tabletop and digital formats. Players were provided with characters that had detailed background history, personality and goals. Player...

  9. Dual Character Concepts and the Normative Dimension of Conceptual Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobe, Joshua; Prasada, Sandeep; Newman, George E.

    2013-01-01

    Five experiments provide evidence for a class of "dual character concepts." Dual character concepts characterize their members in terms of both (a) a set of concrete features and (b) the abstract values that these features serve to realize. As such, these concepts provide two bases for evaluating category members and two different criteria for…

  10. Preservice Secondary Teachers' Sense of Efficacy in Teaching Character Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Stewart; Russell, William B., III

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the personal teaching efficacy and general teaching efficacy for character education of 130 preservice secondary teachers at a large university where there were no formal courses dedicated to character education, but the topic was included in some of the content coursework. The subjects were in one teacher education program…

  11. Teaching Character Education to College Students Using Bildungsromans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novianti, Nita

    2017-01-01

    The paper reports a study on the teaching of character education in higher education using English Bildungsroman, "Jane Eyre." The participants were 35 sixth-semester students of English Literature program in an Indonesian state university. Guided by the approach to teaching character education exemplified by Ryan & Bohlin (1999),…

  12. Sherlock Holmes Meets Othello: A MDS Analysis of Literary Characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, G. W.; Lambert, W. B.

    1980-01-01

    Changes in college freshmen's perceptual organization of characters from "Othello" after three weeks of study and lecture were assessed using multidimensional scaling procedures. Sherlock Holmes experts also provided dissimilarity ratings of Conan Doyle's characters. Discussion centers on the extent to which the lectures on…

  13. The Development of Leader Character through Crucible Moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Alyson; Crossan, Mary; Seijts, Gerard

    2018-01-01

    Business schools strive to develop leadership excellence in their students. In this essay, we suggest that educators should find ways to help students develop and deepen leader character, a fundamental component of exemplary leadership. Frequently, business school students have preconceived ideas of leadership, often neglecting leader character.…

  14. Chinese character recognition based on Gabor feature extraction and CNN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yudian; Lu, Tongwei; Jiang, Yongyuan

    2018-03-01

    As an important application in the field of text line recognition and office automation, Chinese character recognition has become an important subject of pattern recognition. However, due to the large number of Chinese characters and the complexity of its structure, there is a great difficulty in the Chinese character recognition. In order to solve this problem, this paper proposes a method of printed Chinese character recognition based on Gabor feature extraction and Convolution Neural Network(CNN). The main steps are preprocessing, feature extraction, training classification. First, the gray-scale Chinese character image is binarized and normalized to reduce the redundancy of the image data. Second, each image is convoluted with Gabor filter with different orientations, and the feature map of the eight orientations of Chinese characters is extracted. Third, the feature map through Gabor filters and the original image are convoluted with learning kernels, and the results of the convolution is the input of pooling layer. Finally, the feature vector is used to classify and recognition. In addition, the generalization capacity of the network is improved by Dropout technology. The experimental results show that this method can effectively extract the characteristics of Chinese characters and recognize Chinese characters.

  15. Character and Citizenship Education: Conversations between Personal and Societal Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Jasmine B.-Y.; Low, Ee Ling

    2012-01-01

    The theme of this special issue is "Character and Citizenship Education: Conversations between Personal and Societal Values." Character education and citizenship education, taken separately or as a single entity are currently riding high on the political and educational policy agendas of several governments (Arthur, 2003; Berkowitz & Bier, 2007;…

  16. Dynamic Characters with Communication Disorders in Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotto, Carolyn D.; Ball, Angel L.

    2006-01-01

    Using quality children's literature with portrayals of characters that have communication impairments can be an effective teaching tool. Storybook characters with communication disorders can provide positive role models and promote understanding of diverse populations. Eighteen children's books were selected based on the following criteria:…

  17. Cultural characters of a newly recognized group of hospital staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jevons, M P; John, M; Parker, M T

    1966-07-01

    Members of a newly recognized group of hospital staphylococci, which are believed to have arisen from 83A staphylococci by lysogenization, differ from them in several cultural characters. Some but not all of these characters appear to be determined by the carriage of phage.

  18. character association and path coefficient analysis between some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    some growth characters and grain yield in Soybean, a basis of selection for further improvement. Treatments consisted of two levels ... number of leaves as criteria for selection of Soybean for increased grain yield. Keywords: Correlation, Grain ... objective of observing the mutual relationship of different characters and also ...

  19. Keeping it wild: mapping wilderness character in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Steve; Tricker, James; Landres, Peter

    2013-12-15

    A GIS-based approach is developed to identify the state of wilderness character in US wilderness areas using Death Valley National Park (DEVA) as a case study. A set of indicators and measures are identified by DEVA staff and used as the basis for developing a flexible and broadly applicable framework to map wilderness character using data inputs selected by park staff. Spatial data and GIS methods are used to map the condition of four qualities of wilderness character: natural, untrammelled, undeveloped, and solitude or primitive and unconfined recreation. These four qualities are derived from the US 1964 Wilderness Act and later developed by Landres et al. (2008a) in "Keeping it Wild: An Interagency Strategy to Monitor Trends in Wilderness Character Across the National Wilderness Preservation System." Data inputs are weighted to reflect their importance in relation to other data inputs and the model is used to generate maps of each of the four qualities of wilderness character. The combined map delineates the range of quality of wilderness character in the DEVA wilderness revealing the majority of wilderness character to be optimal quality with the best areas in the northern section of the park. This map will serve as a baseline for monitoring change in wilderness character and for evaluating the spatial impacts of planning alternatives for wilderness and backcountry stewardship plans. The approach developed could be applied to any wilderness area, either in the USA or elsewhere in the world. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. On superconformal characters and partition functions in three dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolan, F.A.

    2010-01-01

    Possible short and semishort positive energy, unitary representations of the Osp(2N|4) superconformal group in three dimensions are discussed. Corresponding character formulas are obtained, consistent with character formulas for the SO(3,2) conformal group, revealing long multiplet decomposition at