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Sample records for discrete microdomain clusters

  1. Lipid raft localization of GABA A receptor and Na+, K+-ATPase in discrete microdomain clusters in rat cerebellar granule cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Immerdal, Lissi; Niels-Christiansen, Lise-Lotte W

    2005-01-01

    and Na(+), K(+)-ATPase were largely soluble in ice cold Triton X-100. This indicates that Brij 98 extraction defines an unusual type of cholesterol-independent lipid rafts that harbour membrane proteins also associated with underlying scaffolding/cytoskeletal proteins such as gephyrin (GABA(A) receptor......The microdomain localization of the GABA(A) receptor in rat cerebellar granule cells was studied by subcellular fractionation and fluorescence- and immunogold electron microscopy. The receptor resided in lipid rafts, prepared at 37 degrees C by extraction with the nonionic detergent Brij 98......, reflecting clustering of the two proteins in separate membrane microdomains. Both proteins were observed in patchy "hot spots" at the cell surface as well as in isolated lipid rafts. Their insolubility in Brij 98 was only marginally affected by methyl-beta-cyclodextrin. In contrast, both the GABA(A) receptor...

  2. Modeling Calcium Microdomains using Homogenisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Erin R.; Goel, Pranay; Puglisi, Jose L.; Bers, Donald M.; Cannell, Mark; Sneyd, James

    2007-01-01

    Microdomains of calcium (i.e., areas on the nanometer scale that have qualitatively different calcium concentrations from that in the bulk cytosol) are known to be important in many situations. In cardiac cells, for instance, a calcium microdomain between the L-type channels and the ryanodine receptors, the so-called diadic cleft, is where the majority of the control of calcium release occurs. In other cell types that exhibit calcium oscillations and waves, the importance of microdomains in the vicinity of clusters of inositol trisphosphate receptors, or between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and other internal organelles or the plasma membrane, is clear. Given the limits of computational power, it is not currently realistic to model an entire cellular cytoplasm by incorporating detailed structural information about the ER throughout the entire cytoplasm. Hence, most models use a homogenised approach, assuming that both cytoplasm and ER coexist at each point of the domain. Conversely, microdomain models can be constructed, in which detailed structural information can be incorporated, but, until now, methods have not been developed for linking such a microdomain model to a model at the level of the entire cell. Using the homogenisation approach we developed in an earlier paper (Goel P., A. Friedman and J. Sneyd. 2006. Homogenization of the cell cytoplasm: the calcium bidomain equations. SIAM J. on Multiscale Modeling and Simulation, in press) we show how a multiscale model of a calcium microdomain can be constructed. In this model a detailed model of the microdomain (in which the ER and the cytoplasm are separate compartments) is coupled to a homogenised model of the entire cell in a rigorous way. Our method is illustrated by a simple model of the diadic cleft of a cardiac half-sarcomere. PMID:17499276

  3. Super Resolution Fluorescence Microscopy and Tracking of Bacterial Flotillin (Reggie Paralogs Provide Evidence for Defined-Sized Protein Microdomains within the Bacterial Membrane but Absence of Clusters Containing Detergent-Resistant Proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Dempwolff

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Biological membranes have been proposed to contain microdomains of a specific lipid composition, in which distinct groups of proteins are clustered. Flotillin-like proteins are conserved between pro-and eukaryotes, play an important function in several eukaryotic and bacterial cells, and define in vertebrates a type of so-called detergent-resistant microdomains. Using STED microscopy, we show that two bacterial flotillins, FloA and FloT, form defined assemblies with an average diameter of 85 to 110 nm in the model bacterium Bacillus subtilis. Interestingly, flotillin microdomains are of similar size in eukaryotic cells. The soluble domains of FloA form higher order oligomers of up to several hundred kDa in vitro, showing that like eukaryotic flotillins, bacterial assemblies are based in part on their ability to self-oligomerize. However, B. subtilis paralogs show significantly different diffusion rates, and consequently do not colocalize into a common microdomain. Dual colour time lapse experiments of flotillins together with other detergent-resistant proteins in bacteria show that proteins colocalize for no longer than a few hundred milliseconds, and do not move together. Our data reveal that the bacterial membrane contains defined-sized protein domains rather than functional microdomains dependent on flotillins. Based on their distinct dynamics, FloA and FloT confer spatially distinguishable activities, but do not serve as molecular scaffolds.

  4. Stochastic cluster algorithms for discrete Gaussian (SOS) models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evertz, H.G.; Hamburg Univ.; Hasenbusch, M.; Marcu, M.; Tel Aviv Univ.; Pinn, K.; Muenster Univ.; Solomon, S.

    1990-10-01

    We present new Monte Carlo cluster algorithms which eliminate critical slowing down in the simulation of solid-on-solid models. In this letter we focus on the two-dimensional discrete Gaussian model. The algorithms are based on reflecting the integer valued spin variables with respect to appropriately chosen reflection planes. The proper choice of the reflection plane turns out to be crucial in order to obtain a small dynamical exponent z. Actually, the successful versions of our algorithm are a mixture of two different procedures for choosing the reflection plane, one of them ergodic but slow, the other one non-ergodic and also slow when combined with a Metropolis algorithm. (orig.)

  5. Glycosynapses: microdomains controlling carbohydrate-dependent cell adhesion and signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Hakomori Senitiroh

    2004-01-01

    The concept of microdomains in plasma membranes was developed over two decades, following observation of polarity of membrane based on clustering of specific membrane components. Microdomains involved in carbohydrate-dependent cell adhesion with concurrent signal transduction that affect cellular phenotype are termed "glycosynapse". Three types of glycosynapse have been distinguished: "type 1" having glycosphingolipid associated with signal transducers (small G-proteins, cSrc, Src family kina...

  6. Cluster analysis of European Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes using the discrete Laplace method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel Meyer; Eriksen, Poul Svante; Morling, Niels

    2014-01-01

    method can be used for cluster analysis to further validate the discrete Laplace method. A very important practical fact is that the calculations can be performed on a normal computer. We identified two sub-clusters of the Eastern and Western European Y-STR haplotypes similar to results of previous......The European Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (STR) haplotype distribution has previously been analysed in various ways. Here, we introduce a new way of analysing population substructure using a new method based on clustering within the discrete Laplace exponential family that models...... the probability distribution of the Y-STR haplotypes. Creating a consistent statistical model of the haplotypes enables us to perform a wide range of analyses. Previously, haplotype frequency estimation using the discrete Laplace method has been validated. In this paper we investigate how the discrete Laplace...

  7. Electronic Structure of Au25 Clusters: Between Discrete and Continuous

    KAUST Repository

    Katsiev, Khabiboulakh

    2016-07-15

    Here, an approach based on synchrotron resonant photoemission is emplyed to explore the transition between quantization and hybridization of the electronic structure in atomically precise ligand-stabilized nanoparticles. While the presence of ligands maintains quantization in Au25 clusters, their removal renders increased hybridization of the electronic states at the vicinity of the Fermi level. These observations are supported by DFT studies.

  8. Maximum-likelihood model averaging to profile clustering of site types across discrete linear sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zhang

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A major analytical challenge in computational biology is the detection and description of clusters of specified site types, such as polymorphic or substituted sites within DNA or protein sequences. Progress has been stymied by a lack of suitable methods to detect clusters and to estimate the extent of clustering in discrete linear sequences, particularly when there is no a priori specification of cluster size or cluster count. Here we derive and demonstrate a maximum likelihood method of hierarchical clustering. Our method incorporates a tripartite divide-and-conquer strategy that models sequence heterogeneity, delineates clusters, and yields a profile of the level of clustering associated with each site. The clustering model may be evaluated via model selection using the Akaike Information Criterion, the corrected Akaike Information Criterion, and the Bayesian Information Criterion. Furthermore, model averaging using weighted model likelihoods may be applied to incorporate model uncertainty into the profile of heterogeneity across sites. We evaluated our method by examining its performance on a number of simulated datasets as well as on empirical polymorphism data from diverse natural alleles of the Drosophila alcohol dehydrogenase gene. Our method yielded greater power for the detection of clustered sites across a breadth of parameter ranges, and achieved better accuracy and precision of estimation of clusters, than did the existing empirical cumulative distribution function statistics.

  9. Membrane microdomains in immunoreceptor signaling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hořejší, Václav; Hrdinka, Matouš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 588, č. 15 (2014), s. 2392-2397 ISSN 0014-5793 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP302/12/G101 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : membrane raft * microdomain * immunoreceptor Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.169, year: 2014

  10. Influence of sintering necks on the spectral behaviour of ITO clusters using the Discrete Dipole Approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skorupski, Krzysztof; Hellmers, Jens; Feng, Wen; Mroczka, Janusz; Wriedt, Thomas; Mädler, Lutz

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we study the spectral behaviour of indium tin oxide (ITO) nanoparticle clusters using different sinter neck models for the connections between the primary particles. The investigations include light scattering calculations based on the Discrete Dipole Approximation (DDA). The corresponding clusters are generated using the Cluster–Cluster algorithm proposed by Filippov et al. Different sintering neck models led to significantly different spectral features. A spectral neck factor that reveals the thickness of the necks connecting the primary particles with a simple measurement method is introduced. - Highlights: • We investigate the necking phenomenon in ITO fractal-like aggregates. • Extinction diagrams are sensitive to changes of the neck size. • We propose a simple procedure for measuring the neck size in ITO aggregates

  11. Membrane-sculpting BAR domains generate stable lipid microdomains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Hongxia; Michelot, Alphée; Koskela, Essi V.

    2013-01-01

    Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs (BAR) domain proteins are central regulators of many cellular processes involving membrane dynamics. BAR domains sculpt phosphoinositide-rich membranes to generate membrane protrusions or invaginations. Here, we report that, in addition to regulating membrane geometry, BAR...... domains can generate extremely stable lipid microdomains by "freezing" phosphoinositide dynamics. This is a general feature of BAR domains, because the yeast endocytic BAR and Fes/CIP4 homology BAR (F-BAR) domains, the inverse BAR domain of Pinkbar, and the eisosomal BAR protein Lsp1 induced...... phosphoinositide clustering and halted lipid diffusion, despite differences in mechanisms of membrane interactions. Lsp1 displays comparable low diffusion rates in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that BAR domain proteins also generate stable phosphoinositide microdomains in cells. These results uncover a conserved...

  12. Membrane-Sculpting BAR Domains Generate Stable Lipid Microdomains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongxia; Michelot, Alphée; Koskela, Essi V.; Tkach, Vadym; Stamou, Dimitrios; Drubin, David G.; Lappalainen, Pekka

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs (BAR) domain proteins are central regulators of many cellular processes involving membrane dynamics. BAR domains sculpt phosphoinositide-rich membranes to generate membrane protrusions or invaginations. Here, we report that, in addition to regulating membrane geometry, BAR domains can generate extremely stable lipid microdomains by “freezing” phosphoinositide dynamics. This is a general feature of BAR domains, because the yeast endocytic BAR and Fes/CIP4 homology BAR (F-BAR) domains, the inverse BAR domain of Pinkbar, and the eisosomal BAR protein Lsp1 induced phosphoinositide clustering and halted lipid diffusion, despite differences in mechanisms of membrane interactions. Lsp1 displays comparable low diffusion rates in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that BAR domain proteins also generate stable phosphoinositide microdomains in cells. These results uncover a conserved role for BAR superfamily proteins in regulating lipid dynamics within membranes. Stable microdomains induced by BAR domain scaffolds and specific lipids can generate phase boundaries and diffusion barriers, which may have profound impacts on diverse cellular processes. PMID:24055060

  13. Membrane-Sculpting BAR Domains Generate Stable Lipid Microdomains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Zhao

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs (BAR domain proteins are central regulators of many cellular processes involving membrane dynamics. BAR domains sculpt phosphoinositide-rich membranes to generate membrane protrusions or invaginations. Here, we report that, in addition to regulating membrane geometry, BAR domains can generate extremely stable lipid microdomains by “freezing” phosphoinositide dynamics. This is a general feature of BAR domains, because the yeast endocytic BAR and Fes/CIP4 homology BAR (F-BAR domains, the inverse BAR domain of Pinkbar, and the eisosomal BAR protein Lsp1 induced phosphoinositide clustering and halted lipid diffusion, despite differences in mechanisms of membrane interactions. Lsp1 displays comparable low diffusion rates in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that BAR domain proteins also generate stable phosphoinositide microdomains in cells. These results uncover a conserved role for BAR superfamily proteins in regulating lipid dynamics within membranes. Stable microdomains induced by BAR domain scaffolds and specific lipids can generate phase boundaries and diffusion barriers, which may have profound impacts on diverse cellular processes.

  14. Stochastic chemical reactions in microdomains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcman, D.; Schuss, Z.

    2005-03-01

    Traditional chemical kinetics may be inappropriate to describe chemical reactions in microdomains involving only a small number of substrate and reactant molecules. Starting with the stochastic dynamics of the molecules, we derive a master-diffusion equation for the joint probability density of a mobile reactant and the number of bound substrate in a confined domain. We use the equation to calculate the fluctuations in the number of bound substrate molecules as a function of initial reactant distribution. A second model is presented based on a Markov description of the binding and unbinding and on the mean first passage time of a molecule to a small portion of the boundary. These models can be used for the description of noise due to gating of ionic channels by random binding and unbinding of ligands in biological sensor cells, such as olfactory cilia, photoreceptors, hair cells in the cochlea.

  15. Lipid composition of microdomains is altered in neuronopathic Gaucher disease sheep brain and spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Leanne K; Rozaklis, Tina; Adams, Melissa K; Hopwood, John J; Karageorgos, Litsa

    2017-07-01

    Gaucher disease is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency in glucocerebrosidase activity that leads to accumulation of glucosylceramide and glucosylsphingosine. Membrane raft microdomains are discrete, highly organized microdomains with a unique lipid composition that provide the necessary environment for specific protein-lipid and protein-protein interactions to take place. In this study we purified detergent resistant membranes (DRM; membrane rafts) from the occipital cortex and spleen from sheep affected with acute neuronopathic Gaucher disease and wild-type controls. We observed significant increases in the concentrations of glucosylceramide, hexosylsphingosine, BMP and gangliosides and decreases in the percentage of cholesterol and phosphatidylcholine leading to an altered DRM composition. Altered sphingolipid/cholesterol homeostasis would dramatically disrupt DRM architecture making them less ordered and more fluid. In addition, significant changes in the length and degree of lipid saturation within the DRM microdomains in the Gaucher brain were also observed. As these DRM microdomains are involved in many cellular events, an imbalance or disruption of the cell membrane homeostasis may impair normal cell function. This disruption of membrane raft microdomains and imbalance within the environment of cellular membranes of neuronal cells may be a key factor in initiating a cascade process leading to neurodegeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Capabilities of R Package mixAK for Clustering Based on Multivariate Continuous and Discrete Longitudinal Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnošt Komárek

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available R package mixAK originally implemented routines primarily for Bayesian estimation of finite normal mixture models for possibly interval-censored data. The functionality of the package was considerably enhanced by implementing methods for Bayesian estimation of mixtures of multivariate generalized linear mixed models proposed in Komrek and Komrkov (2013. Among other things, this allows for a cluster analysis (classification based on multivariate continuous and discrete longitudinal data that arise whenever multiple outcomes of a different nature are recorded in a longitudinal study. This package also allows for a data-driven selection of a number of clusters as methods for selecting a number of mixture components were implemented. A model and clustering methodology for multivariate continuous and discrete longitudinal data is overviewed. Further, a step-by-step cluster analysis based jointly on three longitudinal variables of different types (continuous, count, dichotomous is given, which provides a user manual for using the package for similar problems.

  17. Mitochondrial ATP synthases cluster as discrete domains that reorganize with the cellular demand for oxidative phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Laure; Laporte, Damien; Duvezin-Caubet, Stephane; Courtout, Fabien; Sagot, Isabelle

    2014-02-15

    Mitochondria are double membrane-bounded organelles that form a dynamic tubular network. Mitochondria energetic functions depend on a complex internal architecture. Cristae, inner membrane invaginations that fold into the matrix space, are proposed to be the site of oxidative phosphorylation, reactions by which ATP synthase produces ATP. ATP synthase is also thought to have a role in crista morphogenesis. To date, the exploration of the processes regulating mitochondrial internal compartmentalization have been mostly limited to electron microscopy. Here, we describe ATP synthase localization in living yeast cells and show that it clusters as discrete inner membrane domains. These domains are dynamic within the mitochondrial network. They are impaired in mutants defective in crista morphology and partially overlap with the crista-associated MICOS-MINOS-MITOS complex. Finally, ATP synthase occupancy increases with the cellular demand for OXPHOS. Overall our data suggest that domains in which ATP synthases are clustered correspond to mitochondrial cristae. Being able to follow mitochondrial sub-compartments in living yeast cells opens new avenues to explore the mechanisms involved in inner membrane remodeling, an architectural feature crucial for mitochondrial activities.

  18. DCT-Yager FNN: a novel Yager-based fuzzy neural network with the discrete clustering technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A; Quek, C; Cho, S Y

    2008-04-01

    Earlier clustering techniques such as the modified learning vector quantization (MLVQ) and the fuzzy Kohonen partitioning (FKP) techniques have focused on the derivation of a certain set of parameters so as to define the fuzzy sets in terms of an algebraic function. The fuzzy membership functions thus generated are uniform, normal, and convex. Since any irregular training data is clustered into uniform fuzzy sets (Gaussian, triangular, or trapezoidal), the clustering may not be exact and some amount of information may be lost. In this paper, two clustering techniques using a Kohonen-like self-organizing neural network architecture, namely, the unsupervised discrete clustering technique (UDCT) and the supervised discrete clustering technique (SDCT), are proposed. The UDCT and SDCT algorithms reduce this data loss by introducing nonuniform, normal fuzzy sets that are not necessarily convex. The training data range is divided into discrete points at equal intervals, and the membership value corresponding to each discrete point is generated. Hence, the fuzzy sets obtained contain pairs of values, each pair corresponding to a discrete point and its membership grade. Thus, it can be argued that fuzzy membership functions generated using this kind of a discrete methodology provide a more accurate representation of the actual input data. This fact has been demonstrated by comparing the membership functions generated by the UDCT and SDCT algorithms against those generated by the MLVQ, FKP, and pseudofuzzy Kohonen partitioning (PFKP) algorithms. In addition to these clustering techniques, a novel pattern classifying network called the Yager fuzzy neural network (FNN) is proposed in this paper. This network corresponds completely to the Yager inference rule and exhibits remarkable generalization abilities. A modified version of the pseudo-outer product (POP)-Yager FNN called the modified Yager FNN is introduced that eliminates the drawbacks of the earlier network and yi- elds

  19. Calcium release microdomains and mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlhaas, Michael; Maack, Christoph

    2013-05-01

    The processes of excitation-contraction (EC) coupling consume large amounts of energy that need to be replenished by oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria. Since Ca(2+) activates key enzymes of the Krebs cycle in the mitochondrial matrix, it is important to understand the mechanisms and kinetics of mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake to delineate how in cardiac myocytes, energy supply is efficiently matched to demand. In recent years, the identification of various proteins involved in mitochondrial Ca(2+) signalling and the tethering of mitochondria to the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) has considerably advanced the field and supported the concept of a mitochondrial Ca(2+) microdomain, in which Ca(2+) concentrations are high enough to overcome the low Ca(2+) affinity of the principal mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake mechanism, the Ca(2+) uniporter. Furthermore, defects in EC coupling that occur in heart failure disrupt SR-mitochondrial Ca(2+) crosstalk and may cause energetic deficit and oxidative stress, both factors that are thought to be causally involved in the initiation and progression of the disease.

  20. AN EFFECTIVE MULTI-CLUSTERING ANONYMIZATION APPROACH USING DISCRETE COMPONENT TASK FOR NON-BINARY HIGH DIMENSIONAL DATA SPACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Arun Shalin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Clustering is a process of grouping elements together, designed in such a way that the elements assigned to similar data points in a cluster are more comparable to each other than the remaining data points in a cluster. During clustering certain difficulties related when dealing with high dimensional data are ubiquitous and abundant. Works concentrated using anonymization method for high dimensional data spaces failed to address the problem related to dimensionality reduction during the inclusion of non-binary databases. In this work we study methods for dimensionality reduction for non-binary database. By analyzing the behavior of dimensionality reduction for non-binary database, results in performance improvement with the help of tag based feature. An effective multi-clustering anonymization approach called Discrete Component Task Specific Multi-Clustering (DCTSM is presented for dimensionality reduction on non-binary database. To start with we present the analysis of attribute in the non-binary database and cluster projection identifies the sparseness degree of dimensions. Additionally with the quantum distribution on multi-cluster dimension, the solution for relevancy of attribute and redundancy on non-binary data spaces is provided resulting in performance improvement on the basis of tag based feature. Multi-clustering tag based feature reduction extracts individual features and are correspondingly replaced by the equivalent feature clusters (i.e. tag clusters. During training, the DCTSM approach uses multi-clusters instead of individual tag features and then during decoding individual features is replaced by corresponding multi-clusters. To measure the effectiveness of the method, experiments are conducted on existing anonymization method for high dimensional data spaces and compared with the DCTSM approach using Statlog German Credit Data Set. Improved tag feature extraction and minimum error rate compared to conventional anonymization

  1. Transmembrane voltage: Potential to induce lateral microdomains.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malínský, Jan; Tanner, W.; Opekarová, Miroslava

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 1861, č. 8 (2016), s. 806-811 ISSN 1388-1981 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-10641S Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : membrane microdomain * membrane potential * fluorescence spectroscopy * membrane structure * fluorescence microscopy Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.547, year: 2016

  2. Temporal and spatial evolution of discrete auroral arcs as seen by Cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Figueiredo

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Two event studies are presented in this paper where intense convergent electric fields, with mapped intensities up to 1350 mV/m, are measured in the auroral upward current region by the Cluster spacecraft, at altitudes between 3 and 5 Earth radii. Both events are from May 2003, Southern Hemisphere, with equatorward crossings by the Cluster spacecraft of the pre-midnight auroral oval. Event 1 occurs during the end of the recovery phase of a strong substorm. A system of auroral arcs associated with convergent electric field structures, with a maximum perpendicular potential drop of about ~10 kV, and upflowing field-aligned currents with densities of 3 µA/m2 (mapped to the ionosphere, was detected at the boundary between the Plasma Sheet Boundary Layer (PSBL and the Plasma Sheet (PS. The auroral arc structures evolve in shape and in magnitude on a timescale of tens of minutes, merging, broadening and intensifying, until finally fading away after about 50 min. Throughout this time, both the PS region and the auroral arc structure in its poleward part remain relatively fixed in space, reflecting the rather quiet auroral conditions during the end of the substorm. The auroral upward acceleration region is shown for this event to extend beyond 3.9 Earth radii altitude. Event 2 occurs during a more active period associated with the expansion phase of a moderate substorm. Images from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP F13 spacecraft show that the Cluster spacecraft crossed the horn region of a surge-type aurora. Conjugated with the Cluster spacecraft crossing above the surge horn, the South Pole All Sky Imager recorded the motion and the temporal evolution of an east-west aligned auroral arc, 30 to 50 km wide. Intense electric field variations are measured by the Cluster spacecraft when crossing above the auroral arc structure, collocated with the density gradient at the PS poleward boundary, and coupled to intense upflowing field

  3. Temporal and spatial evolution of discrete auroral arcs as seen by Cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Figueiredo

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Two event studies are presented in this paper where intense convergent electric fields, with mapped intensities up to 1350 mV/m, are measured in the auroral upward current region by the Cluster spacecraft, at altitudes between 3 and 5 Earth radii. Both events are from May 2003, Southern Hemisphere, with equatorward crossings by the Cluster spacecraft of the pre-midnight auroral oval.

    Event 1 occurs during the end of the recovery phase of a strong substorm. A system of auroral arcs associated with convergent electric field structures, with a maximum perpendicular potential drop of about ~10 kV, and upflowing field-aligned currents with densities of 3 µA/m2 (mapped to the ionosphere, was detected at the boundary between the Plasma Sheet Boundary Layer (PSBL and the Plasma Sheet (PS. The auroral arc structures evolve in shape and in magnitude on a timescale of tens of minutes, merging, broadening and intensifying, until finally fading away after about 50 min. Throughout this time, both the PS region and the auroral arc structure in its poleward part remain relatively fixed in space, reflecting the rather quiet auroral conditions during the end of the substorm. The auroral upward acceleration region is shown for this event to extend beyond 3.9 Earth radii altitude.

    Event 2 occurs during a more active period associated with the expansion phase of a moderate substorm. Images from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP F13 spacecraft show that the Cluster spacecraft crossed the horn region of a surge-type aurora. Conjugated with the Cluster spacecraft crossing above the surge horn, the South Pole All Sky Imager recorded the motion and the temporal evolution of an east-west aligned auroral arc, 30 to 50 km wide. Intense electric field variations are measured by the Cluster spacecraft when crossing above the auroral arc structure, collocated with the

  4. Calcium microdomains in mitochondria and nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, María Teresa; Villalobos, Carlos; Chamero, Pablo; Alvarez, Javier; García-Sancho, Javier

    2006-01-01

    Endomembranes modify the progression of the cytosolic Ca(2+) wave and contribute to generate Ca(2+) microdomains, both in the cytosol and inside the own organella. The concentration of Ca(2+) in the cytosol ([Ca(2+)](C)), the mitochondria ([Ca(2+)](M)) and the nucleus ([Ca(2+)](N)) are similar at rest, but may become very different during cell activation. Mitochondria avidly take up Ca(2+) from the high [Ca(2+)](C) microdomains generated during cell activation near Ca(2+) channels of the plasma membrane and/or the endomembranes and prevent propagation of the high Ca(2+) signal to the bulk cytosol. This shaping of [Ca(2+)](C) signaling is essential for independent regulation of compartmentalized cell functions. On the other hand, a high [Ca(2+)](M) signal is generated selectively in the mitochondria close to the active areas, which tunes up respiration to the increased local needs. The progression of the [Ca(2+)](C) signal to the nucleus may be dampened by mitochondria, the nuclear envelope or higher buffering power inside the nucleoplasm. On the other hand, selective [Ca(2+)](N) signals could be generated by direct release of stored Ca(2+) into the nucleoplasm. Ca(2+) release could even be restricted to subnuclear domains. Putative Ca(2+) stores include the nuclear envelope, their invaginations inside the nucleoplasm (nucleoplasmic reticulum) and nuclear microvesicles. Inositol trisphosphate, cyclic ADP-ribose and nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate have all been reported to produce release of Ca(2+) into the nucleoplasm, but contribution of these mechanisms under physiological conditions is still uncertain.

  5. Glycosynapses: microdomains controlling carbohydrate-dependent cell adhesion and signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senitiroh Hakomori

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The concept of microdomains in plasma membranes was developed over two decades, following observation of polarity of membrane based on clustering of specific membrane components. Microdomains involved in carbohydrate-dependent cell adhesion with concurrent signal transduction that affect cellular phenotype are termed "glycosynapse". Three types of glycosynapse have been distinguished: "type 1" having glycosphingolipid associated with signal transducers (small G-proteins, cSrc, Src family kinases and proteolipids; "type 2" having O-linked mucin-type glycoprotein associated with Src family kinases; and "type 3" having N-linked integrin receptor complexed with tetraspanin and ganglioside. Different cell types are characterized by presence of specific types of glycosynapse or their combinations, whose adhesion induces signal transduction to either facilitate or inhibit signaling. E.g., signaling through type 3 glycosynapse inhibits cell motility and differentiation. Glycosynapses are distinct from classically-known microdomains termed "caveolae", "caveolar membrane", or more recently "lipid raft", which are not involved in carbohydrate-dependent cell adhesion. Type 1 and type 3 glycosynapses are resistant to cholesterol-binding reagents, whereas structure and function of "caveolar membrane" or "lipid raft" are disrupted by these reagents. Various data indicate a functional role of glycosynapses during differentiation, development, and oncogenic transformation.O conceito de microdomínios em membrana plasmática foi desenvolvido há mais de duas décadas, após a observação da polaridade da membrana baseada no agrupamento de componentes específicos da membrana. Microdomínios envolvidos na adesão celular dependente de carboidrato, com transdução de sinal que afeta o fenótipo celular são denominados ''glicosinapses''. Três tipos de glicosinapse foram observados: ''tipo 1'' que possue glicoesfingolipídio associado com transdutores de sinal

  6. Ouabain sensitive Na+/K+-pump regulates other membrane transporters in the microdomain of smooth muscle cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matchkov, Vladimir; Nilsson, Holger; Aalkjær, Christian

    Ouabain, a specific inhibitor of the Na+/K+-pump, has previously been shown to interfere with intercellular communication. We have demonstrated a mechanism of this action of ouabain (1). We have showed that gap junctions between vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are regulated through...... an interaction between the Na+/K+-pump and the Na+/Ca2+-exchanger leading to an increase in the intracellular calcium concentration  ([Ca2+]i) in discrete areas near the plasma membrane. This regulation suggests a close association of the proteins in microdomains. We have also suggested that this Na......+/K+-pump-containing microdomain is functionally linked to KATP channels via the local ion homeostasis and that this interaction can be bidirectional (1;2). [Ca2+]i in individual SMCs was imaged simultaneously with isometric force in rat mesenteric small arteries. Paired cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells (A7r5) were used...

  7. Molecular basis for interaction of Na+/K+-ATPase with other transporters in membrane microdomains of vascular smooth muscle cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Kirstine; Matchkov, Vladimir; Bouzinova, Elena

    2008-01-01

    Ouabain, a specific inhibitor of the Na+/K+-pump, has previously been shown to interfere with intercellular communication. We have recently demonstrated a mechanism of this action of ouabain (1). We have showed that gap junctions between vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are regulated through...... an interaction between the Na+/K+-pump and the Na+/Ca2+-exchanger leading to an increase in the intracellular calcium concentration in discrete areas near the plasma membrane. This regulation suggests a close association of the proteins in microdomains. We have also suggested that this Na......+/K+-pump-containing microdomain is functionally linked to KATP channels via the local ion homeostasis and that this interaction can be bidirectional (1;2). Using PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry we aimed to identify the isoforms of membrane transporters involved in the suggested interaction in SMCs from mesenteric...

  8. DC-SIGN and Influenza Hemagglutinin Dynamics in Plasma Membrane Microdomains Are Markedly Different

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itano, Michelle S.; Neumann, Aaron K.; Liu, Ping; Zhang, Feng; Gratton, Enrico; Parak, Wolfgang J.; Thompson, Nancy L.; Jacobson, Ken

    2011-01-01

    DC-SIGN, a Ca2+-dependent transmembrane lectin, is found assembled in microdomains on the plasma membranes of dendritic cells. These microdomains bind a large variety of pathogens and facilitate their uptake for subsequent antigen presentation. In this study, DC-SIGN dynamics in microdomains were explored with several fluorescence microscopy methods and compared with dynamics for influenza hemagglutinin (HA), which is also found in plasma membrane microdomains. Fluorescence imaging indicated that DC-SIGN microdomains may contain other C-type lectins and that the DC-SIGN cytoplasmic region is not required for microdomain formation. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching measurements showed that neither full-length nor cytoplasmically truncated DC-SIGN in microdomains appreciably exchanged with like molecules in other microdomains and the membrane surround, whereas HA in microdomains exchanged almost completely. Line-scan fluorescence correlation spectroscopy indicated an essentially undetectable lateral mobility for DC-SIGN but an appreciable mobility for HA within their respective domains. Single-particle tracking with defined-valency quantum dots confirmed that HA has significant mobility within microdomains, whereas DC-SIGN does not. By contrast, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching indicated that inner leaflet lipids are able to move through DC-SIGN microdomains. The surprising stability of DC-SIGN microdomains may reflect structural features that enhance pathogen uptake either by providing high-avidity platforms and/or by protecting against rapid microdomain endocytosis. PMID:21641311

  9. Imaging alterations of cardiomyocyte cAMP microdomains in disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander eFroese

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available 3’,5’-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP is an important second messenger which regulates heart function by acting in distinct subcellular microdomains. Recent years have provided deeper mechanistic insights into compartmentalized cAMP signaling and its link to cardiac disease. In this mini review, we summarize newest developments in this field achieved by cutting-edge biochemical and biophysical techniques. We further compile the data from different studies into a bigger picture of so far uncovered alterations in cardiomyocyte cAMP microdomains which occur in compensated cardiac hypertrophy and chronic heart failure. Finally, future research directions and translational perspectives are briefly discussed.

  10. Depolarization affects lateral microdomain structure of yeast plasma membrane

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Herman, P.; Večeř, J.; Opekarová, Miroslava; Veselá, Petra; Jančíková, I.; Zahumenský, J.; Malínský, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 282, č. 3 (2015), s. 419-434 ISSN 1742-464X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/0720 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : gel microdomains * lipid order * transmembrane potential Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 4.237, year: 2015

  11. The roles of membrane microdomains (rafts) in T cell activation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hořejší, Václav

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 191, - (2003), s. 148-164 ISSN 0105-2896 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A026 Grant - others:Wellcome Trust(GB) J1116W24Z Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : membrane microdomain * raft * T cell Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 7.052, year: 2003

  12. Platelet activating factor-induced ceramide micro-domains drive endothelial NOS activation and contribute to barrier dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanda Predescu

    Full Text Available The spatial and functional relationship between platelet activating factor-receptor (PAF-R and nitric oxide synthase (eNOS in the lateral plane of the endothelial plasma membrane is poorly characterized. In this study, we used intact mouse pulmonary endothelial cells (ECs as well as endothelial plasma membrane patches and subcellular fractions to define a new microdomain of plasmalemma proper where the two proteins colocalize and to demonstrate how PAF-mediated nitric oxide (NO production fine-tunes ECs function as gatekeepers of vascular permeability. Using fluorescence microscopy and immunogold labeling electron microscopy (EM on membrane patches we demonstrate that PAF-R is organized as clusters and colocalizes with a subcellular pool of eNOS, outside recognizable vesicular profiles. Moreover, PAF-induced acid sphingomyelinase activation generates a ceramide-based microdomain on the external leaflet of plasma membrane, inside of which a signalosome containing eNOS shapes PAF-stimulated NO production. Real-time measurements of NO after PAF-R ligation indicated a rapid (5 to 15 min increase in NO production followed by a > 45 min period of reduction to basal levels. Moreover, at the level of this new microdomain, PAF induces a dynamic phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of Ser, Thr and Tyr residues of eNOS that correlates with NO production. Altogether, our findings establish the existence of a functional partnership PAF-R/eNOS on EC plasma membrane, at the level of PAF-induced ceramide plasma membrane microdomains, outside recognized vesicular profiles.

  13. Unraveling the role of membrane microdomains during microbial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagam, Prathyusha; Singh, Dhirendra P; Inda, Maria Eugenia; Batra, Sanjay

    2017-10-01

    Infectious diseases pose major socioeconomic and health-related threats to millions of people across the globe. Strategies to combat infectious diseases derive from our understanding of the complex interactions between the host and specific bacterial, viral, and fungal pathogens. Lipid rafts are membrane microdomains that play important role in life cycle of microbes. Interaction of microbial pathogens with host membrane rafts influences not only their initial colonization but also their spread and the induction of inflammation. Therefore, intervention strategies aimed at modulating the assembly of membrane rafts and/or regulating raft-directed signaling pathways are attractive approaches for the. management of infectious diseases. The current review discusses the latest advances in terms of techniques used to study the role of membrane microdomains in various pathological conditions and provides updated information regarding the role of membrane rafts during bacterial, viral and fungal infections.

  14. Identification of multimolecular complexes and supercomplexes in compartment-selective membrane microdomains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsopoulos, Panagiotis; Madrenas, Joaquín

    2013-01-01

    Cellular membranes contain specialized microdomains that play important roles in a wide range of cellular processes. These microdomains can be found in the plasma membrane and other membranes within the cell. Initially labeled lipid rafts and defined as being resistant to extraction by nonionic detergents and enriched in cholesterol and glycosphingolipids, we now understand that these membrane microdomains are very dynamic and heterogeneous membrane structures whose composition and function can vary widely depending on their cellular location. Indeed, though they are classically associated with the plasma membrane and have been shown to facilitate a wide variety of processes, including signal transduction and membrane trafficking, specialized membrane microdomains have also been identified in other membranes including those in the mitochondria. These mitochondrial membrane microdomains are enriched in cardiolipin, the signature phospholipid of the mitochondria, and may have important implications in metabolism by facilitating optimal assembly and function of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Furthermore, isolation of multimolecular complexes while retaining their supramolecular interactions has been critical to the study of mitochondrial respiratory supercomplexes. Here, we discuss methods to isolate various membrane microdomains, including detergent-insoluble glycosphingolipid microdomains, mitochondrial cardiolipin-enriched microdomains, and blue-native gel electrophoresis of mitochondrial membranes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. clusters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-09-27

    Sep 27, 2017 ... while CuCoNO, Co3NO, Cu3CoNO, Cu2Co3NO, Cu3Co3NO and Cu6CoNO clusters display stronger chemical stability. Magnetic and electronic properties are also discussed. The magnetic moment is affected by charge transfer and the spd hybridization. Keywords. CumConNO (m + n = 2–7) clusters; ...

  16. A novel method for analysis of membrane microdomains: vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein microdomains change in size during infection, and those outside of budding sites resemble sites of virus budding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Erica L.; Lyles, Douglas S.

    2003-01-01

    Membrane proteins, including viral envelope glycoproteins, may be organized into areas of locally high concentration, commonly referred to as membrane microdomains. Some viruses bud from detergent-resistant microdomains referred to as lipid rafts. However, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) serves as a prototype for viruses that bud from areas of plasma membrane that are not detergent resistant. We developed a new analytical method for immunoelectron microscopy data to determine whether the VSV envelope glycoprotein (G protein) is organized into plasma membrane microdomains. This method was used to quantify the distribution of the G protein in microdomains in areas of plasma membrane that did not contain budding sites. These microdomains were compared to budding virus envelopes to address the question of whether G protein-containing microdomains were formed only at the sites of budding. At early times postinfection, most of the G protein was organized into membrane microdomains outside of virus budding sites that were approximately 100-150 nm, with smaller amounts distributed into larger microdomains. In contrast to early times postinfection, the increased level of G protein in the host plasma membrane at later times postinfection led to distribution of G protein among membrane microdomains of a wider variety of sizes, rather than a higher G protein concentration in the 100- to 150-nm microdomains. VSV budding occurred in G protein-containing microdomains with a range of sizes, some of which were smaller than the virus envelope. These microdomains extended in size to a maximum of 300-400 nm from the tip of the budding virion. The data support a model for virus assembly in which G protein organizes into membrane microdomains that resemble virus envelopes prior to formation of budding sites, and these microdomains serve as the sites of assembly of internal virion components

  17. cluster

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    has been investigated electrochemically in positive and negative microenvironments, both in solution and in film. Charge nature around the active centre ... in plants, bacteria and also in mammals. This cluster is also an important constituent of a ..... selection of non-cysteine amino acid in the active centre of Rieske proteins.

  18. Cell surface topology creates high Ca2+ signalling microdomains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasen, Jens Christian; Olsen, Lars Folke; Hallett, Maurice B

    2010-01-01

    20 microM Ca2+ to be activated. In this paper, we have resolved this apparent paradox by showing that the surface topology of cells represents an important and hitherto unrecognized feature for generating microdomains of high Ca2+ in cells. We show that whereas the standard modeling assumption...... of a smooth cell surface predicts only moderate localized effects, the more realistic "wrinkled" surface topology predicts that Ca2+ concentrations up to 80 microM can persist within the folds of membranes for significant times. This intra-wrinkle location may account for 5% of the total cell volume. Using......-wrinkle location is also a strategic location at which Ca2+ acts as a regulator of the cortical cytoskeleton and plasma membrane expansion....

  19. Discrete Mathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Aasted

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of Discrete Mathematics (IDISM2) are: The introduction of the mathematics needed for analysis, design and verification of discrete systems, including the application within programming languages for computer systems. Having passed the IDISM2 course, the student will be able...... to accomplish the following: -Understand and apply formal representations in discrete mathematics. -Understand and apply formal representations in problems within discrete mathematics. -Understand methods for solving problems in discrete mathematics. -Apply methods for solving problems in discrete mathematics......; construct a finite state machine for a given application. Apply these concepts to new problems. The teaching in Discrete Mathematics is a combination of sessions with lectures and students solving problems, either manually or by using Matlab. Furthermore a selection of projects must be solved and handed...

  20. Lck, membrane microdomains, and TCR triggering machinery: defining the new rules of engagement

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Filipp, Dominik; Ballek, Ondřej; Manning, Jasper

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 3, June (2012), s. 155 ISSN 1664-3224 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : Lck * Fyn * membrane microdomains * heavy and light DRMs * TCR triggering Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  1. Detection of cholesterol-rich microdomains in the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Masami; Shimada, Yukiko; Inomata, Mitsushi; Ohno-Iwashita, Yoshiko

    2006-01-01

    The C-terminal domain (D4) of perfringolysin O binds selectively to cholesterol in cholesterol-rich microdomains. To address the issue of whether cholesterol-rich microdomains exist in the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane, we expressed D4 as a fusion protein with EGFP in MEF cells. More than half of the EGFP-D4 expressed in stable cell clones was bound to membranes in raft fractions. Depletion of membrane cholesterol with β-cyclodextrin reduced the amount of EGFP-D4 localized in raft fractions, confirming EGFP-D4 binding to cholesterol-rich microdomains. Subfractionation of the raft fractions showed most of the EGFP-D4 bound to the plasma membrane rather than to intracellular membranes. Taken together, these results strongly suggest the existence of cholesterol-rich microdomains in the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane

  2. Microdomain heterogeneity in 3D affects the mechanics of neonatal cardiac myocyte contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Matthew W.; Budyn, Elisa; Desai, Tejal A.; Samarel, Allen M.

    2012-01-01

    Cardiac muscle cells are known to adapt to their physical surroundings, optimizing intracellular organization and contractile function for a given culture environment. A previously developed in vitro model system has shown that the inclusion of discrete microscale domains (or microrods) in three dimensions (3D) can alter long-term growth responses of neonatal ventricular myocytes. The aim of this work was to understand how cellular contact with such a domain affects various mechanical changes involved in cardiac muscle cell remodeling. Myocytes were maintained in 3D gels over 5 days in the presence or absence of 100 – μm-long microrods, and the effect of this local heterogeneity on cell behavior was analyzed via several imaging techniques. Microrod abutment resulted in approximately twofold increases in the maximum displacement of spontaneously beating myocytes, as based on confocal microscopy scans of the gel xy-plane or the myocyte long axis. In addition, microrods caused significant increases in the proportion of aligned myofibrils (≤20° deviation from long axis) in fixed myocytes. Microrod-related differences in axial contraction could be abrogated by long-term interruption of certain signals of the RhoA-/Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) or protein kinase C (PKC) pathway. Furthermore, microrod-induced increases in myocyte size and protein content were prevented by ROCK inhibition. In all, the data suggest that microdomain heterogeneity in 3D appears to promote the development of axially aligned contractile machinery in muscle cells, an observation that may have relevance to a number of cardiac tissue engineering interventions. PMID:22407215

  3. Digital Discretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch, Peter Andre; Zinner Henriksen, Helle

    2018-01-01

    discretion is suggested to reduce this footprint by influencing or replacing their discretionary practices using ICT. What is less researched is whether digital discretion can cause changes in public policy outcomes, and under what conditions such changes can occur. Using the concept of public service values......This study reviews 44 peer-reviewed articles on digital discretion published in the period from 1998 to January 2017. Street-level bureaucrats have traditionally had a wide ability to exercise discretion stirring debate since they can add their personal footprint on public policies. Digital......, we suggest that digital discretion can strengthen ethical and democratic values but weaken professional and relational values. Furthermore, we conclude that contextual factors such as considerations made by policy makers on the macro-level and the degree of professionalization of street...

  4. Low Copy Numbers of DC-SIGN in Cell Membrane Microdomains: Implications for Structure and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; Wang, Xiang; Itano, Michelle S.; Neumann, Aaron K.; de Silva, Aravinda M.; Jacobson, Ken; Thompson, Nancy L.

    2014-01-01

    Presently, there are few estimates of the number of molecules occupying membrane domains. Using a total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) imaging approach, based on comparing the intensities of fluorescently labeled microdomains with those of single fluorophores, we measured the occupancy of DC-SIGN, a C-type lectin, in membrane microdomains. DC-SIGN or its mutants were labeled with primary monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in either dendritic cells (DCs) or NIH3T3 cells, or expressed as GFP fusions in NIH3T3 cells. The number of DC-SIGN molecules per microdomain ranges from only a few to over 20, while microdomain dimensions range from the diffraction limit to > 1μm. The largest fraction of microdomains, appearing at the diffraction limit, in either immature DCs or 3T3 cells contains only 4-8 molecules of DC-SIGN, consistent with our preliminary super-resolution Blink microscopy estimates. We further show that these small assemblies are sufficient to bind and efficiently internalize a small (~50nm) pathogen, dengue virus, leading to infection of host cells. PMID:24313910

  5. Discrete Mathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Aasted

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of the mathematics needed for analysis, design and verification of discrete systems, including applications within programming languages for computer systems. Course sessions and project work. Semester: Spring 2010 Ectent: 5 ects Class size: 18......The introduction of the mathematics needed for analysis, design and verification of discrete systems, including applications within programming languages for computer systems. Course sessions and project work. Semester: Spring 2010 Ectent: 5 ects Class size: 18...

  6. Discrete Mathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Aasted

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of the mathematics needed for analysis, design and verification of discrete systems, including applications within programming languages for computer systems. Course sessions and project work. Semester: Autumn 2010 Ectent: 5 ects Class size: 15......The introduction of the mathematics needed for analysis, design and verification of discrete systems, including applications within programming languages for computer systems. Course sessions and project work. Semester: Autumn 2010 Ectent: 5 ects Class size: 15...

  7. Territorial discretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Hernández Vidal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to strengthen the concept of municipal autonomy, this essay proposes an extensive interpretation of administrative discretion. Discretion is the exercise of free judgment given by law to authorities for performing official acts. This legislative technique seems to be suitable whenever the legislative is intended to legislate over the essential core of municipal autonomy. This way, an eventual abuse of that autonomy could be avoided, for the disproportional restriction of the local faculty to oversee the local issues. This alternative is presented as a tool to provide with dynamism the performing of administrative activities as well, aiming to assimilate public administration new practices.

  8. Discrete mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.D.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews the role of time throughout all phases of mechanics: classical mechanics, non-relativistic quantum mechanics, and relativistic quantum theory. As an example of the relativistic quantum field theory, the case of a massless scalar field interacting with an arbitrary external current is discussed. The comparison between the new discrete theory and the usual continuum formalism is presented. An example is given of a two-dimensional random lattice and its duel. The author notes that there is no evidence that the discrete mechanics is more appropriate than the usual continuum mechanics

  9. Discrete Mathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Aasted

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of Discrete Mathematics (IDISM2) are: The introduction of the mathematics needed for analysis, design and verification of discrete systems, including the application within programming languages for computer systems. Having passed the IDISM2 course, the student will be able....... Having completed this the student is able to carry out the following: Expressions and sets: Define a set; define a logic expression; negate a logic expression; combine logic expressions; construct a truth table for a logic expression; apply reduction rules for logic expressions. Apply these concepts...

  10. Discrete mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Caltagirone, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    This book presents the fundamental principles of mechanics to re-establish the equations of Discrete Mechanics. It introduces physics and thermodynamics associated to the physical modeling.  The development and the complementarity of sciences lead to review today the old concepts that were the basis for the development of continuum mechanics. The differential geometry is used to review the conservation laws of mechanics. For instance, this formalism requires a different location of vector and scalar quantities in space. The equations of Discrete Mechanics form a system of equations where the H

  11. Microsecond Dynamics and Network Analysis of the HIV-1 SOSIP Env Trimer Reveal Collective Behavior and Conserved Microdomains of the Glycan Shield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmin, Thomas; Soto, Cinque; Stuckey, Jonathan; Kwong, Peter D

    2017-10-03

    The trimeric HIV-1-envelope (Env) spike is one of the most glycosylated protein complexes known, with roughly half its mass comprising host-derived N-linked glycan. Here we use molecular dynamics to provide insight into its structural dynamics and into how both protomer and glycan movements coordinate to shield the Env protein surface. A 2-μs molecular dynamics simulation of a fully glycosylated atomistic model of the HIV-1 SOSIP Env trimer revealed a spectrum of protomer-scissoring and trimer-opening movements. Network analysis showed that highly conserved glycans combined with protomer scissoring to restrict access to the binding site of the CD4 receptor. The network property of betweenness centrality appeared to identify whether glycans spread to restrict access or cluster to maintain the high-mannose character of the shield. We also observed stable microdomains comprising patches of glycan, with neutralizing antibodies generally binding at the interface between glycan microdomains. Overall, our results provide a microsecond-based understanding of the Env glycan shield. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Discrete torsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharpe, Eric

    2003-01-01

    In this article we explain discrete torsion. Put simply, discrete torsion is the choice of orbifold group action on the B field. We derive the classification H 2 (Γ,U(1)), the twisted sector phases appearing in string loop partition functions, Douglas's description of discrete torsion for D-branes in terms of a projective representation of the orbifold group, and outline how the results of Vafa and Witten fit into this framework. In addition, we observe that additional degrees of freedom (known as shift orbifolds) appear in describing orbifold group actions on B fields, in addition to those classified by H 2 (Γ,U(1)), and explain how these degrees of freedom appear in terms of twisted sector contributions to partition functions and in terms of orbifold actions on D-brane worldvolumes. This paper represents a technically simplified version of prior papers by the author on discrete torsion. We repeat here technically simplified versions of results from those papers, and have included some new material

  13. Nuclear Lipid Microdomain as Place of Interaction between Sphingomyelin and DNA during Liver Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuela Cataldi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear sphingomyelin is a key molecule for cell proliferation. This molecule is organized with cholesterol and proteins to form specific lipid microdomains bound to the inner nuclear membrane where RNA is synthesized. Here, we have reported the ability of the sphingomyelin present in the nuclear microdomain to bind DNA and regulate its synthesis, and to highlight its role in cell proliferation induced by partial hepatectomy. During G1/S transition of the cell cycle, sphingomyelin and DNA content is very high and it is strongly reduced after exogenous sphingomyelinase treatment. During the S-phase of the cell cycle, the stimulation of sphingomyelinase and inhibition of sphingomyelin–synthase are accompanied by the DNA synthesis start. To assess the specificity of the results, experiments were repeated with trifluoperazine, a drug known to affect the synthesis of lipids and DNA and to stimulate sphingomyelinase activity. The activity of sphingomyelinase is stimulated in the first hour after hepatectomy and sphingomyelin–DNA synthesis is strongly attenuated. It may be hypothesized that the nuclear microdomain represents a specific area of the inner nuclear membrane that acts as an active site of chromatin anchorage thanks to the stabilizing action of sphingomyelin. Thus, sphingomyelin metabolism in nuclear lipid microdomains is suggested to regulate cell proliferation.

  14. Sphingolipid levels crucially modulate lateral microdomain organization of plasma membrane in living yeast

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Večeř, J.; Veselá, Petra; Malínský, Jan; Herman, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 588, č. 3 (2014), s. 443-449 ISSN 0014-5793 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/0720 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : membrane microdomain * lipid order * fluidity Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.169, year: 2014

  15. Tetraspan microdomains distinct from lipid rafts enrich select peptide-MHC class II complexes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kropshofer, H.; Spindeldreher, S.; Rohn, T. A.; Platania, N.; Grygar, C.; Daniel, N.; Wolpl, A.; Langen, H.; Hořejší, Václav; Vogt, A. B.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 1 (2002), s. 61-68 ISSN 1529-2908 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : MHC II * tetraspan microdomains * peptide presentation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 27.868, year: 2002

  16. New Insight Into the Roles of Membrane Microdomains in Physiological Activities of Fungal Cells.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malínský, Jan; Opekarová, Miroslava

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 325, mar. (2016), s. 119-180 ISSN 1937-6448 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-10641S Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : membrane microdomain * membrane structure * fungi * membrane contact sites Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 3.752, year: 2015

  17. Mass spectrometric analysis of the glycosphingolipid-enriched microdomains of rat natural killer cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Man, Petr; Novák, Petr; Cebecauer, M.; Horváth, Ondřej; Fišerová, Anna; Havlíček, Vladimír; Bezouška, Karel

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 5, - (2005), s. 113-122 ISSN 1615-9853 R&D Projects: GA ČR GV312/98/K034 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : activation receptor * mebrane microdomains * natural killer cells Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 6.088, year: 2005

  18. Dietary free fatty acids form alkaline phosphatase-enriched microdomains in the intestinal brush border membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gert H; Rasmussen, Karina; Niels-Christiansen, Lise-Lotte

    2011-01-01

    mimicking a physiological solution of dietary mixed micelles, rearranged the lipid raft microdomain organization of the membranes. Thus, the fat mixture generated a low-density subpopulation of microvillar detergent resistant membranes (DRMs) highly enriched in alkaline phosphatase (AP). Since this GPI...

  19. Adsorption of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) by amphiphilic polypropylene nonwoven from aqueous solution: the study of hydrophilic and hydrophobic microdomain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiangyu; Wei, Junfu; Zhang, Huan; Liu, Kai; Wang, Han

    2014-05-30

    A kind of amphiphilic polypropylene nonwoven with hydrophilic and hydrophobic microdomain was prepared through electron beam induced graft polymerization and subsequent ring opening reaction and then utilized in the adsorption of phthalic acid esters (PAEs). To elucidate the superiority of such amphiphilic microdomain, a unique structure without hydrophilic part was constructed as comparison. In addition, the adsorption behaviors including adsorption kinetics, isotherms and pH effect were systematically investigated. The result indicated that the amphiphilic structure and the synergy between hydrophilic and hydrophobic microdomain could considerably improve the adsorption capacities, rate and affinity. Particularly the existence of hydrophilic microdomain could reduce the diffusion resistance and energy barrier in the adsorption process. These adsorption results showed that the amphiphilic PP nonwoven have the potential to be used in environmental application. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Discrete optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, R Gary

    1988-01-01

    This book treats the fundamental issues and algorithmic strategies emerging as the core of the discipline of discrete optimization in a comprehensive and rigorous fashion. Following an introductory chapter on computational complexity, the basic algorithmic results for the two major models of polynomial algorithms are introduced--models using matroids and linear programming. Further chapters treat the major non-polynomial algorithms: branch-and-bound and cutting planes. The text concludes with a chapter on heuristic algorithms.Several appendixes are included which review the fundamental ideas o

  1. Adsorption of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) by amphiphilic polypropylene nonwoven from aqueous solution: The study of hydrophilic and hydrophobic microdomain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xiangyu [State Key Laboratory of Hollow Fiber Membrane Materials and Processes, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Wei, Junfu, E-mail: weijunfu1963@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Hollow Fiber Membrane Materials and Processes, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Zhang, Huan; Liu, Kai; Wang, Han [State Key Laboratory of Hollow Fiber Membrane Materials and Processes, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Amphiphilic PP-g-GMA-OA nonwoven was prepared and characterized. • Synergy between hydrophilic and hydrophobic microdomain was elucidated. • The effects of hydrophilic microdomain on diffusion resistance and energy barrier were elucidated. • Adsorbent material with amphiphilic structures showed faster adsorption rate and lager adsorption capacity. - Abstract: A kind of amphiphilic polypropylene nonwoven with hydrophilic and hydrophobic microdomain was prepared through electron beam induced graft polymerization and subsequent ring opening reaction and then utilized in the adsorption of phthalic acid esters (PAEs). To elucidate the superiority of such amphiphilic microdomain, a unique structure without hydrophilic part was constructed as comparison. In addition, the adsorption behaviors including adsorption kinetics, isotherms and pH effect were systematically investigated. The result indicated that the amphiphilic structure and the synergy between hydrophilic and hydrophobic microdomain could considerably improve the adsorption capacities, rate and affinity. Particularly the existence of hydrophilic microdomain could reduce the diffusion resistance and energy barrier in the adsorption process. These adsorption results showed that the amphiphilic PP nonwoven have the potential to be used in environmental application.

  2. Adsorption of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) by amphiphilic polypropylene nonwoven from aqueous solution: The study of hydrophilic and hydrophobic microdomain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Xiangyu; Wei, Junfu; Zhang, Huan; Liu, Kai; Wang, Han

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Amphiphilic PP-g-GMA-OA nonwoven was prepared and characterized. • Synergy between hydrophilic and hydrophobic microdomain was elucidated. • The effects of hydrophilic microdomain on diffusion resistance and energy barrier were elucidated. • Adsorbent material with amphiphilic structures showed faster adsorption rate and lager adsorption capacity. - Abstract: A kind of amphiphilic polypropylene nonwoven with hydrophilic and hydrophobic microdomain was prepared through electron beam induced graft polymerization and subsequent ring opening reaction and then utilized in the adsorption of phthalic acid esters (PAEs). To elucidate the superiority of such amphiphilic microdomain, a unique structure without hydrophilic part was constructed as comparison. In addition, the adsorption behaviors including adsorption kinetics, isotherms and pH effect were systematically investigated. The result indicated that the amphiphilic structure and the synergy between hydrophilic and hydrophobic microdomain could considerably improve the adsorption capacities, rate and affinity. Particularly the existence of hydrophilic microdomain could reduce the diffusion resistance and energy barrier in the adsorption process. These adsorption results showed that the amphiphilic PP nonwoven have the potential to be used in environmental application

  3. Bicarbonate-responsive “soluble” adenylyl cyclase defines a nuclear cAMP microdomain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zippin, Jonathan H.; Farrell, Jeanne; Huron, David; Kamenetsky, Margarita; Hess, Kenneth C.; Fischman, Donald A.; Levin, Lonny R.; Buck, Jochen

    2004-01-01

    Bicarbonate-responsive “soluble” adenylyl cyclase resides, in part, inside the mammalian cell nucleus where it stimulates the activity of nuclear protein kinase A to phosphorylate the cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). The existence of this complete and functional, nuclear-localized cAMP pathway establishes that cAMP signals in intracellular microdomains and identifies an alternate pathway leading to CREB activation. PMID:14769862

  4. Membrane microdomains, rafts, and detergent-resistant membranes in plants and fungi

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malínský, Jan; Opekarová, Miroslava; Grossmann, G.; Tanner, W.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 64, April (2013), s. 501-529 ISSN 1543-5008 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/11/0146; GA ČR GAP205/12/0720 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 ; RVO:68378041 Keywords : membrane microdomain * lipid raft * detergent resistant membranes Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology; EA - Cell Biology (MBU-M) Impact factor: 18.900, year: 2013

  5. Discrete transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Firth, Jean M

    1992-01-01

    The analysis of signals and systems using transform methods is a very important aspect of the examination of processes and problems in an increasingly wide range of applications. Whereas the initial impetus in the development of methods appropriate for handling discrete sets of data occurred mainly in an electrical engineering context (for example in the design of digital filters), the same techniques are in use in such disciplines as cardiology, optics, speech analysis and management, as well as in other branches of science and engineering. This text is aimed at a readership whose mathematical background includes some acquaintance with complex numbers, linear differen­ tial equations, matrix algebra, and series. Specifically, a familiarity with Fourier series (in trigonometric and exponential forms) is assumed, and an exposure to the concept of a continuous integral transform is desirable. Such a background can be expected, for example, on completion of the first year of a science or engineering degree cour...

  6. Templating of cylindrical and spherical block copolymer microdomains by layered silicates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Adriana S.; Mitchell, Cynthia A.; Fu Tse, Mun; Wang, Hsien-C.; Krishnamoorti, Ramanan

    2001-10-01

    The influence of a highly anisotropic layered silicate (organically modified montmorillonite) in directing the mesoscopic self-assembly of a block copolymer blend is studied as a model for the development and tailoring of templated inorganic-organic hybrid materials. The potential for nanometer thick layers to induce large-scale mesoscopic ordering of cylindrical and spherical microdomains in asymmetric block copolymers is studied using a combination of rheology, electron microscopy, and small angle neutron scattering. Spherical microdomains arranged on a bcc lattice are templated by the anisotropic layered silicate and the kinetics of their growth are dramatically accelerated by the presence of even 0.1 wt.% (0.04 vol.%) of the filler. However, for cylindrical microdomain ordering, the kinetics are essentially unaffected by the addition of layered silicates and the development of three-dimensional mesoscopic order is possibly even disrupted. These results suggest that for the development of three-dimensional well-ordered nanostructures, the surface defining the pattern has to be significantly larger than the leading dimension of the structure being templated.

  7. Eye lens membrane junctional microdomains: a comparison between healthy and pathological cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buzhynskyy, Nikolay; Scheuring, Simon [Institut Curie, Equipe Inserm Avenir, UMR168-CNRS, 26 Rue d' Ulm, 75248 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Sens, Pierre [ESPCI, CNRS-UMR 7083, 75231 Paris (France); Behar-Cohen, Francine, E-mail: simon.scheuring@curie.fr [UMRS Inserm 872, Universite Paris Descartes, Centre de Recherches des Cordeliers, 15 rue de l' Ecole de Medecine, 75270 Paris Cedex 06 (France)

    2011-08-15

    The eye lens is a transparent tissue constituted of tightly packed fiber cells. To maintain homeostasis and transparency of the lens, the circulation of water, ions and metabolites is required. Junctional microdomains connect the lens cells and ensure both tight cell-to-cell adhesion and intercellular flow of fluids through a microcirculation system. Here, we overview membrane morphology and tissue functional requirements of the mammalian lens. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has opened up the possibility of visualizing the junctional microdomains at unprecedented submolecular resolution, revealing the supramolecular assembly of lens-specific aquaporin-0 (AQP0) and connexins (Cx). We compare the membrane protein assembly in healthy lenses with senile and diabetes-II cataract cases and novel data of the lens membranes from a congenital cataract. In the healthy case, AQP0s form characteristic square arrays confined by connexons. In the cases of senile and diabetes-II cataract patients, connexons were degraded, leading to malformation of AQP0 arrays and breakdown of the microcirculation system. In the congenital cataract, connexons are present, indicating probable non-membranous grounds for lens opacification. Further, we discuss the energetic aspects of the membrane organization in junctional microdomains. The AFM hence becomes a biomedical nano-imaging tool for the analysis of single-membrane protein supramolecular association in healthy and pathological membranes.

  8. Eye lens membrane junctional microdomains: a comparison between healthy and pathological cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzhynskyy, Nikolay; Sens, Pierre; Behar-Cohen, Francine; Scheuring, Simon

    2011-08-01

    The eye lens is a transparent tissue constituted of tightly packed fiber cells. To maintain homeostasis and transparency of the lens, the circulation of water, ions and metabolites is required. Junctional microdomains connect the lens cells and ensure both tight cell-to-cell adhesion and intercellular flow of fluids through a microcirculation system. Here, we overview membrane morphology and tissue functional requirements of the mammalian lens. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has opened up the possibility of visualizing the junctional microdomains at unprecedented submolecular resolution, revealing the supramolecular assembly of lens-specific aquaporin-0 (AQP0) and connexins (Cx). We compare the membrane protein assembly in healthy lenses with senile and diabetes-II cataract cases and novel data of the lens membranes from a congenital cataract. In the healthy case, AQP0s form characteristic square arrays confined by connexons. In the cases of senile and diabetes-II cataract patients, connexons were degraded, leading to malformation of AQP0 arrays and breakdown of the microcirculation system. In the congenital cataract, connexons are present, indicating probable non-membranous grounds for lens opacification. Further, we discuss the energetic aspects of the membrane organization in junctional microdomains. The AFM hence becomes a biomedical nano-imaging tool for the analysis of single-membrane protein supramolecular association in healthy and pathological membranes.

  9. Nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) enhance cytotoxicity of cisplatin to hepatocellular cells by microdomain disruption on plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shengyong; Chen, Xinhua; Xie, Haiyang; Zhou, Lin; Guo, Danjing; Xu, Yuning; Wu, Liming; Zheng, Shusen

    2016-08-15

    Previous studies showed nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) can ablate solid tumors including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) but its effect on cell membrane is not fully understood. We hypothesized nsPEF disrupt the microdomains on outer-cellular membrane with direct mechanical force and as a result the plasma membrane permeability increases to facilitate the small molecule intake. Three HCC cells were pulsed one pulse per minute, an interval longer than nanopore resealing time. The cationized ferritin was used to mark up the electronegative microdomains, propidium iodide (PI) for membrane permeabilization, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) for the negative cell surface charge and cisplatin for inner-cellular cytotoxicity. We demonstrated that the ferritin marked-microdomain and negative cell surface charge were disrupted by nsPEF caused-mechanical force. The cell uptake of propidium and cytotoxicity of DNA-targeted cisplatin increased with a dose effect. Cisplatin gains its maximum inner-cellular cytotoxicity when combining with nsPEF stimulation. We conclude that nsPEF disrupt the microdomains on the outer cellular membrane directly and increase the membrane permeabilization for PI and cisplatin. The microdomain disruption and membrane infiltration changes are caused by the mechanical force from the changes of negative cell surface charge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) enhance cytotoxicity of cisplatin to hepatocellular cells by microdomain disruption on plasma membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Shengyong; Chen, Xinhua; Xie, Haiyang; Zhou, Lin [Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Zhejiang University, 310003 Hangzhou (China); Key Laboratory of Combined Multi-organ Transplantation, Ministry of Public Health and Key Laboratory of Organ Transplantation of Zhejiang Province, The Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310003 (China); Guo, Danjing; Xu, Yuning [Key Laboratory of Combined Multi-organ Transplantation, Ministry of Public Health and Key Laboratory of Organ Transplantation of Zhejiang Province, The Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310003 (China); Wu, Liming, E-mail: wlm@zju.edu.cn [Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Zhejiang University, 310003 Hangzhou (China); Key Laboratory of Combined Multi-organ Transplantation, Ministry of Public Health and Key Laboratory of Organ Transplantation of Zhejiang Province, The Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310003 (China); Zheng, Shusen, E-mail: shusenzheng@zju.edu.cn [Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Zhejiang University, 310003 Hangzhou (China); Key Laboratory of Combined Multi-organ Transplantation, Ministry of Public Health and Key Laboratory of Organ Transplantation of Zhejiang Province, The Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310003 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Previous studies showed nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) can ablate solid tumors including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) but its effect on cell membrane is not fully understood. We hypothesized nsPEF disrupt the microdomains on outer-cellular membrane with direct mechanical force and as a result the plasma membrane permeability increases to facilitate the small molecule intake. Three HCC cells were pulsed one pulse per minute, an interval longer than nanopore resealing time. The cationized ferritin was used to mark up the electronegative microdomains, propidium iodide (PI) for membrane permeabilization, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) for the negative cell surface charge and cisplatin for inner-cellular cytotoxicity. We demonstrated that the ferritin marked-microdomain and negative cell surface charge were disrupted by nsPEF caused-mechanical force. The cell uptake of propidium and cytotoxicity of DNA-targeted cisplatin increased with a dose effect. Cisplatin gains its maximum inner-cellular cytotoxicity when combining with nsPEF stimulation. We conclude that nsPEF disrupt the microdomains on the outer cellular membrane directly and increase the membrane permeabilization for PI and cisplatin. The microdomain disruption and membrane infiltration changes are caused by the mechanical force from the changes of negative cell surface charge.

  11. Arabidopsis mutants in sphingolipid synthesis as tools to understand the structure and function of membrane microdomains in plasmodesmata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARIADNA eGONZÁLEZ-SOLÍS

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodesmata –intercellular channels that communicate adjacent cells– possess complex membranous structures. Recent evidences indicate that plasmodesmata contain membrane microdomains. In order to understand how these submembrane regions collaborate to plasmodesmata function, it is necessary to characterize their size, composition and dynamics. An approach that can shed light on these microdomain features is based on the use of Arabidopsis mutants in sphingolipid synthesis. Sphingolipids are canonical components of microdomains together with sterols and some glycerolipids. Moreover, sphingolipids are transducers in pathways that display programmed cell death as a defense mechanism against pathogens. The study of Arabidopsis mutants would allow determining which structural features of the sphingolipids are important for the formation and stability of microdomains, and if defense signaling networks using sphingoid bases as second messengers are associated to plasmodesmata operation. Such studies need to be complemented by analysis of the ultrastructure and the use of protein probes for plasmodesmata microdomains and may constitute a very valuable source of information to analyze these membrane structures.

  12. Arabidopsis mutants in sphingolipid synthesis as tools to understand the structure and function of membrane microdomains in plasmodesmata

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Solís, Ariadna; Cano-Ramírez, Dora L.; Morales-Cedillo, Francisco; Tapia de Aquino, Cinthya; Gavilanes-Ruiz, Marina

    2013-01-01

    Plasmodesmata—intercellular channels that communicate adjacent cells—possess complex membranous structures. Recent evidences indicate that plasmodesmata contain membrane microdomains. In order to understand how these submembrane regions collaborate to plasmodesmata function, it is necessary to characterize their size, composition and dynamics. An approach that can shed light on these microdomain features is based on the use of Arabidopsis mutants in sphingolipid synthesis. Sphingolipids are canonical components of microdomains together with sterols and some glycerolipids. Moreover, sphingolipids are transducers in pathways that display programmed cell death as a defense mechanism against pathogens. The study of Arabidopsis mutants would allow determining which structural features of the sphingolipids are important for the formation and stability of microdomains, and if defense signaling networks using sphingoid bases as second messengers are associated to plasmodesmata operation. Such studies need to be complemented by analysis of the ultrastructure and the use of protein probes for plasmodesmata microdomains and may constitute a very valuable source of information to analyze these membrane structures. PMID:24478783

  13. Discrete Curvatures and Discrete Minimal Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Xiang

    2012-06-01

    This thesis presents an overview of some approaches to compute Gaussian and mean curvature on discrete surfaces and discusses discrete minimal surfaces. The variety of applications of differential geometry in visualization and shape design leads to great interest in studying discrete surfaces. With the rich smooth surface theory in hand, one would hope that this elegant theory can still be applied to the discrete counter part. Such a generalization, however, is not always successful. While discrete surfaces have the advantage of being finite dimensional, thus easier to treat, their geometric properties such as curvatures are not well defined in the classical sense. Furthermore, the powerful calculus tool can hardly be applied. The methods in this thesis, including angular defect formula, cotangent formula, parallel meshes, relative geometry etc. are approaches based on offset meshes or generalized offset meshes. As an important application, we discuss discrete minimal surfaces and discrete Koenigs meshes.

  14. Deep-apical tubules: dynamic lipid-raft microdomains in the brush-border region of enterocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gert H; Pedersen, Jens; Niels-Christiansen, Lise-Lotte

    2003-01-01

    microdomains. Deep-apical tubules were positioned close to the actin rootlets of adjacent microvilli in the terminal web region, which had a diameter of 50-100 nm, and penetrated up to 1 microm into the cytoplasm. Markers for transcytosis, IgA and the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, as well as the resident...... lipid raft-containing compartments, but little is otherwise known about these raft microdomains. We therefore studied in closer detail apical lipid-raft compartments in enterocytes by immunogold electron microscopy and biochemical analyses. Novel membrane structures, deep-apical tubules, were visualized...... brush-border enzyme aminopeptidase N, were present in these deep-apical tubules. We propose that deep-apical tubules are a specialized lipid-raft microdomain in the brush-border region functioning as a hub in membrane trafficking at the brush border. In addition, the sensitivity to cholesterol depletion...

  15. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Nef protein modulates the lipid composition of virions and host cell membrane microdomains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geyer Matthias

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Nef protein of Human Immunodeficiency Viruses optimizes viral spread in the infected host by manipulating cellular transport and signal transduction machineries. Nef also boosts the infectivity of HIV particles by an unknown mechanism. Recent studies suggested a correlation between the association of Nef with lipid raft microdomains and its positive effects on virion infectivity. Furthermore, the lipidome analysis of HIV-1 particles revealed a marked enrichment of classical raft lipids and thus identified HIV-1 virions as an example for naturally occurring membrane microdomains. Since Nef modulates the protein composition and function of membrane microdomains we tested here if Nef also has the propensity to alter microdomain lipid composition. Results Quantitative mass spectrometric lipidome analysis of highly purified HIV-1 particles revealed that the presence of Nef during virus production from T lymphocytes enforced their raft character via a significant reduction of polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholine species and a specific enrichment of sphingomyelin. In contrast, Nef did not significantly affect virion levels of phosphoglycerolipids or cholesterol. The observed alterations in virion lipid composition were insufficient to mediate Nef's effect on particle infectivity and Nef augmented virion infectivity independently of whether virus entry was targeted to or excluded from membrane microdomains. However, altered lipid compositions similar to those observed in virions were also detected in detergent-resistant membrane preparations of virus producing cells. Conclusion Nef alters not only the proteome but also the lipid composition of host cell microdomains. This novel activity represents a previously unrecognized mechanism by which Nef could manipulate HIV-1 target cells to facilitate virus propagation in vivo.

  16. Ankyrin-B coordinates the Na/K ATPase, Na/Ca exchanger, and InsP3 receptor in a cardiac T-tubule/SR microdomain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We report identification of an ankyrin-B-based macromolecular complex of Na/K ATPase (alpha 1 and alpha 2 isoforms, Na/Ca exchanger 1, and InsP3 receptor that is localized in cardiomyocyte T-tubules in discrete microdomains distinct from classic dihydropyridine receptor/ryanodine receptor "dyads." E1425G mutation of ankyrin-B, which causes human cardiac arrhythmia, also blocks binding of ankyrin-B to all three components of the complex. The ankyrin-B complex is markedly reduced in adult ankyrin-B(+/- cardiomyocytes, which may explain elevated [Ca2+]i transients in these cells. Thus, loss of the ankyrin-B complex provides a molecular basis for cardiac arrhythmia in humans and mice. T-tubule-associated ankyrin-B, Na/Ca exchanger, and Na/K ATPase are not present in skeletal muscle, where ankyrin-B is expressed at 10-fold lower levels than in heart. Ankyrin-B also is not abundantly expressed in smooth muscle. We propose that the ankyrin-B-based complex is a specialized adaptation of cardiomyocytes with a role for cytosolic Ca2+ modulation.

  17. Peptide-selective inrichment of MHC II-peptide complexes in tetraspan microdomains distinct from lipid rafts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kropshofer, H.; Spindeldreher, S.; Rohn, T. A.; Platania, N.; Grygar, C.; Wolpl, A.; Langen, H.; Hořejší, Václav; Vogt, A. B.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 1 (2002), s. 61-68 ISSN 1529-2908 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A026 Keywords : Microdomain * tetraspan proteins * MHC class II Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 27.868, year: 2002

  18. A specific type of membrane microdomains is involved in the maintenance and translocation of kinase active Lck to lipid rafts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ballek, Ondřej; Broučková, Adéla; Manning, Jasper; Filipp, Dominik

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 142, 1-2 (2012), s. 64-74 ISSN 0165-2478 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/09/2084 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : pY394Lck * T-cell proximal signaling * membrane microdomains Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.337, year: 2012

  19. Groupoids, Discrete Mechanics, and Discrete Variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Jiafeng; Jia Xiaoyu; Wu Ke; Zhao Weizhong

    2008-01-01

    After introducing some of the basic definitions and results from the theory of groupoid and Lie algebroid, we investigate the discrete Lagrangian mechanics from the viewpoint of groupoid theory and give the connection between groupoids variation and the methods of the first and second discrete variational principles

  20. Lipid rafts exist as stable cholesterol-independent microdomains in the brush border membrane of enterocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gert Helge; Immerdal, Lissi; Thorsen, Evy

    2001-01-01

    Glycosphingolipid/cholesterol-rich membranes ("rafts")can be isolated from many types of cells, but their existence as stable microdomains in the cell membrane has been elusive. Addressing this problem, we studied the distribution of galectin-4, a raft marker, and lactase, a protein excluded from...... rafts, on microvillar vesicles from the enterocyte brush border membrane. Magnetic beads coated with either anti-galectin-4 or anti-lactase antibodies were used for immunoisolation of vesicles followed by double immunogold labeling of the two proteins. A morphometric analysis revealed subpopulations...... of raft-rich and raft-poor vesicles by the following criteria: 1) the lactase/galectin-4 labeling ratio/vesicle captured by the anti-lactase beads was significantly higher (p

  1. Lipid rafts in epithelial brush borders: atypical membrane microdomains with specialized functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E Michael; Hansen, Gert H

    2003-01-01

    Epithelial cells that fulfil high-throughput digestive/absorptive functions, such as small intestinal enterocytes and kidney proximal tubule cells, are endowed with a dense apical brush border. It has long been recognized that the microvillar surface of the brush border is organized in cholesterol......-dependent lipid rafts of a different type from the glycolipid-based rafts at the microvillar surface. The brush border is thus an example of a complex membrane system that harbours at least two different types of lipid raft microdomains, each suited to fulfil specialized functions. This conclusion is in line......-linked and transmembrane digestive enzymes, most likely as an economizing effort to secure and prolong their digestive capability at the microvillar surface. However, in addition to microvilli, the brush border surface also consists of membrane invaginations between adjacent microvilli, which are the only part...

  2. Endoplasmic reticulum generates calcium signalling microdomains around the nucleus and spindle in syncytial Drosophila embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, H; McDougall, A; Whitaker, M

    2006-06-01

    Cell cycle calcium signals are generated by inositol trisphosphate-mediated release of calcium from internal stores [Ciapa, Pesando, Wilding and Whitaker (1994) Nature (London) 368, 875-878; Groigno and Whitaker (1998) Cell 92, 193-204]. The major internal calcium store is the ER (endoplasmic reticulum): the spatial organization of the ER during mitosis is important in defining a microdomain around the nucleus and mitotic spindle in early Drosophila embryos [Parry, McDougall and Whitaker (2005) J. Cell Biol. 171, 47-59]. Nuclear divisions in syncytial Drosophila embryos are accompanied by both cortical and nuclear localized calcium transients. Mitosis is prevented by the InsP(3) antagonists Xestospongin C and heparin. Nuclear-localized transients and cortical transients rely on extraembryonic calcium, suggesting that ER calcium levels are maintained by calcium influx.

  3. Convenient and rapid removal of detergent from glycolipids in detergent-resistant membrane microdomains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yusuke; Kabayama, Kazuya

    2012-03-01

    Although detergents are often essential in protocols, they are usually incompatible with further biochemical analysis. There are several methods for detergent removal, but the procedures are complicated or suffer from sample loss. Here, we describe a convenient and rapid method for detergent removal from sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids (gangliosides) and neutral glycolipids in detergent-resistant membrane (DRM) microdomain. It is based on selective detergent extraction, in which the sample is dried on a glass tube, followed by washing with organic solvent. We investigated 18 organic solvents and used high performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization quadrupole ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-QIT-TOF MS) to confirm that dichloroethane (DCE) was the most suitable solvent and completely removed the nonionic detergent Triton X-100. Furthermore, DCE extraction effectively removed interference caused by other nonionic, zwitterionic, or ionic detergents in MALDI-QIT-TOF MS analysis.

  4. Deep Discrete Supervised Hashing

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Qing-Yuan; Cui, Xue; Li, Wu-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Hashing has been widely used for large-scale search due to its low storage cost and fast query speed. By using supervised information, supervised hashing can significantly outperform unsupervised hashing. Recently, discrete supervised hashing and deep hashing are two representative progresses in supervised hashing. On one hand, hashing is essentially a discrete optimization problem. Hence, utilizing supervised information to directly guide discrete (binary) coding procedure can avoid sub-opti...

  5. A fluorescent glycolipid-binding peptide probe traces cholesterol dependent microdomain-derived trafficking pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Steinert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The uptake and intracellular trafficking of sphingolipids, which self-associate into plasma membrane microdomains, is associated with many pathological conditions, including viral and toxin infection, lipid storage disease, and neurodegenerative disease. However, the means available to label the trafficking pathways of sphingolipids in live cells are extremely limited. In order to address this problem, we have developed an exogenous, non-toxic probe consisting of a 25-amino acid sphingolipid binding domain, the SBD, derived from the amyloid peptide Abeta, and conjugated by a neutral linker with an organic fluorophore. The current work presents the characterization of the sphingolipid binding and live cell trafficking of this novel probe, the SBD peptide. SBD was the name given to a motif originally recognized by Fantini et al in a number of glycolipid-associated proteins, and was proposed to interact with sphingolipids in membrane microdomains. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In accordance with Fantini's model, optimal SBD binding to membranes depends on the presence of sphingolipids and cholesterol. In synthetic membrane binding assays, SBD interacts preferentially with raft-like lipid mixtures containing sphingomyelin, cholesterol, and complex gangliosides in a pH-dependent manner, but is less glycolipid-specific than Cholera toxin B (CtxB. Using quantitative time-course colocalization in live cells, we show that the uptake and intracellular trafficking route of SBD is unlike that of either the non-raft marker Transferrin or the raft markers CtxB and Flotillin2-GFP. However, SBD traverses an endolysosomal route that partially intersects with raft-associated pathways, with a major portion being diverted at a late time point to rab11-positive recycling endosomes. Trafficking of SBD to acidified compartments is strongly disrupted by cholesterol perturbations, consistent with the regulation of sphingolipid trafficking by cholesterol

  6. Calcium microdomains at presynaptic active zones of vertebrate hair cells unmasked by stochastic deconvolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolozzi, Mario; Lelli, Andrea; Mammano, Fabio

    2008-08-01

    Signal transduction by auditory and vestibular hair cells involves an impressive ensemble of finely tuned control mechanisms, strictly dependent on the local intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)). The study of Ca(2+) dynamics in hair cells typically combines Ca(2+)-sensitive fluorescent indicators (dyes), patch clamp and optical microscopy to produce images of the patterns of fluorescence of a Ca(2+) indicator following various stimulation protocols. Here we describe a novel method that combines electrophysiological recordings, fluorescence imaging and numerical simulations to effectively deconvolve Ca(2+) signals within cytoplasmic microdomains that would otherwise remain inaccessible to direct observation. The method relies on the comparison of experimental data with virtual signals derived from a Monte Carlo reaction-diffusion model based on a realistic reconstruction of the relevant cell boundaries in three dimensions. The model comprises Ca(2+) entry at individual presynaptic active zones followed by diffusion, buffering, extrusion and release of Ca(2+). Our results indicate that changes of the hair cell [Ca(2+)](i) during synaptic transmission are primarily controlled by the Ca(2+) endogenous buffers both at short (hair cell endogenous Ca(2+) buffers and Ca(2+)-ATPases. We finally show that experimental fluorescence data collected during Ca(2+) influx are not interpreted correctly if the [Ca(2+)](i) is estimated by assuming that Ca(2+) equilibrates instantly with its reactants. In our opinion, this approach is of potentially general interest as it can be easily adapted to the study of Ca(2+) dynamics in diverse biological systems.

  7. FRET-Based Nanobiosensors for Imaging Intracellular Ca2+ and H+ Microdomains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamaleeva, Alsu I.; Despras, Guillaume; Luccardini, Camilla; Collot, Mayeul; de Waard, Michel; Oheim, Martin; Mallet, Jean-Maurice; Feltz, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) or quantum dots (QDs) are luminous point emitters increasingly being used to tag and track biomolecules in biological/biomedical imaging. However, their intracellular use as highlighters of single-molecule localization and nanobiosensors reporting ion microdomains changes has remained a major challenge. Here, we report the design, generation and validation of FRET-based nanobiosensors for detection of intracellular Ca2+ and H+ transients. Our sensors combine a commercially available CANdot®565QD as an energy donor with, as an acceptor, our custom-synthesized red-emitting Ca2+ or H+ probes. These ‘Rubies’ are based on an extended rhodamine as a fluorophore and a phenol or BAPTA (1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N′,N′-tetra-acetic acid) for H+ or Ca2+ sensing, respectively, and additionally bear a linker arm for conjugation. QDs were stably functionalized using the same SH/maleimide crosslink chemistry for all desired reactants. Mixing ion sensor and cell-penetrating peptides (that facilitate cytoplasmic delivery) at the desired stoichiometric ratio produced controlled multi-conjugated assemblies. Multiple acceptors on the same central donor allow up-concentrating the ion sensor on the QD surface to concentrations higher than those that could be achieved in free solution, increasing FRET efficiency and improving the signal. We validate these nanosensors for the detection of intracellular Ca2+ and pH transients using live-cell fluorescence imaging. PMID:26404317

  8. FRET-Based Nanobiosensors for Imaging Intracellular Ca2+ and H+ Microdomains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alsu I. Zamaleeva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs or quantum dots (QDs are luminous point emitters increasingly being used to tag and track biomolecules in biological/biomedical imaging. However, their intracellular use as highlighters of single-molecule localization and nanobiosensors reporting ion microdomains changes has remained a major challenge. Here, we report the design, generation and validation of FRET-based nanobiosensors for detection of intracellular Ca2+ and H+ transients. Our sensors combine a commercially available CANdot®565QD as an energy donor with, as an acceptor, our custom-synthesized red-emitting Ca2+ or H+ probes. These ‘Rubies’ are based on an extended rhodamine as a fluorophore and a phenol or BAPTA (1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxyethane-N,N,N′,N′-tetra-acetic acid for H+ or Ca2+ sensing, respectively, and additionally bear a linker arm for conjugation. QDs were stably functionalized using the same SH/maleimide crosslink chemistry for all desired reactants. Mixing ion sensor and cell-penetrating peptides (that facilitate cytoplasmic delivery at the desired stoichiometric ratio produced controlled multi-conjugated assemblies. Multiple acceptors on the same central donor allow up-concentrating the ion sensor on the QD surface to concentrations higher than those that could be achieved in free solution, increasing FRET efficiency and improving the signal. We validate these nanosensors for the detection of intracellular Ca2+ and pH transients using live-cell fluorescence imaging.

  9. 3D-TEM study on the novel bicontinuous microdomain structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Chin; Wakabayashi, Midori; Hasegawa, Hirokazu; Takenaka, Mikihito

    2017-11-29

    An ordered bicontinuous double-diamond (OBDD) morphology was found in polystyrene-block-(poly-4-vinylphenyldimethylvinylsilane-graft-polyisoprene), PS-b-(PVS-g-PI), block-graft copolymer. We obtained a 3D image of the microdomain structure formed in PS-b-(PVS-g-PI) using 3D-TEM. The 3D image shows that the polystyrene (PS) phase consists of two independent and interwoven networks. The structures of the two networks are identical and include tetrapod units that form planar six-membered rings. The features of the networks agree with those in the OBDD morphology, indicating that PS-b-(PVS-g-PI) exhibits ordered three-dimensional OBDD networks with the PS phase in the polyisoprene (PI) matrix phase. The grafted PI chains induce the frustration of the PS chains; thus, the effects of the specific interface are more dominant than those of packing frustration in the formation of the morphology, and the OBDD phase is stabilized.

  10. Lamellar Microdomains of Block-Copolymer-Based Ionic Supramolecules Exhibiting a Hierarchical Self-Assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayoubi, Mehran Asad; Almdal, Kristoffer; Zhu, Kaizheng

    2014-01-01

    (Cn; n = 8, 12, and 16) trimethylammonium counterions (i.e., side chains) at various ion (pair) fractions X [i.e., counterion/side-chain grafting density; X = number of alkyl counterions (i.e., side chains) per acidic group of the parent PMAA block] these L-b-AC ionic supramolecules exhibit...... a spherical-in-lamellar hierarchical self-assembly. For these systems, (1) the effective Flory-Huggins interaction parameter between L- and AC-blocks chi'(Cn/x) was extracted, and (2) analysis of the lamellar microdomains showed that when there is an increase in X, alkyl counterion (i.e., side chain) length l......Based on a parent diblock copolymer of poly(styrene)-b-poly(methacrylic acid), PS-b-PMAA, linear-b-amphiphilic comb (L-b-AC) ionic supramolecules [Soft Matter 2013, 9, 1540-1555] are synthesized in which the poly(methacrylate) backbone of the ionic supramolecular AC-block is neutralized by alkyl...

  11. Composite Hydrogels with Engineered Microdomains for Optical Glucose Sensing at Low Oxygen Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey R. Bornhoeft

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing need for advanced tools that enable frequent monitoring of biomarkers for precision medicine. In this work, we present a composite hydrogel-based system providing real-time optical bioanalyte monitoring. The responsive material, alginate-in-alginate (AnA, is comprised of an alginate hydrogel with embedded bioactive, nanofilm-coated phosphorescent microdomains; palladium tetracarboxyphenylporphyrin serves as an optical indicator, glucose oxidase as a model enzyme, and layer-by-layer deposited polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs as the diffusion barrier. Glutaraldehyde crosslinking of the nanofilms resulted in a dramatic reduction in glucose diffusion (179% while oxygen transport was not significantly affected. The responses of the AnA hydrogels to step changes of glucose at both ambient and physiological oxygen levels were evaluated, revealing controlled tuning of sensitivity and dynamic range. Stability, assessed by alternately exposing the responsive AnA hydrogels to extremely high and zero glucose concentrations, resulted in no significant difference in the response over 20 cycles. These AnA hydrogels represent an attractive approach to biosensing based on biocompatible materials that may be used as minimally-invasive, implantable devices capable of optical interrogation. The model glucose-responsive composite material studied in this work will serve as a template that can be translated for sensing additional analytes (e.g., lactate, urea, pyruvate, cholesterol and can be used for monitoring other chronic conditions.

  12. Discrete control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Okuyama, Yoshifumi

    2014-01-01

    Discrete Control Systems establishes a basis for the analysis and design of discretized/quantized control systemsfor continuous physical systems. Beginning with the necessary mathematical foundations and system-model descriptions, the text moves on to derive a robust stability condition. To keep a practical perspective on the uncertain physical systems considered, most of the methods treated are carried out in the frequency domain. As part of the design procedure, modified Nyquist–Hall and Nichols diagrams are presented and discretized proportional–integral–derivative control schemes are reconsidered. Schemes for model-reference feedback and discrete-type observers are proposed. Although single-loop feedback systems form the core of the text, some consideration is given to multiple loops and nonlinearities. The robust control performance and stability of interval systems (with multiple uncertainties) are outlined. Finally, the monograph describes the relationship between feedback-control and discrete ev...

  13. Removal of GPI-anchored membrane proteins causes clustering of lipid microdomains in the apical head area of porcine sperm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerke, Arjan; van der Lit, Joost; Lolicato, Francesca; Stout, Tom A E; Helms, J Bernd; Gadella, Bart M

    2014-01-01

    The release of extracellular proteins is a part of the sperm capacitation process; this allows the sperm surface reorganization that enables the sperm to fertilize an oocyte. Some of the components released are 'decapacitation factors', an uncoordinated or early release of which may cause

  14. Membrane microdomains and the cytoskeleton constrain AtHIR1 dynamics and facilitate the formation of an AtHIR1-associated immune complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xueqin; Jing, Yanping; Xiao, Jianwei; Zhang, Yongdeng; Zhu, Yingfang; Julian, Russell; Lin, Jinxing

    2017-04-01

    Arabidopsis hypersensitive-induced reaction (AtHIR) proteins function in plant innate immunity. However, the underlying mechanisms by which AtHIRs participate in plant immunity remain elusive. Here, using VA-TIRFM and FLIM-FRET, we revealed that AtHIR1 is present in membrane microdomains and co-localizes with the membrane microdomain marker REM1.3. Single-particle tracking analysis revealed that membrane microdomains and the cytoskeleton, especially microtubules, restrict the lateral mobility of AtHIR1 at the plasma membrane and facilitate its oligomerization. Furthermore, protein proximity index measurements, fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy, and biochemical experiments demonstrated that the formation of the AtHIR1 complex upon pathogen perception requires intact microdomains and cytoskeleton. Taken together, these findings suggest that microdomains and the cytoskeleton constrain AtHIR1 dynamics, promote AtHIR1 oligomerization, and increase the efficiency of the interactions of AtHIR1 with components of the AtHIR1 complex in response to pathogens, thus providing valuable insight into the mechanisms of defense-related responses in plants. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Discrete quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Ruth M

    2006-01-01

    A review is given of a number of approaches to discrete quantum gravity, with a restriction to those likely to be relevant in four dimensions. This paper is dedicated to Rafael Sorkin on the occasion of his sixtieth birthday

  16. Finite Discrete Gabor Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Peter Lempel

    2007-01-01

    on the real line to be well approximated by finite and discrete Gabor frames. This method of approximation is especially attractive because efficient numerical methods exists for doing computations with finite, discrete Gabor systems. This thesis presents new algorithms for the efficient computation of finite......, discrete Gabor coefficients. Reconstruction of a signal from its Gabor coefficients is done by the use of a so-called dual window. This thesis presents a number of iterative algorithms to compute dual and self-dual windows. The Linear Time Frequency Toolbox is a Matlab/Octave/C toolbox for doing basic...... discrete time/frequency and Gabor analysis. It is intended to be both an educational and a computational tool. The toolbox was developed as part of this Ph.D. project to provide a solid foundation for the field of computational Gabor analysis....

  17. Discrete fractional calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Goodrich, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This text provides the first comprehensive treatment of the discrete fractional calculus. Experienced researchers will find the text useful as a reference for discrete fractional calculus and topics of current interest. Students who are interested in learning about discrete fractional calculus will find this text to provide a useful starting point. Several exercises are offered at the end of each chapter and select answers have been provided at the end of the book. The presentation of the content is designed to give ample flexibility for potential use in a myriad of courses and for independent study. The novel approach taken by the authors includes a simultaneous treatment of the fractional- and integer-order difference calculus (on a variety of time scales, including both the usual forward and backwards difference operators). The reader will acquire a solid foundation in the classical topics of the discrete calculus while being introduced to exciting recent developments, bringing them to the frontiers of the...

  18. Discrete Event Simulation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 18; Issue 1. Discrete Event Simulation. Matthew Jacob ... Keywords. Simulation; modelling; computer programming. Author Affiliations. Matthew Jacob1. Department of Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012.

  19. The Discrete Wavelet Transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    B-1 ,.iii FIGURES 1.1 A wavelet filter bank structure ..................................... 2 2.1 Diagram illustrating the dialation and...abstract decompositions of discrete time series. Their wide sweeping significance, however, lies in their interpretation as wavelet transforms. In a general...parameter transform wn in the scale- time plane. Following terminology to be intro- duced, wi is the (decimated) discrete wavelet transform. become the

  20. Discrete-Time Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    \\;j t E ~. On the other hand, if the signal is defined only at discrete instants of time and not elsewhere i.e., t takes on only the discrete values t = kT for some range of integer values of k, the signal ... is applied to an electronic switch that is closed for a mo- ment every ... ture (T = 1 hour), banking transactions (T = ~ year), census.

  1. Discrete computational structures

    CERN Document Server

    Korfhage, Robert R

    1974-01-01

    Discrete Computational Structures describes discrete mathematical concepts that are important to computing, covering necessary mathematical fundamentals, computer representation of sets, graph theory, storage minimization, and bandwidth. The book also explains conceptual framework (Gorn trees, searching, subroutines) and directed graphs (flowcharts, critical paths, information network). The text discusses algebra particularly as it applies to concentrates on semigroups, groups, lattices, propositional calculus, including a new tabular method of Boolean function minimization. The text emphasize

  2. Membrane Microdomains and Cytoskeleton Organization Shape and Regulate the IL-7 Receptor Signalosome in Human CD4 T-cells*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamarit, Blanche; Bugault, Florence; Pillet, Anne-Hélène; Lavergne, Vincent; Bochet, Pascal; Garin, Nathalie; Schwarz, Ulf; Thèze, Jacques; Rose, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-7 is the main homeostatic regulator of CD4 T-lymphocytes (helper) at both central and peripheral levels. Upon activation by IL-7, several signaling pathways, mainly JAK/STAT, PI3K/Akt and MAPK, induce the expression of genes involved in T-cell differentiation, activation, and proliferation. We have analyzed the early events of CD4 T-cell activation by IL-7. We have shown that IL-7 in the first few min induces the formation of cholesterol-enriched membrane microdomains that compartmentalize its activated receptor and initiate its anchoring to the cytoskeleton, supporting the formation of the signaling complex, the signalosome, on the IL-7 receptor cytoplasmic domains. Here we describe by stimulated emission depletion microscopy the key roles played by membrane microdomains and cytoskeleton transient organization in the IL-7-regulated JAK/STAT signaling pathway. We image phospho-STAT5 and cytoskeleton components along IL-7 activation kinetics using appropriate inhibitors. We show that lipid raft inhibitors delay and reduce IL-7-induced JAK1 and JAK3 phosphorylation. Drug-induced disassembly of the cytoskeleton inhibits phospho-STAT5 formation, transport, and translocation into the nucleus that controls the transcription of genes involved in T-cell activation and proliferation. We fit together the results of these quantitative analyses and propose the following mechanism. Activated IL-7 receptors embedded in membrane microdomains induce actin-microfilament meshwork formation, anchoring microtubules that grow radially from rafted receptors to the nuclear membrane. STAT5 phosphorylated by signalosomes are loaded on kinesins and glide along the microtubules across the cytoplasm to reach the nucleus 2 min after IL-7 stimulation. Radial microtubules disappear 15 min later, while transversal microtubules, independent of phospho-STAT5 transport, begin to bud from the microtubule organization center. PMID:23329834

  3. Membrane mobility and microdomain association of the dopamine transporter studied with fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adkins, Erika M; Samuvel, Devadoss J; Fog, Jacob U

    2007-01-01

    To investigate microdomain association of the dopamine transporter (DAT), we employed FCS (fluorescence correlation spectroscopy) and FRAP (fluorescence recovery after photobleaching). In non-neuronal cells (HEK293), FCS measurements revealed for the YFP-DAT (DAT tagged with yellow fluorescent...... protein) a diffusion coefficient (D) of approximately 3.6 x 10(-9) cm2/s, consistent with a relatively freely diffusible protein. In neuronally derived cells (N2a), we were unable to perform FCS measurements on plasma membrane-associated protein due to photobleaching, suggesting partial immobilization...

  4. Discrete systems and integrability

    CERN Document Server

    Hietarinta, J; Nijhoff, F W

    2016-01-01

    This first introductory text to discrete integrable systems introduces key notions of integrability from the vantage point of discrete systems, also making connections with the continuous theory where relevant. While treating the material at an elementary level, the book also highlights many recent developments. Topics include: Darboux and Bäcklund transformations; difference equations and special functions; multidimensional consistency of integrable lattice equations; associated linear problems (Lax pairs); connections with Padé approximants and convergence algorithms; singularities and geometry; Hirota's bilinear formalism for lattices; intriguing properties of discrete Painlevé equations; and the novel theory of Lagrangian multiforms. The book builds the material in an organic way, emphasizing interconnections between the various approaches, while the exposition is mostly done through explicit computations on key examples. Written by respected experts in the field, the numerous exercises and the thoroug...

  5. Discrete-Event Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prateek Sharma

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Simulation can be regarded as the emulation of the behavior of a real-world system over an interval of time. The process of simulation relies upon the generation of the history of a system and then analyzing that history to predict the outcome and improve the working of real systems. Simulations can be of various kinds but the topic of interest here is one of the most important kind of simulation which is Discrete-Event Simulation which models the system as a discrete sequence of events in time. So this paper aims at introducing about Discrete-Event Simulation and analyzing how it is beneficial to the real world systems.

  6. Specific chlamydial inclusion membrane proteins associate with active Src family kinases in microdomains that interact with the host microtubule network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mital, Jeffrey; Miller, Natalie J; Fischer, Elizabeth R; Hackstadt, Ted

    2010-09-01

    Chlamydiae are Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria that cause diseases with significant medical and economic impact. Chlamydia trachomatis replicates within a vacuole termed an inclusion, which is extensively modified by the insertion of a number of bacterial effector proteins known as inclusion membrane proteins (Incs). Once modified, the inclusion is trafficked in a dynein-dependent manner to the microtubule-organizing centre (MTOC), where it associates with host centrosomes. Here we describe a novel structure on the inclusion membrane comprised of both host and bacterial proteins. Members of the Src family of kinases are recruited to the chlamydial inclusion in an active form. These kinases display a distinct, localized punctate microdomain-like staining pattern on the inclusion membrane that colocalizes with four chlamydial inclusion membrane proteins (Incs) and is enriched in cholesterol. Biochemical studies show that at least two of these Incs stably interact with one another. Furthermore, host centrosomes associate with these microdomain proteins in C. trachomatis-infected cells and in uninfected cells exogenously expressing one of the chlamydial effectors. Together, the data suggest that a specific structure on the C. trachomatis inclusion membrane may be responsible for the known interactions of chlamydiae with the microtubule network and resultant effects on centrosome stability.

  7. Interaction of AnxA6 with isolated and artificial lipid microdomains; importance of lipid composition and calcium content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domon, Magdalena M; Besson, Françoise; Tylki-Szymanska, Anna; Bandorowicz-Pikula, Joanna; Pikula, Slawomir

    2013-04-05

    Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease is a lipid storage disorder characterized by accumulation of lipids in the late endosome/lysosome (LE/LY) compartment. In our previous report we isolated membranes of the LE/LY compartment from NPC L1 skin fibroblasts with a mutation in the NPC1 gene and found that they were characterized by low fluidity which likely contributed to the impaired function of membrane proteins involved in storage and turnover of cholesterol. In this report we isolated lipid microdomains (DRMs) from membranes of various cellular compartments and observed an increased amount of DRMs in the LE/LY compartment of NPC L1 cells in comparison to control cells, with no change in the DRM content in the plasma membrane. In addition, in the NPC cells, the majority of the cholesterol-interacting protein, AnxA6, which participates in the transport and distribution of cholesterol, translocated to DRMs upon a rise in Ca(2+) concentration. The mechanism of this translocation was further studied in vitro using Langmuir monolayers. We found that Ca(2+) is the main factor which regulates the interaction of AnxA6 with monolayers composed of neutral lipids, such as DPPC and sphingomyelin, and may also determine AnxA6 localization in cholesterol and sphingomyelin enriched microdomains, thus contributing to the etiology of the NPC disease.

  8. Lipid components in the detergent-resistant membrane microdomain (DRM) obtained from the synaptic plasma membrane of rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Daisuke; Taguchi, Katsutoshi; Yagisawa, Hitoshi; Maekawa, Shohei

    2007-08-16

    Lateral association of sphingolipids and cholesterol is considered to form membrane microdomains such as "lipid rafts" obtainable as a detergent-resistant membrane microdomain (DRM) fraction after solubilization with a non-ionic detergent and density gradient centrifugation. Since not only sphinogolipids and cholesterol, but also functional lipids such as phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)) are reported to be localized in DRM prepared from several cultured cells, this domain is considered to be a platform mediating lipid-signaling. Although PIP(2) is considered to have pivotal roles in the nervous system, little information is available on the localization of PIP(2) in the DRM within the synaptic plasma membrane (SPM) obtained from matured rat brains. In this study, in order to know the localization of PIP(2) in SPM-derived DRM, we measured the amount of PIP(2) in SPM and SPM-derived DRM, by the thin-layer chromatography blotting method, using a GST-fusion protein of the pleckstrin-homology domain of phospholipase Cdelta1 as a PIP(2) binding probe. About 10% of the PIP(2) in SPM was recovered in DRM. In contrast, over 40% recovery was observed for the membrane cholesterol and sphingomyelin, and about 30% recovery was observed for phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylserine in the DRM were detected using the thin-layer chromatography method. Since the recovery of proteins in DRM was about 10%, the result indicates that there occurs no enrichment of PIP(2) in DRM prepared from SPM.

  9. Introductory discrete mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Balakrishnan, V K

    2010-01-01

    This concise text offers an introduction to discrete mathematics for undergraduate students in computer science and mathematics. Mathematics educators consider it vital that their students be exposed to a course in discrete methods that introduces them to combinatorial mathematics and to algebraic and logical structures focusing on the interplay between computer science and mathematics. The present volume emphasizes combinatorics, graph theory with applications to some stand network optimization problems, and algorithms to solve these problems.Chapters 0-3 cover fundamental operations involv

  10. Uptake of long chain fatty acids is regulated by dynamic interaction of FAT/CD36 with cholesterol/sphingolipid enriched microdomains (lipid rafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrmann Thomas

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mechanisms of long chain fatty acid uptake across the plasma membrane are important targets in treatment of many human diseases like obesity or hepatic steatosis. Long chain fatty acid translocation is achieved by a concert of co-existing mechanisms. These lipids can passively diffuse, but certain membrane proteins can also accelerate the transport. However, we now can provide further evidence that not only proteins but also lipid microdomains play an important part in the regulation of the facilitated uptake process. Methods Dynamic association of FAT/CD36 a candidate fatty acid transporter with lipid rafts was analysed by isolation of detergent resistant membranes (DRMs and by clustering of lipid rafts with antibodies on living cells. Lipid raft integrity was modulated by cholesterol depletion using methyl-β-cyclodextrin and sphingolipid depletion using myriocin and sphingomyelinase. Functional analyses were performed using an [3H]-oleate uptake assay. Results Overexpression of FAT/CD36 and FATP4 increased long chain fatty acid uptake. The uptake of long chain fatty acids was cholesterol and sphingolipid dependent. Floating experiments showed that there are two pools of FAT/CD36, one found in DRMs and another outside of these domains. FAT/CD36 co-localized with the lipid raft marker PLAP in antibody-clustered domains at the plasma membrane and segregated away from the non-raft marker GFP-TMD. Antibody cross-linking increased DRM association of FAT/CD36 and accelerated the overall fatty acid uptake in a cholesterol dependent manner. Another candidate transporter, FATP4, was neither present in DRMs nor co-localized with FAT/CD36 at the plasma membrane. Conclusion Our observations suggest the existence of two pools of FAT/CD36 within cellular membranes. As increased raft association of FAT/CD36 leads to an increased fatty acid uptake, dynamic association of FAT/CD36 with lipid rafts might regulate the process. There is no

  11. Discrete-Time Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 2. Discrete-Time Systems - Why do We Celebrate Birthdays Once a Year? A Ramakalyan P Kavitha S Harini Vijayalakshmi. General Article Volume 5 Issue 2 February 2000 pp 39-49 ...

  12. Discrete modelling of rock-fill: Application to dams; Modelisation discrete des enrochements: Application aux barrages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deluzarche, R.

    2004-12-15

    In this study, a discrete numerical model for rock-fill is built up and validated. This model is based upon the definition of bidimensional clusters that can break in different ways. The resistance of the inner bonds of the clusters are calibrated by reproducing the size-dependant resistance of rock blocks submitted to crushing tests. Numerical simulations of laboratory tests are performed on samples made of the different clusters. Tests on crushable clusters emphasize the utmost importance of particle crushing on the behaviour. A dam is modelled. The role of the placed-rock face on the stabilisation is underlined. The deformation of the dam during reservoir filling, as well as its good seismic behaviour is well reproduced by the model. The model makes it possible to show the influence of particle breakage on the settlements. (author)

  13. Microdomain Yield Behaviour in an Ultra-High Strength Low Alloy Steel for Marine Use with Low Sensitivity of SCC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jiang; Tao, Anxiang; Xu, Pingguang; Ping, Dehai

    The present paper involves a fundamental research on microdomain yield behavior of an ultrahigh strength low alloy steel with high temperature tempered bainite. The smooth cylinder specimen was took from deep water mooring chain links from the steel with the chemical composition of 0.23C-0.25Si -0.70Mn-3.55 (Cr+Ni+Mo) -0.13 (V+Nb+Ti) (mass %) ,which was quenched from 1253K and then tempered at 873K Its macroscopic yield strength is 1120MPa and the tensile strength is 1250MPa In-situ neutron diffraction measurements of loading tension have suggested that a good linear elastic deformation can be kept up to 500MPa stress, and then (200) priority non-linear elastic strain, that is the yield of crystal lattice occur at 700MPa and the (110) non-linear elastic strain was found at 800MPa. The (200) and (110) nonlinear elastic strain increases gradually when the stress was further increased, however, the (211) kept its linear elastic deformation stage as before. The sub-microstructural analysis carried out using TEM and additional determine the nature and quantitative analysis has revealed that there are three kinds of alloy carbides: (1) θ-M3C cementites with an average particle size of less than 50 nm which inside laths and lath boundaries; (2) ɛ-M2C formed uniformly within the ferrites with a length of less than 200 nm and width of less than 20 nm; (3) ultra-fine high density MC cohered with matrix α-Fe and its particle size is about 2 nm. The whole microdomain yield behaviour of the material was possibly influenced by the fcc-MC with high density. The results of CLT (constant load), SSRT (slow strain rate) and KIscc test of the present chain in seawater solution indicate, that threshold value of SCC (stress corrosion cracking) stress exceed 0.8 tensile strength and the chain's KIscc value is double of KIscc value of 4340 steel type parts. MC not only form strong hydrogen trap, but also slow down microdomain yield likely by means of increasing yield strength of

  14. Discrete mathematics with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Koshy, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    This approachable text studies discrete objects and the relationsips that bind them. It helps students understand and apply the power of discrete math to digital computer systems and other modern applications. It provides excellent preparation for courses in linear algebra, number theory, and modern/abstract algebra and for computer science courses in data structures, algorithms, programming languages, compilers, databases, and computation.* Covers all recommended topics in a self-contained, comprehensive, and understandable format for students and new professionals * Emphasizes problem-solving techniques, pattern recognition, conjecturing, induction, applications of varying nature, proof techniques, algorithm development and correctness, and numeric computations* Weaves numerous applications into the text* Helps students learn by doing with a wealth of examples and exercises: - 560 examples worked out in detail - More than 3,700 exercises - More than 150 computer assignments - More than 600 writing projects*...

  15. Lectures on discrete geometry

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Discrete geometry investigates combinatorial properties of configurations of geometric objects. To a working mathematician or computer scientist, it offers sophisticated results and techniques of great diversity and it is a foundation for fields such as computational geometry or combinatorial optimization. This book is primarily a textbook introduction to various areas of discrete geometry. In each area, it explains several key results and methods, in an accessible and concrete manner. It also contains more advanced material in separate sections and thus it can serve as a collection of surveys in several narrower subfields. The main topics include: basics on convex sets, convex polytopes, and hyperplane arrangements; combinatorial complexity of geometric configurations; intersection patterns and transversals of convex sets; geometric Ramsey-type results; polyhedral combinatorics and high-dimensional convexity; and lastly, embeddings of finite metric spaces into normed spaces. Jiri Matousek is Professor of Com...

  16. Discrete dynamical models

    CERN Document Server

    Salinelli, Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to the analysis of discrete dynamical systems. The content is presented by an unitary approach that blends the perspective of mathematical modeling together with the ones of several discipline as Mathematical Analysis, Linear Algebra, Numerical Analysis, Systems Theory and Probability. After a preliminary discussion of several models, the main tools for the study of linear and non-linear scalar dynamical systems are presented, paying particular attention to the stability analysis. Linear difference equations are studied in detail and an elementary introduction of Z and Discrete Fourier Transform is presented. A whole chapter is devoted to the study of bifurcations and chaotic dynamics. One-step vector-valued dynamical systems are the subject of three chapters, where the reader can find the applications to positive systems, Markov chains, networks and search engines. The book is addressed mainly to students in Mathematics, Engineering, Physics, Chemistry, Biology and Economic...

  17. Time Discretization Techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Gottlieb, S.

    2016-10-12

    The time discretization of hyperbolic partial differential equations is typically the evolution of a system of ordinary differential equations obtained by spatial discretization of the original problem. Methods for this time evolution include multistep, multistage, or multiderivative methods, as well as a combination of these approaches. The time step constraint is mainly a result of the absolute stability requirement, as well as additional conditions that mimic physical properties of the solution, such as positivity or total variation stability. These conditions may be required for stability when the solution develops shocks or sharp gradients. This chapter contains a review of some of the methods historically used for the evolution of hyperbolic PDEs, as well as cutting edge methods that are now commonly used.

  18. Industrial Discretization Mechanism and Agglomeration Countermeasures in Industrial Parks

    OpenAIRE

    ZHOU, Shuangyan

    2013-01-01

    With rapid development of industrial parks in China, it lacks strict control in planning for establishment and land use of industrial parks. The supply is seriously surplus, and cut-throat competition takes place in investment inviting activities, leading to discretized development of industries in industrial parks. Industrial park and enterprise cluster have a common foundation, namely, geographic concentration of industries. Industrial parks with enterprise cluster development show various ...

  19. Discrete-Time Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the birth rate, d is the death rate and u(k) is the number of net immigrants entering the country in year k. We leave it to the reader to model the vacillating mathe- matician problem [3] as a discrete-time system. General Forms of Difference Equations. An nth order difference equation may be written, typically, either as y(k + n) + ...

  20. Discrete Routh reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalnapurkar, Sameer M; Leok, Melvin; Marsden, Jerrold E; West, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    This paper develops the theory of Abelian Routh reduction for discrete mechanical systems and applies it to the variational integration of mechanical systems with Abelian symmetry. The reduction of variational Runge-Kutta discretizations is considered, as well as the extent to which symmetry reduction and discretization commute. These reduced methods allow the direct simulation of dynamical features such as relative equilibria and relative periodic orbits that can be obscured or difficult to identify in the unreduced dynamics. The methods are demonstrated for the dynamics of an Earth orbiting satellite with a non-spherical J 2 correction, as well as the double spherical pendulum. The J 2 problem is interesting because in the unreduced picture, geometric phases inherent in the model and those due to numerical discretization can be hard to distinguish, but this issue does not appear in the reduced algorithm, where one can directly observe interesting dynamical structures in the reduced phase space (the cotangent bundle of shape space), in which the geometric phases have been removed. The main feature of the double spherical pendulum example is that it has a non-trivial magnetic term in its reduced symplectic form. Our method is still efficient as it can directly handle the essential non-canonical nature of the symplectic structure. In contrast, a traditional symplectic method for canonical systems could require repeated coordinate changes if one is evoking Darboux' theorem to transform the symplectic structure into canonical form, thereby incurring additional computational cost. Our method allows one to design reduced symplectic integrators in a natural way, despite the non-canonical nature of the symplectic structure

  1. Discrete variational Hamiltonian mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lall, S; West, M

    2006-01-01

    The main contribution of this paper is to present a canonical choice of a Hamiltonian theory corresponding to the theory of discrete Lagrangian mechanics. We make use of Lagrange duality and follow a path parallel to that used for construction of the Pontryagin principle in optimal control theory. We use duality results regarding sensitivity and separability to show the relationship between generating functions and symplectic integrators. We also discuss connections to optimal control theory and numerical algorithms

  2. Discrete pseudo-integrals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mesiar, Radko; Li, J.; Pap, E.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 3 (2013), s. 357-364 ISSN 0888-613X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP402/11/0378 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : concave integral * pseudo-addition * pseudo- multiplication Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.977, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/E/mesiar-discrete pseudo-integrals. pdf

  3. Hamiltonian Mechanics on Discrete Manifolds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talasila, V.; Clemente Gallardo, J.; Schaft, A.J. van der

    2004-01-01

    The mathematical/geometric structure of discrete models of systems, whether these models are obtained after discretization of a smooth system or as a direct result of modeling at the discrete level, have not been studied much. Mostly one is concerned regarding the nature of the solutions, but not

  4. The membrane-associated form of α(s1-casein interacts with cholesterol-rich detergent-resistant microdomains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabelle Le Parc

    Full Text Available Caseins, the main milk proteins, interact with colloidal calcium phosphate to form the casein micelle. The mesostructure of this supramolecular assembly markedly influences its nutritional and technological functionalities. However, its detailed molecular organization and the cellular mechanisms involved in its biogenesis have been only partially established. There is a growing body of evidence to support the concept that α(s1-casein takes center stage in casein micelle building and transport in the secretory pathway of mammary epithelial cells. Here we have investigated the membrane-associated form of α(s1-casein in rat mammary epithelial cells. Using metabolic labelling we show that α(s1-casein becomes associated with membranes at the level of the endoplasmic reticulum, with no subsequent increase at the level of the Golgi apparatus. From morphological and biochemical data, it appears that caseins are in a tight relationship with membranes throughout the secretory pathway. On the other hand, we have observed that the membrane-associated form of α(s1-casein co-purified with detergent-resistant membranes. It was poorly solubilised by Tween 20, partially insoluble in Lubrol WX, and substantially insoluble in Triton X-100. Finally, we found that cholesterol depletion results in the release of the membrane-associated form of α(s1-casein. These experiments reveal that the insolubility of α(s1-casein reflects its partial association with a cholesterol-rich detergent-resistant microdomain. We propose that the membrane-associated form of α(s1-casein interacts with the lipid microdomain, or lipid raft, that forms within the membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum, for efficient forward transport and sorting in the secretory pathway of mammary epithelial cells.

  5. Miniature IPSCs in hippocampal granule cells are triggered by voltage-gated Ca2+ channels via microdomain coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Sarit Pati; Bucurenciu, Iancu; Jonas, Peter

    2012-10-10

    The coupling between presynaptic Ca(2+) channels and Ca(2+) sensors of exocytosis is a key determinant of synaptic transmission. Evoked release from parvalbumin (PV)-expressing interneurons is triggered by nanodomain coupling of P/Q-type Ca(2+) channels, whereas release from cholecystokinin (CCK)-containing interneurons is generated by microdomain coupling of N-type channels. Nanodomain coupling has several functional advantages, including speed and efficacy of transmission. One potential disadvantage is that stochastic opening of presynaptic Ca(2+) channels may trigger spontaneous transmitter release. We addressed this possibility in rat hippocampal granule cells, which receive converging inputs from different inhibitory sources. Both reduction of extracellular Ca(2+) concentration and the unselective Ca(2+) channel blocker Cd(2+) reduced the frequency of miniature IPSCs (mIPSCs) in granule cells by ∼50%, suggesting that the opening of presynaptic Ca(2+) channels contributes to spontaneous release. Application of the selective P/Q-type Ca(2+) channel blocker ω-agatoxin IVa had no detectable effects, whereas both the N-type blocker ω-conotoxin GVIa and the L-type blocker nimodipine reduced mIPSC frequency. Furthermore, both the fast Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA-AM and the slow chelator EGTA-AM reduced the mIPSC frequency, suggesting that Ca(2+)-dependent spontaneous release is triggered by microdomain rather than nanodomain coupling. The CB(1) receptor agonist WIN 55212-2 also decreased spontaneous release; this effect was occluded by prior application of ω-conotoxin GVIa, suggesting that a major fraction of Ca(2+)-dependent spontaneous release was generated at the terminals of CCK-expressing interneurons. Tonic inhibition generated by spontaneous opening of presynaptic N- and L-type Ca(2+) channels may be important for hippocampal information processing.

  6. Mitofusin 2-containing mitochondrial-reticular microdomains direct rapid cardiomyocyte bioenergetic responses via interorganelle Ca(2+) crosstalk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun; Csordás, György; Jowdy, Casey; Schneider, Timothy G; Csordás, Norbert; Wang, Wei; Liu, Yingqiu; Kohlhaas, Michael; Meiser, Maxie; Bergem, Stefanie; Nerbonne, Jeanne M; Dorn, Gerald W; Maack, Christoph

    2012-09-14

    Mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake is essential for the bioenergetic feedback response through stimulation of Krebs cycle dehydrogenases. Close association of mitochondria to the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) may explain efficient mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake despite low Ca(2+) affinity of the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter. However, the existence of such mitochondrial Ca(2+) microdomains and their functional role are presently unresolved. Mitofusin (Mfn) 1 and 2 mediate mitochondrial outer membrane fusion, whereas Mfn2 but not Mfn1 tethers endoplasmic reticulum to mitochondria in noncardiac cells. To elucidate roles for Mfn1 and 2 in SR-mitochondrial tethering, Ca(2+) signaling, and bioenergetic regulation in cardiac myocytes. Fruit fly heart tubes deficient of the Drosophila Mfn ortholog MARF had increased contraction-associated and caffeine-sensitive Ca(2+) release, suggesting a role for Mfn in SR Ca(2+) handling. Whereas cardiac-specific Mfn1 ablation had no effects on murine heart function or Ca(2+) cycling, Mfn2 deficiency decreased cardiomyocyte SR-mitochondrial contact length by 30% and reduced the content of SR-associated proteins in mitochondria-associated membranes. This was associated with decreased mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake (despite unchanged mitochondrial membrane potential) but increased steady-state and caffeine-induced SR Ca(2+) release. Accordingly, Ca(2+)-induced stimulation of Krebs cycle dehydrogenases during β-adrenergic stimulation was hampered in Mfn2-KO but not Mfn1-KO myocytes, evidenced by oxidation of the redox states of NAD(P)H/NAD(P)(+) and FADH(2)/FAD. Physical tethering of SR and mitochondria via Mfn2 is essential for normal interorganelle Ca(2+) signaling in the myocardium, consistent with a requirement for SR-mitochondrial Ca(2+) signaling through microdomains in the cardiomyocyte bioenergetic feedback response to physiological stress.

  7. Mitofusin 2-containing Mitochondrial-Reticular Microdomains Direct Rapid Cardiomyocyte Bioenergetic Responses via Inter-Organelle Ca2+ Crosstalk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun; Csordás, György; Jowdy, Casey; Schneider, Timothy G.; Csordás, Norbert; Wang, Wei; Liu, Yingqiu; Kohlhaas, Michael; Meiser, Maxie; Bergem, Stefanie; Nerbonne, Jeanne M.; Dorn, Gerald W.; Maack, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake is essential for the bioenergetic feedback response through stimulation of Krebs cycle dehydrogenases. Close association of mitochondria to the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) may explain efficient mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake despite low Ca2+ affinity of the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter. However, the existence of such mitochondrial Ca2+ microdomains and their functional role are presently unresolved. Mitofusin (Mfn) 1 and 2 mediate mitochondrial outer membrane fusion, while Mfn2, but not Mfn1, tethers endoplasmic reticulum to mitochondria in non-cardiac cells. Objective To elucidate roles for Mfn1 and 2 in SR-mitochondrial tethering, Ca2+ signaling and bioenergetic regulation in cardiac myocytes. Methods and Results Fruit fly heart tubes deficient of the Drosophila Mfn ortholog, MARF, had increased contraction-associated and caffeine-sensitive Ca2+ release, suggesting a role for Mfn in SR Ca2+ handling. While cardiac-specific Mfn1 ablation had no effects on murine heart function or Ca2+ cycling, Mfn2 deficiency decreased cardiomyocyte SR-mitochondrial contact length by 30% and reduced the content of SR-associated proteins in mitochondria-associated membranes. This was associated with decreased mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake (despite unchanged mitochondrial membrane potential) but increased steady-state and caffeine-induced SR Ca2+ release. Accordingly, Ca2+-induced stimulation of Krebs cycle dehydrogenases during β-adrenergic stimulation was hampered in Mfn2-, but not Mfn1-KO myocytes, evidenced by oxidation of the redox states of NAD(P)H/NAD(P)+ and FADH2/FAD. Conclusions Physical tethering of SR and mitochondria via Mfn2 is essential for normal inter-organelle Ca2+ signaling in the myocardium, consistent with a requirement for SR-mitochondrial Ca2+ signaling through microdomains in the cardiomyocyte bioenergetic feedback response to physiological stress. PMID:22777004

  8. Discrete epidemic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, Fred; Feng, Zhilan; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    The mathematical theory of single outbreak epidemic models really began with the work of Kermack and Mackendrick about decades ago. This gave a simple answer to the long-standing question of why epidemics woould appear suddenly and then disappear just as suddenly without having infected an entire population. Therefore it seemed natural to expect that theoreticians would immediately proceed to expand this mathematical framework both because the need to handle recurrent single infectious disease outbreaks has always been a priority for public health officials and because theoreticians often try to push the limits of exiting theories. However, the expansion of the theory via the inclusion of refined epidemiological classifications or through the incorporation of categories that are essential for the evaluation of intervention strategies, in the context of ongoing epidemic outbreaks, did not materialize. It was the global threat posed by SARS in that caused theoreticians to expand the Kermack-McKendrick single-outbreak framework. Most recently, efforts to connect theoretical work to data have exploded as attempts to deal with the threat of emergent and re-emergent diseases including the most recent H1N1 influenza pandemic, have marched to the forefront of our global priorities. Since data are collected and/or reported over discrete units of time, developing single outbreak models that fit collected data naturally is relevant. In this note, we introduce a discrete-epidemic framework and highlight, through our analyses, the similarities between single-outbreak comparable classical continuous-time epidemic models and the discrete-time models introduced in this note. The emphasis is on comparisons driven by expressions for the final epidemic size.

  9. Discrete Dynamics Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuensche, Andrew

    DDLab is interactive graphics software for creating, visualizing, and analyzing many aspects of Cellular Automata, Random Boolean Networks, and Discrete Dynamical Networks in general and studying their behavior, both from the time-series perspective — space-time patterns, and from the state-space perspective — attractor basins. DDLab is relevant to research, applications, and education in the fields of complexity, self-organization, emergent phenomena, chaos, collision-based computing, neural networks, content addressable memory, genetic regulatory networks, dynamical encryption, generative art and music, and the study of the abstract mathematical/physical/dynamical phenomena in their own right.

  10. Discrete mechanics Based on Finite Element Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jing-bo; Guo, Han-Ying; Wu, Ke

    2002-01-01

    Discrete Mechanics based on finite element methods is presented in this paper. We also explore the relationship between this discrete mechanics and Veselov discrete mechanics. High order discretizations are constructed in terms of high order interpolations.

  11. Finite discrete field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Manoelito M. de

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the physical meaning and the geometric interpretation of implementation in classical field theories. The origin of infinities and other inconsistencies in field theories is traced to fields defined with support on the light cone; a finite and consistent field theory requires a light-cone generator as the field support. Then, we introduce a classical field theory with support on the light cone generators. It results on a description of discrete (point-like) interactions in terms of localized particle-like fields. We find the propagators of these particle-like fields and discuss their physical meaning, properties and consequences. They are conformally invariant, singularity-free, and describing a manifestly covariant (1 + 1)-dimensional dynamics in a (3 = 1) spacetime. Remarkably this conformal symmetry remains even for the propagation of a massive field in four spacetime dimensions. We apply this formalism to Classical electrodynamics and to the General Relativity Theory. The standard formalism with its distributed fields is retrieved in terms of spacetime average of the discrete field. Singularities are the by-products of the averaging process. This new formalism enlighten the meaning and the problem of field theory, and may allow a softer transition to a quantum theory. (author)

  12. Discretization of time series data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova, Elena S; Licona, M Paola Vera; McGee, John; Laubenbacher, Reinhard

    2010-06-01

    An increasing number of algorithms for biochemical network inference from experimental data require discrete data as input. For example, dynamic Bayesian network methods and methods that use the framework of finite dynamical systems, such as Boolean networks, all take discrete input. Experimental data, however, are typically continuous and represented by computer floating point numbers. The translation from continuous to discrete data is crucial in preserving the variable dependencies and thus has a significant impact on the performance of the network inference algorithms. We compare the performance of two such algorithms that use discrete data using several different discretization algorithms. One of the inference methods uses a dynamic Bayesian network framework, the other-a time-and state-discrete dynamical system framework. The discretization algorithms are quantile, interval discretization, and a new algorithm introduced in this article, SSD. SSD is especially designed for short time series data and is capable of determining the optimal number of discretization states. The experiments show that both inference methods perform better with SSD than with the other methods. In addition, SSD is demonstrated to preserve the dynamic features of the time series, as well as to be robust to noise in the experimental data. A C++ implementation of SSD is available from the authors at http://polymath.vbi.vt.edu/discretization .

  13. Discrete Exterior Calculus Discretization of Incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Mohamed, Mamdouh S.

    2017-05-23

    A conservative discretization of incompressible Navier-Stokes equations over surface simplicial meshes is developed using discrete exterior calculus (DEC). Numerical experiments for flows over surfaces reveal a second order accuracy for the developed scheme when using structured-triangular meshes, and first order accuracy otherwise. The mimetic character of many of the DEC operators provides exact conservation of both mass and vorticity, in addition to superior kinetic energy conservation. The employment of barycentric Hodge star allows the discretization to admit arbitrary simplicial meshes. The discretization scheme is presented along with various numerical test cases demonstrating its main characteristics.

  14. Cluster headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    Histamine headache; Headache - histamine; Migrainous neuralgia; Headache - cluster; Horton's headache; Vascular headache - cluster ... Doctors do not know exactly what causes cluster headaches. They ... (chemical in the body released during an allergic response) or ...

  15. Poisson hierarchy of discrete strings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ioannidou, Theodora, E-mail: ti3@auth.gr [Faculty of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54249, Thessaloniki (Greece); Niemi, Antti J., E-mail: Antti.Niemi@physics.uu.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 803, S-75108, Uppsala (Sweden); Laboratoire de Mathematiques et Physique Theorique CNRS UMR 6083, Fédération Denis Poisson, Université de Tours, Parc de Grandmont, F37200, Tours (France); Department of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Haidian District, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2016-01-28

    The Poisson geometry of a discrete string in three dimensional Euclidean space is investigated. For this the Frenet frames are converted into a spinorial representation, the discrete spinor Frenet equation is interpreted in terms of a transfer matrix formalism, and Poisson brackets are introduced in terms of the spinor components. The construction is then generalised, in a self-similar manner, into an infinite hierarchy of Poisson algebras. As an example, the classical Virasoro (Witt) algebra that determines reparametrisation diffeomorphism along a continuous string, is identified as a particular sub-algebra, in the hierarchy of the discrete string Poisson algebra. - Highlights: • Witt (classical Virasoro) algebra is derived in the case of discrete string. • Infinite dimensional hierarchy of Poisson bracket algebras is constructed for discrete strings. • Spinor representation of discrete Frenet equations is developed.

  16. Poisson hierarchy of discrete strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioannidou, Theodora; Niemi, Antti J.

    2016-01-01

    The Poisson geometry of a discrete string in three dimensional Euclidean space is investigated. For this the Frenet frames are converted into a spinorial representation, the discrete spinor Frenet equation is interpreted in terms of a transfer matrix formalism, and Poisson brackets are introduced in terms of the spinor components. The construction is then generalised, in a self-similar manner, into an infinite hierarchy of Poisson algebras. As an example, the classical Virasoro (Witt) algebra that determines reparametrisation diffeomorphism along a continuous string, is identified as a particular sub-algebra, in the hierarchy of the discrete string Poisson algebra. - Highlights: • Witt (classical Virasoro) algebra is derived in the case of discrete string. • Infinite dimensional hierarchy of Poisson bracket algebras is constructed for discrete strings. • Spinor representation of discrete Frenet equations is developed.

  17. Advances in discrete differential geometry

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This is one of the first books on a newly emerging field of discrete differential geometry and an excellent way to access this exciting area. It surveys the fascinating connections between discrete models in differential geometry and complex analysis, integrable systems and applications in computer graphics. The authors take a closer look at discrete models in differential geometry and dynamical systems. Their curves are polygonal, surfaces are made from triangles and quadrilaterals, and time is discrete. Nevertheless, the difference between the corresponding smooth curves, surfaces and classical dynamical systems with continuous time can hardly be seen. This is the paradigm of structure-preserving discretizations. Current advances in this field are stimulated to a large extent by its relevance for computer graphics and mathematical physics. This book is written by specialists working together on a common research project. It is about differential geometry and dynamical systems, smooth and discrete theories, ...

  18. Dark discrete gauge symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batell, Brian

    2011-01-01

    We investigate scenarios in which dark matter is stabilized by an Abelian Z N discrete gauge symmetry. Models are surveyed according to symmetries and matter content. Multicomponent dark matter arises when N is not prime and Z N contains one or more subgroups. The dark sector interacts with the visible sector through the renormalizable kinetic mixing and Higgs portal operators, and we highlight the basic phenomenology in these scenarios. In particular, multiple species of dark matter can lead to an unconventional nuclear recoil spectrum in direct detection experiments, while the presence of new light states in the dark sector can dramatically affect the decays of the Higgs at the Tevatron and LHC, thus providing a window into the gauge origin of the stability of dark matter.

  19. Immigration and Prosecutorial Discretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apollonio, Dorie; Lochner, Todd; Heddens, Myriah

    Immigration has become an increasingly salient national issue in the US, and the Department of Justice recently increased federal efforts to prosecute immigration offenses. This shift, however, relies on the cooperation of US attorneys and their assistants. Traditionally federal prosecutors have enjoyed enormous discretion and have been responsive to local concerns. To consider how the centralized goal of immigration enforcement may have influenced federal prosecutors in regional offices, we review their prosecution of immigration offenses in California using over a decade's worth of data. Our findings suggest that although centralizing forces influence immigration prosecutions, individual US attorneys' offices retain distinct characteristics. Local factors influence federal prosecutors' behavior in different ways depending on the office. Contrary to expectations, unemployment rates did not affect prosecutors' willingness to pursue immigration offenses, nor did local popular opinion about illegal immigration.

  20. Discrete Minimal Surface Algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joakim Arnlind

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available We consider discrete minimal surface algebras (DMSA as generalized noncommutative analogues of minimal surfaces in higher dimensional spheres. These algebras appear naturally in membrane theory, where sequences of their representations are used as a regularization. After showing that the defining relations of the algebra are consistent, and that one can compute a basis of the enveloping algebra, we give several explicit examples of DMSAs in terms of subsets of sl_n (any semi-simple Lie algebra providing a trivial example by itself. A special class of DMSAs are Yang-Mills algebras. The representation graph is introduced to study representations of DMSAs of dimension d ≤ 4, and properties of representations are related to properties of graphs. The representation graph of a tensor product is (generically the Cartesian product of the corresponding graphs. We provide explicit examples of irreducible representations and, for coinciding eigenvalues, classify all the unitary representations of the corresponding algebras.

  1. Discrete Pearson distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, K.O. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Shenton, L.R. [Georgia Univ., Athens, GA (United States); Kastenbaum, M.A. [Kastenbaum (M.A.), Basye, VA (United States)

    1991-11-01

    These distributions are generated by a first order recursive scheme which equates the ratio of successive probabilities to the ratio of two corresponding quadratics. The use of a linearized form of this model will produce equations in the unknowns matched by an appropriate set of moments (assumed to exist). Given the moments we may find valid solutions. These are two cases; (1) distributions defined on the non-negative integers (finite or infinite) and (2) distributions defined on negative integers as well. For (1), given the first four moments, it is possible to set this up as equations of finite or infinite degree in the probability of a zero occurrence, the sth component being a product of s ratios of linear forms in this probability in general. For (2) the equation for the zero probability is purely linear but may involve slowly converging series; here a particular case is the discrete normal. Regions of validity are being studied. 11 refs.

  2. Principles of discrete time mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Jaroszkiewicz, George

    2014-01-01

    Could time be discrete on some unimaginably small scale? Exploring the idea in depth, this unique introduction to discrete time mechanics systematically builds the theory up from scratch, beginning with the historical, physical and mathematical background to the chronon hypothesis. Covering classical and quantum discrete time mechanics, this book presents all the tools needed to formulate and develop applications of discrete time mechanics in a number of areas, including spreadsheet mechanics, classical and quantum register mechanics, and classical and quantum mechanics and field theories. A consistent emphasis on contextuality and the observer-system relationship is maintained throughout.

  3. How to detect trap cluster systems?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandowski, Arkadiusz

    2008-01-01

    Spatially correlated traps and recombination centres (trap-recombination centre pairs and larger clusters) are responsible for many anomalous phenomena that are difficult to explain in the framework of both classical models, i.e. model of localized transitions (LT) and the simple trap model (STM), even with a number of discrete energy levels. However, these 'anomalous' effects may provide a good platform for identifying trap cluster systems. This paper considers selected cluster-type effects, mainly relating to an anomalous dependence of TL on absorbed dose in the system of isolated clusters (ICs). Some consequences for interacting cluster (IAC) systems, involving both localized and delocalized transitions occurring simultaneously, are also discussed

  4. Finite strain discrete dislocation plasticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deshpande, VS; Needleman, A; Van der Giessen, E

    2003-01-01

    A framework for carrying out finite deformation discrete dislocation plasticity calculations is presented. The discrete dislocations are presumed to be adequately represented by the singular linear elastic fields so that the large deformations near dislocation cores are not modeled. The finite

  5. Multiscale expansions in discrete world

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... multiscale expansions discretely. The power of this manageable method is confirmed by applying it to two selected nonlinear Schrödinger evolution equations. This approach can also be applied to other nonlinear discrete evolution equations. All the computations have been made with Maple computer packet program.

  6. Multiscale expansions in discrete world

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This approach can also be applied to other nonlinear discrete evolution equations. All the computations have been made with Maple computer packet program. Keywords. Multiscale expansion; discrete evolution equation; modified nonlinear Schrödinger equation; third-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation; KdV equation.

  7. Discrete Mathematics and Its Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxley, Alan

    2010-01-01

    The article gives ideas that lecturers of undergraduate Discrete Mathematics courses can use in order to make the subject more interesting for students and encourage them to undertake further studies in the subject. It is possible to teach Discrete Mathematics with little or no reference to computing. However, students are more likely to be…

  8. Modern approaches to discrete curvature

    CERN Document Server

    Romon, Pascal

    2017-01-01

     This book provides a valuable glimpse into discrete curvature, a rich new field of research which blends discrete mathematics, differential geometry, probability and computer graphics. It includes a vast collection of ideas and tools which will offer something new to all interested readers. Discrete geometry has arisen as much as a theoretical development as in response to unforeseen challenges coming from applications. Discrete and continuous geometries have turned out to be intimately connected. Discrete curvature is the key concept connecting them through many bridges in numerous fields: metric spaces, Riemannian and Euclidean geometries, geometric measure theory, topology, partial differential equations, calculus of variations, gradient flows, asymptotic analysis, probability, harmonic analysis, graph theory, etc. In spite of its crucial importance both in theoretical mathematics and in applications, up to now, almost no books have provided a coherent outlook on this emerging field.

  9. Identification, Localization, and Functional Implications of the Microdomain-Forming Stomatin Family in the Ciliated Protozoan Paramecium tetraurelia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuermer, Claudia A. O.; Plattner, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    The SPFH protein superfamily is assumed to occur universally in eukaryotes, but information from protozoa is scarce. In the Paramecium genome, we found only Stomatins, 20 paralogs grouped in 8 families, STO1 to STO8. According to cDNA analysis, all are expressed, and molecular modeling shows the typical SPFH domain structure for all subgroups. For further analysis we used family-specific sequences for fluorescence and immunogold labeling, gene silencing, and functional tests. With all family members tested, we found a patchy localization at/near the cell surface and on vesicles. The Sto1p and Sto4p families are also associated with the contractile vacuole complex. Sto4p also makes puncta on some food vacuoles and is abundant on vesicles recycling from the release site of spent food vacuoles to the site of nascent food vacuole formation. Silencing of the STO1 family reduces mechanosensitivity (ciliary reversal upon touching an obstacle), thus suggesting relevance for positioning of mechanosensitive channels in the plasmalemma. Silencing of STO4 members increases pulsation frequency of the contractile vacuole complex and reduces phagocytotic activity of Paramecium cells. In summary, Sto1p and Sto4p members seem to be involved in positioning specific superficial and intracellular microdomain-based membrane components whose functions may depend on mechanosensation (extracellular stimuli and internal osmotic pressure). PMID:23376944

  10. The effect of natural and synthetic fatty acids on membrane structure, microdomain organization, cellular functions and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarguren, Maitane; López, David J; Escribá, Pablo V

    2014-06-01

    This review deals with the effects of synthetic and natural fatty acids on the biophysical properties of membranes, and on their implication on cell function. Natural fatty acids are constituents of more complex lipids, like triacylglycerides or phospholipids, which are used by cells to store and obtain energy, as well as for structural purposes. Accordingly, natural and synthetic fatty acids may modify the structure of the lipid membrane, altering its microdomain organization and other physical properties, and provoking changes in cell signaling. Therefore, by modulating fatty acids it is possible to regulate the structure of the membrane, influencing the cell processes that are reliant on this structure and potentially reverting pathological cell dysfunctions that may provoke cancer, diabetes, hypertension, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. The so-called Membrane Lipid Therapy offers a strategy to regulate the membrane composition through drug administration, potentially reverting pathological processes by re-adapting cell membrane structure. Certain fatty acids and their synthetic derivatives are described here that may potentially be used in such therapies, where the cell membrane itself can be considered as a target to combat disease. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane Structure and Function: Relevance in the Cell's Physiology, Pathology and Therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Discrete dynamics versus analytic dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toxværd, Søren

    2014-01-01

    For discrete classical Molecular dynamics obtained by the “Verlet” algorithm (VA) with the time increment h there exists a shadow Hamiltonian H˜ with energy E˜(h) , for which the discrete particle positions lie on the analytic trajectories for H˜ . Here, we proof that there, independent of such a......For discrete classical Molecular dynamics obtained by the “Verlet” algorithm (VA) with the time increment h there exists a shadow Hamiltonian H˜ with energy E˜(h) , for which the discrete particle positions lie on the analytic trajectories for H˜ . Here, we proof that there, independent...... of such an analytic analogy, exists an exact hidden energy invariance E * for VA dynamics. The fact that the discrete VA dynamics has the same invariances as Newtonian dynamics raises the question, which of the formulations that are correct, or alternatively, the most appropriate formulation of classical dynamics....... In this context the relation between the discrete VA dynamics and the (general) discrete dynamics investigated by Lee [Phys. Lett. B122, 217 (1983)] is presented and discussed....

  12. Reduction of discrete interval system using clustering of poles with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    method (Shamash, 1974) has found to be very useful in theoretical physics research (Baker and Graves-Morris, 1981; Baker, 1975) due to being computationally simple but the reduced-order model obtained using Padé approximation method often leads to be unstable even though the high-order system is stable.

  13. Serological evidence of discrete spatial clusters of Plasmodium falciparum parasites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bejon, Philip; Turner, Louise; Lavstsen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Malaria transmission may be considered to be homogenous with well-mixed parasite populations (as in the classic Ross/Macdonald models). Marked fine-scale heterogeneity of transmission has been observed in the field (i.e., over a few kilometres), but there are relatively few data on the degree of ...

  14. Dengue viruses cluster antigenically but not as discrete serotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Katzelnick (Leah); J.M. Fonville (Judith); G.D. Gromowski (Gregory D.); J.B. Arriaga (Jose Bustos); A. Green (Angela); S.L. James (Sarah ); L. Lau (Louis); M. Montoya (Magelda); C. Wang (Chunling); L.A. Van Blargan (Laura A.); C.A. Russell (Colin); H.M. Thu (Hlaing Myat); T.C. Pierson (Theodore C.); P. Buchy (Philippe); J.G. Aaskov (John G.); J.L. Muñoz-Jordán (Jorge L.); N. Vasilakis (Nikos); R.V. Gibbons (Robert V.); R.B. Tesh (Robert B.); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); A. Durbin (Anna); C.P. Simmons (Cameron P.); E.C. Holmes (Edward C.); E. Harris (Eva); S.S. Whitehead (Stephen S.); D.J. Smith (Derek James)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe four genetically divergent dengue virus (DENV) types are traditionally classified as serotypes. Antigenic and genetic differences among the DENV types influence disease outcome, vaccine-induced protection, epidemic magnitude, and viral evolution.We scharacterized antigenic diversity

  15. Cluster Headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... re at risk of cluster headache. A family history. Having a parent or sibling who has had cluster headache might ... of Nondiscrimination Advertising Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit organization ...

  16. Exact analysis of discrete data

    CERN Document Server

    Hirji, Karim F

    2005-01-01

    Researchers in fields ranging from biology and medicine to the social sciences, law, and economics regularly encounter variables that are discrete or categorical in nature. While there is no dearth of books on the analysis and interpretation of such data, these generally focus on large sample methods. When sample sizes are not large or the data are otherwise sparse, exact methods--methods not based on asymptotic theory--are more accurate and therefore preferable.This book introduces the statistical theory, analysis methods, and computation techniques for exact analysis of discrete data. After reviewing the relevant discrete distributions, the author develops the exact methods from the ground up in a conceptually integrated manner. The topics covered range from univariate discrete data analysis, a single and several 2 x 2 tables, a single and several 2 x K tables, incidence density and inverse sampling designs, unmatched and matched case -control studies, paired binary and trinomial response models, and Markov...

  17. Causal Dynamics of Discrete Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Arrighi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We formalize the intuitive idea of a labelled discrete surface which evolves in time, subject to two natural constraints: the evolution does not propagate information too fast; and it acts everywhere the same.

  18. Meaningful Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Calapristi, Augustin J.; Crow, Vernon L.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Turner, Alan E.

    2004-05-26

    We present an approach to the disambiguation of cluster labels that capitalizes on the notion of semantic similarity to assign WordNet senses to cluster labels. The approach provides interesting insights on how document clustering can provide the basis for developing a novel approach to word sense disambiguation.

  19. Applied discrete-time queues

    CERN Document Server

    Alfa, Attahiru S

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces the theoretical fundamentals for modeling queues in discrete-time, and the basic procedures for developing queuing models in discrete-time. There is a focus on applications in modern telecommunication systems. It presents how most queueing models in discrete-time can be set up as discrete-time Markov chains. Techniques such as matrix-analytic methods (MAM) that can used to analyze the resulting Markov chains are included. This book covers single node systems, tandem system and queueing networks. It shows how queues with time-varying parameters can be analyzed, and illustrates numerical issues associated with computations for the discrete-time queueing systems. Optimal control of queues is also covered. Applied Discrete-Time Queues targets researchers, advanced-level students and analysts in the field of telecommunication networks. It is suitable as a reference book and can also be used as a secondary text book in computer engineering and computer science. Examples and exercises are includ...

  20. Spontaneous Enhancement of Packing Regularity of Spherical Microdomains in the Body-Centered Cubic Lattice upon Uniaxial Stretching of Elastomeric Triblock Copolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichi Sakurai

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Block copolymers forming glassy spheres in the matrix of rubbery chains can exhibit elastomeric properties. It is well known that the spherical microdomains are arranged in the body-center cubic (bcc lattice. However, recently, we have found packing in the face-centered cubic (fcc lattice, which is easily transformed into the bcc lattice upon uniaxial stretching. In the same time, the packing regularity of the spheres in the bcc lattice was found to be enhanced for samples completely recovered from the stretched state. This reminds us that a cycle of stretching-and-releasing plays an important role from analogy of densification of the packing in granules upon shaking. In the current paper, we quantify the enhancement of packing regularity of spherical microdomains in the bcc lattice upon uniaxial stretching of the same elastomeric triblock copolymer as used in our previous work by conducting small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS measurements using high brilliant synchrotron radiation. Isotropically circular rings of the lattice peaks observed for the unstretched sample turned into deformed ellipsoidal rings upon the uniaxial stretching, with sharpening of the peaks in the direction parallel to the stretching direction and almost disappearing of the peaks in the perpendicular direction. By quantitatively analyzing the SAXS results, it was found that the packing regularity of the spherical microdomains was enhanced in the parallel direction while it was spoiled in the perpendicular direction under the stretched state. The enhanced regularity of packing was unchanged even if the stretching load was completely removed.

  1. Discrete Curvature Theories and Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Xiang

    2016-08-25

    Discrete Di erential Geometry (DDG) concerns discrete counterparts of notions and methods in di erential geometry. This thesis deals with a core subject in DDG, discrete curvature theories on various types of polyhedral surfaces that are practically important for free-form architecture, sunlight-redirecting shading systems, and face recognition. Modeled as polyhedral surfaces, the shapes of free-form structures may have to satisfy di erent geometric or physical constraints. We study a combination of geometry and physics { the discrete surfaces that can stand on their own, as well as having proper shapes for the manufacture. These proper shapes, known as circular and conical meshes, are closely related to discrete principal curvatures. We study curvature theories that make such surfaces possible. Shading systems of freeform building skins are new types of energy-saving structures that can re-direct the sunlight. From these systems, discrete line congruences across polyhedral surfaces can be abstracted. We develop a new curvature theory for polyhedral surfaces equipped with normal congruences { a particular type of congruences de ned by linear interpolation of vertex normals. The main results are a discussion of various de nitions of normality, a detailed study of the geometry of such congruences, and a concept of curvatures and shape operators associated with the faces of a triangle mesh. These curvatures are compatible with both normal congruences and the Steiner formula. In addition to architecture, we consider the role of discrete curvatures in face recognition. We use geometric measure theory to introduce the notion of asymptotic cones associated with a singular subspace of a Riemannian manifold, which is an extension of the classical notion of asymptotic directions. We get a simple expression of these cones for polyhedral surfaces, as well as convergence and approximation theorems. We use the asymptotic cones as facial descriptors and demonstrate the

  2. Simulating Electrophoresis with Discrete Charge and Drag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowitz, Aaron J.; Witten, Thomas A.

    A charged asymmetric rigid cluster of colloidal particles in saline solution can respond in exotic ways to an electric field: it may spin or move transversely. These distinctive motions arise from the drag force of the neutralizing countercharge surrounding the cluster. Because of this drag, calculating the motion of arbitrary asymmetric objects with nonuniform charge is impractical by conventional methods. Here we present a new method of simulating electrophoresis, in which we replace the continuous object and the surrounding countercharge with discrete point-draggers, called Stokeslets. The balance of forces imposes a linear, self-consistent relation among the drag and Coulomb forces on the Stokeslets, which allows us to easily determine the object's motion via matrix inversion. By explicitly enforcing charge+countercharge neutrality, the simulation recovers the distinctive features of electrophoretic motion to few-percent accuracy using as few as 1000 Stokeslets. In particular, for uniformly charged objects, we observe the characteristic Smoluchowski independence of mobility on object size and shape. We then discuss electrophoretic motion of asymmetric objects, where our simulation method is particularly advantageous. This work is supported by a Grant from the US-Israel Binational Science Foundation.

  3. Analysis of Discrete Mittag - Leffler Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Shobanadevi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Discrete Mittag - Leffler functions play a major role in the development of the theory of discrete fractional calculus. In the present article, we analyze qualitative properties of discrete Mittag - Leffler functions and establish sufficient conditions for convergence, oscillation and summability of the infinite series associated with discrete Mittag - Leffler functions.

  4. Chaos in discrete fractional difference equations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-09-07

    Sep 7, 2016 ... logistics map and discrete sine map [14,15]. In this paper, we analyse numerically the chaotic behaviour of three maps viz., discrete tent map, discrete 2x(mod1) map and discrete Gauss map. Study of these maps is important as they are standard one-dimensional maps, well known to show characteristic ...

  5. Foundations of a discrete physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGoveran, D.; Noyes, P.

    1988-01-01

    Starting from the principles of finiteness, discreteness, finite computability and absolute nonuniqueness, we develop the ordering operator calculus, a strictly constructive mathematical system having the empirical properties required by quantum mechanical and special relativistic phenomena. We show how to construct discrete distance functions, and both rectangular and spherical coordinate systems(with a discrete version of ''π''). The richest discrete space constructible without a preferred axis and preserving translational and rotational invariance is shown to be a discrete 3-space with the usual symmetries. We introduce a local ordering parameter with local (proper) time-like properties and universal ordering parameters with global (cosmological) time-like properties. Constructed ''attribute velocities'' connect ensembles with attributes that are invariant as the appropriate time-like parameter increases. For each such attribute, we show how to construct attribute velocities which must satisfy the '' relativistic Doppler shift'' and the ''relativistic velocity composition law,'' as well as the Lorentz transformations. By construction, these velocities have finite maximum and minimum values. In the space of all attributes, the minimum of these maximum velocities will predominate in all multiple attribute computations, and hence can be identified as a fundamental limiting velocity, General commutation relations are constructed which under the physical interpretation are shown to reduce to the usual quantum mechanical commutation relations. 50 refs., 18 figs

  6. Data Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, Kiri L.

    2012-03-01

    On obtaining a new data set, the researcher is immediately faced with the challenge of obtaining a high-level understanding from the observations. What does a typical item look like? What are the dominant trends? How many distinct groups are included in the data set, and how is each one characterized? Which observable values are common, and which rarely occur? Which items stand out as anomalies or outliers from the rest of the data? This challenge is exacerbated by the steady growth in data set size [11] as new instruments push into new frontiers of parameter space, via improvements in temporal, spatial, and spectral resolution, or by the desire to "fuse" observations from different modalities and instruments into a larger-picture understanding of the same underlying phenomenon. Data clustering algorithms provide a variety of solutions for this task. They can generate summaries, locate outliers, compress data, identify dense or sparse regions of feature space, and build data models. It is useful to note up front that "clusters" in this context refer to groups of items within some descriptive feature space, not (necessarily) to "galaxy clusters" which are dense regions in physical space. The goal of this chapter is to survey a variety of data clustering methods, with an eye toward their applicability to astronomical data analysis. In addition to improving the individual researcher’s understanding of a given data set, clustering has led directly to scientific advances, such as the discovery of new subclasses of stars [14] and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) [38]. All clustering algorithms seek to identify groups within a data set that reflect some observed, quantifiable structure. Clustering is traditionally an unsupervised approach to data analysis, in the sense that it operates without any direct guidance about which items should be assigned to which clusters. There has been a recent trend in the clustering literature toward supporting semisupervised or constrained

  7. Degree distribution in discrete case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Li-Na; Chen, Bin; Yan, Zai-Zai

    2011-01-01

    Vertex degree of many network models and real-life networks is limited to non-negative integer. By means of measure and integral, the relation of the degree distribution and the cumulative degree distribution in discrete case is analyzed. The degree distribution, obtained by the differential of its cumulative, is only suitable for continuous case or discrete case with constant degree change. When degree change is not a constant but proportional to degree itself, power-law degree distribution and its cumulative have the same exponent and the mean value is finite for power-law exponent greater than 1. -- Highlights: → Degree change is the crux for using the cumulative degree distribution method. → It suits for discrete case with constant degree change. → If degree change is proportional to degree, power-law degree distribution and its cumulative have the same exponent. → In addition, the mean value is finite for power-law exponent greater than 1.

  8. Geometry of discrete quantum computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Andrew J.; Ortiz, Gerardo; Sabry, Amr; Tai, Yu-Tsung

    2013-05-01

    Conventional quantum computing entails a geometry based on the description of an n-qubit state using 2n infinite precision complex numbers denoting a vector in a Hilbert space. Such numbers are in general uncomputable using any real-world resources, and, if we have the idea of physical law as some kind of computational algorithm of the universe, we would be compelled to alter our descriptions of physics to be consistent with computable numbers. Our purpose here is to examine the geometric implications of using finite fields Fp and finite complexified fields \\mathbf {F}_{p^2} (based on primes p congruent to 3 (mod4)) as the basis for computations in a theory of discrete quantum computing, which would therefore become a computable theory. Because the states of a discrete n-qubit system are in principle enumerable, we are able to determine the proportions of entangled and unentangled states. In particular, we extend the Hopf fibration that defines the irreducible state space of conventional continuous n-qubit theories (which is the complex projective space \\mathbf {CP}^{2^{n}-1}) to an analogous discrete geometry in which the Hopf circle for any n is found to be a discrete set of p + 1 points. The tally of unit-length n-qubit states is given, and reduced via the generalized Hopf fibration to \\mathbf {DCP}^{2^{n}-1}, the discrete analogue of the complex projective space, which has p^{2^{n}-1} (p-1)\\,\\prod _{k=1}^{n-1} ( p^{2^{k}}+1) irreducible states. Using a measure of entanglement, the purity, we explore the entanglement features of discrete quantum states and find that the n-qubit states based on the complexified field \\mathbf {F}_{p^2} have pn(p - 1)n unentangled states (the product of the tally for a single qubit) with purity 1, and they have pn + 1(p - 1)(p + 1)n - 1 maximally entangled states with purity zero.

  9. Fluorescent probes for detecting cholesterol-rich ordered membrane microdomains: entangled relationships between structural analogies in the membrane and functional homologies in the cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérald Gaibelet

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This review addresses the question of fluorescent detection of ordered membrane (micro domains in living (cultured cells, with a “practical” point of view since the situation is much more complicated than for studying model membranes. We first briefly recall the bases of model membrane structural organization involving liquid-ordered and -disordered phases, and the main features of their counterparts in cell membranes that are the various microdomains. We then emphasize the utility of the fluorescent probes derived from cholesterol, and delineate the respective advantages, limitations and drawbacks of the existing ones. In particular, besides their intra-membrane behavior, their relevant characteristics should integrate their different cellular fates for membrane turn-over, trafficking and metabolism, in order to evaluate and improve their efficiency for in-situ probing membrane microdomains in the cell physiology context. Finally, at the present stage, it appears that Bdp-Chol and Pyr-met-Chol display well complementary properties, allowing to use them in combination to improve the reliability of the current experimental approaches. But the field is still open, and there remains much work to perform in this research area.

  10. Gelation of Photonic Microdomain Structures Formed in Semi-Dilute Solutions of Ultra-High-Molecular-Weight Polystyrene-b-Polybutadiene with Various Polybutadiene Contents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, S; Ito, S; Ando, K; Mouri, M; Ikeda, A; Hasegawa, H; Koshikawa, N, E-mail: okamoto.shigeru@nitech.ac.jp

    2010-11-15

    Well-ordered microdomain structures were obtained in semi-dilute solutions and successfully stabilized by gelation. We used polystyrene-b-polybutadiene (PS-b-PB) diblock copolymer with the weight-averaged molecular weight varying from several hundred thousands to millions g/mol. The solutions had iridescent colors because the domain spacing is on the order of the wavelength of visible light. As the structures are susceptible to distortion by flow or vibration, structural fixation was carried out by gelation. The polybutadiene used has the microstructure of 1,2-linkage and hence the chains can be cross-linkable. The Small-Angle X-ray Scattering and the UV-vis spectroscopic measurements showed that in the case of PS-b-PBs with the PB volume fraction, {phi}{sub PB}, greater than about 50 vol % the microdomain structures were successfully fixed by gelation, while largely distorted in the case of those with {phi}{sub PB} < ca. 50 vol %. The SAXS scattering intensities were quantitatively analyzed by the scattering functions numerically calculated based on the one- and two-dimensional paracrystal theories and on the concentration fluctuation between the polymers and the solvent molecules.

  11. Weighted Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackerman, Margareta; Ben-David, Shai; Branzei, Simina

    2012-01-01

    the partitional and hierarchical settings, characterizing the conditions under which algorithms react to weights. Extending a recent framework for clustering algorithm selection, we propose intuitive properties that would allow users to choose between clustering algorithms in the weighted setting and classify...

  12. Cluster editing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böcker, S.; Baumbach, Jan

    2013-01-01

    . The problem has been the inspiration for numerous algorithms in bioinformatics, aiming at clustering entities such as genes, proteins, phenotypes, or patients. In this paper, we review exact and heuristic methods that have been proposed for the Cluster Editing problem, and also applications...

  13. The remarkable discreteness of being

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-03-15

    Mar 15, 2014 ... atomistic theory and give a simple, elegant explanation to all these laws. Around 1900 AD, Planck, ... In none of the cases reviewed here is it claimed that a simple discrete theory will explain all the phenomena. ..... of migration a decreasing function of the distance; (iii) due to random sampling from one ...

  14. Path integrals as discrete sums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitar, Khalil; Khuri, N. N.; Ren, H. C.

    1991-08-01

    We present a new formulation of Feynman's path integral, based on Voronin's theorems on the universality of the Riemann zeta function. The result is a discrete sum over ``paths,'' each given by a zeta function. A new measure which leads to the correct quantum mechanics is explicitly given.

  15. Multiscale expansions in discrete world

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Multiscale expansions in discrete world. ÖMER ÜNSAL, FILIZ TASCAN. ∗ and MEHMET NACI ÖZER. Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Art-Science Faculty, Department of Mathematics and Computer. Sciences, Eskisehir-Türkiye. ∗. Corresponding author. E-mail: ftascan@ogu.edu.tr. MS received 12 April 2013; accepted 16 ...

  16. The remarkable discreteness of being

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-03-15

    Mar 15, 2014 ... ... examples where these facts play, or could play, important roles: the spatial distribution of species, the structuring of biodiversity and the. (Darwinian) evolution of altruistic behaviour. [Houchmandzadeh B 2014 The remarkable discreteness of being. J. Biosci. 39 249–258] DOI 10.1007/s12038-013-9350-7.

  17. The remarkable discreteness of being

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Life is a discrete, stochastic phenomenon: for a biological organism, the time of the two most important events of its life (reproduction and death) is random and these events change the number of individuals of the species by single units. These facts can have surprising, counterintuitive consequences. I review here three ...

  18. Discrete tomography in neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuba, Attila; Rodek, Lajos; Kiss, Zoltan; Rusko, Laszlo; Nagy, Antal; Balasko, Marton

    2005-01-01

    Discrete tomography (DT) is an imaging technique for reconstructing discrete images from their projections using the knowledge that the object to be reconstructed contains only a few homogeneous materials characterized by known discrete absorption values. One of the main reasons for applying DT is that we will hopefully require relatively few projections. Using discreteness and some a priori information (such as an approximate shape of the object) we can apply two DT methods in neutron imaging by reducing the problem to an optimization task. The first method is a special one because it is only suitable if the object is composed of cylinders and sphere shapes. The second method is a general one in the sense that it can be used for reconstructing objects of any shape. Software was developed and physical experiments performed in order to investigate the effects of several reconstruction parameters: the number of projections, noise levels, and complexity of the object to be reconstructed. We give a summary of the experimental results and make a comparison of the results obtained using a classical reconstruction technique (FBP). The programs we developed are available in our DT reconstruction program package DIRECT

  19. Quantum trilogy: discrete Toda, Y-system and chaos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Masahito

    2018-02-01

    We discuss a discretization of the quantum Toda field theory associated with a semisimple finite-dimensional Lie algebra or a tamely-laced infinite-dimensional Kac–Moody algebra G, generalizing the previous construction of discrete quantum Liouville theory for the case G  =  A 1. The model is defined on a discrete two-dimensional lattice, whose spatial direction is of length L. In addition we also find a ‘discretized extra dimension’ whose width is given by the rank r of G, which decompactifies in the large r limit. For the case of G  =  A N or AN-1(1) , we find a symmetry exchanging L and N under appropriate spatial boundary conditions. The dynamical time evolution rule of the model is quantizations of the so-called Y-system, and the theory can be well described by the quantum cluster algebra. We discuss possible implications for recent discussions of quantum chaos, and comment on the relation with the quantum higher Teichmüller theory of type A N .

  20. Clustering Dycom

    KAUST Repository

    Minku, Leandro L.

    2017-10-06

    Background: Software Effort Estimation (SEE) can be formulated as an online learning problem, where new projects are completed over time and may become available for training. In this scenario, a Cross-Company (CC) SEE approach called Dycom can drastically reduce the number of Within-Company (WC) projects needed for training, saving the high cost of collecting such training projects. However, Dycom relies on splitting CC projects into different subsets in order to create its CC models. Such splitting can have a significant impact on Dycom\\'s predictive performance. Aims: This paper investigates whether clustering methods can be used to help finding good CC splits for Dycom. Method: Dycom is extended to use clustering methods for creating the CC subsets. Three different clustering methods are investigated, namely Hierarchical Clustering, K-Means, and Expectation-Maximisation. Clustering Dycom is compared against the original Dycom with CC subsets of different sizes, based on four SEE databases. A baseline WC model is also included in the analysis. Results: Clustering Dycom with K-Means can potentially help to split the CC projects, managing to achieve similar or better predictive performance than Dycom. However, K-Means still requires the number of CC subsets to be pre-defined, and a poor choice can negatively affect predictive performance. EM enables Dycom to automatically set the number of CC subsets while still maintaining or improving predictive performance with respect to the baseline WC model. Clustering Dycom with Hierarchical Clustering did not offer significant advantage in terms of predictive performance. Conclusion: Clustering methods can be an effective way to automatically generate Dycom\\'s CC subsets.

  1. Clustering analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romli

    1997-01-01

    Cluster analysis is the name of group of multivariate techniques whose principal purpose is to distinguish similar entities from the characteristics they process.To study this analysis, there are several algorithms that can be used. Therefore, this topic focuses to discuss the algorithms, such as, similarity measures, and hierarchical clustering which includes single linkage, complete linkage and average linkage method. also, non-hierarchical clustering method, which is popular name K -mean method ' will be discussed. Finally, this paper will be described the advantages and disadvantages of every methods

  2. Cluster analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Everitt, Brian S; Leese, Morven; Stahl, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Cluster analysis comprises a range of methods for classifying multivariate data into subgroups. By organizing multivariate data into such subgroups, clustering can help reveal the characteristics of any structure or patterns present. These techniques have proven useful in a wide range of areas such as medicine, psychology, market research and bioinformatics.This fifth edition of the highly successful Cluster Analysis includes coverage of the latest developments in the field and a new chapter dealing with finite mixture models for structured data.Real life examples are used throughout to demons

  3. Occupational Clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottawattamie County School System, Council Bluffs, IA.

    The 15 occupational clusters (transportation, fine arts and humanities, communications and media, personal service occupations, construction, hospitality and recreation, health occupations, marine science occupations, consumer and homemaking-related occupations, agribusiness and natural resources, environment, public service, business and office…

  4. Cancer Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peer Review and Funding Outcomes Step 4: Award Negotiation & Issuance Manage Your Award Grants Management Contacts Monitoring ... potentially hazardous working conditions, including suspected cancer clusters. Employees, authorized employee representatives, and employers can request these ...

  5. Discrete compactons: some exact results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kevrekidis, P G; Konotop, V V; Bishop, A R; Takeno, S

    2002-01-01

    In this letter, we use the method of constructing exact solutions on lattices proposed by Kinnersley and described in Schmidt (1979 Phys. Rev. B 20 4397), to obtain exact compacton solutions in discrete models. We examine the linear stability of such solutions, both for the bright compacton and for the dark compacton cases. We focus on a 'quantization condition' that the width of the profile should satisfy. We also use this quantization condition to examine the possibility of compact coherent structures travelling in discrete settings. Our results are obtained for sinusoidal profiles and then generalized to elliptic functions of arbitrary modulus. The possibility of multi-compacton solutions is considered. (letter to the editor)

  6. Discrete mathematics using a computer

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Cordelia

    2000-01-01

    Several areas of mathematics find application throughout computer science, and all students of computer science need a practical working understanding of them. These core subjects are centred on logic, sets, recursion, induction, relations and functions. The material is often called discrete mathematics, to distinguish it from the traditional topics of continuous mathematics such as integration and differential equations. The central theme of this book is the connection between computing and discrete mathematics. This connection is useful in both directions: • Mathematics is used in many branches of computer science, in applica­ tions including program specification, datastructures,design and analysis of algorithms, database systems, hardware design, reasoning about the correctness of implementations, and much more; • Computers can help to make the mathematics easier to learn and use, by making mathematical terms executable, making abstract concepts more concrete, and through the use of software tools su...

  7. Discrete dynamics of complex systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann Haken

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available This article extends the slaving principle of synergetics to processes with discrete time steps. Starting point is a set of nonlinear difference equations which contain multiplicative noise and which refer to multidimensional state vectors. The system depends on a control parameter. When its value is changed beyond a critical value, an instability of the solution occurs. The stability analysis allows us to divide the system into stable and unstable modes. The original equations can be transformed to a set of difference equations for the unstable and stable modes. The extension of the slaving principle to the time-discrete case then states that all the stable modes can be explicitly expressed by the unstable modes or so-called order-parameters.

  8. Quantum chaos on discrete graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smilansky, Uzy [Department of Physics of Complex Systems, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences, 20 Clarkson Road, Cambridge CB3 0EH (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-06

    Adapting a method developed for the study of quantum chaos on quantum (metric) graphs (Kottos and Smilansky 1997 Phys. Rev. Lett. 79 4794, Kottos and Smilansky 1999 Ann. Phys., NY 274 76), spectral {zeta} functions and trace formulae for discrete Laplacians on graphs are derived. This is achieved by expressing the spectral secular equation in terms of the periodic orbits of the graph and obtaining functions which belong to the class of {zeta} functions proposed originally by Ihara (1966 J. Mat. Soc. Japan 18 219) and expanded by subsequent authors (Stark and Terras 1996 Adv. Math. 121 124, Kotani and Sunada 2000 J. Math. Sci. Univ. Tokyo 7 7). Finally, a model of 'classical dynamics' on the discrete graph is proposed. It is analogous to the corresponding classical dynamics derived for quantum graphs (Kottos and Smilansky 1997 Phys. Rev. Lett. 79 4794, Kottos and Smilansky 1999 Ann. Phys., NY 274 76). (fast track communication)

  9. Discrete symmetries in the MSSM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schieren, Roland

    2010-12-02

    The use of discrete symmetries, especially abelian ones, in physics beyond the standard model of particle physics is discussed. A method is developed how a general, abelian, discrete symmetry can be obtained via spontaneous symmetry breaking. In addition, anomalies are treated in the path integral approach with special attention to anomaly cancellation via the Green-Schwarz mechanism. All this is applied to the minimal supersymmetric standard model. A unique Z{sup R}{sub 4} symmetry is discovered which solves the {mu}-problem as well as problems with proton decay and allows to embed the standard model gauge group into a simple group, i.e. the Z{sup R}{sub 4} is compatible with grand unification. Also the flavor problem in the context of minimal flavor violation is addressed. Finally, a string theory model is presented which exhibits the mentioned Z{sup R}{sub 4} symmetry and other desirable features. (orig.)

  10. Applied geometry and discrete mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Sturm; Gritzmann, Peter; Sturmfels, Bernd

    1991-01-01

    This volume, published jointly with the Association for Computing Machinery, comprises a collection of research articles celebrating the occasion of Victor Klee's sixty-fifth birthday in September 1990. During his long career, Klee has made contributions to a wide variety of areas, such as discrete and computational geometry, convexity, combinatorics, graph theory, functional analysis, mathematical programming and optimization, and theoretical computer science. In addition, Klee made important contributions to mathematics education, mathematical methods in economics and the decision sciences, applications of discrete mathematics in the biological and social sciences, and the transfer of knowledge from applied mathematics to industry. In honor of Klee's achievements, this volume presents more than forty papers on topics related to Klee's research. While the majority of the papers are research articles, a number of survey articles are also included. Mirroring the breadth of Klee's mathematical contributions, th...

  11. Dark energy from discrete spacetime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trout, Aaron D

    2013-01-01

    Dark energy accounts for most of the matter-energy content of our universe, yet current theories of its origin rely on radical physical assumptions such as the holographic principle or controversial anthropic arguments. We give a better motivated explanation for dark energy, claiming that it arises from a small negative scalar-curvature present even in empty spacetime. The vacuum has this curvature because spacetime is fundamentally discrete and there are more ways for a discrete geometry to have negative curvature than positive. We explicitly compute this effect using a variant of the well known dynamical-triangulations (DT) model for quantum gravity. Our model predicts a time-varying non-zero cosmological constant with a current value, [Formula: see text] in natural units, in agreement with observation. This calculation is made possible by a novel characterization of the possible DT action values combined with numerical evidence concerning their degeneracies.

  12. Discrete Choice and Rational Inattention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Melo, Emerson; de Palma, André

    2017-01-01

    This paper establishes a general equivalence between discrete choice and rational inattention models. Matejka and McKay (2015, AER) showed that when information costs are modelled using the Shannon entropy, the result- ing choice probabilities in the rational inattention model take the multinomial...... logit form. We show that when information costs are modelled using a class of generalized entropies, then the choice probabilities in any rational inattention model are observationally equivalent to some additive random utility discrete choice model and vice versa. This equivalence arises from convex......- analytic properties of the random utility model. Thus any additive random utility model can be given an interpretation in terms of boundedly rational behavior. We provide examples of this equivalence utilizing the nested logit model, an empirically relevant random utility model allowing for flexible...

  13. Duality for discrete integrable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quispel, G R W; Capel, H W; Roberts, J A G

    2005-01-01

    A new class of discrete dynamical systems is introduced via a duality relation for discrete dynamical systems with a number of explicitly known integrals. The dual equation can be defined via the difference of an arbitrary linear combination of integrals and its upshifted version. We give an example of an integrable mapping with two parameters and four integrals leading to a (four-dimensional) dual mapping with four parameters and two integrals. We also consider a more general class of higher-dimensional mappings arising via a travelling-wave reduction from the (integrable) MKdV partial-difference equation. By differencing the trace of the monodromy matrix we obtain a class of novel dual mappings which is shown to be integrable as level-set-dependent versions of the original ones

  14. Cluster generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donchev, Todor I [Urbana, IL; Petrov, Ivan G [Champaign, IL

    2011-05-31

    Described herein is an apparatus and a method for producing atom clusters based on a gas discharge within a hollow cathode. The hollow cathode includes one or more walls. The one or more walls define a sputtering chamber within the hollow cathode and include a material to be sputtered. A hollow anode is positioned at an end of the sputtering chamber, and atom clusters are formed when a gas discharge is generated between the hollow anode and the hollow cathode.

  15. Discrete fractional solutions of a Legendre equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmazer, Resat

    2018-01-01

    One of the most popular research interests of science and engineering is the fractional calculus theory in recent times. Discrete fractional calculus has also an important position in fractional calculus. In this work, we acquire new discrete fractional solutions of the homogeneous and non homogeneous Legendre differential equation by using discrete fractional nabla operator.

  16. Discrete element simulation of crushable rockfill materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Shao

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A discrete element method was used to study the evolution of particle crushing in a rockfill sample subjected to triaxial shear. A simple procedure was developed to generate clusters with arbitrary shapes, which resembled real rockfill particles. A theoretical method was developed to define the failure criterion for an individual particle subjected to an arbitrary set of contact forces. Then, a series of numerical tests of large-scale drained triaxial tests were conducted to simulate the behaviors of the rockfill sample. Finally, we examined the development of micro-characteristics such as particle crushing, contact characteristics, porosity, deformation, movement, and energy dissipation. The simulation results were partially compared with the laboratory experiments, and good agreement was achieved, demonstrating that the particle crushing model proposed can be used to simulate the drained triaxial test of rockfill materials. Based on a comparison of macro behaviors of the rockfill sample and micro structures of the particles, the microscopic mechanism of the rockfill materials subjected to triaxial shear was determined qualitatively. It is shown that the crushing rate, rather than the number of crushed particles, can be used to reflect the relationship between macro- and micro-mechanical characteristics of rockfill materials. These research results further develop our understanding of the deformation mechanism of rockfill materials.

  17. Sialyl-glycoconjugates in cholesterol-rich microdomains of P388 cells are the triggers for apoptosis induced by Rana catesbeiana oocyte ribonuclease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Y; Sugawara, S; Tatsuta, T; Hosono, M; Nitta, K; Fujii, Y; Kobayashi, H; Fujimura, T; Taka, H; Koide, Y; Hasan, I; Matsumoto, R; Yasumitsu, H; Kanaly, R A; Kawsar, S M A; Ozeki, Y

    2014-02-01

    SBL/RC-RNase was originally isolated from frog (Rana catesbeiana) oocytes and purified as a novel sialic acid-binding lectin (SBL) that displayed strong anti-cancer activity. SBL was later shown to be identical to a ribonuclease (RC-RNase) from oocytes of the same species. The administration of SBL/RC-RNase induced apoptosis (with nuclear condensation and DNA fragmentation) in mouse leukemia P388 cells but did not kill umbilical vein endothelial or fibroblast cells derived from normal tissues. The cytotoxic activity of SBL/RC-RNase was inhibited by desialylation of P388 cells and/or the co-presence of free bovine submaxillary mucin. FACS analysis showed that SBL/RC-RNase was incorporated into cells after attachment to cholesterol-rich microdomains. Addition of the cholesterol remover methyl-β-cyclodextrin reduced SBL/RC-RNase-induced apoptosis. Apoptosis occurred through the caspase-3 pathway following activation of caspase-8 by SBL/RC-RNase. A heat shock cognate protein (Hsc70) and a heat shock protein (Hsp70) (each 70 kDa) on the cell membrane were shown to bind to SBL/RC-RNase by mass spectrometric and flow cytometric analyses. Quercetin, an inhibitor of Hsc70 and Hsp70, significantly reduced SBL/RC-RNase-induced apoptosis. Taken together, our findings suggest that sialyl-glycoconjugates present in cholesterol-rich microdomains form complexes with Hsc70 or Hsp70 that act as triggers for SBL/RC-RNase to induce apoptosis through a pathway involving the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-8.

  18. On equivalence of discrete-discrete and continuum-discrete design sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyung K.; Twu, Sung-Ling

    1989-01-01

    Developments in design sensitivity analysis (DSA) method have been made using two fundamentally different approaches as shown. In the first approach, a discretized structural finite element model is used to carry out DSA. There are three different methods in the discrete DSA approach: finite difference, semi-analytical, and analytical methods. The finite difference method is a popular one due to its simplicity, but a serious shortcoming of the method is the uncertainty in the choice of a perturbation step size of design variables. In the semi-analytical method, the derivatives of stiffness matrix is computed by finite differences, whereas in the analytical method, the derivatives are obtained analytically. For the shape design variable, computation of analytical derivative of stiffness matrix is quite costly. Because of this, the semi-analytical method is a popular choice in discrete shape DSA approach. However, recently, Barthelemy and Haftka presented that the semi-analytical method can have serious accuracy problems for shape design variables in structures modeled by beam, plate, truss, frame, and solid elements. They found that accuracy problems occur even for a simple cantilever beam. In the second approach, a continuum model of the structure is used to carry out DSA.

  19. Bussines Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarmiza Pencea

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Clusters are complex economic structures in which similar companies, their up-stream and down-stream business partners, universities, research institutes, educational units, various service providers, diverse private and public institutions concentrate geografically, striving to get economies of agglomeration and scale, to capitalize on the resulting spill over effects, to cut costs, to better harness resources, to exchange information and experience, to improve quality, innovation, skills and productivity. By somehow unexpectedly combining competition and cooperation, they form a new, sophisticated stage in the evolution of production structures in quest of higher efficiency. This paper forays into the world of clusters and clusterization, which seem to increasingly capture the interest of businesses, scholars and policy makers. It looks at what clusters are, how they arise, what are their specific features, what benefits and challenges they can generate for companies and for the regions in which they locate and if and how they should be fostered by industrial policy interventions. The conclusion is that clusters can be very important development triggers and therefore they should be encouraged and nurtured by adequate policy measures. They should not only be used as a regular policy tool, but be placed at the very center of the development strategies of emerging economies.

  20. On the discrete spectrum of the N-body quantum mechanical Hamiltonian. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iorio, R.J. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Using the Weinberg-van Winter equations we prove finiteness of the discrete spectrum of the N-body quantum mechanical Hamiltonian with pair potentials satisfying vertical stroke V(x) vertical stroke 2 ) - sup(rho), rho > 1 increase the threshold of the continuous spectrum is negative and determined exclusively by eigenvalues of two-cluster Hamiltonians. (orig.)

  1. Interactive visual exploration and refinement of cluster assignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Michael; Lex, Alexander; Gehlenborg, Nils; Johnson, Chris R

    2017-09-12

    With ever-increasing amounts of data produced in biology research, scientists are in need of efficient data analysis methods. Cluster analysis, combined with visualization of the results, is one such method that can be used to make sense of large data volumes. At the same time, cluster analysis is known to be imperfect and depends on the choice of algorithms, parameters, and distance measures. Most clustering algorithms don't properly account for ambiguity in the source data, as records are often assigned to discrete clusters, even if an assignment is unclear. While there are metrics and visualization techniques that allow analysts to compare clusterings or to judge cluster quality, there is no comprehensive method that allows analysts to evaluate, compare, and refine cluster assignments based on the source data, derived scores, and contextual data. In this paper, we introduce a method that explicitly visualizes the quality of cluster assignments, allows comparisons of clustering results and enables analysts to manually curate and refine cluster assignments. Our methods are applicable to matrix data clustered with partitional, hierarchical, and fuzzy clustering algorithms. Furthermore, we enable analysts to explore clustering results in context of other data, for example, to observe whether a clustering of genomic data results in a meaningful differentiation in phenotypes. Our methods are integrated into Caleydo StratomeX, a popular, web-based, disease subtype analysis tool. We show in a usage scenario that our approach can reveal ambiguities in cluster assignments and produce improved clusterings that better differentiate genotypes and phenotypes.

  2. A genetic algorithm used for the intensity level discretization in MLC leaf sequencing for step and shoot IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Bingzhou; Zhang Conghua; Hou Qing; Tang Zhiquan

    2008-01-01

    The inverse planning for a step-and-shoot plan in intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is usually a multiple step process. Before being converted into the MLC segments, the optimum intensity profiles of beams, which are generated by an optimization algorithm, shall be discretized into a few intensity levels. The discretization process of the optimum intensity profiles can induce deviations in the final dose distribution from the original optimum dose distribution. This paper describes a genetic algorithm for the discretization of given optimum intensity profiles. The algorithm minimizes an objective function written in terms of the intensity levels. Both the dose-based objective function, which is defined by the deviation between the dose distributions before and after the discretization, and the intensity-based objective function, which is defined by the deviation between the optimum intensity profiles and the discretization intensity profiles, have been adopted. To evaluate this algorithm, a series of simulation calculations had been carded out using the present algorithm, the even-spaced discretization and the k-means clustering algorithm respectively. By comparing the resultant discretization-induced deviations (DIDs) in intensity profiles and in dose distributions, we have found that the genetic algorithm induced less DIDs in comparison with that induced in the even-spaced discretization or the k-means clustering algorithm. Additionally, it has been found that the DIDs created in the genetic algorithm correlate with the complexity of the intensity profiles that is measured by the 'fluence map complexity'. (authors)

  3. Origin of coherent structures in a discrete chaotic medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabinovich, M.I.; Torres, J.J.; Varona, P.; Huerta, R. [Institute for Nonlinear Science, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0402 (United States); Varona, P.; Huerta, R. [GNB, ETS Ingenieria Informatica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Weidman, P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)

    1999-08-01

    Using as an example a large lattice of locally interacting Hindmarsh-Rose chaotic neurons, we disclose the origin of ordered structures in a discrete nonequilibrium medium with fast and slow chaotic oscillations. The origin of the ordering mechanism is related to the appearance of a periodic average dynamics in the group of chaotic neurons whose individual slow activity is significantly synchronized by the group mean field. Introducing the concept of a {open_quotes}coarse grain{close_quotes} as a cluster of neuron elements with periodic averaged behavior allows consideration of the dynamics of a medium composed of these clusters. A study of this medium reveals spatially ordered patterns in the periodic and slow dynamics of the coarse grains that are controlled by the average intensity of the fast chaotic pulsation. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  4. Origin of coherent structures in a discrete chaotic medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabinovich, M.I.; Torres, J.J.; Varona, P.; Huerta, R.; Varona, P.; Huerta, R.; Weidman, P.

    1999-01-01

    Using as an example a large lattice of locally interacting Hindmarsh-Rose chaotic neurons, we disclose the origin of ordered structures in a discrete nonequilibrium medium with fast and slow chaotic oscillations. The origin of the ordering mechanism is related to the appearance of a periodic average dynamics in the group of chaotic neurons whose individual slow activity is significantly synchronized by the group mean field. Introducing the concept of a open-quotes coarse grainclose quotes as a cluster of neuron elements with periodic averaged behavior allows consideration of the dynamics of a medium composed of these clusters. A study of this medium reveals spatially ordered patterns in the periodic and slow dynamics of the coarse grains that are controlled by the average intensity of the fast chaotic pulsation. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  5. Discrete geometric structures for architecture

    KAUST Repository

    Pottmann, Helmut

    2010-06-13

    The emergence of freeform structures in contemporary architecture raises numerous challenging research problems, most of which are related to the actual fabrication and are a rich source of research topics in geometry and geometric computing. The talk will provide an overview of recent progress in this field, with a particular focus on discrete geometric structures. Most of these result from practical requirements on segmenting a freeform shape into planar panels and on the physical realization of supporting beams and nodes. A study of quadrilateral meshes with planar faces reveals beautiful relations to discrete differential geometry. In particular, we discuss meshes which discretize the network of principal curvature lines. Conical meshes are among these meshes; they possess conical offset meshes at a constant face/face distance, which in turn leads to a supporting beam layout with so-called torsion free nodes. This work can be generalized to a variety of multilayer structures and laid the ground for an adapted curvature theory for these meshes. There are also efforts on segmenting surfaces into planar hexagonal panels. Though these are less constrained than planar quadrilateral panels, this problem is still waiting for an elegant solution. Inspired by freeform designs in architecture which involve circles and spheres, we present a new kind of triangle mesh whose faces\\' in-circles form a packing, i.e., the in-circles of two triangles with a common edge have the same contact point on that edge. These "circle packing (CP) meshes" exhibit an aesthetic balance of shape and size of their faces. They are closely tied to sphere packings on surfaces and to various remarkable structures and patterns which are of interest in art, architecture, and design. CP meshes constitute a new link between architectural freeform design and computational conformal geometry. Recently, certain timber structures motivated us to study discrete patterns of geodesics on surfaces. This

  6. Radiative transfer on discrete spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Preisendorfer, Rudolph W; Stark, M; Ulam, S

    1965-01-01

    Pure and Applied Mathematics, Volume 74: Radiative Transfer on Discrete Spaces presents the geometrical structure of natural light fields. This book describes in detail with mathematical precision the radiometric interactions of light-scattering media in terms of a few well established principles.Organized into four parts encompassing 15 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the derivations of the practical formulas and the arrangement of formulas leading to numerical solution procedures of radiative transfer problems in plane-parallel media. This text then constructs radiative tran

  7. Fuzzy Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berks, G.; Keyserlingk, Diedrich Graf von; Jantzen, Jan

    2000-01-01

    and clustering are the basic concerns in medicine. Classification depends on definitions of the classes and their required degree of participant of the elements in the cases' symptoms. In medicine imprecise conditions are the rule and therefore fuzzy methods are much more suitable than crisp ones. Fuzzy c...

  8. Cluster Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulati, Mukesh; Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Suresh, Sangeetha

    2018-01-01

    In this chapter, we investigate corporate social responsibility (CSR) in industrial clusters in the Indian context. We use the definition of CSR as given in the Indian Ministry of Corporate Affairs’ National Voluntary Guidelines (NVGs) for Business Responsibility: ‘the commitment of an enterprise...

  9. On discrete cosine transform | Zhou | Nigerian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new type of discrete cosine transform is proposed and its orthogonality is proved. Finally, we propose a generalized discrete W transform with three parameters, and prove its orthogonality for some new cases. Keywords: Discrete Fourier transform, discrete sine transform, discrete cosine transform, discrete W transform

  10. Exploring the Internal Dynamics of Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Laura L.; van der Marel, Roeland; Bellini, Andrea; Luetzgendorf, Nora; HSTPROMO Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Exploring the Internal Dynamics of Globular ClustersThe formation histories and structural properties of globular clusters are imprinted on their internal dynamics. Energy equipartition results in velocity differences for stars of different mass, and leads to mass segregation, which results in different spatial distributions for stars of different mass. Intermediate-mass black holes significantly increase the velocity dispersions at the centres of clusters. By combining accurate measurements of their internal kinematics with state-of-the-art dynamical models, we can characterise both the velocity dispersion and mass profiles of clusters, tease apart the different effects, and understand how clusters may have formed and evolved.Using proper motions from the Hubble Space Telescope Proper Motion (HSTPROMO) Collaboration for a set of 22 Milky Way globular clusters, and our discrete dynamical modelling techniques designed to work with large, high-quality datasets, we are studying a variety of internal cluster properties. We will present the results of theoretical work on simulated clusters that demonstrates the efficacy of our approach, and preliminary results from application to real clusters.

  11. Discrete Painlevé equations from Y-systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hone, Andrew N W; Inoue, Rei

    2014-01-01

    We consider T-systems and Y-systems arising from cluster mutations applied to quivers that have the property of being periodic under a sequence of mutations. The corresponding nonlinear recurrences for cluster variables (coefficient-free T-systems) were described in the work of Fordy and Marsh, who completely classified all such quivers in the case of period 1, and characterized them in terms of the skew-symmetric exchange matrix B that defines the quiver. A broader notion of periodicity in general cluster algebras was introduced by Nakanishi, who also described the corresponding Y-systems, and T-systems with coefficients. A result of Fomin and Zelevinsky says that the coefficient-free T-system provides a solution of the Y-system. In this paper, we show that in general there is a discrepancy between these two systems, in the sense that the solution of the former does not correspond to the general solution of the latter. This discrepancy is removed by introducing additional non-autonomous coefficients into the T-system. In particular, we focus on the period 1 case and show that, when the exchange matrix B is degenerate, discrete Painlevé equations can arise from this construction. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Cluster algebras in mathematical physics’. (paper)

  12. The Discrete Fr\\'echet Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Filtser, Omrit; Katz, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce the discrete Fr\\'echet gap and its variants as an alternative measure of similarity between polygonal curves. We believe that for some applications the new measure (and its variants) may better reflect our intuitive notion of similarity than the discrete Fr\\'echet distance (and its variants), since the latter measure is indifferent to (matched) pairs of points that are relatively close to each other. Referring to the frogs analogy by which the discrete Fr\\'echet distance is often...

  13. Cluster forcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Budde

    , Portugal and New Zealand have adopted the concept. Public sector interventions that aim to support cluster development in industries most often focus upon economic policy goals such as enhanced employment and improved productivity, but rarely emphasise broader societal policy goals relating to e.......g. sustainability or quality of life. The purpose of this paper is to explore how and to what extent public sector interventions that aim at forcing cluster development in industries can support sustainable development as defined in the Brundtland tradition and more recently elaborated in such concepts as eco...... in 2000 by the Welsh Automotive Task Force under the Welsh Assembly Government. The Accelerate programme takes basically different two directions: The first one, which was the first to be launched, is concerned with the upgrading of existing supply chains in the automotive industry in Wales. The programme...

  14. Discrete calculus methods for counting

    CERN Document Server

    Mariconda, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to combinatorics, finite calculus, formal series, recurrences, and approximations of sums. Readers will find not only coverage of the basic elements of the subjects but also deep insights into a range of less common topics rarely considered within a single book, such as counting with occupancy constraints, a clear distinction between algebraic and analytical properties of formal power series, an introduction to discrete dynamical systems with a thorough description of Sarkovskii’s theorem, symbolic calculus, and a complete description of the Euler-Maclaurin formulas and their applications. Although several books touch on one or more of these aspects, precious few cover all of them. The authors, both pure mathematicians, have attempted to develop methods that will allow the student to formulate a given problem in a precise mathematical framework. The aim is to equip readers with a sound strategy for classifying and solving problems by pursuing a mathematically rigorous yet ...

  15. Quantum evolution by discrete measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roa, L; Guevara, M L Ladron de; Delgado, A; Olivares-RenterIa, G; Klimov, A B

    2007-01-01

    In this article we review two ways of driving a quantum system to a known pure state via a sequence discrete of von Neumann measurements. The first of them assumes that the initial state of the system is unknown, and the evolution is attained only with the help of two non-commuting observables. For this method, the overall success probability is maximized when the eigentstates of the involved observables constitute mutually unbiased bases. The second method assumes the initial state is known and it uses N observables which are consecutively measured to make the state of the system approach the target state. The probability of success of this procedure converges to 1 as the number of observables increases

  16. Quantum evolution by discrete measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roa, L [Center for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile); Guevara, M L Ladron de [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Catolica del Norte, Casilla 1280, Antofagasta (Chile); Delgado, A [Center for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile); Olivares-RenterIa, G [Center for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile); Klimov, A B [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Guadalajara, Revolucion 1500, 44420 Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico)

    2007-10-15

    In this article we review two ways of driving a quantum system to a known pure state via a sequence discrete of von Neumann measurements. The first of them assumes that the initial state of the system is unknown, and the evolution is attained only with the help of two non-commuting observables. For this method, the overall success probability is maximized when the eigentstates of the involved observables constitute mutually unbiased bases. The second method assumes the initial state is known and it uses N observables which are consecutively measured to make the state of the system approach the target state. The probability of success of this procedure converges to 1 as the number of observables increases.

  17. Modeling discrete competitive facility location

    CERN Document Server

    Karakitsiou, Athanasia

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an up-to-date review of modeling and optimization approaches for location problems along with a new bi-level programming methodology which captures the effect of competition of both producers and customers on facility location decisions. While many optimization approaches simplify location problems by assuming decision making in isolation, this monograph focuses on models which take into account the competitive environment in which such decisions are made. New insights in modeling, algorithmic and theoretical possibilities are opened by this approach and new applications are possible. Competition on equal term plus competition between market leader and followers are considered in this study, consequently bi-level optimization methodology is emphasized and further developed. This book provides insights regarding modeling complexity and algorithmic approaches to discrete competitive location problems. In traditional location modeling, assignment of customer demands to supply sources are made ...

  18. Multigrid methods for isogeometric discretization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahalaut, K P S; Kraus, J K; Tomar, S K

    2013-01-01

    We present (geometric) multigrid methods for isogeometric discretization of scalar second order elliptic problems. The smoothing property of the relaxation method, and the approximation property of the intergrid transfer operators are analyzed. These properties, when used in the framework of classical multigrid theory, imply uniform convergence of two-grid and multigrid methods. Supporting numerical results are provided for the smoothing property, the approximation property, convergence factor and iterations count for V -, W - and F -cycles, and the linear dependence of V -cycle convergence on the smoothing steps. For two dimensions, numerical results include the problems with variable coefficients, simple multi-patch geometry, a quarter annulus, and the dependence of convergence behavior on refinement levels [Formula: see text], whereas for three dimensions, only the constant coefficient problem in a unit cube is considered. The numerical results are complete up to polynomial order [Formula: see text], and for [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] smoothness.

  19. Discrete modelling of drapery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoeni, Klaus; Giacomini, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Drapery systems are an efficient and cost-effective measure in preventing and controlling rockfall hazards on rock slopes. The simplest form consists of a row of ground anchors along the top of the slope connected to a horizontal support cable from which a wire mesh is suspended down the face of the slope. Such systems are generally referred to as simple or unsecured draperies (Badger and Duffy 2012). Variations such as secured draperies, where a pattern of ground anchors is incorporated within the field of the mesh, and hybrid systems, where the upper part of an unsecured drapery is elevated to intercept rockfalls originating upslope of the installation, are becoming more and more popular. This work presents a discrete element framework for simulation of unsecured drapery systems and its variations. The numerical model is based on the classical discrete element method (DEM) and implemented into the open-source framework YADE (Šmilauer et al., 2010). The model takes all relevant interactions between block, drapery and slope into account (Thoeni et al., 2014) and was calibrated and validated based on full-scale experiments (Giacomini et al., 2012).The block is modelled as a rigid clump made of spherical particles which allows any shape to be approximated. The drapery is represented by a set of spherical particle with remote interactions. The behaviour of the remote interactions is governed by the constitutive behaviour of the wire and generally corresponds to a piecewise linear stress-strain relation (Thoeni et al., 2013). The same concept is used to model wire ropes. The rock slope is represented by rigid triangular elements where material properties (e.g., normal coefficient of restitution, friction angle) are assigned to each triangle. The capabilities of the developed model to simulate drapery systems and estimate the residual hazard involved with such systems is shown. References Badger, T.C., Duffy, J.D. (2012) Drapery systems. In: Turner, A.K., Schuster R

  20. Discrete stochastic processes and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Collet, Jean-François

    2018-01-01

    This unique text for beginning graduate students gives a self-contained introduction to the mathematical properties of stochastics and presents their applications to Markov processes, coding theory, population dynamics, and search engine design. The book is ideal for a newly designed course in an introduction to probability and information theory. Prerequisites include working knowledge of linear algebra, calculus, and probability theory. The first part of the text focuses on the rigorous theory of Markov processes on countable spaces (Markov chains) and provides the basis to developing solid probabilistic intuition without the need for a course in measure theory. The approach taken is gradual beginning with the case of discrete time and moving on to that of continuous time. The second part of this text is more applied; its core introduces various uses of convexity in probability and presents a nice treatment of entropy.

  1. Regional Innovation Clusters

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — The Regional Innovation Clusters serve a diverse group of sectors and geographies. Three of the initial pilot clusters, termed Advanced Defense Technology clusters,...

  2. DISCRETE ELEMENT MODELLING OF THE COMPRESSIVE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Discrete element modelling is a numerical method capable of tracking the movement of individual objects within a bulk system and compute the resulting force and deformation as well as other parameters. The Discrete Element Method (DEM) has been used in this study to investigate the deformation of individual particles ...

  3. Geometry and Hamiltonian mechanics on discrete spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talasila, V.; Clemente-Gallardo, J.; Schaft, A.J. van der

    2004-01-01

    Numerical simulation is often crucial for analysing the behaviour of many complex systems which do not admit analytic solutions. To this end, one either converts a ‘smooth’ model into a discrete (in space and time) model, or models systems directly at a discrete level. The goal of this paper is to

  4. Discrete/PWM Ballast-Resistor Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Roger J.

    1994-01-01

    Circuit offers low switching loss and automatic compensation for failure of ballast resistor. Discrete/PWM ballast-resistor controller improved shunt voltage-regulator circuit designed to supply power from high-resistance source to low-impedance bus. Provides both coarse discrete voltage levels (by switching of ballast resistors) and continuous fine control of voltage via pulse-width modulation.

  5. Discrete Fourier analysis of multigrid algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vegt, Jacobus J.W.; Rhebergen, Sander

    2011-01-01

    The main topic of this report is a detailed discussion of the discrete Fourier multilevel analysis of multigrid algorithms. First, a brief overview of multigrid methods is given for discretizations of both linear and nonlinear partial differential equations. Special attention is given to the

  6. Discretization vs. Rounding Error in Euler's Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Carlos F.

    2011-01-01

    Euler's method for solving initial value problems is an excellent vehicle for observing the relationship between discretization error and rounding error in numerical computation. Reductions in stepsize, in order to decrease discretization error, necessarily increase the number of steps and so introduce additional rounding error. The problem is…

  7. Geometry and Hamiltonian mechanics on discrete spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talasila, V; Clemente-Gallardo, J; Schaft, A J van der

    2004-01-01

    Numerical simulation is often crucial for analysing the behaviour of many complex systems which do not admit analytic solutions. To this end, one either converts a 'smooth' model into a discrete (in space and time) model, or models systems directly at a discrete level. The goal of this paper is to provide a discrete analogue of differential geometry, and to define on these discrete models a formal discrete Hamiltonian structure-in doing so we try to bring together various fundamental concepts from numerical analysis, differential geometry, algebraic geometry, simplicial homology and classical Hamiltonian mechanics. For example, the concept of a twisted derivation is borrowed from algebraic geometry for developing a discrete calculus. The theory is applied to a nonlinear pendulum and we compare the dynamics obtained through a discrete modelling approach with the dynamics obtained via the usual discretization procedures. Also an example of an energy-conserving algorithm on a simple harmonic oscillator is presented, and its effect on the Poisson structure is discussed

  8. Discrete Riccati equation solutions: Distributed algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Lainiotis

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper new distributed algorithms for the solution of the discrete Riccati equation are introduced. The algorithms are used to provide robust and computational efficient solutions to the discrete Riccati equation. The proposed distributed algorithms are theoretically interesting and computationally attractive.

  9. Cuspidal discrete series for semisimple symmetric spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nils Byrial; Flensted-Jensen, Mogens; Schlichtkrull, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    We propose a notion of cusp forms on semisimple symmetric spaces. We then study the real hyperbolic spaces in detail, and show that there exists both cuspidal and non-cuspidal discrete series. In particular, we show that all the spherical discrete series are non-cuspidal. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All...

  10. Current Density and Continuity in Discretized Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boykin, Timothy B.; Luisier, Mathieu; Klimeck, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    Discrete approaches have long been used in numerical modelling of physical systems in both research and teaching. Discrete versions of the Schrodinger equation employing either one or several basis functions per mesh point are often used by senior undergraduates and beginning graduate students in computational physics projects. In studying…

  11. Variance Swap Replication: Discrete or Continuous?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Le Floc’h

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The popular replication formula to price variance swaps assumes continuity of traded option strikes. In practice, however, there is only a discrete set of option strikes traded on the market. We present here different discrete replication strategies and explain why the continuous replication price is more relevant.

  12. Geometry and Hamiltonian mechanics on discrete spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talasila, V.; Clemente Gallardo, J.J.; Clemente-Gallardo, J.; van der Schaft, Arjan

    2004-01-01

    Numerical simulation is often crucial for analysing the behaviour of many complex systems which do not admit analytic solutions. To this end, one either converts a 'smooth' model into a discrete (in space and time) model, or models systems directly at a discrete level. The goal of this paper is to

  13. Handbook on modelling for discrete optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Pitsoulis, Leonidas; Williams, H

    2006-01-01

    The primary objective underlying the Handbook on Modelling for Discrete Optimization is to demonstrate and detail the pervasive nature of Discrete Optimization. While its applications cut across an incredibly wide range of activities, many of the applications are only known to specialists. It is the aim of this handbook to correct this. It has long been recognized that "modelling" is a critically important mathematical activity in designing algorithms for solving these discrete optimization problems. Nevertheless solving the resultant models is also often far from straightforward. In recent years it has become possible to solve many large-scale discrete optimization problems. However, some problems remain a challenge, even though advances in mathematical methods, hardware, and software technology have pushed the frontiers forward. This handbook couples the difficult, critical-thinking aspects of mathematical modeling with the hot area of discrete optimization. It will be done in an academic handbook treatment...

  14. Broadband pH-Sensing Organic Transistors with Polymeric Sensing Layers Featuring Liquid Crystal Microdomains Encapsulated by Di-Block Copolymer Chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jooyeok; Song, Myeonghun; Jeong, Jaehoon; Nam, Sungho; Heo, Inseok; Park, Soo-Young; Kang, Inn-Kyu; Lee, Joon-Hyung; Kim, Hwajeong; Kim, Youngkyoo

    2016-09-14

    We report broadband pH-sensing organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) with the polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) sensing layers. The PDLC layers are prepared by spin-coating using ethanol solutions containing 4-cyano-4'-pentyl-biphenyl (5CB) and a diblock copolymer (PAA-b-PCBOA) that consists of LC-philic block [poly(4-cyano-biphenyl-4-oxyundecyl acrylate) (PCBOA)] and acrylic acid block [poly(acrylic acid) (PAA)]. The spin-coated sensing layers feature of 5CB microdomains (OFETs (PDLC-i-OFETs) can detect precisely and reproducibly a wide range of pH with only small amounts (10-40 μL) of analyte solutions in both static and dynamic perfusion modes. The positive drain current change is measured for acidic solutions (pH 7) result in the negative change of drain current. The drain current trend in the present PDLC-i-OFET devices is explained by the shrinking-expanding mechanism of the PAA chains in the diblock copolymer layers.

  15. Inhibition of VEGF-dependent angiogenesis by the anti-CD82 monoclonal antibody 4F9 through regulation of lipid raft microdomains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomura, Sayaka; Iwata, Satoshi; Hatano, Ryo [Division of Clinical Immunology, Advanced Clinical Research Center, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 108-8639 (Japan); Komiya, Eriko [Department of Therapy Development and Innovation for Immune Disorders and Cancers, Graduate School of Medicine, Juntendo University, 2-1-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8421 (Japan); Dang, Nam H. [Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of Florida, 1600 SW Archer Road- Box 100278, Room MSB M410A, Gainesville, FL, 32610 (United States); Iwao, Noriaki [Department of Hematology, School of Medicine, Juntendo University, 2-1-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8421 (Japan); Ohnuma, Kei, E-mail: kohnuma@juntendo.ac.jp [Department of Rheumatology and Allergy, IMSUT Hospital, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 108-8639 (Japan); Morimoto, Chikao [Division of Clinical Immunology, Advanced Clinical Research Center, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 108-8639 (Japan); Department of Rheumatology and Allergy, IMSUT Hospital, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 108-8639 (Japan)

    2016-05-20

    CD82 (also known as KAI1) belongs to the tetraspanin superfamily of type III transmembrane proteins, and is involved in regulating cell adhesion, migration and proliferation. In contrast to these well-established roles of CD82 in tumor biology, its function in endothelial cell (EC) activity and tumor angiogenesis is yet to be determined. In this study, we show that suppression of CD82 negatively regulates vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced angiogenesis. Moreover, we demonstrate that the anti-CD82 mAb 4F9 effectively inhibits phosphorylation of VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2), which is the principal mediator of the VEGF-induced angiogenic signaling process in tumor angiogenesis, by regulating the organization of the lipid raft microdomain signaling platform in human EC. Our present work therefore suggests that CD82 on EC is a potential target for anti-angiogenic therapy in VEGFR2-dependent tumor angiogenesis. -- Highlights: •Knockdown of CD82 decreases EC migration, proliferation and angiogenesis. •Anti-CD82 mAb 4F9 inhibits EC migration, proliferation and angiogenesis. •4F9 inhibits VEGFR2 phosphorylation via control of CD82 distribution in lipid rafts.

  16. Discrete frequency slice wavelet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhonghong; Tao, Ting; Jiang, Zhongwei; Wang, Haibin

    2017-11-01

    This paper introduces a new kind of Time-Frequency Representation (TFR) method called Discrete Frequency Slice Wavelet Transform (DFSWT). It is an improved version of Frequency Slice Wavelet Transform (FSWT). The previous researches on FSWT show that it is a new efficient TFR in an easy way without strict limitation as traditional wavelet theory. DFSWT as well as FSWT are defined directly in frequency domain, and still keep its properties in time-frequency domain as FSWT decomposition, reconstruction and filter design, etc. However, the original signal is decomposed and reconstructed on a Chosen Frequency Domains (CFD) as need of application. CFD means that the decomposition and reconstruction are not completed on all frequency components. At first, it is important to discuss the necessary condition of CFD to reconstruct the original signal. And then based on norm l2, an optimization algorithm is introduced to reconstruct the original signal even accurately. Finally, for a test example, the TFR analysis of a real life signal is shown. Some conclusions are drawn that the concept of CFD is very useful to application, and the DFSWT can become a simple and easy tool of TFR method, and also provide a new idea of low speed sampling of high frequency signal in applications.

  17. Succinct Sampling from Discrete Distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bringmann, Karl; Larsen, Kasper Green

    2013-01-01

    We revisit the classic problem of sampling from a discrete distribution: Given n non-negative w-bit integers x_1,...,x_n, the task is to build a data structure that allows sampling i with probability proportional to x_i. The classic solution is Walker's alias method that takes, when implemented...... on a Word RAM, O(n) preprocessing time, O(1) expected query time for one sample, and n(w+2 lg n+o(1)) bits of space. Using the terminology of succinct data structures, this solution has redundancy 2n lg n+o(n) bits, i.e., it uses 2n lg n+o(n) bits in addition to the information theoretic minimum required...... requirement of the classic solution for a fundamental sampling problem, on the other hand, they provide the strongest known separation between the systematic and non-systematic case for any data structure problem. Finally, we also believe our upper bounds are practically efficient and simpler than Walker...

  18. Compatible Spatial Discretizations for Partial Differential Equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, Douglas, N, ed.

    2004-11-25

    From May 11--15, 2004, the Institute for Mathematics and its Applications held a hot topics workshop on Compatible Spatial Discretizations for Partial Differential Equations. The numerical solution of partial differential equations (PDE) is a fundamental task in science and engineering. The goal of the workshop was to bring together a spectrum of scientists at the forefront of the research in the numerical solution of PDEs to discuss compatible spatial discretizations. We define compatible spatial discretizations as those that inherit or mimic fundamental properties of the PDE such as topology, conservation, symmetries, and positivity structures and maximum principles. A wide variety of discretization methods applied across a wide range of scientific and engineering applications have been designed to or found to inherit or mimic intrinsic spatial structure and reproduce fundamental properties of the solution of the continuous PDE model at the finite dimensional level. A profusion of such methods and concepts relevant to understanding them have been developed and explored: mixed finite element methods, mimetic finite differences, support operator methods, control volume methods, discrete differential forms, Whitney forms, conservative differencing, discrete Hodge operators, discrete Helmholtz decomposition, finite integration techniques, staggered grid and dual grid methods, etc. This workshop seeks to foster communication among the diverse groups of researchers designing, applying, and studying such methods as well as researchers involved in practical solution of large scale problems that may benefit from advancements in such discretizations; to help elucidate the relations between the different methods and concepts; and to generally advance our understanding in the area of compatible spatial discretization methods for PDE. Particular points of emphasis included: + Identification of intrinsic properties of PDE models that are critical for the fidelity of numerical

  19. On the definition of discrete hydrodynamic variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Español, Pep; Zúñiga, Ignacio

    2009-10-01

    The Green-Kubo formula for discrete hydrodynamic variables involves information about not only the fluid transport coefficients but also about discrete versions of the differential operators that govern the evolution of the discrete variables. This gives an intimate connection between discretization procedures in fluid dynamics and coarse-graining procedures used to obtain hydrodynamic behavior of molecular fluids. We observed that a natural definition of discrete hydrodynamic variables in terms of Voronoi cells leads to a Green-Kubo formula which is divergent, rendering the full coarse-graining strategy useless. In order to understand this subtle issue, in the present paper we consider the coarse graining of noninteracting Brownian particles. The discrete hydrodynamic variable for this problem is the number of particles within Voronoi cells. Thanks to the simplicity of the model we spot the origin of the singular behavior of the correlation functions. We offer an alternative definition, based on the concept of a Delaunay cell that behaves properly, suggesting the use of the Delaunay construction for the coarse graining of molecular fluids at the discrete hydrodynamic level.

  20. Higher dimensional discrete Cheeger inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gundert

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For graphs there exists a strong connection between spectral and combinatorial expansion properties. This is expressed, e.g., by the discrete Cheeger inequality, the lower bound of which states that $\\lambda(G \\leq h(G$, where $\\lambda(G$ is the second smallest eigenvalue of the Laplacian of a graph $G$ and $h(G$ is the Cheeger constant measuring the edge expansion of $G$. We are interested in generalizations of expansion properties to finite simplicial complexes of higher dimension (or uniform hypergraphs. Whereas higher dimensional Laplacians were introduced already in 1945 by Eckmann, the generalization of edge expansion to simplicial complexes is not straightforward. Recently, a topologically motivated notion analogous to edge expansion that is based on $\\mathbb{Z}_2$-cohomology was introduced by Gromov and independently by Linial, Meshulam and Wallach. It is known that for this generalization there is no direct higher dimensional analogue of the lower bound of the Cheeger inequality. A different, combinatorially motivated generalization of the Cheeger constant, denoted by $h(X$, was studied by Parzanchevski, Rosenthal and Tessler. They showed that indeed $\\lambda(X \\leq h(X$, where $\\lambda(X$ is the smallest non-trivial eigenvalue of the ($(k-1$-dimensional upper Laplacian, for the case of $k$-dimensional simplicial complexes $X$ with complete $(k-1$-skeleton. Whether this inequality also holds for $k$-dimensional complexes with non-com\\-plete$(k-1$-skeleton has been an open question.We give two proofs of the inequality for arbitrary complexes. The proofs differ strongly in the methods and structures employed,and each allows for a different kind of additional strengthening of the original result.

  1. Thermodynamics of discrete-charge quantum circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utreras-Díaz, C.A., E-mail: cutreras@uach.cl [Instituto de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Austral de Chile, Campus Isla Teja s/n, Casilla 567, Valdivia (Chile); Laroze, D., E-mail: dlarozen@uta.cl [Instituto de Alta Investigación, Universidad de Tarapacá, Casilla 7D, Arica (Chile); SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-01

    We study a dilute gas made of quantum circuits with discrete charge, interacting with a thermal reservoir at absolute temperature T, using Boltzmann statistics. This system is described by a quantum Hamiltonian that explicitly includes the effect of the discrete nature of the electric charge within a circuit approach. The eigenfunctions can be expressed as solutions of the Mathieu equation, and the energy spectrum is related to its characteristic values. We also make a comparative numerical study of the thermal properties, between the quantum case with discrete charge, and the so-called semiclassical approximation.

  2. Discrete Flavour Symmetries from the Heisenberg Group

    CERN Document Server

    Floratos, E.G.

    2016-01-01

    Non-abelian discrete symmetries are of particular importance in model building. They are mainly invoked to explain the various fermion mass hierarchies and forbid dangerous superpotential terms. In string models they are usually associated to the geometry of the compactification manifold and more particularly to the magnetised branes in toroidal compactifications. Motivated by these facts, in this note we propose a unified framework to construct representations of finite discrete family groups based on the automorphisms of the discrete and finite Heisenberg group. We focus in particular in the $PSL_2(p)$ groups which contain the phenomenologically interesting cases.

  3. Discrete-Time Biomedical Signal Encryption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Grigoraş

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Chaotic modulation is a strong method of improving communication security. Analog and discrete chaotic systems are presented in actual literature. Due to the expansion of digital communication, discrete-time systems become more efficient and closer to actual technology. The present contribution offers an in-depth analysis of the effects chaos encryption produce on 1D and 2D biomedical signals. The performed simulations show that modulating signals are precisely recovered by the synchronizing receiver if discrete systems are digitally implemented and the coefficients precisely correspond. Channel noise is also applied and its effects on biomedical signal demodulation are highlighted.

  4. Ensemble simulations with discrete classical dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toxværd, Søren

    2013-01-01

    {E}(h)$ is employed to determine the relation with the corresponding energy, $E$ for the analytic dynamics with $h=0$ and the zero-order estimate $E_0(h)$ of the energy for discrete dynamics, appearing in the literature for MD with VA. We derive a corresponding time reversible VA algorithm for canonical dynamics......For discrete classical Molecular dynamics (MD) obtained by the "Verlet" algorithm (VA) with the time increment $h$ there exist a shadow Hamiltonian $\\tilde{H}$ with energy $\\tilde{E}(h)$, for which the discrete particle positions lie on the analytic trajectories for $\\tilde{H}$. $\\tilde...

  5. Discrete Tomography and Imaging of Polycrystalline Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alpers, Andreas

    Laboratory for Sustainable Energy), for instance, we study polycrystalline materials via synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Several reconstruction problems arise, most of them exhibit inherently discrete aspects. In this talk I want to give a concise mathematical introduction to some of these reconstruction...... problems. Special focus is on their relationship to classical discrete tomography. Several open mathematical questions will be mentioned along the way.......High resolution transmission electron microscopy is commonly considered as the standard application for discrete tomography. While this has yet to be technically realized, new applications with a similar flavor have emerged in materials science. In our group at Ris� DTU (Denmark's National...

  6. Hairs of discrete symmetries and gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Sin Choi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Gauge symmetries are known to be respected by gravity because gauge charges carry flux lines, but global charges do not carry flux lines and are not conserved by gravitational interaction. For discrete symmetries, they are spontaneously broken in the Universe, forming domain walls. Since the realization of discrete symmetries in the Universe must involve the vacuum expectation values of Higgs fields, a string-like configuration (hair at the intersection of domain walls in the Higgs vacua can be realized. Therefore, we argue that discrete charges are also respected by gravity.

  7. Hairs of discrete symmetries and gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kang Sin [Scranton Honors Program, Ewha Womans University, Seodaemun-Gu, Seoul 03760 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Fields, Gravity and Strings, CTPU, Institute for Basic Sciences, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 34047 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jihn E., E-mail: jihnekim@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Kyung Hee University, 26 Gyungheedaero, Dongdaemun-Gu, Seoul 02447 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research (IBS), 291 Daehakro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); Kyae, Bumseok [Department of Physics, Pusan National University, 2 Busandaehakro-63-Gil, Geumjeong-Gu, Busan 46241 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Soonkeon [Department of Physics, Kyung Hee University, 26 Gyungheedaero, Dongdaemun-Gu, Seoul 02447 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-10

    Gauge symmetries are known to be respected by gravity because gauge charges carry flux lines, but global charges do not carry flux lines and are not conserved by gravitational interaction. For discrete symmetries, they are spontaneously broken in the Universe, forming domain walls. Since the realization of discrete symmetries in the Universe must involve the vacuum expectation values of Higgs fields, a string-like configuration (hair) at the intersection of domain walls in the Higgs vacua can be realized. Therefore, we argue that discrete charges are also respected by gravity.

  8. Heavy hitters via cluster-preserving clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kasper Green; Nelson, Jelani; Nguyen, Huy L.

    2016-01-01

    , providing correctness whp. In fact, a simpler version of our algorithm for p = 1 in the strict turnstile model answers queries even faster than the "dyadic trick" by roughly a log n factor, dominating it in all regards. Our main innovation is an efficient reduction from the heavy hitters to a clustering...... problem in which each heavy hitter is encoded as some form of noisy spectral cluster in a much bigger graph, and the goal is to identify every cluster. Since every heavy hitter must be found, correctness requires that every cluster be found. We thus need a "cluster-preserving clustering" algorithm......, that partitions the graph into clusters with the promise of not destroying any original cluster. To do this we first apply standard spectral graph partitioning, and then we use some novel combinatorial techniques to modify the cuts obtained so as to make sure that the original clusters are sufficiently preserved...

  9. Discrete neurocognitive subgroups in fully or partially remitted bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Johan Høy; Knorr, Ulla; Vinberg, Maj

    2016-01-01

    controls. Hierarchical cluster analysis was conducted to determine whether there are discrete neurocognitive subgroups in bipolar disorder. The pattern of the cognitive deficits and the characteristics of patients in these neurocognitive subgroups were examined with analyses of covariance and least......BACKGROUND: Neurocognitive impairment in remitted patients with bipolar disorder contributes to functional disabilities. However, the pattern and impact of these deficits are unclear. METHODS: We pooled data from 193 fully or partially remitted patients with bipolar disorder and 110 healthy...... was cross-sectional which limits inferences regarding the causality of the findings. CONCLUSION: Globally and selectively impaired bipolar disorder patients displayed more functional disabilities than those who were cognitively intact. The present findings highlight a clinical need to systematically screen...

  10. Comparing the Discrete and Continuous Logistic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Sheldon P.

    2008-01-01

    The solutions of the discrete logistic growth model based on a difference equation and the continuous logistic growth model based on a differential equation are compared and contrasted. The investigation is conducted using a dynamic interactive spreadsheet. (Contains 5 figures.)

  11. Can time be a discrete dynamical variable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.D.

    1983-01-01

    The possibility that time can be regarded as a discrete dynamical variable is examined through all phases of mechanics: from classical mechanics to nonrelativistic quantum mechanics, and to relativistic quantum field theories. (orig.)

  12. Breatherlike impurity modes in discrete nonlinear lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hennig, D.; Rasmussen, Kim; Tsironis, G. P.

    1995-01-01

    We investigate the properties of a disordered generalized discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equation, containing both diagonal and nondiagonal nonlinear terms. The equation models a Linear host lattice doped with nonlinear impurities. We find different types of impurity states that form itinerant...

  13. Confining and Structuring Discretion: Discretionary Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kenneth Culp

    1971-01-01

    Locate the injustice in our entire government and legal system in order to best improve the quality of justice to individuals where decisions are made by discretion and not by rule or principles. (Editor/IR)

  14. Running Parallel Discrete Event Simulators on Sierra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, P. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Jefferson, D. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-12-03

    In this proposal we consider porting the ROSS/Charm++ simulator and the discrete event models that run under its control so that they run on the Sierra architecture and make efficient use of the Volta GPUs.

  15. Quotient of manifolds by discrete groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardalan, F.; Arfaei, H.

    1985-09-01

    Quotient of manifolds by discrete subgroups of their isometry group are considered. In particular, symmetry breaking due to the quotient structure, topological properties and harmonic analysis of the resultant manifolds are discussed and illustrated by two dimensional examples. (author)

  16. Memorized discrete systems and time-delay

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Albert C J

    2017-01-01

    This book examines discrete dynamical systems with memory—nonlinear systems that exist extensively in biological organisms and financial and economic organizations, and time-delay systems that can be discretized into the memorized, discrete dynamical systems. It book further discusses stability and bifurcations of time-delay dynamical systems that can be investigated through memorized dynamical systems as well as bifurcations of memorized nonlinear dynamical systems, discretization methods of time-delay systems, and periodic motions to chaos in nonlinear time-delay systems. The book helps readers find analytical solutions of MDS, change traditional perturbation analysis in time-delay systems, detect motion complexity and singularity in MDS; and determine stability, bifurcation, and chaos in any time-delay system.

  17. On organizing principles of discrete differential geometry. Geometry of spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobenko, Alexander I; Suris, Yury B

    2007-01-01

    Discrete differential geometry aims to develop discrete equivalents of the geometric notions and methods of classical differential geometry. This survey contains a discussion of the following two fundamental discretization principles: the transformation group principle (smooth geometric objects and their discretizations are invariant with respect to the same transformation group) and the consistency principle (discretizations of smooth parametrized geometries can be extended to multidimensional consistent nets). The main concrete geometric problem treated here is discretization of curvature-line parametrized surfaces in Lie geometry. Systematic use of the discretization principles leads to a discretization of curvature-line parametrization which unifies circular and conical nets.

  18. Homogeneous hierarchies: A discrete analogue to the wavelet-based multiresolution approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirkin, B. [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    1996-12-31

    A correspondence between discrete binary hierarchies and some orthonormal bases of the n-dimensional Euclidean space can be applied to such problems as clustering, ordering, identifying/testing in very large data bases, or multiresolution image/signal processing. The latter issue is considered in the paper. The binary hierarchy based multiresolution theory is expected to lead to effective methods for data processing because of relaxing the regularity restrictions of the classical theory.

  19. Definable maximal discrete sets in forcing extensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Törnquist, Asger Dag; Schrittesser, David

    2018-01-01

    Let  be a Σ11 binary relation, and recall that a set A is -discrete if no two elements of A are related by . We show that in the Sacks and Miller forcing extensions of L there is a Δ12 maximal -discrete set. We use this to answer in the negative the main question posed in [5] by showing...

  20. Nonlinear integrodifferential equations as discrete systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamizhmani, K. M.; Satsuma, J.; Grammaticos, B.; Ramani, A.

    1999-06-01

    We analyse a class of integrodifferential equations of the `intermediate long wave' (ILW) type. We show that these equations can be formally interpreted as discrete, differential-difference systems. This allows us to link equations of this type with previous results of ours involving differential-delay equations and, on the basis of this, propose new integrable equations of ILW type. Finally, we extend this approach to pure difference equations and propose ILW forms for the discrete lattice KdV equation.

  1. 't Hooft anomaly matching for discrete symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csaki, C.; Murayama, Hitoshi; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA

    1998-05-01

    The authors show how to extend the 't Hooft anomaly matching conditions to discrete symmetries. They check these discrete anomally matching conditions on several proposed low-energy spectra of certain strongly interacting gauge theories. The excluded examples include the proposed chirally symmetric vacuum of pure N = 1 supersymmetric yang-Mills theories, certain non-supersymmetric confining theories and some self-dual N = 1 supersymmetric theories based on exceptional groups

  2. Quadratic Term Structure Models in Discrete Time

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Realdon

    2006-01-01

    This paper extends the results on quadratic term structure models in continuos time to the discrete time setting. The continuos time setting can be seen as a special case of the discrete time one. Recursive closed form solutions for zero coupon bonds are provided even in the presence of multiple correlated underlying factors. Pricing bond options requires simple integration. Model parameters may well be time dependent without scuppering such tractability. Model estimation does not require a r...

  3. Discrete symmetries and solar neutrino mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapetanakis, D.; Mayr, P.; Nilles, H.P. (Physik Dept., Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany) Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Physik, Werner-Heisenberg-Inst., Muenchen (Germany))

    1992-05-21

    We study the question of resonant solar neutrino mixing in the framework of the supersymmetric extension of the standard model. Discrete symmetries that are consistent with solar neutrino mixing and proton stability are classified. In the minimal model they are shown to lead to two distinct patterns of allowed dimension-four operators. Imposing anomaly freedom, only three different discrete Z{sub N}-symmetries (with N=2, 3, 6) are found to be phenomenologically acceptable. (orig.).

  4. Discrete symmetries and solar neutrino mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapetanakis, D.; Mayr, P.; Nilles, H.P.

    1992-01-01

    We study the question of resonant solar neutrino mixing in the framework of the supersymmetric extension of the standard model. Discrete symmetries that are consistent with solar neutrino mixing and proton stability are classified. In the minimal model they are shown to lead to two distinct patterns of allowed dimension-four operators. Imposing anomaly freedom, only three different discrete Z N -symmetries (with N=2, 3, 6) are found to be phenomenologically acceptable. (orig.)

  5. Discrete symmetries and coset space dimensional reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapetanakis, D.; Zoupanos, G.

    1989-01-01

    We consider the discrete symmetries of all the six-dimensional coset spaces and we apply them in gauge theories defined in ten dimensions which are dimensionally reduced over these homogeneous spaces. Particular emphasis is given in the consequences of the discrete symmetries on the particle content as well as on the symmetry breaking a la Hosotani of the resulting four-dimensional theory. (orig.)

  6. On discrete models of space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horzela, A.; Kempczynski, J.; Kapuscik, E.; Georgia Univ., Athens, GA; Uzes, Ch.

    1992-02-01

    Analyzing the Einstein radiolocation method we come to the conclusion that results of any measurement of space-time coordinates should be expressed in terms of rational numbers. We show that this property is Lorentz invariant and may be used in the construction of discrete models of space-time different from the models of the lattice type constructed in the process of discretization of continuous models. (author)

  7. Application of multivariate splines to discrete mathematics

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Zhiqiang

    2005-01-01

    Using methods developed in multivariate splines, we present an explicit formula for discrete truncated powers, which are defined as the number of non-negative integer solutions of linear Diophantine equations. We further use the formula to study some classical problems in discrete mathematics as follows. First, we extend the partition function of integers in number theory. Second, we exploit the relation between the relative volume of convex polytopes and multivariate truncated powers and giv...

  8. Discrete exterior calculus discretization of incompressible Navier–Stokes equations over surface simplicial meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Mohamed, Mamdouh S.

    2016-02-11

    A conservative discretization of incompressible Navier–Stokes equations is developed based on discrete exterior calculus (DEC). A distinguishing feature of our method is the use of an algebraic discretization of the interior product operator and a combinatorial discretization of the wedge product. The governing equations are first rewritten using the exterior calculus notation, replacing vector calculus differential operators by the exterior derivative, Hodge star and wedge product operators. The discretization is then carried out by substituting with the corresponding discrete operators based on the DEC framework. Numerical experiments for flows over surfaces reveal a second order accuracy for the developed scheme when using structured-triangular meshes, and first order accuracy for otherwise unstructured meshes. By construction, the method is conservative in that both mass and vorticity are conserved up to machine precision. The relative error in kinetic energy for inviscid flow test cases converges in a second order fashion with both the mesh size and the time step.

  9. Dynamics of globular cluster systems in elliptical galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romanowsky, AJ; Geisler, D; Grebel, EK; Minniti, D

    2002-01-01

    One of the most promising avenues for exploring the dynamics of the outer parts of elliptical galaxies involves using bright discrete objects as kinematical tracers: globular clusters and planetary nebulae. As large data sets are becoming available, rigorous dynamical analyses are needed to

  10. Theoretical Basics of Teaching Discrete Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Perminov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available  The paper deals with the research findings concerning the process of mastering the theoretical basics of discrete mathematics by the students of vocational pedagogic profile. The methodological analysis is based on the subject and functions of the modern discrete mathematics and its role in mathematical modeling and computing. The modern discrete mathematics (i.e. mathematics of the finite type structures plays the important role in modernization of vocational training. It is especially rele- vant to training students for vocational pedagogic qualifications, as in the future they will be responsible for training the middle and the senior level specialists in engineer- ing and technical spheres. Nowadays in different industries, there arise the problems which require for their solving both continual – based on the classical mathematical methods – and discrete modeling. The teaching course of discrete mathematics for the future vocational teachers should be relevant to the target qualification and aimed at mastering the mathematical modeling, systems of computer mathematics and computer technologies. The author emphasizes the fundamental role of mastering the language of algebraic and serial structures, as well as the logical, algorithmic, combinatory schemes dominating in dis- crete mathematics. The guidelines for selecting the content of the course in discrete mathematics are specified. The theoretical findings of the research can be put into practice whilst developing curricula and working programs for bachelors and masters’ training. 

  11. Recent developments in discrete ordinates electron transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, J.E.; Lorence, L.J. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The discrete ordinates method is a deterministic method for numerically solving the Boltzmann equation. It was originally developed for neutron transport calculations, but is routinely used for photon and coupled neutron-photon transport calculations as well. The computational state of the art for coupled electron-photon transport (CEPT) calculations is not as developed as that for neutron transport calculations. The only production codes currently available for CEPT calculations are condensed-history Monte Carlo codes such as the ETRAN and ITS codes. A deterministic capability for production calculations is clearly needed. In response to this need, we have begun the development of a production discrete ordinates code for CEPT calculations. The purpose of this paper is to describe the basic approach we are taking, discuss the current status of the project, and present some new computational results. Although further characterization of the coupled electron-photon discrete ordinates method remains to be done, the results to date indicate that the discrete ordinates method can be just as accurate and from 10 to 100 times faster than the Monte Carlo method for a wide variety of problems. We stress that these results are obtained with standard discrete ordinates codes such as ONETRAN. It is clear that even greater efficiency can be obtained by developing a new generation of production discrete ordinates codes specifically designed to solve the Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck equation. However, the prospects for such development in the near future appear to be remote

  12. Discrete modeling considerations in multiphase fluid dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ransom, V.H.; Ramshaw, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    The modeling of multiphase flows play a fundamental role in light water reactor safety. The main ingredients in our discrete modeling Weltanschauung are the following considerations: (1) Any physical model must be cast into discrete form for a digital computer. (2) The usual approach of formulating models in differential form and then discretizing them is potentially hazardous. It may be preferable to formulate the model in discrete terms from the outset. (3) Computer time and storage constraints limit the resolution that can be employed in practical calculations. These limits effectively define the physical phenomena, length scales, and time scales which cannot be directly represented in the calculation and therefore must be modeled. This information should be injected into the model formulation process at an early stage. (4) Practical resolution limits are generally so coarse that traditional convergence and truncation-error analyses become irrelevant. (5) A discrete model constitutes a reduced description of a physical system, from which fine-scale details are eliminated. This elimination creates a statistical closure problem. Methods from statistical physics may therefore be useful in the formulation of discrete models. In the present paper we elaborate on these themes and illustrate them with simple examples. 48 refs

  13. Discrete symmetries and their stringy origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayorga Pena, Damian Kaloni

    2014-05-01

    Discrete symmetries have proven to be very useful in controlling the phenomenology of theories beyond the standard model. In this work we explore how these symmetries emerge from string compactifications. Our approach is twofold: On the one hand, we consider the heterotic string on orbifold backgrounds. In this case the discrete symmetries can be derived from the orbifold conformal field theory, and it can be shown that they are in close relation with the orbifold geometry. We devote special attention to R-symmetries, which arise from discrete remnants of the Lorentz group in compact space. Further we discuss the physical implications of these symmetries both in the heterotic mini-landscape and in newly constructed models based on the Z 2 x Z 4 orbifold. In both cases we observe that the discrete symmetries favor particular locations in the orbifold where the particles of standard model should live. On the other hand we consider a class of F-theory models exhibiting an SU(5) gauge group, times additional U(1) symmetries. In this case, the smooth compactification background does not permit us to track the discrete symmetries as transparently as in orbifold models. Hence, we follow a different approach and search for discrete subgroups emerging after the U(1)s are broken. We observe that in this approach it is possible to obtain the standard Z 2 matter parity of the MSSM.

  14. Scavenger Receptor SREC-I Mediated Entry of TLR4 into Lipid Microdomains and Triggered Inflammatory Cytokine Release in RAW 264.7 Cells upon LPS Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murshid, Ayesha; Gong, Jianlin; Prince, Thomas; Borges, Thiago J.; Calderwood, Stuart K.

    2015-01-01

    Scavenger receptor associated with endothelial cells I (SREC-I) was shown to be expressed in immune cells and to play a role in the endocytosis of peptides and antigen presentation. As our previous studies indicated that SREC-I required intact Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression for its functions in tumor immunity, we examined potential interactions between these two receptors. We have shown here that SREC-I became associated with TLR4 on binding bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in RAW 264.7 and HEK 293 cells overexpressing these two receptors. The receptors then became internalized together in intracellular endosomes. SREC-I promoted TLR4-induced signal transduction through the NF-kB and MAP kinase pathways, leading to enhanced inflammatory cytokine release. Activation of inflammatory signaling through SREC-I/TLR4 complexes appeared to involve recruitment of the receptors into detergent-insoluble, cholesterol-rich lipid microdomains that contained the small GTPase Cdc42 and the non-receptor tyrosine kinase c-src. Under conditions of SREC-I activation by LPS, TLR4 activity required Cdc42 as well as cholesterol and actin polymerization for signaling through NF-kB and MAP kinase pathways in RAW 264.7 cells. SREC-I appeared to respond differently to another ligand, the molecular chaperone Hsp90 that, while triggering SREC-I-TLR4 binding caused only faint activation of the NF-kB pathway. Our experiments therefore indicated that SREC-I could bind LPS and might be involved in innate inflammatory immune responses to extracellular danger signals in RAW 264.7 cells or bone marrow-derived macrophages. PMID:25836976

  15. Kinetic analysis of antagonist-occupied adenosine-A3 receptors within membrane microdomains of individual cells provides evidence of receptor dimerization and allosterism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corriden, Ross; Kilpatrick, Laura E; Kellam, Barrie; Briddon, Stephen J; Hill, Stephen J

    2014-10-01

    In our previous work, using a fluorescent adenosine-A3 receptor (A3AR) agonist and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), we demonstrated high-affinity labeling of the active receptor (R*) conformation. In the current study, we used a fluorescent A3AR antagonist (CA200645) to study the binding characteristics of antagonist-occupied inactive receptor (R) conformations in membrane microdomains of individual cells. FCS analysis of CA200645-occupied A3ARs revealed 2 species, τD2 and τD3, that diffused at 2.29 ± 0.35 and 0.09 ± 0.03 μm(2)/s, respectively. FCS analysis of a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged A3AR exhibited a single diffusing species (0.105 μm(2)/s). The binding of CA200645 to τD3 was antagonized by nanomolar concentrations of the A3 antagonist MRS 1220, but not by the agonist NECA (up to 300 nM), consistent with labeling of R. CA200645 normally dissociated slowly from the A3AR, but inclusion of xanthine amine congener (XAC) or VUF 5455 during washout markedly accelerated the reduction in the number of particles exhibiting τD3 characteristics. It is notable that this effect was accompanied by a significant increase in the number of particles with τD2 diffusion. These data show that FCS analysis of ligand-occupied receptors provides a unique means of monitoring ligand A3AR residence times that are significantly reduced as a consequence of allosteric interaction across the dimer interface © FASEB.

  16. Chemical graph-theoretic cluster expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    A general computationally amenable chemico-graph-theoretic cluster expansion method is suggested as a paradigm for incorporation of chemical structure concepts in a systematic manner. The cluster expansion approach is presented in a formalism general enough to cover a variety of empirical, semiempirical, and even ab initio applications. Formally such approaches for the utilization of chemical structure-related concepts may be viewed as discrete analogues of Taylor series expansions. The efficacy of the chemical structure concepts then is simply bound up in the rate of convergence of the cluster expansions. In many empirical applications, e.g., boiling points, chromatographic separation coefficients, and biological activities, this rate of convergence has been observed to be quite rapid. More note will be made here of quantum chemical applications. Relations to questions concerning size extensivity of energies and size consistency of wave functions are addressed

  17. Topics in modelling of clustered data

    CERN Document Server

    Aerts, Marc; Ryan, Louise M; Geys, Helena

    2002-01-01

    Many methods for analyzing clustered data exist, all with advantages and limitations in particular applications. Compiled from the contributions of leading specialists in the field, Topics in Modelling of Clustered Data describes the tools and techniques for modelling the clustered data often encountered in medical, biological, environmental, and social science studies. It focuses on providing a comprehensive treatment of marginal, conditional, and random effects models using, among others, likelihood, pseudo-likelihood, and generalized estimating equations methods. The authors motivate and illustrate all aspects of these models in a variety of real applications. They discuss several variations and extensions, including individual-level covariates and combined continuous and discrete outcomes. Flexible modelling with fractional and local polynomials, omnibus lack-of-fit tests, robustification against misspecification, exact, and bootstrap inferential procedures all receive extensive treatment. The application...

  18. Brightest Cluster Galaxies in REXCESS Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarsma, Deborah B.; Leisman, L.; Bruch, S.; Donahue, M.

    2009-01-01

    Most galaxy clusters contain a Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG) which is larger than the other cluster ellipticals and has a more extended profile. In the hierarchical model, the BCG forms through many galaxy mergers in the crowded center of the cluster, and thus its properties give insight into the assembly of the cluster as a whole. In this project, we are working with the Representative XMM-Newton Cluster Structure Survey (REXCESS) team (Boehringer et al 2007) to study BCGs in 33 X-ray luminous galaxy clusters, 0.055 < z < 0.183. We are imaging the BCGs in R band at the Southern Observatory for Astrophysical Research (SOAR) in Chile. In this poster, we discuss our methods and give preliminary measurements of the BCG magnitudes, morphology, and stellar mass. We compare these BCG properties with the properties of their host clusters, particularly of the X-ray emitting gas.

  19. Partitional clustering algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book summarizes the state-of-the-art in partitional clustering. Clustering, the unsupervised classification of patterns into groups, is one of the most important tasks in exploratory data analysis. Primary goals of clustering include gaining insight into, classifying, and compressing data. Clustering has a long and rich history that spans a variety of scientific disciplines including anthropology, biology, medicine, psychology, statistics, mathematics, engineering, and computer science. As a result, numerous clustering algorithms have been proposed since the early 1950s. Among these algorithms, partitional (nonhierarchical) ones have found many applications, especially in engineering and computer science. This book provides coverage of consensus clustering, constrained clustering, large scale and/or high dimensional clustering, cluster validity, cluster visualization, and applications of clustering. Examines clustering as it applies to large and/or high-dimensional data sets commonly encountered in reali...

  20. α2 and α3 helices of dystrophin R16 and R17 frame a microdomain in the α1 helix of dystrophin R17 for neuronal NOS binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yi; Zhao, Junling; Yue, Yongping; Duan, Dongsheng

    2013-01-01

    Homologous spectrin-like repeats can mediate specific protein interaction. The underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Dystrophin contains 24 spectrin-like repeats. However, only repeats 16 and 17 (R16/17) are required for anchoring neuronal NOS (nNOS) to the sarcolemma. Through an adeno-associated virus-based in vivo binding assay, we found that membrane expression of correctly phased R16/17 was sufficient to recruit nNOS to the sarcolemma in mouse muscle. Utrophin R15/16 is homologous to dystrophin R16/17. Substitution of dystrophin R16/17 microdomains with the corresponding regions of utrophin R15/16 suggests that the nNOS binding site is located in a 10-residue fragment in dystrophin R17 α1 helix. Interestingly, swapping this microdomain back into utrophin did not convey the nNOS binding activity. To identify other structural features that are required for nNOS interaction, we replaced an individual α-helix of dystrophin R16/17 with an equivalent α-helix from another dystrophin repeat. In vitro study with yeast two-hybrid suggests that most α-helices of R16/17, except for the R17 α1 helix, were dispensable for nNOS interaction. Surprisingly, in vivo binding assay showed that α2 and α3 helices of both R16 and R17 were essential for nNOS binding in muscle. We concluded that a microdomain in the α1 helix of dystrophin R17 binds to nNOS in a way uniquely defined by two pairs of the flanking helices. Our results provide an explanation for how structurally similar spectrin-like repeats in dystrophin display selective interaction with nNOS. The results also open new therapeutic avenues to restore defective nNOS homeostasis in dystrophin-null Duchenne muscular dystrophy. PMID:23185009

  1. Cationic and neutral copper (I) iodide cluster MOFs derived from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    By utilizing L¹, a cationic 2D-MOF {[(L¹) ₂ (Cu₆I₅)](OH) · 3DMF·4MeOH}n, 1 containing a rugby ball shaped discrete Cu₆I₅ cluster has been reported earlier. Formation of a new 3D-MOF {[(L²) ₂ (Cu₆I₄)](OH) ₂· 2DMF}n containing a Zintl type [(Cu₆I₄4) ² ⁺]n cluster chains is reported in this paper. A neutral cluster MOFs ...

  2. Diversity among galaxy clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struble, M.F.; Rood, H.J.

    1988-01-01

    The classification of galaxy clusters is discussed. Consideration is given to the classification scheme of Abell (1950's), Zwicky (1950's), Morgan, Matthews, and Schmidt (1964), and Morgan-Bautz (1970). Galaxies can be classified based on morphology, chemical composition, spatial distribution, and motion. The correlation between a galaxy's environment and morphology is examined. The classification scheme of Rood-Sastry (1971), which is based on clusters's morphology and galaxy population, is described. The six types of clusters they define include: (1) a cD-cluster dominated by a single large galaxy, (2) a cluster dominated by a binary, (3) a core-halo cluster, (4) a cluster dominated by several bright galaxies, (5) a cluster appearing flattened, and (6) an irregularly shaped cluster. Attention is also given to the evolution of cluster structures, which is related to initial density and cluster motion

  3. Discrete Feature Model (DFM) User Documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geier, Joel

    2008-06-01

    This manual describes the Discrete-Feature Model (DFM) software package for modelling groundwater flow and solute transport in networks of discrete features. A discrete-feature conceptual model represents fractures and other water-conducting features around a repository as discrete conductors surrounded by a rock matrix which is usually treated as impermeable. This approximation may be valid for crystalline rocks such as granite or basalt, which have very low permeability if macroscopic fractures are excluded. A discrete feature is any entity that can conduct water and permit solute transport through bedrock, and can be reasonably represented as a piecewise-planar conductor. Examples of such entities may include individual natural fractures (joints or faults), fracture zones, and disturbed-zone features around tunnels (e.g. blasting-induced fractures or stress-concentration induced 'onion skin' fractures around underground openings). In a more abstract sense, the effectively discontinuous nature of pathways through fractured crystalline bedrock may be idealized as discrete, equivalent transmissive features that reproduce large-scale observations, even if the details of connective paths (and unconnected domains) are not precisely known. A discrete-feature model explicitly represents the fundamentally discontinuous and irregularly connected nature of systems of such systems, by constraining flow and transport to occur only within such features and their intersections. Pathways for flow and solute transport in this conceptualization are a consequence not just of the boundary conditions and hydrologic properties (as with continuum models), but also the irregularity of connections between conductive/transmissive features. The DFM software package described here is an extensible code for investigating problems of flow and transport in geological (natural or human-altered) systems that can be characterized effectively in terms of discrete features. With this software, the

  4. Discrete Feature Model (DFM) User Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geier, Joel (Clearwater Hardrock Consulting, Corvallis, OR (United States))

    2008-06-15

    This manual describes the Discrete-Feature Model (DFM) software package for modelling groundwater flow and solute transport in networks of discrete features. A discrete-feature conceptual model represents fractures and other water-conducting features around a repository as discrete conductors surrounded by a rock matrix which is usually treated as impermeable. This approximation may be valid for crystalline rocks such as granite or basalt, which have very low permeability if macroscopic fractures are excluded. A discrete feature is any entity that can conduct water and permit solute transport through bedrock, and can be reasonably represented as a piecewise-planar conductor. Examples of such entities may include individual natural fractures (joints or faults), fracture zones, and disturbed-zone features around tunnels (e.g. blasting-induced fractures or stress-concentration induced 'onion skin' fractures around underground openings). In a more abstract sense, the effectively discontinuous nature of pathways through fractured crystalline bedrock may be idealized as discrete, equivalent transmissive features that reproduce large-scale observations, even if the details of connective paths (and unconnected domains) are not precisely known. A discrete-feature model explicitly represents the fundamentally discontinuous and irregularly connected nature of systems of such systems, by constraining flow and transport to occur only within such features and their intersections. Pathways for flow and solute transport in this conceptualization are a consequence not just of the boundary conditions and hydrologic properties (as with continuum models), but also the irregularity of connections between conductive/transmissive features. The DFM software package described here is an extensible code for investigating problems of flow and transport in geological (natural or human-altered) systems that can be characterized effectively in terms of discrete features. With this

  5. Convergence of posteriors for discretized log Gaussian Cox processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waagepetersen, Rasmus Plenge

    2004-01-01

    In Markov chain Monte Carlo posterior computation for log Gaussian Cox processes (LGCPs) a discretization of the continuously indexed Gaussian field is required. It is demonstrated that approximate posterior expectations computed from discretized LGCPs converge to the exact posterior expectations...... when the cell sizes of the discretization tends to zero. The effect of discretization is studied in a data example....

  6. Continuum limit of discrete Sommerfeld problems on square lattice

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A low-frequency approximation of the discrete Sommerfeld diffraction problems, involving the scattering of a time harmonic lattice wave incident on square lattice by a discrete Dirichlet or a discrete Neumann half-plane, is investigated. It is established that the exact solution of the discrete model converges to the solution of ...

  7. Positivity for Convective Semi-discretizations

    KAUST Repository

    Fekete, Imre

    2017-04-19

    We propose a technique for investigating stability properties like positivity and forward invariance of an interval for method-of-lines discretizations, and apply the technique to study positivity preservation for a class of TVD semi-discretizations of 1D scalar hyperbolic conservation laws. This technique is a generalization of the approach suggested in Khalsaraei (J Comput Appl Math 235(1): 137–143, 2010). We give more relaxed conditions on the time-step for positivity preservation for slope-limited semi-discretizations integrated in time with explicit Runge–Kutta methods. We show that the step-size restrictions derived are sharp in a certain sense, and that many higher-order explicit Runge–Kutta methods, including the classical 4th-order method and all non-confluent methods with a negative Butcher coefficient, cannot generally maintain positivity for these semi-discretizations under any positive step size. We also apply the proposed technique to centered finite difference discretizations of scalar hyperbolic and parabolic problems.

  8. Clusters of suicides and suicide attempts: detection, proximity and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Too, L S; Pirkis, J; Milner, A; Spittal, M J

    2017-10-01

    A suicide cluster is defined as a higher number of observed cases occurring in space and/or time than would typically be expected. Previous research has largely focused on identifying clusters of suicides, while there has been comparatively limited research on clusters of suicide attempts. We sought to identify clusters of both types of behaviour, and having done that, identify the factors that distinguish suicide attempts inside a cluster from those that were outside a cluster. We used data from Western Australia from 2000 to 2011. We defined suicide attempts as admissions to hospital for deliberate self-harm and suicides as deaths due to deliberate self-harm. Using an analytic strategy that accounted for the repetition of attempted suicide within a cluster, we performed spatial-temporal analysis using Poisson discrete scan statistics to detect clusters of suicide attempts and clusters of suicides. Logistic regression was then used to compare clustered attempts with non-clustered attempts to identify risk factors for an attempt being in a cluster. We detected 350 (1%) suicide attempts occurring within seven spatial-temporal clusters and 12 (0.6%) suicides occurring within two spatial-temporal clusters. Both of the suicide clusters were located within a larger but later suicide attempt cluster. In multivariate analysis, suicide attempts by individuals who lived in areas of low socioeconomic status had higher odds of being in a cluster than those living in areas of high socioeconomic status [odds ratio (OR) = 29.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 6.3-135.5]. A one percentage-point increase in the proportion of people who had changed address in the last year was associated with a 60% increase in the odds of the attempt being within a cluster (OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.29-1.98) and a one percentage-point increase in the proportion of Indigenous people in the area was associated with a 7% increase in the suicide being within a cluster (OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 1.00-1.13). Age

  9. Discrete Localized States and Localization Dynamics in Discrete Nonlinear Schrödinger Equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter Leth; Gaididei, Yu.B.; Mezentsev, V.K.

    1996-01-01

    Dynamics of two-dimensional discrete structures is studied in the framework of the generalized two-dimensional discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equation. The nonlinear coupling in the form of the Ablowitz-Ladik nonlinearity is taken into account. Stability properties of the stationary solutions...

  10. Modeling discrete time-to-event data

    CERN Document Server

    Tutz, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on statistical methods for the analysis of discrete failure times. Failure time analysis is one of the most important fields in statistical research, with applications affecting a wide range of disciplines, in particular, demography, econometrics, epidemiology and clinical research. Although there are a large variety of statistical methods for failure time analysis, many techniques are designed for failure times that are measured on a continuous scale. In empirical studies, however, failure times are often discrete, either because they have been measured in intervals (e.g., quarterly or yearly) or because they have been rounded or grouped. The book covers well-established methods like life-table analysis and discrete hazard regression models, but also introduces state-of-the art techniques for model evaluation, nonparametric estimation and variable selection. Throughout, the methods are illustrated by real life applications, and relationships to survival analysis in continuous time are expla...

  11. Designing perturbative metamaterials from discrete models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlack, Kathryn H; Serra-Garcia, Marc; Palermo, Antonio; Huber, Sebastian D; Daraio, Chiara

    2018-04-01

    Identifying material geometries that lead to metamaterials with desired functionalities presents a challenge for the field. Discrete, or reduced-order, models provide a concise description of complex phenomena, such as negative refraction, or topological surface states; therefore, the combination of geometric building blocks to replicate discrete models presenting the desired features represents a promising approach. However, there is no reliable way to solve such an inverse problem. Here, we introduce 'perturbative metamaterials', a class of metamaterials consisting of weakly interacting unit cells. The weak interaction allows us to associate each element of the discrete model with individual geometric features of the metamaterial, thereby enabling a systematic design process. We demonstrate our approach by designing two-dimensional elastic metamaterials that realize Veselago lenses, zero-dispersion bands and topological surface phonons. While our selected examples are within the mechanical domain, the same design principle can be applied to acoustic, thermal and photonic metamaterials composed of weakly interacting unit cells.

  12. Symmetric, discrete fractional splines and Gabor systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Peter Lempel

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we consider fractional splines as windows for Gabor frames. We introduce two new types of symmetric, fractional splines in addition to one found by Unser and Blu. For the finite, discrete case we present two families of splines: One is created by sampling and periodizing the continu......In this paper we consider fractional splines as windows for Gabor frames. We introduce two new types of symmetric, fractional splines in addition to one found by Unser and Blu. For the finite, discrete case we present two families of splines: One is created by sampling and periodizing...... the continuous splines, and one is a truly finite, discrete construction. We discuss the properties of these splines and their usefulness as windows for Gabor frames and Wilson bases....

  13. The ultimatum game: Discrete vs. continuous offers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishon-Berkovits, Miriam; Berkovits, Richard

    2014-09-01

    In many experimental setups in social-sciences, psychology and economy the subjects are requested to accept or dispense monetary compensation which is usually given in discrete units. Using computer and mathematical modeling we show that in the framework of studying the dynamics of acceptance of proposals in the ultimatum game, the long time dynamics of acceptance of offers in the game are completely different for discrete vs. continuous offers. For discrete values the dynamics follow an exponential behavior. However, for continuous offers the dynamics are described by a power-law. This is shown using an agent based computer simulation as well as by utilizing an analytical solution of a mean-field equation describing the model. These findings have implications to the design and interpretation of socio-economical experiments beyond the ultimatum game.

  14. Is Fitts' law continuous in discrete aiming?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Sleimen-Malkoun

    Full Text Available The lawful continuous linear relation between movement time and task difficulty (i.e., index of difficulty; ID in a goal-directed rapid aiming task (Fitts' law has been recently challenged in reciprocal performance. Specifically, a discontinuity was observed at critical ID and was attributed to a transition between two distinct dynamic regimes that occurs with increasing difficulty. In the present paper, we show that such a discontinuity is also present in discrete aiming when ID is manipulated via target width (experiment 1 but not via target distance (experiment 2. Fitts' law's discontinuity appears, therefore, to be a suitable indicator of the underlying functional adaptations of the neuro-muscular-skeletal system to task properties/requirements, independently of reciprocal or discrete nature of the task. These findings open new perspectives to the study of dynamic regimes involved in discrete aiming and sensori-motor mechanisms underlying the speed-accuracy trade-off.

  15. Euler-Poincare reduction for discrete field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vankerschaver, Joris

    2007-01-01

    In this note, we develop a theory of Euler-Poincare reduction for discrete Lagrangian field theories. We introduce the concept of Euler-Poincare equations for discrete field theories, as well as a natural extension of the Moser-Veselov scheme, and show that both are equivalent. The resulting discrete field equations are interpreted in terms of discrete differential geometry. An application to the theory of discrete harmonic mappings is also briefly discussed

  16. Thinning, photonic beamsplitting, and a general discrete entropy power inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Guha, Saikat; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.; Sanchez, Raul Garcia-Patron

    2016-01-01

    Many partially-successful attempts have been made to find the most natural discrete-variable version of Shannon's entropy power inequality (EPI). We develop an axiomatic framework from which we deduce the natural form of a discrete-variable EPI and an associated entropic monotonicity in a discrete-variable central limit theorem. In this discrete EPI, the geometric distribution, which has the maximum entropy among all discrete distributions with a given mean, assumes a role analogous to the Ga...

  17. Clustering of correlated networks

    OpenAIRE

    Dorogovtsev, S. N.

    2003-01-01

    We obtain the clustering coefficient, the degree-dependent local clustering, and the mean clustering of networks with arbitrary correlations between the degrees of the nearest-neighbor vertices. The resulting formulas allow one to determine the nature of the clustering of a network.

  18. Cluster knockout reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-04-07

    Apr 7, 2014 ... Cluster knockout reactions are expected to reveal the amount of clustering (such as that of , d and even of heavier clusters such as 12C, 16O etc.) in the target nucleus. In simple terms, incident medium high-energy nuclear projectile interacts strongly with the cluster (present in the target nucleus) as if it ...

  19. What Makes Clusters Decline?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Christian Richter; Park, Eun Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Most studies on regional clusters focus on identifying factors and processes that make clusters grow. However, sometimes technologies and market conditions suddenly shift, and clusters decline. This paper analyses the process of decline of the wireless communication cluster in Denmark. The longit...

  20. Cortical Neural Computation by Discrete Results Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castejon, Carlos; Nuñez, Angel

    2016-01-01

    One of the most challenging problems we face in neuroscience is to understand how the cortex performs computations. There is increasing evidence that the power of the cortical processing is produced by populations of neurons forming dynamic neuronal ensembles. Theoretical proposals and multineuronal experimental studies have revealed that ensembles of neurons can form emergent functional units. However, how these ensembles are implicated in cortical computations is still a mystery. Although cell ensembles have been associated with brain rhythms, the functional interaction remains largely unclear. It is still unknown how spatially distributed neuronal activity can be temporally integrated to contribute to cortical computations. A theoretical explanation integrating spatial and temporal aspects of cortical processing is still lacking. In this Hypothesis and Theory article, we propose a new functional theoretical framework to explain the computational roles of these ensembles in cortical processing. We suggest that complex neural computations underlying cortical processing could be temporally discrete and that sensory information would need to be quantized to be computed by the cerebral cortex. Accordingly, we propose that cortical processing is produced by the computation of discrete spatio-temporal functional units that we have called "Discrete Results" (Discrete Results Hypothesis). This hypothesis represents a novel functional mechanism by which information processing is computed in the cortex. Furthermore, we propose that precise dynamic sequences of "Discrete Results" is the mechanism used by the cortex to extract, code, memorize and transmit neural information. The novel "Discrete Results" concept has the ability to match the spatial and temporal aspects of cortical processing. We discuss the possible neural underpinnings of these functional computational units and describe the empirical evidence supporting our hypothesis. We propose that fast-spiking (FS

  1. Discrete quantum geometries and their effective dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuerigen, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    In several approaches towards a quantum theory of gravity, such as group field theory and loop quantum gravity, quantum states and histories of the geometric degrees of freedom turn out to be based on discrete spacetime. The most pressing issue is then how the smooth geometries of general relativity, expressed in terms of suitable geometric observables, arise from such discrete quantum geometries in some semiclassical and continuum limit. In this thesis I tackle the question of suitable observables focusing on the effective dimension of discrete quantum geometries. For this purpose I give a purely combinatorial description of the discrete structures which these geometries have support on. As a side topic, this allows to present an extension of group field theory to cover the combinatorially larger kinematical state space of loop quantum gravity. Moreover, I introduce a discrete calculus for fields on such fundamentally discrete geometries with a particular focus on the Laplacian. This permits to define the effective-dimension observables for quantum geometries. Analysing various classes of quantum geometries, I find as a general result that the spectral dimension is more sensitive to the underlying combinatorial structure than to the details of the additional geometric data thereon. Semiclassical states in loop quantum gravity approximate the classical geometries they are peaking on rather well and there are no indications for stronger quantum effects. On the other hand, in the context of a more general model of states which are superposition over a large number of complexes, based on analytic solutions, there is a flow of the spectral dimension from the topological dimension d on low energy scales to a real number between 0 and d on high energy scales. In the particular case of 1 these results allow to understand the quantum geometry as effectively fractal.

  2. Digital and discrete geometry theory and algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Li

    2014-01-01

    This book provides comprehensive coverage of the modern methods for geometric problems in the computing sciences. It also covers concurrent topics in data sciences including geometric processing, manifold learning, Google search, cloud data, and R-tree for wireless networks and BigData.The author investigates digital geometry and its related constructive methods in discrete geometry, offering detailed methods and algorithms. The book is divided into five sections: basic geometry; digital curves, surfaces and manifolds; discretely represented objects; geometric computation and processing; and a

  3. Hybrid Discrete-Continuous Markov Decision Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhengzhu; Dearden, Richard; Meuleau, Nicholas; Washington, Rich

    2003-01-01

    This paper proposes a Markov decision process (MDP) model that features both discrete and continuous state variables. We extend previous work by Boyan and Littman on the mono-dimensional time-dependent MDP to multiple dimensions. We present the principle of lazy discretization, and piecewise constant and linear approximations of the model. Having to deal with several continuous dimensions raises several new problems that require new solutions. In the (piecewise) linear case, we use techniques from partially- observable MDPs (POMDPS) to represent value functions as sets of linear functions attached to different partitions of the state space.

  4. Logic and discrete mathematics a concise introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Conradie, Willem

    2015-01-01

    A concise yet rigorous introduction to logic and discrete mathematics. This book features a unique combination of comprehensive coverage of logic with a solid exposition of the most important fields of discrete mathematics, presenting material that has been tested and refined by the authors in university courses taught over more than a decade.  The chapters on logic - propositional and first-order - provide a robust toolkit for logical reasoning, emphasizing the conceptual understanding of the language and the semantics of classical logic as well as practical applications through the easy

  5. Synchronization Of Parallel Discrete Event Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinman, Jeffrey S.

    1992-01-01

    Adaptive, parallel, discrete-event-simulation-synchronization algorithm, Breathing Time Buckets, developed in Synchronous Parallel Environment for Emulation and Discrete Event Simulation (SPEEDES) operating system. Algorithm allows parallel simulations to process events optimistically in fluctuating time cycles that naturally adapt while simulation in progress. Combines best of optimistic and conservative synchronization strategies while avoiding major disadvantages. Algorithm processes events optimistically in time cycles adapting while simulation in progress. Well suited for modeling communication networks, for large-scale war games, for simulated flights of aircraft, for simulations of computer equipment, for mathematical modeling, for interactive engineering simulations, and for depictions of flows of information.

  6. Efficient discrete Gabor functions for robot vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiman, Carl F. R.

    1994-03-01

    A new discrete Gabor function provides subpixel resolution of phase while overcoming many of the computational burdens of current approaches to Gabor function implementation. Applications include hyperacuity measurement of binocular disparity and optic flow for stereo vision. Convolution is avoided by exploiting band-pass to subsample the image plane. A general purpose front end processor for robot vision, based on a wavelet interpretation of this discrete Gabor function, can be constructed by tessellating and pyramiding the elementary filter. Computational efficiency opens the door to real-time implementation which mimics many properties of the simple and complex cells in the visual cortex.

  7. Modeling and simulation of discrete event systems

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, Byoung Kyu

    2013-01-01

    Computer modeling and simulation (M&S) allows engineers to study and analyze complex systems. Discrete-event system (DES)-M&S is used in modern management, industrial engineering, computer science, and the military. As computer speeds and memory capacity increase, so DES-M&S tools become more powerful and more widely used in solving real-life problems. Based on over 20 years of evolution within a classroom environment, as well as on decades-long experience in developing simulation-based solutions for high-tech industries, Modeling and Simulation of Discrete-Event Systems is the only book on

  8. Glycosphingolipides et fusion virus-cellule : données actuelles montrant le rôle des micro-domaines membranaires dans le cycle d’infection du VIH-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammache Djilali

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Depuis plusieurs années, nous étudions les mécanismes moléculaires responsables de la fusion du virus de l’immunodéficience humaine (VIH avec la membrane plasmique des cellules cibles. Ces travaux ont permis de préciser le rôle essentiel joué par les micro-domaines de glycosphingolipides au cours de la fusion virus-cellule. En particulier, nous avons pu reconstituer un complexe de fusion fonctionnel faisant intervenir les différents partenaires moléculaires de la fusion : un micro-domaine de glycosphingolipide se présentant sous la forme d’un film monomoléculaire à l’interface eau-air, le récepteur CD4 et la glycoprotéine externe de l’enveloppe du virus, la gp120. La dynamique des interactions moléculaires dans ce complexe de fusion a pu être mesurée à l’aide d’un micro-tensiomètre. Ce système expérimental pourrait permettre d’évaluer l’activité d’inhibiteurs de fusion tels que des analogues synthétiques de glycosphingolipides.

  9. Clustering in analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drab, Klaudia; Daszykowski, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Data clustering plays an important role in the exploratory analysis of analytical data, and the use of clustering methods has been acknowledged in different fields of science. In this paper, principles of data clustering are presented with a direct focus on clustering of analytical data. The role of the clustering process in the analytical workflow is underlined, and its potential impact on the analytical workflow is emphasized.

  10. Radiation forces in the discrete dipole approximation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, A.G.; Frijlink, M.O.; Waters, L.B.F.M.; Sloot, P.M.A.

    2001-01-01

    The theory of the discrete-dipole approximation (DDA) for light scattering is extended to allow for the calculation of radiation forces on each dipole in the DDA model. Starting with the theory of Draine and Weingartner [Astrophys. J. 470, 551 (1996)] we derive an expression for the radiation force

  11. Discrete objects, splitting closure and connectedness | Castellini ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Notions of discrete and indiscrete classes with respect to a closure operator are introduced and studied. These notions are strongly related to splitting and cosplitting closure operators. By linking the above concepts, two Galois connections arise whose composition provides a third Galois connection that can be used as a ...

  12. DISCRETE ELEMENT MODELLING OF THE COMPRESSIVE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Having developed and validated a code based on the Discrete Element Method principle with physical experiments the code was used to study and predict the behaviour (parametric changes) during compression of four bulk systems of particulates with the properties of canola seed, palm kernel and soyabean. The porosity ...

  13. Discrete elements in structural concrete design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauwendraad, J.; Hoogenboom, P.C.J.

    1997-01-01

    In the sixties Prof. J. Witteveen introduced a discrete model for the elastic analysis of slabs (Heron 1966). This article presents a similar approach for the design of reinforced concrete walls and deep beams, with holes or otherwise. The model – which is called stringer-panel model – combines the

  14. Discretization Based on Entropy and Multiple Scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy W. Grzymala-Busse

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present entropy driven methodology for discretization. Recently, the original entropy based discretization was enhanced by including two options of selecting the best numerical attribute. In one option, Dominant Attribute, an attribute with the smallest conditional entropy of the concept given the attribute is selected for discretization and then the best cut point is determined. In the second option, Multiple Scanning, all attributes are scanned a number of times, and at the same time the best cut points are selected for all attributes. The results of experiments on 17 benchmark data sets, including large data sets, with 175 attributes or 25,931 cases, are presented. For comparison, the results of experiments on the same data sets using the global versions of well-known discretization methods of Equal Interval Width and Equal Frequency per Interval are also included. The entropy driven technique enhanced both of these methods by converting them into globalized methods. Results of our experiments show that the Multiple Scanning methodology is significantly better than both: Dominant Attribute and the better results of Globalized Equal Interval Width and Equal Frequency per Interval methods (using two-tailed test and 0.01 level of significance.

  15. Discrete-Time Systems -RE-SONANCEI

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    systems, robots, space applications, farming, biotech- nology and even medicine. The disciplines of continuous-time and discrete-time sig- nals and systems have become increasingly entwined. Without any doubt, it is advantageous to process conti- nuous-time signals by sampling them. The computer control system for a ...

  16. Electroless plating apparatus for discrete microsized particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, A.

    1978-01-01

    Method and apparatus are disclosed for producing very uniform coatings of a desired material on discrete microsized particles by electroless techniques. Agglomeration or bridging of the particles during the deposition process is prevented by imparting a sufficiently random motion to the particles that they are not in contact with each other for a time sufficient for such to occur

  17. Discrete structures in F-theory compactifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Till, Oskar

    2016-05-04

    In this thesis we study global properties of F-theory compactifications on elliptically and genus-one fibered Calabi-Yau varieties. This is motivated by phenomenological considerations as well as by the need for a deeper understanding of the set of consistent F-theory vacua. The global geometric features arise from discrete and arithmetic structures in the torus fiber and can be studied in detail for fibrations over generic bases. In the case of elliptic fibrations we study the role of the torsion subgroup of the Mordell-Weil group of sections in four dimensional compactifications. We show how the existence of a torsional section restricts the admissible matter representations in the theory. This is shown to be equivalent to inducing a non-trivial fundamental group of the gauge group. Compactifying F-theory on genus-one fibrations with multisections gives rise to discrete selection rules. In field theory the discrete symmetry is a broken U(1) symmetry. In the geometry the higgsing corresponds to a conifold transition. We explain in detail the origin of the discrete symmetry from two different M-theory phases and put the result into the context of torsion homology. Finally we systematically construct consistent gauge fluxes on genus-one fibrations and show that these induce an anomaly free chiral spectrum.

  18. Discrete control of resonant wave energy devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, A H; Babarit, A

    2012-01-28

    Aiming at amplifying the energy productive motion of wave energy converters (WECs) in response to irregular sea waves, the strategies of discrete control presented here feature some major advantages over continuous control, which is known to require, for optimal operation, a bidirectional power take-off able to re-inject energy into the WEC system during parts of the oscillation cycles. Three different discrete control strategies are described: latching control, declutching control and the combination of both, which we term latched-operating-declutched control. It is shown that any of these methods can be applied with great benefit, not only to mono-resonant WEC oscillators, but also to bi-resonant and multi-resonant systems. For some of these applications, it is shown how these three discrete control strategies can be optimally defined, either by analytical solution for regular waves, or numerically, by applying the optimal command theory in irregular waves. Applied to a model of a seven degree-of-freedom system (the SEAREV WEC) to estimate its annual production on several production sites, the most efficient of these discrete control strategies was shown to double the energy production, regardless of the resource level of the site, which may be considered as a real breakthrough, rather than a marginal improvement.

  19. About Multi-Heston SDE Discretization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiberiu Socaciu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: in this paper we show how can estimate a financial derivative based on a support if assume for the support a Multi-Heston model.Keywords: Euler Maruyama discretization method, Monte Carlo simulation, Heston model, Double-Heston model, Multi-Heston model.

  20. Conservation of wave action under multisymplectic discretizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E. Frank (Jason)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we discuss the conservation of wave action under numerical discretization by variational and multisymplectic methods. Both the general wave action conservation defined with respect to a smooth, periodic, one-parameter ensemble of flow realizations and the specific wave

  1. Neutrino mass and mixing with discrete symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Stephen F.; Luhn, Christoph

    2013-05-01

    This is a review paper about neutrino mass and mixing and flavour model building strategies based on discrete family symmetry. After a pedagogical introduction and overview of the whole of neutrino physics, we focus on the PMNS mixing matrix and the latest global fits following the Daya Bay and RENO experiments which measure the reactor angle. We then describe the simple bimaximal, tri-bimaximal and golden ratio patterns of lepton mixing and the deviations required for a non-zero reactor angle, with solar or atmospheric mixing sum rules resulting from charged lepton corrections or residual trimaximal mixing. The different types of see-saw mechanism are then reviewed as well as the sequential dominance mechanism. We then give a mini-review of finite group theory, which may be used as a discrete family symmetry broken by flavons either completely, or with different subgroups preserved in the neutrino and charged lepton sectors. These two approaches are then reviewed in detail in separate chapters including mechanisms for flavon vacuum alignment and different model building strategies that have been proposed to generate the reactor angle. We then briefly review grand unified theories (GUTs) and how they may be combined with discrete family symmetry to describe all quark and lepton masses and mixing. Finally, we discuss three model examples which combine an SU(5) GUT with the discrete family symmetries A4, S4 and Δ(96).

  2. Enriched vibrational resonance in certain discrete systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We wish to report the occurrence of vibrational resonance in certain discrete systems like sine square map and sine circle map, in a unique fashion, comprising of multiple resonant peaks which pave the way for enrichment. As the systems of our choice are capable of exhibiting vibrational resonance behaviour unlike the ...

  3. Discrete-time rewards model-checked

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, K.G.; Andova, S.; Niebert, Peter; Hermanns, H.; Katoen, Joost P.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a model-checking approach for analyzing discrete-time Markov reward models. For this purpose, the temporal logic probabilistic CTL is extended with reward constraints. This allows to formulate complex measures – involving expected as well as accumulated rewards – in a precise and

  4. Discrete dispersion models and their Tweedie asymptotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Bent; Kokonendji, Célestin C.

    2016-01-01

    The paper introduce a class of two-parameter discrete dispersion models, obtained by combining convolution with a factorial tilting operation, similar to exponential dispersion models which combine convolution and exponential tilting. The equidispersed Poisson model has a special place in this ap......The paper introduce a class of two-parameter discrete dispersion models, obtained by combining convolution with a factorial tilting operation, similar to exponential dispersion models which combine convolution and exponential tilting. The equidispersed Poisson model has a special place...... in this approach, whereas several overdispersed discrete distributions, such as the Neyman Type A, Pólya-Aeppli, negative binomial and Poisson-inverse Gaussian, turn out to be Poisson-Tweedie factorial dispersion models with power dispersion functions, analogous to ordinary Tweedie exponential dispersion models...... with power variance functions. Using the factorial cumulant generating function as tool, we introduce a dilation operation as a discrete analogue of scaling, generalizing binomial thinning. The Poisson-Tweedie factorial dispersion models are closed under dilation, which in turn leads to a Poisson...

  5. Geometric phases in discrete dynamical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cartwright, Julyan H.E., E-mail: julyan.cartwright@csic.es [Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra, CSIC–Universidad de Granada, E-18100 Armilla, Granada (Spain); Instituto Carlos I de Física Teórica y Computacional, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Piro, Nicolas, E-mail: nicolas.piro@epfl.ch [École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Piro, Oreste, E-mail: piro@imedea.uib-csic.es [Departamento de Física, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Tuval, Idan, E-mail: ituval@imedea.uib-csic.es [Mediterranean Institute for Advanced Studies, CSIC–Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07190 Mallorca (Spain)

    2016-10-14

    In order to study the behaviour of discrete dynamical systems under adiabatic cyclic variations of their parameters, we consider discrete versions of adiabatically-rotated rotators. Parallelling the studies in continuous systems, we generalize the concept of geometric phase to discrete dynamics and investigate its presence in these rotators. For the rotated sine circle map, we demonstrate an analytical relationship between the geometric phase and the rotation number of the system. For the discrete version of the rotated rotator considered by Berry, the rotated standard map, we further explore this connection as well as the role of the geometric phase at the onset of chaos. Further into the chaotic regime, we show that the geometric phase is also related to the diffusive behaviour of the dynamical variables and the Lyapunov exponent. - Highlights: • We extend the concept of geometric phase to maps. • For the rotated sine circle map, we demonstrate an analytical relationship between the geometric phase and the rotation number. • For the rotated standard map, we explore the role of the geometric phase at the onset of chaos. • We show that the geometric phase is related to the diffusive behaviour of the dynamical variables and the Lyapunov exponent.

  6. A Note on Discrete Mathematics and Calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Thomas J.

    1987-01-01

    Much of the current literature on the topic of discrete mathematics and calculus during the first two years of an undergraduate mathematics curriculum is cited. A relationship between the recursive integration formulas and recursively defined polynomials is described. A Pascal program is included. (Author/RH)

  7. Applied Behavior Analysis: Beyond Discrete Trial Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steege, Mark W.; Mace, F. Charles; Perry, Lora; Longenecker, Harold

    2007-01-01

    We discuss the problem of autism-specific special education programs representing themselves as Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) programs when the only ABA intervention employed is Discrete Trial Teaching (DTT), and often for limited portions of the school day. Although DTT has many advantages to recommend its use, it is not well suited to teach…

  8. Chaos in discrete fractional difference equations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-09-07

    Sep 7, 2016 ... tions in the mathematical modelling of real-world phenomena with memory effects. In the present paper, the chaotic behaviour of ... tives allow us to deal comfortably with memory effects in dynamical systems [2]. Discrete ..... House, Reading, Connecticut, USA, 2006). [6] F Mainardi, Fractional calculus and ...

  9. Discrete groups, Mumford curves and Theta functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Put, Marius van der

    1992-01-01

    A discrete group Γ given over some complete non archimedean valued field defines a curve X. The theta functions for Γ provide an analytic construction for the Jacobian variety of X. A theory of theta functions is developed with the help of currents on trees and graphs and the cohomology for Γ. In

  10. Fair value accounting and managerial discretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Byrne, A.; Clacher, I.; Hillier, D.; Hodgson, A.

    2008-01-01

    We analyse the extent to which managers exercise discretion under fair value accounting and the value relevance of these disclosures. Utilising a sample of firms that apply the UK fair value pension accounting standard, (FRS-17), we examine the main determinants of the assumptions managers use to

  11. Discrete variable representation for singular Hamiltonians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, B. I.; Nygaard, Nicolai

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the application of the discrete variable representation (DVR) to Schrodinger problems which involve singular Hamiltonians. Unlike recent authors who invoke transformations to rid the eigenvalue equation of singularities at the cost of added complexity, we show that an approach based...

  12. Constructing an automorphism with discrete spectrum | Isere ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work is a desire to construct an automorphism with discrete spectrum using a numerical example. We briefly discuss how some of the definitions and theorems about its behaviour can be implemented and verified numerically. While it is not intended as a complete introduction to measure theory, only the definitions ...

  13. Discrete Mathematics Course Supported by CAS MATHEMATICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, O. A.; Ivanova, V. V.; Saltan, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss examples of assignments for a course in discrete mathematics for undergraduate students majoring in business informatics. We consider several problems with computer-based solutions and discuss general strategies for using computers in teaching mathematics and its applications. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of our…

  14. Cuspidal discrete series for projective hyperbolic spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nils Byrial; Flensted-Jensen, Mogens

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. We have in [1] proposed a definition of cusp forms on semisimple symmetric spaces G/H, involving the notion of a Radon transform and a related Abel transform. For the real non-Riemannian hyperbolic spaces, we showed that there exists an infinite number of cuspidal discrete series, and a...

  15. The Pairing Matrix in Discrete Electromagnetism On the Geometry of Discrete de Rham Currents

    CERN Document Server

    Auchmann, B

    2007-01-01

    We introduce pairing matrices on simplicial cell complexes in discrete electromagnetism as a means to avoid the explicit construction of a topologically dual complex. Interestingly, the Finite Element Method with first-order Whitney elements – when it is looked upon from a cell-method perspective – features pairing matrices and thus an implicitly defined dual mesh. We show that the pairing matrix can be used to construct discrete energy products. In this exercise we find that different formalisms lead to equivalent matrix representations. Discrete de Rham currents are an elegant way to subsume these geometrically equivalent but formally distinct ways of defining energy-products.

  16. Discrete integrable systems and hodograph transformations arising from motions of discrete plane curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Baofeng; Maruno, Ken-ichi; Inoguchi, Jun-ichi; Kajiwara, Kenji; Ohta, Yasuhiro

    2011-01-01

    We consider integrable discretizations of some soliton equations associated with the motions of plane curves: the Wadati-Konno-Ichikawa elastic beam equation, the complex Dym equation and the short pulse equation. They are related to the modified KdV or the sine-Gordon equations by the hodograph transformations. Based on the observation that the hodograph transformations are regarded as the Euler-Lagrange transformations of the curve motions, we construct the discrete analogues of the hodograph transformations, which yield integrable discretizations of those soliton equations. (paper)

  17. Management of cluster headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tfelt-Hansen, Peer C; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of cluster headache is 0.1% and cluster headache is often not diagnosed or misdiagnosed as migraine or sinusitis. In cluster headache there is often a considerable diagnostic delay - an average of 7 years in a population-based survey. Cluster headache is characterized by very severe...... or severe orbital or periorbital pain with a duration of 15-180 minutes. The cluster headache attacks are accompanied by characteristic associated unilateral symptoms such as tearing, nasal congestion and/or rhinorrhoea, eyelid oedema, miosis and/or ptosis. In addition, there is a sense of restlessness...... and agitation. Patients may have up to eight attacks per day. Episodic cluster headache (ECH) occurs in clusters of weeks to months duration, whereas chronic cluster headache (CCH) attacks occur for more than 1 year without remissions. Management of cluster headache is divided into acute attack treatment...

  18. Infant differential behavioral responding to discrete emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walle, Eric A; Reschke, Peter J; Camras, Linda A; Campos, Joseph J

    2017-10-01

    Emotional communication regulates the behaviors of social partners. Research on individuals' responding to others' emotions typically compares responses to a single negative emotion compared with responses to a neutral or positive emotion. Furthermore, coding of such responses routinely measure surface level features of the behavior (e.g., approach vs. avoidance) rather than its underlying function (e.g., the goal of the approach or avoidant behavior). This investigation examined infants' responding to others' emotional displays across 5 discrete emotions: joy, sadness, fear, anger, and disgust. Specifically, 16-, 19-, and 24-month-old infants observed an adult communicate a discrete emotion toward a stimulus during a naturalistic interaction. Infants' responses were coded to capture the function of their behaviors (e.g., exploration, prosocial behavior, and security seeking). The results revealed a number of instances indicating that infants use different functional behaviors in response to discrete emotions. Differences in behaviors across emotions were clearest in the 24-month-old infants, though younger infants also demonstrated some differential use of behaviors in response to discrete emotions. This is the first comprehensive study to identify differences in how infants respond with goal-directed behaviors to discrete emotions. Additionally, the inclusion of a function-based coding scheme and interpersonal paradigms may be informative for future emotion research with children and adults. Possible developmental accounts for the observed behaviors and the benefits of coding techniques emphasizing the function of social behavior over their form are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Comprehensive cluster analysis with Transitivity Clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittkop, Tobias; Emig, Dorothea; Truss, Anke; Albrecht, Mario; Böcker, Sebastian; Baumbach, Jan

    2011-03-01

    Transitivity Clustering is a method for the partitioning of biological data into groups of similar objects, such as genes, for instance. It provides integrated access to various functions addressing each step of a typical cluster analysis. To facilitate this, Transitivity Clustering is accessible online and offers three user-friendly interfaces: a powerful stand-alone version, a web interface, and a collection of Cytoscape plug-ins. In this paper, we describe three major workflows: (i) protein (super)family detection with Cytoscape, (ii) protein homology detection with incomplete gold standards and (iii) clustering of gene expression data. This protocol guides the user through the most important features of Transitivity Clustering and takes ∼1 h to complete.

  20. Inferring marginal association with paired and unpaired clustered data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Douglas J; Levy, Steven; Datta, Somnath

    2016-09-20

    In the marginal analysis of clustered data, where the marginal distribution of interest is that of a typical observation within a typical cluster, analysis by reweighting has been introduced as a useful tool for estimating parameters of these marginal distributions. Such reweighting methods have foundation in within-cluster resampling schemes that marginalize potential informativeness due to cluster size or within-cluster covariate distribution, to which reweighting methods are asymptotically equivalent. In this paper, we introduce a reweighting scheme for the marginal analysis of clustered data that generalizes prior reweighting methods, with a particular application to measuring bivariate correlation in unpaired clustered data, in which observations of two random variables are not naturally paired at the within-cluster level. We develop unpaired clustered data analogs of well-known product moment correlation coefficients (Pearson, Spearman, phi), as well as the polyserial coefficient for measuring correlation between one discrete and one continuous variable. We evaluate the performance of these coefficients via a simulation study and demonstrate their use by finding no statistically significant association between dental caries at an early age and dental fluorosis at age 13 using a large dental dataset. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Tumor-derived circulating endothelial cell clusters in colorectal cancer.

    KAUST Repository

    Cima, Igor

    2016-06-29

    Clusters of tumor cells are often observed in the blood of cancer patients. These structures have been described as malignant entities for more than 50 years, although their comprehensive characterization is lacking. Contrary to current consensus, we demonstrate that a discrete population of circulating cell clusters isolated from the blood of colorectal cancer patients are not cancerous but consist of tumor-derived endothelial cells. These clusters express both epithelial and mesenchymal markers, consistent with previous reports on circulating tumor cell (CTC) phenotyping. However, unlike CTCs, they do not mirror the genetic variations of matched tumors. Transcriptomic analysis of single clusters revealed that these structures exhibit an endothelial phenotype and can be traced back to the tumor endothelium. Further results show that tumor-derived endothelial clusters do not form by coagulation or by outgrowth of single circulating endothelial cells, supporting a direct release of clusters from the tumor vasculature. The isolation and enumeration of these benign clusters distinguished healthy volunteers from treatment-naïve as well as pathological early-stage (≤IIA) colorectal cancer patients with high accuracy, suggesting that tumor-derived circulating endothelial cell clusters could be used as a means of noninvasive screening for colorectal cancer. In contrast to CTCs, tumor-derived endothelial cell clusters may also provide important information about the underlying tumor vasculature at the time of diagnosis, during treatment, and throughout the course of the disease.

  2. Application of an efficient Bayesian discretization method to biomedical data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopalakrishnan Vanathi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several data mining methods require data that are discrete, and other methods often perform better with discrete data. We introduce an efficient Bayesian discretization (EBD method for optimal discretization of variables that runs efficiently on high-dimensional biomedical datasets. The EBD method consists of two components, namely, a Bayesian score to evaluate discretizations and a dynamic programming search procedure to efficiently search the space of possible discretizations. We compared the performance of EBD to Fayyad and Irani's (FI discretization method, which is commonly used for discretization. Results On 24 biomedical datasets obtained from high-throughput transcriptomic and proteomic studies, the classification performances of the C4.5 classifier and the naïve Bayes classifier were statistically significantly better when the predictor variables were discretized using EBD over FI. EBD was statistically significantly more stable to the variability of the datasets than FI. However, EBD was less robust, though not statistically significantly so, than FI and produced slightly more complex discretizations than FI. Conclusions On a range of biomedical datasets, a Bayesian discretization method (EBD yielded better classification performance and stability but was less robust than the widely used FI discretization method. The EBD discretization method is easy to implement, permits the incorporation of prior knowledge and belief, and is sufficiently fast for application to high-dimensional data.

  3. From collisions to clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loukonen, Ville; Bork, Nicolai; Vehkamaki, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    The clustering of sulphuric acid with base molecules is one of the main pathways of new-particle formation in the Earth's atmosphere. First step in the clustering process is likely the formation of a (sulphuric acid)1(base)1(water)n cluster. Here, we present results from direct first-principles m......The clustering of sulphuric acid with base molecules is one of the main pathways of new-particle formation in the Earth's atmosphere. First step in the clustering process is likely the formation of a (sulphuric acid)1(base)1(water)n cluster. Here, we present results from direct first...... bridge. In general, water is able to notably stabilise the formed clusters by allocating a fraction of the released clustering energy....

  4. Loose-cluster approximation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Loose-cluster approximation. Continuous curve Our Theory. Dashed curve Our Simulation. Loose cluster approx. not only. captures -the anomalous. qualitative features but is also,. quantitatively, quite accurate. Notes:

  5. Cluster beam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottiglioni, F.; Coutant, J.; Fois, M.

    1977-11-01

    Areas of possible applications of cluster injection are discussed. The deposition inside the plasma of molecules, issued from the dissociation of the injected clusters, has been computed. Some empirical scaling laws for the penetration are given

  6. Cluster beam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottiglioni, F.; Coutant, J.; Fois, M.

    1978-01-01

    Areas of possible applications of cluster injection are discussed. The deposition inside the plasma of molecules, issued from the dissociation of the injected clusters, has been computed. Some empirical scaling laws for the penetration are given

  7. Cluster Physics with Merging Galaxy Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandor M. Molnar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Collisions between galaxy clusters provide a unique opportunity to study matter in a parameter space which cannot be explored in our laboratories on Earth. In the standard LCDM model, where the total density is dominated by the cosmological constant ($Lambda$ and the matter density by cold dark matter (CDM, structure formation is hierarchical, and clusters grow mostly by merging.Mergers of two massive clusters are the most energetic events in the universe after the Big Bang,hence they provide a unique laboratory to study cluster physics.The two main mass components in clusters behave differently during collisions:the dark matter is nearly collisionless, responding only to gravity, while the gas is subject to pressure forces and dissipation, and shocks and turbulenceare developed during collisions. In the present contribution we review the different methods used to derive the physical properties of merging clusters. Different physical processes leave their signatures on different wavelengths, thusour review is based on a multifrequency analysis. In principle, the best way to analyze multifrequency observations of merging clustersis to model them using N-body/HYDRO numerical simulations. We discuss the results of such detailed analyses.New high spatial and spectral resolution ground and space based telescopeswill come online in the near future. Motivated by these new opportunities,we briefly discuss methods which will be feasible in the near future in studying merging clusters.

  8. Dimension Reduction and Discretization in Stochastic Problems by Regression Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    1996-01-01

    The chapter mainly deals with dimension reduction and field discretizations based directly on the concept of linear regression. Several examples of interesting applications in stochastic mechanics are also given.Keywords: Random fields discretization, Linear regression, Stochastic interpolation...

  9. Breatherlike excitations in discrete lattices with noise and nonlinear damping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter Leth; Gaididei, Yuri B.; Johansson, Magnus

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the stability of highly localized, ''breatherlike,'' excitations in discrete nonlinear lattices under the influence of thermal fluctuations. The particular model considered is the discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equation in the regime of high nonlinearity, where temperature effects...

  10. Nonlinear Control and Discrete Event Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, George; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    As the operation of large systems becomes ever more dependent on extensive automation, the need for an effective solution to the problem of design and validation of the underlying software becomes more critical. Large systems possesses much detailed structure, typically hierarchical, and they are hybrid. Information processing at the top of the hierarchy is by means of formal logic and sentences; on the bottom it is by means of simple scalar differential equations and functions of time; and in the middle it is by an interacting mix of nonlinear multi-axis differential equations and automata, and functions of time and discrete events. The lecture will address the overall problem as it relates to flight vehicle management, describe the middle level, and offer a design approach that is based on Differential Geometry and Discrete Event Dynamic Systems Theory.

  11. Discrete and continuous simulation theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Bandyopadhyay, Susmita

    2014-01-01

    When it comes to discovering glitches inherent in complex systems-be it a railway or banking, chemical production, medical, manufacturing, or inventory control system-developing a simulation of a system can identify problems with less time, effort, and disruption than it would take to employ the original. Advantageous to both academic and industrial practitioners, Discrete and Continuous Simulation: Theory and Practice offers a detailed view of simulation that is useful in several fields of study.This text concentrates on the simulation of complex systems, covering the basics in detail and exploring the diverse aspects, including continuous event simulation and optimization with simulation. It explores the connections between discrete and continuous simulation, and applies a specific focus to simulation in the supply chain and manufacturing field. It discusses the Monte Carlo simulation, which is the basic and traditional form of simulation. It addresses future trends and technologies for simulation, with par...

  12. Integral and discrete inequalities and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Qin, Yuming

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on one- and multi-dimensional linear integral and discrete Gronwall-Bellman type inequalities. It provides a useful collection and systematic presentation of known and new results, as well as many applications to differential (ODE and PDE), difference, and integral equations. With this work the author fills a gap in the literature on inequalities, offering an ideal source for researchers in these topics. The present volume is part 1 of the author’s two-volume work on inequalities. Integral and discrete inequalities are a very important tool in classical analysis and play a crucial role in establishing the well-posedness of the related equations, i.e., differential, difference and integral equations.

  13. Discrete Spectrum Reconstruction Using Integral Approximation Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizikov, Valery; Sidorov, Denis

    2017-07-01

    An inverse problem in spectroscopy is considered. The objective is to restore the discrete spectrum from observed spectrum data, taking into account the spectrometer's line spread function. The problem is reduced to solution of a system of linear-nonlinear equations (SLNE) with respect to intensities and frequencies of the discrete spectral lines. The SLNE is linear with respect to lines' intensities and nonlinear with respect to the lines' frequencies. The integral approximation algorithm is proposed for the solution of this SLNE. The algorithm combines solution of linear integral equations with solution of a system of linear algebraic equations and avoids nonlinear equations. Numerical examples of the application of the technique, both to synthetic and experimental spectra, demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed approach in enabling an effective enhancement of the spectrometer's resolution.

  14. Probabilistic Discrete Mixtures Colour Texture Models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haindl, Michal; Havlíček, Vojtěch; Grim, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 2008, č. 5197 (2008), s. 675-682 ISSN 0302-9743. [Iberoamerican Congress on Pattern Recognition /13./. Havana, 09.092008-12.09.2008] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET400750407; GA MŠk 1M0572; GA ČR GA102/07/1594; GA ČR GA102/08/0593 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) 2C06019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Discrete distribution mixtures * EM algorithm * texture modeling Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2008/RO/haindl-havlicek-grim-probabilistic%20discrete%20mixtures%20colour%20texture%20models.pdf

  15. Discrete event systems diagnosis and diagnosability

    CERN Document Server

    Sayed-Mouchaweh, Moamar

    2014-01-01

    Discrete Event Systems: Diagnosis and Diagnosability addresses the problem of fault diagnosis of Discrete Event Systems (DES). This book provides the basic techniques and approaches necessary for the design of an efficient fault diagnosis system for a wide range of modern engineering applications. The different techniques and approaches are classified according to several criteria such as: modeling tools (Automata, Petri nets) that is used to construct the model; the information (qualitative based on events occurrences and/or states outputs, quantitative based on signal processing and data analysis) that is needed to analyze and achieve the diagnosis; the decision structure (centralized, decentralized) that is required to achieve the diagnosis. The goal of this classification is to select the efficient method to achieve the fault diagnosis according to the application constraints. This book focuses on the centralized and decentralized event based diagnosis approaches using formal language and automata as mode...

  16. Gauged discrete symmetries and proton stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, Rabindra N.; Ratz, Michael

    2007-01-01

    We discuss the results of a search for anomaly-free Abelian Z N discrete symmetries that lead to automatic R-parity conservation and prevent dangerous higher-dimensional proton decay operators in simple extensions of minimal supersymmetric extension of the standard model based on the left-right symmetric group, the Pati-Salam group and SO(10). We require that the superpotential for the models have enough structures to be able to give correct symmetry breaking to minimal supersymmetric extension of the standard model and potentially realistic fermion masses. We find viable models in each of the extensions, and for all the cases, anomaly freedom of the discrete symmetry restricts the number of generations

  17. Finite Volumes Discretization of Topology Optimization Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evgrafov, Anton; Gregersen, Misha Marie; Sørensen, Mads Peter

    , FVMs represent a standard method of discretization within engineering communities dealing with computational uid dy- namics, transport, and convection-reaction problems. Among various avours of FVMs, cell based approaches, where all variables are associated only with cell centers, are particularly...... computations is done using nite element methods (FEMs). Despite some limited recent eorts [1, 2], we have only started to develop our understanding of the interplay between the control in the coecients and FVMs. Recent advances in discrete functional analysis allow us to analyze convergence of FVM...... of the induced parametrization of the design space that allows optimization algorithms to eciently explore it, and the ease of integration with existing computational codes in a variety of application areas, the simplicity and eciency of sensitivity analyses|all stemming from the use of the same grid throughout...

  18. Testing Preference Axioms in Discrete Choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter; Tjur, Tue

    Recent studies have tested the preference axioms of completeness and transitivity, and have detected other preference phenomena such as unstability, learning- and tiredness effects, ordering effects and dominance, in stated preference discrete choice experiments. However, it has not been explicitly...... addressed in these studies which preference models are actually being tested, and the connection between the statistical tests performed and the relevant underlying models of respondent behavior has not been explored further. This paper tries to fill that gap. We specifically analyze the meaning and role...... of the preference axioms and other preference phenomena in the context of stated preference discrete choice experiments, and examine whether or how these can be subject to meaningful (statistical) tests...

  19. PHASE CHAOS IN THE DISCRETE KURAMOTO MODEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maistrenko, V.; Vasylenko, A.; Maistrenko, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes the appearance of a novel, high-dimensional chaotic regime, called phase chaos, in a time-discrete Kuramoto model of globally coupled phase oscillators. This type of chaos is observed at small and intermediate values of the coupling strength. It arises from the nonlinear...... interaction among the oscillators, while the individual oscillators behave periodically when left uncoupled. For the four-dimensional time-discrete Kuramoto model, we outline the region of phase chaos in the parameter plane and determine the regions where phase chaos coexists with different periodic...... attractors. We also study the subcritical frequency-splitting bifurcation at the onset of desynchronization and demonstrate that the transition to phase chaos takes place via a torus destruction process....

  20. Discrete approach to complex planar geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cupini, E.; De Matteis, A.

    1974-01-01

    Planar regions in Monte Carlo transport problems have been represented by a finite set of points with a corresponding region index for each. The simulation of particle free-flight reduces then to the simple operations necessary for scanning appropriate grid points to determine whether a region other than the starting one is encountered. When the complexity of the geometry is restricted to only some regions of the assembly examined, a mixed discrete-continuous philosophy may be adopted. By this approach, the lattice of a thermal reactor has been treated, discretizing only the central regions of the cell containing the fuel rods. Excellent agreement with experimental results has been obtained in the computation of cell parameters in the energy range from fission to thermalization through the 238 U resonance region. (U.S.)

  1. Juxtaposed color halftoning relying on discrete lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaei, Vahid; Hersch, Roger D

    2013-02-01

    Most halftoning techniques allow screen dots to overlap. They rely on the assumption that the inks are transparent, i.e., the inks do not scatter a significant portion of the light back to the air. However, many special effect inks, such as metallic inks, iridescent inks, or pigmented inks, are not transparent. In order to create halftone images, halftone dots formed by such inks should be juxtaposed, i.e., printed side by side. We propose an efficient juxtaposed color halftoning technique for placing any desired number of colorant layers side by side without overlapping. The method uses a monochrome library of screen elements made of discrete lines with rational thicknesses. Discrete line juxtaposed color halftoning is performed efficiently by multiple accesses to the screen element library.

  2. Geometric theory of discrete nonautonomous dynamical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Pötzsche, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Nonautonomous dynamical systems provide a mathematical framework for temporally changing phenomena, where the law of evolution varies in time due to seasonal, modulation, controlling or even random effects. Our goal is to provide an approach to the corresponding geometric theory of nonautonomous discrete dynamical systems in infinite-dimensional spaces by virtue of 2-parameter semigroups (processes). These dynamical systems are generated by implicit difference equations, which explicitly depend on time. Compactness and dissipativity conditions are provided for such problems in order to have attractors using the natural concept of pullback convergence. Concerning a necessary linear theory, our hyperbolicity concept is based on exponential dichotomies and splittings. This concept is in turn used to construct nonautonomous invariant manifolds, so-called fiber bundles, and deduce linearization theorems. The results are illustrated using temporal and full discretizations of evolutionary differential equations.

  3. Hydraulically controlled discrete sampling from open boreholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, Philip T.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater sampling from open boreholes in fractured-rock aquifers is particularly challenging because of mixing and dilution of fluid within the borehole from multiple fractures. This note presents an alternative to traditional sampling in open boreholes with packer assemblies. The alternative system called ZONFLO (zonal flow) is based on hydraulic control of borehole flow conditions. Fluid from discrete fractures zones are hydraulically isolated allowing for the collection of representative samples. In rough-faced open boreholes and formations with less competent rock, hydraulic containment may offer an attractive alternative to physical containment with packers. Preliminary test results indicate a discrete zone can be effectively hydraulically isolated from other zones within a borehole for the purpose of groundwater sampling using this new method.

  4. Discrete PID Tuning Using Artificial Intelligence Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr DOLEŽEL

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available PID controllers are widely used in industry these days due to their useful properties such as simple tuning or robustness. While they are applicable to many control problems, they can perform poorly in some applications. Highly nonlinear system control with constrained manipulated variable can be mentioned as an example. The point of the paper is to string together convenient qualities of conventional PID control and progressive techniques based on Artificial Intelligence. Proposed control method should deal with even highly nonlinear systems. To be more specific, there is described new method of discrete PID controller tuning in this paper. This method tunes discrete PID controller parameters online through the use of genetic algorithm and neural model of controlled system in order to control successfully even highly nonlinear systems. After method description and some discussion, there is performed control simulation and comparison to one chosen conventional control method.

  5. Minimalist's linux cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Chang-Yeong; Kim, Jeong-Hyun; Kim, Seyong

    2004-01-01

    Using barebone PC components and NIC's, we construct a linux cluster which has 2-dimensional mesh structure. This cluster has smaller footprint, is less expensive, and use less power compared to conventional linux cluster. Here, we report our experience in building such a machine and discuss our current lattice project on the machine

  6. Range-clustering queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Mikkel; de Berg, Mark; Buchin, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    an optimal k-clustering for S P ∩ Q. We obtain the following results. • We present a general method to compute a (1 + ϵ)-approximation to a range-clustering query, where ϵ > 0 is a parameter that can be specified as part of the query. Our method applies to a large class of clustering problems, including k...

  7. Cosmology with cluster surveys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Surveys of clusters of galaxies provide us with a powerful probe of the density and nature of the dark energy. The red-shift distribution of detected clusters is highly sensitive to the dark energy equation of state parameter . Upcoming Sunyaev–Zel'dovich (SZ) surveys would provide us large yields of clusters to very high ...

  8. Cosmology with cluster surveys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cosmology with cluster surveys. SUBHABRATA MAJUMDAR. CITA, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 3H8, Canada. E-mail: subha@cita.utoronto.ca. Abstract. Surveys of clusters of galaxies provide us with a powerful probe of the den- sity and nature of the dark energy. The red-shift distribution of detected clusters is.

  9. Structures of Mn clusters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The geometries of several Mn clusters in the size range Mn13–Mn23 are studied via the generalized gradient approximation to density functional theory. For the 13- and 19-atom clusters, the icosahedral structures are found to be most stable, while for the 15-atom cluster, the bcc structure is more favoured.

  10. Marketing research cluster analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Nebojša

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available One area of applications of cluster analysis in marketing is identification of groups of cities and towns with similar demographic profiles. This paper considers main aspects of cluster analysis by an example of clustering 12 cities with the use of Minitab software.

  11. The Durban Auto Cluster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Jochen; Robbins, Glen; Barnes, Justin

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes the formation of the Durban Auto Cluster in the context of trade liberalization. It argues that the improvement of operational competitiveness of firms in the cluster is prominently due to joint action. It tests this proposition by comparing the gains from cluster activities...

  12. Cosmology with cluster surveys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Surveys of clusters of galaxies provide us with a powerful probe of the den- sity and nature of the dark energy. The red-shift distribution of detected clusters is highly sensitive to the dark energy equation of state parameter w. Upcoming Sunyaev–. Zel'dovich (SZ) surveys would provide us large yields of clusters to ...

  13. Data bases and discrete event simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Boubetra, Abdelhak; Belouadah, Hocine; Mouhoub, Nassreddine

    2007-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to define how a specific data structure might be used to store, in a persistent manner, temporal information during a computer simulation. In particular, it considers the sort of temporal information generated during a discrete event simulation of a system to which a relational data base exists and considers the demands this data makes on data base design. Facultad de Informática

  14. Discrete time analysis of a repairable machine

    OpenAIRE

    Alfa, Attahiru Sule; Castro, I. T.

    2002-01-01

    We consider, in discrete time, a single machine system that operates for a period of time represented by a general distribution. This machine is subject to failures during operations and the occurrence of these failures depends on how many times the machine has previously failed. Some failures are repairable and the repair times may or may not depend on the number of times the machine was previously repaired. Repair times also have a general distribution. The operating times...

  15. Texture modelling by discrete distribution mixtures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grim, Jiří; Haindl, Michal

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 41, 3-4 (2003), s. 603-615 ISSN 0167-9473 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/00/0030; GA AV ČR KSK1019101 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : discrete distribution mixtures * EM algorithm * texture modelling Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software Impact factor: 0.711, year: 2003

  16. Exponential-modified discrete Lindley distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Mehmet; Hameldarbandi, Monireh; Acik Kemaloglu, Sibel

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we have considered a series system composed of stochastically independent M-component where M is a random variable having the zero truncated modified discrete Lindley distribution. This distribution is newly introduced by transforming on original parameter. The properties of the distribution of the lifetime of above system have been examined under the given circumstances and also parameters of this new lifetime distribution are estimated by using moments, maximum likelihood and EM-algorithm.

  17. Discrete Alfven waves in the TORTUS tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amagishi, Y.; Ballico, M.J.; Cross, R.C.; Donnely, I.J.

    1989-01-01

    Discrete Alfven Waves (DAWs) have been observed as antenna resistance peaks and as enhanced edge fields in the TORTUS tokamak during Alfven wave heating experiments. A kinetic theory code has been used to calculate the antenna loading and the structure of the DAW fields for a range of plasma current and density profiles. There is fair agreement between the measured and predicted amplitude of the DAW fields in the plasma edge when both are normalized to the same antenna power

  18. Quantifying Discretization Effects on Brain Trauma Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    toward equilibrium from the inflection point (displaced 15.7° from equilibrium). One immediately visible result is that the pressure, stress , and strain...are 10.1° from equilibrium, 0.9° back toward equilibrium from the inflection point (displaced 59.1° from equilibrium), and 44.3° back toward...equilibrium from the inflection point (displaced 15.7° from equilibrium). ...........................................10 Fig. 8 Effect of discretization

  19. Discrete Tolerance Allocation for Product Families

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This paper extends earlier research on the discrete tolerance allocation problem in order to optimize an entire product family simultaneously. This methodology enables top-down tolerancing approach where requirements on assembly level on products within a family are allocated to single part requirements. The proposed solution has been implemented as an interface with an optimization algorithm coupled with a variation simulation software. The paper also consists of an exten...

  20. A variational synthesis nodal discrete ordinates method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favorite, J.A.; Stacey, W.M.

    1999-01-01

    A self-consistent nodal approximation method for computing discrete ordinates neutron flux distributions has been developed from a variational functional for neutron transport theory. The advantage of the new nodal method formulation is that it is self-consistent in its definition of the homogenized nodal parameters, the construction of the global nodal equations, and the reconstruction of the detailed flux distribution. The efficacy of the method is demonstrated by two-dimensional test problems

  1. Bounded solutions and wavefronts for discrete dynamics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malaguti, L.; Řehák, Pavel; Taddei, V.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 47, - (2004), s. 1079-1094 ISSN 0898-1221 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/01/0079; GA ČR GP201/01/P041 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Keywords : nonlinear difference equation * bounded solution * discrete travelling waves Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.431, year: 2004

  2. Hyponormal differential operators with discrete spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zameddin I. Ismailov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we first describe all the maximal hyponormal extensions of a minimal operator generated by a linear differential-operator expression of the first-order in the Hilbert space of vector-functions in a finite interval. Next, we investigate the discreteness of the spectrum and the asymptotical behavior of the modules of the eigenvalues for these maximal hyponormal extensions.

  3. Inferring gene networks from discrete expression data

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, L.

    2013-07-18

    The modeling of gene networks from transcriptional expression data is an important tool in biomedical research to reveal signaling pathways and to identify treatment targets. Current gene network modeling is primarily based on the use of Gaussian graphical models applied to continuous data, which give a closedformmarginal likelihood. In this paper,we extend network modeling to discrete data, specifically data from serial analysis of gene expression, and RNA-sequencing experiments, both of which generate counts of mRNAtranscripts in cell samples.We propose a generalized linear model to fit the discrete gene expression data and assume that the log ratios of the mean expression levels follow a Gaussian distribution.We restrict the gene network structures to decomposable graphs and derive the graphs by selecting the covariance matrix of the Gaussian distribution with the hyper-inverse Wishart priors. Furthermore, we incorporate prior network models based on gene ontology information, which avails existing biological information on the genes of interest. We conduct simulation studies to examine the performance of our discrete graphical model and apply the method to two real datasets for gene network inference. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  4. An essay on discrete foundations for physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noyes, H.P.; McGoveran, D.O.

    1988-01-01

    We base our theory of physics and cosmology on the five principles of finiteness, discreteness, finite computability, absolute non- uniqueness, and strict construction. Our modeling methodology starts from the current practice of physics, constructs a self-consistent representation based on the ordering operator calculus and provides rules of correspondence that allow us to test the theory by experiment. We use program universe to construct a growing collection of bit strings whose initial portions (labels) provide the quantum numbers that are conserved in the events defined by the construction. The labels are followed by content strings which are used to construct event-based finite and discrete coordinates. On general grounds such a theory has a limiting velocity, and positions and velocities do not commute. We therefore reconcile quantum mechanics with relativity at an appropriately fundamental stage in the construction. We show that events in different coordinate systems are connected by the appropriate finite and discrete version of the Lorentz transformation, that 3-momentum is conserved in events, and that this conservation law is the same as the requirement that different paths can ''interfere'' only when they differ by an integral number of deBroglie wavelengths. 38 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Police investigations: discretion denied yet undeniably exercised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belur, J.; Tilley, N.; Osrin, D.; Daruwalla, N.; Kumar, M.; Tiwari, V.

    2014-01-01

    Police investigations involve determining whether a crime has been committed, and if so what type of crime, who has committed it and whether there is the evidence to charge the perpetrators. Drawing on fieldwork in Delhi and Mumbai, this paper explores how police investigations unfolded in the specific context of women’s deaths by burning in India. In particular, it focuses on the use of discretion despite its denial by those exercising it. In India, there are distinctive statutes relating to women’s suspicious deaths, reflecting the widespread expectation that the bride’s family will pay a dowry to the groom’s family and the tensions to which this may on occasion give rise in the early years of a marriage. Often, there are conflicting claims influencing how the woman’s death is classified. These in turn affect police investigation. The nature and direction of police discretion in investigating women’s deaths by burning reflect in part the unique nature of the legislation and the particular sensitivities in relation to these types of death. They also highlight processes that are liable to be at work in any crime investigation. It was found that police officers exercised unacknowledged discretion at seven specific points in the investigative process, with potentially significant consequences for the achievement of just outcomes: first response, recording the victim’s ‘dying declaration’, inquest, registering of the ‘First Information Report’, collecting evidence, arrest and framing of the charges. PMID:26376482

  6. Meshes optimized for discrete exterior calculus (DEC).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousley, Sarah C. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Deakin, Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Knupp, Patrick [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mitchell, Scott A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-12-01

    We study the optimization of an energy function used by the meshing community to measure and improve mesh quality. This energy is non-traditional because it is dependent on both the primal triangulation and its dual Voronoi (power) diagram. The energy is a measure of the mesh's quality for usage in Discrete Exterior Calculus (DEC), a method for numerically solving PDEs. In DEC, the PDE domain is triangulated and this mesh is used to obtain discrete approximations of the continuous operators in the PDE. The energy of a mesh gives an upper bound on the error of the discrete diagonal approximation of the Hodge star operator. In practice, one begins with an initial mesh and then makes adjustments to produce a mesh of lower energy. However, we have discovered several shortcomings in directly optimizing this energy, e.g. its non-convexity, and we show that the search for an optimized mesh may lead to mesh inversion (malformed triangles). We propose a new energy function to address some of these issues.

  7. Quantum cosmology based on discrete Feynman paths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chew, Geoffrey F.

    2002-01-01

    Although the rules for interpreting local quantum theory imply discretization of process, Lorentz covariance is usually regarded as precluding time quantization. Nevertheless a time-discretized quantum representation of redshifting spatially-homogeneous universe may be based on discrete-step Feynman paths carrying causal Lorentz-invariant action--paths that not only propagate the wave function but provide a phenomenologically-promising elementary-particle Hilbert-space basis. In a model under development, local path steps are at Planck scale while, at a much larger ''wave-function scale'', global steps separate successive wave-functions. Wave-function spacetime is but a tiny fraction of path spacetime. Electromagnetic and gravitational actions are ''at a distance'' in Wheeler-Feynman sense while strong (color) and weak (isospin) actions, as well as action of particle motion, are ''local'' in a sense paralleling the action of local field theory. ''Nonmaterial'' path segments and ''trivial events'' collaborate to define energy and gravity. Photons coupled to conserved electric charge enjoy privileged model status among elementary fermions and vector bosons. Although real path parameters provide no immediate meaning for ''measurement'', the phase of the complex wave function allows significance for ''information'' accumulated through ''gentle'' electromagnetic events involving charged matter and ''soft'' photons. Through its soft-photon content the wave function is an ''information reservoir''

  8. An essay on discrete foundations for physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noyes, H.P.; McGoveran, D.O.

    1988-07-01

    We base our theory of physics and cosmology on the five principles of finiteness, discreteness, finite computability, absolute non-uniqueness, and strict construction. Our modeling methodology starts from the current practice of physics, constructs a self-consistent representation based on the ordering operator calculus and provides rules of correspondence that allow us to test the theory by experiment. We use program universe to construct a growing collection of bit strings whose initial portions (labels) provide the quantum numbers that are conserved in the events defined by the construction. The labels are followed by content strings which are used to construct event-based finite and discrete coordinates. On general grounds such a theory has a limiting velocity, and positions and velocities do not commute. We therefore reconcile quantum mechanics with relativity at an appropriately fundamental stage in the construction. We show that events in different coordinate systems are connected by the appropriate finite and discrete version of the Lorentz transformation, that 3-momentum is conserved in events, and that this conservation law is the same as the requirement that different paths can ''interfere'' only when they differ by an integral number of deBroglie wavelengths. 38 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs

  9. An essay on discrete foundations for physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noyes, H.P.; McGoveran, D.O.

    1988-07-01

    We base our theory of physics and cosmology on the five principles of finiteness, discreteness, finite computability, absolute non-uniqueness, and strict construction. Our modeling methodology starts from the current practice of physics, constructs a self-consistent representation based on the ordering operator calculus and provides rules of correspondence that allow us to test the theory by experiment. We use program universe to construct a growing collection of bit strings whose initial portions (labels) provide the quantum numbers that are conserved in the events defined by the construction. The labels are followed by content strings which are used to construct event-based finite and discrete coordinates. On general grounds such a theory has a limiting velocity, and positions and velocities do not commute. We therefore reconcile quantum mechanics with relativity at an appropriately fundamental stage in the construction. We show that events in different coordinate systems are connected by the appropriate finite and discrete version of the Lorentz transformation, that 3-momentum is conserved in events, and that this conservation law is the same as the requirement that different paths can ''interfere'' only when they differ by an integral number of deBroglie wavelengths. 38 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. An essay on discrete foundations for physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noyes, H.P.; McGoveran, D.O.

    1988-10-05

    We base our theory of physics and cosmology on the five principles of finiteness, discreteness, finite computability, absolute non- uniqueness, and strict construction. Our modeling methodology starts from the current practice of physics, constructs a self-consistent representation based on the ordering operator calculus and provides rules of correspondence that allow us to test the theory by experiment. We use program universe to construct a growing collection of bit strings whose initial portions (labels) provide the quantum numbers that are conserved in the events defined by the construction. The labels are followed by content strings which are used to construct event-based finite and discrete coordinates. On general grounds such a theory has a limiting velocity, and positions and velocities do not commute. We therefore reconcile quantum mechanics with relativity at an appropriately fundamental stage in the construction. We show that events in different coordinate systems are connected by the appropriate finite and discrete version of the Lorentz transformation, that 3-momentum is conserved in events, and that this conservation law is the same as the requirement that different paths can ''interfere'' only when they differ by an integral number of deBroglie wavelengths. 38 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Physical models on discrete space and time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorente, M.

    1986-01-01

    The idea of space and time quantum operators with a discrete spectrum has been proposed frequently since the discovery that some physical quantities exhibit measured values that are multiples of fundamental units. This paper first reviews a number of these physical models. They are: the method of finite elements proposed by Bender et al; the quantum field theory model on discrete space-time proposed by Yamamoto; the finite dimensional quantum mechanics approach proposed by Santhanam et al; the idea of space-time as lattices of n-simplices proposed by Kaplunovsky et al; and the theory of elementary processes proposed by Weizsaecker and his colleagues. The paper then presents a model proposed by the authors and based on the (n+1)-dimensional space-time lattice where fundamental entities interact among themselves 1 to 2n in order to build up a n-dimensional cubic lattice as a ground field where the physical interactions take place. The space-time coordinates are nothing more than the labelling of the ground field and take only discrete values. 11 references

  12. Discrete dynamic modeling of cellular signaling networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Réka; Wang, Rui-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    Understanding signal transduction in cellular systems is a central issue in systems biology. Numerous experiments from different laboratories generate an abundance of individual components and causal interactions mediating environmental and developmental signals. However, for many signal transduction systems there is insufficient information on the overall structure and the molecular mechanisms involved in the signaling network. Moreover, lack of kinetic and temporal information makes it difficult to construct quantitative models of signal transduction pathways. Discrete dynamic modeling, combined with network analysis, provides an effective way to integrate fragmentary knowledge of regulatory interactions into a predictive mathematical model which is able to describe the time evolution of the system without the requirement for kinetic parameters. This chapter introduces the fundamental concepts of discrete dynamic modeling, particularly focusing on Boolean dynamic models. We describe this method step-by-step in the context of cellular signaling networks. Several variants of Boolean dynamic models including threshold Boolean networks and piecewise linear systems are also covered, followed by two examples of successful application of discrete dynamic modeling in cell biology.

  13. Discrete phase space based on finite fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, Kathleen S.; Hoffman, Matthew J.; Wootters, William K.

    2004-01-01

    The original Wigner function provides a way of representing in phase space the quantum states of systems with continuous degrees of freedom. Wigner functions have also been developed for discrete quantum systems, one popular version being defined on a 2Nx2N discrete phase space for a system with N orthogonal states. Here we investigate an alternative class of discrete Wigner functions, in which the field of real numbers that labels the axes of continuous phase space is replaced by a finite field having N elements. There exists such a field if and only if N is a power of a prime; so our formulation can be applied directly only to systems for which the state-space dimension takes such a value. Though this condition may seem limiting, we note that any quantum computer based on qubits meets the condition and can thus be accommodated within our scheme. The geometry of our NxN phase space also leads naturally to a method of constructing a complete set of N+1 mutually unbiased bases for the state space

  14. A Lax pair of the discrete Euler top

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Kinji

    2017-01-01

    We proposed the discrete Euler top in 2000. In that paper, exact solutions and conserved quantities are described. However, a Lax pair of our proposed discrete Euler top is not contained. Moreover, the Lax pair is still unknown. In this paper, from a generalized eigenvalue problem, we obtain the Lax pair of the discrete Euler top. (paper)

  15. A Variational Approach to Perturbed Discrete Anisotropic Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amjad Salari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We continue the study of discrete anisotropic equations and we will provide new multiplicity results of the solutions for a discrete anisotropic equation. We investigate the existence of infinitely many solutions for a perturbed discrete anisotropic boundary value problem. The approach is based on variational methods and critical point theory.

  16. A Baecklund transformation between two integrable discrete hungry systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Akiko; Yamamoto, Yusaku; Iwasaki, Masashi; Ishiwata, Emiko; Nakamura, Yoshimasa

    2011-01-01

    The discrete hungry Toda (dhToda) equation and the discrete hungry Lotka-Volterra (dhLV) system are known as integrable discrete hungry systems. In this Letter, through finding the LR transformations associated with the dhToda equation and the dhLV system, we present a Baecklund transformation between these integrable systems.

  17. Finite-dimensional reductions of the discrete Toda chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakova, T. G.

    2004-08-01

    The problem of construction of integrable boundary conditions for the discrete Toda chain is considered. The restricted chains for properly chosen closure conditions are reduced to the well-known discrete Painlevé equations dPIII, dPV, dPVI. Lax representations for these discrete Painlevé equations are found.

  18. Discrete frequency identification using the HP 5451B Fourier analyser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, L.; Barry, P.

    1977-01-01

    The frequency analysis by the HP5451B discrete frequency Fourier analyser is studied. The advantages of cross correlation analysis to identify discrete frequencies in a background noise are discussed in conjuction with the elimination of aliasing and wraparound error. Discrete frequency identification is illustrated by a series of graphs giving the results of analysing 'electrical' and 'acoustical' white noise and sinusoidal signals [pt

  19. Mittag-Leffler function for discrete fractional modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Cheng Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available From the difference equations on discrete time scales, this paper numerically investigates one discrete fractional difference equation in the Caputo delta’s sense which has an explicit solution in form of the discrete Mittag-Leffler function. The exact numerical values of the solutions are given in comparison with the truncated Mittag-Leffler function.

  20. Process algebra with timing: Real time and discrete time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baeten, J.C.M.; Middelburg, C.A.

    1999-01-01

    We present real time and discrete time versions of ACP with absolute timing and relative timing. The startingpoint is a new real time version with absolute timing, called ACPsat , featuring urgent actions and a delay operator. The discrete time versions are conservative extensions of the discrete

  1. Cluster analysis for applications

    CERN Document Server

    Anderberg, Michael R

    1973-01-01

    Cluster Analysis for Applications deals with methods and various applications of cluster analysis. Topics covered range from variables and scales to measures of association among variables and among data units. Conceptual problems in cluster analysis are discussed, along with hierarchical and non-hierarchical clustering methods. The necessary elements of data analysis, statistics, cluster analysis, and computer implementation are integrated vertically to cover the complete path from raw data to a finished analysis.Comprised of 10 chapters, this book begins with an introduction to the subject o

  2. Excitations in clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertsch, G.F.

    2001-01-01

    Statistical reaction theory is an important tool for understanding dynamic processes in clusters as well as for extracting information about theirs energetics. The author reviews the statistical reaction theory and establishes formulas concerning cluster evaporation rates, electron emission and radiative cooling. The author recalls a number of useful formulas for describing the electromagnetic properties of small particles, generalizes them and applies them in the case of alkali metal clusters and of silver clusters. The author ends discussing carbon structures, going from small clusters and molecules to fullerenes and nano-tubes. (A.C.)

  3. The energetics of prenucleation clusters in lattice solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legg, Benjamin A.; De Yoreo, James J.

    2016-12-01

    According to classical nucleation theory, nucleation from solution involves the formation of small atomic clusters. Most formulations of classical nucleation use continuum "droplet" approximations to describe the properties of these clusters. However, the discrete atomic nature of very small clusters may cause deviations from these approximations. Here, we present a self-consistent framework for describing the nature of these deviations. We use our framework to investigate the formation of "polycube" atomic clusters on a cubic lattice, for which we have used combinatoric data to calculate the thermodynamic properties of clusters with 17 atoms or less. We show that the classical continuum droplet model emerges as a natural approach to describe the free energy of small clusters, but with a size-dependent surface tension. However, this formulation only arises if an appropriate "site-normalized" definition is adopted for the free energy of formation. These results are independently confirmed through the use of Monte Carlo calculations. Our results show that clusters formed from sparingly soluble materials (μM solubility range) tend to adopt compact configurations that minimize the solvent-solute interaction energy. As a consequence, there are distinct minima in the cluster-size-energy landscape that correspond to especially compact configurations. Conversely, highly soluble materials (1M) form clusters with expanded configurations that maximize configurational entropy. The effective surface tension of these clusters tends to smoothly and systematically decrease as the cluster size increases. However, materials with intermediate solubility (1 mM) are found to have a balanced behavior, with cluster energies that follow the classical "droplet" scaling laws remarkably well.

  4. Neuromuscular fiber segmentation through particle filtering and discrete optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietenbeck, Thomas; Varray, François; Kybic, Jan; Basset, Olivier; Cachard, Christian

    2014-03-01

    We present an algorithm to segment a set of parallel, intertwined and bifurcating fibers from 3D images, targeted for the identification of neuronal fibers in very large sets of 3D confocal microscopy images. The method consists of preprocessing, local calculation of fiber probabilities, seed detection, tracking by particle filtering, global supervised seed clustering and final voxel segmentation. The preprocessing uses a novel random local probability filtering (RLPF). The fiber probabilities computation is performed by means of SVM using steerable filters and the RLPF outputs as features. The global segmentation is solved by discrete optimization. The combination of global and local approaches makes the segmentation robust, yet the individual data blocks can be processed sequentially, limiting memory consumption. The method is automatic but efficient manual interactions are possible if needed. The method is validated on the Neuromuscular Projection Fibers dataset from the Diadem Challenge. On the 15 first blocks present, our method has a 99.4% detection rate. We also compare our segmentation results to a state-of-the-art method. On average, the performances of our method are either higher or equivalent to that of the state-of-the-art method but less user interactions is needed in our approach.

  5. Clustering high dimensional data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assent, Ira

    2012-01-01

    for clustering are required. Consequently, recent research has focused on developing techniques and clustering algorithms specifically for high-dimensional data. Still, open research issues remain. Clustering is a data mining task devoted to the automatic grouping of data based on mutual similarity. Each cluster......High-dimensional data, i.e., data described by a large number of attributes, pose specific challenges to clustering. The so-called ‘curse of dimensionality’, coined originally to describe the general increase in complexity of various computational problems as dimensionality increases, is known...... that provide different cluster models and different algorithmic approaches for cluster detection. Common to all approaches is the fact that they require some underlying assessment of similarity between data objects. In this article, we provide an overview of the effects of high-dimensional spaces...

  6. Spatial cluster modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Lawson, Andrew B

    2002-01-01

    Research has generated a number of advances in methods for spatial cluster modelling in recent years, particularly in the area of Bayesian cluster modelling. Along with these advances has come an explosion of interest in the potential applications of this work, especially in epidemiology and genome research. In one integrated volume, this book reviews the state-of-the-art in spatial clustering and spatial cluster modelling, bringing together research and applications previously scattered throughout the literature. It begins with an overview of the field, then presents a series of chapters that illuminate the nature and purpose of cluster modelling within different application areas, including astrophysics, epidemiology, ecology, and imaging. The focus then shifts to methods, with discussions on point and object process modelling, perfect sampling of cluster processes, partitioning in space and space-time, spatial and spatio-temporal process modelling, nonparametric methods for clustering, and spatio-temporal ...

  7. Clusters in nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Following the pioneering discovery of alpha clustering and of molecular resonances, the field of nuclear clustering is today one of those domains of heavy-ion nuclear physics that faces the greatest challenges, yet also contains the greatest opportunities. After many summer schools and workshops, in particular over the last decade, the community of nuclear molecular physicists has decided to collaborate in producing a comprehensive collection of lectures and tutorial reviews covering the field. This third volume follows the successful Lect. Notes Phys. 818 (Vol. 1) and 848 (Vol. 2), and comprises six extensive lectures covering the following topics:  - Gamma Rays and Molecular Structure - Faddeev Equation Approach for Three Cluster Nuclear Reactions - Tomography of the Cluster Structure of Light Nuclei Via Relativistic Dissociation - Clustering Effects Within the Dinuclear Model : From Light to Hyper-heavy Molecules in Dynamical Mean-field Approach - Clusterization in Ternary Fission - Clusters in Light N...

  8. Modeling Clustered Data with Very Few Clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeish, Daniel; Stapleton, Laura M

    2016-01-01

    Small-sample inference with clustered data has received increased attention recently in the methodological literature, with several simulation studies being presented on the small-sample behavior of many methods. However, nearly all previous studies focus on a single class of methods (e.g., only multilevel models, only corrections to sandwich estimators), and the differential performance of various methods that can be implemented to accommodate clustered data with very few clusters is largely unknown, potentially due to the rigid disciplinary preferences. Furthermore, a majority of these studies focus on scenarios with 15 or more clusters and feature unrealistically simple data-generation models with very few predictors. This article, motivated by an applied educational psychology cluster randomized trial, presents a simulation study that simultaneously addresses the extreme small sample and differential performance (estimation bias, Type I error rates, and relative power) of 12 methods to account for clustered data with a model that features a more realistic number of predictors. The motivating data are then modeled with each method, and results are compared. Results show that generalized estimating equations perform poorly; the choice of Bayesian prior distributions affects performance; and fixed effect models perform quite well. Limitations and implications for applications are also discussed.

  9. Ganglioside contained in the neuronal tissue-enriched acidic protein of 22 kDa (NAP-22) fraction prepared from the detergent-resistant membrane microdomain of rat brain inhibits the phosphatase activity of calcineurin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yuumi; da Silva, Ronan; Kumanogoh, Haruko; Miyata, Shinji; Sato, Chihiro; Kitajima, Ken; Nakamura, Shun; Morita, Mistuhiro; Hayashi, Fumio; Maekawa, Shohei

    2015-09-01

    Neurons have well-developed membrane microdomains called "rafts" that are recovered as a detergent-resistant membrane microdomain fraction (DRM). Neuronal tissue-enriched acidic protein of 22 kDa (NAP-22) is one of the major protein components of neuronal DRM. To determine the cellular function of NAP-22, interacting proteins were screened with an immunoprecipitation assay, and calcineurin (CaN) was detected. Further studies with NAP-22 prepared from DRM and CaN expressed in bacteria showed the binding of these proteins and a dose-dependent inhibitory effect of the NAP-22 fraction on the phosphatase activity of CaN. On the other hand, NAP-22 expressed in bacteria showed low binding to CaN and a weak inhibitory effect on phosphatase activity. To solve this discrepancy, identification of a nonprotein component that modulates CaN activity in the DRM-derived NAP-22 fraction was attempted. After lyophilization, a lipid fraction was extracted with chloroform/methanol. The lipid fraction showed an inhibitory effect on CaN without NAP-22, and further fractionation of the extract with thin-layer chromatography showed the presence of several lipid bands having an inhibitory effect on CaN. The mobility of these bands coincided with that of authentic ganglioside (GM1a, GD1a, GD1b, and GT1b), and authentic ganglioside showed an inhibitory effect on CaN. Treatment of lipid with endoglycoceramidase, which degrades ganglioside to glycochain and ceramide, caused a diminution of the inhibitory effect. These results show that DRM-derived NAP-22 binds several lipids, including ganglioside, and that ganglioside inhibits the phosphatase activity of CaN. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. A Novel Divisive Hierarchical Clustering Algorithm for Geospatial Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoning Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the fields of geographic information systems (GIS and remote sensing (RS, the clustering algorithm has been widely used for image segmentation, pattern recognition, and cartographic generalization. Although clustering analysis plays a key role in geospatial modelling, traditional clustering methods are limited due to computational complexity, noise resistant ability and robustness. Furthermore, traditional methods are more focused on the adjacent spatial context, which makes it hard for the clustering methods to be applied to multi-density discrete objects. In this paper, a new method, cell-dividing hierarchical clustering (CDHC, is proposed based on convex hull retraction. The main steps are as follows. First, a convex hull structure is constructed to describe the global spatial context of geospatial objects. Then, the retracting structure of each borderline is established in sequence by setting the initial parameter. The objects are split into two clusters (i.e., “sub-clusters” if the retracting structure intersects with the borderlines. Finally, clusters are repeatedly split and the initial parameter is updated until the terminate condition is satisfied. The experimental results show that CDHC separates the multi-density objects from noise sufficiently and also reduces complexity compared to the traditional agglomerative hierarchical clustering algorithm.

  11. Rational solutions of the discrete time Toda lattice and the alternate discrete Painleve II equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Common, Alan K; Hone, Andrew N W

    2008-01-01

    The Yablonskii-Vorob'ev polynomials y n (t), which are defined by a second-order bilinear differential-difference equation, provide rational solutions of the Toda lattice. They are also polynomial tau-functions for the rational solutions of the second Painleve equation (P II ). Here we define two-variable polynomials Y n (t, h) on a lattice with spacing h, by considering rational solutions of the discrete time Toda lattice as introduced by Suris. These polynomials are shown to have many properties that are analogous to those of the Yablonskii-Vorob'ev polynomials, to which they reduce when h = 0. They also provide rational solutions for a particular discretization of P II , namely the so-called alternate discrete P II , and this connection leads to an expression in terms of the Umemura polynomials for the third Painleve equation (P III ). It is shown that the Baecklund transformation for the alternate discrete Painleve equation is a symplectic map, and the shift in time is also symplectic. Finally we present a Lax pair for the alternate discrete P II , which recovers Jimbo and Miwa's Lax pair for P II in the continuum limit h → 0

  12. CLEAN: CLustering Enrichment ANalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenberg, Johannes M; Joshi, Vineet K; Hu, Zhen; Medvedovic, Mario

    2009-01-01

    Background Integration of biological knowledge encoded in various lists of functionally related genes has become one of the most important aspects of analyzing genome-wide functional genomics data. In the context of cluster analysis, functional coherence of clusters established through such analyses have been used to identify biologically meaningful clusters, compare clustering algorithms and identify biological pathways associated with the biological process under investigation. Results We developed a computational framework for analytically and visually integrating knowledge-based functional categories with the cluster analysis of genomics data. The framework is based on the simple, conceptually appealing, and biologically interpretable gene-specific functional coherence score (CLEAN score). The score is derived by correlating the clustering structure as a whole with functional categories of interest. We directly demonstrate that integrating biological knowledge in this way improves the reproducibility of conclusions derived from cluster analysis. The CLEAN score differentiates between the levels of functional coherence for genes within the same cluster based on their membership in enriched functional categories. We show that this aspect results in higher reproducibility across independent datasets and produces more informative genes for distinguishing different sample types than the scores based on the traditional cluster-wide analysis. We also demonstrate the utility of the CLEAN framework in comparing clusterings produced by different algorithms. CLEAN was implemented as an add-on R package and can be downloaded at . The package integrates routines for calculating gene specific functional coherence scores and the open source interactive Java-based viewer Functional TreeView (FTreeView). Conclusion Our results indicate that using the gene-specific functional coherence score improves the reproducibility of the conclusions made about clusters of co

  13. Cluster assembly in nitrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sickerman, Nathaniel S; Rettberg, Lee A; Lee, Chi Chung; Hu, Yilin; Ribbe, Markus W

    2017-05-09

    The versatile enzyme system nitrogenase accomplishes the challenging reduction of N 2 and other substrates through the use of two main metalloclusters. For molybdenum nitrogenase, the catalytic component NifDK contains the [Fe 8 S 7 ]-core P-cluster and a [MoFe 7 S 9 C-homocitrate] cofactor called the M-cluster. These chemically unprecedented metalloclusters play a critical role in the reduction of N 2 , and both originate from [Fe 4 S 4 ] clusters produced by the actions of NifS and NifU. Maturation of P-cluster begins with a pair of these [Fe 4 S 4 ] clusters on NifDK called the P*-cluster. An accessory protein NifZ aids in P-cluster fusion, and reductive coupling is facilitated by NifH in a stepwise manner to form P-cluster on each half of NifDK. For M-cluster biosynthesis, two [Fe 4 S 4 ] clusters on NifB are coupled with a carbon atom in a radical-SAM dependent process, and concomitant addition of a 'ninth' sulfur atom generates the [Fe 8 S 9 C]-core L-cluster. On the scaffold protein NifEN, L-cluster is matured to M-cluster by the addition of Mo and homocitrate provided by NifH. Finally, matured M-cluster in NifEN is directly transferred to NifDK, where a conformational change locks the cofactor in place. Mechanistic insights into these fascinating biosynthetic processes are detailed in this chapter. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  14. Projected discrete ordinates methods for numerical transport problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, E.W.

    1985-01-01

    A class of Projected Discrete-Ordinates (PDO) methods is described for obtaining iterative solutions of discrete-ordinates problems with convergence rates comparable to those observed using Diffusion Synthetic Acceleration (DSA). The spatially discretized PDO solutions are generally not equal to the DSA solutions, but unlike DSA, which requires great care in the use of spatial discretizations to preserve stability, the PDO solutions remain stable and rapidly convergent with essentially arbitrary spatial discretizations. Numerical results are presented which illustrate the rapid convergence and the accuracy of solutions obtained using PDO methods with commonplace differencing methods.

  15. Discrete-feature modelling of the Aespoe Site: 1. Discrete-fracture network models for the repository scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geier, J.E.; Thomas, A.L.

    1996-08-01

    This report describes the statistical derivation and partial validation of discrete-fracture network (DFN) models for the rock beneath the island of Aespoe in southeastern Sweden. The purpose was to develop DFN representations of the rock mass within a hypothetical, spent-fuel repository, located under Aespoe. Analyses are presented for four major lithologic types, with separate analyses of the rock within fracture zones, the rock excluding fracture zones, and all rock. Complete DFN models are proposed as descriptions of the rock mass in the near field. The procedure for validation, by comparison between actual and simulated packer tests, was found to be useful for discriminating among candidate DFN models. In particular, the validation approach was shown to be sensitive to a change in the fracture location (clustering) model, and to a change in the variance of single-fracture transmissivity. The proposed models are defined in terms of stochastic processes and statistical distributions, and thus are descriptive of the variability of the fracture system. This report includes discussion of the numerous sources of uncertainty in the models, including uncertainty that results from the variability of the natural system. 62 refs

  16. Agricultural Clusters in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, M.A.; Heijman, W.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Michael Porter was the first to use the term cluster in an economic context. He introduced the term in The Competitive Advantage of Nations (1990). The term cluster is also known as business cluster, industry cluster, competitive cluster or Porterian cluster. This article aims at determining and

  17. Open source clustering software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hoon, M J L; Imoto, S; Nolan, J; Miyano, S

    2004-06-12

    We have implemented k-means clustering, hierarchical clustering and self-organizing maps in a single multipurpose open-source library of C routines, callable from other C and C++ programs. Using this library, we have created an improved version of Michael Eisen's well-known Cluster program for Windows, Mac OS X and Linux/Unix. In addition, we generated a Python and a Perl interface to the C Clustering Library, thereby combining the flexibility of a scripting language with the speed of C. The C Clustering Library and the corresponding Python C extension module Pycluster were released under the Python License, while the Perl module Algorithm::Cluster was released under the Artistic License. The GUI code Cluster 3.0 for Windows, Macintosh and Linux/Unix, as well as the corresponding command-line program, were released under the same license as the original Cluster code. The complete source code is available at http://bonsai.ims.u-tokyo.ac.jp/mdehoon/software/cluster. Alternatively, Algorithm::Cluster can be downloaded from CPAN, while Pycluster is also available as part of the Biopython distribution.

  18. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor in endothelial cells colocalizes with glycolipid microdomains/caveolae: Regulatory mechanism(s) of the anticoagulant properties of the endothelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lupu, C.; Goodwin, C.A.; Westmuckett, A.D.; Emeis, J.J.; Scully, M.F.; Kakkar, V.V.; Lupu, F.

    1997-01-01

    Tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), the main downregulator of the procoagulant activity of tissue factor·factor VIIa complex, locates in human endothelial cells (EC) in culture as well-defined clusters uniformly distributed both on the cell surface and intracellularly. We here demonstrate by

  19. Corrections to "basins of attraction in fully asynchronous discrete-time discrete-state dynamic networks".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahi, Jacques M; Contassot-Vivier, Sylvain

    2009-08-01

    This paper brings a correction to the formulation of the basins of fixed-point states of fully asynchronous discrete-time discrete-state dynamic networks presented in our paper that appeared in the IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 397-408, March 2006. In our subsequent works on totally asynchronous systems, we have discovered that the formulation given in that previous paper lacks an additional condition. We present in this paper why the previous formulation is incomplete and give the correct formulation.

  20. Interventional tool tracking using discrete optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heibel, Hauke; Glocker, Ben; Groher, Martin; Pfister, Marcus; Navab, Nassir

    2013-03-01

    This work presents a novel scheme for tracking of motion and deformation of interventional tools such as guide-wires and catheters in fluoroscopic X-ray sequences. Being able to track and thus to estimate the correct positions of these tools is crucial in order to offer guidance enhancement during interventions. The task of estimating the apparent motion is particularly challenging due to the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of fluoroscopic images and due to combined motion components originating from patient breathing and tool interactions performed by the physician. The presented approach is based on modeling interventional tools with B-splines whose optimal configuration of control points is determined through efficient discrete optimization. Each control point corresponds to a discrete random variable in a Markov random field (MRF) formulation where a set of labels represents the deformation space. In this context, the optimal curve corresponds to the maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimate of the MRF energy. The main motivation for employing a discrete approach is the possibility to incorporate a multi-directional search space which is robust to local minima. This is of particular interest for curve tracking under large deformation. This work analyzes feasibility of employing efficient first-order MRFs for tracking. In particular it shows how to achieve a good compromise between energy approximations and computational efficiency. Experimental results suggest to define both the external and internal energy in terms of pairwise potential functions. The method was successfully applied to the tracking of guide-wires in fluoroscopic X-ray sequences of several hundred frames which requires extremely robust techniques. Comparisons with state-of-the-art guide-wire tracking algorithms confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  1. An Einstein equation for discrete quantum gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Gudder, Stan

    2012-01-01

    The basic framework for this article is the causal set approach to discrete quantum gravity (DQG). Let $Q_n$ be the collection of causal sets with cardinality not greater than $n$ and let $K_n$ be the standard Hilbert space of complex-valued functions on $Q_n$. The formalism of DQG presents us with a decoherence matrix $D_n(x,y)$, $x,y\\in Q_n$. There is a growth order in $Q_n$ and a path in $Q_n$ is a maximal chain relative to this order. We denote the set of paths in $Q_n$ by $\\Omega_n$. For...

  2. Newnes passive and discrete circuits pocket book

    CERN Document Server

    MARSTON, R M

    2000-01-01

    Newnes Passive and Discrete Circuits Pocket Book is aimed at all engineers, technicians, students and experimenters who can build a design directly from a circuit diagram. In a highly concise form Ray Marston presents a huge compendium of circuits that can be built as they appear, adapted or used as building blocks. The devices used have been carefully chosen for their ease of availability and reasonable price. The selection of devices has been thoroughly updated for the second edition, which has also been expanded to cover the latest ICs.The three sections of the book cover: Moder

  3. Discrete time modelization of human pilot behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalli, D.; Soulatges, D.

    1975-01-01

    This modelization starts from the following hypotheses: pilot's behavior is a time discrete process, he can perform only one task at a time and his operating mode depends on the considered flight subphase. Pilot's behavior was observed using an electro oculometer and a simulator cockpit. A FORTRAN program has been elaborated using two strategies. The first one is a Markovian process in which the successive instrument readings are governed by a matrix of conditional probabilities. In the second one, strategy is an heuristic process and the concepts of mental load and performance are described. The results of the two aspects have been compared with simulation data.

  4. A discrete transition to advanced mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Richmond, Bettina

    2009-01-01

    As the title indicates, this book is intended for courses aimed at bridging the gap between lower-level mathematics and advanced mathematics. The text provides a careful introduction to techniques for writing proofs and a logical development of topics based on intuitive understanding of concepts. The authors utilize a clear writing style and a wealth of examples to develop an understanding of discrete mathematics and critical thinking skills. While including many traditional topics, the text offers innovative material throughout. Surprising results are used to motivate the reader. The last thr

  5. Generalized reciprocity principle for discrete symplectic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Elyseeva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies transformations for conjoined bases of symplectic difference systems $Y_{i+1}=\\mathcal S_{i}Y_{i}$ with the symplectic coefficient matrices $\\mathcal S_i.$ For an arbitrary symplectic transformation matrix $P_{i}$ we formulate most general sufficient conditions for $\\mathcal S_{i},\\, P_{i}$ which guarantee that $P_{i}$ preserves oscillatory properties of conjoined bases $Y_{i}.$ We present examples which show that our new results extend the applicability of the discrete transformation theory.

  6. Time-delay analyzer with continuous discretization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayatyan, G.L.; Darbinyan, K.T.; Mkrtchyan, K.K.; Stepanyan, S.S.

    1988-01-01

    A time-delay analyzer is described which when triggered by a start pulse of adjustable duration performs continuous discretization of the analyzed signal within nearly 22 ns time intervals, the recording in a memory unit with following slow read-out of the information to the computer and its processing. The time-delay analyzer consists of four CAMAC-VECTOR systems of unit width. With its help one can separate comparatively short, small-amplitude rare signals against the background of quasistationary noise processes. 4 refs.; 3 figs

  7. Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test for Discrete Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-03-01

    34 v *v t ’c */* *v *v -v* -v* nr* "i* *t* "t* *r- *v* *v Tr T* *r» -nr "p -v- *i* *** *r *r* "V* t- FDMNS = 0.0 PDPLS = 0.0 PCP = 0.0 FDM = 0.0 CC 38...34Heuristic Approach to the Kolmogorov-Smirnov Theorems ," Annals of Mathematical Statistics , v. 20, p. 393-^03, 19^9. 7. Massey, F. J., "The Kolmogorov...Statistic in the Discrete Case," Metrika , v. 7, No. 2, p. 115-116, I963. 9. Schmid, P., "On the Kolmogorov and Smirnov Limit Theorems for

  8. Compartmentalization analysis using discrete fracture network models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Pointe, P.R.; Eiben, T.; Dershowitz, W. [Golder Associates, Redmond, VA (United States); Wadleigh, E. [Marathon Oil Co., Midland, TX (United States)

    1997-08-01

    This paper illustrates how Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) technology can serve as a basis for the calculation of reservoir engineering parameters for the development of fractured reservoirs. It describes the development of quantitative techniques for defining the geometry and volume of structurally controlled compartments. These techniques are based on a combination of stochastic geometry, computational geometry, and graph the theory. The parameters addressed are compartment size, matrix block size and tributary drainage volume. The concept of DFN models is explained and methodologies to compute these parameters are demonstrated.

  9. Cluster Management Institutionalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Normann, Leo; Agger Nielsen, Jeppe

    2015-01-01

    This article explores a new management form – cluster management – in Danish public sector day care. Although cluster management has been widely adopted in Danish day care at the municipality level, it has attracted only sparse research attention. We use theoretical insights from Scandinavian...... institutionalism together with a longitudinal case-based inquiry into how cluster management has entered and penetrated the management practices of day care in Denmark. We demonstrate how cluster management became widely adopted in the day care field not only because of its intrinsic properties but also because...... of how it was legitimized as a “ready-to-use” management model. Further, our account reveals how cluster management translated into considerably different local variants as it travelled into specific organizations. However, these processes have not occurred sequentially with cluster management first...

  10. Disentangling Porterian Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagtfelt, Tue

    This dissertation investigates the contemporary phenomenon of industrial clusters based on the work of Michael E. Porter, the central progenitor and promoter of the cluster notion. The dissertation pursues two central questions: 1) What is a cluster? and 2) How could Porter’s seemingly fuzzy...... to his membership on the Commission on Industrial Competitiveness, and that the cluster notion found in his influential book, Nations, represents a significant shift in his conception of cluster compared with his early conceptions. This shift, it is argued, is a deliberate attempt by Porter to create...... a paradigmatic textbook that follows Kuhn’s blueprint for scientific revolutions by instilling Nations with circular references and thus creating a local linguistic holism conceptualized through an encompassing notion of cluster. The dissertation concludes that the two research questions are philosophically...

  11. 15th Cluster workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Laakso, Harri; Escoubet, C. Philippe; The Cluster Active Archive : Studying the Earth’s Space Plasma Environment

    2010-01-01

    Since the year 2000 the ESA Cluster mission has been investigating the small-scale structures and processes of the Earth's plasma environment, such as those involved in the interaction between the solar wind and the magnetospheric plasma, in global magnetotail dynamics, in cross-tail currents, and in the formation and dynamics of the neutral line and of plasmoids. This book contains presentations made at the 15th Cluster workshop held in March 2008. It also presents several articles about the Cluster Active Archive and its datasets, a few overview papers on the Cluster mission, and articles reporting on scientific findings on the solar wind, the magnetosheath, the magnetopause and the magnetotail.

  12. How atomic nuclei cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebran, J-P; Khan, E; Nikšić, T; Vretenar, D

    2012-07-18

    Nucleonic matter displays a quantum-liquid structure, but in some cases finite nuclei behave like molecules composed of clusters of protons and neutrons. Clustering is a recurrent feature in light nuclei, from beryllium to nickel. Cluster structures are typically observed as excited states close to the corresponding decay threshold; the origin of this phenomenon lies in the effective nuclear interaction, but the detailed mechanism of clustering in nuclei has not yet been fully understood. Here we use the theoretical framework of energy-density functionals, encompassing both cluster and quantum liquid-drop aspects of nuclei, to show that conditions for cluster formation can in part be traced back to the depth of the confining nuclear potential. For the illustrative example of neon-20, we show that the depth of the potential determines the energy spacings between single-nucleon orbitals in deformed nuclei, the localization of the corresponding wavefunctions and, therefore, the degree of nucleonic density clustering. Relativistic functionals, in particular, are characterized by deep single-nucleon potentials. When compared to non-relativistic functionals that yield similar ground-state properties (binding energy, deformation, radii), they predict the occurrence of much more pronounced cluster structures. More generally, clustering is considered as a transitional phenomenon between crystalline and quantum-liquid phases of fermionic systems.

  13. Discrete quantum spectrum of black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lochan, Kinjalk, E-mail: kinjalk@iucaa.in; Chakraborty, Sumanta, E-mail: sumanta@iucaa.in

    2016-04-10

    The quantum genesis of Hawking radiation is a long-standing puzzle in black hole physics. Semi-classically one can argue that the spectrum of radiation emitted by a black hole look very much sparse unlike what is expected from a thermal object. It was demonstrated through a simple quantum model that a quantum black hole will retain a discrete profile, at least in the weak energy regime. However, it was suggested that this discreteness might be an artifact of the simplicity of eigen-spectrum of the model considered. Different quantum theories can, in principle, give rise to different complicated spectra and make the radiation from black hole dense enough in transition lines, to make them look continuous in profile. We show that such a hope from a geometry-quantized black hole is not realized as long as large enough black holes are dubbed with a classical mass area relation in any gravity theory ranging from GR, Lanczos–Lovelock to f(R) gravity. We show that the smallest frequency of emission from black hole in any quantum description, is bounded from below, to be of the order of its inverse mass. That leaves the emission with only two possibilities. It can either be non-thermal, or it can be thermal only with the temperature being much larger than 1/M.

  14. Discrete quantum spectrum of black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochan, Kinjalk; Chakraborty, Sumanta

    2016-01-01

    The quantum genesis of Hawking radiation is a long-standing puzzle in black hole physics. Semi-classically one can argue that the spectrum of radiation emitted by a black hole look very much sparse unlike what is expected from a thermal object. It was demonstrated through a simple quantum model that a quantum black hole will retain a discrete profile, at least in the weak energy regime. However, it was suggested that this discreteness might be an artifact of the simplicity of eigen-spectrum of the model considered. Different quantum theories can, in principle, give rise to different complicated spectra and make the radiation from black hole dense enough in transition lines, to make them look continuous in profile. We show that such a hope from a geometry-quantized black hole is not realized as long as large enough black holes are dubbed with a classical mass area relation in any gravity theory ranging from GR, Lanczos–Lovelock to f(R) gravity. We show that the smallest frequency of emission from black hole in any quantum description, is bounded from below, to be of the order of its inverse mass. That leaves the emission with only two possibilities. It can either be non-thermal, or it can be thermal only with the temperature being much larger than 1/M.

  15. Focusing properties of discrete RF quadrupoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Hui; Wang, Zhi-Jun

    2017-08-01

    The particle motion equation for a Radio Frequency (RF) quadrupole is derived. The motion equation shows that the general transform matrix of a RF quadrupole with length less than or equal to 0.5βλ (β is the relativistic velocity of particles and λ is wavelength of radio frequency electromagnetic field) can describe the particle motion in an arbitrarily long RF quadrupole. By iterative integration, the general transform matrix of a discrete RF quadrupole is derived from the motion equation. The transform matrix is in form of a power series of focusing parameter B. It shows that for length less than βλ, the series up to the 2nd order of B agrees well with the direct integration results for B up to 30, while for length less than 0.5βλ, the series up to 1st order is already a good approximation of the real solution for B less than 30. The formula of the transform matrix can be integrated into linac or beam line design code to deal with the focusing of discrete RF quadrupoles. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11375122, 11511140277) and Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (XDA03020705)

  16. Dynamical Localization for Discrete Anderson Dirac Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Roberto A.; de Oliveira, César R.; Carvalho, Silas L.

    2017-04-01

    We establish dynamical localization for random Dirac operators on the d-dimensional lattice, with d\\in { 1, 2, 3} , in the three usual regimes: large disorder, band edge and 1D. These operators are discrete versions of the continuous Dirac operators and consist in the sum of a discrete free Dirac operator with a random potential. The potential is a diagonal matrix formed by different scalar potentials, which are sequences of independent and identically distributed random variables according to an absolutely continuous probability measure with bounded density and of compact support. We prove the exponential decay of fractional moments of the Green function for such models in each of the above regimes, i.e., (j) throughout the spectrum at larger disorder, (jj) for energies near the band edges at arbitrary disorder and (jjj) in dimension one, for all energies in the spectrum and arbitrary disorder. Dynamical localization in theses regimes follows from the fractional moments method. The result in the one-dimensional regime contrast with one that was previously obtained for 1D Dirac model with Bernoulli potential.

  17. A Discrete Model for Color Naming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegaz, G.; Le Troter, A.; Sequeira, J.; Boi, J. M.

    2006-12-01

    The ability to associate labels to colors is very natural for human beings. Though, this apparently simple task hides very complex and still unsolved problems, spreading over many different disciplines ranging from neurophysiology to psychology and imaging. In this paper, we propose a discrete model for computational color categorization and naming. Starting from the 424 color specimens of the OSA-UCS set, we propose a fuzzy partitioning of the color space. Each of the 11 basic color categories identified by Berlin and Kay is modeled as a fuzzy set whose membership function is implicitly defined by fitting the model to the results of an ad hoc psychophysical experiment (Experiment 1). Each OSA-UCS sample is represented by a feature vector whose components are the memberships to the different categories. The discrete model consists of a three-dimensional Delaunay triangulation of the CIELAB color space which associates each OSA-UCS sample to a vertex of a 3D tetrahedron. Linear interpolation is used to estimate the membership values of any other point in the color space. Model validation is performed both directly, through the comparison of the predicted membership values to the subjective counterparts, as evaluated via another psychophysical test (Experiment 2), and indirectly, through the investigation of its exploitability for image segmentation. The model has proved to be successful in both cases, providing an estimation of the membership values in good agreement with the subjective measures as well as a semantically meaningful color-based segmentation map.

  18. Correlations and discreteness in nonlinear QCD evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armesto, N.; Milhano, J.

    2006-01-01

    We consider modifications of the standard nonlinear QCD evolution in an attempt to account for some of the missing ingredients discussed recently, such as correlations, discreteness in gluon emission and Pomeron loops. The evolution is numerically performed using the Balitsky-Kovchegov equation on individual configurations defined by a given initial value of the saturation scale, for reduced rapidities y=(α s N c /π)Y<10. We consider the effects of averaging over configurations as a way to implement correlations, using three types of Gaussian averaging around a mean saturation scale. Further, we heuristically mimic discreteness in gluon emission by considering a modified evolution in which the tails of the gluon distributions are cut off. The approach to scaling and the behavior of the saturation scale with rapidity in these modified evolutions are studied and compared with the standard mean-field results. For the large but finite values of rapidity explored, no strong quantitative difference in scaling for transverse momenta around the saturation scale is observed. At larger transverse momenta, the influence of the modifications in the evolution seems most noticeable in the first steps of the evolution. No influence on the rapidity behavior of the saturation scale due to the averaging procedure is found. In the cutoff evolution the rapidity evolution of the saturation scale is slowed down and strongly depends on the value of the cutoff. Our results stress the need to go beyond simple modifications of evolution by developing proper theoretical tools that implement such recently discussed ingredients

  19. Discrete hierarchical organization of social group sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, W-X; Sornette, D; Hill, R A; Dunbar, R I M

    2005-02-22

    The 'social brain hypothesis' for the evolution of large brains in primates has led to evidence for the coevolution of neocortical size and social group sizes, suggesting that there is a cognitive constraint on group size that depends, in some way, on the volume of neural material available for processing and synthesizing information on social relationships. More recently, work on both human and non-human primates has suggested that social groups are often hierarchically structured. We combine data on human grouping patterns in a comprehensive and systematic study. Using fractal analysis, we identify, with high statistical confidence, a discrete hierarchy of group sizes with a preferred scaling ratio close to three: rather than a single or a continuous spectrum of group sizes, humans spontaneously form groups of preferred sizes organized in a geometrical series approximating 3-5, 9-15, 30-45, etc. Such discrete scale invariance could be related to that identified in signatures of herding behaviour in financial markets and might reflect a hierarchical processing of social nearness by human brains.

  20. Discrete Fractional COSHAD Transform and Its Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongqing Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a renewed interest in finding methods to construct orthogonal transforms. This interest is driven by the large number of applications of the orthogonal transforms in image analysis and compression, especially for colour images. Inspired by this motivation, this paper first introduces a new orthogonal transform known as a discrete fractional COSHAD (FrCOSHAD using the Kronecker product of eigenvectors and the eigenvalues of the COSHAD kernel functions. Next, this study discusses the properties of the FrCOSHAD kernel function, such as angle additivity. Using the algebra of quaternions, the study presents quaternion COSHAD/FrCOSHAD transforms to represent colour images in a holistic manner. This paper also develops an inverse polynomial reconstruction method (IPRM in the discrete COSHAD/FrCOSHAD domains. This method can effectively recover a piecewise smooth signal from the finite set of its COSHAD/FrCOSHAD coefficients, with high accuracy. The convergence theorem has proved that the partial sum of COSHAD provides a spectrally accurate approximation to the underlying piecewise smooth signal. The experimental results verify the numerical stability and accuracy of the proposed methods.

  1. Discretization analysis of bifurcation based nonlinear amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldkord, Sven; Reit, Marco; Mathis, Wolfgang

    2017-09-01

    Recently, for modeling biological amplification processes, nonlinear amplifiers based on the supercritical Andronov-Hopf bifurcation have been widely analyzed analytically. For technical realizations, digital systems have become the most relevant systems in signal processing applications. The underlying continuous-time systems are transferred to the discrete-time domain using numerical integration methods. Within this contribution, effects on the qualitative behavior of the Andronov-Hopf bifurcation based systems concerning numerical integration methods are analyzed. It is shown exemplarily that explicit Runge-Kutta methods transform the truncated normalform equation of the Andronov-Hopf bifurcation into the normalform equation of the Neimark-Sacker bifurcation. Dependent on the order of the integration method, higher order terms are added during this transformation.A rescaled normalform equation of the Neimark-Sacker bifurcation is introduced that allows a parametric design of a discrete-time system which corresponds to the rescaled Andronov-Hopf system. This system approximates the characteristics of the rescaled Hopf-type amplifier for a large range of parameters. The natural frequency and the peak amplitude are preserved for every set of parameters. The Neimark-Sacker bifurcation based systems avoid large computational effort that would be caused by applying higher order integration methods to the continuous-time normalform equations.

  2. Discretization analysis of bifurcation based nonlinear amplifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Feldkord

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, for modeling biological amplification processes, nonlinear amplifiers based on the supercritical Andronov–Hopf bifurcation have been widely analyzed analytically. For technical realizations, digital systems have become the most relevant systems in signal processing applications. The underlying continuous-time systems are transferred to the discrete-time domain using numerical integration methods. Within this contribution, effects on the qualitative behavior of the Andronov–Hopf bifurcation based systems concerning numerical integration methods are analyzed. It is shown exemplarily that explicit Runge–Kutta methods transform the truncated normalform equation of the Andronov–Hopf bifurcation into the normalform equation of the Neimark–Sacker bifurcation. Dependent on the order of the integration method, higher order terms are added during this transformation.A rescaled normalform equation of the Neimark–Sacker bifurcation is introduced that allows a parametric design of a discrete-time system which corresponds to the rescaled Andronov–Hopf system. This system approximates the characteristics of the rescaled Hopf-type amplifier for a large range of parameters. The natural frequency and the peak amplitude are preserved for every set of parameters. The Neimark–Sacker bifurcation based systems avoid large computational effort that would be caused by applying higher order integration methods to the continuous-time normalform equations.

  3. Discrete quantum spectrum of black holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinjalk Lochan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The quantum genesis of Hawking radiation is a long-standing puzzle in black hole physics. Semi-classically one can argue that the spectrum of radiation emitted by a black hole look very much sparse unlike what is expected from a thermal object. It was demonstrated through a simple quantum model that a quantum black hole will retain a discrete profile, at least in the weak energy regime. However, it was suggested that this discreteness might be an artifact of the simplicity of eigen-spectrum of the model considered. Different quantum theories can, in principle, give rise to different complicated spectra and make the radiation from black hole dense enough in transition lines, to make them look continuous in profile. We show that such a hope from a geometry-quantized black hole is not realized as long as large enough black holes are dubbed with a classical mass area relation in any gravity theory ranging from GR, Lanczos–Lovelock to f(R gravity. We show that the smallest frequency of emission from black hole in any quantum description, is bounded from below, to be of the order of its inverse mass. That leaves the emission with only two possibilities. It can either be non-thermal, or it can be thermal only with the temperature being much larger than 1/M.

  4. Discrete Bubble Modeling for Cavitation Bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jin-Keun; Chahine, Georges; Hsiao, Chao-Tsung

    2007-03-01

    Dynaflow, Inc. has conducted extensive studies on non-spherical bubble dynamics and interactions with solid and free boundaries, vortical flow structures, and other bubbles. From these studies, emerged a simplified Surface Averaged Pressure (SAP) spherical bubble dynamics model and a Lagrangian bubble tracking scheme. In this SAP scheme, the pressure and velocity of the surrounding flow field are averaged on the bubble surface, and then used for the bubble motion and volume dynamics calculations. This model is implemented using the Fluent User Defined Function (UDF) as Discrete Bubble Model (DBM). The Bubble dynamics portion can be solved using an incompressible liquid modified Rayleigh-Plesset equation or a compressible liquid modified Gilmore equation. The Discrete Bubble Model is a very suitable tool for the studies on cavitation inception of foils and turbo machinery, bubble nuclei effects, noise from the bubbles, and can be used in many practical problems in industrial and naval applications associated with flows in pipes, jets, pumps, propellers, ships, and the ocean. Applications to propeller cavitation, wake signatures of waterjet propelled ships, bubble-wake interactions, modeling of cavitating jets, and bubble entrainments around a ship will be presented.

  5. Oblique lower band chorus waves: Time shifts between discrete elements observed by the Cluster spacecraft

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chum, Jaroslav; Santolík, Ondřej; Gurnett, D. A.; Pickett, J. S.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 114, - (2009), A00F02/1-A00F02/13 ISSN 0148-0227 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/1253; GA AV ČR IAA301120601 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : plasma waves * wave particle interaction * inner magnetosphere * radiation belt Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.082, year: 2009

  6. First-Principles Modeling Of Electromagnetic Scattering By Discrete and Discretely Heterogeneous Random Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishchenko, Michael I.; Dlugach, Janna M.; Yurkin, Maxim A.; Bi, Lei; Cairns, Brian; Liu, Li; Panetta, R. Lee; Travis, Larry D.; Yang, Ping; Zakharova, Nadezhda T.

    2016-01-01

    A discrete random medium is an object in the form of a finite volume of a vacuum or a homogeneous material medium filled with quasi-randomly and quasi-uniformly distributed discrete macroscopic impurities called small particles. Such objects are ubiquitous in natural and artificial environments. They are often characterized by analyzing theoretically the results of laboratory, in situ, or remote-sensing measurements of the scattering of light and other electromagnetic radiation. Electromagnetic scattering and absorption by particles can also affect the energy budget of a discrete random medium and hence various ambient physical and chemical processes. In either case electromagnetic scattering must be modeled in terms of appropriate optical observables, i.e., quadratic or bilinear forms in the field that quantify the reading of a relevant optical instrument or the electromagnetic energy budget. It is generally believed that time-harmonic Maxwell's equations can accurately describe elastic electromagnetic scattering by macroscopic particulate media that change in time much more slowly than the incident electromagnetic field. However, direct solutions of these equations for discrete random media had been impracticable until quite recently. This has led to a widespread use of various phenomenological approaches in situations when their very applicability can be questioned. Recently, however, a new branch of physical optics has emerged wherein electromagnetic scattering by discrete and discretely heterogeneous random media is modeled directly by using analytical or numerically exact computer solutions of the Maxwell equations. Therefore, the main objective of this Report is to formulate the general theoretical framework of electromagnetic scattering by discrete random media rooted in the Maxwell- Lorentz electromagnetics and discuss its immediate analytical and numerical consequences. Starting from the microscopic Maxwell-Lorentz equations, we trace the development of

  7. First-principles modeling of electromagnetic scattering by discrete and discretely heterogeneous random media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishchenko, Michael I.; Dlugach, Janna M.; Yurkin, Maxim A.; Bi, Lei; Cairns, Brian; Liu, Li; Panetta, R. Lee; Travis, Larry D.; Yang, Ping; Zakharova, Nadezhda T.

    2016-01-01

    A discrete random medium is an object in the form of a finite volume of a vacuum or a homogeneous material medium filled with quasi-randomly and quasi-uniformly distributed discrete macroscopic impurities called small particles. Such objects are ubiquitous in natural and artificial environments. They are often characterized by analyzing theoretically the results of laboratory, in situ, or remote-sensing measurements of the scattering of light and other electromagnetic radiation. Electromagnetic scattering and absorption by particles can also affect the energy budget of a discrete random medium and hence various ambient physical and chemical processes. In either case electromagnetic scattering must be modeled in terms of appropriate optical observables, i.e., quadratic or bilinear forms in the field that quantify the reading of a relevant optical instrument or the electromagnetic energy budget. It is generally believed that time-harmonic Maxwell’s equations can accurately describe elastic electromagnetic scattering by macroscopic particulate media that change in time much more slowly than the incident electromagnetic field. However, direct solutions of these equations for discrete random media had been impracticable until quite recently. This has led to a widespread use of various phenomenological approaches in situations when their very applicability can be questioned. Recently, however, a new branch of physical optics has emerged wherein electromagnetic scattering by discrete and discretely heterogeneous random media is modeled directly by using analytical or numerically exact computer solutions of the Maxwell equations. Therefore, the main objective of this Report is to formulate the general theoretical framework of electromagnetic scattering by discrete random media rooted in the Maxwell–Lorentz electromagnetics and discuss its immediate analytical and numerical consequences. Starting from the microscopic Maxwell–Lorentz equations, we trace the development

  8. First-principles modeling of electromagnetic scattering by discrete and discretely heterogeneous random media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishchenko, Michael I.; Dlugach, Janna M.; Yurkin, Maxim A.; Bi, Lei; Cairns, Brian; Liu, Li; Panetta, R. Lee; Travis, Larry D.; Yang, Ping; Zakharova, Nadezhda T.

    2018-01-01

    A discrete random medium is an object in the form of a finite volume of a vacuum or a homogeneous material medium filled with quasi-randomly and quasi-uniformly distributed discrete macroscopic impurities called small particles. Such objects are ubiquitous in natural and artificial environments. They are often characterized by analyzing theoretically the results of laboratory, in situ, or remote-sensing measurements of the scattering of light and other electromagnetic radiation. Electromagnetic scattering and absorption by particles can also affect the energy budget of a discrete random medium and hence various ambient physical and chemical processes. In either case electromagnetic scattering must be modeled in terms of appropriate optical observables, i.e., quadratic or bilinear forms in the field that quantify the reading of a relevant optical instrument or the electromagnetic energy budget. It is generally believed that time-harmonic Maxwell’s equations can accurately describe elastic electromagnetic scattering by macroscopic particulate media that change in time much more slowly than the incident electromagnetic field. However, direct solutions of these equations for discrete random media had been impracticable until quite recently. This has led to a widespread use of various phenomenological approaches in situations when their very applicability can be questioned. Recently, however, a new branch of physical optics has emerged wherein electromagnetic scattering by discrete and discretely heterogeneous random media is modeled directly by using analytical or numerically exact computer solutions of the Maxwell equations. Therefore, the main objective of this Report is to formulate the general theoretical framework of electromagnetic scattering by discrete random media rooted in the Maxwell–Lorentz electromagnetics and discuss its immediate analytical and numerical consequences. Starting from the microscopic Maxwell–Lorentz equations, we trace the development

  9. Statistical properties of convex clustering

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Kean Ming; Witten, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    In this manuscript, we study the statistical properties of convex clustering. We establish that convex clustering is closely related to single linkage hierarchical clustering and $k$-means clustering. In addition, we derive the range of the tuning parameter for convex clustering that yields a non-trivial solution. We also provide an unbiased estimator of the degrees of freedom, and provide a finite sample bound for the prediction error for convex clustering. We compare convex clustering to so...

  10. Nonlocalized clustering and evolution of cluster structure in nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, H.

    2017-06-01

    It is shown that the THSR (Tohsaki-Horiuchi-Schuck-Roepke) wave function describe well not only cluster-gas like structures but also ordinary cluster structures with spatial localization of clusters. Based on this fact, the container model has been proposed as a new model of cluster dynamics. For better description of cluster dynamics, extended version of container model has been introduced. The container model of cluster dynamics teaches us how is the evolution of cluster structure which starts from the ground state having shell-model structure to many kinds of cluster states up to the cluster-gas states.

  11. Lifting to cluster-tilting objects in higher cluster categories

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Pin

    2008-01-01

    In this note, we consider the $d$-cluster-tilted algebras, the endomorphism algebras of $d$-cluster-tilting objects in $d$-cluster categories. We show that a tilting module over such an algebra lifts to a $d$-cluster-tilting object in this $d$-cluster category.

  12. Exploring high dimensional data with Butterfly: a novel classification algorithm based on discrete dynamical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraci, Joseph; Dharsee, Moyez; Nuin, Paulo; Haslehurst, Alexandria; Koti, Madhuri; Feilotter, Harriet E; Evans, Ken

    2014-03-01

    We introduce a novel method for visualizing high dimensional data via a discrete dynamical system. This method provides a 2D representation of the relationship between subjects according to a set of variables without geometric projections, transformed axes or principal components. The algorithm exploits a memory-type mechanism inherent in a certain class of discrete dynamical systems collectively referred to as the chaos game that are closely related to iterative function systems. The goal of the algorithm was to create a human readable representation of high dimensional patient data that was capable of detecting unrevealed subclusters of patients from within anticipated classifications. This provides a mechanism to further pursue a more personalized exploration of pathology when used with medical data. For clustering and classification protocols, the dynamical system portion of the algorithm is designed to come after some feature selection filter and before some model evaluation (e.g. clustering accuracy) protocol. In the version given here, a univariate features selection step is performed (in practice more complex feature selection methods are used), a discrete dynamical system is driven by this reduced set of variables (which results in a set of 2D cluster models), these models are evaluated for their accuracy (according to a user-defined binary classification) and finally a visual representation of the top classification models are returned. Thus, in addition to the visualization component, this methodology can be used for both supervised and unsupervised machine learning as the top performing models are returned in the protocol we describe here. Butterfly, the algorithm we introduce and provide working code for, uses a discrete dynamical system to classify high dimensional data and provide a 2D representation of the relationship between subjects. We report results on three datasets (two in the article; one in the appendix) including a public lung cancer

  13. Pattern formation with repulsive soft-core interactions: Discrete particle dynamics and Dean-Kawasaki equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfau, Jean-Baptiste; Ollivier, Hélène; López, Cristóbal; Blasius, Bernd; Hernández-García, Emilio

    2016-10-01

    Brownian particles interacting via repulsive soft-core potentials can spontaneously aggregate, despite repelling each other, and form periodic crystals of particle clusters. We study this phenomenon in low-dimensional situations (one and two dimensions) at two levels of description: by performing numerical simulations of the discrete particle dynamics and by linear and nonlinear analysis of the corresponding Dean-Kawasaki equation for the macroscopic particle density. Restricting to low dimensions and neglecting fluctuation effects, we gain analytical insight into the mechanisms of the instability leading to clustering which turn out to be the interplay among diffusion, the intracluster forces, and the forces between neighboring clusters. We show that the deterministic part of the Dean-Kawasaki equation provides a good description of the particle dynamics, including width and shape of the clusters and over a wide range of parameters, and analyze with weakly nonlinear techniques the nature of the pattern-forming bifurcation in one and two dimensions. Finally, we briefly discuss the case of attractive forces.

  14. Mixed-Initiative Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yifen

    2010-01-01

    Mixed-initiative clustering is a task where a user and a machine work collaboratively to analyze a large set of documents. We hypothesize that a user and a machine can both learn better clustering models through enriched communication and interactive learning from each other. The first contribution or this thesis is providing a framework of…

  15. Securing Personal Network Clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jehangir, A.; Heemstra de Groot, S.M.

    2007-01-01

    A Personal Network is a self-organizing, secure and private network of a user’s devices notwithstanding their geographic location. It aims to utilize pervasive computing to provide users with new and improved services. In this paper we propose a model for securing Personal Network clusters. Clusters

  16. Calixarene-supported clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Stephanie M.; McIntosh, Ruaraidh D.; Piligkos, Stergios

    2012-01-01

    A combination of complementary cluster ligands results in the formation of a new calixarene-supported ferromagnetic [Mn(5)] cage that displays the characteristic bonding modes of each support.......A combination of complementary cluster ligands results in the formation of a new calixarene-supported ferromagnetic [Mn(5)] cage that displays the characteristic bonding modes of each support....

  17. Reflections on cluster policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakman, Steven; van Marrewijk, Charles

    Economic activity tends to cluster. This results in productivity gains. For policy makers this offers an opportunity to formulate and promote policies that foster clustering of economic activity. Paradoxically, although agglomeration rents are often found in empirical research, a rationale for

  18. When Clusters become Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M.W. Phlippen (Sandra); G.A. van der Knaap (Bert)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractPolicy makers spend large amounts of public resources on the foundation of science parks and other forms of geographically clustered business activities, in order to stimulate regional innovation. Underlying the relation between clusters and innovation is the assumption that co-located

  19. Fuzzy clustering of mechanisms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    type synthesis phase of mechanical design. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this type of clustering of mechanisms has not been attempted before. Thus, this is the first attempt to cluster the mechanisms based on some quantitative measures. It may help the engineers to carry out type synthesis of the mechanisms.

  20. Neurostimulation in cluster headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jeppe L; Barloese, Mads; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neurostimulation has emerged as a viable treatment for intractable chronic cluster headache. Several therapeutic strategies are being investigated including stimulation of the hypothalamus, occipital nerves and sphenopalatine ganglion. The aim of this review is to provide...... effective strategy must be preferred as first-line therapy for intractable chronic cluster headache....

  1. CSR in Industrial Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Pillay, Renginee G.

    2012-01-01

    development in the South. At the turn of the millennium the industrial cluster debate expanded as clusters were perceived as a potential source of poverty reduction, while their role in promoting CSR among small and medium-sized enterprises began to take shape from 2006 onwards. At present, there is still...

  2. Cluster knockout reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-04-07

    Apr 7, 2014 ... advancements in the area of (α, 2α) reactions and heavy cluster knockout reactions are discussed. Importance of the finite-range vertex and the final-state interactions are brought out. Keywords. Cluster knockout reactions; FR-DWIA calculations; t-matrix effective interaction. PACS Nos 14.20.Pt; 24.10.

  3. Multilevel functional clustering analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serban, Nicoleta; Jiang, Huijing

    2012-09-01

    In this article, we investigate clustering methods for multilevel functional data, which consist of repeated random functions observed for a large number of units (e.g., genes) at multiple subunits (e.g., bacteria types). To describe the within- and between variability induced by the hierarchical structure in the data, we take a multilevel functional principal component analysis (MFPCA) approach. We develop and compare a hard clustering method applied to the scores derived from the MFPCA and a soft clustering method using an MFPCA decomposition. In a simulation study, we assess the estimation accuracy of the clustering membership and the cluster patterns under a series of settings: small versus moderate number of time points; various noise levels; and varying number of subunits per unit. We demonstrate the applicability of the clustering analysis to a real data set consisting of expression profiles from genes activated by immunity system cells. Prevalent response patterns are identified by clustering the expression profiles using our multilevel clustering analysis. © 2012, The International Biometric Society.

  4. Cluster Synchronization Algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, Weiguo; Cao, Ming

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents two approaches to achieving cluster synchronization in dynamical multi-agent systems. In contrast to the widely studied synchronization behavior, where all the coupled agents converge to the same value asymptotically, in the cluster synchronization problem studied in this paper,

  5. Fuzzy clustering of mechanisms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    two clustering techniques, the mechanisms have been classified in the present work and in future, it may be extended to develop an expert system, which can automate type synthesis phase of mechanical design. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this type of clustering of mechanisms has not been attempted before.

  6. Collisions between Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belloni, D. T.; Rocha-Pinto, H. J.

    2014-10-01

    The study of globular clusters (GC) plays an important role in our understanding of the Universe since these systems are true laboratories for theories of stellar dynamics and evolution. We are interested in studying a globular cluster formed by a collision between two different GC with NBODY6 (Aarseth, 2003). Firstly, in order to understand this code, we analyse how tidal streams form from a globular cluster in a circular orbit (on the disk) around the center of the Milky Way. In the next stage of this work we will study that collision. The stellar escape or capture from globular cluster can be understood with the Restricted Three Body Problem. These stars escape in a chaotic orbit, and in some cases may return (again in a chaotic orbit) to the cluster due to the Galactic potential. In most cases, such stars quickly alter their escape chaotic orbits to orbits that are similar to the parent cluster's orbit. Our results show an agglomeration of stars in a normal direction related to the direction towards the center of the Milky Way, forming thus a stream. We can explain this considering that a circular orbit around the dominant potential is the most likely orbit, since it requires minimum energy. In this coordinate systems, the tidal tails (or streams) rotates around the cluster center with the same mean motion associated to cluster around the Milky Way center.

  7. Detecting clusters of mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Zhou

    Full Text Available Positive selection for protein function can lead to multiple mutations within a small stretch of DNA, i.e., to a cluster of mutations. Recently, Wagner proposed a method to detect such mutation clusters. His method, however, did not take into account that residues with high solvent accessibility are inherently more variable than residues with low solvent accessibility. Here, we propose a new algorithm to detect clustered evolution. Our algorithm controls for different substitution probabilities at buried and exposed sites in the tertiary protein structure, and uses random permutations to calculate accurate P values for inferred clusters. We apply the algorithm to genomes of bacteria, fly, and mammals, and find several clusters of mutations in functionally important regions of proteins. Surprisingly, clustered evolution is a relatively rare phenomenon. Only between 2% and 10% of the genes we analyze contain a statistically significant mutation cluster. We also find that not controlling for solvent accessibility leads to an excess of clusters in terminal and solvent-exposed regions of proteins. Our algorithm provides a novel method to identify functionally relevant divergence between groups of species. Moreover, it could also be useful to detect artifacts in automatically assembled genomes.

  8. Alpha clustering in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgson, P.E.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of nucleon clustering in nuclei are described, with reference to both nuclear structure and nuclear reactions, and the advantages of using the cluster formalism to describe a range of phenomena are discussed. It is shown that bound and scattering alpha-particle states can be described in a unified way using an energy-dependent alpha-nucleus potential. (author)

  9. Discrete-Time Nonlinear Control of VSC-HVDC System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TianTian Qian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Because VSC-HVDC is a kind of strong nonlinear, coupling, and multi-input multioutput (MIMO system, its control problem is always attracting much attention from scholars. And a lot of papers have done research on its control strategy in the continuous-time domain. But the control system is implemented through the computer discrete sampling in practical engineering. It is necessary to study the mathematical model and control algorithm in the discrete-time domain. The discrete mathematical model based on output feedback linearization and discrete sliding mode control algorithm is proposed in this paper. And to ensure the effectiveness of the control system in the quasi sliding mode state, the fast output sampling method is used in the output feedback. The results from simulation experiment in MATLAB/SIMULINK prove that the proposed discrete control algorithm can make the VSC-HVDC system have good static, dynamic, and robust characteristics in discrete-time domain.

  10. How Triage Nurses Use Discretion: a Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Emil Fagernes Johannessen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Discretion is quintessential for professional work. This review aims to understand how nurses use discretion when they perform urgency assessments in emergency departments with formalised triage systems—systems that are intended to reduce nurses’ use of discretion. Because little research has dealt explicitly with this topic, this review addresses the discretionary aspects of triage by reinterpreting qualitative studies of how triage nurses perform urgency assessments. The review shows (a how inexhaustive guidelines and a hectic work environment are factors that necessitate nurses’ use of discretion and (b how nurses reason within this discretionary space by relying on their experience and intuition, judging patients according to criteria such as appropriateness and believability, and creating urgency ratings together with their patients. The review also offers a synthesis of the findings’ discretionary aspects and suggests a new interactionist dimension of discretion.Keywords: Triage, discretion, emergency department, meta-ethnography, review, decision-making

  11. Mathematical classification and clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Mirkin, Boris

    1996-01-01

    I am very happy to have this opportunity to present the work of Boris Mirkin, a distinguished Russian scholar in the areas of data analysis and decision making methodologies. The monograph is devoted entirely to clustering, a discipline dispersed through many theoretical and application areas, from mathematical statistics and combina­ torial optimization to biology, sociology and organizational structures. It compiles an immense amount of research done to date, including many original Russian de­ velopments never presented to the international community before (for instance, cluster-by-cluster versions of the K-Means method in Chapter 4 or uniform par­ titioning in Chapter 5). The author's approach, approximation clustering, allows him both to systematize a great part of the discipline and to develop many in­ novative methods in the framework of optimization problems. The optimization methods considered are proved to be meaningful in the contexts of data analysis and clustering. The material presented in ...

  12. Negotiating Cluster Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giacomin, Valeria

    2017-01-01

    Palm oil was introduced to Malay(si)a as an alternative to natural rubber, inheriting its cluster organizational structure. In the late 1960s, Malaysia became the world’s largest palm oil exporter. Based on archival material from British colonial institutions and agency houses, this paper focuses...... on the governance dynamics that drove institutional change within this cluster during decolonization. The analysis presents three main findings: (i) cluster boundaries are defined by continuous tug-of-war style negotiations between public and private actors; (ii) this interaction produces institutional change...... within the cluster, in the form of cumulative ‘institutional rounds’ – the correction or disruption of existing institutions or the creation of new ones; and (iii) this process leads to a broader inclusion of local actors in the original cluster configuration. The paper challenges the prevalent argument...

  13. Discrete wavelet transformations an elementary approach with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Van Fleet, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    An "applications first" approach to discrete wavelet transformations. Discrete Wavelet Transformations provides readers with a broad elementary introduction to discrete wavelet transformations and their applications. With extensive graphical displays, this self-contained book integrates concepts from calculus and linear algebra into the construction of wavelet transformations and their various applications, including data compression, edge detection in images, and signal and image denoising. The book begins with a cursory look at wavelet transformation development and illustrates its

  14. A note on inconsistent families of discrete multivariate distributions

    KAUST Repository

    Ghosh, Sugata

    2017-07-05

    We construct a d-dimensional discrete multivariate distribution for which any proper subset of its components belongs to a specific family of distributions. However, the joint d-dimensional distribution fails to belong to that family and in other words, it is ‘inconsistent’ with the distribution of these subsets. We also address preservation of this ‘inconsistency’ property for the symmetric Binomial distribution, and some discrete distributions arising from the multivariate discrete normal distribution.

  15. Discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equations with arbitrarily high-order nonlinearities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khare, A.; Rasmussen, Kim Ø; Salerno, M.

    2006-01-01

    A class of discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equations with arbitrarily high-order nonlinearities is introduced. These equations are derived from the same Hamiltonian using different Poisson brackets and include as particular cases the saturable discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equation and the Ablowitz......-Ladik equation. As a common property, these equations possess three kinds of exact analytical stationary solutions for which the Peierls-Nabarro barrier is zero. Several properties of these solutions, including stability, discrete breathers, and moving solutions, are investigated....

  16. Chaos of discrete dynamical systems in complete metric spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Yuming; Chen Guanrong

    2004-01-01

    This paper is concerned with chaos of discrete dynamical systems in complete metric spaces. Discrete dynamical systems governed by continuous maps in general complete metric spaces are first discussed, and two criteria of chaos are then established. As a special case, two corresponding criteria of chaos for discrete dynamical systems in compact subsets of metric spaces are obtained. These results have extended and improved the existing relevant results of chaos in finite-dimensional Euclidean spaces

  17. Network Science Research Laboratory (NSRL) Discrete Event Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    3. API Class Structure 3 3.1 Experiment_Driver 3 3.2 Discrete_Event_Base 5 3.3 Event_Logger_Base 6 4. Discrete Event Simulation Lifecycle 7 5...application programming interface ( API ) for developing real-time discrete event simulation (DES) systems, which simulate inputs, outputs, or services...the worker thread pool for execution. The number of worker threads is specified by the user application using the NDET API and is bound only by the

  18. From virtual clustering analysis to self-consistent clustering analysis: a mathematical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shaoqiang; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Wing Kam

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a new homogenization algorithm, virtual clustering analysis (VCA), as well as provide a mathematical framework for the recently proposed self-consistent clustering analysis (SCA) (Liu et al. in Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 306:319-341, 2016). In the mathematical theory, we clarify the key assumptions and ideas of VCA and SCA, and derive the continuous and discrete Lippmann-Schwinger equations. Based on a key postulation of "once response similarly, always response similarly", clustering is performed in an offline stage by machine learning techniques (k-means and SOM), and facilitates substantial reduction of computational complexity in an online predictive stage. The clear mathematical setup allows for the first time a convergence study of clustering refinement in one space dimension. Convergence is proved rigorously, and found to be of second order from numerical investigations. Furthermore, we propose to suitably enlarge the domain in VCA, such that the boundary terms may be neglected in the Lippmann-Schwinger equation, by virtue of the Saint-Venant's principle. In contrast, they were not obtained in the original SCA paper, and we discover these terms may well be responsible for the numerical dependency on the choice of reference material property. Since VCA enhances the accuracy by overcoming the modeling error, and reduce the numerical cost by avoiding an outer loop iteration for attaining the material property consistency in SCA, its efficiency is expected even higher than the recently proposed SCA algorithm.

  19. Discrete element modeling of subglacial sediment deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Anders; Egholm, David L.; Piotrowski, Jan A.

    arithmetic potential of modern general-purpose GPUs. Using the Nvidia CUDA C toolkit, the algorithm is formulated for spherical particles in three dimensions with a linear-elastic soft-body contact model. We have coupled the DEM model to a model for porewater flow, and we present early results of particle......The Discrete Element Method (DEM) is used to explore the highly nonlinear dynamics of a granular bed when exposed to stress conditions comparable to those at the bed of warm-based glaciers. In the DEM, the material is simulated on a grain-by-grain basis, and defining the micromechanical properties...... of the inter-particle contacts parameterizes the model. For validating the numerical approach, the macromechanical behavior of the numerical material is compared to the results from successive laboratory ring-shear experiments. Overall, there is a good agreement between the geotechnical behavior of the real...

  20. Choice certainty in Discrete Choice Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uggeldahl, Kennet Christian; Jacobsen, Catrine; Lundhede, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we conduct a Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE) using eye tracking technology to investigate if eye movements during the completion of choice sets reveal information about respondents’ choice certainty. We hypothesise that the number of times that respondents shift their visual...... attention between the alternatives in a choice set reflects their stated choice certainty. Based on one of the largest samples of eye tracking data in a DCE to date, we find evidence in favor of our hypothesis. We also link eye tracking observations to model-based choice certainty through parameterization...... of the scale function in a random parameters logit model. We find that choices characterized by more frequent gaze shifting do indeed exhibit a higher degree of error variance, however, this effects is insignificant once response time is controlled for. Overall, findings suggest that eye tracking can provide...

  1. Discrete cosine transform using modified DPCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogribny, Wlodzimierz; Drechny, Marcin

    2004-07-01

    Differential modulations such as Delta Modulation (DM) are used for representing digital signals in small word length codes. They allow high fast acting and simplicity of specialized processors. The use of DM for the economical representation and efficient processing of the signals needs the development of the existing methods and the working out of simple and fast processing methods in real time. Therefore Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) methods were proposed in mixed formats which have the advantages both DCT with PCM and DCT with DM. In this work there have been studied the ways of choosing DM parameters in order to use them in these methods. On the basis of the worked out computer simulation program, the accuracy of DCT with DM algorithms has been examined by means of processing signals like noise and voice. The use of DCT algorithms in DM formats is expedient to realization of neural systems.

  2. Discrete and Continuous Models for Partitioning Problems

    KAUST Repository

    Lellmann, Jan

    2013-04-11

    Recently, variational relaxation techniques for approximating solutions of partitioning problems on continuous image domains have received considerable attention, since they introduce significantly less artifacts than established graph cut-based techniques. This work is concerned with the sources of such artifacts. We discuss the importance of differentiating between artifacts caused by discretization and those caused by relaxation and provide supporting numerical examples. Moreover, we consider in depth the consequences of a recent theoretical result concerning the optimality of solutions obtained using a particular relaxation method. Since the employed regularizer is quite tight, the considered relaxation generally involves a large computational cost. We propose a method to significantly reduce these costs in a fully automatic way for a large class of metrics including tree metrics, thus generalizing a method recently proposed by Strekalovskiy and Cremers (IEEE conference on computer vision and pattern recognition, pp. 1905-1911, 2011). © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  3. Discrete computational mechanics for stiff phenomena

    KAUST Repository

    Michels, Dominik L.

    2016-11-28

    Many natural phenomena which occur in the realm of visual computing and computational physics, like the dynamics of cloth, fibers, fluids, and solids as well as collision scenarios are described by stiff Hamiltonian equations of motion, i.e. differential equations whose solution spectra simultaneously contain extremely high and low frequencies. This usually impedes the development of physically accurate and at the same time efficient integration algorithms. We present a straightforward computationally oriented introduction to advanced concepts from classical mechanics. We provide an easy to understand step-by-step introduction from variational principles over the Euler-Lagrange formalism and the Legendre transformation to Hamiltonian mechanics. Based on such solid theoretical foundations, we study the underlying geometric structure of Hamiltonian systems as well as their discrete counterparts in order to develop sophisticated structure preserving integration algorithms to efficiently perform high fidelity simulations.

  4. Discrete motor coordinates for vowel production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Florencia Assaneo

    Full Text Available Current models of human vocal production that capture peripheral dynamics in speech require large dimensional measurements of the neural activity, which are mapped into equally complex motor gestures. In this work we present a motor description for vowels as points in a discrete low-dimensional space. We monitor the dynamics of 3 points at the oral cavity using Hall-effect transducers and magnets, describing the resulting signals during normal utterances in terms of active/inactive patterns that allow a robust vowel classification in an abstract binary space. We use simple matrix algebra to link this representation to the anatomy of the vocal tract and to recent reports of highly tuned neuronal activations for vowel production, suggesting a plausible global strategy for vowel codification and motor production.

  5. Ordinal Welfare Comparisons with Multiple Discrete Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Distante, Roberta; Hussain, M. Azhar

    We develop an ordinal method for making welfare comparisons between populations with multidimensional discrete well-being indicators observed at the micro level. The approach assumes that, for each well-being indicator, the levels can be ranked from worse to better; however, no assumptions are made...... about relative importance of any dimension nor about complementarity/substitutability relationships between dimensions. The method is based on the concept of multidimensional first order dominance. We introduce a rapid and reliable algorithm for empirically determining whether one population dominates...... another on the basis of available binary indicators by drawing upon linear programming theory. These approaches are applied to household survey data from Vietnam and Mozambique with a focus on child poverty comparisons over time and between regions....

  6. Discrete canonical transforms that are Hadamard matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, John J; Wolf, Kurt Bernardo

    2011-01-01

    The group Sp(2,R) of symplectic linear canonical transformations has an integral kernel which has quadratic and linear phases, and which is realized by the geometric paraxial optical model. The discrete counterpart of this model is a finite Hamiltonian system that acts on N-point signals through N x N matrices whose elements also have a constant absolute value, although they do not form a representation of that group. Those matrices that are also unitary are Hadamard matrices. We investigate the manifolds of these N x N matrices under the Sp(2,R) equivalence imposed by the model, and find them to be on two-sided cosets. By means of an algorithm we determine representatives that lead to collections of mutually unbiased bases.

  7. Discrete Line Congruences for Shading and Lighting

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jun

    2013-07-01

    Two-parameter families of straight lines (line congruences) are implicitly present in graphics and geometry processing in several important ways including lighting and shape analysis. In this paper we make them accessible to optimization and geometric computing, by introducing a general discrete version of congruences based on piecewise-linear correspondences between triangle meshes. Our applications of congruences are based on the extraction of a so-called torsion-free support structure, which is a procedure analogous to remeshing a surface along its principal curvature lines. A particular application of such structures are freeform shading and lighting systems for architecture. We combine interactive design of such systems with global optimization in order to satisfy geometric constraints. In this way we explore a new area where architecture can greatly benefit from graphics.

  8. Rumor Processes on and Discrete Renewal Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Sandro; Garcia, Nancy L.; Junior, Valdivino Vargas; Rodríguez, Pablo M.

    2014-05-01

    We study two rumor processes on , the dynamics of which are related to an SI epidemic model with long range transmission. Both models start with one spreader at site and ignorants at all the other sites of , but differ by the transmission mechanism. In one model, the spreaders transmit the information within a random distance on their right, and in the other the ignorants take the information from a spreader within a random distance on their left. We obtain the probability of survival, information on the distribution of the range of the rumor and limit theorems for the proportion of spreaders. The key step of our proofs is to show that, in each model, the position of the spreaders on can be related to a suitably chosen discrete renewal process.

  9. Discrete optimization in architecture extremely modular systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zawidzki, Machi

    2017-01-01

    This book is comprised of two parts, both of which explore modular systems: Pipe-Z (PZ) and Truss-Z (TZ), respectively. It presents several methods of creating PZ and TZ structures subjected to discrete optimization. The algorithms presented employ graph-theoretic and heuristic methods. The underlying idea of both systems is to create free-form structures using the minimal number of types of modular elements. PZ is more conceptual, as it forms single-branch mathematical knots with a single type of module. Conversely, TZ is a skeletal system for creating free-form pedestrian ramps and ramp networks among any number of terminals in space. In physical space, TZ uses two types of modules that are mirror reflections of each other. The optimization criteria discussed include: the minimal number of units, maximal adherence to the given guide paths, etc.

  10. Discrete Dynamical Models of Walking Droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Aminur

    2017-11-01

    In recent years discrete planar dynamical models of walking droplets (walkers) on a billiards table (Shirokoff, Chaos 2013) and walking in a straight-line confined geometry (Gilet, PRE 2014) have been developed. Gilet's model was then analyzed via dynamical systems theory (Rahman-Blackmore, C,S& F 2016). From the analysis it was shown that while Gilet's walker is confined under the threshold for chaos, it does escape the boundary once the system becomes chaotic. We modify the model to trap the walker in an annulur domain. This allows for connections between the dynamics, statistics, and experimental works (Filoux et al., PRE 2015). From this connection we derive a kicked rotator-like model for a walker in an annulus. We endeavor to manipulate the dynamics of the model to produce statistics similar to that of experiments.

  11. Perceptual image coding with discrete cosine transform

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Ee-Leng

    2015-01-01

    This book first introduces classic as well as recent computational models for just-noticeable-difference (JND) applications. Since the discrete cosine transform (DCT) is applied in many image and video standards (JPEG, MPEG-1/2/4, H.261/3), the book also includes a comprehensive survey of computational models for JND that are based on DCT. The visual factors used in these computational models are reviewed in detail. Further, an extensive comparative analysis of these models using quantitative and qualitative performance criteria is presented, which compares the noise shaping performance of these models with subjective evaluation and the accuracy between the estimated JND thresholds and subjective evaluation. There are many surveys available on computational models for JND; however, these surveys seldom compare the performance of computational models that are based on DCT. The authors’ survey of the computational models and their in-depth review of the visual factors used in them will help readers understand...

  12. Discrete symmetries: A broken look at QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, T.

    1996-01-01

    The alphabet soup of discrete symmetries is briefly surveyed with a view towards those which can be tested at LISS and two particularly interesting cases are called out. A LISS experiment may be able to distinguish CP violation that is not due to the QCD θ term. The elements of a model of parity violation in proton-nucleon scattering, which is consistent with lower energy LAMPF and ANL results, are reviewed in the light of new information on diquarks and the proton spin fraction carried by quarks. The prediction that the parity violating total cross section asymmetry should be large at LISS energies is confirmed. The results of such an experiment can be used both to obtain new information about the diquark substructure of the nucleon and to provide bounds on new right-chiral weak interactions

  13. Discrete optimization in architecture architectural & urban layout

    CERN Document Server

    Zawidzki, Machi

    2016-01-01

    This book presents three projects that demonstrate the fundamental problems of architectural design and urban composition – the layout design, evaluation and optimization. Part I describes the functional layout design of a residential building, and an evaluation of the quality of a town square (plaza). The algorithm for the functional layout design is based on backtracking using a constraint satisfaction approach combined with coarse grid discretization. The algorithm for the town square evaluation is based on geometrical properties derived directly from its plan. Part II introduces a crowd-simulation application for the analysis of escape routes on floor plans, and optimization of a floor plan for smooth crowd flow. The algorithms presented employ agent-based modeling and cellular automata.

  14. Discrete-event control of stochastic networks multimodularity and regularity

    CERN Document Server

    Altman, Eitan; Hordijk, Arie

    2003-01-01

    Opening new directions in research in both discrete event dynamic systems as well as in stochastic control, this volume focuses on a wide class of control and of optimization problems over sequences of integer numbers. This is a counterpart of convex optimization in the setting of discrete optimization. The theory developed is applied to the control of stochastic discrete-event dynamic systems. Some applications are admission, routing, service allocation and vacation control in queueing networks. Pure and applied mathematicians will enjoy reading the book since it brings together many disciplines in mathematics: combinatorics, stochastic processes, stochastic control and optimization, discrete event dynamic systems, algebra.

  15. Discrete Wavelet Transform-Partial Least Squares Versus Derivative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Discrete Wavelet Transform-Partial Least Squares Versus Derivative Ratio Spectrophotometry for Simultaneous Determination of Chlorpheniramine Maleate and Dexamethasone in the Presence of Parabens in Pharmaceutical Dosage Form.

  16. Percolation analysis for cosmic web with discrete points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiajun; Cheng, Dalong; Chu, Ming-Chung

    2018-01-01

    Percolation analysis has long been used to quantify the connectivity of the cosmic web. Most of the previous work is based on density fields on grids. By smoothing into fields, we lose information about galaxy properties like shape or luminosity. The lack of mathematical modeling also limits our understanding for the percolation analysis. To overcome these difficulties, we have studied percolation analysis based on discrete points. Using a friends-of-friends (FoF) algorithm, we generate the S -b b relation, between the fractional mass of the largest connected group (S ) and the FoF linking length (b b ). We propose a new model, the probability cloud cluster expansion theory to relate the S -b b relation with correlation functions. We show that the S -b b relation reflects a combination of all orders of correlation functions. Using N-body simulation, we find that the S -b b relation is robust against redshift distortion and incompleteness in observation. From the Bolshoi simulation, with halo abundance matching (HAM), we have generated a mock galaxy catalog. Good matching of the projected two-point correlation function with observation is confirmed. However, comparing the mock catalog with the latest galaxy catalog from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release (DR)12, we have found significant differences in their S -b b relations. This indicates that the mock galaxy catalog cannot accurately retain higher-order correlation functions than the two-point correlation function, which reveals the limit of the HAM method. As a new measurement, the S -b b relation is applicable to a wide range of data types, fast to compute, and robust against redshift distortion and incompleteness and contains information of all orders of correlation functions.

  17. Distributed discrete event simulation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vries, R.C. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). EECE Dept.

    1988-02-01

    The presentation given here is restricted to discrete event simulation. The complexity of and time required for many present and potential discrete simulations exceeds the reasonable capacity of most present serial computers. The desire, then, is to implement the simulations on a parallel machine. However, certain problems arise in an effort to program the simulation on a parallel machine. In one category of methods deadlock care arise and some method is required to either detect deadlock and recover from it or to avoid deadlock through information passing. In the second category of methods, potentially incorrect simulations are allowed to proceed. If the situation is later determined to be incorrect, recovery from the error must be initiated. In either case, computation and information passing are required which would not be required in a serial implementation. The net effect is that the parallel simulation may not be much better than a serial simulation. In an effort to determine alternate approaches, important papers in the area were reviewed. As a part of that review process, each of the papers was summarized. The summary of each paper is presented in this report in the hopes that those doing future work in the area will be able to gain insight that might not otherwise be available, and to aid in deciding which papers would be most beneficial to pursue in more detail. The papers are broken down into categories and then by author. Conclusions reached after examining the papers and other material, such as direct talks with an author, are presented in the last section. Also presented there are some ideas that surfaced late in the research effort. These promise to be of some benefit in limiting information which must be passed between processes and in better understanding the structure of a distributed simulation. Pursuit of these ideas seems appropriate.

  18. Plasma transport along discrete auroral arcs and its contribution to the ionospheric plasma convection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kullen

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The role of intense high-altitude electric field (E-field peaks for large-scale plasma convection is investigated with the help of Cluster E-field, B-field and density data. The study covers 32 E-field events between 4 and 7 RE geocentric distance, with E-field magnitudes in the range 500–1000 mV/m when mapped to ionospheric altitude. We focus on E-field structures above the ionosphere that are typically coupled to discrete auroral arcs and their return current region. Connected to such E-field peaks are rapid plasma flows directed along the discrete arcs in opposite directions on each side of the arc. Nearly all the E-field events occur during active times. A strong dependence on different substorm phases is found: a majority of intense E-field events appearing during substorm expansion or maximum phase are located on the nightside oval, while most recovery events occur on the dusk-to-dayside part of the oval. For most expansion and maximum phase cases, the average background plasma flow is in the sunward direction. For a majority of recovery events, the flow is in the anti-sunward direction. The net plasma flux connected to a strong E-field peak is in two thirds of the cases in the same direction as the background plasma flow. However, in only one third of the cases the strong flux caused by an E-field peak makes an important contribution to the plasma transport within the boundary plasma sheet. For a majority of events, the area covered by rapid plasma flows above discrete arcs is too small to have an effect on the global convection. This questions the role of discrete auroral arcs as major driver of plasma convection.

  19. Stochastic dynamics of spatial effects in fragmentation of clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salinas-Rodriguez, E.; Rodriguez, R.F.; Zamora, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    We use a stochastic approach to study the effects of spatial in homogeneities in the kinetics of a fragmentation model which occurs in cluster breakup and polymer degradation. The analytical form of the cluster size distribution function is obtained for both the discrete and continuous limits. From it we calculate numerically the average size and volume of the clusters, their total concentration and the total scattering of the dispersion in both limits. The influence of spatial effects is explicitly shown in the last two quantities. From our description the equations for the equal-time and the two times density correlation functions are also derived in the continuous limit. Finally, the perspectives and limitations of our approach are discussed (Author)

  20. Functional clustering algorithm for the analysis of dynamic network data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldt, S.; Waddell, J.; Hetrick, V. L.; Berke, J. D.; Żochowski, M.

    2009-05-01

    We formulate a technique for the detection of functional clusters in discrete event data. The advantage of this algorithm is that no prior knowledge of the number of functional groups is needed, as our procedure progressively combines data traces and derives the optimal clustering cutoff in a simple and intuitive manner through the use of surrogate data sets. In order to demonstrate the power of this algorithm to detect changes in network dynamics and connectivity, we apply it to both simulated neural spike train data and real neural data obtained from the mouse hippocampus during exploration and slow-wave sleep. Using the simulated data, we show that our algorithm performs better than existing methods. In the experimental data, we observe state-dependent clustering patterns consistent with known neurophysiological processes involved in memory consolidation.