Discrete Feature Model (DFM) User Documentation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Geier, Joel
2008-06-01
This manual describes the Discrete-Feature Model (DFM) software package for modelling groundwater flow and solute transport in networks of discrete features. A discrete-feature conceptual model represents fractures and other water-conducting features around a repository as discrete conductors surrounded by a rock matrix which is usually treated as impermeable. This approximation may be valid for crystalline rocks such as granite or basalt, which have very low permeability if macroscopic fractures are excluded. A discrete feature is any entity that can conduct water and permit solute transport through bedrock, and can be reasonably represented as a piecewise-planar conductor. Examples of such entities may include individual natural fractures (joints or faults), fracture zones, and disturbed-zone features around tunnels (e.g. blasting-induced fractures or stress-concentration induced 'onion skin' fractures around underground openings). In a more abstract sense, the effectively discontinuous nature of pathways through fractured crystalline bedrock may be idealized as discrete, equivalent transmissive features that reproduce large-scale observations, even if the details of connective paths (and unconnected domains) are not precisely known. A discrete-feature model explicitly represents the fundamentally discontinuous and irregularly connected nature of systems of such systems, by constraining flow and transport to occur only within such features and their intersections. Pathways for flow and solute transport in this conceptualization are a consequence not just of the boundary conditions and hydrologic properties (as with continuum models), but also the irregularity of connections between conductive/transmissive features. The DFM software package described here is an extensible code for investigating problems of flow and transport in geological (natural or human-altered) systems that can be characterized effectively in terms of discrete features. With this software, the
Discrete Feature Model (DFM) User Documentation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Geier, Joel (Clearwater Hardrock Consulting, Corvallis, OR (United States))
2008-06-15
This manual describes the Discrete-Feature Model (DFM) software package for modelling groundwater flow and solute transport in networks of discrete features. A discrete-feature conceptual model represents fractures and other water-conducting features around a repository as discrete conductors surrounded by a rock matrix which is usually treated as impermeable. This approximation may be valid for crystalline rocks such as granite or basalt, which have very low permeability if macroscopic fractures are excluded. A discrete feature is any entity that can conduct water and permit solute transport through bedrock, and can be reasonably represented as a piecewise-planar conductor. Examples of such entities may include individual natural fractures (joints or faults), fracture zones, and disturbed-zone features around tunnels (e.g. blasting-induced fractures or stress-concentration induced 'onion skin' fractures around underground openings). In a more abstract sense, the effectively discontinuous nature of pathways through fractured crystalline bedrock may be idealized as discrete, equivalent transmissive features that reproduce large-scale observations, even if the details of connective paths (and unconnected domains) are not precisely known. A discrete-feature model explicitly represents the fundamentally discontinuous and irregularly connected nature of systems of such systems, by constraining flow and transport to occur only within such features and their intersections. Pathways for flow and solute transport in this conceptualization are a consequence not just of the boundary conditions and hydrologic properties (as with continuum models), but also the irregularity of connections between conductive/transmissive features. The DFM software package described here is an extensible code for investigating problems of flow and transport in geological (natural or human-altered) systems that can be characterized effectively in terms of discrete features. With this
Juxtaposed color halftoning relying on discrete lines.
Babaei, Vahid; Hersch, Roger D
2013-02-01
Most halftoning techniques allow screen dots to overlap. They rely on the assumption that the inks are transparent, i.e., the inks do not scatter a significant portion of the light back to the air. However, many special effect inks, such as metallic inks, iridescent inks, or pigmented inks, are not transparent. In order to create halftone images, halftone dots formed by such inks should be juxtaposed, i.e., printed side by side. We propose an efficient juxtaposed color halftoning technique for placing any desired number of colorant layers side by side without overlapping. The method uses a monochrome library of screen elements made of discrete lines with rational thicknesses. Discrete line juxtaposed color halftoning is performed efficiently by multiple accesses to the screen element library.
Discrete Line Congruences for Shading and Lighting
Wang, Jun
2013-07-01
Two-parameter families of straight lines (line congruences) are implicitly present in graphics and geometry processing in several important ways including lighting and shape analysis. In this paper we make them accessible to optimization and geometric computing, by introducing a general discrete version of congruences based on piecewise-linear correspondences between triangle meshes. Our applications of congruences are based on the extraction of a so-called torsion-free support structure, which is a procedure analogous to remeshing a surface along its principal curvature lines. A particular application of such structures are freeform shading and lighting systems for architecture. We combine interactive design of such systems with global optimization in order to satisfy geometric constraints. In this way we explore a new area where architecture can greatly benefit from graphics.
Discrete Feature Approach for Heterogeneous Reservoir Production Enhancement
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dershowitz, William S.; Curran, Brendan; Einstein, Herbert; LaPointe, Paul; Shuttle, Dawn; Klise, Kate
2002-07-26
The report presents summaries of technology development for discrete feature modeling in support of the improved oil recovery (IOR) for heterogeneous reservoirs. In addition, the report describes the demonstration of these technologies at project study sites.
Discrete Biogeography Based Optimization for Feature Selection in Molecular Signatures.
Liu, Bo; Tian, Meihong; Zhang, Chunhua; Li, Xiangtao
2015-04-01
Biomarker discovery from high-dimensional data is a complex task in the development of efficient cancer diagnoses and classification. However, these data are usually redundant and noisy, and only a subset of them present distinct profiles for different classes of samples. Thus, selecting high discriminative genes from gene expression data has become increasingly interesting in the field of bioinformatics. In this paper, a discrete biogeography based optimization is proposed to select the good subset of informative gene relevant to the classification. In the proposed algorithm, firstly, the fisher-markov selector is used to choose fixed number of gene data. Secondly, to make biogeography based optimization suitable for the feature selection problem; discrete migration model and discrete mutation model are proposed to balance the exploration and exploitation ability. Then, discrete biogeography based optimization, as we called DBBO, is proposed by integrating discrete migration model and discrete mutation model. Finally, the DBBO method is used for feature selection, and three classifiers are used as the classifier with the 10 fold cross-validation method. In order to show the effective and efficiency of the algorithm, the proposed algorithm is tested on four breast cancer dataset benchmarks. Comparison with genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization, differential evolution algorithm and hybrid biogeography based optimization, experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is better or at least comparable with previous method from literature when considering the quality of the solutions obtained. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Discrete-Feature Model Implementation of SDM-Site Forsmark
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Geier, Joel
2010-03-01
A discrete-feature model (DFM) was implemented for the Forsmark repository site based on the final site descriptive model from surface based investigations. The discrete-feature conceptual model represents deformation zones, individual fractures, and other water-conducting features around a repository as discrete conductors surrounded by a rock matrix which, in the present study, is treated as impermeable. This approximation is reasonable for sites in crystalline rock which has very low permeability, apart from that which results from macroscopic fracturing. Models are constructed based on the geological and hydrogeological description of the sites and engineering designs. Hydraulic heads and flows through the network of water-conducting features are calculated by the finite-element method, and are used in turn to simulate migration of non-reacting solute by a particle-tracking method, in order to estimate the properties of pathways by which radionuclides could be released to the biosphere. Stochastic simulation is used to evaluate portions of the model that can only be characterized in statistical terms, since many water-conducting features within the model volume cannot be characterized deterministically. Chapter 2 describes the methodology by which discrete features are derived to represent water-conducting features around the hypothetical repository at Forsmark (including both natural features and features that result from the disturbance of excavation), and then assembled to produce a discrete-feature network model for numerical simulation of flow and transport. Chapter 3 describes how site-specific data and repository design are adapted to produce the discrete-feature model. Chapter 4 presents results of the calculations. These include utilization factors for deposition tunnels based on the emplacement criteria that have been set forth by the implementers, flow distributions to the deposition holes, and calculated properties of discharge paths as well as
Discrete-Feature Model Implementation of SDM-Site Forsmark
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Geier, Joel (Clearwater Hardrock Consulting, Corvallis, OR (United States))
2010-03-15
A discrete-feature model (DFM) was implemented for the Forsmark repository site based on the final site descriptive model from surface based investigations. The discrete-feature conceptual model represents deformation zones, individual fractures, and other water-conducting features around a repository as discrete conductors surrounded by a rock matrix which, in the present study, is treated as impermeable. This approximation is reasonable for sites in crystalline rock which has very low permeability, apart from that which results from macroscopic fracturing. Models are constructed based on the geological and hydrogeological description of the sites and engineering designs. Hydraulic heads and flows through the network of water-conducting features are calculated by the finite-element method, and are used in turn to simulate migration of non-reacting solute by a particle-tracking method, in order to estimate the properties of pathways by which radionuclides could be released to the biosphere. Stochastic simulation is used to evaluate portions of the model that can only be characterized in statistical terms, since many water-conducting features within the model volume cannot be characterized deterministically. Chapter 2 describes the methodology by which discrete features are derived to represent water-conducting features around the hypothetical repository at Forsmark (including both natural features and features that result from the disturbance of excavation), and then assembled to produce a discrete-feature network model for numerical simulation of flow and transport. Chapter 3 describes how site-specific data and repository design are adapted to produce the discrete-feature model. Chapter 4 presents results of the calculations. These include utilization factors for deposition tunnels based on the emplacement criteria that have been set forth by the implementers, flow distributions to the deposition holes, and calculated properties of discharge paths as well as
Unique features in the ARIES glovebox line
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martinez, H.E.; Brown, W.G.; Flamm, B.; James, C.A.; Laskie, R.; Nelson, T.O.; Wedman, D.E.
1998-01-01
A series of unique features have been incorporated into the Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, TA-55 Plutonium Facility. The features enhance the material handling in the process of the dismantlement of nuclear weapon primaries in the glovebox line. Incorporated into these features are the various plutonium process module's different ventilation zone requirements that the material handling systems must meet. These features include a conveyor system that consists of a remotely controlled cart that transverses the length of the conveyor glovebox, can be operated from a remote location and can deliver process components to the entrance of any selected module glovebox. Within the modules there exists linear motion material handling systems with lifting hoist, which are controlled via an Allen Bradley control panel or local control panels. To remove the packaged products from the hot process line, the package is processed through an air lock/electrolytic decontamination process that removes the radioactive contamination from the outside of the package container and allows the package to be removed from the process line
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dershowitz, William S.; Einstein, Herbert H.; LaPoint, Paul R.; Eiben, Thorsten; Wadleigh, Eugene; Ivanova, Violeta
1998-12-01
This report summarizes research conducted for the Fractured Reservoir Discrete Feature Network Technologies Project. The five areas studied are development of hierarchical fracture models; fractured reservoir compartmentalization, block size, and tributary volume analysis; development and demonstration of fractured reservoir discrete feature data analysis tools; development of tools for data integration and reservoir simulation through application of discrete feature network technologies for tertiary oil production; quantitative evaluation of the economic value of this analysis approach.
Discrete Feature Approach for Heterogeneous Reservoir Production Enhancement
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dershowitz, William S.; Cladouhos, Trenton
2001-09-06
This progress report describes activities during the period January 1, 1999 to June 30, 1999. Work was carried out on 21 tasks. The major activity during the reporting period was the development and preliminary application of discrete fracture network (DFN) models for Stoney Point, South Oregon Basin, and North Oregon Basins project study sites. In addition, research was carried out on analysis algorithms for discrete future orientation.
Space discretization in SN methods: Features, improvements and convergence patterns
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coppa, G.G.M.; Lapenta, G.; Ravetto, P.
1990-01-01
A comparative analysis of the space discretization schemes currently used in S N methods is performed and special attention is devoted to direct integration techniques. Some improvements are proposed in one- and two-dimensional applications, which are based on suitable choices for the spatial variation of the collision source. A study of the convergence pattern is carried out for eigenvalue calculations within the space asymptotic approximation by means of both analytical and numerical investigations. (orig.) [de
Feature Extraction from 3D Point Cloud Data Based on Discrete Curves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yi An
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Reliable feature extraction from 3D point cloud data is an important problem in many application domains, such as reverse engineering, object recognition, industrial inspection, and autonomous navigation. In this paper, a novel method is proposed for extracting the geometric features from 3D point cloud data based on discrete curves. We extract the discrete curves from 3D point cloud data and research the behaviors of chord lengths, angle variations, and principal curvatures at the geometric features in the discrete curves. Then, the corresponding similarity indicators are defined. Based on the similarity indicators, the geometric features can be extracted from the discrete curves, which are also the geometric features of 3D point cloud data. The threshold values of the similarity indicators are taken from [0,1], which characterize the relative relationship and make the threshold setting easier and more reasonable. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is efficient and reliable.
A NEW STRATEGY FOR IMPROVING FEATURE SETS IN A DISCRETE HMMBASED HANDWRITING RECOGNITION SYSTEM
Grandidier, F.; Sabourin, R.; Suen, C.Y.; Gilloux, M.
2004-01-01
In this paper we introduce a new strategy for improving a discrete HMMbased handwriting recognition system, by integrating several information sources from specialized feature sets. For a given system, the basic idea is to keep the most discriminative features, and to replace the others with new
Discrete features of sedentary behavior impact cardiometabolic risk factors.
Lyden, Kate; Keadle, Sarah Kozey; Staudenmayer, John; Braun, Barry; Freedson, Patty S
2015-05-01
Sedentary behavior is linked to numerous poor health outcomes. This study aims to determine the effects of 7 d of increased sitting on markers of cardiometabolic risk among free-living individuals. Ten recreationally active participants (>150 min of moderate-intensity physical activity per week; mean ± SD age, 25.2 ± 5.7 yr; mean ± SD body mass index, 24.9 ± 4.3 kg·m(-2)) completed a 7-d baseline period and a 7-d sedentary condition in their free-living environment. At baseline, participants maintained normal activity. After baseline, participants completed a 7-d sedentary condition. Participants were instructed to sit as much as possible, to limit standing and walking, and to refrain from structured exercise and leisure time physical activity. ActivPAL monitor was used to assess sedentary behavior and physical activity. Fasting lipids, glucose, and insulin were measured, and oral glucose tolerance test was performed after baseline and sedentary condition. In comparison to baseline, total sedentary time (mean Δ, 14.9%; 95% CI, 10.2-19.6) and time in prolonged/uninterrupted sedentary bouts significantly increased, whereas the rate of breaks from sedentary time was significantly reduced (mean Δ, 21.4%; 95% CI, 6.9-35.9). For oral glucose tolerance test, 2-h plasma insulin (mean Δ, 38.8 μU·mL(-1); 95% CI, 10.9-66.8) and area under the insulin curve (mean Δ, 3074.1 μU·mL(-1) per 120 min; 95% CI, 526.0-5622.3) were significantly elevated after the sedentary condition. Lipid concentrations did not change. Change in 2-h insulin was negatively associated with change in light-intensity activity (r = -0.62) and positively associated with change in time in sitting bouts longer than 30 min (r = 0.82) and 60 min (r = 0.83). Increased free-living sitting negatively impacts markers of cardiometabolic health, and specific features of sedentary behavior (e.g., time in prolonged sitting bouts) may be particularly important.
Ridge interaction features of the Line Islands
Konter, J. G.; Koppers, A. A. P.; Storm, L. P.
2016-12-01
The sections of Pacific absolute plate motion history that precede the Hawaii-Emperor and Louisville chains are based on three chains: the Line Islands-Mid-Pacific Mountains, the Hess Rise-Shatsky Rise, and the Marshall Islands-Wake Islands (Rurutu hotspot). Although it has been clear that the Line Islands do not define a simple age progression (e.g. Schlanger et al., 1984), the apparent similarity to the Emperor Seamount geographic trend has been used to extend the overall Hawaii-Emperor track further into the past. However, we show here that plate tectonic reconstructions suggest that the Mid-Pacific Mountains (MPMs) and Line Islands (LIs) were erupted near a mid-ocean ridge, and thus these structures do not reflect absolute plate motion. Moverover, the morphology and geochemistry of the volcanoes show similarities with Pukapuka Ridge (e.g. Davis et al., 2002) and the Rano Rahi seamounts, presumed to have a shallow origin. Modern 40Ar/39Ar ages show that the LIs erupted at various times along the entire volcanic chain. The oldest structures formed within 10 Ma of plate formation. Given the short distance to the ridge system, large aseismic volcanic ridges, such as Necker Ridge and Horizon Guyot may simply reflect a connection between MPMs and the ridge, similar to the Pukapuka Ridge. The Line Islands to the south (including Karin Ridge) define short subchains of elongated seamounts that are widespread, resembling the Rano Rahi seamount field. During this time, the plate moved nearly parallel to the ridge system. The change from few large ridges to many subchains may reflect a change in absolute plate motion, similar to the Rano Rahi field. Here, significant MPMs volcanism is no longer connected to the ridge along plate motion. Similar to Pukapuka vs. Rano Rahi, the difference in direction between plate motion and the closest ridge determines whether larger ridges or smaller seamount subchains are formed. The difference between the largest structures (MPMs and LIs
Zhu, Guangpu; Chen, Huangxin; Sun, Shuyu; Yao, Jun
2018-01-01
In this paper, a fully discrete scheme which considers temporal and spatial discretizations is presented for the coupled Cahn-Hilliard equation in conserved form with the dynamic contact line condition and the Navier-Stokes equation
Using wavelet features for analyzing gamma lines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Medhat, M.E.; Abdel-hafiez, A.; Hassan, M.F.; Ali, M.A.; Uzhinskii, V.V.
2004-01-01
Data processing methods for analyzing gamma ray spectra with symmetric bell-shaped peaks form are considered. In many cases the peak form is symmetrical bell shaped in particular a Gaussian case is the most often used due to many physical reasons. The problem is how to evaluate parameters of such peaks, i.e. their positions, amplitudes and also their half-widths, that is for a single peak and overlapped peaks. Through wavelet features by using Marr wavelet (Mexican Hat) as a correlation method, it could be to estimate the optimal wavelet parameters and to locate peaks in the spectrum. The performance of the proposed method and others shows a better quality of wavelet transform method
Martin, D. F.; Cornford, S. L.; Schwartz, P.; Bhalla, A.; Johansen, H.; Ng, E.
2017-12-01
Correctly representing grounding line and calving-front dynamics is of fundamental importance in modeling marine ice sheets, since the configuration of these interfaces exerts a controlling influence on the dynamics of the ice sheet. Traditional ice sheet models have struggled to correctly represent these regions without very high spatial resolution. We have developed a front-tracking discretization for grounding lines and calving fronts based on the Chombo embedded-boundary cut-cell framework. This promises better representation of these interfaces vs. a traditional stair-step discretization on Cartesian meshes like those currently used in the block-structured AMR BISICLES code. The dynamic adaptivity of the BISICLES model complements the subgrid-scale discretizations of this scheme, producing a robust approach for tracking the evolution of these interfaces. Also, the fundamental discontinuous nature of flow across grounding lines is respected by mathematically treating it as a material phase change. We present examples of this approach to demonstrate its effectiveness.
On-line analysis of algae in water by discrete three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy.
Zhao, Nanjing; Zhang, Xiaoling; Yin, Gaofang; Yang, Ruifang; Hu, Li; Chen, Shuang; Liu, Jianguo; Liu, Wenqing
2018-03-19
In view of the problem of the on-line measurement of algae classification, a method of algae classification and concentration determination based on the discrete three-dimensional fluorescence spectra was studied in this work. The discrete three-dimensional fluorescence spectra of twelve common species of algae belonging to five categories were analyzed, the discrete three-dimensional standard spectra of five categories were built, and the recognition, classification and concentration prediction of algae categories were realized by the discrete three-dimensional fluorescence spectra coupled with non-negative weighted least squares linear regression analysis. The results show that similarities between discrete three-dimensional standard spectra of different categories were reduced and the accuracies of recognition, classification and concentration prediction of the algae categories were significantly improved. By comparing with that of the chlorophyll a fluorescence excitation spectra method, the recognition accuracy rate in pure samples by discrete three-dimensional fluorescence spectra is improved 1.38%, and the recovery rate and classification accuracy in pure diatom samples 34.1% and 46.8%, respectively; the recognition accuracy rate of mixed samples by discrete-three dimensional fluorescence spectra is enhanced by 26.1%, the recovery rate of mixed samples with Chlorophyta 37.8%, and the classification accuracy of mixed samples with diatoms 54.6%.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gareis, I; Gentiletti, G; Acevedo, R; Rufiner, L
2011-01-01
The purpose of this work is to evaluate different feature extraction alternatives to detect the event related evoked potential signal on brain computer interfaces, trying to minimize the time employed and the classification error, in terms of sensibility and specificity of the method, looking for alternatives to coherent averaging. In this context the results obtained performing the feature extraction using discrete dyadic wavelet transform using different mother wavelets are presented. For the classification a single layer perceptron was used. The results obtained with and without the wavelet decomposition were compared; showing an improvement on the classification rate, the specificity and the sensibility for the feature vectors obtained using some mother wavelets.
FAST DISCRETE CURVELET TRANSFORM BASED ANISOTROPIC FEATURE EXTRACTION FOR IRIS RECOGNITION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amol D. Rahulkar
2010-11-01
Full Text Available The feature extraction plays a very important role in iris recognition. Recent researches on multiscale analysis provide good opportunity to extract more accurate information for iris recognition. In this work, a new directional iris texture features based on 2-D Fast Discrete Curvelet Transform (FDCT is proposed. The proposed approach divides the normalized iris image into six sub-images and the curvelet transform is applied independently on each sub-image. The anisotropic feature vector for each sub-image is derived using the directional energies of the curvelet coefficients. These six feature vectors are combined to create the resultant feature vector. During recognition, the nearest neighbor classifier based on Euclidean distance has been used for authentication. The effectiveness of the proposed approach has been tested on two different databases namely UBIRIS and MMU1. Experimental results show the superiority of the proposed approach.
Evaluation of angular distributions and production cross-sections for discrete gamma lines in iron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Savin, M.V.; Livke, A.V.; Zvenigorodskij, A.G.
2001-01-01
The experimental data were compiled and the angular distributions and production cross-sections for the E γ = 846.8, 1238.3 and 1810.8 keV discrete gamma-lines evaluated. The Legendre polynomial coefficients describing the angular distributions in the energy range up to E n = 14.0 MeV and cross-section values in the E n = 0.85-19.0 MeV range were evaluated. (author)
Image Mosaic Method Based on SIFT Features of Line Segment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jun Zhu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel image mosaic method based on SIFT (Scale Invariant Feature Transform feature of line segment, aiming to resolve incident scaling, rotation, changes in lighting condition, and so on between two images in the panoramic image mosaic process. This method firstly uses Harris corner detection operator to detect key points. Secondly, it constructs directed line segments, describes them with SIFT feature, and matches those directed segments to acquire rough point matching. Finally, Ransac method is used to eliminate wrong pairs in order to accomplish image mosaic. The results from experiment based on four pairs of images show that our method has strong robustness for resolution, lighting, rotation, and scaling.
Ramos, Vera; Canta, Guilherme; de Castro, Filipa; Leal, Isabel
2014-08-01
Research suggests that borderline personality disorder (BPD) can be diagnosed in adolescents and is marked by considerable heterogeneity. This study aimed to identify personality features characterizing adolescents with BPD and possible meaningful patterns of heterogeneity that could lead to personality subgroups. The authors analyzed data on 60 adolescents, ages 15 to 18 years, who met DSM criteria for a BPD diagnosis. The authors used latent class analysis (LCA) to identify subgroups based on the personality pattern scales from the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI). LCA indicated that the best-fitting solution was a two-class model, identifying two discrete subgroups of BPD adolescents that were described as internalizing and externalizing. The subgroups were then compared on clinical and sociodemographic variables, measures of personality dimensions, DSM BPD criteria, and perception of attachment styles. Adolescents with a BPD diagnosis constitute a heterogeneous group and vary meaningfully on personality features that can have clinical implications for treatment.
Discrete event model-based simulation for train movement on a single-line railway
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu Xiao-Ming; Li Ke-Ping; Yang Li-Xing
2014-01-01
The aim of this paper is to present a discrete event model-based approach to simulate train movement with the considered energy-saving factor. We conduct extensive case studies to show the dynamic characteristics of the traffic flow and demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. The simulation results indicate that the proposed discrete event model-based simulation approach is suitable for characterizing the movements of a group of trains on a single railway line with less iterations and CPU time. Additionally, some other qualitative and quantitative characteristics are investigated. In particular, because of the cumulative influence from the previous trains, the following trains should be accelerated or braked frequently to control the headway distance, leading to more energy consumption. (general)
The method of lines solution of discrete ordinates method for non-grey media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cayan, Fatma Nihan; Selcuk, Nevin
2007-01-01
A radiation code based on method of lines (MOL) solution of discrete ordinates method (DOM) for radiative heat transfer in non-grey absorbing-emitting media was developed by incorporation of a gas spectral radiative property model, namely wide band correlated-k (WBCK) model, which is compatible with MOL solution of DOM. Predictive accuracy of the code was evaluated by applying it to 1-D parallel plate and 2-D axisymmetric cylindrical enclosure problems containing absorbing-emitting medium and benchmarking its predictions against line-by-line solutions available in the literature. Comparisons reveal that MOL solution of DOM with WBCK model produces accurate results for radiative heat fluxes and source terms and can be used with confidence in conjunction with computational fluid dynamics codes based on the same approach
Zhu, Guangpu
2018-01-26
In this paper, a fully discrete scheme which considers temporal and spatial discretizations is presented for the coupled Cahn-Hilliard equation in conserved form with the dynamic contact line condition and the Navier-Stokes equation with the generalized Navier boundary condition. Variable densities and viscosities are incorporated in this model. A rigorous proof of energy stability is provided for the fully discrete scheme based on a semi-implicit temporal discretization and a finite difference method on the staggered grids for the spatial discretization. A splitting method based on the pressure stabilization is implemented to solve the Navier-Stokes equation, while the stabilization approach is also used for the Cahn-Hilliard equation. Numerical results in both 2-D and 3-D demonstrate the accuracy, efficiency and decaying property of discrete energy of the proposed scheme.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jaison Bennet
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Cancer classification by doctors and radiologists was based on morphological and clinical features and had limited diagnostic ability in olden days. The recent arrival of DNA microarray technology has led to the concurrent monitoring of thousands of gene expressions in a single chip which stimulates the progress in cancer classification. In this paper, we have proposed a hybrid approach for microarray data classification based on nearest neighbor (KNN, naive Bayes, and support vector machine (SVM. Feature selection prior to classification plays a vital role and a feature selection technique which combines discrete wavelet transform (DWT and moving window technique (MWT is used. The performance of the proposed method is compared with the conventional classifiers like support vector machine, nearest neighbor, and naive Bayes. Experiments have been conducted on both real and benchmark datasets and the results indicate that the ensemble approach produces higher classification accuracy than conventional classifiers. This paper serves as an automated system for the classification of cancer and can be applied by doctors in real cases which serve as a boon to the medical community. This work further reduces the misclassification of cancers which is highly not allowed in cancer detection.
Bhagavatula, Chandrasekhar; Venugopalan, Shreyas; Blue, Rebecca; Friedman, Robert; Griofa, Marc O; Savvides, Marios; Kumar, B V K Vijaya
2012-01-01
In this paper we explore how a Radio Frequency Impedance Interrogation (RFII) signal may be used as a biometric feature. This could allow the identification of subjects in operational and potentially hostile environments. Features extracted from the continuous and discrete wavelet decompositions of the signal are investigated for biometric identification. In the former case, the most discriminative features in the wavelet space were extracted using a Fisher ratio metric. Comparisons in the wavelet space were done using the Euclidean distance measure. In the latter case, the signal was decomposed at various levels using different wavelet bases, in order to extract both low frequency and high frequency components. Comparisons at each decomposition level were performed using the same distance measure as before. The data set used consists of four subjects, each with a 15 minute RFII recording. The various data samples for our experiments, corresponding to a single heart beat duration, were extracted from these recordings. We achieve identification rates of up to 99% using the CWT approach and rates of up to 100% using the DWT approach. While the small size of the dataset limits the interpretation of these results, further work with larger datasets is expected to develop better algorithms for subject identification.
Document localization algorithms based on feature points and straight lines
Skoryukina, Natalya; Shemiakina, Julia; Arlazarov, Vladimir L.; Faradjev, Igor
2018-04-01
The important part of the system of a planar rectangular object analysis is the localization: the estimation of projective transform from template image of an object to its photograph. The system also includes such subsystems as the selection and recognition of text fields, the usage of contexts etc. In this paper three localization algorithms are described. All algorithms use feature points and two of them also analyze near-horizontal and near- vertical lines on the photograph. The algorithms and their combinations are tested on a dataset of real document photographs. Also the method of localization quality estimation is proposed that allows configuring the localization subsystem independently of the other subsystems quality.
Discrete PSO algorithm based optimization of transmission lines loading in TNEP problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shayeghi, H.; Mahdavi, M.; Bagheri, A.
2010-01-01
Transmission network expansion planning (TNEP) is a basic part of power system planning that determines where, when and how many new transmission lines should be added to the network. Up till now, various methods have been presented to solve the static transmission network expansion planning (STNEP) problem. But in all of these methods, lines adequacy rate has not been considered at the end of planning horizon, i.e. expanded network misses adequacy after some times and needs to be expanded again. In this paper, expansion planning has been implemented by merging lines loading parameter in the STNEP and inserting investment cost into the fitness function constraints using discrete particle swarm optimization (DPSO) algorithm. Expanded network will possess a maximum adequacy to provide load demand and also the transmission lines overloaded later. The proposed idea has been tested on the Garvers network and an actual transmission network of the Azerbaijan regional electric company, Iran, and the results are compared with the decimal codification genetic algorithm (DCGA) technique. The results evaluation shows that the network will possess maximum efficiency economically. Also, it is shown that precision and convergence speed of the proposed DPSO based method for the solution of the STNEP problem is superior to DCGA approach.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Geier, J.E.; Thomas, A.L.
1996-08-01
This report describes the statistical derivation and partial validation of discrete-fracture network (DFN) models for the rock beneath the island of Aespoe in southeastern Sweden. The purpose was to develop DFN representations of the rock mass within a hypothetical, spent-fuel repository, located under Aespoe. Analyses are presented for four major lithologic types, with separate analyses of the rock within fracture zones, the rock excluding fracture zones, and all rock. Complete DFN models are proposed as descriptions of the rock mass in the near field. The procedure for validation, by comparison between actual and simulated packer tests, was found to be useful for discriminating among candidate DFN models. In particular, the validation approach was shown to be sensitive to a change in the fracture location (clustering) model, and to a change in the variance of single-fracture transmissivity. The proposed models are defined in terms of stochastic processes and statistical distributions, and thus are descriptive of the variability of the fracture system. This report includes discussion of the numerous sources of uncertainty in the models, including uncertainty that results from the variability of the natural system. 62 refs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dershowitz, W.S.; La Pointe, P.R.; Einstein, H.H.; Ivanova, V.
1998-01-01
This report describes progress on the project, {open_quotes}Fractured Reservoir Discrete Feature Network Technologies{close_quotes} during the period March 7, 1996 to February 28, 1997. The report presents summaries of technology development for the following research areas: (1) development of hierarchical fracture models, (2) fractured reservoir compartmentalization and tributary volume, (3) fractured reservoir data analysis, and (4) integration of fractured reservoir data and production technologies. In addition, the report provides information on project status, publications submitted, data collection activities, and technology transfer through the world wide web (WWW). Research on hierarchical fracture models included geological, mathematical, and computer code development. The project built a foundation of quantitative, geological and geometrical information about the regional geology of the Permian Basin, including detailed information on the lithology, stratigraphy, and fracturing of Permian rocks in the project study area (Tracts 17 and 49 in the Yates field). Based on the accumulated knowledge of regional and local geology, project team members started the interpretation of fracture genesis mechanisms and the conceptual modeling of the fracture system in the study area. Research on fractured reservoir compartmentalization included basic research, technology development, and application of compartmentalized reservoir analyses for the project study site. Procedures were developed to analyze compartmentalization, tributary drainage volume, and reservoir matrix block size. These algorithms were implemented as a Windows 95 compartmentalization code, FraCluster.
Features and validation of discrete element method for simulating pebble flow in reactor core
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu Yong; Li Yanjie
2005-01-01
The core of a High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) is composed of big number of fuel pebbles, their kinetic behaviors are of great importance in estimating the path and residence time of individual pebble, the evolution of the mixing zone for the assessment of the efficiency of a reactor. Numerical method is highlighted in modern reactor design. In view of granular flow, the Discrete Element Model based on contact mechanics of spheres was briefly described. Two typical examples were presented to show the capability of the DEM method. The former is piling with glass/steel spheres, which provides validated evidences that the simulated angles of repose are in good coincidence with the experimental results. The later is particle discharge in a flat- bottomed silo, which shows the effects of material modulus and demonstrates several features. The two examples show the DEM method enables to predict the behaviors, such as the evolution of pebble profiles, streamlines etc., and provides sufficient information for pebble flow analysis and core design. In order to predict the cyclic pebble flow in a HTGR core precisely and efficiently, both model and code improvement are needed, together with rational specification of physical properties with proper measuring techniques. Strategic and methodological considerations were also discussed. (authors)
Forrest, R.; Ray, J.; Hansen, C. W.
2017-12-01
Currently, simple polarization metrics such as the horizontal-to-vertical ratio are used to discriminate between noise and various phases in three-component seismic waveform data collected at regional distances. Accurately establishing the identity and arrival of these waves in adverse signal-to-noise environments is helpful in detecting and locating the seismic events. In this work, we explore the use of multiresolution decompositions to discriminate between noise and event arrivals. A segment of the waveform lying inside a time-window that spans the coda of an arrival is subjected to a discrete wavelet decomposition. Multi-resolution classification features as well as statistical tests are derived from these wavelet decomposition quantities to quantify their discriminating power. Furthermore, we move to streaming data and address the problem of false positives by introducing ensembles of classifiers. We describe in detail results of these methods tuned from data obtained from Coronel Fontana, Argentina (CFAA), as well as Stephens Creek, Australia (STKA). Acknowledgement: Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-mission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia, LLC., a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International, Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-NA-0003525.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fei Dong
2018-01-01
Full Text Available In order to enhance the performance of bearing fault diagnosis and classification, features extraction and features dimensionality reduction have become more important. The original statistical feature set was calculated from single branch reconstruction vibration signals obtained by using maximal overlap discrete wavelet packet transform (MODWPT. In order to reduce redundancy information of original statistical feature set, features selection by adjusted rand index and sum of within-class mean deviations (FSASD was proposed to select fault sensitive features. Furthermore, a modified features dimensionality reduction method, supervised neighborhood preserving embedding with label information (SNPEL, was proposed to realize low-dimensional representations for high-dimensional feature space. Finally, vibration signals collected from two experimental test rigs were employed to evaluate the performance of the proposed procedure. The results show that the effectiveness, adaptability, and superiority of the proposed procedure can serve as an intelligent bearing fault diagnosis system.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Anders Hedegaard; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Bech, Michael Møller
2015-01-01
The architecture of multi pressure line discrete fluid power force systems imposes rapid pressure shifts in the actuator volumes. These fast shifts between pressure levels often introduce pressure oscillations in the actuator chamber and connecting pipes. The topic of this paper is to perform...... pressure shifts by changing the connection between various fixed pressure lines without introducing significant pressure oscillation. As a case study a discrete force system is utilised is a Power Take Off(PTO) system of a wave energy converter. Four pressure shifting algorithms are proposed...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Anders Hedegaard; Pedersen, Henrik C.
2014-01-01
Discrete fluid power technology attracts great attention because it enables energy efficiency and robust system architectures. However, the discrete nature of this technology naturally brings shifting phenomenons into the picture. For fluid power system the relative high inductance of fluid...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muhammad Zainuddin Lubis
2017-05-01
Full Text Available Laut Punggur merupakan laut yang terletak di Batam, Kepulauan Riau yang mempunyai beragam habitat objek,dan bentuk struktur bawah laut yang memiliki dinamika laut yang sangat tinggi. Side scan sonar (SSS merupakan instrumen pengembangan sistem sonar yang mampu menunjukkan dalam gambar dua dimensional permukaan dasar laut dengan kondisi kontur, topografi, dan target secara bersamaan. Metode Beam Pattern Discrete-Equi-Spaced Unshaded Line Array digunakan untuk menghitung beam pattern dua dimensi yang tergantung pada sudut dari gelombang suara yang masuk dari sumbu array yang diterima tergantung pada sudut di mana sinar suara pada array. Penelitian ini dilakukan pada Desember 2016 di laut Punggur,Batam, Kepulauan Riau-Indonesia, dengan koordinat 104 ° 08,7102 E dan 1° 03,2448 N sampai 1 ° 03.3977 N dan 104 ° 08,8133 E, menggunakan instrumen Side Scan Sonar C-Max CM2 Tow fish dengan frekuensi 325 kHz. Hasil yang diperoleh dari perekaman terdapat 7 target, dan Beam pattern dari metode Beam Discrete-Equi-Spaced Unshaded Line Array target 4 memiliki nilai tertinggi pada directivity Pattern yaitu 21.08 dB. Hasil model beam pattern ini memiliki nilai pusat pada incidence angle (o terhadap Directivity pattern (dB tidak berada di nilai 0 ataupun pada pusat beam pattern yang dihasilkan pada target 6 dengan nilai incident angle -1.5 o dan 1.5o mengalami penurunan hingga -40 dB. Karakteristik sedimen dasar perairan di laut punggur ditemukan lebih banyak pasir. Hasil metode Beam Discrete-Equi-Spaced Unshaded Line Array ditemukan bangkai kapal tenggelam.Kata Kunci: Side Scan Sonar, Beam Pattern Discrete-Equi-Spaced Unshaded Line Array, Incidence angle, Directivity pattern IDENTIFICATION OF SEABED PROFILE USING SIDE SCAN SONAR INSTRUMENT WITH PATTERN DISCRETE-EQUI-SPACED UNSHADED LINE ARRAY METHODRiau Islands is an island that has a variety of habitat objects, and forms of submarine structures that have a very high ocean dynamics, Punggur Sea is the sea
Wolf-Rayet stars featured in emission-line galaxies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kunth, D.
1982-01-01
In the galaxy Tololo 3 (NGC 3125) recent observations by the author and Sargent (1981) have revealed the presence of an unusual strong and broad He II 4686 emission. The origin of this line together with some nitrogen lines (e.g. N V 4620 and N III 4638) is attributed to Wolf-Rayet stars, mostly of WN types. (Auth.)
Feature Extraction Using Discrete Wavelet Transform for Gear Fault Diagnosis of Wind Turbine Gearbox
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bajric, Rusmir; Zuber, Ninoslav; Skrimpas, Georgios Alexandros
2016-01-01
, the vibration signals are decomposed into a series of subbands signals with the use of amultiresolution analytical property of the discrete wavelet transform.Then, 22 condition indicators are extracted fromthe TSA signal, residual signal, and difference signal.Through the case study analysis, a new approach...
Classification of line features from remote sensing data
Kolankiewiczová, Soňa
2009-01-01
This work deals with object-based classification of high resolution data. The aim of the thesis (paper, work) is to develope an acceptable classification process of linear features (roads and railways) from high-resolution satellite images. The first part shows different approaches of the linear feature classification and compares theoretic differences between an object-oriented and a pixel-based classification. Linear feature classification was created in the second part. The high-resolution...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Geier, J E [Golder Associates AB, Uppsala (Sweden)
1996-12-01
Specific procedures and source data are described for the construction and application of discrete-feature hydrological models for the vicinity of Aespoe. Documentation is given for all major phases of the work, including: Statistical analyses to develop and validate discrete-fracture network models, Preliminary evaluation, construction, and calibration of the site-scale model based on the SITE-94 structural model of Aespoe, Simulation of multiple realizations of the integrated model, and variations, to predict groundwater flow, and Evaluation of near-field and far-field parameters for performance assessment calculations. Procedures are documented in terms of the computer batch files and executable scripts that were used to perform the main steps in these analyses, to provide for traceability of results that are used in the SITE-94 performance assessment calculations. 43 refs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Geier, J.E.
1996-12-01
Specific procedures and source data are described for the construction and application of discrete-feature hydrological models for the vicinity of Aespoe. Documentation is given for all major phases of the work, including: Statistical analyses to develop and validate discrete-fracture network models, Preliminary evaluation, construction, and calibration of the site-scale model based on the SITE-94 structural model of Aespoe, Simulation of multiple realizations of the integrated model, and variations, to predict groundwater flow, and Evaluation of near-field and far-field parameters for performance assessment calculations. Procedures are documented in terms of the computer batch files and executable scripts that were used to perform the main steps in these analyses, to provide for traceability of results that are used in the SITE-94 performance assessment calculations. 43 refs
Youth with Psychopathy Features Are Not a Discrete Class: A Taxometric Analysis
Murrie, Daniel C.; Marcus, David K.; Douglas, Kevin S.; Lee, Zina; Salekin, Randall T.; Vincent, Gina
2007-01-01
Background: Recently, researchers have sought to measure psychopathy-like features among youth in hopes of identifying children who may be progressing toward a particularly destructive form of adult pathology. However, it remains unclear whether psychopathy-like personality features among youth are best conceptualized as dimensional (distributed…
Boote, Stacy K.; Boote, David N.
2017-01-01
Students often struggle to interpret graphs correctly, despite emphasis on graphic literacy in U.S. education standards documents. The purpose of this study was to describe challenges sixth graders with varying levels of science and mathematics achievement encounter when transitioning from interpreting graphs having discrete independent variables…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. O. Bakodah
2013-01-01
Full Text Available A method of lines approach to the numerical solution of nonlinear wave equations typified by the regularized long wave (RLW is presented. The method developed uses a finite differences discretization to the space. Solution of the resulting system was obtained by applying fourth Runge-Kutta time discretization method. Using Von Neumann stability analysis, it is shown that the proposed method is marginally stable. To test the accuracy of the method some numerical experiments on test problems are presented. Test problems including solitary wave motion, two-solitary wave interaction, and the temporal evaluation of a Maxwellian initial pulse are studied. The accuracy of the present method is tested with and error norms and the conservation properties of mass, energy, and momentum under the RLW equation.
Comparison of Point and Line Features and Their Combination for Rigid Body Motion Estimation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pilz, Florian; Pugeault, Nicolas; Krüger, Norbert
2009-01-01
evaluate and compare the results using line and point features as 3D-2D constraints and we discuss the qualitative advantages and disadvantages of both feature types for RBM estimation. We also demonstrate an improvement in robustness through the combination of these features on large data sets...
Multiple discrete-energy ion features in the inner magnetosphere: 9 February 1998, event
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y. Ebihara
2004-04-01
Full Text Available Multiple discrete-energy ion bands observed by the Polar satellite in the inner magnetosphere on 9 February 1998 were investigated by means of particle simulation with a realistic model of the convection electric field. The multiple bands appeared in the energy vs. L spectrum in the 1–100 keV range when Polar traveled in the heart of the ring current along the outbound and inbound paths. We performed particle tracing, and simulated the energy vs. L spectra of proton fluxes under the dipole magnetic field, the corotation electric field, and the realistic convection electric field model with its parameters depending on the solar wind data. Simulated spectra are shown to agree well with the observed ones. A better agreement is achieved when we rotate the convection electric potential eastward by 2h inMLT and we change the distribution function in time in the near-Earth magnetotail. It is concluded that the multiple bands are likely produced by two processes for this particular event, that is, changes in the convection electric field (for >3keV protons and changes in the distribution function in the near-Earth magnetotail (for <3keV protons. Key words. Magnetospheric physics (energetic particles, trapped; electric field – Space plasma physics (numerical simulation studies
BLM Colorado Wild and Scenic Rivers Line Features (Suitable/Eligible)
Department of the Interior — KMZ File Format –- This line feature class represents the segments identified as eligible or suitable for Wild and Scenic River designation. These segments are part...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dulov, E.N.; Khripunov, D.M.
2008-01-01
It is the usual situation in spectroscopy that a continuous physical quantity, which plays the role of a spectral function argument (i.e. the abscissa of a spectrum), is sampled electronically as discrete point clouds or channels. Each channel corresponds to the midpoint of a small interval of the continuous argument. The experimentally registered value of intensity in the channel describes the averaged spectral intensity in this interval. However, an approximation of spectra by a continuous theoretical model function often assumes that the interval is small enough, and tabulation of the theoretical model function may be used without appreciable disadvantages for the fitting results. At this point, a new type of approximation error appears, such as the error of midpoint approximation to a definite integral in the rectangle method of numeric integration. This paper aims at quantitative estimation of this error in the cases of a pure Lorentz lineshape and a generalized Voigt contour. It is shown that discrete representation of continuous spectral data leads to some non-physical broadening in comparison with the tabulated model function. As a first approximation it is normal broadening. We show that even in the case of a Lorentz true lineshape we must use the tabulated Voigt function measured in channels fixed Gauss linewidth rather than a tabulated Lorentzian. Application of the results of this paper is demonstrated on Moessbauer spectra
Gan, Yanfen; Zhong, Junliu
2015-12-01
With the aid of sophisticated photo-editing software, such as Photoshop, copy-move image forgery operation has been widely applied and has become a major concern in the field of information security in the modern society. A lot of work on detecting this kind of forgery has gained great achievements, but the detection results of geometrical transformations of copy-move regions are not so satisfactory. In this paper, a new method based on the Polar Complex Exponential Transform is proposed. This method addresses issues in image geometric moment, focusing on constructing rotation invariant moment and extracting features of the rotation invariant moment. In order to reduce rounding errors of the transform from the Polar coordinate system to the Cartesian coordinate system, a new transformation method is presented and discussed in detail at the same time. The new method constructs a 9 × 9 shrunk template to transform the Cartesian coordinate system back to the Polar coordinate system. It can reduce transform errors to a much greater degree. Forgery detection, such as copy-move image forgery detection, is a difficult procedure, but experiments prove our method is a great improvement in detecting and identifying forgery images affected by the rotated transform.
DISCRETIZATION APPROACH USING RAY-TESTING MODEL IN PARTING LINE AND PARTING SURFACE GENERATION
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HAN Jianwen; JIAN Bin; YAN Guangrong; LEI Yi
2007-01-01
Surface classification, 3D parting line, parting surface generation and demoldability analysis which is helpful to select optimal parting direction and optimal parting line are involved in automatic cavity design based on the ray-testing model. A new ray-testing approach is presented to classify the part surfaces to core/cavity surfaces and undercut surfaces by automatic identifying the visibility of surfaces. A simple, direct and efficient algorithm to identify surface visibility is developed. The algorithm is robust and adapted to rather complicated geometry, so it is valuable in computer-aided mold design systems. To validate the efficiency of the approach, an experimental program is implemented. Case studies show that the approach is practical and valuable in automatic parting line and parting surface generation.
Zamani, Majid; Demosthenous, Andreas
2014-07-01
Next generation neural interfaces for upper-limb (and other) prostheses aim to develop implantable interfaces for one or more nerves, each interface having many neural signal channels that work reliably in the stump without harming the nerves. To achieve real-time multi-channel processing it is important to integrate spike sorting on-chip to overcome limitations in transmission bandwidth. This requires computationally efficient algorithms for feature extraction and clustering suitable for low-power hardware implementation. This paper describes a new feature extraction method for real-time spike sorting based on extrema analysis (namely positive peaks and negative peaks) of spike shapes and their discrete derivatives at different frequency bands. Employing simulation across different datasets, the accuracy and computational complexity of the proposed method are assessed and compared with other methods. The average classification accuracy of the proposed method in conjunction with online sorting (O-Sort) is 91.6%, outperforming all the other methods tested with the O-Sort clustering algorithm. The proposed method offers a better tradeoff between classification error and computational complexity, making it a particularly strong choice for on-chip spike sorting.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Z. Q. Liu
2018-04-01
Full Text Available An automatic global registration approach for point clouds and remote sensing image based on straight line features is proposed which is insensitive to rotational and scale transformation. First, the building ridge lines and contour lines in point clouds are automatically detected as registration primitives by integrating region growth and topology identification. Second, the collinear condition equation is selected as registration transformation function which is based on rotation matrix described by unit quaternion. The similarity measure is established according to the distance between the corresponding straight line features from point clouds and the image in the same reference coordinate system. Finally, an iterative Hough transform is adopted to simultaneously estimate the parameters and obtain correspondence between registration primitives. Experimental results prove the proposed method is valid and the spectral information is useful for the following classification processing.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Geier, J.E. [Golder Associates AB, Uppsala (Sweden)
1996-12-01
A 3-dimensional, discrete-feature hydrological model is developed. The model integrates structural and hydrologic data for the Aespoe site, on scales ranging from semi regional fracture zones to individual fractures in the vicinity of the nuclear waste canisters. Hydrologic properties of the large-scale structures are initially estimated from cross-hole hydrologic test data, and automatically calibrated by numerical simulation of network flow, and comparison with undisturbed heads and observed drawdown in selected cross-hole tests. The calibrated model is combined with a separately derived fracture network model, to yield the integrated model. This model is partly validated by simulation of transient responses to a long-term pumping test and a convergent tracer test, based on the LPT2 experiment at Aespoe. The integrated model predicts that discharge from the SITE-94 repository is predominantly via fracture zones along the eastern shore of Aespoe. Similar discharge loci are produced by numerous model variants that explore uncertainty with regard to effective semi regional boundary conditions, hydrologic properties of the site-scale structures, and alternative structural/hydrological interpretations. 32 refs.
Jiang, Guangli; Liu, Leibo; Zhu, Wenping; Yin, Shouyi; Wei, Shaojun
2015-09-04
This paper proposes a real-time feature extraction VLSI architecture for high-resolution images based on the accelerated KAZE algorithm. Firstly, a new system architecture is proposed. It increases the system throughput, provides flexibility in image resolution, and offers trade-offs between speed and scaling robustness. The architecture consists of a two-dimensional pipeline array that fully utilizes computational similarities in octaves. Secondly, a substructure (block-serial discrete-time cellular neural network) that can realize a nonlinear filter is proposed. This structure decreases the memory demand through the removal of data dependency. Thirdly, a hardware-friendly descriptor is introduced in order to overcome the hardware design bottleneck through the polar sample pattern; a simplified method to realize rotation invariance is also presented. Finally, the proposed architecture is designed in TSMC 65 nm CMOS technology. The experimental results show a performance of 127 fps in full HD resolution at 200 MHz frequency. The peak performance reaches 181 GOPS and the throughput is double the speed of other state-of-the-art architectures.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guangli Jiang
2015-09-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a real-time feature extraction VLSI architecture for high-resolution images based on the accelerated KAZE algorithm. Firstly, a new system architecture is proposed. It increases the system throughput, provides flexibility in image resolution, and offers trade-offs between speed and scaling robustness. The architecture consists of a two-dimensional pipeline array that fully utilizes computational similarities in octaves. Secondly, a substructure (block-serial discrete-time cellular neural network that can realize a nonlinear filter is proposed. This structure decreases the memory demand through the removal of data dependency. Thirdly, a hardware-friendly descriptor is introduced in order to overcome the hardware design bottleneck through the polar sample pattern; a simplified method to realize rotation invariance is also presented. Finally, the proposed architecture is designed in TSMC 65 nm CMOS technology. The experimental results show a performance of 127 fps in full HD resolution at 200 MHz frequency. The peak performance reaches 181 GOPS and the throughput is double the speed of other state-of-the-art architectures.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Geier, J.E.
1996-12-01
A 3-dimensional, discrete-feature hydrological model is developed. The model integrates structural and hydrologic data for the Aespoe site, on scales ranging from semi regional fracture zones to individual fractures in the vicinity of the nuclear waste canisters. Predicted parameters for the near field include fracture spacing, fracture aperture, and Darcy velocity at each of forty canister deposition holes. Parameters for the far field include discharge location, Darcy velocity, effective longitudinal dispersion coefficient and head gradient, flow porosity, and flow wetted surface, for each canister source that discharges to the biosphere. Results are presented in the form of statistical summaries for a total of 42 calculation cases, which treat a set of 25 model variants in various combinations. The variants for the SITE-94 Reference Case model address conceptual and parametric uncertainty related to the site-scale hydrogeologic model and its properties, the fracture network within the repository, effective semi regional boundary conditions for the model, and the disturbed-rock zone around the repository tunnels and shafts. Two calculation cases simulate hydrologic conditions that are predicted to occur during future glacial episodes. 30 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Geier, J.E.
1996-12-01
A 3-dimensional, discrete-feature hydrological model is developed. The model integrates structural and hydrologic data for the Aespoe site, on scales ranging from semi regional fracture zones to individual fractures in the vicinity of the nuclear waste canisters. Hydrologic properties of the large-scale structures are initially estimated from cross-hole hydrologic test data, and automatically calibrated by numerical simulation of network flow, and comparison with undisturbed heads and observed drawdown in selected cross-hole tests. The calibrated model is combined with a separately derived fracture network model, to yield the integrated model. This model is partly validated by simulation of transient responses to a long-term pumping test and a convergent tracer test, based on the LPT2 experiment at Aespoe. The integrated model predicts that discharge from the SITE-94 repository is predominantly via fracture zones along the eastern shore of Aespoe. Similar discharge loci are produced by numerous model variants that explore uncertainty with regard to effective semi regional boundary conditions, hydrologic properties of the site-scale structures, and alternative structural/hydrological interpretations. 32 refs
A regression-based Kansei engineering system based on form feature lines for product form design
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yan Xiong
2016-06-01
Full Text Available When developing new products, it is important for a designer to understand users’ perceptions and develop product form with the corresponding perceptions. In order to establish the mapping between users’ perceptions and product design features effectively, in this study, we presented a regression-based Kansei engineering system based on form feature lines for product form design. First according to the characteristics of design concept representation, product form features–product form feature lines were defined. Second, Kansei words were chosen to describe image perceptions toward product samples. Then, multiple linear regression and support vector regression were used to construct the models, respectively, that predicted users’ image perceptions. Using mobile phones as experimental samples, Kansei prediction models were established based on the front view form feature lines of the samples. From the experimental results, these two predict models were of good adaptability. But in contrast to multiple linear regression, the predict performance of support vector regression model was better, and support vector regression is more suitable for form regression prediction. The results of the case showed that the proposed method provided an effective means for designers to manipulate product features as a whole, and it can optimize Kansei model and improve practical values.
[The characters and specific features of new human embryonic stem cells lines].
Krylova, T A; Kol'tsova, A M; Zenin, V V; Gordeeva, O F; Musorina, A S; Goriachaia, T S; Shlykova, S A; Kamenetskaia, Iu K; Pinaev, G P; Polianskaia, G G
2009-01-01
Four continuous human embryonic stem cell lines (SC1, SC2, SC3 and SC4), derived from the blastocysts has been described. The cell lines were cultivated on mitotically inactivated human feeder cells. The cell lines SC1 and SC2 have passed through 150 population doublings and the cell lines SC3 and SC4 -- near 120 populations doublings, which exceeds Hayflick limit sufficiently. These cell lines maintain high activity of alkaline phosphatase, expression of transcription factor OCT-4 and cell surface antigens (SSEA-4, TRA-1-60 and TRA-1-81), confirming their ESC status and human specificity. Immunofluorescent detection of antigens, characteristic of ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm confirms the ability of these cells to retain their pluripotency under in vitro condition. PCR analysis revealed expression of six genes specific for pluripotent cells (OCT-4, NANOG, DPPA3/STELLA, TDGF/CRIPTO and LEFTYA). Correlation between the level of proliferative activity and the character of DNA-bound fluorescent staining was found. Fluorescent dyes, Hoechst 33342 and PI, produced diffuse staining of the nuclei in slowly proliferating cells of the SC1 and SC2 lines. In contrast, in actively proliferating cells of the SC3 and SC4 lines, the clear staining of the nuclei was observed. Upon changing the cultivation condition, proliferative activity of SC3 and SC4 lines decreased and became similar to that of SC1 and SC2 lines. The character of the fluorescent staining of all these lines was also shown to be similar. These results show that quality of the fluorescent staining with Hoechst 33342 and PI reflects the level of proliferation. Possible causes and mechanisms of this feature of human ESC are discussed.
The impact of signal normalization on seizure detection using line length features.
Logesparan, Lojini; Rodriguez-Villegas, Esther; Casson, Alexander J
2015-10-01
Accurate automated seizure detection remains a desirable but elusive target for many neural monitoring systems. While much attention has been given to the different feature extractions that can be used to highlight seizure activity in the EEG, very little formal attention has been given to the normalization that these features are routinely paired with. This normalization is essential in patient-independent algorithms to correct for broad-level differences in the EEG amplitude between people, and in patient-dependent algorithms to correct for amplitude variations over time. It is crucial, however, that the normalization used does not have a detrimental effect on the seizure detection process. This paper presents the first formal investigation into the impact of signal normalization techniques on seizure discrimination performance when using the line length feature to emphasize seizure activity. Comparing five normalization methods, based upon the mean, median, standard deviation, signal peak and signal range, we demonstrate differences in seizure detection accuracy (assessed as the area under a sensitivity-specificity ROC curve) of up to 52 %. This is despite the same analysis feature being used in all cases. Further, changes in performance of up to 22 % are present depending on whether the normalization is applied to the raw EEG itself or directly to the line length feature. Our results highlight the median decaying memory as the best current approach for providing normalization when using line length features, and they quantify the under-appreciated challenge of providing signal normalization that does not impair seizure detection algorithm performance.
Side-Scan Sonar Image Mosaic Using Couple Feature Points with Constraint of Track Line Positions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jianhu Zhao
2018-06-01
Full Text Available To obtain large-scale seabed surface image, this paper proposes a side-scan sonar (SSS image mosaic method using couple feature points (CFPs with constraint of track line positions. The SSS geocoded images are firstly used to form a coarsely mosaicked one and the overlapping areas between adjacent strip images can be determined based on geographic information. Inside the overlapping areas, the feature point (FP detection and registration operation are adopted for both strips. According to the detected CFPs and track line positions, an adjustment model is established to accommodate complex local distortions as well as ensure the global stability. This proposed method effectively solves the problem of target ghosting or dislocation and no accumulated errors arise in the mosaicking process. Experimental results show that the finally mosaicked image correctly reflects the object distribution, which is meaningful for understanding and interpreting seabed topography.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garetti, M. [Milan Politecnico, Milan (Italy). Dipt. di Economia e Produzione; Bartolotta, A.
2000-10-01
The state of the art of discrete event simulation tools is presented with special reference to the application to the manufacturing systems area. After presenting the basics of discrete event computer simulation, the different steps to be followed for the successful use of simulation are defined and discussed. The evolution of software packages for discrete event simulation is also presented, highlighting main technological changes. Finally the future development lines of simulation are outlined. [Italian] Viene presentato lo stato dell'arte della simulazione a eventi discreti. Dopo una breve descrizione della tecnica della simulazione e della sua evoluzione, con un particolare riguardo alla simulazione dei sistemi produttivi, sono descritte le fasi della procedura da seguire per condurre unostudio di simulazione e i possibili approcci per la costruzione del modello. Viene infine descritta l'evoluzione dei principali pacchetti software di simulazione esistenti sul mercato.
Mass loss, levitation, accretion, and the sharp-lined features in hot white dwarfs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bruhweiler, F.C.; Kondo, Y.
1983-01-01
We have studied eight white dwarfs, seven DA and one He-rich types, observed at a high resolution (lambda/Δlambdaroughly-equal10 4 ) with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE). Of the seven DA white dwarfs, three show spectral signatures of ionized heavy elements, such as Si II, SI III, C IV, Si IV, and N V, arising in the immediate environment of these stars. The shortward-shifted lines in two (G191--B2B and 2111+49) of the three DA types showing metallic lines are tentatively interpreted as an indication of mass loss from these stars. The He-rich white dwarf shows the features due to C cV and He II, which also arise in the immediate environment of that star. Although the statistical sample presented here is limited, we tentatively suggest a temperature and effective gravity range (T/sub eff/> or approx. =20,000 K and log (g) < or approx. =8.0) in DA white dwarfs within which metallic lines are present either in the photosphere or in the halo of the stars. We examine the physical processes relevant to the appearance of such metallic lines. We tentatively propose that radiative levitation can explain the appearance of the observed lines in the hot DA white dwarfs, although the role of radiation forces in mass loss is not clear
Ebrahimi, Farideh; Setarehdan, Seyed-Kamaledin; Ayala-Moyeda, Jose; Nazeran, Homer
2013-10-01
The conventional method for sleep staging is to analyze polysomnograms (PSGs) recorded in a sleep lab. The electroencephalogram (EEG) is one of the most important signals in PSGs but recording and analysis of this signal presents a number of technical challenges, especially at home. Instead, electrocardiograms (ECGs) are much easier to record and may offer an attractive alternative for home sleep monitoring. The heart rate variability (HRV) signal proves suitable for automatic sleep staging. Thirty PSGs from the Sleep Heart Health Study (SHHS) database were used. Three feature sets were extracted from 5- and 0.5-min HRV segments: time-domain features, nonlinear-dynamics features and time-frequency features. The latter was achieved by using empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and discrete wavelet transform (DWT) methods. Normalized energies in important frequency bands of HRV signals were computed using time-frequency methods. ANOVA and t-test were used for statistical evaluations. Automatic sleep staging was based on HRV signal features. The ANOVA followed by a post hoc Bonferroni was used for individual feature assessment. Most features were beneficial for sleep staging. A t-test was used to compare the means of extracted features in 5- and 0.5-min HRV segments. The results showed that the extracted features means were statistically similar for a small number of features. A separability measure showed that time-frequency features, especially EMD features, had larger separation than others. There was not a sizable difference in separability of linear features between 5- and 0.5-min HRV segments but separability of nonlinear features, especially EMD features, decreased in 0.5-min HRV segments. HRV signal features were classified by linear discriminant (LD) and quadratic discriminant (QD) methods. Classification results based on features from 5-min segments surpassed those obtained from 0.5-min segments. The best result was obtained from features using 5-min HRV
Real-time line-width measurements: a new feature for reticle inspection systems
Eran, Yair; Greenberg, Gad; Joseph, Amnon; Lustig, Cornel; Mizrahi, Eyal
1997-07-01
The significance of line width control in mask production has become greater with the lessening of defect size. There are two conventional methods used for controlling line widths dimensions which employed in the manufacturing of masks for sub micron devices. These two methods are the critical dimensions (CD) measurement and the detection of edge defects. Achieving reliable and accurate control of line width errors is one of the most challenging tasks in mask production. Neither of the two methods cited above (namely CD measurement and the detection of edge defects) guarantees the detection of line width errors with good sensitivity over the whole mask area. This stems from the fact that CD measurement provides only statistical data on the mask features whereas applying edge defect detection method checks defects on each edge by itself, and does not supply information on the combined result of error detection on two adjacent edges. For example, a combination of a small edge defect together with a CD non- uniformity which are both within the allowed tolerance, may yield a significant line width error, which will not be detected using the conventional methods (see figure 1). A new approach for the detection of line width errors which overcomes this difficulty is presented. Based on this approach, a new sensitive line width error detector was developed and added to Orbot's RT-8000 die-to-database reticle inspection system. This innovative detector operates continuously during the mask inspection process and scans (inspects) the entire area of the reticle for line width errors. The detection is based on a comparison of measured line width that are taken on both the design database and the scanned image of the reticle. In section 2, the motivation for developing this new detector is presented. The section covers an analysis of various defect types, which are difficult to detect using conventional edge detection methods or, alternatively, CD measurements. In section 3
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qiangliang Guo
2018-02-01
Full Text Available Power transmission line icing (PTLI problems, which cause tremendous damage to the power grids, has drawn much attention. Existing three-dimensional measurement methods based on binocular stereo vision was recently introduced to measure the ice thickness in PTLI, but failed to meet requirements of practical applications due to inefficient keypoint matching in the complex PTLI scene. In this paper, a new keypoint matching method is proposed based on the local multi-layer convolutional neural network (CNN features, termed Local Convolutional Features (LCFs. LCFs are deployed to extract more discriminative features than the conventional CNNs. Particularly in LCFs, a multi-layer features fusion scheme is exploited to boost the matching performance. Together with a location constraint method, the correspondence of neighboring keypoints is further refined. Our approach achieves 1.5%, 5.3%, 13.1%, 27.3% improvement in the average matching precision compared with SIFT, SURF, ORB and MatchNet on the public Middlebury dataset, and the measurement accuracy of ice thickness can reach 90.9% compared with manual measurement on the collected PTLI dataset.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sujuan Mi
2015-08-01
Full Text Available With the development of quantitative remote sensing, regional evapotranspiration (ET modeling based on the feature space has made substantial progress. Among those feature space based evapotranspiration models, accurate determination of the dry/wet lines remains a challenging task. This paper reports the development of a new model, named DDTI (Determination of Dry line by Thermal Inertia, which determines the theoretical dry line based on the relationship between the thermal inertia and the soil moisture. The Simplified Thermal Inertia value estimated in the North China Plain is consistent with the value measured in the laboratory. Three evaluation methods, which are based on the comparison of the locations of the theoretical dry line determined by two models (DDTI model and the heat energy balance model, the comparison of ET results, and the comparison of the evaporative fraction between the estimates from the two models and the in situ measurements, were used to assess the performance of the new model DDTI. The location of the theoretical dry line determined by DDTI is more reasonable than that determined by the heat energy balance model. ET estimated from DDTI has an RMSE (Root Mean Square Error of 56.77 W/m2 and a bias of 27.17 W/m2; while the heat energy balance model estimated ET with an RMSE of 83.36 W/m2 and a bias of −38.42 W/m2. When comparing the coeffcient of determination for the two models with the observations from Yucheng, DDTI demonstrated ET with an R2 of 0.9065; while the heat energy balance model has an R2 of 0.7729. When compared with the in situ measurements of evaporative fraction (EF at Yucheng Experimental Station, the ET model based on DDTI reproduces the pixel scale EF with an RMSE of 0.149, much lower than that based on the heat energy balance model which has an RMSE of 0.220. Also, the EF bias between the DDTI model and the in situ measurements is 0.064, lower than the EF bias of the heat energy balance model
Liang, Yu-Li
Multimedia data is increasingly important in scientific discovery and people's daily lives. Content of massive multimedia is often diverse and noisy, and motion between frames is sometimes crucial in analyzing those data. Among all, still images and videos are commonly used formats. Images are compact in size but do not contain motion information. Videos record motion but are sometimes too big to be analyzed. Sequential images, which are a set of continuous images with low frame rate, stand out because they are smaller than videos and still maintain motion information. This thesis investigates features in different types of noisy sequential images, and the proposed solutions that intelligently combined multiple features to successfully retrieve visual information from on-line videos and cloudy satellite images. The first task is detecting supraglacial lakes above ice sheet in sequential satellite images. The dynamics of supraglacial lakes on the Greenland ice sheet deeply affect glacier movement, which is directly related to sea level rise and global environment change. Detecting lakes above ice is suffering from diverse image qualities and unexpected clouds. A new method is proposed to efficiently extract prominent lake candidates with irregular shapes, heterogeneous backgrounds, and in cloudy images. The proposed system fully automatize the procedure that track lakes with high accuracy. We further cooperated with geoscientists to examine the tracked lakes and found new scientific findings. The second one is detecting obscene content in on-line video chat services, such as Chatroulette, that randomly match pairs of users in video chat sessions. A big problem encountered in such systems is the presence of flashers and obscene content. Because of various obscene content and unstable qualities of videos capture by home web-camera, detecting misbehaving users is a highly challenging task. We propose SafeVchat, which is the first solution that achieves satisfactory
Altazi, Baderaldeen A; Zhang, Geoffrey G; Fernandez, Daniel C; Montejo, Michael E; Hunt, Dylan; Werner, Joan; Biagioli, Matthew C; Moros, Eduardo G
2017-11-01
Site-specific investigations of the role of radiomics in cancer diagnosis and therapy are emerging. We evaluated the reproducibility of radiomic features extracted from 18 Flourine-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) PET images for three parameters: manual versus computer-aided segmentation methods, gray-level discretization, and PET image reconstruction algorithms. Our cohort consisted of pretreatment PET/CT scans from 88 cervical cancer patients. Two board-certified radiation oncologists manually segmented the metabolic tumor volume (MTV 1 and MTV 2 ) for each patient. For comparison, we used a graphical-based method to generate semiautomated segmented volumes (GBSV). To address any perturbations in radiomic feature values, we down-sampled the tumor volumes into three gray-levels: 32, 64, and 128 from the original gray-level of 256. Finally, we analyzed the effect on radiomic features on PET images of eight patients due to four PET 3D-reconstruction algorithms: maximum likelihood-ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) iterative reconstruction (IR) method, fourier rebinning-ML-OSEM (FOREIR), FORE-filtered back projection (FOREFBP), and 3D-Reprojection (3DRP) analytical method. We extracted 79 features from all segmentation method, gray-levels of down-sampled volumes, and PET reconstruction algorithms. The features were extracted using gray-level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM), gray-level size zone matrices (GLSZM), gray-level run-length matrices (GLRLM), neighborhood gray-tone difference matrices (NGTDM), shape-based features (SF), and intensity histogram features (IHF). We computed the Dice coefficient between each MTV and GBSV to measure segmentation accuracy. Coefficient values close to one indicate high agreement, and values close to zero indicate low agreement. We evaluated the effect on radiomic features by calculating the mean percentage differences (d¯) between feature values measured from each pair of parameter elements (i.e. segmentation methods: MTV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bhatnagar, Parijat; Panda, Siddhartha; Edleman, Nikki L.; Allen, Scott D.; Wise, Richard; Mahorowala, Arpan
2007-01-01
We have developed a reactive ion etch (RIE) process in borophosphosilicate glass (BPSG) for 150 nm line-and-space features, where line-edge roughness (LER) complemented with RIE lag becomes a major issue. Effect of flow rates and carbon-to-fluorine atomic ratio of fluorohydrocarbon gases was utilized to achieve acceptable process window allowing lower radio frequency powers therefore obtaining acceptable LER and RIE lag in the high-resolution features etched into BPSG
Li, T.; Wang, Z.; Peng, J.
2018-04-01
Aboveground biomass (AGB) estimation is critical for quantifying carbon stocks and essential for evaluating carbon cycle. In recent years, airborne LiDAR shows its great ability for highly-precision AGB estimation. Most of the researches estimate AGB by the feature metrics extracted from the canopy height distribution of the point cloud which calculated based on precise digital terrain model (DTM). However, if forest canopy density is high, the probability of the LiDAR signal penetrating the canopy is lower, resulting in ground points is not enough to establish DTM. Then the distribution of forest canopy height is imprecise and some critical feature metrics which have a strong correlation with biomass such as percentiles, maximums, means and standard deviations of canopy point cloud can hardly be extracted correctly. In order to address this issue, we propose a strategy of first reconstructing LiDAR feature metrics through Auto-Encoder neural network and then using the reconstructed feature metrics to estimate AGB. To assess the prediction ability of the reconstructed feature metrics, both original and reconstructed feature metrics were regressed against field-observed AGB using the multiple stepwise regression (MS) and the partial least squares regression (PLS) respectively. The results showed that the estimation model using reconstructed feature metrics improved R2 by 5.44 %, 18.09 %, decreased RMSE value by 10.06 %, 22.13 % and reduced RMSEcv by 10.00 %, 21.70 % for AGB, respectively. Therefore, reconstructing LiDAR point feature metrics has potential for addressing AGB estimation challenge in dense canopy area.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Balestrini
2013-03-01
Full Text Available The study of nitrogen cycling in mountain areas has a long tradition, as it was applied to better understand and describe ecosystem functioning, as well as to quantify long-distance effects of human activities on remote environments. Nonetheless, very few studies, especially in Europe, have considered catchment features controlling nitrogen dynamics above the tree line with focus on running waters. In this study, relationships between some water chemistry descriptors – including nitrogen species and dissolved organic carbon (DOC – and catchment characteristics were evaluated for a range of sites located above the tree line (1950–2650 m a.s.l. at Val Masino, in the central Italian Alps. Land cover categories as well as elevation and slope were assessed at each site. Water samples were collected during the 2007 and 2008 snow free periods, with a nearly monthly frequency. In contrast to dissolved organic nitrogen, nitrate concentrations in running waters showed a spatial pattern strictly connected to the fractional extension of tundra and talus in each basin. Exponential models significantly described the relationships between maximum NO3 and the fraction of vegetated soil cover (negative relation and talus (positive relation, explaining almost 90% of nitrate variation in running waters. Similarly to nitrate but with an opposite behavior, DOC was positively correlated with vegetated soil cover and negatively correlated with talus. Therefore, land cover can be considered one of the most important factors affecting water quality in high-elevation catchments with contrasting effects on N and C pools.
LOCAL LINE BINARY PATTERN FOR FEATURE EXTRACTION ON PALM VEIN RECOGNITION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jayanti Yusmah Sari
2015-08-01
Full Text Available In recent years, palm vein recognition has been studied to overcome problems in conventional systems in biometrics technology (finger print, face, and iris. Those problems in biometrics includes convenience and performance. However, due to the clarity of the palm vein image, the veins could not be segmented properly. To overcome this problem, we propose a palm vein recognition system using Local Line Binary Pattern (LLBP method that can extract robust features from the palm vein images that has unclear veins. LLBP is an advanced method of Local Binary Pattern (LBP, a texture descriptor based on the gray level comparison of a neighborhood of pixels. There are four major steps in this paper, Region of Interest (ROI detection, image preprocessing, features extraction using LLBP method, and matching using Fuzzy k-NN classifier. The proposed method was applied on the CASIA Multi-Spectral Image Database. Experimental results showed that the proposed method using LLBP has a good performance with recognition accuracy of 97.3%. In the future, experiments will be conducted to observe which parameter that could affect processing time and recognition accuracy of LLBP is needed
Pajevic, Sinisa; Aldroubi, Akram; Basser, Peter J
2002-01-01
The effective diffusion tensor of water, D, measured by diffusion tensor MRI (DT-MRI), is inherently a discrete, noisy, voxel-averaged sample of an underlying macroscopic effective diffusion tensor field, D(x). Within fibrous tissues this field is presumed to be continuous and smooth at a gross anatomical length scale. Here a new, general mathematical framework is proposed that uses measured DT-MRI data to produce a continuous approximation to D(x). One essential finding is that the continuous tensor field representation can be constructed by repeatedly performing one-dimensional B-spline transforms of the DT-MRI data. The fidelity and noise-immunity of this approximation are tested using a set of synthetically generated tensor fields to which background noise is added via Monte Carlo methods. Generally, these tensor field templates are reproduced faithfully except at boundaries where diffusion properties change discontinuously or where the tensor field is not microscopically homogeneous. Away from such regions, the tensor field approximation does not introduce bias in useful DT-MRI parameters, such as Trace(D(x)). It also facilitates the calculation of several new parameters, particularly differential quantities obtained from the tensor of spatial gradients of D(x). As an example, we show that they can identify tissue boundaries across which diffusion properties change rapidly using in vivo human brain data. One important application of this methodology is to improve the reliability and robustness of DT-MRI fiber tractography.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Huan Ni
2016-09-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an automated and effective method for detecting 3D edges and tracing feature lines from 3D-point clouds. This method is named Analysis of Geometric Properties of Neighborhoods (AGPN, and it includes two main steps: edge detection and feature line tracing. In the edge detection step, AGPN analyzes geometric properties of each query point’s neighborhood, and then combines RANdom SAmple Consensus (RANSAC and angular gap metric to detect edges. In the feature line tracing step, feature lines are traced by a hybrid method based on region growing and model fitting in the detected edges. Our approach is experimentally validated on complex man-made objects and large-scale urban scenes with millions of points. Comparative studies with state-of-the-art methods demonstrate that our method obtains a promising, reliable, and high performance in detecting edges and tracing feature lines in 3D-point clouds. Moreover, AGPN is insensitive to the point density of the input data.
3-D Discrete Analytical Ridgelet Transform
Helbert , David; Carré , Philippe; Andrès , Éric
2006-01-01
International audience; In this paper, we propose an implementation of the 3-D Ridgelet transform: the 3-D discrete analytical Ridgelet transform (3-D DART). This transform uses the Fourier strategy for the computation of the associated 3-D discrete Radon transform. The innovative step is the definition of a discrete 3-D transform with the discrete analytical geometry theory by the construction of 3-D discrete analytical lines in the Fourier domain. We propose two types of 3-D discrete lines:...
An algorithm for generation of DEMs from contour lines considering geomorphic features
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Xiao-Ping Rui
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Geomorphic information is omitted from many existing methods of generating gridded digital elevation models (DEMs from contour lines, resulting in significant errors during interpolation. Here, we present an advanced schema for improvement of the comprehensive regionalized method of linear interpolation. This approach uses a moving fitting method for an interpolated point and selects elevation points that are representative of geomorphic features as a whole to improve interpolation quality. A total of 16 points are selected, according to certain criteria, in eight directions surrounding the interpolated point; thus, there are two points in each direction, which is sufficient to provide an accurate representation of the geomorphic features of the DEM. Our method introduces virtual control points to prevent sudden changes in the interpolation results, which helps to overcome problems related to the distortion of the local geospatial distribution in areas where feature geomorphic information is inadequate. We construct the spline interpolation function using intersection points and virtual control points, all of which are applied to compute the point elevation. Moreover, we index all elevation values and spatial points of linear features using the R-tree method to ensure that points related to an interpolated position can be retrieved as quickly as possible. Finally, we test our method using a coal mine elevation dataset. The results confirm that our proposed method can generate DEMs smoothly and, in particular, avoid problems related to local distortion. Resumen La información geomórfica se omite en muchos de los métodos de generación de Modelos Digitales de Elevación (DEM, en inglés que se elaboran a partir de líneas de contorno, lo que resulta en errores significativos durante la interpolación. En este trabajo se presenta un esquema avanzado para el mejoramiento del método comprensivo regionalizado de interpolación lineal. Esta
Reducing pressure oscillations in discrete fluid power systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Anders Hedegaard; Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen
2016-01-01
Discrete fluid power systems featuring transmission lines inherently include pressure oscillations. Experimental verification of a discrete fluid power power take off system for wave energy converters has shown the cylinder pressure to oscillate as force shifts are performed. This article investi...... investigates how cylinder pressure oscillations may be reduced by shaping the valve opening trajectory without the need for closed loop pressure feedback. Furthermore the energy costs of reducing pressure oscillations are investigated....
Evidence of Decay of Flux Ratio of Fe to Fe–Ni Line Features with ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2010-08-18
Aug 18, 2010 ... measuring of the intensity and mean energy of the Fe and Fe–Ni line ... The instrumentation of the SLD payload, its in-flight calibration and operation ... reconnection process and also decays faster compared to many other ... measure vary over time and these factors mainly control the shape of the line. The.
Weiner, Saul J; Laporte, Margaret; Abrams, Richard I; Moswin, Arthur; Warnecke, Richard
2004-04-01
Medically uninsured patients seeking nonemergency care are not guaranteed access to services at most healthcare institutions. They must first register with a clerk who could require a deposit and/or payment on an outstanding debt. This study examines the factors that influence whether nonmedical bureaucratic staff sign in or turn away uninsured patients who cannot meet prepayment requirements. The study was conducted at a for-profit, a not-for-profit, and a public healthcare institution in a metropolitan area. The authors explored the relevant policy environment through interviews with senior administrators and a review of documents pertaining to the management of self-pay patients. Then they examined how policies affecting access were implemented through in-depth, semistructured, audiotaped interviews with 55 front-line clerical personnel. At all 3 institutions, policies were ambiguous about what to do when uninsured patients cannot afford required prepayments. Seventy-one percent of staff reported they do not turn patients away; the remainder stated that on occasion they do. A variety of rationales were provided for how decisions are made. Those with the lowest-level positions were significantly more likely to be sympathetic to indigent patients and less likely to report turning patients away. Consistent with other studies of front-line bureaucracies indicating that low-level personnel who interface with clients make discretionary decisions, particularly when organizations pursue potentially conflicting priorities, this preliminary investigation found that nonmedical personnel play a significant role in decisions affecting access to care for medically indigent patients.
Hodgkins, Paul; Swinburn, Paul; Solomon, Dory; Yen, Linnette; Dewilde, Sarah; Lloyd, Andrew
2012-01-01
Patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) frequently require long-term therapy to prevent relapse. Treatments such as 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA [mesalazine]) are efficacious and well tolerated, but adherence to treatment is often poor. This discrete-choice experiment (DCE) was conducted to estimate differences in patient preferences for 5-ASA treatment in mild-to-moderate UC based on levels of self-reported adherence. Inclusion of patients residing in the US, UK, Germany, and Canada allowed for assessment of possible cultural differences in patient preferences. DCE attributes were determined through literature review, clinician consultation, and patient interviews. Six treatment attributes were identified: ease of swallowing, time of day, quantity, extent of flare resolution, likelihood of flare occurrence, and cost. A total of 400 patients in four countries completed the DCE and adherence (Modified Morisky Scale) surveys. Data were analyzed using generalized estimating equations to estimate patient preference and willingness to pay (WTP) by levels of self-reported adherence and country of residence. All attributes had expected polarity and were significant predictors of patient preference. Self-reported 'good' versus 'poor' adherers significantly preferred symptom control (p = 0.0108) and mucosal healing (p = 0.0190) attributes. All patients stated preference for symptom control/mucosal healing and flare risk attributes; the latter attribute was significantly preferred across all countries. Country differences in patient preference for convenience versus clinical attributes were found. Overall, patients were willing to pay £29.24 ($US46.27) per month for symptom control and mucosal healing, and an additional £78.81 ($US124.70) per month for reduction in flare risk to 10% per year (WTP costs were equalized between each country using the published 2008 purchasing power parity). Those with flares in the past year significantly preferred avoiding future
Non-LTE treatment of beryllium lines: Misidentification of the solar Be I feature at 2650 A
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shipman, H.L.; Auer, L.H.
1979-01-01
We investigated the formation of beryllium lines, with particular reference to the solar Be spectrum, in a non-LTE context with a 25-level model atom in which 15 levels were allowed to depart from LTE. In some transitions, particularly the Be I lambda2650 line, the non-LTE effects can be quite dramatic, changing the deduced abundances by a factor of 4. Based on our non-LTE calculations and Copernicus observations of other stars, we find that a solar spectral feature at 2650 A, previously identified by numerous investigators as a Be I line, cannot be produced by Be I. Non-LTE effects on the Be II lambda3131 A line, used for most Be abundance determinations in the literature, are small by comparison
A non-LTE treatment of beryllium lines - Misidentification of the solar Be I feature at 2650 A
Shipman, H. L.; Auer, L. H.
1979-01-01
The formation of beryllium lines, with particular reference to the solar Be spectrum, is investigated in a non-LTE context with a 25-level model atom in which 15 levels are allowed to depart from LTE. In some transitions, particularly the Be I 2650-A line, the non-LTE effects can be quite dramatic, changing the deduced abundances by a factor of 4. Based on the non-LTE calculations and Copernicus observations of other stars, it is found that a solar spectral feature at 2650 A, previously identified by numerous investigators as a Be I line, cannot be produced by Be I. Non-LTE effects on the Be II 3131-A line, used for most Be abundance determinations in the literature, are small by comparison.
NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Road and Street Centerlines dataset current as of 1989. Street-The data set is a line feature consisting of 13948 line segments representing streets. It was created...
Synoptic evaluation of scale-dependent metrics for hydrographic line feature geometry
Stanislawski, Larry V.; Buttenfield, Barbara P.; Raposo, Paulo; Cameron, Madeline; Falgout, Jeff T.
2015-01-01
Methods of acquisition and feature simplification for vector feature data impact cartographic representations and scientific investigations of these data, and are therefore important considerations for geographic information science (Haunert and Sester 2008). After initial collection, linear features may be simplified to reduce excessive detail or to furnish a reduced-scale version of the features through cartographic generalization (Regnauld and McMaster 2008, Stanislawski et al. 2014). A variety of algorithms exist to simplify linear cartographic features, and all of the methods affect the positional accuracy of the features (Shahriari and Tao 2002, Regnauld and McMaster 2008, Stanislawski et al. 2012). In general, simplification operations are controlled by one or more tolerance parameters that limit the amount of positional change the operation can make to features. Using a single tolerance value can have varying levels of positional change on features; depending on local shape, texture, or geometric characteristics of the original features (McMaster and Shea 1992, Shahriari and Tao 2002, Buttenfield et al. 2010). Consequently, numerous researchers have advocated calibration of simplification parameters to control quantifiable properties of resulting changes to the features (Li and Openshaw 1990, Raposo 2013, Tobler 1988, Veregin 2000, and Buttenfield, 1986, 1989).This research identifies relations between local topographic conditions and geometric characteristics of linear features that are available in the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD). The NHD is a comprehensive vector dataset of surface 18 th ICA Workshop on Generalisation and Multiple Representation, Rio de Janiero, Brazil 2015 2 water features within the United States that is maintained by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). In this paper, geometric characteristics of cartographic representations for natural stream and river features are summarized for subbasin watersheds within entire regions of the
Mohamed, Mamdouh S.; Hirani, Anil N.; Samtaney, Ravi
2016-01-01
A conservative discretization of incompressible Navier–Stokes equations is developed based on discrete exterior calculus (DEC). A distinguishing feature of our method is the use of an algebraic discretization of the interior product operator and a
A high degree of LINE-1 hypomethylation is a unique feature of early-onset colorectal cancer.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marina Antelo
Full Text Available Early-onset colorectal cancer (CRC represents a clinically distinct form of CRC that is often associated with a poor prognosis. Methylation levels of genomic repeats such as LINE-1 elements have been recognized as independent factors for increased cancer-related mortality. The methylation status of LINE-1 elements in early-onset CRC has not been analyzed previously.We analyzed 343 CRC tissues and 32 normal colonic mucosa samples, including 2 independent cohorts of CRC diagnosed ≤ 50 years old (n=188, a group of sporadic CRC >50 years (MSS n=89; MSI n=46, and a group of Lynch syndrome CRCs (n=20. Tumor mismatch repair protein expression, microsatellite instability status, LINE-1 and MLH1 methylation, somatic BRAF V600E mutation, and germline MUTYH mutations were evaluated.Mean LINE-1 methylation levels (± SD in the five study groups were early-onset CRC, 56.6% (8.6; sporadic MSI, 67.1% (5.5; sporadic MSS, 65.1% (6.3; Lynch syndrome, 66.3% (4.5 and normal mucosa, 76.5% (1.5. Early-onset CRC had significantly lower LINE-1 methylation than any other group (p<0.0001. Compared to patients with <65% LINE-1 methylation in tumors, those with ≥ 65% LINE-1 methylation had significantly better overall survival (p=0.026, log rank test.LINE-1 hypomethylation constitutes a potentially important feature of early-onset CRC, and suggests a distinct molecular subtype. Further studies are needed to assess the potential of LINE-1 methylation status as a prognostic biomarker for young people with CRC.
Debowski, Katharina; Drummer, Charis; Lentes, Jana; Cors, Maren; Dressel, Ralf; Lingner, Thomas; Salinas-Riester, Gabriela; Fuchs, Sigrid; Sasaki, Erika; Behr, Rüdiger
2016-07-07
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are useful for the study of embryonic development. However, since research on naturally conceived human embryos is limited, non-human primate (NHP) embryos and NHP ESCs represent an excellent alternative to the corresponding human entities. Though, ESC lines derived from naturally conceived NHP embryos are still very rare. Here, we report the generation and characterization of four novel ESC lines derived from natural preimplantation embryos of the common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus). For the first time we document derivation of NHP ESCs derived from morula stages. We show that quantitative chromosome-wise transcriptome analyses precisely reflect trisomies present in both morula-derived ESC lines. We also demonstrate that the female ESC lines exhibit different states of X-inactivation which is impressively reflected by the abundance of the lncRNA X inactive-specific transcript (XIST). The novel marmoset ESC lines will promote basic primate embryo and ESC studies as well as preclinical testing of ESC-based regenerative approaches in NHP.
Finite Discrete Gabor Analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Søndergaard, Peter Lempel
2007-01-01
frequency bands at certain times. Gabor theory can be formulated for both functions on the real line and for discrete signals of finite length. The two theories are largely the same because many aspects come from the same underlying theory of locally compact Abelian groups. The two types of Gabor systems...... can also be related by sampling and periodization. This thesis extends on this theory by showing new results for window construction. It also provides a discussion of the problems associated to discrete Gabor bases. The sampling and periodization connection is handy because it allows Gabor systems...... on the real line to be well approximated by finite and discrete Gabor frames. This method of approximation is especially attractive because efficient numerical methods exists for doing computations with finite, discrete Gabor systems. This thesis presents new algorithms for the efficient computation of finite...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, John Aasted
2011-01-01
The objectives of Discrete Mathematics (IDISM2) are: The introduction of the mathematics needed for analysis, design and verification of discrete systems, including the application within programming languages for computer systems. Having passed the IDISM2 course, the student will be able...... to accomplish the following: -Understand and apply formal representations in discrete mathematics. -Understand and apply formal representations in problems within discrete mathematics. -Understand methods for solving problems in discrete mathematics. -Apply methods for solving problems in discrete mathematics......; construct a finite state machine for a given application. Apply these concepts to new problems. The teaching in Discrete Mathematics is a combination of sessions with lectures and students solving problems, either manually or by using Matlab. Furthermore a selection of projects must be solved and handed...
Hard X-ray observations of the Her X-1 line feature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Manchanda, R.K.; Vialetto, G.; Bazzano, A.; La Padula, C.; Polcaro, V.F.; Ubertini, P.
1982-01-01
We have carried out two observations separated by a year in 1980 and 1981 during the mid-on phase of Her X-1, by using xenon filled multi-wire proportional chambers. This paper presents the time-averaged spectral results of Her X-1 in the 15-150 keV energy range. The possible case of the line centroid variability seen during 1980 experiment is also discussed. (orig./WL)
Valachova, Bernadeta; Brezovakova, Veronika; Bugos, Ondrej; Jadhav, Santosh; Smolek, Tomas; Novak, Petr; Zilka, Norbert
2018-08-01
Human tauopathies represent a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by distinct clinical features, typical histopathological structures, and defined ratio(s) of three-repeat and four-repeat tau isoforms within pathological aggregates. How the optional microtubule-binding repeat of tau influences this differentiation of pathologies is understudied. We have previously generated and characterized transgenic rodent models expressing human truncated tau aa151-391 with either three (SHR24) or four microtubule-binding repeats (SHR72). Here, we compare the behavioral and neuropathological hallmarks of these two transgenic lines using a battery of tests for sensorimotor, cognitive, and neurological functions over the age range of 3.5-15 months. Progression of sensorimotor and neurological deficits was similar in both transgenic lines; however, the lifespan of transgenic line SHR72 expressing truncated four-repeat tau was markedly shorter than SHR24. Moreover, the expression of three or four-repeat tau induced distinct neurofibrillary pathology in these lines. Transgenic lines displayed different distribution of tau pathology and different type of neurofibrillary tangles. Our results suggest that three- and four-repeat isoforms of tau may display different modes of action in the diseased brain. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
A line feature-based camera tracking method applicable to nuclear power plant environment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yan, Weida; Ishii, Hirotake; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Izumi, Masanori
2014-01-01
Augmented reality, which can support the maintenance and decommissioning work of an NPP to improve efficiency and reduce human error, is expected to be practically used in an NPP. AR has indispensable tracking technology that estimates the 3D position and orientation of users in real time, but because of the complication of the NPP environment, it is difficult for its practial use in the large space of an NPP. This study attempt to develop a tracking method for the practial use in an NPP. Marker tracking is a legacy tracking method, but the preparation work necessary for that method is onerous. Therefore, this study developed and evaluated a natural feature-based camera tracking method that demands less preparation and which is applicable in an NPP environment. This method registers natural features as landmarks. When tracking, the natural features existing in the NPP environment can be registered automatically as landmarks. It is therefore possible to expand the tracking area to cover a wide environment in theory. The evaluation result shows that the proposed tracking method has the possibility to support field work of some kinds in an NPP environment. It is possible to reduce the preparation work necessary for the marker tracking method. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nita H. Shah
2008-08-01
Full Text Available The classical calibration or space resection is the fundamental task in photogrammetry. The lack of sufficient knowledge of interior and exterior orientation parameters lead to unreliable results in the photogrammetric process. There are several other available methods using lines, which consider the determination of exterior orientation parameters, with no mention to the simultaneous determination of inner orientation parameters. Normal space resection methods solve the problem using control points, whose coordinates are known both in image and object reference systems. The non-linearity of the model and the problems, in point location in digital images are the main drawbacks of the classical approaches. The line based approach to overcome these problems includes usage of lines in the number of observations that can be provided, which improve significantly the overall system redundancy. This paper addresses mathematical model relating to both image and object reference system for solving the space resection problem which is generally used for upgrading the exterior orientation parameters. In order to solve the dynamic camera calibration parameters, a sequential estimator (Kalman Filtering is applied; in an iterative process to the image. For dynamic case, e.g. an image sequence of moving objects, a state prediction and a covariance matrix for the next instant is obtained using the available estimates and the system model. Filtered state estimates can be computed from these predicted estimates using the Kalman Filtering approach and basic physical sensor model for each instant of time. The proposed approach is tested with three real data sets and the result suggests that highly accurate space resection parameters can be obtained with or without using the control points and progressive processing time reduction.
Park, Hyunjin; Park, Jun-Sung; Seong, Joon-Kyung; Na, Duk L; Lee, Jong-Min
2012-04-30
Analysis of cortical patterns requires accurate cortical surface registration. Many researchers map the cortical surface onto a unit sphere and perform registration of two images defined on the unit sphere. Here we have developed a novel registration framework for the cortical surface based on spherical thin-plate splines. Small-scale composition of spherical thin-plate splines was used as the geometric interpolant to avoid folding in the geometric transform. Using an automatic algorithm based on anisotropic skeletons, we extracted seven sulcal lines, which we then incorporated as landmark information. Mean curvature was chosen as an additional feature for matching between spherical maps. We employed a two-term cost function to encourage matching of both sulcal lines and the mean curvature between the spherical maps. Application of our registration framework to fifty pairwise registrations of T1-weighted MRI scans resulted in improved registration accuracy, which was computed from sulcal lines. Our registration approach was tested as an additional procedure to improve an existing surface registration algorithm. Our registration framework maintained an accurate registration over the sulcal lines while significantly increasing the cross-correlation of mean curvature between the spherical maps being registered. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Line-feature-based calibration method of structured light plane parameters for robot hand-eye system
Qi, Yuhan; Jing, Fengshui; Tan, Min
2013-03-01
For monocular-structured light vision measurement, it is essential to calibrate the structured light plane parameters in addition to the camera intrinsic parameters. A line-feature-based calibration method of structured light plane parameters for a robot hand-eye system is proposed. Structured light stripes are selected as calibrating primitive elements, and the robot moves from one calibrating position to another with constraint in order that two misaligned stripe lines are generated. The images of stripe lines could then be captured by the camera fixed at the robot's end link. During calibration, the equations of two stripe lines in the camera coordinate system are calculated, and then the structured light plane could be determined. As the robot's motion may affect the effectiveness of calibration, so the robot's motion constraints are analyzed. A calibration experiment and two vision measurement experiments are implemented, and the results reveal that the calibration accuracy can meet the precision requirement of robot thick plate welding. Finally, analysis and discussion are provided to illustrate that the method has a high efficiency fit for industrial in-situ calibration.
Cowley, Michael; de Burca, Anna; McCole, Ruth B; Chahal, Mandeep; Saadat, Ghazal; Oakey, Rebecca J; Schulz, Reiner
2011-04-20
Genomic imprinting is a form of gene dosage regulation in which a gene is expressed from only one of the alleles, in a manner dependent on the parent of origin. The mechanisms governing imprinted gene expression have been investigated in detail and have greatly contributed to our understanding of genome regulation in general. Both DNA sequence features, such as CpG islands, and epigenetic features, such as DNA methylation and non-coding RNAs, play important roles in achieving imprinted expression. However, the relative importance of these factors varies depending on the locus in question. Defining the minimal features that are absolutely required for imprinting would help us to understand how imprinting has evolved mechanistically. Imprinted retrogenes are a subset of imprinted loci that are relatively simple in their genomic organisation, being distinct from large imprinting clusters, and have the potential to be used as tools to address this question. Here, we compare the repeat element content of imprinted retrogene loci with non-imprinted controls that have a similar locus organisation. We observe no significant differences that are conserved between mouse and human, suggesting that the paucity of SINEs and relative abundance of LINEs at imprinted loci reported by others is not a sequence feature universally required for imprinting.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael Cowley
2011-04-01
Full Text Available Genomic imprinting is a form of gene dosage regulation in which a gene is expressed from only one of the alleles, in a manner dependent on the parent of origin. The mechanisms governing imprinted gene expression have been investigated in detail and have greatly contributed to our understanding of genome regulation in general. Both DNA sequence features, such as CpG islands, and epigenetic features, such as DNA methylation and non-coding RNAs, play important roles in achieving imprinted expression. However, the relative importance of these factors varies depending on the locus in question. Defining the minimal features that are absolutely required for imprinting would help us to understand how imprinting has evolved mechanistically. Imprinted retrogenes are a subset of imprinted loci that are relatively simple in their genomic organisation, being distinct from large imprinting clusters, and have the potential to be used as tools to address this question. Here, we compare the repeat element content of imprinted retrogene loci with non-imprinted controls that have a similar locus organisation. We observe no significant differences that are conserved between mouse and human, suggesting that the paucity of SINEs and relative abundance of LINEs at imprinted loci reported by others is not a sequence feature universally required for imprinting.
Positivity for Convective Semi-discretizations
Fekete, Imre; Ketcheson, David I.; Loczi, Lajos
2017-01-01
We propose a technique for investigating stability properties like positivity and forward invariance of an interval for method-of-lines discretizations, and apply the technique to study positivity preservation for a class of TVD semi-discretizations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, John Aasted
2011-01-01
; construct a finite state machine for a given application. Apply these concepts to new problems. The teaching in Discrete Mathematics is a combination of sessions with lectures and students solving problems, either manually or by using Matlab. Furthermore a selection of projects must be solved and handed...... to accomplish the following: -Understand and apply formal representations in discrete mathematics. -Understand and apply formal representations in problems within discrete mathematics. -Understand methods for solving problems in discrete mathematics. -Apply methods for solving problems in discrete mathematics...... to new problems. Relations and functions: Define a product set; define and apply equivalence relations; construct and apply functions. Apply these concepts to new problems. Natural numbers and induction: Define the natural numbers; apply the principle of induction to verify a selection of properties...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Busch, Peter Andre; Zinner Henriksen, Helle
2018-01-01
discretion is suggested to reduce this footprint by influencing or replacing their discretionary practices using ICT. What is less researched is whether digital discretion can cause changes in public policy outcomes, and under what conditions such changes can occur. Using the concept of public service values......This study reviews 44 peer-reviewed articles on digital discretion published in the period from 1998 to January 2017. Street-level bureaucrats have traditionally had a wide ability to exercise discretion stirring debate since they can add their personal footprint on public policies. Digital......, we suggest that digital discretion can strengthen ethical and democratic values but weaken professional and relational values. Furthermore, we conclude that contextual factors such as considerations made by policy makers on the macro-level and the degree of professionalization of street...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Minas Bakalchev
2015-10-01
Full Text Available The perception of elements in a system often creates their interdependence, interconditionality, and suppression. The lines from a basic geometrical element have become the model of a reductive world based on isolation according to certain criteria such as function, structure, and social organization. Their traces are experienced in the contemporary world as fragments or ruins of a system of domination of an assumed hierarchical unity. How can one release oneself from such dependence or determinism? How can the lines become less “systematic” and forms more autonomous, and less reductive? How is a form released from modernistic determinism on the new controversial ground? How can these elements or forms of representation become forms of action in the present complex world? In this paper, the meaning of lines through the ideas of Le Corbusier, Leonidov, Picasso, and Hitchcock is presented. Spatial research was made through a series of examples arising from the projects of the architectural studio “Residential Transformations”, which was a backbone for mapping the possibilities ranging from playfulness to exactness, as tactics of transformation in the different contexts of the contemporary world.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, John Aasted
2010-01-01
The introduction of the mathematics needed for analysis, design and verification of discrete systems, including applications within programming languages for computer systems. Course sessions and project work. Semester: Spring 2010 Ectent: 5 ects Class size: 18......The introduction of the mathematics needed for analysis, design and verification of discrete systems, including applications within programming languages for computer systems. Course sessions and project work. Semester: Spring 2010 Ectent: 5 ects Class size: 18...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, John Aasted
2010-01-01
The introduction of the mathematics needed for analysis, design and verification of discrete systems, including applications within programming languages for computer systems. Course sessions and project work. Semester: Autumn 2010 Ectent: 5 ects Class size: 15......The introduction of the mathematics needed for analysis, design and verification of discrete systems, including applications within programming languages for computer systems. Course sessions and project work. Semester: Autumn 2010 Ectent: 5 ects Class size: 15...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cardinale, G. F.; Henderson, C. C.; Goldsmith, J. E. M.; Mangat, P. J. S.; Cobb, J.; Hector, S. D.
1999-01-01
In two separate experiments, we have successfully demonstrated the transfer of dense- and loose-pitch line/space (L/S) photoresist features, patterned with extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, into an underlying hard mask material. In both experiments, a deep-UV photoresist (∼90 nm thick) was spin cast in bilayer format onto a hard mask (50-90 nm thick) and was subsequently exposed to EUV radiation using a 10x reduction EUV exposure system. The EUV reticle was fabricated at Motorola (Tempe, AZ) using a subtractive process with Ta-based absorbers on Mo/Si multilayer mask blanks. In the first set of experiments, following the EUV exposures, the L/S patterns were transferred first into a SiO 2 hard mask (60 nm thick) using a reactive ion etch (RIE), and then into polysilicon (350 nm thick) using a triode-coupled plasma RIE etcher at the University of California, Berkeley, microfabrication facilities. The latter etch process, which produced steep (>85 degree sign ) sidewalls, employed a HBr/Cl chemistry with a large (>10:1) etch selectivity of polysilicon to silicon dioxide. In the second set of experiments, hard mask films of SiON (50 nm thick) and SiO 2 (87 nm thick) were used. A RIE was performed at Motorola using a halogen gas chemistry that resulted in a hard mask-to-photoresist etch selectivity >3:1 and sidewall profile angles ≥85 degree sign . Line edge roughness (LER) and linewidth critical dimension (CD) measurements were performed using Sandia's GORA(c) CD digital image analysis software. Low LER values (6-9 nm, 3σ, one side) and good CD linearity (better than 10%) were demonstrated for the final pattern-transferred dense polysilicon L/S features from 80 to 175 nm. In addition, pattern transfer (into polysilicon) of loose-pitch (1:2) L/S features with CDs≥60 nm was demonstrated. (c) 1999 American Vacuum Society
Caltagirone, Jean-Paul
2014-01-01
This book presents the fundamental principles of mechanics to re-establish the equations of Discrete Mechanics. It introduces physics and thermodynamics associated to the physical modeling. The development and the complementarity of sciences lead to review today the old concepts that were the basis for the development of continuum mechanics. The differential geometry is used to review the conservation laws of mechanics. For instance, this formalism requires a different location of vector and scalar quantities in space. The equations of Discrete Mechanics form a system of equations where the H
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, T.D.
1985-01-01
This paper reviews the role of time throughout all phases of mechanics: classical mechanics, non-relativistic quantum mechanics, and relativistic quantum theory. As an example of the relativistic quantum field theory, the case of a massless scalar field interacting with an arbitrary external current is discussed. The comparison between the new discrete theory and the usual continuum formalism is presented. An example is given of a two-dimensional random lattice and its duel. The author notes that there is no evidence that the discrete mechanics is more appropriate than the usual continuum mechanics
On organizing principles of discrete differential geometry. Geometry of spheres
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bobenko, Alexander I; Suris, Yury B
2007-01-01
Discrete differential geometry aims to develop discrete equivalents of the geometric notions and methods of classical differential geometry. This survey contains a discussion of the following two fundamental discretization principles: the transformation group principle (smooth geometric objects and their discretizations are invariant with respect to the same transformation group) and the consistency principle (discretizations of smooth parametrized geometries can be extended to multidimensional consistent nets). The main concrete geometric problem treated here is discretization of curvature-line parametrized surfaces in Lie geometry. Systematic use of the discretization principles leads to a discretization of curvature-line parametrization which unifies circular and conical nets.
Chaudhary, A.; Payne, T.; Kinateder, K.; Dao, P.; Beecher, E.; Boone, D.; Elliott, B.
The objective of on-line flagging in this paper is to perform interactive assessment of geosynchronous satellites anomalies such as cross-tagging of a satellites in a cluster, solar panel offset change, etc. This assessment will utilize a Bayesian belief propagation procedure and will include automated update of baseline signature data for the satellite, while accounting for the seasonal changes. Its purpose is to enable an ongoing, automated assessment of satellite behavior through its life cycle using the photometry data collected during the synoptic search performed by a ground or space-based sensor as a part of its metrics mission. The change in the satellite features will be reported along with the probabilities of Type I and Type II errors. The objective of adaptive sequential hypothesis testing in this paper is to define future sensor tasking for the purpose of characterization of fine features of the satellite. The tasking will be designed in order to maximize new information with the least number of photometry data points to be collected during the synoptic search by a ground or space-based sensor. Its calculation is based on the utilization of information entropy techniques. The tasking is defined by considering a sequence of hypotheses in regard to the fine features of the satellite. The optimal observation conditions are then ordered in order to maximize new information about a chosen fine feature. The combined objective of on-line flagging and adaptive sequential hypothesis testing is to progressively discover new information about the features of a geosynchronous satellites by leveraging the regular but sparse cadence of data collection during the synoptic search performed by a ground or space-based sensor. Automated Algorithm to Detect Changes in Geostationary Satellite's Configuration and Cross-Tagging Phan Dao, Air Force Research Laboratory/RVB By characterizing geostationary satellites based on photometry and color photometry, analysts can
Wang, Min; Cui, Qi; Wang, Jie; Ming, Dongping; Lv, Guonian
2017-01-01
In this paper, we first propose several novel concepts for object-based image analysis, which include line-based shape regularity, line density, and scale-based best feature value (SBV), based on the region-line primitive association framework (RLPAF). We then propose a raft cultivation area (RCA) extraction method for high spatial resolution (HSR) remote sensing imagery based on multi-scale feature fusion and spatial rule induction. The proposed method includes the following steps: (1) Multi-scale region primitives (segments) are obtained by image segmentation method HBC-SEG, and line primitives (straight lines) are obtained by phase-based line detection method. (2) Association relationships between regions and lines are built based on RLPAF, and then multi-scale RLPAF features are extracted and SBVs are selected. (3) Several spatial rules are designed to extract RCAs within sea waters after land and water separation. Experiments show that the proposed method can successfully extract different-shaped RCAs from HR images with good performance.
3-D discrete analytical ridgelet transform.
Helbert, David; Carré, Philippe; Andres, Eric
2006-12-01
In this paper, we propose an implementation of the 3-D Ridgelet transform: the 3-D discrete analytical Ridgelet transform (3-D DART). This transform uses the Fourier strategy for the computation of the associated 3-D discrete Radon transform. The innovative step is the definition of a discrete 3-D transform with the discrete analytical geometry theory by the construction of 3-D discrete analytical lines in the Fourier domain. We propose two types of 3-D discrete lines: 3-D discrete radial lines going through the origin defined from their orthogonal projections and 3-D planes covered with 2-D discrete line segments. These discrete analytical lines have a parameter called arithmetical thickness, allowing us to define a 3-D DART adapted to a specific application. Indeed, the 3-D DART representation is not orthogonal, It is associated with a flexible redundancy factor. The 3-D DART has a very simple forward/inverse algorithm that provides an exact reconstruction without any iterative method. In order to illustrate the potentiality of this new discrete transform, we apply the 3-D DART and its extension to the Local-DART (with smooth windowing) to the denoising of 3-D image and color video. These experimental results show that the simple thresholding of the 3-D DART coefficients is efficient.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Geier, Joel (Clearwater Hardrock Consulting, Corvallis, OR (US))
2008-03-15
Discrete-feature models were developed to represent the main classes of water-conducting features at the Laxemar and Forsmark candidate sites for a high-level radioactive waste repository. The models encompass features on scales ranging from individual fractures 2 m or larger in radius around deposition holes, or spalled zones around deposition holes and tunnels, to deformation zones on the scale of kilometres. Equivalent discontinuum features are used to represent the aggregate properties of fractures outside of the vicinity of deposition holes where an explicit representation is used. Deposition hole locations within the repository layout are conditioned to each stochastic realization of the discrete-fracture population, using a full-perimeter-intersection criterion to identify discriminating fractures that pose a seismic risk, and a simulated pilot-hole criterion to exclude deposition-hole locations with excessive flows. The utilization factors of 0.70 obtained here for the full repository at Forsmark and = 0.53 for the full repository at Laxemar are significantly lower than the corresponding values = 0.93 and 0.88 for the most nearly comparable case presented in the SR-Can Main Report. Further investigation is needed to discern whether this discrepancy is primarily due to possible nonconservative assumptions in SKB's analytical modelling approach, or due to artefacts of the simulation approach using finite domains, which could lead to overly conservative values in the present study. Flows through the discrete-feature model variants are calculated by finite-element simulation. Distributions of flows to deposition holes are presented for the Laxemar base case and for an initial suite of variants for Forsmark. Results for Forsmark indicate that the distribution of flow to deposition holes is robust with respect to the set of variants considered, and that a given single realization of the discrete-fracture network (DFN) submodel produces representative results
Welt, C K; Gudmundsson, J A; Arason, G; Adams, J; Palsdottir, H; Gudlaugsdottir, G; Ingadottir, G; Crowley, W F
2006-12-01
The Rotterdam criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) defines discrete subgroups whose phenotypes are not yet clear. The phenotypic characteristics of women in the PCOS subgroups defined by the Rotterdam criteria were compared. The study was observational. Subjects were studied in an outpatient setting in Boston and Reykjavik. Four subgroups of subjects with PCOS defined by 1) irregular menses (IM), hyperandrogenism (HA), and polycystic ovary morphology (PCOM, n = 298); 2) IM/HA (n = 7); 3) HA/PCOM (n = 77); and 4) IM/PCOM (n = 36) and a group of controls (n = 64), aged 18-45 yr, were examined. Subjects underwent a physical exam; fasting blood samples for androgens, gonadotropins, and metabolic parameters; and a transvaginal ultrasound. The phenotype was compared between groups. Ninety-seven percent of women with IM/HA had PCOM. Therefore, the groups with and without PCOM were combined. The Ferriman-Gallwey score and androgen levels were highest in the hyperandrogenic groups (IM/HA and HA/PCOM), whereas ovarian volume was higher in all PCOS subgroups compared with controls, as expected based on the definitions of the PCOS subgroups. Body mass index and insulin levels were highest in the IM/HA subgroup. Subjects with PCOS defined by IM/HA are the most severely affected women on the basis of androgen levels, ovarian volumes, and insulin levels. Their higher body mass index partially accounts for the increased insulin levels, suggesting that weight gain exacerbates the symptoms of PCOS.
Genome features of "Dark-fly", a Drosophila line reared long-term in a dark environment.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Minako Izutsu
Full Text Available Organisms are remarkably adapted to diverse environments by specialized metabolisms, morphology, or behaviors. To address the molecular mechanisms underlying environmental adaptation, we have utilized a Drosophila melanogaster line, termed "Dark-fly", which has been maintained in constant dark conditions for 57 years (1400 generations. We found that Dark-fly exhibited higher fecundity in dark than in light conditions, indicating that Dark-fly possesses some traits advantageous in darkness. Using next-generation sequencing technology, we determined the whole genome sequence of Dark-fly and identified approximately 220,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and 4,700 insertions or deletions (InDels in the Dark-fly genome compared to the genome of the Oregon-R-S strain, a control strain. 1.8% of SNPs were classified as non-synonymous SNPs (nsSNPs: i.e., they alter the amino acid sequence of gene products. Among them, we detected 28 nonsense mutations (i.e., they produce a stop codon in the protein sequence in the Dark-fly genome. These included genes encoding an olfactory receptor and a light receptor. We also searched runs of homozygosity (ROH regions as putative regions selected during the population history, and found 21 ROH regions in the Dark-fly genome. We identified 241 genes carrying nsSNPs or InDels in the ROH regions. These include a cluster of alpha-esterase genes that are involved in detoxification processes. Furthermore, analysis of structural variants in the Dark-fly genome showed the deletion of a gene related to fatty acid metabolism. Our results revealed unique features of the Dark-fly genome and provided a list of potential candidate genes involved in environmental adaptation.
Parker, R Gary
1988-01-01
This book treats the fundamental issues and algorithmic strategies emerging as the core of the discipline of discrete optimization in a comprehensive and rigorous fashion. Following an introductory chapter on computational complexity, the basic algorithmic results for the two major models of polynomial algorithms are introduced--models using matroids and linear programming. Further chapters treat the major non-polynomial algorithms: branch-and-bound and cutting planes. The text concludes with a chapter on heuristic algorithms.Several appendixes are included which review the fundamental ideas o
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pengfei Cai
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a chronic and debilitating disease caused by blood flukes (digenetic trematodes of the genus Schistosoma. Schistosomes are sexually dimorphic and exhibit dramatic morphological changes during a complex lifecycle which requires subtle gene regulatory mechanisms to fulfil these complex biological processes. In the current study, a 41,982 features custom DNA microarray, which represents the most comprehensive probe coverage for any schistosome transcriptome study, was designed based on public domain and local databases to explore differential gene expression in S. japonicum. We found that approximately 1/10 of the total annotated genes in the S. japonicum genome are differentially expressed between adult males and females. In general, genes associated with the cytoskeleton, and motor and neuronal activities were readily expressed in male adult worms, whereas genes involved in amino acid metabolism, nucleotide biosynthesis, gluconeogenesis, glycosylation, cell cycle processes, DNA synthesis and genome fidelity and stability were enriched in females. Further, miRNAs target sites within these gene sets were predicted, which provides a scenario whereby the miRNAs potentially regulate these sex-biased expressed genes. The study significantly expands the expressional and regulatory characteristics of gender-biased expressed genes in schistosomes with high accuracy. The data provide a better appreciation of the biological and physiological features of male and female schistosome parasites, which may lead to novel vaccine targets and the development of new therapeutic interventions.
Cai, Pengfei; Liu, Shuai; Piao, Xianyu; Hou, Nan; Gobert, Geoffrey N; McManus, Donald P; Chen, Qijun
2016-04-01
Schistosomiasis is a chronic and debilitating disease caused by blood flukes (digenetic trematodes) of the genus Schistosoma. Schistosomes are sexually dimorphic and exhibit dramatic morphological changes during a complex lifecycle which requires subtle gene regulatory mechanisms to fulfil these complex biological processes. In the current study, a 41,982 features custom DNA microarray, which represents the most comprehensive probe coverage for any schistosome transcriptome study, was designed based on public domain and local databases to explore differential gene expression in S. japonicum. We found that approximately 1/10 of the total annotated genes in the S. japonicum genome are differentially expressed between adult males and females. In general, genes associated with the cytoskeleton, and motor and neuronal activities were readily expressed in male adult worms, whereas genes involved in amino acid metabolism, nucleotide biosynthesis, gluconeogenesis, glycosylation, cell cycle processes, DNA synthesis and genome fidelity and stability were enriched in females. Further, miRNAs target sites within these gene sets were predicted, which provides a scenario whereby the miRNAs potentially regulate these sex-biased expressed genes. The study significantly expands the expressional and regulatory characteristics of gender-biased expressed genes in schistosomes with high accuracy. The data provide a better appreciation of the biological and physiological features of male and female schistosome parasites, which may lead to novel vaccine targets and the development of new therapeutic interventions.
Discrete gradients in discrete classical mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Renna, L.
1987-01-01
A simple model of discrete classical mechanics is given where, starting from the continuous Hamilton equations, discrete equations of motion are established together with a proper discrete gradient definition. The conservation laws of the total discrete momentum, angular momentum, and energy are demonstrated
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tohda, H.; Oikawa, A.
1983-01-01
Sister-chromatic exchange (SCE) induced by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and viability after UV irradiation were studied in lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from 7 patients with xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) and 6 normal donors. UV irradiation caused significant increases of SCEs in both XP and normal cells. In 3 XP cell lines, which were deficient in unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) and sensitive to the killing effect of UV, very high SCE frequencies were observed after UV irradiation. Cells from a patient with the De Sanctis-Cacchione syndrome were the most sensitive to UV in terms of both SCE induction and cell killing. In 2 of 4 UDS-proficient XP cell lines tested, the incidences of UV-induced SCEs were similar to those in normal cell lines, but in 2 other UDS-proficient lines from 2 XP patients with skin cancer, the frequencies of UV-induced SCEs were significantly higher than in normal cells. (orig./AJ)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jalnapurkar, Sameer M; Leok, Melvin; Marsden, Jerrold E; West, Matthew
2006-01-01
This paper develops the theory of Abelian Routh reduction for discrete mechanical systems and applies it to the variational integration of mechanical systems with Abelian symmetry. The reduction of variational Runge-Kutta discretizations is considered, as well as the extent to which symmetry reduction and discretization commute. These reduced methods allow the direct simulation of dynamical features such as relative equilibria and relative periodic orbits that can be obscured or difficult to identify in the unreduced dynamics. The methods are demonstrated for the dynamics of an Earth orbiting satellite with a non-spherical J 2 correction, as well as the double spherical pendulum. The J 2 problem is interesting because in the unreduced picture, geometric phases inherent in the model and those due to numerical discretization can be hard to distinguish, but this issue does not appear in the reduced algorithm, where one can directly observe interesting dynamical structures in the reduced phase space (the cotangent bundle of shape space), in which the geometric phases have been removed. The main feature of the double spherical pendulum example is that it has a non-trivial magnetic term in its reduced symplectic form. Our method is still efficient as it can directly handle the essential non-canonical nature of the symplectic structure. In contrast, a traditional symplectic method for canonical systems could require repeated coordinate changes if one is evoking Darboux' theorem to transform the symplectic structure into canonical form, thereby incurring additional computational cost. Our method allows one to design reduced symplectic integrators in a natural way, despite the non-canonical nature of the symplectic structure
Firth, Jean M
1992-01-01
The analysis of signals and systems using transform methods is a very important aspect of the examination of processes and problems in an increasingly wide range of applications. Whereas the initial impetus in the development of methods appropriate for handling discrete sets of data occurred mainly in an electrical engineering context (for example in the design of digital filters), the same techniques are in use in such disciplines as cardiology, optics, speech analysis and management, as well as in other branches of science and engineering. This text is aimed at a readership whose mathematical background includes some acquaintance with complex numbers, linear differen tial equations, matrix algebra, and series. Specifically, a familiarity with Fourier series (in trigonometric and exponential forms) is assumed, and an exposure to the concept of a continuous integral transform is desirable. Such a background can be expected, for example, on completion of the first year of a science or engineering degree cour...
TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2016, Series Information for the Address Range-Feature County-based Shapefile
US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...
US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...
Karavashkin, S B
2002-01-01
We analyse the exact analytical solutions for 1D elastic lumped lines under action of an external force inclined to the line axis. We show that in this case an inclined wave being described by an implicit function propagates along the line. We extend this conclusion both to free vibrations and to distributed lines. We prove that the presented solution in the form of implicit function is a generalizing for the wave equation. When taken into consideration exactly, the dynamical processes pattern leads to the conclusion that the divergence of a vector in dynamical fields is not zero but proportional to the scalar product of the partial derivative of the given vector with respect to time into the wave propagation direction vector.
TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2015, Series Information for the Address Range-Feature County-based Shapefile
US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The Address Ranges Feature Shapefile (ADDRFEAT.dbf) contains the geospatial edge geometry and attributes of all unsuppressed address ranges for a county or county...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dikande, Alain M; Njumbe, E Epie
2010-01-01
A class of discrete conservative Hamiltonians with completely integrable two-dimensional (2D) mappings is constructed whose generic models are three families of non-integrable discrete Hamiltonians with on-site potentials whose double-well shapes vary. Unlike the discrete 2D mappings associated with the generic models, which all display pitchfork bifurcations towards randomly pinned states with chaotic features, for the derived models the pitchfork bifurcation leads to fixed points always surrounded by periodic trajectories. A nonlinear stability analysis reveals a finite crossover on the bifurcation line at which the pitchfork transition takes the maps from regular real periodic trajectories towards a regime dominated by a cluster of periodic point trajectories representing the allowed real solutions. The rich variety of structures displayed by the new class of discrete maps, combined with their complete integrability, offer rich perspectives for theoretical modelling of a wide class of systems undergoing structural instabilities without noticeable chaotic precursors.
Discrete Curvatures and Discrete Minimal Surfaces
Sun, Xiang
2012-01-01
This thesis presents an overview of some approaches to compute Gaussian and mean curvature on discrete surfaces and discusses discrete minimal surfaces. The variety of applications of differential geometry in visualization and shape design leads
Mioulet, L.; Bideault, G.; Chatelain, C.; Paquet, T.; Brunessaux, S.
2015-01-01
The BLSTM-CTC is a novel recurrent neural network architecture that has outperformed previous state of the art algorithms in tasks such as speech recognition or handwriting recognition. It has the ability to process long term dependencies in temporal signals in order to label unsegmented data. This paper describes different ways of combining features using a BLSTM-CTC architecture. Not only do we explore the low level combination (feature space combination) but we also explore high level combination (decoding combination) and mid-level (internal system representation combination). The results are compared on the RIMES word database. Our results show that the low level combination works best, thanks to the powerful data modeling of the LSTM neurons.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tiannan Ma
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Accurate forecasting of icing thickness has great significance for ensuring the security and stability of the power grid. In order to improve the forecasting accuracy, this paper proposes an icing forecasting system based on the fireworks algorithm and weighted least square support vector machine (W-LSSVM. The method of the fireworks algorithm is employed to select the proper input features with the purpose of eliminating redundant influence. In addition, the aim of the W-LSSVM model is to train and test the historical data-set with the selected features. The capability of this proposed icing forecasting model and framework is tested through simulation experiments using real-world icing data from the monitoring center of the key laboratory of anti-ice disaster, Hunan, South China. The results show that the proposed W-LSSVM-FA method has a higher prediction accuracy and it may be a promising alternative for icing thickness forecasting.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mark Frogley
2013-01-01
Full Text Available To reduce the maintenance cost, avoid catastrophic failure, and improve the wind transmission system reliability, online condition monitoring system is critical important. In the real applications, many rotating mechanical faults, such as bearing surface defect, gear tooth crack, chipped gear tooth and so on generate impulsive signals. When there are these types of faults developing inside rotating machinery, each time the rotating components pass over the damage point, an impact force could be generated. The impact force will cause a ringing of the support structure at the structural natural frequency. By effectively detecting those periodic impulse signals, one group of rotating machine faults could be detected and diagnosed. However, in real wind turbine operations, impulsive fault signals are usually relatively weak to the background noise and vibration signals generated from other healthy components, such as shaft, blades, gears and so on. Moreover, wind turbine transmission systems work under dynamic operating conditions. This will further increase the difficulties in fault detection and diagnostics. Therefore, developing advanced signal processing methods to enhance the impulsive signals is in great needs.In this paper, an adaptive filtering technique will be applied for enhancing the fault impulse signals-to-noise ratio in wind turbine gear transmission systems. Multiple statistical features designed to quantify the impulsive signals of the processed signal are extracted for bearing fault detection. The multiple dimensional features are then transformed into one dimensional feature. A minimum error rate classifier will be designed based on the compressed feature to identify the gear transmission system with defect. Real wind turbine vibration signals will be used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the presented methodology.
Discrete Curvatures and Discrete Minimal Surfaces
Sun, Xiang
2012-06-01
This thesis presents an overview of some approaches to compute Gaussian and mean curvature on discrete surfaces and discusses discrete minimal surfaces. The variety of applications of differential geometry in visualization and shape design leads to great interest in studying discrete surfaces. With the rich smooth surface theory in hand, one would hope that this elegant theory can still be applied to the discrete counter part. Such a generalization, however, is not always successful. While discrete surfaces have the advantage of being finite dimensional, thus easier to treat, their geometric properties such as curvatures are not well defined in the classical sense. Furthermore, the powerful calculus tool can hardly be applied. The methods in this thesis, including angular defect formula, cotangent formula, parallel meshes, relative geometry etc. are approaches based on offset meshes or generalized offset meshes. As an important application, we discuss discrete minimal surfaces and discrete Koenigs meshes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yongjun Zhang
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Accurate prediction of forthcoming oxygen concentration during waterless live fish transportation plays a key role in reducing the abnormal occurrence, increasing the survival rate in delivery operations, and optimizing manufacturing costs. The most effective ambient monitoring techniques that are based on the analysis of historical process data when performing forecasting operations do not fully consider current ambient influence. This is likely lead to a greater deviation in on-line oxygen level forecasting in real situations. Therefore, it is not advisable for the system to perform early warning and on-line air adjustment in delivery. In this paper, we propose a hybrid method and its implementation system that combines a gray model (GM (1, 1 with least squares support vector machines (LSSVM that can be used effectively as a forecasting model to perform early warning effectively according to the dynamic changes of oxygen in a closed system. For accurately forecasting of the oxygen level, the fuzzy C-means clustering (FCM algorithm was utilized for classification according to the flatfish’s physical features—i.e., length and weight—for more pertinent training. The performance of the gray model-particle swarm optimization-least squares support vector machines (GM-PSO-LSSVM model was compared with the traditional modeling approaches of GM (1, 1 and LSSVM by applying it to predict on-line oxygen level, and the results showed that its predictions were more accurate than those of the LSSVM and grey model. Therefore, it is a suitable and effective method for abnormal condition forecasting and timely control in the waterless live transportation of flatfish.
Hairs of discrete symmetries and gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Choi, Kang Sin [Scranton Honors Program, Ewha Womans University, Seodaemun-Gu, Seoul 03760 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Fields, Gravity and Strings, CTPU, Institute for Basic Sciences, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 34047 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jihn E., E-mail: jihnekim@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Kyung Hee University, 26 Gyungheedaero, Dongdaemun-Gu, Seoul 02447 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research (IBS), 291 Daehakro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); Kyae, Bumseok [Department of Physics, Pusan National University, 2 Busandaehakro-63-Gil, Geumjeong-Gu, Busan 46241 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Soonkeon [Department of Physics, Kyung Hee University, 26 Gyungheedaero, Dongdaemun-Gu, Seoul 02447 (Korea, Republic of)
2017-06-10
Gauge symmetries are known to be respected by gravity because gauge charges carry flux lines, but global charges do not carry flux lines and are not conserved by gravitational interaction. For discrete symmetries, they are spontaneously broken in the Universe, forming domain walls. Since the realization of discrete symmetries in the Universe must involve the vacuum expectation values of Higgs fields, a string-like configuration (hair) at the intersection of domain walls in the Higgs vacua can be realized. Therefore, we argue that discrete charges are also respected by gravity.
Hairs of discrete symmetries and gravity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kang Sin Choi
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Gauge symmetries are known to be respected by gravity because gauge charges carry flux lines, but global charges do not carry flux lines and are not conserved by gravitational interaction. For discrete symmetries, they are spontaneously broken in the Universe, forming domain walls. Since the realization of discrete symmetries in the Universe must involve the vacuum expectation values of Higgs fields, a string-like configuration (hair at the intersection of domain walls in the Higgs vacua can be realized. Therefore, we argue that discrete charges are also respected by gravity.
Large-scale building scenes reconstruction from close-range images based on line and plane feature
Ding, Yi; Zhang, Jianqing
2007-11-01
Automatic generate 3D models of buildings and other man-made structures from images has become a topic of increasing importance, those models may be in applications such as virtual reality, entertainment industry and urban planning. In this paper we address the main problems and available solution for the generation of 3D models from terrestrial images. We first generate a coarse planar model of the principal scene planes and then reconstruct windows to refine the building models. There are several points of novelty: first we reconstruct the coarse wire frame model use the line segments matching with epipolar geometry constraint; Secondly, we detect the position of all windows in the image and reconstruct the windows by established corner points correspondences between images, then add the windows to the coarse model to refine the building models. The strategy is illustrated on image triple of college building.
Dawn, Soma; Satyanarayana, A. N. V.
2018-01-01
In the present study, an attempt has been made to investigate the simulation of mesoscale surface pressure patterns like pre-squall mesolow, mesohigh and wake low associated with leading convective line-trailing stratiform (TS) squall lines over Gangetic West Bengal (GWB). For this purpose, a two way interactive triple nested domain with high resolution WRF model having2 km grid length in the innermost domain is used. The model simulated results are compared with the available in-situ observations obtained as a part of Severe Thunderstorm: Observations and Regional Modeling (STORM) programme, reflectivity products of Doppler Weather Radar (DWR) Kolkata and TRMM rainfall. Three TS squall lines (15 May 2009, 5 May 2010 and 7 May 2010) are chosen during pre-monsoon thunderstorm season for this study. The model simulated results of diurnal variation of temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction at the station Kharagpur in GWB region reveal a sudden fall in temperature, increase in the amount of relative humidity and sudden rise in wind speed during the arrival of the storms. Such results are well comparable with the observations though there are some leading or lagging of time in respect of actual occurrences of such events. The study indicates that the model is able to predict the occurrences of three typical surface pressure features namely: pre-squall mesolow, meso high and wake low. The predicted surface parameters like accumulated rainfall, maximum reflectivity and vertical profiles (temperature, relative humidity and winds) are well accorded with the observations. The convective and stratiform precipitation region of the TS squall lines are well represented by the model. A strong downdraft is observed to be a contributory factor for formation of mesohigh in the convective region of the squall line. Wake low is observed to reside in the stratiform rain region and the descending dry air at this place has triggered the wake low through adiabatic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rama Jasty
2001-01-01
Full Text Available The bcl-2 and c-myc oncogenes cooperate to transform multiple cell types. In the pediatric malignancy NB2, Bcl2 is highly expressed. In tumors with a poor prognosis, N-Myc, a protein homologous to c-Myc, is overexpressed as a result of gene amplification. The present study was designed to determine whether Bcl-2 cooperates with N-Myc to bestow a tumorigenic phenotype to neuroblastoma (NB cells. NB cell lines that at baseline express neither Bcl-2 nor N-Myc were stably transfected to express these gene products. In this model, we found Bcl-2 rescues N-Myc-expressing cells from apoptosis induced by serum withdrawal. Coexpression of Bcl-2 and N-Myc supports growth in low serum conditions and anchorage-independent growth in soft agar. Similarly, in vivo tumorigenic and angiogenic activity was dependent on coexpression. Our data further suggests that the mechanism underlying these changes involves the receptor for insulin growth factor type I (IGF-IR.
Crowe, Cassie; Lundgren, Britt; Grier, Catherine
2018-01-01
The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) regularly publishes vast catalogs of quasars and other astronomical objects. Previously, the SDSS collaboration has used visual inspection to check quasar redshift validity and flag instances of broad absorption lines (BALs). This information helps researchers to easily single out the quasars with BAL properties and study their outflows and other intervening gas clouds. Due to the ever-growing number of new SDSS quasar observations, visual inspections are no longer possible using previous methods. Currently, BAL information is being determined entirely computationally, and the accuracy of that information is not precisely known. This project uses the Zooniverse citizen science platform to visually inspect quasar spectra for BAL properties, to check the accuracy of the current autonomous methods, and to flag multi-phase outflows and find candidates for in-falling gas into the quasar central engine. The layout and format of a Zooniverse project provides an easier way to inspect and record data on each spectrum and share the workload via crowdsourcing. Work done by the SDSS collaboration members is serving as a beta test for a public project upon the official release of the DR14 quasar catalog by SDSS.
Discrete Curvature Theories and Applications
Sun, Xiang
2016-08-25
Discrete Di erential Geometry (DDG) concerns discrete counterparts of notions and methods in di erential geometry. This thesis deals with a core subject in DDG, discrete curvature theories on various types of polyhedral surfaces that are practically important for free-form architecture, sunlight-redirecting shading systems, and face recognition. Modeled as polyhedral surfaces, the shapes of free-form structures may have to satisfy di erent geometric or physical constraints. We study a combination of geometry and physics { the discrete surfaces that can stand on their own, as well as having proper shapes for the manufacture. These proper shapes, known as circular and conical meshes, are closely related to discrete principal curvatures. We study curvature theories that make such surfaces possible. Shading systems of freeform building skins are new types of energy-saving structures that can re-direct the sunlight. From these systems, discrete line congruences across polyhedral surfaces can be abstracted. We develop a new curvature theory for polyhedral surfaces equipped with normal congruences { a particular type of congruences de ned by linear interpolation of vertex normals. The main results are a discussion of various de nitions of normality, a detailed study of the geometry of such congruences, and a concept of curvatures and shape operators associated with the faces of a triangle mesh. These curvatures are compatible with both normal congruences and the Steiner formula. In addition to architecture, we consider the role of discrete curvatures in face recognition. We use geometric measure theory to introduce the notion of asymptotic cones associated with a singular subspace of a Riemannian manifold, which is an extension of the classical notion of asymptotic directions. We get a simple expression of these cones for polyhedral surfaces, as well as convergence and approximation theorems. We use the asymptotic cones as facial descriptors and demonstrate the
Process algebra with timing : real time and discrete time
Baeten, J.C.M.; Middelburg, C.A.; Bergstra, J.A.; Ponse, A.J.; Smolka, S.A.
2001-01-01
We present real time and discrete time versions of ACP with absolute timing and relative timing. The starting-point is a new real time version with absolute timing, called ACPsat, featuring urgent actions and a delay operator. The discrete time versions are conservative extensions of the discrete
Process algebra with timing: Real time and discrete time
Baeten, J.C.M.; Middelburg, C.A.
1999-01-01
We present real time and discrete time versions of ACP with absolute timing and relative timing. The startingpoint is a new real time version with absolute timing, called ACPsat , featuring urgent actions and a delay operator. The discrete time versions are conservative extensions of the discrete
Mimetic discretization methods
Castillo, Jose E
2013-01-01
To help solve physical and engineering problems, mimetic or compatible algebraic discretization methods employ discrete constructs to mimic the continuous identities and theorems found in vector calculus. Mimetic Discretization Methods focuses on the recent mimetic discretization method co-developed by the first author. Based on the Castillo-Grone operators, this simple mimetic discretization method is invariably valid for spatial dimensions no greater than three. The book also presents a numerical method for obtaining corresponding discrete operators that mimic the continuum differential and
Juxtaposed Color Halftoning Relying on Discrete Lines
Babaei, Vahid; Hersch, Roger
2013-01-01
Most halftoning techniques allow screen dots to overlap. They rely on the assumption that the inks are transparent, i.e. the inks do not scatter a significant portion of the light back to the air. However, many special effect inks such as metallic inks, iridescent inks or pigmented inks are not transparent. In order to create halftone images, halftone dots formed by such inks should be juxtaposed, i.e. printed side by side. We propose an efficient juxtaposed color halftoning technique for pla...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Oleg Bazaluk
2017-07-01
Full Text Available The article deals with the historical and philosophical analysis of scientific and philosophical ideas, which have influenced the development of the theories of The article deals with the historical and philosophical analysis of scientific and philosophical ideas, which have influenced the development of the theories of education and needed a certain systematisation. The chosen strategy helps the researcher not only to structure in a certain way gained by the empirical and theoretical way knowledge in the sphere of education but also to use the obtained results to create a new theory. The feature of systematisation and classification of the accumulated information determines the direction and scale of use formulated on its basis theory. Due to received generalisations, the author systematised the diversity of the theories of education in histories of culture according to the two lines of development: Plato and Isocrates. The author concludes that the competition and complementarity that exist between the theories of education of Plato’s and Isocrates’ lines represent education as a matrix that forms a certain direction of self-realization of human generations in ontogenesis in the history of culture. The theories of education of Plato’s line set the ideal of form building, answering the question: “Who should be educated in the younger generations?” The theories of education of Isocrates’ line by daily educational practices ensure the achievement of the designated ideal, i.e. focus more on finding answers to the question “How to educate the younger generation?”
Time Discretization Techniques
Gottlieb, S.; Ketcheson, David I.
2016-01-01
The time discretization of hyperbolic partial differential equations is typically the evolution of a system of ordinary differential equations obtained by spatial discretization of the original problem. Methods for this time evolution include
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Utpal SARMA
2011-12-01
Full Text Available The design and development of a Relative Humidity (RH and Room Temperature (RT monitoring system with on line data logging feature for monitoring fermentation room of a tea factory is presented in this paper. A capacitive RH sensor with on chip signal conditioner is taken as RH sensor and a temperature to digital converter (TDC is used for ambient temperature monitoring. An 8051 core microcontroller is the heart of the whole system which reads the digital equivalent of RH data with the help of a 12-bit Analog to Digital (A/D converter and synchronize TDC to get the ambient temperature. The online data logging is achieved with the help of RS-232C communication. Field performance is also studied by installing it in the fermentation room of a tea factory.
Sánchez-Vega, Francisco; Gotea, Valer; Margolin, Gennady; Elnitski, Laura
2015-01-01
The term CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) has been used to describe widespread DNA hypermethylation at CpG-rich genomic regions affecting clinically distinct subsets of cancer patients. Even though there have been numerous studies of CIMP in individual cancer types, a uniform analysis across tissues is still lacking. We analyze genome-wide patterns of CpG island hypermethylation in 5,253 solid epithelial tumors from 15 cancer types from TCGA and 23 cancer cell lines from ENCODE. We identify differentially methylated loci that define CIMP+ and CIMP- samples, and we use unsupervised clustering to provide a robust molecular stratification of tumor methylomes for 12 cancer types and all cancer cell lines. With a minimal set of 89 discriminative loci, we demonstrate accurate pan-cancer separation of the 12 CIMP+/- subpopulations, based on their average levels of methylation. Tumor samples in different CIMP subclasses show distinctive correlations with gene expression profiles and recurrence of somatic mutations, copy number variations, and epigenetic silencing. Enrichment analyses indicate shared canonical pathways and upstream regulators for CIMP-targeted regions across cancer types. Furthermore, genomic alterations showing consistent associations with CIMP+/- status include genes involved in DNA repair, chromatin remodeling genes, and several histone methyltransferases. Associations of CIMP status with specific clinical features, including overall survival in several cancer types, highlight the importance of the CIMP+/- designation for individual tumor evaluation and personalized medicine. We present a comprehensive computational study of CIMP that reveals pan-cancer commonalities and tissue-specific differences underlying concurrent hypermethylation of CpG islands across tumors. Our stratification of solid tumors and cancer cell lines based on CIMP status is data-driven and agnostic to tumor type by design, which protects against known biases that have hindered
Mohamed, Mamdouh S.
2016-02-11
A conservative discretization of incompressible Navier–Stokes equations is developed based on discrete exterior calculus (DEC). A distinguishing feature of our method is the use of an algebraic discretization of the interior product operator and a combinatorial discretization of the wedge product. The governing equations are first rewritten using the exterior calculus notation, replacing vector calculus differential operators by the exterior derivative, Hodge star and wedge product operators. The discretization is then carried out by substituting with the corresponding discrete operators based on the DEC framework. Numerical experiments for flows over surfaces reveal a second order accuracy for the developed scheme when using structured-triangular meshes, and first order accuracy for otherwise unstructured meshes. By construction, the method is conservative in that both mass and vorticity are conserved up to machine precision. The relative error in kinetic energy for inviscid flow test cases converges in a second order fashion with both the mesh size and the time step.
Mohamed, Mamdouh S.; Hirani, Anil N.; Samtaney, Ravi
2016-05-01
A conservative discretization of incompressible Navier-Stokes equations is developed based on discrete exterior calculus (DEC). A distinguishing feature of our method is the use of an algebraic discretization of the interior product operator and a combinatorial discretization of the wedge product. The governing equations are first rewritten using the exterior calculus notation, replacing vector calculus differential operators by the exterior derivative, Hodge star and wedge product operators. The discretization is then carried out by substituting with the corresponding discrete operators based on the DEC framework. Numerical experiments for flows over surfaces reveal a second order accuracy for the developed scheme when using structured-triangular meshes, and first order accuracy for otherwise unstructured meshes. By construction, the method is conservative in that both mass and vorticity are conserved up to machine precision. The relative error in kinetic energy for inviscid flow test cases converges in a second order fashion with both the mesh size and the time step.
Discrete symmetries in the MSSM
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schieren, Roland
2010-12-02
The use of discrete symmetries, especially abelian ones, in physics beyond the standard model of particle physics is discussed. A method is developed how a general, abelian, discrete symmetry can be obtained via spontaneous symmetry breaking. In addition, anomalies are treated in the path integral approach with special attention to anomaly cancellation via the Green-Schwarz mechanism. All this is applied to the minimal supersymmetric standard model. A unique Z{sup R}{sub 4} symmetry is discovered which solves the {mu}-problem as well as problems with proton decay and allows to embed the standard model gauge group into a simple group, i.e. the Z{sup R}{sub 4} is compatible with grand unification. Also the flavor problem in the context of minimal flavor violation is addressed. Finally, a string theory model is presented which exhibits the mentioned Z{sup R}{sub 4} symmetry and other desirable features. (orig.)
Discrete symmetries in the MSSM
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schieren, Roland
2010-01-01
The use of discrete symmetries, especially abelian ones, in physics beyond the standard model of particle physics is discussed. A method is developed how a general, abelian, discrete symmetry can be obtained via spontaneous symmetry breaking. In addition, anomalies are treated in the path integral approach with special attention to anomaly cancellation via the Green-Schwarz mechanism. All this is applied to the minimal supersymmetric standard model. A unique Z R 4 symmetry is discovered which solves the μ-problem as well as problems with proton decay and allows to embed the standard model gauge group into a simple group, i.e. the Z R 4 is compatible with grand unification. Also the flavor problem in the context of minimal flavor violation is addressed. Finally, a string theory model is presented which exhibits the mentioned Z R 4 symmetry and other desirable features. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petr, Rodney; Bykanov, Alexander; Freshman, Jay; Reilly, Dennis; Mangano, Joseph; Roche, Maureen; Dickenson, Jason; Burte, Mitchell; Heaton, John
2004-01-01
A high average power dense plasma focus (DPF), x-ray point source has been used to produce ∼70 nm line features in AlGaAs-based monolithic millimeter-wave integrated circuits (MMICs). The DPF source has produced up to 12 J per pulse of x-ray energy into 4π steradians at ∼1 keV effective wavelength in ∼2 Torr neon at pulse repetition rates up to 60 Hz, with an effective x-ray yield efficiency of ∼0.8%. Plasma temperature and electron concentration are estimated from the x-ray spectrum to be ∼170 eV and ∼5·10 19 cm -3 , respectively. The x-ray point source utilizes solid-state pulse power technology to extend the operating lifetime of electrodes and insulators in the DPF discharge. By eliminating current reversals in the DPF head, an anode electrode has demonstrated a lifetime of more than 5 million shots. The x-ray point source has also been operated continuously for 8 h run times at 27 Hz average pulse recurrent frequency. Measurements of shock waves produced by the plasma discharge indicate that overpressure pulses must be attenuated before a collimator can be integrated with the DPF point source
Local discrete symmetries from superstring derived models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Faraggi, A.E.
1996-10-01
Discrete and global symmetries play an essential role in many extensions of the Standard Model, for example, to preserve the proton lifetime, to prevent flavor changing neutral currents, etc. An important question is how can such symmetries survive in a theory of quantum gravity, like superstring theory. In a specific string model the author illustrates how local discrete symmetries may arise in string models and play an important role in preventing fast proton decay and flavor changing neutral currents. The local discrete symmetry arises due to the breaking of the non-Abelian gauge symmetries by Wilson lines in the superstring models and forbids, for example dimension five operators which mediate rapid proton decay, to all orders of nonrenormalizable terms. In the context of models of unification of the gauge and gravitational interactions, it is precisely this type of local discrete symmetries that must be found in order to insure that a given model is not in conflict with experimental observations
Baecklund transformations for discrete Painleve equations: Discrete PII-PV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sakka, A.; Mugan, U.
2006-01-01
Transformation properties of discrete Painleve equations are investigated by using an algorithmic method. This method yields explicit transformations which relates the solutions of discrete Painleve equations, discrete P II -P V , with different values of parameters. The particular solutions which are expressible in terms of the discrete analogue of the classical special functions of discrete Painleve equations can also be obtained from these transformations
Discrete Gabor transform and discrete Zak transform
Bastiaans, M.J.; Namazi, N.M.; Matthews, K.
1996-01-01
Gabor's expansion of a discrete-time signal into a set of shifted and modulated versions of an elementary signal or synthesis window is introduced, along with the inverse operation, i.e. the Gabor transform, which uses an analysis window that is related to the synthesis window and with the help of
Discrete Mathematics Re "Tooled."
Grassl, Richard M.; Mingus, Tabitha T. Y.
1999-01-01
Indicates the importance of teaching discrete mathematics. Describes how the use of technology can enhance the teaching and learning of discrete mathematics. Explorations using Excel, Derive, and the TI-92 proved how preservice and inservice teachers experienced a new dimension in problem solving and discovery. (ASK)
Homogenization of discrete media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pradel, F.; Sab, K.
1998-01-01
Material such as granular media, beam assembly are easily seen as discrete media. They look like geometrical points linked together thanks to energetic expressions. Our purpose is to extend discrete kinematics to the one of an equivalent continuous material. First we explain how we build the localisation tool for periodic materials according to estimated continuum medium type (classical Cauchy, and Cosserat media). Once the bridge built between discrete and continuum media, we exhibit its application over two bidimensional beam assembly structures : the honey comb and a structural reinforced variation. The new behavior is then applied for the simple plan shear problem in a Cosserat continuum and compared with the real discrete solution. By the mean of this example, we establish the agreement of our new model with real structures. The exposed method has a longer range than mechanics and can be applied to every discrete problems like electromagnetism in which relationship between geometrical points can be summed up by an energetic function. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aydin, Alhun; Sisman, Altug
2016-01-01
By considering the quantum-mechanically minimum allowable energy interval, we exactly count number of states (NOS) and introduce discrete density of states (DOS) concept for a particle in a box for various dimensions. Expressions for bounded and unbounded continua are analytically recovered from discrete ones. Even though substantial fluctuations prevail in discrete DOS, they're almost completely flattened out after summation or integration operation. It's seen that relative errors of analytical expressions of bounded/unbounded continua rapidly decrease for high NOS values (weak confinement or high energy conditions), while the proposed analytical expressions based on Weyl's conjecture always preserve their lower error characteristic. - Highlights: • Discrete density of states considering minimum energy difference is proposed. • Analytical DOS and NOS formulas based on Weyl conjecture are given. • Discrete DOS and NOS functions are examined for various dimensions. • Relative errors of analytical formulas are much better than the conventional ones.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aydin, Alhun; Sisman, Altug, E-mail: sismanal@itu.edu.tr
2016-03-22
By considering the quantum-mechanically minimum allowable energy interval, we exactly count number of states (NOS) and introduce discrete density of states (DOS) concept for a particle in a box for various dimensions. Expressions for bounded and unbounded continua are analytically recovered from discrete ones. Even though substantial fluctuations prevail in discrete DOS, they're almost completely flattened out after summation or integration operation. It's seen that relative errors of analytical expressions of bounded/unbounded continua rapidly decrease for high NOS values (weak confinement or high energy conditions), while the proposed analytical expressions based on Weyl's conjecture always preserve their lower error characteristic. - Highlights: • Discrete density of states considering minimum energy difference is proposed. • Analytical DOS and NOS formulas based on Weyl conjecture are given. • Discrete DOS and NOS functions are examined for various dimensions. • Relative errors of analytical formulas are much better than the conventional ones.
Okuyama, Yoshifumi
2014-01-01
Discrete Control Systems establishes a basis for the analysis and design of discretized/quantized control systemsfor continuous physical systems. Beginning with the necessary mathematical foundations and system-model descriptions, the text moves on to derive a robust stability condition. To keep a practical perspective on the uncertain physical systems considered, most of the methods treated are carried out in the frequency domain. As part of the design procedure, modified Nyquist–Hall and Nichols diagrams are presented and discretized proportional–integral–derivative control schemes are reconsidered. Schemes for model-reference feedback and discrete-type observers are proposed. Although single-loop feedback systems form the core of the text, some consideration is given to multiple loops and nonlinearities. The robust control performance and stability of interval systems (with multiple uncertainties) are outlined. Finally, the monograph describes the relationship between feedback-control and discrete ev...
Discrete repulsive oscillator wavefunctions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Munoz, Carlos A; Rueda-Paz, Juvenal; Wolf, Kurt Bernardo
2009-01-01
For the study of infinite discrete systems on phase space, the three-dimensional Lorentz algebra and group, so(2,1) and SO(2,1), provide a discrete model of the repulsive oscillator. Its eigenfunctions are found in the principal irreducible representation series, where the compact generator-that we identify with the position operator-has the infinite discrete spectrum of the integers Z, while the spectrum of energies is a double continuum. The right- and left-moving wavefunctions are given by hypergeometric functions that form a Dirac basis for l 2 (Z). Under contraction, the discrete system limits to the well-known quantum repulsive oscillator. Numerical computations of finite approximations raise further questions on the use of Dirac bases for infinite discrete systems.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Morris, J; Johnson, S
2007-12-03
The Distinct Element Method (also frequently referred to as the Discrete Element Method) (DEM) is a Lagrangian numerical technique where the computational domain consists of discrete solid elements which interact via compliant contacts. This can be contrasted with Finite Element Methods where the computational domain is assumed to represent a continuum (although many modern implementations of the FEM can accommodate some Distinct Element capabilities). Often the terms Discrete Element Method and Distinct Element Method are used interchangeably in the literature, although Cundall and Hart (1992) suggested that Discrete Element Methods should be a more inclusive term covering Distinct Element Methods, Displacement Discontinuity Analysis and Modal Methods. In this work, DEM specifically refers to the Distinct Element Method, where the discrete elements interact via compliant contacts, in contrast with Displacement Discontinuity Analysis where the contacts are rigid and all compliance is taken up by the adjacent intact material.
On the complete integrability of the discrete Nahm equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Murray, M.K.
2000-01-01
The discrete Nahm equations, a system of matrix valued difference equations, arose in the work of Braam and Austin on half-integral mass hyperbolic monopoles. We show that the discrete Nahm equations are completely integrable in a natural sense: to any solution we can associate a spectral curve and a holomorphic line-bundle over the spectral curve, such that the discrete-time DN evolution corresponds to walking in the Jacobian of the spectral curve in a straight line through the line-bundle with steps of a fixed size. Some of the implications for hyperbolic monopoles are also discussed. (orig.)
Izadi, F A; Bagirov, G
2009-01-01
With its origins stretching back several centuries, discrete calculus is now an increasingly central methodology for many problems related to discrete systems and algorithms. The topics covered here usually arise in many branches of science and technology, especially in discrete mathematics, numerical analysis, statistics and probability theory as well as in electrical engineering, but our viewpoint here is that these topics belong to a much more general realm of mathematics; namely calculus and differential equations because of the remarkable analogy of the subject to this branch of mathemati
Toward Optimal Manifold Hashing via Discrete Locally Linear Embedding.
Rongrong Ji; Hong Liu; Liujuan Cao; Di Liu; Yongjian Wu; Feiyue Huang
2017-11-01
Binary code learning, also known as hashing, has received increasing attention in large-scale visual search. By transforming high-dimensional features to binary codes, the original Euclidean distance is approximated via Hamming distance. More recently, it is advocated that it is the manifold distance, rather than the Euclidean distance, that should be preserved in the Hamming space. However, it retains as an open problem to directly preserve the manifold structure by hashing. In particular, it first needs to build the local linear embedding in the original feature space, and then quantize such embedding to binary codes. Such a two-step coding is problematic and less optimized. Besides, the off-line learning is extremely time and memory consuming, which needs to calculate the similarity matrix of the original data. In this paper, we propose a novel hashing algorithm, termed discrete locality linear embedding hashing (DLLH), which well addresses the above challenges. The DLLH directly reconstructs the manifold structure in the Hamming space, which learns optimal hash codes to maintain the local linear relationship of data points. To learn discrete locally linear embeddingcodes, we further propose a discrete optimization algorithm with an iterative parameters updating scheme. Moreover, an anchor-based acceleration scheme, termed Anchor-DLLH, is further introduced, which approximates the large similarity matrix by the product of two low-rank matrices. Experimental results on three widely used benchmark data sets, i.e., CIFAR10, NUS-WIDE, and YouTube Face, have shown superior performance of the proposed DLLH over the state-of-the-art approaches.
Current density and continuity in discretized models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boykin, Timothy B; Luisier, Mathieu; Klimeck, Gerhard
2010-01-01
Discrete approaches have long been used in numerical modelling of physical systems in both research and teaching. Discrete versions of the Schroedinger equation employing either one or several basis functions per mesh point are often used by senior undergraduates and beginning graduate students in computational physics projects. In studying discrete models, students can encounter conceptual difficulties with the representation of the current and its divergence because different finite-difference expressions, all of which reduce to the current density in the continuous limit, measure different physical quantities. Understanding these different discrete currents is essential and requires a careful analysis of the current operator, the divergence of the current and the continuity equation. Here we develop point forms of the current and its divergence valid for an arbitrary mesh and basis. We show that in discrete models currents exist only along lines joining atomic sites (or mesh points). Using these results, we derive a discrete analogue of the divergence theorem and demonstrate probability conservation in a purely localized-basis approach.
Adaptive Discrete Hypergraph Matching.
Yan, Junchi; Li, Changsheng; Li, Yin; Cao, Guitao
2018-02-01
This paper addresses the problem of hypergraph matching using higher-order affinity information. We propose a solver that iteratively updates the solution in the discrete domain by linear assignment approximation. The proposed method is guaranteed to converge to a stationary discrete solution and avoids the annealing procedure and ad-hoc post binarization step that are required in several previous methods. Specifically, we start with a simple iterative discrete gradient assignment solver. This solver can be trapped in an -circle sequence under moderate conditions, where is the order of the graph matching problem. We then devise an adaptive relaxation mechanism to jump out this degenerating case and show that the resulting new path will converge to a fixed solution in the discrete domain. The proposed method is tested on both synthetic and real-world benchmarks. The experimental results corroborate the efficacy of our method.
Goodrich, Christopher
2015-01-01
This text provides the first comprehensive treatment of the discrete fractional calculus. Experienced researchers will find the text useful as a reference for discrete fractional calculus and topics of current interest. Students who are interested in learning about discrete fractional calculus will find this text to provide a useful starting point. Several exercises are offered at the end of each chapter and select answers have been provided at the end of the book. The presentation of the content is designed to give ample flexibility for potential use in a myriad of courses and for independent study. The novel approach taken by the authors includes a simultaneous treatment of the fractional- and integer-order difference calculus (on a variety of time scales, including both the usual forward and backwards difference operators). The reader will acquire a solid foundation in the classical topics of the discrete calculus while being introduced to exciting recent developments, bringing them to the frontiers of the...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Williams, Ruth M
2006-01-01
A review is given of a number of approaches to discrete quantum gravity, with a restriction to those likely to be relevant in four dimensions. This paper is dedicated to Rafael Sorkin on the occasion of his sixtieth birthday
Strong Stability Preserving Property of the Deferred Correction Time Discretization
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Liu, Yuan; Shu, Chi-Wang; Zhang, Mengping
2007-01-01
In this paper, we study the strong stability preserving "SSP" property of a class of deferred correction time discretization methods, for solving the method-of-lines schemes approximating hyperbolic...
Discrete computational structures
Korfhage, Robert R
1974-01-01
Discrete Computational Structures describes discrete mathematical concepts that are important to computing, covering necessary mathematical fundamentals, computer representation of sets, graph theory, storage minimization, and bandwidth. The book also explains conceptual framework (Gorn trees, searching, subroutines) and directed graphs (flowcharts, critical paths, information network). The text discusses algebra particularly as it applies to concentrates on semigroups, groups, lattices, propositional calculus, including a new tabular method of Boolean function minimization. The text emphasize
Logic and discrete mathematics a concise introduction
Conradie, Willem
2015-01-01
A concise yet rigorous introduction to logic and discrete mathematics. This book features a unique combination of comprehensive coverage of logic with a solid exposition of the most important fields of discrete mathematics, presenting material that has been tested and refined by the authors in university courses taught over more than a decade. The chapters on logic - propositional and first-order - provide a robust toolkit for logical reasoning, emphasizing the conceptual understanding of the language and the semantics of classical logic as well as practical applications through the easy
Homogenization of discrete media
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pradel, F.; Sab, K. [CERAM-ENPC, Marne-la-Vallee (France)
1998-11-01
Material such as granular media, beam assembly are easily seen as discrete media. They look like geometrical points linked together thanks to energetic expressions. Our purpose is to extend discrete kinematics to the one of an equivalent continuous material. First we explain how we build the localisation tool for periodic materials according to estimated continuum medium type (classical Cauchy, and Cosserat media). Once the bridge built between discrete and continuum media, we exhibit its application over two bidimensional beam assembly structures : the honey comb and a structural reinforced variation. The new behavior is then applied for the simple plan shear problem in a Cosserat continuum and compared with the real discrete solution. By the mean of this example, we establish the agreement of our new model with real structures. The exposed method has a longer range than mechanics and can be applied to every discrete problems like electromagnetism in which relationship between geometrical points can be summed up by an energetic function. (orig.) 7 refs.
DISCRETE MATHEMATICS/NUMBER THEORY
Mrs. Manju Devi*
2017-01-01
Discrete mathematics is the study of mathematical structures that are fundamentally discrete rather than continuous. In contrast to real numbers that have the property of varying "smoothly", the objects studied in discrete mathematics such as integers, graphs, and statements do not vary smoothly in this way, but have distinct, separated values. Discrete mathematics therefore excludes topics in "continuous mathematics" such as calculus and analysis. Discrete objects can often be enumerated by ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Prateek Sharma
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Abstract Simulation can be regarded as the emulation of the behavior of a real-world system over an interval of time. The process of simulation relies upon the generation of the history of a system and then analyzing that history to predict the outcome and improve the working of real systems. Simulations can be of various kinds but the topic of interest here is one of the most important kind of simulation which is Discrete-Event Simulation which models the system as a discrete sequence of events in time. So this paper aims at introducing about Discrete-Event Simulation and analyzing how it is beneficial to the real world systems.
Discrete systems and integrability
Hietarinta, J; Nijhoff, F W
2016-01-01
This first introductory text to discrete integrable systems introduces key notions of integrability from the vantage point of discrete systems, also making connections with the continuous theory where relevant. While treating the material at an elementary level, the book also highlights many recent developments. Topics include: Darboux and Bäcklund transformations; difference equations and special functions; multidimensional consistency of integrable lattice equations; associated linear problems (Lax pairs); connections with Padé approximants and convergence algorithms; singularities and geometry; Hirota's bilinear formalism for lattices; intriguing properties of discrete Painlevé equations; and the novel theory of Lagrangian multiforms. The book builds the material in an organic way, emphasizing interconnections between the various approaches, while the exposition is mostly done through explicit computations on key examples. Written by respected experts in the field, the numerous exercises and the thoroug...
Zhong, Rong-Xuan; Huang, Nan; Li, Huang-Wu; He, He-Xiang; Lü, Jian-Tao; Huang, Chun-Qing; Chen, Zhao-Pin
2018-04-01
We numerically and analytically investigate the formations and features of two-dimensional discrete Bose-Einstein condensate solitons, which are constructed by quadrupole-quadrupole interactional particles trapped in the tunable anisotropic discrete optical lattices. The square optical lattices in the model can be formed by two pairs of interfering plane waves with different intensities. Two hopping rates of the particles in the orthogonal directions are different, which gives rise to a linear anisotropic system. We find that if all of the pairs of dipole and anti-dipole are perpendicular to the lattice panel and the line connecting the dipole and anti-dipole which compose the quadrupole is parallel to horizontal direction, both the linear anisotropy and the nonlocal nonlinear one can strongly influence the formations of the solitons. There exist three patterns of stable solitons, namely horizontal elongation quasi-one-dimensional discrete solitons, disk-shape isotropic pattern solitons and vertical elongation quasi-continuous solitons. We systematically demonstrate the relationships of chemical potential, size and shape of the soliton with its total norm and vertical hopping rate and analytically reveal the linear dispersion relation for quasi-one-dimensional discrete solitons.
Exarchakis, Georgios; Lücke, Jörg
2017-11-01
Sparse coding algorithms with continuous latent variables have been the subject of a large number of studies. However, discrete latent spaces for sparse coding have been largely ignored. In this work, we study sparse coding with latents described by discrete instead of continuous prior distributions. We consider the general case in which the latents (while being sparse) can take on any value of a finite set of possible values and in which we learn the prior probability of any value from data. This approach can be applied to any data generated by discrete causes, and it can be applied as an approximation of continuous causes. As the prior probabilities are learned, the approach then allows for estimating the prior shape without assuming specific functional forms. To efficiently train the parameters of our probabilistic generative model, we apply a truncated expectation-maximization approach (expectation truncation) that we modify to work with a general discrete prior. We evaluate the performance of the algorithm by applying it to a variety of tasks: (1) we use artificial data to verify that the algorithm can recover the generating parameters from a random initialization, (2) use image patches of natural images and discuss the role of the prior for the extraction of image components, (3) use extracellular recordings of neurons to present a novel method of analysis for spiking neurons that includes an intuitive discretization strategy, and (4) apply the algorithm on the task of encoding audio waveforms of human speech. The diverse set of numerical experiments presented in this letter suggests that discrete sparse coding algorithms can scale efficiently to work with realistic data sets and provide novel statistical quantities to describe the structure of the data.
Introductory discrete mathematics
Balakrishnan, V K
2010-01-01
This concise text offers an introduction to discrete mathematics for undergraduate students in computer science and mathematics. Mathematics educators consider it vital that their students be exposed to a course in discrete methods that introduces them to combinatorial mathematics and to algebraic and logical structures focusing on the interplay between computer science and mathematics. The present volume emphasizes combinatorics, graph theory with applications to some stand network optimization problems, and algorithms to solve these problems.Chapters 0-3 cover fundamental operations involv
Prateek Sharma
2015-01-01
Abstract Simulation can be regarded as the emulation of the behavior of a real-world system over an interval of time. The process of simulation relies upon the generation of the history of a system and then analyzing that history to predict the outcome and improve the working of real systems. Simulations can be of various kinds but the topic of interest here is one of the most important kind of simulation which is Discrete-Event Simulation which models the system as a discrete sequence of ev...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Masciola, M.; Jonkman, J.; Robertson, A.
2014-03-01
Techniques to model dynamic mooring lines come in various forms. The most widely used models include either a heuristic representation of the physics (such as a Lumped-Mass, LM, system), a Finite-Element Analysis (FEA) discretization of the lines (discretized in space), or a Finite-Difference (FD) model (which is discretized in both space and time). In this paper, we explore the features of the various models, weigh the advantages of each, and propose a plan for implementing one dynamic mooring line model into the open-source Mooring Analysis Program (MAP). MAP is currently used as a module for the FAST offshore wind turbine computer-aided engineering (CAE) tool to model mooring systems quasi-statically, although dynamic mooring capabilities are desired. Based on the exploration in this manuscript, the lumped-mass representation is selected for implementation in MAP based on its simplicity, computational cost, and ability to provide similar physics captured by higher-order models.
Positivity for Convective Semi-discretizations
Fekete, Imre
2017-04-19
We propose a technique for investigating stability properties like positivity and forward invariance of an interval for method-of-lines discretizations, and apply the technique to study positivity preservation for a class of TVD semi-discretizations of 1D scalar hyperbolic conservation laws. This technique is a generalization of the approach suggested in Khalsaraei (J Comput Appl Math 235(1): 137–143, 2010). We give more relaxed conditions on the time-step for positivity preservation for slope-limited semi-discretizations integrated in time with explicit Runge–Kutta methods. We show that the step-size restrictions derived are sharp in a certain sense, and that many higher-order explicit Runge–Kutta methods, including the classical 4th-order method and all non-confluent methods with a negative Butcher coefficient, cannot generally maintain positivity for these semi-discretizations under any positive step size. We also apply the proposed technique to centered finite difference discretizations of scalar hyperbolic and parabolic problems.
Discrete geometric structures for architecture
Pottmann, Helmut
2010-06-13
The emergence of freeform structures in contemporary architecture raises numerous challenging research problems, most of which are related to the actual fabrication and are a rich source of research topics in geometry and geometric computing. The talk will provide an overview of recent progress in this field, with a particular focus on discrete geometric structures. Most of these result from practical requirements on segmenting a freeform shape into planar panels and on the physical realization of supporting beams and nodes. A study of quadrilateral meshes with planar faces reveals beautiful relations to discrete differential geometry. In particular, we discuss meshes which discretize the network of principal curvature lines. Conical meshes are among these meshes; they possess conical offset meshes at a constant face/face distance, which in turn leads to a supporting beam layout with so-called torsion free nodes. This work can be generalized to a variety of multilayer structures and laid the ground for an adapted curvature theory for these meshes. There are also efforts on segmenting surfaces into planar hexagonal panels. Though these are less constrained than planar quadrilateral panels, this problem is still waiting for an elegant solution. Inspired by freeform designs in architecture which involve circles and spheres, we present a new kind of triangle mesh whose faces\\' in-circles form a packing, i.e., the in-circles of two triangles with a common edge have the same contact point on that edge. These "circle packing (CP) meshes" exhibit an aesthetic balance of shape and size of their faces. They are closely tied to sphere packings on surfaces and to various remarkable structures and patterns which are of interest in art, architecture, and design. CP meshes constitute a new link between architectural freeform design and computational conformal geometry. Recently, certain timber structures motivated us to study discrete patterns of geodesics on surfaces. This
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. G. Yahnin
1997-08-01
Full Text Available According to observations, the discrete auroral arcs can sometimes be found, either deep inside the auroral oval or at the poleward border of the wide (so-called double auroral oval, which map to very different regions of the magnetotail. To find common physical conditions for the auroral-arc generation in these magnetotail regions, we study the spatial relationship between the diffuse and discrete auroras and the isotropic boundaries (IBs of the precipitating energetic particles which can be used to characterise locally the equatorial magnetic field in the tail. From comparison of ground observation of auroral forms with meridional profiles of particle flux measured simultaneously by the low-altitude NOAA satellites above the ground observation region, we found that (1 discrete auroral arcs are always situated polewards from (or very close to the IB of >30-keV electrons, whereas (2 the IB of the >30-keV protons is often seen inside the diffuse aurora. These relationships hold true for both quiet and active (substorm conditions in the premidnight-nightside (18-01-h MLT sector considered. In some events the auroral arcs occupy a wide latitudinal range. The most equatorial of these arcs was found at the poleward edge of the diffuse auroras (but anyway in the vicinity of the electron IB, the most poleward arcs were simultaneously observed on the closed field lines near the polar-cap boundary. These observations disagree with the notion that the discrete aurora originate exclusively in the near-Earth portion of plasma sheet or exclusively on the PSBL field lines. Result (1 may imply a fundamental feature of auroral-arc formation: they originate in the current-sheet regions having very curved and tailward-stretched magnetic field lines.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We also describe discrete-time systems in terms of difference ... A more modern alternative, especially for larger systems, is to convert ... In other words, ..... picture?) State-variable equations are also called state-space equations because the ...
Discrete Lorentzian quantum gravity
Loll, R.
2000-01-01
Just as for non-abelian gauge theories at strong coupling, discrete lattice methods are a natural tool in the study of non-perturbative quantum gravity. They have to reflect the fact that the geometric degrees of freedom are dynamical, and that therefore also the lattice theory must be formulated
Sharp, Karen Tobey
This paper cites information received from a number of sources, e.g., mathematics teachers in two-year colleges, publishers, and convention speakers, about the nature of discrete mathematics and about what topics a course in this subject should contain. Note is taken of the book edited by Ralston and Young which discusses the future of college…
Discrete Exterior Calculus Discretization of Incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations
Mohamed, Mamdouh S.; Hirani, Anil N.; Samtaney, Ravi
2017-01-01
A conservative discretization of incompressible Navier-Stokes equations over surface simplicial meshes is developed using discrete exterior calculus (DEC). Numerical experiments for flows over surfaces reveal a second order accuracy
Discrete mKdV and discrete sine-Gordon flows on discrete space curves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inoguchi, Jun-ichi; Kajiwara, Kenji; Matsuura, Nozomu; Ohta, Yasuhiro
2014-01-01
In this paper, we consider the discrete deformation of the discrete space curves with constant torsion described by the discrete mKdV or the discrete sine-Gordon equations, and show that it is formulated as the torsion-preserving equidistant deformation on the osculating plane which satisfies the isoperimetric condition. The curve is reconstructed from the deformation data by using the Sym–Tafel formula. The isoperimetric equidistant deformation of the space curves does not preserve the torsion in general. However, it is possible to construct the torsion-preserving deformation by tuning the deformation parameters. Further, it is also possible to make an arbitrary choice of the deformation described by the discrete mKdV equation or by the discrete sine-Gordon equation at each step. We finally show that the discrete deformation of discrete space curves yields the discrete K-surfaces. (paper)
Kiseleva, Antonina A; Potokina, Elena K; Salina, Elena A
2017-11-14
Photoperiod insensitive Ppd-1a alleles determine early flowering of wheat. Increased expression of homoeologous Ppd-D1a and Ppd-A1a result from deletions in the promoter region, and elevated expression of Ppd-B1a is determined by an increased copy number. In this study, using bread wheat cultivars Sonora and PSL2, which contrast in flowering time, and near-isogenic lines resulting from their cross, "Ppd-m" and "Ppd-w" with Ppd-B1a introgressed from Sonora, we investigated the putative factors that influence Ppd-B1a expression. By analyzing the Ppd-B1a three distinct copies, we identified an indel and the two SNPs, which distinguished the investigated allele from other alleles with a copy number variation. We studied the expression of the Ppd-A1, Ppd-B1a, and Ppd-D1 genes along with genes that are involved in light perception (PhyA, PhyB, PhyC) and the flowering initiation (Vrn-1, TaFT1) and discussed their interactions. Expression of Ppd-B1a in the "Ppd-m" line, which flowered four days earlier than "Ppd-w", was significantly higher. We found PhyC to be up-regulated in lines with Ppd-B1a alleles. Expression of PhyC was higher in "Ppd-m". Microsatellite genotyping demonstrated that in the line "Ppd-m", there is an introgression in the pericentromeric region of chromosome 5B from the early flowering parental Sonora, while the "Ppd-w" does not have this introgression. FHY3/FAR1 is known to be located in this region. Expression of the transcription factor FHY3/FAR1 was higher in the "Ppd-m" line than in "Ppd-w", suggesting that FHY3/FAR1 is important for the wheat flowering time and may cause earlier flowering of "Ppd-m" as compared to "Ppd-w". We propose that there is a positive bidirectional regulation of Ppd-B1a and PhyC with an FHY3/FAR1 contribution. The bidirectional regulation can be proposed for Ppd-A1a and Ppd-D1a. Using in silico analysis, we demonstrated that the specificity of the Ppd-B1 regulation compared to that of homoeologous genes involves not only a
Discrete mathematics with applications
Koshy, Thomas
2003-01-01
This approachable text studies discrete objects and the relationsips that bind them. It helps students understand and apply the power of discrete math to digital computer systems and other modern applications. It provides excellent preparation for courses in linear algebra, number theory, and modern/abstract algebra and for computer science courses in data structures, algorithms, programming languages, compilers, databases, and computation.* Covers all recommended topics in a self-contained, comprehensive, and understandable format for students and new professionals * Emphasizes problem-solving techniques, pattern recognition, conjecturing, induction, applications of varying nature, proof techniques, algorithm development and correctness, and numeric computations* Weaves numerous applications into the text* Helps students learn by doing with a wealth of examples and exercises: - 560 examples worked out in detail - More than 3,700 exercises - More than 150 computer assignments - More than 600 writing projects*...
Discrete and computational geometry
Devadoss, Satyan L
2011-01-01
Discrete geometry is a relatively new development in pure mathematics, while computational geometry is an emerging area in applications-driven computer science. Their intermingling has yielded exciting advances in recent years, yet what has been lacking until now is an undergraduate textbook that bridges the gap between the two. Discrete and Computational Geometry offers a comprehensive yet accessible introduction to this cutting-edge frontier of mathematics and computer science. This book covers traditional topics such as convex hulls, triangulations, and Voronoi diagrams, as well as more recent subjects like pseudotriangulations, curve reconstruction, and locked chains. It also touches on more advanced material, including Dehn invariants, associahedra, quasigeodesics, Morse theory, and the recent resolution of the Poincaré conjecture. Connections to real-world applications are made throughout, and algorithms are presented independently of any programming language. This richly illustrated textbook also fe...
2002-01-01
Discrete geometry investigates combinatorial properties of configurations of geometric objects. To a working mathematician or computer scientist, it offers sophisticated results and techniques of great diversity and it is a foundation for fields such as computational geometry or combinatorial optimization. This book is primarily a textbook introduction to various areas of discrete geometry. In each area, it explains several key results and methods, in an accessible and concrete manner. It also contains more advanced material in separate sections and thus it can serve as a collection of surveys in several narrower subfields. The main topics include: basics on convex sets, convex polytopes, and hyperplane arrangements; combinatorial complexity of geometric configurations; intersection patterns and transversals of convex sets; geometric Ramsey-type results; polyhedral combinatorics and high-dimensional convexity; and lastly, embeddings of finite metric spaces into normed spaces. Jiri Matousek is Professor of Com...
Time Discretization Techniques
Gottlieb, S.
2016-10-12
The time discretization of hyperbolic partial differential equations is typically the evolution of a system of ordinary differential equations obtained by spatial discretization of the original problem. Methods for this time evolution include multistep, multistage, or multiderivative methods, as well as a combination of these approaches. The time step constraint is mainly a result of the absolute stability requirement, as well as additional conditions that mimic physical properties of the solution, such as positivity or total variation stability. These conditions may be required for stability when the solution develops shocks or sharp gradients. This chapter contains a review of some of the methods historically used for the evolution of hyperbolic PDEs, as well as cutting edge methods that are now commonly used.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Mesiar, Radko; Li, J.; Pap, E.
2013-01-01
Roč. 54, č. 3 (2013), s. 357-364 ISSN 0888-613X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP402/11/0378 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : concave integral * pseudo-addition * pseudo-multiplication Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.977, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/E/mesiar-discrete pseudo-integrals.pdf
Discrete variational Hamiltonian mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lall, S; West, M
2006-01-01
The main contribution of this paper is to present a canonical choice of a Hamiltonian theory corresponding to the theory of discrete Lagrangian mechanics. We make use of Lagrange duality and follow a path parallel to that used for construction of the Pontryagin principle in optimal control theory. We use duality results regarding sensitivity and separability to show the relationship between generating functions and symplectic integrators. We also discuss connections to optimal control theory and numerical algorithms
Discrete port-Hamiltonian systems
Talasila, V.; Clemente-Gallardo, J.; Schaft, A.J. van der
2006-01-01
Either from a control theoretic viewpoint or from an analysis viewpoint it is necessary to convert smooth systems to discrete systems, which can then be implemented on computers for numerical simulations. Discrete models can be obtained either by discretizing a smooth model, or by directly modeling
A paradigm for discrete physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Noyes, H.P.; McGoveran, D.; Etter, T.; Manthey, M.J.; Gefwert, C.
1987-01-01
An example is outlined for constructing a discrete physics using as a starting point the insight from quantum physics that events are discrete, indivisible and non-local. Initial postulates are finiteness, discreteness, finite computability, absolute nonuniqueness (i.e., homogeneity in the absence of specific cause) and additivity
Discrete-Event Modelling of Conveyor Lines Дискретно-событийное моделирование конвейерных линий
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tymohyn Volodymyr M.
2013-09-01
Full Text Available The goal of the article is a study of specific features of application of discrete-event modelling in the process of making managerial decisions connected with re-trimming of a conveyor line of a major industrial enterprise. Analysing and systemising scientific works of domestic and foreign scientists, the author focuses on insufficiency of development of issues connected with application of simulation modelling to re-trimming of conveyor lines. The article considers aspects of discrete-event modelling in the process of making managerial decisions connected with identification of bottle-necks of the system using methodology of the limitations theory and analysis of possibilities of their elimination, i.e. increase of effectiveness of system functioning. The author provides a discrete-event model of the process of compressor assembly. The provided model allows detection of bottle-necks in the system and also analysis of various possibilities of their elimination.Целью статьи является исследование особенностей применения дискретно-событийного моделирования в процессе принятия управленческих решений, связанных с перебалансировкой конвейерной линии крупного промышленного предприятия. Анализируя и систематизируя научные работы отечественных и зарубежных ученых, автор акцентирует внимание на недостаточности разработки вопросов, связанных с применением имитационного моделирования к перебалансировке конвейерных линий. В статье рассмотрены аспекты дискретно-событийного моделирования в
Kiseleva, Antonina A.; Potokina, Elena K.; Salina, Elena A.
2017-01-01
Background Photoperiod insensitive Ppd-1a alleles determine early flowering of wheat. Increased expression of homoeologous Ppd-D1a and Ppd-A1a result from deletions in the promoter region, and elevated expression of Ppd-B1a is determined by an increased copy number. Results In this study, using bread wheat cultivars Sonora and PSL2, which contrast in flowering time, and near-isogenic lines resulting from their cross, “Ppd-m” and “Ppd-w” with Ppd-B1a introgressed from Sonora, we investigated t...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jones, Christian Birk [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Photovoltaic and Grid Integration Group; Robinson, Matt [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Yasaei, Yasser [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Caudell, Thomas [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Martinez-Ramon, Manel [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Mammoli, Andrea [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
2016-07-01
Optimal integration of thermal energy storage within commercial building applications requires accurate load predictions. Several methods exist that provide an estimate of a buildings future needs. Methods include component-based models and data-driven algorithms. This work implemented a previously untested algorithm for this application that is called a Laterally Primed Adaptive Resonance Theory (LAPART) artificial neural network (ANN). The LAPART algorithm provided accurate results over a two month period where minimal historical data and a small amount of input types were available. These results are significant, because common practice has often overlooked the implementation of an ANN. ANN have often been perceived to be too complex and require large amounts of data to provide accurate results. The LAPART neural network was implemented in an on-line learning manner. On-line learning refers to the continuous updating of training data as time occurs. For this experiment, training began with a singe day and grew to two months of data. This approach provides a platform for immediate implementation that requires minimal time and effort. The results from the LAPART algorithm were compared with statistical regression and a component-based model. The comparison was based on the predictions linear relationship with the measured data, mean squared error, mean bias error, and cost savings achieved by the respective prediction techniques. The results show that the LAPART algorithm provided a reliable and cost effective means to predict the building load for the next day.
Two new discrete integrable systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Xiao-Hong; Zhang Hong-Qing
2013-01-01
In this paper, we focus on the construction of new (1+1)-dimensional discrete integrable systems according to a subalgebra of loop algebra Ã 1 . By designing two new (1+1)-dimensional discrete spectral problems, two new discrete integrable systems are obtained, namely, a 2-field lattice hierarchy and a 3-field lattice hierarchy. When deriving the two new discrete integrable systems, we find the generalized relativistic Toda lattice hierarchy and the generalized modified Toda lattice hierarchy. Moreover, we also obtain the Hamiltonian structures of the two lattice hierarchies by means of the discrete trace identity
Spaces of fractional quotients, discrete operators, and their applications. II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lifanov, I K; Poltavskii, L N
1999-01-01
The theory of discrete operators in spaces of fractional quotients is developed. A theorem on the stability of discrete operators under smooth perturbations is proved. On this basis, using special quadrature formulae of rectangular kind, the convergence of approximate solutions of hypersingular integral equations to their exact solutions is demonstrated and a mathematical substantiation of the method of closed discrete vortex frameworks is obtained. The same line of argument is also applied to difference equations arising in the solution of the homogeneous Dirichlet problem for a general second-order elliptic equation with variable coefficients
Sorenson, Jason R.; Granato, Gregory E.; Smith, Kirk P.
2018-01-10
Flow-proportional composite water samples were collected in water years 2013 and 2014 by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, from the Blackstone River at Millville, Massachusetts (U.S. Geological Survey station 01111230), about 0.5 mile from the border with Rhode Island. Samples were collected in order to better understand the dynamics of selected nutrient and metal constituents, assist with planning, guide activities to meet water-quality goals, and provide real-time water-quality information to the public. An automated system collected the samples at 14-day intervals to determine total and dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations, to provide accurate monthly nutrient concentration data, and to calculate monthly load estimates. Concentrations of dissolved trace metals and total aluminum were determined from 4-day composite water samples that were collected twice monthly by the automated system. Results from 4-day composites provide stakeholders with information to evaluate trace metals on the basis of chronic 4-day exposure criteria for aquatic life, and the potential to use the biotic ligand model to evaluate copper concentrations. Nutrient, trace metal, suspended sediment, dissolved organic carbon, and chlorophyll a concentrations were determined from discrete samples collected at the Millville station and from across the stream transect at the upstream railroad bridge, and these concentrations served as a means to evaluate the representativeness of the Millville point location.Analytical results from samples collected with the automated flow-proportional sampling system provided the means to calculate monthly and annual loading data. Total nitrogen and total phosphorus loads in water year (WY) 2013 were about 447,000 and 36,000 kilograms (kg), respectively. In WY 2014, annual loads of total nitrogen and total phosphorus were about 342,000 and 21,000 kg, respectively. Total nitrogen
Nightingale, M J; Beard, M J; Bennett, J; Hambleton, R; Ramskill, S; Thomas, S
2013-08-01
The use of blood packs with an integral sampling system can result in anti-coagulant from the main bag reaching the sample pouch via the donor line, causing delayed coagulation of blood samples. In NHS Blood and Transplant, this has prevented the use of serum, the preferred matrix for transfusion microbiology (TM) testing, which has led to an increased false positive rate with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) plasma. There is also a remote possibility of false negative results owing to sample dilution. Manufacturers have responded by offering packs with a donor line break cannula (DLBC) to prevent these adverse effects. The aims of this study were to assess the impact of DLBC packs on donation, blood component quality and of the potential return to serum for TM testing. DLBC packs from three manufacturers were assessed against control packs of the same dimensions and configuration. Donation duration, flow rate, platelet factor 4, prothrombin fragment 1+2, haemolysis and collection and processing incidents were compared. Results indicated no clinically significant adverse effect from the DLBC on the activation state of platelets, the coagulation cascade or increased haemolysis. Donation duration and blood collection and processing incident rates for DLBC packs were not significantly different to controls. The use of DLBC packs would reduce the complexity of manipulations during blood collection and therefore the likelihood of microbially contaminated donations (incorrect skin core diversion) and false negative TM tests. DLBC packs would enable the use of serum for TM testing with a significant reduction in false positive tests compared to EDTA plasma. © 2013 The Authors. Transfusion Medicine © 2013 British Blood Transfusion Society.
Discrete structures in F-theory compactifications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Till, Oskar
2016-05-04
In this thesis we study global properties of F-theory compactifications on elliptically and genus-one fibered Calabi-Yau varieties. This is motivated by phenomenological considerations as well as by the need for a deeper understanding of the set of consistent F-theory vacua. The global geometric features arise from discrete and arithmetic structures in the torus fiber and can be studied in detail for fibrations over generic bases. In the case of elliptic fibrations we study the role of the torsion subgroup of the Mordell-Weil group of sections in four dimensional compactifications. We show how the existence of a torsional section restricts the admissible matter representations in the theory. This is shown to be equivalent to inducing a non-trivial fundamental group of the gauge group. Compactifying F-theory on genus-one fibrations with multisections gives rise to discrete selection rules. In field theory the discrete symmetry is a broken U(1) symmetry. In the geometry the higgsing corresponds to a conifold transition. We explain in detail the origin of the discrete symmetry from two different M-theory phases and put the result into the context of torsion homology. Finally we systematically construct consistent gauge fluxes on genus-one fibrations and show that these induce an anomaly free chiral spectrum.
Hirsch, M; Peinado, E; Valle, J W F
2010-01-01
We propose a new motivation for the stability of dark matter (DM). We suggest that the same non-abelian discrete flavor symmetry which accounts for the observed pattern of neutrino oscillations, spontaneously breaks to a Z2 subgroup which renders DM stable. The simplest scheme leads to a scalar doublet DM potentially detectable in nuclear recoil experiments, inverse neutrino mass hierarchy, hence a neutrinoless double beta decay rate accessible to upcoming searches, while reactor angle equal to zero gives no CP violation in neutrino oscillations.
Wuensche, Andrew
DDLab is interactive graphics software for creating, visualizing, and analyzing many aspects of Cellular Automata, Random Boolean Networks, and Discrete Dynamical Networks in general and studying their behavior, both from the time-series perspective — space-time patterns, and from the state-space perspective — attractor basins. DDLab is relevant to research, applications, and education in the fields of complexity, self-organization, emergent phenomena, chaos, collision-based computing, neural networks, content addressable memory, genetic regulatory networks, dynamical encryption, generative art and music, and the study of the abstract mathematical/physical/dynamical phenomena in their own right.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Souza, Manoelito M. de
1997-01-01
We discuss the physical meaning and the geometric interpretation of implementation in classical field theories. The origin of infinities and other inconsistencies in field theories is traced to fields defined with support on the light cone; a finite and consistent field theory requires a light-cone generator as the field support. Then, we introduce a classical field theory with support on the light cone generators. It results on a description of discrete (point-like) interactions in terms of localized particle-like fields. We find the propagators of these particle-like fields and discuss their physical meaning, properties and consequences. They are conformally invariant, singularity-free, and describing a manifestly covariant (1 + 1)-dimensional dynamics in a (3 = 1) spacetime. Remarkably this conformal symmetry remains even for the propagation of a massive field in four spacetime dimensions. We apply this formalism to Classical electrodynamics and to the General Relativity Theory. The standard formalism with its distributed fields is retrieved in terms of spacetime average of the discrete field. Singularities are the by-products of the averaging process. This new formalism enlighten the meaning and the problem of field theory, and may allow a softer transition to a quantum theory. (author)
Discrete Exterior Calculus Discretization of Incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations
Mohamed, Mamdouh S.
2017-05-23
A conservative discretization of incompressible Navier-Stokes equations over surface simplicial meshes is developed using discrete exterior calculus (DEC). Numerical experiments for flows over surfaces reveal a second order accuracy for the developed scheme when using structured-triangular meshes, and first order accuracy otherwise. The mimetic character of many of the DEC operators provides exact conservation of both mass and vorticity, in addition to superior kinetic energy conservation. The employment of barycentric Hodge star allows the discretization to admit arbitrary simplicial meshes. The discretization scheme is presented along with various numerical test cases demonstrating its main characteristics.
Wang, Yang; Ma, Guowei; Ren, Feng; Li, Tuo
2017-12-01
A constrained Delaunay discretization method is developed to generate high-quality doubly adaptive meshes of highly discontinuous geological media. Complex features such as three-dimensional discrete fracture networks (DFNs), tunnels, shafts, slopes, boreholes, water curtains, and drainage systems are taken into account in the mesh generation. The constrained Delaunay triangulation method is used to create adaptive triangular elements on planar fractures. Persson's algorithm (Persson, 2005), based on an analogy between triangular elements and spring networks, is enriched to automatically discretize a planar fracture into mesh points with varying density and smooth-quality gradient. The triangulated planar fractures are treated as planar straight-line graphs (PSLGs) to construct piecewise-linear complex (PLC) for constrained Delaunay tetrahedralization. This guarantees the doubly adaptive characteristic of the resulted mesh: the mesh is adaptive not only along fractures but also in space. The quality of elements is compared with the results from an existing method. It is verified that the present method can generate smoother elements and a better distribution of element aspect ratios. Two numerical simulations are implemented to demonstrate that the present method can be applied to various simulations of complex geological media that contain a large number of discontinuities.
Advances in discrete differential geometry
2016-01-01
This is one of the first books on a newly emerging field of discrete differential geometry and an excellent way to access this exciting area. It surveys the fascinating connections between discrete models in differential geometry and complex analysis, integrable systems and applications in computer graphics. The authors take a closer look at discrete models in differential geometry and dynamical systems. Their curves are polygonal, surfaces are made from triangles and quadrilaterals, and time is discrete. Nevertheless, the difference between the corresponding smooth curves, surfaces and classical dynamical systems with continuous time can hardly be seen. This is the paradigm of structure-preserving discretizations. Current advances in this field are stimulated to a large extent by its relevance for computer graphics and mathematical physics. This book is written by specialists working together on a common research project. It is about differential geometry and dynamical systems, smooth and discrete theories, ...
Poisson hierarchy of discrete strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ioannidou, Theodora; Niemi, Antti J.
2016-01-01
The Poisson geometry of a discrete string in three dimensional Euclidean space is investigated. For this the Frenet frames are converted into a spinorial representation, the discrete spinor Frenet equation is interpreted in terms of a transfer matrix formalism, and Poisson brackets are introduced in terms of the spinor components. The construction is then generalised, in a self-similar manner, into an infinite hierarchy of Poisson algebras. As an example, the classical Virasoro (Witt) algebra that determines reparametrisation diffeomorphism along a continuous string, is identified as a particular sub-algebra, in the hierarchy of the discrete string Poisson algebra. - Highlights: • Witt (classical Virasoro) algebra is derived in the case of discrete string. • Infinite dimensional hierarchy of Poisson bracket algebras is constructed for discrete strings. • Spinor representation of discrete Frenet equations is developed.
Poisson hierarchy of discrete strings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ioannidou, Theodora, E-mail: ti3@auth.gr [Faculty of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54249, Thessaloniki (Greece); Niemi, Antti J., E-mail: Antti.Niemi@physics.uu.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 803, S-75108, Uppsala (Sweden); Laboratoire de Mathematiques et Physique Theorique CNRS UMR 6083, Fédération Denis Poisson, Université de Tours, Parc de Grandmont, F37200, Tours (France); Department of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Haidian District, Beijing 100081 (China)
2016-01-28
The Poisson geometry of a discrete string in three dimensional Euclidean space is investigated. For this the Frenet frames are converted into a spinorial representation, the discrete spinor Frenet equation is interpreted in terms of a transfer matrix formalism, and Poisson brackets are introduced in terms of the spinor components. The construction is then generalised, in a self-similar manner, into an infinite hierarchy of Poisson algebras. As an example, the classical Virasoro (Witt) algebra that determines reparametrisation diffeomorphism along a continuous string, is identified as a particular sub-algebra, in the hierarchy of the discrete string Poisson algebra. - Highlights: • Witt (classical Virasoro) algebra is derived in the case of discrete string. • Infinite dimensional hierarchy of Poisson bracket algebras is constructed for discrete strings. • Spinor representation of discrete Frenet equations is developed.
VT Electric Transmission Line Corridors - corridor lines
Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The ELTRN layer depicts electric transmission line corridors in Vermont. Various methods have been used to digitize features. The data layer...
Infant differential behavioral responding to discrete emotions.
Walle, Eric A; Reschke, Peter J; Camras, Linda A; Campos, Joseph J
2017-10-01
Emotional communication regulates the behaviors of social partners. Research on individuals' responding to others' emotions typically compares responses to a single negative emotion compared with responses to a neutral or positive emotion. Furthermore, coding of such responses routinely measure surface level features of the behavior (e.g., approach vs. avoidance) rather than its underlying function (e.g., the goal of the approach or avoidant behavior). This investigation examined infants' responding to others' emotional displays across 5 discrete emotions: joy, sadness, fear, anger, and disgust. Specifically, 16-, 19-, and 24-month-old infants observed an adult communicate a discrete emotion toward a stimulus during a naturalistic interaction. Infants' responses were coded to capture the function of their behaviors (e.g., exploration, prosocial behavior, and security seeking). The results revealed a number of instances indicating that infants use different functional behaviors in response to discrete emotions. Differences in behaviors across emotions were clearest in the 24-month-old infants, though younger infants also demonstrated some differential use of behaviors in response to discrete emotions. This is the first comprehensive study to identify differences in how infants respond with goal-directed behaviors to discrete emotions. Additionally, the inclusion of a function-based coding scheme and interpersonal paradigms may be informative for future emotion research with children and adults. Possible developmental accounts for the observed behaviors and the benefits of coding techniques emphasizing the function of social behavior over their form are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Discrete instability in the DNA double helix
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tabi, Conrad Bertrand; Mohamadou, Alidou; Kofane, Timoleon Crepin
2009-06-01
Modulational instability (MI) is explored in the framework of the base-rotor model of DNA dynamics. We show in fact that, the helicoidal coupling introduced in the spin model of DNA reduces the system to a modified discrete sine-Gordon (sG) equation. The MI criterion is thus modified and displays interesting features because of the helicoidal coupling. This is confirmed in the numerical analysis where a critical value of the helicoidal coupling constant is derived. In the simulations, we have found that a train of pulses are generated when the lattice is subjected to MI, in agreement with analytical results obtained in a modified discrete sG equation. Also, the competitive effects of the harmonic longitudinal and helicoidal constants on the dynamics of the system are notably pointed out. In the same way, it is shown that MI can lead to energy localization which is high for some values of the helicoidal coupling constant. (author)
Principles of discrete time mechanics
Jaroszkiewicz, George
2014-01-01
Could time be discrete on some unimaginably small scale? Exploring the idea in depth, this unique introduction to discrete time mechanics systematically builds the theory up from scratch, beginning with the historical, physical and mathematical background to the chronon hypothesis. Covering classical and quantum discrete time mechanics, this book presents all the tools needed to formulate and develop applications of discrete time mechanics in a number of areas, including spreadsheet mechanics, classical and quantum register mechanics, and classical and quantum mechanics and field theories. A consistent emphasis on contextuality and the observer-system relationship is maintained throughout.
Dark discrete gauge symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Batell, Brian
2011-01-01
We investigate scenarios in which dark matter is stabilized by an Abelian Z N discrete gauge symmetry. Models are surveyed according to symmetries and matter content. Multicomponent dark matter arises when N is not prime and Z N contains one or more subgroups. The dark sector interacts with the visible sector through the renormalizable kinetic mixing and Higgs portal operators, and we highlight the basic phenomenology in these scenarios. In particular, multiple species of dark matter can lead to an unconventional nuclear recoil spectrum in direct detection experiments, while the presence of new light states in the dark sector can dramatically affect the decays of the Higgs at the Tevatron and LHC, thus providing a window into the gauge origin of the stability of dark matter.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Noyes, H.P.; Starson, S.
1991-03-01
Discrete physics, because it replaces time evolution generated by the energy operator with a global bit-string generator (program universe) and replaces ''fields'' with the relativistic Wheeler-Feynman ''action at a distance,'' allows the consistent formulation of the concept of signed gravitational charge for massive particles. The resulting prediction made by this version of the theory is that free anti-particles near the surface of the earth will ''fall'' up with the same acceleration that the corresponding particles fall down. So far as we can see, no current experimental information is in conflict with this prediction of our theory. The experiment crusis will be one of the anti-proton or anti-hydrogen experiments at CERN. Our prediction should be much easier to test than the small effects which those experiments are currently designed to detect or bound. 23 refs
NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Water Distribution Lines dataset current as of 2011. Includes water pipes (not connections to structures, fire hydrants and other features. Capture in Microstation...
Control of Discrete Event Systems
Smedinga, Rein
1989-01-01
Systemen met discrete gebeurtenissen spelen in vele gebieden een rol. In dit proefschrift staat de volgorde van gebeurtenissen centraal en worden tijdsaspecten buiten beschouwing gelaten. In dat geval kunnen systemen met discrete gebeurtenissen goed worden gemodelleerd door gebruik te maken van
Discrete Mathematics and Its Applications
Oxley, Alan
2010-01-01
The article gives ideas that lecturers of undergraduate Discrete Mathematics courses can use in order to make the subject more interesting for students and encourage them to undertake further studies in the subject. It is possible to teach Discrete Mathematics with little or no reference to computing. However, students are more likely to be…
Discrete Mathematics and Curriculum Reform.
Kenney, Margaret J.
1996-01-01
Defines discrete mathematics as the mathematics necessary to effect reasoned decision making in finite situations and explains how its use supports the current view of mathematics education. Discrete mathematics can be used by curriculum developers to improve the curriculum for students of all ages and abilities. (SLD)
Connections on discrete fibre bundles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Manton, N.S.; Cambridge Univ.
1987-01-01
A new approach to gauge fields on a discrete space-time is proposed, in which the fundamental object is a discrete version of a principal fibre bundle. If the bundle is twisted, the gauge fields are topologically non-trivial automatically. (orig.)
Discrete dynamics versus analytic dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Toxværd, Søren
2014-01-01
For discrete classical Molecular dynamics obtained by the “Verlet” algorithm (VA) with the time increment h there exists a shadow Hamiltonian H˜ with energy E˜(h) , for which the discrete particle positions lie on the analytic trajectories for H˜ . Here, we proof that there, independent...... of such an analytic analogy, exists an exact hidden energy invariance E * for VA dynamics. The fact that the discrete VA dynamics has the same invariances as Newtonian dynamics raises the question, which of the formulations that are correct, or alternatively, the most appropriate formulation of classical dynamics....... In this context the relation between the discrete VA dynamics and the (general) discrete dynamics investigated by Lee [Phys. Lett. B122, 217 (1983)] is presented and discussed....
Modern approaches to discrete curvature
Romon, Pascal
2017-01-01
This book provides a valuable glimpse into discrete curvature, a rich new field of research which blends discrete mathematics, differential geometry, probability and computer graphics. It includes a vast collection of ideas and tools which will offer something new to all interested readers. Discrete geometry has arisen as much as a theoretical development as in response to unforeseen challenges coming from applications. Discrete and continuous geometries have turned out to be intimately connected. Discrete curvature is the key concept connecting them through many bridges in numerous fields: metric spaces, Riemannian and Euclidean geometries, geometric measure theory, topology, partial differential equations, calculus of variations, gradient flows, asymptotic analysis, probability, harmonic analysis, graph theory, etc. In spite of its crucial importance both in theoretical mathematics and in applications, up to now, almost no books have provided a coherent outlook on this emerging field.
Image Retrieval Algorithm Based on Discrete Fractional Transforms
Jindal, Neeru; Singh, Kulbir
2013-06-01
The discrete fractional transforms is a signal processing tool which suggests computational algorithms and solutions to various sophisticated applications. In this paper, a new technique to retrieve the encrypted and scrambled image based on discrete fractional transforms has been proposed. Two-dimensional image was encrypted using discrete fractional transforms with three fractional orders and two random phase masks placed in the two intermediate planes. The significant feature of discrete fractional transforms benefits from its extra degree of freedom that is provided by its fractional orders. Security strength was enhanced (1024!)4 times by scrambling the encrypted image. In decryption process, image retrieval is sensitive for both correct fractional order keys and scrambling algorithm. The proposed approach make the brute force attack infeasible. Mean square error and relative error are the recital parameters to verify validity of proposed method.
Discretion and Disproportionality
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jason A. Grissom
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Students of color are underrepresented in gifted programs relative to White students, but the reasons for this underrepresentation are poorly understood. We investigate the predictors of gifted assignment using nationally representative, longitudinal data on elementary students. We document that even among students with high standardized test scores, Black students are less likely to be assigned to gifted services in both math and reading, a pattern that persists when controlling for other background factors, such as health and socioeconomic status, and characteristics of classrooms and schools. We then investigate the role of teacher discretion, leveraging research from political science suggesting that clients of government services from traditionally underrepresented groups benefit from diversity in the providers of those services, including teachers. Even after conditioning on test scores and other factors, Black students indeed are referred to gifted programs, particularly in reading, at significantly lower rates when taught by non-Black teachers, a concerning result given the relatively low incidence of assignment to own-race teachers among Black students.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vlad, Valentin I.; Ionescu-Pallas, Nicholas
2000-10-01
The Planck radiation spectrum of ideal cubic and spherical cavities, in the region of small adiabatic invariance, γ = TV 1/3 , is shown to be discrete and strongly dependent on the cavity geometry and temperature. This behavior is the consequence of the random distribution of the state weights in the cubic cavity and of the random overlapping of the successive multiplet components, for the spherical cavity. The total energy (obtained by summing up the exact contributions of the eigenvalues and their weights, for low values of the adiabatic invariance) does not obey any longer Stefan-Boltzmann law. The new law includes a corrective factor depending on γ and imposes a faster decrease of the total energy to zero, for γ → 0. We have defined the double quantized regime both for cubic and spherical cavities by the superior and inferior limits put on the principal quantum numbers or the adiabatic invariance. The total energy of the double quantized cavities shows large differences from the classical calculations over unexpected large intervals, which are measurable and put in evidence important macroscopic quantum effects. (author)
Sur, Chiranjib; Shukla, Anupam
2018-03-01
Bacteria Foraging Optimisation Algorithm is a collective behaviour-based meta-heuristics searching depending on the social influence of the bacteria co-agents in the search space of the problem. The algorithm faces tremendous hindrance in terms of its application for discrete problems and graph-based problems due to biased mathematical modelling and dynamic structure of the algorithm. This had been the key factor to revive and introduce the discrete form called Discrete Bacteria Foraging Optimisation (DBFO) Algorithm for discrete problems which exceeds the number of continuous domain problems represented by mathematical and numerical equations in real life. In this work, we have mainly simulated a graph-based road multi-objective optimisation problem and have discussed the prospect of its utilisation in other similar optimisation problems and graph-based problems. The various solution representations that can be handled by this DBFO has also been discussed. The implications and dynamics of the various parameters used in the DBFO are illustrated from the point view of the problems and has been a combination of both exploration and exploitation. The result of DBFO has been compared with Ant Colony Optimisation and Intelligent Water Drops Algorithms. Important features of DBFO are that the bacteria agents do not depend on the local heuristic information but estimates new exploration schemes depending upon the previous experience and covered path analysis. This makes the algorithm better in combination generation for graph-based problems and combination generation for NP hard problems.
Hopf Bifurcation Analysis for a Stochastic Discrete-Time Hyperchaotic System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jie Ran
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The dynamics of a discrete-time hyperchaotic system and the amplitude control of Hopf bifurcation for a stochastic discrete-time hyperchaotic system are investigated in this paper. Numerical simulations are presented to exhibit the complex dynamical behaviors in the discrete-time hyperchaotic system. Furthermore, the stochastic discrete-time hyperchaotic system with random parameters is transformed into its equivalent deterministic system with the orthogonal polynomial theory of discrete random function. In addition, the dynamical features of the discrete-time hyperchaotic system with random disturbances are obtained through its equivalent deterministic system. By using the Hopf bifurcation conditions of the deterministic discrete-time system, the specific conditions for the existence of Hopf bifurcation in the equivalent deterministic system are derived. And the amplitude control with random intensity is discussed in detail. Finally, the feasibility of the control method is demonstrated by numerical simulations.
International Conference eXtended Discretization MethodS
Benvenuti, Elena
2016-01-01
This book gathers selected contributions on emerging research work presented at the International Conference eXtended Discretization MethodS (X-DMS), held in Ferrara in September 2015. It highlights the most relevant advances made at the international level in the context of expanding classical discretization methods, like finite elements, to the numerical analysis of a variety of physical problems. The improvements are intended to achieve higher computational efficiency and to account for special features of the solution directly in the approximation space and/or in the discretization procedure. The methods described include, among others, partition of unity methods (meshfree, XFEM, GFEM), virtual element methods, fictitious domain methods, and special techniques for static and evolving interfaces. The uniting feature of all contributions is the direct link between computational methodologies and their application to different engineering areas.
Perfect discretization of path integrals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Steinhaus, Sebastian
2012-01-01
In order to obtain a well-defined path integral one often employs discretizations. In the case of General Relativity these generically break diffeomorphism symmetry, which has severe consequences since these symmetries determine the dynamics of the corresponding system. In this article we consider the path integral of reparametrization invariant systems as a toy example and present an improvement procedure for the discretized propagator. Fixed points and convergence of the procedure are discussed. Furthermore we show that a reparametrization invariant path integral implies discretization independence and acts as a projector onto physical states.
Perfect discretization of path integrals
Steinhaus, Sebastian
2012-05-01
In order to obtain a well-defined path integral one often employs discretizations. In the case of General Relativity these generically break diffeomorphism symmetry, which has severe consequences since these symmetries determine the dynamics of the corresponding system. In this article we consider the path integral of reparametrization invariant systems as a toy example and present an improvement procedure for the discretized propagator. Fixed points and convergence of the procedure are discussed. Furthermore we show that a reparametrization invariant path integral implies discretization independence and acts as a projector onto physical states.
The origin of discrete particles
Bastin, T
2009-01-01
This book is a unique summary of the results of a long research project undertaken by the authors on discreteness in modern physics. In contrast with the usual expectation that discreteness is the result of mathematical tools for insertion into a continuous theory, this more basic treatment builds up the world from the discrimination of discrete entities. This gives an algebraic structure in which certain fixed numbers arise. As such, one agrees with the measured value of the fine-structure constant to one part in 10,000,000 (10 7 ). Sample Chapter(s). Foreword (56 KB). Chapter 1: Introduction
Discrete Bogomolny equations for the nonlinear O(3) σ model in 2+1 dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leese, R.
1989-01-01
Discrete analogues of the topological charge and of the Bogomolny equations are constructed for the nonlinear O(3) σ model in 2+1 dimensions, subject to the restriction that the energy density be radially symmetric. These are then incorporated into a discretized version of the evolution equations. Using the discrete Bogomolny relations to construct the initial data for numerical simulations removes the ''lattice wobble'' sometimes observed at low kinetic energies. This feature is very important for the delicate question of instanton stability
Synchronization Techniques in Parallel Discrete Event Simulation
Lindén, Jonatan
2018-01-01
Discrete event simulation is an important tool for evaluating system models in many fields of science and engineering. To improve the performance of large-scale discrete event simulations, several techniques to parallelize discrete event simulation have been developed. In parallel discrete event simulation, the work of a single discrete event simulation is distributed over multiple processing elements. A key challenge in parallel discrete event simulation is to ensure that causally dependent ...
Discrete event simulations for glycolysis pathway and energy balance
Zwieten, van D.A.J.; Rooda, J.E.; Armbruster, H.D.; Nagy, J.D.
2010-01-01
In this report, the biological network of the glycolysis pathway has been modeled using discrete event models (DEMs). The most important feature of this pathway is that energy is released. To create a stable steady-state system an energy molecule equilibrating enzyme and metabolic reactions have
A discrete history of the Lorentzian path integral
Loll, R.
2003-01-01
In these lecture notes, I describe the motivation behind a recent formulation of a non-perturbative gravitational path integral for Lorentzian (instead of the usual Euclidean) space-times, and give a pedagogical introduction to its main features. At the regularized, discrete level this approach
Exact analysis of discrete data
Hirji, Karim F
2005-01-01
Researchers in fields ranging from biology and medicine to the social sciences, law, and economics regularly encounter variables that are discrete or categorical in nature. While there is no dearth of books on the analysis and interpretation of such data, these generally focus on large sample methods. When sample sizes are not large or the data are otherwise sparse, exact methods--methods not based on asymptotic theory--are more accurate and therefore preferable.This book introduces the statistical theory, analysis methods, and computation techniques for exact analysis of discrete data. After reviewing the relevant discrete distributions, the author develops the exact methods from the ground up in a conceptually integrated manner. The topics covered range from univariate discrete data analysis, a single and several 2 x 2 tables, a single and several 2 x K tables, incidence density and inverse sampling designs, unmatched and matched case -control studies, paired binary and trinomial response models, and Markov...
Discrete geometric structures for architecture
Pottmann, Helmut
2010-01-01
. The talk will provide an overview of recent progress in this field, with a particular focus on discrete geometric structures. Most of these result from practical requirements on segmenting a freeform shape into planar panels and on the physical realization
Causal Dynamics of Discrete Surfaces
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pablo Arrighi
2014-03-01
Full Text Available We formalize the intuitive idea of a labelled discrete surface which evolves in time, subject to two natural constraints: the evolution does not propagate information too fast; and it acts everywhere the same.
Perfect discretization of path integrals
Steinhaus, Sebastian
2011-01-01
In order to obtain a well-defined path integral one often employs discretizations. In the case of General Relativity these generically break diffeomorphism symmetry, which has severe consequences since these symmetries determine the dynamics of the corresponding system. In this article we consider the path integral of reparametrization invariant systems as a toy example and present an improvement procedure for the discretized propagator. Fixed points and convergence of the procedure are discu...
Invariant object recognition based on the generalized discrete radon transform
Easley, Glenn R.; Colonna, Flavia
2004-04-01
We introduce a method for classifying objects based on special cases of the generalized discrete Radon transform. We adjust the transform and the corresponding ridgelet transform by means of circular shifting and a singular value decomposition (SVD) to obtain a translation, rotation and scaling invariant set of feature vectors. We then use a back-propagation neural network to classify the input feature vectors. We conclude with experimental results and compare these with other invariant recognition methods.
Understanding Legacy Features with Featureous
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olszak, Andrzej; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard
2011-01-01
Java programs called Featureous that addresses this issue. Featureous allows a programmer to easily establish feature-code traceability links and to analyze their characteristics using a number of visualizations. Featureous is an extension to the NetBeans IDE, and can itself be extended by third...
Alfa, Attahiru S
2016-01-01
This book introduces the theoretical fundamentals for modeling queues in discrete-time, and the basic procedures for developing queuing models in discrete-time. There is a focus on applications in modern telecommunication systems. It presents how most queueing models in discrete-time can be set up as discrete-time Markov chains. Techniques such as matrix-analytic methods (MAM) that can used to analyze the resulting Markov chains are included. This book covers single node systems, tandem system and queueing networks. It shows how queues with time-varying parameters can be analyzed, and illustrates numerical issues associated with computations for the discrete-time queueing systems. Optimal control of queues is also covered. Applied Discrete-Time Queues targets researchers, advanced-level students and analysts in the field of telecommunication networks. It is suitable as a reference book and can also be used as a secondary text book in computer engineering and computer science. Examples and exercises are includ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
SERGIY KOZERENKO
2016-04-01
Full Text Available One feature of the famous Sharkovsky’s theorem is that it can be proved using digraphs of a special type (the so–called Markov graphs. The most general definition assigns a Markov graph to every continuous map from the topological graph to itself. We show that this definition is too broad, i.e. every finite digraph can be viewed as a Markov graph of some one–dimensional dynamical system on a tree. We therefore consider discrete analogues of Markov graphs for vertex maps on combinatorial trees and characterize all maps on trees whose discrete Markov graphs are of the following types: complete, complete bipartite, the disjoint union of cycles, with every arc being a loop.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Feature Article. Articles in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 1 Issue 1 January 1996 pp 80-85 Feature Article. What's New in Computers Windows 95 · Vijnan Shastri · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 1 Issue 1 January 1996 pp 86-89 Feature ...
Analysis of Discrete Mittag - Leffler Functions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Shobanadevi
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Discrete Mittag - Leffler functions play a major role in the development of the theory of discrete fractional calculus. In the present article, we analyze qualitative properties of discrete Mittag - Leffler functions and establish sufficient conditions for convergence, oscillation and summability of the infinite series associated with discrete Mittag - Leffler functions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ching, J.T.
1975-01-01
An algebraic equivalence between the point-energy and multigroup forms of the Boltzmann transport equation is demonstrated which allows the development of a discrete-energy, discrete-ordinates method for the solution of radiation transport problems. The method utilizes a modified version of a cross section processing scheme devised for the moments method code BMT and the transport equation solution algorithm from the one-dimensional discrete-ordinates transport code ANISN. The combined system, identified as MOMANS, computes fluxes directly from point cross sections in a single operation. In the cross-section processing, the group averaging required for multigroup calculations is replaced by a fast numerical scheme capable of generating a set of transfer cross sections containing all the physical features of interest, thereby increasing the detail in the calculated results. Test calculations in which the discrete-energy method was compared with the multigroup method have shown that for the same energy grid (number of points = number of groups), the discrete-energy method is faster but somewhat less accurate than the multigroup method. However, the accuracy of the discrete-energy method increases rapidly as the spacing between energy points is decreased, approaching that of multigroup calculations. For problems requiring great detail in the energy spectrum the discrete-energy method has therefore proven to be as accurate as, and more economical than, the multigroup technique. This was demonstrated by the application of the method to the study of the transport of neutrons in an iron sphere. Using the capability of the discrete-energy method for rapidly treating changes in cross-section sets, the propagation of neutrons from a 14 MeV source in a 22 cm radius sphere of iron was analyzed for sensitivity to changes in the microscopic scattering mechanisms
Logic and discrete mathematics a concise introduction : solutions manual
Conradie, Willem; Robinson, Claudette
2015-01-01
Solutions manual to accompany Logic and Discrete Mathematics: A Concise Introduction This book features a unique combination of comprehensive coverage of logic with a solid exposition of the most important fields of discrete mathematics, presenting material that has been tested and refined by the authors in university courses taught over more than a decade. Written in a clear and reader-friendly style, each section ends with an extensive set of exercises, most of them provided with complete solutions which are available in this accompanying solutions manual.
Foundations of a discrete physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McGoveran, D.; Noyes, P.
1988-01-01
Starting from the principles of finiteness, discreteness, finite computability and absolute nonuniqueness, we develop the ordering operator calculus, a strictly constructive mathematical system having the empirical properties required by quantum mechanical and special relativistic phenomena. We show how to construct discrete distance functions, and both rectangular and spherical coordinate systems(with a discrete version of ''π''). The richest discrete space constructible without a preferred axis and preserving translational and rotational invariance is shown to be a discrete 3-space with the usual symmetries. We introduce a local ordering parameter with local (proper) time-like properties and universal ordering parameters with global (cosmological) time-like properties. Constructed ''attribute velocities'' connect ensembles with attributes that are invariant as the appropriate time-like parameter increases. For each such attribute, we show how to construct attribute velocities which must satisfy the '' relativistic Doppler shift'' and the ''relativistic velocity composition law,'' as well as the Lorentz transformations. By construction, these velocities have finite maximum and minimum values. In the space of all attributes, the minimum of these maximum velocities will predominate in all multiple attribute computations, and hence can be identified as a fundamental limiting velocity, General commutation relations are constructed which under the physical interpretation are shown to reduce to the usual quantum mechanical commutation relations. 50 refs., 18 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doliwa, A.; Grinevich, P.; Nieszporski, M.; Santini, P. M.
2007-01-01
We present the sublattice approach, a procedure to generate, from a given integrable lattice, a sublattice which inherits its integrability features. We consider, as illustrative example of this approach, the discrete Moutard 4-point equation and its sublattice, the self-adjoint 5-point scheme on the star of the square lattice, which are relevant in the theory of the integrable discrete geometries and in the theory of discrete holomorphic and harmonic functions (in this last context, the discrete Moutard equation is called discrete Cauchy-Riemann equation). Therefore an integrable, at one energy, discretization of elliptic two-dimensional operators is considered. We use the sublattice point of view to derive, from the Darboux transformations and superposition formulas of the discrete Moutard equation, the Darboux transformations and superposition formulas of the self-adjoint 5-point scheme. We also construct, from algebro-geometric solutions of the discrete Moutard equation, algebro-geometric solutions of the self-adjoint 5-point scheme. In particular, we show that the corresponding restrictions on the finite-gap data are of the same type as those for the fixed energy problem for the two-dimensional Schroedinger operator. We finally use these solutions to construct explicit examples of discrete holomorphic and harmonic functions, as well as examples of quadrilateral surfaces in R 3
Discrete differential geometry. Consistency as integrability
Bobenko, Alexander I.; Suris, Yuri B.
2005-01-01
A new field of discrete differential geometry is presently emerging on the border between differential and discrete geometry. Whereas classical differential geometry investigates smooth geometric shapes (such as surfaces), and discrete geometry studies geometric shapes with finite number of elements (such as polyhedra), the discrete differential geometry aims at the development of discrete equivalents of notions and methods of smooth surface theory. Current interest in this field derives not ...
Integrable structure in discrete shell membrane theory.
Schief, W K
2014-05-08
We present natural discrete analogues of two integrable classes of shell membranes. By construction, these discrete shell membranes are in equilibrium with respect to suitably chosen internal stresses and external forces. The integrability of the underlying equilibrium equations is proved by relating the geometry of the discrete shell membranes to discrete O surface theory. We establish connections with generalized barycentric coordinates and nine-point centres and identify a discrete version of the classical Gauss equation of surface theory.
Discrete quantum spectrum of black holes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lochan, Kinjalk, E-mail: kinjalk@iucaa.in; Chakraborty, Sumanta, E-mail: sumanta@iucaa.in
2016-04-10
The quantum genesis of Hawking radiation is a long-standing puzzle in black hole physics. Semi-classically one can argue that the spectrum of radiation emitted by a black hole look very much sparse unlike what is expected from a thermal object. It was demonstrated through a simple quantum model that a quantum black hole will retain a discrete profile, at least in the weak energy regime. However, it was suggested that this discreteness might be an artifact of the simplicity of eigen-spectrum of the model considered. Different quantum theories can, in principle, give rise to different complicated spectra and make the radiation from black hole dense enough in transition lines, to make them look continuous in profile. We show that such a hope from a geometry-quantized black hole is not realized as long as large enough black holes are dubbed with a classical mass area relation in any gravity theory ranging from GR, Lanczos–Lovelock to f(R) gravity. We show that the smallest frequency of emission from black hole in any quantum description, is bounded from below, to be of the order of its inverse mass. That leaves the emission with only two possibilities. It can either be non-thermal, or it can be thermal only with the temperature being much larger than 1/M.
Degree distribution in discrete case
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Li-Na; Chen, Bin; Yan, Zai-Zai
2011-01-01
Vertex degree of many network models and real-life networks is limited to non-negative integer. By means of measure and integral, the relation of the degree distribution and the cumulative degree distribution in discrete case is analyzed. The degree distribution, obtained by the differential of its cumulative, is only suitable for continuous case or discrete case with constant degree change. When degree change is not a constant but proportional to degree itself, power-law degree distribution and its cumulative have the same exponent and the mean value is finite for power-law exponent greater than 1. -- Highlights: → Degree change is the crux for using the cumulative degree distribution method. → It suits for discrete case with constant degree change. → If degree change is proportional to degree, power-law degree distribution and its cumulative have the same exponent. → In addition, the mean value is finite for power-law exponent greater than 1.
Interactions of Soliton Waves for a Generalized Discrete KdV Equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou Tong; Zhu Zuo-Nong
2017-01-01
It is well known that soliton interactions in discrete integrable systems often possess new properties which are different from the continuous integrable systems, e.g., we found that there are such discrete solitons in a semidiscrete integrable system (the time variable is continuous and the space one is discrete) that the shorter solitary waves travel faster than the taller ones. Very recently, this kind of soliton was also observed in a full discrete generalized KdV system (the both of time and space variables are discrete) introduced by Kanki et al. In this paper, for the generalized discrete KdV (gdKdV) equation, we describe its richer structures of one-soliton solutions. The interactions of two-soliton waves to the gdKdV equation are studied. Some new features of the soliton interactions are proposed by rigorous theoretical analysis. (paper)
On the discrete Gabor transform and the discrete Zak transform
Bastiaans, M.J.; Geilen, M.C.W.
1996-01-01
Gabor's expansion of a discrete-time signal into a set of shifted and modulated versions of an elementary signal (or synthesis window) and the inverse operation -- the Gabor transform -- with which Gabor's expansion coefficients can be determined, are introduced. It is shown how, in the case of a
Discrete Choice and Rational Inattention
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fosgerau, Mogens; Melo, Emerson; de Palma, André
2017-01-01
This paper establishes a general equivalence between discrete choice and rational inattention models. Matejka and McKay (2015, AER) showed that when information costs are modelled using the Shannon entropy, the result- ing choice probabilities in the rational inattention model take the multinomial...... logit form. We show that when information costs are modelled using a class of generalized entropies, then the choice probabilities in any rational inattention model are observationally equivalent to some additive random utility discrete choice model and vice versa. This equivalence arises from convex...
Discreteness of area in noncommutative space
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' and Sez. Roma1 INFN, P.le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy)], E-mail: amelino@roma1.infn.it; Gubitosi, Giulia; Mercati, Flavio [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' and Sez. Roma1 INFN, P.le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy)
2009-06-08
We introduce an area operator for the Moyal noncommutative plane. We find that the spectrum is discrete, but, contrary to the expectation formulated by other authors, not characterized by a 'minimum-area principle'. We show that an intuitive analysis of the uncertainty relations obtained from Moyal-plane noncommutativity is fully consistent with our results for the spectrum, and we argue that our area operator should be generalizable to several other noncommutative spaces. We also observe that the properties of distances and areas in the Moyal plane expose some weaknesses in the line of reasoning adopted in some of the heuristic analyses of the measurability of geometric spacetime observables in the quantum-gravity realm.
Discreteness of area in noncommutative space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Gubitosi, Giulia; Mercati, Flavio
2009-01-01
We introduce an area operator for the Moyal noncommutative plane. We find that the spectrum is discrete, but, contrary to the expectation formulated by other authors, not characterized by a 'minimum-area principle'. We show that an intuitive analysis of the uncertainty relations obtained from Moyal-plane noncommutativity is fully consistent with our results for the spectrum, and we argue that our area operator should be generalizable to several other noncommutative spaces. We also observe that the properties of distances and areas in the Moyal plane expose some weaknesses in the line of reasoning adopted in some of the heuristic analyses of the measurability of geometric spacetime observables in the quantum-gravity realm.
Discrete choice experiments of pharmacy services: a systematic review.
Vass, Caroline; Gray, Ewan; Payne, Katherine
2016-06-01
Background Two previous systematic reviews have summarised the application of discrete choice experiments to value preferences for pharmacy services. These reviews identified a total of twelve studies and described how discrete choice experiments have been used to value pharmacy services but did not describe or discuss the application of methods used in the design or analysis. Aims (1) To update the most recent systematic review and critically appraise current discrete choice experiments of pharmacy services in line with published reporting criteria and; (2) To provide an overview of key methodological developments in the design and analysis of discrete choice experiments. Methods The review used a comprehensive strategy to identify eligible studies (published between 1990 and 2015) by searching electronic databases for key terms related to discrete choice and best-worst scaling (BWS) experiments. All healthcare choice experiments were then hand-searched for key terms relating to pharmacy. Data were extracted using a published checklist. Results A total of 17 discrete choice experiments eliciting preferences for pharmacy services were identified for inclusion in the review. No BWS studies were identified. The studies elicited preferences from a variety of populations (pharmacists, patients, students) for a range of pharmacy services. Most studies were from a United Kingdom setting, although examples from Europe, Australia and North America were also identified. Discrete choice experiments for pharmacy services tended to include more attributes than non-pharmacy choice experiments. Few studies reported the use of qualitative research methods in the design and interpretation of the experiments (n = 9) or use of new methods of analysis to identify and quantify preference and scale heterogeneity (n = 4). No studies reported the use of Bayesian methods in their experimental design. Conclusion Incorporating more sophisticated methods in the design of pharmacy
A Discrete Model for Color Naming
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. M. Boi
2007-01-01
Full Text Available The ability to associate labels to colors is very natural for human beings. Though, this apparently simple task hides very complex and still unsolved problems, spreading over many different disciplines ranging from neurophysiology to psychology and imaging. In this paper, we propose a discrete model for computational color categorization and naming. Starting from the 424 color specimens of the OSA-UCS set, we propose a fuzzy partitioning of the color space. Each of the 11 basic color categories identified by Berlin and Kay is modeled as a fuzzy set whose membership function is implicitly defined by fitting the model to the results of an ad hoc psychophysical experiment (Experiment 1. Each OSA-UCS sample is represented by a feature vector whose components are the memberships to the different categories. The discrete model consists of a three-dimensional Delaunay triangulation of the CIELAB color space which associates each OSA-UCS sample to a vertex of a 3D tetrahedron. Linear interpolation is used to estimate the membership values of any other point in the color space. Model validation is performed both directly, through the comparison of the predicted membership values to the subjective counterparts, as evaluated via another psychophysical test (Experiment 2, and indirectly, through the investigation of its exploitability for image segmentation. The model has proved to be successful in both cases, providing an estimation of the membership values in good agreement with the subjective measures as well as a semantically meaningful color-based segmentation map.
A Discrete Model for Color Naming
Menegaz, G.; Le Troter, A.; Sequeira, J.; Boi, J. M.
2006-12-01
The ability to associate labels to colors is very natural for human beings. Though, this apparently simple task hides very complex and still unsolved problems, spreading over many different disciplines ranging from neurophysiology to psychology and imaging. In this paper, we propose a discrete model for computational color categorization and naming. Starting from the 424 color specimens of the OSA-UCS set, we propose a fuzzy partitioning of the color space. Each of the 11 basic color categories identified by Berlin and Kay is modeled as a fuzzy set whose membership function is implicitly defined by fitting the model to the results of an ad hoc psychophysical experiment (Experiment 1). Each OSA-UCS sample is represented by a feature vector whose components are the memberships to the different categories. The discrete model consists of a three-dimensional Delaunay triangulation of the CIELAB color space which associates each OSA-UCS sample to a vertex of a 3D tetrahedron. Linear interpolation is used to estimate the membership values of any other point in the color space. Model validation is performed both directly, through the comparison of the predicted membership values to the subjective counterparts, as evaluated via another psychophysical test (Experiment 2), and indirectly, through the investigation of its exploitability for image segmentation. The model has proved to be successful in both cases, providing an estimation of the membership values in good agreement with the subjective measures as well as a semantically meaningful color-based segmentation map.
Discrete diffusion Lyman α radiative transfer
Smith, Aaron; Tsang, Benny T.-H.; Bromm, Volker; Milosavljević, Miloš
2018-06-01
Due to its accuracy and generality, Monte Carlo radiative transfer (MCRT) has emerged as the prevalent method for Lyα radiative transfer in arbitrary geometries. The standard MCRT encounters a significant efficiency barrier in the high optical depth, diffusion regime. Multiple acceleration schemes have been developed to improve the efficiency of MCRT but the noise from photon packet discretization remains a challenge. The discrete diffusion Monte Carlo (DDMC) scheme has been successfully applied in state-of-the-art radiation hydrodynamics (RHD) simulations. Still, the established framework is not optimal for resonant line transfer. Inspired by the DDMC paradigm, we present a novel extension to resonant DDMC (rDDMC) in which diffusion in space and frequency are treated on equal footing. We explore the robustness of our new method and demonstrate a level of performance that justifies incorporating the method into existing Lyα codes. We present computational speedups of ˜102-106 relative to contemporary MCRT implementations with schemes that skip scattering in the core of the line profile. This is because the rDDMC runtime scales with the spatial and frequency resolution rather than the number of scatterings—the latter is typically ∝τ0 for static media, or ∝(aτ0)2/3 with core-skipping. We anticipate new frontiers in which on-the-fly Lyα radiative transfer calculations are feasible in 3D RHD. More generally, rDDMC is transferable to any computationally demanding problem amenable to a Fokker-Planck approximation of frequency redistribution.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157258 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data obtained during the R/V Discovery EEL_2011_D365 Cruise Along Extended Ellett...
A discrete dislocation–transformation model for austenitic single crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shi, J; Turteltaub, S; Remmers, J J C; Van der Giessen, E
2008-01-01
A discrete model for analyzing the interaction between plastic flow and martensitic phase transformations is developed. The model is intended for simulating the microstructure evolution in a single crystal of austenite that transforms non-homogeneously into martensite. The plastic flow in the untransformed austenite is simulated using a plane-strain discrete dislocation model. The phase transformation is modeled via the nucleation and growth of discrete martensitic regions embedded in the austenitic single crystal. At each instant during loading, the coupled elasto-plasto-transformation problem is solved using the superposition of analytical solutions for the discrete dislocations and discrete transformation regions embedded in an infinite homogeneous medium and the numerical solution of a complementary problem used to enforce the actual boundary conditions and the heterogeneities in the medium. In order to describe the nucleation and growth of martensitic regions, a nucleation criterion and a kinetic law suitable for discrete regions are specified. The constitutive rules used in discrete dislocation simulations are supplemented with additional evolution rules to account for the phase transformation. To illustrate the basic features of the model, simulations of specimens under plane-strain uniaxial extension and contraction are analyzed. The simulations indicate that plastic flow reduces the average stress at which transformation begins, but it also reduces the transformation rate when compared with benchmark simulations without plasticity. Furthermore, due to local stress fluctuations caused by dislocations, martensitic systems can be activated even though transformation would not appear to be favorable based on the average stress. Conversely, the simulations indicate that the plastic hardening behavior is influenced by the reduction in the effective austenitic grain size due to the evolution of transformation. During cyclic simulations, the coupled plasticity
Discrete Hamiltonian evolution and quantum gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Husain, Viqar; Winkler, Oliver
2004-01-01
We study constrained Hamiltonian systems by utilizing general forms of time discretization. We show that for explicit discretizations, the requirement of preserving the canonical Poisson bracket under discrete evolution imposes strong conditions on both allowable discretizations and Hamiltonians. These conditions permit time discretizations for a limited class of Hamiltonians, which does not include homogeneous cosmological models. We also present two general classes of implicit discretizations which preserve Poisson brackets for any Hamiltonian. Both types of discretizations generically do not preserve first class constraint algebras. Using this observation, we show that time discretization provides a complicated time gauge fixing for quantum gravity models, which may be compared with the alternative procedure of gauge fixing before discretization
Solving discrete zero point problems
van der Laan, G.; Talman, A.J.J.; Yang, Z.F.
2004-01-01
In this paper an algorithm is proposed to .nd a discrete zero point of a function on the collection of integral points in the n-dimensional Euclidean space IRn.Starting with a given integral point, the algorithm generates a .nite sequence of adjacent integral simplices of varying dimension and
Succinct Sampling from Discrete Distributions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bringmann, Karl; Larsen, Kasper Green
2013-01-01
We revisit the classic problem of sampling from a discrete distribution: Given n non-negative w-bit integers x_1,...,x_n, the task is to build a data structure that allows sampling i with probability proportional to x_i. The classic solution is Walker's alias method that takes, when implemented...
Symplectomorphisms and discrete braid invariants
Czechowski, Aleksander; Vandervorst, Robert
2017-01-01
Area and orientation preserving diffeomorphisms of the standard 2-disc, referred to as symplectomorphisms of D2, allow decompositions in terms of positive twist diffeomorphisms. Using the latter decomposition, we utilize the Conley index theory of discrete braid classes as introduced in Ghrist et
The remarkable discreteness of being
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Life is a discrete, stochastic phenomenon: for a biological organism, the time of the two most important events of its life (reproduction and death) is random and these events change the number of individuals of the species by single units. These facts can have surprising, counterintuitive consequences. I review here three ...
Discrete tomography in neutron radiography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuba, Attila; Rodek, Lajos; Kiss, Zoltan; Rusko, Laszlo; Nagy, Antal; Balasko, Marton
2005-01-01
Discrete tomography (DT) is an imaging technique for reconstructing discrete images from their projections using the knowledge that the object to be reconstructed contains only a few homogeneous materials characterized by known discrete absorption values. One of the main reasons for applying DT is that we will hopefully require relatively few projections. Using discreteness and some a priori information (such as an approximate shape of the object) we can apply two DT methods in neutron imaging by reducing the problem to an optimization task. The first method is a special one because it is only suitable if the object is composed of cylinders and sphere shapes. The second method is a general one in the sense that it can be used for reconstructing objects of any shape. Software was developed and physical experiments performed in order to investigate the effects of several reconstruction parameters: the number of projections, noise levels, and complexity of the object to be reconstructed. We give a summary of the experimental results and make a comparison of the results obtained using a classical reconstruction technique (FBP). The programs we developed are available in our DT reconstruction program package DIRECT
Holmes, Jon L.
1999-05-01
The Features area of JCE Online is now readily accessible through a single click from our home page. In the Features area each column is linked to its own home page. These column home pages also have links to them from the online Journal Table of Contents pages or from any article published as part of that feature column. Using these links you can easily find abstracts of additional articles that are related by topic. Of course, JCE Online+ subscribers are then just one click away from the entire article. Finding related articles is easy because each feature column "site" contains links to the online abstracts of all the articles that have appeared in the column. In addition, you can find the mission statement for the column and the email link to the column editor that I mentioned above. At the discretion of its editor, a feature column site may contain additional resources. As an example, the Chemical Information Instructor column edited by Arleen Somerville will have a periodically updated bibliography of resources for teaching and using chemical information. Due to the increase in the number of these resources available on the WWW, it only makes sense to publish this information online so that you can get to these resources with a simple click of the mouse. We expect that there will soon be additional information and resources at several other feature column sites. Following in the footsteps of the Chemical Information Instructor, up-to-date bibliographies and links to related online resources can be made available. We hope to extend the online component of our feature columns with moderated online discussion forums. If you have a suggestion for an online resource you would like to see included, let the feature editor or JCE Online (jceonline@chem.wisc.edu) know about it. JCE Internet Features JCE Internet also has several feature columns: Chemical Education Resource Shelf, Conceptual Questions and Challenge Problems, Equipment Buyers Guide, Hal's Picks, Mathcad
Discrete elements method of neutron transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mathews, K.A.
1988-01-01
In this paper a new neutron transport method, called discrete elements (L N ) is derived and compared to discrete ordinates methods, theoretically and by numerical experimentation. The discrete elements method is based on discretizing the Boltzmann equation over a set of elements of angle. The discrete elements method is shown to be more cost-effective than discrete ordinates, in terms of accuracy versus execution time and storage, for the cases tested. In a two-dimensional test case, a vacuum duct in a shield, the L N method is more consistently convergent toward a Monte Carlo benchmark solution
Evidence for discrete landmark use by pigeons during homing.
Mora, Cordula V; Ross, Jeremy D; Gorsevski, Peter V; Chowdhury, Budhaditya; Bingman, Verner P
2012-10-01
Considerable efforts have been made to investigate how homing pigeons (Columba livia f. domestica) are able to return to their loft from distant, unfamiliar sites while the mechanisms underlying navigation in familiar territory have received less attention. With the recent advent of global positioning system (GPS) data loggers small enough to be carried by pigeons, the role of visual environmental features in guiding navigation over familiar areas is beginning to be understood, yet, surprisingly, we still know very little about whether homing pigeons can rely on discrete, visual landmarks to guide navigation. To assess a possible role of discrete, visual landmarks in navigation, homing pigeons were first trained to home from a site with four wind turbines as salient landmarks as well as from a control site without any distinctive, discrete landmark features. The GPS-recorded flight paths of the pigeons on the last training release were straighter and more similar among birds from the turbine site compared with those from the control site. The pigeons were then released from both sites following a clock-shift manipulation. Vanishing bearings from the turbine site continued to be homeward oriented as 13 of 14 pigeons returned home. By contrast, at the control site the vanishing bearings were deflected in the expected clock-shift direction and only 5 of 13 pigeons returned home. Taken together, our results offer the first strong evidence that discrete, visual landmarks are one source of spatial information homing pigeons can utilize to navigate when flying over a familiar area.
Discrete gauge symmetries in discrete MSSM-like orientifolds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ibáñez, L.E.; Schellekens, A.N.; Uranga, A.M.
2012-01-01
Motivated by the necessity of discrete Z N symmetries in the MSSM to insure baryon stability, we study the origin of discrete gauge symmetries from open string sector U(1)'s in orientifolds based on rational conformal field theory. By means of an explicit construction, we find an integral basis for the couplings of axions and U(1) factors for all simple current MIPFs and orientifolds of all 168 Gepner models, a total of 32 990 distinct cases. We discuss how the presence of discrete symmetries surviving as a subgroup of broken U(1)'s can be derived using this basis. We apply this procedure to models with MSSM chiral spectrum, concretely to all known U(3)×U(2)×U(1)×U(1) and U(3)×Sp(2)×U(1)×U(1) configurations with chiral bi-fundamentals, but no chiral tensors, as well as some SU(5) GUT models. We find examples of models with Z 2 (R-parity) and Z 3 symmetries that forbid certain B and/or L violating MSSM couplings. Their presence is however relatively rare, at the level of a few percent of all cases.
CERN. Geneva
2015-01-01
Feature selection and reduction are key to robust multivariate analyses. In this talk I will focus on pros and cons of various variable selection methods and focus on those that are most relevant in the context of HEP.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of solar feature datasets contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of various site features from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different times...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lim Meng-Hui
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Biometric discretization extracts a binary string from a set of real-valued features per user. This representative string can be used as a cryptographic key in many security applications upon error correction. Discretization performance should not degrade from the actual continuous features-based classification performance significantly. However, numerous discretization approaches based on ineffective encoding schemes have been put forward. Therefore, the correlation between such discretization and classification has never been made clear. In this article, we aim to bridge the gap between continuous and Hamming domains, and provide a revelation upon how discretization based on equal-width quantization and linearly separable subcode encoding could affect the classification performance in the Hamming domain. We further illustrate how such discretization can be applied in order to obtain a highly resembled classification performance under the general Lp distance and the inner product metrics. Finally, empirical studies conducted on two benchmark face datasets vindicate our analysis results.
Quantum chaos on discrete graphs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smilansky, Uzy
2007-01-01
Adapting a method developed for the study of quantum chaos on quantum (metric) graphs (Kottos and Smilansky 1997 Phys. Rev. Lett. 79 4794, Kottos and Smilansky 1999 Ann. Phys., NY 274 76), spectral ζ functions and trace formulae for discrete Laplacians on graphs are derived. This is achieved by expressing the spectral secular equation in terms of the periodic orbits of the graph and obtaining functions which belong to the class of ζ functions proposed originally by Ihara (1966 J. Mat. Soc. Japan 18 219) and expanded by subsequent authors (Stark and Terras 1996 Adv. Math. 121 124, Kotani and Sunada 2000 J. Math. Sci. Univ. Tokyo 7 7). Finally, a model of 'classical dynamics' on the discrete graph is proposed. It is analogous to the corresponding classical dynamics derived for quantum graphs (Kottos and Smilansky 1997 Phys. Rev. Lett. 79 4794, Kottos and Smilansky 1999 Ann. Phys., NY 274 76). (fast track communication)
Dark energy from discrete spacetime.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aaron D Trout
Full Text Available Dark energy accounts for most of the matter-energy content of our universe, yet current theories of its origin rely on radical physical assumptions such as the holographic principle or controversial anthropic arguments. We give a better motivated explanation for dark energy, claiming that it arises from a small negative scalar-curvature present even in empty spacetime. The vacuum has this curvature because spacetime is fundamentally discrete and there are more ways for a discrete geometry to have negative curvature than positive. We explicitly compute this effect using a variant of the well known dynamical-triangulations (DT model for quantum gravity. Our model predicts a time-varying non-zero cosmological constant with a current value, [Formula: see text] in natural units, in agreement with observation. This calculation is made possible by a novel characterization of the possible DT action values combined with numerical evidence concerning their degeneracies.
Applied geometry and discrete mathematics
Sturm; Gritzmann, Peter; Sturmfels, Bernd
1991-01-01
This volume, published jointly with the Association for Computing Machinery, comprises a collection of research articles celebrating the occasion of Victor Klee's sixty-fifth birthday in September 1990. During his long career, Klee has made contributions to a wide variety of areas, such as discrete and computational geometry, convexity, combinatorics, graph theory, functional analysis, mathematical programming and optimization, and theoretical computer science. In addition, Klee made important contributions to mathematics education, mathematical methods in economics and the decision sciences, applications of discrete mathematics in the biological and social sciences, and the transfer of knowledge from applied mathematics to industry. In honor of Klee's achievements, this volume presents more than forty papers on topics related to Klee's research. While the majority of the papers are research articles, a number of survey articles are also included. Mirroring the breadth of Klee's mathematical contributions, th...
Emissivity of discretized diffusion problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Densmore, Jeffery D.; Davidson, Gregory; Carrington, David B.
2006-01-01
The numerical modeling of radiative transfer by the diffusion approximation can produce artificially damped radiation propagation if spatial cells are too optically thick. In this paper, we investigate this nonphysical behavior at external problem boundaries by examining the emissivity of the discretized diffusion approximation. We demonstrate that the standard cell-centered discretization produces an emissivity that is too low for optically thick cells, a situation that leads to the lack of radiation propagation. We then present a modified boundary condition that yields an accurate emissivity regardless of cell size. This modified boundary condition can be used with a deterministic calculation or as part of a hybrid transport-diffusion method for increasing the efficiency of Monte Carlo simulations. We also discuss the range of applicability, as a function of cell size and material properties, when this modified boundary condition is employed in a hybrid technique. With a set of numerical calculations, we demonstrate the accuracy and usefulness of this modified boundary condition
Domain Discretization and Circle Packings
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dias, Kealey
A circle packing is a configuration of circles which are tangent with one another in a prescribed pattern determined by a combinatorial triangulation, where the configuration fills a planar domain or a two-dimensional surface. The vertices in the triangulation correspond to centers of circles...... to domain discretization problems such as triangulation and unstructured mesh generation techniques. We wish to ask ourselves the question: given a cloud of points in the plane (we restrict ourselves to planar domains), is it possible to construct a circle packing preserving the positions of the vertices...... and constrained meshes having predefined vertices as constraints. A standard method of two-dimensional mesh generation involves conformal mapping of the surface or domain to standardized shapes, such as a disk. Since circle packing is a new technique for constructing discrete conformal mappings, it is possible...
Discrete Bose-Einstein spectra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vlad, Valentin I.; Ionescu-Pallas, Nicholas
2001-03-01
The Bose-Einstein energy spectrum of a quantum gas, confined in a rigid cubic box, is shown to become discrete and strongly dependent on the box geometry (size L), temperature, T and atomic mass number, A at , in the region of small γ=A at TV 1/3 . This behavior is the consequence of the random state degeneracy in the box. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the total energy does not obey the conventional law any longer, but a new law, which depends on γ and on the quantum gas fugacity. This energy law imposes a faster decrease to zero than it is classically expected, for γ→0. The lighter the gas atoms, the higher the temperatures or the box size, for the same effects in the discrete Bose-Einstein regime. (author)
Dark energy from discrete spacetime.
Trout, Aaron D
2013-01-01
Dark energy accounts for most of the matter-energy content of our universe, yet current theories of its origin rely on radical physical assumptions such as the holographic principle or controversial anthropic arguments. We give a better motivated explanation for dark energy, claiming that it arises from a small negative scalar-curvature present even in empty spacetime. The vacuum has this curvature because spacetime is fundamentally discrete and there are more ways for a discrete geometry to have negative curvature than positive. We explicitly compute this effect using a variant of the well known dynamical-triangulations (DT) model for quantum gravity. Our model predicts a time-varying non-zero cosmological constant with a current value, [Formula: see text] in natural units, in agreement with observation. This calculation is made possible by a novel characterization of the possible DT action values combined with numerical evidence concerning their degeneracies.
Discrete mathematics using a computer
Hall, Cordelia
2000-01-01
Several areas of mathematics find application throughout computer science, and all students of computer science need a practical working understanding of them. These core subjects are centred on logic, sets, recursion, induction, relations and functions. The material is often called discrete mathematics, to distinguish it from the traditional topics of continuous mathematics such as integration and differential equations. The central theme of this book is the connection between computing and discrete mathematics. This connection is useful in both directions: • Mathematics is used in many branches of computer science, in applica tions including program specification, datastructures,design and analysis of algorithms, database systems, hardware design, reasoning about the correctness of implementations, and much more; • Computers can help to make the mathematics easier to learn and use, by making mathematical terms executable, making abstract concepts more concrete, and through the use of software tools su...
Duality for discrete integrable systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quispel, G R W; Capel, H W; Roberts, J A G
2005-01-01
A new class of discrete dynamical systems is introduced via a duality relation for discrete dynamical systems with a number of explicitly known integrals. The dual equation can be defined via the difference of an arbitrary linear combination of integrals and its upshifted version. We give an example of an integrable mapping with two parameters and four integrals leading to a (four-dimensional) dual mapping with four parameters and two integrals. We also consider a more general class of higher-dimensional mappings arising via a travelling-wave reduction from the (integrable) MKdV partial-difference equation. By differencing the trace of the monodromy matrix we obtain a class of novel dual mappings which is shown to be integrable as level-set-dependent versions of the original ones
Observability of discretized partial differential equations
Cohn, Stephen E.; Dee, Dick P.
1988-01-01
It is shown that complete observability of the discrete model used to assimilate data from a linear partial differential equation (PDE) system is necessary and sufficient for asymptotic stability of the data assimilation process. The observability theory for discrete systems is reviewed and applied to obtain simple observability tests for discretized constant-coefficient PDEs. Examples are used to show how numerical dispersion can result in discrete dynamics with multiple eigenvalues, thereby detracting from observability.
Performance on perceptual word identification is mediated by discrete states.
Swagman, April R; Province, Jordan M; Rouder, Jeffrey N
2015-02-01
We contrast predictions from discrete-state models of all-or-none information loss with signal-detection models of graded strength for the identification of briefly flashed English words. Previous assessments have focused on whether ROC curves are straight or not, which is a test of a discrete-state model where detection leads to the highest confidence response with certainty. We along with many others argue this certainty assumption is too constraining, and, consequently, the straight-line ROC test is too stringent. Instead, we assess a core property of discrete-state models, conditional independence, where the pattern of responses depends only on which state is entered. The conditional independence property implies that confidence ratings are a mixture of detect and guess state responses, and that stimulus strength factors, the duration of the flashed word in this report, affect only the probability of entering a state and not responses conditional on a state. To assess this mixture property, 50 participants saw words presented briefly on a computer screen at three variable flash durations followed by either a two-alternative confidence ratings task or a yes-no confidence ratings task. Comparable discrete-state and signal-detection models were fit to the data for each participant and task. The discrete-state models outperformed the signal detection models for 90 % of participants in the two-alternative task and for 68 % of participants in the yes-no task. We conclude discrete-state models are viable for predicting performance across stimulus conditions in a perceptual word identification task.
Effective lagrangian description on discrete gauge symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Banks, T.
1989-01-01
We exhibit a simple low-energy lagrangian which describes a system with a discrete remnant of a spontaneously broken continuous gauge symmetry. The lagrangian gives a simple description of the effects ascribed to such systems by Krauss and Wilczek: black holes carry discrete hair and interact with cosmic strings, and wormholes cannot lead to violation of discrete gauge symmetries. (orig.)
Discrete port-Hamiltonian systems : mixed interconnections
Talasila, Viswanath; Clemente-Gallardo, J.; Schaft, A.J. van der
2005-01-01
Either from a control theoretic viewpoint or from an analysis viewpoint it is necessary to convert smooth systems to discrete systems, which can then be implemented on computers for numerical simulations. Discrete models can be obtained either by discretizing a smooth model, or by directly modeling
Discrete fractional solutions of a Legendre equation
Yılmazer, Resat
2018-01-01
One of the most popular research interests of science and engineering is the fractional calculus theory in recent times. Discrete fractional calculus has also an important position in fractional calculus. In this work, we acquire new discrete fractional solutions of the homogeneous and non homogeneous Legendre differential equation by using discrete fractional nabla operator.
The Method of Lines for Ternary Diffusion Problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Henryk Leszczyński
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The method of lines (MOL for diffusion equations with Neumann boundary conditions is considered. These equations are transformed by a discretization in space variables into systems of ordinary differential equations. The proposed ODEs satisfy the mass conservation law. The stability of solutions of these ODEs with respect to discrete L2 norms and discrete W1,∞ norms is investigated. Numerical examples confirm the parabolic behaviour of this model and very regular dynamics.
Continuous versus discrete structures II -- Discrete Hamiltonian systems and Helmholtz conditions
Cresson, Jacky; Pierret, Frédéric
2015-01-01
We define discrete Hamiltonian systems in the framework of discrete embeddings. An explicit comparison with previous attempts is given. We then solve the discrete Helmholtz's inverse problem for the discrete calculus of variation in the Hamiltonian setting. Several applications are discussed.
Asymptotic behavior of discrete holomorphic maps z^c, log(z) and discrete Painleve transcedents
Agafonov, S. I.
2005-01-01
It is shown that discrete analogs of z^c and log(z) have the same asymptotic behavior as their smooth counterparts. These discrete maps are described in terms of special solutions of discrete Painleve-II equations, asymptotics of these solutions providing the behaviour of discrete z^c and log(z) at infinity.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Yufeng; Fan Engui; Zhang Yongqing
2006-01-01
With the help of two semi-direct sum Lie algebras, an efficient way to construct discrete integrable couplings is proposed. As its applications, the discrete integrable couplings of the Toda-type lattice equations are obtained. The approach can be devoted to establishing other discrete integrable couplings of the discrete lattice integrable hierarchies of evolution equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
ZHANG Fan
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Due to the discrete distribution computing errors and lack of adaptability are ubiquitous in the current straight line extraction for TLS data methods. A 3D straight line segment extraction method is proposed based on spherical projection for single station terrestrial laser point clouds. Firstly, horizontal and vertical angles of each laser point are calculated by means of spherical coordinates, intensity panoramic image according to the two angles is generated. Secondly, edges which include straight line features are detected from intensity panoramic image by using of edge detection algorithm. Thirdly, great circles are detected from edges of panoramic image using spherical Hough transform. According to the axiom that a straight line segment in 3D space is a spherical great circle after spherical projection, detecting great circles from spherical projected data sets is essentially detecting straight line segments from 3D data sets without spherical projection. Finally, a robust 3D straight line fitting method is employed to fitting the straight lines and calculating parameters of the straight line segments. Experiments using different data sets and comparison with other methods show the accuracy and applicability of the proposed method.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gadzhokov, V.; Penev, I.; Aleksandrov, L.
1979-01-01
A brief description of the KOLOBOK computer code designed for streamline processing of discrete nuclear spectra with symmetric Gaussian shape of the single line on computers of the ES series, models 1020 and above, is given. The program solves the stream of discrete-spectrometry generated nonlinear problems by means of authoregularized iteration process. The Fortran-4 text of the code is reported in an Appendix
Cuspidal discrete series for projective hyperbolic spaces
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Nils Byrial; Flensted-Jensen, Mogens
2013-01-01
Abstract. We have in [1] proposed a definition of cusp forms on semisimple symmetric spaces G/H, involving the notion of a Radon transform and a related Abel transform. For the real non-Riemannian hyperbolic spaces, we showed that there exists an infinite number of cuspidal discrete series......, and at most finitely many non-cuspidal discrete series, including in particular the spherical discrete series. For the projective spaces, the spherical discrete series are the only non-cuspidal discrete series. Below, we extend these results to the other hyperbolic spaces, and we also study the question...
Space-Time Discrete KPZ Equation
Cannizzaro, G.; Matetski, K.
2018-03-01
We study a general family of space-time discretizations of the KPZ equation and show that they converge to its solution. The approach we follow makes use of basic elements of the theory of regularity structures (Hairer in Invent Math 198(2):269-504, 2014) as well as its discrete counterpart (Hairer and Matetski in Discretizations of rough stochastic PDEs, 2015. arXiv:1511.06937). Since the discretization is in both space and time and we allow non-standard discretization for the product, the methods mentioned above have to be suitably modified in order to accommodate the structure of the models under study.
Integrable discretizations of the short pulse equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feng Baofeng; Maruno, Ken-ichi; Ohta, Yasuhiro
2010-01-01
In this paper, we propose integrable semi-discrete and full-discrete analogues of the short pulse (SP) equation. The key construction is the bilinear form and determinant structure of solutions of the SP equation. We also give the determinant formulas of N-soliton solutions of the semi-discrete and full-discrete analogues of the SP equations, from which the multi-loop and multi-breather solutions can be generated. In the continuous limit, the full-discrete SP equation converges to the semi-discrete SP equation, and then to the continuous SP equation. Based on the semi-discrete SP equation, an integrable numerical scheme, i.e. a self-adaptive moving mesh scheme, is proposed and used for the numerical computation of the short pulse equation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Avci, E.
2007-01-01
In this paper, an automatic system is presented for word recognition using real Turkish word signals. This paper especially deals with combination of the feature extraction and classification from real Turkish word signals. A Discrete Wavelet Neural Network (DWNN) model is used, which consists of two layers: discrete wavelet layer and multi-layer perceptron. The discrete wavelet layer is used for adaptive feature extraction in the time-frequency domain and is composed of Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and wavelet entropy. The multi-layer perceptron used for classification is a feed-forward neural network. The performance of the used system is evaluated by using noisy Turkish word signals. Test results showing the effectiveness of the proposed automatic system are presented in this paper. The rate of correct recognition is about 92.5% for the sample speech signals. (author)
Feature displacement interpolation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Mads; Andresen, Per Rønsholt
1998-01-01
Given a sparse set of feature matches, we want to compute an interpolated dense displacement map. The application may be stereo disparity computation, flow computation, or non-rigid medical registration. Also estimation of missing image data, may be phrased in this framework. Since the features...... often are very sparse, the interpolation model becomes crucial. We show that a maximum likelihood estimation based on the covariance properties (Kriging) show properties more expedient than methods such as Gaussian interpolation or Tikhonov regularizations, also including scale......-selection. The computational complexities are identical. We apply the maximum likelihood interpolation to growth analysis of the mandibular bone. Here, the features used are the crest-lines of the object surface....
Radiative transfer on discrete spaces
Preisendorfer, Rudolph W; Stark, M; Ulam, S
1965-01-01
Pure and Applied Mathematics, Volume 74: Radiative Transfer on Discrete Spaces presents the geometrical structure of natural light fields. This book describes in detail with mathematical precision the radiometric interactions of light-scattering media in terms of a few well established principles.Organized into four parts encompassing 15 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the derivations of the practical formulas and the arrangement of formulas leading to numerical solution procedures of radiative transfer problems in plane-parallel media. This text then constructs radiative tran
Long-time behaviour of discretizations of the simple pendulum equation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cieslinski, Jan L [Uniwersytet w Bialymstoku, Wydzial Fizyki, ul. Lipowa 41, 15-424 Bialystok (Poland); Ratkiewicz, Boguslaw [Doctoral Studies, Wydzial Fizyki, Uniwersytet Adama Mickiewicza, Poznan (Poland)], E-mail: janek@alpha.uwb.edu.pl, E-mail: bograt@poczta.onet.pl
2009-03-13
We compare several discretizations of the simple pendulum equation in a series of numerical experiments. The stress is put on the long-time behaviour. The chosen numerical schemes are either symplectic maps or integrable (energy-preserving) maps, or both. Therefore, they preserve qualitative features of solutions (such as periodicity). We describe characteristic periodic time dependences of numerical estimates of the period and the amplitude, and explain them as systematic numerical by-effects produced by any method. Finally, we propose a new numerical scheme which is a modification of the discrete gradient method. This modified discrete gradient method preserves (almost exactly) the period of small oscillations for any time step.
Long-time behaviour of discretizations of the simple pendulum equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cieslinski, Jan L; Ratkiewicz, Boguslaw
2009-01-01
We compare several discretizations of the simple pendulum equation in a series of numerical experiments. The stress is put on the long-time behaviour. The chosen numerical schemes are either symplectic maps or integrable (energy-preserving) maps, or both. Therefore, they preserve qualitative features of solutions (such as periodicity). We describe characteristic periodic time dependences of numerical estimates of the period and the amplitude, and explain them as systematic numerical by-effects produced by any method. Finally, we propose a new numerical scheme which is a modification of the discrete gradient method. This modified discrete gradient method preserves (almost exactly) the period of small oscillations for any time step
Garrido, M.A.; Iturriaga, C.; Márquez, A.; Portillo, J.R.; Reyes, P.; Wolff, A.; Eades, P.; Takaoka, T.
2001-01-01
Graphical features on map, charts, diagrams and graph drawings usually must be annotated with text labels in order to convey their meaning. In this paper we focus on a problem that arises when labeling schematized maps, e.g. for subway networks. We present algorithms for labeling points on a line
Parrondo's game using a discrete-time quantum walk
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chandrashekar, C.M.; Banerjee, Subhashish
2011-01-01
We present a new form of a Parrondo game using discrete-time quantum walk on a line. The two players A and B with different quantum coins operators, individually losing the game can develop a strategy to emerge as joint winners by using their coins alternatively, or in combination for each step of the quantum walk evolution. We also present a strategy for a player A (B) to have a winning probability more than player B (A). Significance of the game strategy in information theory and physical applications are also discussed. - Highlights: → Novel form of Parrondo's game on a single particle discrete-time quantum walk. → Strategies for players to emerge as individual winners or as joint winners. → General framework for controlling and using quantum walk with multiple coins. → Strategies can be used in algorithms and situations involving directed motion.
Discrete R-symmetries and anomaly universality in heterotic orbifolds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bizet, Nana G. Cabo [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnológicas y Desarrollo Nuclear,Calle 30, esq.a 5ta Ave, Miramar, 6122 La Habana (Cuba); Kobayashi, Tatsuo [Department of Physics, Kyoto University,Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Peña, Damián K. Mayorga [Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics and Physikalisches Institut der Universität Bonn,Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Parameswaran, Susha L. [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Leibniz Universität Hannover,Welfengarten 1, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Schmitz, Matthias [Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics and Physikalisches Institut der Universität Bonn,Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Zavala, Ivonne [Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen,Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands)
2014-02-24
We study discrete R-symmetries, which appear in the 4D low energy effective field theory derived from heterotic orbifold models. We derive the R-symmetries directly from the geometrical symmetries of the orbifolds. In particular, we obtain the corresponding R-charges by requiring that the couplings be invariant under these symmetries. This allows for a more general treatment than the explicit computations of correlation functions made previously by the authors, including models with discrete Wilson lines, and orbifold symmetries beyond plane-by-plane rotational invariance. The R-charges obtained in this manner differ from those derived in earlier explicit computations. We study the anomalies associated with these R-symmetries, and comment on the results.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quan, Xu; Qiang, Tian
2009-01-01
This paper discusses the two-dimensional discrete monatomic Fermi–Pasta–Ulam lattice, by using the method of multiple-scale and the quasi-discreteness approach. By taking into account the interaction between the atoms in the lattice and their nearest neighbours, it obtains some classes of two-dimensional local models as follows: two-dimensional bright and dark discrete soliton trains, two-dimensional bright and dark line discrete breathers, and two-dimensional bright and dark discrete breather. (condensed matter: structure, thermal and mechanical properties)
Emergent interfaces for feature modularization
Ribeiro, Márcio; Brabrand, Claus
2014-01-01
Developers frequently introduce errors into software systems when they fail to recognise module dependencies. Using forty-three software families and Software Product Lines (SPLs), where the majority are commonly used in industrial practice, the authors reports on the feature modularization problem and provides a study of how often it may occur in practice. To solve the problem they present the concept of emergent feature modularization which aims to establish contracts between features to prevent developers from breaking other features when performing a maintenance task.
Development of scanning micromirror with discrete steering angles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Z F; Noell, W; Zickar, M; Rooij, N F de; Lim, S P
2006-01-01
This paper describes the development of a new MEMS-based optical mirror, which can perform optical switching (or scanning) function with discrete reflection angles in an outof- plane configuration. The device is fabricated through the Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) process on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer, followed by wafer dicing and assembly with two metalised glass dies. The MEMS mirror can be tilted under electrostatic force between the opposite electrodes embedded on SOI and glass structures. The most outstanding feature of this MEMS mirror is the discrete and therefore, reliable tilting angles, which generated by its unique mechanical structural design and electrostatic-driven mechanism. In this paper, the concept of the new scanning mirror is presented, followed by the introduction of device design, mechanical simulation, microfabrication process, assembly solution, and some testing results. The potential applications of this new MEMS mirror include optical scanning, optical sensing (or detection), and optical switching
Maximum Principles for Discrete and Semidiscrete Reaction-Diffusion Equation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Petr Stehlík
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We study reaction-diffusion equations with a general reaction function f on one-dimensional lattices with continuous or discrete time ux′ (or Δtux=k(ux-1-2ux+ux+1+f(ux, x∈Z. We prove weak and strong maximum and minimum principles for corresponding initial-boundary value problems. Whereas the maximum principles in the semidiscrete case (continuous time exhibit similar features to those of fully continuous reaction-diffusion model, in the discrete case the weak maximum principle holds for a smaller class of functions and the strong maximum principle is valid in a weaker sense. We describe in detail how the validity of maximum principles depends on the nonlinearity and the time step. We illustrate our results on the Nagumo equation with the bistable nonlinearity.
Fermion systems in discrete space-time
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Finster, Felix
2007-01-01
Fermion systems in discrete space-time are introduced as a model for physics on the Planck scale. We set up a variational principle which describes a non-local interaction of all fermions. This variational principle is symmetric under permutations of the discrete space-time points. We explain how for minimizers of the variational principle, the fermions spontaneously break this permutation symmetry and induce on space-time a discrete causal structure
Fermion systems in discrete space-time
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Finster, Felix [NWF I - Mathematik, Universitaet Regensburg, 93040 Regensburg (Germany)
2007-05-15
Fermion systems in discrete space-time are introduced as a model for physics on the Planck scale. We set up a variational principle which describes a non-local interaction of all fermions. This variational principle is symmetric under permutations of the discrete space-time points. We explain how for minimizers of the variational principle, the fermions spontaneously break this permutation symmetry and induce on space-time a discrete causal structure.
Fermion Systems in Discrete Space-Time
Finster, Felix
2006-01-01
Fermion systems in discrete space-time are introduced as a model for physics on the Planck scale. We set up a variational principle which describes a non-local interaction of all fermions. This variational principle is symmetric under permutations of the discrete space-time points. We explain how for minimizers of the variational principle, the fermions spontaneously break this permutation symmetry and induce on space-time a discrete causal structure.
Fermion systems in discrete space-time
Finster, Felix
2007-05-01
Fermion systems in discrete space-time are introduced as a model for physics on the Planck scale. We set up a variational principle which describes a non-local interaction of all fermions. This variational principle is symmetric under permutations of the discrete space-time points. We explain how for minimizers of the variational principle, the fermions spontaneously break this permutation symmetry and induce on space-time a discrete causal structure.
Control Point Generated PLS - lines
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Control Point Generated PLS layer contains line and polygon features to the 1/4 of 1/4 PLS section (approximately 40 acres) and government lot level. The layer...
Railroad Lines, US, 2015, NAVTEQ
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NAVTEQ Railroads for the United States. The Railroads layer contains Railroad features published as lines and polylines. Attributes for this layer include the name...
Xiong, Yuan
2014-04-28
Spurious current emerging in the vicinity of phase interfaces is a well-known disadvantage of the lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) for two-phase flows. Previous analysis shows that this unphysical phenomenon comes from the force imbalance at discrete level inherited in LBE (Guo et al 2011 Phys. Rev. E 83 036707). Based on the analysis of the LBE free of checkerboard effects, in this work we further show that the force imbalance is caused by the different discretization stencils: the implicit one from the streaming process and the explicit one from the discretization of the force term. Particularly, the total contribution includes two parts, one from the difference between the intrinsically discretized density (or ideal gas pressure) gradient and the explicit ones in the force term, and the other from the explicit discretized chemical potential gradients in the intrinsically discretized force term. The former contribution is a special feature of LBE which was not realized previously.
Simulating Electrophoresis with Discrete Charge and Drag
Mowitz, Aaron J.; Witten, Thomas A.
A charged asymmetric rigid cluster of colloidal particles in saline solution can respond in exotic ways to an electric field: it may spin or move transversely. These distinctive motions arise from the drag force of the neutralizing countercharge surrounding the cluster. Because of this drag, calculating the motion of arbitrary asymmetric objects with nonuniform charge is impractical by conventional methods. Here we present a new method of simulating electrophoresis, in which we replace the continuous object and the surrounding countercharge with discrete point-draggers, called Stokeslets. The balance of forces imposes a linear, self-consistent relation among the drag and Coulomb forces on the Stokeslets, which allows us to easily determine the object's motion via matrix inversion. By explicitly enforcing charge+countercharge neutrality, the simulation recovers the distinctive features of electrophoretic motion to few-percent accuracy using as few as 1000 Stokeslets. In particular, for uniformly charged objects, we observe the characteristic Smoluchowski independence of mobility on object size and shape. We then discuss electrophoretic motion of asymmetric objects, where our simulation method is particularly advantageous. This work is supported by a Grant from the US-Israel Binational Science Foundation.
On discrete geometrodynamical theories in physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Towe, J.P.
1988-01-01
In this dissertation the author considers two topological-geometrical models (based upon a single suggestive formalism) in which a geometrodynamics is both feasible and pedagogically advantageous. Specifically he considers the topology which is constituted by the real domains of the two broad classes of rotation groups: those characterized by the commutator and anti-commutator algebras. He then adopts a Riemannian geometric structure and shows that the monistically geometric interpretation of this formalism restricts displacements on the proposed manifold to integral multiples of universal constant. Secondly, he demonstrates that in the context under consideration, this constraint affects a very interesting ontological reduction: the unification of quantum mechanics with a discrete, multidimensional extension of general relativity. A particularly interesting features of this unification is that is includes and requires the choice of an SL (2,R) direct-product SU (3)-symmetric realization of the proposed, generic formalism which is a lattice of spins ℎ and ℎ/2. If the vertices of this lattice are associated with the fundamental particles, then the resulting theory predicts and precludes the same interactions as the standard supersymmetry theory. In addition to the ontological reduction which is provided, and the restriction to supersymmetry, the proposed theory may also represent a scientifically useful extension of conventional theory in that it suggests a means of understanding the apparently large energy productions of the quasars and relates Planck's constant to the size of the universe
Inevitable randomness in discrete mathematics
Beck, Jozsef
2009-01-01
Mathematics has been called the science of order. The subject is remarkably good for generalizing specific cases to create abstract theories. However, mathematics has little to say when faced with highly complex systems, where disorder reigns. This disorder can be found in pure mathematical arenas, such as the distribution of primes, the 3n+1 conjecture, and class field theory. The purpose of this book is to provide examples--and rigorous proofs--of the complexity law: (1) discrete systems are either simple or they exhibit advanced pseudorandomness; (2) a priori probabilities often exist even when there is no intrinsic symmetry. Part of the difficulty in achieving this purpose is in trying to clarify these vague statements. The examples turn out to be fascinating instances of deep or mysterious results in number theory and combinatorics. This book considers randomness and complexity. The traditional approach to complexity--computational complexity theory--is to study very general complexity classes, such as P...
Quantum evolution by discrete measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roa, L; Guevara, M L Ladron de; Delgado, A; Olivares-RenterIa, G; Klimov, A B
2007-01-01
In this article we review two ways of driving a quantum system to a known pure state via a sequence discrete of von Neumann measurements. The first of them assumes that the initial state of the system is unknown, and the evolution is attained only with the help of two non-commuting observables. For this method, the overall success probability is maximized when the eigentstates of the involved observables constitute mutually unbiased bases. The second method assumes the initial state is known and it uses N observables which are consecutively measured to make the state of the system approach the target state. The probability of success of this procedure converges to 1 as the number of observables increases
Quantum evolution by discrete measurements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Roa, L [Center for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile); Guevara, M L Ladron de [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Catolica del Norte, Casilla 1280, Antofagasta (Chile); Delgado, A [Center for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile); Olivares-RenterIa, G [Center for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile); Klimov, A B [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Guadalajara, Revolucion 1500, 44420 Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico)
2007-10-15
In this article we review two ways of driving a quantum system to a known pure state via a sequence discrete of von Neumann measurements. The first of them assumes that the initial state of the system is unknown, and the evolution is attained only with the help of two non-commuting observables. For this method, the overall success probability is maximized when the eigentstates of the involved observables constitute mutually unbiased bases. The second method assumes the initial state is known and it uses N observables which are consecutively measured to make the state of the system approach the target state. The probability of success of this procedure converges to 1 as the number of observables increases.
Discrete stochastic processes and applications
Collet, Jean-François
2018-01-01
This unique text for beginning graduate students gives a self-contained introduction to the mathematical properties of stochastics and presents their applications to Markov processes, coding theory, population dynamics, and search engine design. The book is ideal for a newly designed course in an introduction to probability and information theory. Prerequisites include working knowledge of linear algebra, calculus, and probability theory. The first part of the text focuses on the rigorous theory of Markov processes on countable spaces (Markov chains) and provides the basis to developing solid probabilistic intuition without the need for a course in measure theory. The approach taken is gradual beginning with the case of discrete time and moving on to that of continuous time. The second part of this text is more applied; its core introduces various uses of convexity in probability and presents a nice treatment of entropy.
Discrete calculus methods for counting
Mariconda, Carlo
2016-01-01
This book provides an introduction to combinatorics, finite calculus, formal series, recurrences, and approximations of sums. Readers will find not only coverage of the basic elements of the subjects but also deep insights into a range of less common topics rarely considered within a single book, such as counting with occupancy constraints, a clear distinction between algebraic and analytical properties of formal power series, an introduction to discrete dynamical systems with a thorough description of Sarkovskii’s theorem, symbolic calculus, and a complete description of the Euler-Maclaurin formulas and their applications. Although several books touch on one or more of these aspects, precious few cover all of them. The authors, both pure mathematicians, have attempted to develop methods that will allow the student to formulate a given problem in a precise mathematical framework. The aim is to equip readers with a sound strategy for classifying and solving problems by pursuing a mathematically rigorous yet ...
Modeling discrete competitive facility location
Karakitsiou, Athanasia
2015-01-01
This book presents an up-to-date review of modeling and optimization approaches for location problems along with a new bi-level programming methodology which captures the effect of competition of both producers and customers on facility location decisions. While many optimization approaches simplify location problems by assuming decision making in isolation, this monograph focuses on models which take into account the competitive environment in which such decisions are made. New insights in modeling, algorithmic and theoretical possibilities are opened by this approach and new applications are possible. Competition on equal term plus competition between market leader and followers are considered in this study, consequently bi-level optimization methodology is emphasized and further developed. This book provides insights regarding modeling complexity and algorithmic approaches to discrete competitive location problems. In traditional location modeling, assignment of customer demands to supply sources are made ...
Discrete modelling of drapery systems
Thoeni, Klaus; Giacomini, Anna
2016-04-01
Drapery systems are an efficient and cost-effective measure in preventing and controlling rockfall hazards on rock slopes. The simplest form consists of a row of ground anchors along the top of the slope connected to a horizontal support cable from which a wire mesh is suspended down the face of the slope. Such systems are generally referred to as simple or unsecured draperies (Badger and Duffy 2012). Variations such as secured draperies, where a pattern of ground anchors is incorporated within the field of the mesh, and hybrid systems, where the upper part of an unsecured drapery is elevated to intercept rockfalls originating upslope of the installation, are becoming more and more popular. This work presents a discrete element framework for simulation of unsecured drapery systems and its variations. The numerical model is based on the classical discrete element method (DEM) and implemented into the open-source framework YADE (Šmilauer et al., 2010). The model takes all relevant interactions between block, drapery and slope into account (Thoeni et al., 2014) and was calibrated and validated based on full-scale experiments (Giacomini et al., 2012).The block is modelled as a rigid clump made of spherical particles which allows any shape to be approximated. The drapery is represented by a set of spherical particle with remote interactions. The behaviour of the remote interactions is governed by the constitutive behaviour of the wire and generally corresponds to a piecewise linear stress-strain relation (Thoeni et al., 2013). The same concept is used to model wire ropes. The rock slope is represented by rigid triangular elements where material properties (e.g., normal coefficient of restitution, friction angle) are assigned to each triangle. The capabilities of the developed model to simulate drapery systems and estimate the residual hazard involved with such systems is shown. References Badger, T.C., Duffy, J.D. (2012) Drapery systems. In: Turner, A.K., Schuster R
State Wildlife Management Area Public Facilities - lines
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This line theme contains facilities and features for WMAs that are best represented as lines. WMAs are part of the Minnesota state recreation system created to...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elizabeth Ritter
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Algonquian languages are famous for their animacy-based grammatical properties—an animacy based noun classification system and direct/inverse system which gives rise to animacy hierarchy effects in the determination of verb agreement. In this paper I provide new evidence for the proposal that the distinctive properties of these languages is due to the use of participant-based features, rather than spatio-temporal ones, for both nominal and verbal functional categories (Ritter & Wiltschko 2009, 2014. Building on Wiltschko (2012, I develop a formal treatment of the Blackfoot aspectual system that assumes a category Inner Aspect (cf. MacDonald 2008, Travis 1991, 2010. Focusing on lexical aspect in Blackfoot, I demonstrate that the classification of both nouns (Seinsarten and verbs (Aktionsarten is based on animacy, rather than boundedness, resulting in a strikingly different aspectual system for both categories.
Optimization of line configuration and balancing for flexible machining lines
Liu, Xuemei; Li, Aiping; Chen, Zurui
2016-05-01
Line configuration and balancing is to select the type of line and allot a given set of operations as well as machines to a sequence of workstations to realize high-efficiency production. Most of the current researches for machining line configuration and balancing problems are related to dedicated transfer lines with dedicated machine workstations. With growing trends towards great product variety and fluctuations in market demand, dedicated transfer lines are being replaced with flexible machining line composed of identical CNC machines. This paper deals with the line configuration and balancing problem for flexible machining lines. The objective is to assign operations to workstations and find the sequence of execution, specify the number of machines in each workstation while minimizing the line cycle time and total number of machines. This problem is subject to precedence, clustering, accessibility and capacity constraints among the features, operations, setups and workstations. The mathematical model and heuristic algorithm based on feature group strategy and polychromatic sets theory are presented to find an optimal solution. The feature group strategy and polychromatic sets theory are used to establish constraint model. A heuristic operations sequencing and assignment algorithm is given. An industrial case study is carried out, and multiple optimal solutions in different line configurations are obtained. The case studying results show that the solutions with shorter cycle time and higher line balancing rate demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. This research proposes a heuristic line configuration and balancing algorithm based on feature group strategy and polychromatic sets theory which is able to provide better solutions while achieving an improvement in computing time.
Discrete vortex method simulations of aerodynamic admittance in bridge aerodynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Johannes Tophøj; Hejlesen, Mads Mølholm; Larsen, Allan
, and to determine aerodynamic forces and the corresponding ﬂutter limit. A simulation of the three-dimensional bridge responseto turbulent wind is carried out by quasi steady theory by modelling the bridge girder as a line like structure [2], applying the aerodynamic load coefﬁcients found from the current version......The meshless and remeshed Discrete Vortex Method (DVM) has been widely used in academia and by the industry to model two-dimensional ﬂow around bluff bodies. The implementation “DVMFLOW” [1] is used by the bridge design company COWI to determine and visualise the ﬂow ﬁeld around bridge sections...
A Discrete Spectral Problem and Related Hierarchy of Discrete Hamiltonian Lattice Equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu Xixiang; Cao Weili
2007-01-01
Staring from a discrete matrix spectral problem, a hierarchy of lattice soliton equations is presented though discrete zero curvature representation. The resulting lattice soliton equations possess non-local Lax pairs. The Hamiltonian structures are established for the resulting hierarchy by the discrete trace identity. Liouville integrability of resulting hierarchy is demonstrated.
Ewald Electrostatics for Mixtures of Point and Continuous Line Charges.
Antila, Hanne S; Tassel, Paul R Van; Sammalkorpi, Maria
2015-10-15
Many charged macro- or supramolecular systems, such as DNA, are approximately rod-shaped and, to the lowest order, may be treated as continuous line charges. However, the standard method used to calculate electrostatics in molecular simulation, the Ewald summation, is designed to treat systems of point charges. We extend the Ewald concept to a hybrid system containing both point charges and continuous line charges. We find the calculated force between a point charge and (i) a continuous line charge and (ii) a discrete line charge consisting of uniformly spaced point charges to be numerically equivalent when the separation greatly exceeds the discretization length. At shorter separations, discretization induces deviations in the force and energy, and point charge-point charge correlation effects. Because significant computational savings are also possible, the continuous line charge Ewald method presented here offers the possibility of accurate and efficient electrostatic calculations.
Geometry and Hamiltonian mechanics on discrete spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Talasila, V; Clemente-Gallardo, J; Schaft, A J van der
2004-01-01
Numerical simulation is often crucial for analysing the behaviour of many complex systems which do not admit analytic solutions. To this end, one either converts a 'smooth' model into a discrete (in space and time) model, or models systems directly at a discrete level. The goal of this paper is to provide a discrete analogue of differential geometry, and to define on these discrete models a formal discrete Hamiltonian structure-in doing so we try to bring together various fundamental concepts from numerical analysis, differential geometry, algebraic geometry, simplicial homology and classical Hamiltonian mechanics. For example, the concept of a twisted derivation is borrowed from algebraic geometry for developing a discrete calculus. The theory is applied to a nonlinear pendulum and we compare the dynamics obtained through a discrete modelling approach with the dynamics obtained via the usual discretization procedures. Also an example of an energy-conserving algorithm on a simple harmonic oscillator is presented, and its effect on the Poisson structure is discussed
Cuspidal discrete series for semisimple symmetric spaces
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Nils Byrial; Flensted-Jensen, Mogens; Schlichtkrull, Henrik
2012-01-01
We propose a notion of cusp forms on semisimple symmetric spaces. We then study the real hyperbolic spaces in detail, and show that there exists both cuspidal and non-cuspidal discrete series. In particular, we show that all the spherical discrete series are non-cuspidal. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All...
Discrete Riccati equation solutions: Distributed algorithms
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. G. Lainiotis
1996-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper new distributed algorithms for the solution of the discrete Riccati equation are introduced. The algorithms are used to provide robust and computational efficient solutions to the discrete Riccati equation. The proposed distributed algorithms are theoretically interesting and computationally attractive.
Painleve test and discrete Boltzmann equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Euler, N.; Steeb, W.H.
1989-01-01
The Painleve test for various discrete Boltzmann equations is performed. The connection with integrability is discussed. Furthermore the Lie symmetry vector fields are derived and group-theoretical reduction of the discrete Boltzmann equations to ordinary differentiable equations is performed. Lie Backlund transformations are gained by performing the Painleve analysis for the ordinary differential equations. 16 refs
Variance Swap Replication: Discrete or Continuous?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fabien Le Floc’h
2018-02-01
Full Text Available The popular replication formula to price variance swaps assumes continuity of traded option strikes. In practice, however, there is only a discrete set of option strikes traded on the market. We present here different discrete replication strategies and explain why the continuous replication price is more relevant.
Discretization vs. Rounding Error in Euler's Method
Borges, Carlos F.
2011-01-01
Euler's method for solving initial value problems is an excellent vehicle for observing the relationship between discretization error and rounding error in numerical computation. Reductions in stepsize, in order to decrease discretization error, necessarily increase the number of steps and so introduce additional rounding error. The problem is…
Discrete/PWM Ballast-Resistor Controller
King, Roger J.
1994-01-01
Circuit offers low switching loss and automatic compensation for failure of ballast resistor. Discrete/PWM ballast-resistor controller improved shunt voltage-regulator circuit designed to supply power from high-resistance source to low-impedance bus. Provides both coarse discrete voltage levels (by switching of ballast resistors) and continuous fine control of voltage via pulse-width modulation.
Current Density and Continuity in Discretized Models
Boykin, Timothy B.; Luisier, Mathieu; Klimeck, Gerhard
2010-01-01
Discrete approaches have long been used in numerical modelling of physical systems in both research and teaching. Discrete versions of the Schrodinger equation employing either one or several basis functions per mesh point are often used by senior undergraduates and beginning graduate students in computational physics projects. In studying…
Geometry and Hamiltonian mechanics on discrete spaces
Talasila, V.; Clemente-Gallardo, J.; Schaft, A.J. van der
2004-01-01
Numerical simulation is often crucial for analysing the behaviour of many complex systems which do not admit analytic solutions. To this end, one either converts a ‘smooth’ model into a discrete (in space and time) model, or models systems directly at a discrete level. The goal of this paper is to
Geometry and Hamiltonian mechanics on discrete spaces
Talasila, V.; Clemente Gallardo, J.J.; Clemente-Gallardo, J.; van der Schaft, Arjan
2004-01-01
Numerical simulation is often crucial for analysing the behaviour of many complex systems which do not admit analytic solutions. To this end, one either converts a 'smooth' model into a discrete (in space and time) model, or models systems directly at a discrete level. The goal of this paper is to
Discrete mathematics in the high school curriculum
Anderson, I.; Asch, van A.G.; van Lint, J.H.
2004-01-01
In this paper we present some topics from the field of discrete mathematics which might be suitable for the high school curriculum. These topics yield both easy to understand challenging problems and important applications of discrete mathematics. We choose elements from number theory and various
Discrete Fourier analysis of multigrid algorithms
van der Vegt, Jacobus J.W.; Rhebergen, Sander
2011-01-01
The main topic of this report is a detailed discussion of the discrete Fourier multilevel analysis of multigrid algorithms. First, a brief overview of multigrid methods is given for discretizations of both linear and nonlinear partial differential equations. Special attention is given to the
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kiib, Hans
2015-01-01
At just over 10 meters above street level, the High Line extends three kilometers through three districts of Southwestern Manhattan in New York. It consists of simple steel construction, and previously served as an elevated rail line connection between Penn Station on 34th Street and the many....... The High Line project has been carried out as part of an open conversion strategy. The result is a remarkable urban architectural project, which works as a catalyst for the urban development of Western Manhattan. The greater project includes the restoration and reuse of many old industrial buildings...
Discrete nature of thermodynamics in confined ideal Fermi gases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aydin, Alhun; Sisman, Altug
2014-01-01
Intrinsic discrete nature in thermodynamic properties of Fermi gases appears under strongly confined and degenerate conditions. For a rectangular confinement domain, thermodynamic properties of an ideal Fermi gas are expressed in their exact summation forms. For 1D, 2D and 3D nano domains, variations of both number of particles and internal energy per particle with chemical potential are examined. It is shown that their relation with chemical potential exhibits a discrete nature which allows them to take only some definite values. Furthermore, quasi-irregular oscillatory-like sharp peaks are observed in heat capacity. New nano devices can be developed based on these behaviors. - Highlights: • “Discrete behaviors” appear in thermodynamic properties of ideal Fermi gases at nano scale. • Variations of particle number and internal energy with chemical potential have stepwise behavior. • There are oscillations and peaks in the variation of heat capacity with domain size and particle number. • Fermi line and Fermi surface at nano scale are not continuous but “discrete”. • Heat capacity oscillations can be used for excess thermal energy storage at nano scale
Quantum features of natural cellular automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elze, Hans-Thomas
2016-01-01
Cellular automata can show well known features of quantum mechanics, such as a linear rule according to which they evolve and which resembles a discretized version of the Schrödinger equation. This includes corresponding conservation laws. The class of “natural” Hamiltonian cellular automata is based exclusively on integer-valued variables and couplings and their dynamics derives from an Action Principle. They can be mapped reversibly to continuum models by applying Sampling Theory. Thus, “deformed” quantum mechanical models with a finite discreteness scale l are obtained, which for l → 0 reproduce familiar continuum results. We have recently demonstrated that such automata can form “multipartite” systems consistently with the tensor product structures of nonrelativistic many-body quantum mechanics, while interacting and maintaining the linear evolution. Consequently, the Superposition Principle fully applies for such primitive discrete deterministic automata and their composites and can produce the essential quantum effects of interference and entanglement. (paper)
Handbook on modelling for discrete optimization
Pitsoulis, Leonidas; Williams, H
2006-01-01
The primary objective underlying the Handbook on Modelling for Discrete Optimization is to demonstrate and detail the pervasive nature of Discrete Optimization. While its applications cut across an incredibly wide range of activities, many of the applications are only known to specialists. It is the aim of this handbook to correct this. It has long been recognized that "modelling" is a critically important mathematical activity in designing algorithms for solving these discrete optimization problems. Nevertheless solving the resultant models is also often far from straightforward. In recent years it has become possible to solve many large-scale discrete optimization problems. However, some problems remain a challenge, even though advances in mathematical methods, hardware, and software technology have pushed the frontiers forward. This handbook couples the difficult, critical-thinking aspects of mathematical modeling with the hot area of discrete optimization. It will be done in an academic handbook treatment...
Discrete elements method of neutral particle transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mathews, K.A.
1983-01-01
A new discrete elements (L/sub N/) transport method is derived and compared to the discrete ordinates S/sub N/ method, theoretically and by numerical experimentation. The discrete elements method is more accurate than discrete ordinates and strongly ameliorates ray effects for the practical problems studied. The discrete elements method is shown to be more cost effective, in terms of execution time with comparable storage to attain the same accuracy, for a one-dimensional test case using linear characteristic spatial quadrature. In a two-dimensional test case, a vacuum duct in a shield, L/sub N/ is more consistently convergent toward a Monte Carlo benchmark solution than S/sub N/, using step characteristic spatial quadrature. An analysis of the interaction of angular and spatial quadrature in xy-geometry indicates the desirability of using linear characteristic spatial quadrature with the L/sub N/ method
Spatially localized, temporally quasiperiodic, discrete nonlinear excitations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cai, D.; Bishop, A.R.; Gronbech-Jensen, N.
1995-01-01
In contrast to the commonly discussed discrete breather, which is a spatially localized, time-periodic solution, we present an exact solution of a discrete nonlinear Schroedinger breather which is a spatially localized, temporally quasiperiodic nonlinear coherent excitation. This breather is a multiple-soliton solution in the sense of the inverse scattering transform. A discrete breather of multiple frequencies is conceptually important in studies of nonlinear lattice systems. We point out that, for this breather, the incommensurability of its frequencies is a discrete lattice effect and these frequencies become commensurate in the continuum limit. To understand the dynamical properties of the breather, we also discuss its stability and its behavior in the presence of an external potential. Finally, we indicate how to obtain an exact N-soliton breather as a discrete generalization of the continuum multiple-soliton solution
Laplacians on discrete and quantum geometries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Calcagni, Gianluca; Oriti, Daniele; Thürigen, Johannes
2013-01-01
We extend discrete calculus for arbitrary (p-form) fields on embedded lattices to abstract discrete geometries based on combinatorial complexes. We then provide a general definition of discrete Laplacian using both the primal cellular complex and its combinatorial dual. The precise implementation of geometric volume factors is not unique and, comparing the definition with a circumcentric and a barycentric dual, we argue that the latter is, in general, more appropriate because it induces a Laplacian with more desirable properties. We give the expression of the discrete Laplacian in several different sets of geometric variables, suitable for computations in different quantum gravity formalisms. Furthermore, we investigate the possibility of transforming from position to momentum space for scalar fields, thus setting the stage for the calculation of heat kernel and spectral dimension in discrete quantum geometries. (paper)
Discrete breathers in graphane: Effect of temperature
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baimova, J. A., E-mail: julia.a.baimova@gmail.com [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Branch (Russian Federation); Murzaev, R. T.; Lobzenko, I. P.; Dmitriev, S. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Metals Superplasticity Problems (Russian Federation); Zhou, Kun [Nanyang Technological University, School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering (Singapore)
2016-05-15
The discrete breathers in graphane in thermodynamic equilibrium in the temperature range 50–600 K are studied by molecular dynamics simulation. A discrete breather is a hydrogen atom vibrating along the normal to a sheet of graphane at a high amplitude. As was found earlier, the lifetime of a discrete breather at zero temperature corresponds to several tens of thousands of vibrations. The effect of temperature on the decay time of discrete breathers and the probability of their detachment from a sheet of graphane are studied in this work. It is shown that closely spaced breathers can exchange energy with each other at zero temperature. The data obtained suggest that thermally activated discrete breathers can be involved in the dehydrogenation of graphane, which is important for hydrogen energetics.
Statistical Model Checking for Product Lines
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
ter Beek, Maurice H.; Legay, Axel; Lluch Lafuente, Alberto
2016-01-01
average cost of products (in terms of the attributes of the products’ features) and the probability of features to be (un)installed at runtime. The product lines must be modelled in QFLan, which extends the probabilistic feature-oriented language PFLan with novel quantitative constraints among features...
Cellular radiosensitivity of small-cell lung cancer cell lines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krarup, Marianne; Poulsen, Hans Skovgaard; Spang-Thomsen, Mogens
1997-01-01
Purpose: The objective of this study was to determine the radiobiological characteristics of a panel of small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines by use of a clonogenic assay. In addition, we tested whether comparable results could be obtained by employing a growth extrapolation method based on the construction of continuous exponential growth curves. Methods and Materials: Fifteen SCLC cell lines were studied, applying a slightly modified clonogenic assay and a growth extrapolation method. A dose-survival curve was obtained for each experiment and used for calculating several survival parameters. The multitarget single hit model was applied to calculate the cellular radiosensitivity (D 0 ), the capacity for sublethal damage repair (D q ), and the extrapolation number (n). Values for α and β were determined from best-fit curves according to the linear-quadratic model and these values were applied to calculate the surviving fraction after 2-Gy irradiation (SF 2 ). Results: In our investigation, the extrapolation method proved to be inappropriate for the study of in vitro cellular radiosensitivity due to lack of reproducibility. The results obtained by the clonogenic assay showed that the cell lines studied were radiobiologically heterogeneous with no discrete features of the examined parameters including the repair capacity. Conclusion: The results indicate that SCLC tumors per se are not generally candidates for hyperfractionated radiotherapy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ding Qing
2007-01-01
We prove that the integrable-nonintegrable discrete nonlinear Schroedinger equation (AL-DNLS) introduced by Cai, Bishop and Gronbech-Jensen (Phys. Rev. Lett. 72 591(1994)) is the discrete gauge equivalent to an integrable-nonintegrable discrete Heisenberg model from the geometric point of view. Then we study whether the transmission and bifurcation properties of the AL-DNLS equation are preserved under the action of discrete gauge transformations. Our results reveal that the transmission property of the AL-DNLS equation is completely preserved and the bifurcation property is conditionally preserved to those of the integrable-nonintegrable discrete Heisenberg model
Waser Jürgen; Fuchs Raphael; Ribicic Hrvoje; Schindler Benjamin; Blöschl Günther; Gröller Eduard
2010-01-01
In this paper we present World Lines as a novel interactive visualization that provides complete control over multiple heterogeneous simulation runs. In many application areas decisions can only be made by exploring alternative scenarios. The goal of the suggested approach is to support users in this decision making process. In this setting the data domain is extended to a set of alternative worlds where only one outcome will actually happen. World Lines integrate simulation visualization and...
Decoherence and discrete symmetries in deformed relativistic kinematics
Arzano, Michele
2018-01-01
Models of deformed Poincaré symmetries based on group valued momenta have long been studied as effective modifications of relativistic kinematics possibly capturing quantum gravity effects. In this contribution we show how they naturally lead to a generalized quantum time evolution of the type proposed to model fundamental decoherence for quantum systems in the presence of an evaporating black hole. The same structures which determine such generalized evolution also lead to a modification of the action of discrete symmetries and of the CPT operator. These features can in principle be used to put phenomenological constraints on models of deformed relativistic symmetries using precision measurements of neutral kaons.
Capillary condensation, invasion percolation, hysteresis, and discrete memory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guyer, R.A.; McCall, K.R.
1996-01-01
A model of the capillary condensation process, i.e., of adsorption-desorption isotherms, having only pore-pore interactions is constructed. The model yields (1) hysteretic isotherms, (2) invasion percolation on desorption, and (3) hysteresis with discrete memory for interior chemical potential loops. All of these features are seen in experiment. The model is compared to a model with no pore-pore interactions (the Preisach model) and to a related model of interacting pore systems (the random field Ising model). The capillary condensation model differs from both. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Is undifferentiated spondyloarthritis a discrete entity? A debate.
Deodhar, Atul; Miossec, Pierre; Baraliakos, Xenofon
2018-01-01
The concept of undifferentiated spondyloarthritis has been introduced recently to describe a clinical setting where the classical features of spondyloarthritis (SpA) are not fully present. Whether this is a discrete entity was the basis of a debate during the 4th International Congress on Controversies in Rheumatology & Autoimmunity held in Bologna, Italy 9-11 March 2017. The pro and con aspects of the debate are presented. The implications of the debate are important ranging from diagnostic aspects to consequences for the society and the payers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Discrete fracture modelling for the Stripa tracer validation experiment predictions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dershowitz, W.; Wallmann, P.
1992-02-01
Groundwater flow and transport through three-dimensional networks of discrete fractures was modeled to predict the recovery of tracer from tracer injection experiments conducted during phase 3 of the Stripa site characterization and validation protect. Predictions were made on the basis of an updated version of the site scale discrete fracture conceptual model used for flow predictions and preliminary transport modelling. In this model, individual fractures were treated as stochastic features described by probability distributions of geometric and hydrologic properties. Fractures were divided into three populations: Fractures in fracture zones near the drift, non-fracture zone fractures within 31 m of the drift, and fractures in fracture zones over 31 meters from the drift axis. Fractures outside fracture zones are not modelled beyond 31 meters from the drift axis. Transport predictions were produced using the FracMan discrete fracture modelling package for each of five tracer experiments. Output was produced in the seven formats specified by the Stripa task force on fracture flow modelling. (au)
Compatible Spatial Discretizations for Partial Differential Equations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arnold, Douglas, N, ed.
2004-11-25
From May 11--15, 2004, the Institute for Mathematics and its Applications held a hot topics workshop on Compatible Spatial Discretizations for Partial Differential Equations. The numerical solution of partial differential equations (PDE) is a fundamental task in science and engineering. The goal of the workshop was to bring together a spectrum of scientists at the forefront of the research in the numerical solution of PDEs to discuss compatible spatial discretizations. We define compatible spatial discretizations as those that inherit or mimic fundamental properties of the PDE such as topology, conservation, symmetries, and positivity structures and maximum principles. A wide variety of discretization methods applied across a wide range of scientific and engineering applications have been designed to or found to inherit or mimic intrinsic spatial structure and reproduce fundamental properties of the solution of the continuous PDE model at the finite dimensional level. A profusion of such methods and concepts relevant to understanding them have been developed and explored: mixed finite element methods, mimetic finite differences, support operator methods, control volume methods, discrete differential forms, Whitney forms, conservative differencing, discrete Hodge operators, discrete Helmholtz decomposition, finite integration techniques, staggered grid and dual grid methods, etc. This workshop seeks to foster communication among the diverse groups of researchers designing, applying, and studying such methods as well as researchers involved in practical solution of large scale problems that may benefit from advancements in such discretizations; to help elucidate the relations between the different methods and concepts; and to generally advance our understanding in the area of compatible spatial discretization methods for PDE. Particular points of emphasis included: + Identification of intrinsic properties of PDE models that are critical for the fidelity of numerical
High-temperature discrete dislocation plasticity
Keralavarma, S. M.; Benzerga, A. A.
2015-09-01
A framework for solving problems of dislocation-mediated plasticity coupled with point-defect diffusion is presented. The dislocations are modeled as line singularities embedded in a linear elastic medium while the point defects are represented by a concentration field as in continuum diffusion theory. Plastic flow arises due to the collective motion of a large number of dislocations. Both conservative (glide) and nonconservative (diffusion-mediated climb) motions are accounted for. Time scale separation is contingent upon the existence of quasi-equilibrium dislocation configurations. A variational principle is used to derive the coupled governing equations for point-defect diffusion and dislocation climb. Superposition is used to obtain the mechanical fields in terms of the infinite-medium discrete dislocation fields and an image field that enforces the boundary conditions while the point-defect concentration is obtained by solving the stress-dependent diffusion equations on the same finite-element grid. Core-level boundary conditions for the concentration field are avoided by invoking an approximate, yet robust kinetic law. Aspects of the formulation are general but its implementation in a simple plane strain model enables the modeling of high-temperature phenomena such as creep, recovery and relaxation in crystalline materials. With emphasis laid on lattice vacancies, the creep response of planar single crystals in simple tension emerges as a natural outcome in the simulations. A large number of boundary-value problem solutions are obtained which depict transitions from diffusional to power-law creep, in keeping with long-standing phenomenological theories of creep. In addition, some unique experimental aspects of creep in small scale specimens are also reproduced in the simulations.
Perfect discretization of reparametrization invariant path integrals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bahr, Benjamin; Dittrich, Bianca; Steinhaus, Sebastian
2011-01-01
To obtain a well-defined path integral one often employs discretizations. In the case of gravity and reparametrization-invariant systems, the latter of which we consider here as a toy example, discretizations generically break diffeomorphism and reparametrization symmetry, respectively. This has severe implications, as these symmetries determine the dynamics of the corresponding system. Indeed we will show that a discretized path integral with reparametrization-invariance is necessarily also discretization independent and therefore uniquely determined by the corresponding continuum quantum mechanical propagator. We use this insight to develop an iterative method for constructing such a discretized path integral, akin to a Wilsonian RG flow. This allows us to address the problem of discretization ambiguities and of an anomaly-free path integral measure for such systems. The latter is needed to obtain a path integral, that can act as a projector onto the physical states, satisfying the quantum constraints. We will comment on implications for discrete quantum gravity models, such as spin foams.
Perfect discretization of reparametrization invariant path integrals
Bahr, Benjamin; Dittrich, Bianca; Steinhaus, Sebastian
2011-05-01
To obtain a well-defined path integral one often employs discretizations. In the case of gravity and reparametrization-invariant systems, the latter of which we consider here as a toy example, discretizations generically break diffeomorphism and reparametrization symmetry, respectively. This has severe implications, as these symmetries determine the dynamics of the corresponding system. Indeed we will show that a discretized path integral with reparametrization-invariance is necessarily also discretization independent and therefore uniquely determined by the corresponding continuum quantum mechanical propagator. We use this insight to develop an iterative method for constructing such a discretized path integral, akin to a Wilsonian RG flow. This allows us to address the problem of discretization ambiguities and of an anomaly-free path integral measure for such systems. The latter is needed to obtain a path integral, that can act as a projector onto the physical states, satisfying the quantum constraints. We will comment on implications for discrete quantum gravity models, such as spin foams.
Discrete Ramanujan transform for distinguishing the protein coding regions from other regions.
Hua, Wei; Wang, Jiasong; Zhao, Jian
2014-01-01
Based on the study of Ramanujan sum and Ramanujan coefficient, this paper suggests the concepts of discrete Ramanujan transform and spectrum. Using Voss numerical representation, one maps a symbolic DNA strand as a numerical DNA sequence, and deduces the discrete Ramanujan spectrum of the numerical DNA sequence. It is well known that of discrete Fourier power spectrum of protein coding sequence has an important feature of 3-base periodicity, which is widely used for DNA sequence analysis by the technique of discrete Fourier transform. It is performed by testing the signal-to-noise ratio at frequency N/3 as a criterion for the analysis, where N is the length of the sequence. The results presented in this paper show that the property of 3-base periodicity can be only identified as a prominent spike of the discrete Ramanujan spectrum at period 3 for the protein coding regions. The signal-to-noise ratio for discrete Ramanujan spectrum is defined for numerical measurement. Therefore, the discrete Ramanujan spectrum and the signal-to-noise ratio of a DNA sequence can be used for distinguishing the protein coding regions from the noncoding regions. All the exon and intron sequences in whole chromosomes 1, 2, 3 and 4 of Caenorhabditis elegans have been tested and the histograms and tables from the computational results illustrate the reliability of our method. In addition, we have analyzed theoretically and gotten the conclusion that the algorithm for calculating discrete Ramanujan spectrum owns the lower computational complexity and higher computational accuracy. The computational experiments show that the technique by using discrete Ramanujan spectrum for classifying different DNA sequences is a fast and effective method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Compatible discrete operator schemes on polyhedral meshes for elliptic and Stokes equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bonelle, Jerome
2014-01-01
This thesis presents a new class of spatial discretization schemes on polyhedral meshes, called Compatible Discrete Operator (CDO) schemes and their application to elliptic and Stokes equations In CDO schemes, preserving the structural properties of the continuous equations is the leading principle to design the discrete operators. De Rham maps define the degrees of freedom according to the physical nature of fields to discretize. CDO schemes operate a clear separation between topological relations (balance equations) and constitutive relations (closure laws). Topological relations are related to discrete differential operators, and constitutive relations to discrete Hodge operators. A feature of CDO schemes is the explicit use of a second mesh, called dual mesh, to build the discrete Hodge operator. Two families of CDO schemes are considered: vertex-based schemes where the potential is located at (primal) mesh vertices, and cell-based schemes where the potential is located at dual mesh vertices (dual vertices being in one-to-one correspondence with primal cells). The CDO schemes related to these two families are presented and their convergence is analyzed. A first analysis hinges on an algebraic definition of the discrete Hodge operator and allows one to identify three key properties: symmetry, stability, and P0-consistency. A second analysis hinges on a definition of the discrete Hodge operator using reconstruction operators, and the requirements on these reconstruction operators are identified. In addition, CDO schemes provide a unified vision on a broad class of schemes proposed in the literature (finite element, finite element, mimetic schemes... ). Finally, the reliability and the efficiency of CDO schemes are assessed on various test cases and several polyhedral meshes. (author)
Higher dimensional discrete Cheeger inequalities
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anna Gundert
2015-01-01
Full Text Available For graphs there exists a strong connection between spectral and combinatorial expansion properties. This is expressed, e.g., by the discrete Cheeger inequality, the lower bound of which states that $\\lambda(G \\leq h(G$, where $\\lambda(G$ is the second smallest eigenvalue of the Laplacian of a graph $G$ and $h(G$ is the Cheeger constant measuring the edge expansion of $G$. We are interested in generalizations of expansion properties to finite simplicial complexes of higher dimension (or uniform hypergraphs. Whereas higher dimensional Laplacians were introduced already in 1945 by Eckmann, the generalization of edge expansion to simplicial complexes is not straightforward. Recently, a topologically motivated notion analogous to edge expansion that is based on $\\mathbb{Z}_2$-cohomology was introduced by Gromov and independently by Linial, Meshulam and Wallach. It is known that for this generalization there is no direct higher dimensional analogue of the lower bound of the Cheeger inequality. A different, combinatorially motivated generalization of the Cheeger constant, denoted by $h(X$, was studied by Parzanchevski, Rosenthal and Tessler. They showed that indeed $\\lambda(X \\leq h(X$, where $\\lambda(X$ is the smallest non-trivial eigenvalue of the ($(k-1$-dimensional upper Laplacian, for the case of $k$-dimensional simplicial complexes $X$ with complete $(k-1$-skeleton. Whether this inequality also holds for $k$-dimensional complexes with non-com\\-plete$(k-1$-skeleton has been an open question.We give two proofs of the inequality for arbitrary complexes. The proofs differ strongly in the methods and structures employed,and each allows for a different kind of additional strengthening of the original result.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maruno, Ken-ichi; Biondini, Gino
2004-01-01
We present a class of solutions of the two-dimensional Toda lattice equation, its fully discrete analogue and its ultra-discrete limit. These solutions demonstrate the existence of soliton resonance and web-like structure in discrete integrable systems such as differential-difference equations, difference equations and cellular automata (ultra-discrete equations)
Discrete Morse functions for graph configuration spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sawicki, A
2012-01-01
We present an alternative application of discrete Morse theory for two-particle graph configuration spaces. In contrast to previous constructions, which are based on discrete Morse vector fields, our approach is through Morse functions, which have a nice physical interpretation as two-body potentials constructed from one-body potentials. We also give a brief introduction to discrete Morse theory. Our motivation comes from the problem of quantum statistics for particles on networks, for which generalized versions of anyon statistics can appear. (paper)
Discrete Tomography and Imaging of Polycrystalline Structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Alpers, Andreas
High resolution transmission electron microscopy is commonly considered as the standard application for discrete tomography. While this has yet to be technically realized, new applications with a similar flavor have emerged in materials science. In our group at Ris� DTU (Denmark's National...... Laboratory for Sustainable Energy), for instance, we study polycrystalline materials via synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Several reconstruction problems arise, most of them exhibit inherently discrete aspects. In this talk I want to give a concise mathematical introduction to some of these reconstruction...... problems. Special focus is on their relationship to classical discrete tomography. Several open mathematical questions will be mentioned along the way....
Ensemble simulations with discrete classical dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Toxværd, Søren
2013-01-01
For discrete classical Molecular dynamics (MD) obtained by the "Verlet" algorithm (VA) with the time increment $h$ there exist a shadow Hamiltonian $\\tilde{H}$ with energy $\\tilde{E}(h)$, for which the discrete particle positions lie on the analytic trajectories for $\\tilde{H}$. $\\tilde......{E}(h)$ is employed to determine the relation with the corresponding energy, $E$ for the analytic dynamics with $h=0$ and the zero-order estimate $E_0(h)$ of the energy for discrete dynamics, appearing in the literature for MD with VA. We derive a corresponding time reversible VA algorithm for canonical dynamics...
Stochastic Kuramoto oscillators with discrete phase states
Jörg, David J.
2017-09-01
We present a generalization of the Kuramoto phase oscillator model in which phases advance in discrete phase increments through Poisson processes, rendering both intrinsic oscillations and coupling inherently stochastic. We study the effects of phase discretization on the synchronization and precision properties of the coupled system both analytically and numerically. Remarkably, many key observables such as the steady-state synchrony and the quality of oscillations show distinct extrema while converging to the classical Kuramoto model in the limit of a continuous phase. The phase-discretized model provides a general framework for coupled oscillations in a Markov chain setting.
Stochastic Kuramoto oscillators with discrete phase states.
Jörg, David J
2017-09-01
We present a generalization of the Kuramoto phase oscillator model in which phases advance in discrete phase increments through Poisson processes, rendering both intrinsic oscillations and coupling inherently stochastic. We study the effects of phase discretization on the synchronization and precision properties of the coupled system both analytically and numerically. Remarkably, many key observables such as the steady-state synchrony and the quality of oscillations show distinct extrema while converging to the classical Kuramoto model in the limit of a continuous phase. The phase-discretized model provides a general framework for coupled oscillations in a Markov chain setting.
Discrete-Time Biomedical Signal Encryption
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Victor Grigoraş
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Chaotic modulation is a strong method of improving communication security. Analog and discrete chaotic systems are presented in actual literature. Due to the expansion of digital communication, discrete-time systems become more efficient and closer to actual technology. The present contribution offers an in-depth analysis of the effects chaos encryption produce on 1D and 2D biomedical signals. The performed simulations show that modulating signals are precisely recovered by the synchronizing receiver if discrete systems are digitally implemented and the coefficients precisely correspond. Channel noise is also applied and its effects on biomedical signal demodulation are highlighted.
Discrete symmetries and de Sitter spacetime
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cotăescu, Ion I., E-mail: gpascu@physics.uvt.ro; Pascu, Gabriel, E-mail: gpascu@physics.uvt.ro [West University of Timişoara, V. Pârvan Ave. 4, RO-300223 Timişoara (Romania)
2014-11-24
Aspects of the ambiguity in defining quantum modes on de Sitter spacetime using a commuting system composed only of differential operators are discussed. Discrete symmetries and their actions on the wavefunction in commonly used coordinate charts are reviewed. It is argued that the system of commuting operators can be supplemented by requiring the invariance of the wavefunction to combined discrete symmetries- a criterion which selects a single state out of the α-vacuum family. Two such members of this family are singled out by particular combined discrete symmetries- states between which exists a well-known thermality relation.
Bultas, Margaret W; Pohlman, Shawn
2014-01-01
The purpose of this interpretive phenomenological study was to gain a better understanding of the experiences of 11 mothers of preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Mothers were interviewed three times over a 6 week period. Interviews were analyzed using interpretive methods. This manuscript highlights one particular theme-a positive perspective mothers described as the "silver lining." This "silver lining" represents optimism despite the adversities associated with parenting a child with ASD. A deeper understanding of this side of mothering children with ASD may help health care providers improve rapport, communication, and result in more authentic family centered care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Exterior difference systems and invariance properties of discrete mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xie Zheng; Xie Duanqiang; Li Hongbo
2008-01-01
Invariance properties describe the fundamental physical laws in discrete mechanics. Can those properties be described in a geometric way? We investigate an exterior difference system called the discrete Euler-Lagrange system, whose solution has one-to-one correspondence with solutions of discrete Euler-Lagrange equations, and use it to define the first integrals. The preservation of the discrete symplectic form along the discrete Hamilton phase flows and the discrete Noether's theorem is also described in the language of difference forms
Hachiya, Hitoshi; Yamauchi, Yasuteru; Iesaka, Yoshito; Yagishita, Atsuhiko; Sasaki, Takeshi; Higuchi, Koji; Kawabata, Mihoko; Sugiyama, Koji; Tanaka, Yasuaki; Kusa, Shigeki; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Miyazaki, Shinsuke; Taniguchi, Hiroshi; Isobe, Mitsuaki; Hirao, Kenzo
2013-10-01
Although coronary cusp (CC) ventricular arrhythmia (VA) can be treated by catheter ablation, reliable indicators of successful ablation sites have not been fully identified. This study comprised 392 patients undergoing radiofrequency catheter ablation for outflow tract-VA at 3 institutions from January 2007 to August 2012. The successful ablation site was on the left CC or right CC in 35 (8.9%) of the 392 patients. In 9 (26%) of these 35 patients, a discrete prepotential was recognized, 5 of whom had left CC-VAs and 4 of whom had right CC-VAs. Radiofrequency catheter ablation was successful at the site of the prepotential in all 9 of these patients. The duration of the isoelectric line between the end of the discrete prepotential and the onset of the ventricular electrogram was 27±13 ms. The time from onset of the discrete prepotential at the successful ablation site on the CC to the QRS onset (activation time) was 69±20 ms (range, 50-98 ms). Pace mapping was graded as excellent at the successful ablation site in only 1 patient. No discrete prepotential was recorded in any successful right outflow tract-VA ablation case in this study. A discrete prepotential was seen in 9 (26%) of 35 patients with CC-VA. In left and right CC-VA, the site of a discrete prepotential with ≥50 ms activation time may indicate a successful ablation site.
Fully discrete Galerkin schemes for the nonlinear and nonlocal Hartree equation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Walter H. Aschbacher
2009-01-01
Full Text Available We study the time dependent Hartree equation in the continuum, the semidiscrete, and the fully discrete setting. We prove existence-uniqueness, regularity, and approximation properties for the respective schemes, and set the stage for a controlled numerical computation of delicate nonlinear and nonlocal features of the Hartree dynamics in various physical applications.
A numerical study of fluidization behavior of Geldart A particles using a discrete particle model
Ye, M.; van der Hoef, Martin Anton; Kuipers, J.A.M.
2004-01-01
This paper reports on a numerical study of fluidization behavior of Geldart A particles by use of a 2D soft-sphere discrete particle model (DPM). Some typical features, including the homogeneous expansion, gross particle circulation in the absence of bubbles, and fast bubbles, can be clearly
Geometric ergodicity and quasi-stationarity in discrete-time birth-death processes
van Doorn, Erik A.; Schrijner, Pauline
1995-01-01
We study two aspects of discrete-time birth-death processes, the common feature of which is the central role played by the decay parameter of the process. First, conditions for geometric ergodicity and bounds for the decay parameter are obtained. Then the existence and structure of quasi-stationary
Can time be a discrete dynamical variable
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, T.D.
1983-01-01
The possibility that time can be regarded as a discrete dynamical variable is examined through all phases of mechanics: from classical mechanics to nonrelativistic quantum mechanics, and to relativistic quantum field theories. (orig.)
Breatherlike impurity modes in discrete nonlinear lattices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hennig, D.; Rasmussen, Kim; Tsironis, G. P.
1995-01-01
We investigate the properties of a disordered generalized discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equation, containing both diagonal and nondiagonal nonlinear terms. The equation models a Linear host lattice doped with nonlinear impurities. We find different types of impurity states that form itinerant...
Inferring gene networks from discrete expression data
Zhang, L.; Mallick, B. K.
2013-01-01
graphical models applied to continuous data, which give a closedformmarginal likelihood. In this paper,we extend network modeling to discrete data, specifically data from serial analysis of gene expression, and RNA-sequencing experiments, both of which
A discrete control model of PLANT
Mitchell, C. M.
1985-01-01
A model of the PLANT system using the discrete control modeling techniques developed by Miller is described. Discrete control models attempt to represent in a mathematical form how a human operator might decompose a complex system into simpler parts and how the control actions and system configuration are coordinated so that acceptable overall system performance is achieved. Basic questions include knowledge representation, information flow, and decision making in complex systems. The structure of the model is a general hierarchical/heterarchical scheme which structurally accounts for coordination and dynamic focus of attention. Mathematically, the discrete control model is defined in terms of a network of finite state systems. Specifically, the discrete control model accounts for how specific control actions are selected from information about the controlled system, the environment, and the context of the situation. The objective is to provide a plausible and empirically testable accounting and, if possible, explanation of control behavior.
Running Parallel Discrete Event Simulators on Sierra
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barnes, P. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Jefferson, D. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
2015-12-03
In this proposal we consider porting the ROSS/Charm++ simulator and the discrete event models that run under its control so that they run on the Sierra architecture and make efficient use of the Volta GPUs.
Effective Hamiltonian for travelling discrete breathers
MacKay, Robert S.; Sepulchre, Jacques-Alexandre
2002-05-01
Hamiltonian chains of oscillators in general probably do not sustain exact travelling discrete breathers. However solutions which look like moving discrete breathers for some time are not difficult to observe in numerics. In this paper we propose an abstract framework for the description of approximate travelling discrete breathers in Hamiltonian chains of oscillators. The method is based on the construction of an effective Hamiltonian enabling one to describe the dynamics of the translation degree of freedom of moving breathers. Error estimate on the approximate dynamics is also studied. The concept of the Peierls-Nabarro barrier can be made clear in this framework. We illustrate the method with two simple examples, namely the Salerno model which interpolates between the Ablowitz-Ladik lattice and the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger system, and the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam chain.
Comparing the Discrete and Continuous Logistic Models
Gordon, Sheldon P.
2008-01-01
The solutions of the discrete logistic growth model based on a difference equation and the continuous logistic growth model based on a differential equation are compared and contrasted. The investigation is conducted using a dynamic interactive spreadsheet. (Contains 5 figures.)
Discrete-time nonlinear sliding mode controller
African Journals Online (AJOL)
user
Keywords: Discrete-time delay system, Sliding mode control, nonlinear sliding ... of engineering systems such as chemical process control, delay in the actuator ...... instrumentation from Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology (MNNIT),.
Rich dynamics of discrete delay ecological models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peng Mingshu
2005-01-01
We study multiple bifurcations and chaotic behavior of a discrete delay ecological model. New form of chaos for the 2-D map is observed: the combination of potential period doubling and reverse period-doubling leads to cascading bubbles
Discrete and Continuous Models for Partitioning Problems
Lellmann, Jan; Lellmann, Bjö rn; Widmann, Florian; Schnö rr, Christoph
2013-01-01
-based techniques. This work is concerned with the sources of such artifacts. We discuss the importance of differentiating between artifacts caused by discretization and those caused by relaxation and provide supporting numerical examples. Moreover, we consider
Memorized discrete systems and time-delay
Luo, Albert C J
2017-01-01
This book examines discrete dynamical systems with memory—nonlinear systems that exist extensively in biological organisms and financial and economic organizations, and time-delay systems that can be discretized into the memorized, discrete dynamical systems. It book further discusses stability and bifurcations of time-delay dynamical systems that can be investigated through memorized dynamical systems as well as bifurcations of memorized nonlinear dynamical systems, discretization methods of time-delay systems, and periodic motions to chaos in nonlinear time-delay systems. The book helps readers find analytical solutions of MDS, change traditional perturbation analysis in time-delay systems, detect motion complexity and singularity in MDS; and determine stability, bifurcation, and chaos in any time-delay system.
Research on Signature Verification Method Based on Discrete Fréchet Distance
Fang, J. L.; Wu, W.
2018-05-01
This paper proposes a multi-feature signature template based on discrete Fréchet distance, which breaks through the limitation of traditional signature authentication using a single signature feature. It solves the online handwritten signature authentication signature global feature template extraction calculation workload, signature feature selection unreasonable problem. In this experiment, the false recognition rate (FAR) and false rejection rate (FRR) of the statistical signature are calculated and the average equal error rate (AEER) is calculated. The feasibility of the combined template scheme is verified by comparing the average equal error rate of the combination template and the original template.
Cyclotron Lines in Accreting Neutron Star Spectra
Wilms, Jörn; Schönherr, Gabriele; Schmid, Julia; Dauser, Thomas; Kreykenbohm, Ingo
2009-05-01
Cyclotron lines are formed through transitions of electrons between discrete Landau levels in the accretion columns of accreting neutron stars with strong (1012 G) magnetic fields. We summarize recent results on the formation of the spectral continuum of such systems, describe recent advances in the modeling of the lines based on a modification of the commonly used Monte Carlo approach, and discuss new results on the dependence of the measured cyclotron line energy from the luminosity of transient neutron star systems. Finally, we show that Simbol-X will be ideally suited to build and improve the observational database of accreting and strongly magnetized neutron stars.
Testing Preference Axioms in Discrete Choice experiments
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter; Tjur, Tue
Recent studies have tested the preference axioms of completeness and transitivity, and have detected other preference phenomena such as unstability, learning- and tiredness effects, ordering effects and dominance, in stated preference discrete choice experiments. However, it has not been explicitly...... of the preference axioms and other preference phenomena in the context of stated preference discrete choice experiments, and examine whether or how these can be subject to meaningful (statistical) tests...
Quadratic Term Structure Models in Discrete Time
Marco Realdon
2006-01-01
This paper extends the results on quadratic term structure models in continuos time to the discrete time setting. The continuos time setting can be seen as a special case of the discrete time one. Recursive closed form solutions for zero coupon bonds are provided even in the presence of multiple correlated underlying factors. Pricing bond options requires simple integration. Model parameters may well be time dependent without scuppering such tractability. Model estimation does not require a r...
Symmetries in discrete-time mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khorrami, M.
1996-01-01
Based on a general formulation for discrete-time quantum mechanics, introduced by M. Khorrami (Annals Phys. 224 (1995), 101), symmetries in discrete-time quantum mechanics are investigated. It is shown that any classical continuous symmetry leads to a conserved quantity in classical mechanics, as well as quantum mechanics. The transformed wave function, however, has the correct evolution if and only if the symmetry is nonanomalous. Copyright copyright 1996 Academic Press, Inc
Nonlinear integrodifferential equations as discrete systems
Tamizhmani, K. M.; Satsuma, J.; Grammaticos, B.; Ramani, A.
1999-06-01
We analyse a class of integrodifferential equations of the `intermediate long wave' (ILW) type. We show that these equations can be formally interpreted as discrete, differential-difference systems. This allows us to link equations of this type with previous results of ours involving differential-delay equations and, on the basis of this, propose new integrable equations of ILW type. Finally, we extend this approach to pure difference equations and propose ILW forms for the discrete lattice KdV equation.
Definable maximal discrete sets in forcing extensions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Törnquist, Asger Dag; Schrittesser, David
2018-01-01
Let be a Σ11 binary relation, and recall that a set A is -discrete if no two elements of A are related by . We show that in the Sacks and Miller forcing extensions of L there is a Δ12 maximal -discrete set. We use this to answer in the negative the main question posed in [5] by showing...
Application of multivariate splines to discrete mathematics
Xu, Zhiqiang
2005-01-01
Using methods developed in multivariate splines, we present an explicit formula for discrete truncated powers, which are defined as the number of non-negative integer solutions of linear Diophantine equations. We further use the formula to study some classical problems in discrete mathematics as follows. First, we extend the partition function of integers in number theory. Second, we exploit the relation between the relative volume of convex polytopes and multivariate truncated powers and giv...
Discrete symmetries and solar neutrino mixing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kapetanakis, D.; Mayr, P.; Nilles, H.P. (Physik Dept., Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany) Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Physik, Werner-Heisenberg-Inst., Muenchen (Germany))
1992-05-21
We study the question of resonant solar neutrino mixing in the framework of the supersymmetric extension of the standard model. Discrete symmetries that are consistent with solar neutrino mixing and proton stability are classified. In the minimal model they are shown to lead to two distinct patterns of allowed dimension-four operators. Imposing anomaly freedom, only three different discrete Z{sub N}-symmetries (with N=2, 3, 6) are found to be phenomenologically acceptable. (orig.).
Discrete symmetries and solar neutrino mixing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kapetanakis, D.; Mayr, P.; Nilles, H.P.
1992-01-01
We study the question of resonant solar neutrino mixing in the framework of the supersymmetric extension of the standard model. Discrete symmetries that are consistent with solar neutrino mixing and proton stability are classified. In the minimal model they are shown to lead to two distinct patterns of allowed dimension-four operators. Imposing anomaly freedom, only three different discrete Z N -symmetries (with N=2, 3, 6) are found to be phenomenologically acceptable. (orig.)
Discrete symmetries and coset space dimensional reduction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kapetanakis, D.; Zoupanos, G.
1989-01-01
We consider the discrete symmetries of all the six-dimensional coset spaces and we apply them in gauge theories defined in ten dimensions which are dimensionally reduced over these homogeneous spaces. Particular emphasis is given in the consequences of the discrete symmetries on the particle content as well as on the symmetry breaking a la Hosotani of the resulting four-dimensional theory. (orig.)
On discrete models of space-time
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horzela, A.; Kempczynski, J.; Kapuscik, E.; Georgia Univ., Athens, GA; Uzes, Ch.
1992-02-01
Analyzing the Einstein radiolocation method we come to the conclusion that results of any measurement of space-time coordinates should be expressed in terms of rational numbers. We show that this property is Lorentz invariant and may be used in the construction of discrete models of space-time different from the models of the lattice type constructed in the process of discretization of continuous models. (author)
Discrete approximations to vector spin models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Van Enter, Aernout C D [University of Groningen, Johann Bernoulli Institute of Mathematics and Computing Science, Postbus 407, 9700 AK Groningen (Netherlands); Kuelske, Christof [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Fakultaet fuer Mathematik, D44801 Bochum (Germany); Opoku, Alex A, E-mail: A.C.D.v.Enter@math.rug.nl, E-mail: Christof.Kuelske@ruhr-uni-bochum.de, E-mail: opoku@math.leidenuniv.nl [Mathematisch Instituut, Universiteit Leiden, Postbus 9512, 2300 RA, Leiden (Netherlands)
2011-11-25
We strengthen a result from Kuelske and Opoku (2008 Electron. J. Probab. 13 1307-44) on the existence of effective interactions for discretized continuous-spin models. We also point out that such an interaction cannot exist at very low temperatures. Moreover, we compare two ways of discretizing continuous-spin models, and show that except for very low temperatures, they behave similarly in two dimensions. We also discuss some possibilities in higher dimensions. (paper)
Discrete approximations to vector spin models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Van Enter, Aernout C D; Külske, Christof; Opoku, Alex A
2011-01-01
We strengthen a result from Külske and Opoku (2008 Electron. J. Probab. 13 1307–44) on the existence of effective interactions for discretized continuous-spin models. We also point out that such an interaction cannot exist at very low temperatures. Moreover, we compare two ways of discretizing continuous-spin models, and show that except for very low temperatures, they behave similarly in two dimensions. We also discuss some possibilities in higher dimensions. (paper)
A study of discrete nonlinear systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dhillon, H.S.
2001-04-01
An investigation of various spatially discrete time-independent nonlinear models was undertaken. These models are generically applicable to many different physical systems including electron-phonon interactions in solids, magnetic multilayers, layered superconductors and classical lattice systems. To characterise the possible magnetic structures created on magnetic multilayers a model has been formulated and studied. The Euler-Lagrange equation for this model is a discrete version of the Sine-Gordon equation. Solutions of this equation are generated by applying the methods of Chaotic Dynamics - treating the space variable associated with the layer number as a discrete time variable. The states found indicate periodic, quasiperiodic and chaotic structures. Analytic solutions to the discrete nonlinear Schroedinger Equation (DNSE) with cubic nonlinearity are presented in the strong coupling limit. Using these as a starting point, a procedure is developed to determine the wave function and the energy eigenvalue for moderate coupling. The energy eigenvalues of the different structures of the wave function are found to be in excellent agreement with the exact strong coupling result. The solutions to the DNSE indicate commensurate and incommensurate spatial structures associated with different localisation patterns of the wave function. The states which arise may be fractal, periodic, quasiperiodic or chaotic. This work is then extended to solve a first order discrete nonlinear equation. The exact solutions for both the first and second order discrete nonlinear equations with cubic nonlinearity suggests that this method of studying discrete nonlinear equations may be applied to solve discrete equations with any order difference and cubic nonlinearity. (author)
Explicit solutions to the semi-discrete modified KdV equation and motion of discrete plane curves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inoguchi, Jun-ichi; Kajiwara, Kenji; Matsuura, Nozomu; Ohta, Yasuhiro
2012-01-01
We construct explicit solutions to continuous motion of discrete plane curves described by a semi-discrete potential modified KdV equation. Explicit formulas in terms of the τ function are presented. Bäcklund transformations of the discrete curves are also discussed. We finally consider the continuous limit of discrete motion of discrete plane curves described by the discrete potential modified KdV equation to motion of smooth plane curves characterized by the potential modified KdV equation. (paper)
Search features of digital libraries
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alastair G. Smith
2000-01-01
Full Text Available Traditional on-line search services such as Dialog, DataStar and Lexis provide a wide range of search features (boolean and proximity operators, truncation, etc. This paper discusses the use of these features for effective searching, and argues that these features are required, regardless of advances in search engine technology. The literature on on-line searching is reviewed, identifying features that searchers find desirable for effective searching. A selective survey of current digital libraries available on the Web was undertaken, identifying which search features are present. The survey indicates that current digital libraries do not implement a wide range of search features. For instance: under half of the examples included controlled vocabulary, under half had proximity searching, only one enabled browsing of term indexes, and none of the digital libraries enable searchers to refine an initial search. Suggestions are made for enhancing the search effectiveness of digital libraries, for instance by: providing a full range of search operators, enabling browsing of search terms, enhancement of records with controlled vocabulary, enabling the refining of initial searches, etc.
Discrete modeling considerations in multiphase fluid dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ransom, V.H.; Ramshaw, J.D.
1988-01-01
The modeling of multiphase flows play a fundamental role in light water reactor safety. The main ingredients in our discrete modeling Weltanschauung are the following considerations: (1) Any physical model must be cast into discrete form for a digital computer. (2) The usual approach of formulating models in differential form and then discretizing them is potentially hazardous. It may be preferable to formulate the model in discrete terms from the outset. (3) Computer time and storage constraints limit the resolution that can be employed in practical calculations. These limits effectively define the physical phenomena, length scales, and time scales which cannot be directly represented in the calculation and therefore must be modeled. This information should be injected into the model formulation process at an early stage. (4) Practical resolution limits are generally so coarse that traditional convergence and truncation-error analyses become irrelevant. (5) A discrete model constitutes a reduced description of a physical system, from which fine-scale details are eliminated. This elimination creates a statistical closure problem. Methods from statistical physics may therefore be useful in the formulation of discrete models. In the present paper we elaborate on these themes and illustrate them with simple examples. 48 refs
Theoretical Basics of Teaching Discrete Mathematics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y. A. Perminov
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The paper deals with the research findings concerning the process of mastering the theoretical basics of discrete mathematics by the students of vocational pedagogic profile. The methodological analysis is based on the subject and functions of the modern discrete mathematics and its role in mathematical modeling and computing. The modern discrete mathematics (i.e. mathematics of the finite type structures plays the important role in modernization of vocational training. It is especially rele- vant to training students for vocational pedagogic qualifications, as in the future they will be responsible for training the middle and the senior level specialists in engineer- ing and technical spheres. Nowadays in different industries, there arise the problems which require for their solving both continual – based on the classical mathematical methods – and discrete modeling. The teaching course of discrete mathematics for the future vocational teachers should be relevant to the target qualification and aimed at mastering the mathematical modeling, systems of computer mathematics and computer technologies. The author emphasizes the fundamental role of mastering the language of algebraic and serial structures, as well as the logical, algorithmic, combinatory schemes dominating in dis- crete mathematics. The guidelines for selecting the content of the course in discrete mathematics are specified. The theoretical findings of the research can be put into practice whilst developing curricula and working programs for bachelors and masters’ training.
Discrete Calculus as a Bridge between Scales
Degiuli, Eric; McElwaine, Jim
2012-02-01
Understanding how continuum descriptions of disordered media emerge from the microscopic scale is a fundamental challenge in condensed matter physics. In many systems, it is necessary to coarse-grain balance equations at the microscopic scale to obtain macroscopic equations. We report development of an exact, discrete calculus, which allows identification of discrete microscopic equations with their continuum equivalent [1]. This allows the application of powerful techniques of calculus, such as the Helmholtz decomposition, the Divergence Theorem, and Stokes' Theorem. We illustrate our results with granular materials. In particular, we show how Newton's laws for a single grain reproduce their continuum equivalent in the calculus. This allows introduction of a discrete Airy stress function, exactly as in the continuum. As an application of the formalism, we show how these results give the natural mean-field variation of discrete quantities, in agreement with numerical simulations. The discrete calculus thus acts as a bridge between discrete microscale quantities and continuous macroscale quantities. [4pt] [1] E. DeGiuli & J. McElwaine, PRE 2011. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevE.84.041310
Recent developments in discrete ordinates electron transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morel, J.E.; Lorence, L.J. Jr.
1986-01-01
The discrete ordinates method is a deterministic method for numerically solving the Boltzmann equation. It was originally developed for neutron transport calculations, but is routinely used for photon and coupled neutron-photon transport calculations as well. The computational state of the art for coupled electron-photon transport (CEPT) calculations is not as developed as that for neutron transport calculations. The only production codes currently available for CEPT calculations are condensed-history Monte Carlo codes such as the ETRAN and ITS codes. A deterministic capability for production calculations is clearly needed. In response to this need, we have begun the development of a production discrete ordinates code for CEPT calculations. The purpose of this paper is to describe the basic approach we are taking, discuss the current status of the project, and present some new computational results. Although further characterization of the coupled electron-photon discrete ordinates method remains to be done, the results to date indicate that the discrete ordinates method can be just as accurate and from 10 to 100 times faster than the Monte Carlo method for a wide variety of problems. We stress that these results are obtained with standard discrete ordinates codes such as ONETRAN. It is clear that even greater efficiency can be obtained by developing a new generation of production discrete ordinates codes specifically designed to solve the Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck equation. However, the prospects for such development in the near future appear to be remote
Discrete symmetries and their stringy origin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mayorga Pena, Damian Kaloni
2014-05-01
Discrete symmetries have proven to be very useful in controlling the phenomenology of theories beyond the standard model. In this work we explore how these symmetries emerge from string compactifications. Our approach is twofold: On the one hand, we consider the heterotic string on orbifold backgrounds. In this case the discrete symmetries can be derived from the orbifold conformal field theory, and it can be shown that they are in close relation with the orbifold geometry. We devote special attention to R-symmetries, which arise from discrete remnants of the Lorentz group in compact space. Further we discuss the physical implications of these symmetries both in the heterotic mini-landscape and in newly constructed models based on the Z 2 x Z 4 orbifold. In both cases we observe that the discrete symmetries favor particular locations in the orbifold where the particles of standard model should live. On the other hand we consider a class of F-theory models exhibiting an SU(5) gauge group, times additional U(1) symmetries. In this case, the smooth compactification background does not permit us to track the discrete symmetries as transparently as in orbifold models. Hence, we follow a different approach and search for discrete subgroups emerging after the U(1)s are broken. We observe that in this approach it is possible to obtain the standard Z 2 matter parity of the MSSM.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krupnov, A.F.; Tretyakov, M.Yu.; Leforestier, C.
2009-01-01
Attempts of experimental observations of the water dimer spectrum at equilibrium conditions have lasted for more than 40 years since the dimeric hypothesis for extra absorption, but have not yielded any positive confirmed result. In the present paper a new approach is considered: using a high-resolution millimeter-wave spectrum of the water dimer at equilibrium, calculated by a rigorous fully quantum method, we show the potential existence of discernible spectral series of discrete features of the water dimer, which correspond to J+1 1 symmetry, already observed in cold molecular beam experiments and having, therefore, well-defined positions. The intensity of spectral series and contrast to the remaining continuum-like spectrum of the dimer are calculated and compared with the monomer absorption. The suitability of two types of microwave spectrometers for observing these series is considered. The collisional line-width of millimeter lines of the dimer at equilibrium is estimated and the width of IR dimer bands is discussed. It is pointed out that the large width of IR dimer bands may pose difficulties for their reliable observation and conclusive separation from the rest of absorption in water vapor. This situation contrasts with the suggested approach of dimer detection in millimeter-waves.
Quantization of systems with temporally varying discretization. I. Evolving Hilbert spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Höhn, Philipp A.
2014-01-01
A temporally varying discretization often features in discrete gravitational systems and appears in lattice field theory models subject to a coarse graining or refining dynamics. To better understand such discretization changing dynamics in the quantum theory, an according formalism for constrained variational discrete systems is constructed. While this paper focuses on global evolution moves and, for simplicity, restricts to flat configuration spaces R N , a Paper II [P. A. Höhn, “Quantization of systems with temporally varying discretization. II. Local evolution moves,” J. Math. Phys., e-print http://arxiv.org/abs/arXiv:1401.7731 [gr-qc].] discusses local evolution moves. In order to link the covariant and canonical picture, the dynamics of the quantum states is generated by propagators which satisfy the canonical constraints and are constructed using the action and group averaging projectors. This projector formalism offers a systematic method for tracing and regularizing divergences in the resulting state sums. Non-trivial coarse graining evolution moves lead to non-unitary, and thus irreversible, projections of physical Hilbert spaces and Dirac observables such that these concepts become evolution move dependent on temporally varying discretizations. The formalism is illustrated in a toy model mimicking a “creation from nothing.” Subtleties arising when applying such a formalism to quantum gravity models are discussed
Discrete-ordinates finite-element method for atmospheric radiative transfer and remote sensing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gerstl, S.A.W.; Zardecki, A.
1985-01-01
Advantages and disadvantages of modern discrete-ordinates finite-element methods for the solution of radiative transfer problems in meteorology, climatology, and remote sensing applications are evaluated. After the common basis of the formulation of radiative transfer problems in the fields of neutron transport and atmospheric optics is established, the essential features of the discrete-ordinates finite-element method are described including the limitations of the method and their remedies. Numerical results are presented for 1-D and 2-D atmospheric radiative transfer problems where integral as well as angular dependent quantities are compared with published results from other calculations and with measured data. These comparisons provide a verification of the discrete-ordinates results for a wide spectrum of cases with varying degrees of absorption, scattering, and anisotropic phase functions. Accuracy and computational speed are also discussed. Since practically all discrete-ordinates codes offer a builtin adjoint capability, the general concept of the adjoint method is described and illustrated by sample problems. Our general conclusion is that the strengths of the discrete-ordinates finite-element method outweight its weaknesses. We demonstrate that existing general-purpose discrete-ordinates codes can provide a powerful tool to analyze radiative transfer problems through the atmosphere, especially when 2-D geometries must be considered
Discrete integrable systems and deformations of associative algebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Konopelchenko, B G
2009-01-01
Interrelations between discrete deformations of the structure constants for associative algebras and discrete integrable systems are reviewed. Theory of deformations for associative algebras is presented. Closed left ideal generated by the elements representing the multiplication table plays a central role in this theory. Deformations of the structure constants are generated by the deformation driving algebra and governed by the central system of equations. It is demonstrated that many discrete equations such as discrete Boussinesq equation, discrete WDVV equation, discrete Schwarzian KP and BKP equations, discrete Hirota-Miwa equations for KP and BKP hierarchies are particular realizations of the central system. An interaction between the theories of discrete integrable systems and discrete deformations of associative algebras is reciprocal and fruitful. An interpretation of the Menelaus relation (discrete Schwarzian KP equation), discrete Hirota-Miwa equation for KP hierarchy, consistency around the cube as the associativity conditions and the concept of gauge equivalence, for instance, between the Menelaus and KP configurations are particular examples.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shi, Ying; Zhang, Da-jun; Nimmo, Jonathan J C
2014-01-01
The Hirota–Miwa equation can be written in ‘nonlinear’ form in two ways: the discrete KP equation and, by using a compatible continuous variable, the discrete potential KP equation. For both systems, we consider the Darboux and binary Darboux transformations, expressed in terms of the continuous variable, and obtain exact solutions in Wronskian and Grammian form. We discuss reductions of both systems to the discrete KdV and discrete potential KdV equation, respectively, and exploit this connection to find the Darboux and binary Darboux transformations and exact solutions of these equations. (paper)
A Fully Discrete Galerkin Method for a Nonlinear Space-Fractional Diffusion Equation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yunying Zheng
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The spatial transport process in fractal media is generally anomalous. The space-fractional advection-diffusion equation can be used to characterize such a process. In this paper, a fully discrete scheme is given for a type of nonlinear space-fractional anomalous advection-diffusion equation. In the spatial direction, we use the finite element method, and in the temporal direction, we use the modified Crank-Nicolson approximation. Here the fractional derivative indicates the Caputo derivative. The error estimate for the fully discrete scheme is derived. And the numerical examples are also included which are in line with the theoretical analysis.
A discrete force allocation algorithm for modelling wind turbines in computational fluid dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan; Sørensen, Niels N.
2012-01-01
at the position of the wind turbine rotor to estimate correctly the power production and the rotor loading. The method proposed in this paper solves this issue by spreading the force on the direct neighbouring cells and applying an equivalent pressure jump at the cell faces. This can potentially open......This paper describes an algorithm for allocating discrete forces in computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Discrete forces are useful in wind energy CFD. They are used as an approximation of the wind turbine blades’ action on the wind (actuator disc/line), to model forests and to model turbulent...
LeMesurier, Brenton
2012-01-01
A new approach is described for generating exactly energy-momentum conserving time discretizations for a wide class of Hamiltonian systems of DEs with quadratic momenta, including mechanical systems with central forces; it is well-suited in particular to the large systems that arise in both spatial discretizations of nonlinear wave equations and lattice equations such as the Davydov System modeling energetic pulse propagation in protein molecules. The method is unconditionally stable, making it well-suited to equations of broadly “Discrete NLS form”, including many arising in nonlinear optics. Key features of the resulting discretizations are exact conservation of both the Hamiltonian and quadratic conserved quantities related to continuous linear symmetries, preservation of time reversal symmetry, unconditional stability, and respecting the linearity of certain terms. The last feature allows a simple, efficient iterative solution of the resulting nonlinear algebraic systems that retain unconditional stability, avoiding the need for full Newton-type solvers. One distinction from earlier work on conservative discretizations is a new and more straightforward nearly canonical procedure for constructing the discretizations, based on a “discrete gradient calculus with product rule” that mimics the essential properties of partial derivatives. This numerical method is then used to study the Davydov system, revealing that previously conjectured continuum limit approximations by NLS do not hold, but that sech-like pulses related to NLS solitons can nevertheless sometimes arise.
Convergence of posteriors for discretized log Gaussian Cox processes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Waagepetersen, Rasmus Plenge
2004-01-01
In Markov chain Monte Carlo posterior computation for log Gaussian Cox processes (LGCPs) a discretization of the continuously indexed Gaussian field is required. It is demonstrated that approximate posterior expectations computed from discretized LGCPs converge to the exact posterior expectations...... when the cell sizes of the discretization tends to zero. The effect of discretization is studied in a data example....
Hauber, A. Brett; Gonzalez, Juan Marcos; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, Catharina Gerarda Maria; Prior, Thomas; Marshall, Deborah A.; Cunningham, Charles; IJzerman, Maarten Joost; Bridges, John
2016-01-01
Conjoint analysis is a stated-preference survey method that can be used to elicit responses that reveal preferences, priorities, and the relative importance of individual features associated with health care interventions or services. Conjoint analysis methods, particularly discrete choice
Online feature selection with streaming features.
Wu, Xindong; Yu, Kui; Ding, Wei; Wang, Hao; Zhu, Xingquan
2013-05-01
We propose a new online feature selection framework for applications with streaming features where the knowledge of the full feature space is unknown in advance. We define streaming features as features that flow in one by one over time whereas the number of training examples remains fixed. This is in contrast with traditional online learning methods that only deal with sequentially added observations, with little attention being paid to streaming features. The critical challenges for Online Streaming Feature Selection (OSFS) include 1) the continuous growth of feature volumes over time, 2) a large feature space, possibly of unknown or infinite size, and 3) the unavailability of the entire feature set before learning starts. In the paper, we present a novel Online Streaming Feature Selection method to select strongly relevant and nonredundant features on the fly. An efficient Fast-OSFS algorithm is proposed to improve feature selection performance. The proposed algorithms are evaluated extensively on high-dimensional datasets and also with a real-world case study on impact crater detection. Experimental results demonstrate that the algorithms achieve better compactness and higher prediction accuracy than existing streaming feature selection algorithms.
Unfolding and effective bandstructure calculations as discrete real- and reciprocal-space operations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boykin, Timothy B., E-mail: boykin@ece.uah.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Ajoy, Arvind [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Ilatikhameneh, Hesameddin; Povolotskyi, Michael; Klimeck, Gerhard [Network for Computational Nanotechnology, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)
2016-06-15
In recent years, alloy electronic structure calculations based on supercell Brillouin zone unfolding have become popular. There are a number of formulations of the method which on the surface might appear different. Here we show that a discrete real-space description, based on discrete Fourier transforms, is fully general. Furthermore, such an approach can more easily show the effects of alloy scattering. We present such a method for treating the random alloy problem. This treatment features straightforward mathematics and a transparent physical interpretation of the calculated effective (i.e., approximate) energy bands.
Discrete stochastic analogs of Erlang epidemic models.
Getz, Wayne M; Dougherty, Eric R
2018-12-01
Erlang differential equation models of epidemic processes provide more realistic disease-class transition dynamics from susceptible (S) to exposed (E) to infectious (I) and removed (R) categories than the ubiquitous SEIR model. The latter is itself is at one end of the spectrum of Erlang SE[Formula: see text]I[Formula: see text]R models with [Formula: see text] concatenated E compartments and [Formula: see text] concatenated I compartments. Discrete-time models, however, are computationally much simpler to simulate and fit to epidemic outbreak data than continuous-time differential equations, and are also much more readily extended to include demographic and other types of stochasticity. Here we formulate discrete-time deterministic analogs of the Erlang models, and their stochastic extension, based on a time-to-go distributional principle. Depending on which distributions are used (e.g. discretized Erlang, Gamma, Beta, or Uniform distributions), we demonstrate that our formulation represents both a discretization of Erlang epidemic models and generalizations thereof. We consider the challenges of fitting SE[Formula: see text]I[Formula: see text]R models and our discrete-time analog to data (the recent outbreak of Ebola in Liberia). We demonstrate that the latter performs much better than the former; although confining fits to strict SEIR formulations reduces the numerical challenges, but sacrifices best-fit likelihood scores by at least 7%.
Noether symmetries of discrete mechanico–electrical systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fu Jingli; Xie Fengping; Chen Benyong
2008-01-01
This paper focuses on studying Noether symmetries and conservation laws of the discrete mechanico-electrical systems with the nonconservative and the dissipative forces. Based on the invariance of discrete Hamilton action of the systems under the infinitesimal transformation with respect to the generalized coordinates, the generalized electrical quantities and time, it presents the discrete analogue of variational principle, the discrete analogue of Lagrange–Maxwell equations, the discrete analogue of Noether theorems for Lagrange–Maxwell and Lagrange mechanico-electrical systems. Also, the discrete Noether operator identity and the discrete Noether-type conservation laws are obtained for these systems. An actual example is given to illustrate these results. (general)
Discrete breathers for a discrete nonlinear Schrödinger ring coupled to a central site.
Jason, Peter; Johansson, Magnus
2016-01-01
We examine the existence and properties of certain discrete breathers for a discrete nonlinear Schrödinger model where all but one site are placed in a ring and coupled to the additional central site. The discrete breathers we focus on are stationary solutions mainly localized on one or a few of the ring sites and possibly also the central site. By numerical methods, we trace out and study the continuous families the discrete breathers belong to. Our main result is the discovery of a split bifurcation at a critical value of the coupling between neighboring ring sites. Below this critical value, families form closed loops in a certain parameter space, implying that discrete breathers with and without central-site occupation belong to the same family. Above the split bifurcation the families split up into several separate ones, which bifurcate with solutions with constant ring amplitudes. For symmetry reasons, the families have different properties below the split bifurcation for even and odd numbers of sites. It is also determined under which conditions the discrete breathers are linearly stable. The dynamics of some simpler initial conditions that approximate the discrete breathers are also studied and the parameter regimes where the dynamics remain localized close to the initially excited ring site are related to the linear stability of the exact discrete breathers.
Discrete Localized States and Localization Dynamics in Discrete Nonlinear Schrödinger Equations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christiansen, Peter Leth; Gaididei, Yu.B.; Mezentsev, V.K.
1996-01-01
Dynamics of two-dimensional discrete structures is studied in the framework of the generalized two-dimensional discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equation. The nonlinear coupling in the form of the Ablowitz-Ladik nonlinearity is taken into account. Stability properties of the stationary solutions...
Rosenstein, Joseph G., Ed.; Franzblau, Deborah S., Ed.; Roberts, Fred S., Ed.
This book is a collection of articles by experienced educators and explains why and how discrete mathematics should be taught in K-12 classrooms. It includes evidence for "why" and practical guidance for "how" and also discusses how discrete mathematics can be used as a vehicle for achieving the broader goals of the major…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jingshan Li
2000-01-01
Full Text Available In this work, serial production lines with finished goods buffers operating in the pull regime are considered. The machines are assumed to obey Bernoulli reliability model. The problem of satisfying customers demand is addressed. The level of demand satisfaction is quantified by the due-time performance (DTP, which is defined as the probability to ship to the customer a required number of parts during a fixed time interval. Within this scenario, the definitions of DTP bottlenecks are introduced and a method for their identification is developed.
Feature Extraction in Radar Target Classification
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Z. Kus
1999-09-01
Full Text Available This paper presents experimental results of extracting features in the Radar Target Classification process using the J frequency band pulse radar. The feature extraction is based on frequency analysis methods, the discrete-time Fourier Transform (DFT and Multiple Signal Characterisation (MUSIC, based on the detection of Doppler effect. The analysis has turned to the preference of DFT with implemented Hanning windowing function. We assumed to classify targets-vehicles into two classes, the wheeled vehicle and tracked vehicle. The results show that it is possible to classify them only while moving. The feature of the class results from a movement of moving parts of the vehicle. However, we have not found any feature to classify the wheeled and tracked vehicles while non-moving, although their engines are on.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1998-08-01
This book deals with line facilities. The contents of this book are outline line of wire telecommunication ; development of line, classification of section of line and theory of transmission of line, cable line ; structure of line, line of cable in town, line out of town, domestic cable and other lines, Optical communication ; line of optical cable, transmission method, measurement of optical communication and cable of the sea bottom, Equipment of telecommunication line ; telecommunication line facilities and telecommunication of public works, construction of cable line and maintenance and Regulation of line equipment ; regulation on technique, construction and maintenance.
Limit sets for the discrete spectrum of complex Jacobi matrices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Golinskii, L B; Egorova, I E
2005-01-01
The discrete spectrum of complex Jacobi matrices that are compact perturbations of the discrete Laplacian is studied. The precise stabilization rate (in the sense of order) of the matrix elements ensuring the finiteness of the discrete spectrum is found. An example of a Jacobi matrix with discrete spectrum having a unique limit point is constructed. These results are discrete analogues of Pavlov's well-known results on Schroedinger operators with complex potential on a half-axis.
Euler-Poincare reduction for discrete field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vankerschaver, Joris
2007-01-01
In this note, we develop a theory of Euler-Poincare reduction for discrete Lagrangian field theories. We introduce the concept of Euler-Poincare equations for discrete field theories, as well as a natural extension of the Moser-Veselov scheme, and show that both are equivalent. The resulting discrete field equations are interpreted in terms of discrete differential geometry. An application to the theory of discrete harmonic mappings is also briefly discussed
Integrals of Motion for Discrete-Time Optimal Control Problems
Torres, Delfim F. M.
2003-01-01
We obtain a discrete time analog of E. Noether's theorem in Optimal Control, asserting that integrals of motion associated to the discrete time Pontryagin Maximum Principle can be computed from the quasi-invariance properties of the discrete time Lagrangian and discrete time control system. As corollaries, results for first-order and higher-order discrete problems of the calculus of variations are obtained.
Interaction between hopping and static spins in a discrete network
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ciccarello, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.ciccarello@sns.it [CNISM and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita' degli Studi di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Edificio 18, I-90128 Palermo (Italy); NEST, Scuola Normale Superiore and Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, I-56126 Pisa (Italy)
2011-06-27
We consider a process where a spin hops across a discrete network and at certain sites couples to static spins. While this setting is implementable in various scenarios (e.g. quantum dots or coupled cavities) the physics of such processes is still basically unknown. Here, we take a first step along this line by scrutinizing a two-site and a three-site lattices, each with two static spins. Despite a generally complex dynamics occurs, we show a regime such that the spin dynamics is described by an effective three-spin chain. Tasks such as entanglement generation and quantum state transfer can be achieved accordingly. -- Highlights: → We study mobile spins hopping in a discrete network and coupled to static spins. → This setting can be implemented in various scenarios. → We address a two-site and a three-site lattice, each with two static spins. → We show a regime where the setup can be described by an effective three-spin chain. → Accordingly, it is prone to be exploited for some QIP applications.
The ultimatum game: Discrete vs. continuous offers
Dishon-Berkovits, Miriam; Berkovits, Richard
2014-09-01
In many experimental setups in social-sciences, psychology and economy the subjects are requested to accept or dispense monetary compensation which is usually given in discrete units. Using computer and mathematical modeling we show that in the framework of studying the dynamics of acceptance of proposals in the ultimatum game, the long time dynamics of acceptance of offers in the game are completely different for discrete vs. continuous offers. For discrete values the dynamics follow an exponential behavior. However, for continuous offers the dynamics are described by a power-law. This is shown using an agent based computer simulation as well as by utilizing an analytical solution of a mean-field equation describing the model. These findings have implications to the design and interpretation of socio-economical experiments beyond the ultimatum game.
Symmetric, discrete fractional splines and Gabor systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Søndergaard, Peter Lempel
2006-01-01
In this paper we consider fractional splines as windows for Gabor frames. We introduce two new types of symmetric, fractional splines in addition to one found by Unser and Blu. For the finite, discrete case we present two families of splines: One is created by sampling and periodizing the continu......In this paper we consider fractional splines as windows for Gabor frames. We introduce two new types of symmetric, fractional splines in addition to one found by Unser and Blu. For the finite, discrete case we present two families of splines: One is created by sampling and periodizing...... the continuous splines, and one is a truly finite, discrete construction. We discuss the properties of these splines and their usefulness as windows for Gabor frames and Wilson bases....
Sputtering calculations with the discrete ordinated method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoffman, T.J.; Dodds, H.L. Jr.; Robinson, M.T.; Holmes, D.K.
1977-01-01
The purpose of this work is to investigate the applicability of the discrete ordinates (S/sub N/) method to light ion sputtering problems. In particular, the neutral particle discrete ordinates computer code, ANISN, was used to calculate sputtering yields. No modifications to this code were necessary to treat charged particle transport. However, a cross section processing code was written for the generation of multigroup cross sections; these cross sections include a modification to the total macroscopic cross section to account for electronic interactions and small-scattering-angle elastic interactions. The discrete ordinates approach enables calculation of the sputtering yield as functions of incident energy and angle and of many related quantities such as ion reflection coefficients, angular and energy distributions of sputtering particles, the behavior of beams penetrating thin foils, etc. The results of several sputtering problems as calculated with ANISN are presented
Modeling discrete time-to-event data
Tutz, Gerhard
2016-01-01
This book focuses on statistical methods for the analysis of discrete failure times. Failure time analysis is one of the most important fields in statistical research, with applications affecting a wide range of disciplines, in particular, demography, econometrics, epidemiology and clinical research. Although there are a large variety of statistical methods for failure time analysis, many techniques are designed for failure times that are measured on a continuous scale. In empirical studies, however, failure times are often discrete, either because they have been measured in intervals (e.g., quarterly or yearly) or because they have been rounded or grouped. The book covers well-established methods like life-table analysis and discrete hazard regression models, but also introduces state-of-the art techniques for model evaluation, nonparametric estimation and variable selection. Throughout, the methods are illustrated by real life applications, and relationships to survival analysis in continuous time are expla...
Direct Discrete Method for Neutronic Calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vosoughi, Naser; Akbar Salehi, Ali; Shahriari, Majid
2002-01-01
The objective of this paper is to introduce a new direct method for neutronic calculations. This method which is named Direct Discrete Method, is simpler than the neutron Transport equation and also more compatible with physical meaning of problems. This method is based on physic of problem and with meshing of the desired geometry, writing the balance equation for each mesh intervals and with notice to the conjunction between these mesh intervals, produce the final discrete equations series without production of neutron transport differential equation and mandatory passing from differential equation bridge. We have produced neutron discrete equations for a cylindrical shape with two boundary conditions in one group energy. The correction of the results from this method are tested with MCNP-4B code execution. (authors)
An algebra of discrete event processes
Heymann, Michael; Meyer, George
1991-01-01
This report deals with an algebraic framework for modeling and control of discrete event processes. The report consists of two parts. The first part is introductory, and consists of a tutorial survey of the theory of concurrency in the spirit of Hoare's CSP, and an examination of the suitability of such an algebraic framework for dealing with various aspects of discrete event control. To this end a new concurrency operator is introduced and it is shown how the resulting framework can be applied. It is further shown that a suitable theory that deals with the new concurrency operator must be developed. In the second part of the report the formal algebra of discrete event control is developed. At the present time the second part of the report is still an incomplete and occasionally tentative working paper.
Is Fitts' law continuous in discrete aiming?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rita Sleimen-Malkoun
Full Text Available The lawful continuous linear relation between movement time and task difficulty (i.e., index of difficulty; ID in a goal-directed rapid aiming task (Fitts' law has been recently challenged in reciprocal performance. Specifically, a discontinuity was observed at critical ID and was attributed to a transition between two distinct dynamic regimes that occurs with increasing difficulty. In the present paper, we show that such a discontinuity is also present in discrete aiming when ID is manipulated via target width (experiment 1 but not via target distance (experiment 2. Fitts' law's discontinuity appears, therefore, to be a suitable indicator of the underlying functional adaptations of the neuro-muscular-skeletal system to task properties/requirements, independently of reciprocal or discrete nature of the task. These findings open new perspectives to the study of dynamic regimes involved in discrete aiming and sensori-motor mechanisms underlying the speed-accuracy trade-off.
Acceleration techniques for the discrete ordinate method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Efremenko, Dmitry; Doicu, Adrian; Loyola, Diego; Trautmann, Thomas
2013-01-01
In this paper we analyze several acceleration techniques for the discrete ordinate method with matrix exponential and the small-angle modification of the radiative transfer equation. These techniques include the left eigenvectors matrix approach for computing the inverse of the right eigenvectors matrix, the telescoping technique, and the method of false discrete ordinate. The numerical simulations have shown that on average, the relative speedup of the left eigenvector matrix approach and the telescoping technique are of about 15% and 30%, respectively. -- Highlights: ► We presented the left eigenvector matrix approach. ► We analyzed the method of false discrete ordinate. ► The telescoping technique is applied for matrix operator method. ► Considered techniques accelerate the computations by 20% in average.
Identifying significant environmental features using feature recognition.
2015-10-01
The Department of Environmental Analysis at the Kentucky Transportation Cabinet has expressed an interest in feature-recognition capability because it may help analysts identify environmentally sensitive features in the landscape, : including those r...
Coaxial transmission line - Equalization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bonnerue, J.L.; Fremont, Jacques; Haubtmann, Jack; Pillon, Gerard.
1981-09-01
The transmission of electrical signal through a coaxial line is not perfect and signal distortions are increased as much as the frequency spectrum is extended. We have designed and achieved passive filters (named equalizers) with transfer functions which are inverse of coaxial transfer functions. Doing so our attempt is to avoid definitive loss of information in the recorded data. The main feature of our equalization method lies in the fact it could be either an electrical or a numerical correction or both of them. Some examples in the use of this technique are also proposed [fr
Discrete quantum geometries and their effective dimension
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thuerigen, Johannes
2015-01-01
In several approaches towards a quantum theory of gravity, such as group field theory and loop quantum gravity, quantum states and histories of the geometric degrees of freedom turn out to be based on discrete spacetime. The most pressing issue is then how the smooth geometries of general relativity, expressed in terms of suitable geometric observables, arise from such discrete quantum geometries in some semiclassical and continuum limit. In this thesis I tackle the question of suitable observables focusing on the effective dimension of discrete quantum geometries. For this purpose I give a purely combinatorial description of the discrete structures which these geometries have support on. As a side topic, this allows to present an extension of group field theory to cover the combinatorially larger kinematical state space of loop quantum gravity. Moreover, I introduce a discrete calculus for fields on such fundamentally discrete geometries with a particular focus on the Laplacian. This permits to define the effective-dimension observables for quantum geometries. Analysing various classes of quantum geometries, I find as a general result that the spectral dimension is more sensitive to the underlying combinatorial structure than to the details of the additional geometric data thereon. Semiclassical states in loop quantum gravity approximate the classical geometries they are peaking on rather well and there are no indications for stronger quantum effects. On the other hand, in the context of a more general model of states which are superposition over a large number of complexes, based on analytic solutions, there is a flow of the spectral dimension from the topological dimension d on low energy scales to a real number between 0 and d on high energy scales. In the particular case of 1 these results allow to understand the quantum geometry as effectively fractal.
Observations on discretization errors in twisted-mass lattice QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharpe, Stephen R.
2005-01-01
I make a number of observations concerning discretization errors in twisted-mass lattice QCD that can be deduced by applying chiral perturbation theory including lattice artifacts. (1) The line along which the partially conserved axial current quark mass vanishes in the untwisted-mass-twisted-mass plane makes an angle to the twisted-mass axis which is a direct measure of O(a) terms in the chiral Lagrangian, and is found numerically to be large; (2) Numerical results for pionic quantities in the mass plane show the qualitative properties predicted by chiral perturbation theory, in particular, an asymmetry in slopes between positive and negative untwisted quark masses; (3) By extending the description of the 'Aoki regime' (where m q ∼a 2 Λ QCD 3 ) to next-to-leading order in chiral perturbation theory I show how the phase-transition lines and lines of maximal twist (using different definitions) extend into this region, and give predictions for the functional form of pionic quantities; (4) I argue that the recent claim that lattice artifacts at maximal twist have apparent infrared singularities in the chiral limit results from expanding about the incorrect vacuum state. Shifting to the correct vacuum (as can be done using chiral perturbation theory) the apparent singularities are summed into nonsingular, and furthermore predicted, forms. I further argue that there is no breakdown in the Symanzik expansion in powers of lattice spacing, and no barrier to simulating at maximal twist in the Aoki regime
Synchronization Of Parallel Discrete Event Simulations
Steinman, Jeffrey S.
1992-01-01
Adaptive, parallel, discrete-event-simulation-synchronization algorithm, Breathing Time Buckets, developed in Synchronous Parallel Environment for Emulation and Discrete Event Simulation (SPEEDES) operating system. Algorithm allows parallel simulations to process events optimistically in fluctuating time cycles that naturally adapt while simulation in progress. Combines best of optimistic and conservative synchronization strategies while avoiding major disadvantages. Algorithm processes events optimistically in time cycles adapting while simulation in progress. Well suited for modeling communication networks, for large-scale war games, for simulated flights of aircraft, for simulations of computer equipment, for mathematical modeling, for interactive engineering simulations, and for depictions of flows of information.
Speeding Up Network Simulations Using Discrete Time
Lucas, Aaron; Armbruster, Benjamin
2013-01-01
We develop a way of simulating disease spread in networks faster at the cost of some accuracy. Instead of a discrete event simulation (DES) we use a discrete time simulation. This aggregates events into time periods. We prove a bound on the accuracy attained. We also discuss the choice of step size and do an analytical comparison of the computational costs. Our error bound concept comes from the theory of numerical methods for SDEs and the basic proof structure comes from the theory of numeri...
PHASE CHAOS IN THE DISCRETE KURAMOTO MODEL
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Maistrenko, V.; Vasylenko, A.; Maistrenko, Y.
2010-01-01
The paper describes the appearance of a novel, high-dimensional chaotic regime, called phase chaos, in a time-discrete Kuramoto model of globally coupled phase oscillators. This type of chaos is observed at small and intermediate values of the coupling strength. It arises from the nonlinear...... interaction among the oscillators, while the individual oscillators behave periodically when left uncoupled. For the four-dimensional time-discrete Kuramoto model, we outline the region of phase chaos in the parameter plane and determine the regions where phase chaos coexists with different periodic...
Digital and discrete geometry theory and algorithms
Chen, Li
2014-01-01
This book provides comprehensive coverage of the modern methods for geometric problems in the computing sciences. It also covers concurrent topics in data sciences including geometric processing, manifold learning, Google search, cloud data, and R-tree for wireless networks and BigData.The author investigates digital geometry and its related constructive methods in discrete geometry, offering detailed methods and algorithms. The book is divided into five sections: basic geometry; digital curves, surfaces and manifolds; discretely represented objects; geometric computation and processing; and a
A Low Complexity Discrete Radiosity Method
Chatelier , Pierre Yves; Malgouyres , Rémy
2006-01-01
International audience; Rather than using Monte Carlo sampling techniques or patch projections to compute radiosity, it is possible to use a discretization of a scene into voxels and perform some discrete geometry calculus to quickly compute visibility information. In such a framework , the radiosity method may be as precise as a patch-based radiosity using hemicube computation for form-factors, but it lowers the overall theoretical complexity to an O(N log N) + O(N), where the O(N) is largel...
Modeling and simulation of discrete event systems
Choi, Byoung Kyu
2013-01-01
Computer modeling and simulation (M&S) allows engineers to study and analyze complex systems. Discrete-event system (DES)-M&S is used in modern management, industrial engineering, computer science, and the military. As computer speeds and memory capacity increase, so DES-M&S tools become more powerful and more widely used in solving real-life problems. Based on over 20 years of evolution within a classroom environment, as well as on decades-long experience in developing simulation-based solutions for high-tech industries, Modeling and Simulation of Discrete-Event Systems is the only book on
Semiclassical expanding discrete space-times
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cobb, W.K.; Smalley, L.L.
1981-01-01
Given the close ties between general relativity and geometry one might reasonably expect that quantum effects associated with gravitation might also be tied to the geometry of space-time, namely, to some sort of discreteness in space-time itself. In particular it is supposed that space-time consists of a discrete lattice of points rather than the usual continuum. Since astronomical evidence seems to suggest that the universe is expanding, the lattice must also expand. Some of the implications of such a model are that the proton should presently be stable, and the universe should be closed although the mechanism for closure is quantum mechanical. (author)
Systematization of Accurate Discrete Optimization Methods
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. A. Ovchinnikov
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The object of study of this paper is to define accurate methods for solving combinatorial optimization problems of structural synthesis. The aim of the work is to systemize the exact methods of discrete optimization and define their applicability to solve practical problems.The article presents the analysis, generalization and systematization of classical methods and algorithms described in the educational and scientific literature.As a result of research a systematic presentation of combinatorial methods for discrete optimization described in various sources is given, their capabilities are described and properties of the tasks to be solved using the appropriate methods are specified.
Multiband discrete ordinates method: formalism and results
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luneville, L.
1998-06-01
The multigroup discrete ordinates method is a classical way to solve transport equation (Boltzmann) for neutral particles. Self-shielding effects are not correctly treated due to large variations of cross sections in a group (in the resonance range). To treat the resonance domain, the multiband method is introduced. The main idea is to divide the cross section domain into bands. We obtain the multiband parameters using the moment method; the code CALENDF provides probability tables for these parameters. We present our implementation in an existing discrete ordinates code: SN1D. We study deep penetration benchmarks and show the improvement of the method in the treatment of self-shielding effects. (author)
Integrating robust timetabling in line plan optimization for railway systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Burggraeve, Sofie; Bull, Simon Henry; Lusby, Richard Martin
The line planning problem in rail is to select a number of lines froma potential pool which provides sufficient passenger capacity and meetsoperational requirements, with some objective measure of solution linequality. We model the problem of minimizing the average passenger systemtime, including...... frequency-dependent estimates for switching between lines,working with the Danish rail operator DSB and data for Copenhagen commuters.We present a multi-commodity flow formulation for the problemof freely routing passengers, coupled to discrete line-frequency decisionsselecting lines from a predefined pool...
Stokes phenomena in discrete Painlevé I.
Joshi, N; Lustri, C J
2015-05-08
In this study, we consider the asymptotic behaviour of the first discrete Painlevé equation in the limit as the independent variable becomes large. Using an asymptotic series expansion, we identify two types of solutions which are pole-free within some sector of the complex plane containing the positive real axis. Using exponential asymptotic techniques, we determine Stokes phenomena effects present within these solutions, and hence the regions in which the asymptotic series expression is valid. From a careful analysis of the switching behaviour across Stokes lines, we find that the first type of solution is uniquely defined, while the second type contains two free parameters, and that the region of validity may be extended for appropriate choice of these parameters.
The choice of optimal Discrete Interaction Approximation to the kinetic integral for ocean waves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. G. Polnikov
2003-01-01
Full Text Available A lot of discrete configurations for the four-wave nonlinear interaction processes have been calculated and tested by the method proposed earlier in the frame of the concept of Fast Discrete Interaction Approximation to the Hasselmann's kinetic integral (Polnikov and Farina, 2002. It was found that there are several simple configurations, which are more efficient than the one proposed originally in Hasselmann et al. (1985. Finally, the optimal multiple Discrete Interaction Approximation (DIA to the kinetic integral for deep-water waves was found. Wave spectrum features have been intercompared for a number of different configurations of DIA, applied to a long-time solution of kinetic equation. On the basis of this intercomparison the better efficiency of the configurations proposed was confirmed. Certain recommendations were given for implementation of new approximations to the wave forecast practice.
Discrete-time sliding mode control for MR vehicle suspension system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sohn, J W; Choi, S B [Smart Structures and Systems Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Wereley, N M [Smart Structures Laboratory, Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)], E-mail: seungbok@inha.ac.kr
2009-02-01
This paper presents control performance of a full-vehicle suspension system featuring magnetorheological (MR) dampers via a discrete-time sliding mode control algorithm (DSMC). A cylindrical MR damper is designed by incorporating Bingham model of the MR fluid and the field-dependent damping characteristics of the MR damper are evaluated. A full-vehicle suspension model installed with independent four MR dampers is constructed and the governing equations which include vertical, pitch and roll motion are derived. A discrete-time control model is established with considering system uncertainties and a discrete-time sliding mode controller which has inherent robustness to model uncertainty and external disturbance is formulated. Vibration control performances under bump excitation are evaluated and presented.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kuimov Denis
2017-01-01
Full Text Available An alternative configuration of a device with a secondary discrete part using a magnetic system of a similar multi-phase inductor machine and concentrated windings without an internal rotor is proposed. An algorithm of sensorless control of a motion process of a secondary discrete part is proposed. The analysis of the distribution nature of the magnetic field for various switching algorithms is carried out to reduce negative influence of the “dead” zones of the first and second order. The features of the movement process of the secondary discrete part in the working chamber of the device are considered. The results of in the electromagnetic force change affecting a ferromagnetic working element are presented, and recommendations for the application of switching algorithms are given.
Discrete-time sliding mode control for MR vehicle suspension system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sohn, J W; Choi, S B; Wereley, N M
2009-01-01
This paper presents control performance of a full-vehicle suspension system featuring magnetorheological (MR) dampers via a discrete-time sliding mode control algorithm (DSMC). A cylindrical MR damper is designed by incorporating Bingham model of the MR fluid and the field-dependent damping characteristics of the MR damper are evaluated. A full-vehicle suspension model installed with independent four MR dampers is constructed and the governing equations which include vertical, pitch and roll motion are derived. A discrete-time control model is established with considering system uncertainties and a discrete-time sliding mode controller which has inherent robustness to model uncertainty and external disturbance is formulated. Vibration control performances under bump excitation are evaluated and presented.
Modelling Dowel Action of Discrete Reinforcing Bars in Cracked Concrete Structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kwan, A. K. H.; Ng, P. L.; Lam, J. Y. K.
2010-01-01
Dowel action is one of the component actions for shear force transfer in cracked reinforced concrete. In finite element analysis of concrete structures, the use of discrete representation of reinforcing bars is considered advantageous over the smeared representation due to the relative ease of modelling the bond-slip behaviour. However, there is very limited research on how to simulate the dowel action of discrete reinforcing bars. Herein, a numerical model for dowel action of discrete reinforcing bars crossing cracks in concrete is developed. The model features the derivation of dowel stiffness matrix based on beam-on-elastic-foundation theory and the direct assemblage of dowel stiffness into the concrete element stiffness matrices. The dowel action model is incorporated in a nonlinear finite element programme with secant stiffness formulation. Deep beams tested in the literature are analysed and it is found that the incorporation of dowel action model improves the accuracy of analysis.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
James G. Worner
2017-05-01
Full Text Available James Worner is an Australian-based writer and scholar currently pursuing a PhD at the University of Technology Sydney. His research seeks to expose masculinities lost in the shadow of Australia’s Anzac hegemony while exploring new opportunities for contemporary historiography. He is the recipient of the Doctoral Scholarship in Historical Consciousness at the university’s Australian Centre of Public History and will be hosted by the University of Bologna during 2017 on a doctoral research writing scholarship. ‘Parallel Lines’ is one of a collection of stories, The Shapes of Us, exploring liminal spaces of modern life: class, gender, sexuality, race, religion and education. It looks at lives, like lines, that do not meet but which travel in proximity, simultaneously attracted and repelled. James’ short stories have been published in various journals and anthologies.
Localized solutions for a nonlocal discrete NLS equation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ben, Roberto I. [Instituto de Desarrollo Humano, Universidad Nacional de General Sarmiento, J.M. Gutiérrez 1150, 1613 Los Polvorines (Argentina); Cisneros Ake, Luís [Department of Mathematics, ESFM, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Unidad Profesional Adolfo López Mateos Edificio 9, 07738 México D.F. (Mexico); Minzoni, A.A. [Depto. Matemáticas y Mecánica, I.I.M.A.S.-U.N.A.M., Apdo. Postal 20-726, 01000 México D.F. (Mexico); Panayotaros, Panayotis, E-mail: panos@mym.iimas.unam.mx [Depto. Matemáticas y Mecánica, I.I.M.A.S.-U.N.A.M., Apdo. Postal 20-726, 01000 México D.F. (Mexico)
2015-09-04
We study spatially localized time-periodic solutions of breather type for a cubic discrete NLS equation with a nonlocal nonlinearity that models light propagation in a liquid crystal waveguide array. We show the existence of breather solutions in the limit where both linear and nonlinear intersite couplings vanish, and in the limit where the linear coupling vanishes with arbitrary nonlinear intersite coupling. Breathers of this nonlocal regime exhibit some interesting features that depart from what is seen in the NLS breathers with power nonlinearity. One property we see theoretically is the presence of higher amplitude at interfaces between sites with zero and nonzero amplitude in the vanishing linear coupling limit. A numerical study also suggests the presence of internal modes of orbitally stable localized modes. - Highlights: • Show existence of spatially localized solutions in nonlocal discrete NLS model. • Study spatial properties of localized solutions for arbitrary nonlinear nonlocal coupling. • Present numerical evidence that nonlocality leads to internal modes around stable breathers. • Present theoretical and numerical evidence for amplitude maxima at interfaces.
Localized solutions for a nonlocal discrete NLS equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ben, Roberto I.; Cisneros Ake, Luís; Minzoni, A.A.; Panayotaros, Panayotis
2015-01-01
We study spatially localized time-periodic solutions of breather type for a cubic discrete NLS equation with a nonlocal nonlinearity that models light propagation in a liquid crystal waveguide array. We show the existence of breather solutions in the limit where both linear and nonlinear intersite couplings vanish, and in the limit where the linear coupling vanishes with arbitrary nonlinear intersite coupling. Breathers of this nonlocal regime exhibit some interesting features that depart from what is seen in the NLS breathers with power nonlinearity. One property we see theoretically is the presence of higher amplitude at interfaces between sites with zero and nonzero amplitude in the vanishing linear coupling limit. A numerical study also suggests the presence of internal modes of orbitally stable localized modes. - Highlights: • Show existence of spatially localized solutions in nonlocal discrete NLS model. • Study spatial properties of localized solutions for arbitrary nonlinear nonlocal coupling. • Present numerical evidence that nonlocality leads to internal modes around stable breathers. • Present theoretical and numerical evidence for amplitude maxima at interfaces
Granulation of snow: From tumbler experiments to discrete element simulations
Steinkogler, Walter; Gaume, Johan; Löwe, Henning; Sovilla, Betty; Lehning, Michael
2015-06-01
It is well known that snow avalanches exhibit granulation phenomena, i.e., the formation of large and apparently stable snow granules during the flow. The size distribution of the granules has an influence on flow behavior which, in turn, affects runout distances and avalanche velocities. The underlying mechanisms of granule formation are notoriously difficult to investigate within large-scale field experiments, due to limitations in the scope for measuring temperatures, velocities, and size distributions. To address this issue we present experiments with a concrete tumbler, which provide an appropriate means to investigate granule formation of snow. In a set of experiments at constant rotation velocity with varying temperatures and water content, we demonstrate that temperature has a major impact on the formation of granules. The experiments showed that granules only formed when the snow temperature exceeded -1∘C. No evolution in the granule size was observed at colder temperatures. Depending on the conditions, different granulation regimes are obtained, which are qualitatively classified according to their persistence and size distribution. The potential of granulation of snow in a tumbler is further demonstrated by showing that generic features of the experiments can be reproduced by cohesive discrete element simulations. The proposed discrete element model mimics the competition between cohesive forces, which promote aggregation, and impact forces, which induce fragmentation, and supports the interpretation of the granule regime classification obtained from the tumbler experiments. Generalizations, implications for flow dynamics, and experimental and model limitations as well as suggestions for future work are discussed.
Discrete space charge affected field emission: Flat and hemisphere emitters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jensen, Kevin L., E-mail: kevin.jensen@nrl.navy.mil [Code 6854, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Shiffler, Donald A.; Tang, Wilkin [Air Force Research Laboratory, Kirtland AFB, New Mexico 87117 (United States); Rittersdorf, Ian M. [Code 6770, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Lebowitz, Joel L. [Department of Mathematics and Department of Physics, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854-8019 (United States); Harris, John R. [U.S. Navy Reserve, New Orleans, Louisiana 70143 (United States); Lau, Y. Y. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Petillo, John J. [Leidos, Billerica, Massachusetts 01821 (United States); Luginsland, John W. [Physics and Electronics Directorate, AFOSR, Arlington, Virginia 22203 (United States)
2015-05-21
Models of space-charge affected thermal-field emission from protrusions, able to incorporate the effects of both surface roughness and elongated field emitter structures in beam optics codes, are desirable but difficult. The models proposed here treat the meso-scale diode region separate from the micro-scale regions characteristic of the emission sites. The consequences of discrete emission events are given for both one-dimensional (sheets of charge) and three dimensional (rings of charge) models: in the former, results converge to steady state conditions found by theory (e.g., Rokhlenko et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 107, 014904 (2010)]) but show oscillatory structure as they do. Surface roughness or geometric features are handled using a ring of charge model, from which the image charges are found and used to modify the apex field and emitted current. The roughness model is shown to have additional constraints related to the discrete nature of electron charge. The ability of a unit cell model to treat field emitter structures and incorporate surface roughness effects inside a beam optics code is assessed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ching, J.; Oblow, E.M.; Goldstein, H.
1976-01-01
An algebraic equivalence between the point-energy and multigroup forms of the Boltzmann transport equation is demonstrated that allows the development of a discrete energy, discrete ordinates method for the solution of radiation transport problems. In the discrete energy method, the group averaging required in the cross-section processing for multigroup calculations is replaced by a faster numerical quadrature scheme capable of generating transfer cross sections describing all the physical processes of interest on a fine point-energy grid. Test calculations in which the discrete energy method is compared with the multigroup method show that, for the same energy grid, the discrete energy method is much faster, although somewhat less accurate, than the multigroup method. However, the accuracy of the discrete energy method increases rapidly as the spacing between energy grid points is decreased, approaching that of multigroup calculations. For problems requiring great detail in the energy spectrum, the discrete energy method is therefore expected to be far more economical than the multigroup technique for equivalent accuracy solutions. This advantage of the point method is demonstrated by application to the study of neutron transport in a thick iron slab
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feng Baofeng; Maruno, Ken-ichi; Inoguchi, Jun-ichi; Kajiwara, Kenji; Ohta, Yasuhiro
2011-01-01
We consider integrable discretizations of some soliton equations associated with the motions of plane curves: the Wadati-Konno-Ichikawa elastic beam equation, the complex Dym equation and the short pulse equation. They are related to the modified KdV or the sine-Gordon equations by the hodograph transformations. Based on the observation that the hodograph transformations are regarded as the Euler-Lagrange transformations of the curve motions, we construct the discrete analogues of the hodograph transformations, which yield integrable discretizations of those soliton equations. (paper)
An innovative discrete multilevel sampler design
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marvin, B.K.; De Clercq, P.J.; Taylor, B.B.; Mauro, D.M.
1995-01-01
An innovative, small-diameter PVC discrete multilevel sampler (DMLS) was designed for the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to provide low-cost, discrete groundwater samples from shallow aquifers. When combined with appropriately-sized direct push soil sampling technologies, high resolution aquifer characterization can be achieved during initial site assessment or remediation monitoring activities. The sampler is constructed from 1-inch diameter PVC well materials, containing polyethylene tubing threaded through PVC disks. Self-expanding annular and internal bentonite seals were developed which isolate discrete sampling zones. The DMLS design allows customization of sampling and isolation zone lengths to suit site-specific goals. Installation of the DMLS is achieved using a temporary, expendable-tipped casting driven by direct push methods. This technique minimizes mobilization costs, site and soil column disturbances, and allows rapid installation in areas of limited overhead clearance. Successful pilot installations of the DMLS prototype have been made at a former manufactured gas plant (MGP) site and a diesel fuel spill site. Analysis of groundwater samples from these sites, using relative compound distributions and contaminant concentration profiling, confirmed that representative discrete samples were collected. This design provides both economical and versatile groundwater monitoring during all phases of site assessment and remediation
Integrated two-section discrete mode laser
Anandarajah, P.M.; Latkowski, S.; Browning, C.; Zhou, R.; O'Carroll, J.; Phelan, R.; Kelly, B.; O'Gorman, J.; Barry, L.P.
2012-01-01
The authors present the design and characterization of a novel integrated two-section discrete mode index patterned diode laser source. The two slotted regions etched into the laser ridge waveguide are formed in the same fabrication step as the ridge, thus avoiding the requirement for complex
About Multi-Heston SDE Discretization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tiberiu Socaciu
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract: in this paper we show how can estimate a financial derivative based on a support if assume for the support a Multi-Heston model.Keywords: Euler Maruyama discretization method, Monte Carlo simulation, Heston model, Double-Heston model, Multi-Heston model.
Transversals in non-discrete groups
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Transversals in non-discrete groups. RAMJI LAL and R P SHUKLA. Department of Mathematics, University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211 002, India. E-mail: ramjilal@mri.ernet.in; rps@mri.ernet.in. MS received 2 August 2004; revised 4 August 2005. Abstract. The concept of 'topological right transversal' is introduced to study ...
Attractors for discrete periodic dynamical systems
John E. Franke; James F. Selgrade
2003-01-01
A mathematical framework is introduced to study attractors of discrete, nonautonomous dynamical systems which depend periodically on time. A structure theorem for such attractors is established which says that the attractor of a time-periodic dynamical system is the unin of attractors of appropriate autonomous maps. If the nonautonomous system is a perturbation of an...
Model-Checking Discrete Duration Calculus
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Michael Reichhardt
1994-01-01
can do model-checking. The subset we consider is expressive enough to formalize the requirements to the gas burner system given by A.P. Ravn (1993); but only for a discrete time domain. Model-checking is done by reducing the correctness problem ℳ|=𝒟 to the inclusion problem of regular...
Discrete Events as Units of Perceived Time
Liverence, Brandon M.; Scholl, Brian J.
2012-01-01
In visual images, we perceive both space (as a continuous visual medium) and objects (that inhabit space). Similarly, in dynamic visual experience, we perceive both continuous time and discrete events. What is the relationship between these units of experience? The most intuitive answer may be similar to the spatial case: time is perceived as an…
Discrete dispersion models and their Tweedie asymptotics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, Bent; Kokonendji, Célestin C.
2016-01-01
The paper introduce a class of two-parameter discrete dispersion models, obtained by combining convolution with a factorial tilting operation, similar to exponential dispersion models which combine convolution and exponential tilting. The equidispersed Poisson model has a special place in this ap......The paper introduce a class of two-parameter discrete dispersion models, obtained by combining convolution with a factorial tilting operation, similar to exponential dispersion models which combine convolution and exponential tilting. The equidispersed Poisson model has a special place...... in this approach, whereas several overdispersed discrete distributions, such as the Neyman Type A, Pólya-Aeppli, negative binomial and Poisson-inverse Gaussian, turn out to be Poisson-Tweedie factorial dispersion models with power dispersion functions, analogous to ordinary Tweedie exponential dispersion models...... with power variance functions. Using the factorial cumulant generating function as tool, we introduce a dilation operation as a discrete analogue of scaling, generalizing binomial thinning. The Poisson-Tweedie factorial dispersion models are closed under dilation, which in turn leads to a Poisson...
Multivariate Discrete First Order Stochastic Dominance
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tarp, Finn; Østerdal, Lars Peter
This paper characterizes the principle of first order stochastic dominance in a multivariate discrete setting. We show that a distribution f first order stochastic dominates distribution g if and only if f can be obtained from g by iteratively shifting density from one outcome to another...
Discrete element modeling of subglacial sediment deformation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Damsgaard, Anders; Egholm, David L.; Piotrowski, Jan A.
2013-01-01
The Discrete Element Method (DEM) is used in this study to explore the highly nonlinear dynamics of a granular bed when exposed to stress conditions comparable to those at the bed of warm-based glaciers. Complementary to analog experiments, the numerical approach allows a detailed analysis...
Discrete variable representation for singular Hamiltonians
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schneider, B. I.; Nygaard, Nicolai
2004-01-01
We discuss the application of the discrete variable representation (DVR) to Schrodinger problems which involve singular Hamiltonians. Unlike recent authors who invoke transformations to rid the eigenvalue equation of singularities at the cost of added complexity, we show that an approach based...
Discrete choice models with multiplicative error terms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fosgerau, Mogens; Bierlaire, Michel
2009-01-01
The conditional indirect utility of many random utility maximization (RUM) discrete choice models is specified as a sum of an index V depending on observables and an independent random term ε. In general, the universe of RUM consistent models is much larger, even fixing some specification of V due...
Choice certainty in Discrete Choice Experiments
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Uggeldahl, Kennet Christian; Jacobsen, Catrine; Lundhede, Thomas
2016-01-01
In this study, we conduct a Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE) using eye tracking technology to investigate if eye movements during the completion of choice sets reveal information about respondents’ choice certainty. We hypothesise that the number of times that respondents shift their visual...
Ordinal Welfare Comparisons with Multiple Discrete Indicators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Arndt, Channing; Distante, Roberta; Hussain, M. Azhar
We develop an ordinal method for making welfare comparisons between populations with multidimensional discrete well-being indicators observed at the micro level. The approach assumes that, for each well-being indicator, the levels can be ranked from worse to better; however, no assumptions are made...
Discrete element modeling of subglacial sediment deformation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Damsgaard, Anders; Egholm, David L.; Piotrowski, Jan A.
The Discrete Element Method (DEM) is used to explore the highly nonlinear dynamics of a granular bed when exposed to stress conditions comparable to those at the bed of warm-based glaciers. In the DEM, the material is simulated on a grain-by-grain basis, and defining the micromechanical properties...