Sample records for discover effective treatments

  1. [Early effectiveness of discover cervical artificial disc replacement in treatment of cervical spondylosis]. (United States)

    Qian, Yufeng; Xue, Feng; Sheng, Xiaowen; Lu, Jianmin; Chen, Bingqian


    difference between left bending and right bending in upper segment was 2 times higher than that in the replaced segment; a marked linear correlation (P < 0.05) existed between the ROM difference and prosthesis eccentricity, and prosthesis bias had bigger ROM in lateral bending. Discover cervical artificial disc replacement for treatment of cervical spondylosis can provide a good effectiveness and cervical postoperative movement function. As a new prosthesis, it has some merits such as simple operative steps and less complications.

  2. Treatment patterns in moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis: results from a Belgian cross-sectional study (DISCOVER). (United States)

    Lambert, Julien; Ghislain, Pierre-Dominique; Lambert, Jo; Cauwe, Bénédicte; Van den Enden, Maria


    The present study aimed to evaluate current treatment patterns and achievement of treatment goals in Belgian patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis. This cross-sectional observational study (DISCOVER) was conducted in 2011 - 2012 in Belgian dermatology centers. Patient data were collected during a single visit and included information on psoriasis management and severity (PASI and DLQI). Treatment success was defined according to the current European consensus treatment goal algorithm. Of the 556 patients included in the study, 38.1% reported no current treatment or only topicals, 34.2% were being treated with traditional systemics and/or phototherapy, and 29.5% with biologics. Methotrexate (11.7%) was the most commonly prescribed traditional systemic and adalimumab (14.2%) was the most commonly prescribed biologic agent at the time of the study. The percentage of patients achieving treatment goals was significantly higher in biologic-treated patients (73.1%) compared to those using traditional systemics (50.6%), phototherapy (41.1%), or no treatment/only topicals (20.9%; p psoriasis in the DISCOVER study were undertreated despite the severity of their disease. Undertreatment of psoriasis remains a problem in Belgium and more effective educational strategies are needed to ensure the best treatment outcome for these patients. [Formula: see text].

  3. The Use of a Performance Assessment for Identifying Gifted Lebanese Students: Is DISCOVER Effective? (United States)

    Sarouphim, Ketty M.


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of DISCOVER, a performance- based assessment in identifying gifted Lebanese students. The sample consisted of 248 students (121 boys, 127 girls) from Grades 3-5 at two private schools in Beirut, Lebanon. Students were administered DISCOVER and the Raven Standard Progressive Matrices…

  4. A case of von Willebrand disease discovered during treatment of a sacral pressure ulcer. (United States)

    Murakami, Masahiro; Fukaya, Sumiko; Furuya, Masaichi; Hyakusoku, Hiko


    A sacral pressure ulcer developed in a patient hospitalized for cerebral infarction. Each time necrotic tissue was debrided from the ulcer, pressure hemostasis was necessary to stop the bleeding. As treatment continued, the pressure required to stop the bleeding caused the ulcer to worsen, leading to a downward spiral in the patient's condition. While trying to determine the cause of this problem, we discovered that the patient had von Willebrand disease. Medication controlled the bleeding, and the pressure ulcer began to heal at the same time. It was clear to us that conservative treatment would lead to a complete cure but that the healing process would take a long time and require continued administration of an expensive drug. We decided, therefore, to close the wound with a fasciocutaneous flap so that the patient could be quickly transferred to a rehabilitation hospital. About 1 month after surgery, epithelialization was complete, we were able to discontinue medication, and the patient was discharged. This experience demonstrates the importance of determining the cause of any deviation from the normal course of healing in pressure ulcers. It also indicates that the use of fasciocutaneous flaps, which involve little intraoperative bleeding in short surgeries, is appropriate in cases like this one.

  5. Treatment Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heckman, James J.; Lopes, Hedibert F.; Piatek, Rémi


    This paper contributes to the emerging Bayesian literature on treatment effects. It derives treatment parameters in the framework of a potential outcomes model with a treatment choice equation, where the correlation between the unobservable components of the model is driven by a low-dimensional v......This paper contributes to the emerging Bayesian literature on treatment effects. It derives treatment parameters in the framework of a potential outcomes model with a treatment choice equation, where the correlation between the unobservable components of the model is driven by a low...... to observe the same person in both the treated and untreated states, but it also turns out to be straightforward to implement. Formulae are provided to compute mean treatment effects as well as their distributional versions. A Monte Carlo simulation study is carried out to illustrate how the methodology can...

  6. arXiv Same-sign WW scattering at the LHC: can we discover BSM effects before discovering new states?

    CERN Document Server

    Kalinowski, Jan; Pokorski, Stefan; Rosiek, Janusz; Szleper, Michał; Tkaczyk, Sławomir


    It is possible that measurements of vector boson scattering (VBS) processes at the LHC will reveal disagreement with Standard Model predictions, but no new particles will be observed directly. The task is then to learn as much as possible about the new physics from a VBS analysis carried within the framework of the Effective Field Theory (EFT). In this paper we discuss issues related to the correct usage of the EFT when the WW invariant mass is not directly accessible experimentally, as in purely leptonic W decay channels. Strategies for future data analyses in case such scenario indeed occurs are proposed.

  7. Same-sign WW scattering at the LHC: can we discover BSM effects before discovering new states?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalinowski, Jan [Warsaw U.; Kozów, Paweł [Warsaw U.; Pokorski, Stefan [Warsaw U.; Rosiek, Janusz [Warsaw U.; Szleper, Michał [NCBJ, Swierk; Tkaczyk, Sławomir [Fermilab


    It is possible that measurements of vector boson scattering (VBS) at the LHC will reveal disagreement with Standard Model predictions, but no new particles will be observed directly. The task is then to learn as much as possible about the new physics from a VBS analysis carried within the framework of the Effective Field Theory (EFT). In this paper we discuss issues related to the correct usage of the EFT when the WW invariant mass is not directly accessible experimentally, as in purely leptonic W decay channels. The strategies for future data analyses in case such scenario indeed occurs are proposed.

  8. Discovering Technicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    R. Andersen, J.; Antipin, O.; Azuelos, G.


    We provide a pedagogical introduction to extensions of the Standard Model in which the Higgs is composite. These extensions are known as models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking or, in brief, Technicolor. Material covered includes: motivations for Technicolor, the construction of underly...... the relevant experimental benchmarks for Vanilla, Running, Walking, and Custodial Technicolor, and a natural fourth family of leptons, by laying out the framework to discover these models at the Large Hadron Collider....... of underlying gauge theories leading to minimal models of Technicolor, the comparison with electroweak precision data, the low energy effective theory, the spectrum of the states common to most of the Technicolor models, the decays of the composite particles and the experimental signals at the Large Hadron...... Collider. The level of the presentation is aimed at readers familiar with the Standard Model but who have little or no prior exposure to Technicolor. Several extensions of the Standard Model featuring a composite Higgs can be reduced to the effective Lagrangian introduced in the text. We establish...

  9. Accelerated approach of discovering plant derived drug leads for treatment of TB

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, D


    Full Text Available dedicated and comprehensive plant electronic database of a total of 566 plants that are reportedly used for the treatment of tuberculosis. The extracts of these plants are part of the CSIR database of extracts. TB drug lead research is ongoing, and active...

  10. Accelerated approach of discovering plant-derived drug leads for treatment of tuberculosis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, D


    Full Text Available the repeated discovery of known and undesired compounds, thereby saving time and resources. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the accelerated approach, one of the organic plant extracts that displayed good anti-TB activity (MIC ≤ 250 μg/ml) was fractionated...

  11. Discovering Wavelets

    CERN Document Server

    Aboufadel, Edward


    An accessible and practical introduction to wavelets. With applications in image processing, audio restoration, seismology, and elsewhere, wavelets have been the subject of growing excitement and interest over the past several years. Unfortunately, most books on wavelets are accessible primarily to research mathematicians. Discovering Wavelets presents basic and advanced concepts of wavelets in a way that is accessible to anyone with only a fundamental knowledge of linear algebra. The basic concepts of wavelet theory are introduced in the context of an explanation of how the FBI uses wavelets

  12. Electron-Rotor Interaction in Organic-Inorganic Lead Iodide Perovskites Discovered by Isotope Effects. (United States)

    Gong, Jue; Yang, Mengjin; Ma, Xiangchao; Schaller, Richard D; Liu, Gang; Kong, Lingping; Yang, Ye; Beard, Matthew C; Lesslie, Michael; Dai, Ying; Huang, Baibiao; Zhu, Kai; Xu, Tao


    We report on the carrier-rotor coupling effect in perovskite organic-inorganic hybrid lead iodide (CH3NH3PbI3) compounds discovered by isotope effects. Deuterated organic-inorganic perovskite compounds including CH3ND3PbI3, CD3NH3PbI3, and CD3ND3PbI3 were synthesized. Devices made from regular CH3NH3PbI3 and deuterated CH3ND3PbI3 exhibit comparable performance in band gap, current-voltage, carrier mobility, and power conversion efficiency. However, a time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) study reveals that CH3NH3PbI3 exhibits notably longer carrier lifetime than that of CH3ND3PbI3, in both thin-film and single-crystal formats. Furthermore, the comparison in carrier lifetime between CD3NH3PbI3 and CH3ND3PbI3 single crystals suggests that vibrational modes in methylammonium (MA(+)) have little impact on carrier lifetime. In contrast, the fully deuterated compound CD3ND3PbI3 reconfirmed the trend of decreasing carrier lifetime upon the increasing moment of inertia of cationic MA(+). Polaron model elucidates the electron-rotor interaction.

  13. Personal discovery in diabetes self-management: Discovering cause and effect using self-monitoring data. (United States)

    Mamykina, Lena; Heitkemper, Elizabeth M; Smaldone, Arlene M; Kukafka, Rita; Cole-Lewis, Heather J; Davidson, Patricia G; Mynatt, Elizabeth D; Cassells, Andrea; Tobin, Jonathan N; Hripcsak, George


    To outline new design directions for informatics solutions that facilitate personal discovery with self-monitoring data. We investigate this question in the context of chronic disease self-management with the focus on type 2 diabetes. We conducted an observational qualitative study of discovery with personal data among adults attending a diabetes self-management education (DSME) program that utilized a discovery-based curriculum. The study included observations of class sessions, and interviews and focus groups with the educator and attendees of the program (n = 14). The main discovery in diabetes self-management evolved around discovering patterns of association between characteristics of individuals' activities and changes in their blood glucose levels that the participants referred to as "cause and effect". This discovery empowered individuals to actively engage in self-management and provided a desired flexibility in selection of personalized self-management strategies. We show that discovery of cause and effect involves four essential phases: (1) feature selection, (2) hypothesis generation, (3) feature evaluation, and (4) goal specification. Further, we identify opportunities to support discovery at each stage with informatics and data visualization solutions by providing assistance with: (1) active manipulation of collected data (e.g., grouping, filtering and side-by-side inspection), (2) hypotheses formulation (e.g., using natural language statements or constructing visual queries), (3) inference evaluation (e.g., through aggregation and visual comparison, and statistical analysis of associations), and (4) translation of discoveries into actionable goals (e.g., tailored selection from computable knowledge sources of effective diabetes self-management behaviors). The study suggests that discovery of cause and effect in diabetes can be a powerful approach to helping individuals to improve their self-management strategies, and that self-monitoring data can

  14. Discovering Inexpensive, Effective Catalysts for Solar Energy Conversion: An Authentic Research Laboratory Experience (United States)

    Shaner, Sarah E.; Hooker, Paul D.; Nickel, Anne-Marie; Leichtfuss, Amanda R.; Adams, Carissa S.; de la Cerda, Dionisia; She, Yuqi; Gerken, James B.; Pokhrel, Ravi; Ambrose, Nicholas J.; Khaliqi, David; Stahl, Shannon S.; Schuttlefield Christus, Jennifer D.


    Electrochemical water oxidation is a major focus of solar energy conversion efforts. A new laboratory experiment has been developed that utilizes real-time, hands-on research to discover catalysts for solar energy conversion. The HARPOON, or Heterogeneous Anodes Rapidly Perused for Oxygen Overpotential Neutralization, experiment allows an array of…

  15. Retrospective Mining of Toxicology Data to Discover Multispecies Effects: Anemia as a Case Study (SOT) (United States)

    In vivo toxicology data is subject to multiple sources of uncertainty: observer severity bias (a pathologist may record only more severe effects and ignore less severe ones); dose spacing issues (this can lead to missing data, e.g. if a severe effect has a less severe precursor, ...

  16. `Discover, Understand, Implement, and Transfer': Effectiveness of an intervention programme to motivate students for science (United States)

    Schütte, Kerstin; Köller, Olaf


    Considerable research has focused on how best to satisfy modern societies' needs for skilled labour in the field of science. The present study evaluated an intervention programme designed to increase secondary school students' motivation to pursue a science career. Students from 3 schools of the highest educational track participated for up to 2 years in the intervention programme, which was implemented as an elective in the school curriculum. Our longitudinal study design for evaluating the effectiveness of the intervention programme included all students at the grade levels involved in the programme with students who did not participate serving as a control group. Mixed-model analyses of variance showed none of the intended effects of the intervention programme on science motivation; latent growth models corroborated these results. When the programme began, students who enrolled in the science elective (n = 92) were already substantially more motivated than their classmates (n = 228). Offering such an intervention programme as an elective did not further increase the participating students' science motivation. It seems worthwhile to carry out intervention programmes with talented students who show (comparatively) little interest in science at the outset rather than with highly motivated students who self-select into the programme.

  17. Murine depression model and its potential applications for discovering foods and farm products with antidepressant-like effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuhiko eGoto


    Full Text Available Advanced societies face increased health problems related to various stresses. Chronic psychological stress is a major risk factor for psychiatric disorders such as depression. Although therapeutic agents reduce several symptoms of depression, most have side effects in a broad range of the population. Furthermore, some victims of depression do not show significant improvement with any drugs, so alternative approaches are needed. Good dietary habits may potentially reduce depressive symptoms, but there is little scientific evidence thus far. Murine depression models are useful to test nutritional approaches in vivo. Our model mice subjected to a subchronic mild social defeat stress (sCSDS paradigm show several alterations in physiological parameters and social behavior. These stress-induced symptoms in sCSDS mice can be used as cues to identify antidepressant-like natural resources including foods and farm products. We previously discovered that sCSDS mice show more vulnerability to social stress by changing dietary condition. In addition, we developed a more objective system for analyzing mouse behavior using a 3D depth-sensing camera to understand relationships between diet and behavior. The combination of sCSDS mice with 3D behavioral analysis is a powerful method for screening ingredients in foods and farm products for antidepressant-like effects.

  18. A nurse-run clinic for patients with incidentally discovered small abdominal aortic aneurysms is feasible and cost-effective. (United States)

    Griffin, J L; Clarke, G A; Roake, J A; Lewis, D R


    Patients with incidentally discovered small abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) require assessment by a vascular surgery department for possible enrollment in a surveillance programme. Our unit implemented a vascular nurse-run AAA clinic in October 2010. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of a specialist nurse-run small AAA clinic. Demographic and clinical data were collected prospectively for all patients seen in the new vascular nurse clinic between October 2010 and November 2012. A validated AAA operative mortality score was used to aid decision making by the vascular nurse. Some 250 patients were seen in the clinic. 198 (79.2%) patients were enrolled in surveillance, 40 (16%) declined enrollment and 12 (4.8%) were referred to a consultant clinic for further assessment. The majority of patients were male and the mean age was 73.7 years. Co-morbidities included hypertension, a history of cardiovascular disease, and hyperlipidaemia. The majority of referrals were considered to be low operative risk. No aneurysms ruptured whilst under surveillance. A nurse-run clinic that assesses patients with incidentally discovered small AAAs for inclusion in AAA surveillance is a feasible alternative to assessment of these patients in a consultant-run clinic. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions:

  19. Effect of fertilizer amendments on phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated soil by a newly discovered hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Shuhe, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecological Process, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Li Yunmeng [Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecological Process, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Zhou Qixing, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecological Process, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Srivastava, Mrittunjai [North Florida Research and Education Center, University of Florida, Quincy, FL 32351-5677 (United States); Chiu Siuwai [Department of Biology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T. (Hong Kong); Zhan Jie [Department of Biotechnology, Liaoning University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shenyang 110101 (China); Wu Zhijie; Sun Tieheng [Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecological Process, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)


    Phytoremediation is a cost-effective, simple and sustainable beneficiary technique to purify the polluted environment. Solanum nigrum L., a newly found cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulator, has shown the potential to remediate Cd-contaminated soils. Present study investigated the effects of fertilizer amendments on the Cd uptake by S. nigrum. Chicken manure and urea are usual agricultural fertilizers and more environmental friendly. The results showed that Cd concentrations in shoots of S. nigrum were significantly decreased (p < 0.05) by 28.2-34.6%, as compared to that of without the addition of chicken manure, but not the case for urea treatment. However, Cd extraction capacities ({mu}g pot{sup -1}) in shoot biomass of S. nigrum were significantly increased (p < 0.05) due to increased shoot biomass. In addition, available Cd concentration in soil significantly decreased due to addition of chicken manure. Thus, urea might be a better fertilizer for strengthening phytoextraction rate of S. nigrum to Cd, and chicken manure may be a better fertilizer for phytostabilization.

  20. Chandra Discovers Cosmic Cannonball (United States)


    thought to have been ejected by interactions with the supermassive black hole in the Galaxy's center. CTIO Optical Images of Puppis A CTIO Optical Images of Puppis A This neutron star, by contrast, was flung into motion by the supernova that created Puppis A. The data suggest the explosion was lop-sided, kicking the neutron star in one direction and the debris from the explosion in the other. The supernova was precipitated when the core of a massive star imploded to form a neutron star. Computer simulations show that the infall of the outer layers of the star onto a neutron star releases an enormous amount of energy. As this energy propagates outward, it can reverse the infall and eject the outer layers of the star at speeds of millions of miles per hour. Due to the complexity of the flow, the ejection is not symmetric, leading to a rocket effect that propels the neutron star in the opposite direction. ROSAT X-ray ROSAT X-ray The breakneck speed of the Puppis A neutron star, plus an apparent lack of pulsations from it, is not easily explained by even the most sophisticated supernova explosion models. "The problem with discovering this cosmic cannonball is we aren't sure how to make the cannon powerful enough." said Winkler. "The high speed might be explained by an unusually energetic explosion, but the models are complicated and hard to apply to real explosions." Other recent work on RX J0822-4300 was published by C.Y. Hui and Wolfgang Becker, both from the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics in Munich, in the journal Astronomy and Astrophysics in late 2006. Using two of the three Chandra observations reported in the Winkler paper and a different analysis technique, the Hui group found a speed for RX J0822-4300 that is about two-thirds as fast, but with larger reported margins of error. The research by Winkler and Petre was published in the November 20 issue of The Astrophysical Journal. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala., manages the

  1. Discovering the Solar System (United States)

    Jones, Barrie W.


    Discovering the Solar System Barrie W. Jones The Open University, Milton Keynes, UK Discovering the Solar System is a comprehensive, up-to-date account of the Solar System and of the ways in which the various bodies have been investigated and modelled. The approach is thematic, with sequences of chapters on the interiors of planetary bodies, on their surfaces, and on their atmospheres. Within each sequence there is a chapter on general principles and processes followed by one or two chapters on specific bodies. There is also an introductory chapter, a chapter on the origin of the Solar System, and a chapter on asteroids, comets and meteorites. Liberally illustrated with diagrams, black and white photographs and colour plates, Discovering the Solar System also features: * tables of essential data * question and answers within the text * end of section review questions with answers and comments Discovering the Solar System is essential reading for all undergraduate students for whom astronomy or planetary science are components of their degrees, and for those at a more advanced level approaching the subject for the first time. It will also be of great interest to non-specialists with a keen interest in astronomy. A small amount of scientific knowledge is assumed plus familiarity with basic algebra and graphs. There is no calculus. Praise for this book includes: ".certainly qualifies as an authoritative text. The author clearly has an encyclopedic knowledge of the subject." Meteorics and Planetary Science ".liberally doused with relevant graphs, tables, and black and white figures of good quality." EOS, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union ".one of the best books on the Solar System I have seen. The general accuracy and quality of the content is excellent." Journal of the British Astronomical Association

  2. Discovering Phonemes of Bidayuh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jecky Misieng


    Full Text Available There are generally three views of the notion of a phoneme. The structuralist view of the phoneme focuses on this language phenomenon as a phonetic reality. In discovering phonemes of a language, phonologists who hold this view will look for minimal contrasting pairs as a way to determine contrasting sounds of that language. They will also look for allophones or two sounds of the same phoneme which may appear in complementary distribution. This paper will discuss the possible application of the structuralist approach to analyzing the phonemes of a dialect of Bidayuh, one of the Malayo-Polynesian languages spoken in the northern region of Borneo.

  3. Effect of fertilizer amendments on phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated soil by a newly discovered hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Shuhe; Li Yunmeng; Zhou Qixing; Srivastava, Mrittunjai; Chiu Siuwai; Zhan Jie; Wu Zhijie; Sun Tieheng


    Phytoremediation is a cost-effective, simple and sustainable beneficiary technique to purify the polluted environment. Solanum nigrum L., a newly found cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulator, has shown the potential to remediate Cd-contaminated soils. Present study investigated the effects of fertilizer amendments on the Cd uptake by S. nigrum. Chicken manure and urea are usual agricultural fertilizers and more environmental friendly. The results showed that Cd concentrations in shoots of S. nigrum were significantly decreased (p -1 ) in shoot biomass of S. nigrum were significantly increased (p < 0.05) due to increased shoot biomass. In addition, available Cd concentration in soil significantly decreased due to addition of chicken manure. Thus, urea might be a better fertilizer for strengthening phytoextraction rate of S. nigrum to Cd, and chicken manure may be a better fertilizer for phytostabilization.

  4. Top quark discovered

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Nine months after a careful announcement of tentative evidence for the long-awaited sixth 'top' quark, physicists from the CDF and DO experiments at Fermilab's Tevatron proton-antiproton collider declared on 2 March that they had finally discovered the top quark. Last year (June 1994, page 1), the CDF experiment at the Tevatron reported a dozen candidate top events. These, said CDF, had all the characteristics expected of top, but the difficulties of extracting the tiny signal from a trillion proton-antiproton collisions made them shy of claiming a discovery. For its part, the companion DO Tevatron experiment reported a few similar events but were even more guarded about their interpretation as top quarks. Just after these hesitant announcements, performance at the Tevatron improved dramatically last summer. After the commissioning of a new linear accelerator and a magnet realignment, the machine reached a new world record proton-antiproton collision luminosity of 1.28 x 10 31 per sq cm per s, ten times that originally planned. Data began to pour in at an unprecedented rate and the data sample grew to six trillion collisions. Luminosity has subsequently climbed to 1.7 x 10 31 . The top quark is the final letter in the alphabet of Standard Model particles. According to this picture, all matter is composed of six stronglyinteracting subnuclear particles, the quarks, and six weakly interacting particles, the leptons. Both sextets are neatly arranged as three pairs in order of increasing mass. The fifth quark, the 'beauty' or 'b' quark, was also discovered at Fermilab, back in 1977. Since then physicists have been eagerly waiting for the top to turn up, but have been frustrated by its heaviness - the top is some 40 times the mass of its 'beautiful' partner. Not only is the top quark the heaviest by far, but it is the only quark which has been actively hunted. After the quarry was glimpsed last year, the net has now been

  5. Discovering genes underlying QTL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanavichit, Apichart [Kasetsart University, Kamphaengsaen, Nakorn Pathom (Thailand)


    A map-based approach has allowed scientists to discover few genes at a time. In addition, the reproductive barrier between cultivated rice and wild relatives has prevented us from utilizing the germ plasm by a map-based approach. Most genetic traits important to agriculture or human diseases are manifested as observable, quantitative phenotypes called Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL). In many instances, the complexity of the phenotype/genotype interaction and the general lack of clearly identifiable gene products render the direct molecular cloning approach ineffective, thus additional strategies like genome mapping are required to identify the QTL in question. Genome mapping requires no prior knowledge of the gene function, but utilizes statistical methods to identify the most likely gene location. To completely characterize genes of interest, the initially mapped region of a gene location will have to be narrowed down to a size that is suitable for cloning and sequencing. Strategies for gene identification within the critical region have to be applied after the sequencing of a potentially large clone or set of clones that contains this gene(s). Tremendous success of positional cloning has been shown for cloning many genes responsible for human diseases, including cystic fibrosis and muscular dystrophy as well as plant disease resistance genes. Genome and QTL mapping, positional cloning: the pre-genomics era, comparative approaches to gene identification, and positional cloning: the genomics era are discussed in the report. (M. Suetake)

  6. Differential effectiveness of placebo treatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meissner, Karin; Fässler, Margrit; Rücker, Gerta


    IMPORTANCE When analyzing results of randomized clinical trials, the treatment with the greatest specific effect compared with its placebo control is considered to be the most effective one. Although systematic variations of improvements in placebo control groups would have important implications...... relevant sources through February 2012 and contacted the authors to identify randomized clinical trials on the prophylaxis of migraine with an observation period of at least 8 weeks after randomization that compared an experimental treatment with a placebo control group. We calculated pooled random-effects...... and sham surgery are associated with higher responder ratios than oral pharmacological placebos. Clinicians who treat patients with migraine should be aware that a relevant part of the overall effect they observe in practice might be due to nonspecific effects and that the size of such effects might differ...

  7. Describing treatment effects to patients. (United States)

    Moxey, Annette; O'Connell, Dianne; McGettigan, Patricia; Henry, David


    To examine the impact of different presentations of equivalent information (framing) on treatment decisions faced by patients. A systematic review of the published literature was conducted. English language publications allocating participants to different frames were retrieved using electronic and bibliographic searches. Two reviewers examined each article for inclusion, and assessed methodological quality. Study characteristics were tabulated and where possible, relative risks (RR; 95% confidence intervals) were calculated to estimate intervention effects. Thirty-seven articles, yielding 40 experimental studies, were included. Studies examined treatment (N = 24), immunization (N = 5), or health behavior scenarios (N = 11). Overall, active treatments were preferred when outcomes were described in terms of relative rather than absolute risk reductions or number needed to treat. Surgery was preferred to other treatments when treatment efficacy was presented in a positive frame (survival) rather than a negative frame (mortality) (relative risk [RR] = 1.51, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.39 to 1.64). Framing effects were less obvious for immunization and health behavior scenarios. Those with little interest in the behavior at baseline were influenced by framing, particularly when information was presented as gains. In studies judged to be of good methodological quality and/or examining actual decisions, the framing effect, although still evident, was less convincing compared to the results of all included studies. Framing effects varied with the type of scenario, responder characteristics, scenario manipulations, and study quality. When describing treatment effects to patients, expressing the information in more than one way may present a balanced view to patients and enable them to make informed decisions.

  8. Fertility effects of cancer treatment. (United States)

    Marsden, Donald E; Hacker, Neville


    Cancer sufferers are a subfertile group, and most treatments have the potential to adversely affect gonadal function. As cancer treatment becomes more effective and survival rates improve there are more cancer survivors in the reproductive age group for whom parenting is an important consideration. This article outlines the effects on fertility of cancer treatments and techniques to minimise the risk of infertility. The overall prospects for younger cancer sufferers to either retain their fertility or have genetic offspring is now better than ever before, due to advances in assisted reproductive technology, the appropriate use of fertility sparing surgery and other techniques to reduce the toxicity of therapy on the reproductive organs. These advances raise new moral and ethical concerns that must be considered before advising cancer sufferers of the options for preserving reproductive capacity.

  9. Discovering Astronomy Through Poetry (United States)

    Mannone, John C.


    The literature is replete with astronomical references. And much of that literature is poetry. Using this fact, not only can the teacher infuse a new appreciation of astronomy, but also, the student has the opportunity to rediscover history through astronomy. Poetry can be an effective icebreaker in the introduction of new topics in physics and astronomy, as well as a point of conclusion to a lecture. This presentation will give examples of these things from the ancient literature (sacred Hebraic texts), classical literature (Homer's Iliad and Odyssey), traditional poetry (Longfellow, Tennyson and Poe) and modern literature (Frost, Kooser, and others, including the contemporary work of this author).

  10. The effectiveness of stuttering treatments in Germany. (United States)

    Euler, Harald A; Lange, Benjamin P; Schroeder, Sascha; Neumann, Katrin


    Persons who stutter (PWS) should be referred to the most effective treatments available, locally or regionally. A prospective comparison of the effects of the most common stuttering treatments in Germany is not available. Therefore, a retrospective evaluation by clients of stuttering treatments was carried out. The five most common German stuttering treatments (231 single treatment cases) were rated as to their perceived effectiveness, using a structured questionnaire, by 88 PWS recruited through various sources. The participants had received between 1 and 7 treatments for stuttering. Two stuttering treatments (stuttering modification, fluency shaping) showed favorable and three treatments (breathing therapy, hypnosis, unspecified logopedic treatment) showed unsatisfactory effectiveness ratings. The effectiveness ratings of stuttering modification and fluency shaping did not differ significantly. The three other treatments were equally ineffective. The differences between the effective and ineffective treatments were of large effect sizes. The typical therapy biography begins in childhood with an unspecified logopedic treatment administered extensively in single and individual sessions. Available comparisons showed intensive or interval treatments to be superior to extensive treatments, and group treatments to be superior to single client treatments. The stuttering treatment most often prescribed in Germany, namely a weekly session of individual treatment by a speech-language pathologist, usually with an assorted package of mostly unknown components, is of limited effectiveness. Better effectiveness can be expected from fluency shaping or stuttering modification approaches, preferably with an intensive time schedule and with group sessions. Readers will be able to: (a) discuss the five most prevalent stuttering treatments in Germany; (b) summarize the effectiveness of these treatments; and (c) describe structural treatment components that seem to be preferable

  11. Discovering Alzheimer Genetic Biomarkers Using Bayesian Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayroz F. Sherif


    Full Text Available Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs contribute most of the genetic variation to the human genome. SNPs associate with many complex and common diseases like Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Discovering SNP biomarkers at different loci can improve early diagnosis and treatment of these diseases. Bayesian network provides a comprehensible and modular framework for representing interactions between genes or single SNPs. Here, different Bayesian network structure learning algorithms have been applied in whole genome sequencing (WGS data for detecting the causal AD SNPs and gene-SNP interactions. We focused on polymorphisms in the top ten genes associated with AD and identified by genome-wide association (GWA studies. New SNP biomarkers were observed to be significantly associated with Alzheimer’s disease. These SNPs are rs7530069, rs113464261, rs114506298, rs73504429, rs7929589, rs76306710, and rs668134. The obtained results demonstrated the effectiveness of using BN for identifying AD causal SNPs with acceptable accuracy. The results guarantee that the SNP set detected by Markov blanket based methods has a strong association with AD disease and achieves better performance than both naïve Bayes and tree augmented naïve Bayes. Minimal augmented Markov blanket reaches accuracy of 66.13% and sensitivity of 88.87% versus 61.58% and 59.43% in naïve Bayes, respectively.

  12. The Treatment Effectiveness Assessment (TEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling W


    Full Text Available Walter Ling,1 David Farabee,1 Dagmar Liepa,2 Li-Tzy Wu3 1Integrated Substance Abuse Programs, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, 2Valley Care Medical Center, Panorama City, CA, 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, School of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA We have been surprised and gratified by the readers’ responses to our article, The Treatment Effectiveness Assessment (TEA: an efficient, patient-centered instrument for evaluating progress in recovery from addiction, which was published in December 2012.1 In the six months since that time, we have received numerous questions and observations about the article, and about the TEA instrument. Respondents were clinicians: physicians, counselors, therapists, nurses; as well as administrators and policy makers.  View original paper by Ling W, Farabee D, Liepa D, Wu LT. 

  13. Coping with Cosmetic Effects of Cancer Treatment (United States)

    ... Search English Español Coping With Cosmetic Effects of Cancer Treatment KidsHealth / For Parents / Coping With Cosmetic Effects of Cancer Treatment What's in this article? Hair Loss Skin Problems ...

  14. Discovering Hands - México


    Salamanca Cárdenas, Daniela; Castelblanco Domínguez, Junio Andrés; Aguilar Ardila, Laura Andrea


    El modelo de Discovering Hands ha sido reconocido internacionalmente como un proyecto innovador que se ha expandido por diferentes países del mundo, como Austria, y se ha empezado a estudiar la propuesta en países como República Checa, India y Colombia. (Discovering Hands, 2016). Esto se debe a que no solo mejora el tratamiento de cáncer de mama, sino que también reduce los costos totales de tratamiento de la enfermedad y aumenta la fuerza laborar de los países donde esté presente. Al represe...

  15. Occult carcinoma discovered after simple hysterectomy treated with postoperative radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crane, Christopher H.; Schneider, Bernard F.


    Purpose: Treatment of patients with occult carcinoma of the cervix discovered after simple hysterectomy is controversial. The purpose of this review is to examine our results with postoperative radiotherapy and to compare them to similar reports and to reports of treatment with radical parametrectomy. Methods and Materials: Between November 1979 and April:, 18 patients were treated with radiotherapy at the University of Virginia for invasive carcinoma of the cervix discovered after simple hysterectomy. Simple hysterectomy was performed in all 18 patients for a variety of indications. After surgery gross residual carcinoma remained in four patients; and microscopic disease was present at the surgical margins in two patients. The remaining patients had no evidence of residual disease. All 18 patients had postoperative radiotherapy with or without brachytherapy. The endpoints for this study were local control, survival, and treatment-related toxicity. Actuarial rates were calculated using the Life method. Results: Median follow-up for all 18 patients was 42 months (range 2-202 months). Both the 5 and the 10-year actuarial local control rates were 88%. Five and 10-year actuarial overall survival rates were both 93%. Two patients had both local and distant cancer recurrences. There were no recurrences among the six patients treated with external beam alone. The remaining patients are all alive without evidence of disease, including two patients who had gross residual disease after surgery, and one patient with both microscopic positive margin and a positive lymph node (the only patient to undergo lymph node sampling). There was no severe acute morbidity and only one patient had severe late morbidity. Conclusions: Invasive carcinoma found after simple hysterectomy may be treated safely and effectively with postoperative radiotherapy. Patients with known residual disease following surgery do poorly with either radiotherapy or reoperation, but treatment with radiotherapy

  16. The discovered preference hypothesis - an empirical test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundhede, Thomas; Ladenburg, Jacob; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    Using stated preference methods for valuation of non-market goods is known to be vulnerable to a range of biases. Some authors claim that these so-called anomalies in effect render the methods useless for the purpose. However, the Discovered Preference Hypothesis, as put forth by Plott [31], offers...... an nterpretation and explanation of biases which entails that the stated preference methods need not to be completely written off. In this paper we conduct a test for the validity and relevance of the DPH interpretation of biases. In a choice experiment concerning preferences for protection of Danish nature areas...... as respondents evaluate more and more choice sets. This finding supports the Discovered Preference Hypothesis interpretation and explanation of starting point bias....

  17. Learning Effective Treatment Pathways for Type-2 Diabetes from a clinical data warehouse. (United States)

    Vashisht, Rohit; Jung, Ken; Shah, Nigam


    Treatment guidelines for management of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are controversial because existing evidence from randomized clinical trials do not address many important clinical questions. Data from Electronic Medical Records (EMRs) has been used to profile first line therapy choices, but this work did not elucidate the factors underlying deviations from current treatment guidelines and the relative efficacy of different treatment options. We have used data from the Stanford Hospital to attempt to address these issues. Clinical features associated with the initial choice of treatment were effectively re-discovered using a machine learning approach. In addition, the efficacies of first and second line treatments were evaluated using Cox proportional hazard models for control of Hemoglobin A 1c . Factors such as acute kidney disorder and liver disorder were predictive of first line therapy choices. Sitagliptin was the most effective second-line therapy, and as effective as metformin as a first line therapy.

  18. Effects of local meteorology and aerosols on ozone and nitrogen dioxide retrievals from OMI and pandora spectrometers in Maryland, USA during DISCOVER-AQ 2011. (United States)

    Reed, Andra J; Thompson, Anne M; Kollonige, Debra E; Martins, Douglas K; Tzortziou, Maria A; Herman, Jay R; Berkoff, Timothy A; Abuhassan, Nader K; Cede, Alexander

    An analysis is presented for both ground- and satellite-based retrievals of total column ozone and nitrogen dioxide levels from the Washington, D.C., and Baltimore, Maryland, metropolitan area during the NASA-sponsored July 2011 campaign of D eriving I nformation on S urface CO nditions from Column and VER tically Resolved Observations Relevant to A ir Q uality (DISCOVER-AQ). Satellite retrievals of total column ozone and nitrogen dioxide from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the Aura satellite are used, while Pandora spectrometers provide total column ozone and nitrogen dioxide amounts from the ground. We found that OMI and Pandora agree well (residuals within ±25 % for nitrogen dioxide, and ±4.5 % for ozone) for a majority of coincident observations during July 2011. Comparisons with surface nitrogen dioxide from a Teledyne API 200 EU NO x Analyzer showed nitrogen dioxide diurnal variability that was consistent with measurements by Pandora. However, the wide OMI field of view, clouds, and aerosols affected retrievals on certain days, resulting in differences between Pandora and OMI of up to ±65 % for total column nitrogen dioxide, and ±23 % for total column ozone. As expected, significant cloud cover (cloud fraction >0.2) was the most important parameter affecting comparisons of ozone retrievals; however, small, passing cumulus clouds that do not coincide with a high (>0.2) cloud fraction, or low aerosol layers which cause significant backscatter near the ground affected the comparisons of total column nitrogen dioxide retrievals. Our results will impact post-processing satellite retrieval algorithms and quality control procedures.

  19. Cost-Effective Fuel Treatment Planning (United States)

    Kreitler, J.; Thompson, M.; Vaillant, N.


    The cost of fighting large wildland fires in the western United States has grown dramatically over the past decade. This trend will likely continue with growth of the WUI into fire prone ecosystems, dangerous fuel conditions from decades of fire suppression, and a potentially increasing effect from prolonged drought and climate change. Fuel treatments are often considered the primary pre-fire mechanism to reduce the exposure of values at risk to wildland fire, and a growing suite of fire models and tools are employed to prioritize where treatments could mitigate wildland fire damages. Assessments using the likelihood and consequence of fire are critical because funds are insufficient to reduce risk on all lands needing treatment, therefore prioritization is required to maximize the effectiveness of fuel treatment budgets. Cost-effectiveness, doing the most good per dollar, would seem to be an important fuel treatment metric, yet studies or plans that prioritize fuel treatments using costs or cost-effectiveness measures are absent from the literature. Therefore, to explore the effect of using costs in fuel treatment planning we test four prioritization algorithms designed to reduce risk in a case study examining fuel treatments on the Sisters Ranger District of central Oregon. For benefits we model sediment retention and standing biomass, and measure the effectiveness of each algorithm by comparing the differences among treatment and no treat alternative scenarios. Our objective is to maximize the averted loss of net benefits subject to a representative fuel treatment budget. We model costs across the study landscape using the My Fuel Treatment Planner software, tree list data, local mill prices, and GIS-measured site characteristics. We use fire simulations to generate burn probabilities, and estimate fire intensity as conditional flame length at each pixel. Two prioritization algorithms target treatments based on cost-effectiveness and show improvements over those

  20. Impact of Treatment Integrity on Intervention Effectiveness (United States)

    Fryling, Mitch J.; Wallace, Michele D.; Yassine, Jordan N.


    Treatment integrity has cogent implications for intervention effectiveness. Understanding these implications is an important, but often neglected, undertaking in behavior analysis. This paper reviews current research on treatment integrity in applied behavior analysis. Specifically, we review research evaluating the relation between integrity…

  1. Effects of Chemical Treatments on Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (United States)

    Friedman, E. S.; Strom, M.; Dexter, S. C.


    Biofilms are known to have an effect on galvanic corrosion of alloys in seawater systems. In the Delaware Bay, biofilm formation on surface of cathodes has been shown to cause galvanic corrosion to occur up to 100 times more rapidly. Given the impacts that corrosion can have on structures, it is important to study how we can affect corrosion rates. One way of doing this is the application of chemical treatments to biofilms on metal samples. To investigate this, natural marine biofilms were grown on alloy 6XN stainless steel samples, and various chemical treatments were applied to discover their effects on open circuit potentials and corrosion currents. Another objective of this study was to determine if there was a threshold molecular weight above which molecules were unable to penetrate the biofilm. It was discovered that chemicals with molecular weights as high as 741.6 g/mol were able to penetrate at least some parts of the heterogeneous biofilm and reach the metal surface. No upper threshold value was found in this study. It was found that the reducing agents sodium L-ascorbate and NADH as well as the chelate ferizene caused a drop in open circuit potential of biofilmed 6XN samples. Also, glutaraldahyde, which is used as a fixative for bacteria, shifted the open circuit potential of biofilm samples in the noble direction but had no effect on the corrosion current. Sodium L- ascorbate was found to reach the metal surface, but in concentrations lower than those present in the bulk fluid. It was not determined in this study whether this was due to physical or chemical processes within the biofilm. A synergistic effect was observed when applying a mixture of ferizene and glutaraldahyde. It is thought that this was due to the death of the bacteria as well as the disruption of iron cycling in the biofilm. Finally, it was observed that NADH caused a reduction in current at potentials associated with iron reduction, leading us to believe that the iron was being reduced

  2. Pancreatic sarcoidosis discovered during Whipple procedure. (United States)

    Cook, Jonathan; Spees, Tanner; Telefus, Phillip; Ranaudo, Jeffrey M; Carryl, Stephen; Xiao, Philip


    Pancreatic sarcoidosis is a rare variant of systemic sarcoidosis, with cases described in literature as recently as January 2010. We present here a case of pancreatic involvement with non-caseating granulomas discovered on laparotomy in a patient with a preoperative diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma. Computer tomography scan without contrast revealed a well-marginated smooth-shaped tumor in the head of the pancreas morphologically consistent with malignancy. During Whipple procedure, the mass was found to be a large lymph node that contained numerous non-caseating granulomas. Radiologically and clinically, non-caseating granulomas of the pancreas are often misdiagnosed as malignant tumor. Special attention given to this differential diagnosis by surgeons, pathologists and clinicians can avoid misdiagnosis and unnecessary treatment. Published by Oxford University Press and JSCR Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved. © The Author 2013.

  3. Understanding placebo, nocebo, and iatrogenic treatment effects. (United States)

    Bootzin, Richard R; Bailey, Elaine T


    Placebo and nonplacebo treatments have both positive and negative effects on patient outcomes. To better understand the patterning of treatment effects, three specific interventions will be discussed that are reported to produce more harm than benefit: critical incident stress debriefing, group therapy for adolescents with conduct disorders, and psychotherapy for dissociative identity disorder. In each case, there is an interaction between mechanisms thought to underlie both placebo and specific treatment effects. Mechanisms hypothesized to underlie placebo and nocebo effects include patient expectancy, self-focused attention to symptoms, motivation to change, and sociocultural role-enactment cues. In the three treatments discussed, specific mechanisms interact with nonspecific mechanisms to produce iatrogenic effects. To advance knowledge, it is important both to specify the theory of treatment and its expected outcomes and to put the theory to test. Only with attention to the empirical findings from programmatic research of specific and nonspecific effects and their interaction is it possible to improve the outcomes of treatment beyond the status quo.

  4. Advances in surface treatments: Technology, applications, effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niku-Lari, A.


    An international handbook has been produced to include all aspects of residual stresses, including the theoretical background, effects of residual stresses, measurement and calculation and quantitative assessment of residual stress effects. Techniques for altering residual stresses, particularly surface treatments, are discussed. Up to date information on the state of the art is presented. (UK)

  5. Glowing Hot Transiting Exoplanet Discovered (United States)


    VLT Spectra Indicate Shortest-Known-Period Planet Orbiting OGLE-TR-3 Summary More than 100 exoplanets in orbit around stars other than the Sun have been found so far. But while their orbital periods and distances from their central stars are well known, their true masses cannot be determined with certainty, only lower limits. This fundamental limitation is inherent in the common observational method to discover exoplanets - the measurements of small and regular changes in the central star's velocity, caused by the planet's gravitational pull as it orbits the star. However, in two cases so far, it has been found that the exoplanet's orbit happens to be positioned in such a way that the planet moves in front of the stellar disk, as seen from the Earth. This "transit" event causes a small and temporary dip in the star's brightness, as the planet covers a small part of its surface, which can be observed. The additional knowledge of the spatial orientation of the planetary orbit then permits a direct determination of the planet's true mass. Now, a group of German astronomers [1] have found a third star in which a planet, somewhat larger than Jupiter, but only half as massive, moves in front of the central star every 28.5 hours . The crucial observation of this solar-type star, designated OGLE-TR-3 [2] was made with the high-dispersion UVES spectrograph on the Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the ESO Paranal Observatory (Chile). It is the exoplanet with the shortest period found so far and it is very close to the star, only 3.5 million km away. The hemisphere that faces the star must be extremely hot, about 2000 °C and the planet is obviously losing its atmosphere at high rate . PR Photo 10a/03 : The star OGLE-TR-3 . PR Photo 10b/03 : VLT UVES spectrum of OGLE-TR-3. PR Photo 10c/03 : Relation between stellar brightness and velocity (diagram). PR Photo 10d/03 : Observed velocity variation of OGLE-TR-3. PR Photo 10e/03 : Observed brightness variation of OGLE-TR-3. The search

  6. SARS: systematic review of treatment effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren J Stockman


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The SARS outbreak of 2002-2003 presented clinicians with a new, life-threatening disease for which they had no experience in treating and no research on the effectiveness of treatment options. The World Health Organization (WHO expert panel on SARS treatment requested a systematic review and comprehensive summary of treatments used for SARS-infected patients in order to guide future treatment and identify priorities for research. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In response to the WHO request we conducted a systematic review of the published literature on ribavirin, corticosteroids, lopinavir and ritonavir (LPV/r, type I interferon (IFN, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG, and SARS convalescent plasma from both in vitro studies and in SARS patients. We also searched for clinical trial evidence of treatment for acute respiratory distress syndrome. Sources of data were the literature databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIOSIS, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL up to February 2005. Data from publications were extracted and evidence within studies was classified using predefined criteria. In total, 54 SARS treatment studies, 15 in vitro studies, and three acute respiratory distress syndrome studies met our inclusion criteria. Within in vitro studies, ribavirin, lopinavir, and type I IFN showed inhibition of SARS-CoV in tissue culture. In SARS-infected patient reports on ribavirin, 26 studies were classified as inconclusive, and four showed possible harm. Seven studies of convalescent plasma or IVIG, three of IFN type I, and two of LPV/r were inconclusive. In 29 studies of steroid use, 25 were inconclusive and four were classified as causing possible harm. CONCLUSIONS: Despite an extensive literature reporting on SARS treatments, it was not possible to determine whether treatments benefited patients during the SARS outbreak. Some may have been harmful. Clinical trials should be designed to validate a standard protocol for dosage

  7. Estimating scaled treatment effects with multiple outcomes. (United States)

    Kennedy, Edward H; Kangovi, Shreya; Mitra, Nandita


    In classical study designs, the aim is often to learn about the effects of a treatment or intervention on a single outcome; in many modern studies, however, data on multiple outcomes are collected and it is of interest to explore effects on multiple outcomes simultaneously. Such designs can be particularly useful in patient-centered research, where different outcomes might be more or less important to different patients. In this paper, we propose scaled effect measures (via potential outcomes) that translate effects on multiple outcomes to a common scale, using mean-variance and median-interquartile range based standardizations. We present efficient, nonparametric, doubly robust methods for estimating these scaled effects (and weighted average summary measures), and for testing the null hypothesis that treatment affects all outcomes equally. We also discuss methods for exploring how treatment effects depend on covariates (i.e., effect modification). In addition to describing efficiency theory for our estimands and the asymptotic behavior of our estimators, we illustrate the methods in a simulation study and a data analysis. Importantly, and in contrast to much of the literature concerning effects on multiple outcomes, our methods are nonparametric and can be used not only in randomized trials to yield increased efficiency, but also in observational studies with high-dimensional covariates to reduce confounding bias.

  8. Musical hallucinations: review of treatment effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan eCoebergh


    Full Text Available AbstractBackground: Despite an increased scientific interest in musical hallucinations throughout the past 25 years, treatment protocols are still lacking. This may well be due to the fact that musical hallucinations have multiple causes, and that published cases are relatively rare.Objective: To review the effects of published treatment methods for musical hallucinations.Methods: A literature search yielded 175 articles discussing a total number of 516 cases, of which 147 articles discussed treatment in 276 individuals. We analysed the treatment results in relation to the aetiological factor considered responsible for the mediation of the musical hallucinations, i.e., idiopathic/hypoacusis, psychiatric disorder, brain lesion and other pathology, epilepsy or intoxication.Results: Musical hallucinations can disappear without intervention. When hallucinations are bearable, patients can be reassured without any other treatment. However, in other patients musical hallucinations are so disturbing that treatment is indicated. Distinct aetiological groups appear to respond differently to treatment. In the hypoacusis group, treating the hearing impairment can yield significant improvement and coping strategies (e.g. more acoustic stimulation are frequently helpful. Pharmacological treatment methods can also be successful, with antidepressants being more helpful than antiepileptics (which are still better than antipsychotics. The limited use of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors has looked promising. Musical hallucinations occurring as part of a psychiatric disorder tend to respond well to psychopharmacological treatments targeting the underlying disorder. Musical hallucinations experienced in the context of brain injuries and epilepsy tend to respond well to antiepileptics, but their natural course is often benign, irrespective of any pharmacological treatment. When intoxication is the main aetiological factor, it is important to stop or switch the

  9. Discovering, Indexing and Interlinking Information Resources. (United States)

    Celli, Fabrizio; Keizer, Johannes; Jaques, Yves; Konstantopoulos, Stasinos; Vudragović, Dušan


    The social media revolution is having a dramatic effect on the world of scientific publication. Scientists now publish their research interests, theories and outcomes across numerous channels, including personal blogs and other thematic web spaces where ideas, activities and partial results are discussed. Accordingly, information systems that facilitate access to scientific literature must learn to cope with this valuable and varied data, evolving to make this research easily discoverable and available to end users. In this paper we describe the incremental process of discovering web resources in the domain of agricultural science and technology. Making use of Linked Open Data methodologies, we interlink a wide array of custom-crawled resources with the AGRIS bibliographic database in order to enrich the user experience of the AGRIS website. We also discuss the SemaGrow Stack, a query federation and data integration infrastructure used to estimate the semantic distance between crawled web resources and AGRIS.

  10. Discovering Multidimensional Structure in Relational Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mikael Rune; Holmgren, Thomas; Pedersen, Torben Bach


    On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) systems based on multidimensional databases are essential elements of decision support. However, most existing data is stored in “ordinary” relational OLTP databases, i.e., data has to be (re-) modeled as multidimensional cubes before the advantages of OLAP to...... algorithms for discovering multidimensional schemas from relational databases. The algorithms take a wide range of available metadata into account in the discovery process, including functional and inclusion dependencies, and key and cardinality information....... tools are available. In this paper we present an approach for the automatic construction of multidimensional OLAP database schemas from existing relational OLTP databases, enabling easy OLAP design and analysis for most existing data sources. This is achieved through a set of practical and effective...

  11. Discovering network behind infectious disease outbreak (United States)

    Maeno, Yoshiharu


    Stochasticity and spatial heterogeneity are of great interest recently in studying the spread of an infectious disease. The presented method solves an inverse problem to discover the effectively decisive topology of a heterogeneous network and reveal the transmission parameters which govern the stochastic spreads over the network from a dataset on an infectious disease outbreak in the early growth phase. Populations in a combination of epidemiological compartment models and a meta-population network model are described by stochastic differential equations. Probability density functions are derived from the equations and used for the maximal likelihood estimation of the topology and parameters. The method is tested with computationally synthesized datasets and the WHO dataset on the SARS outbreak.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleem, L. E.; Stalder, B.; de Haan, T.; Aird, K. A.; Allen, S. W.; Applegate, D. E.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Bautz, M.; Bayliss, M.; Benson, B. A.; Bocquet, S.; Brodwin, M.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Chiu, I.; Cho, H. M.; Clocchiatti, A.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T.; Desai, S.; Dietrich, J. P.; Dobbs, M. A.; Foley, R. J.; Forman, W. R.; George, E. M.; Gladders, M. D.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Halverson, N. W.; Hennig, C.; Hoekstra, H.; Holder, G. P.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Hrubes, J. D.; Jones, C.; Keisler, R.; Knox, L.; Lee, A. T.; Leitch, E. M.; Liu, J.; Lueker, M.; Luong-Van, D.; Mantz, A.; Marrone, D. P.; McDonald, M.; McMahon, J. J.; Meyer, S. S.; Mocanu, L.; Mohr, J. J.; Murray, S. S.; Padin, S.; Pryke, C.; Reichardt, C. L.; Rest, A.; Ruel, J.; Ruhl, J. E.; Saliwanchik, B. R.; Saro, A.; Sayre, J. T.; Schaffer, K. K.; Schrabback, T.; Shirokoff, E.; Song, J.; Spieler, H. G.; Stanford, S. A.; Staniszewski, Z.; Stark, A. A.; Story, K. T.; Stubbs, C. W.; Vanderlinde, K.; Vieira, J. D.; Vikhlinin, A.; Williamson, R.; Zahn, O.; Zenteno, A.


    We present a catalog of galaxy clusters selected via their Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect signature from 2500 deg(2) of South Pole Telescope (SPT) data. This work represents the complete sample of clusters detected at high significance in the 2500 deg(2) SPT-SZ survey, which was completed in 2011. A total of 677 (409) cluster candidates are identified above a signal-to-noise threshold of ξ = 4.5 (5.0). Ground- and space-based optical and near-infrared (NIR) imaging confirms overdensities of similarly colored galaxies in the direction of 516 (or 76%) of the ξ > 4.5 candidates and 387 (or 95%) of the ξ > 5 candidates, the measured purity is consistent with expectations from simulations. Of these confirmed clusters, 415 were first identified in SPT data, including 251 new discoveries reported in this work. We estimate photometric redshifts for all candidates with identified optical and/or NIR counterparts, we additionally report redshifts derived from spectroscopic observations for 141 of these systems. The mass threshold of the catalog is roughly independent of redshift above z ~ 0.25 leading to a sample of massive clusters that extends to high redshift. The median mass of the sample is M (500c)(ρ(crit)) $\\sim 3.5\\times 10^{14}\\,M_\\odot \\,h_{70}^{-1}$, the median redshift is z (med) = 0.55, and the highest-redshift systems are at z > 1.4. The combination of large redshift extent, clean selection, and high typical mass makes this cluster sample of particular interest for cosmological analyses and studies of cluster formation and evolution.

  13. Neurocognitive Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer (United States)

    Butler, Robert W.; Haser, Jennifer K.


    We review research on the neuropsychological effects that central nervous system (CNS) cancer treatments have on the cognitive abilities of children and adolescents. The authors focus on the two most common malignancies of childhood: leukemias and brain tumors. The literature review is structured so as to separate out earlier studies, generally…

  14. Evaluating the Effectiveness Of Postfire Rehabilitation Treatments (United States)

    Peter R. Robichaud; Jan L. Beyers; Daniel G. Neary


    Spending on postfire emergency watershed rehabilitation has increased during the past decade. A west-wide evaluation of USDA Forest Service burned area emergency rehabilitation (BAER) treatment effectiveness was undertaken as a joint project by USDA Forest Service Research and National Forest System staffs. This evaluation covers 470 fires and 321 BAER projects, from...

  15. Scientists Discover Sugar in Space (United States)


    . Glycolaldehyde is a simpler molecular cousin to table sugar, the scientists say. The sugar molecule was detected in a large cloud of gas and dust some 26,000 light-years away, near the center of our Galaxy. Such clouds, often many light-years across, are the material from which new stars are formed. Though very rarified by Earth standards, these interstellar clouds are the sites of complex chemical reactions that occur over hundreds of thousands or millions of years. So far, about 120 different molecules have been discovered in these clouds. Most of these molecules contain a small number of atoms, and only a few molecules with eight or more atoms have been found in interstellar clouds. The 12 Meter Telescope "Finding glycolaldehyde in one of these interstellar clouds means that such molecules can be formed even in very rarified conditions," said Hollis. "We don't yet understand how it could be formed there," he added. "A combination of more astronomical observations and theoretical chemistry work will be required to resolve the mystery of how this molecule is formed in space." "We hope this discovery inspires renewed efforts to find even more kinds of molecules, so that, with a better idea of the total picture, we may be able to deduce the details of the prebiotic chemistry taking place in interstellar clouds," Hollis said. The discovery was made by detecting faint radio emission from the sugar molecules in the interstellar cloud. Molecules rotate end-for-end, and as they change from one rotational energy state to another, they emit radio waves at precise frequencies. The "family" of radio frequencies emitted by a particular molecule forms a unique "fingerprint" that scientists can use to identify that molecule. The scientists identified glycolaldehyde by detecting six frequencies of radio emission in what is termed the millimeter-wavelength region of the electromagnetic spectrum -- a region between more-familiar microwaves and infrared radiation. The NRAO 12 Meter Telescope

  16. Discovering workflow nets using integer linear programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zelst, S.J.; van Dongen, B.F.; van der Aalst, W.M.P.; Verbeek, H.M.W.

    Process mining is concerned with the analysis, understanding and improvement of business processes. Process discovery, i.e. discovering a process model based on an event log, is considered the most challenging process mining task. State-of-the-art process discovery algorithms only discover local

  17. Side effects of endobronchial laser treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierkesmann, R.; Huzly, A.


    Side effects that have occurred in over 250 endobronchial laser treatments are reported. The laser has been used in severe tracheal and in bronchial obstructions. In two cases significant bleeding had to be treated with tamponade. In one patient an emphysema of the mediastinum developed, in 2 further patients a small pneumothorax. Perforation of the airway was not detected and no special treatment was necessary. Three patients with life-threatening tracheal stenoses and one patient with severe stenosis of both the mainstem bronchi due to metastasis in the bifurcation lymph node had a large defect in the tracheal or bronchial wall with a deep necrosis five to twelve weeks after laser treatment; all these patients had extensive radiotherapy in addition. One patient died due to severe respiratory insufficiency, probably caused by smoke intoxication. After the laser treatment, rubber-like fibrin-rich plaques may develop, which can lead to life-threatening obstructions of the airway. It is recommended that laser bronchoscopy should be performed with the rigid bronchoscope. After treatment of tracheal lesion an endoscopic check must be performed within 24 hours. The combination of laser treatment and radiotherapy seems to involve a certain risk of large defects in the bronchial wall due to necrosis of the tumor.

  18. Toxic Stress: Effects, Prevention and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hillary A. Franke


    Full Text Available Children who experience early life toxic stress are at risk of long-term adverse health effects that may not manifest until adulthood. This article briefly summarizes the findings in recent studies on toxic stress and childhood adversity following the publication of the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP Policy Report on the effects of toxic stress. A review of toxic stress and its effects is described, including factors of vulnerability, resilience, and the relaxation response. An integrative approach to the prevention and treatment of toxic stress necessitates individual, community and national focus.

  19. Overcoming Stereotypes, Discovering Hidden Capitals (United States)

    Beckett, Lori; Wrigley, Terry


    This article presents a model of teacher research supported by academic partners to develop a better understanding of the barriers to education faced by young people growing up in poverty. It critiques politicians' demands for teachers to "close the gap" for ignoring the cumulative intergenerational effects of deprivation. The authors…

  20. Effective treatment strategies against Ebola virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Yaqoob


    Full Text Available Ebola virus (EBOV, a member of order Mononegavirales is most famous for causing the endemics of hemorrhagic fever in different countries of the world. Various effective treatment for EBOV are available presently but different clinical trials and experimental studies on animal models are ongoing for this purpose. Results from different studies showed that selective vaccines and therapeutic drugs have potential to interfere the viral life events within host cell in order to inhibit its replication. Various pre-clinical trials in this regard are proved successful on non-human primates (NHPs and found to be significant in inhibiting EBOV infections. It is the need of hour to develop effective vaccines against Ebola virus to combat this problem as soon as possible. The present article is a brief review on potential treatment strategies against Ebola virus.

  1. Psoriasis: characteristics, psychosocial effects and treatment options.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, Sheila


    Psoriasis is a complex chronic non-infectious inflammatory skin disease with a variety of different presentations. The classic presentation is of well-defined red plaques with silver scale. The characteristic scale makes the disorder highly visible and intrusive on the patient\\'s lifestyle. The visible nature of the disease ensures that psoriasis has both physical and psychosocial effects. In normal skin, epidermal cell reproduction and proliferation takes 28 days. In psoriasis this process is considerably accelerated to approximately 4 days, resulting in the deposit of immature cells on the skin. While the exact cause of this process is unknown, certain environmental and genetic factors are known to be triggers. Disease management depends on disease severity, psychosocial effects and the patient\\'s lifestyle. To effectively treat this disease the nurse must be skilled in psoriasis management, and in patient education and motivation. This article reviews the characteristics, aetiology, psychosocial effects and treatment strategies of psoriasis.

  2. Mutant butterflies discovered at Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauveau, L.


    A Japanese study has shown that malformations are more and more common in butterflies (Zizeeria maha specie) leaving near the damaged nuclear plant of Fukushima Daiichi. A population of 144 butterflies were caught in 10 villages in a radius of 200 km around Fukushima in may 2011, the ratio of malformations was 12.4%. Obvious malformations were withered antennas and wings. In september 2011 a population of 238 butterflies were caught in the same places and the ratio of malformations was then 28.1%. The increase of the malformation ratio could be explained by a cumulative effect of the radiation exposition. In a second experiment, a population of butterflies was caught in a region non-affected by the radioactive contamination and was submitted in laboratory to radiations similar to that of the contamination around Fukushima and similar malformations appeared. The conclusion of the study is that radionuclides released during the Fukushima accident have caused genetic and physiological damages to this butterfly specie. (A.C.)

  3. Decision Mining Revisited – Discovering Overlapping Rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mannhardt, F.; de Leoni, M.; Reijers, H.A.; van der Aalst, W.M.P.


    Decision mining enriches process models with rules underlying decisions in processes using historical process execution data. Choices between multiple activities are specified through rules defined over process data. Existing decision mining methods focus on discovering mutually-exclusive rules,

  4. Decision Mining Revisited - Discovering Overlapping Rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mannhardt, F.; De Leoni, M.; Reijers, H.A.; van der Aalst, W.M.P.; Nurcan, S.; Soffer, P.; Bajec, M.; Eder, J.


    Decision mining enriches process models with rules underlying decisions in processes using historical process execution data. Choices between multiple activities are specified through rules defined over process data. Existing decision mining methods focus on discovering mutually-exclusive rules,

  5. Decision mining revisited - Discovering overlapping rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mannhardt, Felix; De Leoni, Massimiliano; Reijers, Hajo A.; Van Der Aalst, Wil M P


    Decision mining enriches process models with rules underlying decisions in processes using historical process execution data. Choices between multiple activities are specified through rules defined over process data. Existing decision mining methods focus on discovering mutually-exclusive rules,

  6. Did the ancient egyptians discover Algol? (United States)

    Jetsu, L.; Porceddu, S.; Porceddu, S.; Lyytinen, J.; Kajatkari, P.; Markkanen, T.; Toivari-Viitala, J.


    Fabritius discovered the first variable star, Mira, in 1596. Holwarda determined the 11 months period of Mira in 1638. Montanari discovered the next variable star, Algol, in 1669. Its period, 2.867 days, was determined by Goodricke (178). Algol was associated with demon-like creatures, "Gorgon" in ancient Greek and "ghoul" in ancient Arab mythology. This indicates that its variability was discovered much before 1669 (Wilk 1996), but this mythological evidence is ambiguous (Davis 1975). For thousands of years, the Ancient Egyptian Scribes (AES) observed stars for timekeeping in a region, where there are nearly 300 clear nights a year. We discovered a significant periodicity of 2.850 days in their calendar for lucky and unlucky days dated to 1224 BC, "the Cairo Calendar". Several astrophysical and astronomical tests supported our conclusion that this was the period of Algol three millennia ago. The "ghoulish habits" of Algol could explain this 0.017 days period increase (Battersby 2012).

  7. Discovering Diabetes Complications: an Ontology Based Model. (United States)

    Daghistani, Tahani; Shammari, Riyad Al; Razzak, Muhammad Imran


    Diabetes is a serious disease that spread in the world dramatically. The diabetes patient has an average of risk to experience complications. Take advantage of recorded information to build ontology as information technology solution will help to predict patients who have average of risk level with certain complication. It is helpful to search and present patient's history regarding different risk factors. Discovering diabetes complications could be useful to prevent or delay the complications. We designed ontology based model, using adult diabetes patients' data, to discover the rules of diabetes with its complications in disease to disease relationship. Various rules between different risk factors of diabetes Patients and certain complications generated. Furthermore, new complications (diseases) might be discovered as new finding of this study, discovering diabetes complications could be useful to prevent or delay the complications. The system can identify the patients who are suffering from certain risk factors such as high body mass index (obesity) and starting controlling and maintaining plan.

  8. Evaluation of treatment effects by ranking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halekoh, U; Kristensen, K


    In crop experiments measurements are often made by a judge evaluating the crops' conditions after treatment. In the present paper an analysis is proposed for experiments where plots of crops treated differently are mutually ranked. In the experimental layout the crops are treated on consecutive...... plots usually placed side by side in one or more rows. In the proposed method a judge ranks several neighbouring plots, say three, by ranking them from best to worst. For the next observation the judge moves on by no more than two plots, such that up to two plots will be re-evaluated again...... in a comparison with the new plot(s). Data from studies using this set-up were analysed by a Thurstonian random utility model, which assumed that the judge's rankings were obtained by comparing latent continuous utilities or treatment effects. For the latent utilities a variance component model was considered...

  9. CNS effects following the treatment of malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rane, N.; Quaghebeur, G.


    Corporeal and central nervous system (CNS) axis chemotherapy and radiotherapy have long been used for the effective treatment and prophylaxis of CNS, body malignancies, and leukaemias. However, they are not without their problems. Following the proliferation of magnetic resonance neuroimaging in recent years it has become clear that the spectrum of toxicity that these therapies produce ranges from subclinical white matter changes to overt brain necrosis. The effects are both direct and indirect and via different pathological mechanisms. Chronic and progressive changes can be detected many years after the initial intervention. In addition to leucoencephalopathic changes, grey matter changes are now well described. Changes may be difficult to distinguish from tumour recurrence, though may be reversible and remediable, and are thus very important to differentiate. In this review toxic effects are classified and their imaging appearances discussed, with reference to specific syndromes.

  10. Re-discovering indigenous knowledge – Ulwazi Lwemveli for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, the imperative to re-discover and re-store IK cannot be underestimated since building on this knowledge is particularly effective in helping to reach those living in rural communities. This knowledge is often the main asset they control, and certainly one with which they are more familiar. The case studies discussed ...

  11. CORNELL: CLEO discovers B meson penguins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    The CLEO collaboration at Cornell's CESR electron-positron storage ring has discovered a rare type of B meson decay in which only a high energy photon and a K* meson are produced. These decays provide the first unambiguous evidence for an alternative route for heavy quark decay that has been given the whimsical name ''penguin diagram''. In the mid-1970s penguin diagrams were proposed to explain the puzzling strangeness quantum number selection rules in the decay of K mesons. At the same time it was realized that penguin diagrams could also be important in the CP violation seen in neutral K meson decay. CP violation, an asymmetry between matter and antimatter, is an essential ingredient in understanding why there is much more matter than antimatter in the universe. CP violation introduces a definite direction to the arrow of time, which could otherwise point equally forwards or backwards. In addition, penguin decays are very sensitive to some extensions of the Standard Model of weak decay. Although penguin diagrams were first proposed to explain an effect in K meson decay, the K system gives no unique signature for them, and verification of penguin processes meant looking elsewhere. In the Standard Model, quarks decay under the influence of the weak force, emitting a W boson. Since the W is charged, the charge of the initial quark differs from that of the final quark, so the charge of the quark changes as well as its flavour

  12. CORNELL: CLEO discovers B meson penguins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The CLEO collaboration at Cornell's CESR electron-positron storage ring has discovered a rare type of B meson decay in which only a high energy photon and a K* meson are produced. These decays provide the first unambiguous evidence for an alternative route for heavy quark decay that has been given the whimsical name ''penguin diagram''. In the mid-1970s penguin diagrams were proposed to explain the puzzling strangeness quantum number selection rules in the decay of K mesons. At the same time it was realized that penguin diagrams could also be important in the CP violation seen in neutral K meson decay. CP violation, an asymmetry between matter and antimatter, is an essential ingredient in understanding why there is much more matter than antimatter in the universe. CP violation introduces a definite direction to the arrow of time, which could otherwise point equally forwards or backwards. In addition, penguin decays are very sensitive to some extensions of the Standard Model of weak decay. Although penguin diagrams were first proposed to explain an effect in K meson decay, the K system gives no unique signature for them, and verification of penguin processes meant looking elsewhere. In the Standard Model, quarks decay under the influence of the weak force, emitting a W boson. Since the W is charged, the charge of the initial quark differs from that of the final quark, so the charge of the quark changes as well as its flavour.

  13. Incorporating Topic Assignment Constraint and Topic Correlation Limitation into Clinical Goal Discovering for Clinical Pathway Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Xu


    Full Text Available Clinical pathways are widely used around the world for providing quality medical treatment and controlling healthcare cost. However, the expert-designed clinical pathways can hardly deal with the variances among hospitals and patients. It calls for more dynamic and adaptive process, which is derived from various clinical data. Topic-based clinical pathway mining is an effective approach to discover a concise process model. Through this approach, the latent topics found by latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA represent the clinical goals. And process mining methods are used to extract the temporal relations between these topics. However, the topic quality is usually not desirable due to the low performance of the LDA in clinical data. In this paper, we incorporate topic assignment constraint and topic correlation limitation into the LDA to enhance the ability of discovering high-quality topics. Two real-world datasets are used to evaluate the proposed method. The results show that the topics discovered by our method are with higher coherence, informativeness, and coverage than the original LDA. These quality topics are suitable to represent the clinical goals. Also, we illustrate that our method is effective in generating a comprehensive topic-based clinical pathway model.

  14. [Silvicultural treatments and their selection effects]. (United States)

    Vincent, G


    Selection can be defined in terms of its observable consequences as the non random differential reproduction of genotypes (Lerner 1958). In the forest stands we are selecting during the improvements-fellings and reproduction treatments the individuals surpassing in growth or in production of first-class timber. However the silvicultural treatments taken in forest stands guarantee a permanent increase of forest production only in such cases, if they have been taken with respect to the principles of directional (dynamic) selection. These principles require that the trees determined for further growing and for forest regeneration are selected by their hereditary properties, i.e. by their genotypes.For making this selection feasible, our study deals with the genetic parameters and gives some examples of the application of the response, the selection differential, the heritability in the narrow and in the broad sense, as well as of the genetic and genotypic gain. On the strength of this parameter we have the possibility to estimate the economic success of several silvicultural treatments in forest stands.The mentioned examples demonstrate that the selection measures of a higher intensity will be manifested in a higher selection differential, in a higher genetic and genotypic gain and that the mentioned measures show more distinct effects in the variable populations - in natural forest - than in the population characteristic by a smaller variability, e.g. in many uniform artificially established stands.The examples of influences of different selection on the genotypes composition of population prove that genetics instructs us to differentiate the different genotypes of the same species and gives us at the same time a new criterions for evaluating selectional treatments. These criterions from economic point of view is necessary to consider in silviculture as advantageous even for the reason that we can judge from these criterions the genetical composition of forest stands

  15. Drug Repositioning for Effective Prostate Cancer Treatment. (United States)

    Turanli, Beste; Grøtli, Morten; Boren, Jan; Nielsen, Jens; Uhlen, Mathias; Arga, Kazim Y; Mardinoglu, Adil


    Drug repositioning has gained attention from both academia and pharmaceutical companies as an auxiliary process to conventional drug discovery. Chemotherapeutic agents have notorious adverse effects that drastically reduce the life quality of cancer patients so drug repositioning is a promising strategy to identify non-cancer drugs which have anti-cancer activity as well as tolerable adverse effects for human health. There are various strategies for discovery and validation of repurposed drugs. In this review, 25 repurposed drug candidates are presented as result of different strategies, 15 of which are already under clinical investigation for treatment of prostate cancer (PCa). To date, zoledronic acid is the only repurposed, clinically used, and approved non-cancer drug for PCa. Anti-cancer activities of existing drugs presented in this review cover diverse and also known mechanisms such as inhibition of mTOR and VEGFR2 signaling, inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling, COX and selective COX-2 inhibition, NF-κB inhibition, Wnt/β-Catenin pathway inhibition, DNMT1 inhibition, and GSK-3β inhibition. In addition to monotherapy option, combination therapy with current anti-cancer drugs may also increase drug efficacy and reduce adverse effects. Thus, drug repositioning may become a key approach for drug discovery in terms of time- and cost-efficiency comparing to conventional drug discovery and development process.

  16. Analytical treatment of the runaway-effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaeppeler, H.J.


    In the analytical treatment of the runaway-effect there appear the integrals Isub(m)(α). For m = 1, 2 and 3, series expansions for these integrals can be found in the literature. Furthermore, asymptotic solutions for Isub(m)(α) are known. It is shown here that the solutions for Isub(m)(α) can be approximated by the modified Bessel Function Ksub(n)(αsup(ν)) in such a way that for α → 0 the exact limiting value for Isub(m)(α) follows and that for α → infinite essentially the known asymptotic solutions for Isub(m)(α) follow. The maximum error for this approximation in the order of percent is considered justifiable for the application considered. (orig.)

  17. ROSAT Discovers Unique, Distant Cluster of Galaxies (United States)


    Brightest X-ray Cluster Acts as Strong Gravitational Lens Based on exciting new data obtained with the ROSAT X-ray satellite and a ground-based telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory, a team of European astronomers [2] has just discovered a very distant cluster of galaxies with unique properties. It emits the strongest X-ray emission of any cluster ever observed by ROSAT and is accompanied by two extraordinarily luminous arcs that represent the gravitationally deflected images of even more distant objects. The combination of these unusual characteristics makes this cluster, now known as RXJ1347.5-1145, a most interesting object for further cosmological studies. DISCOVERY AND FOLLOW-UP OBSERVATIONS This strange cluster of galaxies was discovered during the All Sky Survey with the ROSAT X-ray satellite as a moderately intense X-ray source in the constellation of Virgo. It could not be identified with any already known object and additional ground-based observations were therefore soon after performed with the Max-Planck-Society/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla observatory in Chile. These observations took place within a large--scale redshift survey of X-ray clusters of galaxies detected by the ROSAT All Sky Survey, a so-called ``ESO Key Programme'' led by astronomers from the Max-Planck-Institut fur Extraterrestrische Physik and the Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera. The main aim of this programme is to identify cluster X-ray sources, to determine the distance to the X-ray emitting clusters and to investigate their overall properties. These observations permitted to measure the redshift of the RXJ1347.5-1145 cluster as z = 0.45, i.e. it moves away from us with a velocity (about 106,000 km/sec) equal to about one-third of the velocity of light. This is an effect of the general expansion of the universe and it allows to determine the distance as about 5,000 million light-years (assuming a Hubble constant of 75 km/sec/Mpc). In other words, we see these

  18. Discovering English with the Sketch Engine (United States)

    Thomas, James


    "Discovering English with the Sketch Engine" is the title of a new book (Thomas, 2014) which introduces the use of corpora in language study, teaching, writing and translating. It focuses on using the Sketch Engine to identify patterns of normal usage in many aspects of English ranging from morphology to discourse and pragmatics. This…

  19. Discovering Science through Art-Based Activities (United States)

    Alberts, Rebecca


    Art and science are intrinsically linked; the essence of art and science is discovery. Both artists and scientists work in a systematic but creative way--knowledge and understanding are built up through pieces of art or a series of labs. In the classroom, integrating science and visual art can provide students with the latitude to think, discover,…

  20. Two Newly Discovered Plants in Taiwan


    Tian-Chuan Hsu; Jia-Jung Lin; Shih-Wen Chung


    Two herbs are newly discovered in Taiwan. Limnophila fragrans (G. Forst.) Seem. (Scrophulariaceae), native in SE Asia, is recognized from southern lowlands. Anagallis minima (L.) E. H. L. Krause (Primulaceae), native in N America and Europe, was found from northern mountainous region at low altitudes. In this study, descriptions, line drawings, color photos and a distribution map of the two species are provided.

  1. Did Viking discover life on Mars? (United States)

    Klein, H. P.


    A major argument in the claim that life had been discovered during the Viking mission to Mars is that the results obtained in the Labeled Release (LR) experiment are analogous to those observed with terrestrial microorganisms. This assertion is critically examined and found to be implausible.

  2. Discovering Alaska's Salmon: A Children's Activity Book. (United States)

    Devaney, Laurel

    This children's activity book helps students discover Alaska's salmon. Information is provided about salmon and where they live. The salmon life cycle and food chains are also discussed. Different kinds of salmon such as Chum Salmon, Chinook Salmon, Coho Salmon, Sockeye Salmon, and Pink Salmon are introduced, and various activities on salmon are…

  3. Challenges in service mining : record, check, discover

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Daniel, F.; Dolog, P.; Li, Q.


    Process mining aims to discover, monitor and improve real processes by extracting knowledge from event logs abundantly available in today’s information systems. Although process mining has been applied in hundreds of organizations and process mining techniques have been embedded in a variety of

  4. Pharmacogenomic study of side-effects for antidepressant treatment options in STAR*D. (United States)

    Clark, S L; Adkins, D E; Aberg, K; Hettema, J M; McClay, J L; Souza, R P; van den Oord, E J C G


    Understanding individual differences in susceptibility to antidepressant therapy side-effects is essential to optimize the treatment of depression. We performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to search for genetic variation affecting the susceptibility to side-effects. The analysis sample consisted of 1439 depression patients, successfully genotyped for 421K single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), from the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) study. Outcomes included four indicators of side-effects: general side-effect burden, sexual side-effects, dizziness and vision/hearing-related side-effects. Our criterion for genome-wide significance was a prespecified threshold ensuring that, on average, only 10% of the significant findings are false discoveries. Thirty-four SNPs satisfied this criterion. The top finding indicated that 10 SNPs in SACM1L mediated the effects of bupropion on sexual side-effects (p = 4.98 × 10(-7), q = 0.023). Suggestive findings were also found for SNPs in MAGI2, DTWD1, WDFY4 and CHL1. Although our findings require replication and functional validation, this study demonstrates the potential of GWAS to discover genes and pathways that could mediate adverse effects of antidepressant medication.

  5. Late effects after treatment for Hodgkin lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniëls, Laurien Aletta


    Although modern treatment strategies have made Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL) a highly curable disease, there is a life-long increased risk of morbidity and mortality due to treatment. Over time it has become increasingly evident that the historically used extensive treatment fields can potentially lead to

  6. A systematic framework to discover pattern for web spam classification


    Jelodar, Hamed; Wang, Yongli; Yuan, Chi; Jiang, Xiaohui


    Web spam is a big problem for search engine users in World Wide Web. They use deceptive techniques to achieve high rankings. Although many researchers have presented the different approach for classification and web spam detection still it is an open issue in computer science. Analyzing and evaluating these websites can be an effective step for discovering and categorizing the features of these websites. There are several methods and algorithms for detecting those websites, such as decision t...

  7. Effects of radiation treatment on foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehne, L.; Boegl, W.


    The purpose of this study is to discuss and compile methods and results of irradiation experiments carried out on 54 plant and animal foodstuffs in order to obtain a survey on chemical changes, in particular as regards the reduction of nutritional value and savoriness of irradiated foodstuffs. According to this task, microbiological aspects as well as an interpretation of the experimental results as to the physiology of nutrition and toxicology were not included. The results published by the authors of the original papers were compiled in a kind of dictionary which contains all relevant information such as radiation sources, irradiation conditions, investigation methods, results of chemical or organoleptical changes etc. The most important results were summarized in tables and can be found at the end of this study. Because of the abundance of existing literature the series 'Effects of radiation treatment on foodstuffs' will be continued in Part IV, and the final discussion of the results will be published separately after further data have been included. (orig.) [de

  8. Discovering the secrets of the Olifants sediments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Petersen, C


    Full Text Available is an important component of an aquatic ecosystem in that it provides habitat, feed- ing and spawning areas for aquatic fauna such as fish and benthic Discovering the secrets of THE OLIFANTS SEDIMENTS The polluted Upper Olifants River, in Mpumalanga, has... the distribution of bed material sizes. This allows for the determination ? Top right: The Koffie- spruit, a tributary of the Upper Olifants River. Middle right: Bank erosion was evident throughout the Koffiespruit study reach. This section of river...

  9. Two Newly Discovered Plants in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Chuan Hsu


    Full Text Available Two herbs are newly discovered in Taiwan. Limnophila fragrans (G. Forst. Seem. (Scrophulariaceae, native in SE Asia, is recognized from southern lowlands. Anagallis minima (L. E. H. L. Krause (Primulaceae, native in N America and Europe, was found from northern mountainous region at low altitudes. In this study, descriptions, line drawings, color photos and a distribution map of the two species are provided.

  10. Discovering More Accurate Frequent Web Usage Patterns


    Bayir, Murat Ali; Toroslu, Ismail Hakki; Cosar, Ahmet; Fidan, Guven


    Web usage mining is a type of web mining, which exploits data mining techniques to discover valuable information from navigation behavior of World Wide Web users. As in classical data mining, data preparation and pattern discovery are the main issues in web usage mining. The first phase of web usage mining is the data processing phase, which includes the session reconstruction operation from server logs. Session reconstruction success directly affects the quality of the frequent patterns disc...

  11. What if Fleming had not discovered penicillin? (United States)

    Alharbi, Sulaiman Ali; Wainwright, Milton; Alahmadi, Tahani Awad; Salleeh, Hashim Bin; Faden, Asmaa A; Chinnathambi, Arunachalam


    What would have happened had Alexander Fleming not discovered penicillin in 1928? Perhaps the obvious answer is that, someone else would have discovered penicillin during 1930s and the Oxford group, would still have purified it sometime in the early 1940s. Here, however, in this counterfactual account of the penicillin story, it is argued that without Fleming, penicillin might still be undiscovered and the antibiotic age would never have dawned. As a result, many of the recent developments in medicine, such as organ transplantation, might have been delayed or, at best, made more hazardous. Penicillin might have come onto the scene a few years later but, had Fleming overlooked the discovery, it seems certain that penicillin would not have saved countless Allied lives, during and after D-Day. Instead of having enjoyed fifty and more years of the antibiotic age, it is argued here, that we would have had to rely upon highly developed sulphonamides, so-called "supasulfas", and other chemically-derived antibacterial drugs. Indeed, it might be the case that, even well into this new millennium, the antibiotic age has yet to dawn, and medicine is still waiting for someone to chance upon penicillin. Here we discuss what might have happened had Fleming not discovered penicillin and come to the conclusion that the medical armoury available today would have been far different and might have relied solely upon highly developed varieties of sulphonamides or similar, synthetic, non-antibiotic antibacterial agents.

  12. Instrumental variable estimation of treatment effects for duration outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.E. Bijwaard (Govert)


    textabstractIn this article we propose and implement an instrumental variable estimation procedure to obtain treatment effects on duration outcomes. The method can handle the typical complications that arise with duration data of time-varying treatment and censoring. The treatment effect we

  13. Cancer treatment: fertility and sexual side effects in women (United States)

    ... Cancer treatment: fertility and sexual side effects in women To use the sharing features on this page, ... Bladder cancer Types of Sexual Side Effects For women, the most common sexual side effects include: Loss ...

  14. Astronomers Discover Six-Image Gravitational Lens (United States)


    An international team of astronomers has used the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) radio telescope and NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to discover the first gravitational lens in which the single image of a very distant galaxy has been split into six different images. The unique configuration is produced by the gravitational effect of three galaxies along the line of sight between the more-distant galaxy and Earth. Optical and Radio Images of Gravitational Lens "This is the first gravitational lens with more than four images of the background object that is produced by a small group of galaxies rather than a large cluster of galaxies," said David Rusin, who just received his Ph.D. from the University of Pennsylvania. "Such systems are expected to be extremely rare, so this discovery is an important stepping stone. Because this is an intermediate case between gravitational lenses produced by single galaxies and lenses produced by large clusters of galaxies, it will give us insights we can't get from other types of lenses," Rusin added. The gravitational lens, called CLASS B1359+154, consists of a galaxy more than 11 billion light-years away in the constellation Bootes, with a trio of galaxies more than 7 billion light-years away along the same line of sight. The more-distant galaxy shows signs that it contains a massive black hole at its core and also has regions in which new stars are forming. The gravitational effect of the intervening galaxies has caused the light and radio waves from the single, more-distant galaxy to be "bent" to form six images as seen from Earth. Four of these images appear outside the triangle formed by the three intermediate galaxies and two appear inside that triangle. "This lens system is a very interesting case to study because it is more complicated than lenses produced by single galaxies, and yet simpler than lenses produced by clusters of numerous galaxies," said Chris Kochanek of the Harvard

  15. Steroid Treatments Equally Effective Against Sudden Deafness (United States)

    ... NIGMS NIMH NIMHD NINDS NINR NLM CC CIT CSR FIC NCATS NCCIH OD About NIH Who We ... with sudden deafness should discuss the risks and benefits of both treatments with their doctor.” Related Links ...

  16. Herbal Treatment for Anxiety: Is It Effective? (United States)

    ... anxiety generally need medical treatment or psychological counseling (psychotherapy) for symptoms to improve. With Brent A. Bauer, ... dietary supplements wisely. National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. ...

  17. Discovering drugs for the treatment of Ebola virus (United States)


    in a lipid envelope. The negative-sense single- stranded RNA genome is approximately 19kb in size, and consists of a linear, non-segmented RNA. treat vascular leak syndrome, was administered to patient during the outbreak in an effort to stem vascular leakage [27]. In vitro efficacy

  18. Effectiveness of propanolol for treatment of infantile haemangioma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ida Gillberg; Rechnitzer, Catherine; Charabi, Birgitte


    : This study was retrospective and based on a review of children treated for IH with propranolol from the 2010-2012 period at Rigshospitalet. RESULTS: Overall, propranolol was effective in all but one child (97%). The majority of the children (84%) were treated with an initial dose of 1 mg/kg/day, which...... was considered sufficient in most cases (71%). Children who started treatment before five months of age had a significantly better response than children who started treatment at a later age. No relation was found between location of IH and the effect of treatment. There were only few and mild side effects....... CONCLUSION: Propranolol is effective in the treatment of IH and it has only few and mild side effects. In most cases, a low dose of 1 mg/kg/day was sufficient. Early initiation of treatment is recommended as the response to treatment was better in younger children and because early initiation helps prevent...

  19. Surface characterization of the chitosan membrane after oxygen plasma treatment and its aging effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yingjun; Yin Shiheng; Ren Li; Zhao Lianna


    Chitosan has received considerable attention for biomedical applications in recent years because of its biocompatibility and biodegradability. In this paper, angle-resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS) was carried out to investigate the chemical groups' spatial orientation on the chitosan membrane surface. Oxygen plasma treatment was also employed to improve the surface hydrophilicity of the chitosan membrane. The results of ARXPS revealed the distribution of surface polar groups, such as-OH and O=CNH 2 toward the membrane bulk, which was the origin of the chitosan membrane surface hydrophobicity. The contact angle measurements and XPS results indicated that oxygen plasma treatment can markedly improve the surface hydrophilicity and surface energy of the chitosan membrane by incorporating oxygen-containing polar groups. With the existence of the aging process, the influence of plasma treatment was not permanent, it faded with storage time. The ARXPS result discovered that the reorientation of polar functional groups generated by plasma treatment toward the membrane bulk was primarily responsible for the aging effect.

  20. Effect of aspirin treatment on chondromalacia patellae.


    Bentley, G; Leslie, I J; Fischer, D


    Twenty-nine patients (21 females and 8 males) with chondromalacia patellae diagnosed by arthroscopy were randomly allocated to receive aspirin or placebo for 3 months. Clinical and arthroscopic examination after 3 months showed no significant change in symptoms, signs, or macroscopic appearances in either group. Surgical treatment was performed in 14 patients for deteriorating symptoms.

  1. Effect of aspirin treatment on chondromalacia patellae. (United States)

    Bentley, G; Leslie, I J; Fischer, D


    Twenty-nine patients (21 females and 8 males) with chondromalacia patellae diagnosed by arthroscopy were randomly allocated to receive aspirin or placebo for 3 months. Clinical and arthroscopic examination after 3 months showed no significant change in symptoms, signs, or macroscopic appearances in either group. Surgical treatment was performed in 14 patients for deteriorating symptoms. Images PMID:7008711

  2. Musical hallucinations : Review of treatment effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coebergh, Jan A. F.; Lauw, R. F.; Bots, R.; Sommer, I. E. C.; Blom, J. D.


    Background: Despite an increased scientific interest in musical hallucinations over the past 25 years, treatment protocols are still lacking. This may well be due to the fact that musical hallucinations have multiple causes, and that published cases are relatively rare. Objective: To review the

  3. Musical hallucinations : review of treatment effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coebergh, Jan A F; Lauw, R F; Bots, R; Sommer, I E C; Blom, J D


    BACKGROUND: Despite an increased scientific interest in musical hallucinations over the past 25 years, treatment protocols are still lacking. This may well be due to the fact that musical hallucinations have multiple causes, and that published cases are relatively rare. OBJECTIVE: To review the

  4. Effect of heat treatment temperature on microstructure

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The results of electrochemical performance measurements for the HCSs as anode material for lithium ion batteries indicate that the discharge capacity of the HCSs is improved after heat treatment at 800°C compared with the as-prepared HCSs and have a maximum value of 357 mAh/g and still retains 303 mAh/g after 40 ...

  5. Effects of plasma treatment on wounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tipa, R.S.; Stoffels - Adamowicz, E.; Lim, C.T.; Goh, J.C.H.


    Cold plasma treatment of wounds is gaining much interest, because it will offer a non-contact, painless and harmless therapy to manage large-area lesions (burn wounds, chronic ulcerations). One of the important issues in plasma wound healing is the safety of the method. In this work we study in

  6. Effects of ecosystem-based management treatments (United States)

    Michael G. Harrington; Carl E. Fiedler; Stephen F. Arno; Ward W. McCaughey; Leon J. Theroux; Clinton E. Carlson; Kristin L. Zouhar; Thomas H. DeLuca; Donald J. Bedunah; Dayna M. Ayers; Elizabeth A. Beringer; Sallie J. Hejl; Lynn Bacon; Robert E. Benson; Jane Kapler Smith; Rick Floch


    The prescribed burn treatments were applied to reduce pre-existing and new slash fuel loadings, reduce understory tree density to lower crown fire potential, stimulate vigor of decadent understory vegetation, produce mineral seedbeds for seral species establishment, and increase availability of mineral nutrients. To test the feasibility of prescribed burning under a...

  7. The Universe for all to discover (United States)

    Ortiz-Gil, A.; Ballesteros, F.; Espinós, H.; Fernández-Soto, A.; Lanzara, M.; Moya, M. J.; Navarro, J.


    In the title of this paper, we have changed the slogan of the International Year of Astronomy, ``The Universe yours to discover" to ``The Universe for all to discover" in order to emphasize the need to think about broader audiences when we plan astronomical activities at school or during outreach events. The strategy we propose follows what is known as the Universal Design for Learning (UDL). UDL allows to reach to the general public as well as to audiences which might be regarded as ``special" because they have some disability. It has been shown that everybody has a preferred style of learning (some remember better what they see, others what they hear or what they touch) and therefore, everybody is more or less able under the different styles of learning. Through this talk I am going to outline some of the principles of the UDL that can be applied in the teaching and communication of Astronomy, along with an example of its implementation in the project ``A Touch of the Universe".

  8. Discovering context-aware conditional functional dependencies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuefeng DU; Derong SHEN; Tiezheng NIE; Yue KOU; Ge YU


    Conditional functional dependencies(CFDs) are important techniques for data consistency.However,CFDs are limited to 1) provide the reasonable values for consistency repairing and 2) detect potential errors.This paper presents context-aware conditional functional dependencies(CCFDs) which contribute to provide reasonable values and detect potential errors.Especially,we focus on automatically discovering minimal CCFDs.In this paper,we present context relativity to measure the relationship of CFDs.The overlap of the related CFDs can provide reasonable values which result in more accuracy consistency repairing,and some related CFDs are combined into CCFDs.Moreover,we prove that discovering minimal CCFDs is NP-complete and we design the precise method and the heuristic method.We also present the dominating value to facilitate the process in both the precise method and the heuristic method.Additionally,the context relativity of the CFDs affects the cleaning results.We will give an approximate threshold of context relativity according to data distribution for suggestion.The repairing results are approved more accuracy,even evidenced by our empirical evaluation.

  9. Nonparametric Bounds and Sensitivity Analysis of Treatment Effects (United States)

    Richardson, Amy; Hudgens, Michael G.; Gilbert, Peter B.; Fine, Jason P.


    This paper considers conducting inference about the effect of a treatment (or exposure) on an outcome of interest. In the ideal setting where treatment is assigned randomly, under certain assumptions the treatment effect is identifiable from the observable data and inference is straightforward. However, in other settings such as observational studies or randomized trials with noncompliance, the treatment effect is no longer identifiable without relying on untestable assumptions. Nonetheless, the observable data often do provide some information about the effect of treatment, that is, the parameter of interest is partially identifiable. Two approaches are often employed in this setting: (i) bounds are derived for the treatment effect under minimal assumptions, or (ii) additional untestable assumptions are invoked that render the treatment effect identifiable and then sensitivity analysis is conducted to assess how inference about the treatment effect changes as the untestable assumptions are varied. Approaches (i) and (ii) are considered in various settings, including assessing principal strata effects, direct and indirect effects and effects of time-varying exposures. Methods for drawing formal inference about partially identified parameters are also discussed. PMID:25663743

  10. Estimating the effect of treatment rate changes when treatment benefits are heterogeneous: antibiotics and otitis media. (United States)

    Park, Tae-Ryong; Brooks, John M; Chrischilles, Elizabeth A; Bergus, George


    Contrast methods to assess the health effects of a treatment rate change when treatment benefits are heterogeneous across patients. Antibiotic prescribing for children with otitis media (OM) in Iowa Medicaid is the empirical example. Instrumental variable (IV) and linear probability model (LPM) are used to estimate the effect of antibiotic treatments on cure probabilities for children with OM in Iowa Medicaid. Local area physician supply per capita is the instrument in the IV models. Estimates are contrasted in terms of their ability to make inferences for patients whose treatment choices may be affected by a change in population treatment rates. The instrument was positively related to the probability of being prescribed an antibiotic. LPM estimates showed a positive effect of antibiotics on OM patient cure probability while IV estimates showed no relationship between antibiotics and patient cure probability. Linear probability model estimation yields the average effects of the treatment on patients that were treated. IV estimation yields the average effects for patients whose treatment choices were affected by the instrument. As antibiotic treatment effects are heterogeneous across OM patients, our estimates from these approaches are aligned with clinical evidence and theory. The average estimate for treated patients (higher severity) from the LPM model is greater than estimates for patients whose treatment choices are affected by the instrument (lower severity) from the IV models. Based on our IV estimates it appears that lowering antibiotic use in OM patients in Iowa Medicaid did not result in lost cures.

  11. Side effects as influencers of treatment outcome. (United States)

    Sharif, Zafar


    Research relative to the efficacy of a therapeutic agent commands a clinician's greatest interest, but treatment decisions are made based on optimizing efficacy and tolerability/safety considerations. Second-generation atypical antipsychotic drugs are a study in the importance of taking a careful look at the full benefit-risk profile of each drug. The disorders that atypical antipsychotics are approved to treat--schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and bipolar disorder--are associated with an increased rate of certain medical comorbidities compared to the general population. Between-drug differences in efficacy are relatively modest for the atypicals, or between atypicals and conventionals, while differences in safety and tolerability are larger and more clinically relevant. The current article will provide a brief summary of safety-related issues that influence treatment outcome and choice of drug.

  12. Effectiveness of Acupuncture in the Treatment of Gulf War Illness (United States)


    325. 7 Wigers SH, Stiles TC, Vogael PA. Effects of aerobic exercise versus stress management treatment in fibromyalgia : a 4.5 year prospective study... Treatment of Gulf War Illness PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Lisa Conboy, M.A., M.S., ScD...December 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Effectiveness of Acupuncture in the Treatment of Gulf War Illness 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH

  13. Treatment selection in a randomized clinical trial via covariate-specific treatment effect curves. (United States)

    Ma, Yunbei; Zhou, Xiao-Hua


    For time-to-event data in a randomized clinical trial, we proposed two new methods for selecting an optimal treatment for a patient based on the covariate-specific treatment effect curve, which is used to represent the clinical utility of a predictive biomarker. To select an optimal treatment for a patient with a specific biomarker value, we proposed pointwise confidence intervals for each covariate-specific treatment effect curve and the difference between covariate-specific treatment effect curves of two treatments. Furthermore, to select an optimal treatment for a future biomarker-defined subpopulation of patients, we proposed confidence bands for each covariate-specific treatment effect curve and the difference between each pair of covariate-specific treatment effect curve over a fixed interval of biomarker values. We constructed the confidence bands based on a resampling technique. We also conducted simulation studies to evaluate finite-sample properties of the proposed estimation methods. Finally, we illustrated the application of the proposed method in a real-world data set.

  14. Cost effectiveness of Tuberculosis Treatment from the Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Directly Observed Treatment Short course is more cost effective from the patients' point of view. DOTS needs to be re-focused out of the hospitals and clinics and made community based in view of the increasing TB caseload occasioned by HI V/AIDS. Key Words: Cost effectiveness, Tuberculosis treatment, personal cost, ...

  15. Frequency of streamflow measurements required to determine forest treatment effects (United States)

    Kenneth G. Reinhart


    Most of the stream-discharge records for our experimental watersheds are taken by continuous measurements. But the question arises: are continuous measurements necessary to determine effects of forest treatments? Or could treatment effects be determined by measurement of discharge at intervals, say, once a day or once a week?

  16. Effects of Cancer Treatment on Fertility (For Parents) (United States)

    ... Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Effects of Cancer Treatment on Fertility KidsHealth / For Parents / Effects of Cancer Treatment on ...

  17. Adverse effects of orthodontic treatment: A clinical perspective (United States)

    Talic, Nabeel F.


    Orthodontic treatment is associated with a number of adverse effects, such as root resorption, pain, pulpal changes, periodontal disease, and temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD). Orthodontists should be aware of these effects and associated risk factors. Risk factors linked to root resorption include the duration of treatment, length, and shape of the root, trauma history, habits, and genetic predisposition. PMID:24151415

  18. Oculomotor and neuropsychological effects of antipsychotic treatment for schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian S. Hill


    Full Text Available Cognitive enhancement has become an important target for drug therapies in schizophrenia. Treatment development in this area requires assessment approaches that are sensitive to procognitive effects of antipsychotic and adjunctive treatments. Ideally, new treatments will have translational characteristics for parallel human and animal research. Previous studies of antipsychotic effects on cognition have relied primarily on paper-and-pencil neuropsychological testing. No study has directly compared neurophysiological biomarkers and neuropsychological testing as strategies for assessing cognitive effects of antipsychotic treatment early in the course of schizophrenia. Anti psychotic-naive patients with schizophrenia were tested before treatment with risperidone and again 6 weeks later. Matched healthy participants were tested over a similar time period. Test-retest reliability, effect sizes of within-subject change, and multivariate/univariate analysis of variance were used to compare 3 neurophysiological tests (visually guided saccade, memory-guided saccade, and antisaccade with neuropsychological tests covering 4 cognitive domains (executive function, attention, memory, and manual motor function. While both measurement approaches showed robust neurocognitive impairments in patients prior to risperidone treatment, oculomotor biomarkers were more sensitive to treatment-related effects on neurocognitive function than traditional neuropsychological measures. Further, unlike the pattern of modest generalized cognitive improvement suggested by neuropsychological measures, the oculomotor findings revealed a mixed pattern of beneficial and adverse treatment related effects. These findings warrant further investigation regarding the utility of neurophysiological biomarkers for assessing cognitive outcomes of antipsychotic treatment in clinical trials and in early-phase drug development.

  19. Asymmetric inhibitory treatment effects in multilingual aphasia. (United States)

    Goral, Mira; Naghibolhosseini, Maryam; Conner, Peggy S


    Findings from recent psycholinguistic studies of bilingual processing support the hypothesis that both languages of a bilingual are always active and that bilinguals continually engage in processes of language selection. This view aligns with the convergence hypothesis of bilingual language representation. Furthermore, it is hypothesized that when bilinguals perform a task in one language they need to inhibit their other, nontarget language(s) and that stronger inhibition is required when the task is performed in the weaker language than in the stronger one. The study of multilingual individuals who acquire aphasia resulting from a focal brain lesion offers a unique opportunity to test the convergence hypothesis and the inhibition asymmetry. We report on a trilingual person with chronic nonfluent aphasia who at the time of testing demonstrated greater impairment in her first acquired language (Persian) than in her third, later learned language (English). She received treatment in English followed by treatment in Persian. An examination of her connected language production revealed improvement in her grammatical skills in each language following intervention in that language, but decreased grammatical accuracy in English following treatment in Persian. The increased error rate was evident in structures that are used differently in the two languages (e.g., auxiliary verbs). The results support the prediction that greater inhibition is applied to the stronger language than to the weaker language, regardless of their age of acquisition. We interpret the findings as consistent with convergence theories that posit overlapping neuronal representation and simultaneous activation of multiple languages and with proficiency-dependent asymmetric inhibition in multilinguals.

  20. Discovering new information in bibliographic databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Hudomalj


    Full Text Available Databases contain information that can usually not be revealed by standard query systems. For that purpose, the methods for knowledge discovery from databases can be applied, which enable the user to browse aggregated data, discover trends, produce online reports, explore possible new associations within the data etc. Such methods are successfully employed in various fields, such as banking, insurance and telecommunications, while they are seldom used in libraries. The article reviews the development of query systems for bibliographic databases, including some early attempts to apply modern knowledge discovery methods. Analytical databases are described in more detail, since they usually serve as the basis for knowledge discovery. Data mining approaches are presented, since they are a central step in the knowledge discovery process. The key role of librarians who can play a key part in developing systems for finding new information in existing bibliographic databases is stressed.

  1. Michael Maier--nine newly discovered letters. (United States)

    Lenke, Nils; Roudet, Nicolas; Tilton, Hereward


    The authors provide a transcription, translation, and evaluation of nine newly discovered letters from the alchemist Michael Maier (1568-1622) to Gebhardt Johann von Alvensleben (1576-1631), a noble landholder in the vicinity of Magdeburg. Stemming from the final year of his life, this correspondence casts new light on Maier's biography, detailing his efforts to secure patronage amid the financial crisis of the early Thirty Years' War. While his ill-fated quest to perfect potable gold continued to form the central focus of his patronage suits, Maier also offered his services in several arts that he had condemned in his printed works, namely astrology and "supernatural" magic. Remarks concerning his previously unknown acquaintance with Heinrich Khunrath call for a re-evaluation of Maier's negotiation of the discursive boundaries between Lutheran orthodoxy and Paracelsianism. The letters also reveal Maier's substantial contribution to a work previously ascribed solely to the English alchemist Francis Anthony.

  2. Nuclear fission discovered fifty years ago

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weis, M.


    Fifty years ago, Otto Hahn, Lise Meitner and Fritz Strassmann discovered the process of nuclear fission which, more than other scientific discoveries to date, profoundly has changed the world and continues to influence our life significantly: This discovery made the up to then incontestable physicists' view of the atom as an inseparable whole suddenly shatter to pieces. It has brought about the invaluable advantages of a peaceful utilization of nuclear energy, and at the same time put scientists in the position to build the most terrible weapon ever, threatening mankind and earth with complete destruction. All this certainly is reason enough to recall the scientists, their work and the spirit of the time. (orig.) [de

  3. Discovering the Library with Google Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Brenner


    Full Text Available Libraries need to provide attractive and exciting discovery tools to draw patrons to the valuable resources in their catalogs. The authors conducted a pilot project to explore the free version of Google Earth as such a discover tool for Portland State Library’s digital collection of urban planning documents. They created eye-catching placemarks with links to parts of this collection, as well as to other pertinent materials like books, images, and historical background information. The detailed how-to-do part of this article is preceded by a discussion about discovery of library materials and followed by possible applications of this Google Earth project.

  4. Discovering Sentinel Rules for Business Intelligence (United States)

    Middelfart, Morten; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    This paper proposes the concept of sentinel rules for multi-dimensional data that warns users when measure data concerning the external environment changes. For instance, a surge in negative blogging about a company could trigger a sentinel rule warning that revenue will decrease within two months, so a new course of action can be taken. Hereby, we expand the window of opportunity for organizations and facilitate successful navigation even though the world behaves chaotically. Since sentinel rules are at the schema level as opposed to the data level, and operate on data changes as opposed to absolute data values, we are able to discover strong and useful sentinel rules that would otherwise be hidden when using sequential pattern mining or correlation techniques. We present a method for sentinel rule discovery and an implementation of this method that scales linearly on large data volumes.

  5. Lymphedema as a Cancer Treatment Side Effect (United States)

    ... Considerations How Cancer is Treated Side Effects Dating, Sex, and Reproduction Advanced Cancer For Children For Teens For Young Adults For Older Adults Prevention and Healthy Living Cancer.Net Videos Coping With Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog ...

  6. Effective operator treatment of the Lipkin model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, K.J.; Vary, J.P.


    We analyze the Lipkin model in the strong coupling limit using effective operator techniques. We present both analytical and numerical results for low energy effective Hamiltonians. We investigate the reliability of various approximations used to simplify the nuclear many body problem, such as the cluster approximation. We demonstrate, in explicit examples, certain limits to the validity of the cluster approximation but caution that these limits may be particular to this model where the interactions are of unlimited range

  7. Strategies for maximizing clinical effectiveness in the treatment of schizophrenia. (United States)

    Tandon, Rajiv; Targum, Steven D; Nasrallah, Henry A; Ross, Ruth


    The ultimate clinical objective in the treatment of schizophrenia is to enable affected individuals to lead maximally productive and personally meaningful lives. As with other chronic diseases that lack a definitive cure, the individual's service/recovery plan must include treatment interventions directed towards decreasing manifestations of the illness, rehabilitative services directed towards enhancing adaptive skills, and social support mobilization aimed at optimizing function and quality of life. In this review, we provide a conceptual framework for considering approaches for maximizing the effectiveness of the array of treatments and other services towards promoting recovery of persons with schizophrenia. We discuss pharmacological, psychological, and social strategies that decrease the burden of the disease of schizophrenia on affected individuals and their families while adding the least possible burden of treatment. In view of the multitude of treatments necessary to optimize outcomes for individuals with schizophrenia, effective coordination of these services is essential. In addition to providing best possible clinical assessment and pharmacological treatment, the psychiatrist must function as an effective leader of the treatment team. To do so, however, the psychiatrist must be knowledgeable about the range of available services, must have skills in clinical-administrative leadership, and must accept the responsibility of coordinating the planning and delivery of this multidimensional array of treatments and services. Finally, the effectiveness of providing optimal individualized treatment/rehabilitation is best gauged by measuring progress on multiple effectiveness domains. Approaches for efficient and reliable assessment are discussed.

  8. Thymolipoma combined with hyperthyroidism discovered by neurological symptoms. (United States)

    Takahashi, Hidenobu; Harada, Masahiko; Kimura, Masakazu; Kato, Harubumi


    Thymolipomas are rare slow-growing mediastinal thymic neoplasms. Most cases are asymptomatic and are sometimes discovered as a huge mass on chest x-ray films. A few cases have been discovered during examinations for other diseases. We report the second case of thymolipoma combined with hyperthyroidism in the English language literature. Neurological symptoms suddenly appeared in a 45-year-old woman. Central nervous system disorder was suggested but no significant abnormalities were found on brain MR nor were there any neurological signs. Several months later, neurological and systemic examinations on admission revealed hyperthyroidism and an anterior mediastinal tumor, 9.0x5.0x3.0 cm in size on chest CT films. Despite treatment of hyperthyroidism by medication, her neurological symptoms remained. Neurologists recommended resection of the mediastinal tumor. Malignancy could not be ruled out because of the irregularity of the tumor appearance on contrast-enhanced chest CT. Furthermore, the tumor appeared to be attached to the ascending aorta, so cytological and/or pathological diagnosis by CT-guided needle biopsy before operation were contraindicated. Extended thymectomy was performed in May 2005. The pathological diagnosis was benign thymolipoma consisting of mature fatty tissue and thymic tissue structures with Hassall's corpuscles. Her neurological symptoms seemed slightly but not markedly improved. The relationship between thymolipoma and hyperthyroidism is still unknown.

  9. Fibromyalgia Syndrome in Need of Effective Treatments (United States)

    Tsilioni, Irene; Arbetman, Lauren; Panagiotidou, Smaro; Stewart, Julia M.; Gleason, Rae M.; Russell, Irwin J.


    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a chronic, idiopathic condition of widespread musculoskeletal pain, affecting primarily women. It is clinically characterized by chronic, nonarticular pain and a heightened response to pressure along with sleep disturbances, fatigue, bowel and bladder abnormalities, and cognitive dysfunction. The diagnostic criteria have changed repeatedly, and there is neither a definitive pathogenesis nor reliable diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers. Clinical and laboratory studies have provided evidence of altered central pain pathways. Recent evidence suggests the involvement of neuroinflammation with stress peptides triggering the release of neurosenzitizing mediators. The management of FMS requires a multidimensional approach including patient education, behavioral therapy, exercise, and pain management. Here we review recent data on the pathogenesis and propose new directions for research and treatment. PMID:26306765

  10. Effect of Arsenic on the Formation and Adsorption Property of Ferric Hydroxide Precipitates in ZVI Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Xing; Xi, Beidou; Zhao, Ying; Shi, Qiantao; Meng, Xiaoguang; Mao, Xuhui; Jiang, Yonghai; Ma, Zhifei; Tan, Wenbing; Liu, Hongliang; Gong, Bin (Stevens); (Beijing NU); (CRAES); (Wuhan)


    Treatment of arsenic by zerovalent iron (ZVI) has been studied extensively. However, the effect of arsenic on the formation of ferric hydroxide precipitates in the ZVI treatment has not been investigated. We discovered that the specific surface area (ca. 187 m2/g) and arsenic content (ca. 67 mg/g) of the suspended solids (As-containing solids) generated in the ZVI treatment of arsenic solutions were much higher than the specific surface area (ca. 37 m2/g) and adsorption capacity (ca.12 mg/g) of the suspended solids (As-free solids) generated in the arsenic-free solutions. Arsenic in the As-containing solids was much more stable than the adsorbed arsenic in As-free solids. XRD, SEM, TEM, and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) analyses showed that the As-containing solids consisted of amorphous nanoparticles, while the As-free solids were composed of micron particles with weak crystallinity. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis determined that As(V) was adsorbed on the As-containing suspended solids and magnetic solid surfaces through bidentate binuclear complexation; and As(V) formed a mononuclear complex on the As-free suspended solids. The formation of the surface As(V) complexes retarded the bonding of free FeO6 octahedra to the oxygen sites on FeO6 octahedral clusters and prevented the growth of the clusters and their development into 3-dimensional crystalline phases.

  11. The oral adverse effects of isotretinoin treatment in acne vulgaris ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Isotretinoin is the most effective therapy to treat severe acne vulgaris and its systemic adverse effects have been well documented, but little is known on dental side effects over the course of treatment. Objectives: This prospective case-control study aimed to evaluate the oral adverse effects of isotretinoin in ...

  12. Effectiveness of cryotherapy treatment for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. (United States)

    Luciani, Silvana; Gonzales, Miguel; Munoz, Sergio; Jeronimo, Jose; Robles, Sylvia


    To assess the effectiveness of cryotherapy treatment delivered by general practitioners in primary care settings, as part of a screen-and-treat approach for cervical cancer prevention. Women aged between 25 and 49 years residing in San Martin, Peru, who were positive on visual inspection screening were treated, if eligible, with cryotherapy following biopsy. At 12 months post cryotherapy treatment the participants were evaluated for treatment effectiveness and examined by visual inspection and Papanicolaou test and, if positive, referred to a gynecologist for colposcopy and biopsy. Cryotherapy treatment was performed for 1398 women; of these, 531 (38%) had a histology result of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Cryotherapy effectively cured CIN in 418 (88%) women, including 49 (70%) women with a baseline diagnosis of CIN 3. Cryotherapy is an effective treatment for cervical precancerous lesions; it can easily be administered by general practitioners in primary care settings following visual inspection screening.

  13. Effective physical treatment for chronic low back pain. (United States)

    Maher, C G


    It is now feasible to adopt an evidence-based approach when providing physical treatment for patients with chronic LBP. A summary of the efficacy of a range of physical treatments is provided in Table 1. The evidence-based primary care options are exercise, laser, massage, and spinal manipulation; however, the latter three have small or transient effects that limit their value as therapies for chronic LBP. In contrast, exercise produces large reductions in pain and disability, a feature that suggests that exercise should play a major role in the management of chronic LBP. Physical treatments, such as acupuncture, backschool, hydrotherapy, lumbar supports, magnets, TENS, traction, ultrasound, Pilates therapy, Feldenkrais therapy, Alexander technique, and craniosacral therapy are either of unknown value or ineffective and so should not be considered. Outside of primary care, multidisciplinary treatment or functional restoration is effective; however, the high cost probably means that these programs should be reserved for patients who do not respond to cheaper treatment options for chronic LBP. Although there are now effective treatment options for chronic LBP, it needs to be acknowledged that the problem of chronic LBP is far from solved. Though treatments can provide marked improvements in the patient's condition, the available evidence suggests that the typical chronic LBP patient is left with some residual pain and disability. Developing new, more powerful treatments and refining the current group of known effective treatments is the challenge for the future.

  14. Recidivism after treatment in a forensic youth-psychiatric setting: the effect of treatment characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Put, C.E.; Asscher, J.J.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; van der Laan, P.H.; Breuk, R.; Jongman, E.; Doreleijers, T.


    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of treatment characteristics on recidivism in a forensic youth-psychiatric outpatient clinic. The treatment offered comprised functional family therapy (FFT), individual cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), or CBT in combination with parent training.

  15. Effective treatment for malignant mediastinal teratoma. (United States)

    Parker, D; Holford, C P; Begent, R H; Newlands, E S; Rustin, G J; Makey, A R; Bagshawe, K D


    Primary malignant mediastinal teratoma is a rare tumour previously regarded as inevitably fatal. In a series of eight male patients with a mean age of 24 years five remain alive and well. All patients showed raised serum concentrations of human chorionic gonadotrophin or alpha fetoprotein. The patients were treated with intermittent combination chemotherapy that included cisplatin. Six patients responded to chemotherapy with a fall in human chorionic gonadotrophin or alpha fetoprotein to near normal levels and they then had radical excision of the remaining tumour. Living malignant tumour was found in four of the specimens and these patients received postoperative chemotherapy. One patient died after eight months and the remaining five patients are alive and well 13-136 months after the start of treatment. The two patients who did not undergo surgery died at one month and 15 months. Intermittent combination chemotherapy and carefully timed radical excision of these tumours would appear to have produced better results than have been reported in other series.

  16. Astronomers Discover Fastest-Spinning Pulsar (United States)


    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope have discovered the fastest-spinning neutron star ever found, a 20-mile-diameter superdense pulsar whirling faster than the blades of a kitchen blender. Their work yields important new information about the nature of one of the most exotic forms of matter known in the Universe. Pulsar Graphic Pulsars Are Spinning Neutron Stars CREDIT: Bill Saxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF (Click on image for larger version) "We believe that the matter in neutron stars is denser than an atomic nucleus, but it is unclear by how much. Our observations of such a rapidly rotating star set a hard upper limit on its size, and hence on how dense the star can be.," said Jason Hessels, a graduate student at McGill University in Montreal. Hessels and his colleagues presented their findings to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Washington, DC. Pulsars are spinning neutron stars that sling "lighthouse beams" of radio waves or light around as they spin. A neutron star is what is left after a massive star explodes at the end of its "normal" life. With no nuclear fuel left to produce energy to offset the stellar remnant's weight, its material is compressed to extreme densities. The pressure squeezes together most of its protons and electrons to form neutrons; hence, the name "neutron star." "Neutron stars are incredible laboratories for learning about the physics of the fundamental particles of nature, and this pulsar has given us an important new limit," explained Scott Ransom, an astronomer at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory and one of Hessels' collaborators on this work. The scientists discovered the pulsar, named PSR J1748-2446ad, in a globular cluster of stars called Terzan 5, located some 28,000 light-years from Earth in the constellation Sagittarius. The newly-discovered pulsar is spinning 716 times per second, or at 716 Hertz (Hz), readily beating the previous record of 642 Hz from a pulsar

  17. Improved treatment of radiation effects on the skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wandl, E.O.; Kaercher, K.H.; Wandl-Hainberger, I.


    The treatment concept developed by K.H. Kaercher was extended by a therapy using Elasten S cream. In the course of a highvoltage therapy using fast electrons or cobalt-60, interesting aspects in the treatment and progression of the radiation reactions of the skin were established. The dermato-therapeutic principles layed down by K.H. Kaercher with the treatment palette used hitherto, have without doubt invariably proven their value. The exclusive powder treatment, however, may be made more practical by application of the new treatment cream in accordance with the intervals in radiation treatment or as a basic treatment towards the end of therapy. Furthermore it is ideally suited for the care and after-treatment of skin, strained by radiation. It reduces considerably the remaining visible radiation reactions. The treatment with powder and emulsion has for more than 10 years proven effective. After the excellent results of the new cream during radiation treatment, additional positive effects are expected in a long-term trial which will be reported on separately. (orig.) [de

  18. Effect of blind treatment on stone disease. (United States)

    Fazil Marickar, Y M; Salim, Abiya; Vijay, Adarsh


    Most of the drugs administered to stone patients appear to be inappropriate and doing more harm than good to the patients. The objective of this paper is to identify the prevalence of blind chemotherapy among the stone patients and find out the real indication for the drugs administered. Patients who attended the stone clinic for the first time were interviewed to find out what drugs they had been taking before the attendance at the stone clinic. 350 patients consuming specific drugs relevant to stone formation at least for a period of 15 days were selected for a detailed assessment. The type of drug consumed, the dose, the duration, the side effects, compliance rate and effect on stone disease were assessed. The biochemical profile of the patients was assessed to identify the role of the therapeutic modalities utilised. Conclusions regarding the utility of drugs in the process of stone formation were made. The values were compared with those of patients not on medication and considering laboratory standards. Of the 350 patients studied, 96 patients were consuming potassium citrate in different doses, 50 were consuming allopurinol, 44 cystone, 27 potassium citrate + magnesium, 25 calcury, 24 rowatinex, 21 ayurvedic drugs, 17 dystone, 17 homeopathic medicines and 17 other drugs. The longest duration of compliance was for cystone-2.5 years. All other drugs were stopped by the patients themselves due to recurrence of symptoms. As much as 93% of the patients did not feel that there was any significant relief of symptoms. The side effects which prompted the patients to stop medicine were gastro intestinal upset, particularly with potassium citrate, rowatinex and potassium citrate + magnesium combination. The relevant biochemical changes noted were increased urinary citrate levels in patients consuming potassium citrate alone or in combination with magnesium. Serum uric acid was within normal limits in patients consuming allopurinol. Urine uric acid levels were also

  19. Predicting the effect of psychoeducational group treatment for hypochondriasis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buwalda, F.M.; Bouman, T.K.


    Both individual cognitive-behavioural therapy and short-term psychoeducational courses have shown to be effective in reducing hypochondriacal complaints. However, it is unknown which patients benefit from treatment. The aim of the present study is to explore which variables predict treatment outcome

  20. Comparative Study of Pre-Germination Treatments and their Effects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    of leaves (10.05) respectively. Pre-germination treatments of seeds soaked in running water (SRW) for 24 hours were found to be more effective in seedlings growth and biomass production. Keywords: Tectona grandis, pre-germination treatment, seed dormancy, seedling growth. Introduction. Tectona grandis is one of the ...

  1. Moringa extracts used in sugarcane juice treatment and effects on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of sugarcane juice treatment using Moringa oleifera leaf and seeds extracts on ethanolic fermentation. The experiment was arranged in a split plot statistical design, with four replications. Main treatments were three sedimentation agents (synthetic polyelectrolyte, ...

  2. Effects of Hot Water Treatment and Temperature on Seedling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted at the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maiduguri, to study the effect of hot water treatment and temperature on the morphological characteristics of Arabic gum. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design in a factorial arrangement. The treatments included a ...

  3. Effect of physical treatment on Trichoderma reesei cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumakura, M.; Kaetsu, I.


    The effect of physical treatment such as freezing and gamma-ray irradiation on Trichoderma reesei cells was studied. The decrease phenomena of cellulase production, which was observed in the culture of the cells using wheat bran extract, was improved by physical treatment. (author)

  4. Mode-Specific Effects among Three Treatments for Depression. (United States)

    Imber, Stanley D.; And Others


    Randomly assigned 250 depressed outpatients to interpersonal psychotherapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, imipramine plus clinical management, or pill placebo plus clinical management treatments. All treatments demonstrated significant symptom reduction with few differences in general outcomes. None of the therapies produced consistent effects on…

  5. Nonthermal effects in thermal treatment applications of nonionizing irradiation (United States)

    Thomsen, Sharon


    Several non-thermal factors influence the primary and secondary effects of interstitial thermal treatments using various types of non-ionizing irradiation. Recognition and understanding of the influences of these various factors are important in choice of energy source, the configuration of the application instrument and the design of treatments.

  6. Effect of heat treatment on structure and magnetic properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fe46Co35Ni19/CNTs nanocomposites have been prepared by an easy two-step route including adsorption and heat treatment processes. We investigated the effect of heat treatment conditions on structure, morphology, nanoparticle sizes and magnetic properties of the Fe46Co35Ni19 alloy nanoparticles attached on the ...

  7. Effect of heat treatment temperature on binder thermal conductivities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, P.


    The effect of heat treatment on the thermal conductivities of a pitch and a polyfurfuryl alcohol binder residue was investigated. Graphites specially prepared with these two binders were used for the experiments. Measured thermal conductivities were treated in terms of a two-component system, and the binder thermal conductivities were calculated. Both binder residues showed increased thermal conductivity with increased heat treatment temperature

  8. Effects of thermal treatments and germination on physico-chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Certain physico-chemical properties including viscoelasticity, crystallinity and maltose content of corn depends on the gelatinization of starch under different treatments. Three different treatments were performed; boiling in water, steam heating, and germination. The effects of gelatinization on viscoelastic property of corn ...

  9. Effect of time on dyeing wastewater treatment (United States)

    Ye, Tingjin; Chen, Xin; Xu, Zizhen; Chen, Xiaogang; Shi, Liang; He, Lingfeng; Zhang, Yongli


    The preparation of carboxymethylchitosan wrapping fly-ash adsorbent using high temperature activated fly ash and sodium carboxymethyl chitosan (CWF), as with the iron-carbon micro-electrolysis process simulation and actual printing and dyeing wastewater. The effects of mixing time and static time on decolorization ratio, COD removing rate and turbidness removing rate were investigated. The experimental results show that the wastewater stirring times on the decolorization rate and COD removal rate and turbidity removal rate influence, with increasing of the stirring time, three showed a downward trend, and reached the peak at 10 min time; wastewater time on the decolorization ratio and COD removing efficiency and turbidness removing rate influence, along with standing time increase, three who declined and reached the maximum in 30min time.

  10. Neuroimaging in aphasia treatment research: Standards for establishing the effects of treatment (United States)

    Kiran, Swathi; Ansaldo, Ana; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Cherney, Leora R.; Howard, David; Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen; Meinzer, Marcus; Thompson, Cynthia K


    The goal of this paper is to discuss experimental design options available for establishing the effects of treatment in studies that aim to examine the neural mechanisms associated with treatment-induced language recovery in aphasia, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We present both group and single-subject experimental or case-series design options for doing this and address advantages and disadvantages of each. We also discuss general components of and requirements for treatment research studies, including operational definitions of variables, criteria for defining behavioral change and treatment efficacy, and reliability of measurement. Important considerations that are unique to neuroimaging-based treatment research are addressed, pertaining to the relation between the selected treatment approach and anticipated changes in language processes/functions and how such changes are hypothesized to map onto the brain. PMID:23063559

  11. Effects of mulching, fertilizer, seeding and seedling treatments

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Mulching treatment had an effect of increasing mortality of non-woody species and selectively favoring the ... central Tanzania where former bad land use practices ... of one or a few fast growing annual or perennial ...... Food Agric. 75: 412-.

  12. Effects of certain burning treatments on veld condition in Giant's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of certain burning treatments on veld condition in Giant's Castle Game Reserve. ... Keywords: above-ground standing crop; basal cover; burning; composition change; giant's castle game reserve; natal ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  13. Effects of palm pollen on folliculogenesis process after treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of palm pollen on folliculogenesis process after treatment with cyclophosphamide among rats. ... Background and purpose: Palm pollen is a good source of natural antioxidants and has a high level of health ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  14. Prolotherapy: An Effective Treatment for Low Back Pain? (United States)

    ... pain? Is prolotherapy an effective treatment for chronic low back pain? Answers from Brent A. Bauer, M.D. Prolotherapy is ... reduced pain. Studies of prolotherapy in people with low back pain have had mixed results. A combination of prolotherapy ...

  15. Brine treatment, smoking and storage techniques: their effects on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Food Technology in Africa ... Brine treatment, smoking and storage techniques: their effects on the microbial quality of smoked mackerel. ... off odour development, softening of the fish and positively affected personal preference.

  16. Discovering uncolored naturalness in exotic Higgs decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtin, David; Verhaaren, Christopher B.


    Solutions to the hierarchy problem usually require top partners. In standard SUSY or composite Higgs theories, the partners carry SM color and are becoming increasingly constrained by LHC searches. However, theories like Folded SUSY (FS), Twin Higgs (TH) and Quirky Little Higgs (QLH) introduce uncolored top partners, which can be SM singlets or carry electroweak charge. Their small production cross section left doubt as to whether the LHC can effectively probe such scenarios. Typically, these partners are charged under their own mirror color gauge group. In FS and QLH, the absence of light mirror matter allows glueballs to form at the bottom of the mirror spectrum. This is also the case in some TH realizations. The Higgs can decay to these mirror glueballs, with the glueballs decaying into SM particles with potentially observable lifetimes. We undertake the first detailed study of this glueball signature and quantitatively demonstrate the discovery potential of uncolored naturalness via exotic Higgs decays at the LHC and a potential future 100 TeV collider. Our findings indicate that mirror glueballs are the smoking gun signature of natural FS and QLH type theories, in analogy to tree-level Higgs coupling shifts for the TH. We show that glueball masses in the ∼10–60 GeV mass range are theoretically preferred. Careful treatment of lifetime, mirror-hadronization and nonperturbative uncertainties is required to perform meaningful collider studies. We outline several new search strategies for exotic Higgs decays of the form h→XX→4f at the LHC, with X having lifetimes in the 10μm to km range. We find that FS stops can be probed with masses up to 600 (1100) GeV at the LHC with 300 (3000) fb −1 of data, and TH top partners could be accessible with masses up to 900 (1500) GeV. This makes exotic Higgs decays the prime discovery channel for uncolored naturalness at the LHC.

  17. Effective antihypertensive treatment postpones renal insufficiency in diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Smidt, U M; Hommel, E


    The effect of long-term, aggressive, antihypertensive treatment on kidney function in diabetic nephropathy was studied prospectively in 11 insulin-dependent diabetic patients (mean age, 30 years). Renal function was assessed every 4 months by measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (single...... infarction (GFR, 46 mL/min/1.73 m2). Effective antihypertensive treatment postpones renal insufficiency in diabetic nephropathy....

  18. Discovering biological progression underlying microarray samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Qiu


    Full Text Available In biological systems that undergo processes such as differentiation, a clear concept of progression exists. We present a novel computational approach, called Sample Progression Discovery (SPD, to discover patterns of biological progression underlying microarray gene expression data. SPD assumes that individual samples of a microarray dataset are related by an unknown biological process (i.e., differentiation, development, cell cycle, disease progression, and that each sample represents one unknown point along the progression of that process. SPD aims to organize the samples in a manner that reveals the underlying progression and to simultaneously identify subsets of genes that are responsible for that progression. We demonstrate the performance of SPD on a variety of microarray datasets that were generated by sampling a biological process at different points along its progression, without providing SPD any information of the underlying process. When applied to a cell cycle time series microarray dataset, SPD was not provided any prior knowledge of samples' time order or of which genes are cell-cycle regulated, yet SPD recovered the correct time order and identified many genes that have been associated with the cell cycle. When applied to B-cell differentiation data, SPD recovered the correct order of stages of normal B-cell differentiation and the linkage between preB-ALL tumor cells with their cell origin preB. When applied to mouse embryonic stem cell differentiation data, SPD uncovered a landscape of ESC differentiation into various lineages and genes that represent both generic and lineage specific processes. When applied to a prostate cancer microarray dataset, SPD identified gene modules that reflect a progression consistent with disease stages. SPD may be best viewed as a novel tool for synthesizing biological hypotheses because it provides a likely biological progression underlying a microarray dataset and, perhaps more importantly, the


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Chao-Wei; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Stern, Daniel; Moustakas, Leonidas A. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Wu, Jingwen; Wright, Edward L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Assef, Roberto J. [Núcleo de Astronomía de la Facultad deIngeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército Libertador 441, Santiago (Chile); Blain, Andrew W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, 1 University Road, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Bridge, Carrie R.; Sayers, Jack [Division of Physics, Math, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Benford, Dominic J.; Leisawitz, David T. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Cutri, Roc M.; Masci, Frank J.; Yan, Lin [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Griffith, Roger L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Jarrett, Thomas H. [Astronomy Department, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Lonsdale, Carol J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Petty, Sara M. [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Stanford, S. Adam, E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of California Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); and others


    We present 20 Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE)-selected galaxies with bolometric luminosities L{sub bol} > 10{sup 14} L{sub ☉}, including five with infrared luminosities L{sub IR} ≡ L{sub (rest} {sub 8–1000} {sub μm)} > 10{sup 14} L{sub ☉}. These “extremely luminous infrared galaxies,” or ELIRGs, were discovered using the “W1W2-dropout” selection criteria which requires marginal or non-detections at 3.4 and 4.6 μm (W1 and W2, respectively) but strong detections at 12 and 22 μm in the WISE survey. Their spectral energy distributions are dominated by emission at rest-frame 4–10 μm, suggesting that hot dust with T{sub d} ∼ 450 K is responsible for the high luminosities. These galaxies are likely powered by highly obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and there is no evidence suggesting these systems are beamed or lensed. We compare this WISE-selected sample with 116 optically selected quasars that reach the same L{sub bol} level, corresponding to the most luminous unobscured quasars in the literature. We find that the rest-frame 5.8 and 7.8 μm luminosities of the WISE-selected ELIRGs can be 30%–80% higher than that of the unobscured quasars. The existence of AGNs with L{sub bol} > 10{sup 14} L{sub ☉} at z > 3 suggests that these supermassive black holes are born with large mass, or have very rapid mass assembly. For black hole seed masses ∼10{sup 3} M{sub ☉}, either sustained super-Eddington accretion is needed, or the radiative efficiency must be <15%, implying a black hole with slow spin, possibly due to chaotic accretion.

  20. Modelling the effects of treatment and quarantine on measles (United States)

    Beay, Lazarus Kalvein


    Treatment and quarantine are efforts to cure as well as to overcome the spread of diseases including measles. The spread of measles can be expressed by mathematical modelling in the form of nonlinear dynamical systems. In this study was conducted on the spread of measles by considering the effect of treatment and quarantine on the infected individuals. By using the basic reproduction number of the model, can be analyzed the effects of treatment and quarantine to reduce the spread of measles. Basic reproduction number of models is monotonically descreasing as treatment and quarantine increasing. Numerical simulations conducted on the analysis of the results. The results showed that treatment and quarantine was given to infected individuals who were infectious has a major influence to eliminate measles from the system.

  1. Nonvolatile memory effect of tungsten nanocrystals under oxygen plasma treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shih-Cheng; Chang, Ting-Chang; Chen, Wei-Ren; Lo, Yuan-Chun; Wu, Kai-Ting; Sze, S.M.; Chen, Jason; Liao, I.H.; Yeh, Fon-Shan


    In this work, an oxygen plasma treatment was used to improve the memory effect of nonvolatile W nanocrystal memory, including memory window, retention and endurance. To investigate the role of the oxygen plasma treatment in charge storage characteristics, the X-ray photon-emission spectra (XPS) were performed to analyze the variation of chemical composition for W nanocrystal embedded oxide both with and without the oxygen plasma treatment. In addition, the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses were also used to identify the microstructure in the thin film and the size and density of W nanocrystals. The device with the oxygen plasma treatment shows a significant improvement of charge storage effect, because the oxygen plasma treatment enhanced the quality of silicon oxide surrounding the W nanocrystals. Therefore, the data retention and endurance characteristics were also improved by the passivation.

  2. Patients knowledge about side effects of orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Amalia


    Full Text Available Disharmonious of dental arrangement can possibly create problems for the patient, such as the masticatory function, esthetical, psychosocial, and also the increased risk of trauma and periodontal disease. These are reasons for a patient to seek orthodontic treatment. The aim of this study was to know the patient’s knowledge about the side effects possibility that they receive during orthodontic treatment. The side effects include pain experience during orthodontic treatment, the possibility of soft tissue damage, email demineralization, loss of tooth vitality, periodontal problem, root resorption, temporomandibular joint disorders, and relapse. A cross-sectional study was conducted in patients who registered at Orthodontic Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Indonesia on March-June 2009. The participants of this study were 100 patients, consist of 86 women and 14 men respectively. Twenty-seven questions about the side-effects of orthodontic treatment were used to obtain the patient’s knowledge and the result was categorized into 3 groups, good, average and poor. The result of the study showed that patient’s knowledge about the side effect of pain experience during orthodontic treatment was average and the patient’s knowledge about the possibility of soft tissue damage due to orthodontic treatment was good. However, the patient’s knowledge about the possibility of email demineralization, loss of tooth vitality, periodontal problem, root resorption, temporomandibular joint disorders and relapse due to orthodontic treatment was low.

  3. Estimation of treatment preference effects in clinical trials when some participants are indifferent to treatment choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen D. Walter


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the two-stage randomised trial design, a randomly sampled subset of study participants are permitted to choose their own treatment, while the remaining participants are randomised to treatment in the usual way. Appropriate analysis of the data from both arms of the study allows investigators to estimate the impact on study outcomes of treatment preferences that patients may have, in addition to evaluating the usual direct effect of treatment. In earlier work, we showed how to optimise this design by making a suitable choice of the proportion of participants who should be assigned to the choice arm of the trial. However, we ignored the possibility of some participants being indifferent to the treatments under study. In this paper, we extend our earlier work to consider the analysis of two-stage randomised trials when some participants have no treatment preference, even if they are assigned to the choice arm and allowed to choose. Methods We compare alternative characterisations of the response profiles of the indifferent or undecided participants, and derive estimates of the treatment and preference effects on study outcomes. We also present corresponding test statistics for these parameters. The methods are illustrated with data from a clinical trial contrasting medical and surgical interventions. Results Expressions are obtained to estimate and test the impact of treatment choices on study outcomes, as well as the impact of the actual treatment received. Contrasts are defined between patients with stated treatment preferences and those with no preference. Alternative assumptions concerning the outcomes of undecided participants are described, and an approach leading to unbiased estimation and testing is identified. Conclusions Use of the two-stage design can provide important insights into determinants of study outcomes that are not identifiable with other designs. The design can remain attractive even in the presence of

  4. Chemistry of cost effective water treatment programme in HWP (Manuguru)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, C.; Laxmana Prasad, K.


    In order to develop a water treatment programme following points must be kept in mind: Effectiveness to achieve desired water quality objectives; Compliance with regulatory requirements; Cost minimization; Safety; Easy operation and protection to equipments. Heavy Water Plant (Manuguru) laboratory has developed treatment programs to treat raw water and cooling water which satisfy the above requirements and has been in use for last several years successfully without any problem. These treatment programs have been given to other plants in Heavy Water Board for implementation. This paper describes the chemistry of the treatment program and cost minimization achieved. Further these treatments have helped the plant in achieving ΦZero Discharge and indirectly reduced the production cost. The chemistry parameters are monitored regularly to ascertain the effectiveness of these treatments. The areas where significant benefits derived are raw water treatment using polyelectrolyte instead of inorganic coagulant (alum), change over of regenerant of cation exchangers from hydrochloric acid to sulfuric acid and development of in-house cooling water treatment formulation. The advantages and cost effectiveness of these treatments are discussed in detail. Further these treatments helped the plant in achieving Zero discharge and indirectly reduced production cost of heavy water. The dosage of 3 ppm of polyelectrolyte can replace 90 ppm alum at turbidity level of 300 NTU of raw water which has resulted in cost saving of Rs. 15 - 20 Lakhs in a year besides other advantages. The changeover of regenerant from HCl to H 2 SO 4 will result in cost saving of at least Rs. 1.4 Crore a year along with other advantages. The change over of proprietary formulation to in-house formulation in cooling water treatment has resulted a saving about Rs. 11 Lakhs a year. To achieve the above objectives in a sustainable way the performance results are being monitored (author)

  5. Towards a framework for treatment effectiveness in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juckel G


    Full Text Available Georg Juckel,1 Andrea de Bartolomeis,2 Philip Gorwood,3 Sergey Mosolov,4 Luca Pani,5 Alessandro Rossi,6 Julio Sanjuan7 1Department of Psychiatry, LWL-University Hospital, Ruhr-University Bochum, Bochum, Germany; 2Laboratory of Molecular Psychiatry and Unit of Treatment Resistant Psychosis, University School of Medicine of Naples Federico II, Napoli, Italy; 3Groupe Hospitalier Sainte-Anne (CMME, Paris-Descartes University, Paris, France; 4Moscow Research Institute of Psychiatry, Moscow, Russia; 5Institute of Translational Pharmacology, Italian National Research Council, Rome, Italy; 6Università de L’Aquila, L’Aquila, Italy; 7Clinic Hospital, Spanish Mental Health Network (CIBERSAM, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain Introduction: Prompt administration of antipsychotic treatment that is adhered to is essential for the optimal treatment of schizophrenia. Many patients have benefited from the advent of second-generation antipsychotics, which can offer good symptomatic control with reduced incidence of extrapyramidal symptoms, although with higher risk of metabolic side effects. It is unsurprising that accounts as to whether first- and second-generation antipsychotics differ in their efficacy vary, since treatment effectiveness is a broad notion and difficult to define. Objectives: Numerous factors may be used to gauge treatment effectiveness and, while it has largely been defined in terms of improvements in four domains (symptoms of disease, treatment burden, disease burden, and health and wellness, the real-world clinical utility of this consensus is unclear. Therefore, this article aims to provide a framework that can aid psychiatrists in making assessments about treatment effectiveness. Methods and results: A panel of 12 psychiatrists and psychopharmacologists convened to develop and propose an accessible and globally-applicable framework for assessing the effectiveness of antipsychotic treatments in patients with schizophrenia

  6. Cost-effectiveness of root caries preventive treatments. (United States)

    Schwendicke, Falk; Göstemeyer, Gerd


    With a growing number of individuals retaining their teeth lifelong, often with periodontitis-induced root surface exposure, there is the need for cost-effective management strategies for root caries lesions. The present study aimed to assess the cost-effectiveness of root caries preventive treatments. Patients were simulated over 10 years using a Markov model. Four treatments were compared: No treatment, daily 225-800ppm fluoride rinses, chlorhexidine (CHX) varnish (2×/year), silver diamine fluoride (SDF) varnish (2×/year). Data from a systematic review were submitted to network meta-analysis for inferring relative efficacies of treatments. The health outcome was years of teeth being free of root caries. A mixed public-private payer perspective within 2016 German healthcare was taken, with costs being estimated from fee item catalogues or based on market prices. Populations with different numbers of teeth and tooth-level risks were modelled. Monte-Carlo microsimulations, univariate- and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. In populations with 16 teeth at risk and low tooth-level risk for root caries, providing no preventive treatment was least costly, but also least effective (130 Euro, 144 years). SDF ranked next, being more costly (180 Euro), but also more effective (151 years). Payers willing to invest 8.30 Euro per root caries-free tooth-year found SDF most cost-effective. CHX varnish and fluoride rinse were not cost-effective. In populations with more teeth and high tooth-level risk, SDF was the most effective and least costly option. Root caries preventive treatments (like SDF) are effective and might even be cost-saving in high risk populations. Application of SDF can be recommended as a cost-saving treatment for prevention of root caries in patients with high risk of root caries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of heat treatment on the radiosensitivity of Salmonellae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, E.H.; Yang, J.S.; Lee, S.R.


    When the food poisoning bacteria Salmonella enteritidis and S. typhimurium were treated with radiation (cobalt-60 γ-rays) and heat (10 minutes at 45 0 C or 50 0 C), their sterilizing effect was revealed differently depending on the order of treatments. Post-irradiation heating showed a synergistic effect whereas pre-irradiation heating revealed the opposite effect and the effects differed slightly with heating temperature. (author)

  8. VLA Discovers Giant Rings Around Galaxy Cluster (United States)


    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope have discovered giant, ring-like structures around a cluster of galaxies. The discovery provides tantalizing new information about how such galaxy clusters are assembled, about magnetic fields in the vast spaces between galaxy clusters, and possibly about the origin of cosmic rays. Radio-Optical Image of Cluster Galaxy Cluster Abell 3376 (Radio/Optical) CREDIT: Joydeep Bagchi, IUCAA, NRAO/AUI/NSF Above, a combined radio/optical image shows the galaxy cluster Abell 3376 in visible light (blue) and radio (red) images. The giant radio arcs surrounding the cluster were discovered using the Very Large Array. The visible-light image is from the Digitized Sky survey. Below, an X-ray image of Abell 3376 made using the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton telescope shows a spectacular, bullet-shaped region of X-rays coming from gas heated to 60 million degrees Kelvin. The bullet shape results from the supersonic collision of a smaller smaller galaxy subcluster with the main body of the larger cluster. Click on images for larger version. X-Ray Image of Cluster Galaxy Cluster Abell 3376 (X-Ray) CREDIT: Joydeep Bagchi, IUCAA, ESA "These giant, radio-emitting rings probably are the result of shock waves caused by violent collisions of smaller groups of galaxies within the cluster," said Joydeep Bagchi, of the Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics in Pune, India, who led an international research team. The scientists reported their findings in the November 3 edition of the journal Science. The newly-discovered ring segments, some 6 million light-years across, surround a galaxy cluster called Abell 3376, more than 600 million light-years from Earth. They were revealed because fast-moving electrons emitted radio waves as they spiraled around magnetic field lines in intergalactic space. "Even from this large distance, the feeble radio waves were easily picked up by the VLA

  9. A passive acoustic monitor of treatment effectiveness during extracorporeal lithotripsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedele, F; Coleman, A J; Thomas, K; Ryves, S; Phillips, D; Leighton, T G


    Although extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) has now been in the clinic for at least three decades, there has been little advance in efforts (i) to estimate the efficacy of the treatment whilst it is in progress, or (ii) to determine the end-point of a treatment session in terms of the degree of stone fragmentation achieved. Previous in vitro experimentation and clinical trials have shown that a passive acoustic monitor has the potential to provide evidence of the effectiveness and end-point of lithotripsy. The system exploits secondary emissions generated during shock-tissue interaction, whose features depend on the quality of tissue at the beam focus. This prototype was developed into the first commercially available clinical ESWL treatment monitor (Precision Acoustic Ltd, Dorchester, UK), and a unit has been acquired and tested in the clinical routine by urologists at Guy's and St Thomas NHS Trust in March 2009. This paper critically assesses the performance of the new system for the first 25 treatments monitored. The ESWL monitor correctly predicted the treatment outcome of 15 of the 18 treatments that were followed-up clinically. In addition, it was noted that the measure of treatment effectiveness provided by the monitor after 500 shocks was predictive of the final treatment outcome (p < 0.001). This suggests that the system could be used in pre-assessment; indicating if the stone is susceptible to ESWL or if the patient should be sent for surgery.

  10. A passive acoustic monitor of treatment effectiveness during extracorporeal lithotripsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedele, F; Coleman, A J [Medical Physics Department, Guy' s and St Thomas NHS Foundation Trust, Westminster Bridge Road, SE1 7EH, London (United Kingdom); Thomas, K; Ryves, S; Phillips, D [Urology Department, Guy' s and St Thomas NHS Foundation Trust, Great Maze Pond, SE1 9RT, London (United Kingdom); Leighton, T G, E-mail: [Institute of Sound and Vibration Research, University of Southampton, Highfield, S017 1BJ, Southampton (United Kingdom)


    Although extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) has now been in the clinic for at least three decades, there has been little advance in efforts (i) to estimate the efficacy of the treatment whilst it is in progress, or (ii) to determine the end-point of a treatment session in terms of the degree of stone fragmentation achieved. Previous in vitro experimentation and clinical trials have shown that a passive acoustic monitor has the potential to provide evidence of the effectiveness and end-point of lithotripsy. The system exploits secondary emissions generated during shock-tissue interaction, whose features depend on the quality of tissue at the beam focus. This prototype was developed into the first commercially available clinical ESWL treatment monitor (Precision Acoustic Ltd, Dorchester, UK), and a unit has been acquired and tested in the clinical routine by urologists at Guy's and St Thomas NHS Trust in March 2009. This paper critically assesses the performance of the new system for the first 25 treatments monitored. The ESWL monitor correctly predicted the treatment outcome of 15 of the 18 treatments that were followed-up clinically. In addition, it was noted that the measure of treatment effectiveness provided by the monitor after 500 shocks was predictive of the final treatment outcome (p < 0.001). This suggests that the system could be used in pre-assessment; indicating if the stone is susceptible to ESWL or if the patient should be sent for surgery.

  11. A passive acoustic monitor of treatment effectiveness during extracorporeal lithotripsy (United States)

    Fedele, F.; Thomas, K.; Leighton, T. G.; Ryves, S.; Phillips, D.; Coleman, A. J.


    Although extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) has now been in the clinic for at least three decades, there has been little advance in efforts (i) to estimate the efficacy of the treatment whilst it is in progress, or (ii) to determine the end-point of a treatment session in terms of the degree of stone fragmentation achieved. Previous in vitro experimentation and clinical trials have shown that a passive acoustic monitor has the potential to provide evidence of the effectiveness and end-point of lithotripsy. The system exploits secondary emissions generated during shock-tissue interaction, whose features depend on the quality of tissue at the beam focus. This prototype was developed into the first commercially available clinical ESWL treatment monitor (Precision Acoustic Ltd, Dorchester, UK), and a unit has been acquired and tested in the clinical routine by urologists at Guy's and St Thomas NHS Trust in March 2009. This paper critically assesses the performance of the new system for the first 25 treatments monitored. The ESWL monitor correctly predicted the treatment outcome of 15 of the 18 treatments that were followed-up clinically. In addition, it was noted that the measure of treatment effectiveness provided by the monitor after 500 shocks was predictive of the final treatment outcome (p ESWL or if the patient should be sent for surgery.

  12. A passive acoustic monitor of treatment effectiveness during extracorporeal lithotripsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedele, F; Coleman, A J [Medical Physics Department, Guy' s and St Thomas NHS Foundation Trust, Westminster Bridge Road, SE1 7EH, London (United Kingdom); Thomas, K; Ryves, S; Phillips, D [Urology Department, Guy' s and St Thomas NHS Foundation Trust, Great Maze Pond, SE1 9RT, London (United Kingdom); Leighton, T G, E-mail: [Institute of Sound and Vibration Research, University of Southampton, Highfield, S017 1BJ, Southampton (United Kingdom)


    Although extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) has now been in the clinic for at least three decades, there has been little advance in efforts (i) to estimate the efficacy of the treatment whilst it is in progress, or (ii) to determine the end-point of a treatment session in terms of the degree of stone fragmentation achieved. Previous in vitro experimentation and clinical trials have shown that a passive acoustic monitor has the potential to provide evidence of the effectiveness and end-point of lithotripsy. The system exploits secondary emissions generated during shock-tissue interaction, whose features depend on the quality of tissue at the beam focus. This prototype was developed into the first commercially available clinical ESWL treatment monitor (Precision Acoustic Ltd, Dorchester, UK), and a unit has been acquired and tested in the clinical routine by urologists at Guy's and St Thomas NHS Trust in March 2009. This paper critically assesses the performance of the new system for the first 25 treatments monitored. The ESWL monitor correctly predicted the treatment outcome of 15 of the 18 treatments that were followed-up clinically. In addition, it was noted that the measure of treatment effectiveness provided by the monitor after 500 shocks was predictive of the final treatment outcome (p < 0.001). This suggests that the system could be used in pre-assessment; indicating if the stone is susceptible to ESWL or if the patient should be sent for surgery.

  13. The Impact of Discovering Life beyond Earth (United States)

    Dick, Steven J.


    Introduction: astrobiology and society Steven J. Dick; Part I. Motivations and Approaches. How Do We Frame the Problems of Discovery and Impact?: Introduction; 1. Current approaches to finding life beyond earth, and what happens if we do Seth Shostak; 2. The philosophy of astrobiology: the Copernican and Darwinian presuppositions Iris Fry; 3. History, discovery, analogy: three approaches to the impact of discovering life beyond earth Steven J. Dick; 4. Silent impact: why the discovery of extraterrestrial life should be silent Clément Vidal; Part II. Transcending Anthropocentrism. How Do We Move beyond our Own Preconceptions of Life, Intelligence and Culture?: Introduction; 5. The landscape of life Dirk Schulze-Makuch; 6. The landscape of intelligence Lori Marino; 7. Universal biology: assessing universality from a single example Carlos Mariscal; 8. Equating culture, civilization, and moral development in imagining extraterrestrial intelligence: anthropocentric assumptions? John Traphagan; 9. Communicating with the other: infinity, geometry, and universal math and science Douglas Vakoch; Part III. Philosophical, Theological, and Moral Impact. How Do We Comprehend the Cultural Challenges Raised by Discovery?: Introduction; 10. Life, intelligence and the pursuit of value in cosmic evolution Mark Lupisella; 11. 'Klaatu barada nikto' - or, do they really think like us? Michael Ruse; 12. Alien minds Susan Schneider; 13. The moral subject of astrobiology: guideposts for exploring our ethical and political responsibilities towards extraterrestrial life Elspeth Wilson and Carol Cleland; 14. Astrobiology and theology Robin Lovin; 15. Would you baptize an extraterrestrial? Guy Consolmagno, SJ; Part IV. Practical Considerations: How Should Society Prepare for Discovery - and Non-Discovery?: Introduction; 16. Is there anything new about astrobiology and society? Jane Maienschein; 17. Evaluating preparedness for the discovery of extraterrestrial life: considering potential

  14. Dosimetric Effects Of Different Treatment Tables During Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murkovic, M.; Grego, T.; Bibic, J.


    The aim of our study was to measure the effect of mega-voltage photon beam attenuation when treating patients through carbon fibre treatment table with and without the carbon laminate base plate on it. We also examined the ability of XiO treatment planning system in modelling this effect. Direct attenuation measurements were made for two treatment tables, Siemens TxT 550 treatment table with TT-A table top and Elekta Precise table with iBEAM evo table top. On both treatment tables we used Orfit Base Plate (32301). Measurements were taken for two photon energies (6 MV and 18 MV), at two different field sizes (5 x 5 cm 2 and 10 x 10 cm 2 ) and different gantry angles in 50 intervals using stationary water phantom and Farmer type ionization chamber. These values were compared to values calculated in XiO. In order to account for the effect of table and base plate during treatment planning in XiO, customized table and base plate templates were develop in Focal planning system. To construct these customized templates, table and base plate contours as well as respective relative electron density's to water were obtained on CT scanner. The largest attenuation effect was seen for oblique treatment angles using low energy and small field sizes, 6.6 percent for the Elekta table top and 8.4 percent for Siemens table top. In this paper we show that customized table and base plate templates introduced in the patient treatment plan can accurately model the attenuation due to their presence to within 0.3 percent. Since dose modifications due to such carbon fiber accessories can be significant, it can be concluded that introduction of customized table and base plate templates into TPS brings an important improvement to patient treatment planning, and should be included in dose calculations whenever possible. (author).

  15. Telemedicine diabetes consultations are cost-effective, and effects on essential diabetes treatment parameters are similar to conventional treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levin, Klaus; Madsen, Jette R; Petersen, Inge


    been offered expert diabetes care using teleconsultations. This article describes the impact of the telemedicine solution on essential diabetes treatment parameters, patient satisfaction, and cost-effectiveness. METHODS: Telemedicine consultations were conducted with the patient and nurse specialist...... in transportation time (7 h). Reductions in traveling costs and saved working days were the most important factors in making the telemedicine set-up economically efficient. CONCLUSION: Telemedicine consultation for remote outpatient diabetes control is feasible, and the interdisciplinary interventions achieved high...... treatment quality results in essential diabetes treatment parameters. In addition, the telemedicine set-up was associated with improved cost-effectiveness and patient satisfaction....

  16. Weighing the potential effectiveness of various treatments for sleep bruxism. (United States)

    Huynh, Nelly; Manzini, Christiane; Rompré, Pierre H; Lavigne, Gilles J


    Sleep bruxism may lead to a variety of problems, but its pathophysiology has not been completely elucidated. As such, there is no definitive treatment, but certain preventive measures and/or drugs may be used in acute cases, particularly those involving pain. This article is intended to guide clinician scientists to the treatment most appropriate for future clinical studies. To determine the best current treatment, 2 measures were used to compare the results of 10 clinical studies on sleep bruxism, 3 involving oral devices and 7 involving pharmacologic therapy. The first measure, the number needed to treat (NNT), allows several randomized clinical studies to be compared and a general conclusion to be drawn. The second measure, effect size, allows evaluation of the impact of treatment relative to a placebo using different studies of similar design. Taking into account the NNT, the effect size and the power of each study, it can be concluded that the following treatments reduce sleep bruxism: mandibular advancement device, clonidine and occlusal splint. However, the first 2 of these have been linked to adverse effects. The occlusal splint is therefore the treatment of choice, as it reduces grinding noise and protects the teeth from premature wear with no reported adverse effects. The NNT could not be calculated for an alternative pharmacologic treatment, short-term clonazepam therapy, which had a large effect size and reduced the average bruxism index. However, the risk of dependency limits its use over long periods. Assessment of efficacy and safety of the most promising treatments will require studies with larger sample sizes over longer periods.

  17. Is desvenlafaxine effective and safe in the treatment of menopausal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Meta-analysis was conducted by including double-blind randomized controlled studies on the effectiveness and safety of desvenlafaxine in the treatment of hot flashes. The effectiveness, safety and tolerability of desvenlafaxine were determined by standardized mean differences (SMDs) and Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio.

  18. Comparative study of the effects of treatment techniques on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports the effects of some fibre treatment techniques namely: mercerization, acetylation and semi-carbonisation on the performance of Kenaf fibres. The treated kenaf fibres which are considered biodegradable, cost effective, renewable and user friendly have been used as a possible base friction material for ...

  19. On the treatment of exchange effects in direct reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bencze, G.; Chandler, C.; Argonne National Lab., IL; New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque


    Exchange effects in direct reactions are investigated in the framework of the general algebraic theory of identical particle scattering. It is shown that effects due to the permutation symmetry of the system can be separated from the treatment of reaction dynamics. Dynamical aspects of the problem are investigated within the framework of the channel coupling class of N-body theories. (orig.)

  20. Cost effectiveness of treatment for alcohol problems: findings of the randomised UK alcohol treatment trial (UKATT). (United States)


    To compare the cost effectiveness of social behaviour and network therapy, a new treatment for alcohol problems, with that of the proved motivational enhancement therapy. Cost effectiveness analysis alongside a pragmatic randomised trial. Seven treatment sites around Birmingham, Cardiff, and Leeds. 742 clients with alcohol problems; 617 (83.2%) were interviewed at 12 months and full economic data were obtained on 608 (98.5% of 617). Main economic measures Quality adjusted life years (QALYs), costs of trial treatments, and consequences for public sector resources (health care, other alcohol treatment, social services, and criminal justice services). Both therapies saved about five times as much in expenditure on health, social, and criminal justice services as they cost. Neither net savings nor cost effectiveness differed significantly between the therapies, despite the average cost of social behaviour and network therapy (221 pounds sterling; 385 dollars; 320 euros) being significantly more than that of motivational enhancement therapy (129 pounds sterling). If a QALY were worth 30,000 pounds sterling, then the motivational therapy would have 58% chance of being more cost effective than the social therapy, and the social therapy would have 42% chance of being more cost effective than the motivational therapy. Participants reported highly significant reductions in drinking and associated problems and costs. The novel social behaviour and network therapy did not differ significantly in cost effectiveness from the proved motivational enhancement therapy.

  1. [Comparative effectiveness of different treatment methods of liver failure]. (United States)

    Kutepov, D E; Vershinina, M G; Pasechnik, I N; Sal'nikov, P S


    It was analyzed the results of treatment of 217 patients (139 men, 78 women) with chronic liver failure in case of liver cirrhosis of various etiology for study of degree of hepatic encephalopathyregression. All patients were divided into 3 groups. In the first group the drug therapy was used. In the second group additionallyplasma exchange was performed, in the third group - alsomolecular absorbent recirculating system was used (effectiveness of MARS-therapy).The results showed that the use of extracorporeal treatment techniques can effectively reduce the severity of hepatic encephalopathy in patients with liver cirrhosis. MARS-therapy improved the neurological status of patientsmore significantly in this case. It is considered that the inclusion of MARS-therapy in the combined treatment of patients leads to a significant reduction of hepatic encephalopathyseverity (1-2 points), in comparison with other methods of treatment.

  2. Cost effective water treatment program in Heavy Water Plant (Manuguru)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, C.; Prasada Rao, G.


    Water treatment technology is in a state of continuous evolution. The increasing urgency to conserve water and reduce pollution has in recent years produced an enormous demand for new chemical treatment programs and technologies. Heavy water plant (Manuguru) uses water as raw material (about 3000 m 3 /hr) and its treatment and management has benefited the plant in a significant way. It is a fact that if the water treatment is not proper, it can result in deposit formation and corrosion of metals, which can finally leads to production losses. Therefore, before selecting treatment program, complying w.r.t. quality requirements, safety and pollution aspects cost effectiveness shall be examined. The areas where significant benefits are derived, are raw water treatment using polyelectrolyte instead of inorganic coagulant (alum), change over of regenerant of cation exchangers from hydrochloric acid to sulfuric acid and in-house development of cooling water treatment formulation. The advantages and cost effectiveness of these treatments are discussed in detail. Further these treatments has helped the plant in achieving zero discharge and indirectly increased cost reduction of final product (heavy water); the dosage of 3 ppm of polyelectrolyte can replace 90 ppm alum at turbidity level of 300 NTU of raw water which has resulted in cost saving of Rs. 15-20 lakhs in a year beside other advantages; the change over of regenerant from HCl to H 2 SO 4 will result in cost saving of at least Rs.1.4 crore a year besides other advantages; the change over to proprietary formulation to in-house formulation in cooling water treatment has resulted in a saving about Rs.11 lakhs a year. To achieve the above objectives in a sustainable way the performance results are being monitored. (author)

  3. Immunological effects of methylprednisolone pulse treatment in progressive multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratzer, R; Romme Christensen, J; Romme Nielsen, B


    phenotypes investigated, 25 changed at nominal significance from baseline to week 12 (pmultiple comparisons, we found 5 subpopulations that changed compared to baseline. No pattern were suggesting modulation of Th17 or TFH cells. CONCLUSION: Methylprednisolone pulse treatment has......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of monthly oral methylprednisolone pulse treatment in progressive MS. METHODS: 30 progressive MS patients were treated with oral methylprednisolone every month. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. RESULTS: Out of 102 leukocyte...

  4. Effects of Heating Rate on the Dynamic Tensile Mechanical Properties of Coal Sandstone during Thermal Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li


    Full Text Available The effects of coal layered combustion and the heat injection rate on adjacent rock were examined in the process of underground coal gasification and coal-bed methane mining. Dynamic Brazilian disk tests were conducted on coal sandstone at 800°C and slow cooling from different heating rates by means of a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB test system. It was discovered that thermal conditions had significant effects on the physical and mechanical properties of the sandstone including longitudinal wave velocity, density, and dynamic linear tensile strength; as the heating rates increased, the thermal expansion of the sandstone was enhanced and the damage degree increased. Compared with sandstone at ambient temperature, the fracture process of heat-treated sandstone was more complicated. After thermal treatment, the specimen had a large crack in the center and cracks on both sides caused by loading; the original cracks grew and mineral particle cracks, internal pore geometry, and other defects gradually appeared. With increasing heating rates, the microscopic fracture mode transformed from ductile fracture to subbrittle fracture. It was concluded that changes in the macroscopic mechanical properties of the sandstone were result from changes in the composition and microstructure.

  5. Effect of magnetic resonance imaging characteristics on uterine fibroid treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duc NM


    Full Text Available Nguyen Minh Duc, Huynh Quang HuyDepartment of Radiology, Pham Ngoc Thach University of Medicine, Ho Chi Minh City, VietnamAbstract: Uterine fibroids are the most common gynecological benign tumors adversely affecting the quality of life of women of a reproductive age. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is efficient at localizing the site of lesions and characterizing uterine fibroids before treatment. Understanding the different characteristics of uterine fibroids on MRI is essential, because it not only enables prompt diagnosis, but also guides the development of suitable therapeutic methods. This pictorial review demonstrates the effect of MRI features on uterine fibroid treatment. Keywords: uterine fibroids, characteristics, magnetic resonance imaging, treatments

  6. Scientix in our school- discovering STEM (United States)

    Melcu, Cornelia


    My name is Cornelia Melcu and I am a primary school teacher in Brasov. Additionally, I am a teacher trainer of Preparatory Class Curriculum, Google Application in Education Course and European Projects Course and a mentor to new teachers and students in university. I am an eTwinning, Scientix and ESERO ambassador too. During the last three school years my school was involved in several STEM projects, part of Scientix community. The main goal of those projects was to develop basic STEM skills of our students based on project work integrated into the curriculum. Open the Gates to the Universe (; is an eTwinning project for primary school students started on September 2015 and finished on September 2016. Some of our partners were from the Mediterranean area. The students discovered different aspects of space science and astronomy working on international groups. They explored some aspects of Science included in their curriculum using resources from ESERO, ROEDUSEIS and Space Awareness (e.g. Calculate with Rosetta, Writing the travel diary, Build Rosetta, How to become an astronaut, etc.) The project was a great opportunity to apply integrated learning methods for developing competencies which are a part of the primary school curriculum in Romania. In Language and Communication classes the students talked about their partners living places and their traditions and habits. They learnt some basic words in their partners language related to the weather. They created stories- both in Romanian and English; they described life in space and astronomical phenomena. They talked to the other partners during the several online meetings we organized and wrote short stories in English. In Mathematics and Science they found out about the Milky Way, the Solar System, the weather, famous astronauts and astronomers. They calculated, solved problems, made experiments and explained specific natural phenomena

  7. Cost-effectiveness analysis of treatments for premenstrual dysphoric disorder. (United States)

    Rendas-Baum, Regina; Yang, Min; Gricar, Joseph; Wallenstein, Gene V


    Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is reported to affect between 13% and 31% of women. Between 3% and 8% of women are reported to meet criteria for the more severe form of PMS, premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Although PMDD has received increased attention in recent years, the cost effectiveness of treatments for PMDD remains unknown. To evaluate the cost effectiveness of the four medications with a US FDA-approved indication for PMDD: fluoxetine, sertraline, paroxetine and drospirenone plus ethinyl estradiol (DRSP/EE). A decision-analytic model was used to evaluate both direct costs (medication and physician visits) and clinical outcomes (treatment success, failure and discontinuation). Medication costs were based on average wholesale prices of branded products; physician visit costs were obtained from a claims database study of PMDD patients and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Clinical outcome probabilities were derived from published clinical trials in PMDD. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was calculated using the difference in costs and percentage of successfully treated patients at 6 months. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were used to assess the impact of uncertainty in parameter estimates. Threshold values where a change in the cost-effective strategy occurred were identified using a net benefit framework. Starting therapy with DRSP/EE dominated both sertraline and paroxetine, but not fluoxetine. The estimated ICER of initiating treatment with fluoxetine relative to DRSP/EE was $US4385 per treatment success (year 2007 values). Cost-effectiveness acceptability curves revealed that for ceiling ratios>or=$US3450 per treatment success, fluoxetine had the highest probability (>or=0.37) of being the most cost-effective treatment, relative to the other options. The cost-effectiveness acceptability frontier further indicated that DRSP/EE remained the option with the highest expected net monetary benefit for

  8. Neuroprotective effects of testosterone treatment in men with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Kurth


    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is an inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system. While current medication reduces relapses and inflammatory activity, it has only a modest effect on long-term disability and gray matter atrophy. Here, we have characterized the potential neuroprotective effects of testosterone on cerebral gray matter in a pilot clinical trial. Ten men with relapsing–remitting MS were included in this open-label phase II trial. Subjects were observed without treatment for 6 months, followed by testosterone treatment for another 12 months. Focal gray matter loss as a marker for neurodegeneration was assessed using voxel-based morphometry. During the non-treatment phase, significant voxel-wise gray matter decreases were widespread (p≤ 0.05 corrected. However, during testosterone treatment, gray matter loss was no longer evident. In fact, a significant gray matter increase in the right frontal cortex was observed (p≤ 0.05 corrected. These observations support the potential of testosterone treatment to stall (and perhaps even reverse neurodegeneration associated with MS. Furthermore, they warrant the investigation of testosterone's neuroprotective effects in larger, placebo controlled MS trials as well as in other neurodegenerative diseases. This is the first report of gray matter increase as the result of treatment in MS.

  9. Late effects of treatment of cancer in infancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastore, G.; Antonelli, R.; Fine, W.; Li, F.P.; Sallan, S.E.


    Eighty-six children were diagnosed with cancer in infancy, followed for at lest 5 years, and assessed for late effects of disease and therapy. One child subsequently died from respiratory failure and 3 died from second primary cancers. Another patient survived second primary cancers of the skin. The high frequency of new cancers (4 observed, 0.09 expected) was attributable to host susceptibility factors and treatment effects. Kyphoscoliosis was diagnosed in 44 patients, 40 of whom had received radiotherapy to the spine. Other patients had neurologic deficits, pulmonary fibrosis, hypoplastic breasts, bowel adhesions, thyroid nodules, musculoskeletal defects, and liver fibrosis associated with tumor therapy. Sequelae of cancer were more common after treatment in infancy than in later childhood. Improved treatments and knowledge of natural history can reduce adverse effects of therapy

  10. Effects of unplanned treatment interruptions on HIV treatment failure– results from TAHOD (United States)

    Jiamsakul, Awachana; Kerr, Stephen J.; Ng, Oon Tek; Lee, Man Po; Chaiwarith, Romanee; Yunihastuti, Evy; Van Nguyen, Kinh; Pham, Thuy Thanh; Kiertiburanakul, Sasisopin; Ditangco, Rossana; Saphonn, Vonthanak; Sim, Benedict L. H.; Merati, Tuti Parwati; Wong, Wingwai; Kantipong, Pacharee; Zhang, Fujie; Choi, Jun Yong; Pujari, Sanjay; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Oka, Shinichi; Mustafa, Mahiran; Ratanasuwan, Winai; Petersen, Boondarika; Law, Matthew; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran


    Objectives Treatment interruptions (TI) of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) are known to lead to unfavourable treatment outcomes but do still occur in resource-limited settings. We investigated the effects of TI associated with adverse events (AEs) and non-AE-related reasons, including their durations, on treatment failure after cART resumption in HIV-infected individuals in Asia. Methods Patients initiating cART between 2006-2013 were included. TI was defined as stopping cART for >1 day. Treatment failure was defined as confirmed virological, immunological or clinical failure. Time to treatment failure during cART was analysed using Cox regression, not including periods off treatment. Co-variables with p30 days were associated with failure (31-180 days HR=2.66, 95%CI (1.70-4.16); 181-365 days HR=6.22, 95%CI (3.26-11.86); and >365 days HR=9.10, 95% CI (4.27-19.38), all pfailure. If TI is unavoidable, its duration should be minimised to reduce the risk of failure after treatment resumption. PMID:26950901

  11. Cost-effectiveness analysis of optimal strategy for tumor treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, Liuyong; Zhao, Zhong; Song, Xinyu


    We propose and analyze an antitumor model with combined immunotherapy and chemotherapy. Firstly, we explore the treatment effects of single immunotherapy and single chemotherapy, respectively. Results indicate that neither immunotherapy nor chemotherapy alone are adequate to cure a tumor. Hence, we apply optimal theory to investigate how the combination of immunotherapy and chemotherapy should be implemented, for a certain time period, in order to reduce the number of tumor cells, while minimizing the implementation cost of the treatment strategy. Secondly, we establish the existence of the optimality system and use Pontryagin’s Maximum Principle to characterize the optimal levels of the two treatment measures. Furthermore, we calculate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios to analyze the cost-effectiveness of all possible combinations of the two treatment measures. Finally, numerical results show that the combination of immunotherapy and chemotherapy is the most cost-effective strategy for tumor treatment, and able to eliminate the entire tumor with size 4.470 × 10"8 in a year.

  12. The treatment of late radiation effects with hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plafki, C.; Carl, U.M.; Glag, M.; Hartmann, K.A.


    Background: Late radiation injuries may impose a negative influence on the quality of life in the affected patients. In several entities, standardized treatment protocols are lacking. Hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) has been shown to have beneficial effects in the treatment of late radiation sequelae. Material and methods: The basic principles of HBO are reviewed as well as clinical issues. Current study protocols are presented. Results: During HBO-therapy the patient breathes pure oxygen at pressures above 100 kPa. The oxygen solubility within the fluid phase of the blood is largely increased. Biological effects include an increased oxygen diffusibility, improved collagen synthesis and neoangiogenesis as well as an enhancement of antimicrobial defenses. By decreasing the capillary filtration pressure a reduction of edema becomes possible. HBO has been shown to prevent complications following surgery in irradiated tissues. Its efficacy as an adjunct in the treatment of osteonecroses in radiation patients could be demonstrated. In addition, the loss of osseointegrated implants in the maxillofacial bones of these patients could be significantly reduced. Further indications include soft tissue necroses, hemorrhagic cystitis and proctitis in tumor patients that have been treated by radiotherapy as part of a multimodality approach. Conclusions: HBO in the treatment of late radiation effects is still subject of investigation, but remarkable results have been reported. Optimized treatment protocols need to be determined in various entities. The rate of side effects is acceptable low. (orig.) [de

  13. Triclosan treatment decreased the antitumor effect of sorafenib on hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu M


    Full Text Available Man Wu,1,2 Guanren Zhao,2 Xiaomei Zhuang,1 Tianhong Zhang,1 Ce Zhang,2 Wenpeng Zhang,1 Zhenqing Zhang1 1State Key Laboratory of Toxicology and Medical Countermeasures, Beijing Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Beijing, China; 2Department of Pharmacy, The 309th Hospital of PLA, Beijing, China Background: Triclosan is a widely applied antimicrobial agent which affects the endocrine system and homeostasis; it may also promote the cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC growth in a mice model. The exact roles of triclosan in regulating human hepatocellular carcinoma development and treatment remain unknown. Methods: MHCC97-H, a highly aggressive HCC cell line, was treated with indicated concentration of triclosan or sorafenib. The expression of drug-resistance genes was examined by qPCR. The clearance or metabolism of sorafenib was determined by liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometer/mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS. MTT assay was used to examine the MHCC97-H cell proliferation. Nude mice were used to exam the anti-tumor effect of sorafenib on subcutaneous and intrahepatic growth of MHCC97-H cells. Results: In the present study, triclosan could induce the expression of drug-resistance genes in MHCC97-H cells (a highly aggressive HCC cell line, accelerate the clearance of sorafenib, and attenuate the anti-proliferation effect of this molecular targeted agent in MHCC97-H cells. Triclosan decreased the antitumor effect of sorafenib on subcutaneous and intrahepatic growth of MHCC97-H in nude mice. Conclusion: By discovering the fact that triclosan treatment enhances sorafenib resistance in HCC cells, this work suggests exposure of triclosan is detrimental to HCC patients during chemotherapy. Keywords: HCC, triclosan, sorafenib resistance, drug clearance 

  14. Cost-effective treatment for the couple with infertility. (United States)

    Van Voorhis, B J; Syrop, C H


    Although the evaluation of cost-effective approaches to infertility treatment remains in its infancy, several important principles have emerged from the initial studies in this field. Currently, in treating couples with infertility without tubal disease or severe male-factor infertility, the most cost-effective approach is to start with IUI or superovulation-IUI treatments before resorting to IVF procedures. The woman's age and number of sperm present for insemination are significant factors influencing cost-effectiveness. The influence of certain diagnoses on the cost-effectiveness of infertility treatments requires further study. Even when accounting for the costs associated with multiple gestations and premature deliveries, the cost of IVF decreases within the range of other cost-effective medical procedures and decreases to less than the willingness to pay for these procedures. Indeed, for patients with severe tubal disease, IVF has been found to be more cost-effective than surgical repair. The cost-effectiveness of IVF will likely improve as success rates show continued improvements over the course of time. In addition, usefulness of embryo selection and practices to reduce the likelihood of high-order multiple pregnancies, without reductions in pregnancy rates, will significantly impact cost-effectiveness. The exclusion of infertility treatments from insurance plans is unfortunate and accentuates the importance of physicians understanding the economics of infertility treatment with costs that are often passed directly to the patient. The erroneous economic policies and judgments that have led to inequities in access to infertility health care should not be tolerated.

  15. Central nervous system side effects associated with zolpidem treatment. (United States)

    Toner, L C; Tsambiras, B M; Catalano, G; Catalano, M C; Cooper, D S


    Zolpidem is one of the newer medications developed for the treatment of insomnia. It is an imidazopyridine agent that is an alternative to the typical sedative-hypnotic agents. Zolpidem use is gaining favor because of its efficacy and its side effect profile, which is milder and less problematic than that of the benzodiazepines and barbiturates used to treat insomnia. Still, side effects are not uncommon with zolpidem use. We report a series of cases in which the patients developed delirium, nightmares and hallucinations during treatment with zolpidem. We will review its pharmacology, discuss previous reports of central nervous system side effects, examine the impact of drug interactions with concurrent use of antidepressants, examine gender differences in susceptibility to side effects, and explore the significance of protein binding in producing side effects.

  16. On heterogeneity of treatment effects and clinical freedom. (United States)

    Sacristán, J A; Avendaño-Solá, C


    Three decades ago, John R Hampton announced the death of clinical freedom. Since then, evidence-based medicine has been the predominant paradigm in clinical research. By applying a population-based approach, the randomised controlled trial has become the cornerstone for demonstrating the overall effect of a treatment and for developing guidelines. The new patient-centred medicine movement is rediscovering the important implications of heterogeneity of treatment effects for clinical practice and that a better understanding of such variability can contribute to improve health outcomes for individual patients through practicing a science-based clinical freedom. © 2015 The Authors. International Journal of Clinical Practice Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Cost effective treatment for wet FGD scrubber bleedoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janecek, K.F. [EIMCO Process Equipment Company, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Kim, J.Y. [Samkook Corporation, Seoul (Korea, Democratic People`s Republic of)


    The dewatering of scrubber bleedoff gypsum is a thoroughly proven technology, whether for production of wallboard grade gypsum or environmentally responsible land fill. Careful review of the technology options will show which one is the most effective for the specific plant site. Likewise, a recipe for wastewater treatment for heavy metals removal can be found that will meet local regulatory limits. EIMCO has worldwide experience in FGD gypsum sludge dewatering and wastewater treatment. Contacting EIMCO can be the most important step toward a practical cost effective system for handling FGD scrubber bleed slurries.

  18. Late effects of treatment of cancer in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, R.L.


    Advances in surgical techniques, in chemotherapy, and in radiation therapy have led to improved survival in children treated for cancer. Children cured of cancer will soon form a significant fraction of our adult population. As we follow such survivors, we have become more aware of long-term side effects of treatment. This is not a reason to withhold therapy. Instead, careful followup of oncology patients is needed to document the late effects, to identify the etiologic agents, and to alter treatment to give the least toxic therapy without sacrificing quality or duration of survival

  19. Most Powerful Eruption in the Universe Discovered (United States)


    emission within the cavities shows that jets from the black hole erupted to create the cavities. Gas is being pushed away from the black hole at supersonic speeds over a distance of about a million light years. The mass of the displaced gas equals about a trillion Suns, more than the mass of all the stars in the Milky Way. LA Radio & Chandra X-ray Composite of MS 0735.6+7421 VLA Radio & Chandra X-ray Composite of MS 0735.6+7421 The rapid growth of supermassive black holes is usually detected by observing very bright radiation from the centers of galaxies in the optical and X-ray wavebands, or luminous radio jets. In MS 0735 no bright central radiation is found and the radio jets are faint. Therefore, the true nature of MS 0735 is only revealed through X-ray observations of the hot cluster gas. "Until now we had no idea that this black hole was gorging itself", said co-author Michael Wise of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. "The discovery of this eruption shows that X-ray telescopes are necessary to understand some of the most violent events in the Universe." The astronomers estimated how much energy was needed to create the cavities by calculating the density, temperature and pressure of the hot gas. By making a standard assumption, that 10% of the gravitational energy goes into launching the jets, they estimated how much material the black hole swallowed. Size Comparison of MS 0735.6+7421 & Perseus Cluster Size Comparison of MS 0735.6+7421 & Perseus Cluster Besides generating the cavities, some of the energy from this eruption should keep the hot gas around the black hole from cooling, and some of it may also generate large-scale magnetic fields in the galaxy cluster. Chandra observers have discovered other cavities in galaxy clusters, but this one is easily the largest and the most powerful. For example, the energy content here exceeds that of the Perseus cavities by 250 times, and dwarfs the cavities in M87 by a factor of 10,000. NASA's Marshall Space Flight

  20. Effect of Surface Treatment on the Properties of Wool Fabric (United States)

    Kan, C. W.; Yuen, C. W. M.; Chan, C. K.; Lau, M. P.

    Wool fiber is commonly used in textile industry, however, it has some technical problems which affect the quality and performance of the finished products such as felting shrinkage, handle, lustre, pilling, and dyeability. These problems may be attributed mainly in the presence of wool scales on the fiber surface. Recently, chemical treatments such as oxidation and reduction are the commonly used descaling methods in the industry. However, as a result of the pollution caused by various chemical treatments, physical treatment such as low temperature plasma (LTP) treatment has been introduced recently because it is similarly capable of achieving a comparable descaling effect. Most of the discussions on the applications of LTP treatment on wool fiber were focused on applying this technique for improving the surface wettability and shrink resistance. Meanwhile, little discussion has been made on the mechanical properties, thermal properties, and the air permeability. In this paper, wool fabric was treated with LTP treatment with the use of a non-polymerizing gas, namely oxygen. After the LTP treatment, the fabrics low-stress mechanical properties, air permeability, and thermal properties were evaluated and discussed.

  1. [Cost effectiveness in treatment of acute myeloid leukemia]. (United States)

    Nordmann, P; Schaffner, A; Dazzi, H


    Although the rise in health costs is a widely debated issue, in Switzerland it was until recently taken for granted that patients are given the best available treatment regardless of cost. An example of a disease requiring costly treatment is acute myelogenous leukaemia (AML). To relate cost to benefit we calculated expenditure per life years gained. To assess costs we determined the real cost of treatment up to total remission, followed by consolidation or withdrawal of treatment or death. For survival time exceeding the 2-year observation period we used data from recent literature. The average cost of treatment ranges up to 107,592 Swiss francs (CHF). In 1997 we treated 23 leukaemia patients at Zurich University Hospital and gained a total of 210 life years. This represents an average cost of CHF 11,741 per life year gained. Chief cost items were therapy and personnel costs for nursing staff, followed by hotel business and personnel costs for doctors and diagnosis. Our results for AML treatment are far removed from the $61,500 ranging up to $166,000 discussed in the literature as the "critical" QALY (quality adjusted life years) value. This is the first time the actual costs of AML therapy have been shown for a Swiss cohort. Despite high initial treatment costs and success only in a limited number of patients, the expenditure per QALY is surprisingly low and shows clearly the effectiveness of apparently costly acute medicine.

  2. The effects of surface treatments on rapid chloride permeability tests

    KAUST Repository

    Yoon, Seyoon


    Surface treatments are commonly applied to improve the chloride resistance of concrete structures exposed to saline environments. Information on chloride ingress to surface-treated concrete is mostly provided by application of the rapid chloride permeability test (RCPT); this test is short in duration and provides rapid results. This study presents a numerical formulation, based on the extended Nernst-Plank/Poisson (NPP) equation, to model the effect of the surface treatment on a sample tested by RCPT. Predictions of the model are compared to experimental measurements. The simulations show that the results from RCPT, in terms of ionic profiles and measurement of the electric field, are dependent on the effectiveness of surface treatments. During RCPT, highly effective surface treatments cause both cations and anions to flocculate at the interface between the surface treatment and the concrete, creating a local electric field. Our numerical model includes these phenomena and presents a methodology to obtain more accurate diffusivities of the surface-treated- concrete from RCPT. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The effects of surface treatments on rapid chloride permeability tests

    KAUST Repository

    Yoon, Seyoon; Oh, Sang-gyun; Ha, Juyoung; Monteiro, Paulo M.


    Surface treatments are commonly applied to improve the chloride resistance of concrete structures exposed to saline environments. Information on chloride ingress to surface-treated concrete is mostly provided by application of the rapid chloride permeability test (RCPT); this test is short in duration and provides rapid results. This study presents a numerical formulation, based on the extended Nernst-Plank/Poisson (NPP) equation, to model the effect of the surface treatment on a sample tested by RCPT. Predictions of the model are compared to experimental measurements. The simulations show that the results from RCPT, in terms of ionic profiles and measurement of the electric field, are dependent on the effectiveness of surface treatments. During RCPT, highly effective surface treatments cause both cations and anions to flocculate at the interface between the surface treatment and the concrete, creating a local electric field. Our numerical model includes these phenomena and presents a methodology to obtain more accurate diffusivities of the surface-treated- concrete from RCPT. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Somato-Visceral Effects in the Treatment of Dysmenorrhea: Neuromuscular Manual Therapy and Standard Pharmacological Treatment. (United States)

    Barassi, Giovanni; Bellomo, Rosa Grazia; Porreca, Annamaria; Di Felice, Piera Attilia; Prosperi, Loris; Saggini, Raoul


    This study aims to verify whether neuromuscular therapy (NMT) or pharmacology therapy (PT) is more effective for reducing symptoms in women affected by primary dysmenorrhea and the effects associated with each treatment. A controlled, randomized, single-blind clinical trial within the framework of the chair of physical medicine and rehabilitation of the University "G. d'Annunzio" of Chieti-Pescara. The study was conducted on a sample of 60 women suffering from primary dysmenorrhea. Subjects were randomly divided in two groups (A and B). Group A was treated with NMT and group B with PT. Group B was given ibuprofen or naproxen because they are considered the best painkillers for this condition. Group A was treated with 8 neuromuscular manual lumbosacral and abdominal therapy sessions twice per week for 4 weeks. Results were analyzed at the beginning (T0) and end (T1) of the study with a menstrual distress questionnaire, brief pain inventory, and visual analogue scale. Twenty patients from Group A were selected for evaluation of their maintenance of the eventual improvement that was detected in T1 at follow-up (T2). Both therapies had significant short-term effects in reducing the perception and duration of pain. However, NMT appears to give more improvements in the duration of pain. NMT had a long-term effect on perception of pain because patients conserved the positive effects of treatment after 4 weeks. NMT also had a long-term effect on duration of pain because patients conserved benefits of treatment, but this improvement started to decrease after 4 weeks. In the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea, NMT represents a valid therapeutic alternative method to PT. NMT is free from potential adverse effects of analgesics, is noninvasive, and is easy to perform.

  5. The potential of the ILC for discovering new particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Keisuke [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Ibaraki (Japan); Grojean, Christophe [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Humboldt-Univ., Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; ICREA, Barcelona (Spain); Peskin, Michael E. [Stanford Univ., Menlo Park, CA (United States). SLAC; Collaboration: LCC Physics Working Group; and others


    This paper addresses the question of whether the International Linear Collider has the capability of discovering new particles that have not already been discovered at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. We summarize the various paths to discovery offered by the ILC, and discuss them in the context of three different scenarios: 1. LHC does not discover any new particles, 2. LHC discovers some new low mass states and 3. LHC discovers new heavy particles. We will show that in each case, ILC plays a critical role in discovery of new phenomena and in pushing forward the frontiers of high-energy physics as well as our understanding of the universe in a manner which is highly complementary to that of LHC. For the busy reader, a two-page executive summary is provided at the beginning of the document.

  6. The potential of the ILC for discovering new particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Keisuke; Grojean, Christophe; Peskin, Michael E.


    This paper addresses the question of whether the International Linear Collider has the capability of discovering new particles that have not already been discovered at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. We summarize the various paths to discovery offered by the ILC, and discuss them in the context of three different scenarios: 1. LHC does not discover any new particles, 2. LHC discovers some new low mass states and 3. LHC discovers new heavy particles. We will show that in each case, ILC plays a critical role in discovery of new phenomena and in pushing forward the frontiers of high-energy physics as well as our understanding of the universe in a manner which is highly complementary to that of LHC. For the busy reader, a two-page executive summary is provided at the beginning of the document.

  7. Effectiveness of improved treatment of inflamatory bowel disiseases in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marushko RV


    Full Text Available Actually is required to improve the treatment of chronic inflammatory bowel disease in infants on the principles of safety of therapeutic interventions and the impact on the basic pathogenetic mechanisms involved in the formation of the pathology of the bowel. Purpose — to evaluate the effectiveness of improved treatment of chronic non"specific non"ulcered colitis in infants using functional foods (pro", prebiotics, omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, L-carnitine, hepatoprotectors and alternative formulas. Patients and methods. A total of 114 infants (from 9 months up to 3 years of life with chronic non-specific non-ulcerated (unidentified colitis were studded. Researched the effectiveness of improved treatment using pro-, prebiotics, omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, L-carnitine, hepatoprotectors and semi-elemental formula of chronic non-specific non-ulcerated colitis on the basis of clinical and laboratory research methods, including bacteriological and immunological (TNF-α, ITF in serum, SIgA in coprofiltrates. Were used chronic non-specific non-ulcerated colitis activity index and the index of endoscopic changes of the intestinal mucosa during the treatment in infants. Results. It is shown that the use of functional foods as multiprobiotics, prebiotics, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and enhancing cellular energy provitamins as well as hepatoprotectors and alternative formulas in the treatment of chronic colitis in infants contributes to a significant improvement in the results of chronic non-specific non-ulcerated colitis treatment, more rapidly elimination of main symptoms and increase the number of positive results of treatment in infants with chronic non-specific non-ulcerated colitis (80.4% versus 55.2%. Conclusions. Results of the study allow us to recommend the use of elaborated improved treatment in infants with chronic non-specific non-ulcerated colitis on different levels of child healthcare.

  8. Youngest Stellar Explosion in Our Galaxy Discovered (United States)


    Astronomers have found the remains of the youngest supernova, or exploded star, in our Galaxy. The supernova remnant, hidden behind a thick veil of gas and dust, was revealed by the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) and NASA's Chandra X-Ray Observatory, which could see through the murk. The object is the first example of a "missing population" of young supernova remnants. 1985 and 2008 VLA Images Move cursor over image to blink. VLA Images of G1.9+0.3 in 1985 and 2008: Circle for size comparison. CREDIT: Green, et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF From observing supernovae in other galaxies, astronomers have estimated that about three such stellar explosions should occur in our Milky Way every century. However, the most recent one known until now occurred around 1680, creating the remnant called Cassiopeia A. The newly-discovered object is the remnant of an explosion only about 140 years ago. "If the supernova rate estimates are correct, there should be the remnants of about 10 supernova explosions in the Milky Way that are younger than Cassiopeia A," said David Green of the University of Cambridge in the UK, who led the VLA study. "It's great to finally track one of them down." Supernova explosions, which mark the violent death of a star, release tremendous amounts of energy and spew heavy elements such as calcium and iron into interstellar space. They thus seed the clouds of gas and dust from which new stars and planets are formed and, through their blast shocks, can even trigger such formation. The lack of evidence for young supernova remnants in the Milky Way had caused astronomers to wonder if our Galaxy, which appears otherwise normal, differed in some unknown way from others. Alternatively, scientists thought that the "missing" Milky Way supernovae perhaps indicated that their understanding of the relationship between supernovae and other galactic processes was in error. The astronomers made their discovery by measuring the expansion of the debris from

  9. On the treatment of exchange effects in direct reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bencze, Gy.


    In the theoretical description of direct nuclear reactions the dynamic effects are combined with 'kinematical' effects due to the quantum mechanical exchange interaction caused by the Pauli principle governing the mechanics of identical particles. In the present paper it is shown that in the frame of general algebraic theory of identical particle scattering the effects of the permutational symmetry of nucleons can be separated on an exact way from the treatment of reaction dynamics. Dynamical approximations may be used only after the separation of permutational effects. (D.Gy.)

  10. Effects of surface treatments on microstructure in stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mabuchi, Yasuhiro; Tamako, Hiroaki; Kaneda, Junya; Yamashita, Norimichi; Miyakawa, Masahiko


    It is revealed that Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) on the surface of the L-grade stainless steels in Nuclear Power Plants is caused by heavily cold work of the materials. The microstructure, hardness and residual stress on the surface of the material are factors for SCC initiation. There are surface treatment methods that is effective reduction on SCC such as Flap Wheel (FW) polishing, Clean N Strip (CNS) polishing, Water Jet Peening (WJP) and Shot Peening (SP). In this paper, the characteristics of the surface cold worked layer of the L-grade stainless steels conducted by above-mentioned surface treatments are analyzed, and effects of the surface treatments on the surface layer are discussed. (author)

  11. [Undesired treatment effects in behavior group therapy: Frequency and spectrum]. (United States)

    Linden, M; Walter, M; Fritz, K; Muschalla, B


    Psychotherapy not only has positive but also negative effects, which is especially true for group psychotherapy due to psychodynamic and interactional processes. Using the UE-G questionnaire 71 patients who participated in cognitive behavioral group psychotherapy reported on negative experiences in the context of the group therapy. The answers were then validated in a qualitative interview. Of the patients 98.6% reported about at least one negative experience and 43.7% about severe or extremely severe negative experiences. Most prominent was the induction of hopelessness and demoralization by what patients saw and heard from other patients in the group. Burdensome and therefore undesired treatment effects are regularly seen in group psychotherapy, because of treatment or patient related factors. In any case they must be taken into account during treatment, in the training of group psychotherapists and in quality control.

  12. Effect of different treatments on breaking dormancy of Teucrium polium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    alireza koochaki


    Full Text Available In order to evaluate effects of different treatments on breaking dormancy of Teucrium polium, an experiment was conducted with 3 replications in a completely randomized design. Seeds were subjected to different treatments including various levels of GA3, H2SO4, soaking with water and chilling. Germination of Teucrium polium increased with different concentrations of GA3. Percentage germination Maximum and rate was obtained at concentrations of 250, 1500 ppm (72h GA3 and combination of GA3 (1500ppm and chilling (5 ºC for a period of 14 days. GA3 (500ppm increased germination percentage but not germination rate. Soaking with water broke dormancy and induced 32% seed germination of Teucrium polium, but H2SO4, freezing (-10 ºC and combination of both treatments had no effect on dormancy.

  13. Neuroimaging the Effectiveness of Substance Use Disorder Treatments. (United States)

    Cabrera, Elizabeth A; Wiers, Corinde E; Lindgren, Elsa; Miller, Gregg; Volkow, Nora D; Wang, Gene-Jack


    Neuroimaging techniques to measure the function and biochemistry of the human brain such as positron emission tomography (PET), proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS), and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), are powerful tools for assessing neurobiological mechanisms underlying the response to treatments in substance use disorders. Here, we review the neuroimaging literature on pharmacological and behavioral treatment in substance use disorder. We focus on neural effects of medications that reduce craving (e.g., naltrexone, bupropion hydrochloride, baclofen, methadone, varenicline) and that improve cognitive control (e.g., modafinil, N-acetylcysteine), of behavioral treatments for substance use disorders (e.g., cognitive bias modification training, virtual reality, motivational interventions) and neuromodulatory interventions such as neurofeedback and transcranial magnetic stimulation. A consistent finding for the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions identifies the improvement of executive control networks and the dampening of limbic activation, highlighting their values as targets for therapeutic interventions in substance use disorders.

  14. Effectiveness of botulinum toxin A in treatment of refractory erythromelalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan-Hsiang Lin


    Full Text Available Erythromelalgia is characterized by intense burning pain, erythema, and heat in affected areas after precipitating factors such as warm temperature or stress. It is refractory to treatment in some situations. We describe a woman with adenosquamous cell carcinoma of the lung and medically refractory erythromelalgia. The symptoms of erythromelalgia presented as refractory to any medical treatment. Due to the unresponsive nature of her condition, botulinum toxin type A (onabotulinumtoxin A was injected over both of her cheeks, periodically for six cycles. Her symptoms responded dramatically to subcutaneous and intradermal injection of botulinum toxin type A. Repetitive injection demonstrated consistent and reproducible responses, and the efficacy was maintained for approximately 1 month. No adverse effects or complications were noted. Botulinum toxin type A might be safe and effective as an alternative treatment for refractory erythromelalgia, but further large-scale studies are required.

  15. Cultural diversity in heart failure management: findings from the DISCOVER study (Part 2). (United States)

    Davidson, Patricia M; Macdonald, Peter; Moser, Debra K; Ang, Esther; Paull, Glenn; Choucair, Sam; Daly, John; Gholizadeh, Leila; Dracup, Kathleen


    Self-management is a critical dimension in managing chronic conditions, particularly in heart failure (HF). Knowledge, attitudes and beliefs, relating to both illness and wellness, are strongly influenced by culture and ethnicity, impacting upon an individual's capacity to engage in self-care behaviours. Effective management of HF is largely dependent on facilitation of culturally informed, self-care behaviours to increase adherence to both pharmacological and non-pharmacological strategies. The Understanding the cultural experiences of individuals with chronic heart failure (CHF) in South East Health (DISCOVER) study is an exploratory, observational study investigating health patterns, information needs and the adjustment process for overseas-born people with HF living in Australia. An integrative literature review was augmented by qualitative data derived from key informant interviews, focus groups and individual interviews. A key finding of this study is that culture provides an important context to aid interpretations of attitudes, values, beliefs and behaviours, not only in illness but in health. While individual differences in attitudes and beliefs were observed among participants, common themes and issues were identified across cultural groups. Data from the DISCOVER study revealed the primacy of family and kinship ties. These relationships were important in making decisions about treatment choices and care plans. Participants also revealed the critical role of the 'family doctor' in assisting people and their families in brokering the health care system. In this study, heart disease was considered to be a significant condition but cancer was the condition that people both feared and dreaded the most, despite the high mortality rates of HF. This sample reported that religious and traditional beliefs became more important as people aged and considered their mortality. As HF is predominately a condition of ageing, the information derived from this study will

  16. Effect of hydrothermal treatment on some properties of Shenhua coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Zhi-cai; Shui Heng-fu; Zhang De-xiang; Gao Jin-sheng [East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China). College of Resource and Environmental Engineering


    Effects of hydrothermal treatment on swelling, extraction and liquefaction behavior of Shenhua coal were studied through analyses of element content, ash content, volatile content and IR spectrum of treated coal. The results indicate that hydrogenation of coal is distinctly carried out in the process of hydrothermal pre-treatment and the hydrogen content of treated coal is more than that of raw coal. The contents of ash and volatile matters of treated coal are lower than those of raw coal. With the increase of treatment temperature the volatile content of the hydrothermal treated coal decreases and the ash content of treated coal increases. CO{sub 2} is main gas product and unvaries with the temperature changing, whereas CO and CH{sub 4} are formed when the temperature is above 250{sup o}C and increase with the temperature during hydrothermal treatment. Hydrothermal treatment is not in favor of coal swelling and the swelling ratio of treated coal decreases with the increase of treatment temperature. The swelling ratio of extraction residue by CS{sub 2}/NMP mixed solvent in NMP solvent is lower than that of the corresponding raw coal. The CS{sub 2}/NMP mixed solvent extraction yields of coal treated at appropriate temperature are higher than that of raw coal, but the extraction yields of treated coal obtained by n-hexane, toluene and THF successive Soxhelt extraction are lower. Hydrothermal treatment at 250-300{sup o}C can increase the conversion of treated coal in direct hydro-liquefaction. The gas + oil yield of treated coal is lower than that of raw coal and the preasphaltene yield of treated coal is much higher. IR spectra of treated coals show that the forms of non-covalent bonds are changed by hydrothermal treatment, and the hydrolysis of ester and ether bonds and the pyrolysis of aromatic side chains also maybe occur at high treatment temperature. 21 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. The Cost-Effectiveness of Treatment Modalities for Ureteral Stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Ji-Yuen Siu MD


    Full Text Available Additional intervention and medical treatment of complications may follow the primary treatment of a ureteral stone. We investigated the cost of the treatment of ureteral stone(s within 45 days after initial intervention by means of retrospective analysis of the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan. All patients of ages ≥20 years diagnosed with ureteral stone(s( International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification/ICD-9-CM: 592.1 from January 2001 to December 2011 were enrolled. We included a comorbidity code only if the diagnosis appeared in at least 2 separate claims in a patient’s record. Treatment modalities (code included extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (SWL; 98.51, ureteroscopic lithotripsy (URSL; 56.31, percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PNL; 55.04, (open ureterolithotomy (56.20, and laparoscopy (ie, laparoscopic ureterolithotomy; 54.21. There were 28 513 patients with ureteral stones (13 848 men and 14 665 women in the randomized sample of 1 million patients. The mean cost was 526.4 ± 724.1 United States Dollar (USD. The costs of treatment were significantly increased in patients with comorbidities. The costs of treatment among each primary treatment modalities were 1212.2 ± 627.3, 1146.7 ± 816.8, 2507.4 ± 1333.5, 1533.3 ± 1137.1, 2566.4 ± 2594.3, and 209.8 ± 473.2 USD in the SWL, URSL, PNL, (open ureterolithotomy, laparoscopy (laparoscopic ureterolithotomy, and conservative treatment group, respectively. In conclusion, URSL was more cost-effective than SWL and PNL as a primary treatment modality for ureteral stone(s when the possible additional costs within 45 days after the initial operation were included in the calculation.

  18. Effects of sulphuric acid and hot water treatments on seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to investigate the effects of sulphuric acid and hot water treatments on the germination of Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L). Seeds were placed on moistened filter papers in 28 cm diameter Petri dishes under laboratory condition for germination. 330 seeds of T. indica (10 seeds per Petri dish) with ...

  19. The effect of different treatments on improving seed germination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Creating optimal conditions for germination of medicinal plants seed is essential for their cultivation. Therefore, to evaluate the effect of different treatments on seed germination of two medicinal species, Descurainia sophia and Plantago ovata collected in 2009 from Tehran Province, an experiment with a factorial ...

  20. Heat treatment effect on impact strength of 40Kh steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubev, V.K.; Novikov, S.A.; Sobolev, Yu.S.; Yukina, N.A.


    The paper presents results of studies on the effect of heat treatment on strength and pattern of 40Kh steel impact failure. Loading levels corresponding to macroscopic spalling microdamage initiation in the material are determined for three initial states. Metallographic study on the spalling failure pattern for 40Kh steel in different initial states and data on microhardness measurement are presented

  1. The Effect of Hydrothermal Treatment on Olivine Nano-Silica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griend, van de M.C; Lazaro, A.; Brouwers, H.J.H.


    This paper provides an overview of the effects of ripening the olivine nano-silica to form particles with a lower specific surface area for optimal use in high performance concrete. The nano-silica was ripened using a hydrothermal treatment in a mixed batch reactor at 90 C, pH ranging from 8 to 10

  2. The effects of heat treatment on physical and technological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Oct 19, 2009 ... ween 450 and 660 m altitudes in Cide-Sehdagi (Gercek et al., 1998; Dogu ... changes continue as the temperature is increased in ... Heat treatment slows water uptake and wood cell wall absorbs ...... The Effect of Boiling Time.

  3. Effect of packaging and chemical treatment on storage life and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fresh fruits and vegetables are inherently more liable to deterioration under tropical conditions characterized by high ambient temperatures and humidity. In determining the effects of chemical treatment on tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill cv. Roma), fruits purchased at turning stage of ripening were packaged in low ...

  4. Effect of zinc treatment on intestinal motility in experimentally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of zinc treatment on intestinal motility in experimentally induced diarrhea in rats. ... Zinc supplementation is a critical new intervention for treating diarrheal episodes in children. Recent studies suggest that administration of zinc along with new low osmolarity oral rehydration solutions / salts (ORS) can reduce the ...

  5. Apathy in Alzheimer’s Disease: Any Effective Treatment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Rea


    Full Text Available Objective. This review has evaluated the effectiveness of pharmacological treatment of apathy in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Methods. A systematic literature search was conducted on published clinical trials assessing the effects of pharmacological treatment on apathy in AD over the last 10 years. Results. Fourteen studies considered of good quality were included in the analysis (4 randomized controlled trials, 9 open-label studies, and 1 retrospective analysis. Cholinesterase inhibitors were investigated in 9 studies, monoaminergic compounds such as methylphenidate and modafinil in two trials and one trial, respectively, and Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761 extract and citalopram in one study each. Cholinesterase inhibitors did not show statistical significant effect in 1 RCT study but were associated to improvement in 3 open-label studies. Methylphenidate elicited a small but significant activity accompanied by relevant side effects such as high blood pressure, cough, and osteoarticular pain. EGb 761 was well tolerated and countered apathy. Other treatments induced modest improvements or were ineffective. Conclusions. Apathy treatment remains a challenge and there is no evident advantage of any specific pharmacotherapy tested so far. The development of controlled studies according to updated guidelines for the diagnosis of apathy in patients with AD is desirable.

  6. The effects of heat treatment on physical and technological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Oct 19, 2009 ... surface of wood were used to evaluate the effect of heat treatment on the surface characteristics of ... Some of the products developed by thermal treat- .... boards were stored uncontrolled condition in an unheated room for .... These results can be explained with material loses in ...... Finland-state of the art.

  7. Rapid bioassessment of the effects of repeated rotenone treatments ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential collateral effects of eradicating invasive fishes in streams necessitate the monitoring of invertebrate communities during treatment. In an environmental rehabilitation programme, non-native smallmouth bass were removed from the lower reaches of the Rondegat River, Western Cape, South Africa, in 2012 and ...

  8. Effects of glycyrrhizin pre-treatment on transient ischemic brain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of glycyrrhizin pre-treatment on transient ischemic brain injury in mice. ... on transient ischemic brain injury in mice. Chiyeon Lim, Sehyun Lim, Young-Jun Lee, Bokcheul Kong, Byoungho Lee, Chang-Hyun Kim, Buyeo Kim, Suin Cho ... induced brain damage. Keywords: Glycyrrhizin, licorice, stroke, apoptosis ...

  9. Effects of co-treatment of Rauwolfia vomitoria and Gongronema ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of co-treatment of Rauwolfia vomitoria and Gongronema latifolium on neurobehaviour and the neurohistology of the cerebral cortex in mice. ... Light and dark field behaviour test was carried out on day 8 and the animals were immediately sacrificed. Their brains were excised and routinely processed by haematoxylin ...

  10. Effect of normabaric hyperoxia treatment on neuronal damage ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes significant mortality in most developing countries worldwide. At present, it is imperative to identify a treatment to address the devastating post-TBI consequences. Therefore, the present study has been performed to assess the specific effect of immediate exposure to normabaric hyperoxia ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of intercritical heat treatment on 0.14wt%C 0.56wt%Mn 0.13wt%Si struc- ... Table 1: Chemical composition of the steel used (wt. %) with its critical temperature (calculated). C. Mn. Si. Ni. S ... primary austenitic grain size hardening and.

  12. Effect of substrate type, dopant and thermal treatment on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Effect of substrate type, dopant and thermal treatment on physicochemical properties of TiO2–SnO2 sol–gel films. I STAMBOLOVA. ∗. , V BLASKOV, S VASSILEV†, M SHIPOCHKA and A LOUKANOV‡. Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, †Institute of Electrochemistry and Energy Systems, BAS,. Acad. G. Bonchev ...

  13. Effect of heat treatment on polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of heat treatment (55°C/20 min) on polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activities and total phenolic compounds was investigated in Algerian dates (Deglet Nour variety) at Tamar (fully ripe) stage and in dates stored for 5 months at ambient temperature and in cold storage (10°C). Results obtained ...

  14. Effects of Mulching, Fertilizer, Seeding and Seedling Treatments on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Mulching, Fertilizer, Seeding and Seedling Treatments on Plant Species Recovery in Kondoa Irangi Hills, Tanzania. ... There were high significant correlations of 0.85 and 0.87 between seedling recruitment and mortality in both sites, indicating that other factors, probably aridity, rather than prevailing site conditions ...

  15. The effect of atmospheric corona treatment on AA1050 aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jariyaboon, Manthana; Møller, Per; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.


    The effect of atmospheric corona discharge on AM 050 aluminium surface was investigated using electrochemical polarization, SEM-EDX, FIB-SEM. and XPS. The corona treatment was performed with varying time (1, 5, and 15 min) in atmospheric air. A 200 nm oxide layer was generated on AA1050 after...

  16. Relative Effectiveness of Three Modes of Treatment on English ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the effectiveness of Study Skill Counselling (SSC), Rational Emotive Therapy (RET), and a combined treatment of SSC & RET in improving the performance of students in English Language. Forty students in SS II class were randomly selected and assigned to the three experimental groups and control ...

  17. Effects of Video Modeling on Treatment Integrity of Behavioral Interventions (United States)

    DiGennaro-Reed, Florence D.; Codding, Robin; Catania, Cynthia N.; Maguire, Helena


    We examined the effects of individualized video modeling on the accurate implementation of behavioral interventions using a multiple baseline design across 3 teachers. During video modeling, treatment integrity improved above baseline levels; however, teacher performance remained variable. The addition of verbal performance feedback increased…

  18. Effects of Acid treatment on the compression and mechanical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effect of acid treatment on the compression and mechanical properties of the cellulosic fibrous residue obtained after a high proportion of starch has been removed from the peeled and rasped tuberous root of Xanthosoma sagittifolium (Family: Araceae). Powdered fibrous residues were subjected ...

  19. Impact of bovine subclinical mastitis and effect of lactational treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Borne, B.H.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304836826


    This thesis aimed to quantify the impact of subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle in the Netherlands and to explore the epidemiologic and economic effects of antimicrobial treatment of recently acquired subclinical mastitis during lactation. First, the occurrence of (sub)clinical mastitis was

  20. Effects of different rhizosphere ventilation treatment on water and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to explore the effects of different rhizosphere ventilation treatment on water and nutrients absorption of maize. The pot experiment was conducted using three methods: no ventilation, two day ventilation and four day ventilation, under conditions of the different levels of irrigation methods.


    This report summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 39, Permeable Treatment Wall Effectiveness Monitoring Project, implemented and funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U.S. De...

  2. Effect of protein supplementation and urea treatment on utilization of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Authorised User

    Abstract. Six Red Maasai sheep were used to investigate the effects of urea treatment and cotton seed cake supplementation of maize stover on intake, digestibility and rumen fermentation parameters. The basal feeds were Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) hay (H), untreated maize (Zea mays) stover (US) and treated maize.

  3. Effects Of Desensitization Treatment On Core-Condition Training (United States)

    Fry, P. S.


    Pre- and posttest ratings on measures of helping skills such as empathy, respect, concreteness, and genuineness were obtained in the preliminary and advanced training. A significant training effect was obtained for both groups. Desensitization treatment was a significant source of variance for the experimental subjects in training. (Author/LA)

  4. Effects of heat treatment on density, dimensional stability and color ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of heat treatment on some physical properties and color change of Pinus nigra wood which has high industrial use potential and large growing stocks in Turkey. Wood samples which comprised the material of the study were obtained from an industrial plant. Samples were ...

  5. Assessing Instructional Modalities: Individualized Treatment Effects for Personalized Learning (United States)

    Beemer, Joshua; Spoon, Kelly; Fan, Juanjuan; Stronach, Jeanne; Frazee, James P.; Bohonak, Andrew J.; Levine, Richard A.


    Estimating the efficacy of different instructional modalities, techniques, and interventions is challenging because teaching style covaries with instructor, and the typical student only takes a course once. We introduce the individualized treatment effect (ITE) from analyses of personalized medicine as a means to quantify individual student…

  6. Modelling the cost effectiveness of antidepressant treatment in primary care. (United States)

    Revicki, D A; Brown, R E; Palmer, W; Bakish, D; Rosser, W W; Anton, S F; Feeny, D


    The aim of this study was to estimate the cost effectiveness of nefazodone compared with imipramine or fluoxetine in treating women with major depressive disorder. Clinical decision analysis and a Markov state-transition model were used to estimate the lifetime health outcomes and medical costs of 3 antidepressant treatments. The model, which represents ideal primary care practice, compares treatment with nefazodone to treatment with either imipramine or fluoxetine. The economic analysis was based on the healthcare system of the Canadian province of Ontario, and considered only direct medical costs. Health outcomes were expressed as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and costs were in 1993 Canadian dollars ($Can; $Can1 = $US0.75, September 1995). Incremental cost-utility ratios were calculated comparing the relative lifetime discounted medical costs and QALYs associated with nefazodone with those of imipramine or fluoxetine. Data for constructing the model and estimating necessary parameters were derived from the medical literature, clinical trial data, and physician judgement. Data included information on: Ontario primary care physicians' clinical management of major depression; medical resource use and costs; probabilities of recurrence of depression; suicide rates; compliance rates; and health utilities. Estimates of utilities for depression-related hypothetical health states were obtained from patients with major depression (n = 70). Medical costs and QALYs were discounted to present value using a 5% rate. Sensitivity analyses tested the assumptions of the model by varying the discount rate, depression recurrence rates, compliance rates, and the duration of the model. The base case analysis found that nefazodone treatment costs $Can1447 less per patient than imipramine treatment (discounted lifetime medical costs were $Can50,664 vs $Can52,111) and increases the number of QALYs by 0.72 (13.90 vs 13.18). Nefazodone treatment costs $Can14 less than fluoxetine

  7. Effectiveness of an intensive multidisciplinary headache treatment program. (United States)

    Gunreben-Stempfle, Birgit; Griessinger, Norbert; Lang, Eberhard; Muehlhans, Barbara; Sittl, Reinhard; Ulrich, Kathrin


    To investigate if the effectiveness of a 96-hour multidisciplinary headache treatment program exceeds the effectiveness of a 20-hour program and primary care. When dealing with chronic back pain, low-intensity multidisciplinary treatment yields no significantly better results than standard care and monodisciplinary therapy; however, high-intensity treatment does. For multidisciplinary headache treatment, such comparisons are not yet available. In a previous study undertaken by our Pain Center, the outcome of a minimal multidisciplinary intervention model (20-hour) did not exceed primary care. Forty-two patients suffering from frequent headaches (20 +/- 9 headache days/month; range: 8-30) were treated and evaluated in a 96-hour group program. The results were compared with the outcomes of the previous study. Subjects who had undergone either the 20-hour multidisciplinary program or the primary care were used as historical control groups. A significant reduction in migraine days (P tension-type headache days (P tension-type headache days (P = .016), and frequency of migraine attacks (P = .016). In comparison with the 20-hour multidisciplinary program, the 96-hour program showed significantly better effects only in the reduction of migraine days (P = .037) and depression score (P = .003). The responder-rates (> or =50% improvement) in the 96-hour program were significantly higher than in the 20-hour program (migraine days, P = .008; tension-type headache days, P = .044) and primary care (migraine days, P = .007; tension-type headache days, P = .003; tension-type headache intensity, P = .037). The effect sizes were small to medium in the 96-hour program. Particularly with the reduction of migraine symptomatology, the 96-hour program performed better than the 20-hour program, which produced only negligible or small effects. Intensive multidisciplinary headache treatment is highly effective for patients with chronic headaches. Furthermore, migraine symptomatology

  8. Effectiveness of hypnosis therapy and Gestalt therapy as depression treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth González-Ramírez


    Full Text Available We analyzed the effectiveness of two psychological therapies to treat depression in the Culiacan population, Mexico. According to criteria of MINI (international Neuropsychiatric interview, 30 individuals from a total of 300 were selected and diagnosed with some kind of depression. Patients were divided in three groups: 1 treatment with hypnosis therapy, 2 treatment with Gestalt-hypnosis therapy, and 3 control group. Before and after the treatments the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI was applied to know the depression level of the analyzed groups. The results show that the three groups were presenting a moderated level of depression. The groups under hypnosis therapy and Gestalt-hypnosis therapy show statistical differences between pre-test and post-test. The hypnosis therapy shows significant statistic differences to treat depression with respect to the other two groups. In conclusion, the therapeutic hypnosis is an effective treatment and has relevance to treat depression, while other therapeutic treatments tend to be slow and with minor result. This study is the first of this kind carried out in Culiacan in Sinaloa, Mexico.

  9. Effect of a standardized treatment regime for infection after osteosynthesis. (United States)

    Hellebrekers, Pien; Leenen, Luke P H; Hoekstra, Meriam; Hietbrink, Falco


    Infection after osteosynthesis is an important complication with significant morbidity and even mortality. These infections are often caused by biofilm-producing bacteria. Treatment algorithms dictate an aggressive approach with surgical debridement and antibiotic treatment. The aim of this study is to analyze the effect of such an aggressive standardized treatment regime with implant retention for acute, existing regime consisted of implant retention, thorough surgical debridement, and immediate antibiotic combination therapy with rifampicin. The primary outcome was success. Success was defined as consolidation of the fracture and resolved symptoms of infection. Culture and susceptibility testing were performed to identify bacteria and resistance patterns. Univariate analysis was conducted on patient-related factors in association with primary success and antibiotic resistance. Forty-nine patients were included for analysis. The primary success rate was 63% and overall success rate 88%. Factors negatively associated with primary success were the following: Gustilo classification (P = 0.023), higher number of debridements needed (P = 0.015), inability of primary closure (P = 0.017), and subsequent application of vacuum therapy (P = 0.030). Adherence to the treatment regime was positively related to primary success (P = 0.034). The described treatment protocol results in high success rates, comparable with success rates achieved in staged exchange in prosthetic joint infection treatment.

  10. Individually dosed omalizumab: an effective treatment for severe peanut allergy. (United States)

    Brandström, J; Vetander, M; Lilja, G; Johansson, S G O; Sundqvist, A-C; Kalm, F; Nilsson, C; Nopp, A


    Treatment with omalizumab has shown a positive effect on food allergies, but no dosages are established. Basophil allergen threshold sensitivity (CD-sens) can be used to objectively measure omalizumab treatment efficacy and correlates with the outcome of double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge to peanut. To evaluate whether individualized omalizumab treatment monitored by CD-sens could be an effective intervention for suppression of allergic reactions to peanut. Severely peanut allergic adolescents (n = 23) were treated with omalizumab for 8 weeks, and CD-sens was analysed before and after. Based on whether CD-sens was suppressed after 8 weeks, the patients either were subject to a peanut challenge or received eight more weeks with increased dose of omalizumab, followed by peanut challenge or another 8-week cycle of omalizumab. IgE and IgE-antibodies to peanut and its components were analysed before treatment. After individualized omalizumab treatment (8-24 weeks), all patients continued with an open peanut challenge with no (n = 18) or mild (n = 5) objective allergic symptoms. Patients (n = 15) needing an elevated omalizumab dose (ED) to suppress CD-sens had significantly higher CD-sens values at baseline 1.49 (0.44-20.5) compared to those (n = 8) who managed with normal dose (ND) 0.32 (0.24-5.5) (P omalizumab, monitored by CD-sens, is an effective and safe treatment for severe peanut allergy. The ratio of IgE-ab to storage protein Ara h 2/IgE as well as CD-sens to peanut may predict the need of a higher omalizumab dose. Clinical trials numbers: EudraCT; 2012-005625-78,; NCT02402231. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The Effect of Deep Cryogenic Treatment on the Corrosion Behavior of Mg-7Y-1.5Nd Magnesium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quantong Jiang


    Full Text Available The effect of quenching on the corrosion resistance of Mg-7Y-1.5Nd alloy was investigated. The as-cast alloy was homogenized at 535 °C for 24 h, followed by quenching in air, water, and liquid nitrogen. Then, all of the samples were peak-aged at 225 °C for 14 h. The microstructures were studied by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectrometry, and X-ray diffraction. Corrosion behavior was analyzed by using weight loss rate and gas collection. Electrochemical characterizations revealed that the T4-deep cryogenic sample displayed the strongest corrosion resistance among all of the samples. A new square phase was discovered in the microstructure of the T6-deep cryogenic sample; this phase was hugely responsible for the corrosion property. Cryogenic treatment significantly improved the corrosion resistance of Mg-7Y-1.5Nd alloy.

  12. Effect of the transpalatal arch during extraction treatment. (United States)

    Zablocki, Heather L; McNamara, James A; Franchi, Lorenzo; Baccetti, Tiziano


    The transpalatal arch (TPA) can be used as an adjunct during orthodontic treatment to help control the movement of the maxillary first molars in 3 dimensions, including producing molar rotation and uprighting, maintaining transverse dimensions posteriorly during treatment, and maintaining leeway spaces during the transition of the dentition. The purpose of this retrospective cephalometric study was to test an additional function of the TPA: its ability to enhance orthodontic anchorage during extraction treatment. Records consisting of pretreatment and posttreatment cephalograms were gathered from several orthodontic practices that used an .018 x .025-in preangulated appliance. All patients were white and had 4 first premolars extracted as part of their treatment protocol. Patients were treated either with or without a TPA of the soldered Goshgarian design. Patients were excluded if headgear or any other auxiliary anchorage device beside the TPA was used during treatment. Matched samples of 30 patients were identified based on sex, age at the start of treatment, treatment duration, and cervical vertebral maturation stage. Statistical comparisons were made with nonparametric statistical tests. Analysis of the changes from pretreatment to posttreatment for the TPA and the no-TPA groups showed no statistically significant differences in any of the variables examined. The net difference for both vertical and mesial movement of the maxillary first molar in relation to the maxilla between the 2 groups was 0.4 mm, with the no-TPA group in a more downward and forward position. Although the usefulness of the TPA for the abovementioned functions is not negated, it does not provide a significant effect on either the anteroposterior or the vertical position of the maxillary first molars during extraction treatment.

  13. Cost-effectiveness in Clostridium difficile treatment decision-making. (United States)

    Nuijten, Mark Jc; Keller, Josbert J; Visser, Caroline E; Redekop, Ken; Claassen, Eric; Speelman, Peter; Pronk, Marja H


    To develop a framework for the clinical and health economic assessment for management of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). CDI has vast economic consequences emphasizing the need for innovative and cost effective solutions, which were aim of this study. A guidance model was developed for coverage decisions and guideline development in CDI. The model included pharmacotherapy with oral metronidazole or oral vancomycin, which is the mainstay for pharmacological treatment of CDI and is recommended by most treatment guidelines. A design for a patient-based cost-effectiveness model was developed, which can be used to estimate the cost-effectiveness of current and future treatment strategies in CDI. Patient-based outcomes were extrapolated to the population by including factors like, e.g., person-to-person transmission, isolation precautions and closing and cleaning wards of hospitals. The proposed framework for a population-based CDI model may be used for clinical and health economic assessments of CDI guidelines and coverage decisions for emerging treatments for CDI.

  14. Fenbendazole treatment may influence lipopolysaccharide effects in rat brain. (United States)

    Hunter, Randy L; Choi, Dong-Young; Kincer, Jeanie F; Cass, Wayne A; Bing, Guoying; Gash, Don M


    In evaluating discrepant results between experiments in our laboratory, we collected data that challenge the notion that anthelminthic drugs like FBZ do not alter inflammatory responses. We found that FBZ significantly modulates inflammation in F344 rats intrastriatally injected with LPS. FBZ treatment of LPS-injected rats significantly increased weight loss, microglial activation, and dopamine loss; in addition, FBZ attenuated the LPS-induced loss of astrocytes. Therefore, FBZ treatment altered the effects of LPS injection. Caution should be used in interpreting data collected from rats treated with LPS and FBZ.

  15. Parameter trajectory analysis to identify treatment effects of pharmacological interventions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian A Tiemann

    Full Text Available The field of medical systems biology aims to advance understanding of molecular mechanisms that drive disease progression and to translate this knowledge into therapies to effectively treat diseases. A challenging task is the investigation of long-term effects of a (pharmacological treatment, to establish its applicability and to identify potential side effects. We present a new modeling approach, called Analysis of Dynamic Adaptations in Parameter Trajectories (ADAPT, to analyze the long-term effects of a pharmacological intervention. A concept of time-dependent evolution of model parameters is introduced to study the dynamics of molecular adaptations. The progression of these adaptations is predicted by identifying necessary dynamic changes in the model parameters to describe the transition between experimental data obtained during different stages of the treatment. The trajectories provide insight in the affected underlying biological systems and identify the molecular events that should be studied in more detail to unravel the mechanistic basis of treatment outcome. Modulating effects caused by interactions with the proteome and transcriptome levels, which are often less well understood, can be captured by the time-dependent descriptions of the parameters. ADAPT was employed to identify metabolic adaptations induced upon pharmacological activation of the liver X receptor (LXR, a potential drug target to treat or prevent atherosclerosis. The trajectories were investigated to study the cascade of adaptations. This provided a counter-intuitive insight concerning the function of scavenger receptor class B1 (SR-B1, a receptor that facilitates the hepatic uptake of cholesterol. Although activation of LXR promotes cholesterol efflux and -excretion, our computational analysis showed that the hepatic capacity to clear cholesterol was reduced upon prolonged treatment. This prediction was confirmed experimentally by immunoblotting measurements of SR-B1

  16. Discovering social events through online attention. (United States)

    Kenett, Dror Y; Morstatter, Fred; Stanley, H Eugene; Liu, Huan


    Twitter is a major social media platform in which users send and read messages ("tweets") of up to 140 characters. In recent years this communication medium has been used by those affected by crises to organize demonstrations or find relief. Because traffic on this media platform is extremely heavy, with hundreds of millions of tweets sent every day, it is difficult to differentiate between times of turmoil and times of typical discussion. In this work we present a new approach to addressing this problem. We first assess several possible "thermostats" of activity on social media for their effectiveness in finding important time periods. We compare methods commonly found in the literature with a method from economics. By combining methods from computational social science with methods from economics, we introduce an approach that can effectively locate crisis events in the mountains of data generated on Twitter. We demonstrate the strength of this method by using it to locate the social events relating to the Occupy Wall Street movement protests at the end of 2011.

  17. Effects of Hyperbaric Oxygen Treatment on Renal System. (United States)

    Tezcan, Orhan; Caliskan, Ahmet; Demirtas, Sinan; Yavuz, Celal; Kuyumcu, Mahir; Nergiz, Yusuf; Guzel, Abdulmenap; Karahan, Oguz; Ari, Seyhmus; Soker, Sevda; Yalinkilic, Ibrahim; Turkdogan, Kenan Ahmet


    Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment is steadily increasing as a therapeutic modality for various types of diseases. Although good clinical outcomes were reported with HBO treatment for various diseases, the multisystemic effects of this modality are still unclear. This study aimed to investigate the renal effects of HBO experimentally. Fourteen New Zealand White rabbits were divided into 2 groups randomly as the control group and the study group. The study group received HBO treatment for 28 days (100% oxygen at 2.5 atmospheres for 90 minutes daily) and the control group was used to obtain normal renal tissue of the animal genus. After the intervention period, venous blood samples were obtained, and renal tissue samples were harvested for comparisons. Normal histological morphology was determined with Masson trichrome staining and periodic acid-Schiff staining in the control group. Atrophic glomerular structures, vacuolated tubule cells, and degeneration were detected in the renal samples of the study group with Masson trichrome staining. Additionally, flattening was observed on the brush borders of the proximal tubules, and tubular dilatation was visualized with periodic acid-Schiff staining. The histopathologic disruption of renal morphology was verified with detection of significantly elevated kidney function laboratory biomarkers in the study group. Our findings suggests that HBO has adverse effects on renal glomerulus and proximal tubules. However, the functional effects of this alteration should be investigated with further studies.

  18. Effect of combined treatments on viscosity of whey dispersions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camillo, A.; Sabato, S.F.


    Whey proteins, enriched protein fractions from milk, are of great interest as ingredients due to nutritional value associated with its functional properties. These proteins could have their structural properties improved when some treatments are applied, such as thermal and gamma irradiation or when some compounds are added. The current work aimed to study the viscometer behavior of whey dispersions submitted to two different combined treatments: (1) thermal plus irradiation and (2) thermal plus vacuum and N 2 plus irradiation. Dispersions of whey protein in water (5% and 8% protein (w/v) base) and containing proteins and glycerol at ratios 1:1 and 2:1 (protein:glycerol) were submitted to both combined treatments. The irradiation doses were 0, 5, 15 and 25 kGy. The viscosity of the two combined treatments and for four levels of absorbed doses is presented and the combined effects are discussed. The thermal treatment combined with gamma irradiation contributed to increase the viscosity as irradiation doses increases for both (5% and 8%) concentrations of proteins (p<0.05). For protein and glycerol solutions, the irradiation dose seemed to result in a slightly increase. The vacuum applied before the irradiation showed a small contribution

  19. Effect of combined treatments on viscosity of whey dispersions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camillo, A.; Sabato, S.F. E-mail:


    Whey proteins, enriched protein fractions from milk, are of great interest as ingredients due to nutritional value associated with its functional properties. These proteins could have their structural properties improved when some treatments are applied, such as thermal and gamma irradiation or when some compounds are added. The current work aimed to study the viscometer behavior of whey dispersions submitted to two different combined treatments: (1) thermal plus irradiation and (2) thermal plus vacuum and N{sub 2} plus irradiation. Dispersions of whey protein in water (5% and 8% protein (w/v) base) and containing proteins and glycerol at ratios 1:1 and 2:1 (protein:glycerol) were submitted to both combined treatments. The irradiation doses were 0, 5, 15 and 25 kGy. The viscosity of the two combined treatments and for four levels of absorbed doses is presented and the combined effects are discussed. The thermal treatment combined with gamma irradiation contributed to increase the viscosity as irradiation doses increases for both (5% and 8%) concentrations of proteins (p<0.05). For protein and glycerol solutions, the irradiation dose seemed to result in a slightly increase. The vacuum applied before the irradiation showed a small contribution.

  20. [Effect of body image in adolescent orthodontic treatment]. (United States)

    Minghui, Peng; Jing, Kang; Xiao, Deng


    This study was designed to probe the psychological factors adolescent orthodontic patients, the role of body image and self-esteem in the whole process of orthodontic treatment and the impact on the efficacy and satisfaction of orthodontic. Five hundred and twenty-eight patients were selected in this study. The Aesthetic Component of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN-AC) , Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES), Negative Physical Self-General (NPS-G) and other body analysis scale study after orthodontic lasted 18-24 months were used to investigate the role of body image in adolescent orthodontic treatment. Esthetic evaluation of patients teeth after correction had been significantly improved, patient self-evaluation difference IOTN-AC doctor evaluation, Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire-tooth confidence, aesthetic concerns, psychological impact and social function were significantly improved. The improvement of the dental aesthetics component (T2 when doctors evaluate IOTN-AC) was positively correlated with the evaluation of the efficacy, and was significantly negatively correlated with the negative emotions of patients at baseline. Negative body image-dental dissatisfied-cognitive component and the affective component, the overall negative body image and negative emotions can predict patient satisfaction with treatment efficacy. Orthodontic treatment not only improves the self-aesthetic evaluation of adolescent patients, but also has a positive effect on the mental health of adolescent patients.

  1. Discovering hidden sectors with monophoton Z' searches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gershtein, Yuri; Petriello, Frank; Quackenbush, Seth; Zurek, Kathryn M.


    In many theories of physics beyond the standard model, from extra dimensions to Hidden Valleys and models of dark matter, Z ' bosons mediate between standard model particles and hidden sector states. We study the feasibility of observing such hidden states through an invisibly decaying Z ' at the LHC. We focus on the process pp→γZ ' →γXX † , where X is any neutral, (quasi-) stable particle, whether a standard model neutrino or a new state. This complements a previous study using pp→ZZ ' →l + l - XX † . Only the Z ' mass and two effective charges are needed to describe this process. If the Z ' decays invisibly only to standard model neutrinos, then these charges are predicted by observation of the Z ' through the Drell-Yan process, allowing discrimination between Z ' decays to standard model ν's and invisible decays to new states. We carefully discuss all backgrounds and systematic errors that affect this search. We find that hidden sector decays of a 1 TeV Z ' can be observed at 5σ significance with 50 fb -1 at the LHC. Observation of a 1.5 TeV state requires super-LHC statistics of 1 ab -1 . Control of the systematic errors, in particular, the parton distribution function uncertainty of the dominant Zγ background, is crucial to maximize the LHC search reach.

  2. Prediction of Human Activity by Discovering Temporal Sequence Patterns. (United States)

    Li, Kang; Fu, Yun


    Early prediction of ongoing human activity has become more valuable in a large variety of time-critical applications. To build an effective representation for prediction, human activities can be characterized by a complex temporal composition of constituent simple actions and interacting objects. Different from early detection on short-duration simple actions, we propose a novel framework for long -duration complex activity prediction by discovering three key aspects of activity: Causality, Context-cue, and Predictability. The major contributions of our work include: (1) a general framework is proposed to systematically address the problem of complex activity prediction by mining temporal sequence patterns; (2) probabilistic suffix tree (PST) is introduced to model causal relationships between constituent actions, where both large and small order Markov dependencies between action units are captured; (3) the context-cue, especially interactive objects information, is modeled through sequential pattern mining (SPM), where a series of action and object co-occurrence are encoded as a complex symbolic sequence; (4) we also present a predictive accumulative function (PAF) to depict the predictability of each kind of activity. The effectiveness of our approach is evaluated on two experimental scenarios with two data sets for each: action-only prediction and context-aware prediction. Our method achieves superior performance for predicting global activity classes and local action units.

  3. Factors Associated with Effectiveness of Treatment and Reproductive Outcomes in Patients with Thin Endometrium Undergoing Estrogen Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Miao Liu


    Conclusions: Thinner EMT before estrogen treatment requires longer treatment duration and predicts poorer treatment outcomes. The effectiveness of treatment depends on the duration of estrogen administration. Assisted reproductive outcomes of patients whose treatment is successful (i.e., achieves an EMT ≥8 mm are similar to those of controls. The quality of embryos transferred is an important predictor of assisted reproductive outcomes in patients treated successfully with exogenous estrogen.

  4. Effect of technological treatments on bovine lactoferrin: An overview. (United States)

    Franco, Indira; Pérez, María Dolores; Conesa, Celia; Calvo, Miguel; Sánchez, Lourdes


    Lactoferrin (LF) is a multifunctional protein that exerts important activities in the neonate through its presence in milk, and also in other external mucosas, acting as a defense protein of innate immunity. The addition of bovine LF to infant formula and also to other functional products and cosmetics has increased during the last decades. Consequently, it is essential to know the effect that the technological processes, necessary to elaborate those products, have on LF activity. In this study, we have revised the effect of classical treatments on lactoferrin structure and activity, such as heat treatment or drying, and also of emerging technologies, like high pressure or pulsed electric field. The results of the studies included in this review indicate that LF stability is dependent on its level of iron-saturation and on the characteristics of the treatment media. Furthermore, the studies revised here reveal that the non-thermal treatments are interesting alternatives to the traditional ones, as they protect better the structure and activity of lactoferrin. It is also clear the need for research on LF encapsulation by different ways, to protect its properties before it reaches the intestine. All this knowledge would allow designing processes less harmful for LF, thus maintaining all its functionality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Management of Spinal Deformities and Evidence of Treatment Effectiveness (United States)

    Bettany-Saltikov, Josette; Turnbull, Deborah; Ng, Shu Yan; Webb, Richard


    Introduction: The review evaluates the up-to-date evidence for the treatment of spinal deformities, including scoliosis and hyperkyphosis in adolescents and adults. Material and Methods: The PubMed database was searched for review articles, prospective controlled trials and randomized controlled trials related to the treatment of spinal deformities. Articles on syndromic scoliosis were excluded and so were the articles on hyperkyphosis of the spine with causes other than Scheuermann’s disease and osteoporosis. Articles on conservative and surgical treatments of idiopathic scoliosis, adult scoliosis and hyperkyphosis were also included. For retrospective papers, only studies with a follow up period exceeding 10 years were included. Results: The review showed that early-onset idiopathic scoliosis has a worse outcome than late-onset idiopathic scoliosis, which is rather benign. Patients with AIS function well as adults; they have no more health problems when compared to patients without scoliosis, other than a slight increase in back pain and aesthetic concern. Conservative treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) using physiotherapeutic scoliosis-specific exercises (PSSE), specifically PSSR and rigid bracing was supported by level I evidence. Yet to date, there is no high quality evidence (RCT`s) demonstrating that surgical treatment is superior to conservative treatment for the management of AIS. For adult scoliosis, there are only a few studies on the effectiveness of PSSEs and a conclusion cannot as yet be drawn. For hyperkyphosis, there is no high-quality evidence for physiotherapy, bracing or surgery for the treatment of adolescents and adults. However, bracing has been found to reduce thoracic hyperkyphosis, ranging from 55 to 80° in adolescents. In patients over the age of 60, bracing improves the balance score, and reduces spinal deformity and pain. Surgery is indicated in adolescents and adults in the presence of progression of kyphosis

  6. Discover the benefits of residential wood heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This publication described how residential wood-heating systems are being used to reduce energy costs and increase home comfort. Biomass energy refers to all forms are renewable energy that is derived from plant materials. The source of fuel may include sawmills, woodworking shops, forest operations and farms. The combustion of biomass is also considered to be carbon dioxide neutral, and is not considered to be a major producer of greenhouse gases (GHG) linked to global climate change. Wood burning does, however, release air pollutants, particularly if they are incompletely burned. Incomplete combustion of wood results in dense smoke consisting of toxic gases. Natural Resources Canada helped create new safety standards and the development of the Wood Energy Technical Training Program to ensure that all types of wood-burning appliances are installed correctly and safely to reduce the risk of fire and for effective wood heating. In Canada, more than 3 million families heat with wood as a primary or secondary heating source in homes and cottages. Wood heating offers security from energy price fluctuations and electrical power failures. This paper described the benefits of fireplace inserts that can transform old fireplaces into modern heating systems. It also demonstrated how an add-on wood furnace can be installed next to oil furnaces to convert an oil-only heating system to a wood-oil combination system, thereby saving thousands of dollars in heating costs. Wood pellet stoves are another wood burning option. The fuel for the stoves is produced from dried, finely ground wood waste that is compressed into hard pellets that are loaded into a hopper. The stove can run automatically for up to 24 hours. New high-efficiency advanced fireplaces also offer an alternative heating system that can reduce heating costs while preserving Canada's limited supply of fossil fuels such as oil and gas. 13 figs

  7. A new screening method for discovering antibacterial agents from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new screening method for discovering antibacterial agents from filamentous fungi. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Keywords: Drug-resistant bacterial pathogens, novel antibiotics; screening method, filamentous fungi products ...

  8. On a New Technique for Discovering Variable Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mironov A. V.


    Full Text Available A technique for discovering variable stars based on the calculation of the correlation coefficients is proposed. Applications of the technique are shown on the results of numerical experiments and on the Hipparcos photometric data.

  9. Scientists discover how deadly fungal microbes enter host cells


    Whyte, Barry James


    A research team led by scientists at the Virginia Bioinformatics Institute at Virginia Tech has discovered a fundamental entry mechanism that allows dangerous fungal microbes to infect plants and cause disease.

  10. Strontium-90 Error Discovered in Subcontract Laboratory Spreadsheet. Topical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D.D.; Nagel, A.S.


    West Valley Demonstration Project health physicists and environment scientists discovered a series of errors in a subcontractor's spreadsheet being used to reduce data as part of their strontium-90 analytical process

  11. Asymmetric author-topic model for knowledge discovering of big data in toxicogenomics. (United States)

    Chung, Ming-Hua; Wang, Yuping; Tang, Hailin; Zou, Wen; Basinger, John; Xu, Xiaowei; Tong, Weida


    The advancement of high-throughput screening technologies facilitates the generation of massive amount of biological data, a big data phenomena in biomedical science. Yet, researchers still heavily rely on keyword search and/or literature review to navigate the databases and analyses are often done in rather small-scale. As a result, the rich information of a database has not been fully utilized, particularly for the information embedded in the interactive nature between data points that are largely ignored and buried. For the past 10 years, probabilistic topic modeling has been recognized as an effective machine learning algorithm to annotate the hidden thematic structure of massive collection of documents. The analogy between text corpus and large-scale genomic data enables the application of text mining tools, like probabilistic topic models, to explore hidden patterns of genomic data and to the extension of altered biological functions. In this paper, we developed a generalized probabilistic topic model to analyze a toxicogenomics dataset that consists of a large number of gene expression data from the rat livers treated with drugs in multiple dose and time-points. We discovered the hidden patterns in gene expression associated with the effect of doses and time-points of treatment. Finally, we illustrated the ability of our model to identify the evidence of potential reduction of animal use.

  12. Asymmetric author-topic model for knowledge discovering of big data in toxicogenomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hua eChung


    Full Text Available The advancement of high-throughput screening technologies facilitates the generation of massive amount of biological data, a big data phenomena in biomedical science. Yet, researchers still heavily rely on keyword search and/or literature review to navigate the databases and analyses are often done in rather small-scale. As a result, the rich information of a database has not been fully utilized, particularly for the information embedded in the interactive nature between data points that are largely ignored and buried. For the past ten years, probabilistic topic modeling has been recognized as an effective machine learning algorithm to annotate the hidden thematic structure of massive collection of documents. The analogy between text corpus and large-scale genomic data enables the application of text mining tools, like probabilistic topic models, to explore hidden patterns of genomic data and to the extension of altered biological functions. In this paper, we developed a generalized probabilistic topic model to analyze a toxicogenomics dataset that consists of a large number of gene expression data from the rat livers treated with drugs in multiple dose and time-points. We discovered the hidden patterns in gene expression associated with the effect of doses and time-points of treatment. Finally, we illustrated the ability of our model to identify the evidence of potential reduction of animal use.

  13. Beyond the treatment effect: Evaluating the effects of patient preferences in randomised trials. (United States)

    Walter, S D; Turner, R; Macaskill, P; McCaffery, K J; Irwig, L


    The treatments under comparison in a randomised trial should ideally have equal value and acceptability - a position of equipoise - to study participants. However, it is unlikely that true equipoise exists in practice, because at least some participants may have preferences for one treatment or the other, for a variety of reasons. These preferences may be related to study outcomes, and hence affect the estimation of the treatment effect. Furthermore, the effects of preferences can sometimes be substantial, and may even be larger than the direct effect of treatment. Preference effects are of interest in their own right, but they cannot be assessed in the standard parallel group design for a randomised trial. In this paper, we describe a model to represent the impact of preferences on trial outcomes, in addition to the usual treatment effect. In particular, we describe how outcomes might differ between participants who would choose one treatment or the other, if they were free to do so. Additionally, we investigate the difference in outcomes depending on whether or not a participant receives his or her preferred treatment, which we characterise through a so-called preference effect. We then discuss several study designs that have been proposed to measure and exploit data on preferences, and which constitute alternatives to the conventional parallel group design. Based on the model framework, we determine which of the various preference effects can or cannot be estimated with each design. We also illustrate these ideas with some examples of preference designs from the literature.

  14. Treatment of cloud radiative effects in general circulation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W.C.; Dudek, M.P.; Liang, X.Z.; Ding, M. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States)] [and others


    We participate in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program with two objectives: (1) to improve the general circulation model (GCM) cloud/radiation treatment with a focus on cloud verticle overlapping and layer cloud optical properties, and (2) to study the effects of cloud/radiation-climate interaction on GCM climate simulations. This report summarizes the project progress since the Fourth ARM Science Team meeting February 28-March 4, 1994, in Charleston, South Carolina.

  15. Treatment of offshore produced water - an effective membrane process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.; Larson, R.; Scherer, B.


    The conference paper describes a new membrane technology being extremely effective in separating hydrocarbons from water streams. The membrane is composed of a completely natural cellulose and is resistant to all hydrocarbons and organic solvents, and preliminary tests have shown that it is resistant to fouling by oily molecules and calcium scaling. The membrane system being designed shows good potential for the treatment of offshore produced water with a hydrocarbon content well within present and emerging standards. 6 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Biphasic Rapamycin Effects in Lymphoma and Carcinoma Treatment. (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Pandeswara, Srilakshmi; Dao, Vinh; Padrón, Álvaro; Drerup, Justin M; Lao, Shunhua; Liu, Aijie; Hurez, Vincent; Curiel, Tyler J


    mTOR drives tumor growth but also supports T-cell function, rendering the applications of mTOR inhibitors complex especially in T-cell malignancies. Here, we studied the effects of the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin in mouse EL4 T-cell lymphoma. Typical pharmacologic rapamycin (1-8 mg/kg) significantly reduced tumor burden via direct suppression of tumor cell proliferation and improved survival in EL4 challenge independent of antitumor immunity. Denileukin diftitox (DD)-mediated depletion of regulatory T cells significantly slowed EL4 growth in vivo in a T-cell-dependent fashion. However, typical rapamycin inhibited T-cell activation and tumor infiltration in vivo and failed to boost DD treatment effects. Low-dose (LD) rapamycin (75 μg/kg) increased potentially beneficial CD44hiCD62L + CD8 + central memory T cells in EL4 challenge, but without clinical benefit. LD rapamycin significantly enhanced DD treatment efficacy, but DD plus LD rapamycin treatment effects were independent of antitumor immunity. Instead, rapamycin upregulated EL4 IL2 receptor in vitro and in vivo, facilitating direct DD tumor cell killing. LD rapamycin augmented DD efficacy against B16 melanoma and a human B-cell lymphoma, but not against human Jurkat T-cell lymphoma or ID8agg ovarian cancer cells. Treatment effects correlated with IL2R expression, but mechanisms in some tumors were not fully defined. Overall, our data define a distinct, biphasic mechanisms of action of mTOR inhibition at doses that are clinically exploitable, including in T-cell lymphomas. Cancer Res; 77(2); 520-31. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Cost-effectiveness analysis of treatments for vertebral compression fractures. (United States)

    Edidin, Avram A; Ong, Kevin L; Lau, Edmund; Schmier, Jordana K; Kemner, Jason E; Kurtz, Steven M


    Vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) can be treated by nonsurgical management or by minimally invasive surgical treatment including vertebroplasty and balloon kyphoplasty. The purpose of the present study was to characterize the cost to Medicare for treating VCF-diagnosed patients by nonsurgical management, vertebroplasty, or kyphoplasty. We hypothesized that surgical treatments for VCFs using vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty would be a cost-effective alternative to nonsurgical management for the Medicare patient population. Cost per life-year gained for VCF patients in the US Medicare population was compared between operated (kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty) and non-operated patients and between kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty patients, all as a function of patient age and gender. Life expectancy was estimated using a parametric Weibull survival model (adjusted for comorbidities) for 858 978 VCF patients in the 100% Medicare dataset (2005-2008). Median payer costs were identified for each treatment group for up to 3 years following VCF diagnosis, based on 67 018 VCF patients in the 5% Medicare dataset (2005-2008). A discount rate of 3% was used for the base case in the cost-effectiveness analysis, with 0% and 5% discount rates used in sensitivity analyses. After accounting for the differences in median costs and using a discount rate of 3%, the cost per life-year gained for kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty patients ranged from $US1863 to $US6687 and from $US2452 to $US13 543, respectively, compared with non-operated patients. The cost per life-year gained for kyphoplasty compared with vertebroplasty ranged from -$US4878 (cost saving) to $US2763. Among patients for whom surgical treatment was indicated, kyphoplasty was found to be cost effective, and perhaps even cost saving, compared with vertebroplasty. Even for the oldest patients (85 years of age and older), both interventions would be considered cost effective in terms of cost per life-year gained.

  18. No beneficial effect of Polidocanol treatment in Achilles tendinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbesen, B H; Mølgaard, C M; Olesen, J L


    PURPOSE: Polidocanol injections have been used to treat chronic Achilles tendinopathy in clinical settings, but the few studies published show inconsistent results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mid-term effect of Polidocanol in patients with chronic Achilles tendinopathy. It was hypo......PURPOSE: Polidocanol injections have been used to treat chronic Achilles tendinopathy in clinical settings, but the few studies published show inconsistent results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mid-term effect of Polidocanol in patients with chronic Achilles tendinopathy...... of Achilles tendinopathy for at least 3 months and with neovascularisation demonstrated by ultrasonography was included. A minimum of 3 months of eccentric exercise treatment was required before participating. The patients were allocated to a maximum of two injection of either Polidocanol or Lidocaine...... an improvement at 3- and 6-month follow-up, but no mid-term differences between the groups were seen. An equal number of patients in the two groups were satisfied with the treatment at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that Polidocanol is a safe treatment, but the mid-term effects are the same...

  19. Spasmodic dysphonia: onset, course, socioemotional effects, and treatment response. (United States)

    Tanner, Kristine; Roy, Nelson; Merrill, Ray M; Sauder, Cara; Houtz, Daniel R; Smith, Marshall E


    This investigation explored the onset, progression, socioemotional effects, and treatment outcomes of spasmodic dysphonia (SD). A cross-sectional epidemiological approach was used to examine questionnaire responses from 150 individuals with SD. Symptoms of SD (mean age at onset, 46 years) began gradually in 76% of cases and were progressive (ie, failed to plateau) in 34% of cases. Botulinum toxin A (Botox) helped to attenuate voice symptoms in 91% of cases; however, the scores on the Voice-Related Quality of Life questionnaire (V-RQOL) were not associated with this effect. The V-RQOL scores improved with time since symptom onset, independent of age and treatment. The patients with only SD experienced onset, course, and progression of symptoms similar to those of the patients with SD and coexisting vocal tremor. The symptoms of SD begin gradually and worsen over time. New evidence indicates that SD symptoms may continue to progress without plateau in at least a subset of patients. Individuals with SD and coexisting vocal tremor experience symptom trajectories similar to those of patients with SD only. Although Botox may attenuate voice symptoms, these effects do not appear to be strongly related to the V-RQOL scores. These results provide new and valuable insights regarding the onset, course, progression, and treatment of SD.

  20. The effectiveness of hypnotherapy in the treatment of subjective tinnitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Moghtaderi


    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Tinnitus is an annoying disease cause major problems including insomnia, impaired concentration, and reduced quality of life. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of hypnotherapy in the treatment of subjective tinnitus.Methods: This was a pilot experimental study with pre- and post-test method. 20 people suffered from subjective tinnitus were divided equally in two groups of experimental and control. The two groups were matched according to age and severity of tinnitus. They completed tinnitus clinical questionnaires before and after the test and the severity of their tinnitus was recorded by a number from one to ten. Experimental group went under hypnotherapy for 10 sessions. The control group did not perform any psychological treatment. The gathered data were statistically analyzed using Student's t-test (independent and dependent.Results: There were significant differences between the pre-test and post-test scores of each group and also, between the post-test scores of experimental and control groups (p = 0.001 for all.Conclusion: The results showed that hypnotherapy could effectively reduce the seventy of tinnitus in patients in the experimental group; in other words, the results confirm the effectiveness of medical hypnosis in the treatment of subjective tinnitus.

  1. Weightbath hydrotraction treatment: application, biomechanics, and clinical effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márta Kurutz


    Full Text Available Márta Kurutz1, Tamás Bender21Department of Structural Mechanics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Hungary; 2Department of Physical Medicine, Polyclinic and Hospital of the Hospitaller Brothers of St. John of God, Budapest, Medical University of Szeged, HungaryBackground and purpose: Weightbath hydrotraction treatment (WHT is a simple noninvasive effective method of hydro- or balneotherapy to stretch the spine or lower limbs, applied successfully in hospitals and health resort sanitaria in Hungary for more than fifty years. This study aims to introduce WHT with its biomechanical and clinical effects. History, development, equipment, modes of application, biomechanics, spinal traction forces and elongations, indications and contraindications of WHT are precented.Subjects and methods: The calculation of traction forces acting along the spinal column during the treatment is described together with the mode of suspension and the position of extra weight loads applied. The biomechanics of the treatment are completed by in vivo measured elongations of lumbar segments using a special underwater ultrasound measuring method. The clinical effects, indications, and contraindications of the treatment are also presented.Results: In the underwater cervical suspension of a human body, approximately 25 N stretching load occurs in the cervical spine, and about 11 N occurs in the lumbar spine. By applying extra weights, the above tensile forces along the spinal column can be increased. Thus, the traction effect can be controlled by applying such loads during the treatment. Elongations of segments L3–L4, L4–L5, and L5–S1 were measured during the usual WHT of patients suspended cervically in water for 20 minutes, loaded by 20–20 N lead weights on the ankles. The mean initial elastic elongations of spinal segments were about 0.8 mm for patients aged under 40 years, 0.5 mm between 40–60 years, and 0.2 mm for patients over 60 years. The mean

  2. SU-E-T-408: Evaluation of the Type and Frequency of Variations Discovered During Routine Secondary Patient Chart Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardin, M; Harrison, A; Lockamy, V; Li, J; Peng, C; Potrebko, P; Yu, Y; Doyle, L; Cao, J


    Purpose: Desire to improve efficiency and throughput inspired a review of our physics chart check procedures. Departmental policy mandates plan checks pre-treatment, after first treatment and weekly every 3–5 days. This study examined the effectiveness of the “after first” check with respect to improving patient safety and clinical efficiency. Type and frequency of variations discovered during this redundant secondary review was examined over seven months. Methods: A community spreadsheet was created to record variations in care discovered during chart review following the first fraction of treatment and before the second fraction (each plan reviewed prior to treatment). Entries were recorded from August 2014 through February 2015, amounting to 43 recorded variations out of 906 reviewed charts. The variations were divided into categories and frequencies were assessed month-to-month. Results: Analysis of recorded variations indicates an overall variation rate of 4.7%. The initial rate was 13.5%; months 2–7 average 3.7%. The majority of variations related to discrepancies in documentation at 46.5%, followed by prescription, plan deficiency, and dose tracking related variations at 25.5%, 12.8%, and 12.8%, respectively. Minor variations (negligible consequence on patient treatment) outweighed major variations 3 to 1. Conclusion: This work indicates that this redundant secondary check is effective. The first month spike in rates could be due to the Hawthorne/observer effect, but the consistent 4% variation rate suggests the need for periodical re-training on variations noted as frequent to improve awareness and quality of the initial chart review process, which may lead to improved treatment quality, patient safety and increased clinical efficiency. Utilizing these results, a continuous quality improvement process following Deming’s Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) methodology was generated. The first iteration of this PDSA was adding a specific dose tracking

  3. SU-E-T-408: Evaluation of the Type and Frequency of Variations Discovered During Routine Secondary Patient Chart Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, M; Harrison, A; Lockamy, V; Li, J; Peng, C; Potrebko, P; Yu, Y; Doyle, L; Cao, J [Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States)


    Purpose: Desire to improve efficiency and throughput inspired a review of our physics chart check procedures. Departmental policy mandates plan checks pre-treatment, after first treatment and weekly every 3–5 days. This study examined the effectiveness of the “after first” check with respect to improving patient safety and clinical efficiency. Type and frequency of variations discovered during this redundant secondary review was examined over seven months. Methods: A community spreadsheet was created to record variations in care discovered during chart review following the first fraction of treatment and before the second fraction (each plan reviewed prior to treatment). Entries were recorded from August 2014 through February 2015, amounting to 43 recorded variations out of 906 reviewed charts. The variations were divided into categories and frequencies were assessed month-to-month. Results: Analysis of recorded variations indicates an overall variation rate of 4.7%. The initial rate was 13.5%; months 2–7 average 3.7%. The majority of variations related to discrepancies in documentation at 46.5%, followed by prescription, plan deficiency, and dose tracking related variations at 25.5%, 12.8%, and 12.8%, respectively. Minor variations (negligible consequence on patient treatment) outweighed major variations 3 to 1. Conclusion: This work indicates that this redundant secondary check is effective. The first month spike in rates could be due to the Hawthorne/observer effect, but the consistent 4% variation rate suggests the need for periodical re-training on variations noted as frequent to improve awareness and quality of the initial chart review process, which may lead to improved treatment quality, patient safety and increased clinical efficiency. Utilizing these results, a continuous quality improvement process following Deming’s Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) methodology was generated. The first iteration of this PDSA was adding a specific dose tracking

  4. Understanding newly discovered oscillation modes in magnetically shielded Hall thrusters utilizing state of the art high speed diagnostics. (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — I propose to investigate the newly discovered oscillation modes specific to Magnetically Shied (MS) Hall Effect Thrusters (HET). Although HETs are classified as a...

  5. Effects of nutritional supplementation for HIV patients starting antiretroviral treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Mette Frahm; Abdissa, Alemseged; Kæstel, Pernille


    Objectives: To determine the effects of lipid based nutritional supplements with either whey or soy protein in patients with HIV during the first three months of antiretroviral treatment (ART) and to explore effects of timing by comparing supplementation at the start of ART and after three months....../µL (−2 to 53 cells/µL) were CD4. Effects of the soy containing supplement on immune recovery were not significant. The effects of the two supplements, however, were not significantly different in direct comparison. Exploratory analysis showed that relatively more lean body mass was gained by patients...... with undetectable viral load at three months. Patients receiving delayed supplementation had higher weight gain but lower gains in functional outcomes. Conclusions: Lipid based nutritional supplements improved gain of weight, lean body mass, and grip strength in patients with HIV starting ART. Supplements...

  6. Incidence of and sequels to medical problems discovered in medical students during study-related activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pols, J; Boendermaker, PM; Muntinghe, H


    Purpose Students often act as subjects during practical and clinical skills training sessions. This routine seems to be quite acceptable for them but may present side-effects. Disorders, sometimes of a serious nature, have been discovered in medical students during clinical skills training. Because

  7. Using Appreciative Inquiry to Discover and Deliver Change for Surgical Technology Students (United States)

    Cabai, Katherine A.


    The purpose of this study was to examine efficacious teaching-learning strategies that community college stakeholders employ that enhance surgical technology student outcomes. Knowles's adult learning theory, constructivist theory, and appreciative inquiry served as the theoretical foundation for this study. Discovering effective aspects and…

  8. Is immunotherapy an opportunity for effective treatment of drug addiction? (United States)

    Zalewska-Kaszubska, Jadwiga


    Immunotherapy has a great potential of becoming a new therapeutic strategy in the treatment of addiction to psychoactive drugs. It may be used to treat addiction but also to prevent neurotoxic complications of drug overdose. In preclinical studies two immunological methods have been tested; active immunization, which relies on the administration of vaccines and passive immunization, which relies on the administration of monoclonal antibodies. Until now researchers have succeeded in developing vaccines and/or antibodies against addiction to heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, nicotine and phencyclidine. Their effectiveness has been confirmed in preclinical studies. At present, clinical studies are being conducted for vaccines against nicotine and cocaine and also anti-methamphetamine monoclonal antibody. These preclinical and clinical studies suggest that immunotherapy may be useful in the treatment of addiction and drug overdose. However, there are a few problems to be solved. One of them is controlling the level of antibodies due to variability between subjects. But even obtaining a suitable antibody titer does not guarantee the effectiveness of the vaccine. Additionally, there is a risk of intentional or unintentional overdose. As vaccines prevent passing of drugs through the blood/brain barrier and thereby prevent their positive reinforcement, some addicted patients may erroneously seek higher doses of psychoactive substances to get "high". Consequently, vaccination should be targeted at persons who have a strong motivation to free themselves from drug dependency. It seems that immunotherapy may be an opportunity for effective treatment of drug addiction if directed to adequate candidates for treatment. For other addicts, immunotherapy may be a very important element supporting psycho- and pharmacotherapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Robinson Joel


    Full Text Available Web Usage Mining is the application of data mining technique used to retrieve the web usage from web proxy log file. Web Usage Mining consists of three major stages: preprocessing, clustering and pattern analysis. This paper explains each of these stages in detail. In this proposed approach, the web directories are discovered based on the user’s interestingness. The web proxy log file undergoes a preprocessing phase to improve the quality of data. Fuzzy Clustering Algorithm is used to cluster the user and session into disjoint clusters. In this paper, an effective approach is presented for Web personalization based on an Advanced Apriori algorithm. It is used to select the user interested web directories. The proposed method is compared with the existing web personalization methods like Objective Probabilistic Directory Miner (OPDM, Objective Community Directory Miner (OCDM and Objective Clustering and Probabilistic Directory Miner (OCPDM. The result shows that the proposed approach provides better results than the aforementioned existing approaches. At last, an application is developed with the user interested directories and web usage details.

  10. Commentary: discovering a different model of medical student education. (United States)

    Watson, Robert T


    Traditional medical schools in modern academic health centers make discoveries, create new knowledge and technology, provide innovative care to the sickest patients, and educate future academic and practicing physicians. Unfortunately, the growth of the research and clinical care missions has sometimes resulted in a loss of emphasis on the general professional education of medical students. The author concludes that it may not be practical for many established medical schools to functionally return to the reason they were created: for the education of medical students.He had the opportunity to discover a different model of medical student education at the first new MD-granting medical school created in the United States in 25 years (in 2000), the Florida State University College of Medicine. He was initially skeptical about how its distributed regional campuses model, using practicing primary care physicians to help medical students learn in mainly ambulatory settings, could be effective. But his experience as a faculty member at the school convinced him that the model works very well.He proposes a better alignment of form and function for many established medical schools and an extension of the regional community-based model to the formation of community-based primary care graduate medical education programs determined by physician workforce needs and available resources.

  11. Effect of antihypertensive treatment on progression of incipient diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Cramer; Mogensen, C E


    of urinary albumin excretion before and during 2.6 years +/- 1.0 (SD) of treatment. The blood pressure was depressed by the treatment (systolic blood pressure from 135 mm Hg +/- 8.6 to 124 mm Hg +/- 6.2, NS; mean blood pressure from 107 mm Hg +/- 7.6 to 97 mm Hg +/- 3.4, 2p less than 0.05; diastolic blood......The aim of the study was to clarify whether antihypertensive treatment with a selective beta blocker would have an effect on the progression rate of kidney disease in patients with incipient diabetic nephropathy. Six male patients with juvenile-onset diabetes with incipient nephropathy (urinary...... albumin excretion above 15 micrograms/min and total protein excretion below 0.5 g/24 hr) were treated with metoprolol (200 mg daily). At the start of the antihypertensive treatment the mean age was 32 years +/- 4.2 (SD). The patients were followed a mean 5.4 years +/- 3.1 (SD) with repeated measurements...

  12. Carburizing treatment of low alloy steels: Effect of technological parameters (United States)

    Benarioua, Younes


    The surface areas of the parts subjected to mechanical loads influence to a great extent the resistance to wear and fatigue. In majority of cases, producing of a hard superficial layer on a tough substrate is conducive to an increased resistance to mechanical wear and fatigue. Cementation treatment of low alloy steels which bonds superficial martensitic layer of high hardness and lateral compressive to a core of lower hardness and greater toughness is an example of a good solution of the problem. The high hardness of the martensitic layer is due to an increased concentration of interstitial carbon atoms in the austenite before quenching. The lower hardness of the core after quenching is due to the presence of ferrite and pearlite components which appear if the cooling rate after austenitization becomes lower than the critical on. The objective of the present study was to obtain a cemented surface layer on low alloy steel by means of pack carburizing treatment. Different steel grades, austenitization temperatures as well as different soaking times were used as parameters of the pack carburizing treatment. During this treatment, carbon atoms from the pack powder diffuse toward the steels surface and form compounds of iron carbides. The effect of carburizing parameters on the transformation rate of low carbon surface layer of the low alloy steel to the cemented one was investigated by several analytical techniques.

  13. Effectiveness of multiple sclerosis treatment with current immunomodulatory drugs. (United States)

    Milo, Ron


    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the CNS of a putative autoimmune origin characterized by neurologic dysfunction disseminated in space and time due to demyelination and axonal loss that results in progressive disability. Recent advances in understanding the immune pathogenesis of the disease resulted in the introduction of numerous effective immunomodulatoty drugs having diverse mechanisms of action, modes of administration and risk-benefit profiles. This results in more complex albeit more promising treatment selection and choices. The epidemiology, clinical features, pathogenesis and diagnosis of the disease are discussed. The mode of action and main characteristics of current immunomodulatory drugs for MS and their place in the therapeutic algorithm of the disease based on evidence from clinical trials are described. Speculation on new paradigms, treatment goals and outcome measures aimed at improving the landscape of MS treatment is presented. Multiple disease, drug and patient-related factors should be taken into consideration when selecting the appropriate drug and treatment strategy to the appropriate patient, thus paving the road for personalized medicine in MS.

  14. Treatment effects for dysphagia in Parkinson's disease: a systematic review. (United States)

    van Hooren, M R A; Baijens, L W J; Voskuilen, S; Oosterloo, M; Kremer, B


    Dysphagia remains a common problem in Parkinson's disease (PD). Previous systematic reviews on therapy effects for oropharyngeal dysphagia in PD have shown a lack of evidence. In the past 5 years several placebo or sham-controlled trials with varying results have been published. The aim of this systematic literature review is to summarize and qualitatively analyze the published studies on this matter. Studies published up to December 2013 were found via a systematic comprehensive electronic database search using PubMed, Embase, and The Cochrane Library. Two reviewers independently assessed the studies using strict inclusion criteria. Twelve studies were included and qualitatively analyzed using critical appraisal items. The review includes rehabilitative (exercises, electrical stimulation, bolus modification etc.) and pharmacologic treatment. Some well-designed controlled trials were included. However, none of the included studies fulfilled all criteria for external and internal validity. A meta-analysis was not carried out as most of the studies were not of sufficient quality to warrant doing so. Expiratory Muscle Strength Training (EMST) and Video-Assisted Swallowing Therapy (VAST) may be effective dysphagia treatments solely or in addition to dopaminergic therapy for PD. However, these preliminary results warrant further investigation concerning their clinical applicability, and further research should be based on randomized sham-controlled trials to determine the effectiveness and long-term effects of different therapies for dysphagia in PD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Long-term effectiveness of psychodynamic outpatient treatment of addiction]. (United States)

    Steffen, D V; Werle, L; Steffen, R; Steffen, M; Steffen, S


    The aim of this study is to make an evaluation of the effectiveness of long-term outpatient treatment for addiction on the basis of abstinence, cognitive functions, and changes in personality structure. This is a prospective cohort study of 259 patients with registration of the German core data set "addiction", a 12-month follow-up and neuropsychological testing (personality inventory, intelligence and cognitive functions). One year after the end of the long-term treatment we see an abstinence rate (DGSS4) of 57.5 %. The most substantial factors in abstinence are the participation in a self-help-group (β = 0.734, p addiction seem to show its high effectiveness in terms of abstinence and processing of drug structures. The cognitive functions could increase. This could be determinate of a condition for the conservation and restoration of working capacity. Further studies should differentiate the effect of insight into the dependency structure from the abstinence as an specific or unspecific effect. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Late effects of breast cancer treatment and potentials for rehabilitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewertz, Marianne (Dept. of Oncology, Odense Univ. Hospital, Odense (Denmark)); Bonde Jensen, Anders (Inst. of Clinical Research, Univ. of Southern Denmark (Denmark))


    Background. Breast cancer is the most frequent malignant disease among women world wide. Survival has been improving leading to an increasing number of breast cancer survivors, in the US estimated to about 2.6 million. Material and methods. The literature was reviewed with focus on data from the Nordic countries. Results. Local therapies such as breast cancer surgery and radiotherapy may cause persistent pain in the breast area, arm, and shoulder reported by 30-50% of patients after three to five years, lymphedema in 15-25% of patients, and restrictions of arm and shoulder movement in 35%. Physiotherapy is the standard treatment for the latter while no pain intervention trials have been published. Chemotherapy may cause infertility and premature menopause, resulting in vasomotor symptoms, sexual dysfunction, and osteoporosis, which are similar to the side effects of endocrine treatment in postmenopausal women. Awareness of cardiotoxicity is needed since anthracyclines, trastuzumab, and radiotherapy can damage the heart. Breast cancer survivors have an increased risk of a major depression and far from all receive adequate anti-depressive treatment. Other psychological symptoms include fear of recurrence, sleep disturbances, cognitive problems, fatigue, and sexual problems. Discussion. To improve rehabilitation, specific goals have to be formulated into national guidelines and high priority directed towards research into developing and testing new interventions for alleviating symptoms and side effects experienced by breast cancer survivors

  17. Effect of Ursodeoxycolicacid in Treatment of Bile Gastritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kazem Nezam


    Full Text Available Background: Bile gastritis (gastropathy is a kind of gastritis which is caused by reflux of bile contents through duodenum on stomach. It can occur spontaneously without any former gastric surgeries which affect sphincter of pylorus. The positive impact of some certain drugs such as prokinetic agents e.g. metoclopramide, Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs, cholestyramine and sucralfate in treating bile gastritis has been confirmed. This study has been conducted in order to analyze the effect of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA, which is a harmless drug, on patients with the bile gastritis. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial, all patients with dyspepsia who were qualified to undertake endoscopy were enrolled and then 60 patients with bile gastritis were selected for the study. The patients were divided into two groups; a group was treated by UDCA, omeprazole and sucralfate and another one was treated with placebo, omeprazole and sucralfate for two weeks. Finally, at the end of the third week of treatment patients were examined.Results: A total of sixty 19-70 year-old patients (Mean: 46 years old included in this study. At the end of the study, there was not found any meaningful difference between the two groups in terms of pain intensity, heartburn intensity, severity of bloating, vomiting and early satiety; however, each group independently showed improvement of the mentioned indices after termination of the treatment (p=0.0005.Conclusion: Adding UDCA to the standard treatment (sucralfate is not clinically effective in curing the bile gastritis.

  18. Late effects of breast cancer treatment and potentials for rehabilitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewertz, Marianne; Bonde Jensen, Anders


    Background. Breast cancer is the most frequent malignant disease among women world wide. Survival has been improving leading to an increasing number of breast cancer survivors, in the US estimated to about 2.6 million. Material and methods. The literature was reviewed with focus on data from the Nordic countries. Results. Local therapies such as breast cancer surgery and radiotherapy may cause persistent pain in the breast area, arm, and shoulder reported by 30-50% of patients after three to five years, lymphedema in 15-25% of patients, and restrictions of arm and shoulder movement in 35%. Physiotherapy is the standard treatment for the latter while no pain intervention trials have been published. Chemotherapy may cause infertility and premature menopause, resulting in vasomotor symptoms, sexual dysfunction, and osteoporosis, which are similar to the side effects of endocrine treatment in postmenopausal women. Awareness of cardiotoxicity is needed since anthracyclines, trastuzumab, and radiotherapy can damage the heart. Breast cancer survivors have an increased risk of a major depression and far from all receive adequate anti-depressive treatment. Other psychological symptoms include fear of recurrence, sleep disturbances, cognitive problems, fatigue, and sexual problems. Discussion. To improve rehabilitation, specific goals have to be formulated into national guidelines and high priority directed towards research into developing and testing new interventions for alleviating symptoms and side effects experienced by breast cancer survivors

  19. The stochastic system approach for estimating dynamic treatments effect. (United States)

    Commenges, Daniel; Gégout-Petit, Anne


    The problem of assessing the effect of a treatment on a marker in observational studies raises the difficulty that attribution of the treatment may depend on the observed marker values. As an example, we focus on the analysis of the effect of a HAART on CD4 counts, where attribution of the treatment may depend on the observed marker values. This problem has been treated using marginal structural models relying on the counterfactual/potential response formalism. Another approach to causality is based on dynamical models, and causal influence has been formalized in the framework of the Doob-Meyer decomposition of stochastic processes. Causal inference however needs assumptions that we detail in this paper and we call this approach to causality the "stochastic system" approach. First we treat this problem in discrete time, then in continuous time. This approach allows incorporating biological knowledge naturally. When working in continuous time, the mechanistic approach involves distinguishing the model for the system and the model for the observations. Indeed, biological systems live in continuous time, and mechanisms can be expressed in the form of a system of differential equations, while observations are taken at discrete times. Inference in mechanistic models is challenging, particularly from a numerical point of view, but these models can yield much richer and reliable results.

  20. How to improve effectiveness of pegvisomant treatment in acromegalic patients. (United States)

    Ragonese, M; Grottoli, S; Maffei, P; Alibrandi, A; Ambrosio, M R; Arnaldi, G; Bianchi, A; Puglisi, S; Zatelli, M C; De Marinis, L; Ghigo, E; Giustina, A; Maffezzoni, F; Martini, C; Trementino, L; Cannavo, S


    Pegvisomant (PEGV) treatment in acromegaly patients resistant to somatostatin analogues is less effective in the real life than in clinical trials. This is a multicenter, observational, retrospective, longitudinal study. The aim was to detect characteristics which improve long-term PEGV effectiveness. 87 acromegalic patients treated with PEGV have been enrolled in seven referral Italian centres. PEGV was administered for up to 4 years, at doses up titrated until IGF-1 normalization or to ≥ 30 mg/day. The rate of patients who reached IGF-1 normalization at last visit has been calculated. IGF-1 was normalized in 75.9% of patients after 1 year and in 89.6% at last visit. Disease control was associated with lower baseline GH, IGF-1 and IGF-1 xULN and was more frequent when baseline IGF-1 was  2.7 × ULN (p  1.0 mg/BMI/day were administered more frequently when baseline IGF-1 was > 2.0 × ULN (p = 0.03). PEGV resistance was associated with higher BMI (p = 0.006) and was more frequent when BMI was > 30 kg/m 2 (p = 0.07). There were no significant differences between patients treated with monotherapy or combined treatment. IGF-1 normalization, PEGV dose and rate of associated treatment were similar between males and females. PEGV effectiveness was independent from previous management. Diabetic patients needed higher doses of PEGV than non-diabetic ones. PEGV effectiveness improves when up titration is appropriate. Higher PEGV doses at start and a more rapid up-titration are necessary in patients with obesity and/or IGF-1 > 2.7 × ULN.

  1. Effect of pioglitazone treatment on behavioral symptoms in autistic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edelson Stephen M


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Autism is complex neuro-developmental disorder which has a symptomatic diagnosis in patients characterized by disorders in language/communication, behavior, and social interactions. The exact causes for autism are largely unknown, but is has been speculated that immune and inflammatory responses, particularly those of Th2 type, may be involved. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs are agonists of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ, a nuclear hormone receptor which modulates insulin sensitivity, and have been shown to induce apoptosis in activated T-lymphocytes and exert anti-inflammatory effects in glial cells. The TZD pioglitazone (Actos is an FDA-approved PPARγ agonist used to treat type 2 diabetes, with a good safety profile, currently being tested in clinical trials of other neurological diseases including AD and MS. We therefore tested the safety and therapeutic potential of oral pioglitazone in a small cohort of children with diagnosed autism. Case description The rationale and risks of taking pioglitazone were explained to the parents, consent was obtained, and treatment was initiated at either 30 or 60 mg per day p.o. A total of 25 children (average age 7.9 ± 0.7 year old were enrolled. Safety was assessed by measurements of metabolic profiles and blood pressure; effects on behavioral symptoms were assessed by the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC, which measures hyperactivity, inappropriate speech, irritability, lethargy, and stereotypy, done at baseline and after 3–4 months of treatment. Discussion and evaluation In a small cohort of autistic children, daily treatment with 30 or 60 mg p.o. pioglitazone for 3–4 months induced apparent clinical improvement without adverse events. There were no adverse effects noted and behavioral measurements revealed a significant decrease in 4 out of 5 subcategories (irritability, lethargy, stereotypy, and hyperactivity. Improved behaviors were inversely

  2. Implicit and Explicit Attitudes Toward Spiders : Sensitivity to Treatment and Predictive Value for Generalization of Treatment Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijding, Jorg; de Jong, Peter J.

    This study tested whether high spider fearful individuals' implicit and explicit attitudes toward spiders are sensitive to exposure treatment, and whether post-treatment implicit and/or explicit attitudes are related to the generalization of treatment effects. Self-reported explicit and implicit

  3. Heat treatment effect on ductility of nickel-base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnakov, K.K.; Khasin, G.A.; Danilov, V.F.; Oshchepkov, B.V.; Listkova, A.I.


    Causes of low ductility of the KhN75MBTYu and KhN78T alloys were studied along with the heat treatment effects. Samples were tested at 20, 900, 1100, 1200 deg C. Large amount of inclusions was found in intercrystalline fractures of the above low-ductile alloys. The inclusions of two types took place: (α-Al 2 O 3 , FeO(Cr 2 O 3 xAl 2 O 3 )) dendrite-like ones and large-size laminated SiO 2 , FeO,(CrFe) 2 O 3 inclusions situated as separate colonies. Heat treatment of the alloys does not increase high-temperature impact strength and steel ductility. The heating above 1000 deg C leads to a partial dissolution and coagulation of film inclusions which results in an impact strength increase at room temperature

  4. Effect of multiple austenitizing treatments on HT-9 steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emigh, R.A.


    The effect of multiple austenitizing treatments on the toughness of an Fe-12Cr-1.0Mo-0.5W-0.3V (HT-9) steel was studied. The resulting microstructures were characterized by their mechanical properties, precipitated carbide distribution, and fracture surface appearance. It was proposed that multiple transformations would refine the martensite structure and improve toughness. Optical and scanning electron microscopic observations revealed that the martensite packet structure was somewhat refined by a second austenite transformation. Transmission electron microscopy studies of carbon extraction replicas showed that this multiple step treatment had eliminated grain boundary carbide films seen in single treated specimens on prior austenite grain boundaries. The 0.2% yield strength, tensile strength, and elongation were relatively unchanged, but the toughness measured by fatigue pre-cracked Charpy impact tests increased for the multiple step specimens

  5. Vanadium and heat treatments effect on elastic characteristics of niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'eva, E.V.; Tret'yakov, V.I.; Prokoshkin, D.A.; Pustovalov, V.A.


    The effect of vanadium content and of heat treatment conditions on the elastic properties of niobium at temperatures of 20 to 800 deg C was studied. Nb-V alloys were produced by binary vacuum remelting. The Nb-V alloys have been then subjected to thermal treatment. The total degree of deformation amounts to about 95%. The specimens were tested with a view to determine their microhardness, specific electric resistance, elasticity limit and modulus of elasticity. The elastic limit of niobium rises when alloyed with vanadium. With the increase of vanadium content the elastic limit of the alloy becomes greater. Pre-crystallization annealing at 600 - 700 deg C considerably increases the elastic limit, which is explained by development of the thermally activated processes leading to a decrease of dislocation mobility and thereby to a strengthening of the alloy

  6. Effect of metal oxide nanoparticles on Godavari river water treatment (United States)

    Goud, Ravi Kumar; Ajay Kumar, V.; Reddy, T. Rakesh; Vinod, B.; Shravani, S.


    Nowadays there is a continuously increasing worldwide concern for the development of water treatment technologies. In the area of water purification, nanotechnology offers the possibility of an efficient removal of pollutants and germs. Nanomaterials reveal good results than other techniques used in water treatment because of its high surface area to volume ratio. In the present work, iron oxide and copper oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by simple heating method. The synthesized nanoparticles were used to purify Godavari river water. The effect of nanoparticles at 70°C temperature, 12 centimeter of sand bed height and pH of 8 shows good results as compared to simple sand bed filter. The attained values of BOD5, COD and Turbidity were in permissible limit of world health organization.

  7. Effect of hyperthyroidism and its treatment on bone mineral content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toh, S.H.; Claunch, B.C.; Brown, P.H.


    Patients with hyperthyroidism may develop osteopenia associated with fractures; however, there has been no general agreement on the incidence of osteopenia in hyperthyroidism or the recovery of the mineral loss after treatment of hyperthyroidism. The authors conducted a longitudinal prospective study on the effect of hyperthyroidism and its treatment on bone mineral content (BMC) using photon absorptiometry. They observed that both young and older hyperthyroid patients showed a significantly decreased baseline BMC compared with age- and sex-matched controls. They also observed a slight recovery of BMC in hyperthyroid patients at the two-year interval after a euthyroid state had been achieved. However, the BMC was still much lower than that of controls, and they did not find any significant restoration of BMC following ''cure'' of hyperthyroidism

  8. Effect of systemic insulin treatment on diabetic wound healing. (United States)

    Vatankhah, Nasibeh; Jahangiri, Younes; Landry, Gregory J; Moneta, Gregory L; Azarbal, Amir F


    This study investigates if different diabetic treatment regimens affect diabetic foot ulcer healing. From January 2013 to December 2014, 107 diabetic foot ulcers in 85 patients were followed until wound healing, amputation or development of a nonhealing ulcer at the last follow-up visit. Demographic data, diabetic treatment regimens, presence of peripheral vascular disease, wound characteristics, and outcome were collected. Nonhealing wound was defined as major or minor amputation or those who did not have complete healing until the last observation. Median age was 60.0 years (range: 31.1-90.1 years) and 58 cases (68.2%) were males. Twenty-four cases reached a complete healing (healing rate: 22.4%). The median follow-up period in subjects with classified as having chronic wounds was 6.0 months (range: 0.7-21.8 months). Insulin treatment was a part of diabetes management in 52 (61.2%) cases. Insulin therapy significantly increased the wound healing rate (30.3% [20/66 ulcers] vs. 9.8% [4/41 ulcers]) (p = 0.013). In multivariate random-effect logistic regression model, adjusting for age, gender, smoking status, type of diabetes, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, peripheral arterial disease, oral hypoglycemic use, wound infection, involved side, presence of Charcot's deformity, gangrene, osteomyelitis on x-ray, and serum hemoglobin A1C levels, insulin treatment was associated with a higher chance of complete healing (beta ± SE: 15.2 ± 6.1, p = 0.013). Systemic insulin treatment can improve wound healing in diabetic ulcers after adjusting for multiple confounding covariates. © 2017 by the Wound Healing Society.

  9. Gingival enlargement in orthodontic patients: Effect of treatment duration. (United States)

    Pinto, Alice Souza; Alves, Luana Severo; Zenkner, Júlio Eduardo do Amaral; Zanatta, Fabrício Batistin; Maltz, Marisa


    In this study, we aimed to assess the effect of the duration of fixed orthodontic treatment on gingival enlargement (GE) in adolescents and young adults. The sample consisted of 260 subjects (ages, 10-30 years) divided into 4 groups: patients with no fixed orthodontic appliances (G0) and patients undergoing orthodontic treatment for 1 year (G1), 2 years (G2), or 3 years (G3). Participants completed a structured questionnaire on sociodemographic characteristics and oral hygiene habits. Clinical examinations were conducted by a calibrated examiner and included the plaque index, the gingival index, and the Seymour index. Poisson regression models were used to assess the association between group and GE. We observed increasing means of plaque, gingivitis, and GE in G0, G1, and G2. No significant differences were observed between G2 and G3. Adjusted Poisson regression analysis showed that patients undergoing orthodontic treatment had a 20 to 28-fold increased risk for GE than did those without orthodontic appliances (G1, rate ratio [RR] = 20.2, 95% CI = 9.0-45.3; G2, RR = 27.0, 95% CI = 12.1-60.3; G3 = 28.1; 95% CI = 12.6-62.5). The duration of orthodontic treatment significantly influenced the occurrence of GE. Oral hygiene instructions and motivational activities should target adolescents and young adults undergoing orthodontic treatment. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effectiveness of the Community Treatment Order in streamlining psychiatric services. (United States)

    Awara, Mahmoud A; Jaffar, Khalid; Roberts, Pauline


    The implementation of the Community Treatment Order (CTO) has created controversy surrounding its beneficence. The study aims at examining the effectiveness of the CTO in reducing the rate and duration of revolving door admissions for patients who were made subject to this Order. All patients who were made subject to CTO between November 2008 and August 2009 in South Essex were involved in the study where patients acted as their own control through comparing their pre-CTO, during CTO and post-CTO's admission rate and duration. There was a significant reduction in the rate and duration of admissions in the period during and post-CTO state. The CTO proved to be effective in reducing revolving door admissions and it has a beneficial carryover effect in the post-CTO state.

  11. Problematic effects of antibiotics on anaerobic treatment of swine wastewater. (United States)

    Cheng, D L; Ngo, H H; Guo, W S; Chang, S W; Nguyen, D D; Kumar, S Mathava; Du, B; Wei, Q; Wei, D


    Swine wastewaters with high levels of organic pollutants and antibiotics have become serious environmental concerns. Anaerobic technology is a feasible option for swine wastewater treatment due to its advantage in low costs and bioenergy production. However, antibiotics in swine wastewater have problematic effects on micro-organisms, and the stability and performance of anaerobic processes. Thus, this paper critically reviews impacts of antibiotics on pH, COD removal efficiencies, biogas and methane productions as well as the accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in the anaerobic processes. Meanwhile, impacts on the structure of bacteria and methanogens in anaerobic processes are also discussed comprehensively. Furthermore, to better understand the effect of antibiotics on anaerobic processes, detailed information about antimicrobial mechanisms of antibiotics and microbial functions in anaerobic processes is also summarized. Future research on deeper knowledge of the effect of antibiotics on anaerobic processes are suggested to reduce their adverse environmental impacts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Diameter sensitive effect in singlewalled carbon nanotubes upon acid treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, S.; Borowiak-Palen, E.


    Singlewalled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) exhibit very unique properties. As an electronic system they undergo amphoteric doping effects (n-type and p-type) which can be reversed. These processes affect the optical and vibronic properties of the carbon nanotubes. The most common and widely used procedure which changes the properties of the SWCNT is acid treatment applied as a purification procedure. This effect has been widely studied but not fully understood so far. Here, we present a study, in which a diameter sensitive effect has been observed. Therefore, two kinds of SWCNT samples have been studied: (i) produced via chemical vapour deposition with a broad diameter distribution, and (ii) synthesised by the laser ablation technique which is commonly known to result in narrow diameter distribution bulk SWCNT samples. Resonance Raman spectroscopy, optical absorption spectroscopy, and Fourier transform middle-infrared spectroscopy have been applied for the characterisation of the samples.

  13. Discovering Influential Users in Social Media to Enhance Effective Advertisement


    Mohammad J. Tarokh; Hosniyeh S. Arian; Omid R. B. Speily


    Recently, companies have attempted to take advantage of social advertising to deliver their advertisements to appropriate Customer. Social network advertising, also social media targeting is a group of terms that are used to describe forms of online advertising that focus on social networking services. One of the major benefit of this type of advertising is that advertisers can take advantage of the users` demographic information and target their ads appropriately. In social advertising ,iden...

  14. Effect of hydrothermal treatment on light transmission of translucent zirconias. (United States)

    Putra, Armand; Chung, Kwok-Hung; Flinn, Brian D; Kuykendall, Tuesday; Zheng, Cheng; Harada, Kosuke; Raigrodski, Ariel J


    Studies of the light transmission of translucent zirconias after hydrothermal treatment are limited. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of hydrothermal treatment on the light transmission of translucent zirconias for monolithic restorations. Four commercially available zirconia products, BruxZir Anterior Solid Zirconia (BruxAnt, BA), Lava Plus High Translucency (LPHT), Katana Zirconia Super Translucent (KST), and Katana Zirconia Ultra Translucent (KUT) were assessed and 1 type of lithium disilicate, e.max Press LT (LDLT) was used as a control. Plate specimens, 20×20×1 mm (n=80) for the translucency assessment were sectioned from postsintered zirconia bulk materials and ground with a #400-grit diamond wheel and coolant. The specimens were placed under hydrothermal conditions of 134°C at 0.2 MPa (n=5 per group at 0, 5, 50, and 100 hours). Percentage of total transmittance of light (T t %) of each specimen was measured using a spectrophotometer with an integrating sphere. X-ray diffraction analyses were used to measure tetragonal-monoclinic phase transformation. Surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometry. Data were analyzed using 2-way ANOVA followed by the Tukey test (α=.05). The T t % ranged from 6.5% to 28.3%. Group LDLT obtained significantly higher transmittance than other tested groups, whereas groups KST and KUT had significantly higher T t % than groups BA and LPHT (Phydrothermal treatment for all tested translucent zirconias and a lithium disilicate glass-ceramic control. Hydrothermal treatment had minimal effects on the translucency of translucent zirconias. The tetragonal-monoclinic phase transformation rate of translucent zirconias was found to be low, except in group LPHT. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effective palliative treatment of epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma of the foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gressen, Eric L.; Rosenstock, Jeffrey G.; Yang Xie; Corn, Benjamin W.


    . Response to treatment was placed into five categories: complete response, partial response, stable, progression or recurrence. A separate review was performed on the 43 treated sites with documentation of response at the completion of radiation treatments and the 35 treated sites with documentation of acute toxicity. RESULTS: The overall response rate for the 40 evaluable sites was 90% with a complete response rate of 78% at a median follow-up of 7 months. The 43 treated sites immediately evaluated at the completion of treatment had a complete response rate of only 16% with an overall response rate of 63%. Of the 35 sites noted to have acute toxicity, 63% experienced discomfort from radiation therapy. This discomfort usually resolved without intervention within 2 weeks of completion of irradiation. For patients with and without opportunistic infections noted at the initiation of radiation treatments, complete responses were observed in (8(12)) sites (67%) and (21(23)) sites (91%), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Radiation therapy for EKS of the foot yields excellent response rates, comparable to responses in other cutaneous sites with EKS. The presence of opportunistic infections appears to be a poor prognosticator of response to radiation treatments. Empathy and support are required in this group of patients since initial responses to radiation therapy are often disappointing and pedal discomfort can be exaccerbated. Fortunately, the discomfort resolves and complete response is achievable in the majority of patients. The 3.5 Gy tri-weekly fractionation schedule is a convenient and effective regimen, lessening treatment visits for patients with ambulatory discomfort

  16. Discovering a Reliable Heat-Shock Factor-1 Inhibitor to Treat Human Cancers: Potential Opportunity for Phytochemists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murugesan Velayutham


    Full Text Available Heat-shock factor-1 (HSF-1 is an important transcription factor that regulates pathogenesis of many human diseases through its extensive transcriptional regulation. Especially, it shows pleiotropic effects in human cancer, and hence it has recently received increased attention of cancer researchers. After myriad investigations on HSF-1, the field has advanced to the phase where there is consensus that finding a potent and selective pharmacological inhibitor for this transcription factor will be a major break-through in the treatment of various human cancers. Presently, all reported inhibitors have their limitations, made evident at different stages of clinical trials. This brief account summarizes the advances with tested natural products as HSF-1 inhibitors and highlights the necessity of phytochemistry in this endeavor of discovering a potent pharmacological HSF-1 inhibitor.

  17. Advanced smart-photosensitizers for more effective cancer treatment. (United States)

    Park, Wooram; Cho, Soojeong; Han, Jieun; Shin, Heejun; Na, Kun; Lee, Byeongdu; Kim, Dong-Hyun


    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) based upon the use of light and photosensitizers (PSs) has been used as a novel treatment approach for a variety of tumors. It, however, has several major limitations in the clinic: poor water solubility, long-term phototoxicity, low tumor targeting efficacy, and limited light penetration. With advances in nanotechnology, materials science, and clinical interventional imaging procedures, various smart-PSs have been developed for improving their cancer-therapeutic efficacy while reducing the adverse effects. Here, we briefly review state-of-the-art smart-PSs and discuss the future directions of PDT technology.

  18. The effects of residential dual diagnosis treatment on alcohol abuse (United States)

    Schoenthaler, Stephen J; Blum, Kenneth; Fried, Lyle; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Giordano, John; Modestino, Edward J.; Badgaiyan, Rajendra


    This multi-center study of dual diagnosis (DD) programs involved 804 residential patients with co-occurring alcohol and mental health disorders. The Addiction Severity Index was administered at admission and at one, six, and 12 months after discharge. Repeated measures analysis showed the intoxication rate per month stabilized between months six and 12 with 68% still in remission and an 88% mean reduction from baseline (F = 519, p treatment of both disorders and explained their effectiveness. Co-occurring DSM IV mood disorders such as anxiety and depression as well as drug abuse involving opioids or cocaine fell between 66 and 95% at months one, six, and twelve. PMID:28868159

  19. Is aggressive treatment of traumatic brain injury cost-effective? (United States)

    Whitmore, Robert G; Thawani, Jayesh P; Grady, M Sean; Levine, Joshua M; Sanborn, Matthew R; Stein, Sherman C


    The object of this study was to determine whether aggressive treatment of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), including invasive intracranial monitoring and decompressive craniectomy, is cost-effective. A decision-analytical model was created to compare costs, outcomes, and cost-effectiveness of 3 strategies for treating a patient with severe TBI. The aggressive-care approach is compared with "routine care," in which Brain Trauma Foundation guidelines are not followed. A "comfort care" category, in which a single day in the ICU is followed by routine floor care, is included for comparison only. Probabilities of each treatment resulting in various Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) scores were obtained from the literature. The GOS scores were converted to quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), based on expected longevity and calculated quality of life associated with each GOS category. Estimated direct (acute and long-term medical care) and indirect (loss of productivity) costs were calculated from the perspective of society. Sensitivity analyses employed a 2D Monte Carlo simulation of 1000 trials, each with 1000 patients. The model was also used to estimate these values for patients 40, 60, and 80 years of age. For the average 20-year-old, aggressive care yields 11.7 (± 1.6 [SD]) QALYs, compared with routine care (10.0 ± 1.5 QALYs). This difference is highly significant (p care remains significantly better at all ages. When all costs are considered, aggressive care is also significantly less costly than routine care ($1,264,000 ± $118,000 vs $1,361,000 ± $107,000) for the average 20-year-old. Aggressive care remains significantly less costly until age 80, at which age it costs more than routine care. However, even in the 80-year-old, aggressive care is likely the more cost-effective approach. Comfort care is associated with poorer outcomes at all ages and with higher costs for all groups except 80-year-olds. When all the costs of severe TBI are considered, aggressive

  20. Alternate day treatment and late effects: The concept of an effective dose per fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courdi, A.; Hery, M.; Gabillat, J.M.


    Although most institutions treat all fields each day, some radiotherapists continue to adopt an alternate day schedule. The resulting daily variations of the dose per fraction in laterally located targets have been analyzed using the linear-quadratic model. Patients with breast carcinoma treated with definitive radiotherapy in 1974-1975 with one field a day were studied. An effective dose per fraction was derived, with a value higher than the average dose per fraction received by the reference point. The greater the fluctuations between the doses per fraction on successive days, the higher the effective dose per fraction. The corresponding cell survival due to alternate treatment as compared to survival with daily treatment depends on the alpha/beta ratio. For a late effect with low alpha/beta ratio, an alternate treatment may lead to almost 10-fold increase in cell kill in these lateral targets such as those responsible for subcutaneous sclerosis as compared to daily treatment of all fields with the same total dose. Taking the average effective dose per fraction in our series, the increase in cell kill was 4-fold. Acute effects would suffer less damage due to alternate treatment because of a high alpha/beta ratio. Treatment on an alternate schedule should be restricted to palliative radiotherapy

  1. Effect of microalgal treatments on pesticides in water. (United States)

    Hultberg, Malin; Bodin, Hristina; Ardal, Embla; Asp, Håkan


    The effect of the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris on a wide range of different pesticides in water was studied. Treatments included short-term exposure (1 h) to living and dead microalgal biomass and long-term exposure (4 days) to actively growing microalgae. The initial pesticide concentration was 63.5 ± 3.9 µg L(-1). There was no significant overall reduction of pesticides after short-term exposure. A significant reduction of the total amount of pesticides was achieved after the long-term exposure to growing microalgae (final concentration 29.7 ± 1.0 µg L(-1)) compared with the long-term control (37.0 ± 1.2 µg L(-1)). The concentrations of 10 pesticides out of 38 tested were significantly lowered in the long-term algal treatment. A high impact of abiotic factors such as sunlight and aeration for pesticide reduction was observed when the initial control (63.5 ± 3.9 µg L(-1)) and the long-term control (37.0 ± 1.2 µg L(-1)) were compared. The results suggest that water treatment using microalgae, natural inhabitants of polluted surface waters, could be further explored not only for removal of inorganic nutrients but also for removal of organic pollutants in water.

  2. Physicochemical treatments of anionic surfactants wastewater: Effect on aerobic biodegradability. (United States)

    Aloui, Fathi; Kchaou, Sonia; Sayadi, Sami


    The effect of different physicochemical treatments on the aerobic biodegradability of an industrial wastewater resulting from a cosmetic industry has been investigated. This industrial wastewater contains 11423 and 3148mgL(-1) of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and anionic surfactants, respectively. The concentration of COD and anionic surfactants were followed throughout the diverse physicochemical treatments and biodegradation experiments. Different pretreatments of this industrial wastewater using chemical flocculation process with lime and aluminium sulphate (alum), and also advanced oxidation process (electro-coagulation (Fe and Al) and electro-Fenton) led to important COD and anionic surfactants removals. The best results were obtained using electro-Fenton process, exceeding 98 and 80% of anionic surfactants and COD removals, respectively. The biological treatment by an isolated strain Citrobacter braakii of the surfactant wastewater, as well as the pretreated wastewater by the various physicochemical processes used in this study showed that the best results were obtained with electro-Fenton pretreated wastewater. The characterization of the treated surfactant wastewater by the integrated process (electro-coagulation or electro-Fenton)-biological showed that it respects Tunisian discharge standards.

  3. Treatment of neuroblastoma with metaiodobenzylguanidine: results and side effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treuner, J.; Klingebiel, T.; Bruchelt, G.; Feine, U.; Niethammer, D.


    Between April 1984 and December 1985 we treated ten children suffering from neuroblastoma in a total of 25 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) courses. Five had had a relapse of neuroblastoma stage III or IV, three had never achieved a remission in spite of intensive chemotherapy, and two were treated with an unstable remission. The children were each administered from 1 to 5 courses with a dosage per course of between 1295 and 9065 MBq. The sum of the single doses during the whole course of therapy ranged between 3145 and 21,904 MBq per child. Five of five children suffering from bone pain and fever became free of complaints during the first three treatment days. Six of eight children with manifest tumor at onset of therapy responded well to the treatment: response extended from transitory decrease in elevated catecholamine levels in serum and urine to complete disappearance of large abdominal tumor masses. We also observed a decrease in bone marrow involvement and a stabilization of osteolytic lesions. Seven of these eight children died in spite of a good response from 55 to 350 days after the first MIBG treatment course. The only side effect we witnessed was a reversible bone marrow depression. In three children we combined the MIBG therapy with bone marrow transplantation

  4. Effects of spot parameters in pencil beam scanning treatment planning. (United States)

    Kraan, Aafke Christine; Depauw, Nicolas; Clasie, Ben; Giunta, Marina; Madden, Tom; Kooy, Hanne M


    Spot size σ (in air at isocenter), interspot spacing d, and spot charge q influence dose delivery efficiency and plan quality in Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy (IMPT) treatment planning. The choice and range of parameters varies among different manufacturers. The goal of this work is to demonstrate the influence of the spot parameters on dose quality and delivery in IMPT treatment plans, to show their interdependence, and to make practitioners aware of the spot parameter values for a certain facility. Our study could help as a guideline to make the trade-off between treatment quality and time in existing PBS centers and in future systems. We created plans for seven patients and a phantom, with different tumor sites and volumes, and compared the effect of small-, medium-, and large-spot widths (σ = 2.5, 5, and 10 mm) and interspot distances (1σ, 1.5σ, and 1.75σ) on dose, spot charge, and treatment time. Moreover, we quantified how postplanning charge threshold cuts affect plan quality and the total number of spots to deliver, for different spot widths and interspot distances. We show the effect of a minimum charge (or MU) cutoff value for a given proton delivery system. Spot size had a strong influence on dose: larger spots resulted in more protons delivered outside the target region. We observed dose differences of 2-13 Gy (RBE) between 2.5 mm and 10 mm spots, where the amount of extra dose was due to dose penumbra around the target region. Interspot distance had little influence on dose quality for our patient group. Both parameters strongly influence spot charge in the plans and thus the possible impact of postplanning charge threshold cuts. If such charge thresholds are not included in the treatment planning system (TPS), it is important that the practitioner validates that a given combination of lower charge threshold, interspot spacing, and spot size does not result in a plan degradation. Low average spot charge occurs for small spots, small interspot

  5. Effects of 3% trehalose as an adjuvant treatment after LASIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateo Orobia AJ


    Full Text Available Antonio J Mateo Orobia,1–3 Paula Casas Pascual,1,4 José Á Cristóbal Bescós,1 Diana Perez García,1,4 Carlos Peiro Embid,1,4 M Ángeles del Buey Sayas,1,4 Valentyna Korobko Kulikova,1 Noelia Lafuente Ojeda5 1Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital Quirón, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital Universitario Miguel Servet, 3Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Aragón (IIS, 4Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital Clínico Universitario Lozano-Blesa, 5Department of Anesthesiology, Hospital Universitario Miguel Servet, Zaragoza, Spain Purpose: To evaluate the effect of 3% trehalose as an adjuvant in the standard treatment after laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis.Design: Interventional prospective comparative single-blind study.Setting: Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital Quirón Zaragoza, Spain.Methods: A total of 26 eyes (13 patients were included, of which 12 eyes (group 1 received conventional treatment with lubricant drops of hyaluronic acid (0.15% and 14 eyes (group 2 received, additionally, an ophthalmic solution of 3% trehalose. Pre- and postoperative quality-of-life tests and vital stains, tear breakup time, and osmolarity measurements were made.Results: We obtained statistically significant differences between the groups in the Symptom Assessment in Dry Eye test in all visits with respect to severity, and in the postoperative day 1 visit with respect to frequency, in all cases favoring the trehalose treatment. The values of osmolarity were not significantly different between groups. However, we did find significant differences in the Oxford scale in day 90 for the trehalose treatment (P<0.001, and in the National Eye Institute scale in day 30 (P=0.02.Conclusion: The results of this exploratory study indicate that the adjuvant treatment with 3% trehalose could be superior with respect to the standard treatment, with improvements in the objective and subjective parameters of tear quality. Keywords: dry eye syndrome, trehalose


    Boj-Carceller, Diana; Sanz-París, Alejandro; Sánchez-Oriz, Enrique; García-Foncillas López, Rafael; Calmarza-Calmarza, Pilar; Blay-Cortes, Vicente; Abós-Olivares, Ma Dolores


    subclinical hyperthyroidism (SHT) is associated with harmful effects on cardiovascular system, bone metabolism and progression to clinical hyperthyroidism. Loss of weight is a common fact in patients with clinical hyperthyroidism and of particular relevance in elderly patients. to assess changes in body composition after radioiodine therapy for SHT due to toxic nodular goiter. prospective controlled cohort study. Patients with persistent SHT due to toxic nodular goiter were purposed to receive treatment with radioiodine (treatment group) or to delay treatment until the study was over (control group). All treated patients received 555 MBq of ¹³¹I. Body composition (lean mass, fat mass and bone mineral content) was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) at baseline and 12 months after. twenty-nine patients were studied (age 69.5 ± 11.5; 75.9% women; BMI 27.1 ± 5.7 kg/m²; serum thyrotropin (TSH) 0.20 ± 0.21 μUI/mL; serum free thyroxine (T4) 1.01 ± 0.19 ng/dL), 17 belonging to the treatment group and 12 to the control group. Study groups were comparable, although there was a trend for the treatment group to have more fat mass. No longitudinal changes in body composition were noted in either group, except for a trend to gain fat mass. However, when individuals with age > 65 years were selected, only patients who received radioiodine therapy showed a significant increase in body weight (from 64.1 ± 10.0 to 66.9 ± 9.2 kg), BMI (from 27.3 ± 4.8 to 28.7 ± 4.5 kg/m²), fat mass (from 26.1 ± 8.5 to 27.8 ± 7.9 kg), lean mass (from 36.3 ± 0.4 to 37.4 ± 0.4 kg) and skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) (from 6.0 ± 0.6 to 6.3 ± 0.6 kg/m²). treatment of SHT has impact on body composition in subjects older than 65 years. Weight gain reflects increases in fat and, more interestingly, in lean mass. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of hydroxyurea treatment for patients with hemoglobin SC disease. (United States)

    Luchtman-Jones, Lori; Pressel, Sara; Hilliard, Lee; Brown, R Clark; Smith, Mary G; Thompson, Alexis A; Lee, Margaret T; Rothman, Jennifer; Rogers, Zora R; Owen, William; Imran, Hamayun; Thornburg, Courtney; Kwiatkowski, Janet L; Aygun, Banu; Nelson, Stephen; Roberts, Carla; Gauger, Cynthia; Piccone, Connie; Kalfa, Theodosia; Alvarez, Ofelia; Hassell, Kathryn; Davis, Barry R; Ware, Russell E


    Although hemoglobin SC (HbSC) disease is usually considered less severe than sickle cell anemia (SCA), which includes HbSS and HbS/β(0) -thalassemia genotypes, many patients with HbSC experience severe disease complications, including vaso-occlusive pain, acute chest syndrome, avascular necrosis, retinopathy, and poor quality of life. Fully 20 years after the clinical and laboratory efficacy of hydroxyurea was proven in adult SCA patients, the safety and utility of hydroxyurea treatment for HbSC patients remain unclear. Recent NHLBI evidence-based guidelines highlight this as a critical knowledge gap, noting HbSC accounts for ∼30% of sickle cell patients within the United States. To date, only 5 publications have reported short-term, incomplete, or conflicting laboratory and clinical outcomes of hydroxyurea treatment in a total of 71 adults and children with HbSC. We now report on a cohort of 133 adult and pediatric HbSC patients who received hydroxyurea, typically for recurrent vaso-occlusive pain. Hydroxyurea treatment was associated with a stable hemoglobin concentration; increased fetal hemoglobin (HbF) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV); and reduced white blood cell count (WBC), absolute neutrophil count (ANC), and absolute reticulocyte count (ARC). Reversible cytopenias occurred in 22% of patients, primarily neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. Painful events were reduced with hydroxyurea, more in patients >15 years old. These multicenter data support the safety and potentially salutary effects of hydroxyurea treatment for HbSC disease; however, a multicenter, placebo-controlled, Phase 3 clinical trial is needed to determine if hydroxyurea therapy has efficacy for patients with HbSC disease. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Incidental treatment effects of CBT on suicidal ideation and hopelessness. (United States)

    Handley, Tonelle E; Kay-Lambkin, Frances J; Baker, Amanda L; Lewin, Terry J; Kelly, Brian J; Inder, Kerry J; Attia, John R; Kavanagh, David J


    Depression and alcohol misuse are among the most prevalent diagnoses in suicide fatalities. The risk posed by these disorders is exacerbated when they co-occur. Limited research has evaluated the effectiveness of common depression and alcohol treatments for the reduction of suicide vulnerability in individuals experiencing comorbidity. Participants with depressive symptoms and hazardous alcohol use were selected from two randomised controlled trials. They had received either a brief (1 session) intervention, or depression-focused cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT), alcohol-focused CBT, therapist-delivered integrated CBT, computer-delivered integrated CBT or person-centred therapy (PCT) over a 10-week period. Suicidal ideation, hopelessness, depression severity and alcohol consumption were assessed at baseline and 12-month follow-up. Three hundred three participants were assessed at baseline and 12 months. Both suicidal ideation and hopelessness were associated with higher severity of depressive symptoms, but not with alcohol consumption. Suicidal ideation did not improve significantly at follow-up, with no differences between treatment conditions. Improvements in hopelessness differed between treatment conditions; hopelessness improved more in the CBT conditions compared to PCT and in single-focused CBT compared to integrated CBT. Low retention rates may have impacted on the reliability of our findings. Combining data from two studies may have resulted in heterogeneity of samples between conditions. CBT appears to be associated with reductions in hopelessness in people with co-occurring depression and alcohol misuse, even when it is not the focus of treatment. Less consistent results were observed for suicidal ideation. Establishing specific procedures or therapeutic content for clinicians to monitor these outcomes may result in better management of individuals with higher vulnerability for suicide. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Health effects on nearby residents of a wood treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlgren, James; Warshaw, Raphael; Thornton, John; Anderson-Mahoney, P.M.; Takhar, Harpreet


    Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate the health status of nearby residents of a wood treatment plant who had sustained prolonged low-level environmental exposure to wood processing waste chemicals. Methods: A population of 1269 exposed residents who were plaintiffs or potential plaintiffs in a lawsuit against the wood treatment plant were evaluated by questionnaire for a health history and symptoms. A representative sample of 214 exposed subjects was included in the analysis. One hundred thirty-nine controls were selected from 479 unexposed volunteers and matched to the exposed subjects as closely as possible by gender and age. Subjects and controls completed additional questionnaires and were evaluated by a physician for medical history and physical examination, blood and urine testing, neurophysiological and neuropsychological studies, and respiratory testing. Environmental sampling for wood processing waste chemicals was carried out on soil and drainage ditch sediment in the exposed neighborhood. Results: The exposed subjects had significantly more cancer, respiratory, skin, and neurological health problems than the controls. The subjective responses on questionnaires and by physician histories revealed that the residents had a significantly greater prevalence of mucous membrane irritation, and skin and neurological symptoms, as well as cancer. (Exposed versus unexposed, cancer 10.0% versus 2.08%, bronchitis 17.8% versus 5.8%, and asthma by history 40.5% versus 11.0%) There were significantly more neurophysiologic abnormalities in adults of reaction time, trails A and B, and visual field defects. Conclusions: Adverse health effects were significantly more prevalent in long-term residents near a wood treatment plant than in controls. The results of this study suggest that plant emissions from wood treatment facilities should be reduced

  10. Ribavirin: an effective treatment of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, A.S.


    Objective: To determine the efficiency of Ribavirin, an anti-viral drug, in patients diagnosed to have CCHF. Patients and Methods: A total of 94 cases were included in the study on high index of suspicion of CCHF. The major criteria of admission were a short history of high-grade fever associated with bleeding from more than one site, i.e., haematemesis, epistaxis etc. the mean age was 34.71 plus minus 12.81 years. All the suspected cases were kept in isolation unit of the hospital and barrier nursing was advised. Results: All the 94 cases were sent to CDC, Atlanta, USA for confirmation and 39 (41.4%) were confirmed to have CCHF. Symptomatic treatment like platelet concentration transfusions, fresh-blood transfusions and antipyretics were given to all cases. Oral Ribavirin was given only to the confirmed cases. It was started in a dose of 2 gm initially, followed by 1 gm 6 hourly for 4 days and then 500 mg 8 hours for 6 days. After a mean period of 2.30 plus minus 0.69 days to treatment with Ribavirin, the clinical as well as the laboratory parameters started improving and returned to normal level after 10 -day course of treatment. Mild anemia and thrombocytosis were seen as adverse effects in some of the patients. Conclusion: For treatment of this fatal disease, we recommended use of oral Ribavirin in all patients diagnosed to have CCHF in the above-mentioned doses, on the basis of our study results.(author)

  11. Topical Peptide Treatments with Effective Anti-Aging Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Karin Schagen


    Full Text Available In the last two decades, many new peptides have been developed, and new knowledge on how peptides improve the skin has been uncovered. The spectrum of peptides in the field of cosmetics is continuously growing. This review summarizes some of the effective data on cosmeceutical peptides that work against intrinsic and extrinsic aging. Some peptides have been proven in their efficacy through clinical skin trials. Well-known and documented peptides like copper tripeptide are still under research to obtain more details on their effectiveness, and for the development of new treatments. Palmitoyl pentapeptide-4 and Carnosine are other well-researched cosmeceuticals. Additionally, there are many more peptides that are used in cosmetics. However, study results for some are sparse, or have not been published in scientific journals. This article summarizes topical peptides with proven efficacy in controlled in vivo studies.

  12. Effect of Intravenous Pamidronate Treatment in Children with Osteogenesis Imperfecta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atta, I.; Iqbal, F.; Lone, S. W.; Ibrahim, M.; Khan, Y. N.; Raza, J.


    Objective: To assess the beneficial effect of intravenous pamidronate treatment in children with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). Study Design: Experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Endocrine Unit at the National Institute of Child Health, Karachi, Pakistan, from January 2007 to December 2011. Methodology: All children diagnosed with osteogenesis imperfecta on the basis of repeated spontaneous fractures and typical radiological findings registered during the study period, were included in this study. Pamidronate therapy were offered to those with more than 3 fractures per year or had platyspondyly. Pamidronate disodium was diluted in isotonic saline and administered by slow ravenous infusion over 3 hours in a dosage 1 mg/kg/day for 3 consecutive days 3 monthly for 2 years. Fracture rate, bone mineral density (BMD), mobility score, wellbeing and pain episodes were evaluated at baseline and 2 years after the treatment. Good response was defined as less than 2 fractures per year or mobility score improvement and poor response as more than 2 fracture per year with mobility score less than 2. Results: Seventy two patients were included in this study. There were 40 boys and 32 girls with mean age of 3.64 +- 3.2 years. The annual fracture rate decreased overall from 5.8 +- 1.61 to 0.6 +- 0.93 (p < 0.001). BMD Z-score improved from -5.3 +- 1.74 to -1.7 +- 0.72 (p < 0.001). Mobility score was 0.94 +- 1.30 at baseline and 2.5 +- 1.02 at the end of the treatment (p < 0.001). Wellbeing gained from 3.63 +- 1.44 to 7.8 +- 1.18 (p < 0.001) and pain episode improved from 24.1 +- 8.15 to 2.7 +- 8.31 (p < 0.001). Good response was noted in 92% of patients and poor response in 8% patients. Conclusion: Bisphosphonate seems to be an effective symptomatic treatment for children with osteogenesis imperfecta irrespective of severity of mutation or clinical phenotype. Cyclical bisphosphonate therapy has a positive effect on fracture rate, BMD, mobility score, wellbeing and pain

  13. Effects of Triclabendazole and Al bendazole on treatment of Fascioliasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mawoad, M.A.F.; Amin, M.M.; Elnashar, D. E.


    Fascioliasis is a zoonotic disease caused by the trematode Fasciola hepatica, a liver fluke. It affect numerous species mainly ruminants. Its usual hosts are sheep or cattle, in which it causes a disease of economic importance. The prevalence of human infection has been reported worldwide. The present study was designed to evaluate the comparative efficacy of different anthelmintic drugs against Fasciola hepatica infestation. Twenty parasite-free rabbits were divided into four groups, group I: non-infected non- treated rabbits, kept as negative control. Rabbits of group II, III and IV were intended for infection with 20 Fasciola hepatica metacercariae per animal. Group II received no treatment and kept as positive control. Animals of group III administered Triclabendazole (TCBZ) treatment orally in a single dose (0.45 mg/Kg b. wt.) 60 days after infection. Consistent with group III, animals of group IV administered a bendazole (ABZ) treatment orally in a single dose (0.52 mg/Kg b.wt.) The comparisons between the anthelmintic efficacy of TCBZ and ABZ were done throughout (1): parasitological evaluation of egg counts; (2): biochemical evaluation of serum AST and ALT; (3): histopathological examination of liver and (4): scanning electron microscope of host worms. Data represented showed that the egg count was highly significant reduced in rabbits treated with TCBZ as compared with those of positive control group. But, rabbits treated with ABZ revealed slightly reduction as compared with those of positive control group. Also, the results illustrated that infection of rabbits with Fasciola hepatica induced a highly significant increased in serum (AST and ALT) activities compared to control group. In response to treatment with TCBZ and ABZ, it was revealed a significant decrease in the enzyme activity of both serum AST and ALT levels compared to those of control negative group as well as control positive group. However, histopathological examination showed a significant

  14. Clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of treatments for patients with chronic pain. (United States)

    Turk, Dennis C


    Chronic pain is a prevalent and costly problem. This review addresses the question of the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the most common treatments for patients with chronic pain. Representative published studies that evaluate the clinical effectiveness of pharmacological treatments, conservative (standard) care, surgery, spinal cord stimulators, implantable drug delivery systems (IDDSs), and pain rehabilitation programs (PRPs) are examined and compared. The cost-effectiveness of these treatment approaches is also considered. Outcome criteria including pain reduction, medication use, health care consumption, functional activities, and closure of disability compensation cases are examined. In addition to clinical effectiveness, the cost-effectiveness of PRPs, conservative care, surgery, spinal cord stimulators, and IDDSs are compared using costs to return a treated patient to work to illustrate the relative expenses for each of these treatments. There are limitations to the success of all the available treatments. The author urges caution in interpreting the results, particularly in comparisons between treatments and across studies, because there are broad differences in the pain syndromes and inclusion criteria used, the drug dosages, comparability of treatments, the definition of "chronic" used, the outcome criteria selected to determine success, and societal differences. None of the currently available treatments eliminates pain for the majority of patients. Pain rehabilitation programs provide comparable reduction in pain to alternative pain treatment modalities, but with significantly better outcomes for medication use, health care utilization, functional activities, return to work, closure of disability claims, and with substantially fewer iatrogenic consequences and adverse events. Surgery, spinal cord stimulators, and IDDSs appear to have substantial benefits on some outcome criteria for carefully selected patients. These modalities are

  15. Effects of natalizumab treatment on Foxp3+ T regulatory cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max-Philipp Stenner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Natalizumab, a monoclonal humanized antibody targeting the alpha-4 chain of very late activation antigen 4 (VLA-4 exerts impressive therapeutic effects in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Our objective was to study impacts of Natalizumab therapy on Foxp3+ T regulatory cells (Tregs in multiple sclerosis (MS patients. METHODOLOGY: A combined approach of in vitro and ex vivo experiments using T cells isolated from the peripheral blood of healthy donors and Natalizumab treated MS patients was chosen. We determined binding of Natalizumab and its effects on the frequency, transmigratory behaviour and suppressive function of Tregs. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Binding of Natalizumab and expression of CD49d (alpha-4 chain of VLA-4 differed between non-regulatory and regulatory cells. Albeit Foxp3+ Tregs had lower levels of CD49d, Natalizumab blocked the transmigration of Foxp3+ Tregs similar to non-regulatory T cells. The frequency of peripheral blood Tregs was unaffected by Natalizumab treatment. Natalizumab does not alter the suppressive capacity of CD4+CD25(highCD127(lowFoxp3+ Tregs under in vitro conditions. Furthermore, the impaired function of Tregs in MS patients is not restored by Natalizumab treatment. CONCLUSIONS: We provide a first detailed analysis of Natalizumab effects on the regulatory T cell population. Our prospective study shows that Foxp3+ Tregs express lower levels of VLA-4 and bind less Natalizumab. We further the understanding of the mechanisms of action of Natalizumab by demonstrating that unlike other immunomodulatory drugs the beneficial therapeutic effects of the monoclonal antibody are largely independent of alterations in Treg frequency or function.

  16. Effects of natalizumab treatment on Foxp3+ T regulatory cells. (United States)

    Stenner, Max-Philipp; Waschbisch, Anne; Buck, Dorothea; Doerck, Sebastian; Einsele, Hermann; Toyka, Klaus V; Wiendl, Heinz


    Natalizumab, a monoclonal humanized antibody targeting the alpha-4 chain of very late activation antigen 4 (VLA-4) exerts impressive therapeutic effects in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Our objective was to study impacts of Natalizumab therapy on Foxp3+ T regulatory cells (Tregs) in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. A combined approach of in vitro and ex vivo experiments using T cells isolated from the peripheral blood of healthy donors and Natalizumab treated MS patients was chosen. We determined binding of Natalizumab and its effects on the frequency, transmigratory behaviour and suppressive function of Tregs. Binding of Natalizumab and expression of CD49d (alpha-4 chain of VLA-4) differed between non-regulatory and regulatory cells. Albeit Foxp3+ Tregs had lower levels of CD49d, Natalizumab blocked the transmigration of Foxp3+ Tregs similar to non-regulatory T cells. The frequency of peripheral blood Tregs was unaffected by Natalizumab treatment. Natalizumab does not alter the suppressive capacity of CD4+CD25(high)CD127(low)Foxp3+ Tregs under in vitro conditions. Furthermore, the impaired function of Tregs in MS patients is not restored by Natalizumab treatment. We provide a first detailed analysis of Natalizumab effects on the regulatory T cell population. Our prospective study shows that Foxp3+ Tregs express lower levels of VLA-4 and bind less Natalizumab. We further the understanding of the mechanisms of action of Natalizumab by demonstrating that unlike other immunomodulatory drugs the beneficial therapeutic effects of the monoclonal antibody are largely independent of alterations in Treg frequency or function.

  17. An Effective Web Presence for Substance Abuse Treatment Facilities. (United States)

    Link, Thomas W; Hefner, Jennifer L; Ford, Eric W; Huerta, Timothy R


    Website development for health care has only been prevalent in the last two and a half decades. The first websites were electronic versions of brochures providing hardly any interaction with the consumer or potential consumer. The percentage of consumers that use the internet during the decision-making process for health care providers continues to rise. As a result, the websites of health care providers are becoming more of a representation of the facility and creating an organizational image rather than a brochure-like informational page. The purpose of this study was to analyze substance abuse treatment center's websites in the State of California with the goal of informing the management of substance abuse centers regarding an effective and inexpensive means to closing the marketing gaps in the industry. This brief research report presents the results of employing an automated web-crawler to assess website quality along five dimensions: accessibility, content, marketing, technology, and usability score. The sample mean scores for all dimensions were between 4 and 6 on a 10-point scale. On average larger facilities had higher quality websites. The low mean scores on these dimensions indicate that that substance abuse centers have significant room for improvement of their website's. Efficiently spending marketing funds to increase the effectiveness of a treatment center's website can be a low cost way for even small facilities to increase market competitiveness.

  18. Effect of alkali treatment on surface morphology of titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, K. J., E-mail:; Wahab, M. A. A., E-mail:; Mahmod, S., E-mail:; Idris, M. I., E-mail:; Abdullah, H. Z., E-mail: [Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor (Malaysia)


    Alkali and heat treatments were first introduced by Kim et al. to prepare a bioactive surface on titanium. This method has been proven very effective and widely used in other studies to promote titanium osteointegration. This study aims to investigate further the effect of alkali treatment on surface morphology of high purity titanium. High purity titanium foils were immersed in NaOH aqueous solutions of 0.5 M, 5 M and 15 M at 60°C and 80 °C for 1, 3 and 7 days. The surface morphology was examined using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM). The obtained phases were analysed using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) in the spectra range of 4000-600 cm{sup −1} at 4 cm{sup −1} resolution and 50 scans. At the same soaking temperature and soaking time, a thicker porous network was observed with increasing concentration of NaOH. At the same soaking temperature, a much porous structure was observed with increasing soaking time. At constant alkali concentration, more homogenously distributed porous surface structure was observed with increasing soaking temperature.

  19. The effect of CPAP treatment on EEG of OSAS patients. (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Lv, Jun; Zhou, Junhong; Su, Li; Feng, Liping; Ma, Jing; Wang, Guangfa; Zhang, Jue


    Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is currently the most effective treatment method for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). The purpose of this study was to compare the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) changes before and after the application of CPAP to OSAS patients. A retrospective study was conducted and 45 sequential patients who received both polysomnography (PSG) and CPAP titration were included. The raw data of sleep EEG were extracted and analyzed by engineers using two main factors: fractal dimension (FD) and the zero-crossing rate of detrended FD (zDFD). FD was an effective indicator reflecting the EEG complexity and zDFD was useful to reflect the variability of the EEG complexity. The FD and zDFD indexes of sleep EEG of 45 OSAS patients before and after CPAP titration were analyzed. The age of 45 OSAS patients was 52.7 ± 5.6 years old and the patients include 12 females and 33 males. After CPAP treatment, FD of EEG in non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep decreased significantly (P CPAP therapy (P CPAP therapy had a significant influence on sleep EEG in patients with OSAHS, which lead to a more stable EEG pattern. This may be one of the mechanisms that CPAP could improve sleep quality and brain function of OSAS patients.

  20. Graves' disease: cost-effectiveness of clinical and radioiodine treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz junior, Antonio F.; Takahashi, Miriam H.; Albino, Claudio C.


    Full text: In this study, we set out to evaluate the costs and effectiveness of the two most used therapies in Graves' disease: antithyroid drugs (ATD) and radioiodine (RAI). Twenty-tree patients, 7 men and 16 women, with a mean age of 35.4 years, treated with ATD and 35 patients, 5 men and 30 women, mean age of 39.4 years, treated with RAI were studied. After 2 years receiving ATD, 21 patients achieved euthyroidism and 2 remained hyperthyroid. In the RAI group, 21 patients presented hypothyroidism and 13 became euthyroid. To calculate the costs of each therapy, we analysed the number of visits during this period, the laboratory data and the drugs needed, such as tiamazol and/or thyroxine. The group treated only with ATD needed a higher number of visits and laboratory measurements, with the mean total cost of U$ 791.65, while the RAI group spent a mean amount of U$ 366.44. Therefore, the costs of the RAI treatment were 53,7 % lower than clinical therapy with ATD. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that RAI treatment has a lower cost than ATD, being very effective in controlling the hyperthyroidism of Graves' disease. (author)

  1. Can data repositories help find effective treatments for complex diseases? (United States)

    Farber, Gregory K


    There are many challenges to developing treatments for complex diseases. This review explores the question of whether it is possible to imagine a data repository that would increase the pace of understanding complex diseases sufficiently well to facilitate the development of effective treatments. First, consideration is given to the amount of data that might be needed for such a data repository and whether the existing data storage infrastructure is enough. Several successful data repositories are then examined to see if they have common characteristics. An area of science where unsuccessful attempts to develop a data infrastructure is then described to see what lessons could be learned for a data repository devoted to complex disease. Then, a variety of issues related to sharing data are discussed. In some of these areas, it is reasonably clear how to move forward. In other areas, there are significant open questions that need to be addressed by all data repositories. Using that baseline information, the question of whether data archives can be effective in understanding a complex disease is explored. The major goal of such a data archive is likely to be identifying biomarkers that define sub-populations of the disease. Published by Elsevier Ltd.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUNTEANU Mihai


    Full Text Available the paper presents the investigation of two fragments of roman bronze artefacts, discovered during archaeological works performed at Porolissum, an important military and economical point on the northern limes of Dacia Province. One of the analyzed fragments (Mi1 was taken from a consistent fragment of a Roman bronze statue, while the second (Mi2 was among a lot of small metal pieces, discovered in the same investigated area. Using highly sophisticated micro-structural analysing techniques – X-Ray diffraction, the paper investigates the possibility that the Mi2 fragment may have belonged to the same statue from which the sample Mi1 was taken

  3. The Magic of Mathematics Discovering the Spell of Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Pappas, Theoni


    Delves into the world of ideas, explores the spell mathematics casts on our lives, and helps you discover mathematics where you least expect it. Be spellbound by the mathematical designs found in nature. Learn how knots may untie the mysteries of life. Be mesmerized by the computer revolution. Discover how the hidden forces of mathematics hold architectural structures together connect your telephone calls help airplanes get off the ground solve the mysteries of the living cell. See how some artists use a mathematical palette in their works and how many writers draw upon the wealth of its ideas

  4. The effect of tannic compounds on anaerobic wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Field, J.A.


    Anaerobic wastewater treatment is an alternative to the conventional aerobic treatment processes for the removal of easily biodegradable organic matter in medium to high strength industrial wastestreams. Anaerobic treatment has several advantages, however one important disadvantage is the

  5. Is cannabis an effective treatment for joint pain? (United States)

    Miller, Richard J; Miller, Rachel E


    Cannabis has been used to treat pain for thousands of years. However, since the early part of the 20th century, laws restricting cannabis use have limited its evaluation using modern scientific criteria. Over the last decade, the situation has started to change because of the increased availability of cannabis in the United States for either medical or recreational purposes, making it important to provide the public with accurate information as to the effectiveness of the drug for joint pain among other indications. The major psychotropic component of cannabis is Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), one of some 120 naturally occurring phytocannabinoids. Cannabidiol (CBD) is another molecule found in herbal cannabis in large amounts. Although CBD does not produce psychotropic effects, it has been shown to produce a variety of pharmacological effects. Hence, the overall effects of herbal cannabis represent the collective activity of THC, CBD and a number of minor components. The action of THC is mediated by two major G-protein coupled receptors, cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) and CB2, and recent work has suggested that other targets may also exist. Arachidonic acid derived endocannabinoids are the normal physiological activators of the two cannabinoid receptors. Natural phytocannabinoids and synthetic derivatives have produced clear activity in a variety of models of joint pain in animals. These effects are the result of both inhibition of pain pathway signalling (mostly CB1) and anti-inflammatory effects (mostly CB2). There are also numerous anecdotal reports of the effectiveness of smoking cannabis for joint pain. Indeed, it is the largest medical request for the use of the drug. However, these reports generally do not extend to regulated clinical trials for rheumatic diseases. Nevertheless, the preclinical and human data that do exist indicate that the use of cannabis should be taken seriously as a potential treatment of joint pain.

  6. Efetividade do tratamento da tuberculose Effectiveness of tuberculosis treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Nazareth Fernandes da Paz


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar as estratégias que influenciam a efetividade do tratamento da tuberculose em Unidades Básicas de Saúde (UBS. MÉTODOS: Levantamento epidemiológico, descritivo, retrospectivo, envolvendo os prontuários médicos de 588 pacientes com tuberculose cadastrados no programa de controle da tuberculose, entre janeiro de 2004 e dezembro de 2008, em duas UBS - Centro de Saúde Escola do Marco (CSEM e UBS da Pedreira (UBSP - localizadas na cidade de Belém (PA. Os critérios de exclusão foram ter idade 59 anos e ter alta por transferência ou mudança de diagnóstico. Os dados coletados foram idade, sexo, tipo de tratamento (autoadministrado ou supervisionado, coinfecção por HIV e desfecho do tratamento. Os profissionais de saúde envolvidos no programa da tuberculose das duas UBS foram entrevistados quanto às estratégias utilizadas no controle da doença e à rotina de atendimento. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferenças significativas quanto a idade, sexo e coinfecção com HIV nas duas UBS. A utilização de tratamento supervisionado foi significativamente maior no CSEM que na UBSP, assim como a taxa de cura, enquanto a taxa de abandono foi maior na UBSP que no CSEM. CONCLUSÕES: Para pacientes cadastrados em programas de controle da tuberculose em UBS no Brasil, o tratamento supervisionado provavelmente é uma estratégia de extrema importância para se alcançar uma menor taxa de abandono.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the treatment strategies that influence the effectiveness of tuberculosis treatment at primary care clinics (PCCs in Brazil. METHODS: This was a descriptive, retrospective epidemiological survey based on the medical records of 588 tuberculosis patients enrolled in the tuberculosis control programs at two PCCs located in the city of Belém, Brazil: Centro de Saúde Escola do Marco (CSEM and Unidade Básica de Saúde da Pedreira (UBSP. The survey was limited to patients enrolled between January of 2004 and December of 2008

  7. Parent perspectives on information about late effects of childhood cancer treatment and their role in initial treatment decision making. (United States)

    Greenzang, Katie A; Dauti, Angela; Mack, Jennifer W


    Though most childhood cancer survivors experience late effects of treatment, we know little about parent preferences for late effects information during therapy, or how parents weigh late effects when making treatment decisions. Our objective was to explore how parents of children with cancer consider late effects in initial treatment decision making and during active cancer treatment. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 12 parents of children with cancer who were actively receiving treatment at Dana-Farber/Boston Children's Cancer and Blood Disorders Center. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and qualitatively analyzed using thematic analysis. Ten of 12 parents reported that they had to decide between two or more treatment options for their child's cancer. Of those, 50% (5/10) considered late effects to be an important factor in their decision making. Most parents wanted early and detailed information about their child's risk of late effects to make treatment decisions and to feel prepared for the future. However, a few parents felt too overwhelmed to focus on late effects at diagnosis. While many recalled extensive late effects information in informed consent discussions, some parents felt these issues were minimally addressed. Parents desire detailed information about late effects to make informed treatment decisions and prepare for the future. Despite the role of late effects in treatment decision making, some parents feel that late effects are either inadequately addressed or too overwhelming to process at diagnosis. Parents may benefit from early assessment of their information needs and a return to these issues over time. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Discovering Pediatric Asthma Phenotypes on the Basis of Response to Controller Medication Using Machine Learning. (United States)

    Ross, Mindy K; Yoon, Jinsung; van der Schaar, Auke; van der Schaar, Mihaela


    Pediatric asthma has variable underlying inflammation and symptom control. Approaches to addressing this heterogeneity, such as clustering methods to find phenotypes and predict outcomes, have been investigated. However, clustering based on the relationship between treatment and clinical outcome has not been performed, and machine learning approaches for long-term outcome prediction in pediatric asthma have not been studied in depth. Our objectives were to use our novel machine learning algorithm, predictor pursuit (PP), to discover pediatric asthma phenotypes on the basis of asthma control in response to controller medications, to predict longitudinal asthma control among children with asthma, and to identify features associated with asthma control within each discovered pediatric phenotype. We applied PP to the Childhood Asthma Management Program study data (n = 1,019) to discover phenotypes on the basis of asthma control between assigned controller therapy groups (budesonide vs. nedocromil). We confirmed PP's ability to discover phenotypes using the Asthma Clinical Research Network/Childhood Asthma Research and Education network data. We next predicted children's asthma control over time and compared PP's performance with that of traditional prediction methods. Last, we identified clinical features most correlated with asthma control in the discovered phenotypes. Four phenotypes were discovered in both datasets: allergic not obese (A + /O - ), obese not allergic (A - /O + ), allergic and obese (A + /O + ), and not allergic not obese (A - /O - ). Of the children with well-controlled asthma in the Childhood Asthma Management Program dataset, we found more nonobese children treated with budesonide than with nedocromil (P = 0.015) and more obese children treated with nedocromil than with budesonide (P = 0.008). Within the obese group, more A + /O + children's asthma was well controlled with nedocromil than with budesonide (P = 0.022) or with placebo

  9. Treatment of reindeer with ivermectin - effect on dung insect fauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne C. Nilssen


    Full Text Available Ivermectin is an antiparasitic drug widely used in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus (L. in Fennoscandia and North America. Most of the ivermectin injected in the animal is excreted unchanged in the faeces. Several reports show that ivermectin in cattle dung disrupts colonisation and survival of beneficial dung breeding insects. The present study investigated the effect of ivermectin on the reindeer dung fauna. Four reindeer calves (males, 6 months of age were injected subcutaneously with standard doses of ivermectin (0.2 mg/kg body weight in early December. The daily produced faeces was collected until day 30 after treatment, and the concentration of ivermectin was determined by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC with fluorescence detection. The highest concentration measured (mean 1632 ng/g faeces (dry weight, range 907 to 2261 ng/g among the animals was on day 4 after treatment. The concentration decreased gradually to 28 ng/g (range 6 to 58 ng/g on day 30. Faeces portions from day 4 and from untreated reindeer were placed in the field on 2-4 July and recollected on 13-22 September in order to detect possible differences in decomposition fauna between the samples. The most important coprophilous beetles (Apbodius spp. and flies (Scatbophaga spp. were not detected in this winter dung whether it contained ivermectin or not, probably because of the dry consistency and small size of the pellets. On the other hand, these insects (larvae and imagines were common in summer dung, which had been deposited naturally in the field and later placed together with the ivermectin-containing winter dung for comparison. The summer dung has a more soft and lumpy consistency. Treatment in autumn or early winter implies that the bulk of the ivermectin from the animal will be present in faeces with winter consistency, since this bulk portion is excreted during the first 30 days after treatment. This dry and pelleted faeces is not utilized by the important

  10. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: natural history and long term treatment effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asher Marc A


    risks of major surgery, a 6 to 29% chance of requiring re-operation, and the remote possibility of developing a pain management problem. Knowledge of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis natural history and long-term treatment effects is and will always remain somewhat incomplete. However, enough is know to provide patients and parents the information needed to make informed decisions about management options.

  11. Therapeutic effect of beta radiation on onychomycosis: An innovative treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afroz, S.; Islam, N.; Rashid, H.; Shahidullah, M.; Ali, S.; Islam, S.K.M.; Hossain, S.; Ali, N.


    Full text: Onychomycosis is the most frequent cause of nail disease and the most prevalent type of dermatophytosis in Bangladesh. The humid and warm climate of this tropical country is congenial for the growth of fungi. Therapeutic limitations of conventional antimycotic agents in respect of low cure rates, high relapse rate, inherent side effects, long duration of treatment and high cost in treating onychomycosis have provided clear incentives to explore alternative forms of treatment procedure. The objectives of the present thesis work were: (i) To use beta radiation as a curative therapy for Onychomycosis, optimisation of its dosages and to promote an innovative clinical development in the field of therapeutic application of nuclear medicine; (ii) To assess the efficacy of beta radiation either alone or in combination with conventional antifungal therapy; and (iii) To reduce the duration of drug exposure and cost of treatment for onychomycosis. This is a PhD research work under the University of Dhaka and was sponsored by the Ministry of Science and Information and Communication Technology, Government of the people's republic of Bangladesh. This study is an open, randomised and controlled trial to verify the efficacy of beta radiation in patients with onychomycosis. Using the appropriate statistical formula, sample size of the study population was determined and in each group 92 patients were assigned. With an assumption of patients drop out and for better statistical analysis, a total of 330 patients, who fulfilled the inclusion criterion having diagnosed to have onychomycosis clinically and mycological were randomly allocated to enter in therapeutic regimen. Study population was randomised in three groups. Group A (n =110) received griseofulvin orally 500 mg once daily for 12-16 weeks; Group B (n=110) received beta radiation, 500 rads bi-weekly for 3 weeks (total 2500 rads); and Group C (n=110) received combined beta radiation (total 2500 rads in 3 weeks) and

  12. PALFA Discovers Neutron Stars on a Collision Course (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    location to high precision and establish additional parameters of the system.PSR J1946+2052 is a system of extremes. The binarys total mass is found to be 2.5 solar masses, placing it among the lightest binary-neutron-star systems known. Its orbital period is the shortest weve observed, and the two neutron stars are on track to merge in less time than any other known neutron-star binaries: in just 46 million years. When the two stars reach the final stages of their merger, the effects of the pulsars rapid spin on the gravitational-wave signal will be the largest of any such system discovered to date.More Tests of General RelativityWhat can PSR J1946+2052 do for us? This extreme system will be especially useful as a gravitational laboratory. Continued observations of PSR J1946+2052 will pin down with unprecedented precision parameters like the Einstein delay and the rate of decay of the binarys orbit due to the emission of gravitational waves, testing the predictions of general relativity to an order of magnitude higher precision than was possible before.As we expect there to be thousands of systems like PSR J1946+2052 in our galaxy alone, better understanding this binary and finding more like it continue to be important steps toward interpreting compact-object merger observations in the future.CitationK. Stovall et al 2018 ApJL 854 L22. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aaad06

  13. Discover 4-H Clubs: The Essential Resource for 4-H (United States)

    MacArthur, Stacey; Nelson, Cindy; Brower, Naomi; Memmott, Margie; Peterson, Gaelynn


    Obstacles facing new 4-H volunteers include time constraints and difficulty finding project-specific information, resources, and opportunities available for club members. As a solution to these obstacles and an aid for assisting volunteers in becoming confident in delivering information to youth, content experts produced Discover 4-H Clubs, a…

  14. US NSF: scientists discover planetary system similar to our own

    CERN Multimedia


    An international team of scientists has discovered a planet and star that may share the same relationship as Jupiter and our Sun, the closest comparison that researchers have found since they began their search for extra-solar planets nearly a decade ago (1 page).

  15. Scientists discover planetary system similar to our own

    CERN Multimedia


    'An international team of scientists has discovered a planet and star that may share the same relationship as Jupiter and our Sun, the closest comparison that researchers have found since they began their search for extra-solar planets nearly a decade ago' (1 page).

  16. REVIEW: Discovering Statistics Using SPSS for Windows ANDY FIELD (2000)


    SHARMA, Reviewed By Ashok


    The book "Discovering Statistics Using SPSS for Windows" is exactly that! Since it calculates amazingly fast, in the recent years, the computer has become the most useful and helpful tool for the researchers in almost every field of knowledge - be it open and distance education, psychology, sociology, management or else.

  17. The Spy VI child : A newly discovered Neandertal infant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Bayle, Priscilla; Rougier, Helene; Maureille, Bruno; Higham, Thomas; van der Plicht, Johannes; De Clerck, Nora; Semal, Patrick


    Spy cave (Jemeppe-sur-Sambre Belgium) is reputed for the two adult Neandertal individuals discovered in situ in 1886 Recent reassessment of the Spy collections has allowed direct radiocarbon dating of these individuals The sorting of all of the faunal collections has also led to the discovery of the

  18. How to Discover the Rogers–Ramanujan Identities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    The purpose of this article is to introduce you to the. Rogers–Ramanujan identities, by discussing an approach to discover them. When you see that they appear from a very simple generalization of the simplest possible in- finite continued fraction, that in turn is related to the celebrated Fibonacci sequence, perhaps you may ...

  19. The effects of heat treatment and environment on corrosion fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballinger, R.G.; Hwang, I.S.; Elliott, C.K.


    Alloy X-750 is a nickel-base alloy used extensively in Light Water Reactor (LWR) nuclear power systems due to its excellent corrosion resistance and high temperature strength. In spite of alloy X-750's exceptional high temperature properties, it has been found to be susceptible to environmentally assisted fatigue and stress corrosion cracking in relatively low temperature aqueous environments such as those that exist in LWR systems. In order to develop a better understanding of the role that microstructure plays in the fatigue behavior of alloy X-750, three thermal treatments were studied. The treatments used were as hot worked + : (1) 24 h at 885 degree C + 20 h at 704 degree C (AH), (2) lh at 982 degree C + 20 h at 704 degree C (BH), and (3) 1 h at 1093 degree C + 20 h at 704 degree C (HTH). Fatigue crack growth tests were conducted at frequencies of 0.1 and 10 Hz in the following aqueous environments: (1) high purity, air saturated water (8 ppM O 2 ) at 93 degree C and 288 degree C, (2) high purity, deoxygenated water (5 ppb O 2 ) at 93 degree C, and (3) simulated BWR water chemistry with hydrogen additions at 288 degree C. Crack growth rate data was collected at constant values of stress intensity factor range (ΔK). The results show that crack growth rates and morphology are a function of ΔK, frequency, thermal treatment and environment. Frequency effects were most significant for the AH material. Crack growth rates generally decrease, for a given value of ΔK, in the BH and HTH materials with the HTH material showing the lowest growth rate

  20. Achondroplastic Dwarfism—Effects of Treatment with Human Growth Hormone (United States)

    Escamilla, Roberto F.; Hutchings, John J.; Li, Choh Hao; Forsham, Peter


    Two male patients with achondroplastic dwarfism aged 7-5/12 and 14½ years were treated with human growth hormone 5 mg daily. Both showed nitrogen retention on balance studies, the older second patient to a marked degree. In the younger patient, height increased from 95.4 to 106.3 cm on hgh 5 mg daily alone for 14 out of 24 months. The rate of growth approximately doubled during the first two treatment periods as compared with the pre-treatment rate. In the second older patient hgh was administered 5 mg daily intramuscularly for 21 out of 33 months. Growth from 129.6 cm to 137.8 cm occurred with the rate increasing following the addition of Na-1-thyroxine to the routine. This increased growth rate occurred during the post-puberty deceleration phase. Bone ages, interpreted from changes in the phalanges and metacarpals, increased from 4½ to 6 years during 16 months in Case 1, and from 13½ to 18 years in 33 months in Case 2. Transient adolescent gynecomastia appeared in Case 2. No local or general toxic effects were noted. These results are suggestive, but whether or not the eventual height of an achondroplastic dwarf can be significantly altered must await further studies. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2. PMID:5946547

  1. Effects of operative treatment for muscular asthenopia caused by esophoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zeng


    Full Text Available AIM:To observe the effects of operative treatment for muscular asthenopia caused by esophoria. METHODS:Twenty-one cases(42 eyeswith muscular asthenopia caused by esophoria were included. After examination of refraction, phoria and fusion function, all cases were given operative treatment to correct esophoria. RESULTS:At 1wk after surgery, clinical symptoms were improved evidently in all cases, such as headache, diplopia and eye swelling. After followed up for 1a, no recrudescence was found. Before surgery, at 1wk and 1a after surgery, esophoria in the distance were 20.3△±6.3△,-3.1△±1.4△,0.7△±1.6△ respectively and esophoria in the near distance were 10.5△±3.1△,-1.3△±0.6△,1.5△±0.8△ respectively. By comparison of esophoria before and after surgery in different stages separately, the differences were statistically(PP>0.05. CONCLUSION:Esophoria operation may relieve obviously muscular asthenopia caused by esophoria without changing fusion function.

  2. Effect of patient's life expectancy on the cost-effectiveness of treatment for ocular hypertension. (United States)

    Kymes, Steven M; Plotzke, Michael R; Kass, Michael A; Boland, Michael V; Gordon, Mae O


    To assess the influence of expected life span on the cost-effectiveness of treating ocular hypertension to prevent primary open-angle glaucoma. We used a Markov simulation model to estimate the cost and benefit of ocular hypertension treatment over a person's remaining life. We examined the influence of age on the cost-effectiveness decision in 2 ways: (1) by evaluating specific age cohorts to assess the influence of age at the initiation of treatment; and (2) by evaluating the influence of a specific life span. At a willingness to pay $50,000/quality-adjusted life year to $100,000/quality-adjusted life year, treatment of people with a 2% or greater annual risk of developing glaucoma was cost-effective for people aged 45 years with a life expectancy of at least 18 remaining years. However, to be cost-effective, a person aged 55 years must have a life expectancy of 21 remaining years and someone aged 65 years must have a life expectancy of 23 remaining years. A person with ocular hypertension must have a life expectancy of at least 18 remaining years to justify treatment at a threshold of a 2% or greater annual risk of developing glaucoma. Persons at higher levels of risk require a life expectancy of 7 to 10 additional years to justify treatment.

  3. Effect of chronic (-)-nicotine treatment on rat cerebral benzodiazepine receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magata, Yasuhiro; Kitano, Haruhiro; Shiozaki, Toshiki; Iida, Yasuhiko; Nishizawa, Sadahiko; Saji, Hideo; Konishi, Junji


    The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of (-)-nicotine on cerebral benzodiazepine receptors (BzR) with radiotracer methods. The effect of (-)-nicotine on BzR was examined in in vitro studies using chronic (-)-nicotine-treated rats using 3 H-diazepam. The in vitro radioreceptor assay showed a 14% increase in the maximum number of binding sites of BzR in chronic (-)-nicotine-treated rats in comparison with the control rats. Moreover, a convenient in vivo uptake index of 125 I-iomazenil was calculated and a higher uptake of the radioactivity was observed in the chronic (-)-nicotine-treated group than in the control group. Although further studies of the mechanism of (-)-nicotine on such BzR changes are required, an increase in the amount of BzR in the cerebral cortex was found in rats that underwent chronic (-)-nicotine treatment, and this result contributed to the understanding of the effects of (-)-nicotine and smoking on neural functions

  4. The effect of radioactive iodine treatment on thyroid C cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayraktar, Miyase; Gedik, Olcay; Akalin, Sema; Usman, Aydan; Adalar, Nezaket; Telatar, Ferzan


    To determine the effect of radioiodine treatment on thyroid C cells, calcitonin (CT) levels were measured by RIA before and after intravenous calcium stimulation in 22 women treated with 131 I for hyperthyroidism. The results were compared with sex, age and weight-matched normal controls. There was a slight but statistically significant decrease in basal CT levels of the patients compared to the control group (mean ± SE; 0.009 ± 0.001 vs 0.011 ± 0.001 pmol/1, P 131 I-induced hypothyroidism at the time of the study did not influence basal or stimulated CT levels. Basal and stimulated CT levels were significantly lower in the patients with Graves' disease than in the patients with toxic nodular goitre. We conclude that 131 I used to correct hyperthyroidism may cause marked CT deficiency. (author)

  5. How does wireless phones effect communication and treatment in hospitals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paasch, Bettina Sletten

    The use of wireless phones in hospital units are increasing, inducing practitioners to carry a working phone each. A study performed in a medical hospital unit demonstrates that wireless phones can impair communication between health care practitioners and patients (Paasch, in press). Also wireless...... phones can compromise patient safety, both by disturbing the practitioners’ concentration, causing mistakes, and by transporting bacteria between patients. This qualitative Ph.D.-study wishes to further investigate the effect of wireless phones on communication and treatment in hospital units, using...... participant observations, ethnographic interviews and video observations. The study will explore how wireless phones mediate and is mediated by practitioners communication with each other and patients. As hospitals are constructed and reconstructed by all communication within, this insight will enable...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The use of soybean products in animal feeds is limited due to the presence of antinutritional factors (ANF. Proper heat processing is required to destroy ANF naturally present in raw soybeans and to remove solvent remaining from the oil extraction process. Over and under toasting of soybean causes lower nutritional value. Excessive heat treatment causes Maillard reaction which affects the availability of lysine in particular and produces changes to the chemical structure of proteins resulting in a decrease of the nutritive value. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of heating time on the protein solubility. The investigation of the heating time on protein solubility in soybean meal (SBM revealed a negative correlation (r = -0.9596. Since the urease index is suitable only for detecting under processed SBM, the protein solubility is an important index for monitoring SBM quality.

  7. Friction Surface Treatment Selection: Aggregate Properties, Surface Characteristics, Alternative Treatments, and Safety Effects (United States)


    This study aimed to evaluate the long term performance of the selected surface friction treatments, including high friction surface treatment (HFST) using calcined bauxite and steel slag, and conventional friction surfacing, in particular pavement pr...

  8. Effects of different desensitizing treatments on root dentin permeability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raydsa Raíssa Moura ROSA

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of diode laser and a desensitizing dentifrice on dentin permeability. Fifty-two root dentin fragments were obtained (5 × 5mm and treated with 24% EDTA gel. The samples were divided into 4 groups (n = 13: G1, control (no treatment; G2, diode laser (λ = 908 nm, 1.5 W, continuous mode, 20s; G3, application of abrasive dentifrice for 1 minute (Elmex Sensitive Professional (International Gaba; and G4, application of abrasive dentifrice for 1 minute followed by irradiation with diode laser. Ten samples per group were immersed in 2% methylene blue solution for 4h. The specimens were washed, longitudinally sectioned, observed under optical microscopy, photographed and assessed based on the degree of dye leakage. The remaining samples were observed under scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The leakage data were subjected to ANOVA test, followed by Tukey’s t-test (α = 5%. Groups 2, 3 and 4 showed less dye penetration than the control group (p < 0.05, but were similar among each other. SEM images showed that dentinal tubules were open in G1, and fused and occluded in G2. Group 3 showed dentinal tubules that were occluded by the metal ions from the toothpaste. G4 presented similar characteristics to G3, and the presence of fused dentin. The diode laser and the dentifrice were effective in reducing dentinal permeability, and the combination of the two treatments did not show better results than either one used alone.

  9. Topiramate sprinkle is effective in the treatment of childhood epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prastiya Indra Gunawan


    Full Text Available Background Epilepsy remains one of the most frequently occurring pediatric problems. Approximately 10-15% patients do not respond to conventional therapy. Topiramate as a novel antiepileptic drug has a broad spectrum activity, presumably indicative of multiple anti-seizure mechanisms. Previous studies of topiramate as adjunctive and monotherapy in adults have shown beneficial effects. The objective of this research was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of topiramate sprinkle monotherapy in pediatric epilepsy. Methods This experimental research was conducted in the Pediatric Neurology outpatient clinic department, Soetomo hospital, Surabaya, involving 18 consecutive subjects. Subjects meeting the inclusion criteria were treated with topiramate sprinkle adjusted dose. Seizure frequency and side effects were observed in weeks 1, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24, respectively. Electro encephalogram (EEG and laboratory examinations were performed prior to and after 6 months of treatment. The t-test for related samples and McNemar test were utilized for statistical analysis. Results A total of 15 subjects completed the study. Topiramate-treated patients showed a statistically significant difference of seizure frequency reduction from 2.7 ± 1.16 to 0.13 ± 0.51 (p=0.000 with 93.7% patients being seizure free in 20 weeks. EEG recordings did not differ statistically in decrement of epileptiform activity in 20% subjects. About 7% subjects developed drowsiness and 33.3% subjects suffered from appetite suppression in the initial treatment. Laboratory results showed no abnormalities. Conclusions There was reduction of seizure frequency and no EEG recording alterations after topiramate sprinkle monotherapy. Topiramate as a monotherapy is highly effcicacious in childhood epilepsy.


    Zhang, Zhiwen; Cai, Xianhua; Wei, Shijun; Liu, Ximing


    To investigate the operative method and short-term effectiveness in the surgical treatment of Maisonneuve fracture. Between January 2010 and February 2013, 23 patients with Maisonneuve fracture were treated. There were 14 males and 9 females with an average age of 40.3 years (range, 30-68 years). The causes of injuries were falling injury in 11 patients, sports related injury in 5 patients, traffic accident injury in 4 patients, and falling injury from height in 3 patients. The interval between injury and operation was 7-10 days (mean, 8.5 days). All of fractures were closed. Three patients had combined injury of deltoid ligament. The surgical procedures included surgical reduction and fixation of medial malleolus fracture and posterior malleolus fracture, repair of the deltoid ligament with ground anchor suture, and fixation of the disrupted distal tibiofibular syndesmosis. All incisions achieved primary healing, no postoperative complications such as infection occurred. Twenty-one patients were followed up 24-36 months (mean, 26.5 months). No patients complained of pain, tenderness, and obvious swelling of the ankle. At 3-6 months (mean, 4.6 months) after operation, X-ray films showed bony union of fractures and normal mortises in 21 patients. And no traumatic arthritis was observed with reliable fixation. The range of motion of ankle dorsi flexion and plantar flexion was 30-40 degrees) (mean, 34.5 degrees) Baird-Jackson anide functional score was 85-100 (mean, 94); 16 cases were rated as excellent, 4 as good, and 1 as fair with an excellent and good rate of 95.2%. Surgical treatments of Maisonneuve fracture include surgical reduction and fixation of the medial malleolus and posterior malleolus, repair of the deltoid ligament and fixation of the disrupted distal tibiofibular syndesmosis, and good effectiveness can be achieved.

  11. Rehabilitation in progressive supranuclear palsy: Effectiveness of two multidisciplinary treatments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Clerici

    Full Text Available to date, there are no medical or surgical treatments for progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP. It is possible to speculate that patients with PSP could benefit from rehabilitative treatments designed for Parkinson's disease, including the use of robot-assisted walking evaluate whether the use of the robotic device Lokomat® is superior in PSP patients to the use of treadmill with visual cues and auditory feedbacks (treadmill-plus in the context of an aerobic, multidisciplinary, intensive, motor-cognitive and goal-based rehabilitation treatment (MIRT conceived for Parkinsonian patients.we enrolled twenty-four PSP patients. Twelve subjects underwent a 4-week MIRT exploiting the use of the treadmill-plus (MIRT group. Twelve subjects underwent the same treatment, but replacing the treadmill-plus with Lokomat® (MIRT-Lokomat group. Subjects were evaluated with clinical and functional scales at admission and discharge. The primary outcomes were the total PSP Rating Scale (PSPRS score and its "limb" and "gait" sub-scores. Secondary outcomes were Berg Balance Scale (BBS, Six Minutes Walking test (6MWT and the number of PSPRS, PSPRS-gait sub-score, BBS, 6MWT and number of falls improved significantly in both groups (p ≤ 0.003 all, except 6MWT, p = 0.032 and p = 0.018 in MIRT-Lokomat and MIRT group respectively. The PSPRS-limb sub-score improved significantly only in the MIRT group (p = 0.002. A significant difference between groups was observed only for total PSPRS, indicating a slightly better improvement for patients in the MIRT group (p = 0.047. No differences between groups were revealed for the other outcomes, indicating that the effect of rehabilitation was similar in both groups.Lokomat® training, in comparison with treadmill-plus training, does not provide further benefits in PSP patients undergoing MIRT. Our findings suggest the usefulness of an aerobic, multidisciplinary, intensive, motor-cognitive and goal

  12. Pycnogenol may alleviate adverse effects in oncologic treatment. (United States)

    Belcaro, G; Cesarone, M R; Genovesi, D; Ledda, A; Vinciguerra, G; Ricci, A; Pellegrini, L; Gizzi, G; Ippolito, E; Dugall, M; Cacchio, M; Di Renzo, A; Stuard, S


    patients were in the control group. For all patients this was the first chemotherapy treatment period. The Pycnogenol group presented with a lowered incidence of all investigated side effects as compared to the control group, though in many cases to a limited extent. The most prominent improvements were found for nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea and weight loss. Semi-quantitative evaluation showed that here again symptom severity was half or less pronounced than in the control group. Various further symptoms improved such as cognitive impairment and also cardiotoxicity and neutropenia. Effects on anemia could not be investigated as several patients received erythrocyte transfusion. In the Pycnogenol group one case of superficial vein thrombosis was indentified while 3 cases of superficial vein thromboses and one deep vein thrombosis were detected in the control group (4% vs 19%). In both chemotherapy and radiotherapy patients Pycnogenol lowered the requirement for medication to address side effects. This was reflected by less days of hospitalisation the patients required. The authors did not investigate a possible interference with the anti-neoplastic efficacy of chemo- and radiotherapy. This possibility requires attention in future studies with Pycnogenol. From their previous clinical experience the authors suggest that alleviation of side effects described in this study results from Pycnogenol activities related to endothelial protection, and anti-inflammatory anti-edema activities. The results of this pilot trial warrant further prospective studies with larger number of patients to validate benefits more specifically with regard to type of malignancy and treatment regimen.

  13. Strength training and testosterone treatment have opposing effects on migration inhibitor factor levels in ageing men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, D.; Christensen, L. L.; Kvorning, T.


    Strength Training and Testosterone Treatment Have Opposing Effects on Migration Inhibitor Factor Levels in Ageing Men......Strength Training and Testosterone Treatment Have Opposing Effects on Migration Inhibitor Factor Levels in Ageing Men...

  14. Beyond Fuel Treatment Effectiveness: Characterizing Interactions between Fire and Treatments in the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Barnett


    Full Text Available In the United States, fuel reduction treatments are a standard land management tool to restore the structure and composition of forests that have been degraded by past management. Although treatments can have multiple purposes, their principal objective is to create landscape conditions where wildland fire can be safely managed to help achieve long-term land management goals. One critique is that fuel treatment benefits are unlikely to transpire due to the low probability that treated areas will be burned by a subsequent fire within a treatment’s lifespan, but little quantitative information exists to corroborate this argument. We summarized the frequency, extent, and geographic variation of fire and fuel treatment interactions on federal lands within the conterminous United States (CONUS. We also assessed how the encounters between fuel treatments and fires varied with treatment size, treatment age, and number of times treated. Overall, 6.8% of treatment units evaluated were encountered by a subsequent fire during the study period, though this rate varied among ecoregions across the CONUS. Larger treatment units were more likely to be encountered by a fire, and treatment units were most frequently burned within one year of the most recent treatment, the latter of which is likely because of ongoing maintenance of existing treatments. Our results highlight the need to identify and prioritize additional opportunities to reduce fuel loading and fire risk on the millions of hectares of federal lands in the CONUS that are in need of restoration.

  15. Effectiveness and safety of topical tacrolimus in treatment of vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem Rahmatpour Rokni


    Full Text Available Vitiligo is one of the most primitive well-known dermatoid disorders with different suggested therapies. Therefore, this study investigated the efficiency and safety of topical tacrolimus in treatment of patients with vitiligo. This study was a clinical randomized designed study pre- post-test method, has been conducted on thirty cases with vitiligo who have referred to polyclinic and dermatology clinic. Participant′s evaluated and demographic information recorded in designed checklist. In the next stage, the disease activity scored by vitiligo index disease activity system. Photography and depigmentation percent has recorded before treatment and further in 4 th , 8 th , 12 th , 16 th , 20 th , and 24 th weeks. Finally, gathered data compared through SPSS-20 software. The final sample comprised 30 persons including: 12 men (40% and 18 women (60%. The average of patient′s age in this study was 26/13 ΁ 18/20 (2-76-year-old. Eleven persons was ≤15 years old and rest was older than 15. Sixty-six lesions have funded in patients that maximum has accrued on face and neck (37/87% and trunk (21/21%. In addition, minimum of lesions is related to genitalia (9/09%. In the in 4 th , 8 th , 12 th , 16 th weeks, improvement in face and neck had increased significantly, into the past weeks. In the 20 th and 24 th weeks, the improvement has increased although it was not significant enhancement. Also about trunk, in the 4 th week the improvement does not have significant increasing in compare to the past week. In the eighth, 12 th , 16 th , 20 th , and 24 th weeks the improvement has been increased significantly in compare to the past weeks. Although in the case of limbs and genitalia, the improvement was lower. There was no significant difference between male and females and age. Although the improvement was, slow in older persons. Study results, has presented applying topical tacrolimus in vitiligo, particularly in face and neck, could be effective and

  16. Radiotherapy effect in conservation treatment for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachini, V.; Ferreri, A.J.M.; Farante, G.; Agresti, R.; Galimberti, V.; Zurrida, S.; Veronesi, P.


    Radiotherapy (RT) in conservative treatment for breast cancer (CT-BC) has been proven to be determinant for the local control of the disease. Radiation therapy was described by several authors as the most important factor affecting the cosmetic results of this treatment. Technical progress in RT, use of filters and wedges and an increased knowledge of the influence of fraction size total dose and irradiated volume on breast tissues contributed to avoid major radiotherapeutic side effects in the CT-BC. Cosmetic outcome from 2 groups of patients (pts) with breast cancer in stage T 1-2(T> = 2,5 cm) N 0-1 M o0 of the prospective trial Milan III were compared. Both groups pts (n=89) were treated with quadrantectomyand axillary dissection. 49 pts received complementary RT with a dose of 50 Gy over 5 weeks with a daily fraction of 2 Gy and a further boost of 10 Gy (10 MeV electrons) on the scar. Remaining 40 pts did not receive RT. Cosmetic results were subjectively and objectively (asymmetry index) evaluated. No significant cosmetic differences were observed between the 2 study groups. A good or excellent symmetry was observed in 59% of irradiated pts and 64% of non irradiated pts. Negative results were observed in 4% and 2% respectively. Subjective ovulation showed similar results, with a good or excellent symmetry in 57% of irradiated pts and 72.5% of non irradiated pts. Poor results were observed in 16.3% and 27.5% respectively. Telangiectasia were observed in 4% of irradiated pts, while hypertrophied scars were only noted in non irradiated pts (15%). No acute side effects of RT, as erythema or ulceration of breast skin, were recorded. In our experience, the standard dose of 50 Gy administered by two opposite tangential fields plus a 10 Gy boost did not affect the cosmetic results of CT.BC, whereas it provided a better local control of disease. The possibility to avoid RT in selected group of pts should be justified by the discomfort of this treatment for the pt, cost

  17. Effect of Ultrasonic Treatment Combined with Peracetic Acid Treatment Reduces Decay and Maintains Quality in Loquat Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ling


    Full Text Available The effects of ultrasonic treatment (UT, 400 watts for 6 min combined with peracetic acid (PA, 0.4% (W/W treatment on fruit decay, browning, and quality and physiological changes in loquat fruit stored at 20°C were investigated. The results showed that treatment with UT or PA alone significantly reduced both decay and browning index in loquat fruit compared with the control. The combined treatment was more effective in decreasing decay and browning index and maintaining higher quality parameters than UT or PA treatment alone. Loquat fruits treated with the combined treatment maintained higher activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO and peroxidase (POD than those treated with other treatments. In addition, UT combined with PA treatment significantly reduced the increase of firmness and increased fruit extractable juice, total soluble solid (TSS, and ascorbic acid content in loquat fruit. Moreover, the contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids were enhanced by the combination of UT and PA treatment. The combination of UT and PA treatment could be a useful method to reduce decay and browning in loquat fruit stored at room temperature, which has potential for application in the loquat industry.

  18. Treatment Effectiveness of Amantadine Against Dengue Virus Infection. (United States)

    Lin, Chieh-Cheng; Chen, Wen-Ching


    BACKGROUND About 400 million cases of dengue, a mosquito-borne disease, are reported annually, but no drug is yet available for treatment. In 1988, at Feng Lin Clinic, Taiwan, we encountered about 10,000 cases and tested various drugs before confirming an antiviral effect of amantadine against dengue virus in vitro. After we administered amantadine to patients for 1-2 days, most achieved full remission. None experienced potentially life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever or dengue shock syndrome. Herein, we present 34 cases from recent clinical experience that show amantadine's unusual effect against dengue virus infection. CASE REPORT We divided 34 patients with symptoms of dengue fever, confirmed by a screening test, into 3 groups: 6 Category 1 patients received amantadine at onset, 21 Category 2 patients received amantadine within 2-6 days, and 7 Contrast group patients received no amantadine because they visited other clinics or were admitted to a large hospital. When Category 1 patients were treated with amantadine 100 mg 3 times per day, all symptoms dramatically subsided within 1-2 days. In Category 2 patients, most symptoms diminished within 1-2 days after starting the same regimen. In the Contrast group, all symptoms persisted 7 days after onset. White blood cell and platelet counts in Category 1 and 2 patients recovered to normal range, but remained below low normal in the Contrast group. CONCLUSIONS Amantadine is effective and should be given as soon as possible to stop the disease course if dengue fever is confirmed through screening or clinical signs and symptoms. A well-designed larger sample study is warranted to test this effectiveness.

  19. Experimental Simulation of the Effects of an Initial Antibiotic Treatment on a Subsequent Treatment after Initial Therapy Failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, Yanfang; Händel, Nadine; de Groot, Marnix H. P.; Brul, Stanley; Schultsz, Constance; ter Kuile, Benno H.


    Therapy failure of empirical antibiotic treatments prescribed by primary care physicians occurs commonly. The effect of such a treatment on the susceptibility to second line antimicrobial drugs is unknown. Resistance to amoxicillin was rapidly induced or selected in E. coli at concentrations

  20. Effect of the positioning of the blades in MRT treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz de Zarate Vivanco, R.; Perez Azorin, J. F.; Casquero Ocio, F.; Trueba Garayo, I.


    The attenuation of the beams of radiation that cross the treatment table is a verifiable fact that should be incorporated into the planning of the radiation treatments, especially in advanced techniques. (Author)

  1. Effect of cancer treatment on hypothalamic-pituitary function. (United States)

    Crowne, Elizabeth; Gleeson, Helena; Benghiat, Helen; Sanghera, Paul; Toogood, Andrew


    The past 30 years have seen a great improvement in survival of children and young adults treated for cancer. Cancer treatment can put patients at risk of health problems that can develop many years later, most commonly affecting the endocrine system. Patients treated with cranial radiotherapy often develop dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. A characteristic pattern of hormone deficiencies develops over several years. Growth hormone is disrupted most often, followed by gonadal, adrenal, and thyroid hormones, leading to abnormal growth and puberty in children, and affecting general wellbeing and fertility in adults. The severity and rate of development of hypopituitarism is determined by the dose of radiotherapy delivered to the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Individual growth hormone deficiencies can develop after a dose as low as 10 Gy, whereas multiple hormone deficiencies are common after 60 Gy. New techniques in radiotherapy aim to reduce the effect on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis by minimising the dose received. Patients taking cytotoxic drugs do not often develop overt hypopituitarism, although the effect of radiotherapy might be enhanced. The exception is adrenal insufficiency caused by glucocorticosteroids which, although transient, can be life-threatening. New biological drugs to treat cancer can cause autoimmune hypophysitis and hypopituitarism; therefore, oncologists and endocrinologists should be vigilant and work together to optimise patient outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Clinical effectiveness of a Pilates treatment for forward head posture. (United States)

    Lee, Sun-Myung; Lee, Chang-Hyung; O'Sullivan, David; Jung, Joo-Ha; Park, Jung-Jun


    [Purpose] This study compared the effects of pilates and an exercise program on the craniovertebral angle, cervical range of motion, pain, and muscle fatigue in subjects with a forward head posture (FHP). [Subjects and Methods] A total of 28 sedentary females (age 20 to 39 years) with FHP were randomly assigned to pilates (n=14) and combined (n=14) exercise groups. The study was a randomized, controlled, double-blind study with the two groups performing exercise 50 min/day, 3 days/week, with an intensity of 11-15 rating of perceived exertion (RPE) for ten weeks. The main outcome measures were craniovertebral angle, cervical range of motion (ROM), pain levels assessed by visual analog scale (VAS), and neck disability index (NDI). Surface electromyography was also used to measure muscle fatigue. [Results] There were significant increases in craniovertebral angle and cervical ROM in the pilates group, but none in the control group. The only significant differences in muscle activity were recorded in the sternocleidomastoid muscle in the pilates group. Both exercise programs had positive effects on pain measures, as VAS and NDI were significantly decreased. [Conclusion] The results suggest that pilates could be recommended as an appropriate exercise for treatment of FHP in sedentary individuals.

  3. Graves’ Disease and Treatment Effects on Warfarin Anticoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Howard-Thompson


    Full Text Available Background. Hyperthyroidism causes an increased hypoprothrombinemic response to warfarin anticoagulation. Previous studies have demonstrated that patients with hyperthyroidism require lower dosages of warfarin to achieve a therapeutic effect. As hyperthyroidism is treated and euthyroidism is approached, patients may require increasing warfarin dosages to maintain appropriate anticoagulation. We describe a patient’s varying response to warfarin during treatment of Graves’ disease. Case Presentation. A 48-year-old African American female presented to the emergency room with tachycardia, new onset bilateral lower extremity edema, gradual weight loss, palpable goiter, and generalized sweating over the prior 4 months. She was admitted with Graves’ disease and new onset atrial fibrillation. Primary stroke prophylaxis was started using warfarin; the patient developed a markedly supratherapeutic INR likely due to hyperthyroidism. After starting methimazole, her free thyroxine approached euthyroid levels and the INR became subtherapeutic. She remained subtherapeutic over several months despite steadily increasing dosages of warfarin. Immediately following thyroid radioablation and discontinuation of methimazole, the patient’s warfarin dose and INR stabilized. Conclusion. Clinicians should expect an increased response to warfarin in patients with hyperthyroidism and close monitoring of the INR is imperative to prevent adverse effects. As patients approach euthyroidism, insufficient anticoagulation is likely without vigilant follow-up, INR monitoring, and increasing warfarin dosages.

  4. Effect of irradiation as quarantine treatment on citrus fruit quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betancurt, Pablo; Montalban, Antonio; Arcia, Patricia; Borthagaray, Maria D.; Curutchet, Ana; Pica, Leticia; Soria, Alejandra; Abreu, Anibal V.; Ares, M. Ines


    Gamma radiations have been used to improve sanitation treatments without significant effects on fresh fruit quality. The objective of this work was to evaluate the fruit quality characteristics of citrus variety Valencia (Valencia Late), main variety produced and exported in Uruguay. All samples were stored at 3-5 deg C, 80% RH, for 20 and 40 days. Irradiation doses used were 0,35 kGy min. and 0,80 kGy max. (doses that also eliminate the fruit fly). Irradiation experiments were conducted using irradiation equipment from Atomic Center (CAE), year 1968, Co60 source, 800.000 Ci. The effects of irradiation on sensory qualities and physical characteristics were studied. The attributes evaluated were visual appearance (1- 4 hedonic scale, expert), overall acceptance (1-9 hedonic scale, consumers), texture (TAB Stevens, speed: 2m/s, distance: 2mm), yield of juice and colour (Hunter values). In general, no significant changes in these parameters were observed after irradiation. Quality was not significantly affected by doses usually applied to decrease the viability of pathogen that cause citrus Scab. This is an important contribution for the protocols that would allow citrus fruit exportation. (author)

  5. Effects of radiotherapy in the treatment of multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochtrop, Thomas Alexander


    Palliative irradiation of osteolytic lesions is a considerable component in the treatment for patients with multiple myeloma. In this study, we analyzed the efficacy of irradiation in these patients. Patients and methods: We retrospectively analyzed 153 patients with multiple myeloma who were admitted to our department between 1989 and 2013. According to the staging system of Durie and Salmon 116 patients were classified as stage III. 107/153 patients were treated with radiotherapy of at least one and up to 6 bony lesions at different times. In order to evaluate the effect of local radiotherapy on pain relief and bone recalcification a uni- and multivariate analysis was performed using a binary logistic regression model to correct for multiple measurements. Complete information on dose, fractionation and volume of radiotherapy was available from 81 patients treated in 136 target volumes for pain relief, and from 69 patients treated in 108 target volumes for recalcification. Total radiation doses varied between 8 Gy to 50 Gy (median dose 25 Gy in 2.5 Gy fractions, 5 times a week). Results: Radiotherapy resulted in complete local pain relief in 31% and partial local pain relief in 54% of the patients. In the univariate analysis, higher total radiation doses (p = 0.023) and higher age (p = 0.014) at the time of radiotherapy were significantly associated with a higher likelihood of pain relief, whereas no significant association was detected for concurrent systemic treatment, type and stage of myeloma and location of bone lesions. The same variables were independent predictors for pain relief in the multivariate analysis. Recalcification was observed in 48% of irradiated bone lesions. In the uni- and multivariate analysis higher radiation doses were significantly associated (p = 0.048) with an increased likelihood of recalcification. Side effects of radiotherapy were generally mild. Conclusions: Higher total biological radiation doses were associated with better pain

  6. Dropout among patients in qualified alcohol detoxification treatment: the effect of treatment motivation is moderated by Trauma Load. (United States)

    Odenwald, Michael; Semrau, Peter


    Motivation to change has been proposed as a prerequisite for behavioral change, although empirical results are contradictory. Traumatic experiences are frequently found amongst patients in alcohol treatment, but this has not been systematically studied in terms of effects on treatment outcomes. This study aimed to clarify whether individual Trauma Load explains some of the inconsistencies between motivation to change and behavioral change. Over the course of two months in 2009, 55 patients admitted to an alcohol detoxification unit of a psychiatric hospital were enrolled in this study. At treatment entry, we assessed lifetime Trauma Load and motivation to change. Mode of discharge was taken from patient files following therapy. We tested whether Trauma Load moderates the effect of motivation to change on dropout from alcohol detoxification using multivariate methods. 55.4% dropped out of detoxification treatment, while 44.6% completed the treatment. Age, gender and days in treatment did not differ between completers and dropouts. Patients who dropped out reported more traumatic event types on average than completers. Treatment completers had higher scores in the URICA subscale Maintenance. Multivariate methods confirmed the moderator effect of Trauma Load: among participants with high Trauma Load, treatment completion was related to higher Maintenance scores at treatment entry; this was not true among patients with low Trauma Load. We found evidence that the effect of motivation to change on detoxification treatment completion is moderated by Trauma Load: among patients with low Trauma Load, motivation to change is not relevant for treatment completion; among highly burdened patients, however, who a priori have a greater risk of dropping out, a high motivation to change might make the difference. This finding justifies targeted and specific interventions for highly burdened alcohol patients to increase their motivation to change.

  7. Effects of Different Cultivation Practices and Postharvest Treatments ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These preharvest treatments were combined with three disinfection and two storage treatments. The tomatoes were periodically analyzed for weight loss, total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid and marketability. Preharvest ComCat® and ComCat® + manure treatments improved the quality of tomato during ...

  8. The Effectiveness of Group Treatment for Female Adult Incest Survivors (United States)

    Brown, Donalee; Reyes, Sonia; Brown, Brienne; Gonzenbach, Meredith


    Very few clinicians receive training in the treatment of sexual abuse, yet during their careers many will encounter victims of sexual abuse. This article discusses the incidence of child sexual abuse, defines incest, and discusses treatment options. A review of group treatment is explored, with results being documented providing support for the…

  9. Saturated Overburden Scattering and the Multiscatter Frontier: Discovering Dark Matter at the Planck Mass and Beyond


    Bramante, Joseph; Broerman, Benjamin; Lang, Rafael F.; Raj, Nirmal


    We show that underground experiments like LUX/LZ, PandaX-II, XENON, and PICO could discover dark matter up to the Planck mass and beyond, with new searches for dark matter that scatters multiple times in these detectors. This opens up significant discovery potential via re-analysis of existing and future data. We also identify a new effect which substantially enhances experimental sensitivity to large dark matter scattering cross-sections: while passing through atmospheric or solid overburden...

  10. The effect of cigarette smoking on cancer treatment-related side effects. (United States)

    Peppone, Luke J; Mustian, Karen M; Morrow, Gary R; Dozier, Ann M; Ossip, Deborah J; Janelsins, Michelle C; Sprod, Lisa K; McIntosh, Scott


    Cigarette smoking has long been implicated in cancer development and survival. However, few studies have investigated the impact of smoking on symptom burden in cancer survivors during treatment and at survivorship stage. This study examines the influence of cigarette smoking on side effects among 947 cancer patients during and 6 months following treatment. Patients diagnosed with cancer and scheduled to receive chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy reported on current smoking status (yes, no) and total symptom burden [the sum of 12 common symptoms (fatigue, hair loss, memory, nausea, depression, sleep, pain, concentration, hot flashes, weight loss, skin problems, and dyspnea) scored on an 11-point scale ranging from 0 = "not present" to 10 = "as bad as you can imagine"] during treatment and at 6-month follow-up. The adjusted mean total symptom burden by smoking status was determined by analysis of covariance controlling for age, gender, race, education, occupation, treatment, cancer site, and Karnofsky performance score. During treatment, smokers (S) had a significantly higher total symptom burden than nonsmokers (NS) (S = 46.3 vs. NS = 41.2; p < 0.05). At 6-month follow-up, smokers continued to report a higher total symptom burden than nonsmokers (S = 27.7 vs. NS = 21.9; p < 0.05). Participants who quit smoking before treatment levels had a total symptom burden similar to nonsmokers. Smoking was associated with an increased symptom burden during and following treatments for cancer. Targeted cessation efforts for smokers to decrease symptom burden may limit the likelihood of treatment interruptions and increase quality of life following treatment.

  11. Cost-effectiveness of treatment for alcohol problems: findings of the randomised UK Alcohol Treatment Trial (UKATT).


    Heather, Nick; Copello, Alex; Godfrey, Christine; Hodgson, Ray; UKATT Research Team


    Objective \\ud To compare the cost effectiveness of social behaviour and network therapy, a new treatment for alcohol problems, with that of the proved motivational enhancement therapy. Design Cost effectiveness analysis alongside a pragmatic randomised trial. \\ud \\ud Setting \\ud Seven treatment sites around Birmingham, Cardiff, and Leeds. Participants 742 clients with alcohol problems; 617 (83.2%) were interviewed at 12 months and full economic data were obtained on 608 (98.5% of 617). Main e...

  12. Effectiveness and cost of treatment with maraviroc in HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viola Sacchi


    Full Text Available Since 1995, life expectancy and quality of life of HIV patients improved significantly due to the use of Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART, consisting of different combinations of three classes of antiretroviral agents, nucleoside and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and protease inhibitors. Recently, new treatment options for individuals developing resistance to these drugs have become available, with the appearance of new drug classes like integrase inhibitors, fusion inhibitors and CCR5 antagonists. Maraviroc is the first antiretroviral agent belonging to the latter drug class approved for clinical use. CCR5 receptor antagonists act by blocking the interaction of the HIV virus with the CCR5 chemokine receptor, a co-receptor essential to the entry process of R5-tropic viruses. The drug is indicated, in combination with other antiretroviral products, for treatment-experienced adult patients infected with only CCR5-tropic HIV-1 detectable virus strains. Results of main phase III clinical trials indicate that maraviroc, in combination with optimized background therapy (OBT, causes significantly greater reductions in viral load and increases in CD4+ cell count, as compared to OBT alone in this kind of patients. In Italy, the monthly cost of maraviroc therapy is about € 780. A number of economic evaluations, performed for different settings, demonstrate that the therapy including maraviroc is cost-effective if compared to OBT alone, determining an ICER generally below the threshold of three times the GDP per capita. In the Italian context, the ICER determined by OBT + maraviroc vs OBT alone is approximately 45,000 €/LYG.

  13. Side effects of intraoral devices for OSAS treatment. (United States)

    Teixeira, Andressa Otranto de Britto; Andrade, Ana Luiza Ladeia; Almeida, Rhita Cristina da Cunha; Almeida, Marco Antonio de Oliveira


    Intraoral devices have increasingly assumed a key role in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, but there are limitations to their indication and side effects that result from their continuous use, as well as the use of the continuous positive airway pressure device. To evaluate the changes in dental positioning caused by the continuous use of mandibular advancement devices. A prospective longitudinal study with a sample of 15 patients, with evaluation of complete documentation after a mean time of 6.47 months, assessed changes in dental positioning due to the use of the Twin Block oral device for the treatment of patients with apnea. The following variables were evaluated: overjet, overbite, upper and lower intermolar distances, upper and lower intercanine distances, Little's irregularity index and the incisor mandibular plane angle. An intraclass correlation test was performed and a correlation index>0.08 was accepted. After verifying the normal sample distribution (Shapiro-Wilks), a parametric test was used (t test), with a significance level set at 5%. There was a decrease in the values of overjet, overbite and Little's irregularity index, whereas there was an increase in the lower intercanine distance and IMPA values. All these variables are influenced, at different levels, by the forward inclination of the lower incisors, an action that can be expected due to the force applied by the device on the dentition. The other variables did not show statistically significant differences. After a mean time of 6.47 months of use of the mandibular advancement device, there were statistically significant changes in the dental positioning, but they were not clinically relevant. However, it is relevant that this device is commonly in use over long periods of time, making the monitoring of these patients of the utmost importance for the duration of their therapy. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia C

  14. Deep RF-hyperthermia: an effective treatment of advanced gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahinbas, H.; Groenemeyer, D.H.W.


    Full text: Contrary to the enormous efforts, results of conventional treatments of high-grade malignant gliomas are unsatisfactory. The prognosis of that tumor type is poor, its overall median survival time (MST) less than a year. Most of the cases are inoperable or only partially resectable, and their response to the various chemotherapies and/or radiotherapy is poor. The chemo-therapies which are successful for other locations often fail due to the effective brain-blood barrier (BBB). Probably the modification of the BBB by electromagnetic fields together with the direct electromagnetic-field heating are the main factors for the success of electro-hyperthermia. Primary aim of this study was to present the therapy tolerance for patients of electro-hyperthermia (EHY) for advanced malignant gliomas and as main intention to show the increase of the median survival time (MST). Our study was performed between 2000 - 2004; for patients with inoperable, partially resected or recurrent gliomas (WHO grade III and IV) with progression after radio- and/or chemotherapy and a Karnofsky Performance Score ≤30-40 %. 105 pts were involved in this study: 38 astrocytoma pts, 56 glioblastoma pts and 12 pts with other brain malignancies. All patients were heavily and unsatisfactory pretreated. EHY was applied over 4 weeks, 3 times a week over 1 hour in average by 100 Watt, as mono- or combined therapy (chemotherapy, irradiation therapy). The set of patients as well as the frequency of EHY was well documented for future evaluations. The historic reference of the MST from the first diagnosis for gliomas grade III and IV in our institute is 11.42 months (range 1-62), which is in good agreement with the relevant literature. The median survival time (MST) in our institute with EHY increases to 44.2 m, 23.2 m and 61.0 m for astrocytoma, glioblastoma and other brain malignancies, respectively. The therapy results were controlled by MRI images. EHY is a feasible treatment for advanced

  15. Radiation Synovectomy: an effective alternative treatment for inflamed small joints. (United States)

    Karavida, N; Notopoulos, A


    An inflamed painful joint is one of the most common indications for the patient to be referred to a rheumatologist or an orthopedician. In relation to the aetiology, the therapeutic approach might be systemic, local or a combination of them in some cases, always with the thought of balancing risk with benefit for the patient. In all cases, independently of the cause, the goal of therapy is to improve the quality of life through the reduction of pain, improvement of mobility and preservation of function. Nuclear Medicine has to offer Radiosynoviorthesis, an effective alternative procedure for treating inflamed small joints. Various radionuclides are available for radiosynoviorthesis. Their selection depends on the size of the joint to be treated. Small joints are mainly treated with [169Er] erbium under a fluoroscopic or sonographic guidance, usually with a simultaneous instillation of a corticoid. Candidates for radiosynoviorthesis should have been under a six-month systemic treatment without encouraging results or should have undergone at least one unsuccessful intra-articular injection of a long acting glucocorticoid. Since 1973, when [169Er] erbium was firstly suggested as a therapeutic agent for radiosynoviorthesis of the finger joints, there has been quite enough experience in its' application. It has been found to be cost effective in providing long term relief of pain and deformity of the inflamed joints in comparison to other therapeutic approaches. Additionally, there is no radiation risk and can be performed on an out patient basis. Therefore it can stand as an effective alternative procedure for treating early stages of chronic synovitis in RA (rheumatoid arthritis) patients, with minor damage of the cartilage and the adjacent bones, and for synovitis secondary to inflammatory arthropathies.

  16. Metagenomic approach for discovering new pathogens in infection disease outbreaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Giombini


    Full Text Available Viruses represent the most abundant biological components on earth.They can be found in every environment, from deep layers of oceans to animal bodies.Although several viruses have been isolated and sequenced, in each environment there are millions of different types of viruses that have not been identified yet.The advent of nextgeneration sequencing technologies with their high throughput capabilities make possible to study in a single experiment all the community of microorganisms present in a particular sample “microbioma”.They made more feasible the application of the metagenomic approach, by which it is also possible to discover and identify new pathogens, that may pose a threat to public health.This paper summarizes the most recent applications of nextgeneration sequencing to discover new viral pathogens during the occurrence of infection disease outbreaks.

  17. Possible origin of Saturn's newly discovered outer ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moehlmann, D.


    Within a planetogonic model the self-gravitationally caused formation of pre-planetary and pre-satellite rings from an earlier thin disk is reported. The theoretically derived orbital radii of these rings are compared with the orbital levels in the planetary system and the satellite systems of Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus. From this comparison it is concluded that at the radial position of Saturn's newly discovered outer ring an early pre-satellite ring of more or less evolved satellites could have existed. These satellites should have been disturbed in their evolution by the gravitation of the neighbouring massive satellite Titan. The comparison also may indicate similarities between the asteroidal belt and the newly discovered outer ring of Saturn

  18. Effectiveness of a pre-treatment snack on the uptake of mass treatment for schistosomiasis in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muhumuza, Simon; Olsen, Annette; Katahoire, Anne


    -treatment snack on uptake of mass treatment.Methods and Findings:In a cluster randomized trial carried out in Jinja district, Uganda, 12 primary schools were randomized into two groups; one received education messages for schistosomiasis prevention for two months prior to mass treatment, while the other......, in addition to the education messages, received a pre-treatment snack shortly before mass treatment. Four weeks after mass treatment, uptake of praziquantel was assessed among a random sample of 595 children in the snack schools and 689 children in the non-snack schools as the primary outcome. The occurrence...... of side effects and the prevalence and mean intensity of Schistosoma mansoni infection were determined as the secondary outcomes. Uptake of praziquantel was higher in the snack schools, 93.9% (95% CI 91.7%-95.7%), compared to that in the non-snack schools, 78.7% (95% CI 75.4%-81.7%) (p = 0...

  19. Decision Tree Approach to Discovering Fraud in Leasing Agreements


    Horvat Ivan; Pejić Bach Mirjana; Merkač Skok Marjana


    Background: Fraud attempts create large losses for financing subjects in modern economies. At the same time, leasing agreements have become more and more popular as a means of financing objects such as machinery and vehicles, but are more vulnerable to fraud attempts. Objectives: The goal of the paper is to estimate the usability of the data mining approach in discovering fraud in leasing agreements. Methods/Approach: Real-world data from one Croatian leasing firm was used for creating tow mo...

  20. Discovering and Promoting Commodity Health Attributes: Programs and Issues


    Carman, Hoy F.


    There is a growing consumer segment demanding healthy foods and diets, health and nutrition messages can expand food demand, and governments in the U.S. and EU, faced with increasing obesity and associated health outcomes, want consumers to have reliable information to choose healthy diets. California commodity organizations, charged with expanding the demand for almonds, avocados, strawberries and walnuts, are funding health and nutrition research as a means to discover a unique selling prop...

  1. Discovering the quantum universe the role of particle colliders

    CERN Document Server


    What does "Quantum Universe" mean? To discover what the universe is made of and how it works is the challenge of particle physics. "Quantum Universe" defines the quest to explain the universe in terms of quantum physics, which governs the behavior of the microscopic, subatomic world. It describes a revolution in particle physics and a quantum leap in our understanding of the mystery and beauty of the universe.

  2. Discovering Social Circles in Ego Networks (Author’s Manuscript) (United States)


    refer to as social cir- cles. Practically all major social networks provide such functionality, for example, ‘circles’ on Google+, and ‘lists’ on Facebook ...Discovering Social Circles in Ego Networks Julian McAuley and Jure Leskovec Stanford, January 11, 2013...Abstract People’s personal social networks are big and cluttered, and currently there is no good way to automatically organize them. Social networking

  3. Discovering Authentication Credentials in Volatile Memory of Android Mobile Devices


    Apostolopoulos , Dimitris; Marinakis , Giannis; Ntantogian , Christoforos; Xenakis , Christos


    Part 5: Adoption Issues in e/m-Services; International audience; This paper investigates whether authentication credentials in the volatile memory of Android mobile devices can be discovered using freely available tools. The experiments that we carried out for each application included two different sets: In the first set, our goal was to check if we could recover our own submitted credentials from the memory dump of the mobile device. In the second set of experiments, the goal was to find pa...

  4. Effect of Anti-inflammatory Treatment on Depression, Depressive Symptoms, and Adverse Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köhler, Ole; Benros, Michael E; Nordentoft, Merete


    -controlled trials assessing the efficacy and adverse effects of pharmacologic anti-inflammatory treatment in adults with depressive symptoms, including those who fulfilled the criteria for depression. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Data were extracted by 2 independent reviewers. Pooled standard mean difference (SMD...... investigated cytokine inhibitors (n=2,004). The pooled effect estimate suggested that anti-inflammatory treatment reduced depressive symptoms (SMD, -0.34; 95% CI, -0.57 to -0.11; I2=90%) compared with placebo. This effect was observed in studies including patients with depression (SMD, -0.54; 95% CI, -1.......08 to -0.01; I2=68%) and depressive symptoms (SMD, -0.27; 95% CI, -0.53 to -0.01; I2=68%). The heterogeneity of the studies was not explained by differences in inclusion of clinical depression vs depressive symptoms or use of NSAIDs vs cytokine inhibitors. Subanalyses emphasized the antidepressant...

  5. Media advertising effects on consumer perception of orthodontic treatment quality. (United States)

    Edwards, Daenya T; Shroff, Bhavna; Lindauer, Steven J; Fowler, Chad E; Tufekci, Eser


    To determine the effect of media advertising on consumer perception of orthodontic treatment quality. A survey instrument was designed to evaluate factors influencing consumer selection of an orthodontist and consumer perception of different forms of media advertising (radio, television, newspaper, magazine, direct mail, and billboard) by orthodontic practices. The surveys were distributed by eight orthodontic offices in and around the Richmond, Virginia area. The survey return rate was 97%. Respondents most often cited dentist and patient referrals as how they learned of the orthodontic practices they visited (50% to 57%). A caring attitude and good practitioner reputation were the top reasons influencing actual selection of an orthodontist (53% and 49%, respectively). Of respondents, 14% to 24% felt that advertising orthodontists would offer a lower quality of care than nonadvertising orthodontists. Newspaper, magazine, and direct mail advertisements were viewed more favorably than radio, television, and billboard advertisements. Chi-square analyses revealed few statistically significant differences in perception between different income and education groups. The majority of patients do not perceive advertising to reflect poorly on the quality of orthodontic care. However, patients with different income and education levels perceive media advertising differently.

  6. Effect of germination and thermal treatments on folates in rye. (United States)

    Kariluoto, Susanna; Liukkonen, Kirsi-Helena; Myllymäki, Olavi; Vahteristo, Liisa; Kaukovirta-Norja, Anu; Piironen, Vieno


    Effects of germination conditions and thermal processes on folate contents of rye were investigated. Total folate contents were determined microbiologically with Lactobacillus rhamnosus (ATCC 7469) as the growth indicator organism, and individual folates were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography after affinity chromatographic purification. Germination increased the folate content by 1.7-3.8-fold, depending on germination temperature, with a maximum content of 250 micro g/100 g dry matter. Hypocotylar roots with their notably high folate concentrations (600-1180 micro g/100 g dry matter) contributed 30-50% of the folate contents of germinated grains. Germination altered the proportions of folates, increasing the proportion of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate and decreasing the proportion of formylated folate compounds. Thermal treatments (extrusion, autoclaving and puffing, and IR and toasting) resulted in significant folate losses. However, folate levels in grains that were germinated and then were heat processed were higher than for native (nongerminated) grains. Opportunities to optimize rye processing to enhance folate levels in rye-based foods are discussed.

  7. Effectiveness of Computer-Based Treatment for Dyslexia in a Clinical Care Setting: Outcomes and Moderators (United States)

    Tijms, Jurgen


    The clinical effectiveness of a treatment for children with dyslexia was examined, as well as the moderating impact of plausible cognitive and socio-economic factors on treatment success. Results revealed that the treatment group accrued significant greater gains than the control group in reading and spelling skills. The treatment group obtained a…

  8. Effects of fuel treatments on carbon-disturbance relationships in forests of the northern Rocky Mountains (United States)

    Elizabeth Reinhardt; Lisa Holsinger


    Fuel treatments alter conditions in forested stands at the time of the treatment and subsequently. Fuel treatments reduce on-site carbon and also change the fire potential and expected outcome of future wildfires, including their carbon emissions. We simulated effects of fuel treatments on 140 stands representing seven major habitat type groups of the northern Rocky...

  9. Effect of pre-cooling and heat treatment on antioxidant enzymes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of pre-cooling and heat treatment on antioxidant enzymes profile of mango and banana. ... In banana, pre-cooling treatment (8 ºC) and heat treatment followed by cooling reduced CAT activity in peel and pulp, whereas POX activity increased. Pre-cooling and heat treatments altered normal homeostasis of these fruits, ...

  10. Effect of variations in treatment regimen and liver cirrhosis on exposure to benzodiazepines during treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Gershokovich


    Full Text Available Purpose: Benzodiazepines (BDZs are the drugs of choice to prevent the symptoms of alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS. Various treatment protocols are published and have been shown to be effective in both office-managed and facility-managed treatment of AWS. The aim of this scientific commentary is to demonstrate the differences in the expected exposure to BDZs during AWS treatment using different treatment regimens available in the literature, in patients with or without alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Methods: Diazepam and lorazepam AWS protocols were examined and reviewed in the literature, and blood plasma levels were examined and compared, respectively. Results: Considerable variation in the blood levels with the different dosing schedules was found. Because the drugs are metabolized differently, we have also shown that liver disease affects the blood levels of diazepam, but not of lorazepam. Conclusions: Differences in treatment regimens, the choice of BDZ, as well as the presence of liver cirrhosis can substantially alter the exposure of patients to drugs used for AWS treatment. Outpatient treatment of AWS has been shown to be relatively safe and effective for the treatment of AWS but patients should be carefully monitored.

  11. Effectiveness of propanolol for treatment of infantile haemangioma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ida Gillberg; Rechnitzer, Catherine; Charabi, Birgitte


    INTRODUCTION: Infantile haemangiomas (IH) are the most common benign tumours in children. They are characterised by rapid growth during the first year of life followed by spontaneous regression during childhood. Indications for treatment are functional impairment, bleeding/ulceration, rapid growth...... and severe aesthetic risk. Recently, systemic treatment with propranolol has become the first-line therapy. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of propranolol in the treatment of IH and to investigate whether treatment with a low dose of 1 mg/kg/day was sufficient. MATERIAL AND METHODS...... large residual changes. FUNDING: not relevant. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant....

  12. Effect of surface treatment of tailings on effluent quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, D.R.; Okuhara, D.


    Lysimeters containing 125 tons of mine tailings were used to determine the impact of gravel, sawdust, and vegetation as surface treatments on the quality and quantity of effluent produced from sulfide-containing uranium mill tailings. Over a 5-yr period, treatments did not alter the effluent quality to a level acceptable to regulatory requirements. The concentration of iron, copper, lead, aluminum, and sulfate increased with the rise of acidity during this period. However, the rate and extent of changes did vary with the treatment. The role of surface treatment in long-term waste abandonment must be investigated further


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pampa Pathi Goud


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: A simple treatment for perichondritis to prevent reaccumulation by using a drain. Existing treatment for this condition is initially medical, surgical (incision and drainage and compression to prevent recurrence with accompanying medical management. However the result is often a failure, resulting in partial or complete cauliflower ear deformity. PROCEDURE: Treatment involves to drain the site of infection and placing a drain to prevent reaccumulation. RESULT: The prescribed treatment avoids reaccumulation of fluid and repeated drainage. CONCLUSION: This method can be implemented for routine minor OT practice.

  14. Effective medical treatment of opiate addiction. National Consensus Development Panel on Effective Medical Treatment of Opiate Addiction. (United States)


    release at the conference and was updated with the panel's final revisions. Opiate dependence is a brain-related medical disorder that can be effectively treated with significant benefits for the patient and society, and society must make a commitment to offer effective treatment for opiate dependence to all who need it. All persons dependent on opiates should have access to methadone hydrochloride maintenance therapy under legal supervision, and the US Office of National Drug Control Policy and the US Department of Justice should take the necessary steps to implement this recommendation. There is a need for improved training for physicians and other health care professionals. Training to determine diagnosis and treatment of opiate dependence should also be improved in medical schools. The unnecessary regulations of methadone maintenance therapy and other long-acting opiate agonist treatment programs should be reduced, and coverage for these programs should be a required benefit in public and private insurance programs.

  15. Effective suppression of bystander effects by DMSO treatment of irradiated CHO cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashino, Genro; Prise, K.M.; Suzuki, Keiji


    Evidence is accumulating that irradiated cells produce some signals which interact with non-exposed cells in the same population via a bystander effect. Here, we examined whether dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is effective in suppressing radiation induced bystander effects in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and repair deficient xrs5 cells. When 1 Gy-irradiated CHO cells were treated with 0.5% DMSO for 1 hr before irradiation, the induction of micronuclei in irradiated cells was suppressed to 80% of that in non-treated irradiated cells. The suppressive effect of DMSO on the formation of bystander signals was examined and the results demonstrated that 0.5% DMSO treatment of irradiated cells completely suppressed the induction of micronuclei by the bystander effect in non-irradiated cells. It is suggested that irradiated cells ceased signal formation for bystander effects by the action of DMSO. To determine the involvement of reactive oxygen species on the formation of bystander signals, we examined oxidative stress levels using the 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein (DCFH) staining method in irradiated populations. The results showed that the treatment of irradiated cells with 0.5% DMSO did not suppress oxidative stress levels. These results suggest that the prevention of oxidative stress is independent of the suppressive effect of DMSO on the formation of the bystander signal in irradiated cells. It is suggested that increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) in irradiated cells is not a substantial trigger of a bystander signal. (author)

  16. Bone turnover in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Effect of calcitonin treatment. (United States)

    Civitelli, R; Gonnelli, S; Zacchei, F; Bigazzi, S; Vattimo, A; Avioli, L V; Gennari, C


    To investigate the effectiveness of calcitonin treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in relation to bone turnover, we examined 53 postmenopausal osteoporotic women before and after one year of therapy with salmon calcitonin (sCT), at the dose of 50 IU every other day. Baseline evaluation revealed that 17 (32%) patients had high turnover (HTOP), and 36 (68%) normal turnover osteoporosis (NTOP) as assessed by measurement of whole body retention (WBR) of 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate. The two groups did not differ in terms of bone mineral content (BMC) measured by dual photon absorptiometry at both lumbar spine and femoral diaphysis. However, HTOP patients had higher levels of serum osteocalcin (OC) and urinary hydroxyproline excretion (HOP/Cr). Multivariate regression analysis showed no correlation between parameters of bone turnover (WBR, OC, HOP/Cr) and both femoral and vertebral bone density; the latter being negatively correlated only with the years elapsed since menopause (R2 = 0.406). Treatment with sCT resulted in a significant increase of vertebral BMC in the 53 patients taken as a whole group (+/- 7%, P less than 0.001). When the results obtained in HTOP and NTOP were analyzed separately, only those with HTOP showed a marked increment of spinal BMC (+22%, P less than 0.001), NTOP subjects neither gained nor lost bone mineral during the study. Femoral BMC decreased in the whole group after sCT therapy (-3%, P less than 0.003). However, HTOP patients maintained initial BMC values, whereas those with NTOP lost a significant amount of bone during the study period (-5%, P less than 0.001). The increase of vertebral bone mass was associated with a marked depression of bone turnover detectable in both subsets of patients and in the whole group. (a) assessment of bone turnover cannot help predict the severity of bone loss in postmenopausal osteoporosis; (b) calcitonin therapy appears to be particularly indicated for patients with high-turnover osteoporosis

  17. Effectiveness of radioiodine therapy in treatment of hyperthyroidism. (United States)

    Alam, M N; Chakrabarty, R K; Akhter, M; Nahar, N; Swapan, M K; Alam, M M; Nahar, R; Sultana, N; Hallaz, M M; Alam, M M; Uddin, M M; Hossain, M A; Yasmin, S; Islam, M R


    The present non randomized clinical trial was conducted in the Center for Nuclear Medicine and Ultrasound, Mymensingh, Bangladesh for duration of one year. Total 30 patients with hyperthyroidism diagnosed by clinical and biochemical profile were included in the study. All patients received radioiodine treatment and regular follow up at 1st month, 3rd month, 6th month & 9th month were done to evaluate clinical and biochemical status and complications. Data were analyzed by computer with SPSS programme using 't' test and chi-square test. In the present study, out of 30 respondents more than three fourth of the respondents (76.6%) were in the age group of 31-50 years followed by less than 30 years are group (16.7%) and rest of respondents were in the age group of more than 50 years (06.7%). Mean±SD and range of age of the respondents were 39.80±10.02 years and 17-65 years respectively. Among the 30 respondents 11(36.7%) were male and 19(63.3%) were female. Male to female ratio was 1:1.73. Out of 30 patients 26(86.7%) presented with goiter and among them 21(80.8%) has diffused goiter and five (19.2%) had nodular goiter. Baseline mean±SD, median, range of serum T₃ level were 5.24±3.62, 4.34, 1.48-14.65nmol/L respectively. Base line mean±SD, median range of serum T₄ level were 192.25±99.17, 201.77, 1.75-336.25nmol/L respectively. Baseline mean±SD, median range of serum TSH level were 6.33±23.93, 0.15-0.07, 130.46nmol/L respectively. In the present study serum T₃, T₄ level among the respondents sharply decrease from baseline to 2nd follow up then gradually decrease from 2nd to 4th follow up. Serum TSH level gradually increases from baseline to 3rd follow up and then gradually decreases from 3rd to 4th follow up. The result showed radioiodine is an effective option for the treatment of thyrotoxicosis.

  18. Assessing Side Effects of Pharmacotherapy Treatment of Bipolar Disorder: A 20-Year Review of the Literature (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Gonzalez, Melissa L.; Smith, Kimberly R.; Terlonge, Cindy; Thorson, Ryan T.; Dixon, Dennis R.


    A substantial literature on the effective treatment of bipolar disorder has begun to appear, particularly in the last 20 years.The majority of treatments studied have employed medications, particularly mood stabilizers, a typical antipsychotics and antidepressants. Most treatments produce side effects and medications are no exception. A review of…

  19. Effect of heat moisture treatment and annealing on physicochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Red sorghum starch was physically modified by annealing and heat moisture treatment. The swelling power and solubility increased with increasing temperature range (60-90°), while annealing and heatmoisture treatment decreased swelling power and solubility of starch. Solubility and swelling were pH dependent with ...

  20. Effect of Organizational Climate on Youth Outcomes in Residential Treatment (United States)

    Jordan, Neil; Leon, Scott C.; Epstein, Richard A.; Durkin, Elizabeth; Helgerson, Jena; Lakin-Starr, Brittany L.


    This study examined the association between organizational climate and changes in internalizing and externalizing behavior for youth in residential treatment centers (RTCs). The sample included 407 youth and 349 front-line residential treatment staff from 17 RTCs in Illinois. Youth behavior was measured using the Child Functional Assessment Rating…

  1. Thyroid cancer treatment : Long-term effects and new developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Hesselink, Esther


    Thyroid cancer is increasingly common. This is especially the case for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), which has a favorable prognosis. Treatment consists of surgical removal of the thyroid gland, radioiodine treatment, and life-long administration of relatively high doses of thyroid hormone.

  2. Effects of source, water conditioning and thermal treatment on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    at 15 % moisture content amounting to 61.3 MJ was the optimum thermal treatment for achieving germination of 69 %. R. heudelotii seeds soaked in water for 15 days at moisture content of 24 % over dry weight followed by thermal treatment improved germination by 22 %. The highest germination of 79 % was obtained for ...

  3. Lithium in older patients: treatment patterns and somatic adverse effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Melick, E.J.M.


    Lithium has been used in psychiatry for over 60 years and is still one of the first-line treatments in bipolar disorder. It is also used as augmentation to antidepressants in treatment resistant depression. Age-dependent changes in lithium pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics may influence lithium

  4. Effect of surface treatment of tailings on effluent quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, D.R.


    Successful reclamation treatment, in preparation for long range abandonment of mining wastes, involves both surface treatment and water quality control containment of waste solids and liquid contaminants. This paper describes use of lysimeters containing 125 tonnes of tailings to determine the impact of gravel, sawdust, and vegetation as surface treatments on the quality and quantity of effluent produced from sulphide-containing uranium mill tailings. Over a five-year period these treatments were observed and compared with bare tailings where no surface addition was made. The treatments did not alter the effluent quality to a level acceptable to regulatory requirements. Surface treatments did not appear to affect the leaching of Ra-226, NH 4 and NO 3 . The concentration of Fe, SO 4 , Cu, Pb, and Al increased with the rise of acidity as the pH changed from pH 9.5 to pH 2 in four and one-half years. However the rate and extent of changes of some of these parameters vary with the treatment. The experimental results for the observed trends are presented with limited explanation. Original design problems and unexpected delays in tailing reactions have made firm conclusions impossible at this stage. These data, however, provide a base for further investigation and development of explanations and firm conclusions, as to the role of surface treatment in long-term waste abandonment

  5. No pain, no gain. Measuring treatment effects in fybromyalgia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, Tjeerd Roelof


    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FM) is a condition of chronic pain, fatigue and other symptoms without a known anatomical substrate. Until now, treatment is mostly unsatisfactory; empirical studies on pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment strategies in FM are needed. Following an overview of FM

  6. The effect of stimulant and sedative use on treatment outcome of patients admitted to methadone maintenance treatment. (United States)

    DeMaria, P A; Sterling, R; Weinstein, S P


    While methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) has been demonstrated to be an effective treatment for opiate dependence, its impact on the treatment outcome of other illicit drug abuse is not as clear. Using the initial urine drug screen (UDS) and follow-up UDS at 1, 6, 12, and 24 months, 167 patients consecutively admitted to MMT were evaluated for opiate, sedative (predominantly benzodiazepine), and stimulant (predominantly cocaine) use. Retention for the opiate only group was 97.32 days longer on average than for patients using opiates along with stimulants, sedatives, or both stimulants and sedatives. Patients abusing opiates only had the greatest decrease in drug use; however, MMT was also associated with decreases in cocaine and sedative use over the 24 month follow-up period. There was no evidence that patients "switched" their drugs of abuse with time in treatment. The negative impact of non-opiate drug use on outcome in MMT and its implications for treatment planning are discussed.

  7. Effective antiprotease-antibiotic treatment of experimental anthrax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacAfee Rebecca


    factors of B. anthrasis, which can be considered as effective therapeutic targets in the development of anthrax treatment and prophylactic approaches complementing anti-lethal toxin therapy.

  8. Effects of chronic treatment with 7-nitroindazole in hyperthyroid rats. (United States)

    Wangensteen, Rosemary; Rodríguez-Gómez, Isabel; Moreno, Juan Manuel; Alvarez-Guerra, Miriam; Osuna, Antonio; Vargas, Félix


    This study analyzed the contribution of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) to the hemodynamic manifestations of hyperthyroidism. The effects on hyperthyroid rats of the chronic administration of 7-nitroindazole (7-NI), an inhibitor of nNOS, were studied. Six groups of male Wistar rats were used: control, 7-NI (30 by gavage), T(4)50, T(4)75 (50 or 75 microg, respectively), T(4)50+7-NI, and T(4)75+7-NI. All treatments were maintained for 4 wk. Body weight, tail systolic blood pressure (SBP), and heart rate (HR) were recorded weekly. Finally, SBP, pulse pressure (PP), and HR were measured in conscious rats, and morphological, metabolic, plasma, and renal variables were determined. Expression of nNOS in the hypothalamus of T(4)75 and control rats was analyzed by Western blot analysis. The response of mean arterial pressure (MAP) to pentolinium (10 mg/kg iv) was used to evaluate the sympathetic contribution to BP in T(4)75 and T(4)75+7-NI rats. T(4) produced an increased hypothalamic nNOS expression and dose-related increases in blood pressure (BP), HR, and PP vs. control rats. 7-NI did not modify BP or any other hemodynamic variable in normal rats. However, 7-NI produced a marked reduction in BP, HR, PP, and food and water intake in both hyperthyroid groups and improved creatinine clearance in the T(4)75 group. Pentolinium produced a greater MAP decrease in the T(4)75+7-NI than in the T(4)75 group. In conclusion, administration of 7-NI attenuates the hemodynamic and metabolic manifestations of hyperthyroidism, suggesting that nNOS contributes to the hyperdynamic circulation of this endocrine disease by modulating sympathetic activity.

  9. Dropout among patients in qualified detoxification treatment : the effect of treatment motivation is moderated by trauma load


    Odenwald, Michael; Semrau, Peter


    Background: Motivation to change has been proposed as a prerequisite for behavioral change, although empirical results are contradictory. Traumatic experiences are frequently found amongst patients in alcohol treatment, butthis has not been systematically studied in terms of effects on treatment outcomes. This study aimed to clarify whether individual Trauma Load explains some of the inconsistencies between motivation to change andbehavioral change.Methods: Over the course of two months in 20...

  10. Effectiveness of low intensity behavioral treatment for children with autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters-Scheffer, N.C.; Didden, H.C.M.; Mulders, M.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.


    To determine the effectiveness of low intensity behavioral treatment (LIBT) supplementing regular treatment in young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID) standardized tests of cognition, adaptive behavior, interpersonal relations, play, language,

  11. A quantitative method to evaluate microbial electrolysis cell effectiveness for energy recovery and wastewater treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Ivanov, Ivan; Ren, Lijiao; Siegert, Michael; Logan, Bruce E.


    Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) are potential candidates for sustainable wastewater treatment as they allow for recovery of the energy input by producing valuable chemicals such as hydrogen gas. Evaluating the effectiveness of MEC treatment

  12. Tools and strategies for discovering novel enzymes and metabolic pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Gerlt


    Full Text Available The number of entries in the sequence databases continues to increase exponentially – the UniProt database is increasing with a doubling time of ∼4 years (2% increase/month. Approximately 50% of the entries have uncertain, unknown, or incorrect function annotations because these are made by automated methods based on sequence homology. If the potential in complete genome sequences is to be realized, strategies and tools must be developed to facilitate experimental assignment of functions to uncharacterized proteins discovered in genome projects. The Enzyme Function Initiative (EFI; previously supported by U54GM093342 from the National Institutes of Health, now supported by P01GM118303 developed web tools for visualizing and analyzing (1 sequence and function space in protein families (EFI-EST and (2 genome neighbourhoods in microbial and fungal genomes (EFI-GNT to assist the design of experimental strategies for discovering the in vitro activities and in vivo metabolic functions of uncharacterized enzymes. The EFI developed an experimental platform for large-scale production of the solute binding proteins (SBPs for ABC, TRAP, and TCT transport systems and their screening with a physical ligand library to identify the identities of the ligands for these transport systems. Because the genes that encode transport systems are often co-located with the genes that encode the catabolic pathways for the transported solutes, the identity of the SBP ligand together with the EFI-EST and EFI-GNT web tools can be used to discover new enzyme functions and new metabolic pathways. This approach is demonstrated with the characterization of a novel pathway for ethanolamine catabolism.

  13. Effect of heat treatment on carbon steel pipe welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Harun.


    The heat treatment to improve the altered properties of carbon steel pipe welds is described. Pipe critical components in oil, gasification and nuclear reactor plants require adequate room temperature toughness and high strength at both room and moderately elevated temperatures. Microstructure and microhardness across the welds were changed markedly by the welding process and heat treatment. The presentation of hardness fluctuation in the welds can produce premature failure. A number of heat treatments are suggested to improve the properties of the welds. (author) 8 figs., 5 refs

  14. Tooth positioners and their effects on treatment outcome. (United States)

    Pravindevaprasad, A; Therese, Beena Agnes


    Malocclusion can also be corrected by means of clear removable appliances called as "tooth positioners" or "aligners". A tooth positioner is used to control settling and to minimize or eliminate relapse of the teeth after an orthodontic treatment. In this article, a complete review of the objectives, course of treatment, fabrication, and the materials used for fabrication of tooth positioners along with their importance and disadvantages were discussed. Tooth positioners did improve the overall orthodontic treatment outcome as quantified by the ABO (American Board of orthodontics) objective scoring method. But once the initial occlusal contact was achieved, the vertical movement of teeth was found to be inhibited.

  15. NLRC5: a newly discovered MHC class I transactivator (CITA)


    Meissner, Torsten B.; Li, Amy; Kobayashi, Koichi S.


    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and class II are crucial for the function of the human adaptive immune system. An NLR protein, CIITA (MHC class II transactivator), is a master regulator of MHC class II gene expression as well as of some of the genes involved in MHC class II antigen presentation. It has recently been discovered that another member of the NLR protein family, NLRC5, transcriptionally activates MHC class I genes, and thus acts as “CITA” (MHC class I transactivator)...

  16. Knots and surfaces a guide to discovering mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Farmer, David W


    In most mathematics textbooks, the most exciting part of mathematics-the process of invention and discovery-is completely hidden from the reader. The aim of Knots and Surfaces is to change all that. By means of a series of carefully selected tasks, this book leads readers to discover some real mathematics. There are no formulas to memorize; no procedures to follow. The book is a guide: its job is to start you in the right direction and to bring you back if you stray too far. Discovery is left to you. Suitable for a one-semester course at the beginning undergraduate level, there are no prerequi

  17. Growing Self-Estemm and Discovering Intelligences through Oral Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochoa Dora Liliana


    Full Text Available After having applied a needs analysis in an eleventh grade course of English, I could notice that there was a big lack of security and self-confidence in the students. They expressed in different data-gathering instruments their fear when speaking in front of the class. Also, they talked about their insecurity when pronouncing English and the need for more opportunities for developing speaking. Therefore, the implementation of an innovation in class was carried out in order to respond to the students¿ needs and make them discover their talents. The implementation was successful and students improved some areas of their communicative competence.

  18. An approach for discovering keywords from Spanish tweets using Wikipedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel AYALA


    Full Text Available Most approaches to keywords discovery when analyzing microblogging messages (among them those from Twitter are based on statistical and lexical information about the words that compose the text. The lack of context in the short messages can be problematic due to the low co-occurrence of words. In this paper, we present a new approach for keywords discovering from Spanish tweets based on the addition of context information using Wikipedia as a knowledge base. We present four different ways to use Wikipedia and two ways to rank the new keywords. We have tested these strategies using more than 60000 Spanish tweets, measuring performance and analyzing particularities of each strategy.

  19. Discovering Communicable Scientific Knowledge from Spatio-Temporal Data (United States)

    Schwabacher, Mark; Langley, Pat; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)


    This paper describes how we used regression rules to improve upon a result previously published in the Earth science literature. In such a scientific application of machine learning, it is crucially important for the learned models to be understandable and communicable. We recount how we selected a learning algorithm to maximize communicability, and then describe two visualization techniques that we developed to aid in understanding the model by exploiting the spatial nature of the data. We also report how evaluating the learned models across time let us discover an error in the data.

  20. Very Bright CV discovered by MASTER-ICATE (Argentina) (United States)

    Saffe, C.; Levato, H.; Mallamaci, C.; Lopez, C.; Lipunov, F. Podest V.; Denisenko, D.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Balanutsa, P.; Kornilov, V.; Belinski, A.; Shatskiy, N.; Chazov, V.; Kuznetsov, A.; Yecheistov, V.; Yurkov, V.; Sergienko, Y.; Varda, D.; Sinyakov, E.; Gabovich, A.; Ivanov, K.; Yazev, S.; Budnev, N.; Konstantinov, E.; Chuvalaev, O.; Poleshchuk, V.; Gress, O.; Frolova, A.; Krushinsky, V.; Zalozhnih, I.; Popov, A.; Bourdanov, A.; Parkhomenko, A.; Tlatov, A.; Dormidontov, D.; Senik, V.; Podvorotny, P.; Shumkov, V.; Shurpakov, S.


    MASTER-ICATE very wide-field camera (d=72mm f/1.2 lens + 11 Mpix CCD) located near San Juan, Argentina has discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 14h 20m 23.5s -48d 55m 40s on the combined image (exposure 275 sec) taken on 2013-06-08.048 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is 12.1m (limit 13.1m). There is no minor planet at this place. The OT is seen in more than 10 images starting from 2013-06-02.967 UT (275 sec exposure) when it was first detected at 12.4m.

  1. Biological effective dose evaluation in gynaecological brachytherapy: LDR and HDR treatments, dependence on radiobiological parameters, and treatment optimisation. (United States)

    Bianchi, C; Botta, F; Conte, L; Vanoli, P; Cerizza, L


    This study was undertaken to compare the biological efficacy of different high-dose-rate (HDR) and low-dose-rate (LDR) treatments of gynaecological lesions, to identify the causes of possible nonuniformity and to optimise treatment through customised calculation. The study considered 110 patients treated between 2001 and 2006 with external beam radiation therapy and/or brachytherapy with either LDR (afterloader Selectron, (137)Cs) or HDR (afterloader microSelectron Classic, (192)Ir). The treatments were compared in terms of biologically effective dose (BED) to the tumour and to the rectum (linear-quadratic model) by using statistical tests for comparisons between independent samples. The difference between the two treatments was statistically significant in one case only. However, within each technique, we identified considerable nonuniformity in therapeutic efficacy due to differences in fractionation schemes and overall treatment time. To solve this problem, we created a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet allowing calculation of the optimal treatment for each patient: best efficacy (BED(tumour)) without exceeding toxicity threshold (BED(rectum)). The efficacy of a treatment may vary as a result of several factors. Customised radiobiological evaluation is a useful adjunct to clinical evaluation in planning equivalent treatments that satisfy all dosimetric constraints.

  2. Discovering Multimodal Behavior in Ms. Pac-Man through Evolution of Modular Neural Networks. (United States)

    Schrum, Jacob; Miikkulainen, Risto


    Ms. Pac-Man is a challenging video game in which multiple modes of behavior are required: Ms. Pac-Man must escape ghosts when they are threats and catch them when they are edible, in addition to eating all pills in each level. Past approaches to learning behavior in Ms. Pac-Man have treated the game as a single task to be learned using monolithic policy representations. In contrast, this paper uses a framework called Modular Multi-objective NEAT (MM-NEAT) to evolve modular neural networks. Each module defines a separate behavior. The modules are used at different times according to a policy that can be human-designed (i.e. Multitask) or discovered automatically by evolution. The appropriate number of modules can be fixed or discovered using a genetic operator called Module Mutation. Several versions of Module Mutation are evaluated in this paper. Both fixed modular networks and Module Mutation networks outperform monolithic networks and Multitask networks. Interestingly, the best networks dedicate modules to critical behaviors (such as escaping when surrounded after luring ghosts near a power pill) that do not follow the customary division of the game into chasing edible and escaping threat ghosts. The results demonstrate that MM-NEAT can discover interesting and effective behavior for agents in challenging games.

  3. GraphTeams: a method for discovering spatial gene clusters in Hi-C sequencing data. (United States)

    Schulz, Tizian; Stoye, Jens; Doerr, Daniel


    Hi-C sequencing offers novel, cost-effective means to study the spatial conformation of chromosomes. We use data obtained from Hi-C experiments to provide new evidence for the existence of spatial gene clusters. These are sets of genes with associated functionality that exhibit close proximity to each other in the spatial conformation of chromosomes across several related species. We present the first gene cluster model capable of handling spatial data. Our model generalizes a popular computational model for gene cluster prediction, called δ-teams, from sequences to graphs. Following previous lines of research, we subsequently extend our model to allow for several vertices being associated with the same label. The model, called δ-teams with families, is particular suitable for our application as it enables handling of gene duplicates. We develop algorithmic solutions for both models. We implemented the algorithm for discovering δ-teams with families and integrated it into a fully automated workflow for discovering gene clusters in Hi-C data, called GraphTeams. We applied it to human and mouse data to find intra- and interchromosomal gene cluster candidates. The results include intrachromosomal clusters that seem to exhibit a closer proximity in space than on their chromosomal DNA sequence. We further discovered interchromosomal gene clusters that contain genes from different chromosomes within the human genome, but are located on a single chromosome in mouse. By identifying δ-teams with families, we provide a flexible model to discover gene cluster candidates in Hi-C data. Our analysis of Hi-C data from human and mouse reveals several known gene clusters (thus validating our approach), but also few sparsely studied or possibly unknown gene cluster candidates that could be the source of further experimental investigations.

  4. [Treatment of cloud radiative effects in general circulation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, W.C.


    This is a renewal proposal for an on-going project of the Department of Energy (DOE)/Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. The objective of the ARM Program is to improve the treatment of radiation-cloud in GCMs so that reliable predictions of the timing and magnitude of greenhouse gas-induced global warming and regional responses can be made. The ARM Program supports two research areas: (I) The modeling and analysis of data related to the parameterization of clouds and radiation in general circulation models (GCMs); and (II) the development of advanced instrumentation for both mapping the three-dimensional structure of the atmosphere and high accuracy/precision radiometric observations. The present project conducts research in area (I) and focuses on GCM treatment of cloud life cycle, optical properties, and vertical overlapping. The project has two tasks: (1) Development and Refinement of GCM Radiation-Cloud Treatment Using ARM Data; and (2) Validation of GCM Radiation-Cloud Treatment

  5. Assessment of wastewater treatment plant effluent effects on fish reproduction (United States)

    Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents are known contributors of chemical mixtures into the environment. Of particular concern are endocrine-disrupting compounds that can affect hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis function in exposed organisms. The present study examined t...

  6. Effects of corona discharge treatment on some properties of wool ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Dec 21, 2011 ... Corona discharge after operation worsted water absorption property increased and the ... finally conditioned with atmospheric air (20°C, relative humidity ... For corona treatment, a glow discharge generator was used with a.

  7. Breast Cancer: Treatment, Outcomes, and Cost-Effectiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McClellan, Mark


    ...) use Medicare data, linked SEER cancer registry data, and claims data from large firms to analyze trends in diagnosis rates and staging, treatment, expenditures, and outcomes for Americans with breast cancer; and (3...

  8. Effect of heat treatment on brewer's yeast fermentation activity


    Kharandiuk, Tetiana; Kosiv, Ruslana; Palianytsia, Liubov; Berezovska, Natalia


    The influence of temperature treatment of brewer's yeast strain Saflager W-34/70 at temperatures of -17, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 °C on their fermentative activity was studied. It was established that the freezing of yeast leads to a decrease of fermentation activity in directly proportional to the duration way. Fermentative activity of yeast samples can be increased by 20-24% by heat treatment at 35 °C during 15-30 minutes.

  9. Discovering the cosmos with small spacecraft the American explorer program

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, Brian


    Explorer was the original American space program and Explorer 1 its first satellite, launched in 1958. Sixty years later, it is the longest continuously running space program in the world, demonstrating to the world how we can explore the cosmos with small spacecraft. Almost a hundred Explorers have already been launched.  Explorers have made some of the fundamental discoveries of the Space Age.Explorer 1 discovered Earth’s radiation belts. Later Explorers surveyed the Sun, the X-ray and ultraviolet universes, black holes, magnetars and gamma ray bursts. An Explorer found the remnant of the Big Bang. One Explorer chased and was the first to intercept a comet. The program went through a period of few launches during the crisis of funding for space science in the 1980s. However, with the era of ‘faster, cheaper, better,’ the program was reinvented, and new exiting missions began to take shape, like Swift and the asteroid hunter WISE.  Discovering the Cosmos with Small Spacecraft gives an account of ...

  10. Discovering objects in a blood recipient information system. (United States)

    Qiu, D; Junghans, G; Marquardt, K; Kroll, H; Mueller-Eckhardt, C; Dudeck, J


    Application of object-oriented (OO) methodologies has been generally considered as a solution to the problem of improving the software development process and managing the so-called software crisis. Among them, object-oriented analysis (OOA) is the most essential and is a vital prerequisite for the successful use of other OO methodologies. Though there are already a good deal of OOA methods published, the most important aspect common to all these methods: discovering objects classes truly relevant to the given problem domain, has remained a subject to be intensively researched. In this paper, using the successful development of a blood recipient information system as an example, we present our approach which is based on the conceptual framework of responsibility-driven OOA. In the discussion, we also suggest that it may be inadequate to simply attribute the software crisis to the waterfall model of the software development life-cycle. We are convinced that the real causes for the failure of some software and information systems should be sought in the methodologies used in some crucial phases of the software development process. Furthermore, a software system can also fail if object classes essential to the problem domain are not discovered, implemented and visualized, so that the real-world situation cannot be faithfully traced by it.

  11. Learning Faster by Discovering and Exploiting Object Similarities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadej Janež


    Full Text Available In this paper we explore the question: “Is it possible to speed up the learning process of an autonomous agent by performing experiments in a more complex environment (i.e., an environment with a greater number of different objects?” To this end, we use a simple robotic domain, where the robot has to learn a qualitative model predicting the change in the robot's distance to an object. To quantify the environment's complexity, we defined cardinal complexity as the number of objects in the robot's world, and behavioural complexity as the number of objects' distinct behaviours. We propose Error reduction merging (ERM, a new learning method that automatically discovers similarities in the structure of the agent's environment. ERM identifies different types of objects solely from the data measured and merges the observations of objects that behave in the same or similar way in order to speed up the agent's learning. We performed a series of experiments in worlds of increasing complexity. The results in our simple domain indicate that ERM was capable of discovering structural similarities in the data which indeed made the learning faster, clearly superior to conventional learning. This observed trend occurred with various machine learning algorithms used inside the ERM method.

  12. Screening individual hybridomas by microengraving to discover monoclonal antibodies (United States)

    Ogunniyi, Adebola O; Story, Craig M; Papa, Eliseo; Guillen, Eduardo; Love, J Christopher


    The demand for monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in biomedical research is significant, but the current methodologies used to discover them are both lengthy and costly. Consequently, the diversity of antibodies available for any particular antigen remains limited. Microengraving is a soft lithographic technique that provides a rapid and efficient alternative for discovering new mAbs. This protocol describes how to use microengraving to screen mouse hybridomas to establish new cell lines producing unique mAbs. Single cells from a polyclonal population are isolated into an array of microscale wells (~105 cells per screen). The array is then used to print a protein microarray, where each element contains the antibodies captured from individual wells. The antibodies on the microarray are screened with antigens of interest, and mapped to the corresponding cells, which are then recovered from their microwells by micromanipulation. Screening and retrieval require approximately 1–3 d (9–12 d including the steps for preparing arrays of microwells). PMID:19528952


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulic Mersudin


    Full Text Available Introduction:Increased cardiovascular risk in thyroid dysfunction is associated with disorders of lipid and lipoproteins, endothelial dysfunction, metabolic, hormonal, hemodynamic changes and coagulation disorders. Subclinical hypothyroidism is characterized by a suprarnormal level of TSH with normal levels of thyroid hormones. The correlation between subclinical hypothyroidism of the lipid profile and cardiovascular outcomes remains unclear. Several intervention studies assessed the effect of levothyroxine therapy on the lipid profile of patients with subclinical hypothyroidism and obtained conflicting results. The aim of the research is to determine whether subclinical hypothyroidism is associated with the atherogenic lipid profile and whether these changes are reversible after the introduction of the L-thyroxine replacement therapy. Method: The study included 51 patients over 50 years of age with subclinical hypothyroidism. All the participants were subjected to an examination programme which included a detailed anamnesis and physical examination, laboratory tests (total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, T3, T4, TSH. After eight weeks of levothyroxine therapy, the same laboratory parameters were determined in the patients. Results: Subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism had high average values: TSH (12.77 + 2.78 mIU / ml, total cholesterol (7.55 ± 0.79 mmol / l, LDL cholesterol (5.03 ± 0.61 mmol / l, triglycerides (2.48 ± 1.01 mmol / l; and the average value of HDL cholesterol was within reference values (1.12 ± 0.21 mmol / l. After eight weeks of levothyroxine replacement therapy, there was a statistically significant reduction of average values (p <0.0001: TSH (3.83 ± 1.33 mIU / ml, total cholesterol (6.28 ± 0.96 mmol / l, LDL cholesterol ( 4.03 ± 0.70 mmol / mmol / l l, triglycerides (1.98 ± 0.87 mmol / l; and the average value of HDL cholesterol increased significantly (p <0.0001 (1.32 ± 0.22 mmol

  14. Effect of Female Body Mass Index on Oocyte Quantity in Fertility Treatments (IVF: Treatment Cycle Number Is a Possible Effect Modifier. A Register-Based Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Wulf Christensen

    Full Text Available Overweight and obese women may require higher doses of gonadotrophin when undergoing In Vitro Fertilization Treatment (IVF. Consequently, one may expect a sub-optimal oocyte retrieval in the first treatment cycle and thus a larger compensation in gonadotrophin-dose in the following treatment-cycles and a more favorable outcome. The main objective was to explore if treatment cycle number modifies the outcome when investigating the effect of female Body Mass Index (BMI on oocyte quantity in IVF.A historical cohort study was conducted on 5,342 treatment-cycles during the period 1999-2009. Exclusion criteria were missing information on BMI or treatment type. Further, women were excluded if they had ovulated before oocyte retrieval. According to baseline BMI, women were divided into four categories following the World Health Organization standards. Multiple linear regressions analyses were performed accounting for the non-independence of ≥2 cycles in a woman.Stratification according to cycle number revealed a more suboptimal outcome in the first treatment- cycles than in the following cycles, suggesting a possible interaction or effect modification from cycle number or a factor related to cycle number. The median dose of total follicular stimulating hormone given to the four BMI groups could not straight forwardly explain the less optimal oocyte outcome observed in first treatment cycles. No statistically significant differences were observed in oocyte yield for underweight, overweight and obesity compared to normal weight women when analyzing all treatment-cycles. Overweight women had significantly fewer mature (MII oocytes (p = 0.009 than normal weight women, whereas no differences was observed for underweight and obese women.Our study suggests a possible interaction or effect modification related to treatment cycle number. Investigating the effects of BMI on IVF-results in first treatment-cycles alone should be carried out cautiously.

  15. The effect of support on Internet-delivered treatment for insomnia: Does baseline depression severity matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lancee, J.; Sorbi, M.J.; Eisma, M.C.; van Straten, A.; van den Bout, J.


    Internet-delivered cognitive-behavioral treatment is effective for insomnia. However, little is known about the beneficial effects of support. Recently we demonstrated that motivational support moderately improved the effects of Internet-delivered treatment for insomnia. In the present study, we

  16. Under What Assumptions Do Site-by-Treatment Instruments Identify Average Causal Effects? (United States)

    Reardon, Sean F.; Raudenbush, Stephen W.


    The increasing availability of data from multi-site randomized trials provides a potential opportunity to use instrumental variables methods to study the effects of multiple hypothesized mediators of the effect of a treatment. We derive nine assumptions needed to identify the effects of multiple mediators when using site-by-treatment interactions…

  17. Estimating the average treatment effect on survival based on observational data and using partly conditional modeling. (United States)

    Gong, Qi; Schaubel, Douglas E


    Treatments are frequently evaluated in terms of their effect on patient survival. In settings where randomization of treatment is not feasible, observational data are employed, necessitating correction for covariate imbalances. Treatments are usually compared using a hazard ratio. Most existing methods which quantify the treatment effect through the survival function are applicable to treatments assigned at time 0. In the data structure of our interest, subjects typically begin follow-up untreated; time-until-treatment, and the pretreatment death hazard are both heavily influenced by longitudinal covariates; and subjects may experience periods of treatment ineligibility. We propose semiparametric methods for estimating the average difference in restricted mean survival time attributable to a time-dependent treatment, the average effect of treatment among the treated, under current treatment assignment patterns. The pre- and posttreatment models are partly conditional, in that they use the covariate history up to the time of treatment. The pre-treatment model is estimated through recently developed landmark analysis methods. For each treated patient, fitted pre- and posttreatment survival curves are projected out, then averaged in a manner which accounts for the censoring of treatment times. Asymptotic properties are derived and evaluated through simulation. The proposed methods are applied to liver transplant data in order to estimate the effect of liver transplantation on survival among transplant recipients under current practice patterns. © 2016, The International Biometric Society.

  18. [Effective treatment strategy in elderly breast cancer patients]. (United States)

    Boér, Katalin


    High frequency of cancer in older people and the improvements in life expectancy do not allow older age to be a barrier to treatment. The age is one of the risk factors for breast cancer development, one third of all cases occur in women older than 70 years. To provide an overview of the available information on the main issues in the field of surgery, radiotherapy and medical approaches to the treatment of breast cancer in the elderly. The author discusses the treatment of breast cancer in the elderly, based on the data of literature. The assessment of any patient is the first step in the treatment process, performance status is more important than age. In older women a correct evaluation includes not only the basic medical history and the cancer staging, but also a detailed assessment of health and environment that may interfere with the therapeutic approach of the patient. Age is not a limitation for surgery, without any comorbidity it is safe, and operative mortality is low. The body self-image is important for most old women, they also wish to keep their breasts, so a conservative surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy should be offered to all, as long as the stage permits it. The selection of patients who are candidates for axillary dissection is based on selective lymph sentinel node technique which provides an optimal nodal staging with a minimal morbidity. The results of radiotherapy are as good as in younger patients, elderly women tolerate radiotherapy well. The inability to travel to the radiation facility is often the reason for omitting the radiation treatment and to choose a modified mastectomy. A promising alternative to the standard radiation treatment is the concept of intraoperative radiotherapy. Breast cancer in the elderly women is more likely to be well differentiated tumour, containing oestrogen and progesterone receptors. Based on these favourable prognostic factors, endocrine therapy is the standard treatment in adjuvant and metastatic setting

  19. Side effects of treatment in childhood acute leukemia, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujinami, Akira; Murakami, Mako; Sako, Masahiro; Takubo, Yoshiyuki; Nakagawa, Kimiko; Konishi, Shouzaburo; Tsujino, Giiti; Hata, Shinn; Koizumi, Yoshiko


    We evaluated delayed neurotoxicities in treatment of childhood acute leukemia. Of 28 patients treated over 2 years who were examined on computed tomography of brain scans, 7 patients had abnormal findings. These abnormalities included two cases of leukoencephalopathy, three cases of intracranial calcifications, and two of ventricular dilatation. These patients were under 6 years old at the onset of disease, especially under 3 years old. Also, delayed neurotoxicities developed after relapse of leukemia, especially CNS relapse. It was considered that these were caused by cranial irradiation, intravenous methotrexate injection, intrathecal methotrexate, and sometimes high-dose Ara-C therapy, etc. Most of the cases of leukoencephalopathy were associated with treatment of intermediate-dose or high-dose methotrexate after relapse. These abnormalities must be carefully considered in the treatment of younger children with leukemia and patients with relapse. (author)

  20. Ash behavior during hydrothermal treatment for solid fuel applications. Part 2: Effects of treatment conditions on industrial waste biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mäkelä, Mikko; Yoshikawa, Kunio


    Highlights: • Effect of treatment conditions on composition and solubility of ash. • Ash dissolution and yield governed by liquid pH and calcium carbonate solubility. • Dissolution of calcium carbonate decreases ash fusion temperature during combustion. • Decreasing the ash content of sludge can weaken ash properties for combustion. - Abstract: This second half of our work on ash behavior concentrates on the effects of hydrothermal treatment conditions on paper sludge. Ash composition and solubility were determined based on treatment temperature, reactor solid load and liquid pH using experimental design and univariate regression methods. In addition, ash properties for combustion were evaluated based on recent developments on ash classification. Based on the results, all experimental variables had a statistically significant effect on ash yields. Only reactor solid load was statistically insignificant for char ash content, which increased based on increasing treatment temperature due to the decomposition of organic components. Ash dissolution and ash yield were governed by liquid pH and the generation of acids mainly due to the solubility of calcium carbonate identified as the main mineral species of paper sludge. Dissolution of calcium carbonate however decreased ash fusion temperatures more likely causing problems during char incineration. This indicated that decreasing the ash content of sludge during hydrothermal treatment can actually weaken ash properties for solid fuel applications.

  1. Biomarkers to Measure Treatment Effects in Alzheimer's Disease: What Should We Look for?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Rockwood


    Full Text Available It is often surprisingly difficult to tell whether a treatment for Alzheimer's disease is effective. Biomarkers might offer the potential of a quantifiable objective measure of treatment effectiveness. This paper suggests several criteria by which biomarkers might be evaluated as outcomes measures. These include biological plausibility, statistical significance, dose dependence, convergence across measures, and replicability. If biomarkers can meet these criteria, then, pending regulatory approval, they may have a role in the evaluation of treatment effectiveness in Alzheimer's disease. If not, their usefulness may be in supplementing, but not supplanting, clinical profiles of treatment effects.

  2. Effects of larval-juvenile treatment with perchlorate and co-treatment with thyroxine on zebrafish sex ratios (United States)

    Mukhi, S.; Torres, L.; Patino, R.


    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of larval-juvenile exposure to perchlorate, a thyroid hormone synthesis inhibitor, on the establishment of gonadal sex ratios in zebrafish. Zebrafish were exposed to untreated water or water containing perchlorate at 100 or 250 ppm for a period of 30 days starting at 3 days postfertilization (dpf). Recovery treatments consisted of a combination of perchlorate and exogenous thyroxine (T4; 10 nM). Thyroid histology was assessed at the end of the treatment period (33 dpf), and gonadal histology and sex ratios were determined in fish that were allowed an additional 10-day period of growth in untreated water. As expected, exposure to perchlorate caused changes in thyroid histology consistent with hypothyroidism and these effects were reversed by co-treatment with exogenous T4. Perchlorate did not affect fish survival but co-treatment with T4 induced higher mortality. However, relative to the corresponding perchlorate concentration, co-treatment with T4 caused increased mortality only at a perchlorate concentration of 100 ppm. Perchlorate alone or in the presence of T4 suppressed body length at 43 dpf relative to control values. Perchlorate exposure skewed the sex ratio toward female in a concentration-dependent manner, and co-treatment with T4 not only blocked the feminizing effect of perchlorate but also overcompensated by skewing the sex ratio towards male. Moreover, co-treatment with T4 advanced the onset of spermatogenesis in males. There was no clear association between sex ratios and larval survival or growth. We conclude that endogenous thyroid hormone plays a role in the establishment of gonadal sex phenotype during early development in zebrafish. ?? 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The side-effects to CPAP treatment inventory: the development and initial validation of a new tool for the measurement of side-effects to CPAP treatment. (United States)

    Broström, Anders; Arestedt, Kristofer Franzén; Nilsen, Per; Strömberg, Anna; Ulander, Martin; Svanborg, Eva


    Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the treatment of choice for obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS), but side-effects are common. No validated self-rating scale measuring side-effects to CPAP treatment exists today. The aim was to develop the side-effects to CPAP treatment inventory (SECI), and investigate the validity and reliability of the instrument among patients with OSAS. SECI was developed on the basis of: (1) in-depth interviews with 23 patients; (2) examination of the scientific literature and (3) consensus agreement of a multi-professional expert panel. This yielded 15 different types of side-effects related to CPAP treatment. Each side-effect has three sub-questions (scales): perceived frequency (a) and magnitude (b) of the side-effect, as well as its perceived impact on CPAP use (c). A cross-sectional descriptive design was used. A total of 329 patients with OSAS with an average use of CPAP treatment for 39 months (2 weeks to 182 months) were recruited. Data were collected with SECI, and obtained from medical records (clinical variables and data related to CPAP treatment). Construct validity was confirmed with factor analysis (principal component analysis with orthogonal rotation). A logical two-factor solution, the device subscale and symptom subscale, emerged across all three scales. The symptom subscale describing physical and psychological side-effects and the device subscale described mask and device-related side-effects. Internal consistency reliability of the three scales was good (Cronbach's α = 0.74-0.86) and acceptable for the subscales (Cronbach's α = 0.62-0.86). The satisfactory measurement properties of this new instrument are promising and indicate that SECI can be used to measure side-effects to CPAP treatment. © 2010 European Sleep Research Society.

  4. Home Hemodialysis (HHD Treatment as an Effective yet Underutilized Treatment Modality in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihane J. Hajj


    Full Text Available End-stage renal disease (ESRD is a major health burden and its incidence has been increasing yearly reaching 120,000 cases in 2014. Home hemodialysis (HHD is a treatment modality option that has been shown to contribute to numerous clinical benefits but is largely underutilized due to many contributing factors. The purpose of this review paper is to analyze the advantages and disadvantages of HHD and the reasons for its low utilization with a special focus on its socioeconomic impact as compared to facility hemodialysis. Key factors contributing to HHD underutilization are related to the reimbursement system of the facility and nephrologists as well as the underutilization of the pre-dialysis educational benefit. Based on this comprehensive review of the literature, we propose several suggestions which may contribute to the expansion of HHD treatment modality.

  5. Investigating the impact of treatment delivery uncertainties on treatment effectiveness for lung SABR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blake, Samuel J.; Arumugam, Sankar; Holloway, Lois


    To quantify the impact of treatment delivery uncertainties on lung stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR) plans for step-and-shoot intensity-modulated radiotherapy (ssIMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Baseline ssIMRT and VMAT treatment plans were generated for a cohort...... of 18 lung SABR patients. Modified plans were generated for each baseline plan by systematically varying gantry and collimator angles between − 5 and + 5 degrees, as well as multi-leaf collimator (MLC) leaf position errors of magnitude between 1 and 5 mm in both directions (i.e. leaf banks shifted...... either in the same (Type 1) or opposite (Type 2) directions). Planning target volume (PTV), spinal cord and healthy lung dose-volume histogram (DVH) metrics were compared between the modified and baseline plans. Collimator and gantry angle uncertainties did not significantly impact any of the PTV DVH...

  6. Cost effectiveness of intermittent screening followed by treatment versus intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandes, Silke; Sicuri, Elisa; Halimatou, Diawara


    $/DALY averted. Simulations show that cost-effectiveness of ISTp-AL increases as the efficacy of IPTp-SP decreases, though the specific threshold at which ISTp-AL becomes cost-effective depends on assumptions about the contribution of bed nets to malaria control, bed net coverage and the willingness......-to-pay threshold used.  Conclusions: At SP efficacy levels currently observed in the trial settings it would not be cost-effective to switch from IPTp-SP to ISTp-AL, mainly due to the substantially higher costs of ISTp-AL and limited difference in outcomes. The modelling results indicate thresholds below which IPT......Background: Emergence of high-grade sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) resistance in parts of Africa has led to growing concerns about the efficacy of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy (IPTp) with SP. The incremental cost-effectiveness of intermittent screening and treatment...

  7. Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safaa M. Raghab


    The main goal of this study is to utilize a natural low cost material “as an accelerator additive to enhance the chemical treatment process using Alum coagulant and the accelerator substances were Perlite and Bentonite. The performance of the chemical treatment was enhanced using the accelerator substances with 90 mg/l Alum as a constant dose. Perlite gave better performance than the Bentonite effluent. The removal ratio for conductivity, turbidity, BOD and COD for Perlite was 86.7%, 87.4%, 89.9% and 92.8% respectively, and for Bentonite was 83.5%, 85.0%, 86.5% and 85.0% respectively at the same concentration of 40 mg/l for each.

  8. The effect of different treatments on improving seed germination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Sep 27, 2010 ... cholesterol reduction drugs (Dinda and Craker, 1998;. Gupta et al., 1994; Trautwein et al., 1997). In Iran ... concentration of 500 ppm, 0.2% KNO3, light and alternative temperatures (8/16) were the best treatments ..... Mares DJ (2005). Quarterly reports on plant growth regulation and activities of the PGRSA.

  9. The Effects of Drinking Goal on Treatment Outcome for Alcoholism (United States)

    Bujarski, Spencer; O'Malley, Stephanie S.; Lunny, Katy; Ray, Lara A.


    Objective: It is well known to clinicians and researchers in the field of alcoholism that patients vary with respect to drinking goal. The objective in this study was to elucidate the contribution of drinking goal to treatment outcome in the context of specific behavioral and pharmacological interventions. Method: Participants were 1,226…

  10. Effects of wax treatment on quality and postharvest physiology of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... cell membrane permeability and malondialdehyde content when compared with those in control. This waxing also improved total sugars and the contents of ascorbic acid in pineapple fruits. These results suggested that this treatment might be a useful technique to alleviate chilling injury and maintain fruit quality during ...

  11. Effectiveness of treatment for octogenarians with acute abdominal aortic aneurysm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheer, Margot L. J.; Pol, Robert A.; Haveman, Jan Willem; Tielliu, Ignace F. J.; Verhoeven, Eric L. G.; Van den Dungen, Jan J. A. M.; Nijsten, Maarten W.; Zeebregts, Clark J.

    Objective: To investigate whether advanced age may be a reason to refrain from treatment in patients with an acute abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAAA). Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study that took place in a tertiary care university hospital with a 45-bed intensive care unit. Two hundred

  12. The effect of credentialism on the cost of conservation treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brajer, Isabelle Eve


    This paper focuses on the economic cost of treatment of cultural heritage using conservation of wall paintings in Danish churches over its entire period, from 1855 to 2015, as a primary data source. Financial costs for 990 individual projects harvested from archival documents were adjusted with s...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The treatments used were immersion of the seeds in cold water (at room o temperature) for 8, 12 and ... goat, sheep and cattle in the semi arid regions due to the palatability of its ... visible signs of infestation were selected out of the total seeds ...

  14. Effect of normabaric hyperoxia treatment on neuronal damage ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Jan 10, 2013 ... imperative to identify a treatment to address the devastating post-TBI consequences. Therefore, the .... with 5 min tap water (to allow the stain to develop), dip. 8 times (rapidly) in .... grey/white maters (Graham et al. 2000).

  15. Effectiveness of sequential v. standard triple therapy for treatment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cancer.[4] Children are infected with H. pylori at a much younger age in developing ... a recent meta-analysis that included over 53 000 patients showed that the eradication rate .... The child's parents/guardians were questioned ..... human infection, drug resistance, and alternative approaches to treatment. Ann Trop Med ...

  16. Effect of position of blades in the treatment of IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Azorin, J. F.; Ramos Garcia, L. I.; Ortiz de Zarate Vivanco, R.; Trueba Garayo, I.; Cacicedo, J.; Hoyo, O. del


    This paper presents a method of calculation of the positions of each blade measures during treatment for all segments and the subsequent reconstruction of these positions in the planning system on the patient's physical and anatomical data. (Author)

  17. Evaluation and management of side effects of breast cancer treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhout, A.H.


    Breast cancer is one of the most common malignant diseases. Adjuvant systemic therapies such as chemotherapy, immunotherapy and endocrine therapy play an important role in the treatment of breast cancer. These therapies reduce the risk of relapse of breast cancer and increase cure rates. However,

  18. Long-Term Effects of Neurofeedback Treatment in Autism (United States)

    Kouijzer, Mirjam E. J.; de Moor, Jan M. H.; Gerrits, Berrie J. L.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; van Schie, Hein T.


    Previously we demonstrated significant improvement of executive functions and social behavior in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) treated with 40 sessions of EEG neurofeedback in a nonrandomized waiting list control group design. In this paper we extend these findings by reporting the long-term results of neurofeedback treatment in…

  19. Quality of data computational models and telemedicine treatment effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larburu Rubio, Nekane; Widya, I.A.; Bults, Richard G.A.; Hermens, Hermanus J.


    Clinical decision-support functions of telemedicine systems use patient's monitored clinical data to support treatment of outpatients. However, the quality of monitored clinical data may vary due to performance variations of technological resources inside a deployed telemedicine system. This paper

  20. Onchocerca Volvulus: Effects of Annual Treatment with Ivermectin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As an alternative to vector control, chemotherapy – based control has been revolutionized by the finding that ivermectin, a novel semi synthetic macrocyclic lactone, is safe and acceptable for mass ... The prevalence rate of infection obtained at post-treatment 2 was 9.1% while the intensity rate was 1.1mf/mg skin snip.

  1. [Electrophysical effects in combined treatment of neurosensory hypoacusis]. (United States)

    Morenko, V M; Enin, I P


    The authors consider different methods of electrobiophysical impacts on the body in the treatment of neurosensory hypoacusis: laser beam, laser puncture, electrostimulation, magnetotherapy, magnetolasertherapy, electrophoresis, etc. These methods find more and more intensive application in modern medicine. Further success of physiotherapy for neurosensory hypoacusis depends on adequate knowledge about mechanisms of action of each physical method used and introduction of novel techniques.

  2. Clinical effects of sirolimus treatment in patients with increased ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    transplanted kidney function will be lost. However, the development of new immunosuppressors, such as sirolimus (SRL), make it possible to stop CNI treatment [6]. Treating renal transplant patients with immunosuppressive drugs other than CNIs has received more attention in recent years. SRL, a new generation of ...

  3. Effect Of Gavage Treatment With Pulverised Garcinia Kola Seeds On ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Packed red cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin concentration (Hb), and red blood cell count (RBC) showed significantly (P < 0.05, Student's t-test) increased response to treatment with GKS; while the platelet and white blood cell (WBC) counts showed no corresponding increase with increasing GKS dosage. The mean red ...

  4. Effect of hexane treatment and uniaxial stretching on bending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PVDF) film was studied. The quantity, β31, defined as the bending piezoelectric stress constant, was calculated. After hexane treatment and uniaxial stretching of the PVDF film, the value of β31 was 5.75 mV/m and 8.00 mV/m for draw ratio of ...

  5. Effects of thermal treatments and germination on physico-chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 6 (8), pp. 994-999, 16 April 2007 ... viscoelastic property of corn starch were measured and the morphological changes of corn after different treatments were determined by ... Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was applied to observe the morphological changes of corn after different.

  6. Effectiveness of home water treatment methods in Dschang ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The MPN (Most Probable Number) technique was used to assess the bacteriological quality of nine of the important drinking water sources in Dschang. Water from the most polluted source was then subjected to six home-based treatment methods, commonly used by the population. Boiling for up to thirty minutes was the ...

  7. Effect of cultivar and formaldehyde treatment of barley grain on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... but increased the time (h) to produce 50% of A and reduced the time (h) to produce 95% of A. The reduction in gas production ranged from 33.3 to 51 mL/g OM with 6 h incubation showing the highest decrease in gas production. It is concluded that formaldehyde treatment may provide an opportunity to manipulate the site ...

  8. Simultaneously Discovering and Localizing Common Objects in Wild Images. (United States)

    Wang, Zhenzhen; Yuan, Junsong


    Motivated by the recent success of supervised and weakly supervised common object discovery, in this paper, we move forward one step further to tackle common object discovery in a fully unsupervised way. Generally, object co-localization aims at simultaneously localizing objects of the same class across a group of images. Traditional object localization/detection usually trains specific object detectors which require bounding box annotations of object instances, or at least image-level labels to indicate the presence/absence of objects in an image. Given a collection of images without any annotations, our proposed fully unsupervised method is to simultaneously discover images that contain common objects and also localize common objects in corresponding images. Without requiring to know the total number of common objects, we formulate this unsupervised object discovery as a sub-graph mining problem from a weighted graph of object proposals, where nodes correspond to object proposals, and edges represent the similarities between neighbouring proposals. The positive images and common objects are jointly discovered by finding sub-graphs of strongly connected nodes, with each sub-graph capturing one object pattern. The optimization problem can be efficiently solved by our proposed maximal-flow-based algorithm. Instead of assuming that each image contains only one common object, our proposed solution can better address wild images where each image may contain multiple common objects or even no common object. Moreover, our proposed method can be easily tailored to the task of image retrieval in which the nodes correspond to the similarity between query and reference images. Extensive experiments on PASCAL VOC 2007 and Object Discovery data sets demonstrate that even without any supervision, our approach can discover/localize common objects of various classes in the presence of scale, view point, appearance variation, and partial occlusions. We also conduct broad

  9. Effects of heat treatment on some physical properties of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) wood (United States)

    Xianjun Li; Zhiyong Cai; Qunying Mou; Yiqiang Wu; Yuan Liu


    In this study the effect of heat treatment on some physical properties of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) was investigated. Wood specimens were subjected to heat treatment at 160, 180, 200 and 220°C for 1, 2, 3 and 4h. The results show that heat treatment resulted in a darkened color, decreased moisture performance and increased dimensional stability of...

  10. Cost-effectiveness of lanreotide Autogel in treatment algorithms of acromegaly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biermasz, Nienke R.; Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Pereira, Alberto M.; Romijn, Johannes A.


    The introduction of effective pharmacological treatments has changed the management of acromegaly. However, chronic, life-long treatment with somatostatin analogues and/or growth hormone receptor antagonists is very expensive. We estimated the costs of treatment algorithms to control acromegaly from

  11. Fuel treatment effectiveness in reducing fire intensity and spread rate - An experimental overview (United States)

    Eric Mueller; Nicholas Skowronski; Albert Simeoni; Kenneth Clark; Robert Kremens; William Mell; Michael Gallagher; Jan Thomas; Alexander Filkov; Mohamad El Houssami; John Hom; Bret Butler


    Fuel treatments represent a significant component of the wildfire mitigation strategy in the United States. However, the lack of research aimed at quantifying the explicit effectiveness of fuel treatments in reducing wildfire intensity and spread rate limits our ability to make educated decisions about the type and placement of these treatments. As part of a larger...

  12. [Current prevention and treatment strategies for osteoporosis. Fracture-oriented, effective, low side effects and inexpensive]. (United States)

    Bartl, R; Bartl, C


    Osteoporosis is still an underdiagnosed and insufficiently therapied widespread disease in Germany. Of the estimated 7 million osteoporosis patients only 1.5 million receive a guideline conform diagnosis and even less receive appropriate treatment. Some 90 % of patients are provided with analgesics but only 10 % receive an effective therapy, although efficacious, well-tested and affordable medications are available. In addition, approximately one half of the patients terminate treatment after only 1 year although according to the results of recent studies the duration of therapy should be at least 3-5 years. In view of the increasing average life expectancy, a consistent management for prevention of fractures associated with osteoporosis is always most important for society, even if only for reasons of costs. Achievement of this target depends on four circumstances: clarification of the origin of osteoporosis and fractures (bone consciousness), prophylaxis of bone loss and fractures (primary prevention), consistent guideline conform diagnostics and therapy (secondary and tertiary prevention) and cooperation of all disciplines in medicine (bone is everybody's business). This article describes the current state of diagnostics (bone density measurement with dual X-ray absorptiometry, FRAX®), prophylaxis of fractures (screening program) and therapy (use of economic and effective medications with low side effects). Novel medications are already undergoing clinical testing and a "healing" of bone reduction with restoration of the normal bone structure is to be expected.

  13. Towards precision medicine: discovering novel gynecological cancer biomarkers and pathways using linked data. (United States)

    Jha, Alokkumar; Khan, Yasar; Mehdi, Muntazir; Karim, Md Rezaul; Mehmood, Qaiser; Zappa, Achille; Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich; Sahay, Ratnesh


    Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) is playing a key role in therapeutic decision making for the cancer prognosis and treatment. The NGS technologies are producing a massive amount of sequencing datasets. Often, these datasets are published from the isolated and different sequencing facilities. Consequently, the process of sharing and aggregating multisite sequencing datasets are thwarted by issues such as the need to discover relevant data from different sources, built scalable repositories, the automation of data linkage, the volume of the data, efficient querying mechanism, and information rich intuitive visualisation. We present an approach to link and query different sequencing datasets (TCGA, COSMIC, REACTOME, KEGG and GO) to indicate risks for four cancer types - Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma (OV), Uterine Corpus Endometrial Carcinoma (UCEC), Uterine Carcinosarcoma (UCS), Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Endocervical Adenocarcinoma (CESC) - covering the 16 healthy tissue-specific genes from Illumina Human Body Map 2.0. The differentially expressed genes from Illumina Human Body Map 2.0 are analysed together with the gene expressions reported in COSMIC and TCGA repositories leading to the discover of potential biomarkers for a tissue-specific cancer. We analyse the tissue expression of genes, copy number variation (CNV), somatic mutation, and promoter methylation to identify associated pathways and find novel biomarkers. We discovered twenty (20) mutated genes and three (3) potential pathways causing promoter changes in different gynaecological cancer types. We propose a data-interlinked platform called BIOOPENER that glues together heterogeneous cancer and biomedical repositories. The key approach is to find correspondences (or data links) among genetic, cellular and molecular features across isolated cancer datasets giving insight into cancer progression from normal to diseased tissues. The proposed BIOOPENER platform enriches mutations by filling in

  14. Treatment Effect on Recidivism for Juveniles Who Have Sexually Offended: a Multilevel Meta-Analysis. (United States)

    Ter Beek, Ellis; Spruit, Anouk; Kuiper, Chris H Z; van der Rijken, Rachel E A; Hendriks, Jan; Stams, Geert Jan J M


    The current study investigated the effect on recidivism of treatment aimed at juveniles who have sexually offended. It also assessed the potential moderating effect of type of recidivism, and several treatment, participant and study characteristics. In total, 14 published and unpublished primary studies, making use of a comparison group and reporting on official recidivism rates, were included in a multilevel meta-analysis. This resulted in the use of 77 effect sizes, and 1726 participants. A three-level meta-analytic model was used to calculate the combined effect sizes (Cohens d) and to perform moderator analyses. Study quality was assessed with the EPHPP Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies. A moderate effect size was found (d = 0.37), indicating that the treatment groups achieved an estimated relative reduction in recidivism of 20.5% as compared to comparison groups. However, after controlling for publication bias, a significant treatment effect was no longer found. Type of recidivism did not moderate the effect of treatment, indicating that treatment groups were equally effective for all types of recidivism. Also, no moderating effects of participant or treatment characteristics were found. Regarding study characteristics, a shorter follow up time showed a trend for larger effect sizes, and the effect size calculation based on proportions yielded larger effect sizes than calculation via mean frequency of offending. Implications for future research and clinical practice are discussed.

  15. Effect of fibre content and alkali treatment on mechanical properties ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Warangal 506 004, India .... America, Florida, Texas and California. ... effectively transfer the stress to fibres. Also ... The present work investigated the effect of fibre con-.

  16. [Evaluating an effectiveness of surgical treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease combined with hiatal hernia]. (United States)

    Mozharovskiy, V V; Tsyganov, A A; Mozharovskiy, K V; Tarasov, A A

    To assess an effectiveness of surgical treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) combined with hiatal hernia (HH). The trial included 96 patients with GERD and HH who were divided into 2 groups. The principal difference between groups was the use of surgery in the main group and therapeutic treatment in the comparison group. The effectiveness of surgical treatment is superior to therapeutic treatment of GERD by more than 2.5 times. HH combined with GERD is an indication for surgical treatment. Fundoplication cuff should not lead to angular and rotational esophageal deformation. Nissen procedure in Donahue modification (Short Floppy Nissen) simulates optimally the geometry of esophago-gastric junction and His angle.

  17. A new hard X-ray transient discovered by INTEGRAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibaud, L.; Bazzano, A.; Bozzo, E.


    INTEGRAL discovered a new hard X-ray transient, IGR J17498-2921, during the observations performed from 2011-08-11 22:45 to 2011-08-12 05:54 UTC. The source is detected in the IBIS/ISGRI mosaic at a preliminary significance level of 11 and 9 sigma in the 20-40 keV and 40-80 keV energy bands......, respectively. The corresponding fluxes are 19+/-2 and 23+/-3 mCrab (68% c.l., only statistical). The best determined source position is at RA=17:49:49; DEC=-29:21:14 (J2000) with a 90% confinement radius of 2.3 arcmin. The IBIS/ISGRI spectrum (exposure time 15.9 ks) can be well described by a a power...

  18. Discovering Mira Ceti: Celestial Change and Cosmic Continuity (United States)

    Hatch, Robert Alan

    In the short narrative that follows I introduce two new heroes. Although we begin with Fabricius's first sighting in 1596, the new pivot point in the drama is the collaboration between Hevelius and Boulliau that began around 1660. As it happens, Learned Europe paid little attention to Mira in the generation after the first scattered sightings of 1596, indeed, nearly 70 years passed before the New Star was given a working identity. Like Columbus discovering America, Fabricius and Holwarda saw different things - for convenience, I call them Fabricius's Star and Holwarda's Star. Hevelius's Historiola (Danzig, 1662) and Boulliau's Ad astronomos (Paris, 1667) presented a different vision. It made Mira famous. As I shall argue, if Hevelius gave Mira a history, Boulliau gave Mira a future.5 In the end, the New Star not only challenged the ancient cosmos, it became an enduring icon for the New Science, a returning reminder of celestial continuity and cosmic order.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Christine H.; Sheehan, Patrick; Watson, Dan M.; Manoj, P.; Najita, Joan R.


    We have rereduced Spitzer IRS spectra and reanalyzed the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of three nearby debris disks: λ Boo, HD 139664, and HR 8799. We find that the thermal emission from these objects is well modeled using two single temperature black body components. For HR 8799 - with no silicate emission features despite a relatively hot inner dust component (T gr = 150 K) - we infer the presence of an asteroid belt interior to and a Kuiper Belt exterior to the recently discovered orbiting planets. For HD 139664, which has been imaged in scattered light, we infer the presence of strongly forward scattering grains, consistent with porous grains, if the cold, outer disk component generates both the observed scattered light and thermal emission. Finally, careful analysis of the λ Boo SED suggests that this system possesses a central clearing, indicating that selective accretion of solids onto the central star does not occur from a dusty disk.

  20. Discovering Related Clinical Concepts Using Large Amounts of Clinical Notes. (United States)

    Ganesan, Kavita; Lloyd, Shane; Sarkar, Vikren


    The ability to find highly related clinical concepts is essential for many applications such as for hypothesis generation, query expansion for medical literature search, search results filtering, ICD-10 code filtering and many other applications. While manually constructed medical terminologies such as SNOMED CT can surface certain related concepts, these terminologies are inadequate as they depend on expertise of several subject matter experts making the terminology curation process open to geographic and language bias. In addition, these terminologies also provide no quantifiable evidence on how related the concepts are. In this work, we explore an unsupervised graphical approach to mine related concepts by leveraging the volume within large amounts of clinical notes. Our evaluation shows that we are able to use a data driven approach to discovering highly related concepts for various search terms including medications, symptoms and diseases.