Sample records for discrete mathematics graph

1. Discrete Mathematics

Sørensen, John Aasted

2011-01-01

The objectives of Discrete Mathematics (IDISM2) are: The introduction of the mathematics needed for analysis, design and verification of discrete systems, including the application within programming languages for computer systems. Having passed the IDISM2 course, the student will be able...... to accomplish the following: -Understand and apply formal representations in discrete mathematics. -Understand and apply formal representations in problems within discrete mathematics. -Understand methods for solving problems in discrete mathematics. -Apply methods for solving problems in discrete mathematics......; construct a finite state machine for a given application. Apply these concepts to new problems. The teaching in Discrete Mathematics is a combination of sessions with lectures and students solving problems, either manually or by using Matlab. Furthermore a selection of projects must be solved and handed...

2. Discrete Mathematics

Sørensen, John Aasted

2011-01-01

; construct a finite state machine for a given application. Apply these concepts to new problems. The teaching in Discrete Mathematics is a combination of sessions with lectures and students solving problems, either manually or by using Matlab. Furthermore a selection of projects must be solved and handed...... to accomplish the following: -Understand and apply formal representations in discrete mathematics. -Understand and apply formal representations in problems within discrete mathematics. -Understand methods for solving problems in discrete mathematics. -Apply methods for solving problems in discrete mathematics...... to new problems. Relations and functions: Define a product set; define and apply equivalence relations; construct and apply functions. Apply these concepts to new problems. Natural numbers and induction: Define the natural numbers; apply the principle of induction to verify a selection of properties...

3. DISCRETE MATHEMATICS/NUMBER THEORY

Mrs. Manju Devi*

2017-01-01

Discrete mathematics is the study of mathematical structures that are fundamentally discrete rather than continuous. In contrast to real numbers that have the property of varying "smoothly", the objects studied in discrete mathematics such as integers, graphs, and statements do not vary smoothly in this way, but have distinct, separated values. Discrete mathematics therefore excludes topics in "continuous mathematics" such as calculus and analysis. Discrete objects can often be enumerated by ...

4. Discrete Mathematics

Sørensen, John Aasted

2010-01-01

The introduction of the mathematics needed for analysis, design and verification of discrete systems, including applications within programming languages for computer systems. Course sessions and project work. Semester: Spring 2010 Ectent: 5 ects Class size: 18......The introduction of the mathematics needed for analysis, design and verification of discrete systems, including applications within programming languages for computer systems. Course sessions and project work. Semester: Spring 2010 Ectent: 5 ects Class size: 18...

5. Discrete Mathematics

Sørensen, John Aasted

2010-01-01

The introduction of the mathematics needed for analysis, design and verification of discrete systems, including applications within programming languages for computer systems. Course sessions and project work. Semester: Autumn 2010 Ectent: 5 ects Class size: 15......The introduction of the mathematics needed for analysis, design and verification of discrete systems, including applications within programming languages for computer systems. Course sessions and project work. Semester: Autumn 2010 Ectent: 5 ects Class size: 15...

6. Introductory discrete mathematics

Balakrishnan, V K

2010-01-01

This concise text offers an introduction to discrete mathematics for undergraduate students in computer science and mathematics. Mathematics educators consider it vital that their students be exposed to a course in discrete methods that introduces them to combinatorial mathematics and to algebraic and logical structures focusing on the interplay between computer science and mathematics. The present volume emphasizes combinatorics, graph theory with applications to some stand network optimization problems, and algorithms to solve these problems.Chapters 0-3 cover fundamental operations involv

7. Discrete Mathematics - Special Issue: Graph Theory - dedicated to Carsten Thomassen on his 60th birthday

2011-01-01

Carsten Thomassen belongs to the worlds's absolute top graph theorists, and to the world's top mathematicians in general. The special issue is a rather somewhat random collection of good papers in graph theory, by many different authors, dedicated to Carsten Thomassen on his 60th birthday. Guest ...

8. Quantum chaos on discrete graphs

Smilansky, Uzy

2007-01-01

Adapting a method developed for the study of quantum chaos on quantum (metric) graphs (Kottos and Smilansky 1997 Phys. Rev. Lett. 79 4794, Kottos and Smilansky 1999 Ann. Phys., NY 274 76), spectral ζ functions and trace formulae for discrete Laplacians on graphs are derived. This is achieved by expressing the spectral secular equation in terms of the periodic orbits of the graph and obtaining functions which belong to the class of ζ functions proposed originally by Ihara (1966 J. Mat. Soc. Japan 18 219) and expanded by subsequent authors (Stark and Terras 1996 Adv. Math. 121 124, Kotani and Sunada 2000 J. Math. Sci. Univ. Tokyo 7 7). Finally, a model of 'classical dynamics' on the discrete graph is proposed. It is analogous to the corresponding classical dynamics derived for quantum graphs (Kottos and Smilansky 1997 Phys. Rev. Lett. 79 4794, Kottos and Smilansky 1999 Ann. Phys., NY 274 76). (fast track communication)

9. Applied geometry and discrete mathematics

Sturm; Gritzmann, Peter; Sturmfels, Bernd

1991-01-01

This volume, published jointly with the Association for Computing Machinery, comprises a collection of research articles celebrating the occasion of Victor Klee's sixty-fifth birthday in September 1990. During his long career, Klee has made contributions to a wide variety of areas, such as discrete and computational geometry, convexity, combinatorics, graph theory, functional analysis, mathematical programming and optimization, and theoretical computer science. In addition, Klee made important contributions to mathematics education, mathematical methods in economics and the decision sciences, applications of discrete mathematics in the biological and social sciences, and the transfer of knowledge from applied mathematics to industry. In honor of Klee's achievements, this volume presents more than forty papers on topics related to Klee's research. While the majority of the papers are research articles, a number of survey articles are also included. Mirroring the breadth of Klee's mathematical contributions, th...

10. Discrete Mathematics Re "Tooled."

Grassl, Richard M.; Mingus, Tabitha T. Y.

1999-01-01

Indicates the importance of teaching discrete mathematics. Describes how the use of technology can enhance the teaching and learning of discrete mathematics. Explorations using Excel, Derive, and the TI-92 proved how preservice and inservice teachers experienced a new dimension in problem solving and discovery. (ASK)

11. Implementing the Standards. Teaching Discrete Mathematics in Grades 7-12.

Hart, Eric W.; And Others

1990-01-01

Discrete mathematics are defined briefly. A course in discrete mathematics for high school students and teaching discrete mathematics in grades 7 and 8 including finite differences, recursion, and graph theory are discussed. (CW)

12. What Is Discrete Mathematics?

Sharp, Karen Tobey

This paper cites information received from a number of sources, e.g., mathematics teachers in two-year colleges, publishers, and convention speakers, about the nature of discrete mathematics and about what topics a course in this subject should contain. Note is taken of the book edited by Ralston and Young which discusses the future of college…

13. Quantitative graph theory mathematical foundations and applications

Dehmer, Matthias

2014-01-01

The first book devoted exclusively to quantitative graph theory, Quantitative Graph Theory: Mathematical Foundations and Applications presents and demonstrates existing and novel methods for analyzing graphs quantitatively. Incorporating interdisciplinary knowledge from graph theory, information theory, measurement theory, and statistical techniques, this book covers a wide range of quantitative-graph theoretical concepts and methods, including those pertaining to real and random graphs such as:Comparative approaches (graph similarity or distance)Graph measures to characterize graphs quantitat

14. Ancestral Genres of Mathematical Graphs

Gerofsky, Susan

2011-01-01

Drawing from sources in gesture studies, cognitive science, the anthropology of religion and art/architecture history, this article explores cultural, bodily and cosmological resonances carried (unintentionally) by mathematical graphs on Cartesian coordinates. Concepts of asymmetric bodily spaces, grids, orthogonality, mapping and sacred spaces…

15. Discrete Mathematics and Curriculum Reform.

Kenney, Margaret J.

1996-01-01

Defines discrete mathematics as the mathematics necessary to effect reasoned decision making in finite situations and explains how its use supports the current view of mathematics education. Discrete mathematics can be used by curriculum developers to improve the curriculum for students of all ages and abilities. (SLD)

16. Discrete Morse functions for graph configuration spaces

Sawicki, A

2012-01-01

We present an alternative application of discrete Morse theory for two-particle graph configuration spaces. In contrast to previous constructions, which are based on discrete Morse vector fields, our approach is through Morse functions, which have a nice physical interpretation as two-body potentials constructed from one-body potentials. We also give a brief introduction to discrete Morse theory. Our motivation comes from the problem of quantum statistics for particles on networks, for which generalized versions of anyon statistics can appear. (paper)

17. Discrete bacteria foraging optimization algorithm for graph based problems - a transition from continuous to discrete

Sur, Chiranjib; Shukla, Anupam

2018-03-01

Bacteria Foraging Optimisation Algorithm is a collective behaviour-based meta-heuristics searching depending on the social influence of the bacteria co-agents in the search space of the problem. The algorithm faces tremendous hindrance in terms of its application for discrete problems and graph-based problems due to biased mathematical modelling and dynamic structure of the algorithm. This had been the key factor to revive and introduce the discrete form called Discrete Bacteria Foraging Optimisation (DBFO) Algorithm for discrete problems which exceeds the number of continuous domain problems represented by mathematical and numerical equations in real life. In this work, we have mainly simulated a graph-based road multi-objective optimisation problem and have discussed the prospect of its utilisation in other similar optimisation problems and graph-based problems. The various solution representations that can be handled by this DBFO has also been discussed. The implications and dynamics of the various parameters used in the DBFO are illustrated from the point view of the problems and has been a combination of both exploration and exploitation. The result of DBFO has been compared with Ant Colony Optimisation and Intelligent Water Drops Algorithms. Important features of DBFO are that the bacteria agents do not depend on the local heuristic information but estimates new exploration schemes depending upon the previous experience and covered path analysis. This makes the algorithm better in combination generation for graph-based problems and combination generation for NP hard problems.

18. Discrete Mathematics and Its Applications

Oxley, Alan

2010-01-01

The article gives ideas that lecturers of undergraduate Discrete Mathematics courses can use in order to make the subject more interesting for students and encourage them to undertake further studies in the subject. It is possible to teach Discrete Mathematics with little or no reference to computing. However, students are more likely to be…

19. Discrete Mathematics and the Secondary Mathematics Curriculum.

Dossey, John

Discrete mathematics, the mathematics of decision making for finite settings, is a topic of great interest in mathematics education at all levels. Attention is being focused on resolving the diversity of opinion concerning the exact nature of the subject, what content the curriculum should contain, who should study that material, and how that…

20. Leaping from Discrete to Continuous Independent Variables: Sixth Graders' Science Line Graph Interpretations

Boote, Stacy K.; Boote, David N.

2017-01-01

Students often struggle to interpret graphs correctly, despite emphasis on graphic literacy in U.S. education standards documents. The purpose of this study was to describe challenges sixth graders with varying levels of science and mathematics achievement encounter when transitioning from interpreting graphs having discrete independent variables…

1. Discrete mathematics using a computer

Hall, Cordelia

2000-01-01

Several areas of mathematics find application throughout computer science, and all students of computer science need a practical working understanding of them. These core subjects are centred on logic, sets, recursion, induction, relations and functions. The material is often called discrete mathematics, to distinguish it from the traditional topics of continuous mathematics such as integration and differential equations. The central theme of this book is the connection between computing and discrete mathematics. This connection is useful in both directions: • Mathematics is used in many branches of computer science, in applica­ tions including program specification, datastructures,design and analysis of algorithms, database systems, hardware design, reasoning about the correctness of implementations, and much more; • Computers can help to make the mathematics easier to learn and use, by making mathematical terms executable, making abstract concepts more concrete, and through the use of software tools su...

2. Derivatives in discrete mathematics: a novel graph-theoretical invariant for generating new 2/3D molecular descriptors. I. Theory and QSPR application.

Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; Santiago, Oscar Martínez; López, Yoan Martínez; Barigye, Stephen J; Torrens, Francisco

2012-11-01

In this report, we present a new mathematical approach for describing chemical structures of organic molecules at atomic-molecular level, proposing for the first time the use of the concept of the derivative ([Formula: see text]) of a molecular graph (MG) with respect to a given event (E), to obtain a new family of molecular descriptors (MDs). With this purpose, a new matrix representation of the MG, which generalizes graph's theory's traditional incidence matrix, is introduced. This matrix, denominated the generalized incidence matrix, Q, arises from the Boolean representation of molecular sub-graphs that participate in the formation of the graph molecular skeleton MG and could be complete (representing all possible connected sub-graphs) or constitute sub-graphs of determined orders or types as well as a combination of these. The Q matrix is a non-quadratic and unsymmetrical in nature, its columns (n) and rows (m) are conditions (letters) and collection of conditions (words) with which the event occurs. This non-quadratic and unsymmetrical matrix is transformed, by algebraic manipulation, to a quadratic and symmetric matrix known as relations frequency matrix, F, which characterizes the participation intensity of the conditions (letters) in the events (words). With F, we calculate the derivative over a pair of atomic nuclei. The local index for the atomic nuclei i, Δ(i), can therefore be obtained as a linear combination of all the pair derivatives of the atomic nuclei i with all the rest of the j's atomic nuclei. Here, we also define new strategies that generalize the present form of obtaining global or local (group or atom-type) invariants from atomic contributions (local vertex invariants, LOVIs). In respect to this, metric (norms), means and statistical invariants are introduced. These invariants are applied to a vector whose components are the values Δ(i) for the atomic nuclei of the molecule or its fragments. Moreover, with the purpose of differentiating

3. Relating zeta functions of discrete and quantum graphs

Harrison, Jonathan; Weyand, Tracy

2018-02-01

We write the spectral zeta function of the Laplace operator on an equilateral metric graph in terms of the spectral zeta function of the normalized Laplace operator on the corresponding discrete graph. To do this, we apply a relation between the spectrum of the Laplacian on a discrete graph and that of the Laplacian on an equilateral metric graph. As a by-product, we determine how the multiplicity of eigenvalues of the quantum graph, that are also in the spectrum of the graph with Dirichlet conditions at the vertices, depends on the graph geometry. Finally we apply the result to calculate the vacuum energy and spectral determinant of a complete bipartite graph and compare our results with those for a star graph, a graph in which all vertices are connected to a central vertex by a single edge.

4. Expander graphs in pure and applied mathematics

Lubotzky, Alexander

2012-01-01

Expander graphs are highly connected sparse finite graphs. They play an important role in computer science as basic building blocks for network constructions, error correcting codes, algorithms and more. In recent years they have started to play an increasing role also in pure mathematics: number theory, group theory, geometry and more. This expository article describes their constructions and various applications in pure and applied mathematics.

5. Discrete mathematics with applications

Koshy, Thomas

2003-01-01

This approachable text studies discrete objects and the relationsips that bind them. It helps students understand and apply the power of discrete math to digital computer systems and other modern applications. It provides excellent preparation for courses in linear algebra, number theory, and modern/abstract algebra and for computer science courses in data structures, algorithms, programming languages, compilers, databases, and computation.* Covers all recommended topics in a self-contained, comprehensive, and understandable format for students and new professionals * Emphasizes problem-solving techniques, pattern recognition, conjecturing, induction, applications of varying nature, proof techniques, algorithm development and correctness, and numeric computations* Weaves numerous applications into the text* Helps students learn by doing with a wealth of examples and exercises: - 560 examples worked out in detail - More than 3,700 exercises - More than 150 computer assignments - More than 600 writing projects*...

6. Discrete algorithmic mathematics

Maurer, Stephen B

2005-01-01

The exposition is self-contained, complemented by diverse exercises and also accompanied by an introduction to mathematical reasoning … this book is an excellent textbook for a one-semester undergraduate course and it includes a lot of additional material to choose from.-EMS, March 2006In a textbook, it is necessary to select carefully the statements and difficulty of the problems … in this textbook, this is fully achieved … This review considers this book an excellent one.-The Mathematical Gazette, March 2006

7. Using a Card Trick to Teach Discrete Mathematics

Simonson, Shai; Holm, Tara S.

2003-01-01

We present a card trick that can be used to review or teach a variety of topics in discrete mathematics. We address many subjects, including permutations, combinations, functions, graphs, depth first search, the pigeonhole principle, greedy algorithms, and concepts from number theory. Moreover, the trick motivates the use of computers in…

8. Finite Mathematics and Discrete Mathematics: Is There a Difference?

Johnson, Marvin L.

Discrete mathematics and finite mathematics differ in a number of ways. First, finite mathematics has a longer history and is therefore more stable in terms of course content. Finite mathematics courses emphasize certain particular mathematical tools which are useful in solving the problems of business and the social sciences. Discrete mathematics…

9. Inevitable randomness in discrete mathematics

Beck, Jozsef

2009-01-01

Mathematics has been called the science of order. The subject is remarkably good for generalizing specific cases to create abstract theories. However, mathematics has little to say when faced with highly complex systems, where disorder reigns. This disorder can be found in pure mathematical arenas, such as the distribution of primes, the 3n+1 conjecture, and class field theory. The purpose of this book is to provide examples--and rigorous proofs--of the complexity law: (1) discrete systems are either simple or they exhibit advanced pseudorandomness; (2) a priori probabilities often exist even when there is no intrinsic symmetry. Part of the difficulty in achieving this purpose is in trying to clarify these vague statements. The examples turn out to be fascinating instances of deep or mysterious results in number theory and combinatorics. This book considers randomness and complexity. The traditional approach to complexity--computational complexity theory--is to study very general complexity classes, such as P...

10. Graph-cut based discrete-valued image reconstruction.

Tuysuzoglu, Ahmet; Karl, W Clem; Stojanovic, Ivana; Castañòn, David; Ünlü, M Selim

2015-05-01

Efficient graph-cut methods have been used with great success for labeling and denoising problems occurring in computer vision. Unfortunately, the presence of linear image mappings has prevented the use of these techniques in most discrete-amplitude image reconstruction problems. In this paper, we develop a graph-cut based framework for the direct solution of discrete amplitude linear image reconstruction problems cast as regularized energy function minimizations. We first analyze the structure of discrete linear inverse problem cost functions to show that the obstacle to the application of graph-cut methods to their solution is the variable mixing caused by the presence of the linear sensing operator. We then propose to use a surrogate energy functional that overcomes the challenges imposed by the sensing operator yet can be utilized efficiently in existing graph-cut frameworks. We use this surrogate energy functional to devise a monotonic iterative algorithm for the solution of discrete valued inverse problems. We first provide experiments using local convolutional operators and show the robustness of the proposed technique to noise and stability to changes in regularization parameter. Then we focus on nonlocal, tomographic examples where we consider limited-angle data problems. We compare our technique with state-of-the-art discrete and continuous image reconstruction techniques. Experiments show that the proposed method outperforms state-of-the-art techniques in challenging scenarios involving discrete valued unknowns.

11. MARKOV GRAPHS OF ONE–DIMENSIONAL DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS AND THEIR DISCRETE ANALOGUES AND THEIR DISCRETE ANALOGUES

SERGIY KOZERENKO

2016-04-01

Full Text Available One feature of the famous Sharkovsky’s theorem is that it can be proved using digraphs of a special type (the so–called Markov graphs. The most general definition assigns a Markov graph to every continuous map from the topological graph to itself. We show that this definition is too broad, i.e. every finite digraph can be viewed as a Markov graph of some one–dimensional dynamical system on a tree. We therefore consider discrete analogues of Markov graphs for vertex maps on combinatorial trees and characterize all maps on trees whose discrete Markov graphs are of the following types: complete, complete bipartite, the disjoint union of cycles, with every arc being a loop.

12. Graph Theory to Pure Mathematics: Some Illustrative Examples

Graph Theory to Pure Mathematics: Some. Illustrative Examples v Yegnanarayanan is a. Professor of Mathematics at MNM Jain Engineering. College, Chennai. His research interests include graph theory and its applications to both pure maths and theoretical computer science. Keywords. Graph theory, matching theory,.

13. Theoretical Basics of Teaching Discrete Mathematics

Y. A. Perminov

2012-01-01

Full Text Available  The paper deals with the research findings concerning the process of mastering the theoretical basics of discrete mathematics by the students of vocational pedagogic profile. The methodological analysis is based on the subject and functions of the modern discrete mathematics and its role in mathematical modeling and computing. The modern discrete mathematics (i.e. mathematics of the finite type structures plays the important role in modernization of vocational training. It is especially rele- vant to training students for vocational pedagogic qualifications, as in the future they will be responsible for training the middle and the senior level specialists in engineer- ing and technical spheres. Nowadays in different industries, there arise the problems which require for their solving both continual – based on the classical mathematical methods – and discrete modeling. The teaching course of discrete mathematics for the future vocational teachers should be relevant to the target qualification and aimed at mastering the mathematical modeling, systems of computer mathematics and computer technologies. The author emphasizes the fundamental role of mastering the language of algebraic and serial structures, as well as the logical, algorithmic, combinatory schemes dominating in dis- crete mathematics. The guidelines for selecting the content of the course in discrete mathematics are specified. The theoretical findings of the research can be put into practice whilst developing curricula and working programs for bachelors and masters’ training.

14. Discrete mathematics in the high school curriculum

Anderson, I.; Asch, van A.G.; van Lint, J.H.

2004-01-01

In this paper we present some topics from the field of discrete mathematics which might be suitable for the high school curriculum. These topics yield both easy to understand challenging problems and important applications of discrete mathematics. We choose elements from number theory and various

15. Energy Minimization of Discrete Protein Titration State Models Using Graph Theory

Purvine, Emilie; Monson, Kyle; Jurrus, Elizabeth; Star, Keith; Baker, Nathan A.

2016-01-01

There are several applications in computational biophysics which require the optimization of discrete interacting states; e.g., amino acid titration states, ligand oxidation states, or discrete rotamer angles. Such optimization can be very time-consuming as it scales exponentially in the number of sites to be optimized. In this paper, we describe a new polynomial-time algorithm for optimization of discrete states in macromolecular systems. This algorithm was adapted from image processing and uses techniques from discrete mathematics and graph theory to restate the optimization problem in terms of “maximum flow-minimum cut” graph analysis. The interaction energy graph, a graph in which vertices (amino acids) and edges (interactions) are weighted with their respective energies, is transformed into a flow network in which the value of the minimum cut in the network equals the minimum free energy of the protein, and the cut itself encodes the state that achieves the minimum free energy. Because of its deterministic nature and polynomial-time performance, this algorithm has the potential to allow for the ionization state of larger proteins to be discovered. PMID:27089174

16. Energy Minimization of Discrete Protein Titration State Models Using Graph Theory.

Purvine, Emilie; Monson, Kyle; Jurrus, Elizabeth; Star, Keith; Baker, Nathan A

2016-08-25

There are several applications in computational biophysics that require the optimization of discrete interacting states, for example, amino acid titration states, ligand oxidation states, or discrete rotamer angles. Such optimization can be very time-consuming as it scales exponentially in the number of sites to be optimized. In this paper, we describe a new polynomial time algorithm for optimization of discrete states in macromolecular systems. This algorithm was adapted from image processing and uses techniques from discrete mathematics and graph theory to restate the optimization problem in terms of "maximum flow-minimum cut" graph analysis. The interaction energy graph, a graph in which vertices (amino acids) and edges (interactions) are weighted with their respective energies, is transformed into a flow network in which the value of the minimum cut in the network equals the minimum free energy of the protein and the cut itself encodes the state that achieves the minimum free energy. Because of its deterministic nature and polynomial time performance, this algorithm has the potential to allow for the ionization state of larger proteins to be discovered.

17. Discrete geometric analysis of message passing algorithm on graphs

Watanabe, Yusuke

2010-04-01

We often encounter probability distributions given as unnormalized products of non-negative functions. The factorization structures are represented by hypergraphs called factor graphs. Such distributions appear in various fields, including statistics, artificial intelligence, statistical physics, error correcting codes, etc. Given such a distribution, computations of marginal distributions and the normalization constant are often required. However, they are computationally intractable because of their computational costs. One successful approximation method is Loopy Belief Propagation (LBP) algorithm. The focus of this thesis is an analysis of the LBP algorithm. If the factor graph is a tree, i.e. having no cycle, the algorithm gives the exact quantities. If the factor graph has cycles, however, the LBP algorithm does not give exact results and possibly exhibits oscillatory and non-convergent behaviors. The thematic question of this thesis is "How the behaviors of the LBP algorithm are affected by the discrete geometry of the factor graph?" The primary contribution of this thesis is the discovery of a formula that establishes the relation between the LBP, the Bethe free energy and the graph zeta function. This formula provides new techniques for analysis of the LBP algorithm, connecting properties of the graph and of the LBP and the Bethe free energy. We demonstrate applications of the techniques to several problems including (non) convexity of the Bethe free energy, the uniqueness and stability of the LBP fixed point. We also discuss the loop series initiated by Chertkov and Chernyak. The loop series is a subgraph expansion of the normalization constant, or partition function, and reflects the graph geometry. We investigate theoretical natures of the series. Moreover, we show a partial connection between the loop series and the graph zeta function.

18. A Note on Discrete Mathematics and Calculus.

O'Reilly, Thomas J.

1987-01-01

Much of the current literature on the topic of discrete mathematics and calculus during the first two years of an undergraduate mathematics curriculum is cited. A relationship between the recursive integration formulas and recursively defined polynomials is described. A Pascal program is included. (Author/RH)

19. Discrete Mathematics Course Supported by CAS MATHEMATICA

Ivanov, O. A.; Ivanova, V. V.; Saltan, A. A.

2017-01-01

In this paper, we discuss examples of assignments for a course in discrete mathematics for undergraduate students majoring in business informatics. We consider several problems with computer-based solutions and discuss general strategies for using computers in teaching mathematics and its applications. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of our…

20. Web-Based Implementation of Discrete Mathematics

Love, Tanzy; Keinert, Fritz; Shelley, Mack

2006-01-01

The Department of Mathematics at Iowa State University teaches a freshman-level Discrete Mathematics course with total enrollment of about 1,800 students per year. The traditional format includes large lectures, with about 150 students each, taught by faculty and temporary instructors in two class sessions per week and recitation sections, with…

1. Discrete Mathematics in the Schools. DIMACS Series in Discrete Mathematics and Theoretical Computer Science, Volume 36.

Rosenstein, Joseph G., Ed.; Franzblau, Deborah S., Ed.; Roberts, Fred S., Ed.

This book is a collection of articles by experienced educators and explains why and how discrete mathematics should be taught in K-12 classrooms. It includes evidence for "why" and practical guidance for "how" and also discusses how discrete mathematics can be used as a vehicle for achieving the broader goals of the major…

2. Mathematical Minute: Rotating a Function Graph

Bravo, Daniel; Fera, Joseph

2013-01-01

Using calculus only, we find the angles you can rotate the graph of a differentiable function about the origin and still obtain a function graph. We then apply the solution to odd and even degree polynomials.

3. Application of multivariate splines to discrete mathematics

Xu, Zhiqiang

2005-01-01

Using methods developed in multivariate splines, we present an explicit formula for discrete truncated powers, which are defined as the number of non-negative integer solutions of linear Diophantine equations. We further use the formula to study some classical problems in discrete mathematics as follows. First, we extend the partition function of integers in number theory. Second, we exploit the relation between the relative volume of convex polytopes and multivariate truncated powers and giv...

4. Logic and discrete mathematics a concise introduction

2015-01-01

A concise yet rigorous introduction to logic and discrete mathematics. This book features a unique combination of comprehensive coverage of logic with a solid exposition of the most important fields of discrete mathematics, presenting material that has been tested and refined by the authors in university courses taught over more than a decade.  The chapters on logic - propositional and first-order - provide a robust toolkit for logical reasoning, emphasizing the conceptual understanding of the language and the semantics of classical logic as well as practical applications through the easy

5. Discrete mathematics course supported by CAS MATHEMATICA

Ivanov, O. A.; Ivanova, V. V.; Saltan, A. A.

2017-08-01

In this paper, we discuss examples of assignments for a course in discrete mathematics for undergraduate students majoring in business informatics. We consider several problems with computer-based solutions and discuss general strategies for using computers in teaching mathematics and its applications. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of our approach, we conducted an anonymous survey. The results of the survey provide evidence that our approach contributes to high outcomes and aligns with the course aims and objectives.

6. Some unsolved problems in discrete mathematics and mathematical cybernetics

Korshunov, Aleksei D [S.L. Sobolev Institute for Mathematics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

2009-10-31

There are many unsolved problems in discrete mathematics and mathematical cybernetics. Writing a comprehensive survey of such problems involves great difficulties. First, such problems are rather numerous and varied. Second, they greatly differ from each other in degree of completeness of their solution. Therefore, even a comprehensive survey should not attempt to cover the whole variety of such problems; only the most important and significant problems should be reviewed. An impersonal choice of problems to include is quite hard. This paper includes 13 unsolved problems related to combinatorial mathematics and computational complexity theory. The problems selected give an indication of the author's studies for 50 years; for this reason, the choice of the problems reviewed here is, to some extent, subjective. At the same time, these problems are very difficult and quite important for discrete mathematics and mathematical cybernetics. Bibliography: 74 items.

7. Some unsolved problems in discrete mathematics and mathematical cybernetics

Korshunov, Aleksei D.

2009-10-01

There are many unsolved problems in discrete mathematics and mathematical cybernetics. Writing a comprehensive survey of such problems involves great difficulties. First, such problems are rather numerous and varied. Second, they greatly differ from each other in degree of completeness of their solution. Therefore, even a comprehensive survey should not attempt to cover the whole variety of such problems; only the most important and significant problems should be reviewed. An impersonal choice of problems to include is quite hard. This paper includes 13 unsolved problems related to combinatorial mathematics and computational complexity theory. The problems selected give an indication of the author's studies for 50 years; for this reason, the choice of the problems reviewed here is, to some extent, subjective. At the same time, these problems are very difficult and quite important for discrete mathematics and mathematical cybernetics. Bibliography: 74 items.

8. Some unsolved problems in discrete mathematics and mathematical cybernetics

Korshunov, Aleksei D

2009-01-01

There are many unsolved problems in discrete mathematics and mathematical cybernetics. Writing a comprehensive survey of such problems involves great difficulties. First, such problems are rather numerous and varied. Second, they greatly differ from each other in degree of completeness of their solution. Therefore, even a comprehensive survey should not attempt to cover the whole variety of such problems; only the most important and significant problems should be reviewed. An impersonal choice of problems to include is quite hard. This paper includes 13 unsolved problems related to combinatorial mathematics and computational complexity theory. The problems selected give an indication of the author's studies for 50 years; for this reason, the choice of the problems reviewed here is, to some extent, subjective. At the same time, these problems are very difficult and quite important for discrete mathematics and mathematical cybernetics. Bibliography: 74 items.

9. A short course in discrete mathematics

Bender, Edward A

2004-01-01

What sort of mathematics do I need for computer science? In response to this frequently asked question, a pair of professors at the University of California at San Diego created this text. Its sources are two of the university's most basic courses: Discrete Mathematics, and Mathematics for Algorithm and System Analysis. Intended for use by sophomores in the first of a two-quarter sequence, the text assumes some familiarity with calculus. Topics include Boolean functions and computer arithmetic; logic; number theory and cryptography; sets and functions; equivalence and order; and induction, seq

10. A discrete transition to advanced mathematics

Richmond, Bettina

2009-01-01

As the title indicates, this book is intended for courses aimed at bridging the gap between lower-level mathematics and advanced mathematics. The text provides a careful introduction to techniques for writing proofs and a logical development of topics based on intuitive understanding of concepts. The authors utilize a clear writing style and a wealth of examples to develop an understanding of discrete mathematics and critical thinking skills. While including many traditional topics, the text offers innovative material throughout. Surprising results are used to motivate the reader. The last thr

11. Is Discrete Mathematics the New Math of the Eighties?

Hart, Eric W.

1985-01-01

Considered are what discrete mathematics includes, some parallels and differences between new math and discrete mathematics (listed in a table), and lessons to be learned. A list of references is included. (MNS)

12. Equivalence of massive propagator distance and mathematical distance on graphs

Filk, T.

1992-01-01

It is shown in this paper that the assignment of distance according to the massive propagator method and according to the mathematical definition (length of minimal path) on arbitrary graphs with a bound on the degree leads to equivalent large scale properties of the graph. Especially, the internal scaling dimension is the same for both definitions. This result holds for any fixed, non-vanishing mass, so that a really inequivalent definition of distance requires the limit m → 0

13. Colour Mathematics: With Graphs and Numbers

LoPresto, Michael C.

2009-01-01

The different combinations involved in additive and subtractive colour mixing can often be difficult for students to remember. Using transmission graphs for filters of the primary colours and a numerical scheme to write out the relationships are good exercises in analytical thinking that can help students recall the combinations rather than just…

14. Performance analysis of chi models using discrete-time probabilistic reward graphs

Trcka, N.; Georgievska, S.; Markovski, J.; Andova, S.; Vink, de E.P.

2008-01-01

We propose the model of discrete-time probabilistic reward graphs (DTPRGs) for performance analysis of systems exhibiting discrete deterministic time delays and probabilistic behavior, via their interpretation as discrete-time Markov reward chains, full-fledged platform for qualitative and

15. How Bob Barker Would (Probably) Teach Discrete Mathematics

Urness, Timothy

2010-01-01

This article proposes a discrete mathematics course in which games from "The Price Is Right" are used to engage students in a deeper, practical study of discrete mathematics. The games themselves are not the focus of the course; rather, the mathematical principles of the games give motivation for the concepts being taught. The game examples are…

16. An Infinite Family of Circulant Graphs with Perfect State Transfer in Discrete Quantum Walks

Zhan, Hanmeng

2017-01-01

We study perfect state transfer in a discrete quantum walk. In particular, we show that there are infinitely many $4$-regular circulant graphs that admit perfect state transfer between antipodal vertices. To the best of our knowledge, previously there was no infinite family of $k$-regular graphs with perfect state transfer, for any $k\\ge 3$.

17. Graphs on Surfaces and the Partition Function of String Theory

Garcia-Islas, J. Manuel

2007-01-01

Graphs on surfaces is an active topic of pure mathematics belonging to graph theory. It has also been applied to physics and relates discrete and continuous mathematics. In this paper we present a formal mathematical description of the relation between graph theory and the mathematical physics of discrete string theory. In this description we present problems of the combinatorial world of real importance for graph theorists. The mathematical details of the paper are as follows: There is a com...

18. Isospectral discrete and quantum graphs with the same flip counts and nodal counts

Juul, Jonas S.; Joyner, Christopher H.

2018-06-01

The existence of non-isomorphic graphs which share the same Laplace spectrum (to be referred to as isospectral graphs) leads naturally to the following question: what additional information is required in order to resolve isospectral graphs? It was suggested by Band, Shapira and Smilansky that this might be achieved by either counting the number of nodal domains or the number of times the eigenfunctions change sign (the so-called flip count) (Band et al 2006 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 39 13999–4014 Band and Smilansky 2007 Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 145 171–9). Recent examples of (discrete) isospectral graphs with the same flip count and nodal count have been constructed by Ammann by utilising Godsil–McKay switching (Ammann private communication). Here, we provide a simple alternative mechanism that produces systematic examples of both discrete and quantum isospectral graphs with the same flip and nodal counts.

19. CDM: Teaching Discrete Mathematics to Computer Science Majors

Sutner, Klaus

2005-01-01

CDM, for computational discrete mathematics, is a course that attempts to teach a number of topics in discrete mathematics to computer science majors. The course abandons the classical definition-theorem-proof model, and instead relies heavily on computation as a source of motivation and also for experimentation and illustration. The emphasis on…

20. Lectures on financial mathematics discrete asset pricing

Anderson, Greg

2010-01-01

This is a short book on the fundamental concepts of the no-arbitrage theory of pricing financial derivatives. Its scope is limited to the general discrete setting of models for which the set of possible states is finite and so is the set of possible trading times--this includes the popular binomial tree model. This setting has the advantage of being fairly general while not requiring a sophisticated understanding of analysis at the graduate level. Topics include understanding the several variants of "arbitrage", the fundamental theorems of asset pricing in terms of martingale measures, and applications to forwards and futures. The authors' motivation is to present the material in a way that clarifies as much as possible why the often confusing basic facts are true. Therefore the ideas are organized from a mathematical point of view with the emphasis on understanding exactly what is under the hood and how it works. Every effort is made to include complete explanations and proofs, and the reader is encouraged t...

1. DISCRETE MATHEMATICS AS FUNDAMENTAL DISCIPLINE IS IN SYSTEM OF MATHEMATICAL PREPARATION OF FUTURE SOFTWARE ENGINEER

D. Shchedrolosev

2010-01-01

Fundamental mathematical background is an important part of training future engineers and programmers. The paper considers existing approaches to teaching the fundamentals of discrete mathematics specialist IT profile, a comparative analysis of modern textbooks on discrete mathematics for IT professionals was conducted

2. DISCRETE MATHEMATICS AS FUNDAMENTAL DISCIPLINE IS IN SYSTEM OF MATHEMATICAL PREPARATION OF FUTURE SOFTWARE ENGINEER

D. Shchedrolosev

2010-04-01

Full Text Available Fundamental mathematical background is an important part of training future engineers and programmers. The paper considers existing approaches to teaching the fundamentals of discrete mathematics specialist IT profile, a comparative analysis of modern textbooks on discrete mathematics for IT professionals was conducted

3. Discrete calculus applied analysis on graphs for computational science

2010-01-01

This unique text brings together into a single framework current research in the three areas of discrete calculus, complex networks, and algorithmic content extraction. Many example applications from several fields of computational science are provided.

4. Nonlocal discrete regularization on weighted graphs: a framework for image and manifold processing.

Elmoataz, Abderrahim; Lezoray, Olivier; Bougleux, Sébastien

2008-07-01

We introduce a nonlocal discrete regularization framework on weighted graphs of the arbitrary topologies for image and manifold processing. The approach considers the problem as a variational one, which consists of minimizing a weighted sum of two energy terms: a regularization one that uses a discrete weighted p-Dirichlet energy and an approximation one. This is the discrete analogue of recent continuous Euclidean nonlocal regularization functionals. The proposed formulation leads to a family of simple and fast nonlinear processing methods based on the weighted p-Laplace operator, parameterized by the degree p of regularity, the graph structure and the graph weight function. These discrete processing methods provide a graph-based version of recently proposed semi-local or nonlocal processing methods used in image and mesh processing, such as the bilateral filter, the TV digital filter or the nonlocal means filter. It works with equal ease on regular 2-D and 3-D images, manifolds or any data. We illustrate the abilities of the approach by applying it to various types of images, meshes, manifolds, and data represented as graphs.

5. Graph comprehension in science and mathematics education: Objects and categories

Voetmann Christiansen, Frederik; May, Michael

types of registers. In the second part of the paper, we consider how diagrams in science are often composites of iconic and indexical elements, and how this fact may lead to confusion for students. In the discussion the utility of the Peircian semiotic framework for educational studies......, the typological mistake of considering graphs as images is discussed related to litterature, and two examples from engineering education are given. The educational implications for science and engineering are discussed, with emphasis on the need for students to work explicitly with conversions between different...... of representational forms in science is discussed, and how the objects of mathematics and science relate to their semiotic representations....

6. Mathematical aspects of the discrete space-time hypothesis

Sardanashvili, G.A.

1979-01-01

A hypothesis of a microcosm space discreteness is considered from the theoretical-mathematical point of view. The type of topological spaces, which formalizes representations on the discrete space-time, is determined. It is explained, how these spaces arise in physical models. The physical task, in which the discrete space could arise as a version of its solution, is considered. It is shown that the discrete structure of space can arise with a certain interaction type in the system, for example, with its considerable self-shielding, which can take place, in particular, in the particles or in the cosmological and astrophysical singularities

7. A Design of Computer Aided Instructions (CAI) for Undirected Graphs in the Discrete Math Tutorial (DMT). Part 1.

1990-06-01

The objective of this thesis research is to create a tutorial for teaching aspects of undirected graphs in discrete math . It is one of the submodules...of the Discrete Math Tutorial (DMT), which is a Computer Aided Instructional (CAI) tool for teaching discrete math to the Naval Academy and the

8. A Design of Computer Aided Instructions (CAI) for Undirected Graphs in the Discrete Math Tutorial (DMT). Part 2

1990-06-01

The objective of this thesis research is to create a tutorial for teaching aspects of undirected graphs in discrete math . It is one of the submodules...of the Discrete Math Tutorial (DMT), which is a Computer Aided Instructional (CAI) tool for teaching discrete math to the Naval Academy and the

9. Logic and discrete mathematics a concise introduction : solutions manual

2015-01-01

Solutions manual to accompany Logic and Discrete Mathematics: A Concise Introduction This book features a unique combination of comprehensive coverage of logic with a solid exposition of the most important fields of discrete mathematics, presenting material that has been tested and refined by the authors in university courses taught over more than a decade. Written in a clear and reader-friendly style, each section ends with an extensive set of exercises, most of them provided with complete solutions which are available in this accompanying solutions manual.

10. Predictions of first passage times in sparse discrete fracture networks using graph-based reductions

Hyman, J.; Hagberg, A.; Srinivasan, G.; Mohd-Yusof, J.; Viswanathan, H. S.

2017-12-01

We present a graph-based methodology to reduce the computational cost of obtaining first passage times through sparse fracture networks. We derive graph representations of generic three-dimensional discrete fracture networks (DFNs) using the DFN topology and flow boundary conditions. Subgraphs corresponding to the union of the k shortest paths between the inflow and outflow boundaries are identified and transport on their equivalent subnetworks is compared to transport through the full network. The number of paths included in the subgraphs is based on the scaling behavior of the number of edges in the graph with the number of shortest paths. First passage times through the subnetworks are in good agreement with those obtained in the full network, both for individual realizations and in distribution. Accurate estimates of first passage times are obtained with an order of magnitude reduction of CPU time and mesh size using the proposed method.

11. On the discrete spectrum of the Dirac operator on bent chain quantum graph

Belov Michail

2017-01-01

Full Text Available We study Dirac operators on an infinite quantum graph of a bent chain form which consists of identical rings connected at the touching points by δ-couplings with a parameter α ∈ ℝ. We are interested in the discrete spectrum of the corresponding Hamiltonian. It can be non-empty due to a local (geometrical perturbation of the corresponding infinite chain of rings. The quantum graph of analogous geometry with the Schrodinger operator on the edges was considered by Duclos, Exner and Turek in 2008. They showed that the absence of δ-couplings at vertices (i.e. the Kirchhoff condition at the vertices lead to the absence of eigenvalues. We consider the relativistic particle (the Dirac operator instead of the Schrodinger one but the result is analogous. Quantum graphs of such type are suitable for description of grapheme-based nanostructures. It is established that the negativity of α is the necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of eigenvalues of the Dirac operator (i.e. the discrete spectrum of the Hamiltonian in this case is not empty. The continuous spectrum of the Hamiltonian for bent chain graph coincides with that for the corresponding straight infinite chain. Conditions for appearance of more than one eigenvalue are obtained. It is related to the bending angle. The investigation is based on the transfer-matrix approach. It allows one to reduce the problem to an algebraic task. δ-couplings was introduced by the operator extensions theory method.

12. Teaching Discrete Mathematics Entirely from Primary Historical Sources

Barnett, Janet Heine; Bezhanishvili, Guram; Lodder, Jerry; Pengelley, David

2016-01-01

We describe teaching an introductory discrete mathematics course entirely from student projects based on primary historical sources. We present case studies of four projects that cover the content of a one-semester course, and mention various other courses that we have taught with primary source projects.

13. An Application of Discrete Mathematics to Coding Theory.

Donohoe, L. Joyce

1992-01-01

Presents a public-key cryptosystem application to introduce students to several topics in discrete mathematics. A computer algorithms using recursive methods is presented to solve a problem in which one person wants to send a coded message to a second person while keeping the message secret from a third person. (MDH)

14. System for Automatic Generation of Examination Papers in Discrete Mathematics

Fridenfalk, Mikael

2013-01-01

A system was developed for automatic generation of problems and solutions for examinations in a university distance course in discrete mathematics and tested in a pilot experiment involving 200 students. Considering the success of such systems in the past, particularly including automatic assessment, it should not take long before such systems are…

15. Constructing Contracts: Making Discrete Mathematics Relevant to Beginning Programmers

Gegg-Harrison, Timothy S.

2005-01-01

Although computer scientists understand the importance of discrete mathematics to the foundations of their field, computer science (CS) students do not always see the relevance. Thus, it is important to find a way to show students its relevance. The concept of program correctness is generally taught as an activity independent of the programming…

16. Lecture Note on Discrete Mathematics: Predicates and Quantifiers

Nordbjerg, Finn Ebertsen

2016-01-01

This lecture note supplements the treatment of predicates and quantifiers given in standard textbooks on Discrete Mathematics (e.g.: [1]) and introduces the notation used in this course. We will present central concepts that are important, when predicate logic is used for specification...

17. GDSCalc: A Web-Based Application for Evaluating Discrete Graph Dynamical Systems.

Elmeligy Abdelhamid, Sherif H; Kuhlman, Chris J; Marathe, Madhav V; Mortveit, Henning S; Ravi, S S

2015-01-01

Discrete dynamical systems are used to model various realistic systems in network science, from social unrest in human populations to regulation in biological networks. A common approach is to model the agents of a system as vertices of a graph, and the pairwise interactions between agents as edges. Agents are in one of a finite set of states at each discrete time step and are assigned functions that describe how their states change based on neighborhood relations. Full characterization of state transitions of one system can give insights into fundamental behaviors of other dynamical systems. In this paper, we describe a discrete graph dynamical systems (GDSs) application called GDSCalc for computing and characterizing system dynamics. It is an open access system that is used through a web interface. We provide an overview of GDS theory. This theory is the basis of the web application; i.e., an understanding of GDS provides an understanding of the software features, while abstracting away implementation details. We present a set of illustrative examples to demonstrate its use in education and research. Finally, we compare GDSCalc with other discrete dynamical system software tools. Our perspective is that no single software tool will perform all computations that may be required by all users; tools typically have particular features that are more suitable for some tasks. We situate GDSCalc within this space of software tools.

18. Simplicial complexes of graphs

Jonsson, Jakob

2008-01-01

A graph complex is a finite family of graphs closed under deletion of edges. Graph complexes show up naturally in many different areas of mathematics, including commutative algebra, geometry, and knot theory. Identifying each graph with its edge set, one may view a graph complex as a simplicial complex and hence interpret it as a geometric object. This volume examines topological properties of graph complexes, focusing on homotopy type and homology. Many of the proofs are based on Robin Forman's discrete version of Morse theory. As a byproduct, this volume also provides a loosely defined toolbox for attacking problems in topological combinatorics via discrete Morse theory. In terms of simplicity and power, arguably the most efficient tool is Forman's divide and conquer approach via decision trees; it is successfully applied to a large number of graph and digraph complexes.

19. Conversations about Curriculum Change: Mathematical Thinking and Team-Based Learning in a Discrete Mathematics Course

Paterson, Judy; Sneddon, Jamie

2011-01-01

This article reports on the learning conversations between a mathematician and a mathematics educator as they worked together to change the delivery model of a third year discrete mathematics course from a traditional lecture mode to team-based learning (TBL). This change prompted the mathematician to create team tasks which increasingly focused…

20. Instructional Efficiency of the Integration of Graphing Calculators in Teaching and Learning Mathematics

Tajuddin, Nor'ain Mohd; Tarmizi, Rohani Ahmad; Konting, Mohd Majid; Ali, Wan Zah Wan

2009-01-01

This quasi-experimental study with non-equivalent control group post-test only design was conducted to investigate the effects of using graphing calculators in mathematics teaching and learning on Form Four Malaysian secondary school students' performance and their meta-cognitive awareness level. Graphing calculator strategy refers to the use of…

1. a Discrete Mathematical Model to Simulate Malware Spreading

Del Rey, A. Martin; Sánchez, G. Rodriguez

2012-10-01

With the advent and worldwide development of Internet, the study and control of malware spreading has become very important. In this sense, some mathematical models to simulate malware propagation have been proposed in the scientific literature, and usually they are based on differential equations exploiting the similarities with mathematical epidemiology. The great majority of these models study the behavior of a particular type of malware called computer worms; indeed, to the best of our knowledge, no model has been proposed to simulate the spreading of a computer virus (the traditional type of malware which differs from computer worms in several aspects). In this sense, the purpose of this work is to introduce a new mathematical model not based on continuous mathematics tools but on discrete ones, to analyze and study the epidemic behavior of computer virus. Specifically, cellular automata are used in order to design such model.

2. Discrete computational structures

Korfhage, Robert R

1974-01-01

Discrete Computational Structures describes discrete mathematical concepts that are important to computing, covering necessary mathematical fundamentals, computer representation of sets, graph theory, storage minimization, and bandwidth. The book also explains conceptual framework (Gorn trees, searching, subroutines) and directed graphs (flowcharts, critical paths, information network). The text discusses algebra particularly as it applies to concentrates on semigroups, groups, lattices, propositional calculus, including a new tabular method of Boolean function minimization. The text emphasize

3. The Mathematics of Networks Science: Scale-Free, Power-Law Graphs and Continuum Theoretical Analysis

2012-01-01

When hoping to initiate or sustain students' interest in mathematics teachers should always consider relevance, relevance to students' lives and in the middle and later years of instruction in high school and university, accessibility. A topic such as the mathematics behind networks science, more specifically scale-free graphs, is up-to-date,…

4. chromatic number of a complete balanced multipartite graph

2006-12-29

Dec 29, 2006 ... †Applied Mathematics Division, Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of ..... classes originally comprising discrete entities (graph vertices) are replaced by collections of ...... Journal of Combinatorial Theory, 6, pp.

5. An excursion through elementary mathematics, volume iii discrete mathematics and polynomial algebra

Caminha Muniz Neto, Antonio

2018-01-01

This book provides a comprehensive, in-depth overview of elementary mathematics as explored in Mathematical Olympiads around the world. It expands on topics usually encountered in high school and could even be used as preparation for a first-semester undergraduate course. This third and last volume covers Counting, Generating Functions, Graph Theory, Number Theory, Complex Numbers, Polynomials, and much more. As part of a collection, the book differs from other publications in this field by not being a mere selection of questions or a set of tips and tricks that applies to specific problems. It starts from the most basic theoretical principles, without being either too general or too axiomatic. Examples and problems are discussed only if they are helpful as applications of the theory. Propositions are proved in detail and subsequently applied to Olympic problems or to other problems at the Olympic level. The book also explores some of the hardest problems presented at National and International Mathematics Ol...

6. Discrete mathematics in deaf education: a survey of teachers' knowledge and use.

Pagliaro, Claudia M; Kritzer, Karen L

The study documents what deaf education teachers know about discrete mathematics topics and determines if these topics are present in the mathematics curriculum. Survey data were collected from 290 mathematics teachers at center and public school programs serving a minimum of 120 students with hearing loss, grades K-8 or K-12, in the United States. Findings indicate that deaf education teachers are familiar with many discrete mathematics topics but do not include them in instruction because they consider the concepts too complicated for their students. Also, regardless of familiarity level, deaf education teachers are not familiar with discrete mathematics terminology; nor is their mathematics teaching structured to provide opportunities to apply the real-world-oriented activities used in discrete mathematics instruction. Findings emphasize the need for higher expectations of students with hearing loss, and for reform in mathematics curriculum and instruction within deaf education.

7. Young Children Use Graphs to Build Mathematical Reasoning

Larson, Mark J.; Whitin, David J.

2010-01-01

Mathematical, scientific, and technological knowledge is critical for people in a 21st Century world that is dependent upon a global interconnectedness and a knowledge-based economy. This is the kind of knowledge that will power innovations and drive decision making in the years ahead. Schools are therefore being called upon to devise a…

8. Introduction to graph theory

Trudeau, Richard J

1994-01-01

Preface1. Pure Mathematics Introduction; Euclidean Geometry as Pure Mathematics; Games; Why Study Pure Mathematics?; What's Coming; Suggested Reading2. Graphs Introduction; Sets; Paradox; Graphs; Graph diagrams; Cautions; Common Graphs; Discovery; Complements and Subgraphs; Isomorphism; Recognizing Isomorphic Graphs; Semantics The Number of Graphs Having a Given nu; Exercises; Suggested Reading3. Planar Graphs Introduction; UG, K subscript 5, and the Jordan Curve Theorem; Are there More Nonplanar Graphs?; Expansions; Kuratowski's Theorem; Determining Whether a Graph is Planar or

9. Mathematical biology modules based on modern molecular biology and modern discrete mathematics.

Robeva, Raina; Davies, Robin; Hodge, Terrell; Enyedi, Alexander

2010-01-01

We describe an ongoing collaborative curriculum materials development project between Sweet Briar College and Western Michigan University, with support from the National Science Foundation. We present a collection of modules under development that can be used in existing mathematics and biology courses, and we address a critical national need to introduce students to mathematical methods beyond the interface of biology with calculus. Based on ongoing research, and designed to use the project-based-learning approach, the modules highlight applications of modern discrete mathematics and algebraic statistics to pressing problems in molecular biology. For the majority of projects, calculus is not a required prerequisite and, due to the modest amount of mathematical background needed for some of the modules, the materials can be used for an early introduction to mathematical modeling. At the same time, most modules are connected with topics in linear and abstract algebra, algebraic geometry, and probability, and they can be used as meaningful applied introductions into the relevant advanced-level mathematics courses. Open-source software is used to facilitate the relevant computations. As a detailed example, we outline a module that focuses on Boolean models of the lac operon network.

10. Mathematical Biology Modules Based on Modern Molecular Biology and Modern Discrete Mathematics

Davies, Robin; Hodge, Terrell; Enyedi, Alexander

2010-01-01

We describe an ongoing collaborative curriculum materials development project between Sweet Briar College and Western Michigan University, with support from the National Science Foundation. We present a collection of modules under development that can be used in existing mathematics and biology courses, and we address a critical national need to introduce students to mathematical methods beyond the interface of biology with calculus. Based on ongoing research, and designed to use the project-based-learning approach, the modules highlight applications of modern discrete mathematics and algebraic statistics to pressing problems in molecular biology. For the majority of projects, calculus is not a required prerequisite and, due to the modest amount of mathematical background needed for some of the modules, the materials can be used for an early introduction to mathematical modeling. At the same time, most modules are connected with topics in linear and abstract algebra, algebraic geometry, and probability, and they can be used as meaningful applied introductions into the relevant advanced-level mathematics courses. Open-source software is used to facilitate the relevant computations. As a detailed example, we outline a module that focuses on Boolean models of the lac operon network. PMID:20810955

11. A Study of the Use of a Handheld Computer Algebra System in Discrete Mathematics

Powers, Robert A.; Allison, Dean E.; Grassl, Richard M.

2005-01-01

This study investigated the impact of the TI-92 handheld Computer Algebra System (CAS) on student achievement in a discrete mathematics course. Specifically, the researchers examined the differences between a CAS section and a control section of discrete mathematics on students' in-class examinations. Additionally, they analysed student approaches…

12. Co-Roman domination in graphs

1National Centre for Advanced Research in Discrete Mathematics ... 3Department of Computer Science, Ball State University, Muncie, IN, USA .... The corona of two disjoint graphs G1 and G2 is defined to be the graph G = G1 ◦ G2,.

13. Discrete Mathematics in Deaf Education: A Survey of Teachers' Knowledge and Use

Pagliaro, C.; Kritzer, K. L.

2005-01-01

The study documents what deaf education teachers know about discrete mathematics topics and determines if these topics are present in the mathematics curriculum. Survey data were collected from 290 mathematics teachers at center and public school programs serving a minimum of 120 students with hearing loss, grades K-8 or K-12, in the United…

14. (3, 1)*-Choosability of graphs of nonnegative characteristic without ...

School of Mathematical Science, Huaiyin Normal University, 111 Changjiang ... For the used but undefined terminologies and notations, we refer the reader to the book ..... A (3,1)∗-choosable theorem on toroidal graphs, Discrete Appl. Math.

15. Application of methods of discrete mathematics at modular synthesis of mechatronic devices

Nikiforov, S.; Nikiforov, B.; Mandarov, E.; Rabdanova, N.

2010-01-01

The article is devoted to application of methods of discrete mathematics (the theory of counts, the method of matrix code and others) and synthesis of executive mechanisms of mechatronic handling devices

16. Graph-theoretic analysis of discrete-phase-space states for condition change detection and quantification of information

Hively, Lee M.

2014-09-16

Data collected from devices and human condition may be used to forewarn of critical events such as machine/structural failure or events from brain/heart wave data stroke. By monitoring the data, and determining what values are indicative of a failure forewarning, one can provide adequate notice of the impending failure in order to take preventive measures. This disclosure teaches a computer-based method to convert dynamical numeric data representing physical objects (unstructured data) into discrete-phase-space states, and hence into a graph (structured data) for extraction of condition change.

17. Cross Coursing in Mathematics: Physical Modelling in Differential Equations Crossing to Discrete Dynamical Systems

Winkel, Brian

2012-01-01

We give an example of cross coursing in which a subject or approach in one course in undergraduate mathematics is used in a completely different course. This situation crosses falling body modelling in an upper level differential equations course into a modest discrete dynamical systems unit of a first-year mathematics course. (Contains 1 figure.)

18. Discrete thoughts essays on mathematics, science, and philosophy

Kac, Mark; Schwartz, Jacob T

1992-01-01

This is a volume of essays and reviews that delightfully explore mathematics in all its moods — from the light and the witty, and humorous to serious, rational, and cerebral. Topics include: logic, combinatorics, statistics, economics, artificial intelligence, computer science, and applications of mathematics broadly. You will also find history and philosophy covered, including discussion of the work of Ulam, Kant, Heidegger among others. "...these papers reflect on mathematics and its influence on human society. They can help the specialist to notice what is going on around him, and they may lead educated people from other domains to a better understanding of mathematics. Many of these papers can advise educators how to form a modern mathematics education, which develops approved ideas and institutions...I admire the stimulating perspectives of the authors."---American Mathematical Society "‘Mathematicians, like Proust and everyone else, are at their best when writing about their first love’ … They a...

19. Trace formulae and spectral statistics for discrete Laplacians on regular graphs (I)

Oren, Idan; Godel, Amit; Smilansky, Uzy [Department of Physics of Complex Systems, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)], E-mail: idan.oren@weizmann.ac.il, E-mail: amit.godel@weizmann.ac.il, E-mail: uzy.smilansky@weizmann.ac.il

2009-10-16

Trace formulae for d-regular graphs are derived and used to express the spectral density in terms of the periodic walks on the graphs under consideration. The trace formulae depend on a parameter w which can be tuned continuously to assign different weights to different periodic orbit contributions. At the special value w = 1, the only periodic orbits which contribute are the non-back-scattering orbits, and the smooth part in the trace formula coincides with the Kesten-McKay expression. As w deviates from unity, non-vanishing weights are assigned to the periodic walks with backscatter, and the smooth part is modified in a consistent way. The trace formulae presented here are the tools to be used in the second paper in this sequence, for showing the connection between the spectral properties of d-regular graphs and the theory of random matrices.

20. The conceptual basis of mathematics in cardiology: (I) algebra, functions and graphs.

Bates, Jason H T; Sobel, Burton E

2003-02-01

This is the first in a series of four articles developed for the readers of. Without language ideas cannot be articulated. What may not be so immediately obvious is that they cannot be formulated either. One of the essential languages of cardiology is mathematics. Unfortunately, medical education does not emphasize, and in fact, often neglects empowering physicians to think mathematically. Reference to statistics, conditional probability, multicompartmental modeling, algebra, calculus and transforms is common but often without provision of genuine conceptual understanding. At the University of Vermont College of Medicine, Professor Bates developed a course designed to address these deficiencies. The course covered mathematical principles pertinent to clinical cardiovascular and pulmonary medicine and research. It focused on fundamental concepts to facilitate formulation and grasp of ideas. This series of four articles was developed to make the material available for a wider audience. The articles will be published sequentially in Coronary Artery Disease. Beginning with fundamental axioms and basic algebraic manipulations they address algebra, function and graph theory, real and complex numbers, calculus and differential equations, mathematical modeling, linear system theory and integral transforms and statistical theory. The principles and concepts they address provide the foundation needed for in-depth study of any of these topics. Perhaps of even more importance, they should empower cardiologists and cardiovascular researchers to utilize the language of mathematics in assessing the phenomena of immediate pertinence to diagnosis, pathophysiology and therapeutics. The presentations are interposed with queries (by Coronary Artery Disease, abbreviated as CAD) simulating the nature of interactions that occurred during the course itself. Each article concludes with one or more examples illustrating application of the concepts covered to cardiovascular medicine and

1. Investigating a Link between Pre-Calculus Students' Uses of Graphing Calculators and Their Understanding of Mathematical Symbols

Kenney, Rachael H.

2014-01-01

This study examined ways in which students make use of a graphing calculator and how use relates to comfort and understanding with mathematical symbols. Analysis involved examining students' words and actions in problem solving to identify evidence of algebraic insight. Findings suggest that some symbols and symbolic structures had strong…

2. Teaching Proofs and Algorithms in Discrete Mathematics with Online Visual Logic Puzzles

Cigas, John; Hsin, Wen-Jung

2005-01-01

Visual logic puzzles provide a fertile environment for teaching multiple topics in discrete mathematics. Many puzzles can be solved by the repeated application of a small, finite set of strategies. Explicitly reasoning from a strategy to a new puzzle state illustrates theorems, proofs, and logic principles. These provide valuable, concrete…

3. Discrete mathematics, formal methods, the Z schema and the software life cycle

Bown, Rodney L.

1991-01-01

The proper role and scope for the use of discrete mathematics and formal methods in support of engineering the security and integrity of components within deployed computer systems are discussed. It is proposed that the Z schema can be used as the specification language to capture the precise definition of system and component interfaces. This can be accomplished with an object oriented development paradigm.

4. Fast Discrete Fourier Transform Computations Using the Reduced Adder Graph Technique

Andrew G. Dempster

2007-01-01

Full Text Available It has recently been shown that the n-dimensional reduced adder graph (RAG-n technique is beneficial for many DSP applications such as for FIR and IIR filters, where multipliers can be grouped in multiplier blocks. This paper highlights the importance of DFT and FFT as DSP objects and also explores how the RAG-n technique can be applied to these algorithms. This RAG-n DFT will be shown to be of low complexity and possess an attractively regular VLSI data flow when implemented with the Rader DFT algorithm or the Bluestein chirp-z algorithm. ASIC synthesis data are provided and demonstrate the low complexity and high speed of the design when compared to other alternatives.

5. Fast Discrete Fourier Transform Computations Using the Reduced Adder Graph Technique

Dempster Andrew G

2007-01-01

Full Text Available It has recently been shown that the -dimensional reduced adder graph (RAG- technique is beneficial for many DSP applications such as for FIR and IIR filters, where multipliers can be grouped in multiplier blocks. This paper highlights the importance of DFT and FFT as DSP objects and also explores how the RAG- technique can be applied to these algorithms. This RAG- DFT will be shown to be of low complexity and possess an attractively regular VLSI data flow when implemented with the Rader DFT algorithm or the Bluestein chirp- algorithm. ASIC synthesis data are provided and demonstrate the low complexity and high speed of the design when compared to other alternatives.

6. RNA secondary structure prediction by using discrete mathematics: an interdisciplinary research experience for undergraduate students.

Ellington, Roni; Wachira, James; Nkwanta, Asamoah

2010-01-01

The focus of this Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) project was on RNA secondary structure prediction by using a lattice walk approach. The lattice walk approach is a combinatorial and computational biology method used to enumerate possible secondary structures and predict RNA secondary structure from RNA sequences. The method uses discrete mathematical techniques and identifies specified base pairs as parameters. The goal of the REU was to introduce upper-level undergraduate students to the principles and challenges of interdisciplinary research in molecular biology and discrete mathematics. At the beginning of the project, students from the biology and mathematics departments of a mid-sized university received instruction on the role of secondary structure in the function of eukaryotic RNAs and RNA viruses, RNA related to combinatorics, and the National Center for Biotechnology Information resources. The student research projects focused on RNA secondary structure prediction on a regulatory region of the yellow fever virus RNA genome and on an untranslated region of an mRNA of a gene associated with the neurological disorder epilepsy. At the end of the project, the REU students gave poster and oral presentations, and they submitted written final project reports to the program director. The outcome of the REU was that the students gained transferable knowledge and skills in bioinformatics and an awareness of the applications of discrete mathematics to biological research problems.

7. RNA Secondary Structure Prediction by Using Discrete Mathematics: An Interdisciplinary Research Experience for Undergraduate Students

Ellington, Roni; Wachira, James

2010-01-01

The focus of this Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) project was on RNA secondary structure prediction by using a lattice walk approach. The lattice walk approach is a combinatorial and computational biology method used to enumerate possible secondary structures and predict RNA secondary structure from RNA sequences. The method uses discrete mathematical techniques and identifies specified base pairs as parameters. The goal of the REU was to introduce upper-level undergraduate students to the principles and challenges of interdisciplinary research in molecular biology and discrete mathematics. At the beginning of the project, students from the biology and mathematics departments of a mid-sized university received instruction on the role of secondary structure in the function of eukaryotic RNAs and RNA viruses, RNA related to combinatorics, and the National Center for Biotechnology Information resources. The student research projects focused on RNA secondary structure prediction on a regulatory region of the yellow fever virus RNA genome and on an untranslated region of an mRNA of a gene associated with the neurological disorder epilepsy. At the end of the project, the REU students gave poster and oral presentations, and they submitted written final project reports to the program director. The outcome of the REU was that the students gained transferable knowledge and skills in bioinformatics and an awareness of the applications of discrete mathematics to biological research problems. PMID:20810968

8. A mathematical model for generating bipartite graphs and its application to protein networks

Nacher, J. C.; Ochiai, T.; Hayashida, M.; Akutsu, T.

2009-12-01

Complex systems arise in many different contexts from large communication systems and transportation infrastructures to molecular biology. Most of these systems can be organized into networks composed of nodes and interacting edges. Here, we present a theoretical model that constructs bipartite networks with the particular feature that the degree distribution can be tuned depending on the probability rate of fundamental processes. We then use this model to investigate protein-domain networks. A protein can be composed of up to hundreds of domains. Each domain represents a conserved sequence segment with specific functional tasks. We analyze the distribution of domains in Homo sapiens and Arabidopsis thaliana organisms and the statistical analysis shows that while (a) the number of domain types shared by k proteins exhibits a power-law distribution, (b) the number of proteins composed of k types of domains decays as an exponential distribution. The proposed mathematical model generates bipartite graphs and predicts the emergence of this mixing of (a) power-law and (b) exponential distributions. Our theoretical and computational results show that this model requires (1) growth process and (2) copy mechanism.

9. A mathematical model for generating bipartite graphs and its application to protein networks

Nacher, J C [Department of Complex Systems, Future University-Hakodate (Japan); Ochiai, T [Faculty of Engineering, Toyama Prefectural University (Japan); Hayashida, M; Akutsu, T [Bioinformatics Center, Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University (Japan)

2009-12-04

Complex systems arise in many different contexts from large communication systems and transportation infrastructures to molecular biology. Most of these systems can be organized into networks composed of nodes and interacting edges. Here, we present a theoretical model that constructs bipartite networks with the particular feature that the degree distribution can be tuned depending on the probability rate of fundamental processes. We then use this model to investigate protein-domain networks. A protein can be composed of up to hundreds of domains. Each domain represents a conserved sequence segment with specific functional tasks. We analyze the distribution of domains in Homo sapiens and Arabidopsis thaliana organisms and the statistical analysis shows that while (a) the number of domain types shared by k proteins exhibits a power-law distribution, (b) the number of proteins composed of k types of domains decays as an exponential distribution. The proposed mathematical model generates bipartite graphs and predicts the emergence of this mixing of (a) power-law and (b) exponential distributions. Our theoretical and computational results show that this model requires (1) growth process and (2) copy mechanism.

10. A mathematical model for generating bipartite graphs and its application to protein networks

Nacher, J C; Ochiai, T; Hayashida, M; Akutsu, T

2009-01-01

Complex systems arise in many different contexts from large communication systems and transportation infrastructures to molecular biology. Most of these systems can be organized into networks composed of nodes and interacting edges. Here, we present a theoretical model that constructs bipartite networks with the particular feature that the degree distribution can be tuned depending on the probability rate of fundamental processes. We then use this model to investigate protein-domain networks. A protein can be composed of up to hundreds of domains. Each domain represents a conserved sequence segment with specific functional tasks. We analyze the distribution of domains in Homo sapiens and Arabidopsis thaliana organisms and the statistical analysis shows that while (a) the number of domain types shared by k proteins exhibits a power-law distribution, (b) the number of proteins composed of k types of domains decays as an exponential distribution. The proposed mathematical model generates bipartite graphs and predicts the emergence of this mixing of (a) power-law and (b) exponential distributions. Our theoretical and computational results show that this model requires (1) growth process and (2) copy mechanism.

11. An original approach to the mathematical concept of graph from braid crafts

Albanese Veronica

2016-01-01

Full Text Available In previous researches we found that a community of Argentinean artisans models its own practices of braiding using graphs. Inspired by these findings, we designed an educational activity to introduce the concept of graphs. The study of graphs helps students to develop combinatorial and systematic thinking as well as skills to model reality and abstract and generalize patterns from particular situations. The tasks proposed aim to construct the concept of graphs, then identify characteristics that allow some graphs to be models of braids and finally use them to invent more graphs for new braids. The activity performed in a secondary school teachers’ educational course, had quite satisfactory results due to the number of braids invented and the small amount of mistakes made by the participants.

12. Mathematical Biology Modules Based on Modern Molecular Biology and Modern Discrete Mathematics

Robeva, Raina; Davies, Robin; Hodge, Terrell; Enyedi, Alexander

2010-01-01

We describe an ongoing collaborative curriculum materials development project between Sweet Briar College and Western Michigan University, with support from the National Science Foundation. We present a collection of modules under development that can be used in existing mathematics and biology courses, and we address a critical national need to…

13. Mathematical Modeling of Contact Problems of Elasticity Theory with Unilateral Discrete Contact

I. V. Stankevich

2015-01-01

Full Text Available Development and operation of modern machinery and latest technology require reliable estimates of the strength characteristics of the critical elements of structures and technological equipment under the impact of high-intensity thermomechanical loading, accompanied, as a rule, by complex contact interaction. Mathematical modeling of stress-strain state of such parts and components in the contact area, based on adequate mathematical models, modern numerical methods and efficient algorithms that implement the direct determination of displacement fields, strains and stresses, is the main tool that allows fast acquisition of data required for the calculations of strength and durability. The paper considers an algorithm for constructing the numerical solution of the contact problem of elasticity theory in relation to the body, which has an obvious one-sided discrete contact interaction with an elastic half-space. The proposed algorithm is specially designed to have a correction of the tangential forces at discrete contact points, allowing us to achieve sufficiently accurate implementation of the adopted law of friction. The algorithm is embedded in a general finite element technology, with which the application code is generated. Numerical study of discrete unilateral contact interaction of an elastic plate and a rigid half-space showed a high efficiency of the developed algorithm and the application code that implements it.

14. A mathematical approach for evaluating Markov models in continuous time without discrete-event simulation.

van Rosmalen, Joost; Toy, Mehlika; O'Mahony, James F

2013-08-01

Markov models are a simple and powerful tool for analyzing the health and economic effects of health care interventions. These models are usually evaluated in discrete time using cohort analysis. The use of discrete time assumes that changes in health states occur only at the end of a cycle period. Discrete-time Markov models only approximate the process of disease progression, as clinical events typically occur in continuous time. The approximation can yield biased cost-effectiveness estimates for Markov models with long cycle periods and if no half-cycle correction is made. The purpose of this article is to present an overview of methods for evaluating Markov models in continuous time. These methods use mathematical results from stochastic process theory and control theory. The methods are illustrated using an applied example on the cost-effectiveness of antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis B. The main result is a mathematical solution for the expected time spent in each state in a continuous-time Markov model. It is shown how this solution can account for age-dependent transition rates and discounting of costs and health effects, and how the concept of tunnel states can be used to account for transition rates that depend on the time spent in a state. The applied example shows that the continuous-time model yields more accurate results than the discrete-time model but does not require much computation time and is easily implemented. In conclusion, continuous-time Markov models are a feasible alternative to cohort analysis and can offer several theoretical and practical advantages.

15. Tracing the Construction of Mathematical Activity with an Advanced Graphing Calculator to Understand the Roles of Technology Developers, Teachers and Students

Hillman, Thomas

2014-01-01

This article examines mathematical activity with digital technology by tracing it from its development through its use in classrooms. Drawing on material-semiotic approaches from the field of Science and Technology Studies, it examines the visions of mathematical activity that developers had for an advanced graphing calculator. It then follows the…

16. Derivation and computation of discrete-delay and continuous-delay SDEs in mathematical biology.

Allen, Edward J

2014-06-01

Stochastic versions of several discrete-delay and continuous-delay differential equations, useful in mathematical biology, are derived from basic principles carefully taking into account the demographic, environmental, or physiological randomness in the dynamic processes. In particular, stochastic delay differential equation (SDDE) models are derived and studied for Nicholson's blowflies equation, Hutchinson's equation, an SIS epidemic model with delay, bacteria/phage dynamics, and glucose/insulin levels. Computational methods for approximating the SDDE models are described. Comparisons between computational solutions of the SDDEs and independently formulated Monte Carlo calculations support the accuracy of the derivations and of the computational methods.

17. Modern approaches to discrete curvature

Romon, Pascal

2017-01-01

This book provides a valuable glimpse into discrete curvature, a rich new field of research which blends discrete mathematics, differential geometry, probability and computer graphics. It includes a vast collection of ideas and tools which will offer something new to all interested readers. Discrete geometry has arisen as much as a theoretical development as in response to unforeseen challenges coming from applications. Discrete and continuous geometries have turned out to be intimately connected. Discrete curvature is the key concept connecting them through many bridges in numerous fields: metric spaces, Riemannian and Euclidean geometries, geometric measure theory, topology, partial differential equations, calculus of variations, gradient flows, asymptotic analysis, probability, harmonic analysis, graph theory, etc. In spite of its crucial importance both in theoretical mathematics and in applications, up to now, almost no books have provided a coherent outlook on this emerging field.

18. An application of discrete mathematics in the design of an open pit mine

Caccetta, L.; Giannini, L.M.

1988-09-01

The determination of the 'optimum pit limit' of a mine is considered to be a fundamental problem in mine planning as it provides information which is essential in the evaluation of the economic potential of a mineral deposit, and in the formulation of long-, intermediate-, and short-range mine plans. A number of mathematical techniques have been proposed to solve this problem, some of the more elaborate ones posing considerable computational problems. In this paper we discuss the development and implementation of a graph-theoretic technique originally proposed by Lerchs and Grossman. Our implementation strategy involves the use of a dynamic programming technique to 'bound' the optimum. 19 refs., 4 figs.

19. Basic notions in mathematics: On the "graph" in particular and on ontology in general

Hoede, C.

2003-01-01

This paper contains material presented on 31 January 2002 to staff and students of the Department of Mathematics of the University of Utrecht. The talk was one in a series of lectures titled Basic Notions in Mathematics.

20. Differential-discrete mathematical model of two phase flow heat exchanger

Debeljkovic, D.Lj.; Zitek, Pavel; Simeunovic, G.; Inard, Christian

2007-01-01

A dynamic thermal-hydraulic mathematical model of evaporator dynamics of a once - through sub critical steam generator is derived and presented. This model allows the investigation of evaporator dynamics including its transients responses. The evaporator was considered as a part of three-section (economizer, evaporator and super-heater) model with time varying phase boundaries and is described by a set of linearized discrete - difference equations which, with some other algebraic equations, constitutes a closed system of equations possible for exact computer solution. This model has been derived upon the fundamental equations of mass, energy and momentum balance. For the first time, a discrete differential approach has been applied in order to investigate such complex, two phase processes. Namely, this approach allows one to escape from the model of this process usually described by a set of partial differential equations and enables one, using this method, to simulate evaporators dynamics in an extraordinarily simple way. In current literature this approach is sometimes called physical discretization. (author)

1. Levels of line graph question interpretation with intermediate elementary students of varying scientific and mathematical knowledge and ability: A think aloud study

Keller, Stacy Kathryn

2. Introduction to the discrete Fourier series considering both mathematical and engineering aspects - A linear-algebra approach

Ludwig Kohaupt

2015-12-01

Full Text Available The discrete Fourier series is a valuable tool developed and used by mathematicians and engineers alike. One of the most prominent applications is signal processing. Usually, it is important that the signals be transmitted fast, for example, when transmitting images over large distances such as between the moon and the earth or when generating images in computer tomography. In order to achieve this, appropriate algorithms are necessary. In this context, the fast Fourier transform (FFT plays a key role which is an algorithm for calculating the discrete Fourier transform (DFT; this, in turn, is tightly connected with the discrete Fourier series. The last one itself is the discrete analog of the common (continuous-time Fourier series and is usually learned by mathematics students from a theoretical point of view. The aim of this expository/pedagogical paper is to give an introduction to the discrete Fourier series for both mathematics and engineering students. It is intended to expand the purely mathematical view; the engineering aspect is taken into account by applying the FFT to an example from signal processing that is small enough to be used in class-room teaching and elementary enough to be understood also by mathematics students. The MATLAB program is employed to do the computations.

3. Introductory graph theory

Chartrand, Gary

1984-01-01

Graph theory is used today in the physical sciences, social sciences, computer science, and other areas. Introductory Graph Theory presents a nontechnical introduction to this exciting field in a clear, lively, and informative style. Author Gary Chartrand covers the important elementary topics of graph theory and its applications. In addition, he presents a large variety of proofs designed to strengthen mathematical techniques and offers challenging opportunities to have fun with mathematics. Ten major topics - profusely illustrated - include: Mathematical Models, Elementary Concepts of Grap

4. Introduction to quantum graphs

Berkolaiko, Gregory

2012-01-01

A "quantum graph" is a graph considered as a one-dimensional complex and equipped with a differential operator ("Hamiltonian"). Quantum graphs arise naturally as simplified models in mathematics, physics, chemistry, and engineering when one considers propagation of waves of various nature through a quasi-one-dimensional (e.g., "meso-" or "nano-scale") system that looks like a thin neighborhood of a graph. Works that currently would be classified as discussing quantum graphs have been appearing since at least the 1930s, and since then, quantum graphs techniques have been applied successfully in various areas of mathematical physics, mathematics in general and its applications. One can mention, for instance, dynamical systems theory, control theory, quantum chaos, Anderson localization, microelectronics, photonic crystals, physical chemistry, nano-sciences, superconductivity theory, etc. Quantum graphs present many non-trivial mathematical challenges, which makes them dear to a mathematician's heart. Work on qu...

5. Social Mathematics and Media: Using Pictures, Maps, Charts, and Graphs. Media Corner.

Braun, Joseph A., Jr., Ed.

1993-01-01

Asserts that integrating disciplines is a goal of elementary social studies education. Presents a bibliographic essay describing instructional materials that can be used to integrate mathematics and social studies. Includes recommended photograph packages, computer databases, and data interpretation packages. (CFR)

6. Gromov hyperbolicity in lexicographic product graphs

41

on the group [17]. The concept of hyperbolicity appears also in discrete mathematics, algorithms and networking. For .... graph (of a presentation with solvable word problem) there is an algorithm which allows to decide if it is ...... of Theorem 3.14, i.e., dG1◦{w}(Vp, [π(x)π(z)] ∪ [π(z)π(y)]) = δ(G1) with π the canonical projection.

7. ANALYSIS OF SUBJECT DISCRETE MATHEMATICS PARTS AND PROPOSAL OF E-COURSE MODEL FOLLOWING PETRI NETS FOR INFORMATICS EDUCATION

TURČÁNI, Milan

2013-03-01

Full Text Available Nowadays, quality Mathematical basis - Informatics is an inherent part of study. Mathematical basis is provided by Discrete Mathematics that is taught as a compulsory subject in stated study program in the Department of Mathematics. Authors clarify significance and importance of simple thematic units of subject Discrete Mathematics in teaching technical-system subjects in study programme Applied Informatics. Mentioned subject is being taught in first year of University study and knowledge that students acquire during the study of this course are the "cornerstone" for their further development in technical-system study. Justness and importance of individual topics were analysed based on the evaluation of questionnaires, in which pedagogues teaching professional IT subjects alloted weighted coefficients to individual thematic units. Weighted coefficients were alloted based on the significance of the given topic of the subject Discrete Math, with regard to the IT subject they are teaching. Upon designing the e-course, experience with the creation of linear and branch teaching software were used. For the simulation of the transition of students through individual lessons as well as the whole course, authors employed the method of the teaching process simulation using Petri nets.

8. Parallel algorithms for finding cliques in a graph

Szabo, S

2011-01-01

A clique is a subgraph in a graph that is complete in the sense that each two of its nodes are connected by an edge. Finding cliques in a given graph is an important procedure in discrete mathematical modeling. The paper will show how concepts such as splitting partitions, quasi coloring, node and edge dominance are related to clique search problems. In particular we will discuss the connection with parallel clique search algorithms. These concepts also suggest practical guide lines to inspect a given graph before starting a large scale search.

9. Interaction graphs

Seiller, Thomas

2016-01-01

Interaction graphs were introduced as a general, uniform, construction of dynamic models of linear logic, encompassing all Geometry of Interaction (GoI) constructions introduced so far. This series of work was inspired from Girard's hyperfinite GoI, and develops a quantitative approach that should...... be understood as a dynamic version of weighted relational models. Until now, the interaction graphs framework has been shown to deal with exponentials for the constrained system ELL (Elementary Linear Logic) while keeping its quantitative aspect. Adapting older constructions by Girard, one can clearly define...... "full" exponentials, but at the cost of these quantitative features. We show here that allowing interpretations of proofs to use continuous (yet finite in a measure-theoretic sense) sets of states, as opposed to earlier Interaction Graphs constructions were these sets of states were discrete (and finite...

10. Particle transport in breathing quantum graph

Matrasulov, D.U.; Yusupov, J.R.; Sabirov, K.K.; Sobirov, Z.A.

2012-01-01

Full text: Particle transport in nanoscale networks and discrete structures is of fundamental and practical importance. Usually such systems are modeled by so-called quantum graphs, the systems attracting much attention in physics and mathematics during past two decades [1-5]. During last two decades quantum graphs found numerous applications in modeling different discrete structures and networks in nanoscale and mesoscopic physics (e.g., see reviews [1-3]). Despite considerable progress made in the study of particle dynamics most of the problems deal with unperturbed case and the case of time-dependent perturbation has not yet be explored. In this work we treat particle dynamics for quantum star graph with time-dependent bonds. In particular, we consider harmonically breathing quantum star graphs, the cases of monotonically contracting and expanding graphs. The latter can be solved exactly analytically. Edge boundaries are considered to be time-dependent, while branching point is assumed to be fixed. Quantum dynamics of a particle in such graphs is studied by solving Schrodinger equation with time-dependent boundary conditions given on a star graph. Time-dependence of the average kinetic energy is analyzed. Space-time evolution of the Gaussian wave packet is treated for harmonically breathing star graph. It is found that for certain frequencies energy is a periodic function of time, while for others it can be non-monotonically growing function of time. Such a feature can be caused by possible synchronization of the particles motion and the motions of the moving edges of graph bonds. (authors) References: [1] Tsampikos Kottos and Uzy Smilansky, Ann. Phys., 76, 274 (1999). [2] Sven Gnutzmann and Uzy Smilansky, Adv. Phys. 55, 527 (2006). [3] S. GnutzmannJ.P. Keating, F. Piotet, Ann. Phys., 325, 2595 (2010). [4] P.Exner, P.Seba, P.Stovicek, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 21, 4009 (1988). [5] J. Boman, P. Kurasov, Adv. Appl. Math., 35, 58 (2005)

11. Packing Degenerate Graphs Greedily

Allen, P.; Böttcher, J.; Hladký, J.; Piguet, Diana

2017-01-01

Roč. 61, August (2017), s. 45-51 ISSN 1571-0653 R&D Projects: GA ČR GJ16-07822Y Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : tree packing conjecture * graph packing * graph processes Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics

12. Gems of combinatorial optimization and graph algorithms

Skutella, Martin; Stiller, Sebastian; Wagner, Dorothea

2015-01-01

Are you looking for new lectures for your course on algorithms, combinatorial optimization, or algorithmic game theory?  Maybe you need a convenient source of relevant, current topics for a graduate student or advanced undergraduate student seminar?  Or perhaps you just want an enjoyable look at some beautiful mathematical and algorithmic results, ideas, proofs, concepts, and techniques in discrete mathematics and theoretical computer science?   Gems of Combinatorial Optimization and Graph Algorithms is a handpicked collection of up-to-date articles, carefully prepared by a select group of international experts, who have contributed some of their most mathematically or algorithmically elegant ideas.  Topics include longest tours and Steiner trees in geometric spaces, cartograms, resource buying games, congestion games, selfish routing, revenue equivalence and shortest paths, scheduling, linear structures in graphs, contraction hierarchies, budgeted matching problems, and motifs in networks.   This ...

13. Discrete probability models and methods probability on graphs and trees, Markov chains and random fields, entropy and coding

Brémaud, Pierre

2017-01-01

The emphasis in this book is placed on general models (Markov chains, random fields, random graphs), universal methods (the probabilistic method, the coupling method, the Stein-Chen method, martingale methods, the method of types) and versatile tools (Chernoff's bound, Hoeffding's inequality, Holley's inequality) whose domain of application extends far beyond the present text. Although the examples treated in the book relate to the possible applications, in the communication and computing sciences, in operations research and in physics, this book is in the first instance concerned with theory. The level of the book is that of a beginning graduate course. It is self-contained, the prerequisites consisting merely of basic calculus (series) and basic linear algebra (matrices). The reader is not assumed to be trained in probability since the first chapters give in considerable detail the background necessary to understand the rest of the book. .

14. Mathematical Model Taking into Account Nonlocal Effects of Plasmonic Structures on the Basis of the Discrete Source Method

Eremin, Yu. A.; Sveshnikov, A. G.

2018-04-01

The discrete source method is used to develop and implement a mathematical model for solving the problem of scattering electromagnetic waves by a three-dimensional plasmonic scatterer with nonlocal effects taken into account. Numerical results are presented whereby the features of the scattering properties of plasmonic particles with allowance for nonlocal effects are demonstrated depending on the direction and polarization of the incident wave.

15. A hybrid discrete-continuum mathematical model of pattern prediction in the developing retinal vasculature.

McDougall, S R; Watson, M G; Devlin, A H; Mitchell, C A; Chaplain, M A J

2012-10-01

Pathological angiogenesis has been extensively explored by the mathematical modelling community over the past few decades, specifically in the contexts of tumour-induced vascularisation and wound healing. However, there have been relatively few attempts to model angiogenesis associated with normal development, despite the availability of animal models with experimentally accessible and highly ordered vascular topologies: for example, growth and development of the vascular plexus layers in the murine retina. The current study aims to address this issue through the development of a hybrid discrete-continuum mathematical model of the developing retinal vasculature in neonatal mice that is closely coupled with an ongoing experimental programme. The model of the functional vasculature is informed by a range of morphological and molecular data obtained over a period of several days, from 6 days prior to birth to approximately 8 days after birth. The spatio-temporal formation of the superficial retinal vascular plexus (RVP) in wild-type mice occurs in a well-defined sequence. Prior to birth, astrocytes migrate from the optic nerve over the surface of the inner retina in response to a chemotactic gradient of PDGF-A, formed at an earlier stage by migrating retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Astrocytes express a variety of chemotactic and haptotactic proteins, including VEGF and fibronectin (respectively), which subsequently induce endothelial cell sprouting and modulate growth of the RVP. The developing RVP is not an inert structure; however, the vascular bed adapts and remodels in response to a wide variety of metabolic and biomolecular stimuli. The main focus of this investigation is to understand how these interacting cellular, molecular, and metabolic cues regulate RVP growth and formation. In an earlier one-dimensional continuum model of astrocyte and endothelial migration, we showed that the measured frontal velocities of the two cell types could be accurately reproduced

16. Geometric structure of chemistry-relevant graphs zigzags and central circuits

Deza, Michel-Marie; Shtogrin, Mikhail Ivanovitch

2015-01-01

The central theme of the present book is zigzags and central-circuits of three- or four-regular plane graphs, which allow a double covering or covering of the edgeset to be obtained. The book presents zigzag and central circuit structures of geometric fullerenes and several other classes of graph of interest in the fields of chemistry and mathematics. It also discusses the symmetries, parameterization and the Goldberg–Coxeter construction for those graphs. It is the first book on this subject, presenting full structure theory of such graphs. While many previous publications only addressed particular questions about selected graphs, this book is based on numerous computations and presents extensive data (tables and figures), as well as algorithmic and computational information. It will be of interest to researchers and students of discrete geometry, mathematical chemistry and combinatorics, as well as to lay mathematicians.

17. Graph theory

Diestel, Reinhard

2017-01-01

This standard textbook of modern graph theory, now in its fifth edition, combines the authority of a classic with the engaging freshness of style that is the hallmark of active mathematics. It covers the core material of the subject with concise yet reliably complete proofs, while offering glimpses of more advanced methods in each field by one or two deeper results, again with proofs given in full detail. The book can be used as a reliable text for an introductory course, as a graduate text, and for self-study. From the reviews: “This outstanding book cannot be substituted with any other book on the present textbook market. It has every chance of becoming the standard textbook for graph theory.”Acta Scientiarum Mathematiciarum “Deep, clear, wonderful. This is a serious book about the heart of graph theory. It has depth and integrity. ”Persi Diaconis & Ron Graham, SIAM Review “The book has received a very enthusiastic reception, which it amply deserves. A masterly elucidation of modern graph theo...

18. Quantum superposition of the state discrete spectrum of mathematical correlation molecule for small samples of biometric data

2017-06-01

Full Text Available Introduction: The study promotes to decrease a number of errors of calculating the correlation coefficient in small test samples. Materials and Methods: We used simulation tool for the distribution functions of the density values of the correlation coefficient in small samples. A method for quantization of the data, allows obtaining a discrete spectrum states of one of the varieties of correlation functional. This allows us to consider the proposed structure as a mathematical correlation molecule, described by some analogue continuous-quantum Schrödinger equation. Results: The chi-squared Pearson’s molecule on small samples allows enhancing power of classical chi-squared test to 20 times. A mathematical correlation molecule described in the article has similar properties. It allows in the future reducing calculation errors of the classical correlation coefficients in small samples. Discussion and Conclusions: The authors suggest that there are infinitely many mathematical molecules are similar in their properties to the actual physical molecules. Schrödinger equations are not unique, their analogues can be constructed for each mathematical molecule. You can expect a mathematical synthesis of molecules for a large number of known statistical tests and statistical moments. All this should make it possible to reduce calculation errors due to quantum effects that occur in small test samples.

19. Recognition of fractal graphs

Perepelitsa, VA; Sergienko, [No Value; Kochkarov, AM

1999-01-01

Definitions of prefractal and fractal graphs are introduced, and they are used to formulate mathematical models in different fields of knowledge. The topicality of fractal-graph recognition from the point of view, of fundamental improvement in the efficiency of the solution of algorithmic problems

20. Secondary School Results for the Fourth NAEP Mathematics Assessment: Discrete Mathematics, Data Organization and Interpretation, Measurement, Number and Operations.

Brown, Catherine A.; And Others

1988-01-01

Suggests that secondary school students seem to have reasonably good procedural knowledge in areas of mathematics as rational numbers, probability, measurement, and data organization and interpretation. It appears, however, that students are lacking the conceptual knowledge enabling them to successfully do the assessment items on applications,…

1. Introduction to graph theory

Wilson, Robin J

1985-01-01

Graph Theory has recently emerged as a subject in its own right, as well as being an important mathematical tool in such diverse subjects as operational research, chemistry, sociology and genetics. This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the subject.

2. Applications of a Sequence of Points in Teaching Linear Algebra, Numerical Methods and Discrete Mathematics

Shi, Yixun

2009-01-01

Based on a sequence of points and a particular linear transformation generalized from this sequence, two recent papers (E. Mauch and Y. Shi, "Using a sequence of number pairs as an example in teaching mathematics". Math. Comput. Educ., 39 (2005), pp. 198-205; Y. Shi, "Case study projects for college mathematics courses based on a particular…

Joyner, W David

2017-01-01

This textbook acts as a pathway to higher mathematics by seeking and illuminating the connections between graph theory and diverse fields of mathematics, such as calculus on manifolds, group theory, algebraic curves, Fourier analysis, cryptography and other areas of combinatorics. An overview of graph theory definitions and polynomial invariants for graphs prepares the reader for the subsequent dive into the applications of graph theory. To pique the reader’s interest in areas of possible exploration, recent results in mathematics appear throughout the book, accompanied with examples of related graphs, how they arise, and what their valuable uses are. The consequences of graph theory covered by the authors are complicated and far-reaching, so topics are always exhibited in a user-friendly manner with copious graphs, exercises, and Sage code for the computation of equations. Samples of the book’s source code can be found at github.com/springer-math/adventures-in-graph-theory. The text is geared towards ad...

4. Graph Aggregation

Endriss, U.; Grandi, U.

Graph aggregation is the process of computing a single output graph that constitutes a good compromise between several input graphs, each provided by a different source. One needs to perform graph aggregation in a wide variety of situations, e.g., when applying a voting rule (graphs as preference

5. The Effect of Graphing Calculators on Student Achievement in College Algebra and Pre-Calculus Mathematics Courses

Hatem, Neil

2010-01-01

This study investigates the relationship between the use of graphing calculators employed as Type II technology and student achievement, as determined by assessing students' problem solving skills associated with the concept of function, at the college algebra and pre-calculus level. In addition, this study explores the integration of graphing…

6. Graph theory enables drug repurposing--how a mathematical model can drive the discovery of hidden mechanisms of action.

Ruggero Gramatica

Full Text Available We introduce a methodology to efficiently exploit natural-language expressed biomedical knowledge for repurposing existing drugs towards diseases for which they were not initially intended. Leveraging on developments in Computational Linguistics and Graph Theory, a methodology is defined to build a graph representation of knowledge, which is automatically analysed to discover hidden relations between any drug and any disease: these relations are specific paths among the biomedical entities of the graph, representing possible Modes of Action for any given pharmacological compound. We propose a measure for the likeliness of these paths based on a stochastic process on the graph. This measure depends on the abundance of indirect paths between a peptide and a disease, rather than solely on the strength of the shortest path connecting them. We provide real-world examples, showing how the method successfully retrieves known pathophysiological Mode of Action and finds new ones by meaningfully selecting and aggregating contributions from known bio-molecular interactions. Applications of this methodology are presented, and prove the efficacy of the method for selecting drugs as treatment options for rare diseases.

7. Graph theory enables drug repurposing--how a mathematical model can drive the discovery of hidden mechanisms of action.

Gramatica, Ruggero; Di Matteo, T; Giorgetti, Stefano; Barbiani, Massimo; Bevec, Dorian; Aste, Tomaso

2014-01-01

We introduce a methodology to efficiently exploit natural-language expressed biomedical knowledge for repurposing existing drugs towards diseases for which they were not initially intended. Leveraging on developments in Computational Linguistics and Graph Theory, a methodology is defined to build a graph representation of knowledge, which is automatically analysed to discover hidden relations between any drug and any disease: these relations are specific paths among the biomedical entities of the graph, representing possible Modes of Action for any given pharmacological compound. We propose a measure for the likeliness of these paths based on a stochastic process on the graph. This measure depends on the abundance of indirect paths between a peptide and a disease, rather than solely on the strength of the shortest path connecting them. We provide real-world examples, showing how the method successfully retrieves known pathophysiological Mode of Action and finds new ones by meaningfully selecting and aggregating contributions from known bio-molecular interactions. Applications of this methodology are presented, and prove the efficacy of the method for selecting drugs as treatment options for rare diseases.

8. Generalized connectivity of graphs

Li, Xueliang

2016-01-01

Noteworthy results, proof techniques, open problems and conjectures in generalized (edge-) connectivity are discussed in this book. Both theoretical and practical analyses for generalized (edge-) connectivity of graphs are provided. Topics covered in this book include: generalized (edge-) connectivity of graph classes, algorithms, computational complexity, sharp bounds, Nordhaus-Gaddum-type results, maximum generalized local connectivity, extremal problems, random graphs, multigraphs, relations with the Steiner tree packing problem and generalizations of connectivity. This book enables graduate students to understand and master a segment of graph theory and combinatorial optimization. Researchers in graph theory, combinatorics, combinatorial optimization, probability, computer science, discrete algorithms, complexity analysis, network design, and the information transferring models will find this book useful in their studies.

9. The toughness of split graphs

Woeginger, G.J.

1998-01-01

In this short note we argue that the toughness of split graphs can be computed in polynomial time. This solves an open problem from a recent paper by Kratsch et al. (Discrete Math. 150 (1996) 231–245).

10. A journey through discrete mathematics a tribute to Jiří Matoušek

Nešetřil, Jaroslav; Thomas, Robin

2017-01-01

This collection of high-quality articles in the field of combinatorics, geometry, algebraic topology and theoretical computer science is a tribute to Jiří Matoušek, who passed away prematurely in March 2015. It is a collaborative effort by his colleagues and friends, who have paid particular attention to clarity of exposition – something Jirka would have approved of. The original research articles, surveys and expository articles, written by leading experts in their respective fields, map Jiří Matoušek’s numerous areas of mathematical interest.

11. Conference on "Mathematical Technology of Networks"

2015-01-01

Bringing together leading researchers in the fields of functional analysis, mathematical physics and graph theory, as well as natural scientists using networks as a tool in their own research fields, such as neuroscience and machine learning, this volume presents recent advances in functional, analytical, probabilistic, and spectral aspects in the study of graphs, quantum graphs, and complex networks. The contributors to this volume explore the interplay between theoretical and applied aspects of discrete and continuous graphs. Their work helps to close the gap between different avenues of research on graphs, including metric graphs and ramified structures. All papers were presented at the conference "Mathematical Technology of Networks," held December 4–7, 2013 at the Zentrum für interdisziplinäre Forschung (ZiF) in Bielefeld, Germany, and are supplemented with detailed figures illustrating both abstract concepts as well as their real-world applications. Dynamical models on graphs or random graphs a...

12. Graph sampling

Zhang, L.-C.; Patone, M.

2017-01-01

We synthesise the existing theory of graph sampling. We propose a formal definition of sampling in finite graphs, and provide a classification of potential graph parameters. We develop a general approach of Horvitz–Thompson estimation to T-stage snowball sampling, and present various reformulations of some common network sampling methods in the literature in terms of the outlined graph sampling theory.

13. Modern graph theory

Bollobás, Béla

1998-01-01

The time has now come when graph theory should be part of the education of every serious student of mathematics and computer science, both for its own sake and to enhance the appreciation of mathematics as a whole. This book is an in-depth account of graph theory, written with such a student in mind; it reflects the current state of the subject and emphasizes connections with other branches of pure mathematics. The volume grew out of the author's earlier book, Graph Theory -- An Introductory Course, but its length is well over twice that of its predecessor, allowing it to reveal many exciting new developments in the subject. Recognizing that graph theory is one of several courses competing for the attention of a student, the book contains extensive descriptive passages designed to convey the flavor of the subject and to arouse interest. In addition to a modern treatment of the classical areas of graph theory such as coloring, matching, extremal theory, and algebraic graph theory, the book presents a detailed ...

14. Homology groups for particles on one-connected graphs

2017-06-01

We present a mathematical framework for describing the topology of configuration spaces for particles on one-connected graphs. In particular, we compute the homology groups over integers for different classes of one-connected graphs. Our approach is based on some fundamental combinatorial properties of the configuration spaces, Mayer-Vietoris sequences for different parts of configuration spaces, and some limited use of discrete Morse theory. As one of the results, we derive the closed-form formulae for ranks of the homology groups for indistinguishable particles on tree graphs. We also give a detailed discussion of the second homology group of the configuration space of both distinguishable and indistinguishable particles. Our motivation is the search for new kinds of quantum statistics.

15. A seminar on graph theory

Harary, Frank

2015-01-01

Presented in 1962-63 by experts at University College, London, these lectures offer a variety of perspectives on graph theory. Although the opening chapters form a coherent body of graph theoretic concepts, this volume is not a text on the subject but rather an introduction to the extensive literature of graph theory. The seminar's topics are geared toward advanced undergraduate students of mathematics.Lectures by this volume's editor, Frank Harary, include ""Some Theorems and Concepts of Graph Theory,"" ""Topological Concepts in Graph Theory,"" ""Graphical Reconstruction,"" and other introduc

16. Uncertainty Modeling and Robust Output Feedback Control of Nonlinear Discrete Systems: A Mathematical Programming Approach

Olav Slupphaug

2001-01-01

Full Text Available We present a mathematical programming approach to robust control of nonlinear systems with uncertain, possibly time-varying, parameters. The uncertain system is given by different local affine parameter dependent models in different parts of the state space. It is shown how this representation can be obtained from a nonlinear uncertain system by solving a set of continuous linear semi-infinite programming problems, and how each of these problems can be solved as a (finite series of ordinary linear programs. Additionally, the system representation includes control- and state constraints. The controller design method is derived from Lyapunov stability arguments and utilizes an affine parameter dependent quadratic Lyapunov function. The controller has a piecewise affine output feedback structure, and the design amounts to finding a feasible solution to a set of linear matrix inequalities combined with one spectral radius constraint on the product of two positive definite matrices. A local solution approach to this nonconvex feasibility problem is proposed. Complexity of the design method and some special cases such as state- feedback are discussed. Finally, an application of the results is given by proposing an on-line computationally feasible algorithm for constrained nonlinear state- feedback model predictive control with robust stability.

17. The fascinating world of graph theory

Benjamin, Arthur; Zhang, Ping

2015-01-01

Graph theory goes back several centuries and revolves around the study of graphs-mathematical structures showing relations between objects. With applications in biology, computer science, transportation science, and other areas, graph theory encompasses some of the most beautiful formulas in mathematics-and some of its most famous problems. The Fascinating World of Graph Theory explores the questions and puzzles that have been studied, and often solved, through graph theory. This book looks at graph theory's development and the vibrant individuals responsible for the field's growth. Introducin

18. Isospectral graphs with identical nodal counts

Oren, Idan; Band, Ram

2012-01-01

According to a recent conjecture, isospectral objects have different nodal count sequences (Gnutzmann et al 2005 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 38 8921–33). We study generalized Laplacians on discrete graphs, and use them to construct the first non-trivial counterexamples to this conjecture. In addition, these examples demonstrate a surprising connection between isospectral discrete and quantum graphs. (paper)

19. Quantum walks on quotient graphs

Krovi, Hari; Brun, Todd A.

2007-01-01

A discrete-time quantum walk on a graph Γ is the repeated application of a unitary evolution operator to a Hilbert space corresponding to the graph. If this unitary evolution operator has an associated group of symmetries, then for certain initial states the walk will be confined to a subspace of the original Hilbert space. Symmetries of the original graph, given by its automorphism group, can be inherited by the evolution operator. We show that a quantum walk confined to the subspace corresponding to this symmetry group can be seen as a different quantum walk on a smaller quotient graph. We give an explicit construction of the quotient graph for any subgroup H of the automorphism group and illustrate it with examples. The automorphisms of the quotient graph which are inherited from the original graph are the original automorphism group modulo the subgroup H used to construct it. The quotient graph is constructed by removing the symmetries of the subgroup H from the original graph. We then analyze the behavior of hitting times on quotient graphs. Hitting time is the average time it takes a walk to reach a given final vertex from a given initial vertex. It has been shown in earlier work [Phys. Rev. A 74, 042334 (2006)] that the hitting time for certain initial states of a quantum walks can be infinite, in contrast to classical random walks. We give a condition which determines whether the quotient graph has infinite hitting times given that they exist in the original graph. We apply this condition for the examples discussed and determine which quotient graphs have infinite hitting times. All known examples of quantum walks with hitting times which are short compared to classical random walks correspond to systems with quotient graphs much smaller than the original graph; we conjecture that the existence of a small quotient graph with finite hitting times is necessary for a walk to exhibit a quantum speedup

20. Graph spectrum

Brouwer, A.E.; Haemers, W.H.; Brouwer, A.E.; Haemers, W.H.

2012-01-01

This chapter presents some simple results on graph spectra.We assume the reader is familiar with elementary linear algebra and graph theory. Throughout, J will denote the all-1 matrix, and 1 is the all-1 vector.

1. Simulating triangulations. Graphs, manifolds and (quantum) spacetime

Krueger, Benedikt

2016-01-01

Triangulations, which can intuitively be described as a tessellation of space into simplicial building blocks, are structures that arise in various different branches of physics: They can be used for describing complicated and curved objects in a discretized way, e.g., in foams, gels or porous media, or for discretizing curved boundaries for fluid simulations or dissipative systems. Interpreting triangulations as (maximal planar) graphs makes it possible to use them in graph theory or statistical physics, e.g., as small-world networks, as networks of spins or in biological physics as actin networks. Since one can find an analogue of the Einstein-Hilbert action on triangulations, they can even be used for formulating theories of quantum gravity. Triangulations have also important applications in mathematics, especially in discrete topology. Despite their wide occurrence in different branches of physics and mathematics, there are still some fundamental open questions about triangulations in general. It is a prior unknown how many triangulations there are for a given set of points or a given manifold, or even whether there are exponentially many triangulations or more, a question that relates to a well-defined behavior of certain quantum geometry models. Another major unknown question is whether elementary steps transforming triangulations into each other, which are used in computer simulations, are ergodic. Using triangulations as model for spacetime, it is not clear whether there is a meaningful continuum limit that can be identified with the usual and well-tested theory of general relativity. Within this thesis some of these fundamental questions about triangulations are answered by the use of Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations, which are a probabilistic method for calculating statistical expectation values, or more generally a tool for calculating high-dimensional integrals. Additionally, some details about the Wang-Landau algorithm, which is the primary used

2. Simulating triangulations. Graphs, manifolds and (quantum) spacetime

Krueger, Benedikt

2016-07-01

Triangulations, which can intuitively be described as a tessellation of space into simplicial building blocks, are structures that arise in various different branches of physics: They can be used for describing complicated and curved objects in a discretized way, e.g., in foams, gels or porous media, or for discretizing curved boundaries for fluid simulations or dissipative systems. Interpreting triangulations as (maximal planar) graphs makes it possible to use them in graph theory or statistical physics, e.g., as small-world networks, as networks of spins or in biological physics as actin networks. Since one can find an analogue of the Einstein-Hilbert action on triangulations, they can even be used for formulating theories of quantum gravity. Triangulations have also important applications in mathematics, especially in discrete topology. Despite their wide occurrence in different branches of physics and mathematics, there are still some fundamental open questions about triangulations in general. It is a prior unknown how many triangulations there are for a given set of points or a given manifold, or even whether there are exponentially many triangulations or more, a question that relates to a well-defined behavior of certain quantum geometry models. Another major unknown question is whether elementary steps transforming triangulations into each other, which are used in computer simulations, are ergodic. Using triangulations as model for spacetime, it is not clear whether there is a meaningful continuum limit that can be identified with the usual and well-tested theory of general relativity. Within this thesis some of these fundamental questions about triangulations are answered by the use of Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations, which are a probabilistic method for calculating statistical expectation values, or more generally a tool for calculating high-dimensional integrals. Additionally, some details about the Wang-Landau algorithm, which is the primary used

3. Asymptote Misconception on Graphing Functions: Does Graphing Software Resolve It?

Mehmet Fatih Öçal

2017-01-01

Full Text Available Graphing function is an important issue in mathematics education due to its use in various areas of mathematics and its potential roles for students to enhance learning mathematics. The use of some graphing software assists students’ learning during graphing functions. However, the display of graphs of functions that students sketched by hand may be relatively different when compared to the correct forms sketched using graphing software. The possible misleading effects of this situation brought a discussion of a misconception (asymptote misconception on graphing functions. The purpose of this study is two- fold. First of all, this study investigated whether using graphing software (GeoGebra in this case helps students to determine and resolve this misconception in calculus classrooms. Second, the reasons for this misconception are sought. The multiple case study was utilized in this study. University students in two calculus classrooms who received instructions with (35 students or without GeoGebra assisted instructions (32 students were compared according to whether they fell into this misconception on graphing basic functions (1/x, lnx, ex. In addition, students were interviewed to reveal the reasons behind this misconception. Data were analyzed by means of descriptive and content analysis methods. The findings indicated that those who received GeoGebra assisted instruction were better in resolving it. In addition, the reasons behind this misconception were found to be teacher-based, exam-based and some other factors.

4. A mathematical analysis of the effects of Hebbian learning rules on the dynamics and structure of discrete-time random recurrent neural networks.

Siri, Benoît; Berry, Hugues; Cessac, Bruno; Delord, Bruno; Quoy, Mathias

2008-12-01

We present a mathematical analysis of the effects of Hebbian learning in random recurrent neural networks, with a generic Hebbian learning rule, including passive forgetting and different timescales, for neuronal activity and learning dynamics. Previous numerical work has reported that Hebbian learning drives the system from chaos to a steady state through a sequence of bifurcations. Here, we interpret these results mathematically and show that these effects, involving a complex coupling between neuronal dynamics and synaptic graph structure, can be analyzed using Jacobian matrices, which introduce both a structural and a dynamical point of view on neural network evolution. Furthermore, we show that sensitivity to a learned pattern is maximal when the largest Lyapunov exponent is close to 0. We discuss how neural networks may take advantage of this regime of high functional interest.

5. Edge Cover Domination in Mangoldt Graph

Bheema

Department of Applied Mathematics, Y.V. University, Kadapa, Andhra Pradesh, India. 2. Department of Mathematics, Sri Padmavati Mahila University, Tirupati, ...... arithmetic graphs, Ph.D Thesis, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati, India.

6. Introduction of Hypermatrix and Operator Notation into a Discrete Mathematics Simulation Model of Malignant Tumour Response to Therapeutic Schemes In Vivo. Some Operator Properties

Georgios S. Stamatakos

2009-10-01

Full Text Available The tremendous rate of accumulation of experimental and clinical knowledge pertaining to cancer dictates the development of a theoretical framework for the meaningful integration of such knowledge at all levels of biocomplexity. In this context our research group has developed and partly validated a number of spatiotemporal simulation models of in vivo tumour growth and in particular tumour response to several therapeutic schemes. Most of the modeling modules have been based on discrete mathematics and therefore have been formulated in terms of rather complex algorithms (e.g. in pseudocode and actual computer code. However, such lengthy algorithmic descriptions, although sufficient from the mathematical point of view, may render it difficult for an interested reader to readily identify the sequence of the very basic simulation operations that lie at the heart of the entire model. In order to both alleviate this problem and at the same time provide a bridge to symbolic mathematics, we propose the introduction of the notion of hypermatrix in conjunction with that of a discrete operator into the already developed models. Using a radiotherapy response simulation example we demonstrate how the entire model can be considered as the sequential application of a number of discrete operators to a hypermatrix corresponding to the dynamics of the anatomic area of interest. Subsequently, we investigate the operators’ commutativity and outline the “summarize and jump” strategy aiming at efficiently and realistically address multilevel biological problems such as cancer. In order to clarify the actual effect of the composite discrete operator we present further simulation results which are in agreement with the outcome of the clinical study RTOG 83–02, thus strengthening the reliability of the model developed.

7. Introduction of hypermatrix and operator notation into a discrete mathematics simulation model of malignant tumour response to therapeutic schemes in vivo. Some operator properties.

Stamatakos, Georgios S; Dionysiou, Dimitra D

2009-10-21

The tremendous rate of accumulation of experimental and clinical knowledge pertaining to cancer dictates the development of a theoretical framework for the meaningful integration of such knowledge at all levels of biocomplexity. In this context our research group has developed and partly validated a number of spatiotemporal simulation models of in vivo tumour growth and in particular tumour response to several therapeutic schemes. Most of the modeling modules have been based on discrete mathematics and therefore have been formulated in terms of rather complex algorithms (e.g. in pseudocode and actual computer code). However, such lengthy algorithmic descriptions, although sufficient from the mathematical point of view, may render it difficult for an interested reader to readily identify the sequence of the very basic simulation operations that lie at the heart of the entire model. In order to both alleviate this problem and at the same time provide a bridge to symbolic mathematics, we propose the introduction of the notion of hypermatrix in conjunction with that of a discrete operator into the already developed models. Using a radiotherapy response simulation example we demonstrate how the entire model can be considered as the sequential application of a number of discrete operators to a hypermatrix corresponding to the dynamics of the anatomic area of interest. Subsequently, we investigate the operators' commutativity and outline the "summarize and jump" strategy aiming at efficiently and realistically address multilevel biological problems such as cancer. In order to clarify the actual effect of the composite discrete operator we present further simulation results which are in agreement with the outcome of the clinical study RTOG 83-02, thus strengthening the reliability of the model developed.

8. Handbook of mathematical methods in imaging

2015-01-01

The Handbook of Mathematical Methods in Imaging provides a comprehensive treatment of the mathematical techniques used in imaging science. The material is grouped into two central themes, namely, Inverse Problems (Algorithmic Reconstruction) and Signal and Image Processing. Each section within the themes covers applications (modeling), mathematics, numerical methods (using a case example) and open questions. Written by experts in the area, the presentation is mathematically rigorous. This expanded and revised second edition contains updates to existing chapters and 16 additional entries on important mathematical methods such as graph cuts, morphology, discrete geometry, PDEs, conformal methods, to name a few. The entries are cross-referenced for easy navigation through connected topics. Available in both print and electronic forms, the handbook is enhanced by more than 200 illustrations and an extended bibliography. It will benefit students, scientists and researchers in applied mathematics. Engineers and com...

9. Equipackable graphs

Vestergaard, Preben Dahl; Hartnell, Bert L.

2006-01-01

There are many results dealing with the problem of decomposing a fixed graph into isomorphic subgraphs. There has also been work on characterizing graphs with the property that one can delete the edges of a number of edge disjoint copies of the subgraph and, regardless of how that is done, the gr...

10. Praxis II mathematics content knowledge test (0061)

McCune, Ennis Donice

2007-01-01

Your guide to a higher score on the Praxis II?: Mathematics Content Knowledge Test (0061) Why CliffsTestPrep Guides? Go with the name you know and trust Get the information you need--fast! Written by test-prep specialists About the contents: Introduction * Overview of the exam * How to use this book * Proven study strategies and test-taking tips Part I: Subject Review * Focused review of all exam topics: arithmetic and basic algebra, geometry, trigonometry, analytic geometry, functions and their graphs, calculus, probability and statistics, discrete mathematics, linear algebra, compute

11. Introduction to the Discrete Fourier Series Considering Both Mathematical and Engineering Aspects--A Linear Algebra Approach

Kohaupt, Ludwig

2015-01-01

The discrete Fourier series is a valuable tool developed and used by mathematicians and engineers alike. One of the most prominent applications is signal processing. Usually, it is important that the signals be transmitted fast, for example, when transmitting images over large distances such as between the moon and the earth or when generating…

12. Development and Application of Methods for Estimating Operating Characteristics of Discrete Test Item Responses without Assuming any Mathematical Form.

Samejima, Fumiko

In latent trait theory the latent space, or space of the hypothetical construct, is usually represented by some unidimensional or multi-dimensional continuum of real numbers. Like the latent space, the item response can either be treated as a discrete variable or as a continuous variable. Latent trait theory relates the item response to the latent…

13. Mathematics

Eringen, A Cemal

2013-01-01

Continuum Physics: Volume 1 - Mathematics is a collection of papers that discusses certain selected mathematical methods used in the study of continuum physics. Papers in this collection deal with developments in mathematics in continuum physics and its applications such as, group theory functional analysis, theory of invariants, and stochastic processes. Part I explains tensor analysis, including the geometry of subspaces and the geometry of Finsler. Part II discusses group theory, which also covers lattices, morphisms, and crystallographic groups. Part III reviews the theory of invariants th

14. On characterizing terrain visibility graphs

William Evans

2015-06-01

Full Text Available A terrain is an $x$-monotone polygonal line in the $xy$-plane. Two vertices of a terrain are mutually visible if and only if there is no terrain vertex on or above the open line segment connecting them. A graph whose vertices represent terrain vertices and whose edges represent mutually visible pairs of terrain vertices is called a terrain visibility graph. We would like to find properties that are both necessary and sufficient for a graph to be a terrain visibility graph; that is, we would like to characterize terrain visibility graphs.Abello et al. [Discrete and Computational Geometry, 14(3:331--358, 1995] showed that all terrain visibility graphs are “persistent”. They showed that the visibility information of a terrain point set implies some ordering requirements on the slopes of the lines connecting pairs of points in any realization, and as a step towards showing sufficiency, they proved that for any persistent graph $M$ there is a total order on the slopes of the (pseudo lines in a generalized configuration of points whose visibility graph is $M$.We give a much simpler proof of this result by establishing an orientation to every triple of vertices, reflecting some slope ordering requirements that are consistent with $M$ being the visibility graph, and prove that these requirements form a partial order. We give a faster algorithm to construct a total order on the slopes. Our approach attempts to clarify the implications of the graph theoretic properties on the ordering of the slopes, and may be interpreted as defining properties on an underlying oriented matroid that we show is a restricted type of $3$-signotope.

15. Mathematics

Stein, Sherman K

2010-01-01

Anyone can appreciate the beauty, depth, and vitality of mathematics with the help of this highly readable text, specially developed from a college course designed to appeal to students in a variety of fields. Readers with little mathematical background are exposed to a broad range of subjects chosen from number theory, topology, set theory, geometry, algebra, and analysis. Starting with a survey of questions on weight, the text discusses the primes, the fundamental theorem of arithmetic, rationals and irrationals, tiling, tiling and electricity, probability, infinite sets, and many other topi

16. Using discrete-time mathematical programming to optimise the extraction rate of a durable non-renewable resource with a single primary supplier

Albert Corominas

Full Text Available A non-linear discrete-time mathematical program model is proposed to determining the optimal extraction policy for a single primary supplier of a durable non-renewable resource, such as gemstones or some metals. Karush, Kuhn and Tucker conditions allow obtaining analytic solutions and general properties of them in some specific settings. Moreover, provided that the objective function (i.e., the discounted value of the incomes throughout the planning horizon is concave, the model can be easily solved, even using standard commercial solver. However, the analysis of the solutions obtained for different assumptions of the values of the parameters show that the optimal extraction policies and the corresponding prices do not exhibit a general shape. Keywords: Durable non-renewable resources, Single primary supplier, Non-linear programming

17. Graphs, Ideal Flow, and the Transportation Network

Teknomo, Kardi

2016-01-01

This lecture discusses the mathematical relationship between network structure and network utilization of transportation network. Network structure means the graph itself. Network utilization represent the aggregation of trajectories of agents in using the network graph. I show the similarity and relationship between the structural pattern of the network and network utilization.

18. Mathematics

Demazure, M.

1988-01-01

The 1988 progress report of the Mathematics center (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The Center is composed of different research teams: analysis, Riemann geometry, group theory, formal calculus and algorithm geometry, dynamical systems, topology and singularity. For each team, the members, the research topics, the national and international cooperations, are given. The papers concerning the investigations carried out in 1988, are listed [fr

19. Generating random networks and graphs

Coolen, Ton; Roberts, Ekaterina

2017-01-01

This book supports researchers who need to generate random networks, or who are interested in the theoretical study of random graphs. The coverage includes exponential random graphs (where the targeted probability of each network appearing in the ensemble is specified), growth algorithms (i.e. preferential attachment and the stub-joining configuration model), special constructions (e.g. geometric graphs and Watts Strogatz models) and graphs on structured spaces (e.g. multiplex networks). The presentation aims to be a complete starting point, including details of both theory and implementation, as well as discussions of the main strengths and weaknesses of each approach. It includes extensive references for readers wishing to go further. The material is carefully structured to be accessible to researchers from all disciplines while also containing rigorous mathematical analysis (largely based on the techniques of statistical mechanics) to support those wishing to further develop or implement the theory of rand...

20. Mathematical methods in biology and neurobiology

Jost, Jürgen

2014-01-01

Mathematical models can be used to meet many of the challenges and opportunities offered by modern biology. The description of biological phenomena requires a range of mathematical theories. This is the case particularly for the emerging field of systems biology. Mathematical Methods in Biology and Neurobiology introduces and develops these mathematical structures and methods in a systematic manner. It studies:   • discrete structures and graph theory • stochastic processes • dynamical systems and partial differential equations • optimization and the calculus of variations.   The biological applications range from molecular to evolutionary and ecological levels, for example:   • cellular reaction kinetics and gene regulation • biological pattern formation and chemotaxis • the biophysics and dynamics of neurons • the coding of information in neuronal systems • phylogenetic tree reconstruction • branching processes and population genetics • optimal resource allocation • sexual recombi...

1. The discrete Fourier transform theory, algorithms and applications

Sundaraajan, D

2001-01-01

This authoritative book provides comprehensive coverage of practical Fourier analysis. It develops the concepts right from the basics and gradually guides the reader to the advanced topics. It presents the latest and practically efficient DFT algorithms, as well as the computation of discrete cosine and Walsh-Hadamard transforms. The large number of visual aids such as figures, flow graphs and flow charts makes the mathematical topic easy to understand. In addition, the numerous examples and the set of C-language programs (a supplement to the book) help greatly in understanding the theory and

2. Quantum information processing with graph states

Schlingemann, Dirk-Michael

2005-04-01

Graph states are multiparticle states which are associated with graphs. Each vertex of the graph corresponds to a single system or particle. The links describe quantum correlations (entanglement) between pairs of connected particles. Graph states were initiated independently by two research groups: On the one hand, graph states were introduced by Briegel and Raussendorf as a resource for a new model of one-way quantum computing, where algorithms are implemented by a sequence of measurements at single particles. On the other hand, graph states were developed by the author of this thesis and ReinhardWerner in Braunschweig, as a tool to build quantum error correcting codes, called graph codes. The connection between the two approaches was fully realized in close cooperation of both research groups. This habilitation thesis provides a survey of the theory of graph codes, focussing mainly, but not exclusively on the author's own research work. We present the theoretical and mathematical background for the analysis of graph codes. The concept of one-way quantum computing for general graph states is discussed. We explicitly show how to realize the encoding and decoding device of a graph code on a one-way quantum computer. This kind of implementation is to be seen as a mathematical description of a quantum memory device. In addition to that, we investigate interaction processes, which enable the creation of graph states on very large systems. Particular graph states can be created, for instance, by an Ising type interaction between next neighbor particles which sits at the points of an infinitely extended cubic lattice. Based on the theory of quantum cellular automata, we give a constructive characterization of general interactions which create a translationally invariant graph state. (orig.)

3. Semianalytical analysis of shear walls with the use of discrete-continual finite element method. Part 1: Mathematical foundations

Akimov Pavel

2016-01-01

Full Text Available The distinctive paper is devoted to the two-dimensional semi-analytical solution of boundary problems of analysis of shear walls with the use of discrete-continual finite element method (DCFEM. This approach allows obtaining the exact analytical solution in one direction (so-called “basic” direction, also decrease the size of the problem to one-dimensional common finite element analysis. The resulting multipoint boundary problem for the first-order system of ordinary differential equations with piecewise constant coefficients is solved analytically. The proposed method is rather efficient for evaluation of the boundary effect (such as the stress field near the concentrated force. DCFEM also has a completely computer-oriented algorithm, computational stability, optimal conditionality of resultant system and it is applicable for the various loads at an arbitrary point or a region of the wall.

4. Discrete Calculus by Analogy

2009-01-01

With its origins stretching back several centuries, discrete calculus is now an increasingly central methodology for many problems related to discrete systems and algorithms. The topics covered here usually arise in many branches of science and technology, especially in discrete mathematics, numerical analysis, statistics and probability theory as well as in electrical engineering, but our viewpoint here is that these topics belong to a much more general realm of mathematics; namely calculus and differential equations because of the remarkable analogy of the subject to this branch of mathemati

5. Graph theory

Gould, Ronald

2012-01-01

This introduction to graph theory focuses on well-established topics, covering primary techniques and including both algorithmic and theoretical problems. The algorithms are presented with a minimum of advanced data structures and programming details. This thoroughly corrected 1988 edition provides insights to computer scientists as well as advanced undergraduates and graduate students of topology, algebra, and matrix theory. Fundamental concepts and notation and elementary properties and operations are the first subjects, followed by examinations of paths and searching, trees, and networks. S

6. Graphs & digraphs

Chartrand, Gary; Zhang, Ping

2010-01-01

Gary Chartrand has influenced the world of Graph Theory for almost half a century. He has supervised more than a score of Ph.D. dissertations and written several books on the subject. The most widely known of these texts, Graphs and Digraphs, … has much to recommend it, with clear exposition, and numerous challenging examples [that] make it an ideal textbook for the advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate course. The authors have updated their notation to reflect the current practice in this still-growing area of study. By the authors' estimation, the 5th edition is approximately 50% longer than the 4th edition. … the legendary Frank Harary, author of the second graph theory text ever produced, is one of the figures profiled. His book was the standard in the discipline for several decades. Chartrand, Lesniak and Zhang have produced a worthy successor.-John T. Saccoman, MAA Reviews, June 2012 (This book is in the MAA's basic library list.)As with the earlier editions, the current text emphasizes clear...

7. On the partition dimension of two-component graphs

D O Haryeni

2017-11-17

Nov 17, 2017 ... Partition dimension; disconnected graph; component. 2010 Mathematics Subject Classification. 05C12, 05C15. 1. Introduction. The study of the partition dimension for graphs was initiated by Chartrand et al. [2] aimed at finding a new way to solve the problem in metric dimensions of graphs. Many results.

8. A generalization of zero divisor graphs associated to commutative ...

M. Afkhami

2018-03-19

Mar 19, 2018 ... R . We also determine all isomorphic classes of finite commutative rings whose generalized zero divisor graphs have genus at most three. Keywords. Zero divisor graph; lower triangular matrix; genus; complete graph. 2010 Mathematics Subject Classification. 15B33, 05C10, 05C25, 05C45. 1. Introduction.

9. Mathematics of Web science: structure, dynamics and incentives.

Chayes, Jennifer

2013-03-28

Dr Chayes' talk described how, to a discrete mathematician, 'all the world's a graph, and all the people and domains merely vertices'. A graph is represented as a set of vertices V and a set of edges E, so that, for instance, in the World Wide Web, V is the set of pages and E the directed hyperlinks; in a social network, V is the people and E the set of relationships; and in the autonomous system Internet, V is the set of autonomous systems (such as AOL, Yahoo! and MSN) and E the set of connections. This means that mathematics can be used to study the Web (and other large graphs in the online world) in the following way: first, we can model online networks as large finite graphs; second, we can sample pieces of these graphs; third, we can understand and then control processes on these graphs; and fourth, we can develop algorithms for these graphs and apply them to improve the online experience.

10. Groups, graphs and random walks

Salvatori, Maura; Sava-Huss, Ecaterina

2017-01-01

An accessible and panoramic account of the theory of random walks on groups and graphs, stressing the strong connections of the theory with other branches of mathematics, including geometric and combinatorial group theory, potential analysis, and theoretical computer science. This volume brings together original surveys and research-expository papers from renowned and leading experts, many of whom spoke at the workshop 'Groups, Graphs and Random Walks' celebrating the sixtieth birthday of Wolfgang Woess in Cortona, Italy. Topics include: growth and amenability of groups; Schrödinger operators and symbolic dynamics; ergodic theorems; Thompson's group F; Poisson boundaries; probability theory on buildings and groups of Lie type; structure trees for edge cuts in networks; and mathematical crystallography. In what is currently a fast-growing area of mathematics, this book provides an up-to-date and valuable reference for both researchers and graduate students, from which future research activities will undoubted...

11. Labeled Embedding Of (n, n-2-Graphs In Their Complements

Tahraoui M.-A.

2017-11-01

Full Text Available Graph packing generally deals with unlabeled graphs. In [4], the authors have introduced a new variant of the graph packing problem, called the labeled packing of a graph. This problem has recently been studied on trees [M.A. Tahraoui, E. Duchêne and H. Kheddouci, Labeled 2-packings of trees, Discrete Math. 338 (2015 816-824] and cycles [E. Duchˆene, H. Kheddouci, R.J. Nowakowski and M.A. Tahraoui, Labeled packing of graphs, Australas. J. Combin. 57 (2013 109-126]. In this note, we present a lower bound on the labeled packing number of any (n, n − 2-graph into Kn. This result improves the bound given by Woźniak in [Embedding graphs of small size, Discrete Appl. Math. 51 (1994 233-241].

12. Graphing and Percentage Applications Using the Personal Computer.

Innes, Jay

1985-01-01

The paper describes how "IBM Graphing Assistant" and "Apple Softgraph" can foster a multifaceted approach to application of mathematical concepts and how a survey can be undertaken using the computer as word processor, data bank, and source of visual displays. Mathematical skills reinforced include estimating, rounding, graphing, and solving…

13. A Median-Type Condition for Graph Tiling

Piguet, Diana; Saumell, Maria

2017-01-01

Roč. 61, August (2017), s. 979-985 ISSN 1571-0653 R&D Projects: GA ČR GJ16-07822Y Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) LO1506 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : extremal graph theory * graph tiling * regularity lemma * LP-duality Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics

14. Discrete optimization in architecture extremely modular systems

Zawidzki, Machi

2017-01-01

This book is comprised of two parts, both of which explore modular systems: Pipe-Z (PZ) and Truss-Z (TZ), respectively. It presents several methods of creating PZ and TZ structures subjected to discrete optimization. The algorithms presented employ graph-theoretic and heuristic methods. The underlying idea of both systems is to create free-form structures using the minimal number of types of modular elements. PZ is more conceptual, as it forms single-branch mathematical knots with a single type of module. Conversely, TZ is a skeletal system for creating free-form pedestrian ramps and ramp networks among any number of terminals in space. In physical space, TZ uses two types of modules that are mirror reflections of each other. The optimization criteria discussed include: the minimal number of units, maximal adherence to the given guide paths, etc.

Yan, Junchi; Li, Changsheng; Li, Yin; Cao, Guitao

2018-02-01

This paper addresses the problem of hypergraph matching using higher-order affinity information. We propose a solver that iteratively updates the solution in the discrete domain by linear assignment approximation. The proposed method is guaranteed to converge to a stationary discrete solution and avoids the annealing procedure and ad-hoc post binarization step that are required in several previous methods. Specifically, we start with a simple iterative discrete gradient assignment solver. This solver can be trapped in an -circle sequence under moderate conditions, where is the order of the graph matching problem. We then devise an adaptive relaxation mechanism to jump out this degenerating case and show that the resulting new path will converge to a fixed solution in the discrete domain. The proposed method is tested on both synthetic and real-world benchmarks. The experimental results corroborate the efficacy of our method.

16. Chromatic roots and limits of dense graphs

Csikvári, P.; Frenkel, P. E.; Hladký, Jan; Hubai, T.

2017-01-01

Roč. 340, č. 5 (2017), s. 1129-1135 ISSN 0012-365X EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 628974 - PAECIDM Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : chromatic root * graph limit * holomorphic moment Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.639, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0012365X16303661

17. Chromatic Roots and Limits of Dense Graphs

Csikvári, P.; Frenkel, E.; Hladký, Jan; Hubai, T.

2017-01-01

Roč. 340, č. 5 (2017), s. 1129-1135 ISSN 0012-365X Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : chromatic root * graph limit * holomorphic moment Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.639, year: 2016

18. Equitable Colorings Of Corona Multiproducts Of Graphs

Furmánczyk Hanna

2017-11-01

Full Text Available A graph is equitably k-colorable if its vertices can be partitioned into k independent sets in such a way that the numbers of vertices in any two sets differ by at most one. The smallest k for which such a coloring exists is known as the equitable chromatic number of G and denoted by =(G. It is known that the problem of computation of =(G is NP-hard in general and remains so for corona graphs. In this paper we consider the same model of coloring in the case of corona multiproducts of graphs. In particular, we obtain some results regarding the equitable chromatic number for the l-corona product G ◦l H, where G is an equitably 3- or 4-colorable graph and H is an r-partite graph, a cycle or a complete graph. Our proofs are mostly constructive in that they lead to polynomial algorithms for equitable coloring of such graph products provided that there is given an equitable coloring of G. Moreover, we confirm the Equitable Coloring Conjecture for corona products of such graphs. This paper extends the results from [H. Furmánczyk, K. Kaliraj, M. Kubale and V.J. Vivin, Equitable coloring of corona products of graphs, Adv. Appl. Discrete Math. 11 (2013 103–120].

19. Algorithmic mathematics

Hougardy, Stefan

2016-01-01

Algorithms play an increasingly important role in nearly all fields of mathematics. This book allows readers to develop basic mathematical abilities, in particular those concerning the design and analysis of algorithms as well as their implementation. It presents not only fundamental algorithms like the sieve of Eratosthenes, the Euclidean algorithm, sorting algorithms, algorithms on graphs, and Gaussian elimination, but also discusses elementary data structures, basic graph theory, and numerical questions. In addition, it provides an introduction to programming and demonstrates in detail how to implement algorithms in C++. This textbook is suitable for students who are new to the subject and covers a basic mathematical lecture course, complementing traditional courses on analysis and linear algebra. Both authors have given this "Algorithmic Mathematics" course at the University of Bonn several times in recent years.

20. On The Roman Domination Stable Graphs

Hajian Majid

2017-11-01

Full Text Available A Roman dominating function (or just RDF on a graph G = (V,E is a function f : V → {0, 1, 2} satisfying the condition that every vertex u for which f(u = 0 is adjacent to at least one vertex v for which f(v = 2. The weight of an RDF f is the value f(V (G = Pu2V (G f(u. The Roman domination number of a graph G, denoted by R(G, is the minimum weight of a Roman dominating function on G. A graph G is Roman domination stable if the Roman domination number of G remains unchanged under removal of any vertex. In this paper we present upper bounds for the Roman domination number in the class of Roman domination stable graphs, improving bounds posed in [V. Samodivkin, Roman domination in graphs: the class RUV R, Discrete Math. Algorithms Appl. 8 (2016 1650049].

1. Pristine transfinite graphs and permissive electrical networks

Zemanian, Armen H

2001-01-01

A transfinite graph or electrical network of the first rank is obtained conceptually by connecting conventionally infinite graphs and networks together at their infinite extremities. This process can be repeated to obtain a hierarchy of transfiniteness whose ranks increase through the countable ordinals. This idea, which is of recent origin, has enriched the theories of graphs and networks with radically new constructs and research problems. The book provides a more accessible introduction to the subject that, though sacrificing some generality, captures the essential ideas of transfiniteness for graphs and networks. Thus, for example, some results concerning discrete potentials and random walks on transfinite networks can now be presented more concisely. Conversely, the simplifications enable the development of many new results that were previously unavailable. Topics and features: *A simplified exposition provides an introduction to transfiniteness for graphs and networks.*Various results for conventional g...

2. Disease management research using event graphs.

Allore, H G; Schruben, L W

2000-08-01

Event Graphs, conditional representations of stochastic relationships between discrete events, simulate disease dynamics. In this paper, we demonstrate how Event Graphs, at an appropriate abstraction level, also extend and organize scientific knowledge about diseases. They can identify promising treatment strategies and directions for further research and provide enough detail for testing combinations of new medicines and interventions. Event Graphs can be enriched to incorporate and validate data and test new theories to reflect an expanding dynamic scientific knowledge base and establish performance criteria for the economic viability of new treatments. To illustrate, an Event Graph is developed for mastitis, a costly dairy cattle disease, for which extensive scientific literature exists. With only a modest amount of imagination, the methodology presented here can be seen to apply modeling to any disease, human, plant, or animal. The Event Graph simulation presented here is currently being used in research and in a new veterinary epidemiology course. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

3. A Characterization of 2-Tree Probe Interval Graphs

Brown David E.

2014-08-01

Full Text Available A graph is a probe interval graph if its vertices correspond to some set of intervals of the real line and can be partitioned into sets P and N so that vertices are adjacent if and only if their corresponding intervals intersect and at least one belongs to P. We characterize the 2-trees which are probe interval graphs and extend a list of forbidden induced subgraphs for such graphs created by Pržulj and Corneil in [2-tree probe interval graphs have a large obstruction set, Discrete Appl. Math. 150 (2005 216-231

4. Central limit theorems for large graphs: Method of quantum decomposition

Hashimoto, Yukihiro; Hora, Akihito; Obata, Nobuaki

2003-01-01

A new method is proposed for investigating spectral distribution of the combinatorial Laplacian (adjacency matrix) of a large regular graph on the basis of quantum decomposition and quantum central limit theorem. General results are proved for Cayley graphs of discrete groups and for distance-regular graphs. The Coxeter groups and the Johnson graphs are discussed in detail by way of illustration. In particular, the limit distributions obtained from the Johnson graphs are characterized by the Meixner polynomials which form a one-parameter deformation of the Laguerre polynomials

5. Discrete transforms

Firth, Jean M

1992-01-01

The analysis of signals and systems using transform methods is a very important aspect of the examination of processes and problems in an increasingly wide range of applications. Whereas the initial impetus in the development of methods appropriate for handling discrete sets of data occurred mainly in an electrical engineering context (for example in the design of digital filters), the same techniques are in use in such disciplines as cardiology, optics, speech analysis and management, as well as in other branches of science and engineering. This text is aimed at a readership whose mathematical background includes some acquaintance with complex numbers, linear differen­ tial equations, matrix algebra, and series. Specifically, a familiarity with Fourier series (in trigonometric and exponential forms) is assumed, and an exposure to the concept of a continuous integral transform is desirable. Such a background can be expected, for example, on completion of the first year of a science or engineering degree cour...

6. Chromatic graph theory

Chartrand, Gary; Rosen, Kenneth H

2008-01-01

Beginning with the origin of the four color problem in 1852, the field of graph colorings has developed into one of the most popular areas of graph theory. Introducing graph theory with a coloring theme, Chromatic Graph Theory explores connections between major topics in graph theory and graph colorings as well as emerging topics. This self-contained book first presents various fundamentals of graph theory that lie outside of graph colorings, including basic terminology and results, trees and connectivity, Eulerian and Hamiltonian graphs, matchings and factorizations, and graph embeddings. The remainder of the text deals exclusively with graph colorings. It covers vertex colorings and bounds for the chromatic number, vertex colorings of graphs embedded on surfaces, and a variety of restricted vertex colorings. The authors also describe edge colorings, monochromatic and rainbow edge colorings, complete vertex colorings, several distinguishing vertex and edge colorings, and many distance-related vertex coloring...

7. GENERAL TASKS OF MATHEMATICAL EDUCATION DEVELOPMENT

V. A. Testov

2014-01-01

Full Text Available The paper discusses basic implementation aspects of the Mathematical Education Development Concept, adopted by the Russian Government in 2013. According to the above document, the main problems of mathematical education include: low motivation of secondary and higher school students for studying the discipline, resulted from underestimation of mathematical knowledge; and outdated educational content, overloaded by technical elements. In the author’s opinion, a number of important new mathematical fields, developed over the last years, - the graph theory, discrete mathematics, encoding theory, fractal geometry, etc – have a large methodological and applied educational potential. However, these new subdisciplines have very little representation both in the secondary and higher school mathematical curricula. As a solution for overcoming the gap between the latest scientific achievements and pedagogical practices, the author recommends integration of the above mentioned mathematical disciplines in educational curricula instead of some outdated technical issues. In conclusion, the paper emphasizes the need for qualified mathematical teachers’ training for solving the problems of students’ motivation development and content updates.

8. 建构主义教学法在离散数学教学中的应用初探%Application of Constructivism Teaching Method in Discrete Ma-thematics

刘峰; 唐存琛

2016-01-01

以建构主义教学理论为依据，采用抛锚方式应用于高校离散数学教学实践。通过对三个不同年级的跟踪实验，总结出建构主义教学法在离散数学教学中的优势。%The constructivism is introduced into Discrete Mathema-tics in this paper, which use the anchor teaching method to present the teaching contents. It is concluded that the constructivism theory can perform well in Discrete Mathematics by three experiments on diff erent grades.

9. The Harary index of a graph

2015-01-01

This is the first book to focus on the topological index, the Harary index, of a graph, including its mathematical properties, chemical applications and some related and attractive open problems. This book is dedicated to Professor Frank Harary (1921—2005), the grandmaster of graph theory and its applications. It has be written by experts in the field of graph theory and its applications. For a connected graph G, as an important distance-based topological index, the Harary index H(G) is defined as the sum of the reciprocals of the distance between any two unordered vertices of the graph G. In this book, the authors report on the newest results on the Harary index of a graph. These results mainly concern external graphs with respect to the Harary index; the relations to other topological indices; its properties and applications to pure graph theory and chemical graph theory; and two significant variants, i.e., additively and multiplicatively weighted Harary indices. In the last chapter, we present a number o...

10. Mechatronic modeling and simulation using bond graphs

Das, Shuvra

2009-01-01

Introduction to Mechatronics and System ModelingWhat Is Mechatronics?What Is a System and Why Model Systems?Mathematical Modeling Techniques Used in PracticeSoftwareBond Graphs: What Are They?Engineering SystemsPortsGeneralized VariablesBond GraphsBasic Components in SystemsA Brief Note about Bond Graph Power DirectionsSummary of Bond Direction RulesDrawing Bond Graphs for Simple Systems: Electrical and MechanicalSimplification Rules for Junction StructureDrawing Bond Graphs for Electrical SystemsDrawing Bond Graphs for Mechanical SystemsCausalityDrawing Bond Graphs for Hydraulic and Electronic Components and SystemsSome Basic Properties and Concepts for FluidsBond Graph Model of Hydraulic SystemsElectronic SystemsDeriving System Equations from Bond GraphsSystem VariablesDeriving System EquationsTackling Differential CausalityAlgebraic LoopsSolution of Model Equations and Their InterpretationZeroth Order SystemsFirst Order SystemsSecond Order SystemTransfer Functions and Frequency ResponsesNumerical Solution ...

11. Discrete control systems

Okuyama, Yoshifumi

2014-01-01

Discrete Control Systems establishes a basis for the analysis and design of discretized/quantized control systemsfor continuous physical systems. Beginning with the necessary mathematical foundations and system-model descriptions, the text moves on to derive a robust stability condition. To keep a practical perspective on the uncertain physical systems considered, most of the methods treated are carried out in the frequency domain. As part of the design procedure, modified Nyquist–Hall and Nichols diagrams are presented and discretized proportional–integral–derivative control schemes are reconsidered. Schemes for model-reference feedback and discrete-type observers are proposed. Although single-loop feedback systems form the core of the text, some consideration is given to multiple loops and nonlinearities. The robust control performance and stability of interval systems (with multiple uncertainties) are outlined. Finally, the monograph describes the relationship between feedback-control and discrete ev...

12. A first course in graph theory and combinatorics

Cioabă, Sebastian M

2009-01-01

The concept of a graph is fundamental in mathematics since it conveniently encodes diverse relations and facilitates combinatorial analysis of many complicated counting problems. In this book, the authors have traced the origins of graph theory from its humble beginnings of recreational mathematics to its modern setting for modeling communication networks as is evidenced by the World Wide Web graph used by many Internet search engines. This book is an introduction to graph theory and combinatorial analysis. It is based on courses given by the second author at Queen's University at Kingston, Ontario, Canada between 2002 and 2008. The courses were aimed at students in their final year of their undergraduate program.

13. Graph visualization (Invited talk)

Wijk, van J.J.; Kreveld, van M.J.; Speckmann, B.

2012-01-01

Black and white node link diagrams are the classic method to depict graphs, but these often fall short to give insight in large graphs or when attributes of nodes and edges play an important role. Graph visualization aims obtaining insight in such graphs using interactive graphical representations.

14. Connections between the Sznajd model with general confidence rules and graph theory

Timpanaro, André M.; Prado, Carmen P. C.

2012-10-01

The Sznajd model is a sociophysics model that is used to model opinion propagation and consensus formation in societies. Its main feature is that its rules favor bigger groups of agreeing people. In a previous work, we generalized the bounded confidence rule in order to model biases and prejudices in discrete opinion models. In that work, we applied this modification to the Sznajd model and presented some preliminary results. The present work extends what we did in that paper. We present results linking many of the properties of the mean-field fixed points, with only a few qualitative aspects of the confidence rule (the biases and prejudices modeled), finding an interesting connection with graph theory problems. More precisely, we link the existence of fixed points with the notion of strongly connected graphs and the stability of fixed points with the problem of finding the maximal independent sets of a graph. We state these results and present comparisons between the mean field and simulations in Barabási-Albert networks, followed by the main mathematical ideas and appendices with the rigorous proofs of our claims and some graph theory concepts, together with examples. We also show that there is no qualitative difference in the mean-field results if we require that a group of size q>2, instead of a pair, of agreeing agents be formed before they attempt to convince other sites (for the mean field, this would coincide with the q-voter model).

15. Infinite Random Graphs as Statistical Mechanical Models

Durhuus, Bergfinnur Jøgvan; Napolitano, George Maria

2011-01-01

We discuss two examples of infinite random graphs obtained as limits of finite statistical mechanical systems: a model of two-dimensional dis-cretized quantum gravity defined in terms of causal triangulated surfaces, and the Ising model on generic random trees. For the former model we describe a ...

16. Graphs of groups on surfaces interactions and models

White, AT

2001-01-01

The book, suitable as both an introductory reference and as a text book in the rapidly growing field of topological graph theory, models both maps (as in map-coloring problems) and groups by means of graph imbeddings on sufaces. Automorphism groups of both graphs and maps are studied. In addition connections are made to other areas of mathematics, such as hypergraphs, block designs, finite geometries, and finite fields. There are chapters on the emerging subfields of enumerative topological graph theory and random topological graph theory, as well as a chapter on the composition of English

17. Pragmatic Graph Rewriting Modifications

Rodgers, Peter; Vidal, Natalia

1999-01-01

We present new pragmatic constructs for easing programming in visual graph rewriting programming languages. The first is a modification to the rewriting process for nodes the host graph, where nodes specified as 'Once Only' in the LHS of a rewrite match at most once with a corresponding node in the host graph. This reduces the previously common use of tags to indicate the progress of matching in the graph. The second modification controls the application of LHS graphs, where those specified a...

18. Mathematical games, abstract games

Neto, Joao Pedro

2013-01-01

User-friendly, visually appealing collection offers both new and classic strategic board games. Includes abstract games for two and three players and mathematical games such as Nim and games on graphs.

19. Test bank for precalculus functions & graphs

Kolman, Bernard; Levitan, Michael L

1984-01-01

Test Bank for Precalculus: Functions & Graphs is a supplementary material for the text, Precalculus: Functions & Graphs. The book is intended for use by mathematics teachers.The book contains standard tests for each chapter in the textbook. Each set of test focuses on gauging the level of knowledge the student has achieved during the course. The answers for each chapter test and the final exam are found at the end of the book.Mathematics teachers teaching calculus will find the book extremely useful.

20. Graph theory favorite conjectures and open problems 1

Hedetniemi, Stephen; Larson, Craig

2016-01-01

This is the first in a series of volumes, which provide an extensive overview of conjectures and open problems in graph theory. The readership of each volume is geared toward graduate students who may be searching for research ideas. However, the well-established mathematician will find the overall exposition engaging and enlightening. Each chapter, presented in a story-telling style, includes more than a simple collection of results on a particular topic. Each contribution conveys the history, evolution, and techniques used to solve the authors’ favorite conjectures and open problems, enhancing the reader’s overall comprehension and enthusiasm. The editors were inspired to create these volumes by the popular and well attended special sessions, entitled “My Favorite Graph Theory Conjectures," which were held at the winter AMS/MAA Joint Meeting in Boston (January, 2012), the SIAM Conference on Discrete Mathematics in Halifax (June,2012) and the winter AMS/MAA Joint meeting in Baltimore(January, 2014). In...

1. Graphs and matrices

Bapat, Ravindra B

2014-01-01

This new edition illustrates the power of linear algebra in the study of graphs. The emphasis on matrix techniques is greater than in other texts on algebraic graph theory. Important matrices associated with graphs (for example, incidence, adjacency and Laplacian matrices) are treated in detail. Presenting a useful overview of selected topics in algebraic graph theory, early chapters of the text focus on regular graphs, algebraic connectivity, the distance matrix of a tree, and its generalized version for arbitrary graphs, known as the resistance matrix. Coverage of later topics include Laplacian eigenvalues of threshold graphs, the positive definite completion problem and matrix games based on a graph. Such an extensive coverage of the subject area provides a welcome prompt for further exploration. The inclusion of exercises enables practical learning throughout the book. In the new edition, a new chapter is added on the line graph of a tree, while some results in Chapter 6 on Perron-Frobenius theory are reo...

2. Adaptive Graph Convolutional Neural Networks

Li, Ruoyu; Wang, Sheng; Zhu, Feiyun; Huang, Junzhou

2018-01-01

Graph Convolutional Neural Networks (Graph CNNs) are generalizations of classical CNNs to handle graph data such as molecular data, point could and social networks. Current filters in graph CNNs are built for fixed and shared graph structure. However, for most real data, the graph structures varies in both size and connectivity. The paper proposes a generalized and flexible graph CNN taking data of arbitrary graph structure as input. In that way a task-driven adaptive graph is learned for eac...

3. On middle cube graphs

C. Dalfo

2015-10-01

Full Text Available We study a family of graphs related to the $n$-cube. The middle cube graph of parameter k is the subgraph of $Q_{2k-1}$ induced by the set of vertices whose binary representation has either $k-1$ or $k$ number of ones. The middle cube graphs can be obtained from the well-known odd graphs by doubling their vertex set. Here we study some of the properties of the middle cube graphs in the light of the theory of distance-regular graphs. In particular, we completely determine their spectra (eigenvalues and their multiplicities, and associated eigenvectors.

4. Interacting particle systems on graphs

Sood, Vishal

In this dissertation, the dynamics of socially or biologically interacting populations are investigated. The individual members of the population are treated as particles that interact via links on a social or biological network represented as a graph. The effect of the structure of the graph on the properties of the interacting particle system is studied using statistical physics techniques. In the first chapter, the central concepts of graph theory and social and biological networks are presented. Next, interacting particle systems that are drawn from physics, mathematics and biology are discussed in the second chapter. In the third chapter, the random walk on a graph is studied. The mean time for a random walk to traverse between two arbitrary sites of a random graph is evaluated. Using an effective medium approximation it is found that the mean first-passage time between pairs of sites, as well as all moments of this first-passage time, are insensitive to the density of links in the graph. The inverse of the mean-first passage time varies non-monotonically with the density of links near the percolation transition of the random graph. Much of the behavior can be understood by simple heuristic arguments. Evolutionary dynamics, by which mutants overspread an otherwise uniform population on heterogeneous graphs, are studied in the fourth chapter. Such a process underlies' epidemic propagation, emergence of fads, social cooperation or invasion of an ecological niche by a new species. The first part of this chapter is devoted to neutral dynamics, in which the mutant genotype does not have a selective advantage over the resident genotype. The time to extinction of one of the two genotypes is derived. In the second part of this chapter, selective advantage or fitness is introduced such that the mutant genotype has a higher birth rate or a lower death rate. This selective advantage leads to a dynamical competition in which selection dominates for large populations

5. Discrete frequency identification using the HP 5451B Fourier analyser

Holland, L.; Barry, P.

1977-01-01

The frequency analysis by the HP5451B discrete frequency Fourier analyser is studied. The advantages of cross correlation analysis to identify discrete frequencies in a background noise are discussed in conjuction with the elimination of aliasing and wraparound error. Discrete frequency identification is illustrated by a series of graphs giving the results of analysing 'electrical' and 'acoustical' white noise and sinusoidal signals [pt

6. Cliques in dense inhomogenous random graphs

Doležal, Martin; Hladký, Jan; Máthé, A.

2017-01-01

Roč. 51, č. 2 (2017), s. 275-314 ISSN 1042-9832 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-07378S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 628974 - PAECIDM Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : inhomogeneous random graphs * clique number Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 1.243, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ rsa .20715/abstract

7. Cliques in dense inhomogenous random graphs

Doležal, Martin; Hladký, Jan; Máthé, A.

2017-01-01

Roč. 51, č. 2 (2017), s. 275-314 ISSN 1042-9832 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-07378S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 628974 - PAECIDM Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : inhomogeneous random graphs * clique number Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 1.243, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/rsa.20715/abstract

8. Price competition on graphs

Soetevent, A.R.

2010-01-01

This paper extends Hotelling's model of price competition with quadratic transportation costs from a line to graphs. I propose an algorithm to calculate firm-level demand for any given graph, conditional on prices and firm locations. One feature of graph models of price competition is that spatial

9. Graphing Inequalities, Connecting Meaning

Switzer, J. Matt

2014-01-01

Students often have difficulty with graphing inequalities (see Filloy, Rojano, and Rubio 2002; Drijvers 2002), and J. Matt Switzer's students were no exception. Although students can produce graphs for simple inequalities, they often struggle when the format of the inequality is unfamiliar. Even when producing a correct graph of an…

10. Similarity Measure of Graphs

Amine Labriji

2017-07-01

Full Text Available The topic of identifying the similarity of graphs was considered as highly recommended research field in the Web semantic, artificial intelligence, the shape recognition and information research. One of the fundamental problems of graph databases is finding similar graphs to a graph query. Existing approaches dealing with this problem are usually based on the nodes and arcs of the two graphs, regardless of parental semantic links. For instance, a common connection is not identified as being part of the similarity of two graphs in cases like two graphs without common concepts, the measure of similarity based on the union of two graphs, or the one based on the notion of maximum common sub-graph (SCM, or the distance of edition of graphs. This leads to an inadequate situation in the context of information research. To overcome this problem, we suggest a new measure of similarity between graphs, based on the similarity measure of Wu and Palmer. We have shown that this new measure satisfies the properties of a measure of similarities and we applied this new measure on examples. The results show that our measure provides a run time with a gain of time compared to existing approaches. In addition, we compared the relevance of the similarity values obtained, it appears that this new graphs measure is advantageous and  offers a contribution to solving the problem mentioned above.

11. Distance-regular graphs

van Dam, Edwin R.; Koolen, Jack H.; Tanaka, Hajime

2016-01-01

This is a survey of distance-regular graphs. We present an introduction to distance-regular graphs for the reader who is unfamiliar with the subject, and then give an overview of some developments in the area of distance-regular graphs since the monograph 'BCN'[Brouwer, A.E., Cohen, A.M., Neumaier,

12. Fuzzy Graph Language Recognizability

Kalampakas , Antonios; Spartalis , Stefanos; Iliadis , Lazaros

2012-01-01

Part 5: Fuzzy Logic; International audience; Fuzzy graph language recognizability is introduced along the lines of the established theory of syntactic graph language recognizability by virtue of the algebraic structure of magmoids. The main closure properties of the corresponding class are investigated and several interesting examples of fuzzy graph languages are examined.

13. Spectra of Graphs

Brouwer, A.E.; Haemers, W.H.

2012-01-01

This book gives an elementary treatment of the basic material about graph spectra, both for ordinary, and Laplace and Seidel spectra. The text progresses systematically, by covering standard topics before presenting some new material on trees, strongly regular graphs, two-graphs, association

14. Mathematical biodescriptors of proteomics maps: background and applications.

Basak, Subhash C; Gute, Brian D

2008-05-01

This article reviews recent developments in the formulation and application of biodescriptors to characterize proteomics maps. Such biodescriptors can be derived by applying techniques from discrete mathematics (graph theory, linear algebra and information theory). This review focuses on the development of biodescriptors for proteomics maps derived from 2D gel electrophoresis. Preliminary results demonstrated that such descriptors have a reasonable ability to differentiate between proteomics patterns that result from exposure to closely related individual chemicals and complex mixtures, such as the jet fuel JP-8. Further research is required to evaluate the utility of these proteomics-based biodescriptors for drug discovery and predictive toxicology.

15. Distributed graph coloring fundamentals and recent developments

Barenboim, Leonid

2013-01-01

The focus of this monograph is on symmetry breaking problems in the message-passing model of distributed computing. In this model a communication network is represented by a n-vertex graph G = (V,E), whose vertices host autonomous processors. The processors communicate over the edges of G in discrete rounds. The goal is to devise algorithms that use as few rounds as possible.A typical symmetry-breaking problem is the problem of graph coloring. Denote by ? the maximum degree of G. While coloring G with ? + 1 colors is trivial in the centralized setting, the problem becomes much more challenging

16. Outer-2-independent domination in graphs

Outer-2-independent domination in graphs. MARCIN KRZYWKOWSKI1,2,∗, DOOST ALI MOJDEH3 and MARYEM RAOOFI4. 1Department of Pure and Applied Mathematics, University of Johannesburg,. Johannesburg, South Africa. 2Faculty of Electronics, Telecommunications and Informatics, Gdansk University.

17. Comparison of university students’ understanding of graphs in different contexts

Maja Planinic

2013-07-01

Full Text Available This study investigates university students’ understanding of graphs in three different domains: mathematics, physics (kinematics, and contexts other than physics. Eight sets of parallel mathematics, physics, and other context questions about graphs were developed. A test consisting of these eight sets of questions (24 questions in all was administered to 385 first year students at University of Zagreb who were either prospective physics or mathematics teachers or prospective physicists or mathematicians. Rasch analysis of data was conducted and linear measures for item difficulties were obtained. Average difficulties of items in three domains (mathematics, physics, and other contexts and over two concepts (graph slope, area under the graph were computed and compared. Analysis suggests that the variation of average difficulty among the three domains is much smaller for the concept of graph slope than for the concept of area under the graph. Most of the slope items are very close in difficulty, suggesting that students who have developed sufficient understanding of graph slope in mathematics are generally able to transfer it almost equally successfully to other contexts. A large difference was found between the difficulty of the concept of area under the graph in physics and other contexts on one side and mathematics on the other side. Comparison of average difficulty of the three domains suggests that mathematics without context is the easiest domain for students. Adding either physics or other context to mathematical items generally seems to increase item difficulty. No significant difference was found between the average item difficulty in physics and contexts other than physics, suggesting that physics (kinematics remains a difficult context for most students despite the received instruction on kinematics in high school.

18. How Do Higher-Education Students Use Their Initial Understanding to Deal with Contextual Logic-Based Problems in Discrete Mathematics?

Lubis, Asrin; Nasution, Andrea Arifsyah

2017-01-01

Mathematical reasoning in logical context has now received much attention in the mathematics curriculum documents of many countries, including Indonesia. In Indonesia, students start formally learning about logic when they pursue to senior-high school. Before, they previously have many experiences to deal with logic, but the earlier assignments do…

19. On the diameter of dot-critical graphs

Doost Ali Mojdeh

2009-01-01

Full Text Available A graph G is \\(k\\-dot-critical (totaly \\(k\\-dot-critical if \\(G\\ is dot-critical (totaly dot-critical and the domination number is \\(k\\. In the paper [T. Burtona, D. P. Sumner, Domination dot-critical graphs, Discrete Math, 306 (2006, 11-18] the following question is posed: What are the best bounds for the diameter of a \\(k\\-dot-critical graph and a totally \\(k\\-dot-critical graph \\(G\\ with no critical vertices for \\(k \\geq 4\\? We find the best bound for the diameter of a \\(k\\-dot-critical graph, where \\(k \\in\\{4,5,6\\}\\ and we give a family of \\(k\\-dot-critical graphs (with no critical vertices with sharp diameter \\(2k-3\\ for even \\(k \\geq 4\\.

20. Principles of discrete time mechanics

Jaroszkiewicz, George

2014-01-01

Could time be discrete on some unimaginably small scale? Exploring the idea in depth, this unique introduction to discrete time mechanics systematically builds the theory up from scratch, beginning with the historical, physical and mathematical background to the chronon hypothesis. Covering classical and quantum discrete time mechanics, this book presents all the tools needed to formulate and develop applications of discrete time mechanics in a number of areas, including spreadsheet mechanics, classical and quantum register mechanics, and classical and quantum mechanics and field theories. A consistent emphasis on contextuality and the observer-system relationship is maintained throughout.

1. Graphs and Homomorphisms

Hell, Pavol

2004-01-01

This is a book about graph homomorphisms. Graph theory is now an established discipline but the study of graph homomorphisms has only recently begun to gain wide acceptance and interest. The subject gives a useful perspective in areas such as graph reconstruction, products, fractional and circular colourings, and has applications in complexity theory, artificial intelligence, telecommunication, and, most recently, statistical physics.Based on the authors' lecture notes for graduate courses, this book can be used as a textbook for a second course in graph theory at 4th year or master's level an

2. Multiple graph regularized nonnegative matrix factorization

Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

2013-10-01

Non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) has been widely used as a data representation method based on components. To overcome the disadvantage of NMF in failing to consider the manifold structure of a data set, graph regularized NMF (GrNMF) has been proposed by Cai et al. by constructing an affinity graph and searching for a matrix factorization that respects graph structure. Selecting a graph model and its corresponding parameters is critical for this strategy. This process is usually carried out by cross-validation or discrete grid search, which are time consuming and prone to overfitting. In this paper, we propose a GrNMF, called MultiGrNMF, in which the intrinsic manifold is approximated by a linear combination of several graphs with different models and parameters inspired by ensemble manifold regularization. Factorization metrics and linear combination coefficients of graphs are determined simultaneously within a unified object function. They are alternately optimized in an iterative algorithm, thus resulting in a novel data representation algorithm. Extensive experiments on a protein subcellular localization task and an Alzheimer\\'s disease diagnosis task demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

3. Process Modeling for Energy Usage in “Smart House” System with a Help of Markov Discrete Chain

Victor Kravets

2016-05-01

Full Text Available Method for evaluating economic efficiency of technical systems using discrete Markov chains modelling illustrated by the system of “Smart house”, consisting, for example, of the three independently functioning elements. Dynamic model of a random power consumption process in the form of a symmetrical state graph of heterogeneous discrete Markov chain is built. The corresponding mathematical model of a random Markov process of power consumption in the “smart house” system in recurrent matrix form is being developed. Technique of statistical determination of probability of random transition elements of the system and the corresponding to the transition probability matrix of the discrete inhomogeneous Markov chain are developed. Statistically determined random transitions of system elements power consumption and the corresponding distribution laws are introduced. The matrix of transition prices, expectations for the possible states of a system price transition and, eventually, the cost of Markov process of power consumption throughout the day.

4. Transient, two-dimensional, discrete-element, far-field model for thermal impact analysis of power plant discharges in coastal and offshore regions. Part I. General description of the mathematical model and the results of an application

Eraslan, A.H.

1975-02-01

A far-field mathematical model is presented for numerical simulation of short-time (within tidal cycle) transient, two-dimensional temperature distributions in large coastal and offshore regions resulting from the condenser cooling water discharges of power plants. The Eulerian FLIDE (fluid-in-discrete-element) formulation employs the integral forms of the conservation principles for mass and thermal energy in variable-sized discrete elements that span the specific flow region. The contributions of vertical variations of the velocity components and temperature are rigorously incorporated in the development of depth-averaged, two-dimensional energy transport fluxes by spatially integrating the conservation equations over the enclosure surfaces of the discrete elements. The general mathematical formulation considers completely arbitrary, transient oceanic flow conditions, which include periodic tidal, geostrophic, and wind-induced currents, as locally specified inputs to the model. The thermal impact of a hypothetical, multiunit generating station in a coastal region is analyzed where the oceanic flow conditions are assumed to be strictly periodic tidal currents within any appreciable net drift of sufficient duration to remove the heated effluent. The numerical simulation indicates that the periodic flow conditions cause considerable variations in the temperature distributions during the day and the tidal cycles, which result in severe recirculation and re-entrainment of the heated water between the intakes and the discharges of the different units. This leads to a gradual, long-term increase of the temperatures in the immediate vicinity of the discharge structures and also in the far-field zone. (U.S.)

5. Graphing trillions of triangles.

Burkhardt, Paul

2017-07-01

The increasing size of Big Data is often heralded but how data are transformed and represented is also profoundly important to knowledge discovery, and this is exemplified in Big Graph analytics. Much attention has been placed on the scale of the input graph but the product of a graph algorithm can be many times larger than the input. This is true for many graph problems, such as listing all triangles in a graph. Enabling scalable graph exploration for Big Graphs requires new approaches to algorithms, architectures, and visual analytics. A brief tutorial is given to aid the argument for thoughtful representation of data in the context of graph analysis. Then a new algebraic method to reduce the arithmetic operations in counting and listing triangles in graphs is introduced. Additionally, a scalable triangle listing algorithm in the MapReduce model will be presented followed by a description of the experiments with that algorithm that led to the current largest and fastest triangle listing benchmarks to date. Finally, a method for identifying triangles in new visual graph exploration technologies is proposed.

6. Advances in discrete differential geometry

2016-01-01

This is one of the first books on a newly emerging field of discrete differential geometry and an excellent way to access this exciting area. It surveys the fascinating connections between discrete models in differential geometry and complex analysis, integrable systems and applications in computer graphics. The authors take a closer look at discrete models in differential geometry and dynamical systems. Their curves are polygonal, surfaces are made from triangles and quadrilaterals, and time is discrete. Nevertheless, the difference between the corresponding smooth curves, surfaces and classical dynamical systems with continuous time can hardly be seen. This is the paradigm of structure-preserving discretizations. Current advances in this field are stimulated to a large extent by its relevance for computer graphics and mathematical physics. This book is written by specialists working together on a common research project. It is about differential geometry and dynamical systems, smooth and discrete theories, ...

7. Discrete and computational geometry

2011-01-01

Discrete geometry is a relatively new development in pure mathematics, while computational geometry is an emerging area in applications-driven computer science. Their intermingling has yielded exciting advances in recent years, yet what has been lacking until now is an undergraduate textbook that bridges the gap between the two. Discrete and Computational Geometry offers a comprehensive yet accessible introduction to this cutting-edge frontier of mathematics and computer science. This book covers traditional topics such as convex hulls, triangulations, and Voronoi diagrams, as well as more recent subjects like pseudotriangulations, curve reconstruction, and locked chains. It also touches on more advanced material, including Dehn invariants, associahedra, quasigeodesics, Morse theory, and the recent resolution of the Poincaré conjecture. Connections to real-world applications are made throughout, and algorithms are presented independently of any programming language. This richly illustrated textbook also fe...

8. Discrete pseudo-integrals

Mesiar, Radko; Li, J.; Pap, E.

2013-01-01

Roč. 54, č. 3 (2013), s. 357-364 ISSN 0888-613X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP402/11/0378 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : concave integral * pseudo-addition * pseudo-multiplication Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.977, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/E/mesiar-discrete pseudo-integrals.pdf

9. On domination multisubdivision number of unicyclic graphs

Joanna Raczek

2018-01-01

Full Text Available The paper continues the interesting study of the domination subdivision number and the domination multisubdivision number. On the basis of the constructive characterization of the trees with the domination subdivision number equal to 3 given in [H. Aram, S.M. Sheikholeslami, O. Favaron, Domination subdivision number of trees, Discrete Math. 309 (2009, 622-628], we constructively characterize all connected unicyclic graphs with the domination multisubdivision number equal to 3. We end with further questions and open problems.

10. Computing the Gromov hyperbolicity constant of a discrete metric space

Ismail, Anas

2012-01-01

, and many other areas of research. The Gromov hyperbolicity constant of several families of graphs and geometric spaces has been determined. However, so far, the only known algorithm for calculating the Gromov hyperbolicity constant δ of a discrete metric

Yilun Shang

Full Text Available Large-scale time-evolving networks have been generated by many natural and technological applications, posing challenges for computation and modeling. Thus, it is of theoretical and practical significance to probe mathematical tools tailored for evolving networks. In this paper, on top of the dynamic Estrada index, we study the dynamic Laplacian Estrada index and the dynamic normalized Laplacian Estrada index of evolving graphs. Using linear algebra techniques, we established general upper and lower bounds for these graph-spectrum-based invariants through a couple of intuitive graph-theoretic measures, including the number of vertices or edges. Synthetic random evolving small-world networks are employed to show the relevance of the proposed dynamic Estrada indices. It is found that neither the static snapshot graphs nor the aggregated graph can approximate the evolving graph itself, indicating the fundamental difference between the static and dynamic Estrada indices.

Shang, Yilun

2015-01-01

Large-scale time-evolving networks have been generated by many natural and technological applications, posing challenges for computation and modeling. Thus, it is of theoretical and practical significance to probe mathematical tools tailored for evolving networks. In this paper, on top of the dynamic Estrada index, we study the dynamic Laplacian Estrada index and the dynamic normalized Laplacian Estrada index of evolving graphs. Using linear algebra techniques, we established general upper and lower bounds for these graph-spectrum-based invariants through a couple of intuitive graph-theoretic measures, including the number of vertices or edges. Synthetic random evolving small-world networks are employed to show the relevance of the proposed dynamic Estrada indices. It is found that neither the static snapshot graphs nor the aggregated graph can approximate the evolving graph itself, indicating the fundamental difference between the static and dynamic Estrada indices.

13. An introduction to grids, graphs, and networks

Pozrikidis, C

2014-01-01

An Introduction to Grids, Graphs, and Networks aims to provide a concise introduction to graphs and networks at a level that is accessible to scientists, engineers, and students. In a practical approach, the book presents only the necessary theoretical concepts from mathematics and considers a variety of physical and conceptual configurations as prototypes or examples. The subject is timely, as the performance of networks is recognized as an important topic in the study of complex systems with applications in energy, material, and information grid transport (epitomized by the internet). The bo

14. Precalculus Teachers' Perspectives on Using Graphing Calculators: An Example from One Curriculum

2018-01-01

Graphing calculators are hand-held technological tools currently used in mathematics classrooms. Teachers' perspectives on using graphing calculators are important in terms of exploring what teachers think about using such technology in advanced mathematics courses, particularly precalculus courses. A descriptive intrinsic case study was conducted…

15. Digital Discretion

Busch, Peter Andre; Zinner Henriksen, Helle

2018-01-01

discretion is suggested to reduce this footprint by influencing or replacing their discretionary practices using ICT. What is less researched is whether digital discretion can cause changes in public policy outcomes, and under what conditions such changes can occur. Using the concept of public service values......This study reviews 44 peer-reviewed articles on digital discretion published in the period from 1998 to January 2017. Street-level bureaucrats have traditionally had a wide ability to exercise discretion stirring debate since they can add their personal footprint on public policies. Digital......, we suggest that digital discretion can strengthen ethical and democratic values but weaken professional and relational values. Furthermore, we conclude that contextual factors such as considerations made by policy makers on the macro-level and the degree of professionalization of street...

16. Price Competition on Graphs

2010-01-01

This paper extends Hotelling's model of price competition with quadratic transportation costs from a line to graphs. I propose an algorithm to calculate firm-level demand for any given graph, conditional on prices and firm locations. One feature of graph models of price competition is that spatial discontinuities in firm-level demand may occur. I show that the existence result of D'Aspremont et al. (1979) does not extend to simple star graphs. I conjecture that this non-existence result holds...

17. Price Competition on Graphs

2014-01-01

This paper extends Hotelling's model of price competition with quadratic transportation costs from a line to graphs. We derive an algorithm to calculate firm-level demand for any given graph, conditional on prices and firm locations. These graph models of price competition may lead to spatial discontinuities in firm-level demand. We show that the existence result of D'Aspremont et al. (1979) does not extend to simple star graphs and conjecture that this non-existence result holds more general...

18. Pattern graph rewrite systems

Aleks Kissinger

2014-03-01

Full Text Available String diagrams are a powerful tool for reasoning about physical processes, logic circuits, tensor networks, and many other compositional structures. Dixon, Duncan and Kissinger introduced string graphs, which are a combinatoric representations of string diagrams, amenable to automated reasoning about diagrammatic theories via graph rewrite systems. In this extended abstract, we show how the power of such rewrite systems can be greatly extended by introducing pattern graphs, which provide a means of expressing infinite families of rewrite rules where certain marked subgraphs, called !-boxes ("bang boxes", on both sides of a rule can be copied any number of times or removed. After reviewing the string graph formalism, we show how string graphs can be extended to pattern graphs and how pattern graphs and pattern rewrite rules can be instantiated to concrete string graphs and rewrite rules. We then provide examples demonstrating the expressive power of pattern graphs and how they can be applied to study interacting algebraic structures that are central to categorical quantum mechanics.

19. Functions and graphs

Gelfand, I M; Shnol, E E

1969-01-01

The second in a series of systematic studies by a celebrated mathematician I. M. Gelfand and colleagues, this volume presents students with a well-illustrated sequence of problems and exercises designed to illuminate the properties of functions and graphs. Since readers do not have the benefit of a blackboard on which a teacher constructs a graph, the authors abandoned the customary use of diagrams in which only the final form of the graph appears; instead, the book's margins feature step-by-step diagrams for the complete construction of each graph. The first part of the book employs simple fu

20. Creating more effective graphs

Robbins, Naomi B

2012-01-01

A succinct and highly readable guide to creating effective graphs The right graph can be a powerful tool for communicating information, improving a presentation, or conveying your point in print. If your professional endeavors call for you to present data graphically, here's a book that can help you do it more effectively. Creating More Effective Graphs gives you the basic knowledge and techniques required to choose and create appropriate graphs for a broad range of applications. Using real-world examples everyone can relate to, the author draws on her years of experience in gr

1. Graph Generator Survey

Lothian, Joshua [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Powers, Sarah S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sullivan, Blair D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Baker, Matthew B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Schrock, Jonathan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Poole, Stephen W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

2013-10-01

The benchmarking effort within the Extreme Scale Systems Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory seeks to provide High Performance Computing benchmarks and test suites of interest to the DoD sponsor. The work described in this report is a part of the effort focusing on graph generation. A previously developed benchmark, SystemBurn, allowed the emulation of different application behavior profiles within a single framework. To complement this effort, similar capabilities are desired for graph-centric problems. This report examines existing synthetic graph generator implementations in preparation for further study on the properties of their generated synthetic graphs.

2. Loose Graph Simulations

Mansutti, Alessio; Miculan, Marino; Peressotti, Marco

2017-01-01

We introduce loose graph simulations (LGS), a new notion about labelled graphs which subsumes in an intuitive and natural way subgraph isomorphism (SGI), regular language pattern matching (RLPM) and graph simulation (GS). Being a unification of all these notions, LGS allows us to express directly...... also problems which are “mixed” instances of previous ones, and hence which would not fit easily in any of them. After the definition and some examples, we show that the problem of finding loose graph simulations is NP-complete, we provide formal translation of SGI, RLPM, and GS into LGSs, and we give...

3. Graph Compression by BFS

Alberto Apostolico

2009-08-01

Full Text Available The Web Graph is a large-scale graph that does not fit in main memory, so that lossless compression methods have been proposed for it. This paper introduces a compression scheme that combines efficient storage with fast retrieval for the information in a node. The scheme exploits the properties of the Web Graph without assuming an ordering of the URLs, so that it may be applied to more general graphs. Tests on some datasets of use achieve space savings of about 10% over existing methods.

4. On the number of subgraphs of the Barabasi-Albert random graph

Ryabchenko, Aleksandr A; Samosvat, Egor A [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Dolgoprudnyi, Moscow Region, Russian Frderation (Russian Federation)

2012-06-30

We study a model of a random graph of the type of the Barabasi-Albert preferential attachment model. We develop a technique that makes it possible to estimate the mathematical expectation for a fairly wide class of random variables in the model under consideration. We use this technique to prove a theorem on the asymptotics of the mathematical expectation of the number of subgraphs isomorphic to a certain fixed graph in the random graphs of this model.

5. On the number of subgraphs of the Barabási-Albert random graph

Ryabchenko, Aleksandr A; Samosvat, Egor A

2012-01-01

We study a model of a random graph of the type of the Barabási-Albert preferential attachment model. We develop a technique that makes it possible to estimate the mathematical expectation for a fairly wide class of random variables in the model under consideration. We use this technique to prove a theorem on the asymptotics of the mathematical expectation of the number of subgraphs isomorphic to a certain fixed graph in the random graphs of this model.

6. Algorithmic Principles of Mathematical Programming

Faigle, Ulrich; Kern, Walter; Still, Georg

2002-01-01

Algorithmic Principles of Mathematical Programming investigates the mathematical structures and principles underlying the design of efficient algorithms for optimization problems. Recent advances in algorithmic theory have shown that the traditionally separate areas of discrete optimization, linear

7. RNA graph partitioning for the discovery of RNA modularity: a novel application of graph partition algorithm to biology.

Namhee Kim

Full Text Available Graph representations have been widely used to analyze and design various economic, social, military, political, and biological networks. In systems biology, networks of cells and organs are useful for understanding disease and medical treatments and, in structural biology, structures of molecules can be described, including RNA structures. In our RNA-As-Graphs (RAG framework, we represent RNA structures as tree graphs by translating unpaired regions into vertices and helices into edges. Here we explore the modularity of RNA structures by applying graph partitioning known in graph theory to divide an RNA graph into subgraphs. To our knowledge, this is the first application of graph partitioning to biology, and the results suggest a systematic approach for modular design in general. The graph partitioning algorithms utilize mathematical properties of the Laplacian eigenvector (µ2 corresponding to the second eigenvalues (λ2 associated with the topology matrix defining the graph: λ2 describes the overall topology, and the sum of µ2's components is zero. The three types of algorithms, termed median, sign, and gap cuts, divide a graph by determining nodes of cut by median, zero, and largest gap of µ2's components, respectively. We apply these algorithms to 45 graphs corresponding to all solved RNA structures up through 11 vertices (∼ 220 nucleotides. While we observe that the median cut divides a graph into two similar-sized subgraphs, the sign and gap cuts partition a graph into two topologically-distinct subgraphs. We find that the gap cut produces the best biologically-relevant partitioning for RNA because it divides RNAs at less stable connections while maintaining junctions intact. The iterative gap cuts suggest basic modules and assembly protocols to design large RNA structures. Our graph substructuring thus suggests a systematic approach to explore the modularity of biological networks. In our applications to RNA structures, subgraphs

8. Graph Theory. 1. Fragmentation of Structural Graphs

Lorentz JÄNTSCHI

2002-12-01

Full Text Available The investigation of structural graphs has many fields of applications in engineering, especially in applied sciences like as applied chemistry and physics, computer sciences and automation, electronics and telecommunication. The main subject of the paper is to express fragmentation criteria in graph using a new method of investigation: terminal paths. Using terminal paths are defined most of the fragmentation criteria that are in use in molecular topology, but the fields of applications are more generally than that, as I mentioned before. Graphical examples of fragmentation are given for every fragmentation criteria. Note that all fragmentation is made with a computer program that implements a routine for every criterion.[1] A web routine for tracing all terminal paths in graph can be found at the address: http://vl.academicdirect.ro/molecular_topology/tpaths/ [1] M. V. Diudea, I. Gutman, L. Jäntschi, Molecular Topology, Nova Science, Commack, New York, 2001, 2002.

9. Generating Realistic Labelled, Weighted Random Graphs

Michael Charles Davis

2015-12-01

Full Text Available Generative algorithms for random graphs have yielded insights into the structure and evolution of real-world networks. Most networks exhibit a well-known set of properties, such as heavy-tailed degree distributions, clustering and community formation. Usually, random graph models consider only structural information, but many real-world networks also have labelled vertices and weighted edges. In this paper, we present a generative model for random graphs with discrete vertex labels and numeric edge weights. The weights are represented as a set of Beta Mixture Models (BMMs with an arbitrary number of mixtures, which are learned from real-world networks. We propose a Bayesian Variational Inference (VI approach, which yields an accurate estimation while keeping computation times tractable. We compare our approach to state-of-the-art random labelled graph generators and an earlier approach based on Gaussian Mixture Models (GMMs. Our results allow us to draw conclusions about the contribution of vertex labels and edge weights to graph structure.

10. Do Developmental Mathematics Programs Have a Causal Impact on Student Retention? An Application of Discrete-Time Survival and Regression-Discontinuity Analysis

Lesik, Sally A.

2007-01-01

The impact of academic programs--such as developmental mathematics programs--on student retention, has been a controversial topic for administrators, policy makers, and faculty in higher education. Despite deep interest in the effectiveness of these programs in retaining students, scholars have been unable to determine whether such programs have a…

11. Two-colorable graph states with maximal Schmidt measure

Severini, Simone

2006-01-01

The Schmidt measure was introduced by Eisert and Briegel for quantifying the degree of entanglement of multipartite quantum systems [J. Eisert, H.-J. Briegel, Phys. Rev. A 64 (2001) 22306]. For two-colorable graph states, the Schmidt measure is related to the spectrum of the associated graph. We observe that almost all two-colorable graph states have maximal Schmidt measure and we construct specific examples. By making appeal to a result of Ehrenfeucht et al. [A. Ehrenfeucht, T. Harju, G. Rozenberg, Discrete Math. 278 (2004) 45], we point out that the graph operations called local complementation and switching form a transitive group acting on the set of all graph states of a given dimension

12. C7-Decompositions of the Tensor Product of Complete Graphs

Manikandan R.S.

2017-08-01

Full Text Available In this paper we consider a decomposition of Km × Kn, where × denotes the tensor product of graphs, into cycles of length seven. We prove that for m, n ≥ 3, cycles of length seven decompose the graph Km × Kn if and only if (1 either m or n is odd and (2 14 | m(m − 1n(n − 1. The results of this paper together with the results of [Cp-Decompositions of some regular graphs, Discrete Math. 306 (2006 429–451] and [C5-Decompositions of the tensor product of complete graphs, Australasian J. Combinatorics 37 (2007 285–293], give necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a p-cycle decomposition, where p ≥ 5 is a prime number, of the graph Km × Kn.

13. A graph rewriting programming language for graph drawing

Rodgers, Peter

1998-01-01

This paper describes Grrr, a prototype visual graph drawing tool. Previously there were no visual languages for programming graph drawing algorithms despite the inherently visual nature of the process. The languages which gave a diagrammatic view of graphs were not computationally complete and so could not be used to implement complex graph drawing algorithms. Hence current graph drawing tools are all text based. Recent developments in graph rewriting systems have produced computationally com...

14. Graph Transforming Java Data

de Mol, M.J.; Rensink, Arend; Hunt, James J.

This paper introduces an approach for adding graph transformation-based functionality to existing JAVA programs. The approach relies on a set of annotations to identify the intended graph structure, as well as on user methods to manipulate that structure, within the user’s own JAVA class

15. Distance-transitive graphs

Cohen, A.M.; Beineke, L.W.; Wilson, R.J.; Cameron, P.J.

2004-01-01

In this chapter we investigate the classification of distance-transitive graphs: these are graphs whose automorphism groups are transitive on each of the sets of pairs of vertices at distance i, for i = 0, 1,.... We provide an introduction into the field. By use of the classification of finite

16. Graph Colouring Algorithms

Husfeldt, Thore

2015-01-01

This chapter presents an introduction to graph colouring algorithms. The focus is on vertex-colouring algorithms that work for general classes of graphs with worst-case performance guarantees in a sequential model of computation. The presentation aims to demonstrate the breadth of available...

17. Ordering non-bipartite unicyclic graphs with pendant vertices by the least Q-eigenvalue

Shu-Guang Guo

2016-05-01

Full Text Available Abstract A unicyclic graph is a connected graph whose number of edges is equal to the number of vertices. Fan et al. (Discrete Math. 313:903-909, 2013 and Liu et al. (Electron. J. Linear Algebra 26:333-344, 2013 determined, independently, the unique unicyclic graph whose least Q-eigenvalue attains the minimum among all non-bipartite unicyclic graphs of order n with k pendant vertices. In this paper, we extend their results and determine the first three non-bipartite unicyclic graphs of order n with k pendant vertices ordering by least Q-eigenvalue.

18. Mathematical modelling

2016-01-01

This book provides a thorough introduction to the challenge of applying mathematics in real-world scenarios. Modelling tasks rarely involve well-defined categories, and they often require multidisciplinary input from mathematics, physics, computer sciences, or engineering. In keeping with this spirit of modelling, the book includes a wealth of cross-references between the chapters and frequently points to the real-world context. The book combines classical approaches to modelling with novel areas such as soft computing methods, inverse problems, and model uncertainty. Attention is also paid to the interaction between models, data and the use of mathematical software. The reader will find a broad selection of theoretical tools for practicing industrial mathematics, including the analysis of continuum models, probabilistic and discrete phenomena, and asymptotic and sensitivity analysis.

19. A Mathematics Software Database Update.

Cunningham, R. S.; Smith, David A.

1987-01-01

Contains an update of an earlier listing of software for mathematics instruction at the college level. Topics are: advanced mathematics, algebra, calculus, differential equations, discrete mathematics, equation solving, general mathematics, geometry, linear and matrix algebra, logic, statistics and probability, and trigonometry. (PK)

20. The origin of discrete particles

Bastin, T

2009-01-01

This book is a unique summary of the results of a long research project undertaken by the authors on discreteness in modern physics. In contrast with the usual expectation that discreteness is the result of mathematical tools for insertion into a continuous theory, this more basic treatment builds up the world from the discrimination of discrete entities. This gives an algebraic structure in which certain fixed numbers arise. As such, one agrees with the measured value of the fine-structure constant to one part in 10,000,000 (10 7 ). Sample Chapter(s). Foreword (56 KB). Chapter 1: Introduction

1. Autoregressive Moving Average Graph Filtering

Isufi, Elvin; Loukas, Andreas; Simonetto, Andrea; Leus, Geert

2016-01-01

One of the cornerstones of the field of signal processing on graphs are graph filters, direct analogues of classical filters, but intended for signals defined on graphs. This work brings forth new insights on the distributed graph filtering problem. We design a family of autoregressive moving average (ARMA) recursions, which (i) are able to approximate any desired graph frequency response, and (ii) give exact solutions for tasks such as graph signal denoising and interpolation. The design phi...

2. The Transition to Formal Thinking in Mathematics

Tall, David

2008-01-01

This paper focuses on the changes in thinking involved in the transition from school mathematics to formal proof in pure mathematics at university. School mathematics is seen as a combination of visual representations, including geometry and graphs, together with symbolic calculations and manipulations. Pure mathematics in university shifts…

3. Subgraph detection using graph signals

Chepuri, Sundeep Prabhakar

2017-03-06

In this paper we develop statistical detection theory for graph signals. In particular, given two graphs, namely, a background graph that represents an usual activity and an alternative graph that represents some unusual activity, we are interested in answering the following question: To which of the two graphs does the observed graph signal fit the best? To begin with, we assume both the graphs are known, and derive an optimal Neyman-Pearson detector. Next, we derive a suboptimal detector for the case when the alternative graph is not known. The developed theory is illustrated with numerical experiments.

4. Subgraph detection using graph signals

Chepuri, Sundeep Prabhakar; Leus, Geert

2017-01-01

In this paper we develop statistical detection theory for graph signals. In particular, given two graphs, namely, a background graph that represents an usual activity and an alternative graph that represents some unusual activity, we are interested in answering the following question: To which of the two graphs does the observed graph signal fit the best? To begin with, we assume both the graphs are known, and derive an optimal Neyman-Pearson detector. Next, we derive a suboptimal detector for the case when the alternative graph is not known. The developed theory is illustrated with numerical experiments.

5. The Use of Spatial Cognition in Graph Interpretation

2007-08-01

Mathematics has emphasized the importance of proactively teaching students of all ages to interpret graphs and use them to make inferences ( NCTM ... Mathematics . Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics . Oh, S., & Kim, M. (2004). The role of spatial working memory in visual...in learning science (Schunn et al, in press). Not coincidentally, in developing its recent national standards, the National Council of Teachers of

6. Extremal graph theory

Bollobas, Bela

2004-01-01

The ever-expanding field of extremal graph theory encompasses a diverse array of problem-solving methods, including applications to economics, computer science, and optimization theory. This volume, based on a series of lectures delivered to graduate students at the University of Cambridge, presents a concise yet comprehensive treatment of extremal graph theory.Unlike most graph theory treatises, this text features complete proofs for almost all of its results. Further insights into theory are provided by the numerous exercises of varying degrees of difficulty that accompany each chapter. A

7. Using graph approach for managing connectivity in integrative landscape modelling

Rabotin, Michael; Fabre, Jean-Christophe; Libres, Aline; Lagacherie, Philippe; Crevoisier, David; Moussa, Roger

2013-04-01

FLUID-landr library has been developed in order i) to be used with no GIS expert skills needed (common gis formats can be read and simplified spatial management is provided), ii) to easily develop adapted rules of landscape discretization and graph creation to follow spatialized model requirements and iii) to allow model developers to manage dynamic and complex spatial topology. Graph management in OpenFLUID are shown with i) examples of hydrological modelizations on complex farmed landscapes and ii) the new implementation of Geo-MHYDAS tool based on the OpenFLUID-landr library, which allows to discretize a landscape and create graph structure for the MHYDAS model requirements.

8. Handbook on modelling for discrete optimization

Pitsoulis, Leonidas; Williams, H

2006-01-01

The primary objective underlying the Handbook on Modelling for Discrete Optimization is to demonstrate and detail the pervasive nature of Discrete Optimization. While its applications cut across an incredibly wide range of activities, many of the applications are only known to specialists. It is the aim of this handbook to correct this. It has long been recognized that "modelling" is a critically important mathematical activity in designing algorithms for solving these discrete optimization problems. Nevertheless solving the resultant models is also often far from straightforward. In recent years it has become possible to solve many large-scale discrete optimization problems. However, some problems remain a challenge, even though advances in mathematical methods, hardware, and software technology have pushed the frontiers forward. This handbook couples the difficult, critical-thinking aspects of mathematical modeling with the hot area of discrete optimization. It will be done in an academic handbook treatment...

9. The boundary value problem for discrete analytic functions

Skopenkov, Mikhail

2013-01-01

This paper is on further development of discrete complex analysis introduced by R.Isaacs, J.Ferrand, R.Duffin, and C.Mercat. We consider a graph lying in the complex plane and having quadrilateral faces. A function on the vertices is called discrete

10. No hexavalent half-arc-transitive graphs of order twice a prime ...

Mi-Mi Zhang

2018-03-19

Mar 19, 2018 ... Wang and Feng (Discrete. Math. 310 (2010) 1721–1724) proved that there exists no tetravalent half-arc-transitive graphs of order 2p2. In this paper, we extend this result to prove that no hexavalent half-arc-transitive graphs of order 2p2 exist. Keywords. Half-arc-transitive; bi-Cayley graph; vertex transitive; ...

11. Surviving Rates of Graphs with Bounded Treewidth for the Firefighter Problem

Cai, Leizhen; Cheng, Yongxi; Verbin, Elad

2010-01-01

The firefighter problem is the following discrete-time game on a graph. Initially, a fire starts at a vertex of the graph. In each round, a firefighter protects one vertex not yet on fire, and then the fire spreads to all unprotected neighbors of the vertices on fire. The objective of the firefig...... of Cai and Wang [SIAM J. Discrete Math., 23 (2009), pp. 1814-1826] in affirmative....

12. Resolvent expansion for the Schrödinger operator on a graph with infinite rays

Ito, Kenichi; Jensen, Arne

2018-01-01

We consider the Schrödinger operator on a combinatorial graph consisting of a finite graph and a finite number of discrete half-lines, all jointed together, and compute an asymptotic expansion of its resolvent around the threshold 0. Precise expressions are obtained for the first few coefficients...

13. Contracts for Cross-organizational Workflows as Timed Dynamic Condition Response Graphs

Hildebrandt, Thomas; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao; Slaats, Tijs

2013-01-01

We conservatively extend the declarative Dynamic Condition Response (DCR) Graph process model, introduced in the PhD thesis of the second author, to allow for discrete time deadlines. We prove that safety and liveness properties can be verified by mapping finite timed DCR Graphs to finite state...

14. A librarian's guide to graphs, data and the semantic web

Powell, James

2015-01-01

Graphs are about connections, and are an important part of our connected and data-driven world. A Librarian's Guide to Graphs, Data and the Semantic Web is geared toward library and information science professionals, including librarians, software developers and information systems architects who want to understand the fundamentals of graph theory, how it is used to represent and explore data, and how it relates to the semantic web. This title provides a firm grounding in the field at a level suitable for a broad audience, with an emphasis on open source solutions and what problems these tools solve at a conceptual level, with minimal emphasis on algorithms or mathematics. The text will also be of special interest to data science librarians and data professionals, since it introduces many graph theory concepts by exploring data-driven networks from various scientific disciplines. The first two chapters consider graphs in theory and the science of networks, before the following chapters cover networks in vario...

15. Using graph theory for automated electric circuit solving

Toscano, L; Stella, S; Milotti, E

2015-01-01

Graph theory plays many important roles in modern physics and in many different contexts, spanning diverse topics such as the description of scale-free networks and the structure of the universe as a complex directed graph in causal set theory. Graph theory is also ideally suited to describe many concepts in computer science. Therefore it is increasingly important for physics students to master the basic concepts of graph theory. Here we describe a student project where we develop a computational approach to electric circuit solving which is based on graph theoretic concepts. This highly multidisciplinary approach combines abstract mathematics, linear algebra, the physics of circuits, and computer programming to reach the ambitious goal of implementing automated circuit solving. (paper)

16. The Spectrum of Mathematical Models.

Karplus, Walter J.

1983-01-01

Mathematical modeling problems encountered in many disciplines are discussed in terms of the modeling process and applications of models. The models are classified according to three types of abstraction: continuous-space-continuous-time, discrete-space-continuous-time, and discrete-space-discrete-time. Limitations in different kinds of modeling…

17. Downhill Domination in Graphs

Haynes Teresa W.

2014-08-01

Full Text Available A path π = (v1, v2, . . . , vk+1 in a graph G = (V,E is a downhill path if for every i, 1 ≤ i ≤ k, deg(vi ≥ deg(vi+1, where deg(vi denotes the degree of vertex vi ∈ V. The downhill domination number equals the minimum cardinality of a set S ⊆ V having the property that every vertex v ∈ V lies on a downhill path originating from some vertex in S. We investigate downhill domination numbers of graphs and give upper bounds. In particular, we show that the downhill domination number of a graph is at most half its order, and that the downhill domination number of a tree is at most one third its order. We characterize the graphs obtaining each of these bounds

18. Tailored Random Graph Ensembles

Roberts, E S; Annibale, A; Coolen, A C C

2013-01-01

Tailored graph ensembles are a developing bridge between biological networks and statistical mechanics. The aim is to use this concept to generate a suite of rigorous tools that can be used to quantify and compare the topology of cellular signalling networks, such as protein-protein interaction networks and gene regulation networks. We calculate exact and explicit formulae for the leading orders in the system size of the Shannon entropies of random graph ensembles constrained with degree distribution and degree-degree correlation. We also construct an ergodic detailed balance Markov chain with non-trivial acceptance probabilities which converges to a strictly uniform measure and is based on edge swaps that conserve all degrees. The acceptance probabilities can be generalized to define Markov chains that target any alternative desired measure on the space of directed or undirected graphs, in order to generate graphs with more sophisticated topological features.

19. Cycles in graphs

Alspach, BR

1985-01-01

This volume deals with a variety of problems involving cycles in graphs and circuits in digraphs. Leading researchers in this area present here 3 survey papers and 42 papers containing new results. There is also a collection of unsolved problems.

20. Hyperbolicity in median graphs

mic problems in hyperbolic spaces and hyperbolic graphs have been .... that in general the main obstacle is that we do not know the location of ...... [25] Jonckheere E and Lohsoonthorn P, A hyperbolic geometry approach to multipath routing,.

1. Discrete mechanics

Caltagirone, Jean-Paul

2014-01-01

This book presents the fundamental principles of mechanics to re-establish the equations of Discrete Mechanics. It introduces physics and thermodynamics associated to the physical modeling.  The development and the complementarity of sciences lead to review today the old concepts that were the basis for the development of continuum mechanics. The differential geometry is used to review the conservation laws of mechanics. For instance, this formalism requires a different location of vector and scalar quantities in space. The equations of Discrete Mechanics form a system of equations where the H

2. Discrete mechanics

Lee, T.D.

1985-01-01

This paper reviews the role of time throughout all phases of mechanics: classical mechanics, non-relativistic quantum mechanics, and relativistic quantum theory. As an example of the relativistic quantum field theory, the case of a massless scalar field interacting with an arbitrary external current is discussed. The comparison between the new discrete theory and the usual continuum formalism is presented. An example is given of a two-dimensional random lattice and its duel. The author notes that there is no evidence that the discrete mechanics is more appropriate than the usual continuum mechanics

3. The Use of Graphing Technology to Promote Transfer of Learning: the Interpretation of Graphs in Physics.

Nichols, Jeri Ann

This study examined the relationship between mathematics background and performance on graph-related problems in physics before and after instruction on the graphical analysis of motion and several microcomputer-based laboratory experiences. Students identified as either having or not having a graphing technology enhanced precalculus mathematics background were further categorized into one of four groups according to mathematics placement at the university. The performances of these groups were compared to identity differences. Pre- and Post-test data were collected from 589 students and 312 students during Autumn Quarter 1990 and Winter Quarter 1991 respectively. Background information was collected from each student. Significant differences were found between students with the technology enhanced mathematics background and those without when considering the entire populations both quarters. The students with the technology background were favored Autumn quarter and students without the technology background were favored Winter quarter. However, the entire population included an underrepresentation of students at the highest and lowest placements; hence, these were eliminated from the analyses. No significant differences were found between the technology/no technology groups after the elimination of the underrepresented groups. All categories of students increased their mean scores from pretest to post-test; the average increase was 8.23 points Autumn Quarter and 11.41 points Winter Quarter. Males consistently outperformed females on both the pretest and the post-test Autumn 1990. All students found questions involving the concept of acceleration more difficult than questions involving velocity or distance. Questions requiring students to create graphs were more difficult than questions requiring students to interpret graphs. Further research involving a qualitative component is recommended to identify the specific skills students use when solving graph

4. Approximation properties of fine hyperbolic graphs

2016-08-26

Aug 26, 2016 ... In this paper, we propose a definition of approximation property which is called the metric invariant translation approximation property for a countable discrete metric space. Moreover, we use ... Department of Applied Mathematics, Shanghai Finance University, Shanghai 201209, People's Republic of China ...

5. Approximation properties of fine hyperbolic graphs

2010 Mathematics Subject Classification. 46L07. 1. Introduction. Given a countable discrete group G, some nice approximation properties for the reduced. C∗-algebras C∗ r (G) can give us the approximation properties of G. For example, Lance. [7] proved that the nuclearity of C∗ r (G) is equivalent to the amenability of G; ...

6. Uniform Single Valued Neutrosophic Graphs

S. Broumi

2017-09-01

Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a new concept named the uniform single valued neutrosophic graph. An illustrative example and some properties are examined. Next, we develop an algorithmic approach for computing the complement of the single valued neutrosophic graph. A numerical example is demonstrated for computing the complement of single valued neutrosophic graphs and uniform single valued neutrosophic graph.

7. Collective Rationality in Graph Aggregation

Endriss, U.; Grandi, U.; Schaub, T.; Friedrich, G.; O'Sullivan, B.

2014-01-01

Suppose a number of agents each provide us with a directed graph over a common set of vertices. Graph aggregation is the problem of computing a single “collective” graph that best represents the information inherent in this profile of individual graphs. We consider this aggregation problem from the

8. Classical dynamics on graphs

Barra, F.; Gaspard, P.

2001-01-01

We consider the classical evolution of a particle on a graph by using a time-continuous Frobenius-Perron operator that generalizes previous propositions. In this way, the relaxation rates as well as the chaotic properties can be defined for the time-continuous classical dynamics on graphs. These properties are given as the zeros of some periodic-orbit zeta functions. We consider in detail the case of infinite periodic graphs where the particle undergoes a diffusion process. The infinite spatial extension is taken into account by Fourier transforms that decompose the observables and probability densities into sectors corresponding to different values of the wave number. The hydrodynamic modes of diffusion are studied by an eigenvalue problem of a Frobenius-Perron operator corresponding to a given sector. The diffusion coefficient is obtained from the hydrodynamic modes of diffusion and has the Green-Kubo form. Moreover, we study finite but large open graphs that converge to the infinite periodic graph when their size goes to infinity. The lifetime of the particle on the open graph is shown to correspond to the lifetime of a system that undergoes a diffusion process before it escapes

9. Application of Bond Graph Modeling for Photovoltaic Module Simulation

2016-01-01

Full Text Available In this paper, photovoltaic generator is represented using the bond-graph methodology. Starting from the equivalent circuit the bond graph and the block diagram of the photovoltaic generator have been derived. Upon applying bond graph elements and rules a mathematical model of the photovoltaic generator is obtained. Simulation results of this obtained model using real recorded data (irradiation and temperature at the Renewable Energies Development Centre in Bouzaréah – Algeria are obtained using MATLAB/SMULINK software. The results have compared with datasheet of the photovoltaic generator for validation purposes.

10. A Note on Longest Paths in Circular Arc Graphs

Joos Felix

2015-08-01

Full Text Available As observed by Rautenbach and Sereni [SIAM J. Discrete Math. 28 (2014 335-341] there is a gap in the proof of the theorem of Balister et al. [Combin. Probab. Comput. 13 (2004 311-317], which states that the intersection of all longest paths in a connected circular arc graph is nonempty. In this paper we close this gap.

11. The investigation of social networks based on multi-component random graphs

Zadorozhnyi, V. N.; Yudin, E. B.

2018-01-01

The methods of non-homogeneous random graphs calibration are developed for social networks simulation. The graphs are calibrated by the degree distributions of the vertices and the edges. The mathematical foundation of the methods is formed by the theory of random graphs with the nonlinear preferential attachment rule and the theory of Erdôs-Rényi random graphs. In fact, well-calibrated network graph models and computer experiments with these models would help developers (owners) of the networks to predict their development correctly and to choose effective strategies for controlling network projects.

12. Discrete Dynamics Lab

Wuensche, Andrew

DDLab is interactive graphics software for creating, visualizing, and analyzing many aspects of Cellular Automata, Random Boolean Networks, and Discrete Dynamical Networks in general and studying their behavior, both from the time-series perspective — space-time patterns, and from the state-space perspective — attractor basins. DDLab is relevant to research, applications, and education in the fields of complexity, self-organization, emergent phenomena, chaos, collision-based computing, neural networks, content addressable memory, genetic regulatory networks, dynamical encryption, generative art and music, and the study of the abstract mathematical/physical/dynamical phenomena in their own right.

13. Essential spectra of difference operators on Zn-periodic graphs

2007-01-01

Let (X, ρ) be a discrete metric space. We suppose that the group Z n acts freely on X and that the number of orbits of X with respect to this action is finite. Then we call X a Z n -periodic discrete metric space. We examine the Fredholm property and essential spectra of band-dominated operators on l p (X) when 1 n and their limit operators. In the case where X is the set of vertices of a combinatorial graph, the graph structure defines a Schroedinger operator on l p (X) in a natural way. We illustrate our approach by determining the essential spectra of Schroedinger operators with slowly oscillating potential both on zig-zag and on hexagonal graphs, the latter being related to nano-structures

14. Laplacian eigenvectors of graphs Perron-Frobenius and Faber-Krahn type theorems

2007-01-01

Eigenvectors of graph Laplacians have not, to date, been the subject of expository articles and thus they may seem a surprising topic for a book. The authors propose two motivations for this new LNM volume: (1) There are fascinating subtle differences between the properties of solutions of Schrödinger equations on manifolds on the one hand, and their discrete analogs on graphs. (2) "Geometric" properties of (cost) functions defined on the vertex sets of graphs are of practical interest for heuristic optimization algorithms. The observation that the cost functions of quite a few of the well-studied combinatorial optimization problems are eigenvectors of associated graph Laplacians has prompted the investigation of such eigenvectors. The volume investigates the structure of eigenvectors and looks at the number of their sign graphs ("nodal domains"), Perron components, graphs with extremal properties with respect to eigenvectors. The Rayleigh quotient and rearrangement of graphs form the main methodology.

15. Mathematics for electronic technology

Howson, D P

1975-01-01

Mathematics for Electronic Technology is a nine-chapter book that begins with the elucidation of the introductory concepts related to use of mathematics in electronic engineering, including differentiation, integration, partial differentiation, infinite series, vectors, vector algebra, and surface, volume and line integrals. Subsequent chapters explore the determinants, differential equations, matrix analysis, complex variable, topography, graph theory, and numerical analysis used in this field. The use of Fourier method for harmonic analysis and the Laplace transform is also described. The ma

16. Proxy Graph: Visual Quality Metrics of Big Graph Sampling.

Nguyen, Quan Hoang; Hong, Seok-Hee; Eades, Peter; Meidiana, Amyra

2017-06-01

Data sampling has been extensively studied for large scale graph mining. Many analyses and tasks become more efficient when performed on graph samples of much smaller size. The use of proxy objects is common in software engineering for analysis and interaction with heavy objects or systems. In this paper, we coin the term 'proxy graph' and empirically investigate how well a proxy graph visualization can represent a big graph. Our investigation focuses on proxy graphs obtained by sampling; this is one of the most common proxy approaches. Despite the plethora of data sampling studies, this is the first evaluation of sampling in the context of graph visualization. For an objective evaluation, we propose a new family of quality metrics for visual quality of proxy graphs. Our experiments cover popular sampling techniques. Our experimental results lead to guidelines for using sampling-based proxy graphs in visualization.

17. Exclusivity structures and graph representatives of local complementation orbits

Cabello, Adán; Parker, Matthew G.; Scarpa, Giannicola; Severini, Simone

2013-07-01

We describe a construction that maps any connected graph G on three or more vertices into a larger graph, H(G), whose independence number is strictly smaller than its Lovász number which is equal to its fractional packing number. The vertices of H(G) represent all possible events consistent with the stabilizer group of the graph state associated with G, and exclusive events are adjacent. Mathematically, the graph H(G) corresponds to the orbit of G under local complementation. Physically, the construction translates into graph-theoretic terms the connection between a graph state and a Bell inequality maximally violated by quantum mechanics. In the context of zero-error information theory, the construction suggests a protocol achieving the maximum rate of entanglement-assisted capacity, a quantum mechanical analogue of the Shannon capacity, for each H(G). The violation of the Bell inequality is expressed by the one-shot version of this capacity being strictly larger than the independence number. Finally, given the correspondence between graphs and exclusivity structures, we are able to compute the independence number for certain infinite families of graphs with the use of quantum non-locality, therefore highlighting an application of quantum theory in the proof of a purely combinatorial statement.

18. Mathematics without boundaries surveys in pure mathematics

Pardalos, Panos

2014-01-01

The contributions in this volume have been written by eminent scientists from the international mathematical community and present significant advances in several theories, methods and problems of Mathematical Analysis, Discrete Mathematics, Geometry and their Applications. The chapters focus on both old and recent developments in Functional Analysis, Harmonic Analysis, Complex Analysis, Operator Theory, Combinatorics, Functional Equations, Differential Equations as well as a variety of Applications. The book also contains some review works, which could prove particularly useful for a broader audience of readers in Mathematical Sciences, and especially to graduate students looking for the  latest information.

19. Random graph states, maximal flow and Fuss-Catalan distributions

Collins, BenoIt; Nechita, Ion; Zyczkowski, Karol

2010-01-01

For any graph consisting of k vertices and m edges we construct an ensemble of random pure quantum states which describe a system composed of 2m subsystems. Each edge of the graph represents a bipartite, maximally entangled state. Each vertex represents a random unitary matrix generated according to the Haar measure, which describes the coupling between subsystems. Dividing all subsystems into two parts, one may study entanglement with respect to this partition. A general technique to derive an expression for the average entanglement entropy of random pure states associated with a given graph is presented. Our technique relies on Weingarten calculus and flow problems. We analyze the statistical properties of spectra of such random density matrices and show for which cases they are described by the free Poissonian (Marchenko-Pastur) distribution. We derive a discrete family of generalized, Fuss-Catalan distributions and explicitly construct graphs which lead to ensembles of random states characterized by these novel distributions of eigenvalues.

20. On the Additively Weighted Harary Index of Some Composite Graphs

Behrooz Khosravi

2017-03-01

Full Text Available The Harary index is defined as the sum of reciprocals of distances between all pairs of vertices of a connected graph. The additively weighted Harary index H A ( G is a modification of the Harary index in which the contributions of vertex pairs are weighted by the sum of their degrees. This new invariant was introduced in (Alizadeh, Iranmanesh and Došlić. Additively weighted Harary index of some composite graphs, Discrete Math, 2013 and they posed the following question: What is the behavior of H A ( G when G is a composite graph resulting for example by: splice, link, corona and rooted product? We investigate the additively weighted Harary index for these standard graph products. Then we obtain lower and upper bounds for some of them.

1. A characterization of horizontal visibility graphs and combinatorics on words

Gutin, Gregory; Mansour, Toufik; Severini, Simone

2011-06-01

A Horizontal Visibility Graph (HVG) is defined in association with an ordered set of non-negative reals. HVGs realize a methodology in the analysis of time series, their degree distribution being a good discriminator between randomness and chaos Luque et al. [B. Luque, L. Lacasa, F. Ballesteros, J. Luque, Horizontal visibility graphs: exact results for random time series, Phys. Rev. E 80 (2009), 046103]. We prove that a graph is an HVG if and only if it is outerplanar and has a Hamilton path. Therefore, an HVG is a noncrossing graph, as defined in algebraic combinatorics Flajolet and Noy [P. Flajolet, M. Noy, Analytic combinatorics of noncrossing configurations, Discrete Math., 204 (1999) 203-229]. Our characterization of HVGs implies a linear time recognition algorithm. Treating ordered sets as words, we characterize subfamilies of HVGs highlighting various connections with combinatorial statistics and introducing the notion of a visible pair. With this technique, we determine asymptotically the average number of edges of HVGs.

2. On some covering graphs of a graph

2016-10-01

Full Text Available For a graph $G$ with vertex set $V(G=\\{v_1, v_2, \\dots, v_n\\}$, let $S$ be the covering set of $G$ having the maximum degree over all the minimum covering sets of $G$. Let $N_S[v]=\\{u\\in S : uv \\in E(G \\}\\cup \\{v\\}$ be the closed neighbourhood of the vertex $v$ with respect to $S.$ We define a square matrix $A_S(G= (a_{ij},$ by $a_{ij}=1,$ if $\\left |N_S[v_i]\\cap N_S[v_j] \\right| \\geq 1, i\ 3. Vision in elementary mathematics Sawyer, W W 2003-01-01 Sure-fire techniques of visualizing, dramatizing, and analyzing numbers promise to attract and retain students' attention and understanding. Topics include basic multiplication and division, algebra, word problems, graphs, negative numbers, fractions, many other practical applications of elementary mathematics. 1964 ed. Answers to Problems. 4. Discrete Tomography and Imaging of Polycrystalline Structures Alpers, Andreas High resolution transmission electron microscopy is commonly considered as the standard application for discrete tomography. While this has yet to be technically realized, new applications with a similar flavor have emerged in materials science. In our group at Ris� DTU (Denmark's National...... Laboratory for Sustainable Energy), for instance, we study polycrystalline materials via synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Several reconstruction problems arise, most of them exhibit inherently discrete aspects. In this talk I want to give a concise mathematical introduction to some of these reconstruction...... problems. Special focus is on their relationship to classical discrete tomography. Several open mathematical questions will be mentioned along the way.... 5. Fundamentals of algebraic graph transformation Ehrig, Hartmut; Prange, Ulrike; Taentzer, Gabriele 2006-01-01 Graphs are widely used to represent structural information in the form of objects and connections between them. Graph transformation is the rule-based manipulation of graphs, an increasingly important concept in computer science and related fields. This is the first textbook treatment of the algebraic approach to graph transformation, based on algebraic structures and category theory. Part I is an introduction to the classical case of graph and typed graph transformation. In Part II basic and advanced results are first shown for an abstract form of replacement systems, so-called adhesive high-level replacement systems based on category theory, and are then instantiated to several forms of graph and Petri net transformation systems. Part III develops typed attributed graph transformation, a technique of key relevance in the modeling of visual languages and in model transformation. Part IV contains a practical case study on model transformation and a presentation of the AGG (attributed graph grammar) tool envir... 6. The STAPL Parallel Graph Library Harshvardhan, 2013-01-01 This paper describes the stapl Parallel Graph Library, a high-level framework that abstracts the user from data-distribution and parallelism details and allows them to concentrate on parallel graph algorithm development. It includes a customizable distributed graph container and a collection of commonly used parallel graph algorithms. The library introduces pGraph pViews that separate algorithm design from the container implementation. It supports three graph processing algorithmic paradigms, level-synchronous, asynchronous and coarse-grained, and provides common graph algorithms based on them. Experimental results demonstrate improved scalability in performance and data size over existing graph libraries on more than 16,000 cores and on internet-scale graphs containing over 16 billion vertices and 250 billion edges. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013. 7. Graphs, groups and surfaces White, AT 1985-01-01 The field of topological graph theory has expanded greatly in the ten years since the first edition of this book appeared. The original nine chapters of this classic work have therefore been revised and updated. Six new chapters have been added, dealing with: voltage graphs, non-orientable imbeddings, block designs associated with graph imbeddings, hypergraph imbeddings, map automorphism groups and change ringing.Thirty-two new problems have been added to this new edition, so that there are now 181 in all; 22 of these have been designated as difficult'''' and 9 as unsolved''''. Three of the four unsolved problems from the first edition have been solved in the ten years between editions; they are now marked as difficult''''. 8. Profinite graphs and groups Ribes, Luis 2017-01-01 This book offers a detailed introduction to graph theoretic methods in profinite groups and applications to abstract groups. It is the first to provide a comprehensive treatment of the subject. The author begins by carefully developing relevant notions in topology, profinite groups and homology, including free products of profinite groups, cohomological methods in profinite groups, and fixed points of automorphisms of free pro-p groups. The final part of the book is dedicated to applications of the profinite theory to abstract groups, with sections on finitely generated subgroups of free groups, separability conditions in free and amalgamated products, and algorithms in free groups and finite monoids. Profinite Graphs and Groups will appeal to students and researchers interested in profinite groups, geometric group theory, graphs and connections with the theory of formal languages. A complete reference on the subject, the book includes historical and bibliographical notes as well as a discussion of open quest... 9. Subdominant pseudoultrametric on graphs Dovgoshei, A A; Petrov, E A [Institute of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Donetsk (Ukraine) 2013-08-31 Let (G,w) be a weighted graph. We find necessary and sufficient conditions under which the weight w:E(G)→R{sup +} can be extended to a pseudoultrametric on V(G), and establish a criterion for the uniqueness of such an extension. We demonstrate that (G,w) is a complete k-partite graph, for k≥2, if and only if for any weight that can be extended to a pseudoultrametric, among all such extensions one can find the least pseudoultrametric consistent with w. We give a structural characterization of graphs for which the subdominant pseudoultrametric is an ultrametric for any strictly positive weight that can be extended to a pseudoultrametric. Bibliography: 14 titles. 10. Secondary School Teachers' Conceptions and Their Teaching Practices Using Graphing Calculators Lee, Jane A.; McDougall, Douglas E. 2010-01-01 This article investigates secondary school teachers' conceptions of mathematics and their teaching practices in the use of graphing calculators in their mathematics classrooms. Case studies on three teacher participants were developed using quantitative and qualitative data that consisted of self-assessments on beliefs in mathematics,… 11. Non-Lipschitz Dynamics Approach to Discrete Event Systems Zak, M.; Meyers, R. 1995-01-01 This paper presents and discusses a mathematical formalism for simulation of discrete event dynamics (DED) - a special type of 'man- made' system designed to aid specific areas of information processing. A main objective is to demonstrate that the mathematical formalism for DED can be based upon the terminal model of Newtonian dynamics which allows one to relax Lipschitz conditions at some discrete points. 12. Augmented marked graphs Cheung, King Sing 2014-01-01 Petri nets are a formal and theoretically rich model for the modelling and analysis of systems. A subclass of Petri nets, augmented marked graphs possess a structure that is especially desirable for the modelling and analysis of systems with concurrent processes and shared resources.This monograph consists of three parts: Part I provides the conceptual background for readers who have no prior knowledge on Petri nets; Part II elaborates the theory of augmented marked graphs; finally, Part III discusses the application to system integration. The book is suitable as a first self-contained volume 13. Graph Query Portal Dayal, Amit; Brock, David 2018-01-01 Prashant Chandrasekar, a lead developer for the Social Interactome project, has tasked the team with creating a graph representation of the data collected from the social networks involved in that project. The data is currently stored in a MySQL database. The client requested that the graph database be Cayley, but after a literature review, Neo4j was chosen. The reasons for this shift will be explained in the design section. Secondarily, the team was tasked with coming up with three scena... 14. Spectral radius of graphs Stevanovic, Dragan 2015-01-01 Spectral Radius of Graphs provides a thorough overview of important results on the spectral radius of adjacency matrix of graphs that have appeared in the literature in the preceding ten years, most of them with proofs, and including some previously unpublished results of the author. The primer begins with a brief classical review, in order to provide the reader with a foundation for the subsequent chapters. Topics covered include spectral decomposition, the Perron-Frobenius theorem, the Rayleigh quotient, the Weyl inequalities, and the Interlacing theorem. From this introduction, the 15. Phase-modified CTQW unable to distinguish strongly regular graphs efficiently Mahasinghe, A; Wijerathna, J K; Izaac, J A; Wang, J B 2015-01-01 Various quantum walk-based algorithms have been developed, aiming to distinguish non-isomorphic graphs with polynomial scaling, within both the discrete-time quantum walk (DTQW) and continuous-time quantum walk (CTQW) frameworks. Whilst both the single-particle DTQW and CTQW have failed to distinguish non-isomorphic strongly regular graph families (prompting the move to multi-particle graph isomorphism (GI) algorithms), the single-particle DTQW has been successfully modified by the introduction of a phase factor to distinguish a wide range of graphs in polynomial time. In this paper, we prove that an analogous phase modification to the single particle CTQW does not have the same distinguishing power as its discrete-time counterpart, in particular it cannot distinguish strongly regular graphs with the same family parameters with the same efficiency. (paper) 16. Graph embedding with rich information through heterogeneous graph Sun, Guolei 2017-01-01 Graph embedding, aiming to learn low-dimensional representations for nodes in graphs, has attracted increasing attention due to its critical application including node classification, link prediction and clustering in social network analysis. Most 17. Using Graph and Vertex Entropy to Compare Empirical Graphs with Theoretical Graph Models Tomasz Kajdanowicz 2016-09-01 Full Text Available Over the years, several theoretical graph generation models have been proposed. Among the most prominent are: the Erdős–Renyi random graph model, Watts–Strogatz small world model, Albert–Barabási preferential attachment model, Price citation model, and many more. Often, researchers working with real-world data are interested in understanding the generative phenomena underlying their empirical graphs. They want to know which of the theoretical graph generation models would most probably generate a particular empirical graph. In other words, they expect some similarity assessment between the empirical graph and graphs artificially created from theoretical graph generation models. Usually, in order to assess the similarity of two graphs, centrality measure distributions are compared. For a theoretical graph model this means comparing the empirical graph to a single realization of a theoretical graph model, where the realization is generated from the given model using an arbitrary set of parameters. The similarity between centrality measure distributions can be measured using standard statistical tests, e.g., the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test of distances between cumulative distributions. However, this approach is both error-prone and leads to incorrect conclusions, as we show in our experiments. Therefore, we propose a new method for graph comparison and type classification by comparing the entropies of centrality measure distributions (degree centrality, betweenness centrality, closeness centrality. We demonstrate that our approach can help assign the empirical graph to the most similar theoretical model using a simple unsupervised learning method. 18. Discrimination Power of Polynomial-Based Descriptors for Graphs by Using Functional Matrices. Dehmer, Matthias; Emmert-Streib, Frank; Shi, Yongtang; Stefu, Monica; Tripathi, Shailesh 2015-01-01 In this paper, we study the discrimination power of graph measures that are based on graph-theoretical matrices. The paper generalizes the work of [M. Dehmer, M. Moosbrugger. Y. Shi, Encoding structural information uniquely with polynomial-based descriptors by employing the Randić matrix, Applied Mathematics and Computation, 268(2015), 164-168]. We demonstrate that by using the new functional matrix approach, exhaustively generated graphs can be discriminated more uniquely than shown in the mentioned previous work. 19. Handbook of graph grammars and computing by graph transformation Engels, G; Kreowski, H J; Rozenberg, G 1999-01-01 Graph grammars originated in the late 60s, motivated by considerations about pattern recognition and compiler construction. Since then, the list of areas which have interacted with the development of graph grammars has grown quite impressively. Besides the aforementioned areas, it includes software specification and development, VLSI layout schemes, database design, modeling of concurrent systems, massively parallel computer architectures, logic programming, computer animation, developmental biology, music composition, visual languages, and many others.The area of graph grammars and graph tran 20. Topics in graph theory graphs and their Cartesian product Imrich, Wilfried; Rall, Douglas F 2008-01-01 From specialists in the field, you will learn about interesting connections and recent developments in the field of graph theory by looking in particular at Cartesian products-arguably the most important of the four standard graph products. Many new results in this area appear for the first time in print in this book. Written in an accessible way, this book can be used for personal study in advanced applications of graph theory or for an advanced graph theory course. 1. Discrete optimization Parker, R Gary 1988-01-01 This book treats the fundamental issues and algorithmic strategies emerging as the core of the discipline of discrete optimization in a comprehensive and rigorous fashion. Following an introductory chapter on computational complexity, the basic algorithmic results for the two major models of polynomial algorithms are introduced--models using matroids and linear programming. Further chapters treat the major non-polynomial algorithms: branch-and-bound and cutting planes. The text concludes with a chapter on heuristic algorithms.Several appendixes are included which review the fundamental ideas o 2. Partitioning a call graph Bisseling, R.H.; Byrka, J.; Cerav-Erbas, S.; Gvozdenovic, N.; Lorenz, M.; Pendavingh, R.A.; Reeves, C.; Röger, M.; Verhoeven, A.; Berg, van den J.B.; Bhulai, S.; Hulshof, J.; Koole, G.; Quant, C.; Williams, J.F. 2006-01-01 Splitting a large software system into smaller and more manageable units has become an important problem for many organizations. The basic structure of a software system is given by a directed graph with vertices representing the programs of the system and arcs representing calls from one program to 3. Coloring geographical threshold graphs Bradonjic, Milan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Percus, Allon [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Muller, Tobias [EINDHOVEN UNIV. OF TECH 2008-01-01 We propose a coloring algorithm for sparse random graphs generated by the geographical threshold graph (GTG) model, a generalization of random geometric graphs (RGG). In a GTG, nodes are distributed in a Euclidean space, and edges are assigned according to a threshold function involving the distance between nodes as well as randomly chosen node weights. The motivation for analyzing this model is that many real networks (e.g., wireless networks, the Internet, etc.) need to be studied by using a 'richer' stochastic model (which in this case includes both a distance between nodes and weights on the nodes). Here, we analyze the GTG coloring algorithm together with the graph's clique number, showing formally that in spite of the differences in structure between GTG and RGG, the asymptotic behavior of the chromatic number is identical: {chi}1n 1n n / 1n n (1 + {omicron}(1)). Finally, we consider the leading corrections to this expression, again using the coloring algorithm and clique number to provide bounds on the chromatic number. We show that the gap between the lower and upper bound is within C 1n n / (1n 1n n){sup 2}, and specify the constant C. 4. Supermarket model on graphs Budhiraja, A.S.; Mukherjee, D.; Wu, R. 2017-01-01 We consider a variation of the supermarket model in which the servers can communicate with their neighbors and where the neighborhood relationships are described in terms of a suitable graph. Tasks with unit-exponential service time distributions arrive at each vertex as independent Poisson 5. Basin Hopping Graph Kucharik, Marcel; Hofacker, Ivo; Stadler, Peter 2014-01-01 of the folding free energy landscape, however, can provide the relevant information. Results We introduce the basin hopping graph (BHG) as a novel coarse-grained model of folding landscapes. Each vertex of the BHG is a local minimum, which represents the corresponding basin in the landscape. Its edges connect... 6. How Symmetric Are Real-World Graphs? A Large-Scale Study Fabian Ball 2018-01-01 Full Text Available The analysis of symmetry is a main principle in natural sciences, especially physics. For network sciences, for example, in social sciences, computer science and data science, only a few small-scale studies of the symmetry of complex real-world graphs exist. Graph symmetry is a topic rooted in mathematics and is not yet well-received and applied in practice. This article underlines the importance of analyzing symmetry by showing the existence of symmetry in real-world graphs. An analysis of over 1500 graph datasets from the meta-repository networkrepository.com is carried out and a normalized version of the “network redundancy” measure is presented. It quantifies graph symmetry in terms of the number of orbits of the symmetry group from zero (no symmetries to one (completely symmetric, and improves the recognition of asymmetric graphs. Over 70% of the analyzed graphs contain symmetries (i.e., graph automorphisms, independent of size and modularity. Therefore, we conclude that real-world graphs are likely to contain symmetries. This contribution is the first larger-scale study of symmetry in graphs and it shows the necessity of handling symmetry in data analysis: The existence of symmetries in graphs is the cause of two problems in graph clustering we are aware of, namely, the existence of multiple equivalent solutions with the same value of the clustering criterion and, secondly, the inability of all standard partition-comparison measures of cluster analysis to identify automorphic partitions as equivalent. 7. The STAPL Parallel Graph Library Harshvardhan,; Fidel, Adam; Amato, Nancy M.; Rauchwerger, Lawrence 2013-01-01 This paper describes the stapl Parallel Graph Library, a high-level framework that abstracts the user from data-distribution and parallelism details and allows them to concentrate on parallel graph algorithm development. It includes a customizable 8. Graph Structure in Three National Academic Webs: Power Laws with Anomalies. Thelwall, Mike; Wilkinson, David 2003-01-01 Explains how the Web can be modeled as a mathematical graph and analyzes the graph structures of three national university publicly indexable Web sites from Australia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom. Topics include commercial search engines and academic Web link research; method-analysis environment and data sets; and power laws. (LRW) 9. Pathfinding in graph-theoretic sabotage models. I. Simultaneous attack by several teams Hulme, B.L. 1976-07-01 Graph models are developed for fixed-site safeguards systems. The problem of finding optimal routes for several sabotage teams is cast as a problem of finding shortest paths in a graph. The motivation, rationale, and interpretation of the mathematical models are discussed in detail, and an algorithm for efficiently solving the associated path problem is described 10. The complexity of proving that a graph is Ramsey Lauria, M.; Pudlák, Pavel; Rödl, V.; Thapen, Neil 2017-01-01 Roč. 37, č. 2 (2017), s. 253-268 ISSN 0209-9683 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902; GA ČR GBP202/12/G061 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : complexity * c-Ramsey graphs Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 1.048, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00493-015-3193-9 11. A Clustering Graph Generator Winlaw, Manda [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); De Sterck, Hans [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sanders, Geoffrey [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States) 2015-10-26 In very simple terms a network can be de ned as a collection of points joined together by lines. Thus, networks can be used to represent connections between entities in a wide variety of elds including engi- neering, science, medicine, and sociology. Many large real-world networks share a surprising number of properties, leading to a strong interest in model development research and techniques for building synthetic networks have been developed, that capture these similarities and replicate real-world graphs. Modeling these real-world networks serves two purposes. First, building models that mimic the patterns and prop- erties of real networks helps to understand the implications of these patterns and helps determine which patterns are important. If we develop a generative process to synthesize real networks we can also examine which growth processes are plausible and which are not. Secondly, high-quality, large-scale network data is often not available, because of economic, legal, technological, or other obstacles [7]. Thus, there are many instances where the systems of interest cannot be represented by a single exemplar network. As one example, consider the eld of cybersecurity, where systems require testing across diverse threat scenarios and validation across diverse network structures. In these cases, where there is no single exemplar network, the systems must instead be modeled as a collection of networks in which the variation among them may be just as important as their common features. By developing processes to build synthetic models, so-called graph generators, we can build synthetic networks that capture both the essential features of a system and realistic variability. Then we can use such synthetic graphs to perform tasks such as simulations, analysis, and decision making. We can also use synthetic graphs to performance test graph analysis algorithms, including clustering algorithms and anomaly detection algorithms. 12. Groupies in multitype random graphs Shang, Yilun 2016-01-01 A groupie in a graph is a vertex whose degree is not less than the average degree of its neighbors. Under some mild conditions, we show that the proportion of groupies is very close to 1/2 in multitype random graphs (such as stochastic block models), which include Erd?s-R?nyi random graphs, random bipartite, and multipartite graphs as special examples. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the theoretical results. 13. Groupies in multitype random graphs. Shang, Yilun 2016-01-01 A groupie in a graph is a vertex whose degree is not less than the average degree of its neighbors. Under some mild conditions, we show that the proportion of groupies is very close to 1/2 in multitype random graphs (such as stochastic block models), which include Erdős-Rényi random graphs, random bipartite, and multipartite graphs as special examples. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the theoretical results. 14. Temporal Representation in Semantic Graphs Levandoski, J J; Abdulla, G M 2007-08-07 A wide range of knowledge discovery and analysis applications, ranging from business to biological, make use of semantic graphs when modeling relationships and concepts. Most of the semantic graphs used in these applications are assumed to be static pieces of information, meaning temporal evolution of concepts and relationships are not taken into account. Guided by the need for more advanced semantic graph queries involving temporal concepts, this paper surveys the existing work involving temporal representations in semantic graphs. 15. Modeling flow and transport in fracture networks using graphs Karra, S.; O'Malley, D.; Hyman, J. D.; Viswanathan, H. S.; Srinivasan, G. 2018-03-01 Fractures form the main pathways for flow in the subsurface within low-permeability rock. For this reason, accurately predicting flow and transport in fractured systems is vital for improving the performance of subsurface applications. Fracture sizes in these systems can range from millimeters to kilometers. Although modeling flow and transport using the discrete fracture network (DFN) approach is known to be more accurate due to incorporation of the detailed fracture network structure over continuum-based methods, capturing the flow and transport in such a wide range of scales is still computationally intractable. Furthermore, if one has to quantify uncertainty, hundreds of realizations of these DFN models have to be run. To reduce the computational burden, we solve flow and transport on a graph representation of a DFN. We study the accuracy of the graph approach by comparing breakthrough times and tracer particle statistical data between the graph-based and the high-fidelity DFN approaches, for fracture networks with varying number of fractures and degree of heterogeneity. Due to our recent developments in capabilities to perform DFN high-fidelity simulations on fracture networks with large number of fractures, we are in a unique position to perform such a comparison. We show that the graph approach shows a consistent bias with up to an order of magnitude slower breakthrough when compared to the DFN approach. We show that this is due to graph algorithm's underprediction of the pressure gradients across intersections on a given fracture, leading to slower tracer particle speeds between intersections and longer travel times. We present a bias correction methodology to the graph algorithm that reduces the discrepancy between the DFN and graph predictions. We show that with this bias correction, the graph algorithm predictions significantly improve and the results are very accurate. The good accuracy and the low computational cost, with O (104) times lower times than 16. Discrete gradients in discrete classical mechanics Renna, L. 1987-01-01 A simple model of discrete classical mechanics is given where, starting from the continuous Hamilton equations, discrete equations of motion are established together with a proper discrete gradient definition. The conservation laws of the total discrete momentum, angular momentum, and energy are demonstrated 17. A generalization of total graphs M Afkhami 2018-04-12 Apr 12, 2018 ... product of any lower triangular matrix with the transpose of any element of U belongs to U. The ... total graph of R, which is denoted by T( (R)), is a simple graph with all elements of R as vertices, and ...... [9] Badawi A, On dot-product graph of a commutative ring, Communications in Algebra 43 (2015). 43–50. 18. Graph transformation tool contest 2008 Rensink, Arend; van Gorp, Pieter This special section is the outcome of the graph transformation tool contest organised during the Graph-Based Tools (GraBaTs) 2008 workshop, which took place as a satellite event of the International Conference on Graph Transformation (ICGT) 2008. The contest involved two parts: three “off-line case 19. On dominator colorings in graphs colors required for a dominator coloring of G is called the dominator .... Theorem 1.3 shows that the complete graph Kn is the only connected graph of order n ... Conversely, if a graph G satisfies condition (i) or (ii), it is easy to see that χd(G) =. 20. Topic Model for Graph Mining. Xuan, Junyu; Lu, Jie; Zhang, Guangquan; Luo, Xiangfeng 2015-12-01 Graph mining has been a popular research area because of its numerous application scenarios. Many unstructured and structured data can be represented as graphs, such as, documents, chemical molecular structures, and images. However, an issue in relation to current research on graphs is that they cannot adequately discover the topics hidden in graph-structured data which can be beneficial for both the unsupervised learning and supervised learning of the graphs. Although topic models have proved to be very successful in discovering latent topics, the standard topic models cannot be directly applied to graph-structured data due to the "bag-of-word" assumption. In this paper, an innovative graph topic model (GTM) is proposed to address this issue, which uses Bernoulli distributions to model the edges between nodes in a graph. It can, therefore, make the edges in a graph contribute to latent topic discovery and further improve the accuracy of the supervised and unsupervised learning of graphs. The experimental results on two different types of graph datasets show that the proposed GTM outperforms the latent Dirichlet allocation on classification by using the unveiled topics of these two models to represent graphs. 1. Mathematics for the liberal arts Brown, Jason I 2014-01-01 The Math in Your Life Health, Safety, and Mathematics Found in Translation The Essentials of Conversion Making Sense of Your World with Statistics Summarizing Data with a Few Good Numbers Estimating Unknowns Leading You Down the Garden Path with Statistics Visualizing with Mathematics Seeing Data A Graph Is Worth a Thousand Words Money and Risk Money - Now or Later Risk Taking and Probability The Life in Your Math! Deciding to Make the Best Decisions Making the Right Choices for You Game Theory - Coming Out on Top Making Joint Decisions Art Imitating Math The Math that Makes the Art Believing What You See (or Not) The Mathematics of Sound (and the Sound of Mathematics) The Mathematics of Listening The Mathematics of Composing Solving Musical Mysteries with MSI (Math Scene Investigations) Late Night Mathematics - Humor and Philosophy Laughing with Mathematics The Limits of Mathematics Bibliography Index Review questions appear at the end of each chapter. 2. Fostering Positive Attitude in Probability Learning Using Graphing Calculator Tan, Choo-Kim; Harji, Madhubala Bava; Lau, Siong-Hoe 2011-01-01 Although a plethora of research evidence highlights positive and significant outcomes of the incorporation of the Graphing Calculator (GC) in mathematics education, its use in the teaching and learning process appears to be limited. The obvious need to revisit the teaching and learning of Probability has resulted in this study, i.e. to incorporate… 3. A Numerical Approach to Long Cycles in Graphs and Digraphs Fiedler, Miroslav 2001-01-01 Roč. 235, - (2001), s. 233-236 ISSN 0012-365X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/98/0222 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : graph * diagraph * cycle * Hamilton cycle Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.301, year: 2001 4. Generating hierarchical scale free-graphs from fractals Komjáthy, J.; Simon, K. 2011-01-01 Motivated by the hierarchial network model of E. Ravasz, A.-L. Barabási, and T. Vicsek, we introduce deterministic scale-free networks derived from a graph directed self-similar fractal ¿. With rigorous mathematical results we verify that our model captures some of the most important features of 5. Coloring graphs from lists with bounded size of their union Král´, D.; Sgall, Jiří 2005-01-01 Roč. 49, č. 3 (2005), s. 177-186 ISSN 0364-9024 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA201/01/1195; GA MŠk(CZ) LN00A056 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : graph coloring * list coloring Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.319, year: 2005 6. Algorithms for Planar Graphs and Graphs in Metric Spaces Wulff-Nilsen, Christian structural properties that can be exploited. For instance, a road network or a wire layout on a microchip is typically (near-)planar and distances in the network are often defined w.r.t. the Euclidean or the rectilinear metric. Specialized algorithms that take advantage of such properties are often orders...... of magnitude faster than the corresponding algorithms for general graphs. The first and main part of this thesis focuses on the development of efficient planar graph algorithms. The most important contributions include a faster single-source shortest path algorithm, a distance oracle with subquadratic...... for geometric graphs and graphs embedded in metric spaces. Roughly speaking, the stretch factor is a real value expressing how well a (geo-)metric graph approximates the underlying complete graph w.r.t. distances. We give improved algorithms for computing the stretch factor of a given graph and for augmenting... 7. Applied mathematics Nedelec, J.C. 1988-01-01 The 1988 progress report of the Applied Mathematics center (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The research fields of the Center are the scientific calculus, the probabilities and statistics and the video image synthesis. The research topics developed are: the analysis of numerical methods, the mathematical analysis of the physics and mechanics fundamental models, the numerical solution of complex models related to the industrial problems, the stochastic calculus and the brownian movement, the stochastic partial differential equations, the identification of the adaptive filtering parameters, the discrete element systems, statistics, the stochastic control and the development, the image synthesis techniques for education and research programs. The published papers, the congress communications and the thesis are listed [fr 8. Radiative transfer on discrete spaces Preisendorfer, Rudolph W; Stark, M; Ulam, S 1965-01-01 Pure and Applied Mathematics, Volume 74: Radiative Transfer on Discrete Spaces presents the geometrical structure of natural light fields. This book describes in detail with mathematical precision the radiometric interactions of light-scattering media in terms of a few well established principles.Organized into four parts encompassing 15 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the derivations of the practical formulas and the arrangement of formulas leading to numerical solution procedures of radiative transfer problems in plane-parallel media. This text then constructs radiative tran 9. Spectral fluctuations of quantum graphs Pluhař, Z.; Weidenmüller, H. A. 2014-01-01 We prove the Bohigas-Giannoni-Schmit conjecture in its most general form for completely connected simple graphs with incommensurate bond lengths. We show that for graphs that are classically mixing (i.e., graphs for which the spectrum of the classical Perron-Frobenius operator possesses a finite gap), the generating functions for all (P,Q) correlation functions for both closed and open graphs coincide (in the limit of infinite graph size) with the corresponding expressions of random-matrix theory, both for orthogonal and for unitary symmetry 10. Dynamic Representations of Sparse Graphs Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Fagerberg, Rolf 1999-01-01 We present a linear space data structure for maintaining graphs with bounded arboricity—a large class of sparse graphs containing e.g. planar graphs and graphs of bounded treewidth—under edge insertions, edge deletions, and adjacency queries. The data structure supports adjacency queries in worst...... case O(c) time, and edge insertions and edge deletions in amortized O(1) and O(c+log n) time, respectively, where n is the number of nodes in the graph, and c is the bound on the arboricity.... 11. Domination criticality in product graphs M.R. Chithra 2015-07-01 Full Text Available A connected dominating set is an important notion and has many applications in routing and management of networks. Graph products have turned out to be a good model of interconnection networks. This motivated us to study the Cartesian product of graphs G with connected domination number, γc(G=2,3 and characterize such graphs. Also, we characterize the k−γ-vertex (edge critical graphs and k−γc-vertex (edge critical graphs for k=2,3 where γ denotes the domination number of G. We also discuss the vertex criticality in grids. 12. Graph Creation, Visualisation and Transformation Maribel Fernández 2010-03-01 Full Text Available We describe a tool to create, edit, visualise and compute with interaction nets - a form of graph rewriting systems. The editor, called GraphPaper, allows users to create and edit graphs and their transformation rules using an intuitive user interface. The editor uses the functionalities of the TULIP system, which gives us access to a wealth of visualisation algorithms. Interaction nets are not only a formalism for the specification of graphs, but also a rewrite-based computation model. We discuss graph rewriting strategies and a language to express them in order to perform strategic interaction net rewriting. 13. Study of Chromatic parameters of Line, Total, Middle graphs and Graph operators of Bipartite graph Nagarathinam, R.; Parvathi, N. 2018-04-01 Chromatic parameters have been explored on the basis of graph coloring process in which a couple of adjacent nodes receives different colors. But the Grundy and b-coloring executes maximum colors under certain restrictions. In this paper, Chromatic, b-chromatic and Grundy number of some graph operators of bipartite graph has been investigat 14. New Challenges in the Teaching of Mathematics. Bourguignon, Jean Pierre The manifold but discrete presence of mathematics in many objects or services imposes new constraints to the teaching of mathematics. If citizens need to be comfortable in various situations with a variety of mathematical tools, the learning of mathematics requires that one starts with simple concepts. This paper proposes some solutions to solve… 15. Graph Sampling for Covariance Estimation Chepuri, Sundeep Prabhakar 2017-04-25 In this paper the focus is on subsampling as well as reconstructing the second-order statistics of signals residing on nodes of arbitrary undirected graphs. Second-order stationary graph signals may be obtained by graph filtering zero-mean white noise and they admit a well-defined power spectrum whose shape is determined by the frequency response of the graph filter. Estimating the graph power spectrum forms an important component of stationary graph signal processing and related inference tasks such as Wiener prediction or inpainting on graphs. The central result of this paper is that by sampling a significantly smaller subset of vertices and using simple least squares, we can reconstruct the second-order statistics of the graph signal from the subsampled observations, and more importantly, without any spectral priors. To this end, both a nonparametric approach as well as parametric approaches including moving average and autoregressive models for the graph power spectrum are considered. The results specialize for undirected circulant graphs in that the graph nodes leading to the best compression rates are given by the so-called minimal sparse rulers. A near-optimal greedy algorithm is developed to design the subsampling scheme for the non-parametric and the moving average models, whereas a particular subsampling scheme that allows linear estimation for the autoregressive model is proposed. Numerical experiments on synthetic as well as real datasets related to climatology and processing handwritten digits are provided to demonstrate the developed theory. 16. Local adjacency metric dimension of sun graph and stacked book graph Yulisda Badri, Alifiah; Darmaji 2018-03-01 A graph is a mathematical system consisting of a non-empty set of nodes and a set of empty sides. One of the topics to be studied in graph theory is the metric dimension. Application in the metric dimension is the navigation robot system on a path. Robot moves from one vertex to another vertex in the field by minimizing the errors that occur in translating the instructions (code) obtained from the vertices of that location. To move the robot must give different instructions (code). In order for the robot to move efficiently, the robot must be fast to translate the code of the nodes of the location it passes. so that the location vertex has a minimum distance. However, if the robot must move with the vertex location on a very large field, so the robot can not detect because the distance is too far.[6] In this case, the robot can determine its position by utilizing location vertices based on adjacency. The problem is to find the minimum cardinality of the required location vertex, and where to put, so that the robot can determine its location. The solution to this problem is the dimension of adjacency metric and adjacency metric bases. Rodrguez-Velzquez and Fernau combine the adjacency metric dimensions with local metric dimensions, thus becoming the local adjacency metric dimension. In the local adjacency metric dimension each vertex in the graph may have the same adjacency representation as the terms of the vertices. To obtain the local metric dimension of values in the graph of the Sun and the stacked book graph is used the construction method by considering the representation of each adjacent vertex of the graph. 17. Practical graph mining with R Hendrix, William; Jenkins, John; Padmanabhan, Kanchana; Chakraborty, Arpan 2014-01-01 Practical Graph Mining with R presents a "do-it-yourself" approach to extracting interesting patterns from graph data. It covers many basic and advanced techniques for the identification of anomalous or frequently recurring patterns in a graph, the discovery of groups or clusters of nodes that share common patterns of attributes and relationships, the extraction of patterns that distinguish one category of graphs from another, and the use of those patterns to predict the category of new graphs. Hands-On Application of Graph Data Mining Each chapter in the book focuses on a graph mining task, such as link analysis, cluster analysis, and classification. Through applications using real data sets, the book demonstrates how computational techniques can help solve real-world problems. The applications covered include network intrusion detection, tumor cell diagnostics, face recognition, predictive toxicology, mining metabolic and protein-protein interaction networks, and community detection in social networks. De... 18. Canonical Labelling of Site Graphs Nicolas Oury 2013-06-01 Full Text Available We investigate algorithms for canonical labelling of site graphs, i.e. graphs in which edges bind vertices on sites with locally unique names. We first show that the problem of canonical labelling of site graphs reduces to the problem of canonical labelling of graphs with edge colourings. We then present two canonical labelling algorithms based on edge enumeration, and a third based on an extension of Hopcroft's partition refinement algorithm. All run in quadratic worst case time individually. However, one of the edge enumeration algorithms runs in sub-quadratic time for graphs with "many" automorphisms, and the partition refinement algorithm runs in sub-quadratic time for graphs with "few" bisimulation equivalences. This suite of algorithms was chosen based on the expectation that graphs fall in one of those two categories. If that is the case, a combined algorithm runs in sub-quadratic worst case time. Whether this expectation is reasonable remains an interesting open problem. 19. Learning heat diffusion graphs Thanou, Dorina; Dong, Xiaowen; Kressner, Daniel; Frossard, Pascal 2016-01-01 Effective information analysis generally boils down to properly identifying the structure or geometry of the data, which is often represented by a graph. In some applications, this structure may be partly determined by design constraints or pre-determined sensing arrangements, like in road transportation networks for example. In general though, the data structure is not readily available and becomes pretty difficult to define. In particular, the global smoothness assumptions, that most of the... 20. An Unusual Exponential Graph Syed, M. Qasim; Lovatt, Ian 2014-01-01 This paper is an addition to the series of papers on the exponential function begun by Albert Bartlett. In particular, we ask how the graph of the exponential function y = e[superscript -t/t] would appear if y were plotted versus ln t rather than the normal practice of plotting ln y versus t. In answering this question, we find a new way to… 1. Understanding Charts and Graphs. 1987-07-28 Farenheit degrees, which have no Onaturalo zero ); finally, ratio scales have numbers that are ordered so that the magnitudes of differences are important and...system. They have to do with the very nature of how marks serve as meaningful symbols. In the ideal case, a chart or graph will be absolutely unambiguous...and these laws comprise this principle (see Stevens, 1974). Absolute discriminability: A minimal magnitude of a mark is necessary for it to be detected 2. Fundamental structures of algebra and discrete mathematics Foldes, Stephan 2011-01-01 Introduces and clarifies the basic theories of 12 structural concepts, offering a fundamental theory of groups, rings and other algebraic structures. Identifies essentials and describes interrelationships between particular theories. Selected classical theorems and results relevant to current research are proved rigorously within the theory of each structure. Throughout the text the reader is frequently prompted to perform integrated exercises of verification and to explore examples. 3. Exploring Discrete Mathematics with American Football Muldoon Brown, Tricia; Kahn, Eric B. 2015-01-01 This paper presents an extended project that offers, through American football, an application of concepts from enumerative combinatorics and an introduction to proofs course. The questions in this paper and subsequent details concerning equivalence relations and counting techniques can be used to reinforce these new topics to students in such a… 4. A RUTCOR Project on Discrete Applied Mathematics 1989-01-30 the more important results of this work is the possibility that Groebner basis methods of computational commutative algebra might lead to effective...Billera, L.J., " Groebner Basis Methods for Multivariate Splines," prepared for the Proceedings of the Oslo Conference on Computer-aided Geometric Design 5. A RUTCOR Project in Discrete Applied Mathematics 1990-02-20 representations of smooth piecewise polynomial functions over triangulated regions have led in particular to the conclusion that Groebner basis methods of...Reversing Number of a Digraph," in preparation. 4. Billera, L.J., and Rose, L.L., " Groebner Basis Methods for Multivariate Splines," RRR 1-89, January 6. Resistance and relatedness on an evolutionary graph Maciejewski, Wes 2012-01-01 When investigating evolution in structured populations, it is often convenient to consider the population as an evolutionary graph—individuals as nodes, and whom they may act with as edges. There has, in recent years, been a surge of interest in evolutionary graphs, especially in the study of the evolution of social behaviours. An inclusive fitness framework is best suited for this type of study. A central requirement for an inclusive fitness analysis is an expression for the genetic similarity between individuals residing on the graph. This has been a major hindrance for work in this area as highly technical mathematics are often required. Here, I derive a result that links genetic relatedness between haploid individuals on an evolutionary graph to the resistance between vertices on a corresponding electrical network. An example that demonstrates the potential computational advantage of this result over contemporary approaches is provided. This result offers more, however, to the study of population genetics than strictly computationally efficient methods. By establishing a link between gene transfer and electric circuit theory, conceptualizations of the latter can enhance understanding of the former. PMID:21849384 7. Graphs cospectral with a friendship graph or its complement Alireza Abdollahi 2013-12-01 Full Text Available Let$n$be any positive integer and let$F_n$be the friendship (or Dutch windmill graph with$2n+1$vertices and$3n$edges. Here we study graphs with the same adjacency spectrum as the$F_n$. Two graphs are called cospectral if the eigenvalues multiset of their adjacency matrices are the same. Let$G$be a graph cospectral with$F_n$. Here we prove that if$G$has no cycle of length$4$or$5$, then$Gcong F_n$. Moreover if$G$is connected and planar then$Gcong F_n$.All but one of connected components of$G$are isomorphic to$K_2$.The complement$overline{F_n}$of the friendship graph is determined by its adjacency eigenvalues, that is, if$overline{F_n}$is cospectral with a graph$H$, then$Hcong overline{F_n}$. 8. A discrete control model of PLANT Mitchell, C. M. 1985-01-01 A model of the PLANT system using the discrete control modeling techniques developed by Miller is described. Discrete control models attempt to represent in a mathematical form how a human operator might decompose a complex system into simpler parts and how the control actions and system configuration are coordinated so that acceptable overall system performance is achieved. Basic questions include knowledge representation, information flow, and decision making in complex systems. The structure of the model is a general hierarchical/heterarchical scheme which structurally accounts for coordination and dynamic focus of attention. Mathematically, the discrete control model is defined in terms of a network of finite state systems. Specifically, the discrete control model accounts for how specific control actions are selected from information about the controlled system, the environment, and the context of the situation. The objective is to provide a plausible and empirically testable accounting and, if possible, explanation of control behavior. 9. Dynamic Programming and Graph Algorithms in Computer Vision* Felzenszwalb, Pedro F.; Zabih, Ramin 2013-01-01 Optimization is a powerful paradigm for expressing and solving problems in a wide range of areas, and has been successfully applied to many vision problems. Discrete optimization techniques are especially interesting, since by carefully exploiting problem structure they often provide non-trivial guarantees concerning solution quality. In this paper we briefly review dynamic programming and graph algorithms, and discuss representative examples of how these discrete optimization techniques have been applied to some classical vision problems. We focus on the low-level vision problem of stereo; the mid-level problem of interactive object segmentation; and the high-level problem of model-based recognition. PMID:20660950 10. Decomposing Oriented Graphs into Six Locally Irregular Oriented Graphs Bensmail, Julien; Renault, Gabriel 2016-01-01 An undirected graph G is locally irregular if every two of its adjacent vertices have distinct degrees. We say that G is decomposable into k locally irregular graphs if there exists a partition E1∪E2∪⋯∪Ek of the edge set E(G) such that each Ei induces a locally irregular graph. It was recently co... 11. X-Graphs: Language and Algorithms for Heterogeneous Graph Streams 2017-09-01 are widely used by academia and industry. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Data Analytics, Graph Analytics, High-Performance Computing 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...form the core of the DeepDive Knowledge Construction System. 2 INTRODUCTION The goal of the X-Graphs project was to develop computational techniques...memory multicore machine. Ringo is based on Snap.py and SNAP, and uses Python . Ringo now allows the integration of Delite DSL Framework Graph 12. Foundations of a discrete physics McGoveran, D.; Noyes, P. 1988-01-01 Starting from the principles of finiteness, discreteness, finite computability and absolute nonuniqueness, we develop the ordering operator calculus, a strictly constructive mathematical system having the empirical properties required by quantum mechanical and special relativistic phenomena. We show how to construct discrete distance functions, and both rectangular and spherical coordinate systems(with a discrete version of ''π''). The richest discrete space constructible without a preferred axis and preserving translational and rotational invariance is shown to be a discrete 3-space with the usual symmetries. We introduce a local ordering parameter with local (proper) time-like properties and universal ordering parameters with global (cosmological) time-like properties. Constructed ''attribute velocities'' connect ensembles with attributes that are invariant as the appropriate time-like parameter increases. For each such attribute, we show how to construct attribute velocities which must satisfy the '' relativistic Doppler shift'' and the ''relativistic velocity composition law,'' as well as the Lorentz transformations. By construction, these velocities have finite maximum and minimum values. In the space of all attributes, the minimum of these maximum velocities will predominate in all multiple attribute computations, and hence can be identified as a fundamental limiting velocity, General commutation relations are constructed which under the physical interpretation are shown to reduce to the usual quantum mechanical commutation relations. 50 refs., 18 figs 13. Discrete Curvatures and Discrete Minimal Surfaces Sun, Xiang 2012-01-01 This thesis presents an overview of some approaches to compute Gaussian and mean curvature on discrete surfaces and discusses discrete minimal surfaces. The variety of applications of differential geometry in visualization and shape design leads 14. Graph theory with applications Vasudev, C 2006-01-01 Salient Features Over 1500 problems are used to illustrate concepts, related to different topics, and introduce applications. Over 1000 exercises in the text with many different types of questions posed. Precise mathematical language is used without excessive formalism and abstraction. Care has been taken to balance the mix of notation and words in mathematical statements. Problem sets are stated clearly and unambiguously, and all are carefully graded for various levels of difficulty. This text has been carefully designed for flexible use. 15. Entanglement in coined quantum walks on regular graphs Carneiro, Ivens; Loo, Meng; Xu, Xibai; Girerd, Mathieu; Kendon, Viv; Knight, Peter L 2005-01-01 Quantum walks, both discrete (coined) and continuous time, form the basis of several recent quantum algorithms. Here we use numerical simulations to study the properties of discrete, coined quantum walks. We investigate the variation in the entanglement between the coin and the position of the particle by calculating the entropy of the reduced density matrix of the coin. We consider both dynamical evolution and asymptotic limits for coins of dimensions from two to eight on regular graphs. For low coin dimensions, quantum walks which spread faster (as measured by the mean square deviation of their distribution from uniform) also exhibit faster convergence towards the asymptotic value of the entanglement between the coin and particle's position. For high-dimensional coins, the DFT coin operator is more efficient at spreading than the Grover coin. We study the entanglement of the coin on regular finite graphs such as cycles, and also show that on complete bipartite graphs, a quantum walk with a Grover coin is always periodic with period four. We generalize the 'glued trees' graph used by Childs et al (2003 Proc. STOC, pp 59-68) to higher branching rate (fan out) and verify that the scaling with branching rate and with tree depth is polynomial 16. System dynamics and control with bond graph modeling Kypuros, Javier 2013-01-01 Part I Dynamic System ModelingIntroduction to System DynamicsIntroductionSystem Decomposition and Model ComplexityMathematical Modeling of Dynamic SystemsAnalysis and Design of Dynamic SystemsControl of Dynamic SystemsDiagrams of Dynamic SystemsA Graph-Centered Approach to ModelingSummaryPracticeExercisesBasic Bond Graph ElementsIntroductionPower and Energy VariablesBasic 1-Port ElementsBasic 2-Ports ElementsJunction ElementsSimple Bond Graph ExamplesSummaryPracticeExercisesBond Graph Synthesis and Equation DerivationIntroductionGeneral GuidelinesMechanical TranslationMechanical RotationElectrical CircuitsHydraulic CircuitsMixed SystemsState Equation DerivationState-Space RepresentationsAlgebraic Loops and Derivative CausalitySummaryPracticeExercisesImpedance Bond GraphsIntroductionLaplace Transform of the State-Space EquationBasic 1-Port ImpedancesImpedance Bond Graph SynthesisJunctions, Transformers, and GyratorsEffort and Flow DividersSign ChangesTransfer Function DerivationAlternative Derivation of Transf... 17. Endomorphisms of graph algebras Conti, Roberto; Hong, Jeong Hee; Szymanski, Wojciech 2012-01-01 We initiate a systematic investigation of endomorphisms of graph C*-algebras C*(E), extending several known results on endomorphisms of the Cuntz algebras O_n. Most but not all of this study is focused on endomorphisms which permute the vertex projections and globally preserve the diagonal MASA D...... that the restriction to the diagonal MASA of an automorphism which globally preserves both D_E and the core AF-subalgebra eventually commutes with the corresponding one-sided shift. Secondly, we exhibit several properties of proper endomorphisms, investigate invertibility of localized endomorphisms both on C... 18. Total colourings of graphs Yap, Hian-Poh 1996-01-01 This book provides an up-to-date and rapid introduction to an important and currently active topic in graph theory. The author leads the reader to the forefront of research in this area. Complete and easily readable proofs of all the main theorems, together with numerous examples, exercises and open problems are given. The book is suitable for use as a textbook or as seminar material for advanced undergraduate and graduate students. The references are comprehensive and so it will also be useful for researchers as a handbook. 19. Graph Algorithm Animation with Grrr Rodgers, Peter; Vidal, Natalia 2000-01-01 We discuss geometric positioning, highlighting of visited nodes and user defined highlighting that form the algorithm animation facilities in the Grrr graph rewriting programming language. The main purpose of animation was initially for the debugging and profiling of Grrr code, but recently it has been extended for the purpose of teaching algorithms to undergraduate students. The animation is restricted to graph based algorithms such as graph drawing, list manipulation or more traditional gra... 20. Open problems in mathematics Nash, Jr, John Forbes 2016-01-01 The goal in putting together this unique compilation was to present the current status of the solutions to some of the most essential open problems in pure and applied mathematics. Emphasis is also given to problems in interdisciplinary research for which mathematics plays a key role. This volume comprises highly selected contributions by some of the most eminent mathematicians in the international mathematical community on longstanding problems in very active domains of mathematical research. A joint preface by the two volume editors is followed by a personal farewell to John F. Nash, Jr. written by Michael Th. Rassias. An introduction by Mikhail Gromov highlights some of Nash’s legendary mathematical achievements. The treatment in this book includes open problems in the following fields: algebraic geometry, number theory, analysis, discrete mathematics, PDEs, differential geometry, topology, K-theory, game theory, fluid mechanics, dynamical systems and ergodic theory, cryptography, theoretical computer sc... 1. Optimization Problems on Threshold Graphs Elena Nechita 2010-06-01 Full Text Available During the last three decades, different types of decompositions have been processed in the field of graph theory. Among these we mention: decompositions based on the additivity of some characteristics of the graph, decompositions where the adjacency law between the subsets of the partition is known, decompositions where the subgraph induced by every subset of the partition must have predeterminate properties, as well as combinations of such decompositions. In this paper we characterize threshold graphs using the weakly decomposition, determine: density and stability number, Wiener index and Wiener polynomial for threshold graphs. 2. Eulerian Graphs and Related Topics Fleischner, Herbert 1990-01-01 The two volumes comprising Part 1 of this work embrace the theme of Eulerian trails and covering walks. They should appeal both to researchers and students, as they contain enough material for an undergraduate or graduate graph theory course which emphasizes Eulerian graphs, and thus can be read by any mathematician not yet familiar with graph theory. But they are also of interest to researchers in graph theory because they contain many recent results, some of which are only partial solutions to more general problems. A number of conjectures have been included as well. Various problems (such a 3. Variational and PDE-Based Methods for Big Data Analysis, Classification and Image Processing Using Graphs 2015-01-01 Assistant for Calculus (winter 2011) xii CHAPTER 1 Introduction We present several methods, outlined in Chapters 3-5, for image processing and data...local calculus formulation [103] to generalize the continuous formulation to a (non-local) discrete setting, while other non-local versions for...graph-based model based on the Ginzburg-Landau functional in their work [9]. To define the functional on a graph, the spatial gradient is replaced by a 4. Lower bounds on the independence number of certain graphs of odd girth at least seven Pedersen, A. S.; Rautenbach, D.; Regen, F. 2011-01-01 Heckman and Thomas [C.C. Heckman, R. Thomas, A new proof of the independence ratio of triangle-free cubic graphs, Discrete Math. 233 (2001) 233-237] proved that every connected subcubic triangle-free graph G has an independent set of order at least (4n(G) - m(G) - 1)/7 where n(G) and m(G) denote... 5. Quantum Graph Analysis Maunz, Peter Lukas Wilhelm [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sterk, Jonathan David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lobser, Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Parekh, Ojas D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ryan-Anderson, Ciaran [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States) 2016-01-01 In recent years, advanced network analytics have become increasingly important to na- tional security with applications ranging from cyber security to detection and disruption of ter- rorist networks. While classical computing solutions have received considerable investment, the development of quantum algorithms to address problems, such as data mining of attributed relational graphs, is a largely unexplored space. Recent theoretical work has shown that quan- tum algorithms for graph analysis can be more efficient than their classical counterparts. Here, we have implemented a trapped-ion-based two-qubit quantum information proces- sor to address these goals. Building on Sandia's microfabricated silicon surface ion traps, we have designed, realized and characterized a quantum information processor using the hyperfine qubits encoded in two 171 Yb + ions. We have implemented single qubit gates using resonant microwave radiation and have employed Gate set tomography (GST) to characterize the quan- tum process. For the first time, we were able to prove that the quantum process surpasses the fault tolerance thresholds of some quantum codes by demonstrating a diamond norm distance of less than 1 . 9 x 10 [?] 4 . We used Raman transitions in order to manipulate the trapped ions' motion and realize two-qubit gates. We characterized the implemented motion sensitive and insensitive single qubit processes and achieved a maximal process infidelity of 6 . 5 x 10 [?] 5 . We implemented the two-qubit gate proposed by Molmer and Sorensen and achieved a fidelity of more than 97 . 7%. 6. Benchmarking Measures of Network Controllability on Canonical Graph Models Wu-Yan, Elena; Betzel, Richard F.; Tang, Evelyn; Gu, Shi; Pasqualetti, Fabio; Bassett, Danielle S. 2018-03-01 The control of networked dynamical systems opens the possibility for new discoveries and therapies in systems biology and neuroscience. Recent theoretical advances provide candidate mechanisms by which a system can be driven from one pre-specified state to another, and computational approaches provide tools to test those mechanisms in real-world systems. Despite already having been applied to study network systems in biology and neuroscience, the practical performance of these tools and associated measures on simple networks with pre-specified structure has yet to be assessed. Here, we study the behavior of four control metrics (global, average, modal, and boundary controllability) on eight canonical graphs (including Erdős-Rényi, regular, small-world, random geometric, Barábasi-Albert preferential attachment, and several modular networks) with different edge weighting schemes (Gaussian, power-law, and two nonparametric distributions from brain networks, as examples of real-world systems). We observe that differences in global controllability across graph models are more salient when edge weight distributions are heavy-tailed as opposed to normal. In contrast, differences in average, modal, and boundary controllability across graph models (as well as across nodes in the graph) are more salient when edge weight distributions are less heavy-tailed. Across graph models and edge weighting schemes, average and modal controllability are negatively correlated with one another across nodes; yet, across graph instances, the relation between average and modal controllability can be positive, negative, or nonsignificant. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that controllability statistics (and their relations) differ across graphs with different topologies and that these differences can be muted or accentuated by differences in the edge weight distributions. More generally, our numerical studies motivate future analytical efforts to better understand the mathematical 7. Discrete Curvatures and Discrete Minimal Surfaces Sun, Xiang 2012-06-01 This thesis presents an overview of some approaches to compute Gaussian and mean curvature on discrete surfaces and discusses discrete minimal surfaces. The variety of applications of differential geometry in visualization and shape design leads to great interest in studying discrete surfaces. With the rich smooth surface theory in hand, one would hope that this elegant theory can still be applied to the discrete counter part. Such a generalization, however, is not always successful. While discrete surfaces have the advantage of being finite dimensional, thus easier to treat, their geometric properties such as curvatures are not well defined in the classical sense. Furthermore, the powerful calculus tool can hardly be applied. The methods in this thesis, including angular defect formula, cotangent formula, parallel meshes, relative geometry etc. are approaches based on offset meshes or generalized offset meshes. As an important application, we discuss discrete minimal surfaces and discrete Koenigs meshes. 8. ON BIPOLAR SINGLE VALUED NEUTROSOPHIC GRAPHS Said Broumi; Mohamed Talea; Assia Bakali; Florentin Smarandache 2016-01-01 In this article, we combine the concept of bipolar neutrosophic set and graph theory. We introduce the notions of bipolar single valued neutrosophic graphs, strong bipolar single valued neutrosophic graphs, complete bipolar single valued neutrosophic graphs, regular bipolar single valued neutrosophic graphs and investigate some of their related properties. 9. Graph Theory. 2. Vertex Descriptors and Graph Coloring Lorentz JÄNTSCHI 2002-12-01 Full Text Available This original work presents the construction of a set of ten sequence matrices and their applications for ordering vertices in graphs. For every sequence matrix three ordering criteria are applied: lexicographic ordering, based on strings of numbers, corresponding to every vertex, extracted as rows from sequence matrices; ordering by the sum of path lengths from a given vertex; and ordering by the sum of paths, starting from a given vertex. We also examine a graph that has different orderings for the above criteria. We then proceed to demonstrate that every criterion induced its own partition of graph vertex. We propose the following theoretical result: both LAVS and LVDS criteria generate identical partitioning of vertices in any graph. Finally, a coloring of graph vertices according to introduced ordering criteria was proposed. 10. On an edge partition and root graphs of some classes of line graphs K Pravas 2017-04-01 Full Text Available The Gallai and the anti-Gallai graphs of a graph$G$are complementary pairs of spanning subgraphs of the line graph of$G$. In this paper we find some structural relations between these graph classes by finding a partition of the edge set of the line graph of a graph$G$into the edge sets of the Gallai and anti-Gallai graphs of$G$. Based on this, an optimal algorithm to find the root graph of a line graph is obtained. Moreover, root graphs of diameter-maximal, distance-hereditary, Ptolemaic and chordal graphs are also discussed. 11. Combinatorics and graph theory Vasudev, C 2007-01-01 About the Book: This text has been carefully designed for flexible use for First Semester M.C.A. course of Uttar Pradesh Technical University (U.P.T.U.), and it contains the following features: Precise mathematical language is used without excessive formalism and abstraction. Over 900 exercises (problem sets) in the text with many different types of questions posed. Care has been taken to balance the mix of notation and words in mathematical statements. Problem sets (exercises) are stated clearly and unambiguously and all are carefully graded for various levels of difficulty. Contents: 12. Chemical graph-theoretic cluster expansions Klein, D.J. 1986-01-01 A general computationally amenable chemico-graph-theoretic cluster expansion method is suggested as a paradigm for incorporation of chemical structure concepts in a systematic manner. The cluster expansion approach is presented in a formalism general enough to cover a variety of empirical, semiempirical, and even ab initio applications. Formally such approaches for the utilization of chemical structure-related concepts may be viewed as discrete analogues of Taylor series expansions. The efficacy of the chemical structure concepts then is simply bound up in the rate of convergence of the cluster expansions. In many empirical applications, e.g., boiling points, chromatographic separation coefficients, and biological activities, this rate of convergence has been observed to be quite rapid. More note will be made here of quantum chemical applications. Relations to questions concerning size extensivity of energies and size consistency of wave functions are addressed 13. The planar cubic Cayley graphs Georgakopoulos, Agelos 2018-01-01 The author obtains a complete description of the planar cubic Cayley graphs, providing an explicit presentation and embedding for each of them. This turns out to be a rich class, comprising several infinite families. He obtains counterexamples to conjectures of Mohar, Bonnington and Watkins. The author's analysis makes the involved graphs accessible to computation, corroborating a conjecture of Droms. 14. Groupies in random bipartite graphs Yilun Shang 2010-01-01 A vertex$v$of a graph$G$is called a groupie if its degree is notless than the average of the degrees of its neighbors. In thispaper we study the influence of bipartition$(B_1,B_2)$on groupiesin random bipartite graphs$G(B_1,B_2,p)$with both fixed$p$and$ptending to zero. 15. Nested Dynamic Condition Response Graphs Hildebrandt, Thomas; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao; Slaats, Tijs 2012-01-01 We present an extension of the recently introduced declarative process model Dynamic Condition Response Graphs ( DCR Graphs) to allow nested subgraphs and a new milestone relation between events. The extension was developed during a case study carried out jointly with our industrial partner... 16. Bell inequalities for graph states Toth, G.; Hyllus, P.; Briegel, H.J.; Guehne, O. 2005-01-01 Full text: In the last years graph states have attracted an increasing interest in the field of quantum information theory. Graph states form a family of multi-qubit states which comprises many popular states such as the GHZ states and the cluster states. They also play an important role in applications. For instance, measurement based quantum computation uses graph states as resources. From a theoretical point of view, it is remarkable that graph states allow for a simple description in terms of stabilizing operators. In this contribution, we investigate the non-local properties of graph states. We derive a family of Bell inequalities which require three measurement settings for each party and are maximally violated by graph states. In turn, any graph state violates at least one of the inequalities. We show that for certain types of graph states the violation of these inequalities increases exponentially with the number of qubits. We also discuss connections to other entanglement properties such as the positively of the partial transpose or the geometric measure of entanglement. (author) 17. Graph Sampling for Covariance Estimation Chepuri, Sundeep Prabhakar; Leus, Geert 2017-01-01 specialize for undirected circulant graphs in that the graph nodes leading to the best compression rates are given by the so-called minimal sparse rulers. A near-optimal greedy algorithm is developed to design the subsampling scheme for the non 18. Network reconstruction via graph blending Estrada, Rolando 2016-05-01 Graphs estimated from empirical data are often noisy and incomplete due to the difficulty of faithfully observing all the components (nodes and edges) of the true graph. This problem is particularly acute for large networks where the number of components may far exceed available surveillance capabilities. Errors in the observed graph can render subsequent analyses invalid, so it is vital to develop robust methods that can minimize these observational errors. Errors in the observed graph may include missing and spurious components, as well fused (multiple nodes are merged into one) and split (a single node is misinterpreted as many) nodes. Traditional graph reconstruction methods are only able to identify missing or spurious components (primarily edges, and to a lesser degree nodes), so we developed a novel graph blending framework that allows us to cast the full estimation problem as a simple edge addition/deletion problem. Armed with this framework, we systematically investigate the viability of various topological graph features, such as the degree distribution or the clustering coefficients, and existing graph reconstruction methods for tackling the full estimation problem. Our experimental results suggest that incorporating any topological feature as a source of information actually hinders reconstruction accuracy. We provide a theoretical analysis of this phenomenon and suggest several avenues for improving this estimation problem. 19. A cluster algorithm for graphs S. van Dongen 2000-01-01 textabstractA cluster algorithm for graphs called the emph{Markov Cluster algorithm (MCL~algorithm) is introduced. The algorithm provides basically an interface to an algebraic process defined on stochastic matrices, called the MCL~process. The graphs may be both weighted (with nonnegative weight) 20. Bouncing Balls and Graphing Derivatives Cory, Beth 2010-01-01 National Council of Teachers of Mathematics' (NCTM's) (2000) Connections Standard states that students should "recognize and use connections among mathematical ideas; understand how mathematical ideas interconnect ...; [and] recognize and apply mathematics in contexts outside of mathematics" (p. 354). This article presents an in-depth… 1. Evolutionary stability of mixed strategies on graphs Li, Yan; Liu, Xinsheng; Claussen, Jens Christian 2016-01-01 Up to the present time, the study of evolutionary dynamics mostly focused on pure strategy games in finite discrete strategy space, either in well-mixed or structured populations. In this paper, we study mixed strategy games in continuous strategy space on graphs of degree k . Each player is arranged on a vertex of the graph. The edges denote the interaction between two individuals. In the limit of weak selection, we first derive the payoff functions of two mixed strategies under three different updating rules, named birth–death, death–birth and imitation. Then we obtain the conditions for a strategy being a continuously stable strategy (CSS), and we also confirm that the equilibrium distribution corresponding to the CSS is neighborhood attracting and strongly uninvadable. Finally, we apply our theory to the prisoner’s dilemma and the snowdrift game to obtain possible CSS. Simulations are performed for the two special games and the results are well consistent with the conclusions we made. (paper) 2. Tailored graph ensembles as proxies or null models for real networks II: results on directed graphs Roberts, E S; Coolen, A C C; Schlitt, T 2011-01-01 We generate new mathematical tools with which to quantify the macroscopic topological structure of large directed networks. This is achieved via a statistical mechanical analysis of constrained maximum entropy ensembles of directed random graphs with prescribed joint distributions for in- and out-degrees and prescribed degree-degree correlation functions. We calculate exact and explicit formulae for the leading orders in the system size of the Shannon entropies and complexities of these ensembles, and for information-theoretic distances. The results are applied to data on gene regulation networks. 3. Planar graphs theory and algorithms Nishizeki, T 1988-01-01 Collected in this volume are most of the important theorems and algorithms currently known for planar graphs, together with constructive proofs for the theorems. Many of the algorithms are written in Pidgin PASCAL, and are the best-known ones; the complexities are linear or 0(nlogn). The first two chapters provide the foundations of graph theoretic notions and algorithmic techniques. The remaining chapters discuss the topics of planarity testing, embedding, drawing, vertex- or edge-coloring, maximum independence set, subgraph listing, planar separator theorem, Hamiltonian cycles, and single- or multicommodity flows. Suitable for a course on algorithms, graph theory, or planar graphs, the volume will also be useful for computer scientists and graph theorists at the research level. An extensive reference section is included. 4. RJSplot: Interactive Graphs with R. Barrios, David; Prieto, Carlos 2018-03-01 Data visualization techniques provide new methods for the generation of interactive graphs. These graphs allow a better exploration and interpretation of data but their creation requires advanced knowledge of graphical libraries. Recent packages have enabled the integration of interactive graphs in R. However, R provides limited graphical packages that allow the generation of interactive graphs for computational biology applications. The present project has joined the analytical power of R with the interactive graphical features of JavaScript in a new R package (RJSplot). It enables the easy generation of interactive graphs in R, provides new visualization capabilities, and contributes to the advance of computational biology analytical methods. At present, 16 interactive graphics are available in RJSplot, such as the genome viewer, Manhattan plots, 3D plots, heatmaps, dendrograms, networks, and so on. The RJSplot package is freely available online at http://rjsplot.net. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. 5. Graphs in kinematics—a need for adherence to principles of algebraic functions Sokolowski, Andrzej 2017-11-01 Graphs in physics are central to the analysis of phenomena and to learning about a system’s behavior. The ways students handle graphs are frequently researched. Students’ misconceptions are highlighted, and methods of improvement suggested. While kinematics graphs are to represent a real motion, they are also algebraic entities that must satisfy conditions for being algebraic functions. To be algebraic functions, they must pass certain tests before they can be used to infer more about motion. A preliminary survey of some physics resources has revealed that little attention is paid to verifying if the position, velocity and acceleration versus time graphs, that are to depict real motion, satisfy the most critical condition for being an algebraic function; the vertical line test. The lack of attention to this adherence shows as vertical segments in piecewise graphs. Such graphs generate unrealistic interpretations and may confuse students. A group of 25 college physics students was provided with such a graph and asked to analyse its adherence to reality. The majority of the students (N = 16, 64%) questioned the graph’s validity. It is inferred that such graphs might not only jeopardize the function principles studied in mathematics but also undermine the purpose of studying these principles. The aim of this study was to bring this idea forth and suggest a better alignment of physics and mathematics methods. 6. A Novel Discrete Differential Evolution Algorithm for the Vehicle Routing Problem in B2C E-Commerce Xia, Chao; Sheng, Ying; Jiang, Zhong-Zhong; Tan, Chunqiao; Huang, Min; He, Yuanjian 2015-12-01 In this paper, a novel discrete differential evolution (DDE) algorithm is proposed to solve the vehicle routing problems (VRP) in B2C e-commerce, in which VRP is modeled by the incomplete graph based on the actual urban road system. First, a variant of classical VRP is described and a mathematical programming model for the variant is given. Second, the DDE is presented, where individuals are represented as the sequential encoding scheme, and a novel reparation operator is employed to repair the infeasible solutions. Furthermore, a FLOYD operator for dealing with the shortest route is embedded in the proposed DDE. Finally, an extensive computational study is carried out in comparison with the predatory search algorithm and genetic algorithm, and the results show that the proposed DDE is an effective algorithm for VRP in B2C e-commerce. 7. On the physical relevance of the discrete Fourier transform Greben, JM 1991-11-01 Full Text Available This paper originated from the author's dissatisfaction with the way the discrete Fourier transform is usually presented in the literature. Although mathematically correct, the physical meaning of the common representation is unsatisfactory... 8. Graph embedding with rich information through heterogeneous graph Sun, Guolei 2017-11-12 Graph embedding, aiming to learn low-dimensional representations for nodes in graphs, has attracted increasing attention due to its critical application including node classification, link prediction and clustering in social network analysis. Most existing algorithms for graph embedding only rely on the topology information and fail to use the copious information in nodes as well as edges. As a result, their performance for many tasks may not be satisfactory. In this thesis, we proposed a novel and general framework for graph embedding with rich text information (GERI) through constructing a heterogeneous network, in which we integrate node and edge content information with graph topology. Specially, we designed a novel biased random walk to explore the constructed heterogeneous network with the notion of flexible neighborhood. Our sampling strategy can compromise between BFS and DFS local search on heterogeneous graph. To further improve our algorithm, we proposed semi-supervised GERI (SGERI), which learns graph embedding in an discriminative manner through heterogeneous network with label information. The efficacy of our method is demonstrated by extensive comparison experiments with 9 baselines over multi-label and multi-class classification on various datasets including Citeseer, Cora, DBLP and Wiki. It shows that GERI improves the Micro-F1 and Macro-F1 of node classification up to 10%, and SGERI improves GERI by 5% in Wiki. 9. CORECLUSTER: A Degeneracy Based Graph Clustering Framework Giatsidis , Christos; Malliaros , Fragkiskos; Thilikos , Dimitrios M. ,; Vazirgiannis , Michalis 2014-01-01 International audience; Graph clustering or community detection constitutes an important task forinvestigating the internal structure of graphs, with a plethora of applications in several domains. Traditional tools for graph clustering, such asspectral methods, typically suffer from high time and space complexity. In thisarticle, we present \\textsc{CoreCluster}, an efficient graph clusteringframework based on the concept of graph degeneracy, that can be used along withany known graph clusteri... 10. Data assimilation a mathematical introduction Law, Kody; Zygalakis, Konstantinos 2015-01-01 This book provides a systematic treatment of the mathematical underpinnings of work in data assimilation, covering both theoretical and computational approaches. Specifically the authors develop a unified mathematical framework in which a Bayesian formulation of the problem provides the bedrock for the derivation, development and analysis of algorithms; the many examples used in the text, together with the algorithms which are introduced and discussed, are all illustrated by the MATLAB software detailed in the book and made freely available online. The book is organized into nine chapters: the first contains a brief introduction to the mathematical tools around which the material is organized; the next four are concerned with discrete time dynamical systems and discrete time data; the last four are concerned with continuous time dynamical systems and continuous time data and are organized analogously to the corresponding discrete time chapters. This book is aimed at mathematical researchers interested in a sy... 11. Discrete-Time Nonlinear Control of VSC-HVDC System TianTian Qian 2015-01-01 Full Text Available Because VSC-HVDC is a kind of strong nonlinear, coupling, and multi-input multioutput (MIMO system, its control problem is always attracting much attention from scholars. And a lot of papers have done research on its control strategy in the continuous-time domain. But the control system is implemented through the computer discrete sampling in practical engineering. It is necessary to study the mathematical model and control algorithm in the discrete-time domain. The discrete mathematical model based on output feedback linearization and discrete sliding mode control algorithm is proposed in this paper. And to ensure the effectiveness of the control system in the quasi sliding mode state, the fast output sampling method is used in the output feedback. The results from simulation experiment in MATLAB/SIMULINK prove that the proposed discrete control algorithm can make the VSC-HVDC system have good static, dynamic, and robust characteristics in discrete-time domain. 12. Transversals in non-discrete groups Transversals in non-discrete groups. RAMJI LAL and R P SHUKLA. Department of Mathematics, University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211 002, India. E-mail: ramjilal@mri.ernet.in; rps@mri.ernet.in. MS received 2 August 2004; revised 4 August 2005. Abstract. The concept of 'topological right transversal' is introduced to study ... 13. Attractors for discrete periodic dynamical systems John E. Franke; James F. Selgrade 2003-01-01 A mathematical framework is introduced to study attractors of discrete, nonautonomous dynamical systems which depend periodically on time. A structure theorem for such attractors is established which says that the attractor of a time-periodic dynamical system is the unin of attractors of appropriate autonomous maps. If the nonautonomous system is a perturbation of an... 14. Discrete expansions of continuum wave functions Bang, J.; Ershov, S.N.; Gareev, F.A.; Kazacha, G.S. 1980-01-01 Different methods of expanding continuum wave functions in terms of discrete basis sets are discussed. The convergence properties of these expansions are investigated, both from a mathematical and a numerical point of view, for the case of potentials of Woods-Saxon and square well type. (orig.) 15. From Specific Information Extraction to Inferences: A Hierarchical Framework of Graph Comprehension 2004-09-01 The skill to interpret the information displayed in graphs is so important to have, the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics has created...guidelines to ensure that students learn these skills ( NCTM : Standards for Mathematics , 2003). These guidelines are based primarily on the extraction of...graphical perception. Human Computer Interaction, 8, 353-388. NCTM : Standards for Mathematics . (2003, 2003). Peebles, D., & Cheng, P. C.-H. (2002 16. Hierarchy of modular graph identities D’Hoker, Eric; Kaidi, Justin 2016-01-01 The low energy expansion of Type II superstring amplitudes at genus one is organized in terms of modular graph functions associated with Feynman graphs of a conformal scalar field on the torus. In earlier work, surprising identities between two-loop graphs at all weights, and between higher-loop graphs of weights four and five were constructed. In the present paper, these results are generalized in two complementary directions. First, all identities at weight six and all dihedral identities at weight seven are obtained and proven. Whenever the Laurent polynomial at the cusp is available, the form of these identities confirms the pattern by which the vanishing of the Laurent polynomial governs the full modular identity. Second, the family of modular graph functions is extended to include all graphs with derivative couplings and worldsheet fermions. These extended families of modular graph functions are shown to obey a hierarchy of inhomogeneous Laplace eigenvalue equations. The eigenvalues are calculated analytically for the simplest infinite sub-families and obtained by Maple for successively more complicated sub-families. The spectrum is shown to consist solely of eigenvalues s(s−1) for positive integers s bounded by the weight, with multiplicities which exhibit rich representation-theoretic patterns. 17. Semantic graphs and associative memories Pomi, Andrés; Mizraji, Eduardo 2004-12-01 Graphs have been increasingly utilized in the characterization of complex networks from diverse origins, including different kinds of semantic networks. Human memories are associative and are known to support complex semantic nets; these nets are represented by graphs. However, it is not known how the brain can sustain these semantic graphs. The vision of cognitive brain activities, shown by modern functional imaging techniques, assigns renewed value to classical distributed associative memory models. Here we show that these neural network models, also known as correlation matrix memories, naturally support a graph representation of the stored semantic structure. We demonstrate that the adjacency matrix of this graph of associations is just the memory coded with the standard basis of the concept vector space, and that the spectrum of the graph is a code invariant of the memory. As long as the assumptions of the model remain valid this result provides a practical method to predict and modify the evolution of the cognitive dynamics. Also, it could provide us with a way to comprehend how individual brains that map the external reality, almost surely with different particular vector representations, are nevertheless able to communicate and share a common knowledge of the world. We finish presenting adaptive association graphs, an extension of the model that makes use of the tensor product, which provides a solution to the known problem of branching in semantic nets. 18. Hierarchy of modular graph identities D’Hoker, Eric; Kaidi, Justin [Mani L. Bhaumik Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy,University of California,Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States) 2016-11-09 The low energy expansion of Type II superstring amplitudes at genus one is organized in terms of modular graph functions associated with Feynman graphs of a conformal scalar field on the torus. In earlier work, surprising identities between two-loop graphs at all weights, and between higher-loop graphs of weights four and five were constructed. In the present paper, these results are generalized in two complementary directions. First, all identities at weight six and all dihedral identities at weight seven are obtained and proven. Whenever the Laurent polynomial at the cusp is available, the form of these identities confirms the pattern by which the vanishing of the Laurent polynomial governs the full modular identity. Second, the family of modular graph functions is extended to include all graphs with derivative couplings and worldsheet fermions. These extended families of modular graph functions are shown to obey a hierarchy of inhomogeneous Laplace eigenvalue equations. The eigenvalues are calculated analytically for the simplest infinite sub-families and obtained by Maple for successively more complicated sub-families. The spectrum is shown to consist solely of eigenvalues s(s−1) for positive integers s bounded by the weight, with multiplicities which exhibit rich representation-theoretic patterns. 19. Generating hierarchial scale-free graphs from fractals Komjathy, Julia, E-mail: komyju@math.bme.hu [Department of Stochastics, Institute of Mathematics, Technical University of Budapest, H-1529 P.O. Box 91 (Hungary); Simon, Karoly, E-mail: simonk@math.bme.hu [Department of Stochastics, Institute of Mathematics, Technical University of Budapest, H-1529 P.O. Box 91 (Hungary) 2011-08-15 Highlights: > We generate deterministic scale-free networks using graph-directed self similar IFS. > Our model exhibits similar clustering, power law decay properties to real networks. > The average length of shortest path and the diameter of the graph are determined. > Using this model, we generate random graphs with prescribed power law exponent. - Abstract: Motivated by the hierarchial network model of E. Ravasz, A.-L. Barabasi, and T. Vicsek, we introduce deterministic scale-free networks derived from a graph directed self-similar fractal {Lambda}. With rigorous mathematical results we verify that our model captures some of the most important features of many real networks: the scale-free and the high clustering properties. We also prove that the diameter is the logarithm of the size of the system. We point out a connection between the power law exponent of the degree distribution and some intrinsic geometric measure theoretical properties of the underlying fractal. Using our (deterministic) fractal {Lambda} we generate random graph sequence sharing similar properties. 20. A discretized algorithm for the solution of a constrained, continuous ... A discretized algorithm for the solution of a constrained, continuous quadratic control problem. ... The results obtained show that the Discretized constrained algorithm (DCA) is much more accurate and more efficient than some of these techniques, particularly the FSA. Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical ... 1. A scheme for designing extreme multistable discrete dynamical ... A scheme for designing extreme multistable discrete dynamical systems ... Abstract. In this paper, we propose a scheme for designing discrete extreme multistable systems coupling two identical dynamical systems. Existence ... Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Calcutta, 92 APC Road, Kolkata 700 009, India ... 2. On the application of Discrete Time Optimal Control Concepts to ... On the application of Discrete Time Optimal Control Concepts to Economic Problems. ... Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics ... Abstract. An extension of the use of the maximum principle to solve Discrete-time Optimal Control Problems (DTOCP), in which the state equations are in the form of general ... 3. On the discrete reconciliation of relativity and quantum mechanics Noyes, H.P. 1987-03-01 A way is sketched to replace physics based on arbitrary units of mass, length, and time by counting in terms of these quantized values and to replace continuum mathematical physics by computer science. The consequences of such a discrete physics are summarized. These are obtained by postulating finiteness, discreteness, finite computability, absolute non-uniqueness, and additivity 4. Identification of parameters of discrete-continuous models Cekus, Dawid; Warys, Pawel 2015-01-01 In the paper, the parameters of a discrete-continuous model have been identified on the basis of experimental investigations and formulation of optimization problem. The discrete-continuous model represents a cantilever stepped Timoshenko beam. The mathematical model has been formulated and solved according to the Lagrange multiplier formalism. Optimization has been based on the genetic algorithm. The presented proceeding’s stages make the identification of any parameters of discrete-continuous systems possible 5. Identification of parameters of discrete-continuous models Cekus, Dawid, E-mail: cekus@imipkm.pcz.pl; Warys, Pawel, E-mail: warys@imipkm.pcz.pl [Institute of Mechanics and Machine Design Foundations, Czestochowa University of Technology, Dabrowskiego 73, 42-201 Czestochowa (Poland) 2015-03-10 In the paper, the parameters of a discrete-continuous model have been identified on the basis of experimental investigations and formulation of optimization problem. The discrete-continuous model represents a cantilever stepped Timoshenko beam. The mathematical model has been formulated and solved according to the Lagrange multiplier formalism. Optimization has been based on the genetic algorithm. The presented proceeding’s stages make the identification of any parameters of discrete-continuous systems possible. 6. DISCRETE FIXED POINT THEOREMS AND THEIR APPLICATION TO NASH EQUILIBRIUM Sato, Junichi; Kawasaki, Hidefumi 2007-01-01 Fixed point theorems are powerful tools in not only mathematics but also economic. In some economic problems, we need not real-valued but integer-valued equilibriums. However, classical fixed point theorems guarantee only real-valued equilibria. So we need discrete fixed point theorems in order to get discrete equilibria. In this paper, we first provide discrete fixed point theorems, next apply them to a non-cooperative game and prove the existence of a Nash equilibrium of pure strategies. 7. Characterization of inclusion neighbourhood in terms of the essential graph Studený, Milan 2005-01-01 Roč. 38, č. 3 (2005), s. 283-309 ISSN 0888-613X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/04/0393; GA AV ČR IAA1075104 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : learning Bayesian networks * inclusion neighbourhood * essential graph Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.959, year: 2005 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/historie/studeny-0411275.pdf 8. A HYBRID ALGORITHM FOR THE ROBUST GRAPH COLORING PROBLEM Román Anselmo Mora Gutiérrez 2016-08-01 Full Text Available A hybridalgorithm which combines mathematical programming techniques (Kruskal’s algorithm and the strategy of maintaining arc consistency to solve constraint satisfaction problem “CSP” and heuristic methods (musical composition method and DSATUR to resolve the robust graph coloring problem (RGCP is proposed in this paper. Experimental result shows that this algorithm is better than the other algorithms presented on the literature. 9. Better bounds for incremental frequency allocation in bipartite graphs Chrobak, M.; Jeż, Łukasz; Sgall, J. 2013-01-01 Roč. 514, 25 November (2013), s. 75-83 ISSN 0304-3975 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902; GA ČR GBP202/12/G061 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : online algorithms * frequency allocation * graph algorithms Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.516, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304397512004781 10. XML Graphs in Program Analysis Møller, Anders; Schwartzbach, Michael I. 2011-01-01 of XML graphs against different XML schema languages, and provide a software package that enables others to make use of these ideas. We also survey the use of XML graphs for program analysis with four very different languages: XACT (XML in Java), Java Servlets (Web application programming), XSugar......XML graphs have shown to be a simple and effective formalism for representing sets of XML documents in program analysis. It has evolved through a six year period with variants tailored for a range of applications. We present a unified definition, outline the key properties including validation... 11. Coloring and The Lonely Graph Rabern, Landon 2007-01-01 We improve upper bounds on the chromatic number proven independently in \\cite{reedNote} and \\cite{ingo}. Our main lemma gives a sufficient condition for two paths in graph to be completely joined. Using this, we prove that if a graph has an optimal coloring with more than\\frac{\\omega}{2}$singleton color classes, then it satisfies$\\chi \\leq \\frac{\\omega + \\Delta + 1}{2}$. It follows that a graph satisfying$n - \\Delta < \\alpha + \\frac{\\omega - 1}{2}$must also satisfy$\\chi \\leq \\frac{\\ome...

12. Graphs with Eulerian unit spheres

Knill, Oliver

2015-01-01

d-spheres in graph theory are inductively defined as graphs for which all unit spheres S(x) are (d-1)-spheres and that the removal of one vertex renders the graph contractible. Eulerian d-spheres are geometric d-spheres which are d+1 colorable. We prove here that G is an Eulerian sphere if and only if the degrees of all the (d-2)-dimensional sub-simplices in G are even. This generalizes a Kempe-Heawood result for d=2 and is work related to the conjecture that all d-spheres have chromatic numb...

13. Inferring gene networks from discrete expression data

Zhang, L.

2013-07-18

The modeling of gene networks from transcriptional expression data is an important tool in biomedical research to reveal signaling pathways and to identify treatment targets. Current gene network modeling is primarily based on the use of Gaussian graphical models applied to continuous data, which give a closedformmarginal likelihood. In this paper,we extend network modeling to discrete data, specifically data from serial analysis of gene expression, and RNA-sequencing experiments, both of which generate counts of mRNAtranscripts in cell samples.We propose a generalized linear model to fit the discrete gene expression data and assume that the log ratios of the mean expression levels follow a Gaussian distribution.We restrict the gene network structures to decomposable graphs and derive the graphs by selecting the covariance matrix of the Gaussian distribution with the hyper-inverse Wishart priors. Furthermore, we incorporate prior network models based on gene ontology information, which avails existing biological information on the genes of interest. We conduct simulation studies to examine the performance of our discrete graphical model and apply the method to two real datasets for gene network inference. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

14. Discrete calculus methods for counting

Mariconda, Carlo

2016-01-01

This book provides an introduction to combinatorics, finite calculus, formal series, recurrences, and approximations of sums. Readers will find not only coverage of the basic elements of the subjects but also deep insights into a range of less common topics rarely considered within a single book, such as counting with occupancy constraints, a clear distinction between algebraic and analytical properties of formal power series, an introduction to discrete dynamical systems with a thorough description of Sarkovskii’s theorem, symbolic calculus, and a complete description of the Euler-Maclaurin formulas and their applications. Although several books touch on one or more of these aspects, precious few cover all of them. The authors, both pure mathematicians, have attempted to develop methods that will allow the student to formulate a given problem in a precise mathematical framework. The aim is to equip readers with a sound strategy for classifying and solving problems by pursuing a mathematically rigorous yet ...

15. Mimetic discretization methods

Castillo, Jose E

2013-01-01

To help solve physical and engineering problems, mimetic or compatible algebraic discretization methods employ discrete constructs to mimic the continuous identities and theorems found in vector calculus. Mimetic Discretization Methods focuses on the recent mimetic discretization method co-developed by the first author. Based on the Castillo-Grone operators, this simple mimetic discretization method is invariably valid for spatial dimensions no greater than three. The book also presents a numerical method for obtaining corresponding discrete operators that mimic the continuum differential and

16. The Effects of Constructivist Learning Environment on Prospective Mathematics Teachers' Opinions

Narli, Serkan; Baser, Nes'e

2010-01-01

To explore the effects of constructivist learning environment on prospective teachers' opinions about "mathematics, department of mathematics, discrete mathematics, countable and uncountable infinity" taught under the subject of Cantorian Set Theory in discrete mathematics class, 60 first-year students in the Division of Mathematics…

17. Evolutionary games on graphs

Szabó, György; Fáth, Gábor

2007-07-01

Game theory is one of the key paradigms behind many scientific disciplines from biology to behavioral sciences to economics. In its evolutionary form and especially when the interacting agents are linked in a specific social network the underlying solution concepts and methods are very similar to those applied in non-equilibrium statistical physics. This review gives a tutorial-type overview of the field for physicists. The first four sections introduce the necessary background in classical and evolutionary game theory from the basic definitions to the most important results. The fifth section surveys the topological complications implied by non-mean-field-type social network structures in general. The next three sections discuss in detail the dynamic behavior of three prominent classes of models: the Prisoner's Dilemma, the Rock-Scissors-Paper game, and Competing Associations. The major theme of the review is in what sense and how the graph structure of interactions can modify and enrich the picture of long term behavioral patterns emerging in evolutionary games.

18. Navigability of Random Geometric Graphs in the Universe and Other Spacetimes.

Cunningham, William; Zuev, Konstantin; Krioukov, Dmitri

2017-08-18

Random geometric graphs in hyperbolic spaces explain many common structural and dynamical properties of real networks, yet they fail to predict the correct values of the exponents of power-law degree distributions observed in real networks. In that respect, random geometric graphs in asymptotically de Sitter spacetimes, such as the Lorentzian spacetime of our accelerating universe, are more attractive as their predictions are more consistent with observations in real networks. Yet another important property of hyperbolic graphs is their navigability, and it remains unclear if de Sitter graphs are as navigable as hyperbolic ones. Here we study the navigability of random geometric graphs in three Lorentzian manifolds corresponding to universes filled only with dark energy (de Sitter spacetime), only with matter, and with a mixture of dark energy and matter. We find these graphs are navigable only in the manifolds with dark energy. This result implies that, in terms of navigability, random geometric graphs in asymptotically de Sitter spacetimes are as good as random hyperbolic graphs. It also establishes a connection between the presence of dark energy and navigability of the discretized causal structure of spacetime, which provides a basis for a different approach to the dark energy problem in cosmology.

19. Evolutionary dynamics on graphs: Efficient method for weak selection

Fu, Feng; Wang, Long; Nowak, Martin A.; Hauert, Christoph

2009-04-01

Investigating the evolutionary dynamics of game theoretical interactions in populations where individuals are arranged on a graph can be challenging in terms of computation time. Here, we propose an efficient method to study any type of game on arbitrary graph structures for weak selection. In this limit, evolutionary game dynamics represents a first-order correction to neutral evolution. Spatial correlations can be empirically determined under neutral evolution and provide the basis for formulating the game dynamics as a discrete Markov process by incorporating a detailed description of the microscopic dynamics based on the neutral correlations. This framework is then applied to one of the most intriguing questions in evolutionary biology: the evolution of cooperation. We demonstrate that the degree heterogeneity of a graph impedes cooperation and that the success of tit for tat depends not only on the number of rounds but also on the degree of the graph. Moreover, considering the mutation-selection equilibrium shows that the symmetry of the stationary distribution of states under weak selection is skewed in favor of defectors for larger selection strengths. In particular, degree heterogeneity—a prominent feature of scale-free networks—generally results in a more pronounced increase in the critical benefit-to-cost ratio required for evolution to favor cooperation as compared to regular graphs. This conclusion is corroborated by an analysis of the effects of population structures on the fixation probabilities of strategies in general 2×2 games for different types of graphs. Computer simulations confirm the predictive power of our method and illustrate the improved accuracy as compared to previous studies.

20. Problem solving through recreational mathematics

Averbach, Bonnie

1999-01-01

Historically, many of the most important mathematical concepts arose from problems that were recreational in origin. This book takes advantage of that fact, using recreational mathematics - problems, puzzles and games - to teach students how to think critically. Encouraging active participation rather than just observation, the book focuses less on mathematical results than on how these results can be applied to thinking about problems and solving them. Each chapter contains a diverse array of problems in such areas as logic, number and graph theory, two-player games of strategy, solitaire ga

1. Properly colored connectivity of graphs

Li, Xueliang; Qin, Zhongmei

2018-01-01

A comprehensive survey of proper connection of graphs is discussed in this book with real world applications in computer science and network security. Beginning with a brief introduction, comprising relevant definitions and preliminary results, this book moves on to consider a variety of properties of graphs that imply bounds on the proper connection number. Detailed proofs of significant advancements toward open problems and conjectures are presented with complete references. Researchers and graduate students with an interest in graph connectivity and colorings will find this book useful as it builds upon fundamental definitions towards modern innovations, strategies, and techniques. The detailed presentation lends to use as an introduction to proper connection of graphs for new and advanced researchers, a solid book for a graduate level topics course, or as a reference for those interested in expanding and further developing research in the area.

2. Graph anomalies in cyber communications

Vander Wiel, Scott A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Storlie, Curtis B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sandine, Gary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hagberg, Aric A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fisk, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-11

Enterprises monitor cyber traffic for viruses, intruders and stolen information. Detection methods look for known signatures of malicious traffic or search for anomalies with respect to a nominal reference model. Traditional anomaly detection focuses on aggregate traffic at central nodes or on user-level monitoring. More recently, however, traffic is being viewed more holistically as a dynamic communication graph. Attention to the graph nature of the traffic has expanded the types of anomalies that are being sought. We give an overview of several cyber data streams collected at Los Alamos National Laboratory and discuss current work in modeling the graph dynamics of traffic over the network. We consider global properties and local properties within the communication graph. A method for monitoring relative entropy on multiple correlated properties is discussed in detail.

3. Open Graphs and Computational Reasoning

Lucas Dixon

2010-06-01

Full Text Available We present a form of algebraic reasoning for computational objects which are expressed as graphs. Edges describe the flow of data between primitive operations which are represented by vertices. These graphs have an interface made of half-edges (edges which are drawn with an unconnected end and enjoy rich compositional principles by connecting graphs along these half-edges. In particular, this allows equations and rewrite rules to be specified between graphs. Particular computational models can then be encoded as an axiomatic set of such rules. Further rules can be derived graphically and rewriting can be used to simulate the dynamics of a computational system, e.g. evaluating a program on an input. Examples of models which can be formalised in this way include traditional electronic circuits as well as recent categorical accounts of quantum information.

4. Graph theory and its applications

Gross, Jonathan L

2006-01-01

Gross and Yellen take a comprehensive approach to graph theory that integrates careful exposition of classical developments with emerging methods, models, and practical needs. Their unparalleled treatment provides a text ideal for a two-semester course and a variety of one-semester classes, from an introductory one-semester course to courses slanted toward classical graph theory, operations research, data structures and algorithms, or algebra and topology.

5. Time Discretization Techniques

Gottlieb, S.; Ketcheson, David I.

2016-01-01

The time discretization of hyperbolic partial differential equations is typically the evolution of a system of ordinary differential equations obtained by spatial discretization of the original problem. Methods for this time evolution include

6. A faithful functor among algebras and graphs

Falcón Ganfornina, Óscar Jesús; Falcón Ganfornina, Raúl Manuel; Núñez Valdés, Juan; Pacheco Martínez, Ana María; Villar Liñán, María Trinidad; Vigo Aguiar, Jesús (Coordinador)

2016-01-01

The problem of identifying a functor between the categories of algebras and graphs is currently open. Based on a known algorithm that identifies isomorphisms of Latin squares with isomorphism of vertex-colored graphs, we describe here a pair of graphs that enable us to find a faithful functor between finite-dimensional algebras over finite fields and these graphs.

7. Graphs with branchwidth at most three

Bodlaender, H.L.; Thilikos, D.M.

1997-01-01

In this paper we investigate both the structure of graphs with branchwidth at most three, as well as algorithms to recognise such graphs. We show that a graph has branchwidth at most three, if and only if it has treewidth at most three and does not contain the three-dimensional binary cube graph

8. A Modal-Logic Based Graph Abstraction

Bauer, J.; Boneva, I.B.; Kurban, M.E.; Rensink, Arend; Ehrig, H; Heckel, R.; Rozenberg, G.; Taentzer, G.

2008-01-01

Infinite or very large state spaces often prohibit the successful verification of graph transformation systems. Abstract graph transformation is an approach that tackles this problem by abstracting graphs to abstract graphs of bounded size and by lifting application of productions to abstract

9. Graphs whose complement and square are isomorphic

Pedersen, Anders Sune

2014-01-01

We study square-complementary graphs, that is, graphs whose complement and square are isomorphic. We prove several necessary conditions for a graph to be square-complementary, describe ways of building new square-complementary graphs from existing ones, construct infinite families of square-compl...

10. Acyclicity in edge-colored graphs

Gutin, Gregory; Jones, Mark; Sheng, Bin

2017-01-01

A walk W in edge-colored graphs is called properly colored (PC) if every pair of consecutive edges in W is of different color. We introduce and study five types of PC acyclicity in edge-colored graphs such that graphs of PC acyclicity of type i is a proper superset of graphs of acyclicity of type...

11. Building Scalable Knowledge Graphs for Earth Science

Ramachandran, Rahul; Maskey, Manil; Gatlin, Patrick; Zhang, Jia; Duan, Xiaoyi; Miller, J. J.; Bugbee, Kaylin; Christopher, Sundar; Freitag, Brian

2017-01-01

Knowledge Graphs link key entities in a specific domain with other entities via relationships. From these relationships, researchers can query knowledge graphs for probabilistic recommendations to infer new knowledge. Scientific papers are an untapped resource which knowledge graphs could leverage to accelerate research discovery. Goal: Develop an end-to-end (semi) automated methodology for constructing Knowledge Graphs for Earth Science.

12. Port-Hamiltonian Systems on Open Graphs

Schaft, A.J. van der; Maschke, B.M.

2010-01-01

In this talk we discuss how to define in an intrinsic manner port-Hamiltonian dynamics on open graphs. Open graphs are graphs where some of the vertices are boundary vertices (terminals), which allow interconnection with other systems. We show that a directed graph carries two natural Dirac

13. Constructing Dense Graphs with Unique Hamiltonian Cycles

Lynch, Mark A. M.

2012-01-01

It is not difficult to construct dense graphs containing Hamiltonian cycles, but it is difficult to generate dense graphs that are guaranteed to contain a unique Hamiltonian cycle. This article presents an algorithm for generating arbitrarily large simple graphs containing "unique" Hamiltonian cycles. These graphs can be turned into dense graphs…

Cavers, M.; Cioaba, S.M.; Fallat, S.; Gregory, D.A.; Haemers, W.H.; Kirkland, S.J.; McDonald, J.J.; Tsatsomeros, M.

2012-01-01

The spectra of the skew-adjacency matrices of a graph are considered as a possible way to distinguish adjacency cospectral graphs. This leads to the following topics: graphs whose skew-adjacency matrices are all cospectral; relations between the matchings polynomial of a graph and the characteristic

15. Chromatic polynomials of random graphs

Van Bussel, Frank; Fliegner, Denny; Timme, Marc; Ehrlich, Christoph; Stolzenberg, Sebastian

2010-01-01

Chromatic polynomials and related graph invariants are central objects in both graph theory and statistical physics. Computational difficulties, however, have so far restricted studies of such polynomials to graphs that were either very small, very sparse or highly structured. Recent algorithmic advances (Timme et al 2009 New J. Phys. 11 023001) now make it possible to compute chromatic polynomials for moderately sized graphs of arbitrary structure and number of edges. Here we present chromatic polynomials of ensembles of random graphs with up to 30 vertices, over the entire range of edge density. We specifically focus on the locations of the zeros of the polynomial in the complex plane. The results indicate that the chromatic zeros of random graphs have a very consistent layout. In particular, the crossing point, the point at which the chromatic zeros with non-zero imaginary part approach the real axis, scales linearly with the average degree over most of the density range. While the scaling laws obtained are purely empirical, if they continue to hold in general there are significant implications: the crossing points of chromatic zeros in the thermodynamic limit separate systems with zero ground state entropy from systems with positive ground state entropy, the latter an exception to the third law of thermodynamics.

16. Commuting graphs of matrix algebras

Akbari, S.; Bidkhori, H.; Mohammadian, A.

2006-08-01

The commuting graph of a ring R, denoted by Γ(R), is a graph whose vertices are all non- central elements of R and two distinct vertices x and y are adjacent if and only if xy = yx. The commuting graph of a group G, denoted by Γ(G), is similarly defined. In this paper we investigate some graph theoretic properties of Γ(M n (F)), where F is a field and n ≥ 2. Also we study the commuting graphs of some classical groups such as GL n (F) and SL n (F). We show that Γ(M n (F)) is a connected graph if and only if every field extension of F of degree n contains a proper intermediate field. We prove that apart from finitely many fields, a similar result is true for Γ(GL n (F)) and Γ(SL n (F)). Also we show that for two fields E and F and integers m, n ≥> 2, if Γ(M m (E)) ≅ Γ(M n (F)), then m = n and vertical bar E vertical bar = vertical bar F vertical bar. (author)

17. Go Figure: Calculus Students' Use of Figures and Graphs in Technical Report Writing

Thomas J. Pfaff

2011-01-01

Full Text Available Understanding how to read and use graphs to communicate scientific and mathematical information is critical for STEM majors, as well as an important part of quantitative literacy. Our study suggests that first-semester calculus students do not know how to use graphs in a technical report without explicit instruction. Although not a surprising result, it leaves us wondering about when such skills are developed, and if calculus I is a place to start. Our work is now exploring the potential benefit on students' use of graphs by having them formally evaluate other students' reports.

18. The heat kernel as the pagerank of a graph

Chung, Fan

2007-01-01

The concept of pagerank was first started as a way for determining the ranking of Web pages by Web search engines. Based on relations in interconnected networks, pagerank has become a major tool for addressing fundamental problems arising in general graphs, especially for large information networks with hundreds of thousands of nodes. A notable notion of pagerank, introduced by Brin and Page and denoted by PageRank, is based on random walks as a geometric sum. In this paper, we consider a notion of pagerank that is based on the (discrete) heat kernel and can be expressed as an exponential sum of random walks. The heat kernel satisfies the heat equation and can be used to analyze many useful properties of random walks in a graph. A local Cheeger inequality is established, which implies that, by focusing on cuts determined by linear orderings of vertices using the heat kernel pageranks, the resulting partition is within a quadratic factor of the optimum. This is true, even if we restrict the volume of the small part separated by the cut to be close to some specified target value. This leads to a graph partitioning algorithm for which the running time is proportional to the size of the targeted volume (instead of the size of the whole graph).

19. Graph Quasicontinuous Functions and Densely Continuous Forms

Lubica Hola

2017-07-01

Full Text Available Let $X, Y$ be topological spaces. A function $f: X \\to Y$ is said to be graph quasicontinuous if there is a quasicontinuous function $g: X \\to Y$ with the graph of $g$ contained in the closure of the graph of $f$. There is a close relation between the notions of graph quasicontinuous functions and minimal usco maps as well as the notions of graph quasicontinuous functions and densely continuous forms. Every function with values in a compact Hausdorff space is graph quasicontinuous; more generally every locally compact function is graph quasicontinuous.

20. Constitutive hybrid processes: A process-algebraic semantics for hybrid bond graphs

Cuijpers, P.J.L.; Broenink, J.F.; Mosterman, P.J.

2008-01-01

Models of physical systems have to be based on physical principles such as conservation of energy and continuity of power. These principles are inherently enforced by the bond graph modeling formalism. Often, however, physical components may be best modeled as piecewise continuous with discrete mode

1. Constitutive Hybrid Processes: a Process-Algebraic Semantics for Hybrid Bond Graphs

Cuijpers, P.J.L.; Broenink, Johannes F.; Mosterman, P.J.

Models of physical systems have to be based on physical principles such as conservation of energy and continuity of power. These principles are inherently enforced by the bond graph modeling formalism. Often, however, physical components may be best modeled as piecewise continuous with discrete mode

2. Constitutive Hybrid Processes: a Process-Algebraic Semantics for Hybrid Bond Graphs

Cuijpers, Pieter J.L.; Broenink, Johannes F.; Mosterman, Pieter J.

2008-01-01

Models of physical systems have to be based on physical principles such as conservation of energy and continuity of power. These principles are inherently enforced by the bond graph modeling formalism. Often, however, physical components may be best modeled as piecewise continuous with discrete mode

3. Compartmentalization analysis using discrete fracture network models

La Pointe, P.R.; Eiben, T.; Dershowitz, W. [Golder Associates, Redmond, VA (United States); Wadleigh, E. [Marathon Oil Co., Midland, TX (United States)

1997-08-01

This paper illustrates how Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) technology can serve as a basis for the calculation of reservoir engineering parameters for the development of fractured reservoirs. It describes the development of quantitative techniques for defining the geometry and volume of structurally controlled compartments. These techniques are based on a combination of stochastic geometry, computational geometry, and graph the theory. The parameters addressed are compartment size, matrix block size and tributary drainage volume. The concept of DFN models is explained and methodologies to compute these parameters are demonstrated.

4. An analysis of the Simpson Discrete Hartley transform | Ramsunder ...

The relatively new Simpson Discrete Hartley Transform (SDHT) has interesting mathematical properties, which are crucial for applications. These are developed and proved in this paper. This analysis gives one a comprehensive understanding of the transform. Mathematics Subject Classication (2010): 43A32. Key words: ...

5. Interactive Graph Layout of a Million Nodes

Peng Mi; Maoyuan Sun; Moeti Masiane; Yong Cao; Chris North

2016-01-01

Sensemaking of large graphs, specifically those with millions of nodes, is a crucial task in many fields. Automatic graph layout algorithms, augmented with real-time human-in-the-loop interaction, can potentially support sensemaking of large graphs. However, designing interactive algorithms to achieve this is challenging. In this paper, we tackle the scalability problem of interactive layout of large graphs, and contribute a new GPU-based force-directed layout algorithm that exploits graph to...

Nikonov, Igor M [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2012-08-31

Graph-links arise as the intersection graphs of turning chord diagrams of links. Speaking informally, graph-links provide a combinatorial description of links up to mutations. Many link invariants can be reformulated in the language of graph-links. Khovanov homology, a well-known and useful knot invariant, is defined for graph-links in this paper (in the case of the ground field of characteristic two). Bibliography: 14 titles.

7. What Mathematical Competencies Are Needed for Success in College.

Garofalo, Joe

1990-01-01

Identifies requisite math skills for a microeconomics course, offering samples of supply curves, demand curves, equilibrium prices, elasticity, and complex graph problems. Recommends developmental mathematics competencies, including problem solving, reasoning, connections, communication, number and operation sense, algebra, relationships,…

8. PRIVATE GRAPHS – ACCESS RIGHTS ON GRAPHS FOR SEAMLESS NAVIGATION

W. Dorner

2016-06-01

9. Magical mathematics the mathematical ideas that animate great magic tricks

Diaconis, Persi

2012-01-01

Magical Mathematics reveals the secrets of amazing, fun-to-perform card tricks--and the profound mathematical ideas behind them--that will astound even the most accomplished magician. Persi Diaconis and Ron Graham provide easy, step-by-step instructions for each trick, explaining how to set up the effect and offering tips on what to say and do while performing it. Each card trick introduces a new mathematical idea, and varying the tricks in turn takes readers to the very threshold of today's mathematical knowledge. For example, the Gilbreath Principle--a fantastic effect where the cards remain in control despite being shuffled--is found to share an intimate connection with the Mandelbrot set. Other card tricks link to the mathematical secrets of combinatorics, graph theory, number theory, topology, the Riemann hypothesis, and even Fermat's last theorem.

10. Visualization and mathematics III

2003-01-01

This research book on Mathematical Visualization contains state of the art presentations on visualization problems in mathematics, on fundamental mathematical research in computer graphics, and on software frameworks for the application of visualization to real-world problems. All contributions were written by leading experts in the field and peer-refereed by an international editorial team. The book grew out of the third international workshop "Visualization and Mathematics", which was held from May 22-25, 2002 in Berlin. The themes of the book cover important recent developments on - Geometry and Combinatorics of Meshes - Discrete Vector Fields and Topology - Geometric Modelling - Image Based Visualization - Software Environments and Applications - Education and Communication The variety of topics makes the book a suitable resource for researchers, lecturers, and practitioners; http://www-sfb288.math.tu-berlin.de/vismath/

11. Higher dimensional discrete Cheeger inequalities

Anna Gundert

2015-01-01

Full Text Available For graphs there exists a strong connection between spectral and combinatorial expansion properties. This is expressed, e.g., by the discrete Cheeger inequality, the lower bound of which states that $\\lambda(G \\leq h(G$, where $\\lambda(G$ is the second smallest eigenvalue of the Laplacian of a graph $G$ and $h(G$ is the Cheeger constant measuring the edge expansion of $G$. We are interested in generalizations of expansion properties to finite simplicial complexes of higher dimension (or uniform hypergraphs. Whereas higher dimensional Laplacians were introduced already in 1945 by Eckmann, the generalization of edge expansion to simplicial complexes is not straightforward. Recently, a topologically motivated notion analogous to edge expansion that is based on $\\mathbb{Z}_2$-cohomology was introduced by Gromov and independently by Linial, Meshulam and Wallach. It is known that for this generalization there is no direct higher dimensional analogue of the lower bound of the Cheeger inequality. A different, combinatorially motivated generalization of the Cheeger constant, denoted by $h(X$, was studied by Parzanchevski, Rosenthal and Tessler. They showed that indeed $\\lambda(X \\leq h(X$, where $\\lambda(X$ is the smallest non-trivial eigenvalue of the ($(k-1$-dimensional upper Laplacian, for the case of $k$-dimensional simplicial complexes $X$ with complete $(k-1$-skeleton. Whether this inequality also holds for $k$-dimensional complexes with non-com\\-plete$(k-1$-skeleton has been an open question.We give two proofs of the inequality for arbitrary complexes. The proofs differ strongly in the methods and structures employed,and each allows for a different kind of additional strengthening of the original result.

12. Synchronization Of Parallel Discrete Event Simulations

Steinman, Jeffrey S.

1992-01-01

Adaptive, parallel, discrete-event-simulation-synchronization algorithm, Breathing Time Buckets, developed in Synchronous Parallel Environment for Emulation and Discrete Event Simulation (SPEEDES) operating system. Algorithm allows parallel simulations to process events optimistically in fluctuating time cycles that naturally adapt while simulation in progress. Combines best of optimistic and conservative synchronization strategies while avoiding major disadvantages. Algorithm processes events optimistically in time cycles adapting while simulation in progress. Well suited for modeling communication networks, for large-scale war games, for simulated flights of aircraft, for simulations of computer equipment, for mathematical modeling, for interactive engineering simulations, and for depictions of flows of information.

13. Eigenfunction statistics on quantum graphs

Gnutzmann, S.; Keating, J.P.; Piotet, F.

2010-01-01

We investigate the spatial statistics of the energy eigenfunctions on large quantum graphs. It has previously been conjectured that these should be described by a Gaussian Random Wave Model, by analogy with quantum chaotic systems, for which such a model was proposed by Berry in 1977. The autocorrelation functions we calculate for an individual quantum graph exhibit a universal component, which completely determines a Gaussian Random Wave Model, and a system-dependent deviation. This deviation depends on the graph only through its underlying classical dynamics. Classical criteria for quantum universality to be met asymptotically in the large graph limit (i.e. for the non-universal deviation to vanish) are then extracted. We use an exact field theoretic expression in terms of a variant of a supersymmetric σ model. A saddle-point analysis of this expression leads to the estimates. In particular, intensity correlations are used to discuss the possible equidistribution of the energy eigenfunctions in the large graph limit. When equidistribution is asymptotically realized, our theory predicts a rate of convergence that is a significant refinement of previous estimates. The universal and system-dependent components of intensity correlation functions are recovered by means of an exact trace formula which we analyse in the diagonal approximation, drawing in this way a parallel between the field theory and semiclassics. Our results provide the first instance where an asymptotic Gaussian Random Wave Model has been established microscopically for eigenfunctions in a system with no disorder.

14. Box graphs and resolutions I

Andreas P. Braun

2016-04-01

Full Text Available Box graphs succinctly and comprehensively characterize singular fibers of elliptic fibrations in codimension two and three, as well as flop transitions connecting these, in terms of representation theoretic data. We develop a framework that provides a systematic map between a box graph and a crepant algebraic resolution of the singular elliptic fibration, thus allowing an explicit construction of the fibers from a singular Weierstrass or Tate model. The key tool is what we call a fiber face diagram, which shows the relevant information of a (partial toric triangulation and allows the inclusion of more general algebraic blowups. We shown that each such diagram defines a sequence of weighted algebraic blowups, thus providing a realization of the fiber defined by the box graph in terms of an explicit resolution. We show this correspondence explicitly for the case of SU(5 by providing a map between box graphs and fiber faces, and thereby a sequence of algebraic resolutions of the Tate model, which realizes each of the box graphs.

15. Degree-based graph construction

Kim, Hyunju; Toroczkai, Zoltan; Erdos, Peter L; Miklos, Istvan; Szekely, Laszlo A

2009-01-01

Degree-based graph construction is a ubiquitous problem in network modelling (Newman et al 2006 The Structure and Dynamics of Networks (Princeton Studies in Complexity) (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press), Boccaletti et al 2006 Phys. Rep. 424 175), ranging from social sciences to chemical compounds and biochemical reaction networks in the cell. This problem includes existence, enumeration, exhaustive construction and sampling questions with aspects that are still open today. Here we give necessary and sufficient conditions for a sequence of nonnegative integers to be realized as a simple graph's degree sequence, such that a given (but otherwise arbitrary) set of connections from an arbitrarily given node is avoided. We then use this result to present a swap-free algorithm that builds all simple graphs realizing a given degree sequence. In a wider context, we show that our result provides a greedy construction method to build all the f-factor subgraphs (Tutte 1952 Can. J. Math. 4 314) embedded within K n setmn S k , where K n is the complete graph and S k is a star graph centred on one of the nodes. (fast track communication)

16. Hierarchical organisation of causal graphs

Dziopa, P.

1993-01-01

This paper deals with the design of a supervision system using a hierarchy of models formed by graphs, in which the variables are the nodes and the causal relations between the variables of the arcs. To obtain a representation of the variables evolutions which contains only the relevant features of their real evolutions, the causal relations are completed with qualitative transfer functions (QTFs) which produce roughly the behaviour of the classical transfer functions. Major improvements have been made in the building of the hierarchical organization. First, the basic variables of the uppermost level and the causal relations between them are chosen. The next graph is built by adding intermediary variables to the upper graph. When the undermost graph has been built, the transfer functions parameters corresponding to its causal relations are identified. The second task consists in the upwelling of the information from the undermost graph to the uppermost one. A fusion procedure of the causal relations has been designed to compute the QFTs relevant for each level. This procedure aims to reduce the number of parameters needed to represent an evolution at a high level of abstraction. These techniques have been applied to the hierarchical modelling of nuclear process. (authors). 8 refs., 12 figs

17. Integer Flows and Circuit Covers of Graphs and Signed Graphs

Cheng, Jian

The work in Chapter 2 is motivated by Tutte and Jaeger's pioneering work on converting modulo flows into integer-valued flows for ordinary graphs. For a signed graphs (G, sigma), we first prove that for each k ∈ {2, 3}, if (G, sigma) is (k - 1)-edge-connected and contains an even number of negative edges when k = 2, then every modulo k-flow of (G, sigma) can be converted into an integer-valued ( k + 1)-ow with a larger or the same support. We also prove that if (G, sigma) is odd-(2p+1)-edge-connected, then (G, sigma) admits a modulo circular (2 + 1/ p)-flows if and only if it admits an integer-valued circular (2 + 1/p)-flows, which improves all previous result by Xu and Zhang (DM2005), Schubert and Steffen (EJC2015), and Zhu (JCTB2015). Shortest circuit cover conjecture is one of the major open problems in graph theory. It states that every bridgeless graph G contains a set of circuits F such that each edge is contained in at least one member of F and the length of F is at most 7/5∥E(G)∥. This concept was recently generalized to signed graphs by Macajova et al. (JGT2015). In Chapter 3, we improve their upper bound from 11∥E( G)∥ to 14/3 ∥E(G)∥, and if G is 2-edgeconnected and has even negativeness, then it can be further reduced to 11/3 ∥E(G)∥. Tutte's 3-flow conjecture has been studied by many graph theorists in the last several decades. As a new approach to this conjecture, DeVos and Thomassen considered the vectors as ow values and found that there is a close relation between vector S1-flows and integer 3-NZFs. Motivated by their observation, in Chapter 4, we prove that if a graph G admits a vector S1-flow with rank at most two, then G admits an integer 3-NZF. The concept of even factors is highly related to the famous Four Color Theorem. We conclude this dissertation in Chapter 5 with an improvement of a recent result by Chen and Fan (JCTB2016) on the upperbound of even factors. We show that if a graph G contains an even factor, then it

18. Cognitive and attitudinal predictors related to graphing achievement among pre-service elementary teachers

Szyjka, Sebastian P.

The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which six cognitive and attitudinal variables predicted pre-service elementary teachers' performance on line graphing. Predictors included Illinois teacher education basic skills sub-component scores in reading comprehension and mathematics, logical thinking performance scores, as well as measures of attitudes toward science, mathematics and graphing. This study also determined the strength of the relationship between each prospective predictor variable and the line graphing performance variable, as well as the extent to which measures of attitude towards science, mathematics and graphing mediated relationships between scores on mathematics, reading, logical thinking and line graphing. Ninety-four pre-service elementary education teachers enrolled in two different elementary science methods courses during the spring 2009 semester at Southern Illinois University Carbondale participated in this study. Each subject completed five different instruments designed to assess science, mathematics and graphing attitudes as well as logical thinking and graphing ability. Sixty subjects provided copies of primary basic skills score reports that listed subset scores for both reading comprehension and mathematics. The remaining scores were supplied by a faculty member who had access to a database from which the scores were drawn. Seven subjects, whose scores could not be found, were eliminated from final data analysis. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted in order to establish validity and reliability of the Questionnaire of Attitude Toward Line Graphs in Science (QALGS) instrument. CFA tested the statistical hypothesis that the five main factor structures within the Questionnaire of Attitude Toward Statistical Graphs (QASG) would be maintained in the revised QALGS. Stepwise Regression Analysis with backward elimination was conducted in order to generate a parsimonious and precise predictive model. This

19. Graph-based geometric-iconic guide-wire tracking.

Honnorat, Nicolas; Vaillant, Régis; Paragios, Nikos

2011-01-01

In this paper we introduce a novel hybrid graph-based approach for Guide-wire tracking. The image support is captured by steerable filters and improved through tensor voting. Then, a graphical model is considered that represents guide-wire extraction/tracking through a B-spline control-point model. Points with strong geometric interest (landmarks) are automatically determined and anchored to such a representation. Tracking is then performed through discrete MRFs that optimize the spatio-temporal positions of the control points while establishing landmark temporal correspondences. Promising results demonstrate the potentials of our method.

20. Compatible Spatial Discretizations for Partial Differential Equations

Arnold, Douglas, N, ed.

2004-11-25

From May 11--15, 2004, the Institute for Mathematics and its Applications held a hot topics workshop on Compatible Spatial Discretizations for Partial Differential Equations. The numerical solution of partial differential equations (PDE) is a fundamental task in science and engineering. The goal of the workshop was to bring together a spectrum of scientists at the forefront of the research in the numerical solution of PDEs to discuss compatible spatial discretizations. We define compatible spatial discretizations as those that inherit or mimic fundamental properties of the PDE such as topology, conservation, symmetries, and positivity structures and maximum principles. A wide variety of discretization methods applied across a wide range of scientific and engineering applications have been designed to or found to inherit or mimic intrinsic spatial structure and reproduce fundamental properties of the solution of the continuous PDE model at the finite dimensional level. A profusion of such methods and concepts relevant to understanding them have been developed and explored: mixed finite element methods, mimetic finite differences, support operator methods, control volume methods, discrete differential forms, Whitney forms, conservative differencing, discrete Hodge operators, discrete Helmholtz decomposition, finite integration techniques, staggered grid and dual grid methods, etc. This workshop seeks to foster communication among the diverse groups of researchers designing, applying, and studying such methods as well as researchers involved in practical solution of large scale problems that may benefit from advancements in such discretizations; to help elucidate the relations between the different methods and concepts; and to generally advance our understanding in the area of compatible spatial discretization methods for PDE. Particular points of emphasis included: + Identification of intrinsic properties of PDE models that are critical for the fidelity of numerical