Sample records for discovered accreting millisecond

  1. General-relativistic Simulations of Four States of Accretion onto Millisecond Pulsars (United States)

    Parfrey, Kyle; Tchekhovskoy, Alexander


    Accreting neutron stars can power a wide range of astrophysical phenomena including short- and long-duration gamma-ray bursts, ultra-luminous X-ray sources, and X-ray binaries. Numerical simulations are a valuable tool for studying the accretion-disk–magnetosphere interaction that is central to these problems, most clearly for the recently discovered transitional millisecond pulsars. However, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) methods, widely used for simulating accretion, have difficulty in highly magnetized stellar magnetospheres, while force-free methods, suitable for such regions, cannot include the accreting gas. We present an MHD method that can stably evolve essentially force-free, highly magnetized regions, and describe the first time-dependent relativistic simulations of magnetized accretion onto millisecond pulsars. Our axisymmetric general-relativistic MHD simulations for the first time demonstrate how the interaction of a turbulent accretion flow with a pulsar’s electromagnetic wind can lead to the transition of an isolated pulsar to the accreting state. This transition naturally leads to the formation of relativistic jets, whose power can greatly exceed the power of the isolated pulsar’s wind. If the accretion rate is below a critical value, the pulsar instead expels the accretion stream. More generally, our simulations produce for the first time the four possible accretion regimes, in order of decreasing mass accretion rate: (a) crushed magnetosphere and direct accretion; (b) magnetically channeled accretion onto the stellar poles; (c) the propeller state, where material enters through the light cylinder but is prevented from accreting by the centrifugal barrier; (d) almost perfect exclusion of the accretion flow from the light cylinder by the pulsar wind.

  2. Orbital Evolution Measurement of the Accreting Millisecond X-ray ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Jan 27, 2016 ... We present results from a pulse timing analysis of the accretion-powered millisecond X-ray pulsar SAX J1808.4–3658 using X-ray data obtained during four outbursts of this source. Extensive observations were made with the proportional counter array of the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) during the ...

  3. Localization of thermonuclear burning in accreting millisecond pulsars (United States)

    Boutloukos, Stratos; Miller, Cole

    Nuclear-powered oscillations during Type-I X-ray bursts have so far revealed the spin of about twenty accreting millisecond pulsars in low-mass X-ray binaries. Constraining strong gravity through the emission from the hot spots on the neutron star surface requires understanding of the properties of such burst oscillations. We use adaptive mesh refinement hydrodynamical numerical computations to model the ignition and spreading of thermonuclear flames. Our preliminary simulations suggest that confinement of fuel is important for the localization of thermonuclear burning, like that required for the observed burst oscillations. This is consistent with spectral analyses of RXTE observations that we also present here. The software used in this work was in part developed by the DOE-supported ASCI/Alliances Center for Astrophysical Thermonuclear Flashes at the University of Chicago. This work was supported by NSF Grant AST0708424.

  4. Discovery of a new accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar in the globular cluster NGC 2808 (United States)

    Sanna, A.; Papitto, A.; Burderi, L.; Bozzo, E.; Riggio, A.; Di Salvo, T.; Ferrigno, C.; Rea, N.; Iaria, R.


    We report on the discovery of coherent pulsations at a period of 2.9 ms from the X-ray transient MAXI J0911-655 in the globular cluster NGC 2808. We observed X-ray pulsations at a frequency of 339.97 Hz in three different observations of the source performed with XMM-Newton and NuSTAR during the source outburst. This newly discovered accreting millisecond pulsar is part of an ultra-compact binary system characterised by an orbital period of 44.3 min and a projected semi-major axis of 17.6 lt-ms. Based on the mass function, we estimate a minimum companion mass of 0.024 M⊙, which assumes a neutron star mass of 1.4 M⊙ and a maximum inclination angle of 75° (derived from the lack of eclipses and dips in the light-curve of the source). We find that the Roche-lobe of the companion star could either be filled by a hot (5 × 106 K) pure helium white dwarf with a 0.028 M⊙ mass (implying I ≃ 58°) or an old (>5 Gyr) brown dwarf with metallicity abundances between solar/sub-solar and mass ranging in the interval 0.065 to 0.085 (16 < I < 21). During the outburst, the broad-band energy spectra are well described by a superposition of a weak black-body component (kT 0.5 keV) and a hard cut-off power-law with photon index Γ 1.7 and cut-off at a temperature kTe 130 keV. Up until the latest Swift-XRT observation performed on 19th July, 2016, the source had been observed in outburst for almost 150 days, which makes MAXI J0911-655 the second accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar with outburst duration longer than 100 days.

  5. Orbital Evolution Measurement of the Accreting Millisecond X-ray ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    powered millisecond X-ray pulsar SAX J1808.4–3658 using. X-ray data obtained during four outbursts of this source. Extensive obser- vations were made with the proportional counter array of the Rossi X-ray. Timing Explorer (RXTE) during the four ...

  6. Radio upper limits for the accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar IGR J17511-3057

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller-Jones, J.C.A.; Russell, D.M.; Migliari, S.


    We report on recent radio observations of the newly-detected accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar, IGR J17511-3057 (ATels #2196, #2197, #2198, #2199, #2215, #2216, #2220, #2221). We used the Very Large Array (VLA) to observe the source under observing program AM971. The array was in its relatively

  7. The Effect of Transient Accretion on the Spin-up of Millisecond Pulsars (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sudip; Chakrabarty, Deepto


    A millisecond pulsar is a neutron star that has been substantially spun up by accretion from a binary companion. A previously unrecognized factor governing the spin evolution of such pulsars is the crucial effect of nonsteady or transient accretion. We numerically compute the evolution of accreting neutron stars through a series of outburst and quiescent phases, considering the drastic variation of the accretion rate and the standard disk-magnetosphere interaction. We find that, for the same long-term average accretion rate, X-ray transients can spin up pulsars to rates several times higher than can persistent accretors, even when the spin-down due to electromagnetic radiation during quiescence is included. We also compute an analytical expression for the equilibrium spin frequency in transients, by taking spin equilibrium to mean that no net angular momentum is transferred to the neutron star in each outburst cycle. We find that the equilibrium spin rate for transients, which depends on the peak accretion rate during outbursts, can be much higher than that for persistent sources. This explains our numerical finding. This finding implies that any meaningful study of neutron star spin and magnetic field distributions requires the inclusion of the transient accretion effect, since most accreting neutron star sources are transients. Our finding also implies the existence of a submillisecond pulsar population, which is not observed. This may point to the need for a competing spin-down mechanism for the fastest-rotating accreting pulsars, such as gravitational radiation.

  8. Radio upper limits for the accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar IGR J17511-3057 (United States)

    Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Russell, D. M.; Migliari, S.


    We report on recent radio observations of the newly-detected accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar, IGR J17511-3057 (ATels #2196, #2197, #2198, #2199, #2215, #2216, #2220, #2221). We used the Very Large Array (VLA) to observe the source under observing program AM971. The array was in its relatively compact 'C' and 'DNC' configurations, and the observations were made at 8.46 GHz. In no case was the source significantly detected.

  9. Evidence for hot clumpy accretion flow in the transitional millisecond pulsar PSR J1023+0038 (United States)

    Shahbaz, T.; Dallilar, Y.; Garner, A.; Eikenberry, S.; Veledina, A.; Gandhi, P.


    We present simultaneous optical and near-infrared (IR) photometry of the millisecond pulsar PSR J1023+0038 during its low-mass X-ray binary phase. The r΄- and Ks-band light curves show rectangular, flat-bottomed dips, similar to the X-ray mode-switching (active-passive state transitions) behaviour observed previously. The cross-correlation function (CCF) of the optical and near-IR data reveals a strong, broad negative anti-correlation at negative lags, a broad positive correlation at positive lags, with a strong, positive narrow correlation superimposed. The shape of the CCF resembles the CCF of black hole X-ray binaries but the time-scales are different. The features can be explained by reprocessing and a hot accretion flow close to the neutron star's magnetospheric radius. The optical emission is dominated by the reprocessed component, whereas the near-IR emission contains the emission from plasmoids in the hot accretion flow and a reprocessed component. The rapid active-passive state transition occurs when the hot accretion flow material is channelled onto the neutron star and is expelled from its magnetosphere. During the transition the optical reprocessing component decreases resulting in the removal of a blue spectral component. The accretion of clumpy material through the magnetic barrier of the neutron star produces the observed near-IR/optical CCF and variability. The dip at negative lags corresponds to the suppression of the near-IR synchrotron component in the hot flow, whereas the broad positive correlation at positive lags is driven by the increased synchrotron emission of the outflowing plasmoids. The narrow peak in the CCF is due to the delayed reprocessed component, enhanced by the increased X-ray emission.

  10. System mass constraints for the accreting millisecond pulsar XTE J1814-338 using Bowen fluorescence (United States)

    Wang, L.; Steeghs, D.; Casares, J.; Charles, P. A.; Muñoz-Darias, T.; Marsh, T. R.; Hynes, R. I.; O'Brien, K.


    We present phase-resolved spectroscopy of the millisecond X-ray pulsar XTE J1814-338 obtained during its 2003 outburst. The spectra are dominated by high-excitation emission lines of He II λ4686, Hβ, and the Bowen blend C III/N III 4630-50 Å. We exploit the proven Bowen fluorescence technique to establish a complete set of dynamical system parameter constraints using bootstrap Doppler tomography, a first for an accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar binary. The reconstructed Doppler map of the N III λ4640 Bowen transition exhibits a statistically significant (>4σ) spot feature at the expected position of the companion star. If this feature is driven by irradiation of the surface of the Roche lobe filling companion, we derive a strict lower limit to the true radial velocity semi-amplitude K2. Combining our donor constraint with the well-constrained orbit of the neutron star leads to a determination of the binary mass ratio: q = 0.123^{+0.012}_{-0.010}. The component masses are not tightly constrained given our lack of knowledge of the binary inclination. We cannot rule out a canonical neutron star mass of 1.4 M⊙ (1.1 M⊙ < M1 < 3.1 M⊙; 95 per cent). The 68/95 per cent confidence limits of M2 are consistent with the companion being a significantly bloated, M-type main-sequence star. Our findings, combined with results from studies of the quiescent optical counterpart of XTE J1814-338, suggest the presence of a rotation-powered millisecond pulsar in XTE J1814-338 during an X-ray quiescent state. The companion mass is typical of the so-called redback pulsar binary systems (M2 ˜ 0.2 M⊙).

  11. Einstein@Home discovers a radio-quiet gamma-ray millisecond pulsar (United States)

    Clark, Colin J.; Pletsch, Holger J.; Wu, Jason; Guillemot, Lucas; Kerr, Matthew; Johnson, Tyrel J.; Camilo, Fernando; Salvetti, David; Allen, Bruce; Anderson, David; Aulbert, Carsten; Beer, Christian; Bock, Oliver; Cuéllar, Andres; Eggenstein, Heinz-Bernd; Fehrmann, Henning; Kramer, Michael; Kwang, Shawn A.; Machenschalk, Bernd; Nieder, Lars; Ackermann, Markus; Ajello, Marco; Baldini, Luca; Ballet, Jean; Barbiellini, Guido; Bastieri, Denis; Bellazzini, Ronaldo; Bissaldi, Elisabetta; Blandford, Roger D.; Bloom, Elliott D.; Bonino, Raffaella; Bottacini, Eugenio; Brandt, Terri J.; Bregeon, Johan; Bruel, Philippe; Buehler, Rolf; Burnett, Toby H.; Buson, Sara; Cameron, Rob A.; Caputo, Regina; Caraveo, Patrizia A.; Cavazzuti, Elisabetta; Cecchi, Claudia; Charles, Eric; Chekhtman, Alexandre; Ciprini, Stefano; Cominsky, Lynn R.; Costantin, Denise; Cutini, Sara; D’Ammando, Filippo; De Luca, Andrea; Desiante, Rachele; Di Venere, Leonardo; Di Mauro, Mattia; Di Lalla, Niccolò; Digel, Seth W.; Favuzzi, Cecilia; Ferrara, Elizabeth C.; Franckowiak, Anna; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Funk, Stefan; Fusco, Piergiorgio; Gargano, Fabio; Gasparrini, Dario; Giglietto, Nico; Giordano, Francesco; Giroletti, Marcello; Gomez-Vargas, Germán A.; Green, David; Grenier, Isabelle A.; Guiriec, Sylvain; Harding, Alice K.; Hewitt, John W.; Horan, Deirdre; Jóhannesson, Guðlaugur; Kensei, Shiki; Kuss, Michael; La Mura, Giovanni; Larsson, Stefan; Latronico, Luca; Li, Jian; Longo, Francesco; Loparco, Francesco; Lovellette, Michael N.; Lubrano, Pasquale; Magill, Jeffrey D.; Maldera, Simone; Manfreda, Alberto; Mazziotta, Mario N.; McEnery, Julie E.; Michelson, Peter F.; Mirabal, Nestor; Mitthumsiri, Warit; Mizuno, Tsunefumi; Monzani, Maria Elena; Morselli, Aldo; Moskalenko, Igor V.; Nuss, Eric; Ohsugi, Takashi; Omodei, Nicola; Orienti, Monica; Orlando, Elena; Palatiello, Michele; Paliya, Vaidehi S.; de Palma, Francesco; Paneque, David; Perkins, Jeremy S.; Persic, Massimo; Pesce-Rollins, Melissa; Porter, Troy A.; Principe, Giacomo; Rainò, Silvia; Rando, Riccardo; Ray, Paul S.; Razzano, Massimiliano; Reimer, Anita; Reimer, Olaf; Romani, Roger W.; Saz Parkinson, Pablo M.; Sgrò, Carmelo; Siskind, Eric J.; Smith, David A.; Spada, Francesca; Spandre, Gloria; Spinelli, Paolo; Thayer, Jana B.; Thompson, David J.; Torres, Diego F.; Troja, Eleonora; Vianello, Giacomo; Wood, Kent; Wood, Matthew


    Millisecond pulsars (MSPs) are old neutron stars that spin hundreds of times per second and appear to pulsate as their emission beams cross our line of sight. To date, radio pulsations have been detected from all rotation-powered MSPs. In an attempt to discover radio-quiet gamma-ray MSPs, we used the aggregated power from the computers of tens of thousands of volunteers participating in the Einstein@Home distributed computing project to search for pulsations from unidentified gamma-ray sources in Fermi Large Area Telescope data. This survey discovered two isolated MSPs, one of which is the only known rotation-powered MSP to remain undetected in radio observations. These gamma-ray MSPs were discovered in completely blind searches without prior constraints from other observations, raising hopes for detecting MSPs from a predicted Galactic bulge population. PMID:29503868

  12. Einstein@Home discovers a radio-quiet gamma-ray millisecond pulsar. (United States)

    Clark, Colin J; Pletsch, Holger J; Wu, Jason; Guillemot, Lucas; Kerr, Matthew; Johnson, Tyrel J; Camilo, Fernando; Salvetti, David; Allen, Bruce; Anderson, David; Aulbert, Carsten; Beer, Christian; Bock, Oliver; Cuéllar, Andres; Eggenstein, Heinz-Bernd; Fehrmann, Henning; Kramer, Michael; Kwang, Shawn A; Machenschalk, Bernd; Nieder, Lars; Ackermann, Markus; Ajello, Marco; Baldini, Luca; Ballet, Jean; Barbiellini, Guido; Bastieri, Denis; Bellazzini, Ronaldo; Bissaldi, Elisabetta; Blandford, Roger D; Bloom, Elliott D; Bonino, Raffaella; Bottacini, Eugenio; Brandt, Terri J; Bregeon, Johan; Bruel, Philippe; Buehler, Rolf; Burnett, Toby H; Buson, Sara; Cameron, Rob A; Caputo, Regina; Caraveo, Patrizia A; Cavazzuti, Elisabetta; Cecchi, Claudia; Charles, Eric; Chekhtman, Alexandre; Ciprini, Stefano; Cominsky, Lynn R; Costantin, Denise; Cutini, Sara; D'Ammando, Filippo; De Luca, Andrea; Desiante, Rachele; Di Venere, Leonardo; Di Mauro, Mattia; Di Lalla, Niccolò; Digel, Seth W; Favuzzi, Cecilia; Ferrara, Elizabeth C; Franckowiak, Anna; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Funk, Stefan; Fusco, Piergiorgio; Gargano, Fabio; Gasparrini, Dario; Giglietto, Nico; Giordano, Francesco; Giroletti, Marcello; Gomez-Vargas, Germán A; Green, David; Grenier, Isabelle A; Guiriec, Sylvain; Harding, Alice K; Hewitt, John W; Horan, Deirdre; Jóhannesson, Guðlaugur; Kensei, Shiki; Kuss, Michael; La Mura, Giovanni; Larsson, Stefan; Latronico, Luca; Li, Jian; Longo, Francesco; Loparco, Francesco; Lovellette, Michael N; Lubrano, Pasquale; Magill, Jeffrey D; Maldera, Simone; Manfreda, Alberto; Mazziotta, Mario N; McEnery, Julie E; Michelson, Peter F; Mirabal, Nestor; Mitthumsiri, Warit; Mizuno, Tsunefumi; Monzani, Maria Elena; Morselli, Aldo; Moskalenko, Igor V; Nuss, Eric; Ohsugi, Takashi; Omodei, Nicola; Orienti, Monica; Orlando, Elena; Palatiello, Michele; Paliya, Vaidehi S; de Palma, Francesco; Paneque, David; Perkins, Jeremy S; Persic, Massimo; Pesce-Rollins, Melissa; Porter, Troy A; Principe, Giacomo; Rainò, Silvia; Rando, Riccardo; Ray, Paul S; Razzano, Massimiliano; Reimer, Anita; Reimer, Olaf; Romani, Roger W; Saz Parkinson, Pablo M; Sgrò, Carmelo; Siskind, Eric J; Smith, David A; Spada, Francesca; Spandre, Gloria; Spinelli, Paolo; Thayer, Jana B; Thompson, David J; Torres, Diego F; Troja, Eleonora; Vianello, Giacomo; Wood, Kent; Wood, Matthew


    Millisecond pulsars (MSPs) are old neutron stars that spin hundreds of times per second and appear to pulsate as their emission beams cross our line of sight. To date, radio pulsations have been detected from all rotation-powered MSPs. In an attempt to discover radio-quiet gamma-ray MSPs, we used the aggregated power from the computers of tens of thousands of volunteers participating in the Einstein@Home distributed computing project to search for pulsations from unidentified gamma-ray sources in Fermi Large Area Telescope data. This survey discovered two isolated MSPs, one of which is the only known rotation-powered MSP to remain undetected in radio observations. These gamma-ray MSPs were discovered in completely blind searches without prior constraints from other observations, raising hopes for detecting MSPs from a predicted Galactic bulge population.

  13. Quasi-periodic Pulse Amplitude Modulation in the Accreting Millisecond Pulsar IGR J00291+5934

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bult, Peter [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Doesburgh, Marieke van; Klis, Michiel van der [Anton Pannekoek Institute, University of Amsterdam, Postbus 94249, 1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands)


    We introduce a new method for analyzing the aperiodic variability of coherent pulsations in accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars (AMXPs). Our method involves applying a complex frequency correction to the time-domain light curve, allowing for the aperiodic modulation of the pulse amplitude to be robustly extracted in the frequency domain. We discuss the statistical properties of the resulting modulation spectrum and show how it can be correlated with the non-pulsed emission to determine if the periodic and aperiodic variability are coupled processes. Using this method, we study the 598.88 Hz coherent pulsations of the AMXP IGR J00291+5934 as observed with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer and XMM-Newton . We demonstrate that our method easily confirms the known coupling between the pulsations and a strong 8 mHz quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) in XMM-Newton observations. Applying our method to the RXTE observations, we further show, for the first time, that the much weaker 20 mHz QPO and its harmonic are also coupled with the pulsations. We discuss the implications of this coupling and indicate how it may be used to extract new information on the underlying accretion process.

  14. On the morphology of outbursts of accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar Aquila X-1 (United States)

    Güngör, C.; Ekşi, K. Y.; Göğüş, E.


    We present the X-ray light curves of the last two outbursts - 2014 & 2016 - of the well known accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar (AMXP) Aquila X-1 using the monitor of all sky X-ray image (MAXI) observations in the 2-20 keV band. After calibrating the MAXI count rates to the all-sky monitor (ASM) level, we report that the 2016 outburst is the most energetic event of Aql X-1, ever observed from this source. We show that 2016 outburst is a member of the long-high class according to the classification presented by Güngör et al. with ˜ 68 cnt/s maximum flux and ˜ 60 days duration time and the previous outburst, 2014, belongs to the short-low class with ˜ 25 cnt/s maximum flux and ˜ 30 days duration time. In order to understand differences between outbursts, we investigate the possible dependence of the peak intensity to the quiescent duration leading to the outburst and find that the outbursts following longer quiescent episodes tend to reach higher peak energetic.

  15. IGR J17062–6143 Is an Accreting Millisecond X-Ray Pulsar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strohmayer, Tod [Astrophysics Science Division and Joint Space-Science Institute, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Keek, Laurens [X-ray Astrophysics Laboratory, NASA/GSFC and CRESST and the Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)


    We present the discovery of 163.65 Hz X-ray pulsations from IGR J17062−6143 in the only observation obtained from the source with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer . This detection makes IGR J17062−6143 the lowest-frequency accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar presently known. The pulsations are detected in the 2–12 keV band with an overall significance of 4.3 σ and an observed pulsed amplitude of 5.54% ± 0.67% (in this band). Both dynamic power spectral and coherent phase timing analysis indicate that the pulsation frequency is decreasing during the ≈1.2 ks observation in a manner consistent with orbital motion of the neutron star. Because the observation interval is short, we cannot precisely measure the orbital period; however, periods shorter than 17 minutes are excluded at 90% confidence. For the range of acceptable circular orbits the inferred binary mass function substantially overlaps the observed range for the AMXP population as a whole.

  16. Swinging between rotation and accretion power in a binary millisecond pulsar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papitto A.


    While accreting mass, the X-ray emission of IGR J18245–2452 varies dramatically on time-scales ranging from a second to a few hours. We interpret a state characterised by a lower flux and pulsed fraction, and by sudden increases of the hardness of the X-ray emission, in terms of the onset of a magnetospheric centrifugal inhibition of the accretion flow. Prospects of finding new members of the newly established class of transitional pulsars are also briefly discussed.

  17. New outburst of the accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar NGC 6440 X-2 and discovery of a strong 1 Hz modulation in the light-curve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patruno, A.; Yang, Y.; Altamirano, D.; Armas-Padilla, M.; Cavecchi, Y.; Degenaar, N.; Kalamkar, M.; Kaur, R.; Klis, M. Van Der; Watts, A.; Wijnands, R.; Linares, M.; Casella, P.; Rea, N.; Soleri, P.; Markwardt, C.; Strohmayer, T.; Heinke, C.

    On June 11th, 2010, RXTE/PCA galactic bulge scan observations showed an increase in activity from the globular cluster NGC 6440. Two accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars (AMXPs) and 22 other X-ray binaries are known in NGC 6440 (see Pooley et al. 2002, ApJ 573, 184, Altarmirano et al. 2010, ApJL 712,

  18. Multi-wavelength emissions from the millisecond pulsar binary PSR J1023+0038 during an accretion active state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takata, J.; Leung, Gene C. K.; Wu, E. M. H.; Cheng, K. S. [Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Li, K. L.; Kong, A. K. H.; Tam, P. H. T. [Institute of Astronomy and Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Hui, C. Y. [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Xing, Yi; Wang, Zhongxiang [Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Cao, Yi; Tang, Sumin, E-mail:, E-mail: [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)


    Recent observations strongly suggest that the millisecond pulsar binary PSR J1023+0038 has developed an accretion disk since 2013 June. We present a multi-wavelength analysis of PSR J1023+0038, which reveals that (1) its gamma-rays suddenly brightened within a few days in 2013 June/July and has remained at a high gamma-ray state for several months; (2) both UV and X-ray fluxes have increased by roughly an order of magnitude; and (3) the spectral energy distribution has changed significantly after the gamma-ray sudden flux change. Time variabilities associated with UV and X-rays are on the order of 100-500 s and 50-100 s, respectively. Our model suggests that a newly formed accretion disk, due to the sudden increase of the stellar wind, could explain the changes of all these observed features. The increase of UV is emitted from the disk, and a new component in gamma-rays is produced by inverse Compton scattering between the new UV component and pulsar wind. The increase of X-rays results from the enhancement of injection pulsar wind energy into the intra-binary shock due to the increase of the stellar wind. We also predict that the radio pulses may be blocked by the evaporated winds from the disk, and the pulsar is still powered by rotation.

  19. Swift follow-up of the newly discovered burster millisecond pulsar IGR J17511-3057

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozzo, E.; Ferrigno, C.; Kuulkers, E.


    Following the discovery of the new hard X-ray transient IGR J17511-3057 by INTEGRAL (Atel #2196) and its classification as a millisecond pulsar by RXTE (Atel #2197), a Swift ToO was performed. Swift/XRT observed IGR J17511-3057 on 2009-09-13 at 19:53:31 for a total exposure time of 4 ks. The firs...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deneva, J. S.; Camilo, F. [Arecibo Observatory, HC3 Box 53995, Arecibo, PR 00612 (United States); Freire, P. C. C.; Champion, D. J.; Desvignes, G. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Cordes, J. M.; Brazier, A.; Chatterjee, S. [Astronomy Department, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Lyne, A. G. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Ransom, S. M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Cognard, I. [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie de l' Environnement et de l' Espace, LPC2E, CNRS et Universite d' Orleans, and Station de radioastronomie de Nancay, Observatoire de Paris (France); Nice, D. J. [Department of Physics, Lafayette College, Easton, PA 18042 (United States); Stairs, I. H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Allen, B. [Albert-Einstein-Institut, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Bhat, N. D. R. [Center for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Bogdanov, S. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Crawford, F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Franklin and Marshall College, P.O. Box 3003, Lancaster, PA 17604 (United States); Hessels, J. W. T. [ASTRON, Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, Postbus 2, 7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Jenet, F. A. [Center for Gravitational Wave Astronomy, University of Texas at Brownsville, Brownsville, TX 78520 (United States); Kaspi, V. M. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 rue Universite, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); and others


    We present two millisecond pulsar discoveries from the PALFA survey of the Galactic plane with the Arecibo telescope. PSR J1955+2527 is an isolated pulsar with a period of 4.87 ms, and PSR J1949+3106 has a period of 13.14 ms and is in a 1.9 day binary system with a massive companion. Their timing solutions, based on 4 years of timing measurements with the Arecibo, Green Bank, Nancay, and Jodrell Bank telescopes, allow precise determination of spin and astrometric parameters, including precise determinations of their proper motions. For PSR J1949+3106, we can clearly detect the Shapiro delay. From this we measure the pulsar mass to be 1.47{sup +0.43}{sub -0.31} M{sub Sun }, the companion mass to be 0.85{sup +0.14}{sub -0.11} M{sub Sun }, and the orbital inclination to be i = 79.9{sup -1.9}{sub +1.6} deg, where uncertainties correspond to {+-}1{sigma} confidence levels. With continued timing, we expect to also be able to detect the advance of periastron for the J1949+3106 system. This effect, combined with the Shapiro delay, will eventually provide very precise mass measurements for this system and a test of general relativity.

  1. X-ray coherent pulsations during a sub-luminous accretion disc state of the transitional millisecond pulsar XSS J12270-4859 (United States)

    Papitto, A.; de Martino, D.; Belloni, T. M.; Burgay, M.; Pellizzoni, A.; Possenti, A.; Torres, D. F.


    We present the first detection of X-ray coherent pulsations from the transitional millisecond pulsar XSS J12270-4859, while it was in a sub-luminous accretion disc state characterized by a 0.5-10 keV luminosity of 5 × 1033 erg s-1 (assuming a distance of 1.4 kpc). Pulsations were observed by XMM-Newton at an rms amplitude of (7.7 ± 0.5) per cent with a second harmonic stronger than the fundamental frequency, and were detected when the source is neither flaring nor dipping. The most likely interpretation of this detection is that matter from the accretion disc was channelled by the neutron star magnetosphere and accreted on to its polar caps. According to standard disc accretion theory, for pulsations to be observed the mass inflow rate in the disc was likely larger than the amount of plasma actually reaching the neutron star surface; an outflow launched by the fast rotating magnetosphere then probably took place, in agreement with the observed broad-band spectral energy distribution. We also report about the non-detection of X-ray pulsations during a recent observation performed while the source behaved as a rotationally-powered radio pulsar.

  2. Binary and Millisecond Pulsars


    Lorimer, D. R.


    We review the main properties, demographics and applications of binary and millisecond radio pulsars. Our knowledge of these exciting objects has greatly increased in recent years, mainly due to successful surveys which have brought the known pulsar population to over 1800. There are now 83 binary and millisecond pulsars associated with the disk of our Galaxy, and a further 140 pulsars in 26 of the Galactic globular clusters. Recent highlights include the discovery of the young relativistic b...

  3. Probing neutron star physics using accreting neutron stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patruno, A.


    We give an obervational overview of the accreting neutron stars systems as probes of neutron star physics. In particular we focus on the results obtained from the periodic timing of accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars in outburst and from the measurement of X-ray spectra of accreting neutron stars

  4. Binary and Millisecond Pulsars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorimer Duncan R.


    Full Text Available We review the main properties, demographics and applications of binary and millisecond radio pulsars. Our knowledge of these exciting objects has greatly increased in recent years, mainly due to successful surveys which have brought the known pulsar population to over 1800. There are now 83 binary and millisecond pulsars associated with the disk of our Galaxy, and a further 140 pulsars in 26 of the Galactic globular clusters. Recent highlights include the discovery of the young relativistic binary system PSR J1906+0746, a rejuvination in globular cluster pulsar research including growing numbers of pulsars with masses in excess of 1.5M_⊙, a precise measurement of relativistic spin precession in the double pulsar system and a Galactic millisecond pulsar in an eccentric (e = 0.44 orbit around an unevolved companion.

  5. Binary and Millisecond Pulsars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan R. Lorimer


    Full Text Available Our knowledge of binary and millisecond pulsars has greatly increased in recent years. This is largely due to the success of large-area surveys which have brought the known population of such systems in the Galactic disk to around 50. As well as being interesting as a population of astronomical sources, many pulsars turn out to be superb celestial clocks. In this review we summarise the main properties of binary and millisecond pulsars and highlight some of their applications to relativistic astrophysics.

  6. Binary and Millisecond Pulsars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorimer Duncan R.


    Full Text Available We review the main properties, demographics and applications of binary and millisecond radio pulsars. Our knowledge of these exciting objects has greatly increased in recent years, mainly due to successful surveys which have brought the known pulsar population to over 1700. There are now 80 binary and millisecond pulsars associated with the disk of our Galaxy, and a further 103 pulsars in 24 of the Galactic globular clusters. Recent highlights have been the discovery of the first ever double pulsar system and a recent flurry of discoveries in globular clusters, in particular Terzan 5.

  7. Orbital Evolution Measurement of the Accreting Millisecond X-ray ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    have included a table of the 27 mid-eclipse time measurements of this source that will be valuable for further studies of the orbital evolution of the source, especially with ASTROSAT. We point out that the measured rate of orbital period evolution is considerably faster than the most commonly discussed mechanisms of orbital ...

  8. RXTE PCA and Swift BAT detects the millisecond pulsar Swift J1756.9-2508 in outburst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patruno, A.; Markwardt, C.B.; Strohmayer, T.E.; Swank, J.H.; Smith, S.E.; Pereira, D.


    We report a detection of increased activity of the accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar Swift J1756.9-2508 observed with the RXTE-PCA monitoring on July 8, 9hr UTC. Increased flux is detected simultaneously on the Swift-BAT camera. RXTE-PCA follow up observations starting on July 13, 23hr UTC,

  9. NuSTAR Observations of the State Transition of Millisecond Pulsar Binary PSR J1023+0038

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tendulkar, S.P.; Yang, C.; An, H.; Kaspi, V.M.; Archibald, A.M.; Bassa, C.; Bellm, E.; Bogdanov, S.; Harrison, F.A.; Hessels, J.W.T.; Janssen, G.H.; Lyne, A.G.; Patruno, A.; Stappers, B.; Stern, D.; Tomsick, J.A.; Boggs, S.; Chakrabarty, D.; Christensen, F.E.; Craig, W.W.; Hailey, C.A.; Zhang, W.


    We report NuSTAR observations of the millisecond pulsar-low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) transition system PSR J1023+0038 from 2013 June and October, before and after the formation of an accretion disk around the neutron star. Between June 10 and 12, a few days to two weeks before the radio

  10. Discovery of a Second Millesecond Accreting Pulsar: XTE J1751-305 (United States)

    Markwardt, C. B.; Swank, J. H.; Strohmayer, T. E.; intZand, J. J. M.; Marshall, F. E.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)


    We report the discovery by the RXTE PCA of a second transient accreting millisecond pulsar, XTE J1751-305, during regular monitoring observations of the galactic bulge region. The pulsar has a spin frequency of 435 Hz, making it one of the fastest pulsars. The pulsations contain the signature of orbital Doppler modulation, which implies an orbital period of 42 minutes, the shortest orbital period of any known radio or X-ray millisecond pulsar. The mass function, f(sub x) = (1.278 +/- 0.003) x 10 (exp -6) solar mass, yields a minimum mass for the companion of between 0.013 and 0.0017 solar mass depending on the mass of the neutron star. No eclipses were detected. A previous X-ray outburst in June, 1998, was discovered in archival All-Sky Monitor data. Assuming mass transfer in this binary system is driven by gravitational radiation, we constrain the orbital inclination to be in the range 30 deg-85 deg and the companion mass to be 0.013-0.035 solar mass. The companion is most likely a heated helium dwarf. We also present results from the Chandra HRC-S observations which provide the best known position of XTE J1751-305.

  11. Models for the formation of binary and millisecond radio pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van den Heuvel, E.P.J.


    The peculiar combination of a relatively short pulse period and a relatively weak surface dipole magnetic field strength of binary radio pulsars finds a consistent explanation in terms of: (i) decay of the surface dipole component of neutron star magnetic fields on a timescale of (2-5).10 6 yrs, in combination with: (ii) spin up of the rotation of the neutron star during a subsequent mass-transfer phase. The two observed classes of binary radio pulsars (very close and very wide systems, respectively) are expected to have been formed by the later evolution of binaries consisting of a neutron star and a normal companion star, in which the companion was (considerably) more massive than the neutron star, or less massive than the neutron star, respectively. In the first case the companion of the neutron star in the final system will be a fairly massive white dwarf, in a circular orbit, or a neutron star in an eccentric orbit. In the second case the final companion to the neutron star will be a low-mass (approx. 0.3 Msub solar) helium white dwarf in a wide and nearly circular orbit. In systems of the second type the neutron star was most probably formed by the accretion-induced collapse of a white dwarf. This explains why PSR 1953+29 has a millisecond rotation period and why PSR 0820+02 has not. Binary coalescence models for the formation of the 1.5 millisecond pulsar appear to be viable. The companion to the neutron star may have been a low-mass red dwarf, a neutron star, or a massive (> 0.7 Msub solar) white dwarf. In the red-dwarf case the progenitor system probably was a CV binary in which the white dwarf collapsed by accretion. 66 references, 6 figures, 1 table

  12. The Braking Index of Millisecond Magnetars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lasky, P.D.; Leris, C.; Rowlinson, A.; Glampedakis, K.


    We make the first measurement of the braking index n of two putative millisecond magnetars born in short gamma-ray bursts. We measure n = 2.9 ± 0.1 and n = 2.6 ± 0.1 for millisecond magnetars born in GRB 130603B and GRB 140903A, respectively. The neutron star born in GRB 130603B has the only known a

  13. Discovering Wavelets

    CERN Document Server

    Aboufadel, Edward


    An accessible and practical introduction to wavelets. With applications in image processing, audio restoration, seismology, and elsewhere, wavelets have been the subject of growing excitement and interest over the past several years. Unfortunately, most books on wavelets are accessible primarily to research mathematicians. Discovering Wavelets presents basic and advanced concepts of wavelets in a way that is accessible to anyone with only a fundamental knowledge of linear algebra. The basic concepts of wavelet theory are introduced in the context of an explanation of how the FBI uses wavelets


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shannon, R. M.; Kerr, M.; Dai, S.; Hobbs, G.; Manchester, R. N.; Reardon, D. J.; Toomey, L. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Australia Telescope National Facility, Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Lentati, L. T. [Astrophysics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Bailes, M.; Osłowski, S.; Rosado, P. A.; Van Straten, W. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Bhat, N. D. R. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, Bentley, WA 6102 (Australia); Coles, W. A. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Dempsey, J. [CSIRO Information Management and Technology, Box 225, Dickson, ACT 2602 (Australia); Keith, M. J. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, University of Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Lasky, P. D.; Levin, Y. [Monash Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia); Ravi, V. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Spiewak, R., E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Box 413, Milwaukee, WI 53201 (United States); and others


    Pulsar timing has enabled some of the strongest tests of fundamental physics. Central to the technique is the assumption that the detected radio pulses can be used to accurately measure the rotation of the pulsar. Here, we report on a broadband variation in the pulse profile of the millisecond pulsar J1643−1224. A new component of emission suddenly appears in the pulse profile, decays over four months, and results in a permanently modified pulse shape. Profile variations such as these may be the origin of timing noise observed in other millisecond pulsars. The sensitivity of pulsar-timing observations to gravitational radiation can be increased by accounting for this variability.

  15. Millisecond Pulsar Companions in SDSS and Pan-Starrs (United States)

    McMann, Natasha; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; McLaughlin, Maura; Kaplan, David; NANOGrav


    Millisecond pulsars (MSPs) are being timed precisely in hopes of detecting gravitational waves (GWs). In order to detect GWs, pulsars must be studied in great detail. The perturbations in timing caused by binaries must be determined so as not to confuse them with a GW perturbation. This study used a list of published MSPs to determine if any known MSP’s white dwarf companions are located and visible in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System (Pan-Starrs) Footprints. No new possible companions were discovered but five objects were found in the SDSS and 18, including the same five from SDSS, were found in Pan-Starrs that could be the companion to an MSP. All objects are less than 1.5 arcseconds away from the MSP’s position. In order to verify the object as the companion, the color magnitudes must be compared to those previously published.

  16. High-Energy Emission at Shocks in Millisecond Pulsar Binaries (United States)

    Kust Harding, Alice; Wadiasingh, Zorawar; Venter, Christo; Boettcher, Markus


    A large number of new Black Widow (BW) and Redback (RB) energetic millisecond pulsars have been discovered through radio searches of unidentified Fermi sources, increasing the known number of these systems from 4 to 28. We model the high-energy emission components from particles accelerated to several TeV in intrabinary shocks in BW and RB systems, and their predicted modulation at the binary orbital period. Synchrotron emission is expected at X-ray energies and such modulated emission has already been detected by Chandra and XMM. Inverse Compton emission from accelerated particles scattering the UV emission from the radiated companion star is expected in the Fermi and TeV bands. Detections or constraints on this emission will probe the unknown physics of pulsar winds.

  17. High energy transients: The millisecond domain

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A. R. RAO


    Feb 9, 2018 ... The search for high energy transients in the millisecond domain has come to the focus in recent ... ulation of transients in the high energy domain with .... The ATLAS col- laboration reported a object called ATLAS17aeu: a fading optical object from the same general direction as GW170104. This object was ...

  18. Direct observational upper limit to gravitational radiation from millisecond pulsar PSR 1937+214

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hough, J.; Ward, H.; Munley, A.J.; Newton, G.P.; Meers, B.J.; Hoggan, S.; Kerr, G.A.


    The results are reported of a search for gravitational radiation from the newly discovered millisecond pulsar PSR 1937+214 with the high rotational rate of 642 Hz. An upper limit to the gravitational wave amplitude was found at twice the pulsar rotation frequency, the observed output from a gravitational wave detector corresponding at this frequency to an amplitude of (0.8sub(-0.8)sup(+1.5) x 10 - 20 ). (U.K.)

  19. Discovering Technicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    R. Andersen, J.; Antipin, O.; Azuelos, G.


    We provide a pedagogical introduction to extensions of the Standard Model in which the Higgs is composite. These extensions are known as models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking or, in brief, Technicolor. Material covered includes: motivations for Technicolor, the construction of underly...... the relevant experimental benchmarks for Vanilla, Running, Walking, and Custodial Technicolor, and a natural fourth family of leptons, by laying out the framework to discover these models at the Large Hadron Collider....... of underlying gauge theories leading to minimal models of Technicolor, the comparison with electroweak precision data, the low energy effective theory, the spectrum of the states common to most of the Technicolor models, the decays of the composite particles and the experimental signals at the Large Hadron...... Collider. The level of the presentation is aimed at readers familiar with the Standard Model but who have little or no prior exposure to Technicolor. Several extensions of the Standard Model featuring a composite Higgs can be reduced to the effective Lagrangian introduced in the text. We establish...

  20. New Pulsars Discovered in Arecibo Drift-Scan Searches


    McLaughlin, M. A.; Lorimer, D. R.; Champion, D. J.; Xilouris, K.; Arzoumanian, Z.; Backer, D. C.; Cordes, J. M.; Lommen, A. N.; Fruchter, A. S.


    We report on new pulsars discovered in Arecibo drift-scan data. Processing of 2200 square degrees of data has resulted in the detection of 41 known and 12 new pulsars. New pulsars include two millisecond pulsars, one solitary and one binary recycled pulsar, and one pulsar with very unusual pulse profile morphology and complex drifting subpulse behavior.

  1. Gravitational wave emission from oscillating millisecond pulsars (United States)

    Alford, Mark G.; Schwenzer, Kai


    Neutron stars undergoing r-mode oscillation emit gravitational radiation that might be detected on the Earth. For known millisecond pulsars the observed spin-down rate imposes an upper limit on the possible gravitational wave signal of these sources. Taking into account the physics of r-mode evolution, we show that only sources spinning at frequencies above a few hundred Hertz can be unstable to r-modes, and we derive a more stringent universal r-mode spin-down limit on their gravitational wave signal. We find that this refined bound limits the gravitational wave strain from millisecond pulsars to values below the detection sensitivity of next generation detectors. Young sources are therefore a more promising option for the detection of gravitational waves emitted by r-modes and to probe the interior composition of compact stars in the near future.

  2. Instrumentation for millisecond-resolution scattering studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, G.B.; Ludwig, K.F. Jr.; Jordan-Sweet, J.L.; Brauer, S.; Mainville, J.; Yang, Y.S.; Sutton, M.


    Time-resolved x-ray scattering studies of phase transition kinetics have been carried out using the wide-bandpass monochromator and fast linear position-sensitive detector system at the IBM/MIT beamline X-20C at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). We report here on the instrumentation that has been developed for these studies, and in particular on the methods used to measure, change, and control sample temperature with millisecond resolution

  3. Incompressible Wind Accretion (United States)

    Tejeda, E.


    We present a simple, analytic model of an incompressible fluid accreting onto a moving gravitating object. This solution allows us to probe the highly subsonic regime of wind accretion. Moreover, it corresponds to the Newtonian limit of a previously known relativistic model of a stiff fluid accreting onto a black hole. Besides filling this blank in the literature, the new solution should be useful as a benchmark test for numerical hydrodynamics codes. Given its simplicity, it can also be used as an illustrative example in a gas dynamics course.

  4. Millisecond Pulsar Ages: Implications of Binary Evolution and a Maximum Spin Limit (United States)

    Kiziltan, Bülent; Thorsett, Stephen E.


    In the absence of constraints from the binary companion or supernova remnant, the standard method for estimating pulsar ages is to infer an age from the rate of spin-down. While the generic spin-down age may give realistic estimates for normal pulsars, it can fail for pulsars with very short periods. Details of the spin-up process during the low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) phase pose additional constraints on the period (P) and spin-down rates (\\dot{P}) that may consequently affect the age estimate. Here, we propose a new recipe to estimate millisecond pulsar (MSP) ages that parametrically incorporates constraints arising from binary evolution and limiting physics. We show that the standard method can be improved by this approach to achieve age estimates closer to the true age while the standard spin-down age may overestimate or underestimate the age of the pulsar by more than a factor of ~10 in the millisecond regime. We use this approach to analyze the population on a broader scale. For instance, in order to understand the dominant energy loss mechanism after the onset of radio emission, we test for a range of plausible braking indices. We find that a braking index of n = 3 is consistent with the observed MSP population. We demonstrate the existence and quantify the potential contributions of two main sources of age corruption: the previously known "age bias" due to secular acceleration and "age contamination" driven by sub-Eddington progenitor accretion rates. We explicitly show that descendants of LMXBs that have accreted at very low rates (\\dot{m}≪\\dot{M}_{Edd}) will exhibit ages that appear older than the age of the Galaxy. We further elaborate on this technique, the implications and potential solutions it offers regarding MSP evolution, the underlying age distribution, and the post-accretion energy loss mechanism.

  5. Millisecond Pulsar Timing Precision with NICER (United States)

    Deneva, Julia; Ray, Paul S.; Ransom, Scott; Wood, Kent S.; Kerr, Matthew T.; Lommen, Andrea; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Black, Kevin; Gendreau, Keith C.; Lewandowska, Natalia; Markwardt, Craig B.; Price, Samuel; Winternitz, Luke


    The Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) is an array of 56 X-ray detectors mounted on the outside of the International Space Station. It allows high-precision timing of millisecond pulsars (MSPs) without the pulse broadening effects due to dispersion and scattering by the interstellar medium that plague radio timing. We present initial timing results from four months of NICER data on the MSPs B1937+21, B1821-24, and J0218+4232, and compare them to simulations and theoretical models for X-ray times-of-arrival, and radio observations.

  6. High-Energy Emission From Millisecond Pulsars (United States)

    Harding, Alice K.; Usov, Vladimir V.; Muslimov, Alex G.


    The X-ray and gamma-ray spectrum of rotation-powered millisecond pulsars is investigated in a model for acceleration and pair cascades on open field lines above the polar caps. Although these pulsars have low surface magnetic fields, their short periods allow them to have large magnetospheric potential drops, but the majority do not produce sufficient pairs to completely screen the accelerating electric field. In these sources, the primary and secondary electrons continue to accelerate to high altitude and their Lorentz factors are limited by curvature and synchrotron radiation reaction. The accelerating particles maintain high Lorentz factors and undergo cyclotron resonant absorption of radio emission, that produces and maintains a large pitch angle, resulting in a strong synchrotron component. The resulting spectra consist of several distinct components: curvature radiation from primary electrons dominating from 1 - 100 GeV, synchrotron radiation from primary and secondary electrons dominating up to about 100 MeV, and much weaker inverse-Compton radiation from primary electrons a t 0.1 - 1 TeV. We find that the relative size of these components depends on pulsar period, period derivative, and neutron star mass and radius with the level of the synchrotron component also depending sensitively on the radio emission properties. This model is successful in describing the observed X-ray and gamma-ray spectrum of PSR J0218+4232 as synchrotron radiation, peaking around 100 MeV and extending up to a turnover around several GeV. The predicted curvature radiation components from a number of millisecond pulsars, as well as the collective emission from the millisecond pulsars in globular clusters, should be detectable with AGILE and GLAST. We also discuss a hidden population of X-ray-quiet and radio-quiet millisecond pulsars which have evolved below the pair death line, some of which may be detectable by telescopes sensitive above 1 GeV. Subject headings: pulsars: general

  7. Accretion effects on compact members of binary stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spyrou, N.


    The change in the period of axial rotation and in the radius of a magnetized compact star in a binary system, induced by the accretion on it of mass with angular momentum from the surface of its non-compact companion is explored. No specific assumption is made concerning the accretion model, and the primary's interior is described by the Fermi-Dirac statistics for degenerate matter. The rate of change with time of the period and radius is expressed in terms of the compact primary's physical parameters and total absolute luminosity. The conditions are fully derived under which the above changes can be positive, negative or even vanish. In the case of the millisecond pulsars in binary X-ray sources the predicted values of the period time derivative, depending on the values of the accretion rate and the absolute luminosity, can be positive or negative - if not vanishing - and they fall absolutely in the range 10 -21 - 10 -17 ss -1 , in good agreement with current observational data. The corresponding rate of change of radius, either positive or negative, fall in the range of 10 -3 - 10 -1 cm y -1 . Finally, it is proved that the wellknown bursters can be explained by thermonuclear flash due to gravitational instability in the accreted matter, but their explanation as a result of direct contraction could be possible only for quite high accretion rates (>10 -7 M y -1 ). This last result indicates that, in contrast to the accretion-induced change in period, which can be of either sign irrespective of the primary's age, the accretion-induced non-catastrophic contraction is impossible, while according to recent results the contraction in general is possible for young compact objects. (author). 27 refs

  8. Gamma-Ray Bursts Have Millisecond Variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Katharine C.; Schaefer, Bradley E.; Fenimore, E. E.


    We have performed searches for isolated flares and for steady flickering in the initial ∼1 s of gamma-ray burst light curves on the microsecond to millisecond timescales. Two bursts among our sample of 20 revealed four isolated flares with timescales from 256 to 2048 μs. A wavelet analysis for our sample showed low-level flickering for all bursts on timescales from 256 μs to 33 ms, with the majority of bursts containing rise times faster than 4 ms and 30% having rise times faster than 1 ms. These results show that millisecond variability is common in classical bursts and not some exceptional activity by a possibly separate class of bursts. These fast rise times can be used to place the following severe limits on burst models. (1) The characteristic thickness of the energy generation region must be less than 1200 km along the line of sight. (2) The angular size of the gamma-ray emission region as subtended from the central source must be less than 42''. (3) The expanding ejecta must have a range of Lorentz factors along a radius line with a dispersion of less than roughly 2%. (4) Within the external shock scenario, the characteristic dimension of the impacted cloud must be smaller than 16 AU on average. (5) Within the collimated jet scenario, the collimation angle must be smaller than 42''. (c) 2000 The American Astronomical Society

  9. Magnetohydrodynamics of accretion disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torkelsson, U.


    The thesis consists of an introduction and summary, and five research papers. The introduction and summary provides the background in accretion disk physics and magnetohydrodynamics. The research papers describe numerical studies of magnetohydrodynamical processes in accretion disks. Paper 1 is a one-dimensional study of the effect of magnetic buoyancy on a flux tube in an accretion disk. The stabilizing influence of an accretion disk corona on the flux tube is demonstrated. Paper 2-4 present numerical simulations of mean-field dynamos in accretion disks. Paper 11 verifies the correctness of the numerical code by comparing linear models to previous work by other groups. The results are also extended to somewhat modified disk models. A transition from an oscillatory mode of negative parity for thick disks to a steady mode of even parity for thin disks is found. Preliminary results for nonlinear dynamos at very high dynamo numbers are also presented. Paper 3 describes the bifurcation behaviour of the nonlinear dynamos. For positive dynamo numbers it is found that the initial steady solution is replaced by an oscillatory solution of odd parity. For negative dynamo numbers the solution becomes chaotic at sufficiently high dynamo numbers. Paper 4 continues the studies of nonlinear dynamos, and it is demonstrated that a chaotic solution appears even for positive dynamo numbers, but that it returns to a steady solution of mixed parity at very high dynamo numbers. Paper 5 describes a first attempt at simulating the small-scale turbulence of an accretion disk in three dimensions. There is only find cases of decaying turbulence, but this is rather due to limitations of the simulations than that turbulence is really absent in accretion disks

  10. Dynamic processes during accretion into a black hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Bisonvatyi-kogan


    Full Text Available Accretion disc theory was first developed as a theory with the local heat balance, where the whole energy produced by a viscous heating was emitted to the sides of the disc. One of the most important new invention of this theory was a phenomenological treatment of the turbulent viscosity, known as “alpha” prescription, when the (rϕ component of the stress tensor was approximated by (αP with a unknown constant α This prescription played the role in the accretion disc theory as well important as the mixing-length theory of convection for stellar evolution. Sources of turbulence in the accretion disc are discussed, including nonlinear hydrodynamic turbulence, convection and magnetic filed role. In parallel to the optically thick geometrically thin accretion disc models, a new branch of the optically thin accretion disc models was discovered, with a larger thickness for the same total luminosity. The choice between these solutions should be done of the base of stability analysis. The ideas underlying the necessity to include advection into the accretion disc theory are presented and first models with advection are reviewed. The present status of the solution for a low-luminous optically thin accretion disc model with advection is discussed and the limits for an advection dominated accretion flows (ADAF imposed by the presence of magnetic field are analyzed.

  11. Orbitally-Modulated X-rays From Millisecond Pulsar Binaries (United States)

    Kust Harding, Alice; Wadiasingh, Zorawar; Venter, Christo; Boettcher, Markus; Baring, Matthew G.


    A large number of new Black Widow (BW) and Redback (RB) rotation-powered millisecond pulsars have been discovered through radio searches of unidentified Fermi sources, increasing the known number of these systems from 4 to 28. We model the high-energy synchrotron emission component from particles accelerated to several TeV in intrabinary shocks in two known BW and RB systems, and its predicted modulation at the binary orbital period. Constructing a geometric model of the shock, we use radio eclipse data in conjunction with optical constraints on the binary inclination angle to constrain the shock stagnation point distance from either the pulsar or companion star. We next model the X-ray synchrotron orbital light curves and compare them to those observed from the PSR B1957+20, where the shock surrounds the companion, and PSR J1023+0038, where the shock surrounds the pulsar, to constrain the bulk Lorentz factor of the wind flow as well as further constrain the inclination angle.

  12. Discovery of Three New Millisecond Pulsars in Terzan 5 (United States)

    Cadelano, M.; Ransom, S. M.; Freire, P. C. C.; Ferraro, F. R.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Lanzoni, B.; Pallanca, C.; Stairs, I. H.


    We report on the discovery of three new millisecond pulsars (MSPs; namely J1748‑2446aj, J1748‑2446ak, and J1748‑2446al) in the inner regions of the dense stellar system Terzan 5. These pulsars have been discovered thanks to a method, alternative to the classical search routines, that exploited the large set of archival observations of Terzan 5 acquired with the Green Bank Telescope over five years (from 2010 to 2015). This technique allowed the analysis of stacked power spectra obtained by combining ∼206 hr of observation. J1748‑2446aj has a spin period of ∼2.96 ms, J1748‑2446ak of ∼1.89 ms (thus it is the fourth fastest pulsar in the cluster) and J1748‑2446al of ∼5.95 ms. All three MSPs are isolated, and currently we have timing solutions only for J1748‑2446aj and J1748‑2446ak. For these two systems, we evaluated the contribution to the measured spin-down rate of the acceleration due to the cluster potential field, thus estimating the intrinsic spin-down rates, which are in agreement with those typically measured for MSPs in globular clusters (GCs). Our results increase the number of pulsars known in Terzan 5 to 37, which now hosts 25% of the entire pulsar population identified, so far, in GCs.

  13. MHD Simulations of Magnetized Stars in the Propeller Regime of Accretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lii Patrick


    Full Text Available Accreting magnetized stars may be in the propeller regime of disc accretion in which the angular velocity of the stellar magnetosphere exceeds that of the inner disc. In these systems, the stellar magnetosphere acts as a centrifugal barrier and inhibits matter accretion onto the rapidly rotating star. Instead, the matter accreting through the disc accumulates at the disc-magnetosphere interface where it picks up angular momentum and is ejected from the system as a wide-angled outflow which gradually collimates at larger distances from the star. If the ejection rate is lower than the accretion rate, the matter will accumulate at the boundary faster than it can be ejected; in this case, accretion onto the star proceeds through an episodic accretion instability in which the episodes of matter accumulation are followed by a brief episode of simultaneous ejection and accretion of matter onto the star. In addition to the matter dominated wind component, the propeller outflow also exhibits a well-collimated, magnetically-dominated Poynting jet which transports energy and angular momentum away from the star. The propeller mechanism may explain some of the weakly-collimated jets and winds observed around some T Tauri stars as well as the episodic variability present in their light curves. It may also explain some of the quasi-periodic variability observed in cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars and other magnetized stars.

  14. Millisecond Pulsars, their Evolution and Applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. N. Manchester


    Sep 7, 2017 ... binary X-ray source, XSS J12270−4859, was observed to transition to a quiet state with none of the optical or X-ray signatures of an accretion disk in the late. 2012 (Bassa et al. 2014). A radio search at the X-ray position using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope. (GMRT) in India and subsequent timing ...

  15. Gas accretion onto galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Davé, Romeel


    This edited volume presents the current state of gas accretion studies from both observational and theoretical perspectives, and charts our progress towards answering the fundamental yet elusive question of how galaxies get their gas. Understanding how galaxies form and evolve has been a central focus in astronomy for over a century. These studies have accelerated in the new millennium, driven by two key advances: the establishment of a firm concordance cosmological model that provides the backbone on which galaxies form and grow, and the recognition that galaxies grow not in isolation but within a “cosmic ecosystem” that includes the vast reservoir of gas filling intergalactic space. This latter aspect in which galaxies continually exchange matter with the intergalactic medium via inflows and outflows has been dubbed the “baryon cycle”. The topic of this book is directly related to the baryon cycle, in particular its least well constrained aspect, namely gas accretion. Accretion is a rare area of ast...

  16. Relativistic, accreting disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowicz, M.A; Jaroszynski, M.; Sikora, M.


    An analytic theory of the hydrodynamical structure of accreting disks (without self-gravitation but with pressure) orbiting around and axially symmetric, stationary, compact body (e.g. black hole) is presented. The inner edge of the marginally stable accreting disk (i.e. disk with constant angular momentum density) has a sharp cusp located on the equatorial plane between rsub(ms) and rsub(mb). The existence of the cusp is also typical for any angular momentum distribution. The physical importance of the cusp follows from the close analogy with the case of a close binary system (L 1 Lagrange point on the Roche lobe). The existence of the cusp is thus a crucial phenomenon in such problems as boundary condition for the viscous stresses, accretion rate etc. (orig.) [de

  17. Serial Millisecond Crystallography of Membrane Proteins. (United States)

    Jaeger, Kathrin; Dworkowski, Florian; Nogly, Przemyslaw; Milne, Christopher; Wang, Meitian; Standfuss, Joerg


    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) is a powerful method to determine high-resolution structures of pharmaceutically relevant membrane proteins. Recently, the technology has been adapted to carry out serial millisecond crystallography (SMX) at synchrotron sources, where beamtime is more abundant. In an injector-based approach, crystals grown in lipidic cubic phase (LCP) or embedded in viscous medium are delivered directly into the unattenuated beam of a microfocus beamline. Pilot experiments show the application of microjet-based SMX for solving the structure of a membrane protein and compatibility of the method with de novo phasing. Planned synchrotron upgrades, faster detectors and software developments will go hand-in-hand with developments at free-electron lasers to provide a powerful methodology for solving structures from microcrystals at room temperature, ligand screening or crystal optimization for time-resolved studies with minimal or no radiation damage.

  18. Accretion by the Galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binney, J.; Fraternali, F.; Reylé, C.; Robin, A.; Schultheis, M.

    Cosmology requires at least half of the baryons in the Universe to be in the intergalactic medium, much of which is believed to form hot coronae around galaxies. Star-forming galaxies must be accreting from their coronae. Hi observations of external galaxies show that they have Hi halos associated

  19. X-Ray and Optical Study of the Gamma-ray Source 3FGL J0838.8–2829: Identification of a Candidate Millisecond Pulsar Binary and an Asynchronous Polar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halpern, Jules P.; Bogdanov, Slavko [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027-6601 (United States); Thorstensen, John R., E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755-3528 (United States)


    We observed the field of the Fermi source 3FGL J0838.8−2829 in optical and X-rays, initially motivated by the cataclysmic variable (CV) 1RXS J083842.1−282723 that lies within its error circle. Several X-ray sources first classified as CVs have turned out to be γ -ray emitting millisecond pulsars (MSPs). We find that 1RXS J083842.1−282723 is in fact an unusual CV, a stream-fed asynchronous polar in which accretion switches between magnetic poles (that are ≈120° apart) when the accretion rate is at minimum. High-amplitude X-ray modulation at periods of 94.8 ± 0.4 minutes and 14.7 ± 1.2 hr are seen. The former appears to be the spin period, while the latter is inferred to be one-third of the beat period between the spin and the orbit, implying an orbital period of 98.3 ± 0.5 minutes. We also measure an optical emission-line spectroscopic period of 98.413 ± 0.004 minutes, which is consistent with the orbital period inferred from the X-rays. In any case, this system is unlikely to be the γ -ray source. Instead, we find a fainter variable X-ray and optical source, XMMU J083850.38−282756.8, that is modulated on a timescale of hours in addition to exhibiting occasional sharp flares. It resembles the black widow or redback pulsars that have been discovered as counterparts of Fermi sources, with the optical modulation due to heating of the photosphere of a low-mass companion star by, in this case, an as-yet undetected MSP. We propose XMMU J083850.38−282756.8 as the MSP counterpart of 3FGL J0838.8−2829.

  20. Millisecond accuracy video display using OpenGL under Linux. (United States)

    Stewart, Neil


    To measure people's reaction times to the nearest millisecond, it is necessary to know exactly when a stimulus is displayed. This article describes how to display stimuli with millisecond accuracy on a normal CRT monitor, using a PC running Linux. A simple C program is presented to illustrate how this may be done within X Windows using the OpenGL rendering system. A test of this system is reported that demonstrates that stimuli may be consistently displayed with millisecond accuracy. An algorithm is presented that allows the exact time of stimulus presentation to be deduced, even if there are relatively large errors in measuring the display time.

  1. Where Are the r-modes? Chandra Observations of Millisecond Pulsars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoodifar, Simin; Strohmayer, Tod [Astrophysics Science Division and Joint Space-Science Institute, NASA' s Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)


    We present the results of Chandra observations of two non-accreting millisecond pulsars, PSRs J1640+2224 (J1640) and J1709+2313 (J1709), with low inferred magnetic fields and spin-down rates in order to constrain their surface temperatures, obtain limits on the amplitude of unstable r -modes in them, and make comparisons with similar limits obtained for a sample of accreting low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) neutron stars. We detect both pulsars in the X-ray band for the first time. They are faint, with inferred soft X-ray fluxes (0.3–3 keV) of ≈6 × 10{sup −15} and 3 × 10{sup −15} erg cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} for J1640 and J1709, respectively. Spectral analysis assuming hydrogen atmosphere emission gives global effective temperature upper limits (90% confidence) of 3.3–4.3 × 10{sup 5} K for J1640 and 3.6–4.7 × 10{sup 5} K for J1709, where the low end of the range corresponds to canonical neutron stars ( M = 1.4 M {sub ⊙}), and the upper end corresponds to higher-mass stars ( M = 2.21 M {sub ⊙}). Under the assumption that r -mode heating provides the thermal support, we obtain dimensionless r -mode amplitude upper limits of 3.2–4.8 × 10{sup −8} and 1.8–2.8 × 10{sup −7} for J1640 and J1709, respectively, where again the low end of the range corresponds to lower-mass, canonical neutron stars ( M = 1.4 M {sub ⊙}). These limits are about an order of magnitude lower than those we derived previously for a sample of LMXBs, except for the accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar SAX J1808.4–3658, which has a comparable amplitude limit to J1640 and J1709.

  2. Millisecond Pulsars and the Galactic Center Excess (United States)

    Gonthier, Peter L.; Koh, Yew-Meng; Kust Harding, Alice; Ferrara, Elizabeth C.


    Various groups including the Fermi team have confirmed the spectrum of the gamma- ray excess in the Galactic Center (GCE). While some authors interpret the GCE as evidence for the annihilation of dark matter (DM), others have pointed out that the GCE spectrum is nearly identical to the average spectrum of Fermi millisecond pul- sars (MSP). Assuming the Galactic Center (GC) is populated by a yet unobserved source of MSPs that has similar properties to that of MSPs in the Galactic Disk (GD), we present results of a population synthesis of MSPs from the GC. We establish parameters of various models implemented in the simulation code by matching characteristics of 54 detected Fermi MSPs in the first point source catalog and 92 detected radio MSPs in a select group of thirteen radio surveys and targeting a birth rate of 45 MSPs per mega-year. As a check of our simulation, we find excellent agreement with the estimated numbers of MSPs in eight globular clusters. In order to reproduce the gamma-ray spectrum of the GCE, we need to populate the GC with 10,000 MSPs having a Navarro-Frenk-White distribution suggested by the halo density of DM. It may be possible for Fermi to detect some of these MSPs in the near future; the simulation also predicts that many GC MSPs have radio fluxes S1400above 10 �μJy observable by future pointed radio observations. We express our gratitude for the generous support of the National Science Foundation (RUI: AST-1009731), Fermi Guest Investigator Program and the NASA Astrophysics Theory and Fundamental Program (NNX09AQ71G).

  3. Cosmic-ray Positrons from Millisecond Pulsars (United States)

    Venter, C.; Kopp, A.; Harding, A. K.; Gonthier, P. L.; Büsching, I.


    Observations by the Fermi Large Area Telescope of γ-ray millisecond pulsar (MSP) light curves imply copious pair production in their magnetospheres, and not exclusively in those of younger pulsars. Such pair cascades may be a primary source of Galactic electrons and positrons, contributing to the observed enhancement in positron flux above ∼10 GeV. Fermi has also uncovered many new MSPs, impacting Galactic stellar population models. We investigate the contribution of Galactic MSPs to the flux of terrestrial cosmic-ray electrons and positrons. Our population synthesis code predicts the source properties of present-day MSPs. We simulate their pair spectra invoking an offset-dipole magnetic field. We also consider positrons and electrons that have been further accelerated to energies of several TeV by strong intrabinary shocks in black widow (BW) and redback (RB) systems. Since MSPs are not surrounded by pulsar wind nebulae or supernova shells, we assume that the pairs freely escape and undergo losses only in the intergalactic medium. We compute the transported pair spectra at Earth, following their diffusion and energy loss through the Galaxy. The predicted particle flux increases for non-zero offsets of the magnetic polar caps. Pair cascades from the magnetospheres of MSPs are only modest contributors around a few tens of GeV to the lepton fluxes measured by the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer, PAMELA, and Fermi, after which this component cuts off. The contribution by BWs and RBs may, however, reach levels of a few tens of percent at tens of TeV, depending on model parameters.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venter, C.; Kopp, A.; Büsching, I. [Centre for Space Research, North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa); Harding, A. K. [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Gonthier, P. L. [Hope College, Department of Physics, Holland, MI (United States)


    Observations by the Fermi Large Area Telescope of γ-ray millisecond pulsar (MSP) light curves imply copious pair production in their magnetospheres, and not exclusively in those of younger pulsars. Such pair cascades may be a primary source of Galactic electrons and positrons, contributing to the observed enhancement in positron flux above ∼10 GeV. Fermi has also uncovered many new MSPs, impacting Galactic stellar population models. We investigate the contribution of Galactic MSPs to the flux of terrestrial cosmic-ray electrons and positrons. Our population synthesis code predicts the source properties of present-day MSPs. We simulate their pair spectra invoking an offset-dipole magnetic field. We also consider positrons and electrons that have been further accelerated to energies of several TeV by strong intrabinary shocks in black widow (BW) and redback (RB) systems. Since MSPs are not surrounded by pulsar wind nebulae or supernova shells, we assume that the pairs freely escape and undergo losses only in the intergalactic medium. We compute the transported pair spectra at Earth, following their diffusion and energy loss through the Galaxy. The predicted particle flux increases for non-zero offsets of the magnetic polar caps. Pair cascades from the magnetospheres of MSPs are only modest contributors around a few tens of GeV to the lepton fluxes measured by the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer, PAMELA, and Fermi, after which this component cuts off. The contribution by BWs and RBs may, however, reach levels of a few tens of percent at tens of TeV, depending on model parameters.

  5. Accretion models of Sgr A*


    Yuan, Feng


    The supermassive black hole in the center of our Galaxy, Sgr A*, is unique because the angular size of the black hole is the largest in the sky thus providing detailed boundary conditions on, and much less freedom for, accretion flow models. In this paper I review advection-dominated accretion flow (ADAF; another name is radiatively inefficient accretion flow) models for Sgr A*. This includes the developments and dynamics of ADAFs, and how to explain observational results including the multi-...

  6. Source to Accretion Disk Tilt


    Montgomery, M. M.; Martin, E. L.


    Many different system types retrogradely precess, and retrograde precession could be from a tidal torque by the secondary on a misaligned accretion disk. However, a source to cause and maintain disk tilt is unknown. In this work, we show that accretion disks can tilt due to a force called lift. Lift results from differing gas stream supersonic speeds over and under an accretion disk. Because lift acts at the disk's center of pressure, a torque is applied around a rotation axis passing through...

  7. Chaotic cold accretion on to black holes in rotating atmospheres (United States)

    Gaspari, M.; Brighenti, F.; Temi, P.


    The fueling of black holes is one key problem in the evolution of baryons in the universe. Chaotic cold accretion (CCA) profoundly differs from classic accretion models, as Bondi and thin disc theories. Using 3D high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations, we now probe the impact of rotation on the hot and cold accretion flow in a typical massive galaxy. In the hot mode, with or without turbulence, the pressure-dominated flow forms a geometrically thick rotational barrier, suppressing the black hole accretion rate to ~1/3 of the spherical case value. When radiative cooling is dominant, the gas loses pressure support and quickly circularizes in a cold thin disk; the accretion rate is decoupled from the cooling rate, although it is higher than that of the hot mode. In the more common state of a turbulent and heated atmosphere, CCA drives the dynamics if the gas velocity dispersion exceeds the rotational velocity, i.e., turbulent Taylor number Tat 1), the broadening of the distribution and the efficiency of collisions diminish, damping the accretion rate ∝ Tat-1, until the cold disk drives the dynamics. This is exacerbated by the increased difficulty to grow TI in a rotating halo. The simulated sub-Eddington accretion rates cover the range inferred from AGN cavity observations. CCA predicts inner flat X-ray temperature and r-1 density profiles, as recently discovered in M 87 and NGC 3115. The synthetic Hα images reproduce the main features of cold gas observations in massive ellipticals, as the line fluxes and the filaments versus disk morphology. Such dichotomy is key for the long-term AGN feedback cycle. As gas cools, filamentary CCA develops and boosts AGN heating; the cold mode is thus reduced and the rotating disk remains the sole cold structure. Its consumption leaves the atmosphere in hot mode with suppressed accretion and feedback, reloading the cycle.

  8. Cold gas accretion in galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sancisi, Renzo; Fraternali, Filippo; Oosterloo, Tom; van der Hulst, Thijs

    Evidence for the accretion of cold gas in galaxies has been rapidly accumulating in the past years. HI observations of galaxies and their environment have brought to light new facts and phenomena which are evidence of ongoing or recent accretion: (1) A large number of galaxies are accompanied by

  9. Controlled tissue emulsification produced by high intensity focused ultrasound shock waves and millisecond boiling. (United States)

    Khokhlova, Tatiana D; Canney, Michael S; Khokhlova, Vera A; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A; Crum, Lawrence A; Bailey, Michael R


    In high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) applications, tissue may be thermally necrosed by heating, emulsified by cavitation, or, as was recently discovered, emulsified using repetitive millisecond boiling caused by shock wave heating. Here, this last approach was further investigated. Experiments were performed in transparent gels and ex vivo bovine heart tissue using 1, 2, and 3 MHz focused transducers and different pulsing schemes in which the pressure, duty factor, and pulse duration were varied. A previously developed derating procedure to determine in situ shock amplitudes and the time-to-boil was refined. Treatments were monitored using B-mode ultrasound. Both inertial cavitation and boiling were observed during exposures, but emulsification occurred only when shocks and boiling were present. Emulsified lesions without thermal denaturation were produced with shock amplitudes sufficient to induce boiling in less than 20 ms, duty factors of less than 0.02, and pulse lengths shorter than 30 ms. Higher duty factors or longer pulses produced varying degrees of thermal denaturation combined with mechanical emulsification. Larger lesions were obtained using lower ultrasound frequencies. The results show that shock wave heating and millisecond boiling is an effective and reliable way to emulsify tissue while monitoring the treatment with ultrasound.

  10. Accretion by the Galaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binney J.


    Full Text Available Cosmology requires at least half of the baryons in the Universe to be in the intergalactic medium, much of which is believed to form hot coronae around galaxies. Star-forming galaxies must be accreting from their coronae. Hi observations of external galaxies show that they have Hi halos associated with star formation. These halos are naturally modelled as ensembles of clouds driven up by supernova bubbles. These models can fit the data successfully only if clouds exchange mass and momentum with the corona. As a cloud orbits, it is ablated and forms a turbulent wake where cold high-metallicity gas mixes with hot coronal gas causing the prompt cooling of the latter. As a consequence the total mass of Hi increases. This model has recently been used to model the Leiden-Argentina-Bonn survey of Galactic Hi. The values of the model’s parameters that are required to model NGC 891, NGC 2403 and our Galaxy show a remarkable degree of consistency, despite the very different natures of the two external galaxies and the dramatic difference in the nature of the data for our Galaxy and the external galaxies. The parameter values are also consistent with hydrodynamical simulations of the ablation of individual clouds. The model predicts that a galaxy that loses its cool-gas disc for instance through a major merger cannot reform it from its corona; it can return to steady star formation only if it can capture a large body of cool gas, for example by accreting a gas-rich dwarf. Thus the model explains how major mergers can make galaxies “red and dead.”

  11. Wind accretion: Theory and observations (United States)

    Shakura, N. I.; Postnov, K. A.; Kochetkova, A. Yu.; Hjalmarsdotter, L.; Sidoli, L.; Paizis, A.


    A review of wind accretion in high-mass X-ray binaries is presented. We focus on different regimes of quasi-spherical accretion onto the neutron star (NS): the supersonic (Bondi) accretion, which takes place when the captured matter cools down rapidly and falls supersonically towards the NS magnetosphere, and subsonic (settling) accretion which occurs when plasma remains hot until it meets the magnetospheric boundary. These two regimes of accretion are separated by an X-ray luminosity of about 4 × 1036 erg s-1. In the subsonic case, which sets in at lower luminosities, a hot quasi-spherical shell must form around the magnetosphere, and the actual accretion rate onto NS is determined by the ability of the plasma to enter the magnetosphere due to Rayleigh-Taylor instability. In turn, two regimes of subsonic accretion are possible, depending on plasma cooling mechanism (Compton or radiative) near the magnetopshere. The transition from the high-luminosity with Compton cooling to the lowluminosity (Lx ≲ 3 × 1035 erg s-1) with radiative cooling can be responsible for the onset of the off states repeatedly observed in several low-luminosity slowly accreting pulsars, such as Vela X-1, GX 301-2, and 4U 1907+09. The triggering of the transitionmay be due to a switch in the X-ray beam pattern in response to a change in the optical depth in the accretion column with changing luminosity. We also show that in the settling accretion theory, bright X-ray flares (~1038-1040 erg) observed in supergiant fast X-ray transients (SFXT) can be produced by sporadic capture of magnetized stellar wind plasma. At sufficiently low accretion rates, magnetic reconnection can enhance the magnetospheric plasma entry rate, resulting in copious production of X-ray photons, strong Compton cooling and ultimately in unstable accretion of the entire shell. A bright flare develops on the free-fall time scale in the shell, and the typical energy released in an SFXT bright flare corresponds to the mass

  12. Search for Pulsations from a Nearby Millisecond Pulsar and Wasilewski 49: Mirror for a Hidden Seyfert 1 Nucleus (United States)

    Halpern, Jules P.


    Five studies are reported in this final report. The recently discovered 5.3 ms pulsar J1012+5307 at a distance of 520 pc is in an area of the sky which is particularly deficient in absorbing gas. The column density along the line of sight is less than 7.5 x 10(exp 19) CM(exp -2) which facilitates soft X-ray observations. Halpern reported a possible ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) detection of the pulsar in a serendipitous, off-axis observation. We have now confirmed the X-ray emission of PSR J1012+,5307 in a 23 ksec observation with the ROSAT High Resolution Imager (HRI). A point source is detected within 3" of the radio position. Its count rate of 1.6 +/- 0.3 x 10(exp -3) s(exp -1) corresponds to an unabsorbed 0. 1-2.4 keV flux of 6.4 x 10(exp -14) ergs cm(exp -2) s(exp -1), similar to that reported previously. This counts-to-flux conversion is valid for N(sub H) = 5 x 10(exp 19) cm(exp -2), and either a power-law spectrum of photon index 2.5 or a blackbody of kT = 0.1 keV. The implied X-ray luminosity of 2.0 x 10(exp 30) ergs s(exp -1) is 5 X 10(exp -4) of the pulsar's spin-down power dot-E, and similar to that of the nearest millisecond pulsar J0437-4715, which is nearly a twin of J1012+5307 in P dot-E. We subjected the 37 photons (and 13 background counts) within the source region to a pulsar search, but no evidence for pulsation was found. The pulsar apparently emits over a large fraction of its rotation cycle, and the absence of sharp modulation can be taken as evidence for surface thermal emission, as is favored for PSR J0437-4715, rather than magnetospheric X-ray emission which is apparent in the sharp pulses of the much more energetic millisecond pulsar B1821-24. A further test of this interpretation will be made with a longer ROSAT observation, which will increase the number of photons collected by a factor of 5, and permit a more sensitive examination of the light curve for modulation due to emission from heated polar caps. If found

  13. Eight new millisecond pulsars in NGC 6440 and NGC 6441

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freire, P.C.C.; Ransom, S.M.; Bégin, S.; Stairs, I.H.; Hessels, J.W.T.; Frey, L.H.; Camilo, F.


    Motivated by the recent discovery of 30 new millisecond pulsars in Terzan 5, made using the Green Bank Telescope's S-band receiver and the Pulsar Spigot spectrometer, we have set out to use the same observing system in a systematic search for pulsars in other globular clusters. Here we report on the

  14. Signature of a Newborn Black Hole from the Collapse of a Supra-massive Millisecond Magnetar (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Xie, Wei; Lei, Wei-Hua; Zou, Yuan-Chuan; Lü, Hou-Jun; Liang, En-Wei; Gao, He; Wang, Ding-Xiong


    An X-ray plateau followed by a steep decay (“internal plateau”) has been observed in both long and short gamma-ray burst (GRBs), implying that a millisecond magnetar operates in some GRBs. The sharp decay at the end of the plateau, marking the abrupt cessation of the magnetar’s central engine, has been considered the collapse of a supra-massive magnetar into a black hole (BH) when it spins down. If this “internal plateau” is indeed evidence of a magnetar central engine, the natural expectation in some candidates would be a signature from the newborn BH. In this work, we find that GRB 070110 is a particular case which shows a small X-ray bump following its “internal plateau.” We interpret the plateau as a spin-down supra-massive magnetar and the X-ray bump as fallback BH accretion. This indicates that a newborn BH is likely active in some GRBs. Therefore, GRB 070110-like events may provide further support to the magnetar central engine model and enable us to investigate the properties of the magnetar as well as the newborn BH.

  15. On accretion from an inhomogeneous medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, R.E.; Pringle, J.E.


    Hypersonic accretion flow in two dimensions from an infinite medium which contains a small density and/or velocity gradient is considered. To first order in rsub(a)/h, where rsub(a) is the accretion radius and h the scale of the gradient, the accretion rate is unaffected and the accreted angular momentum is zero. Thus previous estimates of the amount of angular momentum accreted may severely overestimate the actual value. (author)

  16. Highly Magnetized Accreting Pulsars: Are There Accreting Magnetars?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pere Blay


    Full Text Available 2S 0114+650, GX 301-2, IGR J16358-4726, X Per, 4U 2206+54, SXP 1062, and 3A 1954+319 are thought to possess high magnetic elds. They have recently been named accreting magnetars, or highly magnetized accreting pulsars. In this work their properties are reviewed. Within the context of their observational properties (mainly from INTEGRAL data, and the recent models of accretion onto highly magnetized neutron stars, their similarities and dierences are analyzed. The aim is to find a common framework to understand the evolution (in terms of past and present history of these sources, and to establish the basis of a possible new kind of accreting sources. Two of these sources, namely X Per and 4U 2206+54, contain a massive main-sequence companion, while the rest are supergiant X-ray binaries or symbiotic systems. The variety of astrophysical scenarios represented by this set is wide, therefore the study of these systems is also important in order to establish commonalities between the dierent types of accreting X-ray pulsars and to study the possible evolutionary links between them.

  17. An Eccentric Binary Millisecond Pulsar in the Galactic Plane (United States)

    Champion, David J.; Ransom, Scott M.; Lazarus, Patrick; Camilo, Fernando; Bassa, Cess; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Nice, David J.; Freire, Paulo C. C.; Stairs, Ingrid H.; vanLeeuwen, Joeri; hide


    Binary pulsar systems are superb probes of stellar and binary evolution and the physics of extreme environments. In a survey with the Arecibo telescope, we have found PSR J1903+0327, a radio pulsar with a rotational period of 2.15 milliseconds in a highly eccentric (e = 0.44) 95-day orbit around a solar mass (M.) companion. Infrared observations identify a possible main-sequence companion star. Conventional binary stellar evolution models predict neither large orbital eccentricities nor main-sequence companions around millisecond pulsars. Alternative formation scenarios involve recycling a neutron star in a globular cluster, then ejecting it into the Galactic disk, or membership in a hierarchical triple system. A relativistic analysis of timing observations of the pulsar finds its mass to be 1.74 +/- 0.04 Solar Mass, an unusually high value.

  18. An eccentric binary millisecond pulsar in the galactic plane. (United States)

    Champion, David J; Ransom, Scott M; Lazarus, Patrick; Camilo, Fernando; Bassa, Cees; Kaspi, Victoria M; Nice, David J; Freire, Paulo C C; Stairs, Ingrid H; van Leeuwen, Joeri; Stappers, Ben W; Cordes, James M; Hessels, Jason W T; Lorimer, Duncan R; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Backer, Don C; Bhat, N D Ramesh; Chatterjee, Shami; Cognard, Ismaël; Deneva, Julia S; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Gaensler, Bryan M; Han, Jinlin; Jenet, Fredrick A; Kasian, Laura; Kondratiev, Vlad I; Kramer, Michael; Lazio, Joseph; McLaughlin, Maura A; Venkataraman, Arun; Vlemmings, Wouter


    Binary pulsar systems are superb probes of stellar and binary evolution and the physics of extreme environments. In a survey with the Arecibo telescope, we have found PSR J1903+0327, a radio pulsar with a rotational period of 2.15 milliseconds in a highly eccentric (e = 0.44) 95-day orbit around a solar mass (M(middle dot in circle)) companion. Infrared observations identify a possible main-sequence companion star. Conventional binary stellar evolution models predict neither large orbital eccentricities nor main-sequence companions around millisecond pulsars. Alternative formation scenarios involve recycling a neutron star in a globular cluster, then ejecting it into the Galactic disk, or membership in a hierarchical triple system. A relativistic analysis of timing observations of the pulsar finds its mass to be 1.74 +/- 0.04 M solar symbol, an unusually high value.

  19. A bright millisecond radio burst of extragalactic origin. (United States)

    Lorimer, D R; Bailes, M; McLaughlin, M A; Narkevic, D J; Crawford, F


    Pulsar surveys offer a rare opportunity to monitor the radio sky for impulsive burst-like events with millisecond durations. We analyzed archival survey data and found a 30-jansky dispersed burst, less than 5 milliseconds in duration, located 3 degrees from the Small Magellanic Cloud. The burst properties argue against a physical association with our Galaxy or the Small Magellanic Cloud. Current models for the free electron content in the universe imply that the burst is less than 1 gigaparsec distant. No further bursts were seen in 90 hours of additional observations, which implies that it was a singular event such as a supernova or coalescence of relativistic objects. Hundreds of similar events could occur every day and, if detected, could serve as cosmological probes.

  20. Protostellar accretion traced with chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann, Søren; Jørgensen, Jes Kristian; Dunham, Michael M.


    . Our aim is to characterise protostellar accretion histories towards individual sources by utilising sublimation and freeze-out chemistry of CO. Methods. A sample of 24 embedded protostars are observed with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) in context of the large program "Mass Assembly of Stellar Systems...

  1. Students Discover Unique Planet (United States)


    Three undergraduate students, from Leiden University in the Netherlands, have discovered an extrasolar planet. The extraordinary find, which turned up during their research project, is about five times as massive as Jupiter. This is also the first planet discovered orbiting a fast-rotating hot star. Omega Centauri ESO PR Photo 45a/08 A planet around a hot star The students were testing a method of investigating the light fluctuations of thousands of stars in the OGLE database in an automated way. The brightness of one of the stars was found to decrease for two hours every 2.5 days by about one percent. Follow-up observations, taken with ESO's Very Large Telescope in Chile, confirmed that this phenomenon is caused by a planet passing in front of the star, blocking part of the starlight at regular intervals. According to Ignas Snellen, supervisor of the research project, the discovery was a complete surprise. "The project was actually meant to teach the students how to develop search algorithms. But they did so well that there was time to test their algorithm on a so far unexplored database. At some point they came into my office and showed me this light curve. I was completely taken aback!" The students, Meta de Hoon, Remco van der Burg, and Francis Vuijsje, are very enthusiastic. "It is exciting not just to find a planet, but to find one as unusual as this one; it turns out to be the first planet discovered around a fast rotating star, and it's also the hottest star found with a planet," says Meta. "The computer needed more than a thousand hours to do all the calculations," continues Remco. The planet is given the prosaic name OGLE2-TR-L9b. "But amongst ourselves we call it ReMeFra-1, after Remco, Meta, and myself," says Francis. The planet was discovered by looking at the brightness variations of about 15 700 stars, which had been observed by the OGLE survey once or twice per night for about four years between 1997 and 2000. Because the data had been made public

  2. Discovering Phonemes of Bidayuh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jecky Misieng


    Full Text Available There are generally three views of the notion of a phoneme. The structuralist view of the phoneme focuses on this language phenomenon as a phonetic reality. In discovering phonemes of a language, phonologists who hold this view will look for minimal contrasting pairs as a way to determine contrasting sounds of that language. They will also look for allophones or two sounds of the same phoneme which may appear in complementary distribution. This paper will discuss the possible application of the structuralist approach to analyzing the phonemes of a dialect of Bidayuh, one of the Malayo-Polynesian languages spoken in the northern region of Borneo.

  3. Discovering system requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahill, A.T.; Bentz, B. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Systems and Industrial Engineering; Dean, F.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Cost and schedule overruns are often caused by poor requirements that are produced by people who do not understand the requirements process. This report provides a high-level overview of the system requirements process, explaining types, sources, and characteristics of good requirements. System requirements, however, are seldom stated by the customer. Therefore, this report shows ways to help you work with your customer to discover the system requirements. It also explains terminology commonly used in the requirements development field, such as verification, validation, technical performance measures, and the various design reviews.

  4. The X-ray emission properties of millisecond pulsars


    Becker, W.; Trümper, J.


    Until now X-radiation from nine millisecond pulsars has been detected. In the present paper we summarize the observations and show the results of a re-analysis of archival ROSAT data. In addition we present the results of recent observations of PSR J0437-4715 with the ROSAT PSPC and HRI detectors. We show that the pulsed fraction is independent of energy in the range 0.1-2.4 keV. The pulse width as measured at X-ray energies is comparable with that observed in the radio domain. An upper limit...

  5. An Eccentric Binary Millisecond Pulsar with a Helium White Dwarf Companion in the Galactic field (United States)

    Antoniadis, John; Kaplan, David L.; Stovall, Kevin; Freire, Paulo C. C.; Deneva, Julia S.; Koester, Detlev; Jenet, Fredrick; Martinez, Jose G.


    Low-mass white dwarfs (LMWDs) are believed to be exclusive products of binary evolution, as the universe is not old enough to produce them from single stars. Because of the strong tidal forces operating during the binary interaction phase, the remnant systems observed today are expected to have negligible eccentricities. Here, we report on the first unambiguous identification of an LMWD in an eccentric (e = 0.13) orbit around the millisecond pulsar PSR J2234+0511, which directly contradicts this picture. We use our spectra and radio-timing solution (derived elsewhere) to infer the WD temperature ({T}{{eff}}=8600+/- 190 K), and peculiar systemic velocity relative to the local standard of rest (≃ 31 km s-1). We also place model-independent constraints on the WD radius ({R}{{WD}}={0.024}-0.002+0.004 {R}⊙ ) and surface gravity ({log} g={7.11}-0.16+0.08 dex). The WD and kinematic properties are consistent with the expectations for low-mass X-ray binary evolution and disfavor a dynamic three-body formation channel. In the case of the high eccentricity being the result of a spontaneous phase transition, we infer a mass of ˜1.60 M ⊙ for the pulsar progenitor, which is too low for the quark-nova mechanism proposed by Jiang et al., and too high for the scenario of Freire & Tauris, in which a WD collapses into a neutron star via a rotationally delayed accretion-induced collapse. We find that eccentricity pumping via interaction with a circumbinary disk is consistent with our inferred parameters. Finally, we report tentative evidence for pulsations that, if confirmed, would transform the star into an unprecedented laboratory for WD physics.

  6. Multiwavelength observations of the transitional millisecond pulsar binary XSS J12270-4859 (United States)

    de Martino, D.; Papitto, A.; Belloni, T.; Burgay, M.; De Ona Wilhelmi, E.; Li, J.; Pellizzoni, A.; Possenti, A.; Rea, N.; Torres, D. F.


    We present an analysis of X-ray, ultraviolet and optical/near-IR photometric data of the transitional millisecond pulsar binary XSS J12270-4859, obtained at different epochs after the transition to a rotation-powered radio pulsar state. The observations, while confirming the large-amplitude orbital modulation found in previous studies after the state change, also reveal an energy dependence of the amplitudes as well as variations on time-scale of months. The amplitude variations are anticorrelated in the X-ray and the UV/optical bands. The average X-ray spectrum is described by a power law with Γ index of 1.07(8) without requiring an additional thermal component. The power-law index Γ varies from ˜1.2 to ˜1.0 between superior and inferior conjunction of the neutron star. We interpret the observed X-ray behaviour in terms of synchrotron radiation emitted in an extended intrabinary shock, located between the pulsar and the donor star, which is eclipsed due to the companion orbital motion. The G5-type donor dominates the UV/optical and near-IR emission and is similarly found to be heated up to ˜6500 K as in the disc state. The analysis of optical light curves gives a binary inclination 46° ≲ i ≲ 65° and a mass ratio 0.11 ≲ q ≲ 0.26. The donor mass is found to be 0.15 ≲ M2 ≲ 0.36 M⊙ for a neutron star mass of 1.4 M⊙. The variations in the amplitude of the orbital modulation are interpreted in terms of small changes in the mass-flow rate from the donor star. The spectral energy distribution from radio to gamma-rays is composed by multiple contributions that are different from those observed during the accretion-powered state.

  7. Discovering hidden viral piracy. (United States)

    Kim, Eddo; Kliger, Yossef


    Viruses and developers of anti-inflammatory therapies share a common interest in proteins that manipulate the immune response. Large double-stranded DNA viruses acquire host proteins to evade host defense mechanisms. Hence, viral pirated proteins may have a therapeutic potential. Although dozens of viral piracy events have already been identified, we hypothesized that sequence divergence impedes the discovery of many others. We developed a method to assess the number of viral/human homologs and discovered that at least 917 highly diverged homologs are hidden in low-similarity alignment hits that are usually ignored. However, these low-similarity homologs are masked by many false alignment hits. We therefore applied a filtering method to increase the proportion of viral/human homologous proteins. The homologous proteins we found may facilitate functional annotation of viral and human proteins. Furthermore, some of these proteins play a key role in immune modulation and are therefore therapeutic protein candidates.

  8. Planetary accretion in circumstellar disks (United States)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Stewart, Glen R.


    The formation of terrestrial planets and the cores of Jovian planets is reviewed in the framework of the planetesimal hypothesis, wherein planets are assumed to grow via the pairwise accumulation of small solid bodies. Emphasis is placed on the dynamics of solid body accretion from kilometer size planetesimals to terrestrial type planets. This stage of planetary growth is least dependent on the characteristics of the evolutionary state of the central star. It is concluded that the evolution of the planetesimal size distribution is determined by the gravitationally enhanced collision cross-section, which favors collisions between planetesimals with smaller velocities. Runaway growth of the largest planetesimal in each accretion zone appears to be a likely outcome. The subsequent accumulation of the resulting protoplanets leads to a large degree of radial mixing in the terrestrial planet region, and giant impacts are probable.

  9. Hot Accretion onto Black Holes with Outflow (United States)

    Park, Myeong-Gu; Han, Du-Hwan


    Classic Bondi accretion flow can be generalized to rotating viscous accretion flow. Study of hot accretion flow onto black holes show that its physical charateristics change from Bondi-like for small gas angular momentum to disk-like for Keperian gas angular momentum. Especially, the mass accretion rate divided by the Bondi accretion rate is proportional to the viscosity parameter alpha and inversely proportional to the gas angular momentum divided by the Keplerian angular momentum at the Bondi radius for gas angular momentum comparable to the Keplerian value. The possible presence of outflow will increase the mass inflow rate at the Bondi radius but decrease the mass accretion rate across the black hole horizon by many orders of magnitude. This implies that the growth history of supermassive black holes and their coevolution with host galaxies will be dramatically changed when the accreted gas has angular momentum or develops an outflow.

  10. Hot Accretion onto Black Holes with Outflow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Myeong-Gu


    Full Text Available Classic Bondi accretion flow can be generalized to rotating viscous accretion flow. Study of hot accretion flow onto black holes show that its physical charateristics change from Bondi-like for small gas angular momentum to disk-like for Keperian gas angular momentum. Especially, the mass accretion rate divided by the Bondi accretion rate is proportional to the viscosity parameter alpha and inversely proportional to the gas angular momentum divided by the Keplerian angular momentum at the Bondi radius for gas angular momentum comparable to the Keplerian value. The possible presence of outflow will increase the mass inflow rate at the Bondi radius but decrease the mass accretion rate across the black hole horizon by many orders of magnitude. This implies that the growth history of supermassive black holes and their coevolution with host galaxies will be dramatically changed when the accreted gas has angular momentum or develops an outflow.

  11. Astronomers Discover Fastest-Spinning Pulsar (United States)


    discovered in 1982. For reference, the fastest speeds of common kitchen blenders are 250-500 Hz. The scientists say the object's fast rotation speed means that it cannot be any larger than about 20 miles across. According to Hessels, "If it were any larger, material from the surface would be flung into orbit around the star." The scientists' calculation assumed that the neutron star contains less than two times the mass of the Sun, an assumption that is consistent with the masses of all known neutron stars. The spinning pulsar has a companion star that orbits it once every 26 hours. The companion passes in front of the pulsar, eclipsing the pulsar about 40 percent of the time. The long eclipse period, probably due to bloating of the companion, makes it difficult for the astronomers to learn details of the orbital configuration that would allow them to precisely measure the masses of the pulsar and its companion. "If we could pin down these masses more precisely, we could then get a better limit on the size of the pulsar. That, in turn, would then give us a better figure for the true density inside the neutron star," explained Ingrid Stairs, an assistant professor at the University of British Columbia and another collaborator on the work. Competing theoretical models for the types and distributions of elementary particles inside neutron stars make widely different predictions about the pressure and density of such an object. "We want observational data that shows which models fit the reality of nature," Hessels said. If the scientists can't use PSR J1748-2446ad to do that, they are hopeful some of its near neighbors will yield the data they seek. Using the GBT, the astronomers so far have found 30 new fast "millisecond pulsars" in the cluster Terzan 5, making 33 pulsars known in the cluster in total. This is the largest number of such pulsars ever found in a single globular cluster. Dense globular clusters of stars are excellent places to find fast-rotating millisecond

  12. Discovering genes underlying QTL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanavichit, Apichart [Kasetsart University, Kamphaengsaen, Nakorn Pathom (Thailand)


    A map-based approach has allowed scientists to discover few genes at a time. In addition, the reproductive barrier between cultivated rice and wild relatives has prevented us from utilizing the germ plasm by a map-based approach. Most genetic traits important to agriculture or human diseases are manifested as observable, quantitative phenotypes called Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL). In many instances, the complexity of the phenotype/genotype interaction and the general lack of clearly identifiable gene products render the direct molecular cloning approach ineffective, thus additional strategies like genome mapping are required to identify the QTL in question. Genome mapping requires no prior knowledge of the gene function, but utilizes statistical methods to identify the most likely gene location. To completely characterize genes of interest, the initially mapped region of a gene location will have to be narrowed down to a size that is suitable for cloning and sequencing. Strategies for gene identification within the critical region have to be applied after the sequencing of a potentially large clone or set of clones that contains this gene(s). Tremendous success of positional cloning has been shown for cloning many genes responsible for human diseases, including cystic fibrosis and muscular dystrophy as well as plant disease resistance genes. Genome and QTL mapping, positional cloning: the pre-genomics era, comparative approaches to gene identification, and positional cloning: the genomics era are discussed in the report. (M. Suetake)

  13. Discovering genes underlying QTL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanavichit, Apichart


    A map-based approach has allowed scientists to discover few genes at a time. In addition, the reproductive barrier between cultivated rice and wild relatives has prevented us from utilizing the germ plasm by a map-based approach. Most genetic traits important to agriculture or human diseases are manifested as observable, quantitative phenotypes called Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL). In many instances, the complexity of the phenotype/genotype interaction and the general lack of clearly identifiable gene products render the direct molecular cloning approach ineffective, thus additional strategies like genome mapping are required to identify the QTL in question. Genome mapping requires no prior knowledge of the gene function, but utilizes statistical methods to identify the most likely gene location. To completely characterize genes of interest, the initially mapped region of a gene location will have to be narrowed down to a size that is suitable for cloning and sequencing. Strategies for gene identification within the critical region have to be applied after the sequencing of a potentially large clone or set of clones that contains this gene(s). Tremendous success of positional cloning has been shown for cloning many genes responsible for human diseases, including cystic fibrosis and muscular dystrophy as well as plant disease resistance genes. Genome and QTL mapping, positional cloning: the pre-genomics era, comparative approaches to gene identification, and positional cloning: the genomics era are discussed in the report. (M. Suetake)


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Chao-Wei; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Stern, Daniel; Moustakas, Leonidas A. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Wu, Jingwen; Wright, Edward L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Assef, Roberto J. [Núcleo de Astronomía de la Facultad deIngeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército Libertador 441, Santiago (Chile); Blain, Andrew W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, 1 University Road, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Bridge, Carrie R.; Sayers, Jack [Division of Physics, Math, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Benford, Dominic J.; Leisawitz, David T. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Cutri, Roc M.; Masci, Frank J.; Yan, Lin [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Griffith, Roger L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Jarrett, Thomas H. [Astronomy Department, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Lonsdale, Carol J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Petty, Sara M. [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Stanford, S. Adam, E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of California Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); and others


    We present 20 Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE)-selected galaxies with bolometric luminosities L{sub bol} > 10{sup 14} L{sub ☉}, including five with infrared luminosities L{sub IR} ≡ L{sub (rest} {sub 8–1000} {sub μm)} > 10{sup 14} L{sub ☉}. These “extremely luminous infrared galaxies,” or ELIRGs, were discovered using the “W1W2-dropout” selection criteria which requires marginal or non-detections at 3.4 and 4.6 μm (W1 and W2, respectively) but strong detections at 12 and 22 μm in the WISE survey. Their spectral energy distributions are dominated by emission at rest-frame 4–10 μm, suggesting that hot dust with T{sub d} ∼ 450 K is responsible for the high luminosities. These galaxies are likely powered by highly obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and there is no evidence suggesting these systems are beamed or lensed. We compare this WISE-selected sample with 116 optically selected quasars that reach the same L{sub bol} level, corresponding to the most luminous unobscured quasars in the literature. We find that the rest-frame 5.8 and 7.8 μm luminosities of the WISE-selected ELIRGs can be 30%–80% higher than that of the unobscured quasars. The existence of AGNs with L{sub bol} > 10{sup 14} L{sub ☉} at z > 3 suggests that these supermassive black holes are born with large mass, or have very rapid mass assembly. For black hole seed masses ∼10{sup 3} M{sub ☉}, either sustained super-Eddington accretion is needed, or the radiative efficiency must be <15%, implying a black hole with slow spin, possibly due to chaotic accretion.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiners, Ansgar


    We report on the discovery of the young, nearby, brown dwarf 2MASS J0041353-562112. The object has a spectral type of M7.5; it shows Li absorption and signatures of accretion, which implies that it still has a disk and suggests an age below 10 Myr. The space motion vector and position on the sky indicate that the brown dwarf is probably a member of the ∼20 Myr old Tuc-Hor association, or that it may be an ejected member of the ∼12 Myr old β Pic association; both would imply that 2MASS J0041353-562112 may in fact be older than 10 Myr. No accreting star or brown dwarf was previously known in these associations. Assuming an age of 10 Myr, the brown dwarf has a mass of about 30 M Jup and is located at 35 pc distance. The newly discovered object is the closest accreting brown dwarf known. Its membership to an association older than 10 Myr implies that either disks in brown dwarfs can survive as long as in more massive stars, perhaps even longer, or that star formation in Tuc-Hor or β Pic occurred more recently than previously thought. The history and evolution of this object can provide new fundamental insight into the formation process of stars, brown dwarfs, and planets.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, Fronefield [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Franklin and Marshall College, P.O. Box 3003, Lancaster, PA 17604 (United States); Lyne, Andrew G. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Stairs, Ingrid H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Kaplan, David L. [Physics Department, University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); McLaughlin, Maura A.; Lorimer, Duncan R. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Freire, Paulo C. C.; Kramer, Michael [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Burgay, Marta; D' Amico, Nichi; Possenti, Andrea [INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Cagliari, Poggio dei Pini, I-09012 Capoterra (Italy); Camilo, Fernando [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Faulkner, Andrew [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J. J. Thompson Avenue, Cambridge, CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Manchester, Richard N. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Australia Telescope National Facility, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Steeghs, Danny, E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)


    We present a study of PSR J1723–2837, an eclipsing, 1.86 ms millisecond binary radio pulsar discovered in the Parkes Multibeam survey. Radio timing indicates that the pulsar has a circular orbit with a 15 hr orbital period, a low-mass companion, and a measurable orbital period derivative. The eclipse fraction of ∼15% during the pulsar's orbit is twice the Roche lobe size inferred for the companion. The timing behavior is significantly affected by unmodeled systematics of astrophysical origin, and higher-order orbital period derivatives are needed in the timing solution to account for these variations. We have identified the pulsar's (non-degenerate) companion using archival ultraviolet, optical, and infrared survey data and new optical photometry. Doppler shifts from optical spectroscopy confirm the star's association with the pulsar and indicate a pulsar-to-companion mass ratio of 3.3 ± 0.5, corresponding to a companion mass range of 0.4 to 0.7 M{sub ☉} and an orbital inclination angle range of between 30° and 41°, assuming a pulsar mass range of 1.4-2.0 M{sub ☉}. Spectroscopy indicates a spectral type of G for the companion and an inferred Roche-lobe-filling distance that is consistent with the distance estimated from radio dispersion. The features of PSR J1723–2837 indicate that it is likely a 'redback' system. Unlike the five other Galactic redbacks discovered to date, PSR J1723–2837 has not been detected as a γ-ray source with Fermi. This may be due to an intrinsic spin-down luminosity that is much smaller than the measured value if the unmeasured contribution from proper motion is large.

  17. Modeling and Maximum Likelihood Fitting of Gamma-Ray and Radio Light Curves of Millisecond Pulsars Detected with Fermi (United States)

    Johnson, T. J.; Harding, A. K.; Venter, C.


    Pulsed gamma rays have been detected with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) from more than 20 millisecond pulsars (MSPs), some of which were discovered in radio observations of bright, unassociated LAT sources. We have fit the radio and gamma-ray light curves of 19 LAT-detected MSPs in the context of geometric, outermagnetospheric emission models assuming the retarded vacuum dipole magnetic field using a Markov chain Monte Carlo maximum likelihood technique. We find that, in many cases, the models are able to reproduce the observed light curves well and provide constraints on the viewing geometries that are in agreement with those from radio polarization measurements. Additionally, for some MSPs we constrain the altitudes of both the gamma-ray and radio emission regions. The best-fit magnetic inclination angles are found to cover a broader range than those of non-recycled gamma-ray pulsars.

  18. Chandra Discovers Cosmic Cannonball (United States)


    One of the fastest moving stars ever seen has been discovered with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. This cosmic cannonball is challenging theories to explain its blistering speed. Astronomers used Chandra to observe a neutron star, known as RX J0822-4300, over a period of about five years. During that span, three Chandra observations clearly show the neutron star moving away from the center of the Puppis A supernova remnant. This remnant is the stellar debris field created during the same explosion in which the neutron star was created about 3700 years ago. Chandra X-ray Image of RX J0822-4300 in Puppis A Chandra X-ray Image of RX J0822-4300 in Puppis A By combining how far it has moved across the sky with its distance from Earth, astronomers determined the neutron star is moving at over 3 million miles per hour. At this rate, RX J0822-4300 is destined to escape from the Milky Way after millions of years, even though it has only traveled about 20 light years so far. "This star is moving at 3 million miles an hour, but it's so far away that the apparent motion we see in five years is less than the height of the numerals in the date on a penny, seen from the length of a football field," said Frank Winkler of Middlebury College in Vermont. "It's remarkable, and a real testament to the power of Chandra, that such a tiny motion can be measured." Labeled Image of RX J0822-4300 in Puppis A Labeled Image of RX J0822-4300 in Puppis A "Just after it was born, this neutron star got a one-way ticket out of the Galaxy," said co-author Robert Petre of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md. "Astronomers have seen other stars being flung out of the Milky Way, but few as fast as this." So-called hypervelocity stars have been previously discovered shooting out of the Milky Way with speeds around one million miles per hour. One key difference between RX J0822-4300 and these other reported galactic escapees is the source of their speed. The hypervelocity stars are

  19. Accretion dynamics and polarized x-ray emission of magnetized neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arons, J.


    The basic ideas of accretion onto magnetized neutron stars are outlined. These are applied to a simple model of the structure of the plasma mound sitting at the magnetic poles of such as star, in which upward diffusion of photons is balanced by their downward advection. This steady flow model of the plasma's dynamical state is used to compute the emission of polarized X-rays from the optically thick, birefringent medium. The linear polarization of the continuum radiation emerging from the quasi-static mound is found to be as much as 40% at some rotation phases, but is insensitive to the geometry of the accretion flow. The role of the accretion shock, whose detailed polarimetric and spectral characteristics have yet to be calculated, is emphasized as the final determinant of the properties of the emerging X-rays. Some results describing the fully time dependent dynamics of the flow are also presented. In particular, steady flow onto a neutron star is shown to exhibit formation of ''photon bubbles,'' regions of greatly reduced plasma density filled with radiation which form and rise on millisecond time scales. The possible role of these complex structures in the flow for the formation of the emergent spectrum is briefly outlined

  20. Lipidic cubic phase serial millisecond crystallography using synchrotron radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemyslaw Nogly


    Full Text Available Lipidic cubic phases (LCPs have emerged as successful matrixes for the crystallization of membrane proteins. Moreover, the viscous LCP also provides a highly effective delivery medium for serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs. Here, the adaptation of this technology to perform serial millisecond crystallography (SMX at more widely available synchrotron microfocus beamlines is described. Compared with conventional microcrystallography, LCP-SMX eliminates the need for difficult handling of individual crystals and allows for data collection at room temperature. The technology is demonstrated by solving a structure of the light-driven proton-pump bacteriorhodopsin (bR at a resolution of 2.4 Å. The room-temperature structure of bR is very similar to previous cryogenic structures but shows small yet distinct differences in the retinal ligand and proton-transfer pathway.

  1. Millisecond-scale motor encoding in a cortical vocal area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Tang


    Full Text Available Studies of motor control have almost universally examined firing rates to investigate how the brain shapes behavior. In principle, however, neurons could encode information through the precise temporal patterning of their spike trains as well as (or instead of through their firing rates. Although the importance of spike timing has been demonstrated in sensory systems, it is largely unknown whether timing differences in motor areas could affect behavior. We tested the hypothesis that significant information about trial-by-trial variations in behavior is represented by spike timing in the songbird vocal motor system. We found that neurons in motor cortex convey information via spike timing far more often than via spike rate and that the amount of information conveyed at the millisecond timescale greatly exceeds the information available from spike counts. These results demonstrate that information can be represented by spike timing in motor circuits and suggest that timing variations evoke differences in behavior.

  2. A millisecond pulsar in a stellar triple system. (United States)

    Ransom, S M; Stairs, I H; Archibald, A M; Hessels, J W T; Kaplan, D L; van Kerkwijk, M H; Boyles, J; Deller, A T; Chatterjee, S; Schechtman-Rook, A; Berndsen, A; Lynch, R S; Lorimer, D R; Karako-Argaman, C; Kaspi, V M; Kondratiev, V I; McLaughlin, M A; van Leeuwen, J; Rosen, R; Roberts, M S E; Stovall, K


    Gravitationally bound three-body systems have been studied for hundreds of years and are common in our Galaxy. They show complex orbital interactions, which can constrain the compositions, masses and interior structures of the bodies and test theories of gravity, if sufficiently precise measurements are available. A triple system containing a radio pulsar could provide such measurements, but the only previously known such system, PSR B1620-26 (refs 7, 8; with a millisecond pulsar, a white dwarf, and a planetary-mass object in an orbit of several decades), shows only weak interactions. Here we report precision timing and multiwavelength observations of PSR J0337+1715, a millisecond pulsar in a hierarchical triple system with two other stars. Strong gravitational interactions are apparent and provide the masses of the pulsar M[Symbol: see text](1.4378(13), where M[Symbol: see text]is the solar mass and the parentheses contain the uncertainty in the final decimal places) and the two white dwarf companions (0.19751(15)M[Symbol: see text] and 0.4101(3))M[Symbol: see text], as well as the inclinations of the orbits (both about 39.2°). The unexpectedly coplanar and nearly circular orbits indicate a complex and exotic evolutionary past that differs from those of known stellar systems. The gravitational field of the outer white dwarf strongly accelerates the inner binary containing the neutron star, and the system will thus provide an ideal laboratory in which to test the strong equivalence principle of general relativity.

  3. Protostellar accretion traced with chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann, Søren; Jørgensen, Jes Kristian; Padoan, Paolo


    used foranalysing the observations. Methods: Simple freeze-out andsublimation chemistry is added to the simulation, and syntheticC18O line cubes are created for a large number of simulatedprotostars. The spatial extent of C18O is measured for thesimulated protostars and compared directly to a sample......% of the protostars in the simulation show extendedC18O emission, as opposed to approximately 50% in theobservations, indicating that the magnitude and frequency of episodicaccretion events in the simulation is too low relative to observations.The protostellar accretion rates in the simulation are primarilymodulated...

  4. Theory of Disk Accretion onto Magnetic Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Dong


    Full Text Available Disk accretion onto magnetic stars occurs in a variety of systems, including accreting neutron stars (with both high and low magnetic fields, white dwarfs, and protostars. We review some of the key physical processes in magnetosphere-disk interaction, highlighting the theoretical uncertainties. We also discuss some applications to the observations of accreting neutron star and protostellar systems, as well as possible connections to protoplanetary disks and exoplanets.

  5. Lightest exoplanet yet discovered (United States)


    Well-known exoplanet researcher Michel Mayor today announced the discovery of the lightest exoplanet found so far. The planet, "e", in the famous system Gliese 581, is only about twice the mass of our Earth. The team also refined the orbit of the planet Gliese 581 d, first discovered in 2007, placing it well within the habitable zone, where liquid water oceans could exist. These amazing discoveries are the outcome of more than four years of observations using the most successful low-mass-exoplanet hunter in the world, the HARPS spectrograph attached to the 3.6-metre ESO telescope at La Silla, Chile. ESO PR Photo 15a/09 Artist's impression of Gliese 581 e ESO PR Photo 15b/09 A planet in the habitable zone ESO PR Video 15a/09 ESOcast 6 ESO PR Video 15b/09 VNR A-roll ESO PR Video 15c/09 Zoom-in on Gliese 581 e ESO PR Video 15d/09 Artist's impression of Gliese 581 e ESO PR Video 15e/09 Artist's impression of Gliese 581 d ESO PR Video 15f/09 Artist's impression of Gliese 581 system ESO PR Video 15g/09 The radial velocity method ESO PR Video 15h/09 Statement in English ESO PR Video 15i/09 Statement in French ESO PR Video 15j/09 La Silla Observatory "The holy grail of current exoplanet research is the detection of a rocky, Earth-like planet in the ‘habitable zone' -- a region around the host star with the right conditions for water to be liquid on a planet's surface", says Michel Mayor from the Geneva Observatory, who led the European team to this stunning breakthrough. Planet Gliese 581 e orbits its host star - located only 20.5 light-years away in the constellation Libra ("the Scales") -- in just 3.15 days. "With only 1.9 Earth-masses, it is the least massive exoplanet ever detected and is, very likely, a rocky planet", says co-author Xavier Bonfils from Grenoble Observatory. Being so close to its host star, the planet is not in the habitable zone. But another planet in this system appears to be. From previous observations -- also obtained with the HARPS spectrograph

  6. XSS J12270-4859: A Transformation from an X-ray Binary to a Rotation-Powered Millisecond Pulsar System (United States)

    Bogdanov, Slavko; Bassa, Cees; Archibald, Anne M; Patruno, Alessandro; Hessels, Jason; Janssen, Gemma H; Stappers, Benjamin; Tendulkar, Shriharsh P.


    XSS J12270-4859 has been previously suggested to be a low-mass X-ray binary, and until recently the only such system to be seen at MeV-GeV energies. We present radio, optical and X-ray observations that demonstrate that XSS J12270-4859 has undergone a sudden decline in optical and X-ray brightness and no longer shows evidence for an accretion disk. Along with the recent detection of radio pulsations, these findings indicate that XSS J12270-4859 transformed to a full-fledged eclipsing "redback" system between 2012 November 14 and December 21 and presently hosts an active rotation-powered millisecond pulsar.

  7. Millisecond Magnetars as the Central Engine of Gamma-ray Bursts (United States)

    Wang, L. J.


    The durations of GRBs (gamma-ray bursts) have a bimodal distribution with short-duration GRBs (SGRBs) lasting for less than ˜ 2 s and long-duration GRBs (LGRBs) greater than ˜ 2 s. A large number of observations indicate that LGRBs originate from the collapses of massive stars and are therefore associated with supernovae (SNe). SGRBs, on the other hand, are believed to be the results of binary compact object mergers. Now the study of GRBs has progressed to the stage of identifing the nature of central engines, i.e., black holes or millisecond magnetars. We elaborate the progress in Chapter 1. Numerical simulations support the idea of black holes as the central engine of GRBs since the simulations find the formation of jets by black holes. Some observational features, however, cannot be easily integrated into the black hole model, for example, the X-ray plateau lasting for 100-104 s, the extended emission of SGRBs, X-ray flares, etc. The most concise interpretation for these features is that they are powered by rapidly rotating magnetars. If the central engine is a magnetar, it will dissipate its rotational energy by injecting Poynting flux to the ejecta. Such energy injection will enable an observer outside the jet angle of the SGRB to detect the electromagnetic signals. In Chapter 2, we assume that the Poynting flux from the magnetar will quickly transform into the wind dominated by the ultrarelativistic electron-positron, and then a reverse shock will develop when the wind encounters the ejecta. We find that the recently discovered optical transient PTF11agg can be interpreted as synchrotron emission of reverse shock powered by a millisecond magnetar. In Chapter 3, we consider the absorption of reverse shock emission by the ejecta which is ignored when we study PTF11agg. We also adopt a more realistic dynamics of the blast wave than that adopted in Chapter 2. The ejecta is believed to be pure r-process material which is difficult to study in laboratory. We

  8. Local expansions and accretive mappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. Kirk


    Full Text Available Let X and Y be complete metric spaces with Y metrically convex, let D⊂X be open, fix u0∈X, and let d(u=d(u0,u for all u∈D. Let f:X→2Y be a closed mapping which maps open subsets of D onto open sets in Y, and suppose f is locally expansive on D in the sense that there exists a continuous nonincreasing function c:R+→R+ with ∫+∞c(sds=+∞ such that each point x∈D has a neighborhood N for which dist(f(u,f(v≥c(max{d(u,d(v}d(u,v for all u,v∈N. Then, given y∈Y, it is shown that y∈f(D iff there exists x0∈D such that for x∈X\\D, dist(y,f(x0≤dist(u,f(x. This result is then applied to the study of existence of zeros of (set-valued locally strongly accretive and ϕ-accretive mappings in Banach spaces

  9. Studies of accreting and non-accreting neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stollman, G.M.


    This thesis is divided into three parts. Part A is devoted to the statistical study of radio pulsars, in which the observations of nearly all known pulsars are used to study their properties such as magnetic field strengths, rotation periods, space velocities as well as their evolution in time. Part B is devoted to the modelling and understanding of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPO) in low-mass X-ray binaries. But, this study is mainly concerned with the accretion process in these sources, and one may hope to learn more about the neutron stars in these systems when the understanding of QPO is improved. In Part C the problem of 'super-Eddington luminosities' in X-ray burst sources is treated. The idea is that a good understanding of the burst process, which takes place directly at the surface of the neutron star, will eventually improve our understanding of the neutron stars themselves. (Auth.)

  10. Optical and Infrared Lightcurve Modeling of the Gamma-ray Millisecond Pulsar 2FGL J2339.6-0532

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Ching Yen


    Full Text Available We report the detection of a quasi-sinusoidally modulated optical flux with a period of 4.6343 hour in the optical and infrared band of the Fermi source 2FGL J2339.7-0531. Comparing the multi-wavelength observations, we suggest that 2FGL J2339.7- 0531 is a γ-ray emitting millisecond pulsar (MSP in a binary system with an optically visible late-type companion accreted by the pulsar, where the MSP is responsible for the γ-ray emission while the optical and infrared emission originate from the heated side of the companion. Based on the optical properties, the companion star is believed to be heated by the pulsar and reaches peak magnitude when the heated side faces the observer. We conclude that 2FGL J2339.7-0531 is a member of a subclass of γ-ray emitting pulsars -the ‘black widows’- recently revealed to be evaporating their companions in the late-stage of recycling as a prominent group of these newly revealed Fermi sources.

  11. Rotation and Accretion Powered Pulsars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaspi, V M [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 University St, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada)


    Pulsar astrophysics has come a long way in the 40 years since the discovery of the first pulsar by Bell and Hewish. From humble beginnings as bits of 'scruff' on the Cambridge University group's chart recorder paper, the field of pulsars has blossomed into a major area of mainstream astrophysics, with an unparalleled diversity of astrophysical applications. These range from Nobel-celebrated testing of general relativity in the strong-field regime to constraining the equation-of-state of ultradense matter; from probing the winds of massive stars to globular cluster evolution. Previous notable books on the subject of pulsars have tended to focus on some particular topic in the field. The classic text Pulsars by Manchester and Taylor (1977 San Francisco, CA: Freeman) targeted almost exclusively rotation-powered radio pulsars, while the Meszaros book High-Energy Radiation from Magnetized Neutron Stars (1992 Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press) considered both rotation- and accretion-powered neutron stars, but focused on their radiation at x-ray energies and above. The recent book Neutron Stars 1 by Haensel et al (2007 Berlin: Springer) considers only the equation of state and neutron-star structure. Into this context appears Rotation and Accretion Powered Pulsars, by Pranab Ghosh. In contrast to other books, here the author takes an encyclopedic approach and attempts to synthesize practically all of the major aspects of the two main types of neutron star. This is ambitious. The only comparable undertaking is the useful but more elementary Lyne and Graham-Smith text Pulsar Astronomy (1998 Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), or Compact Stellar X-ray Sources (eds Lewin and van der Klis, 2006 Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), an anthology of technical review articles that also includes black hole topics. Rotation and Accretion Powered Pulsars thus fills a clear void in the field, providing a readable, graduate-level book that covers nearly

  12. Discovering Potential Correlations via Hypercontractivity (United States)

    Kim, Hyeji; Gao, Weihao; Kannan, Sreeram; Oh, Sewoong; Viswanath, Pramod


    Discovering a correlation from one variable to another variable is of fundamental scientific and practical interest. While existing correlation measures are suitable for discovering average correlation, they fail to discover hidden or potential correlations. To bridge this gap, (i) we postulate a set of natural axioms that we expect a measure of potential correlation to satisfy; (ii) we show that the rate of information bottleneck, i.e., the hypercontractivity coefficient, satisfies all the proposed axioms; (iii) we provide a novel estimator to estimate the hypercontractivity coefficient from samples; and (iv) we provide numerical experiments demonstrating that this proposed estimator discovers potential correlations among various indicators of WHO datasets, is robust in discovering gene interactions from gene expression time series data, and is statistically more powerful than the estimators for other correlation measures in binary hypothesis testing of canonical examples of potential correlations.

  13. Mixed ice accretion on aircraft wings (United States)

    Janjua, Zaid A.; Turnbull, Barbara; Hibberd, Stephen; Choi, Kwing-So


    Ice accretion is a problematic natural phenomenon that affects a wide range of engineering applications including power cables, radio masts, and wind turbines. Accretion on aircraft wings occurs when supercooled water droplets freeze instantaneously on impact to form rime ice or runback as water along the wing to form glaze ice. Most models to date have ignored the accretion of mixed ice, which is a combination of rime and glaze. A parameter we term the "freezing fraction" is defined as the fraction of a supercooled droplet that freezes on impact with the top surface of the accretion ice to explore the concept of mixed ice accretion. Additionally we consider different "packing densities" of rime ice, mimicking the different bulk rime densities observed in nature. Ice accretion is considered in four stages: rime, primary mixed, secondary mixed, and glaze ice. Predictions match with existing models and experimental data in the limiting rime and glaze cases. The mixed ice formulation however provides additional insight into the composition of the overall ice structure, which ultimately influences adhesion and ice thickness, and shows that for similar atmospheric parameter ranges, this simple mixed ice description leads to very different accretion rates. A simple one-dimensional energy balance was solved to show how this freezing fraction parameter increases with decrease in atmospheric temperature, with lower freezing fraction promoting glaze ice accretion.

  14. Foundations of Black Hole Accretion Disk Theory. (United States)

    Abramowicz, Marek A; Fragile, P Chris


    This review covers the main aspects of black hole accretion disk theory. We begin with the view that one of the main goals of the theory is to better understand the nature of black holes themselves. In this light we discuss how accretion disks might reveal some of the unique signatures of strong gravity: the event horizon, the innermost stable circular orbit, and the ergosphere. We then review, from a first-principles perspective, the physical processes at play in accretion disks. This leads us to the four primary accretion disk models that we review: Polish doughnuts (thick disks), Shakura-Sunyaev (thin) disks, slim disks, and advection-dominated accretion flows (ADAFs). After presenting the models we discuss issues of stability, oscillations, and jets. Following our review of the analytic work, we take a parallel approach in reviewing numerical studies of black hole accretion disks. We finish with a few select applications that highlight particular astrophysical applications: measurements of black hole mass and spin, black hole vs. neutron star accretion disks, black hole accretion disk spectral states, and quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs).

  15. Accretion, primordial black holes and standard cosmology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Primordial black holes evaporate due to Hawking radiation. We find that the evaporation times of primordial black holes increase when accretion of radiation is included. Thus, depending on accretion efficiency, more primordial black holes are existing today, which strengthens the conjecture that the primordial black holes ...

  16. Accretion funnels onto weakly magnetized young stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bessolaz, N.; Zanni, C.; Ferreira, J.; Keppens, R.; Bouvier, J.


    Aims. We re-examine the conditions required to steadily deviate an accretion flow from a circumstellar disc into a magnetospheric funnel flow onto a slow rotating young forming star. Methods. New analytical constraints on the formation of accretion funnels flows due to the presence of a dipolar

  17. Accretion, primordial black holes and standard cosmology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Primordial black holes evaporate due to Hawking radiation. We find that the evaporation times of primordial black holes increase when accretion of radiation is included. Thus, depending on accretion efficiency, more primordial black holes are existing today, which strengthens the con- jecture that the primordial ...

  18. Accretion Processes in Star Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Küffmeier, Michael

    Stars and their corresponding protoplanetary disks form in different environments of Giant Molecular Clouds. By carrying state-of-the art zoom-simulations with the magnetohydrodynamical code ramses, I investigated the accretion process around young stars that are embedded in such different...... environments. Starting from a turbulent (40 pc) 3 Giant Molecular cloud, efficient use of Adaptive Mesh Refinement technique allowed to resolve the processes inside of protoplanetary disks with grid sizes down to 0.06 AU, thus covering a range of spatial scales of more than six orders of magnitude. Accounting...... abundance in different types of the oldest solids of the Solar System (Calcium Aluminum rich inclusions) is not a result of early supernova injections. Instead, our results suggest thermal processing of dust grains as a likely scenario for the measured differences. Furthermore, the simulations show...

  19. XMM-Newton Observations of Four Millisecond Pulsars (United States)

    Zavlin, Vyacheslav E.


    I present an analysis of the XMM-Newton observations of four millisecond pulsars, J0437-4715, J2124-3358, J1024-0719, and J0034-0534. The new data provide strong evidence of thermal emission in the X-ray flux detected from the first three objects. This thermal component is best interpreted as radiation from pulsar polar caps covered with a nonmagnetic hydrogen atmosphere. A nonthermal power-law component, dominating at energies E greater than or equal to 3 keV, can also be present in the detected X-ray emission. For PSR J0437-4715, the timing analysis reveals that the shape and pulsed fraction of the pulsar light curves are energy dependent. This, together with the results obtained from the phase-resolved spectroscopy, supports the two-component (thermal plus nonthermal) interpretation of the pulsar's X-ray radiation. Highly significant pulsations have been found in the X-ray flux of PSRs 52124-3358 and 51024-0719. For PSR 50034-0534, a possible X-ray counterpart of the radio pulsar has been suggested. The inferred properties of the detected thermal emission are compared with predictions of radio pulsar models.

  20. Orbitally-Modulated High Energy Emission from Millisecond Pulsar Binaries (United States)

    Wadiasingh, Zorawar; Kust Harding, Alice; Venter, Christo; Boettcher, Markus; Baring, Matthew G.


    Radio, optical and X-ray followup of unidentified Fermi sources has expanded the number of known galactic-field "black widow" and "redback" millisecond pulsar binaries from four to nearly 30. Several systems observed by Chandra, XMM, Suzaku, and NuSTAR exhibit double-peaked X-ray orbital modulation. This is attributed to synchrotron emission from electrons accelerated in an intrabinary shock and Doppler boosting by mildly relativistic bulk flow along the shock. It is anticipated that NICER will also detect such emission from B1957+20 and other targets. The structure of the orbital X-ray light curves depend upon the binary inclination, shock geometry, and particle acceleration distribution. In particular, the spatial variation along the shock of the underlying electron power-law index yields energy-dependence in the shape of light curves motivating future high energy phase-resolved spectroscopic studies to probe the unknown physics of pulsar winds and relativistic shock acceleration therein. We also briefly discuss stability of the shock to dynamical perturbations for redbacks and how observations of correlated X ray-optical variability may test self-regulatory stabilizing mechanisms.

  1. Increasing Pulsar Timing Array Sensitivity Through Addition of Millisecond Pulsars (United States)

    DeCesar, Megan E.; Crawford, Fronefield; Ferrara, Elizabeth; Lynch, Ryan; Mingarelli, Chiara; Levin Preston, Lina; Ransom, Scott; Romano, Joseph; Simon, Joseph; Spiewak, Renee; Stovall, Kevin; Swiggum, Joe; Taylor, Stephen; Green Bank North Celestial Cap Pulsar Survey, Fermi LAT Collaboration, Fermi Pulsar Search Consortium


    Siemens et al. (2013) and Taylor et al. (2016) demonstrated the importance of increasing the number of millisecond pulsars (MSPs) in pulsar timing arrays (PTAs) in order to increase the sensitivity of the array and decrease the time-to-detection of a gravitational wave background (GWB). In particular, they predict that adding four MSPs per year to the NANOGrav and International PTAs will likely yield a GWB detection in less than a decade. A more even distribution of MSPs across the sky is also important for discriminating a GWB signal from a non-quadrupolar background (Sampson et al., in prep). Pulsar surveys and targeted searches have consistently led to additions of 4 or more MSPs per year to PTAs. I will describe these ongoing efforts, particularly in the context of the Green Bank North Celestial Cap pulsar survey and Fermi-guided searches at Green Bank and Arecibo that seek to find MSPs in low-pulsar-density regions of the sky.

  2. Disentangling sub-millisecond processes within an auditory transduction chain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Gollisch


    Full Text Available Every sensation begins with the conversion of a sensory stimulus into the response of a receptor neuron. Typically, this involves a sequence of multiple biophysical processes that cannot all be monitored directly. In this work, we present an approach that is based on analyzing different stimuli that cause the same final output, here defined as the probability of the receptor neuron to fire a single action potential. Comparing such iso-response stimuli within the framework of nonlinear cascade models allows us to extract the characteristics of individual signal-processing steps with a temporal resolution much finer than the trial-to-trial variability of the measured output spike times. Applied to insect auditory receptor cells, the technique reveals the sub-millisecond dynamics of the eardrum vibration and of the electrical potential and yields a quantitative four-step cascade model. The model accounts for the tuning properties of this class of neurons and explains their high temporal resolution under natural stimulation. Owing to its simplicity and generality, the presented method is readily applicable to other nonlinear cascades and a large variety of signal-processing systems.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, D. L.; Kotulla, R.; Biwer, C. M.; Day, D. F. [Physics Department, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee WI 53211 (United States); Stovall, K.; Dartez, L.; Ford, A. J.; Garcia, A.; Jenet, F. A. [Center for Advanced Radio Astronomy and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Texas at Brownsville, Brownsville, TX 78520 (United States); Ransom, S. M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22901 (United States); Roberts, M. S. E. [Eureka Scientific, Inc., 2452 Delmer Street, Suite 100, Oakland, CA 94602-3017 (United States); Archibald, A. M.; Karako, C.; Kaspi, V. M.; Lynch, R. S. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 University Street, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Boyles, J.; Lorimer, D. R.; McLaughlin, M. A. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, White Hall, 115 Willey Street, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Hessels, J. W. T.; Kondratiev, V. I., E-mail: [ASTRON, the Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, Postbus 2, 7990 AA, Dwingeloo (Netherlands); and others


    The energetic, eclipsing millisecond pulsar J1816+4510 was recently discovered in a low-frequency radio survey with the Green Bank Telescope. With an orbital period of 8.7 hr and a minimum companion mass of 0.16 M{sub Sun }, it appears to belong to an increasingly important class of pulsars that are ablating their low-mass companions. We report the discovery of the {gamma}-ray counterpart to this pulsar and present a likely optical/ultraviolet counterpart as well. Using the radio ephemeris, we detect pulsations in the unclassified {gamma}-ray source 2FGL J1816.5+4511, implying an efficiency of {approx}25% in converting the pulsar's spin-down luminosity into {gamma}-rays and adding PSR J1816+4510 to the large number of millisecond pulsars detected by Fermi. The likely optical/UV counterpart was identified through position coincidence (<0.''1) and unusual colors. Assuming that it is the companion, with R = 18.27 {+-} 0.03 mag and effective temperature {approx}> 15,000 K, it would be among the brightest and hottest of low-mass pulsar companions and appears qualitatively different from other eclipsing pulsar systems. In particular, current data suggest that it is a factor of two larger than most white dwarfs of its mass but a factor of four smaller than its Roche lobe. We discuss possible reasons for its high temperature and odd size, and suggest that it recently underwent a violent episode of mass loss. Regardless of origin, its brightness and the relative unimportance of irradiation make it an ideal target for a mass, and hence a neutron star mass, determination.

  4. Accretion in Saturn's F Ring (United States)

    Meinke, B. K.; Esposito, L. W.; Stewart, G.


    Saturn's F ring is the solar system's principal natural laboratory for direct observation of accretion and disruption processes. The ring resides in the Roche zone, where tidal disruption competes with self-gravity, which allows us to observe the lifecycle of moonlets. Just as nearby moons create structure at the B ring edge (Esposito et al. 2012) and the Keeler gap (Murray 2007), the F ring "shepherding" moons Prometheus and Pandora stir up ring material and create observably changing structures on timescales of days to decades. In fact, Beurle et al (2010) show that Prometheus makes it possible for "distended, yet gravitationally coherent clumps" to form in the F ring, and Barbara and Esposito (2002) predicted a population of ~1 km bodies in the ring. In addition to the observations over the last three decades, the Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) has detected 27 statistically significant features in 101 occultations by Saturn's F ring since July 2004. Seventeen of those 27 features are associated with clumps of ring material. Two features are opaque in occultation, which makes them candidates for solid objects, which we refer to as Moonlets. The 15 other features partially block stellar signal for 22 m to just over 3.7 km along the radial expanse of the occultation. Upon visual inspection of the occultation profile, these features resemble Icicles, thus we will refer to them as such here. The density enhancements responsible for such signal attenuations are likely due to transient clumping of material, evidence that aggregations of material are ubiquitous in the F ring. Our lengthy observing campaign reveals that Icicles are likely transient clumps, while Moonlets are possible solid objects. Optical depth is an indicator of clumping because more-densely aggregated material blocks more light; therefore, it is natural to imagine moonlets as later evolutionary stage of icicle, when looser clumps of material compact to form a feature that appears

  5. A PC parallel port button box provides millisecond response time accuracy under Linux


    Stewart, Neil


    For psychologists, it is sometimes necessary to measure people's reaction times to the nearest millisecond. This article describes how to use the PC parallel port to receive signals from a button box to achieve millisecond response time accuracy. The workings of the parallel port, the corresponding port addresses, and a simple Linux program for controlling the port are described. A test of the speed and reliability of button box signal detection is reported. If the reader is moderately famili...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archibald, Anne M.; Kondratiev, Vladislav I.; Hessels, Jason W. T.; Stinebring, Daniel R., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [ASTRON, The Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, Postbus 2, 7990-AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands)


    High-precision timing of millisecond pulsars (MSPs) over years to decades is a promising technique for direct detection of gravitational waves at nanohertz frequencies. Time-variable, multi-path scattering in the interstellar medium is a significant source of noise for this detector, particularly as timing precision approaches 10 ns or better for MSPs in the pulsar timing array. For many MSPs, the scattering delay above 1 GHz is at the limit of detectability; therefore, we study it at lower frequencies. Using the LOw-Frequency ARray (LOFAR) radio telescope, we have analyzed short (5-20 minutes) observations of 3 MSPs in order to estimate the scattering delay at 110-190 MHz, where the number of scintles is large and, hence, the statistical uncertainty in the scattering delay is small. We used cyclic spectroscopy, still relatively novel in radio astronomy, on baseband-sampled data to achieve unprecedented frequency resolution while retaining adequate pulse-phase resolution. We detected scintillation structure in the spectra of the MSPs PSR B1257+12, PSR J1810+1744, and PSR J2317+1439 with diffractive bandwidths of 6 ± 3, 2.0 ± 0.3, and ∼7 kHz, respectively, where the estimate for PSR J2317+1439 is reliable to about a factor of two. For the brightest of the three pulsars, PSR J1810+1744, we found that the diffractive bandwidth has a power-law behavior Δν{sub d}∝ν{sup α}, where ν is the observing frequency and α = 4.5 ± 0.5, consistent with a Kolmogorov inhomogeneity spectrum. We conclude that this technique holds promise for monitoring the scattering delay of MSPs with LOFAR and other high-sensitivity, low-frequency arrays like the low-frequency component of the Square Kilometre Array.

  7. Detections of millisecond pulsars with the FERMI Large Area Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillemot, L.


    The Fermi observatory was launched on June 11, 2008. It hosts the Large Area Telescope (LAT), sensitive to gamma-ray photons from 20 MeV to over 300 GeV. When the LAT began its activity, nine young and energetic pulsars were known in gamma ray range. At least several tens of pulsar detections by the LAT were predicted before launch. The LAT also allowed the study of millisecond pulsars (MSPs), never firmly detected in gamma ray range before Fermi. This thesis first presents the pulsar timing campaign for the LAT, in collaboration with large radio telescopes and X-ray telescopes, allowing for high sensitivity pulsed searches. Furthermore, it lead to quasi-homogeneous coverage of the galactic MSPs, so that the search for pulsations in LAT data for this population of stars was not affected by an a-priori bias. We present a search for pulsations from these objects in LAT data. For the first time, eight galactic MSPs have been detected as sources of pulsed gamma-ray emission over 100 MeV. In addition, a couple of good candidates for future detection are seen. A similar search for globular cluster MSPs was not successful so far. Comparison of the phase-aligned gamma-ray and radio light curves, as well as the spectral shapes, leads to the conclusion that their gamma-ray emission is similar to that of normal pulsars, and is probably produced in the outer-magnetosphere. This discovery suggests that many unresolved gamma-ray sources are unknown MSPs. (author)

  8. Population Synthesis of Radio & Gamma-Ray Millisecond Pulsars (United States)

    Frederick, Sara; Gonthier, P. L.; Harding, A. K.


    In recent years, the number of known gamma-ray millisecond pulsars (MSPs) in the Galactic disk has risen substantially thanks to confirmed detections by Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi). We have developed a new population synthesis of gamma-ray and radio MSPs in the galaxy which uses Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques to explore the large and small worlds of the model parameter space and allows for comparisons of the simulated and detected MSP distributions. The simulation employs empirical radio and gamma-ray luminosity models that are dependent upon the pulsar period and period derivative with freely varying exponents. Parameters associated with the birth distributions are also free to vary. The computer code adjusts the magnitudes of the model luminosities to reproduce the number of MSPs detected by a group of ten radio surveys, thus normalizing the simulation and predicting the MSP birth rates in the Galaxy. Computing many Markov chains leads to preferred sets of model parameters that are further explored through two statistical methods. Marginalized plots define confidence regions in the model parameter space using maximum likelihood methods. A secondary set of confidence regions is determined in parallel using Kuiper statistics calculated from comparisons of cumulative distributions. These two techniques provide feedback to affirm the results and to check for consistency. Radio flux and dispersion measure constraints have been imposed on the simulated gamma-ray distributions in order to reproduce realistic detection conditions. The simulated and detected distributions agree well for both sets of radio and gamma-ray pulsar characteristics, as evidenced by our various comparisons.

  9. Steepest descent approximations for accretive operator equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidume, C.E.


    A necessary and sufficient condition is established for the strong convergence of the steepest descent approximation to a solution of equations involving quasi-accretive operators defined on a uniformly smooth Banach space. (author). 49 refs

  10. The physics of accretion onto black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Belloni, Tomaso; Casella, Piergiorgio; Gilfanov, Marat; Jonker, Peter; King, Andrew


    This title reviews in-depth research on accretion on all scales, from galactic binaries to intermediate mass and supermassive black holes. Possible future directions of accretion are also discussed. The following main themes are covered: a historical perspective; physical models of accretion onto black holes of all masses; black hole fundamental parameters; and accretion, jets and outflows. An overview and outlook on the topic is also presented.  This volume summarizes the status of the study of astrophysical black hole research and is aimed at astrophysicists and graduate students working in this field.  Originally published in Space Science Reviews, Vol 183/1-4, 2014.

  11. Accretion of Ghost Condensate by Black Holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frolov, A


    The intent of this letter is to point out that the accretion of a ghost condensate by black holes could be extremely efficient. We analyze steady-state spherically symmetric flows of the ghost fluid in the gravitational field of a Schwarzschild black hole and calculate the accretion rate. Unlike minimally coupled scalar field or quintessence, the accretion rate is set not by the cosmological energy density of the field, but by the energy scale of the ghost condensate theory. If hydrodynamical flow is established, it could be as high as tenth of a solar mass per second for 10MeV-scale ghost condensate accreting onto a stellar-sized black hole, which puts serious constraints on the parameters of the ghost condensate model.

  12. SMBH accretion and mergers: removing the symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Andrew; Nixon, Chris


    We review recent progress in studying accretion flows on to supermassive black holes (SMBH). Much of this removes earlier assumptions of symmetry and regularity, such as aligned and prograde disc rotation. This allows a much richer variety of effects, often because cancellation of angular momentum allows rapid infall. Potential applications include lower SMBH spins allowing faster mass growth and suppressing gravitational-wave reaction recoil in mergers, gas-assisted SMBH mergers, and near-dynamical accretion in galaxy centres. (paper)

  13. Discovering Hands - México


    Salamanca Cárdenas, Daniela; Castelblanco Domínguez, Junio Andrés; Aguilar Ardila, Laura Andrea


    El modelo de Discovering Hands ha sido reconocido internacionalmente como un proyecto innovador que se ha expandido por diferentes países del mundo, como Austria, y se ha empezado a estudiar la propuesta en países como República Checa, India y Colombia. (Discovering Hands, 2016). Esto se debe a que no solo mejora el tratamiento de cáncer de mama, sino que también reduce los costos totales de tratamiento de la enfermedad y aumenta la fuerza laborar de los países donde esté presente. Al represe...

  14. Structures formation through self-organized accretion on cosmic strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murdzek, R.


    In this paper, we shall show that the formation of structures through accretion by a cosmic string is driven by a natural feed-back mechanism: a part of the energy radiated by accretions creates a pressure on the accretion disk itself. This phenomenon leads to a nonlinear evolution of the accretion process. Thus, the formation of structures results as a consequence of a self-organized growth of the accreting central object.

  15. Measuring the spins of accreting black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClintock, Jeffrey E; Narayan, Ramesh; Gou, Lijun; Kulkarni, Akshay; Penna, Robert F; Steiner, James F; Davis, Shane W; Orosz, Jerome A; Remillard, Ronald A


    A typical galaxy is thought to contain tens of millions of stellar-mass black holes, the collapsed remnants of once massive stars, and a single nuclear supermassive black hole. Both classes of black holes accrete gas from their environments. The accreting gas forms a flattened orbiting structure known as an accretion disk. During the past several years, it has become possible to obtain measurements of the spins of the two classes of black holes by modeling the x-ray emission from their accretion disks. Two methods are employed, both of which depend upon identifying the inner radius of the accretion disk with the innermost stable circular orbit, whose radius depends only on the mass and spin of the black hole. In the Fe Kα method, which applies to both classes of black holes, one models the profile of the relativistically broadened iron line with a special focus on the gravitationally redshifted red wing of the line. In the continuum-fitting (CF) method, which has so far only been applied to stellar-mass black holes, one models the thermal x-ray continuum spectrum of the accretion disk. We discuss both methods, with a strong emphasis on the CF method and its application to stellar-mass black holes. Spin results for eight stellar-mass black holes are summarized. These data are used to argue that the high spins of at least some of these black holes are natal, and that the presence or absence of relativistic jets in accreting black holes is not entirely determined by the spin of the black hole.

  16. Accreting neutron stars by QFT (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Guang

    layer with thickness of 1 km then q = 1 (N1S1), the gravity from N1S1 inside and exterior will be completely shielded. Because of net nuν _{0} flux is the medium to produce and transmit gravity, q obstructed by the shielding layer lie on the density of layer matter and the section of single nucleon to electronic neutrino obtained by nuclear physics experiments is about 1.1*10 ({-) 43} cm (2) . The mass inside N1S1 for exterior has not gravity interaction, it equivalent to has not inertia as the mass vanish. The neutron star is as a empty shell thereby may rapidly rotating and has not upper limit of mass and radii by the gravity accretion of N1S1, which will influence the mechanisms of pulsars, quasars and X-rays generated. At N1S1 interior the mass for exterior has not gravity which is just we searching dark matter. The mass each part will each other shielding and gravity decrease to less than the pressure of the degenerate neutron gas. The neutron star cannot collapse into a singular point with infinite density, i.e., the black hole with infinite gravity cannot be formed or the neutron star is jest the black hole in observational meaning. By the gravity accrete of N1S1 the neutron star may enlarge its shell radii but thickness keep. Only a shell gravity may be not less than any a observed value which to be deemed as black hole. The neutron star has powerful gravity certainly accompany with great surface negative charge and it may rapidly to rotate, so that there is a powerful magnetic field surround it. The accreting neutron star is as a slowly expand empty shell with fixed thickness of 1 km, its spin period depend on its radii or total accretion mass.

  17. Magnetically gated accretion in an accreting ‘non-magnetic’ white dwarf (United States)

    Scaringi, S.; Maccarone, T. J.; D’Angelo, C.; Knigge, C.; Groot, P. J.


    White dwarfs are often found in binary systems with orbital periods ranging from tens of minutes to hours in which they can accrete gas from their companion stars. In about 15 per cent of these binaries, the magnetic field of the white dwarf is strong enough (at 106 gauss or more) to channel the accreted matter along field lines onto the magnetic poles. The remaining systems are referred to as ‘non-magnetic’, because until now there has been no evidence that they have a magnetic field that is strong enough to affect the accretion dynamics. Here we report an analysis of archival optical observations of the ‘non-magnetic’ accreting white dwarf in the binary system MV Lyrae, whose light curve displays quasi-periodic bursts of about 30 minutes duration roughly every 2 hours. The timescale and amplitude of these bursts indicate the presence of an unstable, magnetically regulated accretion mode, which in turn implies the existence of magnetically gated accretion, in which disk material builds up around the magnetospheric boundary (at the co-rotation radius) and then accretes onto the white dwarf, producing bursts powered by the release of gravitational potential energy. We infer a surface magnetic field strength for the white dwarf in MV Lyrae of between 2 × 104 gauss and 1 × 105 gauss, too low to be detectable by other current methods. Our discovery provides a new way of studying the strength and evolution of magnetic fields in accreting white dwarfs and extends the connections between accretion onto white dwarfs, young stellar objects and neutron stars, for which similar magnetically gated accretion cycles have been identified.

  18. Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton Accretion onto Binaries (United States)

    Antoni, Andrea; MacLeod, Morgan; Ramírez-Ruiz, Enrico


    Binary stars are not rare. While only close binary stars will eventually interact with one another, even the widest binary systems interact with their gaseous surroundings. The rates of accretion and the gaseous drag forces arising in these interactions are the key to understanding how these systems evolve. This poster examines accretion flows around a binary system moving supersonically through a background gas. We perform three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton accretion using the adaptive mesh refinement code FLASH. We simulate a range of values of semi-major axis of the orbit relative to the gravitational focusing impact parameter of the pair. On large scales, gas is gravitationally focused by the center-of-mass of the binary, leading to dynamical friction drag and to the accretion of mass and momentum. On smaller scales, the orbital motion imprints itself on the gas. Notably, the magnitude and direction of the forces acting on the binary inherit this orbital dependence. The long-term evolution of the binary is determined by the timescales for accretion, slow down of the center-of-mass, and decay of the orbit. We use our simulations to measure these timescales and to establish a hierarchy between them. In general, our simulations indicate that binaries moving through gaseous media will slow down before the orbit decays.

  19. Gas Accretion via Condensation and Fountains (United States)

    Fraternali, Filippo

    For most of their lives, galaxies are surrounded by large and massive coronae of hot gas, which constitute vast reservoirs for gas accretion. This chapter describes a mechanism that allows star-forming disc galaxies to extract gas from their coronae. Stellar feedback powers a continuous circulation (galactic fountain) of gas from the disc into the halo, producing mixing between metal-rich disc material and metal-poor coronal gas. This mixing causes a dramatic reduction of the cooling time of the corona making it condense and accrete onto the disc. This fountain-driven accretion model makes clear predictions for the kinematics of the extraplanar cold/warm gas in disc galaxies, which are in good agreement with a number of independent observations. The amount of gas accretion predicted by the model is of the order of what is needed to sustain star formation. Accretion is expected to occur preferentially in the outer parts of discs and its efficiency drops for higher coronal temperatures. Thus galaxies are able to gather new gas as long as they do not become too massive nor fall into large halos and they maintain their star-forming gaseous discs.

  20. X-ray pulsars: accretion flow deceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.S.


    X-ray pulsars are thought to be neutron stars that derive the energy for their x-ray emission by accreting material onto their magnetic polar caps. The accreting material and the x-ray pulsar atmospheres were idealized as fully ionized plasmas consisting only of electrons and protons. A high magnetic field (∼ 5 x 10 12 Gauss) permeates the atmospheric plasma, and causes the motion of atmospheric electrons perpendicular to the field to be quantized into discrete Landau levels. All atmospheric electrons initially lie in the Landau ground state, but in the author's calculations of Coulomb collisions between atmospheric electrons and accreting protons, he allows for processes that leave the electrons in the first excited Landau level. He also considers interactions between accreting protons and the collective modes of the atmospheric plasma. Division of the electromagnetic interaction of a fast proton with a magnetized plasma into single particle and collective effects is described in detail in Chapter 2. Deceleration of the accretion flow due to Coulomb collisions with atmospheric electrons and collective plasma effects was studied in a number of computer simulations. These simulations, along with a discussion of the physical state of the atmospheric plasma and its interactions with a past proton, are presented in Chapter 3. Details of the atmospheric model and a description of the results of the simulations are given in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 contains some brief concluding remarks, and some thoughts on future research

  1. A Search for Millisecond-pulsar Radio Emission from the Faint Quiescent Soft X-Ray Transient 1H 1905+000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikhailov, K.; Van Leeuwen, J. [Anton Pannekoek Institute for Astronomy, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, P.O. Box 94249, 1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Jonker, P. G., E-mail: [SRON, the Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan 2, 3584 CA, Utrecht (Netherlands)


    Transitional millisecond pulsars (tMSPs) switch between an accretion-powered state without radio pulsations and a rotation-powered state with radio pulsations. In the former state, tMSPs are X-ray bright, while in the latter state, they are X-ray dim. Soft X-ray transients (SXTs) undergo similar switches in X-ray, between “high” states with bright X-ray outbursts and “low” states of quiescence. The upper limit on the quiescent X-ray luminosity of SXT 1H 1905+000 suggests that its luminosity might be similar to that of the known tMSPs. A detection of radio pulsations would link SXTs more strongly with tMSPs; and thus, e.g., put stricter constraints on tMSP transitional timescales through the connection with the well-known SXT periods of quiescence. A nondetection allows us, based on the telescope sensitivity, to estimate how likely these sources are to pulsate in radio. Over a 10-year span, 2006–2015, we carried out targeted radio observations at 400/800 MHz with Arecibo, and searched for radio pulsations from the quiescent SXT 1H 1905+000. None of the observations have revealed radio pulsations from the targeted SXT. For a 1 ms pulsar, our flux density upper limit is 10.3 μ Jy. At an assumed distance of 10 kpc this translates to a pseudo-luminosity upper limit of 1.0 mJy kpc{sup 2}, which makes our search complete to ∼85% of the known MSP population. Given the high sensitivity, and the generally large beaming fraction of millisecond pulsars, we conclude that SXT 1H 1905+000 is unlikely to emit in radio as a tMSP.

  2. FRB as products of accretion disc funnels (United States)

    Katz, J. I.


    The repeating FRB 121102, the only fast radio burst (FRB) with an accurately determined position, is associated with a variable persistent radio source. I suggest that an FRB originates in the accretion disc funnels of black holes. Narrowly collimated radiation is emitted along the wandering instantaneous angular momentum axis of accreted matter. This emission is observed as a fast radio burst when it sweeps across the direction to the observer. In this model, in contrast to neutron star (pulsar, RRAT or SGR) models, repeating FRBs do not have underlying periodicity and are co-located with persistent radio sources resulting from their off-axis emission. The model is analogous, on smaller spatial, lower mass and accretion rate and shorter temporal scales, to an active galactic nucleus (AGN), with FRB corresponding to blazars in which the jets point towards us. The small inferred black hole masses imply that FRBs are not associated with galactic nuclei.

  3. Thermal structure of the accreting earth (United States)

    Turcotte, D. L.; Pflugrath, J. C.


    The energy associated with the accretion of the earth and the segregation of the core is more than sufficient to melt the entire earth. In order to understand the thermal evolution of the early earth it is necessary to study the relevant heat transfer mechanisms. In this paper the existence of a global magma ocean is postulated and calculations are carried out of the heat flux through it in order to determine its depth. In the solid mantle heat is transferred by the upward migration of magma. This magma supplies the magma ocean. The increase in the mantle liquidus with depth (pressure) is the dominant effect influencing heat transfer through the magma ocean. It is found that a magma ocean with a depth of the order of 20 km would have existed as the earth accreted. It is concluded that the core segregated and an atmosphere was formed during accretion.

  4. Continuum Reverberation Mapping of AGN Accretion Disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fausnaugh, Michael M. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Cambridge, MA (United States); Peterson, Bradley M. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Center for Cosmology and AstroParticle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States); Starkey, David A. [SUPA Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, Scotland (United Kingdom); Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States); Horne, Keith, E-mail: [SUPA Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, Scotland (United Kingdom); Collaboration: the AGN STORM Collaboration


    We show recent detections of inter-band continuum lags in three AGN (NGC 5548, NGC 2617, and MCG+08-11-011), which provide new constraints on the temperature profiles and absolute sizes of the accretion disks. We find lags larger than would be predicted for standard geometrically thin, optically thick accretion disks by factors of 2.3–3.3. For NGC 5548, the data span UV through optical/near-IR wavelengths, and we are able to discern a steeper temperature profile than the T ~ R{sup −3/4} expected for a standard thin disk. Using a physical model, we are also able to estimate the inclinations of the disks for two objects. These results are similar to those found from gravitational microlensing of strongly lensed quasars, and provide a complementary approach for investigating the accretion disk structure in local, low luminosity AGN.

  5. Relativistic jets from accreting black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coriat, Mickael


    Matter ejection processes, more commonly called jets, are among the most ubiquitous phenomena of the universe at ail scales of size and energy and are inseparable from accretion process. This intimate link, still poorly understood, is the main focus of this thesis. Through multi-wavelength observations of X-ray binary Systems hosting a black hole, I will try to bring new constraints on the physics of relativistic jets and the accretion - ejection coupling. We strive first to compare the simultaneous infrared, optical and X-ray emissions of the binary GX 339-4 over a period of five years. We study the nature of the central accretion flow, one of the least understood emission components of X-ray binaries, both in its geometry and in term of the physical processes that take place. This component is fundamental since it is could be the jets launching area or be highly connected to it. Then we focus on the infrared emission of the jets to investigate the physical conditions close to the jets base. We finally study the influence of irradiation of the outer accretion disc by the central X-ray source. Then, we present the results of a long-term radio and X-ray study of the micro-quasar H1743- 322. This System belongs to a population of accreting black holes that display, for a given X-ray luminosity, a radio emission fainter than expected. We make several assumptions about the physical origin of this phenomenon and show in particular that these sources could have a radiatively efficient central accretion flow. We finally explore the phases of return to the hard state of GX 339-4. We follow the re-emergence of the compact jets emission and try to bring new constraints on the physics of jet formation. (author) [fr

  6. Cosmological Accretion Disks via External Radiation Drag


    FUKUE, Jun; UMEMURA, Masayuki


    Accretion disks as well as disk accretion driven by external radiation drag are presented under a steady approximation in the cases of the point-mass potential and of the dark-matter potential. We assume that the external drag force can be expressed as -beta_v, where (beta) is a constant coefficient and v the velocity vector. When the gravitational potential is given by a central point-mass M, we find, in a cold regime where the pressure force is neglected, steady solutions such that the infa...

  7. Self-Consistent Models of Accretion Disks (United States)

    Narayan, Ramesh


    Research was carried out on several topics in the theory of astrophysical accretion flows around black holes, neutron stars and white dwarfs. The focus of our effort was the advection-dominated accretion flow (ADAF) model which the PI and his collaborators proposed and developed over the last several years. Our group completed a total of 46 papers, of which 36 are in refereed journals and 12 are in conference proceedings. All the papers have either already appeared in print or are in press.

  8. Millisecond-order X-ray phase tomography with compressed sensing (United States)

    Yashiro, Wataru; Ueda, Ryosuke; Kajiwara, Kentaro; Noda, Daiji; Kudo, Hiroyuki


    We report on millisecond-order X-ray tomography with grating-based X-ray imaging using a white synchrotron X-ray beam. We performed a compressed sensing technique for tomographic reconstruction and successfully obtained a phase tomogram for a polypropylene sphere with a temporal resolution of 2.0 ms. Our approach will make it possible to realize millisecond-order four-dimensional X-ray tomography but also to markedly reduce the radiation damage of samples including polymer and biological materials, and will be widely used in various fields of material and life sciences in the near future.

  9. Accreting CO material onto ONe white dwarfs towards accretion-induced collapse (United States)

    Wu, Cheng-Yuan; Wang, Bo


    The final outcomes of accreting ONe white dwarfs (ONe WDs) have been studied for several decades, but there are still some issues that are not resolved. Recently, some studies suggested that the deflagration of oxygen would occur for accreting ONe WDs with Chandrasekhar masses. In this paper, we aim to investigate whether ONe WDs can experience accretion-induced collapse (AIC) or explosions when their masses approach the Chandrasekhar limit. Employing the stellar evolution code Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA), we simulate the long-term evolution of ONe WDs with accreting CO material. The ONe WDs undergo weak multicycle carbon flashes during the mass-accretion process, leading to mass increase of the WDs. We found that different initial WD masses and mass-accretion rates influence the evolution of central density and temperature. However, the central temperature cannot reach the explosive oxygen ignition temperature due to neutrino cooling. This work implies that the final outcome of accreting ONe WDs is electron-capture induced collapse rather than thermonuclear explosion.

  10. Discovering evolution equations with applications

    CERN Document Server

    McKibben, Mark


    Most existing books on evolution equations tend either to cover a particular class of equations in too much depth for beginners or focus on a very specific research direction. Thus, the field can be daunting for newcomers to the field who need access to preliminary material and behind-the-scenes detail. Taking an applications-oriented, conversational approach, Discovering Evolution Equations with Applications: Volume 2-Stochastic Equations provides an introductory understanding of stochastic evolution equations. The text begins with hands-on introductions to the essentials of real and stochast

  11. Accretion disk viscosity and internal waves in disks (United States)

    Huang, Min


    Recently, Vishniac, Jin and Diamond suggested that internal waves in accretion disks play a critical role in generating magnetic fields, and consequently are indirectly responsible for angular momentum transfer in thin, conducting, and non-self-gravitational disk systems. A project in which we will construct a quantitative model of the internal wave spectrum in accretion disks is started. It includes two aspects of work. The physical properties of the waves in a thin, non-self-gravitational, and non-magnetized accretion disk with realistic vertical structure is cataloged and examined. Besides the low frequency internal waves discovered by Vishniac and Diamond, it was found that sound waves with low frequency and low axisymmetry (with small absolute value of m) are capable of a driving dynamo because they are (1) well confined in a layer with thickness 2(absolute value of m)H where H is the disk scale height; (2) highly dispersive so they may survive the strong dissipation caused by the coherent nonlinear interaction their high frequency partners experience; and (3) elliptically polarized because they are confined in the z-direction. As a first step towards constructing a quantitative theory of this dynamo effect, a framework of calculating resonant nonlinear interaction among waves in disk is established. We are developing a numerical code which will compute the steady spectrum of the wave field in this framework. For simplicity, we only include the low frequency internal waves suggested by Vishniac and Diamond in the present stage. In the vicinity of the static state, the time step whose length is determined by the evolution of the modes with the largest amplitudes is too large for the modes with smaller amplitudes and overshooting occurs. Through nonlinear coupling, this overshooting is amplified and appears as a numerical instability affecting the evolution of the large amplitude modes. Shorter time steps may delay the appearance of the instability but not cure

  12. Study of high energy emissions from stellar mass accreting holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadolle-Bel, Marion


    The present work is dedicated to the study of various X-ray binary Systems harbouring accreting stellar mass black holes (or candidates) associated in X-ray binary Systems mainly through the spectral and timing properties of the high energy 3 keV -1 MeV emission, sometimes completed by observations performed in radio, near-infrared and optical. The first part is devoted to accretion physics phenomena and the challenges of understanding the X-ray/gamma emission produced with the modeling of such high energy processes. Then I will define in a second part the instruments on board INTEGRAL and the way coded masked aperture is employed. In a third part, I will develop the standard data reduction analysis and my own contribution in improving the usual software before detailing the specific informatics tools I have developed for my own analysis. In the fourth part I will turn towards the deep analysis and interpretations I have performed on several black hole X-ray binary Systems chosen properly: the persistent black hole source Cygnus X-1 which has been studied since several years and surprised us by a high-energy excess detected; two new transient sources which provide interesting information, XTE J1720-318 located in the galactic bulge and SWIFT J1753.5-0127, probably situated in the halo. I will also detail my work on H 1743-322, recently identified by INTEGRAL as the HEAO source discovered in 1977, and on three (almost) persistent micro-quasars with superluminal jets, 1E 1740.7-2942, GRS 1758-258 and GRS 1915+105. I will analyze for each source spectral parameter evolutions and their links with each other during state transitions. I will then discuss the presence of two different X/gamma-ray emitting media with a relatively changing geometry. While establishing a cyclic order for the different variability classes of GRS 1915+105 observed during ten years, I will propose an interpretation for such behaviour, compatible with the theoretical predictions of the Accretion

  13. Cooling of Accretion-Heated Neutron Stars (United States)

    Wijnands, Rudy; Degenaar, Nathalie; Page, Dany


    We present a brief, observational review about the study of the cooling behaviour of accretion-heated neutron stars and the inferences about the neutron-star crust and core that have been obtained from these studies. Accretion of matter during outbursts can heat the crust out of thermal equilibrium with the core and after the accretion episodes are over, the crust will cool down until crust-core equilibrium is restored. We discuss the observed properties of the crust cooling sources and what has been learned about the physics of neutron-star crusts. We also briefly discuss those systems that have been observed long after their outbursts were over, i.e, during times when the crust and core are expected to be in thermal equilibrium. The surface temperature is then a direct probe for the core temperature. By comparing the expected temperatures based on estimates of the accretion history of the targets with the observed ones, the physics of neutron-star cores can be investigated. Finally, we discuss similar studies performed for strongly magnetized neutron stars in which the magnetic field might play an important role in the heating and cooling of the neutron stars.

  14. Stability of black hole accretion disks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czerny B.


    Full Text Available We discuss the issues of stability of accretion disks that may undergo the limit-cycle oscillations due to the two main types of thermal-viscous instabilities. These are induced either by the domination of radiation pressure in the innermost regions close to the central black hole, or by the partial ionization of hydrogen in the zone of appropriate temperatures. These physical processes may lead to the intermittent activity in AGN on timescales between hundreds and millions of years. We list a number of observational facts that support the idea of the cyclic activity in high accretion rate sources. We conclude however that the observed features of quasars may provide only indirect signatures of the underlying instabilities. Also, the support from the sources with stellar mass black holes, whose variability timescales are observationally feasible, is limited to a few cases of the microquasars. Therefore we consider a number of plausible mechanisms of stabilization of the limit cycle oscillations in high accretion rate accretion disks. The newly found is the stabilizing effect of the stochastic viscosity fluctuations.

  15. Ice Accretion on Wind Turbine Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hudecz, Adriána; Koss, Holger; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver


    forces were monitored as ice was building up on the airfoil for glaze, rime and mixed ice. In the first part of the numerical analysis, the resulted ice profiles of the wind tunnel tests were compared to profiles estimated by using the 2D ice accretion code TURBICE. In the second part, Ansys Fluent...

  16. Probing thermonuclear burning on accreting neutron stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keek, L.


    Neutron stars are the most compact stars that can be directly observed, which makes them ideal laboratories to study physics at extreme densities. Neutron stars in low-mass X-ray binaries accrete hydrogen and helium from a lower-mass companion star through Roche lobe overflow. This matter undergoes

  17. QPOs and Resonance in Accretion Disks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kluzniak, W.; Abramowicz, M. A.; Bursa, Michal; Török, G.


    Roč. 27, Marzo 2007 (2007), s. 18-25 ISSN 1405-2059 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300030510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : quasi-periodic oscillations * accretion disks * general relativity Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  18. On the resonant behavior of longitudinally vibrating accreting rods

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shatalov, M


    Full Text Available The theory of accreting structures is a new and fast developing branch of analytical mechanics basing on the theory of partial differential and integral equations. In the present paper the authors analyze qualitative properties of accreting rods...

  19. Who discovered the sylvian fissure? (United States)

    Collice, Massimo; Collice, Rosa; Riva, Alessandro


    Cerebral convolutions were unknown until the 17th century. A constant sulcus was not recognized until the mid-1600s; it was named "the fissure of Sylvius," after the person who had always been considered as the one who discovered it. It is commonly asserted that the first description of the lateral scissure was made by Caspar Bartholin, who attributed its discovery to Sylvius. However, this was not actually the case, as Caspar Bartholin died in 1629, whereas Sylvius started studying medicine in 1632. The description could have been made either by Caspar Bartholin's son Thomas or by Sylvius himself. Irrespective of the description's author, the key to the history of the lateral fissure is that it was first identified by Fabrici d'Acquapendente in 1600, 40 years before Sylvius' description. In one of the 300 colored plates (Tabulae Pictae) by Fabrici, the lateral fissure is perfectly depicted, as are the temporal convolutions. Therefore, even if it was an accidental discovery, Fabrici should be the one noted as having discovered the fissure. This article ends with a short history of the plates. They were painted in oil on paper and were thought to further a great work, the Theatrum Totius Animalis Fabricae, which was begun in 1591 and never completed or published. Only the colored illustrations of this project remain. These plates were forgotten for more than 200 years, until they were rediscovered by Giuseppe Sterzi in 1909. They are among the best examples of anatomic iconography in terms of innovation, accuracy, and artistic accomplishment.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, M. M.


    Net tidal torque by the secondary on a misaligned accretion disk, like the net tidal torque by the Moon and the Sun on the equatorial bulge of the spinning and tilted Earth, is suggested by others to be a source to retrograde precession in non-magnetic, accreting cataclysmic variable (CV) dwarf novae (DN) systems that show negative superhumps in their light curves. We investigate this idea in this work. We generate a generic theoretical expression for retrograde precession in spinning disks that are misaligned with the orbital plane. Our generic theoretical expression matches that which describes the retrograde precession of Earths' equinoxes. By making appropriate assumptions, we reduce our generic theoretical expression to those generated by others, or to those used by others, to describe retrograde precession in protostellar, protoplanetary, X-ray binary, non-magnetic CV DN, quasar, and black hole systems. We find that spinning, tilted CV DN systems cannot be described by a precessing ring or by a precessing rigid disk. We find that differential rotation and effects on the disk by the accretion stream must be addressed. Our analysis indicates that the best description of a retrogradely precessing spinning, tilted, CV DN accretion disk is a differentially rotating, tilted disk with an attached rotating, tilted ring located near the innermost disk annuli. In agreement with the observations and numerical simulations by others, we find that our numerically simulated CV DN accretion disks retrogradely precess as a unit. Our final, reduced expression for retrograde precession agrees well with our numerical simulation results and with selective observational systems that seem to have main-sequence secondaries. Our results suggest that a major source to retrograde precession is tidal torques like that by the Moon and the Sun on the Earth. In addition, these tidal torques should be common to a variety of systems where one member is spinning and tilted, regardless if

  1. Search for Millisecond Pulsars for the Pulsar Timing Array project (United States)

    Milia, S.


    Pulsars are rapidly rotating highly magnetised neutron stars (i.e. ultra dense stars, where about one solar mass is concentrated in a sphere with a radius of ~ 10 km), which irradiate radio beams in a fashion similar to a lighthouse. As a consequence, whenever the beams cut our line of sight we perceive a radio pulses, one (or two) per pulsar rotation, with a frequency up to hundred of times a second. Owing to their compact nature, rapid spin and high inertia, pulsars are in general fairly stable rotators, hence the Times of Arrival (TOAs) of the pulses at a radio telescope can be used as the ticks of a clock. This holds true in particular for the sub­class of the millisecond pulsars (MSPs), having a spin period smaller than the conventional limit of 30 ms, whose very rapid rotation and relatively older age provide better rotational stability than the ordinary pulsars. Indeed, some MSPs rotate so regularly that they can rival the best atomic clocks on Earth over timespan of few months or years.This feature allows us to use MSPs as tools in a cosmic laboratory, by exploiting a procedure called timing, which consists in the repeated and regular measurement of the TOAs from a pulsar and then in the search for trends in the series of the TOAs over various timespans, from fraction of seconds to decades.For example the study of pulsars in binary systems has already provided the most stringent tests to date of General Relativity in strong gravitational fields and has unambiguously showed the occurrence of the emission of gravitational waves from a binary system comprising two massive bodies in a close orbit. In last decades a new exciting perspective has been opened, i.e. to use pulsars also for a direct detection of the so far elusive gravitational waves and thereby applying the pulsar timing for cosmological studies. In fact, the gravitational waves (GWs) going across our Galaxy pass over all the Galactic pulsars and the Earth, perturbing the space­time at the

  2. Predicting the reaction coordinates of millisecond light-induced conformational changes in photoactive yellow protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreede, J.; Juraszek, J.; Bolhuis, P.G.


    Understanding the dynamics of large-scale conformational changes in proteins still poses a challenge for molecular simulations. We employ transition path sampling of explicit solvent molecular dynamics trajectories to obtain atomistic insight in the reaction network of the millisecond timescale

  3. Multiwavelength observations of the transitional millisecond pulsar binary XSS J12270-4859

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Martino, D.; Papitto, A.; Belloni, T.; Burgay, M.; De Ona Wilhelmi, E.; Li, J.; Pellizzoni, A.; Possenti, A.; Rea, N.; Torres, D.F.


    We present an analysis of X-ray, ultraviolet and optical/near-IR photometric data of the transitional millisecond pulsar binary XSS J12270−4859, obtained at different epochs after the transition to a rotation-powered radio pulsar state. The observations, while confirming the large-amplitude orbital

  4. Two Coexisting Families of Compact Stars: Observational Implications for Millisecond Pulsars (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sudip; Bombaci, Ignazio; Logoteta, Domenico; Thampan, Arun V.


    It is usually thought that a single equation of state (EoS) model “correctly” represents cores of all compact stars. Here we emphasize that two families of compact stars, viz., neutron stars and strange stars, can coexist in nature, and that neutron stars can get converted to strange stars through the nucleation process of quark matter in the stellar center. From our fully general relativistic numerical computations of the structures of fast-spinning compact stars, known as millisecond pulsars, we find that such a stellar conversion causes a simultaneous spin-up and decrease in gravitational mass of these stars. This is a new type of millisecond pulsar evolution through a new mechanism, which gives rise to relatively lower mass compact stars with higher spin rates. This could have an implication for the observed mass and spin distributions of millisecond pulsars. Such a stellar conversion can also rescue some massive, spin-supported millisecond pulsars from collapsing into black holes. Besides, we extend the concept of critical mass {M}{cr} for the neutron star sequence to the case of fast-spinning neutron stars, and point out that neutron star EoS models cannot be ruled out by the stellar mass measurement alone. Finally, we emphasize the additional complexity for constraining EoS models, for example, by stellar radius measurements using X-ray observations, if two families of compact stars coexist.

  5. Ultra Shallow Arsenic Junctions in Germanium Formed by Millisecond Laser Annealing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellings, G.; Rosseel, E.; Simoen, E.


    Millisecond laser annealing is used to fabricate ultra shallow arsenic junctions in preamorphized and crystalline germanium, with peak temperatures up to 900 degrees C. At this temperature, As indiffusion is observed while yielding an electrically active concentration up to 5.0 x 10(19) cm(-3...

  6. Testing Models of Circum-Binary-AGN Accretion for PSO J334.2028+01.4075 (United States)

    Foord, Adi; Gultekin, Kayhan; Reynolds, Mark


    We present analysis of new Chandra data of PSO J334.2028+01.4075 (PSO J334 hereafter), a strong binary AGN candidate discovered by Liu et al. (2015) based on periodic variation of the optical flux. Recent radio coverage presented in Mooley et al. (2017) further supports that PSO J334 is a binary black hole system, as the quasar was found to be lobe-dominated with a twisted radio structure, possibly due to a precessing jet. With no prior X-ray coverage for PSO J334, our new 50 ksec Chandra observation allows for the unique opportunity to differentiate between a single or binary-AGN system, and if a binary, can characterize the mode of accretion. The two most basic sets of predictions via simulations of circum-binary accretion model are a “cavity”, where the inner region of the accretion disk is mostly empty and emission is truncated blueward of the wavelength associated with the temperature of the innermost ring, or “minidisks”, where there is substantial accretion onto one or both of the members of the binary, each with their own shock-heated thin-disk accretion system. We find the X-ray emission to be well-fit with a heavily absorbed power-law, incompatible with the cavity scenario. Further, we construct an SED of PSO J334 by combining radio through X-ray observations and compare it to standard QSO SEDs. We discuss the implications of the comparison between the SED of PSO J334 and that of a single AGN, and assess the likelihood of the binary model for PSO J334.

  7. Standing shocks in magnetized dissipative accretion flow around ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We explore the global structure of the accretion flow around a Schwarzschild black hole where the accretion disc is threaded by toroidal magnetic fields. The accretion flow is optically thin and advection dominated. The synchrotron radiation is considered to be the active cooling mechanism in the flow. With this, we obtain ...

  8. Standing shocks in magnetized dissipative accretion flow around ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)



    Feb 9, 2018 ... Abstract. We explore the global structure of the accretion flow around a Schwarzschild black hole where the accretion disc is threaded by toroidal magnetic fields. The accretion flow is optically thin and advection dominated. The synchrotron radiation is considered to be the active cooling mechanism in the ...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan Baolin; Tan Chengming, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Datun Road A20, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China)


    A peculiar microwave quasi-periodic pulsation (QPP) accompanying a hard X-ray (HXR) QPP of about 20 s duration occurred just before the maximum of an X6.9 solar flare on 2011 August 9. The most interesting aspect is that the microwave QPP consists of millisecond timescale superfine structures. Each microwave QPP pulse is made up of clusters of millisecond spike bursts or narrowband type III bursts. There are three different frequency drift rates: the global frequency drift rate of the microwave QPP pulse group, the frequency drift rate of the microwave QPP pulse, and the frequency drift rate of individual millisecond spikes or type III bursts. The physical analysis indicates that the energetic electrons accelerating from a large-scale highly dynamic magnetic reconnecting current sheet above the flaring loop propagate downward, impact the flaring plasma loop, and produce HXR bursts. The tearing-mode (TM) oscillations in the current sheet modulate HXR emission and generate HXR QPP; the energetic electrons propagating downward produce Langmuir turbulence and plasma waves, resulting in plasma emission. The modulation of TM oscillation on the plasma emission in the current-carrying plasma loop may generate microwave QPP. The TM instability produces magnetic islands in the loop. Each X-point will be a small reconnection site and will accelerate the ambient electrons. These accelerated electrons impact the ambient plasma and trigger the millisecond spike clusters or the group of type III bursts. Possibly, each millisecond spike burst or type III burst is one of the elementary bursts (EBs). A large number of such EB clusters form an intense flaring microwave burst.

  10. Spherical Accretion in a Uniformly Expanding Universe (United States)

    Colpi, Monica; Shapiro, Stuart L.; Wasserman, Ira


    We consider spherically symmetric accretion of material from an initially homogeneous, uniformly expanding medium onto a Newtonian point mass M. The gas is assumed to evolve adiabatically with a constant adiabatic index F, which we vary over the range Γ ɛ [1, 5/3]. We use a one-dimensional Lagrangian code to follow the spherical infall of material as a function of time. Outflowing shells gravitationally bound to the point mass fall back, giving rise to a inflow rate that, after a rapid rise, declines as a power law in time. If there were no outflow initially, Bondi accretion would result, with a characteristic accretion time-scale ta,0. For gas initially expanding at a uniform rate, with a radial velocity U = R/t0 at radius R, the behavior of the flow at all subsequent times is determined by ta,0/t0. If ta,0/t0 ≫ 1, the gas has no time to respond to pressure forces, so the fluid motion is nearly collisionless. In this case, only loosely bound shells are influenced by pressure gradients and are pushed outward. The late-time evolution of the mass accretion rate Mdot is close to the result for pure dust, and we develop a semianalytic model that accurately accounts for the small effect of pressure gradients in this limit. In the opposite regime, ta,0/t0 ≪ 1, pressure forces significantly affect the motion of the gas. At sufficiently early times, t ≤ ttr, the flow evolved along a sequence of quasi-stationary, Bondi-like states, with a time-dependent Mdot determined by the slowly varying gas density at large distances. However, at later times, t ≥ ttr, the fluid flow enters a dustllke regime; ttr is the time when the instantaneous Bondi accretion radius reaches the marginally bound radius. The transition time ttr depends sensitively on ta,0/t0 for a given Γ and can greatly exceed t0. We show that there exists a critical value Γ = 11/9, below which the transition from fluid to ballistic motion disappears. As one application of our calculations, we consider the

  11. Late accretion to the terrestrial planets (United States)

    Brasser, Ramon; Mojzsis, Stephen; Werner, Stephanie; Matsumura, Soko; Ida, Shigeru


    IntroductionIt is generally accepted that silicate-metal (`rocky') planet formation relies on coagulation from a mixture of sub-Mars sized planetary embryos and (smaller) planetesimals that dynamically emerge from the evolving circum-solar disc in the first few million years of our Solar System. Once the planets have, for the most part, assembled after a giant impact phase, they continue to be bombarded by a multitude of planetesimals left over from accretion. Here we place limits on the mass and evolution of these planetesimals based on constraints from the highly siderophile element (HSE) budget of the Moon. The terrestrial and lunar HSE budgets indicate that Earth’s and Moon’s additions through late accretion were 0.7 wt% and 0.02 wt% respectively. The disproportionate high accretion between the Earth and Moon could be explained by stochastic accretion of a few remaining Ceres-sized bodies that preferentially targeted the Earth.ResultsFrom a combination of N-body and Monte Carlo simulations of planet formation we conclude:1) matching the terrestrial to lunar HSE ratio requires that late accretion on Earth mostly consisted of a single lunar-size impactor striking the Earth before 4.45 Ga2) the flux of terrestrial impactors must have been low avoid wholesale melting of Earth's crust after 4.4 Ga[6], and to simultaneously match the number of observed lunar basins3) after the terrestrial planets have fully formed, the mass in remnant planetesimals was ~0.001 Earth mass, lower than most previous models suggest.4) Mars' HSE budget also requires a colossal impact with a Ceres-sized object before 4.43 Ga, whose visible remnant could be the hemispherical dichotomy.These conclusions lead to an Hadean eon which is more clement than assumed previously. In addition, our dynamically and geochemically self-consistent scenario requires that future N-body simulations of rocky planet formation either directly incorporate collisional grinding or rely on pebble accretion.

  12. Early Results from NICER Observations of Accreting Neutron Stars (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Deepto; Ozel, Feryal; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Gendreau, Keith C.; Bult, Peter; Cackett, Ed; Chenevez, Jerome; Fabian, Andy; Guillot, Sebastien; Guver, Tolga; Homan, Jeroen; Keek, Laurens; Lamb, Frederick; Ludlam, Renee; Mahmoodifar, Simin; Markwardt, Craig B.; Miller, Jon M.; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Strohmayer, Tod E.; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Wolff, Michael T.


    The Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) offers significant new capabilities for the study of accreting neuton stars relative to previous X-ray missions including large effective area, low background, and greatly improved low-energy response. The NICER Burst and Accretion Working Group has designed a 2 Ms observation program to study a number of phenomena in accreting neutron stars including type-I X-ray bursts, superbursts, accretion-powered pulsations, quasi-periodic oscillations, and accretion disk reflection spectra. We present some early results from the first six months of the NICER mission.

  13. Helicopter rotor noise investigation during ice accretion (United States)

    Cheng, Baofeng

    An investigation of helicopter rotor noise during ice accretion is conducted using experimental, theoretical, and numerical methods. This research is the acoustic part of a joint helicopter rotor icing physics, modeling, and detection project at The Pennsylvania State University Vertical Lift Research Center of Excellence (VLRCOE). The current research aims to provide acoustic insight and understanding of the rotor icing physics and investigate the feasibility of detecting rotor icing through noise measurements, especially at the early stage of ice accretion. All helicopter main rotor noise source mechanisms and their change during ice accretion are discussed. Changes of the thickness noise, steady loading noise, and especially the turbulent boundary layer - trailing edge (TBL-TE) noise due to ice accretion are identified and studied. The change of the discrete frequency noise (thickness noise and steady loading noise) due to ice accretion is calculated by using PSU-WOPWOP, an advanced rotorcraft acoustic prediction code. The change is noticeable, but too small to be used in icing detection. The small thickness noise change is due to the small volume of the accreted ice compared to that of the entire blade, although a large iced airfoil shape is used. For the loading noise calculation, two simplified methods are used to generate the loading on the rotor blades, which is the input for the loading noise calculation: 1) compact loading from blade element momentum theory, icing effects are considered by increasing the drag coefficient; and 2) pressure loading from the 2-D CFD simulation, icing effects are considered by using the iced airfoil shape. Comprehensive rotor broadband noise measurements are carried out on rotor blades with different roughness sizes and rotation speeds in two facilities: the Adverse Environment Rotor Test Stand (AERTS) facility at The Pennsylvania State University, and The University of Maryland Acoustic Chamber (UMAC). In both facilities the

  14. Volatile accretion history of the Earth. (United States)

    Wood, B J; Halliday, A N; Rehkämper, M


    It has long been thought that the Earth had a protracted and complex history of volatile accretion and loss. Albarède paints a different picture, proposing that the Earth first formed as a dry planet which, like the Moon, was devoid of volatile constituents. He suggests that the Earth's complement of volatile elements was only established later, by the addition of a small veneer of volatile-rich material at ∼100 Myr (here and elsewhere, ages are relative to the origin of the Solar System). Here we argue that the Earth's mass balance of moderately volatile elements is inconsistent with Albarède's hypothesis but is well explained by the standard model of accretion from partially volatile-depleted material, accompanied by core formation.

  15. Effects of ice accretion on the aerodynamics of bridge cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demartino, C.; Koss, Holger; Georgakis, Christos T.


    Undesirable wind induced vibrations of bridge cables can occur when atmospheric conditions are such to generate ice accretion. This paper contains the results of an extensive investigation of the effects of ice accretion due to in-cloud icing, on the aerodynamic characteristics of bridge hangers...... and stay cables. The aim of this paper is twofold; first, it was investigated the ice accretion process and the final shape of the ice accreted; then the aerodynamics of the ice accreted bridge cables was characterized, and related to the ice shape. Different climatic conditions, i.e. combinations...... of temperature, wind speed and yaw angle of accretion, were reproduced in a climatic wind tunnel, giving rise to different types of accretion. These were chosen such to generate the most common natural ice formations expected to produce bridge cable vibrations. A description of the geometric characteristics...

  16. Blob accretion in AM Herculis systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litchfield, S.J.; King, A.R.


    We calculate self-consistent hydrostatic temperature distributions for the atmosphere of a white dwarf in an AM Herculis system on to which a discrete blob has accreted. We show that the surface derived from this temperature structure does not produce soft X-ray light curves characteristic of the anomalous X-ray state of AM Herculis. We suggest that non-hydrostatic splashes are a more likely origin for the light curves. (author)

  17. Accretion and primary differentiation of Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, M.J.


    In collecting samples from Mars to address questions such as whether Mars accreted homogeneously or heterogeneously, how Mars segregated into a metallic core and silicate mantle, and whether Mars outgassed catastrophically coincident with accretion or more serenely on a longer timescale, we must be guided by our experience in addressing these questions for the Earth, Moon, and igneous meteorite parent bodies. A key measurement to be made on any sample returned from Mars is its oxygen isotopic composition. A single measurement will suffice to bind the SNC meteorites to Mars or demonstrate that they cannot be samples of that planet. A positive identification of Mars as the SNC parent planet will permit all that has been learned from the SNC meteorites to be applied to Mars with confidence. A negative result will perhaps be more exciting in forcing us to look for another object that has been geologically active in the recent past. If the oxygen isotopic composition of Earth and Mars are established to be distinct, accretion theory must provide for different compositions for two planets now separated by only 0.5 AU

  18. Highly Accreting Quasars at High Redshift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary L. Martínez-Aldama


    Full Text Available We present preliminary results of a spectroscopic analysis for a sample of type 1 highly accreting quasars (L/LEdd ~ 1.0 at high redshift, z ~2–3. The quasars were observed with the OSIRIS spectrograph on the GTC 10.4 m telescope located at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos in La Palma. The highly accreting quasars were identified using the 4D Eigenvector 1 formalism, which is able to organize type 1 quasars over a broad range of redshift and luminosity. The kinematic and physical properties of the broad line region have been derived by fitting the profiles of strong UV emission lines such as Aliiiλ1860, Siiii]λ1892 and Ciii]λ1909. The majority of our sources show strong blueshifts in the high-ionization lines and high Eddington ratios which are related with the productions of outflows. The importance of highly accreting quasars goes beyond a detailed understanding of their physics: their extreme Eddington ratio makes them candidates standard candles for cosmological studies.

  19. Neutron star accretion and the neutrino fireball

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgate, S.A.; Herant, M.E.; Benz, W.


    The mixing necessary to explain the ''Fe'' line widths and possibly the observed red shifts of 1987A is explained in terms of large scale, entropy conserving, up and down flows (calculated with a smooth particle 2-D code) taking place between the neutron star and the explosion shock wave due to the gravity and neutrino deposition. Depending upon conditions of entropy and mass flux further accretion takes place in single events, similar to relaxation oscillator, fed by the downward flows of low entropy matter. The shock, in turn, is driven by the upflow of the buoyant high entropy bubbles. Some accretion events will reach a temperature high enough to create a neutrino ''fireball,'' a region hot enough, 11 Mev, so as to be partially opaque to its own (neutrino) radiation. The continuing neutrino deposition drives the explosion shock until the entropy of matter flowing downwards onto the neutron star is high enough to prevent further accretion. This process should result in a robust supernova explosion

  20. Accretion on to Magnetic White Dwarfs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wickramasinghe Dayal


    The polars have no counterparts in neutron star systems and their study provides unique insights into the complex nature of the magnetospheric boundary. The observed properties of accretion shocks at the white dwarf surface such as the anomalous soft-X-ray excess and its time variability provide strong support for the hypothesis that under certain circumstances the field channelled funnel flow is “blobby”. This has been attributed to interchange instabilities such as the Magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the shocked gas at the stream-magnetosphere boundary where the stream fragments into discrete clumps of gas. As the clumps penetrate into the magnetosphere, they are shredded into smaller mass blobs via the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability that then couple on to field lines over an extended inner transition region in the orbital plane. The more massive blobs penetrate deep into the photosphere of the white dwarf releasing their energy as a reprocessed soft-X-ray black body component. Although similar instabilities are expected in the inner transition region in disced accretion albeit on a different scale there has been no direct observational evidence for blobby accretion in the generally lower field and disced IPs.

  1. Synchrotron radiation from spherically accreting black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ipser, J.R.; Price, R.H.


    Spherical accretion onto a Schwartzchild black hole, of gas with frozen-in magnetic field, is studied numerically and analytically for a range of hole masses and accretion rates in which synchrotron emission is the dominant radiative mechanism. At small radii the equipartition of magnetic, kinetic, and gravitational energy is assumed to apply, and the gas is heated by dissipation of infalling magnetic energy, turbulent energy, etc. The models can be classified into three types: (a) synchrotron cooling negligible, (b) synchrotron cooling important but synchrotron self-absorption negligible, (c) synchrotron cooling and self-absorption important. In the first case gas temperatures become very high near the horizon but luminosity efficiencies (luminosity/mass-energy accretion rate) are low. In cases (b) and (c) the gas flow near the horizon is essentially isothermal and luminosity efficiencies are fairly high. The analysis and results for the isothermal cases (b) and (c) are valid only for moderate dissipative heating and synchrotron self-absorption. If self-absorption is very strong or if dissipated energy is comparable to infall energy, Comptonization effects, not included in the analysis, become important


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, M. M.; Martin, E. L.


    Many different system types retrogradely precess, and retrograde precession could be from a tidal torque by the secondary on a misaligned accretion disk. However, a source that causes and maintains disk tilt is unknown. In this work, we show that accretion disks can tilt due to a force called lift. Lift results from differing gas stream supersonic speeds over and under an accretion disk. Because lift acts at the disk's center of pressure, a torque is applied around a rotation axis passing through the disk's center of mass. The disk responds to lift by pitching around the disk's line of nodes. If the gas stream flow ebbs, then lift also ebbs and the disk attempts to return to its original orientation. To first approximation, lift does not depend on magnetic fields or radiation sources but does depend on the mass and the surface area of the disk. Also, for disk tilt to be initiated, a minimum mass transfer rate must be exceeded. For example, a 10 -11 M sun disk around a 0.8 M sun compact central object requires a mass transfer rate greater than ∼ 8 x 10 -11 M sun yr -1 , a value well below the known mass transfer rates in cataclysmic variable dwarf novae systems that retrogradely precess and exhibit negative superhumps in their light curves and a value well below mass transfer rates in protostellar-forming systems.

  3. Modeling Phase-Aligned Gamma-Ray and Radio Millisecond Pulsar Light Curves (United States)

    Venter, C.; Johnson, T.; Harding, A.


    Since the discovery of the first eight gamma-ray millisecond pulsars (MSPs) by the Fermi Large Area Telescope, this population has been steadily expanding. Four of the more recent detections, PSR J00340534, PSR J1939+2134 (B1937+21; the first MSP ever discovered), PSR J1959+2048 (B1957+20; the first discovery of a black widow system), and PSR J2214+3000, exhibit a phenomenon not present in the original discoveries: nearly phase-aligned radio and gamma-ray light curves (LCs). To account for the phase alignment, we explore models where both the radio and gamma-ray emission originate either in the outer magnetosphere near the light cylinder or near the polar caps. Using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique to search for best-fit model parameters, we obtain reasonable LC fits for the first three of these MSPs in the context of altitude-limited outer gap (alOG) and two-pole caustic (alTPC) geometries (for both gamma-ray and radio emission). These models differ from the standard outer gap (OG)/two-pole caustic (TPC) models in two respects: the radio emission originates in caustics at relatively high altitudes compared to the usual conal radio beams, and we allow both the minimum and maximum altitudes of the gamma-ray and radio emission regions to vary within a limited range (excluding the minimum gamma-ray altitude of the alTPC model, which is kept constant at the stellar radius, and that of the alOG model, which is set to the position-dependent null charge surface altitude). Alternatively, phase-aligned solutions also exist for emission originating near the stellar surface in a slot gap scenario (low-altitude slot gap (laSG) models). We find that the alTPC models provide slightly better LC fits than the alOG models, and both of these give better fits than the laSG models (for the limited range of parameters considered in the case of the laSG models). Thus, our fits imply that the phase-aligned LCs are likely of caustic origin, produced in the outer magnetosphere, and


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venter, C. [Centre for Space Research, North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa); Johnson, T. J.; Harding, A. K. [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)


    Since the discovery of the first eight gamma-ray millisecond pulsars (MSPs) by the Fermi Large Area Telescope, this population has been steadily expanding. Four of the more recent detections, PSR J0034-0534, PSR J1939+2134 (B1937+21; the first MSP ever discovered), PSR J1959+2048 (B1957+20; the first discovery of a black widow system), and PSR J2214+3000, exhibit a phenomenon not present in the original discoveries: nearly phase-aligned radio and gamma-ray light curves (LCs). To account for the phase alignment, we explore models where both the radio and gamma-ray emission originate either in the outer magnetosphere near the light cylinder or near the polar caps. Using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique to search for best-fit model parameters, we obtain reasonable LC fits for the first three of these MSPs in the context of 'altitude-limited' outer gap (alOG) and two-pole caustic (alTPC) geometries (for both gamma-ray and radio emission). These models differ from the standard outer gap (OG)/two-pole caustic (TPC) models in two respects: the radio emission originates in caustics at relatively high altitudes compared to the usual conal radio beams, and we allow both the minimum and maximum altitudes of the gamma-ray and radio emission regions to vary within a limited range (excluding the minimum gamma-ray altitude of the alTPC model, which is kept constant at the stellar radius, and that of the alOG model, which is set to the position-dependent null charge surface altitude). Alternatively, phase-aligned solutions also exist for emission originating near the stellar surface in a slot gap scenario ('low-altitude slot gap' (laSG) models). We find that the alTPC models provide slightly better LC fits than the alOG models, and both of these give better fits than the laSG models (for the limited range of parameters considered in the case of the laSG models). Thus, our fits imply that the phase-aligned LCs are likely of caustic origin, produced in the

  5. Understanding the spectral and timing behaviour of a newly discovered transient X-ray pulsar Swift J0243.6+6124

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaisawal, Gaurava K.; Naik, Sachindra; Chenevez, Jérôme


    We present the results obtained from timing and spectral studies of the newly discovered accreting X-ray binary pulsar Swift J0243.6+6124 using Nuclear Spectroscopy Telescope Array observation in 2017 October at a flux level of ~280 mCrab. Pulsations at 9.854 23(5) s were detected in the X...

  6. Magnetic dynamos in accreting planetary bodies (United States)

    Golabek, Gregor; Labrosse, Stéphane; Gerya, Taras; Morishima, Ryuji; Tackley, Paul


    Laboratory measurements revealed ancient remanent magnetization in meteorites [1] indicating the activity of magnetic dynamos in the corresponding meteorite parent body. To study under which circumstances dynamo activity is possible, we use a new methodology to simulate the internal evolution of a planetary body during accretion and differentiation. Using the N-body code PKDGRAV [2] we simulate the accretion of planetary embryos from an initial annulus of several thousand planetesimals. The growth history of the largest resulting planetary embryo is used as an input for the thermomechanical 2D code I2ELVIS [3]. The thermomechanical model takes recent parametrizations of impact processes [4] and of the magnetic dynamo [5] into account. It was pointed out that impacts can not only deposit heat deep into the target body, which is later buried by ejecta of further impacts [6], but also that impacts expose in the crater region originally deep-seated layers, thus cooling the interior [7]. This combination of impact effects becomes even more important when we consider that planetesimals of all masses contribute to planetary accretion. This leads occasionally to collisions between bodies with large ratios between impactor and target mass. Thus, all these processes can be expected to have a profound effect on the thermal evolution during the epoch of planetary accretion and may have implications for the magnetic dynamo activity. Results show that late-formed planetesimals do not experience silicate melting and avoid thermal alteration, whereas in early-formed bodies accretion and iron core growth occur almost simultaneously and a highly variable magnetic dynamo can operate in the interior of these bodies. [1] Weiss, B.P. et al., Science, 322, 713-716, 2008. [2] Richardson, D. C. et al., Icarus, 143, 45-59, 2000. [3] Gerya, T.V and Yuen, D.J., Phys. Earth Planet. Int., 163, 83-105, 2007. [4] Monteux, J. et al., Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L24201, 2007. [5] Aubert, J. et al

  7. A PC parallel port button box provides millisecond response time accuracy under Linux. (United States)

    Stewart, Neil


    For psychologists, it is sometimes necessary to measure people's reaction times to the nearest millisecond. This article describes how to use the PC parallel port to receive signals from a button box to achieve millisecond response time accuracy. The workings of the parallel port, the corresponding port addresses, and a simple Linux program for controlling the port are described. A test of the speed and reliability of button box signal detection is reported. If the reader is moderately familiar with Linux, this article should provide sufficient instruction for him or her to build and test his or her own parallel port button box. This article also describes how the parallel port could be used to control an external apparatus.

  8. A Population of Gamma-Ray Millisecond Pulsars Seen with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumora, D.; Grondin, M.H.; Guillemot, L.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lovellette, M.N.; Parent, D.; Smith, D.A.; Abdo, A.A.; Chekhtman, A.; Dermer, C.D.; Grove, J.E.; Johnson, W.N.; Makeev, A.; Ray, P.S.; Strickman, M.S.; Wood, K.S.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R.D.; Bloom, E.D.; Borgland, A.W.; Cameron, R.A.; Charles, E.; Chiang, J.; Claus, R.; Digel, S.W.; Silva, E.D.E.; Drell, P.S.; Dubois, R.; Edmonds, Y.; Focke, W.B.; Funk, S.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Hayashida, M.; Johannesson, G.; Kocian, M.L.; Lande, J.; Madejski, G.M.; Michelson, P.F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Monzani, M.E.; Moskalenko, I.V.; Murgia, S.; Nolan, P.L.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J.H.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Rochester, L.S.; Romani, R.W.; Tajima, H.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J.B.; Thayer, J.G.; Tramacere, A.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T.L.; Van Etten, A.; Waite, A.P.; Wang, P.; Watters, K.; Atwood, W.B.; Dormody, M.; Johnson, R.P.; Porter, T.A.; Sadrozinski, H.F.W.; Schalk, T.L.; Thorsett, S.E.; Ziegler, M.; Axelsson, M.; Carlson, P.; Conrad, J.; Meurer, C.; Ryde, F.; Ylinen, T.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Kuss, M.; Latronico, L.; Omodei, N.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Razzano, M.; Sgro, C.; Spandre, G.; Ballet, J.; Casandjian, J.M.; Grenier, I.A.; Starck, J.L.


    Pulsars are born with sub-second spin periods and slow by electromagnetic braking for several tens of millions of years, when detectable radiation ceases. A second life can occur for neutron stars in binary systems. They can acquire mass and angular momentum from their companions, to be spun up to millisecond periods and begin radiating again. We searched Fermi Large Area Telescope data for pulsations from all known millisecond pulsars (MSPs) outside of globular clusters, using rotation parameters from radio telescopes. Strong gamma-ray pulsations were detected for eight MSPs. The gamma-ray pulse profiles and spectral properties resemble those of young gamma-ray pulsars. The basic emission mechanism seems to be the same for MSPs and young pulsars, with the emission originating in regions far from the neutron star surface. (authors)

  9. Accretion-driven turbulence in filaments - I. Non-gravitational accretion (United States)

    Heigl, S.; Burkert, A.; Gritschneder, M.


    We study accretion-driven turbulence for different inflow velocities in star-forming filaments using the code RAMSES. Filaments are rarely isolated objects and their gravitational potential will lead to radially dominated accretion. In the non-gravitational case, accretion by itself can already provoke non-isotropic, radially dominated turbulent motions responsible for the complex structure and non-thermal line widths observed in filaments. We find that there is a direct linear relation between the absolute value of the total density-weighted velocity dispersion and the infall velocity. The turbulent velocity dispersion in the filaments is independent of sound speed or any net flow along the filament. We show that the density-weighted velocity dispersion acts as an additional pressure term, supporting the filament in hydrostatic equilibrium. Comparing to observations, we find that the projected non-thermal line width variation is generally subsonic independent of inflow velocity.

  10. The NANOGrav Eleven-year Data Set: High-precision timing of 45 Millisecond Pulsars


    Arzoumanian, Zaven; Brazier, Adam; Burke-Spolaor, Sarah; Chamberlin, Sydney; Chatterjee, Shami; Christy, Brian; Cordes, James M.; Cornish, Neil J.; Crawford, Fronefield; Cromartie, H. Thankful; Crowter, Kathryn; DeCesar, Megan E.; Demorest, Paul B.; Dolch, Timothy; Ellis, Justin A.


    We present high-precision timing data over timespans of up to 11 years for 45 millisecond pulsars observed as part of the North American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves (NANOGrav) project, aimed at detecting and characterizing low-frequency gravitational waves. The pulsars were observed with the Arecibo Observatory and/or the Green Bank Telescope at frequencies ranging from 327 MHz to 2.3 GHz. Most pulsars were observed with approximately monthly cadence, with six high--timing-p...

  11. Benefit of millisecond waveform durations for patients with high defibrillation thresholds. (United States)

    Denman, Russell A; Umesan, Chirammal; Martin, Paul T; Forbes, Ross N; Kroll, Mark W; Anskey, Emma J; Burnett, Helen E


    Patients with a high defibrillation threshold (DFT) present an atypical but vexing problem with regard to implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy. Their implant procedures are lengthy and involve more risk of complications. These patients often sustain a reduced safety margin that may compromise their survival. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of fixed millisecond duration model-optimized biphasic waveforms compared with conventional tilt-based waveforms in patients having a high DFT. We compared a 65%/65% tilt biphasic waveform to a millisecond duration biphasic waveform based on the biphasic burping theory using a 90-microF shock capacitor. Fifty-four patients were evaluated. Mean DFT with tilt was reduced from 11.0 +/- 5.5 J to 8.8 +/- 4.1 J, for a mean reduction of 20% (P or = 15 J, DFT was reduced from 18.7 +/- 4.1 J to 13.4 +/- 3.5 J, for a mean DFT reduction of 28% (P = .009). The population peak DFT was reduced from 29.0 J to 17.5 J, for a 41% reduction (P = .03). Use of simple millisecond biphasic waveforms instead of conventional tilt-based waveforms can lead to substantial reductions in DFT, especially in patients with high DFT.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvetti, D.; Mignani, R. P.; Luca, A. De; Belfiore, A.; Marelli, M.; Pizzocaro, D. [INAF—Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica Milano, via E. Bassini 15, I-20133, Milano (Italy); Delvaux, C.; Greiner, J.; Becker, W. [Max-Planck Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85741 Garching bei München (Germany); Pallanca, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6-2, I-40127, Bologna (Italy); Breeveld, A. A. [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey, RH5 6NT (United Kingdom)


    We present multi-wavelength observations of the unassociated γ-ray source 3FGL J2039.6−5618 detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope. The source γ-ray properties suggest that it is a pulsar, most likely a millisecond pulsar, for which neither radio nor γ-ray pulsations have been detected. We observed 3FGL J2039.6−5618 with XMM-Newton and discovered several candidate X-ray counterparts within/close to the γ-ray error box. The brightest of these X-ray sources is variable with a period of 0.2245 ± 0.0081 days. Its X-ray spectrum can be described by a power law with photon index Γ{sub X} = 1.36 ± 0.09, and hydrogen column density N{sub H} < 4 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −2}, which gives an unabsorbed 0.3–10 keV X-ray flux of 1.02 × 10{sup −13} erg cm{sup −2} s{sup −1}. Observations with the Gamma-Ray Burst Optical/Near-Infrared Detector discovered an optical counterpart to this X-ray source, with a time-averaged magnitude g′ ∼ 19.5. The counterpart features a flux modulation with a period of 0.22748 ± 0.00043 days that coincides, within the errors, with that of the X-ray source, confirming the association based on the positional coincidence. We interpret the observed X-ray/optical periodicity as the orbital period of a close binary system where one of the two members is a neutron star. The light curve profile of the companion star, which has two asymmetric peaks, suggests that the optical emission comes from two regions with different temperatures on its tidally distorted surface. Based upon its X-ray and optical properties, we consider this source as the most likely X-ray counterpart to 3FGL J2039.6−5618, which we propose to be a new redback system.

  13. Driving of Accretion Disk Variability by the Disk Dynamo (United States)

    Hogg, J. Drew; Reynolds, Christopher S.


    Variability is a ubiquitous feature of emission from accreting objects, but many questions remain as to how the variability is driven and how it relates to the underlying accretion physics. In this talk I will discuss recent results from a long, semi-global MHD simulation of a thin accretion disk around a black hole used to perform a detailed study of the fluctuations in the internal disk stress and the influence these fluctuations have on the accretion flow. In the simulation, low frequency fluctuations of the effective α-parameter in the disk are linked to oscillations of the disk dynamo. These fluctuations in the effective alpha parameter drive “propagating fluctuations” in mass accretion rate through the disk that qualitatively resemble the variability from astrophysical black hole systems. The mass accretion rate has several of the ubiquitous phenomenological properties of black hole variability, including log-normal flux distributions, RMS-flux relationships, and radial coherence.

  14. Fundamental Ice Crystal Accretion Physics Studies (United States)

    Struk, Peter M.; Broeren, Andy P.; Tsao, Jen-Ching; Vargas, Mario; Wright, William B.; Currie, Tom; Knezevici, Danny; Fuleki, Dan


    Due to numerous engine power-loss events associated with high-altitude convective weather, ice accretion within an engine due to ice crystal ingestion is being investigated. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada are starting to examine the physical mechanisms of ice accretion on surfaces exposed to ice-crystal and mixed-phase conditions. In November 2010, two weeks of testing occurred at the NRC Research Altitude Facility utilizing a single wedge-type airfoil designed to facilitate fundamental studies while retaining critical features of a compressor stator blade or guide vane. The airfoil was placed in the NRC cascade wind tunnel for both aerodynamic and icing tests. Aerodynamic testing showed excellent agreement compared with CFD data on the icing pressure surface and allowed calculation of heat transfer coefficients at various airfoil locations. Icing tests were performed at Mach numbers of 0.2 to 0.3, total pressures from 93 to 45 kPa, and total temperatures from 5 to 15 C. Ice and liquid water contents ranged up to 20 and 3 g/m3, respectively. The ice appeared well adhered to the surface in the lowest pressure tests (45 kPa) and, in a particular case, showed continuous leading-edge ice growth to a thickness greater than 15 mm in 3 min. Such widespread deposits were not observed in the highest pressure tests, where the accretions were limited to a small area around the leading edge. The suction surface was typically ice-free in the tests at high pressure, but not at low pressure. The icing behavior at high and low pressure appeared to be correlated with the wet-bulb temperature, which was estimated to be above 0 C in tests at 93 kPa and below 0 C in tests at lower pressure, the latter enhanced by more evaporative cooling of water. The authors believe that the large ice accretions observed in the low pressure tests would undoubtedly cause the aerodynamic performance of a compressor component

  15. Zircon dating of oceanic crustal accretion. (United States)

    Lissenberg, C Johan; Rioux, Matthew; Shimizu, Nobumichi; Bowring, Samuel A; Mével, Catherine


    Most of Earth's present-day crust formed at mid-ocean ridges. High-precision uranium-lead dating of zircons in gabbros from the Vema Fracture Zone on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge reveals that the crust there grew in a highly regular pattern characterized by shallow melt delivery. Combined with results from previous dating studies, this finding suggests that two distinct modes of crustal accretion occur along slow-spreading ridges. Individual samples record a zircon date range of 90,000 to 235,000 years, which is interpreted to reflect the time scale of zircon crystallization in oceanic plutonic rocks.

  16. Study of magnetized accretion flow with cooling processes (United States)

    Singh, Kuldeep; Chattopadhyay, Indranil


    We have studied shock in magnetized accretion flow/funnel flow in case of neutron star with bremsstrahlung cooling and cyclotron cooling. All accretion solutions terminate with a shock close to the neutron star surface, but at some regions of the parameter space, it also harbours a second shock away from the star surface. We have found that cyclotron cooling is necessary for correct accretion solutions which match the surface boundary conditions.

  17. Pulsed Accretion in the T Tauri Binary TWA 3A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tofflemire, Benjamin M.; Mathieu, Robert D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin–Madison, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Herczeg, Gregory J. [The Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Akeson, Rachel L.; Ciardi, David R. [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, IPAC/Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)


    TWA 3A is the most recent addition to a small group of young binary systems that both actively accrete from a circumbinary disk and have spectroscopic orbital solutions. As such, it provides a unique opportunity to test binary accretion theory in a well-constrained setting. To examine TWA 3A’s time-variable accretion behavior, we have conducted a two-year, optical photometric monitoring campaign, obtaining dense orbital phase coverage (∼20 observations per orbit) for ∼15 orbital periods. From U -band measurements we derive the time-dependent binary mass accretion rate, finding bursts of accretion near each periastron passage. On average, these enhanced accretion events evolve over orbital phases 0.85 to 1.05, reaching their peak at periastron. The specific accretion rate increases above the quiescent value by a factor of ∼4 on average but the peak can be as high as an order of magnitude in a given orbit. The phase dependence and amplitude of TWA 3A accretion is in good agreement with numerical simulations of binary accretion with similar orbital parameters. In these simulations, periastron accretion bursts are fueled by periodic streams of material from the circumbinary disk that are driven by the binary orbit. We find that TWA 3A’s average accretion behavior is remarkably similar to DQ Tau, another T Tauri binary with similar orbital parameters, but with significantly less variability from orbit to orbit. This is only the second clear case of orbital-phase-dependent accretion in a T Tauri binary.

  18. Accretion-Ejection Instability in magnetized accretion disk around compact objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varniere, Peggy


    The major problem in accretion physics come from the origin of angular momentum transfer in the disk. My PhD deal with a mechanism (the Accretion-Ejection Instability, AEI) able to explain and link together accretion in the inner region of the disk and ejection. This instability occurs in magnetized accretion disk near equipartition with gas pressure. We first study the impact of some relativistic effects on the instability, particularly on the m = 1 mode. And compared the results with the Quasi-Periodic Oscillation (QPO) observed in micro-quasars. In the second part we study analytically and numerically the Alfven wave emission mechanism which re-emit the angular momentum and energy taken from the inner region of the disk into the corona. The last part deals with MHD numerical simulation. First of all a 2D non-linear disk simulation which contribute to QPO modelization. The last chapter is about a beginning collaboration on 3D simulation in order to study the Alfven wave emission in the corona. (author) [fr

  19. OGLE-2014-SN-073 as a fallback accretion powered supernova (United States)

    Moriya, Takashi J.; Terreran, Giacomo; Blinnikov, Sergei I.


    We investigate the possibility that the energetic Type II supernova OGLE-2014-SN-073 is powered by a fallback accretion following the failed explosion of a massive star. Taking massive hydrogen-rich supernova progenitor models, we estimate the fallback accretion rate and calculate the light-curve evolution of supernovae powered by the fallback accretion. We find that such fallback accretion powered models can reproduce the overall observational properties of OGLE-2014-SN-073. It may imply that some failed explosions could be observed as energetic supernovae like OGLE-2014-SN-073 instead of faint supernovae as previously proposed.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blondin, John M.


    We investigate the flip-flop instability observed in two-dimensional planar hydrodynamic simulations of Hoyle-Lyttleton accretion in the case of an accreting object with a radius much smaller than the nominal accretion radius, as one would expect in astrophysically relevant situations. Contrary to previous results with larger accretors, accretion from a homogenous medium onto a small accretor is characterized by a robust, quasi-Keplerian accretion disk. For gas with a ratio of specific heats of 5/3, such a disk remains locked in one direction for a uniform ambient medium. The accretion flow is more variable for gas with a ratio of specific heats of 4/3, with more dynamical interaction of the disk flow with the bow shock leading to occasional flips in the direction of rotation of the accretion disk. In both cases the accretion of angular momentum is determined by the flow pattern behind the accretion shock rather than by the parameters of the upstream flow.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This work consists in the simulation of the ice accretion in the leading edge of aerodynamic profiles and our proposed model encompasses: geometry generation, calculation of the potential flow around the body, boundary layer thickness computation, water droplet trajectory computation, heat and mass balances and the consequent modification of the geometry by the ice growth. The flow calculation is realized with panel methods, using only segments defined over the body contour. The viscous effects are considered using the Karman-Pohlhausen method for the laminar boundary layer. The local heat transfer coefficient is obtained by applying the Smith-Spalding method for the thermal boundary layer. The ice accretion limits and the collection efficiency are determined by computing water droplet trajectories impinging the surface. The heat transfer process is analyzed with an energy and a mass balance in each segment defining the body. Finally, the geometry is modified by the addition of the computed ice thickness to the respective panel. The process by repeating all the steps. The model validation is done using a selection of problems with experimental solution, CIRA (the CESAR project. Hereinafter, results are obtained for different aerodynamic profiles, angles of attack and meteorological parameters

  2. Thick accretion disks around black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paczynski, B.


    Theory of thick low viscosity disks accreting onto black holes is reviewed. Usefulness of a simplified pseudo-Newtonian potential for studies of disk models is emphasized. It is shown how very high accretion rate leads to a large disk thickness, large pressure gradients in the radial direction, formation of a narrow open funnel around the rotation axis, and a decrease of efficiency of convertion of rest mass into radiation. It is possible that the well collimated powerful radiation beam emerging from the funnel may accelerate some gas to moderately relativistic velocity in a form of a twin jet. The process is not efficient if the funnel is optically thin, but it is hoped that large optical depth of gas in the funnel may increase the fraction of total power coming out as kinetic energy of the jet. This class of models may be applied to SS 433, and possibly to other compact X-ray sources like Sco X-1 and Cyg X-1. These models may be relevant to some active galactic nuclei, but their relatively low efficiency in converting mass to radiation and kinetic energy does not permit too universal application. (orig.)

  3. Ignition of detonation in accreted helium envelopes (United States)

    Ami Glasner, S.; Livne, E.; Steinberg, E.; Yalinewich, A.; Truran, James W.


    Sub Chandrasekhar CO white dwarfs accreting helium have been considered as candidates for SNIa progenitors since the early 1980's (helium shell mass >0.1M⊙). These models, once detonated did not fit the observed spectra and light curve of typical SNIa observations. New theoretical work examined detonations on much less massive (<0.05M⊙) envelopes. They find stable detonations that lead to light curves, spectra and abundances that compare relatively well with the observational data. The exact mechanism leading to the ignition of helium detonation is a key issue, since it is a mandatory first step for the whole scenario. As the flow of the accreted envelope is unstable to convection long before any hydrodynamic phenomena develops, a multidimensional approach is needed in order to study the ignition process. The complex convective reactive flow is challenging to any hydrodynamical solver. According to our best knowledge all previous 2D studies ignited the detonation artificially. We present here, for the first time, fully consistent results from two hydrodynamical 2D solvers that adopt two independent accurate schemes. For both solvers an effort was made to overcome the problematics raised by the finite resolution and numerical diffusion by the advective terms. Our best models lead to the ignition of a detonation in a convective cell. Our results are robust and the agreement between the two different numerical approaches is very good.

  4. The Physics of Wind-Fed Accretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauche, Christopher W.; Liedahl, Duane A.; Akiyama, Shizuka; Plewa, Tomasz


    We provide a brief review of the physical processes behind the radiative driving of the winds of OB stars and the Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton capture and accretion of a fraction of the stellar wind by a compact object, typically a neutron star, in detached high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs). In addition, we describe a program to develop global models of the radiatively-driven photoionized winds and accretion flows of HMXBs, with particular attention to the prototypical system Vela X-l. The models combine XSTAR photoionization calculations, HULLAC emission models appropriate to X-ray photoionized plasmas, improved models of the radiative driving of photoionized winds, FLASH time-dependent adaptive-mesh hydrodynamics calculations, and Monte Carlo radiation transport. We present two- and three-dimensional maps of the density, temperature, velocity, ionization parameter, and emissivity distributions of representative X-ray emission lines, as well as synthetic global Monte Carlo X-ray spectra. Such models help to better constrain the properties of the winds of HMXBs, which bear on such fundamental questions as the long-term evolution of these binaries and the chemical enrichment of the interstellar medium.

  5. Hydrodynamical processes in planet-forming accretion disks (United States)

    Lin, Min-Kai

    Understanding the physics of accretion flows in circumstellar disk provides the foundation to any theory of planet formation. The last few years have witnessed dramatic a revision in the fundamental fluid dynamics of protoplanetary accretion disks. There is growing evidence that the key to answering some of the most pressing questions, such as the origin of disk turbulence, mass transport, and planetesimal formation, may lie within, and intimately linked to, purely hydrodynamical processes in protoplanetary disks. Recent studies, including those from the proposal team, have discovered and highlighted the significance of several new hydrodynamical instabilities in the planet-forming regions of these disks. These include, but not limited to: the vertical shear instability, active between 10 to 100 AU; the zombie vortex instability, operating in regions interior to about 1AU; and the convective over-stability at intermediate radii. Secondary Rossbywave and elliptic instabilities may also be triggered, feeding off the structures that emerge from the above primary instabilities. The result of these hydrodynamic processes range from small-scale turbulence that transports angular momentum, to large-scale vortices that concentrate dust particles and enhance planetesimal formation. Hydrodynamic processes pertain to a wide range of disk conditions, meaning that at least one of these processes are active at any given disk location and evolutionary epoch. This remains true even after planet formation, which affects their subsequent orbital evolution. Hydrodynamical processes also have direct observable consequences. For example, vortices have being invoked to explain recent ALMA images of asymmetric `dust-traps' in transition disks. Hydrodynamic activities thus play a crucial role at every stage of planet formation and disk evolution. We propose to develop theoretical models of the above hydrodynamic processes under physical disk conditions by properly accounting for disk

  6. Scientists Discover Sugar in Space (United States)


    . Glycolaldehyde is a simpler molecular cousin to table sugar, the scientists say. The sugar molecule was detected in a large cloud of gas and dust some 26,000 light-years away, near the center of our Galaxy. Such clouds, often many light-years across, are the material from which new stars are formed. Though very rarified by Earth standards, these interstellar clouds are the sites of complex chemical reactions that occur over hundreds of thousands or millions of years. So far, about 120 different molecules have been discovered in these clouds. Most of these molecules contain a small number of atoms, and only a few molecules with eight or more atoms have been found in interstellar clouds. The 12 Meter Telescope "Finding glycolaldehyde in one of these interstellar clouds means that such molecules can be formed even in very rarified conditions," said Hollis. "We don't yet understand how it could be formed there," he added. "A combination of more astronomical observations and theoretical chemistry work will be required to resolve the mystery of how this molecule is formed in space." "We hope this discovery inspires renewed efforts to find even more kinds of molecules, so that, with a better idea of the total picture, we may be able to deduce the details of the prebiotic chemistry taking place in interstellar clouds," Hollis said. The discovery was made by detecting faint radio emission from the sugar molecules in the interstellar cloud. Molecules rotate end-for-end, and as they change from one rotational energy state to another, they emit radio waves at precise frequencies. The "family" of radio frequencies emitted by a particular molecule forms a unique "fingerprint" that scientists can use to identify that molecule. The scientists identified glycolaldehyde by detecting six frequencies of radio emission in what is termed the millimeter-wavelength region of the electromagnetic spectrum -- a region between more-familiar microwaves and infrared radiation. The NRAO 12 Meter Telescope

  7. X-ray observations of INTEGRAL discovered cataclysmic variable IGR J17195-4100 (United States)

    Girish, V.; Singh, K. P.


    We present the analysis of archival X-ray data obtained with the XMM-Newton and Suzaku for a new intermediate polar identified as a counterpart of an INTEGRAL discovered γ-ray source, IGR J17195-4100. We report a new period of 1053.7 ± 12.2 s in X-rays. A new binary orbital period of 3.52-0.80+1.43 h is strongly indicated in the power spectrum of the time series. An ephemeris of the new period proposed as the spin period of the system has also been obtained. The various peaks detected in the power spectrum suggest a probable disc-less accretion system. The soft X-rays (<3 keV) dominate the variability seen in the X-ray light curves. The spin modulation shows energy dependence suggesting the possibility of a variable partial covering accretion column. The averaged spectral data obtained with XMM-Newton European Photon Imaging Camera (EPIC) cameras show a multi-temperature spectrum with a soft excess. The latter can be attributed to the varying coverage of accretion curtains.

  8. A Three-dimensional Simulation of a Magnetized Accretion Disk: Fast Funnel Accretion onto a Weakly Magnetized Star (United States)

    Takasao, Shinsuke; Tomida, Kengo; Iwasaki, Kazunari; Suzuki, Takeru K.


    We present the results of a global, three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics simulation of an accretion disk with a rotating, weakly magnetized central star. The disk is threaded by a weak, large-scale poloidal magnetic field, and the central star has no strong stellar magnetosphere initially. Our simulation investigates the structure of the accretion flows from a turbulent accretion disk onto the star. The simulation reveals that fast accretion onto the star at high latitudes occurs even without a stellar magnetosphere. We find that the failed disk wind becomes the fast, high-latitude accretion as a result of angular momentum exchange mediated by magnetic fields well above the disk, where the Lorentz force that decelerates the rotational motion of gas can be comparable to the centrifugal force. Unlike the classical magnetospheric accretion scenario, fast accretion streams are not guided by magnetic fields of the stellar magnetosphere. Nevertheless, the accretion velocity reaches the free-fall velocity at the stellar surface due to the efficient angular momentum loss at a distant place from the star. This study provides a possible explanation why Herbig Ae/Be stars whose magnetic fields are generally not strong enough to form magnetospheres also show indications of fast accretion. A magnetically driven jet is not formed from the disk in our model. The differential rotation cannot generate sufficiently strong magnetic fields for the jet acceleration because the Parker instability interrupts the field amplification.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, Truong [Department of Physics, Astronomy and Geology, Berry College, Mount Berry, GA 30149 (United States); Wood, Kent S.; Wolff, Michael T. [High Energy Space Environment Branch, Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Becker, Peter A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Putney, Joy, E-mail: [Department of Physics and Engineering, Washington and Lee University, Lexington, VA 24450 (United States)


    Depending on the values of the energy and angular momentum per unit mass in the gas supplied at large radii, inviscid advection-dominated accretion flows can display velocity profiles with either preshock deceleration or preshock acceleration. Nakayama has shown that these two types of flow configurations are expected to have different stability properties. By employing the Chevalier and Imamura linearization method and the Nakayama instability boundary conditions, we discover that there are regions of parameter space where disks/shocks with outflows can be stable or unstable. In regions of instability, we find that preshock deceleration is always unstable to the zeroth mode with zero frequency of oscillation, but is always stable to the fundamental mode and overtones. Furthermore, we also find that preshock acceleration is always unstable to the zeroth mode and that the fundamental mode and overtones become increasingly less stable as the shock location moves away from the horizon when the disk half-height expands above ∼12 gravitational radii at the shock radius. In regions of stability, we demonstrate the zeroth mode to be stable for the velocity profiles that exhibit preshock acceleration and deceleration. Moreover, for models that are linearly unstable, our model suggests the possible existence of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) with ratios 2:3 and 3:5. These ratios are believed to occur in stellar and supermassive black hole candidates, for example, in GRS 1915+105 and Sgr A*, respectively. We expect that similar QPO ratios also exist in regions of stable shocks.

  10. Aerodynamic Simulation of Runback Ice Accretion (United States)

    Broeren, Andy P.; Whalen, Edward A.; Busch, Greg T.; Bragg, Michael B.


    This report presents the results of recent investigations into the aerodynamics of simulated runback ice accretion on airfoils. Aerodynamic tests were performed on a full-scale model using a high-fidelity, ice-casting simulation at near-flight Reynolds (Re) number. The ice-casting simulation was attached to the leading edge of a 72-in. (1828.8-mm ) chord NACA 23012 airfoil model. Aerodynamic performance tests were conducted at the ONERA F1 pressurized wind tunnel over a Reynolds number range of 4.7?10(exp 6) to 16.0?10(exp 6) and a Mach (M) number ran ge of 0.10 to 0.28. For Re = 16.0?10(exp 6) and M = 0.20, the simulated runback ice accretion on the airfoil decreased the maximum lift coe fficient from 1.82 to 1.51 and decreased the stalling angle of attack from 18.1deg to 15.0deg. The pitching-moment slope was also increased and the drag coefficient was increased by more than a factor of two. In general, the performance effects were insensitive to Reynolds numb er and Mach number changes over the range tested. Follow-on, subscale aerodynamic tests were conducted on a quarter-scale NACA 23012 model (18-in. (457.2-mm) chord) at Re = 1.8?10(exp 6) and M = 0.18, using low-fidelity, geometrically scaled simulations of the full-scale castin g. It was found that simple, two-dimensional simulations of the upper- and lower-surface runback ridges provided the best representation of the full-scale, high Reynolds number iced-airfoil aerodynamics, whereas higher-fidelity simulations resulted in larger performance degrada tions. The experimental results were used to define a new subclassification of spanwise ridge ice that distinguishes between short and tall ridges. This subclassification is based upon the flow field and resulting aerodynamic characteristics, regardless of the physical size of the ridge and the ice-accretion mechanism.

  11. The contribution of millisecond pulsars to the Galactic cosmic-ray lepton spectrum (United States)

    Venter, Christo; Kopp, Andreas; Harding, Alice K.; Gonthier, Peter L.; Büsching, Ingo


    Pulsars are believed to be sources of relativistic electrons and positrons. The abundance of detections of γ -ray millisecond pulsars by Fermi Large Area Telescope coupled with their light curve characteristics that imply copious pair production in their magnetospheres, motivated us to investigate this old pulsar population as a source of Galactic electrons and positrons and their contribution to the enhancement in cosmic-ray positron flux at GeV energies. We use a population synthesis code to predict the source properties (number, position, and power) of the present-day Galactic millisecond pulsars, taking into account the latest Fermi and radio observations to calibrate the model output. Next, we simulate pair cascade spectra from these pulsars using a model that invokes an offset-dipole magnetic field. We assume free escape of the pairs from the pulsar environment. We then compute the cumulative spectrum of transported electrons and positrons at Earth, following their diffusion and energy losses as they propagate through the Galaxy. Our results indicate that the predicted particle flux increases for non-zero offsets of the magnetic polar caps. Comparing our predicted local interstellar spectrum and positron fraction to measurements by AMS-02, PAMELA, and Fermi, we find that millisecond pulsars are only modest contributors at a few tens of GeV, after which this leptonic spectral component cuts off. The positron fraction is therefore only slightly enhanced above 10 GeV relative to a background flux model. This implies that alternative sources such as young, nearby pulsars and supernova remnants should contribute additional primary positrons within the astrophysical scenario.

  12. Spinning up black holes with super-critical accretion flows

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sądowski, A.; Bursa, Michal; Abramowicz, M. A.; Kluzniak, W.; Lasota, J.-P.; Moderski, R.; Safarzadeh, M.


    Roč. 532, August (2011), A41/1-A41/11 ISSN 0004-6361 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : black hole physics * accretion * accretion disks Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.587, year: 2011

  13. Understanding the Emission Region Geometry in Weakly Accreting Black Holes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markoff, S.; Maitra, D.; van Oers, P.; Brocksopp, C.; Corbel, S.; Gallo, E.; Homan, J.; Migliari, S.; Nowak, M.; Tomsick, J.; Wilms, J.


    In the last several years, multiwavelength monitoring programs have allowed us to develop a general description of the observational characteristics of accreting black holes as they journey through their outburst cycles. Driven seemingly to a large extent by the accretion rate, these sources display

  14. Spectral properties of the accretion discs around rotating black holes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Samir Mandal


    Feb 10, 2018 ... Abstract. We study the radiation properties of an accretion disc around a rotating black hole. We solve the hydrodynamic equations and calculate the transonic solutions of accretion disc in the presence of shocks. Then we use these solutions to generate the radiation spectrum in the presence of radiative ...

  15. Standing shocks in magnetized dissipative accretion flow around ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)



    Feb 9, 2018 ... The consequences of large scale ordered magnetic fields in accretion disc theories are frequently inves- ... by the effect of differential rotation on the originally poloidal field lines linking layers rotating at ..... ter possesses high entropy content (Becker & Kazanas. 2001). For a dissipative accretion flow, the ...

  16. Stochastic Resonance of Accretion Disk and the Persistent Low ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    oscillation of accretion disk. Therefore, in this paper, based on the research of. Titarchuk & Osherovich (2000), we have calculated the PSD of vertical oscillat- ing luminosity of accretion disk subject to viscidity force and a white noise type stochastic force, and discussed in detail the SR phenomenon of PSD and proposed an.

  17. Study of magnetized accretion flow with cooling processes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kuldeep Singh


    Feb 9, 2018 ... 1973; Davidson & Ostriker 1973; Ghosh & Lamb. 1979; Lovelace et al. 1985, 1986; Camenzind 1990;. Paatz & Camenzind 1996; Ostriker & Shu 1995; Li. & Wilson 1999) which address some of the issues of magnetized accretion flow, for e.g., inner radius of accretion disc, transition zone and radiations from.

  18. Spiral-driven accretion in protoplanetary discs . III. Tridimensional simulations (United States)

    Hennebelle, Patrick; Lesur, Geoffroy; Fromang, Sébastien


    Context. Understanding how accretion proceeds in proto-planetary discs, and more generally, understanding their dynamics, is a crucial questions that needs to be answered to explain the conditions in which planets form. Aims: The role that accretion of gas from the surrounding molecular cloud onto the disc may have on its structure needs to be quantified. Methods: We performed tridimensional simulations using the Cartesian AMR code RAMSES of an accretion disc that is subject to infalling material. Results: For the aspect ratio of H/R ≃ 0.15 and disc mass Md ≃ 10-2M⊙ used in our study, we find that for typical accretion rates of the order of a few 10-7M⊙ yr-1, values of the α parameter as high as a few 10-3 are inferred. The mass that is accreted in the inner part of the disc is typically at least 50% of the total mass that has been accreted onto the disc. Conclusions: Our results suggest that external accretion of gas at moderate values onto circumstellar discs may trigger prominent spiral arms that are reminiscent of recent observations made with various instruments, and may lead to significant transport through the disc. If confirmed from observational studies, such accretion may therefore influence disc evolution.

  19. The multiplicity and anisotropy of galactic satellite accretion (United States)

    Shao, Shi; Cautun, Marius; Frenk, Carlos S.; Grand, Robert J. J.; Gómez, Facundo A.; Marinacci, Federico; Simpson, Christine M.


    We study the incidence of group and filamentary dwarf galaxy accretion into Milky Way (MW) mass haloes using two types of hydrodynamical simulations: EAGLE, which resolves a large cosmological volume, and the AURIGA suite, which are very high resolution zoom-in simulations of individual MW-sized haloes. The present-day 11 most massive satellites are predominantly (75%) accreted in single events, 14% in pairs and 6% in triplets, with higher group multiplicities being unlikely. Group accretion becomes more common for fainter satellites, with 60% of the top 50 satellites accreted singly, 12% in pairs, and 28% in richer groups. A group similar in stellar mass to the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) would bring on average 15 members with stellar mass larger than 10^4{ M_\\odot}. Half of the top 11 satellites are accreted along the two richest filaments. The accretion of dwarf galaxies is highly anisotropic, taking place preferentially perpendicular to the halo minor axis, and, within this plane, preferentially along the halo major axis. The satellite entry points tend to be aligned with the present-day central galaxy disc and satellite plane, but to a lesser extent than with the halo shape. Dwarfs accreted in groups or along the richest filament have entry points that show an even larger degree of alignment with the host halo than the full satellite population. We also find that having most satellites accreted as a single group or along a single filament is unlikely to explain the MW disc of satellites.

  20. Millisecond laser machining of transparent materials assisted by a nanosecond laser with different delays. (United States)

    Pan, Yunxiang; Lv, Xueming; Zhang, Hongchao; Chen, Jun; Han, Bing; Shen, Zhonghua; Lu, Jian; Ni, Xiaowu


    A millisecond laser combined with a nanosecond laser was applied to machining transparent materials. The influences of delay between the two laser pulses on processing efficiencies and modified sizes were studied. In addition, a laser-supported combustion wave (LSCW) was captured during laser irradiation. An optimal delay corresponding to the highest processing efficiency was found for cone-shaped cavities. The modified size as well as the lifetime and intensity of the LSCW increased with the delay decreasing. Thermal cooperation effects of defects, overlapping effects of small modified sites, and thermal radiation from LSCW result in all the phenomena.

  1. A Search for Millisecond Pulsars in Fermi LAT-Detected Globular Clusters


    DeCesar, Megan E.; Ransom, Scott M.; Ray, Paul S.


    We have searched for millisecond pulsars (MSPs) in two globular clusters detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope. These clusters contained no known MSPs prior to their detections in gamma rays. The discovery of gamma ray emission from many MSPs and the prevalence of MSPs in globular clusters points to a population of MSPs as the likely source of the detected GeV emission, directing our search for new cluster MSPs. We observed NGC 6652 and NGC 6388 at 2 GHz with the Green Bank Ultimate Puls...

  2. Predictions of Gamma-ray Emission from Globular Cluster Millisecond Pulsars Above 100 MeV (United States)

    Venter, C.; de Jaker, O.C.; Clapson, A.C.


    The recent Fermi detection of the globular cluster (GC) 47 Tucanae highlighted the importance of modeling collective gamma-ray emission of millisecond pulsars (MSPs) in GCs. Steady flux from such populations is also expected in the very high energy (VHE) domain covered by ground-based Cherenkov telescopes. We present pulsed curvature radiation (CR) as well as unpulsed inverse Compton (IC) calculations for an ensemble of MSPs in the GCs 47 Tucanae and Terzan 5. We demonstrate that the CR from these GCs should be easily detectable for Fermi, while constraints on the total number of MSps and the nebular B-field may be derived using the IC flux components.

  3. Improved timing of the millisecond pulsar PSR 1937+21 using real-time coherent dedispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hankins, T.H.; Stinebring, D.R.; Rawley, L.A.; Princeton Univ., NJ)


    Profiles of the millisecond pulsar PSR 1937+21 have been obtained with 6-micron resolution using a real-time hardware dispersion removal device. This dedisperser has a potential resolution of better than 0.5 microsec and is immune to time-of-arrival jitter caused by scintillation-induced spectral gradients across the receiver passband. It significantly reduces the time-of-arrival residuals when compared with the timing technique currently in use. This increased timing accuracy, when utilized in a long-term timing program of millisec pulsars, will improve the solar system ephemeris and will substantially improve the detection limit of a gravitational wave background. 27 references

  4. Accretion, primordial black holes and standard cosmology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    loops [8]. In 1974, Hawking discovered that the black holes emit thermal radiation due to quantum effects [9]. So the black holes get evaporated depending upon their masses. Smaller the masses of the PBHs, quicker they evaporate. But the density of a black hole varies inversely with its mass. So high density is needed for ...

  5. Dead Zone Accretion Flows in Protostellar Disks (United States)

    Turner, Neal; Sano, T.


    Planets form inside protostellar disks in a dead zone where the electrical resistivity of the gas is too high for magnetic forces to drive turbulence. We show that much of the dead zone nevertheless is active and flows toward the star while smooth, large-scale magnetic fields transfer the orbital angular momentum radially outward. Stellar X-ray and radionuclide ionization sustain a weak coupling of the dead zone gas to the magnetic fields, despite the rapid recombination of free charges on dust grains. Net radial magnetic fields are generated in the magnetorotational turbulence in the electrically conducting top and bottom surface layers of the disk, and reach the midplane by ohmic diffusion. A toroidal component to the fields is produced near the midplane by the orbital shear. The process is similar to the magnetization of the solar tachocline. The result is a laminar, magnetically driven accretion flow in the region where the planets form.

  6. Observational constraints on black hole accretion disks (United States)

    Liang, Edison P.


    We review the empirical constraints on accretion disk models of stellar-mass black holes based on recent multiwavelength observational results. In addition to time-averaged emission spectra, the time evolutions of the intensity and spectrum provide critical information about the structure, stability, and dynamics of the disk. Using the basic thermal Keplerian disk paradigm, we consider in particular generalizations of the standard optically thin disk models needed to accommodate the extremely rich variety of dynamical phenomena exhibited by black hole candidates ranging from flares of electron-positron annihilations and quasiperiodic oscillations in the X-ray intensity to X-ray novae activity. These in turn provide probes of the disk structure and global geometry. The goal is to construct a single unified framework to interpret a large variety of black hole phenomena. This paper will concentrate on the interface between basic theory and observational data modeling.

  7. Pre-main-sequence disk accretion in Z Canis Majoris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, L.; Kenyon, S.J.; Hewett, R.; Edwards, S.; Strom, K.M.; Strom, S.E.; Stauffer, J.R.


    It is suggested that the pre-main-sequence object Z CMa is a luminous accretion disk, similar in many respects to the FU Orionis variables. Z CMa shows the broad, doubled optical absorption lines expected from a rapidly rotating accretion disk. The first overtone CO absorption detected in Z CMa is blue-shifted, suggesting line formation in a disk wind. Accretion at rates about 0.001 solar mass/yr over 100 yr is required to explain the luminosity of Z CMa. The large amount of material accreted (0.1 solar mass/yr) indicates that Z CMa is in a very early stage of stellar evolution, possibly in an initial phase of massive disk accretion. 41 references

  8. Accretion onto a noncommutative geometry inspired black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Rahul [Jamia Millia Islamia, Centre for Theoretical Physics, New Delhi (India); Ghosh, Sushant G. [Jamia Millia Islamia, Centre for Theoretical Physics, New Delhi (India); Jamia Millia Islamia, Multidisciplinary Centre for Advanced Research and Studies (MCARS), New Delhi (India); University of KwaZulu-Natal, Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science, Durban (South Africa)


    The spherically symmetric accretion onto a noncommutative (NC) inspired Schwarzschild black hole is treated for a polytropic fluid. The critical accretion rate M, sonic speed a{sub s} and other flow parameters are generalized for the NC inspired static black hole and compared with the results obtained for the standard Schwarzschild black holes. Also explicit expressions for gas compression ratios and temperature profiles below the accretion radius and at the event horizon are derived. This analysis is a generalization of Michel's solution to the NC geometry. Owing to the NC corrected black hole, the accretion flow parameters also have been modified. It turns out that M ∼ M{sup 2} is still achievable but r{sub s} seems to be substantially decreased due to the NC effects. They in turn do affect the accretion process. (orig.)

  9. Pre-main-sequence disk accretion in Z Canis Majoris (United States)

    Hartmann, L.; Kenyon, S. J.; Hewett, R.; Edwards, S.; Strom, K. M.; Strom, S. E.; Stauffer, J. R.


    It is suggested that the pre-main-sequence object Z CMa is a luminous accretion disk, similar in many respects to the FU Orionis variables. Z CMa shows the broad, doubled optical absorption lines expected from a rapidly rotating accretion disk. The first overtone CO absorption detected in Z CMa is blue-shifted, suggesting line formation in a disk wind. Accretion at rates about 0.001 solar mass/yr over 100 yr is required to explain the luminosity of Z CMa. The large amount of material accreted (0.1 solar mass/yr) indicates that Z CMa is in a very early stage of stellar evolution, possibly in an initial phase of massive disk accretion.

  10. Testing Convergence for Global Accretion Disks (United States)

    Hawley, John F.; Richers, Sherwood A.; Guan, Xiaoyue; Krolik, Julian H.


    Global disk simulations provide a powerful tool for investigating accretion and the underlying magnetohydrodynamic turbulence driven by magneto-rotational instability (MRI). Using them to accurately predict quantities such as stress, accretion rate, and surface brightness profile requires that purely numerical effects, arising from both resolution and algorithm, be understood and controlled. We use the flux-conservative Athena code to conduct a series of experiments on disks having a variety of magnetic topologies to determine what constitutes adequate resolution. We develop and apply several resolution metrics: langQz rang and langQ phirang, the ratio of the grid zone size to the characteristic MRI wavelength, αmag, the ratio of the Maxwell stress to the magnetic pressure, and \\langle B_R^2\\rangle /\\langle B_\\phi ^2\\rangle, the ratio of radial to toroidal magnetic field energy. For the initial conditions considered here, adequate resolution is characterized by langQz rang >= 15, langQ phirang >= 20, αmag ≈ 0.45, and \\langle B_R^2\\rangle /\\langle B_\\phi ^2\\rangle \\approx 0.2. These values are associated with >=35 zones per scaleheight H, a result consistent with shearing box simulations. Numerical algorithm is also important. Use of the Harten-Lax-van Leer-Einfeldt flux solver or second-order interpolation can significantly degrade the effective resolution compared to the Harten-Lax-van Leer discontinuities flux solver and third-order interpolation. Resolution at this standard can be achieved only with large numbers of grid zones, arranged in a fashion that matches the symmetries of the problem and the scientific goals of the simulation. Without it, however, quantitative measures important to predictions of observables are subject to large systematic errors.

  11. Investigation of accretion formation in a blast furnace shaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klima, R.; Hoefer, O.; Chiarotti, U.; Fredman, T.; Hillmann, C.; Raipala, K.; Eriksson, J. (eds.) [BFI Duesseldorf (Germany)


    Accretions in the bosh, belly and shaft have a significant influence on blast furnace performance and on the service life of the refractory lining and the cooling system. To analyse the mechanisms of formation and dislodging of accretions, investigations were carried out at four different blast furnaces. Three blast furnaces were equipped with additional measurements to investigate the accretion formation process and to provide information for the development of accretion estimation models. Installation activities included thermocouples, heat-flux meters, staves with instrumentation for heat-flux measurement and a small horizontal lance. The distribution of accretions in the shaft was documented. Samples were taken out of accretions during blast furnace stoppages. Their acquisition was simplified with newly developed sampling devices. The samples were analysed to determine chemical and mineralogical properties and thermal conductivity. Samples were mainly made up of reduced iron or of coke and sinter structures glued together by zinc or alkali compounds. Together with a newly developed offline model for the simulation of accretion formation, different parameters influencing the formation process were identified. The main parameters are: burden material composition, blast furnace operating conditions; and the cooling system. Countermeasures to prevent excessive accretion growth were determined. They offer a better operational control of accretions. Different models to identify accretion formation were developed and an overview was presented. Different models were necessary to distinguish between the various measurement, cooling-system and blast-furnace setups. Most of the models are already implemented and in operational use. For some of them application at other blast furnaces was already realised or is possible. 9 refs., 18 figs., 20 tab.

  12. Evolution and precession of accretion disk in tidal disruption events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matzner C.D.


    Full Text Available In a supermassive black hole (BH tidal disruption event (TDE, the tidally disrupted star feeds the BH via an accretion disk. Most often it is assumed that the accretion rate history, hence the emission light curve, tracks the rate at which new debris mass falls back onto the disk, notably the t−5/3 power law. But this is not the case when the disk evolution due to viscous spreading - the driving force for accretion - is carefully considered. We construct a simple analytical model that comprehensively describes the accretion rate history across 4 different phases of the disk evolution, in the presence of mass fallback and disk wind loss. Accretion rate evolves differently in those phases which are governed by how the disk heat energy is carried away, early on by advection and later by radiation. The accretion rate can decline as steeply as t−5/3 only if copious disk wind loss is present during the early advection-cooled phase. Later, the accretion rate history is t−8/7 or shallower. These have great implications on the TDE flare light curve. A TDE accretion disk is most likely misaligned with the equatorial plane of the spinning BH. Moreover, in the TDE the accretion rate is super- or near-Eddington thus the disk is geometrically thick, for which case the BH’s frame dragging effect may cause the disk precess as a solid body, which may manifest itself as quasi-periodic signal in the TDE light curve. Our disk evolution model predicts the disk precession period increases with time, typically as ∝ t. The results are applied to the recently jetted TDE flare Swift transient J1644 + 57 which shows numerous, quasi-periodic dips in its long-term X-ray light curve. As the current TDE sample increases, the identification of the disk precession signature provides a unique way of measuring BH spin and studying BH accretion physics.

  13. Decision mining revisited - Discovering overlapping rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mannhardt, Felix; De Leoni, Massimiliano; Reijers, Hajo A.; Van Der Aalst, Wil M P


    Decision mining enriches process models with rules underlying decisions in processes using historical process execution data. Choices between multiple activities are specified through rules defined over process data. Existing decision mining methods focus on discovering mutually-exclusive rules,

  14. Different Fluorophore Labeling Strategies and Designs Affect Millisecond Kinetics of DNA Hairpins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Hartmann


    Full Text Available Changes in molecular conformations are one of the major driving forces of complex biological processes. Many studies based on single-molecule techniques have shed light on conformational dynamics and contributed to a better understanding of living matter. In particular, single-molecule FRET experiments have revealed unprecedented information at various time scales varying from milliseconds to seconds. The choice and the attachment of fluorophores is a pivotal requirement for single-molecule FRET experiments. One particularly well-studied millisecond conformational change is the opening and closing of DNA hairpin structures. In this study, we addressed the influence of base- and terminal-labeled fluorophores as well as the fluorophore DNA interactions on the extracted kinetic information of the DNA hairpin. Gibbs free energies varied from ∆G0 = −3.6 kJ/mol to ∆G0 = −0.2 kJ/mol for the identical DNA hairpin modifying only the labeling scheme and design of the DNA sample. In general, the base-labeled DNA hairpin is significantly destabilized compared to the terminal-labeled DNA hairpin and fluorophore DNA interactions additionally stabilize the closed state of the DNA hairpin. Careful controls and variations of fluorophore attachment chemistry are essential for a mostly undisturbed measurement of the underlying energy landscape of biomolecules.

  15. A New High-Frequency Search for Galactic Center Millisecond Pulsars using DSS-43 (United States)

    Lemley, Cameron; Prince, Thomas Allen; Majid, Walid A.; Murchikova, Elena


    The primary 70-meter Deep Space Network antenna (DSS-43) in Canberra, Australia was equipped with a new high-frequency (18-28 GHz) receiver system in May 2015 for use in a search for Galactic Center (GC) millisecond pulsars. The primary motivation for this search is that a pulsar in the Galactic Center region (especially one that is gravitationally bound to the massive black hole at the GC) would provide unprecedented tests of gravity in the strong-field regime and would offer an entirely new tool for probing the characteristics of the Galactic Center region. Preparation for the GC pulsar search has involved the development of a single-pulse search pipeline that integrates tools from both Fortran and Python as well as the implementation of this pipeline on high performance CPUs. The original version of the search pipeline was developed using Vela Pulsar data from DSS-43, and a more refined version that relies upon chi-squared fitting techniques was ultimately developed using Crab Pulsar data. Future work will involve continued testing of the single-pulse search pipeline using data from the rotating radio transient (RRAT) J1819-1458, the characterization of RRAT pulses using high time resolution data from the new receiver system on DSS-43, and ultimately the analysis of high-frequency data using the existing pipeline to search for millisecond pulsars in the Galactic Center.

  16. Songbird Respiration is Controlled by Multispike Patterns at Millisecond Temporal Resolution (United States)

    Holmes, Caroline; Srivastava, Kyle; Vellema, Michiel; Elemans, Coen; Nemenman, Ilya; Sober, Samuel

    Although the importance of precise timing of neural action potentials (spikes) is well known in sensory systems, approaches to motor control have focused almost exclusively on firing rates. Here we examined whether precise timing of spikes in multispike patterns has an effect on the motor output in the respiratory system of the Bengalese finch, a songbird. By recording from single motor neurons and the muscle fibers they innervate in freely behaving birds, we find that the spike trains are significantly non-Poisson, suggesting that the precise timing of spikes is tightly controlled. We further find that even a one millisecond shift of an individual spike in a multispike pattern predicts a significantly different air sac pressure. Finally, we provide evidence for the causal relation between precise spike timing and the motor output in this organism by stimulating the motor system with precisely timed patterns of electrical impulses. We observe that shifting a single pulse by as little as two milliseconds elicits differences in resulting air sac pressure. These results demonstrate that the precise timing of spikes does play a role in motor control. This work was partially supported by NSF Grant IOS/1208126, NIH Grant 5R90DA033462 , NIH Grant R01NS084844, and NIH Grant F31DC013753.

  17. Numerical and experimental study of the thermal stress of silicon induced by a millisecond laser. (United States)

    Wang, Xi; Qin, Yuan; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Liang; Shen, Zhonghua; Lu, Jian; Ni, Xiaowu


    A spatial axisymmetric finite element model of single-crystal silicon irradiated by a 1064 nm millisecond laser is used to investigate the thermal stress damage induced by a millisecond laser. The transient temperature field and the thermal stress field for 2 ms laser irradiation with a laser fluence of 254 J/cm(2) are obtained. The numerical simulation results indicate that the hoop stresses along the r axis on the front surface are compressive stress within the laser spot and convert to tensile stress outside the laser spot, while the radial stresses along the r axis on the front surface and on the z axis are compressive stress. The temperature of the irradiated center is the highest temperature obtained, yet the stress is not always highest during laser irradiation. At the end of the laser irradiation, the maximal hoop stress is located at r=0.5 mm and the maximal radial stress is located at r=0.76 mm. The temperature measurement experiments are performed by IR pyrometer. The numerical result of the temperature field is consistent with the experimental result. The damage morphologies of silicon under the action of a 254 J/cm(2) laser are inspected by optical microscope. The cracks are observed initiating at r=0.5 mm and extending along the radial direction. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  18. Thin accretion disks in stationary axisymmetric wormhole spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harko, Tiberiu; Kovacs, Zoltan; Lobo, Francisco S. N.


    In this paper, we study the physical properties and the equilibrium thermal radiation emission characteristics of matter forming thin accretion disks in stationary axially symmetric wormhole spacetimes. The thin disk models are constructed by taking different values of the wormhole's angular velocity, and the time averaged energy flux, the disk temperature, and the emission spectra of the accretion disks are obtained. Comparing the mass accretion in a rotating wormhole geometry with the one of a Kerr black hole, we verify that the intensity of the flux emerging from the disk surface is greater for wormholes than for rotating black holes with the same geometrical mass and accretion rate. We also present the conversion efficiency of the accreting mass into radiation, and show that the rotating wormholes provide a much more efficient engine for the transformation of the accreting mass into radiation than the Kerr black holes. Therefore specific signatures appear in the electromagnetic spectrum of thin disks around rotating wormholes, thus leading to the possibility of distinguishing wormhole geometries by using astrophysical observations of the emission spectra from accretion disks.

  19. Regimes of mini black hole abandoned to accretion (United States)

    Paik, Biplab


    Being inspired by the Eddington’s idea, along with other auxiliary arguments, it is unveiled that there exist regimes of a black hole that would prohibit accretion of ordinary energy. In explicit words, there exists a lower bound to black hole mass below which matter accretion process does not run for black holes. Not merely the baryonic matter, but, in regimes, also the massless photons could get prohibited from rushing into a black hole. However, unlike the baryon accretion abandoned black hole regime, the mass-regime of a black hole prohibiting accretion of radiation could vary along with its ambient temperature. For example, we discuss that earlier to 10‑8 s after the big-bang, as the cosmological temperature of the Universe grew above ˜ 1014 K, the mass range of black hole designating the radiation accretion abandoned regime, had to be in varying state being connected with the instantaneous age of the evolving Universe by an “one half” power law. It happens to be a fact that a black hole holding regimes prohibiting accretion of energy is gigantic by its size in comparison to the Planck length-scale. Hence the emergence of these regimes demands mini black holes for not being viable as profound suckers of energy. Consideration of accretion abandoned regimes could be crucial for constraining or judging the evolution of primordial black holes over the age of the Universe.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiewak, Renée; Kaplan, David L. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, P.O. Box 413, Milwaukee, WI 53201 (United States); Archibald, Anne; Hessels, Jason [ASTRON, the Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, Postbus 2, 7990 AA, Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Gentile, Peter; Lorimer, Duncan; McLaughlin, Maura [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, 210E Hodges Hall, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Lynch, Ryan; Ransom, Scott [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22901 (United States); Stairs, Ingrid [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Stovall, Kevin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States)


    We present the first X-ray observations of three recently discovered millisecond pulsars (MSPs) with interesting characteristics: PSR J0337+1715, PSR J0636+5129, and PSR J0645+5158. PSR J0337+1715 is a fast-spinning, bright, and so-far unique MSP in a hierarchical triple system with two white dwarf companions. PSR J0636+5129 is an MSP in a very tight 96-minute orbit with a low-mass, 8 M {sub J} companion. PSR J0645+5158 is a nearby, isolated MSP with a very small duty cycle (1%–2%), which has led to its inclusion in high-precision pulsar timing programs. Using data from XMM-Newton , we have analyzed X-ray spectroscopy for these three objects, as well as optical/ultraviolet photometry for PSR J0337+1715. The X-ray data for each are largely consistent with expectations for most MSPs with regards to the ratios of thermal and non-thermal emission. We discuss the implications of these data on the pulsar population, and prospects for future observations of these pulsars.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiewak, Renée; Kaplan, David L.; Archibald, Anne; Hessels, Jason; Gentile, Peter; Lorimer, Duncan; McLaughlin, Maura; Lynch, Ryan; Ransom, Scott; Stairs, Ingrid; Stovall, Kevin


    We present the first X-ray observations of three recently discovered millisecond pulsars (MSPs) with interesting characteristics: PSR J0337+1715, PSR J0636+5129, and PSR J0645+5158. PSR J0337+1715 is a fast-spinning, bright, and so-far unique MSP in a hierarchical triple system with two white dwarf companions. PSR J0636+5129 is an MSP in a very tight 96-minute orbit with a low-mass, 8 M J companion. PSR J0645+5158 is a nearby, isolated MSP with a very small duty cycle (1%–2%), which has led to its inclusion in high-precision pulsar timing programs. Using data from XMM-Newton , we have analyzed X-ray spectroscopy for these three objects, as well as optical/ultraviolet photometry for PSR J0337+1715. The X-ray data for each are largely consistent with expectations for most MSPs with regards to the ratios of thermal and non-thermal emission. We discuss the implications of these data on the pulsar population, and prospects for future observations of these pulsars.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herczeg, Gregory J.; Cruz, Kelle L.; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.


    We present low-resolution Keck I/LRIS spectra spanning from 3200 to 9000 A of nine young brown dwarfs and three low-mass stars in the TW Hya Association and in Upper Sco. The optical spectral types of the brown dwarfs range from M5.5 to M8.75, though two have near-IR spectral types of early L dwarfs. We report new accretion rates derived from excess Balmer continuum emission for the low-mass stars TW Hya and Hen 3-600A and the brown dwarfs 2MASS J12073347-3932540, UScoCTIO 128, SSSPM J1102-3431, USco J160606.29-233513.3, DENIS-P J160603.9-205644, and Oph J162225-240515B, and upper limits on accretion for the low-mass star Hen 3-600B and the brown dwarfs UScoCTIO 112, Oph J162225-240515A, and USco J160723.82-221102.0. For the six brown dwarfs in our sample that are faintest at short wavelengths, the accretion luminosity or upper limit is measurable only when the image is binned over large wavelength intervals. This method extends our sensitivity to accretion rate down to ∼10 -13 M sun yr -1 for brown dwarfs. Since the ability to measure an accretion rate from excess Balmer continuum emission depends on the contrast between excess continuum emission and the underlying photosphere, for objects with earlier spectral types the upper limit on accretion rate is much higher. Absolute uncertainties in our accretion rate measurements of ∼3-5 include uncertainty in accretion models, brown dwarf masses, and distance. The accretion rate of 2 x 10 -12 M sun yr -1 onto 2MASS J12073347-3932540 is within 15% of two previous measurements, despite large changes in the Hα flux.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyutikov, Maxim [Department of Physics, Purdue University, 525 Northwestern Avenue, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2036 (United States)


    Many short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) show prompt tails lasting up to hundreds of seconds that can be energetically dominant over the initial sub-second spike. In this paper we develop an electromagnetic model of short GRBs that explains the two stages of the energy release, the prompt spike and the prompt tail. The key ingredient of the model is the recent discovery that an isolated black hole can keep its open magnetic flux for times much longer than the collapse time and thus can spin down electromagnetically, driving the relativistic wind. First, the merger is preceded by an electromagnetic precursor wind with total power L{sub p} Almost-Equal-To (((GM{sub NS}){sup 3}B{sub NS}{sup 2})/c{sup 5}R){proportional_to}(-t){sup - Vulgar-Fraction-One-Quarter }, reaching 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1} for typical neutron star masses of 1.4 M{sub Sun} and magnetic fields B {approx} 10{sup 12} G. If a fraction of this power is converted into pulsar-like coherent radio emission, this may produce an observable radio burst of a few milliseconds (like the Lorimer burst). At the active stage of the merger, two neutron stars produce a black hole surrounded by an accretion torus in which the magnetic field is amplified to {approx}10{sup 15} G. This magnetic field extracts the rotational energy of the black hole and drives an axially collimated electromagnetic wind that may carry of the order of 10{sup 50} erg, limited by the accretion time of the torus, a few hundred milliseconds. For observers nearly aligned with the orbital normal this is seen as a classical short GRB. After the accretion of the torus, the isolated black hole keeps the open magnetic flux and drives the equatorially (not axially) collimated outflow, which is seen by an observer at intermediate polar angles as a prompt tail. The tail carries more energy than the prompt spike, but its emission is de-boosted for observers along the orbital normal. Observers in the equatorial plane miss the prompt spike

  4. Do we see accreting magnetars in X-ray pulsars?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Postnov K.A.


    Full Text Available Strong magnetic field of accreting neutron stars (1014 G is hard to probe by Xray spectroscopy but can be indirectly inferred from spin-up/spin-down measurement in X-ray pulsars. The existing observations of slowly rotating X-ray pulsars are discussed. It is shown that magnetic fields of neutron stars derived from these observations (or lower limits in some cases fall within the standard 1012-1013 G range. Claims about the evidence for accreting magnetars are critically discussed in the light of recent progress in understanding of accretion onto slowly rotating neutron stars in the subsonic regime.

  5. Sedimentation, accretion, and subsidence in marshes of Barataria Basin, Louisiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatton, R.S.; DeLaune, R.D.; Patrick, W.H. Jr.


    Vertical accretion and sediment accumulation rates were determined from the distribution of 137 Cs in cores collected from fresh water, intermediate, brackish, and salt marshes in the Barataria Basin, Louisiana. Vertical accretion rates vary from about 1.3 cm.yr -1 in levee areas to 0.7 in backmarshes. Mineral sediment content of the marsh soil profile decreased with distance from the coast. Except in natural levee areas, marsh accretion rates are less than subsidence measured by water level data, however this alone cannot account for observed land-loss patterns in the basin area

  6. Accreting fluids onto regular black holes via Hamiltonian approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jawad, Abdul [COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan); Shahzad, M.U. [COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan); University of Central Punjab, CAMS, UCP Business School, Lahore (Pakistan)


    We investigate the accretion of test fluids onto regular black holes such as Kehagias-Sfetsos black holes and regular black holes with Dagum distribution function. We analyze the accretion process when different test fluids are falling onto these regular black holes. The accreting fluid is being classified through the equation of state according to the features of regular black holes. The behavior of fluid flow and the existence of sonic points is being checked for these regular black holes. It is noted that the three-velocity depends on critical points and the equation of state parameter on phase space. (orig.)

  7. An XMM-Newton Monitoring Campaign of the Accretion Flow in IGRJ16318-4848 (United States)

    Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor); Nicastro, Fabrizio


    This grant is associated to a successful XMM-Newton-AO3 observational proposal to monitor the spectrum of the X-ray loud component of the recently discovered binary system IGR J16138-4848, to study the conditions of the accretion flows (and their evolution) in binary system. All four EPIC-PN and MOS observations of the target have now been performed (the last one of the 4, only 3 months ago). The four observations were logarithmically spaced, so to cover timescales from days to months. Data from all four pointings have now been reduced, using the XMM-Newton data reduction pipeline, and spectra and lightcurves from the target have been extracted. For the first three observations we have already performed the observation-by-observation data analysis, by fitting the single EPIC spectra with spectral models that include an intrinsic continuum power law (reduced at low energy by neutral absorption), a 6.4 keV iron emission line (detected in all spectra with varying intensity) and a Compton-reflection component. A Compton reflection component is also detected in all spectra, although at lower significance. The analysis of the fourth and last observation of our monitoring campaign has just recently begun. Next, we will (1) stack together the four observations of IGR J16138-4848, to obtain high-accuracy estimates of the average spectral parameters of this object; and then (2) proceed to the time-evolving analysis, of the three spectral parameters: (a) Gamma (the slope of the intrinsic continuum), (b) W(FeK), the equivalent width of the 6.4 keV Iron emission line, and (c) R, the relative amount of Compton reflection. Through this time-resolved spectroscopic analysis we hope to constrain (a) the physical state of the accreting matter and its relation with the X-ray output, and (b) the evolution of the accretion flow geometry, distribution and covering factor.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perets, Hagai B. [Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa (Israel); Kenyon, Scott J., E-mail: [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)


    Mass transfer from an evolved donor star to its binary companion is a standard feature of stellar evolution in binaries. In wide binaries, the companion star captures some of the mass ejected in a wind by the primary star. The captured material forms an accretion disk. Here, we study the evolution of wind-accretion disks, using a numerical approach which allows us to follow the long-term evolution. For a broad range of initial conditions, we derive the radial density and temperature profiles of the disk. In most cases, wind accretion leads to long-lived stable disks over the lifetime of the asymptotic giant branch donor star. The disks have masses of a few times 10{sup -5}-10{sup -3} M {sub Sun }, with surface density and temperature profiles that follow broken power laws. The total mass in the disk scales approximately linearly with the viscosity parameter used. Roughly, 50%-80% of the mass falling into the disk accretes onto the central star; the rest flows out through the outer edge of the disk into the stellar wind of the primary. For systems with large accretion rates, the secondary accretes as much as 0.1 M {sub Sun }. When the secondary is a white dwarf, accretion naturally leads to nova and supernova eruptions. For all types of secondary star, the surface density and temperature profiles of massive disks resemble structures observed in protoplanetary disks, suggesting that coordinated observational programs might improve our understanding of uncertain disk physics.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perets, Hagai B.; Kenyon, Scott J.


    Mass transfer from an evolved donor star to its binary companion is a standard feature of stellar evolution in binaries. In wide binaries, the companion star captures some of the mass ejected in a wind by the primary star. The captured material forms an accretion disk. Here, we study the evolution of wind-accretion disks, using a numerical approach which allows us to follow the long-term evolution. For a broad range of initial conditions, we derive the radial density and temperature profiles of the disk. In most cases, wind accretion leads to long-lived stable disks over the lifetime of the asymptotic giant branch donor star. The disks have masses of a few times 10 –5 -10 –3 M ☉ , with surface density and temperature profiles that follow broken power laws. The total mass in the disk scales approximately linearly with the viscosity parameter used. Roughly, 50%-80% of the mass falling into the disk accretes onto the central star; the rest flows out through the outer edge of the disk into the stellar wind of the primary. For systems with large accretion rates, the secondary accretes as much as 0.1 M ☉ . When the secondary is a white dwarf, accretion naturally leads to nova and supernova eruptions. For all types of secondary star, the surface density and temperature profiles of massive disks resemble structures observed in protoplanetary disks, suggesting that coordinated observational programs might improve our understanding of uncertain disk physics.

  10. Millisecond autothermal catalytic reforming of carbohydrates for synthetic fuels by reactive flash volatilization (United States)

    Dauenhauer, Paul Jakob

    Carbohydrates including glucose, cellulose, starch and polyols including glycerol, ethylene glycol and methanol produced in large quantities from biomass are considered as a carbon-based feedstock for high temperature catalytic reforming by catalytic partial oxidation. Autothermal catalytic partial oxidation of methanol, ethylene glycol, and glycerol with Rh and Pt-based catalysts with ceria on alumina foam supports at residence times less than ten milliseconds produced equilibrium selectivity to synthesis gas. The addition of steam at S/C>4 produced selectivity to H2 higher than 80% with little or no selectivity to minor products. In a new process referred to as 'reactive flash volatilization,' catalytic partial oxidation was combined with pyrolysis of biomass by directly impinging particles of cellulose, starch, polyethylene, soy oil, or Aspen (Populous Tremuloides) on an operating Rh-based reforming catalyst at 700-800°C. Solid particles endothermically pyrolyzed to volatile organic compounds which mixed with air and reformed on the catalyst exothermically generating heat to drive the overall process. Particles of ˜250 mum microcrystalline cellulose processed at the conditions of C/O=1.0 on a RhCe/gamma-Al2O3/alpha-Al 2O3 at a residence time of ˜70 milliseconds produced a gaseous effluent stream selecting for 50% H2 and 50% CO with no observable side products other than H2O and CO2, and fuel efficiency. Cellulose, sucrose, and glycerol particle conversion was examined with high-speed photography (1000 frames/second) revealing the formation of a liquid intermediate from cellulose permitting extremely high heat flux (˜1 MW/m 2). Finally, large cellulose rods (7x7x500 mm) were directly pressed against a Rh-based reforming catalyst co-reforming methane with air to examine the processing speed as a function of applied pressure and surface temperature. All experiments demonstrate that solid particles of carbohydrates can reform on Rh-based catalytic foams and

  11. Time-Dependent Variations of Accretion Disk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Weon Na


    Full Text Available In dward nova we assume the primary star as a white dwarf and the secondary as the late type star which filled Roche lobe. Mass flow from the secondary star leads to the formation of thin accretion disk around the white dwarf. We use the α parameter as viscosity to maintain the disk form and propose that the outburst in dwarf nova cause the steep increase of source term. With these assumptions we solve the basic equations of stellar structure using Newton-Raphson method. We show the physical parameters like temperature, density, pressure, opacity, surface density, height and flux to the radius of disk. Changing the value of α, we compare several parameters when mass flow rate is constant with those of when luminosity of disk is brightest. At the same time, we obtain time-dependent variations of luminosity and mass of disk. We propose the suitable range of α is 0.15-0.18 to the difference of luminosity. We compare several parameters of disk with those of the normal late type stars which have the same molecular weight of disk is lower. Maybe the outburst in dwarf nova is due to the variation of the α value instead of increment of mass flow from the secondary star.

  12. Accreting Binary Populations in the Earlier Universe (United States)

    Hornschemeier, Ann


    It is now understood that X-ray binaries dominate the hard X-ray emission from normal star-forming galaxies. Thanks to the deepest (2-4 Ms) Chandra surveys, such galaxies are now being studied in X-rays out to z approximates 4. Interesting X-ray stacking results (based on 30+ galaxies per redshift bin) suggest that the mean rest-frame 2-10 keV luminosity from z=3-4 Lyman break galaxies (LBGs), is comparable to the most powerful starburst galaxies in the local Universe. This result possibly indicates a similar production mechanism for accreting binaries over large cosmological timescales. To understand and constrain better the production of X-ray binaries in high-redshift LBGs, we have utilized XMM-Newton observations of a small sample of z approximates 0.1 GALEX-selected Ultraviolet-Luminous Galaxies (UVLGs); local analogs to high-redshift LBGs. Our observations enable us to study the X-ray emission from LBG-like galaxies on an individual basis, thus allowing us to constrain object-to-object variances in this population. We supplement these results with X-ray stacking constraints using the new 3.2 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South (completed spring 2010) and LBG candidates selected from HST, Swift UVOT, and ground-based data. These measurements provide new X-ray constraints that sample well the entire z=0-4 baseline

  13. Black Hole Accretion in Gamma Ray Bursts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Janiuk


    Full Text Available We study the structure and evolution of the hyperaccreting disks and outflows in the gamma ray bursts central engines. The torus around a stellar mass black hole is composed of free nucleons, Helium, electron-positron pairs, and is cooled by neutrino emission. Accretion of matter powers the relativistic jets, responsible for the gamma ray prompt emission. The significant number density of neutrons in the disk and outflowing material will cause subsequent formation of heavier nuclei. We study the process of nucleosynthesis and its possible observational consequences. We also apply our scenario to the recent observation of the gravitational wave signal, detected on 14 September 2015 by the two Advanced LIGO detectors, and related to an inspiral and merger of a binary black hole system. A gamma ray burst that could possibly be related with the GW150914 event was observed by the Fermi satellite. It had a duration of about 1 s and appeared about 0.4 s after the gravitational-wave signal. We propose that a collapsing massive star and a black hole in a close binary could lead to the event. The gamma ray burst was powered by a weak neutrino flux produced in the star remnant’s matter. Low spin and kick velocity of the merged black hole are reproduced in our simulations. Coincident gravitational-wave emission originates from the merger of the collapsed core and the companion black hole.

  14. Analogue Hawking radiation from astrophysical black-hole accretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Tapas K


    We show that spherical accretion onto astrophysical black holes can be considered as a natural example of an analogue system. We provide, for the first time, an exact analytical scheme for calculating the analogue Hawking temperature and surface gravity for general relativistic accretion onto astrophysical black holes. Our calculation may bridge the gap between the theory of transonic astrophysical accretion and the theory of analogue Hawking radiation. We show that the domination of the analogue Hawking temperature over the actual Hawking temperature may be a real astrophysical phenomenon, though observational tests of this fact will at best be difficult and at worst might prove to be impossible. We also discuss the possibilities of the emergence of analogue white holes around astrophysical black holes. Our calculation is general enough to accommodate accreting black holes with any mass

  15. Angular Momentum Transport in Quasi-Keplerian Accretion Disks ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Keplerian accretion disk yield results that are inconsistent with the generally accepted model. If correct, the ideas proposed by Hayashi &. Matsuda would radically alter our understanding of the nature of the angular momentum transport in the disk, ...

  16. Dynamically important magnetic fields near accreting supermassive black holes. (United States)

    Zamaninasab, M; Clausen-Brown, E; Savolainen, T; Tchekhovskoy, A


    Accreting supermassive black holes at the centres of active galaxies often produce 'jets'--collimated bipolar outflows of relativistic particles. Magnetic fields probably play a critical role in jet formation and in accretion disk physics. A dynamically important magnetic field was recently found near the Galactic Centre black hole. If this is common and if the field continues to near the black hole event horizon, disk structures will be affected, invalidating assumptions made in standard models. Here we report that jet magnetic field and accretion disk luminosity are tightly correlated over seven orders of magnitude for a sample of 76 radio-loud active galaxies. We conclude that the jet-launching regions of these radio-loud galaxies are threaded by dynamically important fields, which will affect the disk properties. These fields obstruct gas infall, compress the accretion disk vertically, slow down the disk rotation by carrying away its angular momentum in an outflow and determine the directionality of jets.

  17. Magnetospheres of accreting compact objects in binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, J.J.


    Bright pulsating X-ray sources (X-ray pulsars, AM Her stars,...) have been identified as strongly magnetized compact objects accreting matter from a binary companion. We give here a summary of some of the work which has been recently done to try to understand the interaction between the magnetic field of the compact object and the matter around. We examine in turn the models describing the interaction of the field with: i) a spherically symmetric accretion flow; ii) a thin keplerian accretion disk; iii) the companion itself. In all these cases, we pay particular attention to the following problems: i) how the external plasma interacting with the magnetosphere can get mixed with the field; ii) by which mechanism the magnetic field controls the mass-momentum-energy exchanges between the two stars. In conclusion, we compare the magnetosphere of an accreting compact object with that one of a planet [fr

  18. Time-resolved resonance Raman spectroscopy of bacteriorhodopsin on the millisecond timescale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terner, J.; Campion, A.; El-Sayed, M.A.


    A simple technique is described that uses a continuous wave laser with electromechanical modulation to obtain time-resolved Raman spectra of transient species on the millisecond timescale. The time behavior of the vibrational bands of the intermediates involved in the proton pumping of bacteriorhodopsin is determined. From these results, along with resonance enhancement and power dependence studies, the bands that appear in the continuous wave Raman spectrum of bacteriorhodopsin can be assigned to three intermediates in the photochemical cycle of bacteriorhodopsin, bR/sub 570/, bL/sub 550/, and bM/sub 412/. The Raman spectra of bR/sub 570/ and bM/sub 412/ are compared with published spectra of model Schiff bases of all-trans and 13-cis retinal.

  19. An on/off resonance rotating frame relaxation experiment to monitor millisecond to microsecond timescale dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seho; Baum, Jean [Rutgers University, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology (United States)], E-mail:


    Rotating frame relaxation experiments in proteins are used to study slow motions on the microsecond to millisecond timescale. An on/off resonance rotating frame relaxation experiment (R{sub 1{rho}}) has been developed that incorporates adiabatic rotations into a R{sub 1{rho}}-R{sub 1} constant relaxation time experiment with weak radio frequency field strengths in order to effectively lock the magnetization over a wide range of {sup 15}N frequencies. The new pulse sequence allows the measurement of a wide range of chemical exchange timescales on the order of 1.0 to 0.05 ms over an asymmetric bandwidth from +1.7{omega}{sub 1} to -0.5{omega}{sub 1} in a single experiment. A total bandwidth of {+-}1.7{omega}{sub 1} is obtained by performing the experiment a second time with a reversed adiabatic rotation.

  20. Fine tuning of sub-millisecond conformational dynamics controls metabotropic glutamate receptors agonist efficacy. (United States)

    Olofsson, Linnea; Felekyan, Suren; Doumazane, Etienne; Scholler, Pauline; Fabre, Ludovic; Zwier, Jurriaan M; Rondard, Philippe; Seidel, Claus A M; Pin, Jean-Philippe; Margeat, Emmanuel


    Efficient cell-to-cell communication relies on the accurate signalling of cell surface receptors. Understanding the molecular bases of their activation requires the characterization of the dynamic equilibrium between active and resting states. Here, we monitor, using single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer, the kinetics of the reorientation of the extracellular ligand-binding domain of the metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR), a class C G-protein-coupled receptor. We demonstrate that most receptors oscillate between a resting- and an active-conformation on a sub-millisecond timescale. Interestingly, we demonstrate that differences in agonist efficacies stem from differing abilities to shift the conformational equilibrium towards the fully active state, rather than from the stabilization of alternative static conformations, which further highlights the dynamic nature of mGluRs and revises our understanding of receptor activation and allosteric modulation.

  1. A millisecond-risetime sub-millimeter light source for lab and in flight bolometer calibration (United States)

    Abbon, Ph.; Delbart, A.; Fesquet, M.; Magneville, C.; Mazeau, B.; Pansart, J.-P.; Yvon, D.; Dumoulin, L.; Marnieros, S.; Camus, Ph.; Durand, T.; Hoffmann, Ch.


    The Olimpo balloon project will use a 120 bolometer camera to observe the sky at four frequencies (143, 217, 385 and 600 GHz) with a resolution of 3 to 2 arc-minute. This paper presents the sub-millimeter calibration "lamp" developed for ground testing and in-flight secondary calibration of bolometric detectors. By design, main features of the device are reproducibility and stability of light flux and millisecond rise time. The radiative device will be placed inside the bolometer camera and will illuminate the bolometer array through a hole in the last 2 K mirror. Operation, readout, and monitoring of the device is ensured by warm electronics. Light output flux and duration is programmable, triggered and monitored from a simple computer RS232 interface. It was tested to be reliable in ballooning temperature conditions from -80 to 50C. Design and test's results are explained.

  2. Consistency between the luminosity function of resolved millisecond pulsars and the galactic center excess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploeg, Harrison; Gordon, Chris [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutherford Building, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Crocker, Roland [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Mount Stromlo Observatory, Cotter Road, Weston Creek (Australia); Macias, Oscar, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Center for Neutrino Physics, Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, 850 West Campus Drive, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)


    Fermi Large Area Telescope data reveal an excess of GeV gamma rays from the direction of the Galactic Center and bulge. Several explanations have been proposed for this excess including an unresolved population of millisecond pulsars (MSPs) and self-annihilating dark matter. It has been claimed that a key discriminant for or against the MSP explanation can be extracted from the properties of the luminosity function describing this source population. Specifically, is the luminosity function of the putative MSPs in the Galactic Center consistent with that characterizing the resolved MSPs in the Galactic disk? To investigate this we have used a Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo to evaluate the posterior distribution of the parameters of the MSP luminosity function describing both resolved MSPs and the Galactic Center excess. At variance with some other claims, our analysis reveals that, within current uncertainties, both data sets can be well fit with the same luminosity function.

  3. New Neighbours: Modelling the Growing Population of gamma-ray Millisecond Pulsars (United States)

    Venter, C.; Harding, A. K.; Johnson, T. J.


    The Fermi Large Area Telescope, in collaboration with several groups from the radio community. have had marvelous success at uncovering new gamma-ray millisecond pulsars (MSPs). In fact, MSPs now make up a sizable fraction of the total number of known gamma-ray pulsars. The MSP population is characterized by a variety of pulse profile shapes, peak separations, and radio-to-gamma phase lags, with some members exhibiting nearly phase-aligned radio and gamma-ray light curves (LCs). The MSPs' short spin periods underline the importance of including special relativistic effects in LC calculations, even for emission originating from near the stellar surface. We present results on modelling and classification of MSP LCs using standard pulsar model geometries.

  4. Millisecond precision psychological research in a world of commodity computers: new hardware, new problems? (United States)

    Plant, Richard R; Turner, Garry


    Since the publication of Plant, Hammond, and Turner (2004), which highlighted a pressing need for researchers to pay more attention to sources of error in computer-based experiments, the landscape has undoubtedly changed, but not necessarily for the better. Readily available hardware has improved in terms of raw speed; multi core processors abound; graphics cards now have hundreds of megabytes of RAM; main memory is measured in gigabytes; drive space is measured in terabytes; ever larger thin film transistor displays capable of single-digit response times, together with newer Digital Light Processing multimedia projectors, enable much greater graphic complexity; and new 64-bit operating systems, such as Microsoft Vista, are now commonplace. However, have millisecond-accurate presentation and response timing improved, and will they ever be available in commodity computers and peripherals? In the present article, we used a Black Box ToolKit to measure the variability in timing characteristics of hardware used commonly in psychological research.

  5. PALFA Discovers Neutron Stars on a Collision Course (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    Got any plans in 46 million years? If not, you should keep an eye out for PSR J1946+2052 around that time this upcoming merger of two neutron stars promises to be an exciting show!Survey SuccessAverage profile for PSR J1946+2052 at 1.43 GHz from a 2 hr observation from the Arecibo Observatory. [Stovall et al. 2018]It seems like we just wrote about the dearth of known double-neutron-star systems, and about how new surveys are doing their best to find more of these compact binaries. Observing these systems improves our knowledge of how pairs of evolved stars behave before they eventually spiral in, merge, and emit gravitational waves that detectors like the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory might observe.Todays study, led by Kevin Stovall (National Radio Astronomy Observatory), goes to show that these surveys are doing a great job so far! Yet another double-neutron-star binary, PSR J1946+2052, has now been discovered as part of the Arecibo L-Band Feed Array pulsar (PALFA) survey. This one is especially unique due to the incredible speed with which these neutron stars orbit each other and their correspondingly (relatively!) short timescale for merger.An Extreme ExampleThe PALFA survey, conducted with the enormous 305-meter radio dish at Arecibo, has thus far resulted in the discovery of 180 pulsars including two double-neutron-star systems. The most recent discovery by Stovall and collaborators brings that number up to three, for a grand total of 16 binary-neutron-star systems (confirmed and unconfirmed) known to date.The 305-m Arecibo Radio Telescope, built into the landscape at Arecibo, Puerto Rico. [NOAO/AURA/NSF/H. Schweiker/WIYN]The newest binary in this collection, PSR J1946+2052, exhibits a pulsar with a 17-millisecond spin period thatwhips around its compact companion at a terrifying rate: the binary period is just 1.88 hours. Follow-up observations with the Jansky Very Large Array and other telescopes allowed the team to identify the binarys

  6. On accretion of dark energy onto black and wormholes


    Jiménez Madrid, J. A.; Martín Moruno, Prado


    We review some of the possible models that are able to describe the current Universe which point out the future singularities that could appear. We show that the study of the dark energy accretion onto black- and worm-holes phenomena in these models could lead to unexpected consequences, allowing even the avoidance of the considered singularities. We also review the debate about the approach used to study the accretion phenomenon which has appeared in literature to demonstrate the advantages ...

  7. On Hydromagnetic Stresses in Accretion Disk Boundary Layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pessah, Martin Elias; Chan, Chi-kwan


    Detailed calculations of the physical structure of accretion disk boundary layers, and thus their inferred observational properties, rely on the assumption that angular momentum transport is opposite to the radial angular frequency gradient of the disk. The standard model for turbulent shear...... of efficient angular momentum transport in the inner disk regions. This suggests that the detailed structure of turbulent MHD accretion disk boundary layers could differ appreciably from those derived within the standard framework of turbulent shear viscosity...


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupree, A. K.; Brickhouse, N. S.; Cranmer, S. R.; Luna, G. J. M.; Schneider, E. E.; Bessell, M. S.; Bonanos, A.; Crause, L. A.; Lawson, W. A.; Mallik, S. V.; Schuler, S. C.


    The nearest accreting T Tauri star, TW Hya was intensively and continuously observed over ∼17 days with spectroscopic and photometric measurements from four continents simultaneous with a long segmented exposure using the Chandra satellite. Contemporaneous optical photometry from WASP-S indicates a 4.74 day period was present during this time. The absence of a similar periodicity in the Hα flux and the total X-ray flux which are dominated by accretion processes and the stellar corona, respectively, points to a different source of photometric variations. The Hα emission line appears intrinsically broad and symmetric, and both the profile and its variability suggest an origin in the post-shock cooling region. An accretion event, signaled by soft X-rays, is traced spectroscopically for the first time through the optical emission line profiles. After the accretion event, downflowing turbulent material observed in the Hα and Hβ lines is followed by He I (λ5876) broadening near the photosphere. Optical veiling resulting from the heated photosphere increases with a delay of ∼2 hr after the X-ray accretion event. The response of the stellar coronal emission to an increase in the veiling follows ∼2.4 hr later, giving direct evidence that the stellar corona is heated in part by accretion. Subsequently, the stellar wind becomes re-established. We suggest a model that incorporates the dynamics of this sequential series of events: an accretion shock, a cooling downflow in a supersonically turbulent region, followed by photospheric and later, coronal heating. This model naturally explains the presence of broad optical and ultraviolet lines, and affects the mass accretion rates determined from emission line profiles.

  9. Advective accretion flow properties around rotating black holes ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)



    Feb 10, 2018 ... in black hole source GRO J1655-40. While doing this, we attempt to constrain the range of ak based on observed. HFQPOs (∼300 Hz and ∼450 Hz) for the black hole source GRO J1655-40. Keywords. Accretion: accretion disc—black hole physics—shock waves—ISM: jets and outflows—X-ray: binaries. 1.

  10. Simultaneity in the millisecond range as a requirement for effective shape recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greene Ernest


    Full Text Available Abstract Neurons of the visual system are capable of firing with millisecond precision, and synchrony of firing may provide a mechanism for "binding" stimulus elements in the image for purposes of recognition. While the neurophysiology is suggestive, there has been relatively little behavioral work to support the proposition that synchrony contributes to object recognition. The present experiments examined this issue by briefly flashing dots that were positioned at the outer boundary of namable objects, similar to silhouettes. Display of a given dot lasted only 0.1 ms, and temporal proximity of dot pairs, and among dot pairs, was varied as subjects were asked to name each object. In Exp 1, where the display of dots pairs was essentially simultaneous (0.2 ms to show both, there was a linear decline in recognition of the shapes as the interval between pairs increased from 0 ms to 6 ms. Compared with performance at 0 ms of delay, even the 2 ms interval between pairs produced a significant decrease in recognition. In Exp 2 the interval between pairs was constant at 3 ms, and the interval between pair members was varied. Here also a linear decline was observed as the interval between pair members increased from 0 ms to 1.5 ms, with the difference between 0 ms and 0.5 ms being significant. Thus minimal transient discrete cues can be integrated for purposes of shape recognition to the extent that they are synchronously displayed, and coincidence in the millisecond and even submillisecond range is needed for effective encoding of image data.

  11. On the illumination of neutron star accretion discs (United States)

    Wilkins, D. R.


    The illumination of the accretion disc in a neutron star X-ray binary by X-rays emitted from (or close to) the neutron star surface is explored through general relativistic ray tracing simulations. The applicability of the canonical suite of relativistically broadened emission line models (developed for black holes) to discs around neutron stars is evaluated. These models were found to describe well emission lines from neutron star accretion discs unless the neutron star radius is larger than the innermost stable orbit of the accretion disc at 6 rg or the disc is viewed at high inclination, above 60° where shadowing of the back side of the disc becomes important. Theoretical emissivity profiles were computed for accretion discs illuminated by hotspots on the neutron star surfaces, bands of emission and emission by the entirety of the hot, spherical star surface and in all cases, the emissivity profile of the accretion disc was found to be well represented by a single power law falling off slightly steeper than r-3. Steepening of the emissivity index was found where the emission is close to the disc plane and the disc can appear truncated when illuminated by a hotspot at high latitude. The emissivity profile of the accretion disc in Serpens X-1 was measured and found to be consistent with a single unbroken power law with index q=3.5_{-0.4}^{+0.3}, suggestive of illumination by the boundary layer between the disc and neutron star surface.

  12. A Systems-Level Perspective on Engine Ice Accretion (United States)

    May, Ryan D.; Guo, Ten-Huei; Simon, Donald L.


    The accretion of ice in the compression system of commercial gas turbine engines operating in high ice water content conditions is a safety issue being studied by the aviation sector. While most of the research focuses on the underlying physics of ice accretion and the meteorological conditions in which accretion can occur, a systems-level perspective on the topic lends itself to potential near-term operational improvements. This work focuses on developing an accurate and reliable algorithm for detecting the accretion of ice in the low pressure compressor of a generic 40,000 lbf thrust class engine. The algorithm uses only the two shaft speed sensors and works regardless of engine age, operating condition, and power level. In a 10,000-case Monte Carlo simulation, the detection approach was found to have excellent capability at determining ice accretion from sensor noise with detection occurring when ice blocks an average of 6.8% of the low pressure compressor area. Finally, an initial study highlights a potential mitigation strategy that uses the existing engine actuators to raise the temperature in the low pressure compressor in an effort to reduce the rate at which ice accretes.

  13. Accretion Disks and Coronae in the X-Ray Flashlight (United States)

    Degenaar, Nathalie; Ballantyne, David R.; Belloni, Tomaso; Chakraborty, Manoneeta; Chen, Yu-Peng; Ji, Long; Kretschmar, Peter; Kuulkers, Erik; Li, Jian; Maccarone, Thomas J.; Malzac, Julien; Zhang, Shu; Zhang, Shuang-Nan


    Plasma accreted onto the surface of a neutron star can ignite due to unstable thermonuclear burning and produce a bright flash of X-ray emission called a Type-I X-ray burst. Such events are very common; thousands have been observed to date from over a hundred accreting neutron stars. The intense, often Eddington-limited, radiation generated in these thermonuclear explosions can have a discernible effect on the surrounding accretion flow that consists of an accretion disk and a hot electron corona. Type-I X-ray bursts can therefore serve as direct, repeating probes of the internal dynamics of the accretion process. In this work we review and interpret the observational evidence for the impact that Type-I X-ray bursts have on accretion disks and coronae. We also provide an outlook of how to make further progress in this research field with prospective experiments and analysis techniques, and by exploiting the technical capabilities of the new and concept X-ray missions ASTROSAT, NICER, Insight-HXMT, eXTP, and STROBE-X.

  14. Thermal structure of accreting neutron stars and strange stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miralda-Escude, J.; Paczynski, B.; Haensel, P.


    Steady-state models of accreting neutron stars and strange stars are presented, and their properties as a function of accretion rate are analyzed. The models have steady-state envelopes, with stationary hydrogen burning taken into account, the helium shell flashes artificially suppressed, and the crust with a large number of secondary heat sources. The deep interiors are almost isothermal and are close to thermal equilibrium. A large number of models were calculated for many values of the accretion rates, with ordinary, pion-condensed, and strange cores, with and without secondary heat sources in the crust, and with the heavy element content of the accreting matter in the range Z = 0.0002-0.02. All models show a similar pattern of changes as the accretion rate is varied. For low accretion rates, the hydrogen burning shell is unstable; for intermediate rates, the hydrogen burning shell is stable, but helium burning is not; for high rates, the two shell sources burn together and are unstable. 60 refs

  15. Implementation and Validation of 3-D Ice Accretion Measurement Methodology (United States)

    Lee, Sam; Broeren, Andy P.; Kreeger, Richard E.; Potapczuk, Mark; Utt, Lloyd


    A research program has been implemented to develop and validate the use of a commercial 3-D laser scanning system to record ice accretion geometry in the NASA Icing Research Tunnel. A main component of the program was the geometric assessment of the 3- D laser scanning system on a 2-D (straight wing) and a 3-D (swept wing) airfoil geometries. This exercise consisted of comparison of scanned ice accretion to castings of the same ice accretion. The scan data were also used to create rapid prototype artificial ice shapes that were scanned and compared to the original ice accretion. The results from geometric comparisons on the straight wing showed that the ice shape models generated through the scan/rapid prototype process compared reasonably well with the cast shapes. Similar results were obtained with the geometric comparisons on the swept wing. It was difficult to precisely compare the scans of the cast shapes to the original ice accretion scans because the cast shapes appear to have shrunk during the mold/casting process by as much as 0.10-inch. However the comparison of the local ice-shape features were possible and produced better results. The rapid prototype manufacturing process was shown to reproduce the original ice accretion scan normally within 0.01-inch.

  16. The radiative efficiency of a radiatively inefficient accretion flow (United States)

    D'Angelo, C. R.; Fridriksson, J. K.; Messenger, C.; Patruno, A.


    A recent joint XMM-Newton/Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) observation of the accreting neutron star Cen X-4 (LX ˜ 1033 erg s-1) revealed a hard power-law component (Γ ˜ 1-1.5) with a relatively low cut-off energy (˜10 keV), suggesting bremsstrahlung emission. The physical requirements for bremsstrahlung combined with other observed properties of Cen X-4 suggest the emission comes from a boundary layer rather than the accretion flow. The accretion flow itself is thus undetected (with an upper limit of Lflow ≲ 0.3LX). A deep search for coherent pulsations (which would indicate a strong magnetic field) places a 6 per cent upper limit on the fractional amplitude of pulsations, suggesting the flow is not magnetically regulated. Considering the expected energy balance between the accretion flow and the boundary layer for different values of the neutron star parameters (size, magnetic field, and spin) we use the upper limit on Lflow to set an upper limit of ε ≲ 0.3 for the intrinsic radiative efficiency of the accretion flow for the most likely model of a fast-spinning, non-magnetic neutron star. The non-detection of the accretion flow provides the first direct evidence that this flow is indeed `radiatively inefficient', i.e. most of the gravitational potential energy lost by the flow before it hits the star is not emitted as radiation.

  17. The discovered preference hypothesis - an empirical test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundhede, Thomas; Ladenburg, Jacob; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    Using stated preference methods for valuation of non-market goods is known to be vulnerable to a range of biases. Some authors claim that these so-called anomalies in effect render the methods useless for the purpose. However, the Discovered Preference Hypothesis, as put forth by Plott [31], offe...

  18. Did Viking discover life on Mars? (United States)

    Klein, H. P.


    A major argument in the claim that life had been discovered during the Viking mission to Mars is that the results obtained in the Labeled Release (LR) experiment are analogous to those observed with terrestrial microorganisms. This assertion is critically examined and found to be implausible.

  19. Discovering Science through Art-Based Activities (United States)

    Alberts, Rebecca


    Art and science are intrinsically linked; the essence of art and science is discovery. Both artists and scientists work in a systematic but creative way--knowledge and understanding are built up through pieces of art or a series of labs. In the classroom, integrating science and visual art can provide students with the latitude to think, discover,…

  20. Discovering English with the Sketch Engine (United States)

    Thomas, James


    "Discovering English with the Sketch Engine" is the title of a new book (Thomas, 2014) which introduces the use of corpora in language study, teaching, writing and translating. It focuses on using the Sketch Engine to identify patterns of normal usage in many aspects of English ranging from morphology to discourse and pragmatics. This…

  1. The Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope discovers the pulsar in the young galactic supernova remnant CTA 1. (United States)

    Abdo, A A; Ackermann, M; Atwood, W B; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Baring, M G; Bastieri, D; Baughman, B M; Bechtol, K; Bellazzini, R; Berenji, B; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bogaert, G; Bonamente, E; Borgland, A W; Bregeon, J; Brez, A; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Burnett, T H; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Carlson, P; Casandjian, J M; Cecchi, C; Charles, E; Chekhtman, A; Cheung, C C; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Cominsky, L R; Conrad, J; Cutini, S; Davis, D S; Dermer, C D; de Angelis, A; de Palma, F; Digel, S W; Dormody, M; do Couto E Silva, E; Drell, P S; Dubois, R; Dumora, D; Edmonds, Y; Farnier, C; Focke, W B; Fukazawa, Y; Funk, S; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Gehrels, N; Germani, S; Giebels, B; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Grenier, I A; Grondin, M-H; Grove, J E; Guillemot, L; Guiriec, S; Harding, A K; Hartman, R C; Hays, E; Hughes, R E; Jóhannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Johnson, R P; Johnson, T J; Johnson, W N; Kamae, T; Kanai, Y; Kanbach, G; Katagiri, H; Kawai, N; Kerr, M; Kishishita, T; Kiziltan, B; Knödlseder, J; Kocian, M L; Komin, N; Kuehn, F; Kuss, M; Latronico, L; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Longo, F; Lonjou, V; Loparco, F; Lott, B; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Makeev, A; Marelli, M; Mazziotta, M N; McEnery, J E; McGlynn, S; Meurer, C; Michelson, P F; Mineo, T; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Moiseev, A A; Monte, C; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Nakamori, T; Nolan, P L; Nuss, E; Ohno, M; Ohsugi, T; Okumura, A; Omodei, N; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Ozaki, M; Paneque, D; Panetta, J H; Parent, D; Pelassa, V; Pepe, M; Pesce-Rollins, M; Piano, G; Pieri, L; Piron, F; Porter, T A; Rainò, S; Rando, R; Ray, P S; Razzano, M; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Reposeur, T; Ritz, S; Rochester, L S; Rodriguez, A Y; Romani, R W; Roth, M; Ryde, F; Sadrozinski, H F-W; Sanchez, D; Sander, A; Parkinson, P M Saz; Schalk, T L; Sellerholm, A; Sgrò, C; Siskind, E J; Smith, D A; Smith, P D; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Starck, J-L; Strickman, M S; Suson, D J; Tajima, H; Takahashi, H; Takahashi, T; Tanaka, T; Thayer, J B; Thayer, J G; Thompson, D J; Thorsett, S E; Tibaldo, L; Torres, D F; Tosti, G; Tramacere, A; Usher, T L; Van Etten, A; Vilchez, N; Vitale, V; Wang, P; Watters, K; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Yasuda, H; Ylinen, T; Ziegler, M


    Energetic young pulsars and expanding blast waves [supernova remnants (SNRs)] are the most visible remains after massive stars, ending their lives, explode in core-collapse supernovae. The Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope has unveiled a radio quiet pulsar located near the center of the compact synchrotron nebula inside the supernova remnant CTA 1. The pulsar, discovered through its gamma-ray pulsations, has a period of 316.86 milliseconds and a period derivative of 3.614 x 10(-13) seconds per second. Its characteristic age of 10(4) years is comparable to that estimated for the SNR. We speculate that most unidentified Galactic gamma-ray sources associated with star-forming regions and SNRs are such young pulsars.

  2. Super-Eddington Accretion in Tidal Disruption Events: the Impact of Realistic Fallback Rates on Accretion Rates (United States)

    Wu, Samantha; Coughlin, Eric R.; Nixon, Chris


    After the tidal disruption of a star by a massive black hole, disrupted stellar debris can fall back to the hole at a rate significantly exceeding its Eddington limit. To understand how black hole mass affects the duration of super-Eddington accretion in tidal disruption events, we first run a suite of simulations of the disruption of a Solar-like star by a supermassive black hole of varying mass to directly measure the fallback rate onto the hole, and we compare these fallback rates to the analytic predictions of the "frozen-in" model. Then, adopting a Zero-Bernoulli Accretion flow as an analytic prescription for the accretion flow around the hole, we investigate how the accretion rate onto the black hole evolves with the more accurate fallback rates calculated from the simulations. We find that numerically-simulated fallback rates yield accretion rates onto the hole that can, depending on the black hole mass, be nearly an order of magnitude larger than those predicted by the frozen-in approximation. Our results place new limits on the maximum black hole mass for which super-Eddington accretion occurs in tidal disruption events.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murante, Giuseppe [Osservatorio di Torino, Strada Osservatorio 20, I-10025, Pino Torinese (Tonga) (Italy); Calabrese, Matteo [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale ' Amedeo Avogadro' , Universita degli Studi di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125, Torino (Italy); De Lucia, Gabriella [I.N.A.F, Osservatorio di Trieste, Via Tiepolo 11, I- 34131, Trieste (Italy); Monaco, Pierluigi; Borgani, Stefano [Dipartimento di Fisica - Sezione di Astronomia, Universita di Trieste, via Tiepolo 11, I-34131 Trieste (Italy); Dolag, Klaus, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [University Observatory Muenchen, Scheinerstr. 1, 81679, Muenchen (Germany)


    We present results from high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of a Milky-Way-sized halo, aimed at studying the effect of feedback on the nature of gas accretion. Simulations include a model of interstellar medium and star formation, in which supernova (SN) explosions provide effective thermal feedback. We distinguish between gas accretion onto the halo, which occurs when gas particles cross the halo virial radius, and gas accretion onto the central galaxy, which takes place when gas particles cross the inner one-tenth of the virial radius. Gas particles can be accreted through three different channels, depending on the maximum temperature value, T{sub max}, reached during the particles' past evolution: a cold channel for T{sub max} < 2.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} K, a hot one for T > 10{sup 6} K, and a warm one for intermediate values of T{sub max}. We find that the warm channel is at least as important as the cold one for gas accretion onto the central galaxy. This result is at variance with previous findings that the cold mode dominates gas accretion at high redshift. We ascribe this difference to the different SN feedback scheme implemented in our simulations. While results presented so far in the literature are based on uneffective SN thermal feedback schemes and/or the presence of a kinetic feedback, our simulations include only effective thermal feedback. We argue that observational detections of a warm accretion mode in the high-redshift circumgalactic medium would provide useful constraints on the nature of the feedback that regulates star formation in galaxies.

  4. Discovering Recurrent Image Semantics from Class Discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Jesse S


    Full Text Available Supervised statistical learning has become a critical means to design and learn visual concepts (e.g., faces, foliage, buildings, etc. in content-based indexing systems. The drawback of this approach is the need of manual labeling of regions. While several automatic image annotation methods proposed recently are very promising, they usually rely on the availability and analysis of associated text descriptions. In this paper, we propose a hybrid learning framework to discover local semantic regions and generate their samples for training of local detectors with minimal human intervention. A multiscale segmentation-free framework is proposed to embed the soft presence of discovered semantic regions and local class patterns in an image independently for indexing and matching. Based on 2400 heterogeneous consumer images with 16 semantic queries, both similarity matching based on individual index and integrated similarity matching have outperformed a feature fusion approach by 26% and 37% in average precisions, respectively.

  5. Discovering More Accurate Frequent Web Usage Patterns


    Bayir, Murat Ali; Toroslu, Ismail Hakki; Cosar, Ahmet; Fidan, Guven


    Web usage mining is a type of web mining, which exploits data mining techniques to discover valuable information from navigation behavior of World Wide Web users. As in classical data mining, data preparation and pattern discovery are the main issues in web usage mining. The first phase of web usage mining is the data processing phase, which includes the session reconstruction operation from server logs. Session reconstruction success directly affects the quality of the frequent patterns disc...

  6. Two Newly Discovered Plants in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Chuan Hsu


    Full Text Available Two herbs are newly discovered in Taiwan. Limnophila fragrans (G. Forst. Seem. (Scrophulariaceae, native in SE Asia, is recognized from southern lowlands. Anagallis minima (L. E. H. L. Krause (Primulaceae, native in N America and Europe, was found from northern mountainous region at low altitudes. In this study, descriptions, line drawings, color photos and a distribution map of the two species are provided.

  7. Evolution of a steam atmosphere during Earth's accretion. (United States)

    Zahnle, K J; Kasting, J F; Pollack, J B


    We have modeled the evolution of an impact-generated steam atmosphere surrounding an accreting Earth. The model assumes Safronov accretion; it includes degassing of planetesimals upon impact, thermal blanketing by a steam atmosphere, interchange of water between the surface and the interior, shock heating and convective cooling of Earth's interior, and hydrogen escape, both by a solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) powered planetary wind and by impact erosion (atmospheric cratering). The model does not include atmophiles other than water, chemical reaction of water with metallic iron, core formation, compression, and spatial and temporal inhomogeneity of accretion. If the incoming planetesimals were too dry or the EUV flux too high, very little water would accumulate at the surface. Essentially all water retained by such a planet would be through rehydration of silicates. If rehydration were inefficient, very little water would be retained in any form. Degassing of wetter planetesimals produces a steam atmosphere over a magma ocean, the energy of accretion being sufficient to maintain a runaway greenhouse atmosphere. The mass of the atmosphere is limited by water's solubility in the (partial) melt. This type of solution is produced for a wide range of model parameters. During accretion, approximately 30 bars of water could have kept the surface at 1500 degrees K. As the accretional energy input declined below the runaway greenhouse threshold, the steam atmosphere rained out. Outgassing of dissolved water at the close of accretion is quantitatively important. These models can leave from approximately 100 to more than 300 bars of water at the surface at the close of accretion. In general, most of the water accreted remains dissolved in the mantle. H2 could have escaped as rapidly as it formed only if the planetesimals were relatively dry. Consequently H2 should have accumulated until it reached chemical equilibrium with water vapor. Impact erosion (escape caused by impact

  8. Radiatively-suppressed spherical accretion under relativistic radiative transfer (United States)

    Fukue, Jun


    We numerically examine radiatively-suppressed relativistic spherical accretion flows on to a central object with mass M under Newtonian gravity and special relativity. We simultaneously solve both the relativistic radiative transfer equation and the relativistic hydrodynamical equations for spherically symmetric flows under the double iteration process in the case of the intermediate optical depth. We find that the accretion flow is suppressed, compared with the freefall case in the nonrelativistic regime. For example, in the case of accretion on to a luminous core with accretion luminosity L*, the freefall velocity v normalized by the speed of light c under the radiative force in the nonrelativistic regime is β (\\hat{r}) = v/c = -√{(1-Γ _*)/(\\hat{r}+1-Γ _*)}, where Γ* (≡ L*/LE, LE being the Eddington luminosity) is the Eddington parameter and \\hat{r} (= r/rS, rS being the Schwarzschild radius) the normalized radius, whereas the infall speed at the central core is ˜0.7β(1), irrespective of the mass-accretion rate. This is due to the relativistic effect; the comoving flux is enhanced by the advective flux. We briefly examine and discuss an isothermal case, where the emission takes place in the entire space.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirk, Helen; Myers, Philip C.; Bourke, Tyler L. [Radio and Geoastronomy Division, Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, MS-42, Cambridge, MA, 02138 (United States); Gutermuth, Robert A.; Wilson, Grant W. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Hedden, Abigail, E-mail: [Army Research Labs, Adelphi, MD 20783 (United States)


    One puzzle in understanding how stars form in clusters is the source of mass-is all of the mass in place before the first stars are born, or is there an extended period when the cluster accretes material which can continuously fuel the star formation process? We use a multi-line spectral survey of the southern filament associated with the Serpens South embedded cluster-forming region in order to determine if mass is accreting from the filament onto the cluster, and whether the accretion rate is significant. Our analysis suggests that material is flowing along the filament's long axis at a rate of {approx}30 M{sub Sun} Myr{sup -1} (inferred from the N{sub 2}H{sup +} velocity gradient along the filament), and radially contracting onto the filament at {approx}130 M{sub Sun} Myr{sup -1} (inferred from HNC self-absorption). These accretion rates are sufficient to supply mass to the central cluster at a similar rate to the current star formation rate in the cluster. Filamentary accretion flows may therefore be very important in the ongoing evolution of this cluster.

  10. Constraining jet physics in weakly accreting black holes (United States)

    Markoff, Sera


    Outflowing jets are observed in a variety of astronomical objects such as accreting compact objects from X-ray binaries (XRBs) to active galactic nuclei (AGN), as well as at stellar birth and death. Yet we still do not know exactly what they are comprised of, why and how they form, or their exact relationship with the accretion flow. In this talk I will focus on jets in black hole systems, which provide the ideal test population for studying the relationship between inflow and outflow over an extreme range in mass and accretion rate. I will present several recent results from coordinated multi-wavelength studies of low-luminosity sources. These results not only support similar trends in weakly accreting black hole behavior across the mass scale, but also suggest that the same underlying physical model can explain their broadband spectra. I will discuss how comparisons between small- and large-scale systems are revealing new information about the regions nearest the black hole, providing clues about the creation of these weakest of jets. Furthermore, comparisons between our Galactic center nucleus Sgr A* and other sources at slightly higher accretion rates can illucidate the processes which drive central activity, and pave the way for new tests with upcoming instruments.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmon, Julien; Canup, Robin M., E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Space Studies, Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street, Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States)


    We use a hybrid numerical approach to simulate the formation of the Moon from an impact-generated disk, consisting of a fluid model for the disk inside the Roche limit and an N-body code to describe accretion outside the Roche limit. As the inner disk spreads due to a thermally regulated viscosity, material is delivered across the Roche limit and accretes into moonlets that are added to the N-body simulation. Contrary to an accretion timescale of a few months obtained with prior pure N-body codes, here the final stage of the Moon's growth is controlled by the slow spreading of the inner disk, resulting in a total lunar accretion timescale of {approx}10{sup 2} years. It has been proposed that the inner disk may compositionally equilibrate with the Earth through diffusive mixing, which offers a potential explanation for the identical oxygen isotope compositions of the Earth and Moon. However, the mass fraction of the final Moon that is derived from the inner disk is limited by resonant torques between the disk and exterior growing moons. For initial disks containing <2.5 lunar masses (M{sub Last-Quarter-Moon }), we find that a final Moon with mass > 0.8 M{sub Last-Quarter-Moon} contains {<=}60% material derived from the inner disk, with this material preferentially delivered to the Moon at the end of its accretion.

  12. Terrain accretion along the subduction interface: numerical modeling (United States)

    Vogt, K.; Gerya, T.


    The oceanic floor contains allochthonous terranes (extinct ridges and arcs, continental fragments and volcanic piles) that move with the oceanic crust and may collide with continental margins to form collisional orogens that are believed to have contributed to the growth of the continental crust. The dynamics of terrane accretion and its implcation in relation to crustal growth were analyzed using a thermomechanical-pertological numerical model of an oceanic-continental subduction zone. The model is based on the i2vis code, that solves the govering equations of mass, momentum and energy for a viscous-plastic rheology. Our results indicate that allochthonous terranes may subduct or accrete depending on their rheological strength and the negative buoyancy of the downgoing slab, which is imposed by its thermal structure. Subduction of cold and dense oceanic lithosphere coupled with the collsion of rheologically strong terranes results in deep subdution. Crustal material may be subducted back into the mantle or be incorporated into active arcs that form above the overriding plate. Terranes with a weak crustal structure that are embedded in young oceanic lithosphere are less prone to subdution and may be accreted in form of collisional orogens and accreted terranes. Weak crustal material is scrapped off the downgoing plate and added to the continental margin, which leads to rapid growth of the continental crust and may result in plate failure associated with slab break off. In cases where slab break off occurs a new subduction zone is formed behnind the accreted terrane.

  13. Solar neutrinos and solar accretion of interstellar matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, M.J.; Talbot, R.J. Jr.


    It is argued that if the Hoyle-Lyttleton mass accretion rate applies (Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc., Math. Phys. Sci. 35: 405 (1939)) the accretion of interstellar matter by the Sun is sufficient to enhance the surface heavy element abundances. This will also apply to other solar-type stars. The enhancement may be sufficient to allow the construction of consistent solar models with an interior heavy element abundance significantly lower than the observed surface abundance. This state of affairs lowers the predicted solar neutrino flux. It has been suggested that a similar enhancement of surface abundances might occur due to accretion of 'planetesimals' left over after formation of the solar system, and both processes may occur, thereby increasing the effect. The simple accretion model of Hoyle and Lyttleton is discussed mathematically. A crucial question to be answered by future research, however, is whether or not accretion on to the solar surface actually occurs. One of the most obvious obstacles is the outward flowing solar wind, and this is discussed. It appears that the outward flow can be reversed to an inward flow for certain interstellar cloud densities. (U.K.)

  14. CMB bounds on disk-accreting massive primordial black holes (United States)

    Poulin, Vivian; Serpico, Pasquale D.; Calore, Francesca; Clesse, Sébastien; Kohri, Kazunori


    Stellar-mass primordial black holes (PBH) have been recently reconsidered as a dark matter (DM) candidate after the aLIGO discovery of several binary black hole (BH) mergers with masses of tens of M⊙ . Matter accretion on such massive objects leads to the emission of high-energy photons, capable of altering the ionization and thermal history of the universe. This, in turn, affects the statistical properties of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies. Previous analyses have assumed spherical accretion. We argue that this approximation likely breaks down and that an accretion disk should form in the dark ages. Using the most up-to-date tools to compute the energy deposition in the medium, we derive constraints on the fraction of DM in PBH. Provided that disks form early on, even under conservative assumptions for accretion, these constraints exclude a monochromatic distribution of PBH with masses above ˜2 M⊙ as the dominant form of DM. The bound on the median PBH mass gets more stringent if a broad, log-normal mass function is considered. A deepened understanding of nonlinear clustering properties and BH accretion disk physics would permit an improved treatment and possibly lead to more stringent constraints.

  15. Observational Tests of Magnetospheric Accretion Models in Young Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johns–Krull Christopher M.


    Full Text Available Magnetically controlled accretion of disk material onto the surface of Classical T Tauri stars is the dominant paradigm in our understanding of how these young stars interact with their surrounding disks. These stars provide a powerful test of magnetically controlled accretion models since all of the relevant parameters, including the magnetic field strength and geometry, are in principle measureable. Both the strength and the field geometry are key for understanding how these stars interact with their disks. This talk will focus on recent advances in magnetic field measurements on a large number of T Tauri stars, as well as very recent studies of the accretion rates onto a sample of young stars in NGC 2264 with known rotation periods. We discuss how these observations provide critical tests of magnetospheric accretion models which predict a rotational equilibrium is reached. We find good support for the model predictions once the complex geometry of the stellar magnetic field is taken into account. We will also explore how the observations of the accretion properties of the 2264 cluster stars can be used to test emerging ideas on how magnetic fields on young stars are generated and organized as a function of their internal structure (i.e. the presence of a radiative core. We do not find support for the hypothesis that large changes in the magentic field geometry occur when a radiative core appears in these young stars.

  16. Finding the chemistry in biomass pyrolysis: Millisecond chemical kinetics and visualization (United States)

    Krumm, Christoph

    Biomass pyrolysis is a promising thermochemical method for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable sources. Development of a fundamental understanding of biomass pyrolysis chemistry is difficult due to the multi-scale and multi-phase nature of the process; biomass length scales span 11 orders of magnitude and pyrolysis phenomena include solid, liquid, and gas phase chemistry in addition to heat and mass transfer. These complexities have a significant effect on chemical product distributions and lead to variability between reactor technologies. A major challenge in the study of biomass pyrolysis is the development of kinetic models capable of describing hundreds of millisecond-scale reactions of biomass into lower molecular weight products. In this work, a novel technique for studying biomass pyrolysis provides the first- ever experimental determination of kinetics and rates of formation of the primary products from cellulose pyrolysis, providing insight into the millisecond-scale chemical reaction mechanisms. These findings highlight the importance of heat and mass transport limitations for cellulose pyrolysis chemistry and are used to identify the length scales at which transport limitations become relevant during pyrolysis. Through this technique, a transition is identified, known as the reactive melting point, between low and high temperature depolymerization. The transition between two mechanisms of cellulose decompositions unifies the mechanisms that govern low temperature char formation, intermediate pyrolysis conditions, and high temperature gas formation. The conditions under which biomass undergoes pyrolysis, including modes of heat transfer, have been shown to significantly affect the distribution of biorenewable chemical and fuel products. High-speed photography is used to observe the liftoff of initially crystalline cellulose particles when impinged on a heated surface, known as the Leidenfrost effect for room-temperature liquids. Order

  17. Serial millisecond crystallography of membrane and soluble protein microcrystals using synchrotron radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M. Martin-Garcia


    Full Text Available Crystal structure determination of biological macromolecules using the novel technique of serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX is severely limited by the scarcity of X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL sources. However, recent and future upgrades render microfocus beamlines at synchrotron-radiation sources suitable for room-temperature serial crystallography data collection also. Owing to the longer exposure times that are needed at synchrotrons, serial data collection is termed serial millisecond crystallography (SMX. As a result, the number of SMX experiments is growing rapidly, with a dozen experiments reported so far. Here, the first high-viscosity injector-based SMX experiments carried out at a US synchrotron source, the Advanced Photon Source (APS, are reported. Microcrystals (5–20 µm of a wide variety of proteins, including lysozyme, thaumatin, phycocyanin, the human A2A adenosine receptor (A2AAR, the soluble fragment of the membrane lipoprotein Flpp3 and proteinase K, were screened. Crystals suspended in lipidic cubic phase (LCP or a high-molecular-weight poly(ethylene oxide (PEO; molecular weight 8 000 000 were delivered to the beam using a high-viscosity injector. In-house data-reduction (hit-finding software developed at APS as well as the SFX data-reduction and analysis software suites Cheetah and CrystFEL enabled efficient on-site SMX data monitoring, reduction and processing. Complete data sets were collected for A2AAR, phycocyanin, Flpp3, proteinase K and lysozyme, and the structures of A2AAR, phycocyanin, proteinase K and lysozyme were determined at 3.2, 3.1, 2.65 and 2.05 Å resolution, respectively. The data demonstrate the feasibility of serial millisecond crystallography from 5–20 µm crystals using a high-viscosity injector at APS. The resolution of the crystal structures obtained in this study was dictated by the current flux density and crystal size, but upcoming developments in beamline optics and the

  18. The Hikurangi Plateau: Tectonic Ricochet and Accretion (United States)

    Willis, David; Moresi, Louis; Betts, Peter; Whittaker, Joanne


    80 million years between interactions with different subduction systems provided time for the Hikurangi Plateau and Pacific Ocean lithosphere to cool, densify and strengthen. Neogene subduction of the Hikurangi Plateau occurring orthogonal to its Cretaceous predecessor, provides a unique opportunity to explore how changes to the physical properties of oceanic lithosphere affect subduction dynamics. We used Underworld to build mechanically consistent collision models to understand the dynamics of the two Hikurangi collisions. The Hikurangi Plateau is a ~112 Ma, 15km thick oceanic plateau that has been entrained by subduction zones immediately preceding the final break-up of Eastern Gondwana and currently within the active Hikurangi Margin. We explore why attempted subduction of the plateau has resulted in vastly different dynamics on two separate occasions. Slab break-off occured during the collision with Gondwana, currently there is apparent subduction of the plateau underneath New Zealand. At ~100Ma the young, hot Hikurangi Plateau, positively buoyant with respect to the underlying mantle, impacted a Gondwana Margin under rapid extension after the subduction of an mid-ocean ridge 10-15Ma earlier. Modelling of plateaus within young oceanic crust indicates that subduction of the thickened crust was unlikely to occur. Frontal accretion of the plateau and accompanying slab break-off is expected to have occured rapidly after its arrival. The weak, young slab was susceptible to lateral propagation of the ~1500 km window opened by the collision, and break-off would have progressed along the subduction zone inhibiting the "step-back" of the trench seen in older plates. Slab break-off coincided with a world-wide reorganisation of plate velocites, and orogenic collapse along the Gondwana margin characterised by rapid extension and thinning of the over-riding continental plate from ~60 to 30km. Following extension, Zealandia migrated to the NW until the Miocene allowing the

  19. Holocene reef accretion: southwest Molokai, Hawaii, U.S.A. (United States)

    Engels, Mary S.; Fletcher, Charles H.; Field, Michael E.; Storlazzi, Curt D.; Grossman, Eric E.; Rooney, John J.B.; Conger, Christopher L.; Glenn, Craig


    Two reef systems off south Molokai, Hale O Lono and Hikauhi (separated by only 10 km), show strong and fundamental differences in modern ecosystem structure and Holocene accretion history that reflect the influence of wave-induced near-bed shear stresses on reef development in Hawaii. Both sites are exposed to similar impacts from south, Kona, and trade-wind swell. However, the Hale O Lono site is exposed to north swell and the Hikuahi site is not. As a result, the reef at Hale O Lono records no late Holocene net accretion while the reef at Hikauhi records consistent and robust accretion over late Holocene time. Analysis and dating of 24 cores from Hale O Lono and Hikauhi reveal the presence of five major lithofacies that reflect paleo-environmental conditions. In order of decreasing depositional energy they are: (1) coral-algal bindstone; (2) mixed skeletal rudstone; (3) massive coral framestone; (4) unconsolidated floatstone; and (5) branching coral framestone-bafflestone. At Hale O Lono, 10 cores document a backstepping reef ranging from ∼ 8,100 cal yr BP (offshore) to ∼ 4,800 cal yr BP (nearshore). A depauperate community of modern coral diminishes shoreward and seaward of ∼ 15 m depth due to wave energy, disrupted recruitment activities, and physical abrasion. Evidence suggests a change from conditions conducive to accretion during the early Holocene to conditions detrimental to accretion in the late Holocene. Reef structure at Hikauhi, reconstructed from 14 cores, reveals a thick, rapidly accreting and young reef (maximum age ∼ 900 cal yr BP). Living coral cover on this reef increases seaward with distance from the reef crest but terminates at a depth of ∼ 20 m where the reef ends in a large sand field. The primary limitation on vertical reef growth is accommodation space under wave base, not recruitment activities or energy conditions. Interpretations of cored lithofacies suggest that modern reef growth on the southwest corner of Molokai, and by

  20. Accreting Neutron Star and Black Hole Binaries with NICER (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Deepto


    The NICER mission on the International Space Station has significant new capabilities for the study of accreting neutron stars and blackholes, including large effective area, low background, and excellent low-energy X-ray response. Both the NICER Burst and Accretion Working Group and the Observatory Science Working Group have designed observing programs that probe various aspects of accretion physics. I will present some early results from the first six months of the NICER mission, including observations of the black hole transients MAXI J1535-571 and GX 339-4, the high-mass X-ray binary pulsars GRO J1008-57 and Swift J02436+6124, and the X-ray burster 4U 1820-30.

  1. A global view of the accretion/ejection flow in AGN: the role of accretion disk winds (United States)

    Giustini, M.; Done, C.; Proga, D.


    By merging theories and X-ray/UV observations we insert winds and failed winds into the geometrical and evolutionary scenarios for the inner regions of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). Physically and geometrically different mass accretion flow states onto supermassive black holes correspond to different photon outflows. The photon outflows determine the AGN spectral energy distribution intensity and shape, that affect the presence of different ejection flow states and the consequent mass outflows. The mass and photon accretion and ejection flows in AGN are coupled. We show how by mainly - but not only - varying the Eddington ratio, AGN display different accretion/ejection flows that can explain the observed phenomenology from LLAGN up to highly luminous, super-Eddington QSOs, going through e.g. Seyferts, mini-BAL and BAL QSOs. In particular, during the actively accreting Seyfert/QSO phase of AGN, the presence/absence of powerful line driven accretion disk winds is crucial to explain the observed X-ray/UV phenomenology, including the α_{ox}-L_{UV} correlation and the Baldwin effect.

  2. Hierarchical Conformational Analysis of Native Lysozyme Based on Sub-Millisecond Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Wang

    Full Text Available Hierarchical organization of free energy landscape (FEL for native globular proteins has been widely accepted by the biophysics community. However, FEL of native proteins is usually projected onto one or a few dimensions. Here we generated collectively 0.2 milli-second molecular dynamics simulation trajectories in explicit solvent for hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL, and carried out detailed conformational analysis based on backbone torsional degrees of freedom (DOF. Our results demonstrated that at micro-second and coarser temporal resolutions, FEL of HEWL exhibits hub-like topology with crystal structures occupying the dominant structural ensemble that serves as the hub of conformational transitions. However, at 100 ns and finer temporal resolutions, conformational substates of HEWL exhibit network-like topology, crystal structures are associated with kinetic traps that are important but not dominant ensembles. Backbone torsional state transitions on time scales ranging from nanoseconds to beyond microseconds were found to be associated with various types of molecular interactions. Even at nanoseconds temporal resolution, the number of conformational substates that are of statistical significance is quite limited. These observations suggest that detailed analysis of conformational substates at multiple temporal resolutions is both important and feasible. Transition state ensembles among various conformational substates at microsecond temporal resolution were observed to be considerably disordered. Life times of these transition state ensembles are found to be nearly independent of the time scales of the participating torsional DOFs.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, M. T.; Jones, M. L.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Pennucci, T. T. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, White Hall, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Cordes, J. M.; Chatterjee, S. [Department of Astronomy and Cornell Center for Astrophysics and Planetary Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Arzoumanian, Z. [Center for Research and Exploration in Space Science and Technology and X-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 662, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Crowter, K.; Fonseca, E.; Gonzalez, M. E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Demorest, P. B. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 0, Socorro, NM, 87801 (United States); Dolch, T. [Department of Physics, Hillsdale College, 33 E. College Street, Hillsdale, MI 49242 (United States); Ellis, J. A [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena CA, 91109 (United States); Ferdman, R. D. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 rue Universite, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Jones, G. [Department of Physics, Columbia University, 550 W. 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Levin, L. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Madison, D. R.; Ransom, S. M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Nice, D. J. [Department of Physics, Lafayette College, Easton, PA 18042 (United States); Shannon, R. M., E-mail: [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Australia Telescope National Facility, Box 76, Epping NSW 1710 (Australia); and others


    Gravitational wave (GW) astronomy using a pulsar timing array requires high-quality millisecond pulsars (MSPs), correctable interstellar propagation delays, and high-precision measurements of pulse times of arrival. Here we identify noise in timing residuals that exceeds that predicted for arrival time estimation for MSPs observed by the North American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves. We characterize the excess noise using variance and structure function analyses. We find that 26 out of 37 pulsars show inconsistencies with a white-noise-only model based on the short timescale analysis of each pulsar, and we demonstrate that the excess noise has a red power spectrum for 15 pulsars. We also decompose the excess noise into chromatic (radio-frequency-dependent) and achromatic components. Associating the achromatic red-noise component with spin noise and including additional power-spectrum-based estimates from the literature, we estimate a scaling law in terms of spin parameters (frequency and frequency derivative) and data-span length and compare it to the scaling law of Shannon and Cordes. We briefly discuss our results in terms of detection of GWs at nanohertz frequencies.

  4. Millisecond Dip Events in the 2007 RXTE/PCA Data of Sco X-1 (United States)

    Liu, Chih-Yuan; Chang, H.


    We report preliminary results of search for millisecond dip events with the new RXTE/PCA data of Sco X-1 taken in year 2007. Adopting the same selection criteria as that in previous study, we found that there are only 3 dip events in about 85 ks data, much fewer than the 107 events found in 560 ks data reported earlier with archival data taken from 1996 to 2002. The new data provide more detailed information of the 'very large event' (VLE). Although the number of VLE does not obviously increase during the occurrence of dip events, all the 3 dip events are coincident in time with VLEs that have no flags set for any of the propane or the 6 main xenon anodes. It is a strong indication for instrumental effect. With only 3 dip events, however, the previously proposed possibility that about 10 percent of the dip events might not be instrumental still cannot be strictly excluded. More properties of these dip events are discussed in this paper. This work was supported by the National Science Council of the Republic of China.

  5. Millisecond-timescale local network coding in the rat primary somatosensory cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seif Eldawlatly

    Full Text Available Correlation among neocortical neurons is thought to play an indispensable role in mediating sensory processing of external stimuli. The role of temporal precision in this correlation has been hypothesized to enhance information flow along sensory pathways. Its role in mediating the integration of information at the output of these pathways, however, remains poorly understood. Here, we examined spike timing correlation between simultaneously recorded layer V neurons within and across columns of the primary somatosensory cortex of anesthetized rats during unilateral whisker stimulation. We used bayesian statistics and information theory to quantify the causal influence between the recorded cells with millisecond precision. For each stimulated whisker, we inferred stable, whisker-specific, dynamic bayesian networks over many repeated trials, with network similarity of 83.3±6% within whisker, compared to only 50.3±18% across whiskers. These networks further provided information about whisker identity that was approximately 6 times higher than what was provided by the latency to first spike and 13 times higher than what was provided by the spike count of individual neurons examined separately. Furthermore, prediction of individual neurons' precise firing conditioned on knowledge of putative pre-synaptic cell firing was 3 times higher than predictions conditioned on stimulus onset alone. Taken together, these results suggest the presence of a temporally precise network coding mechanism that integrates information across neighboring columns within layer V about vibrissa position and whisking kinetics to mediate whisker movement by motor areas innervated by layer V.

  6. A multicrystal diffraction data-collection approach for studying structural dynamics with millisecond temporal resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Schubert


    Full Text Available Many biochemical processes take place on timescales ranging from femtoseconds to seconds. Accordingly, any time-resolved experiment must be matched to the speed of the structural changes of interest. Therefore, the timescale of interest defines the requirements of the X-ray source, instrumentation and data-collection strategy. In this study, a minimalistic approach for in situ crystallization is presented that requires only a few microlitres of sample solution containing a few hundred crystals. It is demonstrated that complete diffraction data sets, merged from multiple crystals, can be recorded within only a few minutes of beamtime and allow high-resolution structural information of high quality to be obtained with a temporal resolution of 40 ms. Global and site-specific radiation damage can be avoided by limiting the maximal dose per crystal to 400 kGy. Moreover, analysis of the data collected at higher doses allows the time-resolved observation of site-specific radiation damage. Therefore, our approach is well suited to observe structural changes and possibly enzymatic reactions in the low-millisecond regime.

  7. The NANOGrav 11-year Data Set: High-precision Timing of 45 Millisecond Pulsars (United States)

    Arzoumanian, Zaven; Brazier, Adam; Burke-Spolaor, Sarah; Chamberlin, Sydney; Chatterjee, Shami; Christy, Brian; Cordes, James M.; Cornish, Neil J.; Crawford, Fronefield; Thankful Cromartie, H.; Crowter, Kathryn; DeCesar, Megan E.; Demorest, Paul B.; Dolch, Timothy; Ellis, Justin A.; Ferdman, Robert D.; Ferrara, Elizabeth C.; Fonseca, Emmanuel; Garver-Daniels, Nathan; Gentile, Peter A.; Halmrast, Daniel; Huerta, E. A.; Jenet, Fredrick A.; Jessup, Cody; Jones, Glenn; Jones, Megan L.; Kaplan, David L.; Lam, Michael T.; Lazio, T. Joseph W.; Levin, Lina; Lommen, Andrea; Lorimer, Duncan R.; Luo, Jing; Lynch, Ryan S.; Madison, Dustin; Matthews, Allison M.; McLaughlin, Maura A.; McWilliams, Sean T.; Mingarelli, Chiara; Ng, Cherry; Nice, David J.; Pennucci, Timothy T.; Ransom, Scott M.; Ray, Paul S.; Siemens, Xavier; Simon, Joseph; Spiewak, Renée; Stairs, Ingrid H.; Stinebring, Daniel R.; Stovall, Kevin; Swiggum, Joseph K.; Taylor, Stephen R.; Vallisneri, Michele; van Haasteren, Rutger; Vigeland, Sarah J.; Zhu, Weiwei; The NANOGrav Collaboration


    We present high-precision timing data over time spans of up to 11 years for 45 millisecond pulsars observed as part of the North American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves (NANOGrav) project, aimed at detecting and characterizing low-frequency gravitational waves. The pulsars were observed with the Arecibo Observatory and/or the Green Bank Telescope at frequencies ranging from 327 MHz to 2.3 GHz. Most pulsars were observed with approximately monthly cadence, and six high-timing-precision pulsars were observed weekly. All were observed at widely separated frequencies at each observing epoch in order to fit for time-variable dispersion delays. We describe our methods for data processing, time-of-arrival (TOA) calculation, and the implementation of a new, automated method for removing outlier TOAs. We fit a timing model for each pulsar that includes spin, astrometric, and (for binary pulsars) orbital parameters; time-variable dispersion delays; and parameters that quantify pulse-profile evolution with frequency. The timing solutions provide three new parallax measurements, two new Shapiro delay measurements, and two new measurements of significant orbital-period variations. We fit models that characterize sources of noise for each pulsar. We find that 11 pulsars show significant red noise, with generally smaller spectral indices than typically measured for non-recycled pulsars, possibly suggesting a different origin. A companion paper uses these data to constrain the strength of the gravitational-wave background.

  8. Multi-wavelength modeling of globular clusters–the millisecond pulsar scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopp, A.; Venter, C.; Büsching, I.; De Jager, O. C. [Centre for Space Research, North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa)


    The potentially large number of millisecond pulsars (MSPs) in globular cluster (GC) cores makes these parent objects ideal laboratories for studying the collective properties of an ensemble of MSPs. Such a population is expected to radiate several spectral components in the radio through γ-ray waveband. First, pulsed emission is expected via curvature and synchrotron radiation (CR and SR) and possibly even via inverse Compton (IC) scattering inside the pulsar magnetospheres. Second, unpulsed emission should transpire through the continuous injection of relativistic leptons by the MSPs into the ambient region, which in turn produce SR and IC emission when they encounter the cluster magnetic field, as well as several background photon components. In this paper we continue to develop the MSP scenario for explaining the multi-wavelength properties of GCs by considering the entire modeling chain, including the full transport equation, refined emissivities of stellar and Galactic background photons, integration of the flux along the line of sight, and comparison with observations. As an illustration, we apply the model to Terzan 5, where we can reasonably fit both the (line-of-sight-integrated) X-ray surface flux and spectral energy density data, using the first to constrain the leptonic diffusion coefficient within the GC. We lastly discuss possible future extensions to and applications of this maturing model.

  9. Discovery of an Unidentified Fermi Object as a Black Widow-Like Millisecond Pulsar (United States)

    Kong, A. K. H.; Huang, R. H. H.; Cheng, K. S.; Takata, J.; Yatsu, Y.; Cheung, C. C.; Donato, D.; Lin, L. C. C.; Kataoka, J.; Takahashi, Y.; hide


    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has revolutionized our knowledge of the gamma-ray pulsar population, leading to the discovery of almost 100 gamma-ray pulsars and dozens of gamma-ray millisecond pulsars (MSPs). Although the outer-gap model predicts different sites of emission for the radio and gamma-ray pulsars, until now all of the known gamma-ray MSPs have been visible in the radio. Here we report the discovery of a radio-quiet" gamma-ray emitting MSP candidate by using Fermi, Chandra, Swift, and optical observations. The X-ray and gamma-ray properties of the source are consistent with known gamma-ray pulsars. We also found a 4.63-hr orbital period in optical and X-ray data. We suggest that the source is a black widow-like MSP with a approx. 0.1 Stellar Mass late-type companion star. Based on the profile of the optical and X-ray light-curves, the companion star is believed to be heated by the pulsar while the X-ray emissions originate from pulsar magnetosphere and/or from intra-binary shock. No radio detection of the source has been reported yet and although no gamma-ray/radio pulsation has been found, we estimated that the spin period of the MSP is approx. 3-5 ms based on the inferred gamma-ray luminosity.

  10. Probing the formation history of the nuclear star cluster at the Galactic Centre with millisecond pulsars (United States)

    Abbate, F.; Mastrobuono-Battisti, A.; Colpi, M.; Possenti, A.; Sippel, A. C.; Dotti, M.


    The origin of the nuclear star cluster in the centre of our Galaxy is still unknown. One possibility is that it formed after the disruption of stellar clusters that spiralled into the Galactic Centre due to dynamical friction. We trace the formation of the nuclear star cluster around the central black hole, using state-of-the-art N-body simulations, and follow the dynamics of the neutron stars born in the clusters. We then estimate the number of millisecond pulsars (MSPs) that are released in the nuclear star cluster during its formation. The assembly and tidal dismemberment of globular clusters lead to a population of MSPs distributed over a radius of about 20 pc, with a peak near 3 pc. No clustering is found on the subparsec scale. We simulate the detectability of this population with future radio telescopes like the MeerKAT radio telescope and SKA1, and find that about an order of 10 MSPs can be observed over this large volume, with a paucity of MSPs within the central parsec. This helps discriminating this scenario from the in situ formation model for the nuclear star cluster that would predict an overabundance of MSPs closer to the black hole. We then discuss the potential contribution of our MSP population to the gamma-ray excess at the Galactic Centre.

  11. Anion dynamics in the first 10 milliseconds of an argon-acetylene radio-frequency plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van de Wetering, F M J H; Beckers, J; Kroesen, G M W


    The time evolution of the smallest anions (C 2 H - and H 2 CC - ), just after plasma ignition, is studied by means of microwave cavity resonance spectroscopy (MCRS) in concert with laser-induced photodetachment under varying gas pressure and temperature in an argon-acetylene radio-frequency (13.56 MHz) plasma. These anions act as an initiator for spontaneous dust particle formation in these plasmas. With an intense 355 nm Nd:YAG laser pulse directed through the discharge, electrons are detached only from these anions present in the laser path. This results in a sudden increase in the electron density in the plasma, which can accurately and with sub-microsecond time resolution be measured with MCRS. By adjusting the time after plasma ignition at which the laser is fired through the discharge, the time evolution of the anion density can be studied. We have operated in the linear regime: the photodetachment signal is proportional to the laser intensity. This allowed us to study the trends of the photodetachment signal as a function of the operational parameters of the plasma. The density of the smallest anions steadily increases in the first few milliseconds after plasma ignition, after which it reaches a steady state. While keeping the gas density constant, increasing the gas temperature in the range 30-120 °C limits the number of smallest anions and saturates at a temperature of about 90 °C. A reaction pathway is proposed to explain the observed trends.

  12. Integrated analysis of millisecond laser irradiation of steel by comprehensive optical diagnostics and numerical simulation (United States)

    Doubenskaia, M.; Smurov, I.; Nagulin, K. Yu.


    Complimentary optical diagnostic tools are applied to provide comprehensive analysis of thermal phenomena in millisecond Nd:YAG laser irradiation of steel substrates. The following optical devices are employed: (a) infrared camera FLIR Phoenix RDASTM equipped by InSb sensor with 3 to 5 µm band pass arranged on 320 × 256 pixels array, (b) ultra-rapid camera Phantom V7.1 with SR-CMOS monochrome sensor in the visible spectral range, up to 105 frames per second for 64 × 88 pixels array, (c) original multi-wavelength pyrometer in the near-infrared range (1.370-1.531 µm). The following laser radiation parameters are applied: variation of energy per pulse in the range 15-30 J at a constant pulse duration of 10 ms with and without application of protective gas (Ar). The evolution of true temperature is restored based on the method of multi-colour pyrometry; by this way, melting/solidification dynamics is analysed. Emissivity variation with temperature is studied, and hysteresis type functional dependence is found. Variation of intensity of surface evaporation visualised by the camera Phantom V7.1 is registered and linked with the surface temperature evolution, different surface roughness and influence of protective gas atmosphere. Determination of the vapour plume temperature based on relatively intensities of spectral lines is done. The numerical simulation is carried out applying the thermal model with phase transitions taken into account.

  13. Contrasting Accreting White Dwarf Pulsators with the ZZ Ceti Stars (United States)

    Mukadam, A. S.; Szkody, P.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Pala, A.


    Understanding the similarities and differences between the accreting white dwarf pulsators and their non-interacting counterparts, the ZZ Ceti stars, will eventually help us deduce how accretion affects pulsations. ZZ Ceti stars pulsate in a narrow instability strip in the range 10800-12300 K due to H ionization in their pure H envelopes; their pulsation characteristics depend on their temperature and stellar mass. Models of accreting white dwarfs are found to be pulsationally unstable due to the H/HeI ionization zone, and even show a second instability strip around 15000 K due to HeII ionization. Both these strips are expected to merge for a He abundance higher than 0.48 to form a broad instability strip, which is consistent with the empirical determination of 10500-16000 K. Accreting pulsators undergo outbursts, during which the white dwarf is heated to temperatures well beyond the instability strip and is observed to cease pulsations. The white dwarf then cools to quiescence in a few years as its outer layers cool more than a million times faster than the evolutionary rate. This provides us with an exceptional opportunity to track the evolution of pulsations from the blue edge to quiescence in a few years, while ZZ Ceti stars evolve on Myr timescales. Some accreting pulsators have also been observed to cease pulsations without any apparent evidence of an outburst. This is a distinct difference between this class of pulsators and the non-interacting ZZ Ceti stars. While the ZZ Ceti instability strip is well sampled, the strip for the accreting white dwarfs is sparsely sampled and we hereby add two new potential discoveries to improve the statistics.

  14. On the Maximum Mass of Accreting Primordial Supermassive Stars (United States)

    Woods, T. E.; Heger, Alexander; Whalen, Daniel J.; Haemmerlé, Lionel; Klessen, Ralf S.


    Supermassive primordial stars are suspected to be the progenitors of the most massive quasars at z ˜ 6. Previous studies of such stars were either unable to resolve hydrodynamical timescales or considered stars in isolation, not in the extreme accretion flows in which they actually form. Therefore, they could not self-consistently predict their final masses at collapse, or those of the resulting supermassive black hole seeds, but rather invoked comparison to simple polytropic models. Here, we systematically examine the birth, evolution, and collapse of accreting, non-rotating supermassive stars under accretion rates of 0.01-10 M ⊙ yr-1 using the stellar evolution code Kepler. Our approach includes post-Newtonian corrections to the stellar structure and an adaptive nuclear network and can transition to following the hydrodynamic evolution of supermassive stars after they encounter the general relativistic instability. We find that this instability triggers the collapse of the star at masses of 150,000-330,000 M ⊙ for accretion rates of 0.1-10 M ⊙ yr-1, and that the final mass of the star scales roughly logarithmically with the rate. The structure of the star, and thus its stability against collapse, is sensitive to the treatment of convection and the heat content of the outer accreted envelope. Comparison with other codes suggests differences here may lead to small deviations in the evolutionary state of the star as a function of time, that worsen with accretion rate. Since the general relativistic instability leads to the immediate death of these stars, our models place an upper limit on the masses of the first quasars at birth.

  15. Universal subhalo accretion in cold and warm dark matter cosmologies (United States)

    Kubik, Bogna; Libeskind, Noam I.; Knebe, Alexander; Courtois, Hélène; Yepes, Gustavo; Gottlöber, Stefan; Hoffman, Yehuda


    The influence of the large-scale structure on host haloes may be studied by examining the angular infall pattern of subhaloes. In particular, since warm dark matter (WDM) and cold dark matter (CDM) cosmologies predict different abundances and internal properties for haloes at the low-mass end of the mass function, it is interesting to examine if there are differences in how these low-mass haloes are accreted. The accretion events are defined as the moment a halo becomes a substructure, namely when it crosses its host's virial radius. We quantify the cosmic web at each point by the shear tensor and examine where, with respect to its eigenvectors, such accretion events occur in ΛCDM and ΛWDM (1 keV sterile neutrino) cosmological models. We find that the CDM and WDM subhaloes are preferentially accreted along the principal axis of the shear tensor corresponding to the direction of weakest collapse. The beaming strength is modulated by the host and subhalo masses and by the redshift at which the accretion event occurs. Although strongest for the most massive hosts and subhaloes at high redshift, the preferential infall is found to be always aligned with the axis of weakest collapse, thus we say that it has universal nature. We compare the strength of beaming in the ΛWDM cosmology with the one found in the ΛCDM scenario. While the main findings remain the same, the accretion in the ΛWDM model for the most massive host haloes appears more beamed than in ΛCDM cosmology across all the redshifts.

  16. On the Maximum Mass of Accreting Primordial Supermassive Stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, T. E.; Heger, Alexander [Monash Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia); Whalen, Daniel J. [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Dennis Sciama Building, Portsmouth PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Haemmerlé, Lionel; Klessen, Ralf S. [Universität Heidelberg, Zentrum für Astronomie, Institut für Theoretische. Astrophysik, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)


    Supermassive primordial stars are suspected to be the progenitors of the most massive quasars at z ∼ 6. Previous studies of such stars were either unable to resolve hydrodynamical timescales or considered stars in isolation, not in the extreme accretion flows in which they actually form. Therefore, they could not self-consistently predict their final masses at collapse, or those of the resulting supermassive black hole seeds, but rather invoked comparison to simple polytropic models. Here, we systematically examine the birth, evolution, and collapse of accreting, non-rotating supermassive stars under accretion rates of 0.01–10 M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} using the stellar evolution code Kepler . Our approach includes post-Newtonian corrections to the stellar structure and an adaptive nuclear network and can transition to following the hydrodynamic evolution of supermassive stars after they encounter the general relativistic instability. We find that this instability triggers the collapse of the star at masses of 150,000–330,000 M {sub ⊙} for accretion rates of 0.1–10 M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}, and that the final mass of the star scales roughly logarithmically with the rate. The structure of the star, and thus its stability against collapse, is sensitive to the treatment of convection and the heat content of the outer accreted envelope. Comparison with other codes suggests differences here may lead to small deviations in the evolutionary state of the star as a function of time, that worsen with accretion rate. Since the general relativistic instability leads to the immediate death of these stars, our models place an upper limit on the masses of the first quasars at birth.

  17. A Multiwavelength Study of Nearby Millisecond Pulsar PSR J1400-1431: Improved Astrometry and an Optical Detection of Its Cool White Dwarf Companion (United States)

    Swiggum, J. K.; Kaplan, D. L.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Lorimer, D. R.; Bogdanov, S.; Ray, P. S.; Lynch, R.; Gentile, P.; Rosen, R.; Heatherly, S. A.; Barlow, B. N.; Hegedus, R. J.; Vasquez Soto, A.; Clancy, P.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Stovall, K.; Istrate, A.; Penprase, B.; Bellm, E. C.


    In 2012, five high-school students involved in the Pulsar Search Collaboratory discovered the millisecond pulsar (MSP) PSR J1400-1431, and initial timing parameters were published in Rosen et al. a year later. Since then, we have obtained a phase-connected timing solution spanning five years, resolving a significant position discrepancy and measuring \\dot{P}, proper motion, parallax, and a monotonic slope in dispersion measure over time. Due to PSR J1400-1431’s proximity and significant proper motion, we use the Shklovskii effect and other priors to determine a 95% confidence interval for PSR J1400-1431’s distance, d={270}-80+130 pc. With an improved timing position, we present the first detection of the pulsar’s low-mass white dwarf (WD) companion using the Goodman Spectrograph on the 4.1 m SOAR telescope. Deeper imaging suggests that it is a cool DA-type WD with {T}{eff}=3000+/- 100 K and R/{R}⊙ =(2.19+/- 0.03)× {10}-2 (d/270 {pc}). We show a convincing association between PSR J1400-1431 and a γ-ray point source, 3FGL J1400.5-1437, but only weak (3.3σ) evidence of pulsations after folding γ-ray photons using our radio timing model. We detect an X-ray counterpart with XMM-Newton, but the measured X-ray luminosity (1×1029 erg s-1) makes PSR J1400-1431 the least X-ray luminous rotation-powered MSP detected to date. Together, our findings present a consistent picture of a nearby (d≈ 230 pc) MSP in a 9.5-day orbit around a cool ˜0.3 M ⊙ WD companion, with orbital inclination I≳ 60^\\circ .

  18. Empirical Constraints on the Origin of Fast Radio Bursts: Volumetric Rates and Host Galaxy Demographics as a Test of Millisecond Magnetar Connection (United States)

    Nicholl, M.; Williams, P. K. G.; Berger, E.; Villar, V. A.; Alexander, K. D.; Eftekhari, T.; Metzger, B. D.


    The localization of the repeating fast radio burst (FRB) 121102 to a low-metallicity dwarf galaxy at z = 0.193, and its association with a luminous quiescent radio source, suggests the possibility that FRBs originate from magnetars, formed by the unusual supernovae that occur in such galaxies. We investigate this possibility via a comparison of magnetar birth rates, the FRB volumetric rate, and host galaxy demographics. We calculate average volumetric rates of possible millisecond magnetar production channels, such as superluminous supernovae (SLSNe), long and short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), and general magnetar production via core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe). For each channel, we also explore the expected host galaxy demographics using their known properties. We determine for the first time the number density of FRB emitters (the product of their volumetric birth rate and lifetime), {R}{FRB}τ ≈ {10}4 Gpc-3, assuming that FRBs are predominantly emitted from repetitive sources similar to FRB 121102 and adopting a beaming factor of 0.1. By comparing rates, we find that production via rare channels (SLSNe, GRBs) implies a typical FRB lifetime of ˜30-300 years, in good agreement with other lines of argument. The total energy emitted over this time is consistent with the available energy stored in the magnetic field. On the other hand, any relation to magnetars produced via normal CCSNe leads to a very short lifetime of ˜0.5 years, in conflict with both theory and observation. We demonstrate that due to the diverse host galaxy distributions of the different progenitor channels, many possible sources of FRB birth can be ruled out with ≲ 10 host galaxy identifications. Conversely, targeted searches of galaxies that have previously hosted decades-old SLSNe and GRBs may be a fruitful strategy for discovering new FRBs and related quiescent radio sources, and determining the nature of their progenitors.

  19. Aerodynamic instability of a cylinder with thin ice accretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjelstrup, Henrik; Georgakis, Christos


    uniform ice accretion can be generated on cylindrical cables. In order to investigate the nature of accretion, a set of wind tunnel tests were performed at varying temperatures and with varying levels of liquid water content. From these experiments, one ice shape similar to that of Figure 1 was selected...... the potential for aerodynamic instability of the hanger through application of the quasi-steady theory developed by Gjelstrup et al. [9-10]. The application of the theoretical model yield regions of expected aerodynamic instability in which the observed vibrations of the Great Belt East Bridge hangers lie....

  20. Accretion outbursts in self-gravitating protoplanetary disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Jaehan; Hartmann, Lee [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48105 (United States); Zhu, Zhaohuan [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, 4 Ivy Lane, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Nelson, Richard P., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Astronomy Unit, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)


    We improve on our previous treatments of the long-term evolution of protostellar disks by explicitly solving disk self-gravity in two dimensions. The current model is an extension of the one-dimensional layered accretion disk model of Bae et al. We find that gravitational instability (GI)-induced spiral density waves heat disks via compressional heating (i.e., PdV work), and can trigger accretion outbursts by activating the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in the magnetically inert disk dead zone. The GI-induced spiral waves propagate well inside of the gravitationally unstable region before they trigger outbursts at R ≲ 1 AU where GI cannot be sustained. This long-range propagation of waves cannot be reproduced with the previously used local α treatments for GI. In our standard model where zero dead-zone residual viscosity (α{sub rd}) is assumed, the GI-induced stress measured at the onset of outbursts is locally as large as 0.01 in terms of the generic α parameter. However, as suggested in our previous one-dimensional calculations, we confirm that the presence of a small but finite α{sub rd} triggers thermally driven bursts of accretion instead of the GI + MRI-driven outbursts that are observed when α{sub rd} = 0. The inclusion of non-zero residual viscosity in the dead zone decreases the importance of GI soon after mass feeding from the envelope cloud ceases. During the infall phase while the central protostar is still embedded, our models stay in a 'quiescent' accretion phase with M-dot {sub acc}∼10{sup −8}--10{sup −7} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} over 60% of the time and spend less than 15% of the infall phase in accretion outbursts. While our models indicate that episodic mass accretion during protostellar evolution can qualitatively help explain the low accretion luminosities seen in most low-mass protostars, detailed tests of the mechanism will require model calculations for a range of protostellar masses with some constraint on the

  1. Accretion onto some well-known regular black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jawad, Abdul; Shahzad, M.U.


    In this work, we discuss the accretion onto static spherically symmetric regular black holes for specific choices of the equation of state parameter. The underlying regular black holes are charged regular black holes using the Fermi-Dirac distribution, logistic distribution, nonlinear electrodynamics, respectively, and Kehagias-Sftesos asymptotically flat regular black holes. We obtain the critical radius, critical speed, and squared sound speed during the accretion process near the regular black holes. We also study the behavior of radial velocity, energy density, and the rate of change of the mass for each of the regular black holes. (orig.)

  2. Accretion processes for general spherically symmetric compact objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahamonde, Sebastian; Jamil, Mubasher


    We investigate the accretion process for different spherically symmetric space-time geometries for a static fluid. We analyze this procedure using the most general black hole metric ansatz. After that, we examine the accretion process for specific spherically symmetric metrics obtaining the velocity of the sound during the process and the critical speed of the flow of the fluid around the black hole. In addition, we study the behavior of the rate of change of the mass for each chosen metric for a barotropic fluid. (orig.)

  3. Principle of single and multiple time interval analysis applicable to radioactive nuclides with half-lives of millisecond order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, T.; Noguchi, M.; Washio, H.; Yamamoto, Y.; Uezu, Y.


    A delayed coincidence method has been developed for the selective extraction of radionuclides with half-lives of millisecond order using a personal computer. The time interval analysis is fundamentally based on the distinction of the time interval distribution between the correlated and random events, which arise from radioactive disintegration and/or background events within a certain fixed time. Theoretical functions of a time spectrum or a time distribution curve were dealt with from aspects of statistical treatments consisting of a single time interval analysis and a multiple one (STA and MTA). The theoretical equations obtained were used to simulate time spectra on the assumption of some ideal data and compared with the experimental results. Conclusively, the MTA method has been verified to be more suitable for the selective extraction of the objective correlated events from random or background events for the search of radioactive nuclides with millisecond life-times. (author) 11 refs.; 8 figs

  4. A reminder on millisecond timing accuracy and potential replication failure in computer-based psychology experiments: An open letter. (United States)

    Plant, Richard R


    There is an ongoing 'replication crisis' across the field of psychology in which researchers, funders, and members of the public are questioning the results of some scientific studies and the validity of the data they are based upon. However, few have considered that a growing proportion of research in modern psychology is conducted using a computer. Could it simply be that the hardware and software, or experiment generator, being used to run the experiment itself be a cause of millisecond timing error and subsequent replication failure? This article serves as a reminder that millisecond timing accuracy in psychology studies remains an important issue and that care needs to be taken to ensure that studies can be replicated on current computer hardware and software.

  5. Discovering Data in the Virtual Observatory (United States)

    Donaldson, Tom; Hinshaw, D.; Rogers, A.; Wallace, G.


    We present the VAO Data Discovery Tool, a web-based application for discovering data from thousands of astronomical collections and archives around the world. Using protocols defined by the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA), the Data Discovery Tool can search those widely distributed resources and present the results in a single unified web page. A powerful filtering mechanism allows the user to quickly narrow the initial results to a short list of likely applicable data. Guidance on choosing appropriate data sets is provided by a variety of integrated displays, including an interactive data table, basic histograms and scatter plots, and an all-sky browser/visualizer with observation and catalog overlays. Data discovered through the tool can be downloaded or exported directly to other VO-aware tools for further analysis. The VAO Data Discovery Tool is being developed as a joint effort between the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST) and the Virtual Astronomical Observatory (VAO). MAST is a NASA funded project to support and provide to the astronomical community a variety of astronomical data archives, and is located at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI). The VAO was established as a partnership of the Associated Universities, Inc. and the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. The VAO is sponsored by the National Science Foundation and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  6. The Universe for all to discover (United States)

    Ortiz-Gil, A.; Ballesteros, F.; Espinós, H.; Fernández-Soto, A.; Lanzara, M.; Moya, M. J.; Navarro, J.


    In the title of this paper, we have changed the slogan of the International Year of Astronomy, ``The Universe yours to discover" to ``The Universe for all to discover" in order to emphasize the need to think about broader audiences when we plan astronomical activities at school or during outreach events. The strategy we propose follows what is known as the Universal Design for Learning (UDL). UDL allows to reach to the general public as well as to audiences which might be regarded as ``special" because they have some disability. It has been shown that everybody has a preferred style of learning (some remember better what they see, others what they hear or what they touch) and therefore, everybody is more or less able under the different styles of learning. Through this talk I am going to outline some of the principles of the UDL that can be applied in the teaching and communication of Astronomy, along with an example of its implementation in the project ``A Touch of the Universe".

  7. Accretion Flow Properties of Swift J1753.5-0127 during Its 2005 Outburst (United States)

    Debnath, Dipak; Jana, Arghajit; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.; Chatterjee, Debjit; Mondal, Santanu


    Galactic X-ray binary black hole candidate Swift J1753.5-0127 was discovered on 2005 June 30 by the Swift/BAT instrument. In this paper, we make a detailed analysis of spectral and timing properties of its 2005 outburst using the archival data of the RXTE/PCA instrument. A simultaneous observation of Swift/XRT with PCA is also used to study the broadband features. Here, we study the evolution of the spectral properties of the source from spectral analysis with an additive table model fits file of the Chakrabarti-Titarchuk two-component advective flow (TCAF) solution. From the spectral fit, we extract physical flow parameters, such as the Keplerian disk accretion rate, sub-Keplerian halo rate, shock location, and shock compression ratio, etc. We also study the evolution of temporal properties, such as the observation of low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs), and the variation of X-ray intensity throughout the outburst. From the nature of the variation of QPOs, and accretion rate ratios (ARRs = ratio of halo to disk rates), we classify the entire 2005 outburst into two harder (hard-intermediate and hard) spectral states. No signatures of softer (soft-intermediate and soft) spectral states are seen. This may be because of a significant halo rate throughout the outburst. This behavior is similar to a class of other short-orbital-period sources, such as MAXI J1836-194, MAXI J1659-152, and XTE J1118+480. We estimate the probable mass range of the source to be in between {5.35}-0.60+0.55 {M}⊙ based on our spectral analysis.

  8. Three-dimensional structure of clumpy outflow from supercritical accretion flow onto black holes (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Ohsuga, Ken; Takahashi, Hiroyuki R.; Kawashima, Tomohisa; Asahina, Yuta; Takeuchi, Shun; Mineshige, Shin


    We perform global three-dimensional (3D) radiation-hydrodynamic (RHD) simulations of outflow from supercritical accretion flow around a 10 M⊙ black hole. We only solve the outflow part, starting from the axisymmetric 2D simulation data in a nearly steady state but with small perturbations in a sinusoidal form being added in the azimuthal direction. The mass accretion rate onto the black hole is ˜102LE/c2 in the underlying 2D simulation data, and the outflow rate is ˜10 LE/c2 (with LE and c being the Eddington luminosity and speed of light, respectively). We first confirm the emergence of clumpy outflow, which was discovered by the 2D RHD simulations, above the photosphere located at a few hundreds of Schwarzschild radii (rS) from the central black hole. As prominent 3D features we find that the clumps have the shape of a torn sheet, rather than a cut string, and that they are rotating around the central black hole with a sub-Keplerian velocity at a distance of ˜103 rS from the center. The typical clump size is ˜30 rS or less in the radial direction, and is more elongated in the angular directions, ˜ hundreds of rS at most. The sheet separation ranges from 50 to 150 rS. We expect stochastic time variations when clumps pass across the line of the sight of a distant observer. Variation timescales are estimated to be several seconds for a black hole with mass of ten to several tens of M⊙, in rough agreement with the observations of some ultra-luminous X-ray sources.

  9. Interaction of Accretion Shocks with Winds Kinsuk Acharya , Sandip ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Black hole physics—accretion—winds—shock waves— hydrodynamics. 1. Introduction. In a black hole accretion, the flow must be sub-Keplerian close to the horizon and the specific angular momentum is almost constant. As a result, the centrifugal force dominates over gravity and a centrifugal barrier dominated boundary ...

  10. Influence of toroidal magnetic field in multi-accreting tori (United States)

    Pugliese, D.; Montani, G.


    We analyzed the effects of a toroidal magnetic field in the formation of several magnetized accretion tori, dubbed as ringed accretion disks (RADs), orbiting around one central Kerr supermassive Black Hole (SMBH) in AGNs, where both corotating and counterotating disks are considered. Constraints on tori formation and emergence of RADs instabilities, accretion onto the central attractor and tori collision emergence, are investigated. The results of this analysis show that the role of the central BH spin-mass ratio, the magnetic field and the relative fluid rotation and tori rotation with respect the central BH, are crucial elements in determining the accretion tori features, providing ultimately evidence of a strict correlation between SMBH spin, fluid rotation and magnetic fields in RADs formation and evolution. More specifically we proved that magnetic field and disks rotation are in fact strongly constrained, as tori formation and evolution in RADs depend on the toroidal magnetic fields parameters. Eventually this analysis identifies specific classes of tori, for restrict ranges of magnetic field parameter, that can be observed around some specific SMBHs identified by their dimensionless spin.

  11. Spectral properties of the accretion discs around rotating black holes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Samir Mandal


    Feb 10, 2018 ... attention has also been paid to the variation in energy spectral index with Kerr parameter and accretion rate. We find that spectral index .... entropy generation equation (or equation of state). In the absence of dissipation in the ..... the study was confined around a stationary BH. Here, we intend to see the ...

  12. Eclipsing the innermost accretion disc regions in AGN

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sanfrutos, M.; Miniutti, G.; Dovčiak, Michal; Agis-Gonzalez, B.


    Roč. 337, 4-5 (2016), s. 546-551 ISSN 0004-6337 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : accretion disks * black hole physics * relativistic effects Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.916, year: 2016

  13. Inelastic accretion of inertial particles by a towed sphere (United States)

    Vallée, Robin; Henry, Christophe; Hachem, Elie; Bec, Jérémie


    The problem of accretion of small particles by a sphere embedded in a mean flow is studied in the case where the particles undergo inelastic collisions with the solid object. The collision efficiency, which gives the flux of particles experiencing at least one bounce on the sphere, is found to depend upon the sphere Reynolds number only through the value of the critical Stokes number below which no collision occurs. In the absence of molecular diffusion, it is demonstrated that multiple bounces do not provide enough energy dissipation for the particles to stick to the surface within a finite time. This excludes the possibility of any kind of inelastic collapse, so that determining an accretion efficiency requires modeling more precisely particle-surface microphysical interactions. A straightforward choice is to assume that the particles stick when their kinetic energy at impact is below a threshold. In this view, numerical simulations are performed to describe the statistics of impact velocities at various values of the Reynolds number. Successive bounces are shown to enhance accretion. These results are put together to provide a general qualitative picture on how the accretion efficiency depends upon the nondimensional parameters of the problem.

  14. Stochastic Resonance of Accretion Disk and the Persistent Low ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we use a Langevin type equation with a damping term and stochastic force to describe the stochastic oscillations on the vertical direction of the accretion disk around a black hole, and calculate the luminosity and power spectral density (PSD) for an oscillating disk. Then we discuss the stochastic resonance ...

  15. Unification of Radio Galaxies and their Accretion Jet Properties ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unification of Radio Galaxies and their Accretion Jet Properties. Qingwen Wu1,∗. , Ya-Di Xu2 & Xinwu Cao3. 1Physics Department, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China. 2Physics Department, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China. 3Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, CAS, ...

  16. Interaction of Accretion Shocks with Winds Kinsuk Acharya , Sandip ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Abstract. Accretion shocks are known to oscillate in presence of cool- ing processes in the disk. This oscillation may also cause quasi-periodic oscillations of black holes. In the presence of strong winds, these shocks have oscillations in vertical direction as well. We show examples of shock oscillations under the influence of ...

  17. Angular Momentum Transport in Quasi-Keplerian Accretion Disks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We reexamine arguments advanced by Hayashi & Matsuda (2001), who claim that several simple, physically motivated derivations based on mean free path theory for calculating the viscous torque in a quasi-Keplerian accretion disk yield results that are inconsistent with the generally accepted model. If correct, the ideas ...

  18. Type I X-Ray Bursts at Low Accretion Rates (United States)

    Peng, Fang; Brown, E. F.; Truran, J. W.


    Neutron stars, with their strong surface gravity, have interestingly short timescales for the sedimentation of heavy elements. Recent observations of unstable thermonuclear burning (observed as X-ray bursts) on the surfaces of slowly accreting neutron stars (rate) motivate us to examine how sedimentation of CNO isotopes affects the ignition of these bursts. For neutron stars accreting at rates less than 0.1 Eddington, there is sufficient time for CNO to settle out of the accreted envelope. We estimate the burst development using a simple one-zone model with a full reaction network. At the lowest accretion rates, 0.1 Eddington, there can still be an effect. We note that the reduced proton-to-seed ratio favors the production of 12C--an important ingredient for subsequent superbursts.This work is supported by the U.S. DOE under grant B523820 to the Center for Astrophysical Thermonuclear Flashes at the University of Chicago, JINA under NSF-PFC grant PHY 02-16783, NSF under grant AST-0507456 and U.S. DOE under contract No. W-31-109-ENG-38.

  19. Angular Momentum Transport in Quasi-Keplerian Accretion Disks ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Peter A. Becker. 3. 1Inter-University Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O Bag 4, Ganeshkhind,. Pune 411 007, India. e-mail: 2Dept. of Physics, University of Pune, .... ity η arises out of local effects, i.e., due to momentum exchange between neighboring annuli of the accretion disk, as with ...

  20. Massive Star Formation: Accreting from Companion X. Chen1 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We report the possible accretion from companion in the mas- sive star forming region (G350.69–0.49). This region seems to be a binary system composed of a diffuse object (possible nebulae or UC HII region) and a Massive Young Stellar Object (MYSO) seen in Spitzer IRAC image. The diffuse object and MYSO ...

  1. Chemical composition and accretion history of terrestrial planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waenke, H.; Dreibus, G.


    The high concentrations of moderately siderophile elements (Ni, Co, etc.) in the Earth's mantle and the similarity of their CI normalized abundances to those of moderately volatile elements (F, Na, K, Rb) and some elements such as In, which under solar nebula conditions are highly volatile, are striking. To account for the observed abundances, inhomogeneous accretion of the Earth from two components has been proposed. In this model accretion started with the highly reduced component A devoid of all elements more volatile than Na, followed by accretion of more and more oxidized material (component B), containing all elements in CI abundances. Recent observations have brought almost conclusive evidence that SNC meteorites are martian surface rocks ejected by huge impacts. By assuming that Mars is indeed the parent body of SNC meteorites, the bulk composition of Mars is estimated. The data on the composition of Mars obtained in this way clearly show the two-component model is also valid for Mars. The striking depletion of all elements with chalcophile character in the martian mantle indicates that, contrary to the Earth, Mars accreted almost homogeneously. (author)

  2. The radiative efficiency of a radiatively inefficient accretion flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Angelo, C.R.; Fridriksson, J.K.; Messenger, C.; Patruno, A.


    A recent joint XMM-Newton/Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) observation of the accreting neutron star Cen X-4 (LX ∼ 1033 erg s−1) revealed a hard power-law component (Γ ∼ 1-1.5) with a relatively low cut-off energy (∼10 keV), suggesting bremsstrahlung emission. The physical requirements

  3. Constraining jet physics in weakly accreting black holes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markoff, S.


    Outflowing jets are observed in a variety of astronomical objects such as accreting compact objects from X-ray binaries (XRBs) to active galactic nuclei (AGN), as well as at stellar birth and death. Yet we still do not know exactly what they are comprised of, why and how they form, or their exact

  4. Accretion among preplanetary bodies : The many faces of runaway growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormel, C. W.; Dullemond, C. P.; Spaans, M.


    When preplanetary bodies reach proportions of similar to 1 km or larger in size, their accretion rate is enhanced due to gravitational focusing (GF). We have developed a new numerical model to calculate the collisional evolution of the gravitationally-enhanced growth stage. The numerical model is

  5. Massive Star Formation: Accreting from Companion X. Chen1 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and a Massive Young Stellar Object (MYSO) seen in Spitzer IRAC image. The diffuse object and MYSO are connected by the shock-excited 4.5 µm emission, suggesting that the massive star may form through accreting material from the companion in this system. Key words. Infrared: ISM—stars: formation—ISM: jets and ...

  6. Shocks in the relativistic transonic accretion with low angular momentum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Suková, Petra; Charzynski, S.; Janiuk, A.


    Roč. 472, č. 4 (2017), s. 4327-4342 ISSN 0035-8711 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GJ17-06962Y Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : accretion discs * hydrodynamics * shock waves Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 4.961, year: 2016

  7. Successive X-ray bursts from accreting neutron stars (United States)

    Taam, Ronald E.; Woosley, S. E.; Weaver, T. A.; Lamb, D. Q.


    The evolution of a neutron star undergoing a series of thermonuclear flashes in its accreted hydrogen-rich layer has been numerically followed to determine the effects of the history of the neutron star's thermal and compositional structure on the properties of the emitted X-ray bursts. Burst characteristics are studied for a range of mass accretion rates, CNO abundances in the accreted matter, and initial thermal states of the underlying neutron star core; the bursts exhibit erratic behavior for low CNO metal abundances and cool neutron star cores, with the burst recurrence time scales varying by 1-2 orders of magnitude. There is typically a continued presence of a substantial amount of unburnt hydrogen in the accreted layer throughout the series of the X-ray burst events. Convective mixing during the quiescent phase leads to the inward transport of helium to high densities and eventually to the initiation of the next outburst. The resulting bursts can be weak and, in such cases, are characterized by short recurrence time scales (1-2 hr), low peak luminosities (0.1-0.2 times the Eddington value), and low alpha-values (about 20).

  8. Power Spectrum Density of Stochastic Oscillating Accretion Disk GB ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2.05 by changing the friction coefficient in a stochastic oscillating accre- tion disk model. We argue ... stochastic oscillations of the accretion disks in both the static Schwarzschild and the rotating Kerr geometries, and ... around compact astro- physical objects interacting with an external thermal bath through a friction force ...

  9. Accretion of the Outer Planets: Oligarchy or Monarchy? (United States)

    Weidenschilling, S. J.; Marzari, F.; Davis, D. R.


    Timescale for runaway growth is shortened if accretion is seeded by a large body in a swarm of small planetesimals. Bodies of mass ~ 10^25 g scattered from the Jupiter-Saturn region are effective in nucleating formation of Uranus and Neptune.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lile; Goodman, Jeremy J. [Princeton University Observatory, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)


    Transitional protostellar disks have inner cavities that are heavily depleted in dust and gas, yet most of them show signs of ongoing accretion, often at rates comparable to full disks. We show that recent constraints on the gas surface density in a few well-studied disk cavities suggest that the accretion speed is at least transsonic. We propose that this is the natural result of accretion driven by magnetized winds. Typical physical conditions of the gas inside these cavities are estimated for plausible X-ray and FUV radiation fields. The gas near the midplane is molecular and predominantly neutral, with a dimensionless ambipolar parameter in the right general range for wind solutions of the type developed by Königl, Wardle, and others. That is to say, the density of ions and electrons is sufficient for moderately good coupling to the magnetic field, but it is not so good that the magnetic flux needs to be dragged inward by the accreting neutrals.

  11. Study of magnetized accretion flow with cooling processes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kuldeep Singh


    —funnel flow. 1. Introduction. Neutron stars (NS) are very fascinating objects because they have strong magnetic and gravitation fields. Neu- tron stars accrete rotating matter from the companion, in the form of a disc, up to the ...

  12. Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide: Phase Formation and Crystallization Kinetics during Millisecond Laser Spike Annealing (United States)

    Lynch, David Michael

    similar to ZnO thin films. A classical nucleation and growth model is proposed and compared to alternative models proposed in literature. Extending this study of CAAC IGZO, the formation and growth of crystalline IGZO over a wide composition range and processing conditions were explored. IGZO itself is one composition of a class of homologous structures in the pseudo-binary InGaO3(ZnO)m system. For integer m, the equilibrium structure is known and well-characterized; however, for non-integer m, disorder must exist and the kinetics of the structural development remain almost completely unknown. A high-throughput (combinatorial) approach utilizing co-sputter deposition, millisecond timescale thermal gradient laser annealing, and spatially-resolved characterization using microbeam wide-angle X-ray scattering was used to probe the structural evolution as a function of temperature, time, and composition. As-deposited films were amorphous in the InGaO3- rich composition range, becoming crystalline (wurtzite) with increasing ZnO content. Under millisecond heating, films evolved toward the equilibrium layered structure consisting of nearly pure In2O3 layers with (Ga, Zn)Ox interlayers. Composition deviations (non-integer m) are discussed within a model of cationic disorder in both the In2O3 layers and the (Ga, Zn)O x layers. Crystal-tocrystal transformations in the high-ZnO region are discussed within the context of a new growth model for these homologous structures. This deeper understanding of the nature of crystalline IGZO will help to enable the successful implementation of CAAC IGZO for high-performance display applications.

  13. Are cosmological gas accretion streams multiphase and turbulent? (United States)

    Cornuault, Nicolas; Lehnert, Matthew D.; Boulanger, François; Guillard, Pierre


    Simulations of cosmological filamentary accretion reveal flows ("streams") of warm gas, T 104 K, which bring gas into galaxies efficiently. We present a phenomenological scenario in which gas in such flows, if it is shocked as it enters the halo as we assume and depending on the post-shock temperature, stream radius, its relative overdensity, and other factors, becomes biphasic and turbulent. We consider a collimated stream of warm gas that flows into a halo from an overdense filament of the cosmic web. The post-shock streaming gas expands because it has a higher pressure than the ambient halo gas and fragments as it cools. The fragmented stream forms a two phase medium: a warm cloudy phase embedded in hot post-shock gas. We argue that the hot phase sustains the accretion shock. During fragmentation, a fraction of the initial kinetic energy of the infalling gas is converted into turbulence among and within the warm clouds. The thermodynamic evolution of the post-shock gas is largely determined by the relative timescales of several processes. These competing timescales characterize the cooling, expansion of the post-shock gas, amount of turbulence in the clouds, and dynamical time of the halo. We expect the gas to become multiphase when the gas cooling and dynamical times are of the same order of magnitude. In this framework, we show that this mainly occurs in the mass range, Mhalo 1011 to 1013 M⊙, where the bulk of stars have formed in galaxies. Because of the expansion of the stream and turbulence, gas accreting along cosmic web filaments may eventually lose coherence and mix with the ambient halo gas. Through both the phase separation and "disruption" of the stream, the accretion efficiency onto a galaxy in a halo dynamical time is lowered. Decollimating flows make the direct interaction between galaxy feedback and accretion streams more likely, thereby further reducing the overall accretion efficiency. As we discuss in this work, moderating the gas accretion

  14. Multiple serial picture presentation with millisecond resolution using a three-way LC-shutter-tachistoscope. (United States)

    Fischmeister, Florian Ph S; Leodolter, Ulrich; Windischberger, Christian; Kasess, Christian H; Schöpf, Veronika; Moser, Ewald; Bauer, Herbert


    Throughout recent years there has been an increasing interest in studying unconscious visual processes. Such conditions of unawareness are typically achieved by either a sufficient reduction of the stimulus presentation time or visual masking. However, there are growing concerns about the reliability of the presentation devices used. As all these devices show great variability in presentation parameters, the processing of visual stimuli becomes dependent on the display-device, e.g. minimal changes in the physical stimulus properties may have an enormous impact on stimulus processing by the sensory system and on the actual experience of the stimulus. Here we present a custom-built three-way LC-shutter-tachistoscope which allows experimental setups with both, precise and reliable stimulus delivery, and millisecond resolution. This tachistoscope consists of three LCD-projectors equipped with zoom lenses to enable stimulus presentation via a built-in mirror-system onto a back projection screen from an adjacent room. Two high-speed liquid crystal shutters are mounted serially in front of each projector to control the stimulus duration. To verify the intended properties empirically, different sequences of presentation times were performed while changes in optical power were measured using a photoreceiver. The obtained results demonstrate that interfering variabilities in stimulus parameters and stimulus rendering are markedly reduced. Together with the possibility to collect external signals and to send trigger-signals to other devices, this tachistoscope represents a highly flexible and easy to set up research tool not only for the study of unconscious processing in the brain but for vision research in general. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. High-energy Neutrinos from Millisecond Magnetars Formed from the Merger of Binary Neutron Stars (United States)

    Fang, Ke; Metzger, Brian D.


    The merger of a neutron star (NS) binary may result in the formation of a long-lived, or indefinitely stable, millisecond magnetar remnant surrounded by a low-mass ejecta shell. A portion of the magnetar’s prodigious rotational energy is deposited behind the ejecta in a pulsar wind nebula, powering luminous optical/X-ray emission for hours to days following the merger. Ions in the pulsar wind may also be accelerated to ultra-high energies, providing a coincident source of high-energy cosmic rays and neutrinos. At early times, the cosmic rays experience strong synchrotron losses; however, after a day or so, pion production through photomeson interaction with thermal photons in the nebula comes to dominate, leading to efficient production of high-energy neutrinos. After roughly a week, the density of background photons decreases sufficiently for cosmic rays to escape the source without secondary production. These competing effects result in a neutrino light curve that peaks on a few day timescale near an energy of ˜1018eV. This signal may be detectable for individual mergers out to ˜10 (100) Mpc by current (next generation) neutrino telescopes, providing clear evidence for a long-lived NS remnant, the presence of which may otherwise be challenging to identify from the gravitational waves alone. Under the optimistic assumption that a sizable fraction of NS mergers produce long-lived magnetars, the cumulative cosmological neutrino background is estimated to be ˜ {10}-9{--}{10}-8 {GeV} {{cm}}-2 {{{s}}}-1 {{sr}}-1 for an NS merger rate of {10}-7 {{Mpc}}-3 {{yr}}-1, overlapping with IceCube’s current sensitivity and within the reach of next-generation neutrino telescopes.

  16. LOFAR Discovery of the Fastest-spinning Millisecond Pulsar in the Galactic Field (United States)

    Bassa, C. G.; Pleunis, Z.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Ferrara, E. C.; Breton, R. P.; Gusinskaia, N. V.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Sanidas, S.; Nieder, L.; Clark, C. J.; Li, T.; van Amesfoort, A. S.; Burnett, T. H.; Camilo, F.; Michelson, P. F.; Ransom, S. M.; Ray, P. S.; Wood, K.


    We report the discovery of PSR J0952-0607, a 707 Hz binary millisecond pulsar that is now the fastest-spinning neutron star known in the Galactic field (I.e., outside of a globular cluster). PSR J0952-0607 was found using LOFAR at a central observing frequency of 135 MHz, well below the 300 MHz to 3 GHz frequencies typically used in pulsar searches. The discovery is part of an ongoing LOFAR survey targeting unassociated Fermi-Large Area Telescope γ-ray sources. PSR J0952-0607 is in a 6.42 hr orbit around a very low-mass companion ({M}{{c}}≳ 0.02 {M}⊙ ), and we identify a strongly variable optical source, modulated at the orbital period of the pulsar, as the binary companion. The light curve of the companion varies by 1.6 mag from {r}{\\prime }=22.2 at maximum to {r}{\\prime }> 23.8, indicating that it is irradiated by the pulsar wind. Swift observations place a 3σ upper limit on the 0.3-10 {keV} X-ray luminosity of {L}Xdispersion measure). Though no eclipses of the radio pulsar are observed, the properties of the system classify it as a black widow binary. The radio pulsed spectrum of PSR J0952-0607, as determined through flux density measurements at 150 and 350 MHz, is extremely steep with α ˜ -3 (where S\\propto {ν }α ). We discuss the growing evidence that the fastest-spinning radio pulsars have exceptionally steep radio spectra, as well as the prospects for finding more sources like PSR J0952-0607.

  17. AstroSat /LAXPC Detection of Millisecond Phenomena in 4U 1728-34

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauhan, Jai Verdhan; Yadav, J S; Antia, H M; Dedhia, Dhiraj; Katoch, Tilak; Madhwani, P.; Shah, Parag [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai (India); Misra, Ranjeev; Pahari, Mayukh [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune 411007 (India); Agrawal, P C [UM-DAE Center of Excellence for Basic Sciences, University of Mumbai, Kalina, Mumbai-400098 (India); Sridhar, Navin [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Bhauri, Bhopal 462066 (India); Manchanda, R K [University of Mumbai, Kalina, Mumbai-400098 (India); Paul, B, E-mail: [Dept. of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Raman Research Institute, Bengaluru-560080 (India)


    The low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1728-24 was observed with AstroSat /LAXPC on 2016 March 8th. Data from a randomly chosen orbit of over 3 ks was analyzed for detection of rapid intensity variations. We found that the source intensity was nearly steady but, toward the end of the observation, a typical Type-1 burst was detected. Dynamical power spectrum of the data in the 3–20 keV band, reveals the presence of a kHz Quasi-Periodic Oscillation (QPO) for which the frequency drifted from ∼815 Hz at the beginning of the observation to about 850 Hz just before the burst. The QPO is also detected in the 10–20 keV band, which was not obtainable by earlier RXTE observations of this source. Even for such a short observation with a drifting QPO frequency, the time lag between the 5–10 and 10–20 keV bands can be constrained to be less than 100 microseconds. The Type-1 burst that lasted for about 20 s had a typical profile. During the first four seconds, dynamic power spectra reveal a burst oscillation for which the frequency increased from ∼361.5 to ∼363.5 Hz. This is consistent with the earlier results obtained with RXTE /PCA, showing the same spin frequency of the neutron star. The present results demonstrate the capability of the LAXPC instrument for detecting millisecond variability even from short observations. After RXTE ceased operation, LAXPC on AstroSat is the only instrument at present with the capability of detecting kHz QPOs and other kinds of rapid variations from 3 keV to 20 keV and possibly at higher energies as well.

  18. Millisecond-Period Meltdown Experiments on Prompt - Burst Effects and Molten-Tin-Water Dropping Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, R.W.; Coats, R.L.; Schmidt, T.R.; Arakeri, V.H.


    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has initiated a program of confirmatory research for the safety assessment of LMFBR plants. In the sodium-fuel interactions area, this research includes a series of real-time in-pile experiments on the pressure and work potential of prompt-burst excursions as well as laboratory dropping experiments with molten tin and water. The in-pile experiments are performed by Sandia Laboratories in the Annular Core Pulse Reactor (ACPR), which has a minimum period of 1.3 milliseconds. These single-pin experiments are performed in a piston-loaded, stagnant-sodium autoclave, that is conceptually similar to the one used in the S-11 TREAT test. Unlike the S-11 test, however, realistic radial temperature profiles are obtained in the fuel, the cladding, and the sodium by pre-pulsing the reactor about 1/2 second before the main pulse. A series of preparatory runs have been made with helium-filled capsules and at low energy with sodium-filled capsules. The first significant fuel-coolant interaction run is scheduled for late March 1976. This will be a double-pulsed run at 2700 j/gm UO 2 . A continuing series of experiments is planned with oxide and advanced fuels in both fresh and irradiated form. In molten-tin-water dropping experiments at UCLA, microsecond duration multi-flash photography has been used for event diagnostics. Transition or nucleate boiling was found to trigger energetic interactions or vapor explosions. Temperature stratification in the water was found to reduce the threshold tin temperature necessary to produce vapor explosions below that the predicted by the coolant homogeneous nucleation hypothesis. Interaction zone growth times of a few msec were measured

  19. Equilibrium stability and sub-millisecond refolding of a designed single-chain Arc repressor. (United States)

    Robinson, C R; Sauer, R T


    Arc-L1-Arc is a single-chain variant of bacteriophage P22 Arc repressor in which a 15 residue linker joins the C-terminus of one subunit to the N-terminus of an otherwise identical subunit. Spectroscopic probes indicate that the native and denatured state of the single-chain protein are similar to those of the unlinked Arc dimer. In equilibrium experiments, Arc-L1-Arc denatures in a reaction without populated intermediate states as judged by the fits of the denaturation isotherms to a two-state model and by the coincidence of denaturation curves monitored by fluorescence and circular dichroism. Comparison of the equilibrium stabilities of Arc-L1-Arc and unlinked Arc gives an effective concentration of subunits in the denatured single-chain variant of 2.7 (+/- 0.7) mM. The kinetic refolding and unfolding reactions of Arc-L1-Arc also appear to proceed without populated intermediates. The rate constant for Arc-L1-Arc unfolding is about 2-fold faster than that of unlinked Arc, indicating that the linker mediates no significant contacts in the native structure that need to be broken to allow unfolding. As expected, the major effect of the linker occurs during the refolding reaction, where the effective subunit concentration calculated from the bimolecular and unimolecular refolding rate constants is 4.5 (+/- 1.8) mM. The transition states for the unfolding and refolding reactions of Arc-L1-Arc and wild-type Arc have similar solvent exposures as measured by the urea dependencies of the equilibrium and rate constants. In the absence of urea, the single-chain protein refolds very rapidly (kf approximately 10(4) s-1) in a reaction that is essentially complete in the sub-millisecond time regime.

  20. Reconciling Optical and Radio Observations of the Binary Millisecond Pulsar PSR J1640+2224 (United States)

    Vigeland, Sarah J.; Deller, Adam T.; Kaplan, David L.; Istrate, Alina G.; Stappers, Benjamin W.; Tauris, Thomas M.


    Previous optical and radio observations of the binary millisecond pulsar PSR J1640+2224 have come to inconsistent conclusions about the identity of its companion, with some observations suggesting that the companion is a low-mass helium-core (He-core) white dwarf (WD), while others indicate that it is most likely a high-mass carbon–oxygen (CO) WD. Binary evolution models predict PSR J1640+2224 most likely formed in a low-mass X-ray binary based on the pulsar’s short spin period and long-period, low-eccentricity orbit, in which case its companion should be a He-core WD with mass about 0.35–0.39 M ⊙, depending on metallicity. If instead it is a CO WD, it would suggest that the system has an unusual formation history. In this paper we present the first astrometric parallax measurement for this system from observations made with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), from which we determine the distance to be {1520}-150+170 {pc}. We use this distance and a reanalysis of archival optical observations originally taken in 1995 with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to measure the WD’s mass. We also incorporate improvements in calibration, extinction model, and WD cooling models. We find that the existing observations are not sufficient to tightly constrain the companion mass, but we conclude the WD mass is >0.4 M ⊙ with >90% confidence. The limiting factor in our analysis is the low signal-to-noise ratio of the original HST observations.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, T. J. [National Research Council Research Associate, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC 20001 (United States); Venter, C. [Centre for Space Research, North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, Private Bag X6001, 2520 Potchefstroom (South Africa); Harding, A. K.; Çelik, Ö.; Ferrara, E. C. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Guillemot, L. [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie de l' Environnement, LPCE UMR 6115 CNRS, F-45071 Orléans Cedex 02 (France); Smith, D. A.; Hou, X. [Centre d' Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, IN2P3/CNRS, Université Bordeaux 1, BP120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Kramer, M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, 53121 Bonn (Germany); Den Hartog, P. R. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Lande, J. [Twitter Inc., 1355 Market Street 900, San Francisco, CA 94103 (United States); Ray, P. S., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375-5352 (United States)


    Millisecond pulsars (MSPs) are a growing class of gamma-ray emitters. Pulsed gamma-ray signals have been detected from more than 40 MSPs with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). The wider radio beams and more compact magnetospheres of MSPs enable studies of emission geometries over a broader range of phase space than non-recycled radio-loud gamma-ray pulsars. We have modeled the gamma-ray light curves of 40 LAT-detected MSPs using geometric emission models assuming a vacuum retarded-dipole magnetic field. We modeled the radio profiles using a single-altitude hollow-cone beam, with a core component when indicated by polarimetry; however, for MSPs with gamma-ray and radio light curve peaks occurring at nearly the same rotational phase, we assume that the radio emission is co-located with the gamma rays and caustic in nature. The best-fit parameters and confidence intervals are determined using a maximum likelihood technique. We divide the light curves into three model classes, with gamma-ray peaks trailing (Class I), aligned (Class II), or leading (Class III) the radio peaks. Outer gap and slot gap (two-pole caustic) models best fit roughly equal numbers of Class I and II, while Class III are exclusively fit with pair-starved polar cap models. Distinguishing between the model classes based on typical derived parameters is difficult. We explore the evolution of the magnetic inclination angle with period and spin-down power, finding possible correlations. While the presence of significant off-peak emission can often be used as a discriminator between outer gap and slot gap models, a hybrid model may be needed.

  2. Probing Millisecond Pulsar Emission Geometry Using Light Curves From the Fermi Large Area Telescope (United States)

    Venter, Christo; Harding, Alice; Guillemot, L.


    An interesting new high-energy pulsar sub-population is emerging following early discoveries of gamma-ray millisecond pulsars (MSPs) by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). We present results from 3D emission modeling, including the Special Relativistic effects of aberration and time-of-flight delays and also rotational sweepback of 13-field lines, in the geometric context of polar cap (PC), slot gap (SG), outer gap (OG), and two-pole caustic (TPC) pulsar models. In contrast to the general belief that these very old, rapidly-rotating neutron stars (NSs) should have largely pair-starved magnetospheres due to the absence of significant pair production, we find that most of the light curves are best fit by SG and OG models, which indicates the presence of narrow accelerating gaps limited by robust pair production -- even in these pulsars with very low spin-down luminosities. The gamma-ray pulse shapes and relative phase lags with respect to the radio pulses point to high-altitude emission being dominant for all geometries. We also find exclusive differentiation of the current gamma-ray MSP population into two MSP sub-classes: light curve shapes and lags across wavebands impose either pair-starved PC (PSPC) or SG / OG-type geometries. In the first case, the radio pulse has a small lag with respect to the single gamma-ray pulse, while the (first) gamma-ray peak usually trails the radio by a large phase offset in the latter case. Finally, we find that the flux correction factor as a function of magnetic inclination and observer angles is typically of order unity for all models. Our calculation of light curves and flux correction factor f(_, _, P) for the case of MSPs is therefore complementary to the "ATLAS paper" of Watters et al. for younger pulsars.

  3. Constraining Relativistic Bow Shock Properties in Rotation-powered Millisecond Pulsar Binaries (United States)

    Wadiasingh, Zorawar; Harding, Alice K.; Venter, Christo; Böttcher, Markus; Baring, Matthew G.


    Multiwavelength follow-up of unidentified Fermi sources has vastly expanded the number of known galactic-field “black widow” and “redback” millisecond pulsar binaries. Focusing on their rotation-powered state, we interpret the radio to X-ray phenomenology in a consistent framework. We advocate the existence of two distinct modes differing in their intrabinary shock orientation, distinguished by the phase centering of the double-peaked X-ray orbital modulation originating from mildly relativistic Doppler boosting. By constructing a geometric model for radio eclipses, we constrain the shock geometry as functions of binary inclination and shock standoff R 0. We develop synthetic X-ray synchrotron orbital light curves and explore the model parameter space allowed by radio eclipse constraints applied on archetypal systems B1957+20 and J1023+0038. For B1957+20, from radio eclipses the standoff is R 0 ˜ 0.15-0.3 fraction of binary separation from the companion center, depending on the orbit inclination. Constructed X-ray light curves for B1957+20 using these values are qualitatively consistent with those observed, and we find occultation of the shock by the companion as a minor influence, demanding significant Doppler factors to yield double peaks. For J1023+0038, radio eclipses imply R 0 ≲ 0.4, while X-ray light curves suggest 0.1 ≲ R 0 ≲ 0.3 (from the pulsar). Degeneracies in the model parameter space encourage further development to include transport considerations. Generically, the spatial variation along the shock of the underlying electron power-law index should yield energy dependence in the shape of light curves, motivating future X-ray phase-resolved spectroscopic studies to probe the unknown physics of pulsar winds and relativistic shock acceleration therein.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, Miles; Bechtol, Keith; Vandenbroucke, Justin [Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Zaharijas, Gabrijela, E-mail:, E-mail: [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare—Sezione Trieste, Padriciano 99, I-34149 Trieste (Italy)


    We estimate the conventional astrophysical emission from dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies (dSphs) of the Milky Way (MW), focusing on millisecond pulsars (MSPs), and evaluate the potential for confusion with dark matter (DM) annihilation signatures at GeV energies. In low-density stellar environments, such as dSphs, the abundance of MSPs is expected to be proportional to stellar mass. Accordingly, we construct the γ -ray luminosity function (LF) of MSPs in the MW disk, where >90 individual MSPs have been detected with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT), and scale this LF to the stellar masses of 30 dSphs to estimate the cumulative emission from their MSP populations. We predict that MSPs within the highest stellar mass dSphs, Fornax and Sculptor, produce a γ -ray flux >500 MeV of ∼10{sup −11} ph cm{sup −2} s{sup −1}, which is a factor ∼10 below the current LAT sensitivity at high Galactic latitudes. The MSP emission in ultra-faint dSphs, including targets with the largest J-factors, is typically several orders of magnitude lower, suggesting that these targets will remain clean targets for indirect DM searches in the foreseeable future. For a DM particle of mass 25 GeV annihilating to b quarks at the thermal relic cross section (consistent with DM interpretations of the Galactic Center excess), we find that the expected γ -ray emission due to DM exceeds that of MSPs in all of the target dSphs. Using the same MW MSP population model, we also estimate the Galactic foreground MSP coincidence probability along the same sightlines to the dSphs.

  5. Constraints on millisecond magnetars as the engines of prompt emission in gamma-ray bursts (United States)

    Beniamini, Paz; Giannios, Dimitrios; Metzger, Brian D.


    We examine millisecond magnetars as central engines of gamma-ray bursts' (GRBs) prompt emission. Using the protomagnetar wind model of Metzger et al., we estimate the temporal evolution of the magnetization and power injection at the base of the GRB jet and apply these to different prompt emission models to make predictions for the GRB energetics, spectra and light curves. We investigate both shock and magnetic reconnection models for the particle acceleration, as well as the effects of energy dissipation across optically thick and thin regions of the jet. The magnetization at the base of the jet, σ0, is the main parameter driving the GRB evolution in the magnetar model and the emission is typically released for 100 ≲σ0 ≲3000. Given the rapid increase in σ0 as the protomagnetar cools and its neutrino-driven mass loss subsides, the GRB duration is typically limited to ≲100 s. This low baryon loading at late times challenges magnetar models for ultralong GRBs, though black hole models likely run into similar difficulties without substantial entrainment from the jet walls. The maximum radiated gamma-ray energy is ≲5 × 1051 erg, significantly less than the magnetar's total initial rotational energy and in strong tension with the high end of the observed GRB energy distribution. However, the gradual magnetic dissipation model applied to a magnetar central engine, naturally explains several key observables of typical GRBs, including energetics, durations, stable peak energies, spectral slopes and a hard to soft evolution during the burst.

  6. Constraining Relativistic Bow Shock Properties in Rotation-powered Millisecond Pulsar Binaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadiasingh, Zorawar; Venter, Christo; Böttcher, Markus [Centre for Space Research, North–West University, Potchefstroom (South Africa); Harding, Alice K. [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Baring, Matthew G., E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, Houston, TX 77251 (United States)


    Multiwavelength follow-up of unidentified Fermi sources has vastly expanded the number of known galactic-field “black widow” and “redback” millisecond pulsar binaries. Focusing on their rotation-powered state, we interpret the radio to X-ray phenomenology in a consistent framework. We advocate the existence of two distinct modes differing in their intrabinary shock orientation, distinguished by the phase centering of the double-peaked X-ray orbital modulation originating from mildly relativistic Doppler boosting. By constructing a geometric model for radio eclipses, we constrain the shock geometry as functions of binary inclination and shock standoff R {sub 0}. We develop synthetic X-ray synchrotron orbital light curves and explore the model parameter space allowed by radio eclipse constraints applied on archetypal systems B1957+20 and J1023+0038. For B1957+20, from radio eclipses the standoff is R {sub 0} ∼ 0.15–0.3 fraction of binary separation from the companion center, depending on the orbit inclination. Constructed X-ray light curves for B1957+20 using these values are qualitatively consistent with those observed, and we find occultation of the shock by the companion as a minor influence, demanding significant Doppler factors to yield double peaks. For J1023+0038, radio eclipses imply R {sub 0} ≲ 0.4, while X-ray light curves suggest 0.1 ≲ R {sub 0} ≲ 0.3 (from the pulsar). Degeneracies in the model parameter space encourage further development to include transport considerations. Generically, the spatial variation along the shock of the underlying electron power-law index should yield energy dependence in the shape of light curves, motivating future X-ray phase-resolved spectroscopic studies to probe the unknown physics of pulsar winds and relativistic shock acceleration therein.

  7. Cold, clumpy accretion onto an active supermassive black hole. (United States)

    Tremblay, Grant R; Oonk, J B Raymond; Combes, Françoise; Salomé, Philippe; O'Dea, Christopher P; Baum, Stefi A; Voit, G Mark; Donahue, Megan; McNamara, Brian R; Davis, Timothy A; McDonald, Michael A; Edge, Alastair C; Clarke, Tracy E; Galván-Madrid, Roberto; Bremer, Malcolm N; Edwards, Louise O V; Fabian, Andrew C; Hamer, Stephen; Li, Yuan; Maury, Anaëlle; Russell, Helen R; Quillen, Alice C; Urry, C Megan; Sanders, Jeremy S; Wise, Michael W


    Supermassive black holes in galaxy centres can grow by the accretion of gas, liberating energy that might regulate star formation on galaxy-wide scales. The nature of the gaseous fuel reservoirs that power black hole growth is nevertheless largely unconstrained by observations, and is instead routinely simplified as a smooth, spherical inflow of very hot gas. Recent theory and simulations instead predict that accretion can be dominated by a stochastic, clumpy distribution of very cold molecular clouds--a departure from the 'hot mode' accretion model--although unambiguous observational support for this prediction remains elusive. Here we report observations that reveal a cold, clumpy accretion flow towards a supermassive black hole fuel reservoir in the nucleus of the Abell 2597 Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG), a nearby (redshift z = 0.0821) giant elliptical galaxy surrounded by a dense halo of hot plasma. Under the right conditions, thermal instabilities produce a rain of cold clouds that fall towards the galaxy's centre, sustaining star formation amid a kiloparsec-scale molecular nebula that is found at its core. The observations show that these cold clouds also fuel black hole accretion, revealing 'shadows' cast by the molecular clouds as they move inward at about 300 kilometres per second towards the active supermassive black hole, which serves as a bright backlight. Corroborating evidence from prior observations of warmer atomic gas at extremely high spatial resolution, along with simple arguments based on geometry and probability, indicate that these clouds are within the innermost hundred parsecs of the black hole, and falling closer towards it.

  8. Turbulence in Accretion Discs. The Global Baroclinic Instability (United States)

    Klahr, Hubert; Bodenheimer, Peter

    The transport of angular momentum away from the central object is a sufficient condition for a protoplanetary disk to accrete matter onto the star and spin it down. Magnetic fields cannot be of importance for this process in a large part of the cold and dusty disk where the planets supposedly form. Our new hypothesis on the angular momentum transport based on radiation hydro simulations is as follows: We present the global baroclinic instability as a source for vigorous turbulence leading to angular momentum transport in Keplerian accretion disks. We show by analytical considerations and three-dimensional radiation hydro simulations that, in particular, protoplanetary disks have a negative radial entropy gradient, which makes them baroclinic. Two-dimensional numerical simulations show that this baroclinic flow is unstable and produces turbulence. These findings are currently tested for numerical effects by performing barotropic simulations which show that imposed turbulence rapidly decays. The turbulence in baroclinic disks draws energy from the background shear, transports angular momentum outward and creates a radially inward bound accretion of matter, thus forming a self consistent process. Gravitational energy is transformed into turbulent kinetic energy, which is then dissipated, as in the classical accretion paradigm. We measure accretion rates in 2D and 3D simulations of dot M= - 10-9 to -10-7 Msolar yr-1 and viscosity parameters of α = 10-4 - 10-2, which fit perfectly together and agree reasonably with observations. The turbulence creates pressure waves, Rossby waves, and vortices in the (r-φ) plane of the disk. We demonstrate in a global simulation that these vortices tend to form out of little background noise and to be long-lasting features, which have already been suggested to lead to the formation of planets.

  9. Planet population synthesis driven by pebble accretion in cluster environments (United States)

    Ndugu, N.; Bitsch, B.; Jurua, E.


    The evolution of protoplanetary discs embedded in stellar clusters depends on the age and the stellar density in which they are embedded. Stellar clusters of young age and high stellar surface density destroy protoplanetary discs by external photoevaporation and stellar encounters. Here, we consider the effect of background heating from newly formed stellar clusters on the structure of protoplanetary discs and how it affects the formation of planets in these discs. Our planet formation model is built on the core accretion scenario, where we take the reduction of the core growth time-scale due to pebble accretion into account. We synthesize planet populations that we compare to observations obtained by radial velocity measurements. The giant planets in our simulations migrate over large distances due to the fast type-II migration regime induced by a high disc viscosity (α = 5.4 × 10-3). Cold Jupiters (rp > 1 au) originate preferably from the outer disc, due to the large-scale planetary migration, while hot Jupiters (rp meaning that more gas giants are formed at larger metallicity. However, our synthetic population of isolated stars host a significant amount of giant planets even at low metallicity, in contradiction to observations where giant planets are preferably found around high metallicity stars, indicating that pebble accretion is very efficient in the standard pebble accretion framework. On the other hand, discs around stars embedded in cluster environments hardly form any giant planets at low metallicity in agreement with observations, where these changes originate from the increased temperature in the outer parts of the disc, which prolongs the core accretion time-scale of the planet. We therefore conclude that the outer disc structure and the planet's formation location determines the giant planet occurrence rate and the formation efficiency of cold and hot Jupiters.

  10. Discovering Multidimensional Structure in Relational Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mikael Rune; Holmgren, Thomas; Pedersen, Torben Bach


    tools are available. In this paper we present an approach for the automatic construction of multidimensional OLAP database schemas from existing relational OLTP databases, enabling easy OLAP design and analysis for most existing data sources. This is achieved through a set of practical and effective......On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) systems based on multidimensional databases are essential elements of decision support. However, most existing data is stored in “ordinary” relational OLTP databases, i.e., data has to be (re-) modeled as multidimensional cubes before the advantages of OLAP...... algorithms for discovering multidimensional schemas from relational databases. The algorithms take a wide range of available metadata into account in the discovery process, including functional and inclusion dependencies, and key and cardinality information....

  11. Discovering new information in bibliographic databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Hudomalj


    Full Text Available Databases contain information that can usually not be revealed by standard query systems. For that purpose, the methods for knowledge discovery from databases can be applied, which enable the user to browse aggregated data, discover trends, produce online reports, explore possible new associations within the data etc. Such methods are successfully employed in various fields, such as banking, insurance and telecommunications, while they are seldom used in libraries. The article reviews the development of query systems for bibliographic databases, including some early attempts to apply modern knowledge discovery methods. Analytical databases are described in more detail, since they usually serve as the basis for knowledge discovery. Data mining approaches are presented, since they are a central step in the knowledge discovery process. The key role of librarians who can play a key part in developing systems for finding new information in existing bibliographic databases is stressed.

  12. Newly discovered insect RNA viruses in China. (United States)

    Qiu, Yang; Wang, ZhaoWei; Liu, YongXiang; Qi, Nan; Si, Jie; Xiang, Xue; Xia, XiaoLing; Hu, YuanYang; Zhou, Xi


    Insects are a group of arthropods and the largest group of animals on Earth, with over one million species described to date. Like other life forms, insects suffer from viruses that cause disease and death. Viruses that are pathogenic to beneficial insects cause dramatic economic losses on agriculture. In contrast, viruses that are pathogenic to insect pests can be exploited as attractive biological control agents. All of these factors have led to an explosion in the amount of research into insect viruses in recent years, generating impressive quantities of information on the molecular and cellular biology of these viruses. Due to the wide variety of insect viruses, a better understanding of these viruses will expand our overall knowledge of their virology. Here, we review studies of several newly discovered RNA insect viruses in China.

  13. Discovering, Indexing and Interlinking Information Resources. (United States)

    Celli, Fabrizio; Keizer, Johannes; Jaques, Yves; Konstantopoulos, Stasinos; Vudragović, Dušan


    The social media revolution is having a dramatic effect on the world of scientific publication. Scientists now publish their research interests, theories and outcomes across numerous channels, including personal blogs and other thematic web spaces where ideas, activities and partial results are discussed. Accordingly, information systems that facilitate access to scientific literature must learn to cope with this valuable and varied data, evolving to make this research easily discoverable and available to end users. In this paper we describe the incremental process of discovering web resources in the domain of agricultural science and technology. Making use of Linked Open Data methodologies, we interlink a wide array of custom-crawled resources with the AGRIS bibliographic database in order to enrich the user experience of the AGRIS website. We also discuss the SemaGrow Stack, a query federation and data integration infrastructure used to estimate the semantic distance between crawled web resources and AGRIS.

  14. Michael Maier--nine newly discovered letters. (United States)

    Lenke, Nils; Roudet, Nicolas; Tilton, Hereward


    The authors provide a transcription, translation, and evaluation of nine newly discovered letters from the alchemist Michael Maier (1568-1622) to Gebhardt Johann von Alvensleben (1576-1631), a noble landholder in the vicinity of Magdeburg. Stemming from the final year of his life, this correspondence casts new light on Maier's biography, detailing his efforts to secure patronage amid the financial crisis of the early Thirty Years' War. While his ill-fated quest to perfect potable gold continued to form the central focus of his patronage suits, Maier also offered his services in several arts that he had condemned in his printed works, namely astrology and "supernatural" magic. Remarks concerning his previously unknown acquaintance with Heinrich Khunrath call for a re-evaluation of Maier's negotiation of the discursive boundaries between Lutheran orthodoxy and Paracelsianism. The letters also reveal Maier's substantial contribution to a work previously ascribed solely to the English alchemist Francis Anthony.

  15. Discovering Sentinel Rules for Business Intelligence (United States)

    Middelfart, Morten; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    This paper proposes the concept of sentinel rules for multi-dimensional data that warns users when measure data concerning the external environment changes. For instance, a surge in negative blogging about a company could trigger a sentinel rule warning that revenue will decrease within two months, so a new course of action can be taken. Hereby, we expand the window of opportunity for organizations and facilitate successful navigation even though the world behaves chaotically. Since sentinel rules are at the schema level as opposed to the data level, and operate on data changes as opposed to absolute data values, we are able to discover strong and useful sentinel rules that would otherwise be hidden when using sequential pattern mining or correlation techniques. We present a method for sentinel rule discovery and an implementation of this method that scales linearly on large data volumes.

  16. Discovering the Library with Google Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Brenner


    Full Text Available Libraries need to provide attractive and exciting discovery tools to draw patrons to the valuable resources in their catalogs. The authors conducted a pilot project to explore the free version of Google Earth as such a discover tool for Portland State Library’s digital collection of urban planning documents. They created eye-catching placemarks with links to parts of this collection, as well as to other pertinent materials like books, images, and historical background information. The detailed how-to-do part of this article is preceded by a discussion about discovery of library materials and followed by possible applications of this Google Earth project.

  17. Discovering Self: Childbearing Adolescents' Maternal Identity. (United States)

    Macintosh, Janelle; Callister, Lynn Clark


    Adolescent pregnancy and motherhood have long been a topic of interest for many healthcare professionals. However, there are limited data on how childbearing adolescents incorporate motherhood identity into their sense of self. The purpose of this study was to explore how childbearing adolescents perceive motherhood as becoming part of their personal identity. This qualitative study using ethnographic data collection involved 7 months of observation, interaction, and interviews. Data were collected from nine expectant adolescents during in-depth interviews. All participants were patients at a teen mother and child clinic staffed by certified nurse midwives and a pediatrician. Narrative content analysis revealed the overall theme of discovering self, with three major themes: confirming the pregnancy, the loss of my body, and imagining my child in my arms. Adolescent mothers may need assistance to construct their maternal identity in order to strengthen self-perceptions and improve maternal/child outcomes.

  18. Black-Hole Accretion Disks --- Towards a New Paradigm --- (United States)

    Kato, S.; Fukue, J.; Mineshige, S.


    Part I: Concepts of Accretion Disks: Chap. 1: Introduction, 1.1 Accretion Energy - Historical Origin, { Accretion-Disk Paradigm - Active Universe, 1.3 Accretion-Powered Objects - Observational Reviews, 1.4 X-Ray Binaries and Ultra-Luminous X-Ray Sources, 1.5 Active Galactic Nuclei, 1.6 Present Paradigm, Chap. 2: Physical Processes Related to Accretion, 2.1 Eddington Luminosity, 2.2 Bondi Accretion, 2.3 Viscous Process, 2.4 Magnetic Instabilities, 2.5 Relativistic Effects Part II: Classical Picture: Chap. 3: Classical Models, 3.1 Viscous Accretion Disks, 3.2 Standard Disks, 3.3 Optically Thin Disks, 3.4 Accretion Disk Coronae, 3.5 Relativistic Standard Disks, 3.6 Relativistic Tori Chap. 4: Secular and Thermal Instabilities, 4.1 Secular Instability, 4.2 Thermal Instability, 4.3 Stability Examination on dot{M}-Σ and T-Σ Planes, 4.4 Mathematical Derivation of the Stability Criterion, Chap. 5: Dwarf-Nova Type Instability, 5.1 Thermal-Ionization Instability, 5.2 Time Evolution of Disks in X-Ray Novae Chap. 6: Observability of Relativistic Effects, 6.1 Ray Tracing, 6.2 Imaging - Black Hole Silhouette, 6.3 Spectroscopy - Continuum and Line, 6.4 Photometry - Light Curve Diagnosis, 6.5 Other Effects - Lensing and Jets, Part III: Modern Picture: Chap. 7: Equations to Construct Generalized Models, 7.1 Basic Equations and Importance of Advection, 7.2 One-Temperature Disks, 7.3 Two-Temperature Disks, 7.4 Time-Dependent Equations Chap. 8: Transonic Nature of Accretion Flows, 8.1 Topology of Black-Hole Accretion, 8.2 Regularity Condition at a Critical Radius, 8.3 Topology around the Critical Radius in Isothermal Disks, 8.4 Numerical Examples of Transonic Flows, 8.5 Transonic Flows with Standing Shocks Chap. 9: Radiatively Inefficient Accretion Flows, 9.1 Advection-Dominated Accretion Flow, 9.2 Radial Structure of Advection-Dominated Flow, 9.3 Radiation Spectra of Advection-Dominated Flow, 9.4 Stability of Advection-Dominated Flow, 9.5 Multi-Dimensional Effects, Chap. 10: Slim

  19. Accretion and jets from stellar-mass to supermassive black holes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Connors, R.M.T.


    Accretion and jets occur in many astrophysical systems across a multitude of size and mass scales, and environments. As such, the study of accretion and jet physics has for decades been, and still remains, a hot topic in astrophysics. Accretion onto black holes has particular significance for many


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigliaco, Elisabetta; Pascucci, I.; Mulders, G. D. [Department of Planetary Science, University of Arizona, 1629 E. University Blvd., Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Duchene, G. [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, Hearst Field Annex B-20, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Edwards, S. [Five College Astronomy Department, Smith College, Northampton, MA 01063 (United States); Ardila, D. R. [NASA Herschel Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MC 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Grady, C. [Eureka Scientific, 2452 Delmer Street, Suite 100, Oakland, CA 94602-3017 (United States); Mendigutía, I. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Woodhouse Lane, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Montesinos, B. [Departamento de Astrofísica, Centro de Astrobiología, ESAC Campus, P.O. Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid (Spain); Najita, J. R. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Carpenter, J. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Furlan, E. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, 770 S. Wilson Ave., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Gorti, U. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Meijerink, R. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Meyer, M. R., E-mail:, E-mail: [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland)


    In this paper we investigate the origin of the mid-infrared (IR) hydrogen recombination lines for a sample of 114 disks in different evolutionary stages (full, transitional, and debris disks) collected from the Spitzer archive. We focus on the two brighter H I lines observed in the Spitzer spectra, the H I (7-6) at 12.37 μm and the H I (9-7) at 11.32 μm. We detect the H I (7-6) line in 46 objects, and the H I (9-7) in 11. We compare these lines with the other most common gas line detected in Spitzer spectra, the [Ne II] at 12.81 μm. We argue that it is unlikely that the H I emission originates from the photoevaporating upper surface layers of the disk, as has been found for the [Ne II] lines toward low-accreting stars. Using the H I (9-7)/H I (7-6) line ratios we find these gas lines are likely probing gas with hydrogen column densities of 10{sup 10}-10{sup 11} cm{sup –3}. The subsample of objects surrounded by full and transitional disks show a positive correlation between the accretion luminosity and the H I line luminosity. These two results suggest that the observed mid-IR H I lines trace gas accreting onto the star in the same way as other hydrogen recombination lines at shorter wavelengths. A pure chromospheric origin of these lines can be excluded for the vast majority of full and transitional disks. We report for the first time the detection of the H I (7-6) line in eight young (<20 Myr) debris disks. A pure chromospheric origin cannot be ruled out in these objects. If the H I (7-6) line traces accretion in these older systems, as in the case of full and transitional disks, the strength of the emission implies accretion rates lower than 10{sup –10} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. We discuss some advantages of extending accretion indicators to longer wavelengths, and the next steps required pinning down the origin of mid-IR hydrogen lines.

  1. Radio Loud AGN Unification: Connecting Jets and Accretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Eileen T.


    Full Text Available While only a fraction of Active Galactic Nuclei are observed to host a powerful relativistic jet, a cohesive picture is emerging that radio-loud AGN may represent an important phase in the evolution of galaxies and the growth of the central super-massive black hole. I will review my own recent observational work in radio-loud AGN unification in the context of understanding how and why jets form and their the connection to different kinds of accretion and growing the black hole, along with a brief discussion of possible connections to recent modeling work in jet formation. Starting from the significant observational advances in our understanding of jetted AGN as a population over the last decade thanks to new, more sensitive instruments such as Fermi and Swift as well as all-sky surveys at all frequencies, I will lay out the case for a dichotomy in the jetted AGN population connected to accretion mode onto the black hole. In recent work, we have identified two sub-populations of radio-loud AGN which appear to be distinguished by jet structure, where low-efficiency accreting systems produce ‘weak’ jets which decelerate more rapidly than the ’strong’ jets of black holes accreting near the Eddington limit. The two classes are comprised of: (1The weak jet sources, corresponding to the less collimated, edge-darkened FR Is, with a decelerating or spine-sheath jet with velocity gradients, and (2 The strong jet sources, having fast, collimated jets, and typically displaying strong emission lines. The dichotomy in the vp-Lp plane can be understood as a "broken power sequence" in which jets exist on one branch or the other based on the particular accretion mode (Georganopolous 2011.We suggest that the intrinsic kinetic power (as measured by low-frequency, isotropic radio emission, the orientation, and the accretion rate of the SMBH system are the the fundamental axes needed for unification of radio-loud AGN by studying a well-characterized sample

  2. Multiwavelength diagnostics of accretion in an X-ray selected sample of CTTSs (United States)

    Curran, R. L.; Argiroffi, C.; Sacco, G. G.; Orlando, S.; Peres, G.; Reale, F.; Maggio, A.


    Context. High resolution X-ray spectroscopy has revealed soft X-rays from high density plasma in classical T Tauri stars (CTTSs), probably arising from the accretion shock region. However, the mass accretion rates derived from the X-ray observations are consistently lower than those derived from UV/optical/NIR studies. Aims: We aim to test the hypothesis that the high density soft X-ray emission originates from accretion by analysing, in a homogeneous manner, optical accretion indicators for an X-ray selected sample of CTTSs. Methods: We analyse optical spectra of the X-ray selected sample of CTTSs and calculate the accretion rates based on measuring the Hα, Hβ, Hγ, He ii 4686 Å, He i 5016 Å, He i 5876 Å, O i 6300 Å, and He i 6678 Å equivalent widths. In addition, we also calculate the accretion rates based on the full width at 10% maximum of the Hα line. The different optical tracers of accretion are compared and discussed. The derived accretion rates are then compared to the accretion rates derived from the X-ray spectroscopy. Results: We find that, for each CTTS in our sample, the different optical tracers predict mass-accretion rates that agree within the errors, albeit with a spread of ≈ 1 order of magnitude. Typically, mass-accretion rates derived from Hα and He i 5876 Å are larger than those derived from Hβ, Hγ, and O i. In addition, the Hα full width at 10%, whilst a good indicator of accretion, may not accurately measure the mass-accretion rate. When the optical mass-accretion rates are compared to the X-ray derived mass-accretion rates, we find that: a) the latter are always lower (but by varying amounts); b) the latter range within a factor of ≈ 2 around 2 × 10-10 M⊙ yr-1, despite the former spanning a range of ≈ 3 orders of magnitude. We suggest that the systematic underestimate of the X-ray derived mass-accretion rates could depend on the density distribution inside the accretion streams, where the densest part of the stream is

  3. Constraints on two accretion disks centered on the equatorial plane of a Kerr SMBH (United States)

    Pugliese, Daniela; Stuchlík, Zdeněk


    The possibility that two toroidal accretion configurations may be orbiting around a super–massive Kerr black hole has been addressed. Such tori may be formed during different stages of the Kerr attractor accretion history. We consider the relative rotation of the tori and the corotation or counterrotation of a single torus with respect to the Kerr attractor. We give classification of the couples of accreting and non–accreting tori in dependence on the Kerr black hole dimensionless spin. We demonstrate that only in few cases a double accretion tori system may be formed under specific conditions.

  4. A Comparative Study on the Effects of Millisecond- and Microsecond-Pulsed Electric Field Treatments on the Permeabilization and Extraction of Pigments from Chlorella vulgaris. (United States)

    Luengo, Elisa; Martínez, Juan Manuel; Coustets, Mathilde; Álvarez, Ignacio; Teissié, Justin; Rols, Marie-Pierre; Raso, Javier


    The interdependencies of the two main processing parameters affecting "electroporation" (electric field strength and pulse duration) while using pulse duration in the range of milliseconds and microseconds on the permeabilization, inactivation, and extraction of pigments from Chlorella vulgaris was compared. While irreversible "electroporation" was observed above 4 kV/cm in the millisecond range, electric field strengths of ≥10 kV/cm were required in the microseconds range. However, to cause the electroporation of most of the 90 % of the population of C. vulgaris in the millisecond (5 kV/cm, 20 pulses) or microsecond (15 kV/cm, 25 pulses) range, the specific energy that was delivered was lower for microsecond treatments (16.87 kJ/L) than in millisecond treatments (150 kJ/L). In terms of the specific energy required to cause microalgae inactivation, treatments in the microsecond range also resulted in greater energy efficiency. The comparison of extraction yields in the range of milliseconds (5 kV, 20 ms) and microseconds (20, 25 pulses) under the conditions in which the maximum extraction was observed revealed that the improvement in the carotenoid extraction was similar and chlorophyll a and b extraction was slightly higher for treatments in the microsecond range. The specific energy that was required for the treatment in the millisecond range (150 kJ/L) was much higher than those required in the microsecond range (30 kJ/L). The comparison of the efficacy of both types of pulses on the extraction enhancement just after the treatment and after a post-pulse incubation period seemed to indicate that PEF in the millisecond range created irreversible alterations while, in the microsecond range, the defects were a dynamic structure along the post-pulse time that caused a subsequent increment in the extraction yield.

  5. Imminent science what remains to be discovered

    CERN Document Server

    Bignami, Giovanni F


    This is not science fiction. It’s a voyage on the arrow of time to the coming fifty years. The legendary palindromic character Mr. Qfwfq from Italo Calvino’s collection of short stories, The Cosmicomics, will go with us – he who knows all the answers but will give out no hints. He will help us to discover the innovations that will have changed our lives by 2062, when, riding astride Halley’s Comet, our omniscient extraterrestrial will return to visit us.In this book, we shall learn how astronomers will devote themselves to the study of the mysterious force of dark energy, which makes up some three-quarters of the Universe. We shall also delve deeply into the study of our Earth, to exploit the immense thermal energy that lies beneath our feet. We shall solve another enigma in today’s science: the origin of life. We shall come to understand how to develop direct contacts between our brains and the rest of the world. We shall learn about the future of genetics, the reason for the longevity of Methusela...

  6. Discovering the Ancient Maya from Space (United States)

    Sever, T. L.


    The Pet6n region of northern Guatemala contains some of the most significant Mayan archeological sites in Latin America. It was in this region that the Maya civilization began, flourished, and abruptly disappeared. Remote sensing technology is helping to locate and map ancient Maya sites that are threatened today by accelerating deforestation and looting. Thematic Mapper, IKONOS, and QuickBird satellite, and airborne STAR-3i and AIRSAR radar data, combined with Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, are successfully detecting ancient Maya features such as sites, roadways, canals, and water reservoirs. Satellite imagery is also being used to map the bajos, which are seasonally flooded swamps that cover over 40% of the land surface. Through the use of various airborne and satellite sensor systems we have been able to detect and map ancient causeways, temples, reservoirs, and land forms, and locate these features on the ground through GPS technology. Recently, we have discovered that there is a strong relationship between a tropical forest vegetation signature in satellite imagery and the location of archeological sites. We believe that the use of limestone and lime plasters in ancient Maya construction affects the moisture, nutrition, and plant species of the surface vegetation. We have mapped these vegetation signatures in the imagery and verified through field survey that they are indicative of archeological sites. Through the use of remote sensing and GIS technology it is possible to identify unrecorded archeological features in a dense tropical forest environment and monitor these cultural features for their protection.

  7. Discovering Alzheimer Genetic Biomarkers Using Bayesian Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayroz F. Sherif


    Full Text Available Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs contribute most of the genetic variation to the human genome. SNPs associate with many complex and common diseases like Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Discovering SNP biomarkers at different loci can improve early diagnosis and treatment of these diseases. Bayesian network provides a comprehensible and modular framework for representing interactions between genes or single SNPs. Here, different Bayesian network structure learning algorithms have been applied in whole genome sequencing (WGS data for detecting the causal AD SNPs and gene-SNP interactions. We focused on polymorphisms in the top ten genes associated with AD and identified by genome-wide association (GWA studies. New SNP biomarkers were observed to be significantly associated with Alzheimer’s disease. These SNPs are rs7530069, rs113464261, rs114506298, rs73504429, rs7929589, rs76306710, and rs668134. The obtained results demonstrated the effectiveness of using BN for identifying AD causal SNPs with acceptable accuracy. The results guarantee that the SNP set detected by Markov blanket based methods has a strong association with AD disease and achieves better performance than both naïve Bayes and tree augmented naïve Bayes. Minimal augmented Markov blanket reaches accuracy of 66.13% and sensitivity of 88.87% versus 61.58% and 59.43% in naïve Bayes, respectively.

  8. Translating Others, Discovering Himself: Beckett as Translator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Gribben


    Full Text Available This paper examines the work of Samuel Beckett in the light of his early work as a translator of the works of other writers.  In his translations for Negro: An Anthology (1934, the Anthology of Mexican Poetry (1958, or commissioned translations for journals such as “This Quarter”, early pre-figurings of Beckett’s own thematic and linguistic concerns abound.  Rarely viewed as more than acts of raising money for himself, Beckett’s acts of translation, examined chronologically, demonstrate a writer discovering his craft, and developing his unique voice, unencumbered by the expectations of originality.  This essay posits that Beckett’s works, with their distinctive voice and characterisation, owe much to the global perspective he gained through translating across cultural, continental divides, as well as experimenting with form, which became a staple of Beckett’s own work.  Without formal training or theoretical grounding in translation, Beckett utilises the act of translation as a means of finding himself, revisiting it as a means of shaping his own unique literary voice.

  9. CORNELL: CLEO discovers B meson penguins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    The CLEO collaboration at Cornell's CESR electron-positron storage ring has discovered a rare type of B meson decay in which only a high energy photon and a K* meson are produced. These decays provide the first unambiguous evidence for an alternative route for heavy quark decay that has been given the whimsical name ''penguin diagram''. In the mid-1970s penguin diagrams were proposed to explain the puzzling strangeness quantum number selection rules in the decay of K mesons. At the same time it was realized that penguin diagrams could also be important in the CP violation seen in neutral K meson decay. CP violation, an asymmetry between matter and antimatter, is an essential ingredient in understanding why there is much more matter than antimatter in the universe. CP violation introduces a definite direction to the arrow of time, which could otherwise point equally forwards or backwards. In addition, penguin decays are very sensitive to some extensions of the Standard Model of weak decay. Although penguin diagrams were first proposed to explain an effect in K meson decay, the K system gives no unique signature for them, and verification of penguin processes meant looking elsewhere. In the Standard Model, quarks decay under the influence of the weak force, emitting a W boson. Since the W is charged, the charge of the initial quark differs from that of the final quark, so the charge of the quark changes as well as its flavour

  10. The « 3-D donut » electrostatic analyzer for millisecond timescale electron measurements in the solar wind (United States)

    Berthomier, M.; Techer, J. D.


    Understanding electron acceleration mechanisms in planetary magnetospheres or energy dissipation at electron scale in the solar wind requires fast measurement of electron distribution functions on a millisecond time scale. Still, since the beginning of space age, the instantaneous field of view of plasma spectrometers is limited to a few degrees around their viewing plane. In Earth's magnetosphere, the NASA MMS spacecraft use 8 state-of-the-art sensor heads to reach a time resolution of 30 milliseconds. This costly strategy in terms of mass and power consumption can hardly be extended to the next generation of constellation missions that would use a large number of small-satellites. In the solar wind, using the same sensor heads, the ESA THOR mission is expected to reach the 5ms timescale in the thermal energy range, up to 100eV. We present the « 3-D donut » electrostatic analyzer concept that can change the game for future space missions because of its instantaneous hemispheric field of view. A set of 2 sensors is sufficient to cover all directions over a wide range of energy, e.g. up to 1-2keV in the solar wind, which covers both thermal and supra-thermal particles. In addition, its high sensitivity compared to state of the art instruments opens the possibility of millisecond time scale measurements in space plasmas. With CNES support, we developed a high fidelity prototype (a quarter of the full « 3-D donut » analyzer) that includes all electronic sub-systems. The prototype weights less than a kilogram. The key building block of the instrument is an imaging detector that uses EASIC, a low-power front-end electronics that will fly on the ESA Solar Orbiter and on the NASA Parker Solar Probe missions.

  11. Barely visible 10-millisecond pascal laser photocoagulation for diabetic macular edema: observations of clinical effect and burn localization. (United States)

    Muqit, Mahiul M K; Gray, Jane C B; Marcellino, George R; Henson, David B; Young, Lorna B; Patton, Niall; Charles, Stephen J; Turner, George S; Stanga, Paulo E


    To investigate the morphologic features and clinical efficacy of barely visible Pascal (Optimedica Corporation) photocoagulation burns in diabetic macular edema (DME) using Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD OCT) and fundus autofluorescence (AF). Interventional case series. Retrospective evaluation of 10 eyes with newly diagnosed DME that underwent barely visible Pascal photocoagulation using an array of 10-microm, 10-millisecond photocoagulation burns. FD OCT and camera-based AF was performed at baseline and at 1 hour, 2 weeks, 4 weeks, and 12 weeks after laser. Changes in retinal thickening after laser treatment were measured using retinal thickness maps within the treated sector and the central foveal subfield. At 1 hour after treatment, burns were visualized partially with clinical biomicroscopy. AF demonstrated spots lacking autofluorescence that confirmed effective laser uptake within the Pascal arrays. Sequential changes in hyperreflectivity on FD OCT correlated with morphologic alterations seen on AF. Burns became increasingly hyperautofluorescent between 2 and 4 weeks. There were significant reductions in the retinal thickness within treated sectors on FD OCT at 2 weeks (26 +/- 32 microm; P = .012) and 3 months after laser (20 +/- 21 microm; P = .02) compared with baseline. Clinical biomicroscopic reduction of DME was the most common finding in 80%. Barely visible 10-millisecond Pascal laser seems to produce an effect at the level of the inner and outer photoreceptor segments and apical retinal pigment epithelium, with minimal axial and lateral spread of burns. FD OCT confirmed spatial localization of AF signal changes that correlated with laser burn-tissue interactions over 3 months. The technique of lower-fluence barely visible 10-millisecond laser may reduce retinal edema within affected sectors and effectively treat DME with minimization of scar formation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. X-ray-ing the Low Luminosity Supermassive Black Hole Accretion: the Crucial Role of Public Serendipitous Catalogs. (United States)

    Constantin, Anca; Green, Paul; Haggard, Daryl


    For most of the nearby active galaxies, a mix of processes including emission from star-forming regions, other ionization sources (shocks, turbulence, etc.), nuclear obscuration, as well as host galaxy starlight obfuscate the true nature of their dominant ionization mechanism. X-ray emission is one of the most reliable primary signatures of accretion activity, and with the advent of the public catalogs, it became one of the most effective diagnostics as well. Working with large and significantly less biased samples that only serendipitous X-ray catalogs are able to provide, we were able to: 1) provide the most accurate estimates of the AGN fraction as a function of a diverse set of parameters; 2) confirm with X-rays a sequence from star-forming to active to passive galaxies that matches trends in both optical host galaxy characteristics and in the large scale environment; 3) discover intriguing similarities between accretion onto supermassive and stellar size black holes, with direct consequences for the physical significance of the Gamma-L/Ledd relation for AGN of both type I and II in the local universe. This presentation will summarize these exciting results, and will also report on novel extended efforts to decipher the link between the water megamaser emission and galactic nuclear activity, which are made possible only by the availability of the large sample statistics of carefully curated X-ray measurements uniquely offered by the combined Chandra and XMM catalogs.

  13. Contrasting Behaviour from Two Be/X-ray Binary Pulsars: Insights into Differing Neutron Star Accretion Modes (United States)

    Townsend, L. J.; Drave, S. P.; Hill, A. B.; Coe, M. J.; Corbet, R. H. D.; Bird, A. J.


    In this paper we present the identification of two periodic X-ray signals coming from the direction of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). On detection with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), the 175.4 s and 85.4 s pulsations were considered to originate from new Be/X-ray binary (BeXRB) pulsars with unknown locations. Using rapid follow-up INTEGRAL and XMM-Newton observations, we show the first pulsar (designated SXP175) to be coincident with a candidate high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB) in the northern bar region of the SMC undergoing a small Type II outburst. The orbital period (87d) and spectral class (B0-B0.5IIIe) of this system are determined and presented here for the first time. The second pulsar is shown not to be new at all, but is consistent with being SXP91.1 - a pulsar discovered at the very beginning of the 13 year long RXTE key monitoring programme of the SMC. Whilst it is theoretically possible for accreting neutron stars to change spin period so dramatically over such a short time, the X-ray and optical data available for this source suggest this spin-up is continuous during long phases of X-ray quiescence, where accretion driven spin-up of the neutron star should be minimal.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volonteri, M.; Campbell, D.; Mateo, M.; Dotti, M.


    Only a small fraction of local galaxies harbor an accreting black hole, classified as an active galactic nucleus. However, many stellar systems are plausibly expected to host black holes, from globular clusters to nuclear star clusters, to massive galaxies. The mere presence of stars in the vicinity of a black hole provides a source of fuel via mass loss of evolved stars. In this paper, we assess the expected luminosities of black holes embedded in stellar systems of different sizes and properties, spanning a large range of masses. We model the distribution of stars and derive the amount of gas available to a central black hole through a geometrical model. We estimate the luminosity of the black holes under simple, but physically grounded, assumptions on the accretion flow. Finally, we discuss the detectability of 'quiescent' black holes in the local universe.

  15. Retrograde versus Prograde Models of Accreting Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Garofalo


    Full Text Available There is a general consensus that magnetic fields, accretion disks, and rotating black holes are instrumental in the generation of the most powerful sources of energy in the known universe. Nonetheless, because magnetized accretion onto rotating black holes involves both the complications of nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics that currently cannot fully be treated numerically, and uncertainties about the origin of magnetic fields that at present are part of the input, the space of possible solutions remains less constrained. Consequently, the literature still bears witness to the proliferation of rather different black hole engine models. But the accumulated wealth of observational data is now sufficient to meaningfully distinguish between them. It is in this light that this critical paper compares the recent retrograde framework with standard “spin paradigm” prograde models.

  16. Stochastic late accretion to Earth, the Moon, and Mars. (United States)

    Bottke, William F; Walker, Richard J; Day, James M D; Nesvorny, David; Elkins-Tanton, Linda


    Core formation should have stripped the terrestrial, lunar, and martian mantles of highly siderophile elements (HSEs). Instead, each world has disparate, yet elevated HSE abundances. Late accretion may offer a solution, provided that ≥0.5% Earth masses of broadly chondritic planetesimals reach Earth's mantle and that ~10 and ~1200 times less mass goes to Mars and the Moon, respectively. We show that leftover planetesimal populations dominated by massive projectiles can explain these additions, with our inferred size distribution matching those derived from the inner asteroid belt, ancient martian impact basins, and planetary accretion models. The largest late terrestrial impactors, at 2500 to 3000 kilometers in diameter, potentially modified Earth's obliquity by ~10°, whereas those for the Moon, at ~250 to 300 kilometers, may have delivered water to its mantle.

  17. MHD Flows in Compact Astrophysical Objects Accretion, Winds and Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Beskin, Vasily S


    Accretion flows, winds and jets of compact astrophysical objects and stars are generally described within the framework of hydrodynamical and magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) flows. Analytical analysis of the problem provides profound physical insights, which are essential for interpreting and understanding the results of numerical simulations. Providing such a physical understanding of MHD Flows in Compact Astrophysical Objects is the main goal of this book, which is an updated translation of a successful Russian graduate textbook. The book provides the first detailed introduction into the method of the Grad-Shafranov equation, describing analytically the very broad class of hydrodynamical and MHD flows. It starts with the classical examples of hydrodynamical accretion onto relativistic and nonrelativistic objects. The force-free limit of the Grad-Shafranov equation allows us to analyze in detail the physics of the magnetospheres of radio pulsars and black holes, including the Blandford-Znajek process of energy e...

  18. The fate of matter on accreting neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beard, M.; Wiescher, M.


    X-ray bursts have been identified as thermonuclear explosions on the surface of accreting neutron stars. During the thermonuclear runaway the initially hydrogen and helium rich accreted material will be rapidly converted by the rp-process towards heavy elements in the mass A=100 range. The evolution and time-scale as well as the final abundance distribution in the ashes of the thermonuclear runaway depends critically on the nuclear decay and reaction rates along the rp-process path. The paper discusses the subsequent fate of the matter due to electron capture and pycno nuclear reaction processes in the deeper layers of the neutron star crust. The necessary conditions for the ignition of pycno nuclear reactions will be presented and nuclear physics input information for a reliable determination of pycno nuclear reaction rates will be identified. (Author)

  19. Flickering in AGB stars: probing the nature of accreting companions (United States)

    Snaid, S.; Zijlstra, A. A.; McDonald, I.; Barker, Helen; Marsh, T. R.; Dhillon, V. S.


    Binary companions to asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars are an important aspect of their evolution. Few AGB companions have been detected, and in most cases it is difficult to distinguish between main-sequence and white dwarf companions. Detection of photometric flickering, a tracer of compact accretion disks around white dwarfs, can help identify the nature of these companions. In this work, we searched for flickering in four AGB stars suggested to have likely accreting companions. We found no signs for flickering in two targets: R Aqr and V1016 Cyg. Flickering was detected in the other two stars: Mira and Y Gem. We investigated the true nature of Mira's companion using three different approaches. Our results for Mira strongly suggest that its companion is a white dwarf.

  20. Aerodynamics and thermal physics of helicopter ice accretion (United States)

    Han, Yiqiang

    Ice accretion on aircraft introduces significant loss in airfoil performance. Reduced lift-to- drag ratio reduces the vehicle capability to maintain altitude and also limits its maneuverability. Current ice accretion performance degradation modeling approaches are calibrated only to a limited envelope of liquid water content, impact velocity, temperature, and water droplet size; consequently inaccurate aerodynamic performance degradations are estimated. The reduced ice accretion prediction capabilities in the glaze ice regime are primarily due to a lack of knowledge of surface roughness induced by ice accretion. A comprehensive understanding of the ice roughness effects on airfoil heat transfer, ice accretion shapes, and ultimately aerodynamics performance is critical for the design of ice protection systems. Surface roughness effects on both heat transfer and aerodynamic performance degradation on airfoils have been experimentally evaluated. Novel techniques, such as ice molding and casting methods and transient heat transfer measurement using non-intrusive thermal imaging methods, were developed at the Adverse Environment Rotor Test Stand (AERTS) facility at Penn State. A novel heat transfer scaling method specifically for turbulent flow regime was also conceived. A heat transfer scaling parameter, labeled as Coefficient of Stanton and Reynolds Number (CSR = Stx/Rex --0.2), has been validated against reference data found in the literature for rough flat plates with Reynolds number (Re) up to 1x107, for rough cylinders with Re ranging from 3x104 to 4x106, and for turbine blades with Re from 7.5x105 to 7x106. This is the first time that the effect of Reynolds number is shown to be successfully eliminated on heat transfer magnitudes measured on rough surfaces. Analytical models for ice roughness distribution, heat transfer prediction, and aerodynamics performance degradation due to ice accretion have also been developed. The ice roughness prediction model was

  1. No collective neutrino flavor conversions during the supernova accretion phase. (United States)

    Chakraborty, Sovan; Fischer, Tobias; Mirizzi, Alessandro; Saviano, Ninetta; Tomàs, Ricard


    We perform a dedicated study of the supernova (SN) neutrino flavor evolution during the accretion phase, using results from recent neutrino radiation hydrodynamics simulations. In contrast to what was expected in the presence of only neutrino-neutrino interactions, we find that the multiangle effects associated with the dense ordinary matter suppress collective oscillations. The matter suppression implies that neutrino oscillations will start outside the neutrino decoupling region and therefore will have a negligible impact on the neutrino heating and the explosion dynamics. Furthermore, the possible detection of the next galactic SN neutrino signal from the accretion phase, based on the usual Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect in the SN mantle and Earth matter effects, can reveal the neutrino mass hierarchy in the case that the mixing angle θ(13) is not very small.

  2. Self-gravity in Magnetized Neutrino-dominated Accretion Disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahamat, Narjes; Abbassi, Shahram, E-mail: [Department of Physics, School of Science, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, P.O. Box 91775-1436 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    In the present work we study self-gravity effects on the vertical structure of a magnetized neutrino-dominated accretion disk as a central engine for gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Some of the disk physical timescales that are supposed to play a pivotal role in the late-time evolutions of the disk, such as viscous, cooling, and diffusion timescales, have been studied. We are interested in investigating the possibility of the occurrence of X-ray flares, observed in late-time GRBs’ extended emission through the “magnetic barrier” and “fragmentation” processes in our model. The results lead us to interpret self-gravity as an amplifier for Blandford–Payne luminosity (BP power) and the generated magnetic field, but a suppressor for neutrino luminosity and magnetic barrier processes via highlighting the fragmentation mechanism in the outer disk, especially for the higher mass accretion rates.

  3. Spin-up and mixing in accreting white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livio, M.; Truran, J.W.


    It is demonstrated that existing theories of mixing in accreting white dwarfs encounter difficulties when confronted with observations of enrichments in nova ejecta. Arguments are presented, based on the Ekman spin-up process, which suggest that angular momentum transport from the accreted material to the white dwarf is more efficient than previously thought. This should lead to matter spreading over the entire white dwarf surface, as well as inward mixing. It is shown that when efficient transfer of angular momentum is taken into account, the gross features of nova outbursts can be reproduced, with the runaway occuring in a mixed layer. Some implications of the results for DQ Her, the hibernation model of novae, recurrent novae, and soft X-ray emission are discussed. 63 references

  4. Millisecond precision temporal encoding of stimulus features during cortically generated gamma oscillations in the rat somatosensory cortex. (United States)

    Bessaih, Thomas; Higley, Michael J; Contreras, Diego


    Rodents explore their immediate environment using their whiskers. Such exploration leads to micromotions, which contain many high-frequency (50-200 Hz) components. High-frequency whisker motion is represented faithfully in the temporal structure of the spike trains of trigeminal neurons. However, the representation of high-frequency sensory inputs in cortex is not fully understood. By combining extracellular and intracellular recordings in the rat somatosensory cortex and thalamus, we show that high-frequency sensory inputs, either sinusoidal or white noise, elicit internally generated gamma (20-60 Hz) band oscillations in cortical networks. Gamma oscillations modulate cortical spike probability while preserving sub-millisecond phase relations with high-frequency sensory inputs. Consequently, our results indicate that millisecond precision stimulus-locked spiking activity and sensory-induced gamma oscillation can constitute independent multiplexed coding schemes at the single-cell level. In the natural environment, tactile exploration often leads to high-frequency vibrations at the level of the sensory organs. Single-unit recordings of cortical neurons have pointed towards either a rate or a temporal code for representing high-frequency tactile signals. In cortical networks, sensory processing results from the interaction between feedforward inputs relayed from the thalamus and internally generated activity. However, how the emergent activity represents high-frequency sensory input is not fully understood. Using multisite single-unit, local field potential and intracellular recordings in the somatosensory cortex and thalamus of lightly sedated male rats, we measured neuronal responses evoked by sinusoidal and band-pass white noise whisker stimulation at frequencies that encompass those observed during texture exploration (50-200 Hz). We found that high-frequency sensory inputs relayed from the thalamus elicit both sub-millisecond stimulus-locked responses and

  5. Aggregation prone amyloid-β⋅CuII Species formed on the millisecond timescale at mildly acidic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jeppe Trudslev; Borg, Christian Bernsen; Michaels, Thomas C. T.


    Metal ions and their interaction with the amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide might be key elements in the development of Alzheimer's disease. In this work the effect of CuII on the aggregation of Aβ is explored on a timescale from milliseconds to days, both at physiological pH and under mildly acidic cond......⋅CuII species is formed on the sub-second timescale at mildly acidic pH. This observation might be central to the molecular origin of the known detrimental effect of acidosis in Alzheimer's disease....

  6. Amorphous blue phase III polymer scaffold as a sub-millisecond switching electro-optical memory device (United States)

    Gandhi, Sahil Sandesh; Kim, Min Su; Hwang, Jeoung-Yeon; Chien, Liang-Chy


    We demonstrate the application of the nanostructured scaffold of BPIII as a resuable EO device that retains the BPIII ordering and sub-millisecond EO switching characteristics, that is, "EO-memory" of the original BPIII even after removal of the cholesteric blue phase liquid crystal (LC) and subsequent refilling with different nematic LCs. We also fabricate scaffolds mimicking the isotropic phase and cubic blue phase I (BPI) to demonstrate the versatility of our material system to nano-engineer EO-memory scaffolds of various structures. We envisage that this work will promote new experimental investigations of the mysterious BPIII and the development of novel device architectures and optically functional nanomaterials.

  7. Linking channel hydrology with riparian wetland accretion in tidal rivers (United States)

    Ensign, Scott H.; Noe, Gregory B.; Hupp, Cliff R.


    The hydrologic processes by which tide affects river channel and riparian morphology within the tidal freshwater zone are poorly understood, yet are fundamental to predicting the fate of coastal rivers and wetlands as sea level rises. We investigated patterns of sediment accretion in riparian wetlands along the non-tidal through oligohaline portion of two coastal plain rivers in Maryland, U.S.A., and how flow velocity, water level, and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) in the channel may have contributed to those patterns. Sediment accretion was measured over a one year period using artificial marker horizons, channel hydrology was measured over a one month period using acoustic Doppler current profilers, and SSC was predicted from acoustic backscatter. Riparian sediment accretion was lowest at the non-tidal sites (mean and standard deviation = 8 ± 8 mm yr-1), highest at the upstream tidal freshwater forested wetlands (TFFW) (33 ± 28 mm yr-1), low at the midstream TFFW (12 ± 9 mm yr-1), and high at the oligohaline (fresh-to-brackish) marshes (19 ± 8 mm yr-1). Channel maximum flood and ebb velocity was 2-fold faster at the oligohaline than tidal freshwater zone on both tidal rivers, corresponding with the differences in in-channel SSC: the oligohaline zone's SSC was more than double the tidal freshwater zone's, and was greater than historical SSC at the non-tidal gages. The tidal wave characteristics differed between rivers, leading to significantly greater in-channel SSC during floodplain inundation in the weakly convergent than the strongly convergent tidal river. Overall sediment accretion was higher in the embayed river likely due to a single storm discharge and associated sedimentation.

  8. Multiple accretion events as a trigger for Sagittarius A* activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Czerny, B.; Kunneriath, Devaky; Karas, Vladimír; Das, T. K.


    Roč. 555, July (2013), A97/1-A97/11 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GC13-00070J Grant - others:EU(XE) COST Action ref. 208092 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : accretion * galaxy center * black hole s Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.479, year: 2013

  9. High-redshift supermassive black holes: accretion through cold flows (United States)

    Feng, Yu; Di Matteo, Tiziana; Croft, Rupert; Khandai, Nishikanta


    We use zoom-in techniques to re-simulate three high-redshift (z ≥ 5.5) haloes which host 109 M⊙ black holes from the ˜Gpc volume, MassiveBlack cosmological hydrodynamic simulation. We examine a number of factors potentially affecting supermassive black hole growth at high redshift in cosmological simulations. We find insignificant differences in the black hole accretion history by (i) varying the region over which feedback energy is deposited directly, (ii) changing mass resolution by factors of up to 64, (iii) changing the black hole seed mass by a factor of 100. Switching from the density-entropy formulation to the pressure-entropy formulation of smoothed particle hydrodynamics slightly increases the accretion rate. In general numerical details/model parameters appear to have small effects on the main fuelling mechanism for black holes at these high redshifts. The insensitivity to simulation technique seems to be a hallmark of the cold flow feeding picture of these high-z supermassive black holes. We show that the gas that participates in critical accretion phases in these massive objects at z > 6-7 is in all cases colder, denser and forms more coherent streams than the average gas in the halo. This is also mostly the case when the black hole accretion is feedback regulated (z < 6), however, the distinction is less prominent. For our resimulated haloes, cold flows appear to be a viable mechanism for forming the most massive black holes in the early universe, occurring naturally in Λ cold dark matter models of structure formation, without requiring fine-tuning of numerical parameters.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponce, Marcelo; Faber, Joshua A.; Lombardi, James C.


    Numerical calculations of merging black hole binaries indicate that asymmetric emission of gravitational radiation can kick the merged black hole at up to thousands of km s –1 , and a number of systems have been observed recently whose properties are consistent with an active galactic nucleus containing a supermassive black hole moving with substantial velocity with respect to its broader accretion disk. We study here the effect of an impulsive kick delivered to a black hole on the dynamical evolution of its accretion disk using a smoothed particle hydrodynamics code, focusing attention on the role played by the kick angle with respect to the orbital angular momentum vector of the pre-kicked disk. We find that for more vertical kicks, for which the angle between the kick and the normal vector to the disk θ ∼ 45°, matter rapidly accretes toward the black hole. There is a systematic trend for higher potential luminosities for more oblique kick angles for a given black hole mass, disk mass, and kick velocity, and we find large amplitude oscillations in time in the case of a kick oriented 60° from the vertical.

  11. Convection Enhances Magnetic Turbulence in AM CVn Accretion Disks (United States)

    Coleman, Matthew S. B.; Blaes, Omer; Hirose, Shigenobu; Hauschildt, Peter H.


    We present the results of local, vertically stratified, radiation magnetohydrodynamic shearing-box simulations of magnetorotational instability (MRI) turbulence for a (hydrogen poor) composition applicable to accretion disks in AM CVn type systems. Many of these accreting white dwarf systems are helium analogs of dwarf novae (DNe). We utilize frequency-integrated opacity and equation-of-state tables appropriate for this regime to accurately portray the relevant thermodynamics. We find bistability of thermal equilibria in the effective-temperature, surface-mass-density plane typically associated with disk instabilities. Along this equilibrium curve (i.e., the S-curve), we find that the stress to thermal pressure ratio α varied with peak values of ∼0.15 near the tip of the upper branch. Similar to DNe, we found enhancement of α near the tip of the upper branch caused by convection; this increase in α occurred despite our choice of zero net vertical magnetic flux. Two notable differences we find between DN and AM CVn accretion disk simulations are that AM CVn disks are capable of exhibiting persistent convection in outburst, and ideal MHD is valid throughout quiescence for AM CVns. In contrast, DNe simulations only show intermittent convection, and nonideal MHD effects are likely important in quiescence. By combining our previous work with these new results, we also find that convective enhancement of the MRI is anticorrelated with mean molecular weight.

  12. Limiting Accretion onto Massive Stars by Fragmentation-Induced Starvation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Thomas; /ZAH, Heidelberg; Klessen, Ralf S.; /ZAH, Heidelberg /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; /Amer. Museum Natural Hist.; Banerjee, Robi; /ZAH, Heidelberg


    Massive stars influence their surroundings through radiation, winds, and supernova explosions far out of proportion to their small numbers. However, the physical processes that initiate and govern the birth of massive stars remain poorly understood. Two widely discussed models are monolithic collapse of molecular cloud cores and competitive accretion. To learn more about massive star formation, we perform simulations of the collapse of rotating, massive, cloud cores including radiative heating by both non-ionizing and ionizing radiation using the FLASH adaptive mesh refinement code. These simulations show fragmentation from gravitational instability in the enormously dense accretion flows required to build up massive stars. Secondary stars form rapidly in these flows and accrete mass that would have otherwise been consumed by the massive star in the center, in a process that we term fragmentation-induced starvation. This explains why massive stars are usually found as members of high-order stellar systems that themselves belong to large clusters containing stars of all masses. The radiative heating does not prevent fragmentation, but does lead to a higher Jeans mass, resulting in fewer and more massive stars than would form without the heating. This mechanism reproduces the observed relation between the total stellar mass in the cluster and the mass of the largest star. It predicts strong clumping and filamentary structure in the center of collapsing cores, as has recently been observed. We speculate that a similar mechanism will act during primordial star formation.

  13. Hydrodynamical wind in magnetized accretion flows with convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbassi, Shahram; Mosallanezhad, Amin


    The existence of outflow and magnetic fields in the inner region of hot accretion flows has been confirmed by observations and numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. We present self-similar solutions for radiatively inefficient accretion flows (RIAFs) around black holes in the presence of outflow and a global magnetic field. The influence of outflow is taken into account by adopting a radius that depends on mass accretion rate M-dot = M-dot 0 (r/r 0 ) s with s > 0. We also consider convection through a mixing length formula to calculate convection parameter α con . Moreover we consider the additional magnetic field parameters β r,φ,z [ = c 2 r,φ,z /(2c 2 s )], where c 2 r,φ,z are the Alfvén sound speeds in three directions of cylindrical coordinates. Our numerical results show that by increasing all components of the magnetic field, the surface density and rotational velocity increase, but the sound speed and radial infall velocity of the disk decrease. We have also found that the existence of wind will lead to reduction of surface density as well as rotational velocity. Moreover, the radial velocity, sound speed, advection parameter and the vertical thickness of the disk will increase when outflow becomes important in the RIAF. (research papers)

  14. Dynamic effects on cyclotron scattering in pulsar accretion columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brainerd, J.J.; Meszaros, P.


    A resonant scattering model for photon reprocessing in a pulsar accretion column is presented. The accretion column is optically thin to Thomson scattering and optically thick to resonant scattering at the cyclotron frequency. Radiation from the neutron star surface propagates freely through the column until the photon energy equals the local cyclotron frequency, at which point the radiation is scattered, much of it back toward the star. The radiation pressure in this regime is insufficient to stop the infall. Some of the scattered radiation heats the stellar surface around the base of the column, which adds a softer component to the spectrum. The partial blocking by the accretion column of X-rays from the surface produces a fan beam emission pattern. X-rays above the surface cyclotron frequency freely escape and are characterized by a pencil beam. Gravitational light bending produces a pencil beam pattern of column-scattered radiation in the antipodal direction, resulting in a strongly angle-dependent cyclotron feature. 31 refs

  15. The Effects of Accretion Disk Geometry on AGN Reflection Spectra (United States)

    Taylor, Corbin James; Reynolds, Christopher S.


    Despite being the gravitational engines that power galactic-scale winds and mega parsec-scale jets in active galaxies, black holes are remarkably simple objects, typically being fully described by their angular momenta (spin) and masses. The modelling of AGN X-ray reflection spectra has proven fruitful in estimating the spin of AGN, as well as giving insight into their accretion histories and the properties of plasmas in the strong gravity regime. However, current models make simplifying assumptions about the geometry of the reflecting material in the accretion disk and the irradiating X-ray corona, approximating the disk as an optically thick, infinitely thin disk of material in the orbital plane. We present results from the new relativistic raytracing suite, Fenrir, that explore the effects that disk thickness may have on the reflection spectrum and the accompanying reverberation signatures. Approximating the accretion disk as an optically thick, geometrically thin, radiation pressure dominated disk (Shakura & Sunyaev 1973), one finds that the disk geometry is non-negligible in many cases, with significant changes in the broad Fe K line profile. Finally, we explore the systematic errors inherent in approximating the disk as being infinitely thin when modeling reflection spectrum, potentially biasing determinations of black hole and corona properties.

  16. The multiwavelength spectrum of NGC 3115: hot accretion flow properties (United States)

    Almeida, Ivan; Nemmen, Rodrigo; Wong, Ka-Wah; Wu, Qingwen; Irwin, Jimmy A.


    NGC 3115 is the nearest galaxy hosting a billion solar mass black hole and is also a low-luminosity active galactic nucleus (LLAGN). X-ray observations of this LLAGN are able to spatially resolve the hot gas within the sphere of gravitational influence of the supermassive black hole. These observations make NGC 3115 an important test bed for black hole accretion theory in galactic nuclei since they constrain the outer boundary conditions of the hot accretion flow. We present a compilation of the multiwavelength spectral energy distribution (SED) of the nucleus of NGC 3115 from radio to X-rays. We report the results from modelling the observed SED with radiatively inefficient accretion flow (RIAF) models. The radio emission can be well-explained by synchrotron emission from the RIAF without the need for contribution from a relativistic jet. We obtain a tight constraint on the RIAF density profile, ρ (r) ∝ r^{-0.73 _{-0.02} ^{+0.01}}, implying that mass-loss through subrelativistic outflows from the RIAF is significant. The lower frequency radio observation requires the synchrotron emission from a non-thermal electron population in the RIAF, similarly to Sgr A*.

  17. Vaporizing neutron stars in low-mass x-ray binaries and the statistics of millisecond pulsars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavani, M. (California Univ., Livermore, CA (United States). Inst. of Geophysics and Planetary Physics)


    Recent data on low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) and msec pulsars (MSPs) pose a challenge to evolutionary which neglect the effects of disk and companion irradiation. Here we discuss the main features of a radiation-driven (RD) evolutionary model that may be applicable to several LMXBs. According to this model, irradiation from the accreting compact star LMXBs vaporizes'' the accretion disk and the companion star by driving a self-sustained mass loss until a sudden accretion-turn of occurs. The main characteristics of the RD-evolution are: (1) the lifetime of RD-LMXB's is of order 10{sup 7} years or less: (2) both the orbital period gap and the X-ray luminosity may be consequences of RD-evolution of LMXB's containing lower main sequence and degenerate companion stars; (3) the companion star may transfer mass to the primary even if it underfills its Roche lobe; (4) the recycled msec pulsar can continue to vaporize the low-mass companion star even after the accretion turn-off produced by a strong pulsar wind; (5) the RD-evolutionary model resolves the apparent statistical discrepancy between the number of MSP's and their LMXB progenitors. 14 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  18. Discovering biological progression underlying microarray samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Qiu


    Full Text Available In biological systems that undergo processes such as differentiation, a clear concept of progression exists. We present a novel computational approach, called Sample Progression Discovery (SPD, to discover patterns of biological progression underlying microarray gene expression data. SPD assumes that individual samples of a microarray dataset are related by an unknown biological process (i.e., differentiation, development, cell cycle, disease progression, and that each sample represents one unknown point along the progression of that process. SPD aims to organize the samples in a manner that reveals the underlying progression and to simultaneously identify subsets of genes that are responsible for that progression. We demonstrate the performance of SPD on a variety of microarray datasets that were generated by sampling a biological process at different points along its progression, without providing SPD any information of the underlying process. When applied to a cell cycle time series microarray dataset, SPD was not provided any prior knowledge of samples' time order or of which genes are cell-cycle regulated, yet SPD recovered the correct time order and identified many genes that have been associated with the cell cycle. When applied to B-cell differentiation data, SPD recovered the correct order of stages of normal B-cell differentiation and the linkage between preB-ALL tumor cells with their cell origin preB. When applied to mouse embryonic stem cell differentiation data, SPD uncovered a landscape of ESC differentiation into various lineages and genes that represent both generic and lineage specific processes. When applied to a prostate cancer microarray dataset, SPD identified gene modules that reflect a progression consistent with disease stages. SPD may be best viewed as a novel tool for synthesizing biological hypotheses because it provides a likely biological progression underlying a microarray dataset and, perhaps more importantly, the

  19. ROSAT Discovers Unique, Distant Cluster of Galaxies (United States)


    Brightest X-ray Cluster Acts as Strong Gravitational Lens Based on exciting new data obtained with the ROSAT X-ray satellite and a ground-based telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory, a team of European astronomers [2] has just discovered a very distant cluster of galaxies with unique properties. It emits the strongest X-ray emission of any cluster ever observed by ROSAT and is accompanied by two extraordinarily luminous arcs that represent the gravitationally deflected images of even more distant objects. The combination of these unusual characteristics makes this cluster, now known as RXJ1347.5-1145, a most interesting object for further cosmological studies. DISCOVERY AND FOLLOW-UP OBSERVATIONS This strange cluster of galaxies was discovered during the All Sky Survey with the ROSAT X-ray satellite as a moderately intense X-ray source in the constellation of Virgo. It could not be identified with any already known object and additional ground-based observations were therefore soon after performed with the Max-Planck-Society/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla observatory in Chile. These observations took place within a large--scale redshift survey of X-ray clusters of galaxies detected by the ROSAT All Sky Survey, a so-called ``ESO Key Programme'' led by astronomers from the Max-Planck-Institut fur Extraterrestrische Physik and the Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera. The main aim of this programme is to identify cluster X-ray sources, to determine the distance to the X-ray emitting clusters and to investigate their overall properties. These observations permitted to measure the redshift of the RXJ1347.5-1145 cluster as z = 0.45, i.e. it moves away from us with a velocity (about 106,000 km/sec) equal to about one-third of the velocity of light. This is an effect of the general expansion of the universe and it allows to determine the distance as about 5,000 million light-years (assuming a Hubble constant of 75 km/sec/Mpc). In other words, we see these

  20. Flash Light Millisecond Self-Assembly of High χ Block Copolymers for Wafer-Scale Sub-10 nm Nanopatterning. (United States)

    Jin, Hyeong Min; Park, Dae Yong; Jeong, Seong-Jun; Lee, Gil Yong; Kim, Ju Young; Mun, Jeong Ho; Cha, Seung Keun; Lim, Joonwon; Kim, Jun Soo; Kim, Kwang Ho; Lee, Keon Jae; Kim, Sang Ouk


    One of the fundamental challenges encountered in successful incorporation of directed self-assembly in sub-10 nm scale practical nanolithography is the process compatibility of block copolymers with a high Flory-Huggins interaction parameter (χ). Herein, reliable, fab-compatible, and ultrafast directed self-assembly of high-χ block copolymers is achieved with intense flash light. The instantaneous heating/quenching process over an extremely high temperature (over 600 °C) by flash light irradiation enables large grain growth of sub-10 nm scale self-assembled nanopatterns without thermal degradation or dewetting in a millisecond time scale. A rapid self-assembly mechanism for a highly ordered morphology is identified based on the kinetics and thermodynamics of the block copolymers with strong segregation. Furthermore, this novel self-assembly mechanism is combined with graphoepitaxy to demonstrate the feasibility of ultrafast directed self-assembly of sub-10 nm nanopatterns over a large area. A chemically modified graphene film is used as a flexible and conformal light-absorbing layer. Subsequently, transparent and mechanically flexible nanolithography with a millisecond photothermal process is achieved leading the way for roll-to-roll processability. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Quantifying millisecond time-scale exchange in proteins by CPMG relaxation dispersion NMR spectroscopy of side-chain carbonyl groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Alexandar L.; Kay, Lewis E., E-mail: [University of Toronto, Departments of Molecular Genetics, Biochemistry and Chemistry (Canada)


    A new pulse sequence is presented for the measurement of relaxation dispersion profiles quantifying millisecond time-scale exchange dynamics of side-chain carbonyl groups in uniformly {sup 13}C labeled proteins. The methodology has been tested using the 87-residue colicin E7 immunity protein, Im7, which is known to fold via a partially structured low populated intermediate that interconverts with the folded, ground state on the millisecond time-scale. Comparison of exchange parameters extracted for this folding 'reaction' using the present methodology with those obtained from more 'traditional' {sup 15}N and backbone carbonyl probes establishes the utility of the approach. The extracted excited state side-chain carbonyl chemical shifts indicate that the Asx/Glx side-chains are predominantly unstructured in the Im7 folding intermediate. However, several crucial salt-bridges that exist in the native structure appear to be already formed in the excited state, either in part or in full. This information, in concert with that obtained from existing backbone and side-chain methyl relaxation dispersion experiments, will ultimately facilitate a detailed description of the structure of the Im7 folding intermediate.

  2. The Impact of Discovering Life beyond Earth (United States)

    Dick, Steven J.


    Introduction: astrobiology and society Steven J. Dick; Part I. Motivations and Approaches. How Do We Frame the Problems of Discovery and Impact?: Introduction; 1. Current approaches to finding life beyond earth, and what happens if we do Seth Shostak; 2. The philosophy of astrobiology: the Copernican and Darwinian presuppositions Iris Fry; 3. History, discovery, analogy: three approaches to the impact of discovering life beyond earth Steven J. Dick; 4. Silent impact: why the discovery of extraterrestrial life should be silent Clément Vidal; Part II. Transcending Anthropocentrism. How Do We Move beyond our Own Preconceptions of Life, Intelligence and Culture?: Introduction; 5. The landscape of life Dirk Schulze-Makuch; 6. The landscape of intelligence Lori Marino; 7. Universal biology: assessing universality from a single example Carlos Mariscal; 8. Equating culture, civilization, and moral development in imagining extraterrestrial intelligence: anthropocentric assumptions? John Traphagan; 9. Communicating with the other: infinity, geometry, and universal math and science Douglas Vakoch; Part III. Philosophical, Theological, and Moral Impact. How Do We Comprehend the Cultural Challenges Raised by Discovery?: Introduction; 10. Life, intelligence and the pursuit of value in cosmic evolution Mark Lupisella; 11. 'Klaatu barada nikto' - or, do they really think like us? Michael Ruse; 12. Alien minds Susan Schneider; 13. The moral subject of astrobiology: guideposts for exploring our ethical and political responsibilities towards extraterrestrial life Elspeth Wilson and Carol Cleland; 14. Astrobiology and theology Robin Lovin; 15. Would you baptize an extraterrestrial? Guy Consolmagno, SJ; Part IV. Practical Considerations: How Should Society Prepare for Discovery - and Non-Discovery?: Introduction; 16. Is there anything new about astrobiology and society? Jane Maienschein; 17. Evaluating preparedness for the discovery of extraterrestrial life: considering potential

  3. Discovering Extrasolar Planets with Microlensing Surveys (United States)

    Wambsganss, J.


    An astronomical survey is commonly understood as a mapping of a large region of the sky, either photometrically (possibly in various filters/wavelength ranges) or spectroscopically. Often, catalogs of objects are produced/provided as the main product or a by-product. However, with the advent of large CCD cameras and dedicated telescopes with wide-field imaging capabilities, it became possible in the early 1990s, to map the same region of the sky over and over again. In principle, such data sets could be combined to get very deep stacked images of the regions of interest. However, I will report on a completely different use of such repeated maps: Exploring the time domain for particular kinds of stellar variability, namely microlens-induced magnifications in search of exoplanets. Such a time-domain microlensing survey was originally proposed by Bohdan Paczynski in 1986 in order to search for dark matter objects in the Galactic halo. Only a few years later three teams started this endeavour. I will report on the history and current state of gravitational microlensing surveys. By now, routinely 100 million stars in the Galactic Bulge are monitored a few times per week by so-called survey teams. All stars with constant apparent brightness and those following known variability patterns are filtered out in order to detect the roughly 2000 microlensing events per year which are produced by stellar lenses. These microlensing events are identified "online" while still in their early phases and then monitored with much higher cadence by so-called follow-up teams. The most interesting of such events are those produced by a star-plus-planet lens. By now of order 30 exoplanets have been discovered by these combined microlensing surveys. Microlensing searches for extrasolar planets are complementary to other exoplanet search techniques. There are two particular advantages: The microlensing method is sensitive down to Earth-mass planets even with ground-based telecopes, and it

  4. Scientix in our school- discovering STEM (United States)

    Melcu, Cornelia


    My name is Cornelia Melcu and I am a primary school teacher in Brasov. Additionally, I am a teacher trainer of Preparatory Class Curriculum, Google Application in Education Course and European Projects Course and a mentor to new teachers and students in university. I am an eTwinning, Scientix and ESERO ambassador too. During the last three school years my school was involved in several STEM projects, part of Scientix community. The main goal of those projects was to develop basic STEM skills of our students based on project work integrated into the curriculum. Open the Gates to the Universe (; is an eTwinning project for primary school students started on September 2015 and finished on September 2016. Some of our partners were from the Mediterranean area. The students discovered different aspects of space science and astronomy working on international groups. They explored some aspects of Science included in their curriculum using resources from ESERO, ROEDUSEIS and Space Awareness (e.g. Calculate with Rosetta, Writing the travel diary, Build Rosetta, How to become an astronaut, etc.) The project was a great opportunity to apply integrated learning methods for developing competencies which are a part of the primary school curriculum in Romania. In Language and Communication classes the students talked about their partners living places and their traditions and habits. They learnt some basic words in their partners language related to the weather. They created stories- both in Romanian and English; they described life in space and astronomical phenomena. They talked to the other partners during the several online meetings we organized and wrote short stories in English. In Mathematics and Science they found out about the Milky Way, the Solar System, the weather, famous astronauts and astronomers. They calculated, solved problems, made experiments and explained specific natural phenomena

  5. PSLQ: An Algorithm to Discover Integer Relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, J. M.


    Let x = (x{sub 1}, x{sub 2} {hor_ellipsis}, x{sub n}) be a vector of real or complex numbers. x is said to possess an integer relation if there exist integers a{sub i}, not all zero, such that a{sub 1}x{sub 1} + a{sub 2}x{sub 2} + {hor_ellipsis} + a{sub n}x{sub n} = 0. By an integer relation algorithm, we mean a practical computational scheme that can recover the vector of integers ai, if it exists, or can produce bounds within which no integer relation exists. As we will see in the examples below, an integer relation algorithm can be used to recognize a computed constant in terms of a formula involving known constants, or to discover an underlying relation between quantities that can be computed to high precision. At the present time, the most effective algorithm for integer relation detection is the 'PSLQ' algorithm of mathematician-sculptor Helaman Ferguson [10, 4]. Some efficient 'multi-level' implementations of PSLQ, as well as a variant of PSLQ that is well-suited for highly parallel computer systems, are given in [4]. PSLQ constructs a sequence of integer-valued matrices B{sub n} that reduces the vector y = xB{sub n}, until either the relation is found (as one of the columns of B{sub n}), or else precision is exhausted. At the same time, PSLQ generates a steadily growing bound on the size of any possible relation. When a relation is found, the size of smallest entry of the vector y abruptly drops to roughly 'epsilon' (i.e. 10{sup -p}, where p is the number of digits of precision). The size of this drop can be viewed as a 'confidence level' that the relation is real and not merely a numerical artifact - a drop of 20 or more orders of magnitude almost always indicates a real relation. Very high precision arithmetic must be used in PSLQ. If one wishes to recover a relation of length n, with coefficients of maximum size d digits, then the input vector x must be specified to at least nd digits, and one must employ nd

  6. STROBE-X: X-ray Timing & Spectroscopy on Dynamical Timescales from Milliseconds to Years (United States)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Ray, P. S.; Maccarone, T; Chakrabarty, D.; Gendreau, K.; Arzoumanian, Z.; Jenke, P.; Ballantyne, D.; Bozzo, E.; Brandt, S.; hide


    We describe a probe-class mission concept that provides an unprecedented view of the X-ray sky, performing timing and 0.2-30 keV spectroscopy over timescales from microseconds to years. The Spectroscopic Time-Resolving Observatory for Broadband Energy X-rays (STROBE-X) comprises three primary instruments. The first uses an array of lightweight optics (3-m focal length) that concentrate incident photons onto solid state detectors with CCD-level (85-130 eV) energy resolution, 100 ns time resolution, and low background rates to cover the 0.2-12 keV band. This technology is scaled up from NICER [1], with enhanced optics to take advantage of the longer focal length of STROBE-X. The second uses large-area collimated silicon drift detectors, developed for ESA's LOFT [2], to cover the 2-30 keV band. These two instruments each provide an order of magnitude improvement in effective area compared with its predecessor (NICER and RXTE, respectively). Finally, a sensitive sky monitor triggers pointed observations, provides high duty cycle, high time resolution, high spectral resolution monitoring of the X-ray sky with approx. 20 times the sensitivity of the RXTE ASM, and enables multi-wavelength and multi-messenger studies on a continuous, rather than scanning basis. For the first time, the broad coverage provides simultaneous study of thermal components, non-thermal components, iron lines, and reflection features from a single platform for accreting black holes at all scales. The enormous collecting area allows detailed studies of the dense matter equation of state using both thermal emission from rotation-powered pulsars and harder emission from X-ray burst oscillations. The combination of the wide-field monitor and the sensitive pointed instruments enables observations of potential electromagnetic counterparts to LIGO and neutrino events. Additional extragalactic science, such as high quality spectroscopy of clusters of galaxies and unprecedented timing investigations of

  7. Can accretion disk properties distinguish gravastars from black holes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harko, Tiberiu; Kovacs, Zoltan; Lobo, Francisco S N


    Gravastars, hypothetic astrophysical objects, consisting of a dark energy condensate surrounded by a strongly correlated thin shell of anisotropic matter, have been proposed as an alternative to the standard black hole picture of general relativity. Observationally distinguishing between astrophysical black holes and gravastars is a major challenge for this latter theoretical model. This is due to the fact that in static gravastars large stability regions (of the transition layer of these configurations) exist that are sufficiently close to the expected position of the event horizon, so that it would be difficult to distinguish the exterior geometry of gravastars from an astrophysical black hole. However, in the context of stationary and axially symmetrical geometries, a possibility of distinguishing gravastars from black holes is through the comparative study of thin accretion disks around rotating gravastars and Kerr-type black holes, respectively. In the present paper, we consider accretion disks around slowly rotating gravastars, with all the metric tensor components estimated up to the second order in the angular velocity. Due to the differences in the exterior geometry, the thermodynamic and electromagnetic properties of the disks (energy flux, temperature distribution and equilibrium radiation spectrum) are different for these two classes of compact objects, consequently giving clear observational signatures. In addition to this, it is also shown that the conversion efficiency of the accreting mass into radiation is always smaller than the conversion efficiency for black holes, i.e. gravastars provide a less efficient mechanism for converting mass to radiation than black holes. Thus, these observational signatures provide the possibility of clearly distinguishing rotating gravastars from Kerr-type black holes.

  8. Accretion of Moon and Earth and the emergence of life (United States)

    Arrhenius, G.; Lepland, A.


    The discrepancy between the impact records on the Earth and Moon in the time period, 4.0-3.5 Ga calls for a re-evaluation of the cause and localization of the late lunar bombardment. As one possible explanation, we propose that the time coverage in the ancient rock record is sufficiently fragmentary, so that the effects of giant, sterilizing impacts throughout the inner solar system, caused by marauding asteroids, could have escaped detection in terrestrial and Martian records. Alternatively, the lunar impact record may reflect collisions of the receding Moon with a series of small, original satellites of the Earth and their debris in the time period about 4.0-3.5 Ga. The effects on Earth of such encounters could have been comparatively small. The location of these tellurian moonlets has been estimated to have been in the region around 40 Earth radii. Calculations presented here, indicate that this is the region that the Moon would traverse at 4.0-3.5 Ga, when the heavy and declining lunar bombardment took place. The ultimate time limit for the emergence of life on Earth is determined by the effects of planetary accretion--existing models offer a variety of scenarios, ranging from low average surface temperature at slow accretion of the mantle, to complete melting of the planet followed by protracted cooling. The choice of accretion model affects the habitability of the planet by dictating the early evolution of the atmosphere and hydrosphere. Further exploration of the sedimentary record on Earth and Mars, and of the chemical composition of impact-generated ejecta on the Moon, may determine the choice between the different interpretations of the late lunar bombardment and cast additional light on the time and conditions for the emergence of life.

  9. Accretion-induced Collapse from Helium Star + White Dwarf Binaries (United States)

    Brooks, Jared; Schwab, Josiah; Bildsten, Lars; Quataert, Eliot; Paxton, Bill


    Accretion-induced collapse (AIC) occurs when an O/Ne white dwarf (WD) grows to nearly the Chandrasekhar mass ({M}{Ch}), reaching central densities that trigger electron captures in the core. Using Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA), we present the first true binary simulations of He star + O/Ne WD binaries, focusing on a 1.5 {M}⊙ He star in a 3 hr orbital period with 1.1{--}1.3 {M}⊙ O/Ne WDs. The helium star fills its Roche lobe after core helium burning is completed and donates helium on its thermal timescale to the WD, \\dot{M}≈ 3× {10}-6 {M}⊙ {{yr}}-1, which is a rate high enough that the accreting helium burns stably on the WD. The accumulated carbon/oxygen ashes from the helium burning undergo an unstable shell flash that initiates an inwardly moving, carbon burning flame. This flame is only quenched when it runs out of carbon at the surface of the original O/Ne core. Subsequent accumulation of fresh carbon/oxygen layers also undergo thermal instabilities, but no mass loss is triggered, which allows {M}{WD}\\to {M}{Ch}, and then triggers the onset of AIC. We also discuss the scenario of accreting C/O WDs that experience shell carbon ignitions to become O/Ne WDs, and then, under continuing mass transfer, lead to AIC. Studies of the AIC event rate using binary population synthesis should include all of these channels, especially this latter channel, which has been previously neglected but might dominate the rate.

  10. Periodic self-lensing from accreting massive black hole binaries (United States)

    D'Orazio, Daniel J.; Di Stefano, Rosanne


    Nearly 150 massive black hole binary (MBHB) candidates at sub-pc orbital separations have been reported in recent literature. Nevertheless, the definitive detection of even a single such object remains elusive. If at least one of the black holes is accreting, the light emitted from its accretion disc will be lensed by the other black hole for binary orbital inclinations near to the line of sight. This binary self-lensing could provide a unique signature of compact MBHB systems. We show that, for MBHBs with masses in the range 106-1010 M⊙ and with orbital periods less than ˜10 yr, strong lensing events should occur in one to 10s of per cent of MBHB systems that are monitored for an entire orbit. Lensing events will last from days for the less massive, shorter period MBHBs to a year for the most massive ˜10 year orbital period MBHBs. At small inclinations of the binary orbit to the line of sight, lensing must occur and will be accompanied by periodicity due to the relativistic Doppler boost. Flares at the same phase as the otherwise average flux of the Doppler modulation would be a smoking gun signature of self-lensing and can be used to constrain binary parameters. For MBHBs with separation ≳100 Schwarzschild radii, we show that finite-sized source effects could serve as a probe of MBH accretion disc structure. Finally, we stress that our lensing probability estimate implies that ˜10 of the known MBHB candidates identified through quasar periodicity should exhibit strong lensing flares.

  11. X-ray and UV radiation from accreting nonmagnetic degenerate dwarfs. II (United States)

    Kylafis, N. D.; Lamb, D. Q.


    Numerical calculations of X-ray and UV emission from accreting nonmagnetic degenerate dwarfs are reported, which span the entire range of accretion rates and stellar masses. Calculations include the effects of bremsstrahlung, Compton cooling, radiation pressure, albedo of the stellar surface, Compton degradation and free-free abscription of the X-ray spectrum by the accreting matter. Maximum X-ray luminosity for degenerate dwarfs undergoing spherical accretion is found to be 2.2 x 10 to the 36th ergs/s, which is little changed if accretion occurs radially over only a fraction of the stellar surface, so that the emitted radiation escapes without significant scattering. The temperature characterizing the X-ray spectra produced by degenerate dwarfs strongly depends on the stellar mass and the accretion rate, and it is suggested that the correlation between spectral temperature and luminosity is an important signature of degenerate X-ray sources.

  12. Features of the accretion in the EX Hydrae system: Results of numerical simulation (United States)

    Isakova, P. B.; Zhilkin, A. G.; Bisikalo, D. V.; Semena, A. N.; Revnivtsev, M. G.


    A two-dimensional numerical model in the axisymmetric approximation that describes the flow structure in the magnetosphere of the white dwarf in the EX Hya system has been developed. Results of simulations show that the accretion in EX Hya proceeds via accretion columns, which are not closed and have curtain-like shapes. The thickness of the accretion curtains depends only weakly on the thickness of the accretion disk. This thickness developed in the simulations does not agree with observations. It is concluded that the main reason for the formation of thick accretion curtains in the model is the assumption that the magnetic field penetrates fully into the plasma of the disk. An analysis based on simple estimates shows that a diamagnetic disk that fully or partially shields the magnetic field of the star may be a more attractive explanation for the observed features of the accretion in EX Hya.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez-Semadeni, Enrique; ColIn, Pedro; Gomez, Gilberto C.; Ballesteros-Paredes, Javier; Watson, Alan W.


    We numerically investigate the effect of feedback from the ionization heating from massive stars on the evolution of giant molecular clouds (GMCs) and their star formation efficiency (SFE), which we treat as an instantaneous, time-dependent quantity. We follow the GMCs' evolution from their formation to advanced star-forming stages. After an initial period of contraction, the collapsing clouds begin forming stars, whose feedback evaporates part of the clouds' mass, opposing the continuing accretion from the infalling gas. Our results are as follows: (1) in the presence of feedback, the clouds attain levels of the SFE that are consistent at all times with observational determinations for regions of comparable star formation rates. (2) However, the dense gas mass is larger in general in the presence of feedback, while the total mass (dense gas + stars) is nearly insensitive to the presence of feedback, suggesting that it is determined mainly by the accretion, while the feedback inhibits mainly the conversion of dense gas to stars, because it acts directly to reheat and disperse the gas that is directly on its way to forming stars. (3) The factor by which the SFE is reduced upon the inclusion of feedback is a decreasing function of the cloud's mass, for clouds of size ∼10 pc. This naturally explains the larger observed SFEs of massive-star-forming regions. (4) The clouds may attain a pseudo-virialized state, with a value of the virial mass very similar to the actual cloud mass. However, this state differs from true virialization in that the clouds, rather than being equilibrium entities, are the centers of a larger-scale collapse, in which accretion replenishes the mass consumed by star formation. (5) The higher-density regions within the clouds are in a similar situation, accreting gas infalling from the less-dense, more extended regions of the clouds. (6) The density probability density functions of the regions containing the clouds in general exhibit a shape

  14. Ultraslow Ridges through Binoculars: Teleseismic Earthquake Characteristics Illuminate Accretion Processes (United States)

    Schlindwein, V.; Laederach, C.; Korger, E.


    Ultraslow spreading ridges with full spreading rates global mid-ocean ridge system, yet 85% of these ridges are still unexplored. Understanding the structure and dynamics of crustal production and the associated hydrothermal systems including their biota has become a major challenge of modern mid-ocean ridge research. The complex interplay between tectonic, magmatic and hydrothermal processes that governs lithospheric accretion at ultraslow-spreading ridges is so poorly investigated because their main representatives, the Arctic ridge system and the Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR), are situated in remote areas with difficult working conditions. While local seismicity studies with ocean bottom seismometers on slow and fast spreading ridges have greatly contributed to our understanding of active accretion processes, comparable studies are lacking for ultraslow spreading ridges forcing to fall back on studies of larger earthquakes recorded on land. Using teleseismic data from the Bulletin of the International Seismological Centre between the years 1976 and 2010, we performed a systematic analysis of the ridge related seismicity (M > 4) of the ultraslow spreading Arctic ridge system and the SWIR. These ridges were divided in 11 sections of uniform seismological, topographic and geological characteristics, totalling a length of 7200 km with the rift axis defined as a multisegment line along the topographic low of the rift valley. Only events within 30 km of the rift axis were included in our study. We found that magmatic and amagmatic accretion sections cannot be distinguished neither by event rate, moment release rate, maximum earthquake magnitude, nor by the b-value. Yet using single link cluster analysis for identification of swarms of 8 or more earthquakes, small clusters of 2-7 earthquakes and single events, we found that sections with amagmatic accretion lack swarms and show consistently a high percentage of single events, while teleseismic swarms occur only in

  15. Initiation of continental accretion in the Betic-Rif domain (United States)

    Maxime, Daudet; Frederic, Mouthereau; Stéphanie, Brichau; Ana, Crespo-Blanc; Arnaud, Vacherat


    The Betic - Rif cordillera in southern Spain and northern Morocco, respectively, form one of the tightest orogenic arc on Earth. The formation of this arcuate orogenic belt resulted from the westward migration of the Alboran crustal domain, constituted by the internal zone of the orogeny and the basement of the Alboran back-arc basin, that collided with the rifted margins of Iberia and Africa at least since the early Miocene. This collision is intimately linked to the post-35-30Ma regional slab roll-back and back-arc extension in the western Mediterranean region. The geodynamics of the Betic-Rif domain, which is of great importance for the paleogeographic reconstructions of the Tethys-Altantic and the Mediterranean sea, is still largely debated. Answers will come from a more detailed structural analyses, including refinement of the time-temperature paths and kinematics of the main structural units, which is one of the main objectives of the OROGEN research project, co-financed by BRGM, TOTAL & CNRS. In this study, we focus on the well-developed flysch-type sediments now accreted in the Betics-Rif but initially deposited in a basin, north of the african margin and on the iberian margin from the Early Cretaceous to the Early Miocene. Using low-temperature thermochronology (fission-track and (U-Th)/He analyses) combined with zircon U-Pb geochronology on the flyschs deposited on the most distal part of the margin, we aim to constrain the thermal history of both the source rocks and accreted thrust sheets at the earliest stages of continental accretion. Sample have been collected in flyschs series ranging from Mesozoic, Paleogene to Neogene ages. Additional samples have been collected in the Rif where Cretaceous series are more developed. Combined with a detailed structural analysis, LT thermochronological constraints will refine the kinematics of thrust units when continental accretion started before the final thrust emplacement occurred in the Early Miocene

  16. Black Hole Event Horizons and Advection-Dominated Accretion (United States)

    McClintock, Jeffrey; Mushotzky, Richard F. (Technical Monitor)


    The XMM data on black-hole X-ray novae are only now becoming available and they have so far not been included in any publications. This work is part of a larger project that makes use of both XMM and Chandra data. Our first publication on the Chandra results is the following: "New Evidence for Black Hole Event Horizons from Chandra" by M.R. Garcia, J.E. McClintock, R. Narayan, P. Callanan, D. Barret and S. Murray (2001, ApJ, 553, L47). Therein we present the luminosities of the two black-hole X-ray novae, GRO J0422+22 and 4U1 543-47, which were observed by Chandra. These results are combined with the luminosities of four additional black-hole X-ray novae, which were observed as part of a Chandra GTO program (PI: S. Murray). The very low, but nonzero, quiescent X-ray luminosities of these black hole binaries is very difficult to understand in the context of standard viscous accretion disk theory. The principal result of this work is that X-ray novae that contain black hole primaries are about 100 times fainter that X-ray novae that contain neutron star primaries. This result had been suggested in earlier work, but the present work very firmly establishes this large luminosity difference. The result is remarkable because the black-hole and the neutron-star systems are believed to be similar in many respects. Most importantly, the mass transfer rate from the secondary star is believed to be very comparable for the two kinds of systems for similar orbital periods. The advection-dominated accretion flow (ADAF) model provides a natural framework for understanding the extraordinarily low luminosities of the black hole systems and the hundred-fold greater luminosities of the neutron star systems. The chief feature of an ADAF is that the heat energy in the accreting gas is trapped in the gas and travels with it, rather than being radiated promptly. Thus the accreting gas reaches the central object with a huge amount of thermal energy. If the accretor is a black hole, the

  17. How much mass and angular momentum can the progenitors of carbon-enriched stars accrete? (United States)

    Matrozis, E.; Abate, C.; Stancliffe, R. J.


    The chemically peculiar barium stars, CH stars, and most carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars are all believed to be the products of mass transfer in binary systems from a now extinct asymptotic giant branch (AGB) primary star. The mass of the AGB star and the orbital parameters of the system are the key factors usually considered when determining how much mass is transferred onto the lower-mass main-sequence companion. What is usually neglected, however, is the angular momentum of the accreted material, which should spin up the accreting star. If the star reaches critical rotation, further accretion should cease until the excess angular momentum is somehow dealt with. If the star cannot redistribute or lose the angular momentum while the primary is on the AGB, the amount of mass accreted could be much lower than otherwise expected. Here we present calculations, based on detailed stellar evolution models, of the mass that can be accreted by putative progenitors of Ba and CEMP stars before they reach critical rotation under the assumption that no angular momentum loss occurs during the mass transfer. We consider different accretion rates and values of specific angular momentum. The most stringent limits on the accreted masses result from considering accretion from a Keplerian accretion disk, which is likely present during the formation of most extrinsically-polluted carbon-enriched stars. Our calculations indicate that in this scenario only about 0.05 M⊙ of material can be added to the accreting star before it reaches critical rotation, which is much too low to explain the chemical enrichment of many Ba and CEMP stars. Either the specific angular momentum of the accreted material has to effectively be lower by about a factor of ten than the Keplerian value, or significant angular momentum losses must occur for substantial accretion to take place.

  18. Reaction rate and composition dependence of the stability of thermonuclear burning on accreting neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keek, L.; Cyburt, R. H.; Heger, A.


    The stability of thermonuclear burning of hydrogen and helium accreted onto neutron stars is strongly dependent on the mass accretion rate. The burning behavior is observed to change from Type I X-ray bursts to stable burning, with oscillatory burning occurring at the transition. Simulations predict the transition at a 10 times higher mass accretion rate than observed. Using numerical models we investigate how the transition depends on the hydrogen, helium, and CNO mass fractions of the accreted material, as well as on the nuclear reaction rates of 3α and the hot-CNO breakout reactions 15 O(α, γ) 19 Ne and 18 Ne(α, p) 21 Na. For a lower hydrogen content the transition is at higher accretion rates. Furthermore, most experimentally allowed reaction rate variations change the transition accretion rate by at most 10%. A factor 10 decrease of the 15 O(α, γ) 19 Ne rate, however, produces an increase of the transition accretion rate of 35%. None of our models reproduce the transition at the observed rate, and depending on the true 15 O(α, γ) 19 Ne reaction rate, the actual discrepancy may be substantially larger. We find that the width of the interval of accretion rates with marginally stable burning depends strongly on both composition and reaction rates. Furthermore, close to the stability transition, our models predict that X-ray bursts have extended tails where freshly accreted fuel prolongs nuclear burning.

  19. Accreting white dwarf models for type I supernovae. I. Presupernova evolution and triggering mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomoto, K.


    The evolution of carbon-oxygen white dwarfs accreting helium in binary systems has been investigated from the onset of accretion up to the point at which a thermonuclear explosion occurs as a plausible explosion model for a Type I supernova. Although the accreted material has been assumed to be helium, our results should also be applicable to the more general case of accretion of hydrogen-rich material, since hydrogen shell burning leads to the development of a helium zone. Several cases with different accretion rates of helium and different initial masses of the white dwarf have been studied. The relationship between the conditions in the binary system and the triggering mechanism for the supernova explosion is discussed, especially for the cases with relatively slow accretion rate. It is found that the growth of a helium zone on the carbon-oxygen core leads to a supernova explosion which is triggered either by the off-center helium detonation for slow and intermediate accretion rates, or by the carbon deflagration for slow and rapid accretion rates. Both helium detonation and carbon deflagration are possible for the case for the slow accretion since, in this case, the initial mass of the white dwarf is an important parameter for determining the mode of ignition. Finally, various modes of building up the helium zone on the white dwarf, namely, direct transfer of helium from the companion star and the various types and strength of the hydrogen shell flashes are discussed in some detail

  20. The formation of stars by gravitational collapse rather than competitive accretion (United States)

    Krumholz, Mark R.; McKee, Christopher F.; Klein, Richard I.


    There are two dominant models of how stars form. Under gravitational collapse, star-forming molecular clumps, of typically hundreds to thousands of solar masses (Msolar), fragment into gaseous cores that subsequently collapse to make individual stars or small multiple systems. In contrast, competitive accretion theory suggests that at birth all stars are much smaller than the typical stellar mass (~0.5Msolar), and that final stellar masses are determined by the subsequent accretion of unbound gas from the clump. Competitive accretion models interpret brown dwarfs and free-floating planets as protostars ejected from star-forming clumps before they have accreted much mass; key predictions of this model are that such objects should lack disks, have high velocity dispersions, form more frequently in denser clumps, and that the mean stellar mass should vary within the Galaxy. Here we derive the rate of competitive accretion as a function of the star-forming environment, based partly on simulation, and determine in what types of environments competitive accretion can occur. We show that no observed star-forming region can undergo significant competitive accretion, and that the simulations that show competitive accretion do so because the assumed properties differ from those determined by observation. Our result shows that stars form by gravitational collapse, and explains why observations have failed to confirm predictions of the competitive accretion model.

  1. Progress of Systematic Hands on Devices for Active Learning Methods by Visualizing ICT Tools in Physics with Milliseconds Resolution (United States)

    Kobayashi, Akizo; Okiharu, Fumiko

    We are developing various systematic hands on devices for progress of active learning (AL) to improve students' conceptual understanding in physics laws. We are promoting AL methods in physics education for getting deeper conceptual understanding by using various ICT-based hands on devices and using visualizing ICT tools with milliseconds resolution. Here we investigate AL modules on collisions of big balloon pendulum with another known mass pendulum to get directly the air mass in the big balloon. We also discuss on Newton's laws of blowgun darts systems by using tapioca straws where we get definite works and energy just proportional to the length of the pipes of connected tapioca straws. These AL plans by using modules of big balloon system and blowgun-darts system are shown to be very effective for deeper conceptual understanding of Newton's Laws in almost frictionless worlds.

  2. Growth of Accreting Supermassive Black Hole Seeds and Neutrino Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagik Ter-Kazarian


    Full Text Available In the framework of microscopic theory of black hole (MTBH, which explores the most important processes of rearrangement of vacuum state and spontaneous breaking of gravitation gauge symmetry at huge energies, we have undertaken a large series of numerical simulations with the goal to trace an evolution of the mass assembly history of 377 plausible accreting supermassive black hole seeds in active galactic nuclei (AGNs to the present time and examine the observable signatures today. Given the redshifts, masses, and luminosities of these black holes at present time collected from the literature, we compute the initial redshifts and masses of the corresponding seed black holes. For the present masses MBH/M⊙≃1.1×106 to 1.3×1010 of 377 black holes, the computed intermediate seed masses are ranging from MBHSeed/M⊙≃26.4 to 2.9×105. We also compute the fluxes of ultrahigh energy (UHE neutrinos produced via simple or modified URCA processes in superdense protomatter nuclei. The AGNs are favored as promising pure UHE neutrino sources, because the computed neutrino fluxes are highly beamed along the plane of accretion disk, peaked at high energies, and collimated in smaller opening angle (θ≪1.

  3. Steepest descent method for set-valued locally accretive mappings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidume, C.E.


    Let E be a real q-uniformly smooth Banach space. Suppose T is a set-valued locally strongly accretive map with open domain D(T) in E and that 0 is an element of Tx has a solution x* in D(T). Then there exists a neighbourhood B in D(T) of x* and a real number r 1 >0 such that for any r>r 1 and some real sequence {c n }, any initial guess x 1 is an element of B and any single-valued selection T 0 of T, the sequence {x n } generated from x 1 by x n+1 =x n -c n T 0 x n , n≥1, remains in D(T) and converges strongly to x* with ||x n -x*|| O(n -(q-1)/ q). A related result deals with iterative approximation of a solution of the equation f is an element of x+Ax when A is a locally accretive map. Our theorems generalize important known results and resolve a problem of interest. (author). 39 refs

  4. Black Hole Event Horizons and Advection-Dominated Accretion (United States)

    McClintock, Jeffrey; Mushotzky, Richard F. (Technical Monitor)


    The work supported in part by this grant is part of a larger program on the detection of black hole event horizons, which is also partially supported by NASA grant GO0-1105A. This work has been carried out primarily in collaboration with Dr. M. Garcia and Prof. R. Narayan at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and with D. Barret and J. Hameury at Centre d'Etude Spoliate des Rayonnements, France. Our purpose is to confirm the existence of black-hole event horizons by comparing accreting black holes to secreting neutron stars in quiescent X-ray novae. Such a comparison is feasible because black holes and neutron stars are both present in similar environments in X-ray novae. Our second purpose is to assess the nature of accretion flows onto black holes at very low mass transfer rates. Observations of some XMM targets are still pending, whereas most of the Chandra observations have been completed. We anticipate further publications on this work in the future.

  5. Boundary Between Stable and Unstable Regimes of Accretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blinova A. A.


    Full Text Available We investigated the boundary between stable and unstable regimes of accretion and its dependence on different parameters. Simulations were performed using a “cubed sphere" code with high grid resolution (244 grid points in the azimuthal direction, which is twice as high as that used in our earlier studies. We chose a very low viscosity value, with alpha-parameter α=0.02. We observed from the simulations that the boundary strongly depends on the ratio between magnetospheric radius rm (where the magnetic stress in the magnetosphere matches the matter stress in the disk and corotation radius rcor (where the Keplerian velocity in the disk is equal to the angular velocity of the star. For a small misalignment angle of the dipole field, Θ = 5°, accretion is unstable if rcor/rm> 1.35, and is stable otherwise. In cases of a larger misalignment angle of the dipole, Θ = 20°, instability occurs at slightly larger values, rcor/rm> 1.41

  6. Diffusion time scales and accretion in the sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaud, G.


    It is thought that surface abundances in the Sun could be due largely to accretion either of comets or grains, and it has been suggested that if surface convection zones were smaller than is usually indicated by model calculations, accretion would be especially important. Unless the zone immediately below the surface convection zone is sufficiently stable for diffusion to be important, other transport processes, such as turbulence and meridional circulation, more efficient than diffusion, will tend to homogenise the Sun. Diffusion is the slowest of the transport processes and will become important when other transport processes become inoperative. Using diffusion theory the minimum mass of the convection zone can be determined in order that transport processes at the bottom of the zone are not to influence abundances in the convection zone. If diffusion time scales are shorter than the life of the star (Sun) diffusion will modify the abundances in the convection zone. The mass in the convection zone for which diffusion time scales are equal to the life of the star on the main sequence then determines the minimum mass in the convection zone that justifies neglect of transport processes at the bottom of the convection zone. It is calculated here that, for the Sun, this mass is between 3 x 10 -3 and 10 -2 solar mass, and a general explosion is derived for the diffusion time scale as a function of the mass of the convection zone. (U.K.)


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niedźwiecki, Andrzej; Szanecki, Michał [Łódź University, Department of Physics, Pomorska 149/153, 90-236 Łódź (Poland); Zdziarski, Andrzej A. [Centrum Astronomiczne im. M. Kopernika, Bartycka 18, 00-716 Warszawa (Poland)


    We study the lamppost model, in which the X-ray source in accreting black hole (BH) systems is located on the rotation axis close to the horizon. We point out a number of inconsistencies in the widely used lamppost model relxilllp, e.g., neglecting the redshift of the photons emitted by the lamppost that are directly observed. They appear to invalidate those model fitting results for which the source distances from the horizon are within several gravitational radii. Furthermore, if those results were correct, most of the photons produced in the lamppost would be trapped by the BH, and the luminosity generated in the source as measured at infinity would be much larger than that observed. This appears to be in conflict with the observed smooth state transitions between the hard and soft states of X-ray binaries. The required increase of the accretion rate and the associated efficiency reduction also present a problem for active galactic nuclei. Then, those models imply the luminosity measured in the local frame is much higher than that produced in the source and measured at infinity, due to the additional effects of time dilation and redshift, and the electron temperature is significantly higher than that observed. We show that these conditions imply that the fitted sources would be out of the e{sup ±} pair equilibrium. On the other hand, the above issues pose relatively minor problems for sources at large distances from the BH, where relxilllp can still be used.

  8. Radial Transport and Meridional Circulation in Accretion Disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philippov, Alexander A. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Rafikov, Roman R., E-mail: [Institute for Advanced Study, Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)


    Radial transport of particles, elements and fluid driven by internal stresses in three-dimensional (3D) astrophysical accretion disks is an important phenomenon, potentially relevant for the outward dust transport in protoplanetary disks, origin of the refractory particles in comets, isotopic equilibration in the Earth–Moon system, etc. To gain better insight into these processes, we explore the dependence of meridional circulation in 3D disks with shear viscosity on their thermal stratification, and demonstrate a strong effect of the latter on the radial flow. Previous locally isothermal studies have normally found a pattern of the radial outflow near the midplane, switching to inflow higher up. Here we show, both analytically and numerically, that a flow that is inward at all altitudes is possible in disks with entropy and temperature steeply increasing with height. Such thermodynamic conditions may be typical in the optically thin, viscously heated accretion disks. Disks in which these conditions do not hold should feature radial outflow near the midplane, as long as their internal stress is provided by the shear viscosity. Our results can also be used for designing hydrodynamical disk simulations with a prescribed pattern of the meridional circulation.

  9. Sub-millisecond time-resolved SAXS using a continuous-flow mixer and X-ray microbeam. (United States)

    Graceffa, Rita; Nobrega, R Paul; Barrea, Raul A; Kathuria, Sagar V; Chakravarthy, Srinivas; Bilsel, Osman; Irving, Thomas C


    Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) is a well established technique to probe the nanoscale structure and interactions in soft matter. It allows one to study the structure of native particles in near physiological environments and to analyze structural changes in response to variations in external conditions. The combination of microfluidics and SAXS provides a powerful tool to investigate dynamic processes on a molecular level with sub-millisecond time resolution. Reaction kinetics in the sub-millisecond time range has been achieved using continuous-flow mixers manufactured using micromachining techniques. The time resolution of these devices has previously been limited, in part, by the X-ray beam sizes delivered by typical SAXS beamlines. These limitations can be overcome using optics to focus X-rays to the micrometer size range providing that beam divergence and photon flux suitable for performing SAXS experiments can be maintained. Such micro-SAXS in combination with microfluidic devices would be an attractive probe for time-resolved studies. Here, the development of a high-duty-cycle scanning microsecond-time-resolution SAXS capability, built around the Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror-based microbeam system at the Biophysics Collaborative Access Team (BioCAT) beamline 18ID at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, is reported. A detailed description of the microbeam small-angle-scattering instrument, the turbulent flow mixer, as well as the data acquisition and control and analysis software is provided. Results are presented where this apparatus was used to study the folding of cytochrome c. Future prospects for this technique are discussed.

  10. Sub-millisecond time-resolved SAXS using a continuous-flow mixer and X-ray microbeam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graceffa, Rita; Nobrega, R. Paul; Barrea, Raul A.; Kathuria, Sagar V.; Chakravarthy, Srinivas; Bilsel, Osman; Irving, Thomas C.


    The development of a high-duty-cycle microsecond time-resolution SAXS capability at the Biophysics Collaborative Access Team beamline (BioCAT) 18ID at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, USA, is reported. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) is a well established technique to probe the nanoscale structure and interactions in soft matter. It allows one to study the structure of native particles in near physiological environments and to analyze structural changes in response to variations in external conditions. The combination of microfluidics and SAXS provides a powerful tool to investigate dynamic processes on a molecular level with sub-millisecond time resolution. Reaction kinetics in the sub-millisecond time range has been achieved using continuous-flow mixers manufactured using micromachining techniques. The time resolution of these devices has previously been limited, in part, by the X-ray beam sizes delivered by typical SAXS beamlines. These limitations can be overcome using optics to focus X-rays to the micrometer size range providing that beam divergence and photon flux suitable for performing SAXS experiments can be maintained. Such micro-SAXS in combination with microfluidic devices would be an attractive probe for time-resolved studies. Here, the development of a high-duty-cycle scanning microsecond-time-resolution SAXS capability, built around the Kirkpatrick–Baez mirror-based microbeam system at the Biophysics Collaborative Access Team (BioCAT) beamline 18ID at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, is reported. A detailed description of the microbeam small-angle-scattering instrument, the turbulent flow mixer, as well as the data acquisition and control and analysis software is provided. Results are presented where this apparatus was used to study the folding of cytochrome c. Future prospects for this technique are discussed

  11. Sub-millisecond time-resolved SAXS using a continuous-flow mixer and X-ray microbeam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graceffa, Rita, E-mail: [Illinois Institute of Technology, 3101 South Dearborn, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States); Nobrega, R. Paul [University of Massachusetts Medical School, 364 Plantation Street, LRB 919, Worcester, MA 01605 (United States); Barrea, Raul A. [Illinois Institute of Technology, 3101 South Dearborn, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States); Kathuria, Sagar V. [University of Massachusetts Medical School, 364 Plantation Street, LRB 919, Worcester, MA 01605 (United States); Chakravarthy, Srinivas [Illinois Institute of Technology, 3101 South Dearborn, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States); Bilsel, Osman [University of Massachusetts Medical School, 364 Plantation Street, LRB 919, Worcester, MA 01605 (United States); Irving, Thomas C. [Illinois Institute of Technology, 3101 South Dearborn, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States)


    The development of a high-duty-cycle microsecond time-resolution SAXS capability at the Biophysics Collaborative Access Team beamline (BioCAT) 18ID at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, USA, is reported. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) is a well established technique to probe the nanoscale structure and interactions in soft matter. It allows one to study the structure of native particles in near physiological environments and to analyze structural changes in response to variations in external conditions. The combination of microfluidics and SAXS provides a powerful tool to investigate dynamic processes on a molecular level with sub-millisecond time resolution. Reaction kinetics in the sub-millisecond time range has been achieved using continuous-flow mixers manufactured using micromachining techniques. The time resolution of these devices has previously been limited, in part, by the X-ray beam sizes delivered by typical SAXS beamlines. These limitations can be overcome using optics to focus X-rays to the micrometer size range providing that beam divergence and photon flux suitable for performing SAXS experiments can be maintained. Such micro-SAXS in combination with microfluidic devices would be an attractive probe for time-resolved studies. Here, the development of a high-duty-cycle scanning microsecond-time-resolution SAXS capability, built around the Kirkpatrick–Baez mirror-based microbeam system at the Biophysics Collaborative Access Team (BioCAT) beamline 18ID at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, is reported. A detailed description of the microbeam small-angle-scattering instrument, the turbulent flow mixer, as well as the data acquisition and control and analysis software is provided. Results are presented where this apparatus was used to study the folding of cytochrome c. Future prospects for this technique are discussed.

  12. Evaluation of number concentration quantification by single-particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry: microsecond vs. millisecond dwell times. (United States)

    Abad-Álvaro, Isabel; Peña-Vázquez, Elena; Bolea, Eduardo; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar; Castillo, Juan R; Laborda, Francisco


    The quality of the quantitative information in single-particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SP-ICP-MS) depends directly on the number concentration of the nanoparticles in the sample analyzed, which is proportional to the flux of nanoparticles through the plasma. Particle number concentrations must be selected in accordance with the data acquisition frequency, to control the precision from counting statistics and the bias, which is produced by the occurrence of multiple-particle events recorded as single-particle events. With quadrupole mass spectrometers, the frequency of data acquisition is directly controlled by the dwell time. The effect of dwell times from milli- to microseconds (10 ms, 5 ms, 100 μs, and 50 μs) on the quality of the quantitative data has been studied. Working with dwell times in the millisecond range, precision figures about 5 % were achieved, whereas using microsecond dwell times, the suitable fluxes of nanoparticles are higher and precision was reduced down to 1 %; this was independent of the dwell time selected. Moreover, due to the lower occurrence of multiple-nanoparticle events, linear ranges are wider when dwell times equal to or shorter than 100 μs are used. A calculation tool is provided to determine the optimal concentration for any instrument or experimental conditions selected. On the other hand, the use of dwell times in the microsecond range reduces significantly the contribution of the background and/or the presence of dissolved species, in comparison with the use of millisecond dwell times. Although the use of dwell times equal to or shorter than 100 μs offers improved performance working in single-particle mode, the use of conventional dwell times (3-10 ms) should not be discarded, once their limitations are known.

  13. Millisecond Magnetar Birth Connects FRB 121102 to Superluminous Supernovae and Long-duration Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, Brian D.; Margalit, Ben [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Berger, Edo [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)


    Subarcsecond localization of the repeating fast radio burst FRB 121102 revealed its coincidence with a dwarf host galaxy and a steady (“quiescent”) nonthermal radio source. We show that the properties of the host galaxy are consistent with those of long-duration gamma-ray bursts (LGRB) and hydrogen-poor superluminous supernovae (SLSNe-I). Both LGRBs and SLSNe-I were previously hypothesized to be powered by the electromagnetic spin-down of newly formed, strongly magnetized neutron stars with millisecond birth rotation periods (“millisecond magnetars”). This motivates considering a scenario whereby the repeated bursts from FRB 121102 originate from a young magnetar remnant embedded within a young hydrogen-poor supernova (SN) remnant. Requirements on the gigahertz free–free optical depth through the expanding SN ejecta (accounting for photoionization by the rotationally powered magnetar nebula), energetic constraints on the bursts, and constraints on the size of the quiescent source all point to an age of less than a few decades. The quiescent radio source can be attributed to synchrotron emission from the shock interaction between the fast outer layer of the supernova ejecta with the surrounding wind of the progenitor star, or the radio source can from deeper within the magnetar wind nebula as outlined in Metzger et al. Alternatively, the radio emission could be an orphan afterglow from an initially off-axis LGRB jet, though this might require the source to be too young. The young age of the source can be tested by searching for a time derivative of the dispersion measure and the predicted fading of the quiescent radio source. We propose future tests of the SLSNe-I/LGRB/FRB connection, such as searches for FRBs from nearby SLSNe-I/LGRBs on timescales of decades after their explosions.

  14. Pulsed Gamma-Rays From the Millisecond Pulsar J0030+0451 with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, Aous A.; Ackermann, M.; Atwood, W.B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, Guido; Bastieri, Denis; Battelino, M.; Baughman, B.M.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Bloom, Elliott D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A.W.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Burnett, Thompson H.


    We report the discovery of gamma-ray pulsations from the nearby isolated millisecond pulsar PSR J0030+0451 with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (formerly GLAST). This discovery makes PSR J0030+0451 the second millisecond pulsar to be detected in gamma-rays after PSR J0218+4232, observed by the EGRET instrument on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. The spin-down power (dot E) = 3.5 x 10 33 ergs s -1 is an order of magnitude lower than the empirical lower bound of previously known gamma-ray pulsars. The emission profile is characterized by two narrow peaks, respectively 0.07 ± 0.01 and 0.08 ± 0.02 wide, separated by 0.44 ± 0.02 in phase. The first gamma-ray peak falls 0.15 ± 0.01 after the main radio peak. The pulse shape is similar to that of the 'normal' gamma-ray pulsars. An exponentially cut-off power-law fit of the emission spectrum leads to an integral photon flux above 100 MeV of (6.76 ± 1.05 ± 1.35) x 10 -8 cm -2 s -1 with cut-off energy (1.7 ± 0.4 ± 0.5) GeV. Based on its parallax distance of (300 ± 90) pc, we obtain a gamma-ray efficiency L γ /(dot E) ≅ 15% for the conversion of spin-down energy rate into gamma-ray radiation, assuming isotropic emission.

  15. New limits on the population of normal and millisecond pulsars in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (United States)

    Ridley, J. P.; Lorimer, D. R.


    We model the potentially observable populations of normal and millisecond radio pulsars in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC, respectively) where the known population currently stands at 19 normal radio pulsars. Taking into account the detection thresholds of previous surveys, and assuming optimal period and luminosity distributions based on studies of Galactic pulsars, we estimate that there are (1.79 +/- 0.20) × 104 and (1.09 +/- 0.16) × 104 normal pulsars in the LMC and SMC, respectively. When we attempt to correct for beaming effects, and the fraction of high-velocity pulsars which escape the clouds, we estimate birth rates in both the LMC and SMC to be comparable and in the range of 0.5-1 pulsars per century. Although higher than estimates for the rate of core-collapse supernovae in the clouds, these pulsar birth rates are consistent with historical supernova observations in the past 300 yr. A substantial population of active radio pulsars (of the order of a few hundred thousand) has escaped the LMC and SMC and populates the local intergalactic medium. For the millisecond pulsar (MSP) population, the lack of any detections from current surveys leads to respective upper limits (at the 95 per cent confidence level) of 15000 for the LMC and 23000 for the SMC. Several MSPs could be detected by a currently ongoing survey of the SMC with improved time and frequency resolution using the Parkes multibeam system. Giant-pulse emitting neutron stars could also be seen by this survey.

  16. Pulsed Gamma-Rays From the Millisecond Pulsar J0030+0451 with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdo, Aous A.; /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C.; Ackermann, M.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Atwood, W.B.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Axelsson, M. /Stockholm U., OKC /Stockholm U.; Baldini, L.; /INFN, Pisa; Ballet, J.; /DAPNIA, Saclay; Barbiellini, Guido; /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U.; Bastieri, Denis; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Battelino, M.; /Stockholm U., OKC /Royal Inst. Tech., Stockholm; Baughman, B.M.; /Ohio State U.; Bechtol, K.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bellazzini, R.; /INFN, Pisa; Berenji, B.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bloom, Elliott D.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bonamente, E.; /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U.; Borgland, A.W.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bregeon, J.; /INFN, Pisa; Brez, A.; /INFN, Pisa; Brigida, M.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari; Bruel, P.; /Ecole Polytechnique; Burnett, Thompson H.; /Washington U., Seattle /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /IASF, Milan /IASF, Milan /DAPNIA, Saclay /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /George Mason U. /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /NASA, Goddard /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /LPCE, Orleans /Montpellier U. /Sonoma State U. /Stockholm U., OKC /Royal Inst. Tech., Stockholm /Stockholm U. /ASDC, Frascati /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /INFN, Trieste /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /UC, Santa Cruz /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /CENBG, Gradignan /CENBG, Gradignan /Montpellier U. /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /INFN, Trieste /Hiroshima U.; /more authors..


    We report the discovery of gamma-ray pulsations from the nearby isolated millisecond pulsar PSR J0030+0451 with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (formerly GLAST). This discovery makes PSR J0030+0451 the second millisecond pulsar to be detected in gamma-rays after PSR J0218+4232, observed by the EGRET instrument on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. The spin-down power {dot E} = 3.5 x 10{sup 33} ergs s{sup -1} is an order of magnitude lower than the empirical lower bound of previously known gamma-ray pulsars. The emission profile is characterized by two narrow peaks, respectively 0.07 {+-} 0.01 and 0.08 {+-} 0.02 wide, separated by 0.44 {+-} 0.02 in phase. The first gamma-ray peak falls 0.15 {+-} 0.01 after the main radio peak. The pulse shape is similar to that of the 'normal' gamma-ray pulsars. An exponentially cut-off power-law fit of the emission spectrum leads to an integral photon flux above 100 MeV of (6.76 {+-} 1.05 {+-} 1.35) x 10{sup -8} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} with cut-off energy (1.7 {+-} 0.4 {+-} 0.5) GeV. Based on its parallax distance of (300 {+-} 90) pc, we obtain a gamma-ray efficiency L{sub {gamma}}/{dot E} {approx_equal} 15% for the conversion of spin-down energy rate into gamma-ray radiation, assuming isotropic emission.

  17. In situ accretion of gaseous envelopes on to planetary cores embedded in evolving protoplanetary discs (United States)

    Coleman, Gavin A. L.; Papaloizou, John C. B.; Nelson, Richard P.


    The core accretion hypothesis posits that planets with significant gaseous envelopes accreted them from their protoplanetary discs after the formation of rocky/icy cores. Observations indicate that such exoplanets exist at a broad range of orbital radii, but it is not known whether they accreted their envelopes in situ, or originated elsewhere and migrated to their current locations. We consider the evolution of solid cores embedded in evolving viscous discs that undergo gaseous envelope accretion in situ with orbital radii in the range 0.1-10 au. Additionally, we determine the long-term evolution of the planets that had no runaway gas accretion phase after disc dispersal. We find the following. (I) Planets with 5 M⊕ cores never undergo runaway accretion. The most massive envelope contained 2.8 M⊕ with the planet orbiting at 10 au. (II) Accretion is more efficient on to 10 M⊕ and 15 M⊕ cores. For orbital radii ap ≥ 0.5 au, 15 M⊕ cores always experienced runaway gas accretion. For ap ≥ 5 au, all but one of the 10 M⊕ cores experienced runaway gas accretion. No planets experienced runaway growth at ap = 0.1 au. (III) We find that, after disc dispersal, planets with significant gaseous envelopes cool and contract on Gyr time-scales, the contraction time being sensitive to the opacity assumed. Our results indicate that Hot Jupiters with core masses ≲15 M⊕ at ≲0.1 au likely accreted their gaseous envelopes at larger distances and migrated inwards. Consistently with the known exoplanet population, super-Earths and mini-Neptunes at small radii during the disc lifetime, accrete only modest gaseous envelopes.

  18. A New Paradigm for Gamma Ray Bursts: Long Term Accretion Rate Modulation by an External Accretion Disk (United States)

    Cannizzo, John; Gehrels, Neil


    We present a new way of looking at the very long term evolution of GRBs in which the disk of material surrounding the putative black hole powering the GRB jet modulates the mass flow, and hence the efficacy of the process that extracts rotational energy from the black hole and inner accretion disk. The pre-Swift paradigm of achromatic, shallow-to-steep "breaks" in the long term GRB light curves has not been borne out by detailed Swift data amassed in the past several years. We argue that, given the initial existence of a fall-back disk near the progenitor, an unavoidable consequence will be the formation of an "external disk" whose outer edge continually moves to larger radii due to angular momentum transport and lack of a confining torque. The mass reservoir at large radii moves outward with time and gives a natural power law decay to the GRB light curves. In this model, the different canonical power law decay segments in the GRB identified by Zhang et al. and Nousek et al. represent different physical states of the accretion disk. We identify a physical disk state with each power law segment.

  19. Accretion and core formation: constraints from metal-silicate partitioning. (United States)

    Wood, Bernard J


    Experimental metal-silicate partitioning data for Ni, Co, V, Cr, Nb, Mn, Si and W were used to investigate the geochemical consequences of a range of models for accretion and core formation on Earth. The starting assumptions were chondritic ratios of refractory elements in the Earth and the segregation of metal at the bottom of a magma ocean, which deepened as the planet grew and which had, at its base, a temperature close to the liquidus of the silicate. The models examined were as follows. (i) Continuous segregation from a mantle which is chemically homogeneous and which has a fixed oxidation state, corresponding to 6.26 per cent oxidized Fe. Although Ni, Co and W partitioning is consistent with chondritic ratios, the current V content of the silicate Earth cannot be reconciled with core segregation under these conditions of fixed oxidation state. (ii) Continuous segregation from a mantle which is chemically homogeneous but in which the Earth became more oxidized as it grew. In this case, the Ni, Co, W, V, Cr and Nb contents of core and mantle are easily matched to those calculated from the chondritic ratios of refractory elements. The magma ocean is calculated to maintain a thickness approximately 35 per cent of the depth to the core-mantle boundary in the accreting Earth, yielding a maximum pressure of 44GPa. This model yields a Si content of the core of 5.7 per cent, in good agreement with cosmochemical estimates and with recent isotopic data. (iii) Continuous segregation from a mantle which is not homogeneous and in which the core equilibrates with a restricted volume of mantle at the base of the magma ocean. This is found to increase depth of the magma ocean by approximately 50 per cent. All of the other elements (except Mn) have partitioning consistent with chondritic abundances in the Earth, provided the Earth became, as before, progressively oxidized during accretion. (iv) Continuous segregation of metal from a crystal-melt mush. In this case, pressures

  20. Angular momentum, accretion, and radial flows in chemodynamical models of spiral galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pezzulli, G.; Fraternali, F.


    Gas accretion and radial flows are key ingredients of the chemical evolution of spiral galaxies. They are also tightly linked to each other (accretion drives radial flows due to angular momentum conservation) and should therefore be modeled simultaneously. We summarize an algorithm that can be used


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Burkert, Andreas


    A simple model of gas accretion in young galaxy disks suggests that fast turbulent motions can be driven by accretion energy for a time t acc ∼ 2(ε 0.5 GM 2 /ξV 3 ) 0.5 where ε is the fraction of the accretion energy going into disk turbulence, M and V are the galaxy mass and rotation speed, and ξ is the accretion rate. After t acc , accretion is replaced by disk instabilities as a source of turbulence driving, and shortly after that, energetic feedback by young stars should become important. The star formation rate equilibrates at the accretion rate after 1 to 2 t acc , depending on the star formation efficiency per dynamical time. The fast turbulence that is observed in high-redshift starburst disks is not likely to be driven by accretion because the initial t acc phase is over by the time the starburst is present. However, the high turbulent speeds that must have been present earlier, when the observed massive clumps first formed, could have been driven by accretion energy. The combined observations of a high relative velocity dispersion in the gas of z ∼ 2 clumpy galaxies and a gas mass comparable to the stellar mass suggest that either the star formation efficiency is fairly high, perhaps 10x higher than in local galaxies, or the observed turbulence is powered by young stars.

  2. Erosion and Accretion on a Mudflat: The Importance of Very Shallow-Water Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shi, B.; Cooper, J.R.; Pratolongo; Gao, S.; Bouma, T.J.; Li, G.; Li, C.; Yang, S.L.; Wang, Y.


    Understanding erosion and accretion dynamics during an entire tidal cycle is important for assessing their impacts on the habitats of biological communities and the long-term morphological evolution of intertidal mudflats. However, previous studies often omitted erosion and accretion during very

  3. Magnetic field structure in accretion columns on HMXB and effects on CRSF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukherjee Dipanjan


    Full Text Available In accreting neutron star binaries, matter is channelled by the magnetic fields from the accretion disc to the poles of neutron stars forming an accretion mound. We model such mounds by numerically solving the Grad-Shafranov equation for axisymmetric static MHD equilibria. From our solutions we infer local distortion of field lines due to the weight of accreted matter. Variation in mass loading at the accretion disc will alter the shape of the accretion mound which will also affect the local field distortion. From simulations of cyclotron resonance scattering features from HMXBs, we conclude that local field distortion will greatly affect the shape and nature of the CRSF. From phase resolved spectral analysis one can infer the local field structure and hence the nature of mass loading of field lines at the accretion disc. We also study the stability of such mounds by performing MHD simulations using the PLUTO MHD code. We find that pressure and gravity driven instabilities depend on the total mass accreted and the nature of mass loading of the field lines.

  4. Effects of Black Hole Spin on the Limit-Cycle Behaviour of Accretion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present a spatially 1.5-dimensional, time-dependent numerical study of accretion disks around Kerr black holes. Our study focuses on the limit-cycle behavior of thermally unstable accretion disks. We find that maximal luminosity may be a more appropriate probe of black hole spin than the cycle duration and influence ...

  5. The fundamental plane of accretion onto black holes with dynamical masses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gültekin, K.; Cackett, E.M.; Miller, J.M.; Di Matteo, T.; Markoff, S.; Richstone, D.O.


    Black hole accretion and jet production are areas of intensive study in astrophysics. Recent work has found a relation between radio luminosity, X-ray luminosity, and black hole mass. With the assumption that radio and X-ray luminosities are suitable proxies for jet power and accretion power,

  6. Accretion rates in salt marshes in the Eastern Scheldt Southwest Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oenema, O.; Delaune, R.D.


    Vertical accretion and sediment accumulation rates were determined from the distribution of 137Cs in sediment cores, from historic documents, and from artificial white-coloured tracer layers in salt marshes in the Eastern Scheldt. Salt marsh accretion is related to the steady rise of the mean high

  7. Vertical dissipation profiles and the photosphere location in thin and slim accretion disks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sądowski, A.; Abramowicz, M. A.; Bursa, Michal; Kluzniak, W.; Rózanska, A.; Straub, O.


    Roč. 502, č. 1 (2009), s. 7-13 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300030510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : accretion * accretion disks * black hole physics Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.179, year: 2009

  8. Iterative solution of nonlinear equations with strongly accretive operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidume, C.E.


    Let E be a real Banach space with a uniformly convex dual, and let K be a nonempty closed convex and bounded subset of E. Suppose T:K→K is a strongly accretive map such that for each f is an element of K the equation Tx=f has a solution in K. It is proved that each of the two well known fixed point iteration methods (the Mann and Ishikawa iteration methods) converges strongly to a solution of the equation Tx=f. Furthermore, our method shows that such a solution is necessarily unique. Explicit error estimates are given. Our results resolve in the affirmative two open problems (J. Math. Anal. Appl. Vol 151(2) (1990), p. 460) and generalize important known results. (author). 32 refs

  9. The luminosity of particle beams from thick accretion discs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayan, R.; Nityananda, R.; Wiita, P.J.


    The interaction of the radiation produced in the funnels of thick, highly luminous accretion discs with the walls of these funnels is investigated. Some processes not considered in an earlier discussion have been included. The turbulent mixing of the surface layer with deeper regions acts to reduce the luminosity associated with outflowing matter. The modification of the radiation field by the moving walls is also important. It is found, for the specific funnel geometry studied, corresponding to a radiation luminosity of 8.5 times the Eddington limit Lsub(E), that up to 1.5 Lsub(E) can be carried away as a particle beam, even for an optically thin funnel. This particle luminosity is sensitive to the sound velocity and the mixing efficiency in the walls. (author)

  10. Diskoseismology: Probing accretion disks. I - Trapped adiabatic oscillations (United States)

    Nowak, Michael A.; Wagoner, Robert V.


    The normal modes of acoustic oscillations within thin accretion disks which are terminated by an innermost stable orbit around a slowly rotating black hole or weakly magnetized compact neutron star are analyzed. The dominant relativistic effects which allow modes to be trapped within the inner region of the disk are approximated via a modified Newtonian potential. A general formalism is developed for investigating the adiabatic oscillations of arbitrary unperturbed disk models. The generic behavior is explored by way of an expansion of the Lagrangian displacement about the plane of symmetry and by assuming separable solutions with the same radial wavelength for the horizontal and vertical perturbations. The lowest eigenfrequencies and eigenfunctions of a particular set of radial and quadrupole modes which have minimum motion normal for the plane are obtained. These modes correspond to the standard dispersion relation of disk theory.

  11. Ishikawa iteration process for nonlinear Lipschitz strongly accretive mappings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidume, C.E.; Osilike, M.O.


    Let E=L p , p≥2 and let T:E→ E be a Lipschitzian and strongly accretive mapping. Let S:E → E be defined by Sx=f-Tx+x. It is proved that under suitable conditions on the real sequences {α n } ∞ n=0 and {β n } ∞ n=0 , the iteration process, x 0 is an element of E, x n+1 =(1-α n ) x n +α n S[(1-β n ) x n +β n Sx n ], n≥0, converges strongly to the unique solution of Tx=f. A related result deals with the iterative approximation of fixed points for Lipschitz strongly pseudocontractive mappings in E. A consequence of our results gives an affirmative answer to a problem posed by one of the authors in 1990. (J. Math. Anal. Appl. 151, 2 (1990) p. 460). (author). 36 refs

  12. Gaseous accretion and the formation of giant planets (United States)

    Podolak, Morris; Hubbard, William B.; Pollack, James B.


    This chapter presents a review of the structure and composition of the giant planets and the theory of their formation and growth. All of the giant planets have heavy-element cores, and have envelopes which contain large amounts of high-Z material in addition to hydrogen and helium. The planets most probably formed through the core instability mechanism. This is a much more complex mechanism than was previously thought, depending, as it does, on several time-dependent parameters. We present the results of new, more detailed, simulations. Towards the end of accretion, the transfer of angular momentum to the outer layers of the contracting protoplanet should lead to the formation of a disk. This disk may be the site of satellite formation. Some recent simulation results are shown.

  13. Fractionation of noble gases by thermal escape from accreting planetesimals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donahue, T.M.


    Assuming solar initial elemental and isotopic ratios and a determination of the degree of fractionation occurring by competition between gravitational binding and escape, a model is developed for selective noble gas loss through escape during the growth of planetesimals to form the terrestrial planets. Of the two classes of planetesimals that can form on a time scale that is consistent with modern accretion models, one is depleted in neon while the other is neon-rich. The mechanism is noted to be capable of accounting for all known properties of the noble gas volatiles on the terrestrial planets, with only one exception, namely the Ar-36/Ar-38 ratios for Mars and the earth, which are much lower than observed. 11 references

  14. X-ray properties of accreting black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, N.E.


    The X-ray signatures of Cyg X-1 and IMC X-3 have been taken as templates of binary systems which include a black hole component. Cyg X-1 exhibits rapid flickering on a time scale varying from 0.001-1 sec and bimodal spectral behavior in its X-ray emissions. Similar emissions from IMC X-3 have been detected, along with an absence of X-ray eclipses. Taking three characteristics, i.e., flickering, bimodal spectra and the estimated masses of the X ray components, of assumed black hole companions for Cyg X-1 and IMC X-3, an estimate is made of the number of black holes a whole sky survey would reveal, based on data from the HEAO-1 and Einstein Observatory satellites. Cin X-1, BX 339-4 and LMC X-1 are concluded to probably be accreting black holes. Eleven other objects are identified as possible candidates, as are active galactic nuclei

  15. Accreting Double White Dwarf Binaries: Implications for LISA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kremer, Kyle; Breivik, Katelyn; Larson, Shane L.; Kalogera, Vassiliki, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60201 (United States)


    We explore the long-term evolution of mass-transferring white dwarf (WD) binaries undergoing both direct-impact and disk accretion and explore implications of such systems to gravitational-wave (GW) astronomy. We cover a broad range of initial component masses and show that these systems, the majority of which lie within the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna ( LISA ) sensitivity range, exhibit prominent negative orbital frequency evolution (chirp) for a significant fraction of their lifetimes. Using a galactic population synthesis, we predict ∼2700 of these systems will be observable with a negative chirp of 0.1 yr{sup −2} by a space-based GW detector like LISA . We also show that detections of mass-transferring double WD systems by LISA may provide astronomers with unique ways of probing the physics governing close compact object binaries.

  16. Whiting 1: Confirmation of its accretion by the Milky Way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carballo-Bello Julio A.


    Full Text Available We investigate the association of Whiting 1 with the Sagittarius tidal stream by obtaining radial velocities for a sample of 101 stars observed with VIMOS. Our results reveal the presence of a component of the Sagittarius tidal stream with a radial velocity – and distance – compatible with that of the globular cluster. Therefore, we conclude that Whiting1 was formed in the interior of the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy and later accreted by the Milky Way. In addition, our data also reveal the detection for the first time of an ancient wrap of the Sagittarius tidal stream along the same line-of-sight and at the same heliocentric distance.

  17. Revealing general relativity effects from accretion events near a supermassive black hole (United States)

    Karas, Vladimír; Dovčiak, Michal; Eckart, Andreas; Kunneriath, Devaky; Zamaninasab, Mohammad


    Accretion onto black holes often proceeds via an accretion disc or a temporary disclike pattern. Variability features, observed in the light curves of such objects, and theoretical models of accretion flows suggest that inner accretion discs are inhomogeneous and clumpy. We discuss the general relativity effects acting on the radiation signal from the inner accretion flow. To this end we consider the radiation flux and polarization properties originating from a blob of gas near a rotating black hole. The predicted observed polarization at infinity is changed from its local value due to strong gravity and fast orbital motion. Different processes can produce the observed pattern: in the context of Sgr A* flares, the synchrotron mechanism and the inverse Compton upscattering appear to be the most likely mechanisms. The energy dependence of the changing degree and angle of polarization should allow us to discriminate between rotating (Kerr) and a non-rotating (Schwarzschild) black hole.

  18. How much boundary layer heating occurs in an accreting prenova white dwarf?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regev, O.; Shara, M.M.


    Understanding boundary layer heating is crucial in determining the thermal structure of the accreted envelope of a prenova white dwarf. The matched asymptotic expansion method was used to solve consistently for the structure of accretion disks transferring matter onto rotating white dwarfs. The fraction of accretion energy transported into prenova white dwarf envelopes was calculated. These results should be used by modelers of nova eruptions; they will produce significantly lower degeneracies and weaker explosions than expected until now. Detailed models of accretion disks and boundary layers can also be used to calculate the amount of white dwarf heating during a dwarf nova outburst. In general, such models can serve as input to model atmosphere codes to predict more realistic spectra of disk-accreting objects. 29 refs

  19. The contribution of accreting black holes to the background radiation density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, B.J.


    Black holes could generate radiation as a result of accretion. The requirement that this radiation should not have a density exceeding the observed background density places an interesting limit on the number of black holes, depending on the wavelength at which the radiation is generated and the efficiency with which it is produced from accreted material. Consideration of the radiation produced in the present epoch already constrains the mass range in which black holes could have a significant cosmological density. For pregalactic black holes, which may have been accreting more rapidly in the past, the constraint could be even stronger. However, because pregalactic accretion will in general increase the matter temperature of the Universe, it is a self-limiting process. For this reason the pregalactic accretion limit is not as strong as one might naively expect and it is generally weaker than the present epoch limit. (author)

  20. Probing the Accretion Processes in Soft X-Ray Selected Polars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Traulsen


    Full Text Available High-energy data of accreting white dwarfs give access to the regime of the primary accretion-induced energy release and the different proposed accretion scenarios. We perform XMM-Newton observations of polars selected due to their ROSAT hardness ratios close to -1.0 and model the emission processes in accretion column and accretion region. Our models consider the multi-temperature structure of the emission regions and are mainly determined by mass-flow density, magnetic field strength, and white-dwarf mass. To describe the full spectral energy distribution from infrared to X-rays in a physically consistent way, we include the stellar contributions and establish composite models, which will also be of relevance for future X-ray missions. We confirm the X-ray soft nature of three polars.

  1. Multiple and fast: The accretion of ordinary chondrite parent bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernazza, P.; Barge, P.; Zanda, B.; Hewins, R.; Binzel, R. P.; DeMeo, F. E.; Lockhart, M.; Hiroi, T.; Birlan, M.; Ricci, L.


    Although petrologic, chemical, and isotopic studies of ordinary chondrites and meteorites in general have largely helped establish a chronology of the earliest events of planetesimal formation and their evolution, there are several questions that cannot be resolved via laboratory measurements and/or experiments alone. Here, we propose the rationale for several new constraints on the formation and evolution of ordinary chondrite parent bodies (and, by extension, most planetesimals) from newly available spectral measurements and mineralogical analysis of main-belt S-type asteroids (83 objects) and unequilibrated ordinary chondrite meteorites (53 samples). Based on the latter, we suggest that spectral data may be used to distinguish whether an ordinary chondrite was formed near the surface or in the interior of its parent body. If these constraints are correct, the suggested implications include that: (1) large groups of compositionally similar asteroids are a natural outcome of planetesimal formation and, consequently, meteorites within a given class can originate from multiple parent bodies; (2) the surfaces of large (up to ∼200 km) S-type main-belt asteroids mostly expose the interiors of the primordial bodies, a likely consequence of impacts by small asteroids (D < 10 km) in the early solar system; (3) the duration of accretion of the H chondrite parent bodies was likely short (instantaneous or in less than ∼10 5 yr, but certainly not as long as 1 Myr); (4) LL-like bodies formed closer to the Sun than H-like bodies, a possible consequence of the radial mixing and size sorting of chondrules in the protoplanetary disk prior to accretion.

  2. Late veneer and late accretion to the terrestrial planets (United States)

    Brasser, R.; Mojzsis, S. J.; Werner, S. C.; Matsumura, S.; Ida, S.


    It is generally accepted that silicate-metal ('rocky') planet formation relies on coagulation from a mixture of sub-Mars sized planetary embryos and (smaller) planetesimals that dynamically emerge from the evolving circum-solar disc in the first few million years of our Solar System. Once the planets have, for the most part, assembled after a giant impact phase, they continue to be bombarded by a multitude of planetesimals left over from accretion. Here we place limits on the mass and evolution of these planetesimals based on constraints from the highly siderophile element (HSE) budget of the Moon. Outcomes from a combination of N-body and Monte Carlo simulations of planet formation lead us to four key conclusions about the nature of this early epoch. First, matching the terrestrial to lunar HSE ratio requires either that the late veneer on Earth consisted of a single lunar-size impactor striking the Earth before 4.45 Ga, or that it originated from the impact that created the Moon. An added complication is that analysis of lunar samples indicates the Moon does not preserve convincing evidence for a late veneer like Earth. Second, the expected chondritic veneer component on Mars is 0.06 weight percent. Third, the flux of terrestrial impactors must have been low (≲10-6 M⊕ Myr-1) to avoid wholesale melting of Earth's crust after 4.4 Ga, and to simultaneously match the number of observed lunar basins. This conclusion leads to an Hadean eon which is more clement than assumed previously. Last, after the terrestrial planets had fully formed, the mass in remnant planetesimals was ∼10-3 M⊕, lower by at least an order of magnitude than most previous models suggest. Our dynamically and geochemically self-consistent scenario requires that future N-body simulations of rocky planet formation either directly incorporate collisional grinding or rely on pebble accretion.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Min-Kai; Kratter, Kaitlin M., E-mail: [Department of Astronomy and Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)


    Low mass, self-gravitating accretion disks admit quasi-steady, “gravito-turbulent” states in which cooling balances turbulent viscous heating. However, numerical simulations show that gravito-turbulence cannot be sustained beyond dynamical timescales when the cooling rate or corresponding turbulent viscosity is too large. The result is disk fragmentation. We motivate and quantify an interpretation of disk fragmentation as the inability to maintain gravito-turbulence due to formal secondary instabilities driven by: (1) cooling, which reduces pressure support; and/or (2) viscosity, which reduces rotational support. We analyze the axisymmetric gravitational stability of viscous, non-adiabatic accretion disks with internal heating, external irradiation, and cooling in the shearing box approximation. We consider parameterized cooling functions in 2D and 3D disks, as well as radiative diffusion in 3D. We show that generally there is no critical cooling rate/viscosity below which the disk is formally stable, although interesting limits appear for unstable modes with lengthscales on the order of the disk thickness. We apply this new linear theory to protoplanetary disks subject to gravito-turbulence modeled as an effective viscosity, and cooling regulated by dust opacity. We find that viscosity renders the disk beyond ∼60 au dynamically unstable on radial lengthscales a few times the local disk thickness. This is coincident with the empirical condition for disk fragmentation based on a maximum sustainable stress. We suggest turbulent stresses can play an active role in realistic disk fragmentation by removing rotational stabilization against self-gravity, and that the observed transition in behavior from gravito-turbulent to fragmenting may reflect instability of the gravito-turbulent state itself.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, H. M.; Wolk, S. J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Wolter, U.; Robrade, J., E-mail: [Universitaet Hamburg, Hamburger Sternwarte, Gojenbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany)


    Young T Tauri stars (TTS) are surrounded by an accretion disk, which over time disperses due to photoevaporation, accretion, and possibly planet formation. The accretion shock on the central star produces an UV/optical veiling continuum, line emission, and X-ray signatures. As the accretion rate decreases, the impact on the central star must change. In this article we study MN Lup, a young star where no indications of a disk are seen in IR observations. We present XMM-Newton and VLT/UVES observations, some of them taken simultaneously. The X-ray data show that MN Lup is an active star with L{sub X} /L{sub bol} close to the saturation limit. However, we find high densities (n{sub e} > 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} cm{sup -3}) in the X-ray grating spectrum. This can be well fitted using an accretion shock model with an accretion rate of 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -11} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. Despite the simple H{alpha} line profile which has a broad component, but no absorption signatures as typically seen on accreting TTS, we find rotational modulation in Ca II K and in photospheric absorption lines. These line profile modulations do not clearly indicate the presence of a localized hot accretion spot on the star. In the H{alpha} line we see a prominence in absorption about 2R{sub *} above the stellar surface-the first of its kind on a TTS. MN Lup is also the only TTS where accretion is seen, but no dust disk is detected that could fuel it. We suggest that MN Lup presents a unique and short-lived state in the disk evolution. It may have lost its dust disk only recently and is now accreting the remaining gas at a very low rate.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tofflemire, Benjamin M.; Mathieu, Robert D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin–Madison, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Ardila, David R. [The Aerospace Corporation, M2-266, El Segundo, CA 90245 (United States); Akeson, Rachel L.; Ciardi, David R. [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, IPAC/Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Johns-Krull, Christopher [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Herczeg, Gregory J. [The Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Quijano-Vodniza, Alberto [University of Nariño Observatory, Pasto, Nariño (Colombia)


    The theory of binary star formation predicts that close binaries ( a < 100 au) will experience periodic pulsed accretion events as streams of material form at the inner edge of a circumbinary disk (CBD), cross a dynamically cleared gap, and feed circumstellar disks or accrete directly onto the stars. The archetype for the pulsed accretion theory is the eccentric, short-period, classical T Tauri binary DQ Tau. Low-cadence (∼daily) broadband photometry has shown brightening events near most periastron passages, just as numerical simulations would predict for an eccentric binary. Magnetic reconnection events (flares) during the collision of stellar magnetospheres near periastron could, however, produce the same periodic, broadband behavior when observed at a one-day cadence. To reveal the dominant physical mechanism seen in DQ Tau’s low-cadence observations, we have obtained continuous, moderate-cadence, multiband photometry over 10 orbital periods, supplemented with 27 nights of minute-cadence photometry centered on four separate periastron passages. While both accretion and stellar flares are present, the dominant timescale and morphology of brightening events are characteristic of accretion. On average, the mass accretion rate increases by a factor of five near periastron, in good agreement with recent models. Large variability is observed in the morphology and amplitude of accretion events from orbit to orbit. We argue that this is due to the absence of stable circumstellar disks around each star, compounded by inhomogeneities at the inner edge of the CBD and within the accretion streams themselves. Quasiperiodic apastron accretion events are also observed, which are not predicted by binary accretion theory.

  6. Low density, radiatively inefficient rotating-accretion flow onto a black hole (United States)

    Inayoshi, Kohei; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Haiman, Zoltán; Kuiper, Rolf


    We study low-density axisymmetric accretion flows onto black holes (BHs) with two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations, adopting the α-viscosity prescription. When the gas angular momentum is low enough to form a rotationally supported disk within the Bondi radius (RB), we find a global steady accretion solution. The solution consists of a rotational equilibrium distribution around r ˜ RB, where the density follows ρ∝(1 + RB/r)3/2, surrounding a geometrically thick and optically thin accretion disk at the centrifugal radius RC( energy generated by viscosity is transported via convection. Physical properties of the inner solution agree with those expected in convection-dominated accretion flows (CDAF; ρ∝r-1/2). In the inner solution, the gas inflow rate decreases towards the center due to convection (\\dot{M}∝ r), and the net accretion rate (including both inflows and outflows) is strongly suppressed by several orders of magnitude from the Bondi accretion rate \\dot{M}_B. The net accretion rate depends on the viscous strength, following \\dot{M}/\\dot{M}_B∝ (α /0.01)^{0.6}. This solution holds for low accretion rates of \\dot{M}_B/\\dot{M}_Edd≲ 10^{-3} having minimal radiation cooling, where \\dot{M}_Edd is the Eddington accretion rate. In a hot plasma at the bottom (r energy flux. Since suppression of the accretion by convection ceases, the final BH feeding rate is found to be \\dot{M}/\\dot{M}_B˜ 10^{-3}-10^{-2}. This rate is as low as \\dot{M}/\\dot{M}_Edd˜ 10^{-7}-10^{-6} inferred for SgrA* and the nuclear BHs in M31 and M87, and can explain their low luminosities, without invoking any feedback mechanism.

  7. Effect of accretion on the pre-main-sequence evolution of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs (United States)

    Vorobyov, Eduard I.; Elbakyan, Vardan; Hosokawa, Takashi; Sakurai, Yuya; Guedel, Manuel; Yorke, Harold


    Aims: The pre-main-sequence evolution of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs is studied numerically starting from the formation of a protostellar or proto-brown dwarf seed and taking into account the mass accretion onto the central object during the initial several Myr of evolution. Methods: The stellar evolution was computed using the STELLAR evolution code with recent modifications. The mass accretion rates were taken from numerical hydrodynamics models by computing the circumstellar disk evolution starting from the gravitational collapse of prestellar cloud cores of various mass and angular momentum. The resulting stellar evolution tracks were compared with the isochrones and isomasses calculated using non-accreting models. Results: We find that mass accretion in the initial several Myr of protostellar evolution can have a strong effect on the subsequent evolution of young stars and brown dwarfs. The disagreement between accreting and non-accreting models in terms of the total stellar luminosity L∗, stellar radius R∗, and effective temperature Teff depends on the thermal efficiency of accretion, that is, on the fraction of accretion energy that is absorbed by the central object. The largest mismatch is found for the cold accretion case, in which essentially all accretion energy is radiated away. The relative deviations in L∗ and R∗ in this case can reach 50% for objects 1.0 Myr old, and they remain notable even for objects 10 Myr old. In the hot and hybrid accretion cases, in which a constant fraction of accretion energy is absorbed, the disagreement between accreting and non-accreting models becomes less pronounced, but still remains notable for objects 1.0 Myr old. These disagreements may lead to an incorrect age estimate for objects of (sub-)solar mass when using the isochrones that are based on non-accreting models, as has also been noted previously. We find that objects with strong luminosity bursts exhibit notable excursions in the L∗-Teff diagram

  8. LIGO Discovers the Merger of Two Black Holes (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    confirmation. This detection is a huge deal for astrophysics because its the first direct evidence weve had that:Heavy stellar-mass black holes exist.Weve reliably measured black holes of masses up to 1020 solar masses in X-ray binaries (binary systems in which a single neutron star or black hole accretes matter from a donor star). But this is the first proof weve found that stellar-mass black holes of 25 solar masses can form in nature.Binaries consisting of two black holes can form in nature.As well discuss shortly, there are two theorized mechanisms for the formation of these black-hole binaries. Until now, however, there was no guarantee that either of those mechanisms worked!These black-hole binaries can inspiral and merge within the age of the universe.The formation of a black-hole binary is no guarantee that it will merge on a reasonable timescale: if the binary forms with enough separation, it could take longer than the age of the universe to merge. This detection proves that black-hole binaries can form with small enough separation to merge on observable timescales.What can we learn from GW150914?Expected increase in sensitivity for LIGO/Virgo detectors is shown as a function of total system mass (x-axis) and surveyed volume (y-axis). The red star indicates the mass of GW150914. [Abbott et al. 2016]For starters, we can throw out the lower estimates we had on merger rates. This event provides a new inferred binary-black-hole merger rate for the low-redshift universe of 2400 Gpc-3 yr-1.Another interesting conclusion about this binary system is that it probably formed in a low-metallicity environment (~ 1/2 solar metallicity). We infer this based on our current understanding of massive-star winds (which drive mass loss) and their dependence on metallicity: had the environment been high-metallicity, it is unlikely that such large black holes would have been able to form.What can we learn from future gravitational-wave detections?One of the key questions wed like to answer

  9. Relativistic reverberation in the accretion flow of a tidal disruption event. (United States)

    Kara, Erin; Miller, Jon M; Reynolds, Chris; Dai, Lixin


    Our current understanding of the curved space-time around supermassive black holes is based on actively accreting black holes, which make up only ten per cent or less of the overall population. X-ray observations of that small fraction reveal strong gravitational redshifts that indicate that many of these black holes are rapidly rotating; however, selection biases suggest that these results are not necessarily reflective of the majority of black holes in the Universe. Tidal disruption events, where a star orbiting an otherwise dormant black hole gets tidally shredded and accreted onto the black hole, can provide a short, unbiased glimpse at the space-time around the other ninety per cent of black holes. Observations of tidal disruptions have hitherto revealed the formation of an accretion disk and the onset of an accretion-powered jet, but have failed to reveal emission from the inner accretion flow, which enables the measurement of black hole spin. Here we report observations of reverberation arising from gravitationally redshifted iron Kα photons reflected off the inner accretion flow in the tidal disruption event Swift J1644+57. From the reverberation timescale, we estimate the mass of the black hole to be a few million solar masses, suggesting an accretion rate of 100 times the Eddington limit or more. The detection of reverberation from the relativistic depths of this rare super-Eddington event demonstrates that the X-rays do not arise from the relativistically moving regions of a jet, as previously thought.

  10. Accretion of Jupiter-mass planets in the limit of vanishing viscosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szulágyi, J.; Morbidelli, A.; Crida, A. [University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Côte d' Azur, Laboratoire Lagrange, F-06304, Nice (France); Masset, F., E-mail: [Instituto de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, P.O. Box 48-3, 62251 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)


    In the core-accretion model, the nominal runaway gas-accretion phase brings most planets to multiple Jupiter masses. However, known giant planets are predominantly Jupiter mass bodies. Obtaining longer timescales for gas accretion may require using realistic equations of states, or accounting for the dynamics of the circumplanetary disk (CPD) in the low-viscosity regime, or both. Here we explore the second way by using global, three-dimensional isothermal hydrodynamical simulations with eight levels of nested grids around the planet. In our simulations, the vertical inflow from the circumstellar disk (CSD) to the CPD determines the shape of the CPD and its accretion rate. Even without a prescribed viscosity, Jupiter's mass-doubling time is ∼10{sup 4} yr, assuming the planet at 5.2 AU and a Minimum Mass Solar Nebula. However, we show that this high accretion rate is due to resolution-dependent numerical viscosity. Furthermore, we consider the scenario of a layered CSD, viscous only in its surface layer, and an inviscid CPD. We identify two planet-accretion mechanisms that are independent of the viscosity in the CPD: (1) the polar inflow—defined as a part of the vertical inflow with a centrifugal radius smaller than two Jupiter radii and (2) the torque exerted by the star on the CPD. In the limit of zero effective viscosity, these two mechanisms would produce an accretion rate 40 times smaller than in the simulation.

  11. On the Dependence of the X-Ray Burst Rate on Accretion and Spin Rate (United States)

    Cavecchi, Yuri; Watts, Anna L.; Galloway, Duncan K.


    Nuclear burning and its dependence on the mass accretion rate are fundamental ingredients for describing the complicated observational phenomenology of neutron stars (NSs) in binary systems. Motivated by high-quality burst rate data emerging from large statistical studies, we report general calculations relating the bursting rate to the mass accretion rate and NS rotation frequency. In this first work, we ignore general relativistic effects and accretion topology, although we discuss where their inclusion should play a role. The relations we derive are suitable for different burning regimes and provide a direct link between parameters predicted by theory and what is to be expected in observations. We illustrate this for analytical relations of different unstable burning regimes that operate on the surface of an accreting NS. We also use the observed behavior of the burst rate to suggest new constraints on burning parameters. We are able to provide an explanation for the long-standing problem of the observed decrease of the burst rate with increasing mass accretion that follows naturally from these calculations: when the accretion rate crosses a certain threshold, ignition moves away from its initially preferred site, and this can cause a net reduction of the burst rate due to the effects of local conditions that set local differences in both the burst rate and stabilization criteria. We show under which conditions this can happen even if locally the burst rate keeps increasing with accretion.

  12. Tori sequences as remnants of multiple accreting periods of Kerr SMBHs (United States)

    Pugliese, D.; Stuchlík, Z.


    Super-massive black holes (SMBHs) hosted in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) can be characterized by multi-accreting periods as the attractors interact with the environment during their life-time. These multi-accretion episodes should leave traces in the matter orbiting the attractor. Counterrotating and even misaligned structures orbiting around the SMBHs would be consequences of these episodes. Our task in this work is to consider situations where such accretions occur and to trace their remnants represented by several toroidal accreting fluids, corotating or counterrotating relative to the central Kerr attractor, and created in various regimes during the evolution of matter configurations around SMBHs. We focus particularly on the emergence of matter instabilities, i.e., tori collisions, accretion onto the central Kerr black hole, or creation of jet-like structures (proto-jets). Each orbiting configuration is governed by the general relativistic hydrodynamic Boyer condition of equilibrium configurations of rotating perfect fluid. We prove that sequences of configurations and hot points, where an instability occurs, characterize the Kerr SMBHs, depending mainly on their spin-mass ratios. The occurrence of tori accretion or collision are strongly constrained by the fluid rotation with respect to the central black hole and the relative rotation with respect to each other. Our investigation provides characteristic of attractors where traces of multi-accreting episodes can be found and observed.

  13. X-Rays from the Nearby Solitary Millisecond Pulsar PSR J0030+0451 - the Final ROSAT Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, W; Bäcker, A N; Lommen, D; Becker, Werner; Tr"umper, Joachim; Backer, Andrea N.Lommen & Donald C.


    We report on X-ray observations of the solitary 4.8 ms pulsar PSR J0030+0451. The pulsar was one of the last targets observed in DEC-98 by the ROSAT PSPC. X-ray pulses are detected on a $4.5\\sigma$ level and make the source the $11^{th}$ millisecond pulsar detected in the X-ray domain. The pulsed fraction is found to be $69\\pm18%$. The X-ray pulse profile is characterized by two narrow peaks which match the gross pulse profile observed at 1.4 GHz. Assuming a Crab-like spectrum the X-ray flux is in the range $f_x= 2-3\\times 10^{-13}$ erg s$^{-1}$ cm$^{-2} $ ($0.1-2.4$ keV), implying an X-ray efficiency of $L_x/\\dot{E}\\sim 0.5-5 \\times 10^{-3} (d/0.23 {kpc})^2$.

  14. A 24 hr global campaign to assess precision timing of the millisecond pulsar J1713+0747

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolch, T.; Lam, M. T.; Cordes, J.; Chatterjee, S. [Astronomy Department, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Bassa, C.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Janssen, G.; Kondratiev, V. [ASTRON, the Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, Postbus 2, 7990 AA, Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Bhattacharyya, B.; Jordan, C.; Keith, M. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Champion, D. J.; Karuppusamy, R.; Kramer, M.; Lazarus, P. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Cognard, I. [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie de l' Environnement et de l' Espace, LPC2E UMR 6115 CNRS, F-45071 Orléans Cedex 02, and Station de radioastronomie de Nançay, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS/INSU, F-18330 Nançay (France); Crowter, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Demorest, P. B. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22901 (United States); Jenet, F. A. [Center for Advanced Radio Astronomy, University of Texas, Rio Grande Valley, Brownsville, TX 78520 (United States); Jones, G., E-mail: [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, NY 10027 (United States); and others


    The radio millisecond pulsar J1713+0747 is regarded as one of the highest-precision clocks in the sky and is regularly timed for the purpose of detecting gravitational waves. The International Pulsar Timing Array Collaboration undertook a 24 hr global observation of PSR J1713+0747 in an effort to better quantify sources of timing noise in this pulsar, particularly on intermediate (1-24 hr) timescales. We observed the pulsar continuously over 24 hr with the Arecibo, Effelsberg, GMRT, Green Bank, LOFAR, Lovell, Nançay, Parkes, and WSRT radio telescopes. The combined pulse times-of-arrival presented here provide an estimate of what sources of timing noise, excluding DM variations, would be present as compared to an idealized √N improvement in timing precision, where N is the number of pulses analyzed. In the case of this particular pulsar, we find that intrinsic pulse phase jitter dominates arrival time precision when the signal-to-noise ratio of single pulses exceeds unity, as measured using the eight telescopes that observed at L band/1.4 GHz. We present first results of specific phenomena probed on the unusually long timescale (for a single continuous observing session) of tens of hours, in particular interstellar scintillation, and discuss the degree to which scintillation and profile evolution affect precision timing. This paper presents the data set as a basis for future, deeper studies.

  15. Mapping Residual Structure in Intrinsically Disordered Proteins at Residue Resolution Using Millisecond Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange and Residue Averaging (United States)

    Keppel, Theodore R.; Weis, David D.


    Measurement of residual structure in intrinsically disordered proteins can provide insights into the mechanisms by which such proteins undergo coupled binding and folding. The present work describes an approach to measure residual structure in disordered proteins using millisecond hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange in a conventional bottom-up peptide-based workflow. We used the exchange mid-point, relative to a totally deuterated control, to quantify the rate of H/D exchange in each peptide. A weighted residue-by-residue average of these midpoints was used to map the extent of residual structure at near single-residue resolution. We validated this approach both by simulating a disordered protein and experimentally using the p300 binding domain of ACTR, a model disordered protein already well-characterized by other approaches. Secondary structure elements mapped in the present work are in good agreement with prior nuclear magnetic resonance measurements. The new approach was somewhat limited by a loss of spatial resolution and subject to artifacts because of heterogeneities in intrinsic exchange. Approaches to correct these limitations are discussed.

  16. Atomistic structural ensemble refinement reveals non-native structure stabilizes a sub-millisecond folding intermediate of CheY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Jade; Schwantes, Christian; Bilsel, Osman


    The dynamics of globular proteins can be described in terms of transitions between a folded native state and less-populated intermediates, or excited states, which can play critical roles in both protein folding and function. Excited states are by definition transient species, and therefore are difficult to characterize using current experimental techniques. We report an atomistic model of the excited state ensemble of a stabilized mutant of an extensively studied flavodoxin fold protein CheY. We employed a hybrid simulation and experimental approach in which an aggregate 42 milliseconds of all-atom molecular dynamics were used as an informative prior for the structure of the excited state ensemble. The resulting prior was then refined against small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) data employing an established method (EROS). The most striking feature of the resulting excited state ensemble was an unstructured N-terminus stabilized by non-native contacts in a conformation that is topologically simpler than the native state. We then predict incisive single molecule FRET experiments, using these results, as a means of model validation. Our study demonstrates the paradigm of uniting simulation and experiment in a statistical model to study the structure of protein excited states and rationally design validating experiments.

  17. Breaking The Millisecond Barrier On SpiNNaker: Implementing Asynchronous Event-Based Plastic Models With Microsecond Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier eLagorce


    Full Text Available Spike-based neuromorphic sensors such as retinas and cochleas, change the way in which the world is sampled. Instead of producing data sampled at a constant rate, these sensors output spikes that are asynchronous and event driven. The event-based nature of neuromorphic sensors implies a complete paradigm shift in current perception algorithms towards those that emphasize the importance of precise timing. The spikes produced by these sensors usually have a time resolution in the order of microseconds. This high temporal resolution is a crucial factor in learning tasks. It is also widely used in the field of biological neural networks. Sound localization for instance relies on detecting time lags between the two ears which, in the barn owl, reaches a temporal resolution of 5 microseconds. Current available neuromorphic computation platforms such as SpiNNaker often limit their users to a time resolution in the order of milliseconds that is not compatible with the asynchronous outputs of neuromorphic sensors. To overcome these limitations and allow for the exploration of new types of neuromorphic computing architectures, we introduce a novel software framework on the SpiNNaker platform. This framework allows for simulations of spiking networks and plasticity mechanisms using a completely asynchronous and event-based scheme running with a microsecond time resolution. Results on two example networks using this new implementation are presented.

  18. Induction of Localized Hyperthermia by Millisecond Laser Pulses in the Presence of Gold-Gold Sulphide Nanoparticles in a Phantom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Shahamat


    Full Text Available Introduction Application of near-infrared absorbing nanostructures can induce hyperthermia, in addition to providing more efficient  photothermal effects. Gold-gold sulfide (GGS is considered as one of these nanostructures. This study was performed on a tissue-equivalent optical-thermal phantom to determine the temperature profile in the presence and absence of GGS and millisecond pulses of a near-infrared laser. Moreover, the feasibility of hyperthermia induction was investigated in a simulated tumor. Materials and Methods A tumor with its surrounding tissues was simulated in a phantom made of Agarose and Intralipid. The tumor was irradiated by 30 laser pulses with durations of 30, 100, and 400 ms and fluences of 40 and 60 J/cm2. Temperature variations in the phantom with and without GGS were recorded, using fast-response sensors of a digital thermometer, placed at different distances from the central axis at three depths. The temperature rise was recorded by varying duration and fluence of the laser pulses. Results The rise in temperature was recorded by increasing laser fluence and number of pulses for three durations. The temperature profile was obtained at each depth. The presence of GGS resulted in a significant increase in temperature in all cases (P

  19. Atomistic structural ensemble refinement reveals non-native structure stabilizes a sub-millisecond folding intermediate of CheY (United States)

    Shi, Jade; Nobrega, R. Paul; Schwantes, Christian; Kathuria, Sagar V.; Bilsel, Osman; Matthews, C. Robert; Lane, T. J.; Pande, Vijay S.


    The dynamics of globular proteins can be described in terms of transitions between a folded native state and less-populated intermediates, or excited states, which can play critical roles in both protein folding and function. Excited states are by definition transient species, and therefore are difficult to characterize using current experimental techniques. Here, we report an atomistic model of the excited state ensemble of a stabilized mutant of an extensively studied flavodoxin fold protein CheY. We employed a hybrid simulation and experimental approach in which an aggregate 42 milliseconds of all-atom molecular dynamics were used as an informative prior for the structure of the excited state ensemble. This prior was then refined against small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) data employing an established method (EROS). The most striking feature of the resulting excited state ensemble was an unstructured N-terminus stabilized by non-native contacts in a conformation that is topologically simpler than the native state. Using these results, we then predict incisive single molecule FRET experiments as a means of model validation. This study demonstrates the paradigm of uniting simulation and experiment in a statistical model to study the structure of protein excited states and rationally design validating experiments.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillemot, L.; Kramer, M.; Freire, P. C. C.; Noutsos, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, 53121 Bonn (Germany); Johnson, T. J.; Harding, A. K. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Venter, C. [Centre for Space Research, North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, 2520 Potchefstroom (South Africa); Kerr, M.; Michelson, P. F. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Pancrazi, B. [CNRS, IRAP, F-31028 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Livingstone, M. [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, PQ H3A 2T8 (Canada); Janssen, G. H.; Jaroenjittichai, P.; Stappers, B. W.; Espinoza, C. M. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Cognard, I. [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie de l' Environnement, LPCE UMR 6115 CNRS, F-45071 Orleans Cedex 02 (France); Camilo, F. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Gargano, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, 70126 Bari (Italy); Grove, J. E. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375-5352 (United States); Johnston, S., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Australia Telescope National Facility, Epping NSW 1710 (Australia); and others


    We report the detection of pulsed gamma-ray emission from the fast millisecond pulsars (MSPs) B1937+21 (also known as J1939+2134) and B1957+20 (J1959+2048) using 18 months of survey data recorded by the Fermi Large Area Telescope and timing solutions based on radio observations conducted at the Westerbork and Nancay radio telescopes. In addition, we analyzed archival Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer and XMM-Newton X-ray data for the two MSPs, confirming the X-ray emission properties of PSR B1937+21 and finding evidence ({approx}4{sigma}) for pulsed emission from PSR B1957+20 for the first time. In both cases the gamma-ray emission profile is characterized by two peaks separated by half a rotation and are in close alignment with components observed in radio and X-rays. These two pulsars join PSRs J0034-0534 and J2214+3000 to form an emerging class of gamma-ray MSPs with phase-aligned peaks in different energy bands. The modeling of the radio and gamma-ray emission profiles suggests co-located emission regions in the outer magnetosphere.