WorldWideScience

Sample records for disclose sensitive information

  1. Disclosing Risk Information: Assessing the Benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beierle, Thomas C.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a framework for examining the benefits of risk information disclosure and illustrates the framework through brief case studies of three information disclosure programs in the United States. I describe a general framework for analyzing the benefits of information disclosure and illustrate the framework by analyzing three disclosure programs in the United States: risk management planning (RMP), which provides detailed information on chemical accident risks and prevention; materials accounting, which provides information on how chemicals travel through processes at industrial facilities; and the Sector Facility Indexing Project (SFIP), which consolidates enforcement, compliance, and other data into a package of environmental performance indicators. This paper has outlined the types of benefits information disclosure programs ought to seek to achieve. Normative right-to-know benefits have been limited in some program because of intentionally circumscribed information sharing and apparent public disinterest. Substantive benefits have been more apparent, with many firms, agencies, NGOs, and others being able to point to the value of newly revealed information in better understanding environmental problems and the means to correct them. Instrumental benefits have been mixed, and firms appear to be responding to many motivations - not just public pressure - in deciding whether to improve environmental performance

  2. Analysis of publicly disclosed information in Facebook profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Farahbakhsh, Reza; Han, Xiao; Cuevas, Angel; Crespi, Noel

    2017-01-01

    Facebook, the most popular Online social network is a virtual environment where users share information and are in contact with friends. Apart from many useful aspects, there is a large amount of personal and sensitive information publicly available that is accessible to external entities/users. In this paper we study the public exposure of Facebook profile attributes to understand what type of attributes are considered more sensitive by Facebook users in terms of privacy, and thus are rarely...

  3. 5 CFR 2502.16 - Information to be disclosed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... assume that the material will be released to a competitor, even if that is not always the case. A... usage in the business; the number and situation of the persons who have access to the information; the... is known through custom or usage in the relevant trade, business, or profession, or information that...

  4. 14 CFR 193.9 - Will the FAA ever disclose information that is designated as protected under this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Will the FAA ever disclose information that... VOLUNTARILY SUBMITTED INFORMATION § 193.9 Will the FAA ever disclose information that is designated as protected under this part? The FAA discloses information that is designated as protected under this part...

  5. 5 CFR 1631.15 - Information to be disclosed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., the disclosure of which “would constitute a clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy.” (2)(i) Exemption 4. Commencing January 1, 1988, the submitter of confidential commercial information must, at the... released, constitute an unwarranted invasion of personal privacy if released should be identified and a...

  6. 76 FR 43631 - Revision of the Materiality to Patentability Standard for the Duty To Disclose Information in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... 0651-AC58 Revision of the Materiality to Patentability Standard for the Duty To Disclose Information in... revise the standard for materiality for the duty to disclose information in patent applications and... revise the materiality standard for the duty to disclose to match the materiality standard, as defined in...

  7. 17 CFR 275.206(4)-4 - Financial and disciplinary information that investment advisers must disclose to clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... information that investment advisers must disclose to clients. 275.206(4)-4 Section 275.206(4)-4 Commodity and... disclose to clients. (a) It shall constitute a fraudulent, deceptive, or manipulative act, practice, or... fail to disclose to any client or prospective client all material facts with respect to: (1) A...

  8. 21 CFR 803.9 - What information from the reports do we disclose to the public?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE REPORTING General Provisions § 803.9... following: (1) Any information that constitutes trade secret or confidential commercial or financial.... (c) We may not disclose the identity of a device user facility that makes a report under this part...

  9. 42 CFR 51.46 - Disclosing information obtained from a provider of mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... mental health services. 51.46 Section 51.46 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... a provider of mental health services. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, if a... of mental health services, it may not disclose information from such records to the individual who is...

  10. 17 CFR 140.76 - Delegation of authority to disclose information in a receivership or bankruptcy proceeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Delegation of authority to... COMMISSION Functions § 140.76 Delegation of authority to disclose information in a receivership or bankruptcy... employee under their direction as they may designate, the authority to disclose data and information that...

  11. 2 CFR 180.360 - What happens if I fail to disclose information required under § 180.355?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Doing Business With Other Persons Disclosing Information-Lower Tier Participants § 180.360 What happens... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What happens if I fail to disclose information required under § 180.355? 180.360 Section 180.360 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND...

  12. 2 CFR 180.345 - What happens if I fail to disclose information required under § 180.335?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Doing Business With Other Persons Disclosing Information-Primary Tier Participants § 180.345 What... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What happens if I fail to disclose information required under § 180.335? 180.345 Section 180.345 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND...

  13. The right to know and the duty to disclose hazard information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baram, M S

    1984-04-01

    In late 1983, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) promulgated its final rule on "hazard communication," establishing the right of workers in manufacturing industries to information about chemical hazards, and the duty of importers and manufacturers to disclose such information. Baram reviews areas where the new, limited OSHA regulation conflicts with existing local, state, and federal laws, many of which are more stringent and more protective of worker and community health. He suggests steps that could be taken to avoid the extensive litigation that might result from the potential preemptive effect of the new OSHA rule.

  14. How could disclosing incidental information from whole-genome sequencing affect patient behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Kurt D; Green, Robert C

    2013-06-01

    In this article, we argue that disclosure of incidental findings from whole-genome sequencing has the potential to motivate individuals to change health behaviors through psychological mechanisms that differ from typical risk assessment interventions. Their ability to do so, however, is likely to be highly contingent upon the nature of the incidental findings and how they are disclosed, the context of the disclosure and the characteristics of the patient. Moreover, clinicians need to be aware that behavioral responses may occur in unanticipated ways. This article argues for commentators and policy makers to take a cautious but optimistic perspective while empirical evidence is collected through ongoing research involving whole-genome sequencing and the disclosure of incidental information.

  15. Should psychiatrists self disclose?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Edmund

    2011-12-01

    The extent to which psychiatrists disclose personal information about their feelings, their pasts, and themselves to their patients has always been an important ethical and clinical question. In the past, psychiatrists tended to believe they should not self disclose personal information to their patients, mainly to help patients by exploring their transference. More recent work has suggested that self disclosing by the psychiatrist may benefit some patients and cause harm to other patients. This article presents the author's present understanding of some of the core pros and cons of self disclosing by the psychiatrist, as well as some specific contexts in which self disclosure is indicated or should be avoided.

  16. 10 CFR 1044.11 - How do you protect the information that you want to disclose?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... disclose? 1044.11 Section 1044.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) SECURITY REQUIREMENTS...) Use only equipment (such as computers or typewriters) that is approved for classified processing for... destruction devices to destroy classified documents; (g) Use only appropriate secure means, such as secure...

  17. 19 CFR 103.23 - Factors in determining whether to disclose information pursuant to a demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Factors in determining whether to disclose... Disclosure in Federal, State, Local, and Foreign Proceedings § 103.23 Factors in determining whether to... those demands with respect to which any of the following factors exist: (1) Disclosure would violate a...

  18. Nuclear science: Information on DOE accelerators should be better disclosed in the budget

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    GAO estimated the total cost of six of the Department of Energy's largest accelerator projects to be about $6.9 billion. DOE has identified only about $0.6 billion of these project-specific costs in the budget. This is because DOE's definition of a project relates only to construction, which excludes certain project-specific components and preconstruction research and development. In addition, DOE funds a project in stages over a number of years and does not, when the first stage is authorized, identify for the Congress the total cost of completing the project. DOE also does not fully disclose in its budget technical uncertainties associated with the performance of certain accelerator components because its internal operating procedures do not require such disclosure. This could result in cost overruns or increased operating costs.

  19. 37 CFR 1.56 - Duty to disclose information material to patentability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... application, and (1) It establishes, by itself or in combination with other information, a prima facie case of... patentability. A prima facie case of unpatentability is established when the information compels a conclusion... inventor, with the assignee or with anyone to whom there is an obligation to assign the application. (d...

  20. The Relationship of Financial Incentives and Consumers' Willingness to Disclose Information to eCommerce Marketers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourhosseini, Parissa

    2009-01-01

    In this study the problem examined was a lack of research based information on the degree to which incentives can be used to encourage consumers to volunteer private information. The purpose of this study was to determine if monetary incentives would be a beneficial means to increase consumers' involvement in eCommerce and thereby boost the growth…

  1. Disclosing Genetic Risk for Coronary Heart Disease: Attitudes Toward Personal Information in Health Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sherry-Ann; Jouni, Hayan; Marroush, Tariq S; Kullo, Iftikhar J

    2017-04-01

    Incorporating genetic risk information in electronic health records (EHRs) will facilitate implementation of genomic medicine in clinical practice. However, little is known about patients' attitudes toward incorporation of genetic risk information as a component of personal health information in EHRs. This study investigated whether disclosure of a genetic risk score (GRS) for coronary heart disease influences attitudes toward incorporation of personal health information including genetic risk in EHRs. Participants aged 45-65 years with intermediate 10-year coronary heart disease risk were randomized to receive a conventional risk score (CRS) alone or with a GRS from a genetic counselor, followed by shared decision making with a physician using the same standard presentation and information templates for all study participants. The CRS and GRS were then incorporated into the EHR and made accessible to both patients and physicians. Baseline and post-disclosure surveys were completed to assess whether attitudes differed by GRS disclosure. Data were collected from 2013 to 2015 and analyzed in 2015-2016. GRS and CRS participants reported similar positive attitudes toward incorporation of genetic risk information in the EHR. Compared with CRS participants, participants with high GRS were more concerned about the confidentiality of genetic risk information (OR=3.67, 95% CI=1.29, 12.32, p=0.01). Post-disclosure, frequency of patient portal access was associated with positive attitudes. Participants in this study of coronary heart disease risk disclosure overall had positive attitudes toward incorporation of genetic risk information in EHRs, although those who received genetic risk information had concerns about confidentiality. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Ethical aspects of disclosing information on prenatal screening for Down's syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Adél; Szabó, János

    2005-02-06

    Giving detailed information on prenatal screening for Down's syndrome is considered as paramount since this medical procedure intends to enhance the patient's self-governance in reproductive issues. Not only the respect for autonomy, but also the increased maternal anxiety and the reproductive decisions following the positive test result demand from the genetic professional to offer the test through genetic counselling. The counsellor's awareness about the expectations of pregnant women and the clarification of her own attitude concerning the screening can contribute to the effectiveness of counselling. The content of information embraces the technical aspects of screening and its consequences, like the description of Down's syndrome, the method of screening, the way of risk assessment, the detection rate, the false positive and false negative test results, the diagnostic procedures, and the termination of pregnancy. Written information leaflets should be completed by personal communication as the combination of these two forms has proved to be the most useful. The process of consultation is influenced by the communication skill of the genetic professional and the information seeking activity of the patient, so doctors should be trained to communicate better and patients should be encouraged to get more information about the screening.

  3. Disclosing genetic information to at-risk relatives: new Australian privacy principles, but uniformity still elusive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otlowski, Margaret F A

    2015-04-06

    There is growing understanding of the need for genetic information to be shared with genetic relatives in some circumstances. Since 2006, s 95AA of the Privacy Act 1988 (Cwlth) has permitted the disclosure of genetic information to genetic relatives without the patient's consent, provided that the health practitioner reasonably believes that disclosure is necessary to lessen or prevent a serious threat to the life, health or safety of the genetic relatives. Enabling guidelines were introduced in 2009. These were limited to the private sector, and excluded doctors working in the public sector at both Commonwealth and state and territory levels. Privacy legislation was amended in March 2014, and new Australian Privacy Principles, which replace the National Privacy Principles and Information Privacy Principles, now cover the collection and use of personal information. The Privacy Act and the Australian Privacy Principles now extend to practitioners employed by the Commonwealth but not to health practitioners working in state and territory public hospitals. In this article, I review these legislative developments and highlight the implications of the lack of uniformity and the consequent need for a collaborative, uniform approach by states and territories.

  4. Log Usage Analysis: What it Discloses about Use, Information Seeking and Trustworthiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Nicholas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Trust and Authority in Scholarly Communications in the Light of the Digital Transition research project1 was a study which investigated the behaviours and attitudes of academic researchers as producers and consumers of scholarly information resources in respect to how they determine authority and trustworthiness. The research questions for the study arose out of CIBER’s studies of the virtual scholar. This paper focuses on elements of this study, mainly an analysis of a scholarly publisher’s usage logs, which was undertaken at the start of the project in order to build an evidence base, which would help calibrate the main methodological tools used by the project: interviews and questionnaire. The specific purpose of the log study was to identify and assess the digital usage behaviours that potentially raise trustworthiness and authority questions. Results from the self-report part of the study were additionally used to explain the logs. The main findings were that: 1 logs provide a good indicator of use and information seeking behaviour, albeit in respect to just a part of the information seeking journey; 2 the ‘lite’ form of information seeking behaviour observed in the logs is a sign of users trying to make their mind up in the face of a tsunami of information as to what is relevant and to be trusted; 3 Google and Google Scholar are the discovery platforms of choice for academic researchers, which partly points to the fact that they are influenced in what they use and read by ease of access; 4 usage is not a suitable proxy for quality. The paper also provides contextual data from CIBER’s previous studies.

  5. How public evaluate the disclosed information on the web? Discussion from the aspect of risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Hiroshi; Madarame, Haruki; Hara, Kenichiro

    2006-01-01

    In this research, we analyzed how the website audiences evaluate the information on the website concerning the nuclear power, especially Q and A on the website of Japan Atomic Energy Commission and Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan. The questionnaire was carried out for 30 audiences in order to measure the consistency, clarity and usefulness of each Q and A article of the two sites. After having collected data, we evaluated the impact of the consistency and clarity factors on the usefulness factor by correlation analysis using the covariance structure analysis. In the result, we found that, in order to utilize the information on the website to risk communication, it is important that the article is consistent, and that the article feels clarity by the website audiences. (author)

  6. Analysis on the Compliance with GRI Guidelines and the Information Disclosed by Japanese Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Kawahara, Naoko; Irie, Noriko

    2015-01-01

    [Abstract] Japanese companies do not comply with the Global Reporting Initiatives (GRI)'s Sustainability Guidelines as much as other developed countries, and their compliance levels are lower among developed countries. This study overviewed the characteristics of Japanese GRI compliance and analysed 15 Japanese listed companies on the information of their corporate sustainability reports in which they comply with the GRI version 3.1 Guidelines. The possible correlation between GRI compliance ...

  7. Cyber crisis management: a decision-support framework for disclosing security incident information

    OpenAIRE

    Kulikova, Olga; Heil, Ronald; van den Berg, Jan; Pieters, Wolter

    2012-01-01

    The growing sophistication and frequency of cyber attacks force modern companies to be prepared beforehand for potential cyber security incidents and data leaks. A proper incident disclosure strategy can significantly improve timeliness and effectiveness of incident response activities, reduce legal fines, and restore confidence and trust of a company's key stakeholders. In this paper, four factors that shape organizational preferences regarding incident information disclosure are introduced....

  8. Environmental and social responsibility reporting. Do Macedonian companies disclose those information and how?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrsik Jadranka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Incorporating environmental impact into financial reports is becoming standard practice in the 21st Century. Investors are aware of the need for environmentally correct operations since failures in this domain lower the price of shares. However, in terms of regulation, in most of the countries, environmental reporting remains voluntary. Institutions dealing with development and promotion of the modern accounting and financial reporting standards encourage companies to concurrently report for their environmental activities. The only question is how. Accounting may include information on the environmental impact only if it is quantitative and monetary. Since many nuances of the issues remain difficult to quantify, corporations opt to separately report on their environmental practices. The aim of this paper is to examine the accounting and stock market regulations and the practice of reporting for environmental impact of the operations of the leading Macedonian companies. We selected ten companies that make the Macedonian Stock Exchange Index and additional five companies with significant environmental impact. We reviewed their annual reports and interviewed their financial officers. The results show that the environmental and social responsibility reporting is left to the companies and their management and its perception of the need for keeping posted the major stakeholders and the most appropriate way to do it. As a consequence, many large Macedonian companies do not refer to these issues in their annual addressing to the stakeholders. The findings of this paper can motivate the regulatory body and the government to require more transparency and disclosure of the sustainability information.

  9. A linear programming model for preserving privacy when disclosing patient spatial information for secondary purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ho-Won; El Emam, Khaled

    2014-05-29

    A linear programming (LP) model was proposed to create de-identified data sets that maximally include spatial detail (e.g., geocodes such as ZIP or postal codes, census blocks, and locations on maps) while complying with the HIPAA Privacy Rule's Expert Determination method, i.e., ensuring that the risk of re-identification is very small. The LP model determines the transition probability from an original location of a patient to a new randomized location. However, it has a limitation for the cases of areas with a small population (e.g., median of 10 people in a ZIP code). We extend the previous LP model to accommodate the cases of a smaller population in some locations, while creating de-identified patient spatial data sets which ensure the risk of re-identification is very small. Our LP model was applied to a data set of 11,740 postal codes in the City of Ottawa, Canada. On this data set we demonstrated the limitations of the previous LP model, in that it produces improbable results, and showed how our extensions to deal with small areas allows the de-identification of the whole data set. The LP model described in this study can be used to de-identify geospatial information for areas with small populations with minimal distortion to postal codes. Our LP model can be extended to include other information, such as age and gender.

  10. Film and Tourism: an Information System for Disclosing the Cinematographic Attractiveness of Destinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Lavarone

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Department of Cultural Heritage of the University of Padova investigated the topic of film-induced tourism in a year-long project, concluded in April 2015, titled Strumenti innovativi per la promozione turistica: film-induced tourism (Novel Tools to Promote Tourism: Film-induced Tourism. The project was financed by the Veneto Region through ESF funds. It brought together the expertise of film scholars, computer scientists and destination management experts, in partnership with public bodies (Provincia di Padova and ICT companies. The goal of the project was to develop an information system that fosters film-induced tourism combining data about a geographical area and the movies produced in it. The system is designed as a platform to store and convey rich contents, able to address the needs of the tourist but also of stakeholders as DMOs and film commissions. The system was planned as a model for the destinations which could take advantage of a significant cinematographic background, yet are unlikely to spontaneously produce considerable film-induced tourism phenomena. The province of Padova has been used as a case study.   Il Dipartimento dei Beni Culturali dell’Università di Padova ha da poco concluso un progetto di ricerca intitolato Strumenti innovativi per la promozione turistica: film-induced tourism, finanziato dalla Regione Veneto con fondi europei FSE, che ha visto coinvolti studiosi di cinema, di informatica ed esperti di destination management, in partenariato con enti pubblici (Provincia di Padova e aziende private del ramo ICT. L’obiettivo del progetto è stato lo sviluppo di un sistema informatico che combini i dati relativi ad un territorio e i film ivi realizzati, con lo scopo di promuovere il film-induced tourism. Il sistema è disegnato come una piattaforma in grado di memorizzare, elaborare e rendere fruibili contenuti multimediali e di ricco carattere informativo, capaci di intercettare sia le necessità del turista

  11. IFRS COMPLIANCE REGARDING INFORMATION DISCLOSED BY COMPANIES IN CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS - CASE STUDY ON IAS 23 BORROWING COSTS APPLICABILITY-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragu Ioana - Maria

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper concentrates on information disclosure regarding IAS 23, being included in accounting research field. It comprises an empirical study on the correlation between information published by companies in consolidated financial statements with respect to borrowing cost policies and a series of variables that characterize a firm. The objectives of this paper involve estimating and establishing an econometric model in which is assumed that disclosure index for information required by IAS 23 depends on certain elements in the form of country of origin, sales, total assets, debt ratio, ROA and ROE. International accounting literature presents a series of studies on the subject of compliance with IAS disclosure requirements. Similar with this paper, various authors considered annual reports as starting point for data gathering in their reasearch on disclosure phenomena. The criteria used for data gathering, processing and analysing have been previously used in a successful manner by important scientists who published in accounting field. The methodology used involves Disclosure Index computation, as well as SPSS data processing, analysis and interpretation of results. Results show that the model is valid, meaning that there is correlation between information disclosure with respect to IAS 23 and the analyzed variables. According to our estimated econometric model, most of the variables maintain a certain influence on disclosure as we can observe a significant correlation level between the studied elements. This research contributes to the development of both accounting field and international accounting literature, by studying borrowing costs disclosed information in relation to certain elements that best characterize the activity of a company. Although an empirical paper, it concentrates also on accounting practices, as it uses real data extracted from annual reports and consolidated financial statements. The importance of this research relies

  12. Using and Disclosing Confidential Patient Information and The English Common Law: What are the Information Requirements of a Valid Consent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chico, Victoria; Taylor, Mark J

    2018-02-01

    The National Health Service in England and Wales is dependent upon the flow of confidential patient data. In the context of consent to the use of patient health data, insistence on the requirements of an 'informed' consent that are difficult to achieve will drive reliance on alternatives to consent. Here we argue that one can obtain a valid consent to the disclosure of confidential patient data, such that this disclosure would not amount to a breach of the common law duty of confidentiality, having provided less information than would typically be associated with an 'informed consent'. This position protects consent as a practicable legal basis for disclosure from debilitating uncertainty or impracticability and, perhaps counter-intuitively, promotes patient autonomy.

  13. A uniformidade na evidenciação das informações ambientais The uniformity when disclosing environmental information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Simão da Costa

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo verificar a uniformidade das informações ambientais entre os relatórios disponibilizados pelas empresas do setor de papel e celulose através do site da BOVESPA e de seus sites oficiais. Faz, primeiramente, um embasamento teórico sobre a Contabilidade Ambiental, realizando uma comparação entre as suas definições e as utilizadas pela Contabilidade Financeira. Também aborda as normas e legislações sobre a evidenciação das informações ambientais. Verifica, ainda, quais as demonstrações e relatórios utilizados pelas empresas para demonstrarem o seu comprometimento com o meio ambiente. Ao final, realiza uma análise comparando as informações ambientais dos relatórios disponibilizados no site da BOVESPA com as disponibilizadas pelas empresas em seus sites oficiais. A conclusão é de que há grande dificuldade em analisar informações ambientais, devido à falta de uniformidade na estrutura dos relatórios disponibilizados pelas empresas.The objective of this article is to verify the degree of uniformity when companies disclose environmental information. The sample was selected among the reports made available by the paper industry included in the site of BOVESPA and in the companies’ own sites. Disclosures usually start with statements about the theory behind - environmental accounting, - related definitions and - those coming from the financial accounting field. They also deals with the standards and regulations applicable to the disclosure of environmental information. The research looked after and verifies which reports are being used by the companies to state their commitments towards environment protection. At the end, an analysis compares the environmental information of the researched reports at the site of BOVESPA with those in the companies’ sites. The conclusion reveals extreme difficulty in analyzing environmental information due to the absence of uniformity in the structure of the

  14. 41 CFR 105-68.455 - What may I do if a lower tier participant fails to disclose the information required under § 105...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION Regional Offices-General Services... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What may I do if a lower tier participant fails to disclose the information required under § 105-68.355 to the next higher tier...

  15. 41 CFR 105-68.450 - What action may I take if a primary tier participant fails to disclose the information required...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION Regional Offices-General Services... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What action may I take if a primary tier participant fails to disclose the information required under § 105-68.335? 105-68...

  16. 41 CFR 105-68.340 - If I disclose unfavorable information required under § 105-68.335, will I be prevented from...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION Regional Offices-General Services... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false If I disclose unfavorable information required under § 105-68.335, will I be prevented from participating in the...

  17. Does a medical history of hypertension influence disclosing genetic testing results of the risk for salt-sensitive hypertension, in primary care?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okayama M

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Masanobu Okayama,1,2 Taro Takeshima,2 Masanori Harada,3 Ryusuke Ae,4 Eiji Kajii2 1Division of Community Medicine and Medical Education, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Hyogo, 2Division of Community and Family Medicine, Center for Community Medicine, Jichi Medical University, Shimotsuke, Tochigi, 3Department of Support of Rural Medicine, Yamaguchi Grand Medical Center, Hofu, Yamaguchi, 4Division of Public Health, Center for Community Medicine, Jichi Medical University, Shimotsuke, Tochigi, Japan Objective: Disclosing genetic testing results may contribute to the prevention and management of many common diseases. However, whether the presence of a disease influences these effects is unclear. This study aimed to clarify the difference in the effects of disclosing genetic testing results of the risk for developing salt-sensitive hypertension on the behavioral modifications with respect to salt intake in hypertensive and nonhypertensive patients.Methods: A cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted for outpatients aged >20 years (N=2,237 at six primary care clinics and hospitals in Japan. The main factors assessed were medical histories of hypertension, salt preferences, reduced salt intakes, and behavior modifications for reducing salt intake. Behavioral modifications of participants were assessed using their behavior stages before and after disclosure of the hypothetical genetic testing results. Results: Of the 2,237 participants, 1,644 (73.5% responded to the survey. Of these respondents, 558 (33.9% patients were hypertensive and 1,086 (66.1% were nonhypertensive. After being notified of the result “If with genetic risk”, the nonhypertensive participants were more likely to make positive behavioral modifications compared to the hypertensive patients among all participants and in those aged <65 years (adjusted relative ratio [ad-RR], 1.76; 95% confidence interval, 1.12−2.76 and ad-RR, 1

  18. 49 CFR 1520.15 - SSI disclosed by TSA or the Coast Guard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false SSI disclosed by TSA or the Coast Guard. 1520.15... PROTECTION OF SENSITIVE SECURITY INFORMATION § 1520.15 SSI disclosed by TSA or the Coast Guard. (a) In... available for public inspection or copying, nor does TSA or the Coast Guard release such records to persons...

  19. Information Sensitive Consumers and Market Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Linda L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Past research on consumer information has emphasized the effects of informed consumers of the provision of goods by sellers. This paper examines the effects of informed consumers on other consumers' product choices. These are demand-side effects. Directions for research are outlined. Author/CH)

  20. Eliciting Information on Sensitive Matters Without Inviting ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Eliciting Information on Sensitive Matters. Without Inviting Respondents' ... methods based on Randomized Response tech- niques. ... while collecting data on some sensitive issues are well ..... Suppose there is an association of professionals.

  1. 〈査読付論文〉The Necessity to Advance Disclosing Fair Value by the Hierarchy: Evidence from Literature Review about Fair Value Hierarchy Information

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG, JIAO

    2016-01-01

    [Abstract]This paper aims to discuss the necessity to advance disclosing fair value by hierarchy in Japan by reviewing the literature about fair value hierarchy information in the U.S. In Japan, ASBJ published the Exposure Draft "Accounting Standards on Fair Value Measurement and Disclosure" in 2010 which specifies that the fair value should be reported by hierarchy. However, it has not published as formal standard until March 2016. Furthermore, some commenters suggested that the hierarchy an...

  2. Sensitive Information Gathering and Dissemination: An Assessment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yet the freedom of expression granted to all men is not absolute. This paper on sensitive information gathering and dissemination focuses on the role of the military and that of the media in the gathering and dissemination of information often termed sensitive, contentious and inciting. It is based on past and present media ...

  3. Information barriers for the protection of sensitive information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougan, A.D.; Dunn, J.; Seager, K.; Smith, M.; Beach, D.; Clinton, J.; Vanier, P.

    2013-01-01

    An Information Barrier is a combination of technology and procedures that prevent the release of a host country's sensitive information to a monitoring party during an inspection of a sensitive item, while enabling assurance of an accurate assessment of host country declarations regarding the item. Information barriers, as a concept, arose from the need to balance two competing requirements - specifically, certification of information protection by a host country and authentication of measurement and information accuracy by a monitoring party. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration, in conjunction with several U.S. National Laboratories, has explored information barrier development in detail, and has continued the evolution of essential work done by the U.S. Information Barrier Working Group beginning in the late 1990's, and other international efforts, including the U.S.-Russia-IAEA Trilateral Initiative. This paper explains the rationale for information barriers, and explores the development and application of information barrier concepts for potential future arms control initiatives, including recent work and advances in capabilities. It also considers applications of information barrier concepts applied in other fields.The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (authors)

  4. Emotion work: disclosing cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Grace J; Aviv, Caryn; Levine, Ellen G; Ewing, Cheryl; Au, Alfred

    2010-02-01

    Breast cancer remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality for all women in the US. Current research has focused on the psychological relationship and not the sociological relationship between emotions and the experience of breast cancer survivors. This paper focuses on the emotion work involved in self-disclosing a breast cancer diagnosis in a racially or ethnically diverse population. The participants (n = 176) selected for this study were African American, Asian American, Latina, and Caucasian women who had been diagnosed with stages 0, I, or II breast cancer within the past 4 years. They completed an in-depth qualitative interview on self-disclosure and social support. The results indicate self-disclosing was done at a time when important decisions about treatment needed to be made. Different strategies for disclosure were used, all of which entailed emotion work. Respondents talked about the various elements of emotion work in the disclosure process including: managing others' worry, protecting and soothing others, and educating and instructing others. For many respondents, disclosure without calculating emotional management meant opening up to others which meant support and an increase in emotional resources. The findings in this paper have implications for women with breast cancer and demonstrate the need for women to be involved in honest disclosure and less emotional management of others' feelings. There is also a need for education about the nature of the cancer experience among people who are not well educated about the treatment and consequences of cancer. This need may be even stronger among racial and ethnic minorities.

  5. Decisions reduce sensitivity to subsequent information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronfman, Zohar Z; Brezis, Noam; Moran, Rani; Tsetsos, Konstantinos; Donner, Tobias; Usher, Marius

    2015-07-07

    Behavioural studies over half a century indicate that making categorical choices alters beliefs about the state of the world. People seem biased to confirm previous choices, and to suppress contradicting information. These choice-dependent biases imply a fundamental bound of human rationality. However, it remains unclear whether these effects extend to lower level decisions, and only little is known about the computational mechanisms underlying them. Building on the framework of sequential-sampling models of decision-making, we developed novel psychophysical protocols that enable us to dissect quantitatively how choices affect the way decision-makers accumulate additional noisy evidence. We find robust choice-induced biases in the accumulation of abstract numerical (experiment 1) and low-level perceptual (experiment 2) evidence. These biases deteriorate estimations of the mean value of the numerical sequence (experiment 1) and reduce the likelihood to revise decisions (experiment 2). Computational modelling reveals that choices trigger a reduction of sensitivity to subsequent evidence via multiplicative gain modulation, rather than shifting the decision variable towards the chosen alternative in an additive fashion. Our results thus show that categorical choices alter the evidence accumulation mechanism itself, rather than just its outcome, rendering the decision-maker less sensitive to new information. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Disclosure of price-sensitive information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaumburg-Müller, Peer; Werlauff, Erik

    2013-01-01

    to handle the Daimler judgment’s consequences with regard to “intermediate steps” in practical terms. In light of the Court’s relatively restrictive interpretation, a listed company in a similar situation really only has three options: (1) Delay: The company can delay disclosure of the inside information...... “on its own responsibility” in order not to damage the company’s legitimate interests – cf. on this Article 6(2) of Directive 2003/6/EC, which provides that “An issuer may, on his own responsibility, delay the public disclosure of inside information … so as not to prejudice his legitimate interests......, provided that such omission would not be likely to mislead the public…” It is a condition for delaying disclosure that doing so will not mislead the public, and the issuer can ensure that the information remains confidential. Member states can, but are not required to, demand (and so far Denmark for one...

  7. Audit Report on "Protection of the Department of Energy's Unclassified Sensitive Electronic Information"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-08-01

    The Department of Energy and its contractors store and process massive quantities of sensitive information to accomplish national security, energy, science, and environmental missions. Sensitive unclassified data, such as personally identifiable information (PII), official use only, and unclassified controlled nuclear information require special handling and protection to prevent misuse of the information for inappropriate purposes. Industry experts have reported that more than 203 million personal privacy records have been lost or stolen over the past three years, including information maintained by corporations, educational institutions, and Federal agencies. The loss of personal and other sensitive information can result in substantial financial harm, embarrassment, and inconvenience to individuals and organizations. Therefore, strong protective measures, including data encryption, help protect against the unauthorized disclosure of sensitive information. Prior reports involving the loss of sensitive information have highlighted weaknesses in the Department's ability to protect sensitive data. Our report on Security Over Personally Identifiable Information (DOE/IG-0771, July 2007) disclosed that the Department had not fully implemented all measures recommended by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and required by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to protect PII, including failures to identify and encrypt PII maintained on information systems. Similarly, the Government Accountability Office recently reported that the Department had not yet installed encryption technology to protect sensitive data on the vast majority of laptop computers and handheld devices. Because of the potential for harm, we initiated this audit to determine whether the Department and its contractors adequately safeguarded sensitive electronic information. The Department had taken a number of steps to improve protection of PII. Our review, however

  8. 48 CFR 1852.237-73 - Release of sensitive information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... technology system for NASA that contains sensitive information, the service provider's contract shall include the clause at 1852.204-76, Security Requirements for Unclassified Information Technology Resources. The Security Requirements clause requires the service provider to implement an Information Technology...

  9. 48 CFR 1852.237-72 - Access to Sensitive Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... position in another procurement. (2) Safeguard sensitive information coming into its possession from... relating to ethics, conflicts of interest, corruption, and other criminal or civil matters relating to the...

  10. Sensitivity Analysis for Urban Drainage Modeling Using Mutual Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanqi Li

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The intention of this paper is to evaluate the sensitivity of the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM output to its input parameters. A global parameter sensitivity analysis is conducted in order to determine which parameters mostly affect the model simulation results. Two different methods of sensitivity analysis are applied in this study. The first one is the partial rank correlation coefficient (PRCC which measures nonlinear but monotonic relationships between model inputs and outputs. The second one is based on the mutual information which provides a general measure of the strength of the non-monotonic association between two variables. Both methods are based on the Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS of the parameter space, and thus the same datasets can be used to obtain both measures of sensitivity. The utility of the PRCC and the mutual information analysis methods are illustrated by analyzing a complex SWMM model. The sensitivity analysis revealed that only a few key input variables are contributing significantly to the model outputs; PRCCs and mutual information are calculated and used to determine and rank the importance of these key parameters. This study shows that the partial rank correlation coefficient and mutual information analysis can be considered effective methods for assessing the sensitivity of the SWMM model to the uncertainty in its input parameters.

  11. Sensitive Information Tracking in Commodity IoT

    OpenAIRE

    Celik, Z. Berkay; Babun, Leonardo; Sikder, Amit K.; Aksu, Hidayet; Tan, Gang; McDaniel, Patrick; Uluagac, A. Selcuk

    2018-01-01

    Broadly defined as the Internet of Things (IoT), the growth of commodity devices that integrate physical processes with digital connectivity has had profound effects on society--smart homes, personal monitoring devices, enhanced manufacturing and other IoT apps have changed the way we live, play, and work. Yet extant IoT platforms provide few means of evaluating the use (and potential avenues for misuse) of sensitive information. Thus, consumers and organizations have little information to as...

  12. The sensitivities of user profile information in music recommender systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perik, E.M.; Ruyter, de B.E.R.; Markopoulos, P.; Eggen, J.H.

    2006-01-01

    Personalized services can cause privacy concerns, due to the acquisition, storage and application of sensitive personal information. This paper describes empirical research into the factors influencing the trade-off between the perceived benefits of personalization and the privacy ‘costs’

  13. Development of time sensitivity and information processing speed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Droit-Volet

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine whether age-related changes in the speed of information processing are the best predictors of the increase in sensitivity to time throughout childhood. Children aged 5 and 8 years old, as well adults, were given two temporal bisection tasks, one with short (0.5/1-s and the other with longer (4/8-s anchor durations. In addition, the participants' scores on different neuropsychological tests assessing both information processing speed and other dimensions of cognitive control (short-term memory, working memory, selective attention were calculated. The results showed that the best predictor of individual variances in sensitivity to time was information processing speed, although working memory also accounted for some of the individual differences in time sensitivity, albeit to a lesser extent. In sum, the faster the information processing speed of the participants, the higher their sensitivity to time was. These results are discussed in the light of the idea that the development of temporal capacities has its roots in the maturation of the dynamic functioning of the brain.

  14. Information and Communication Technologies – and Culturally Sensitive Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Michail

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the perceptions of Egyptian minority groups in relation to internet information technology with which they feel empowered to protect, affirm and communicate their oppressed existence, on local and global dimensions. The research employs qualitative methods and interpretive analysis, to focus on the use of Internet information technology tools by Egyptian minority groups, in particular, their online platforms and chat rooms, and the related issues associated with these practices and usages. The paper argues that cyberspace is used by specific minority groups in Egypt as a "gateway to freedom" in which it constitutes an ally to establish newly founded cyber identities that aide them to exercise their basic human rights of freedom of thought, speech and expression. The paper thus examines cyberspace a medium or tool for the carrying out of information exchange without the traditional fear of politics and power that is deeply engraved in the roots of the Egyptian culture. In this way, these minority groups are analysed as the newly conceived human information systems (HIS residing on Internet information technology and infrastructure. The paper proposes an adaptive and culturally sensitive model of human information systems as well as human information systems development life cycle (HISDLC to aid in establishing effective processes of information exchange and creation, hence assisting in the emancipation of conflicting parties residing in Egypt, elsewhere in the Middle East and globally.

  15. DoD Information Security Program and Protection of Sensitive Compartmented Information (SCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-21

    Sensitive Compartmented Information ( SCI ) References: See Enclosure 1 1. PURPOSE. In accordance with the authority in DoD Directive (DoDD...collateral, special access program, SCI , and controlled unclassified information (CUI) within an overarching DoD Information Security Program...use, and dissemination of SCI within the DoD pursuant to References (a), (c), and (e) and Executive Order 12333 (Reference (h)). 2

  16. 14 CFR 11.35 - Does FAA include sensitive security information and proprietary information in the Federal Docket...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... RULEMAKING PROCEDURES Rulemaking Procedures General § 11.35 Does FAA include sensitive security information and proprietary information in the Federal Docket Management System (FDMS)? (a) Sensitive security information. You should not submit sensitive security information to the rulemaking docket, unless you are...

  17. Efficient transfer of sensitivity information in multi-component models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Khalik, Hany S.; Rabiti, Cristian

    2011-01-01

    In support of adjoint-based sensitivity analysis, this manuscript presents a new method to efficiently transfer adjoint information between components in a multi-component model, whereas the output of one component is passed as input to the next component. Often, one is interested in evaluating the sensitivities of the responses calculated by the last component to the inputs of the first component in the overall model. The presented method has two advantages over existing methods which may be classified into two broad categories: brute force-type methods and amalgamated-type methods. First, the presented method determines the minimum number of adjoint evaluations for each component as opposed to the brute force-type methods which require full evaluation of all sensitivities for all responses calculated by each component in the overall model, which proves computationally prohibitive for realistic problems. Second, the new method treats each component as a black-box as opposed to amalgamated-type methods which requires explicit knowledge of the system of equations associated with each component in order to reach the minimum number of adjoint evaluations. (author)

  18. Information sensitivity functions to assess parameter information gain and identifiability of dynamical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Sanjay

    2018-05-01

    A new class of functions, called the 'information sensitivity functions' (ISFs), which quantify the information gain about the parameters through the measurements/observables of a dynamical system are presented. These functions can be easily computed through classical sensitivity functions alone and are based on Bayesian and information-theoretic approaches. While marginal information gain is quantified by decrease in differential entropy, correlations between arbitrary sets of parameters are assessed through mutual information. For individual parameters, these information gains are also presented as marginal posterior variances, and, to assess the effect of correlations, as conditional variances when other parameters are given. The easy to interpret ISFs can be used to (a) identify time intervals or regions in dynamical system behaviour where information about the parameters is concentrated; (b) assess the effect of measurement noise on the information gain for the parameters; (c) assess whether sufficient information in an experimental protocol (input, measurements and their frequency) is available to identify the parameters; (d) assess correlation in the posterior distribution of the parameters to identify the sets of parameters that are likely to be indistinguishable; and (e) assess identifiability problems for particular sets of parameters. © 2018 The Authors.

  19. Storing quantum information in spins and high-sensitivity ESR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, John J L; Bertet, Patrice

    2018-02-01

    Quantum information, encoded within the states of quantum systems, represents a novel and rich form of information which has inspired new types of computers and communications systems. Many diverse electron spin systems have been studied with a view to storing quantum information, including molecular radicals, point defects and impurities in inorganic systems, and quantum dots in semiconductor devices. In these systems, spin coherence times can exceed seconds, single spins can be addressed through electrical and optical methods, and new spin systems with advantageous properties continue to be identified. Spin ensembles strongly coupled to microwave resonators can, in principle, be used to store the coherent states of single microwave photons, enabling so-called microwave quantum memories. We discuss key requirements in realising such memories, including considerations for superconducting resonators whose frequency can be tuned onto resonance with the spins. Finally, progress towards microwave quantum memories and other developments in the field of superconducting quantum devices are being used to push the limits of sensitivity of inductively-detected electron spin resonance. The state-of-the-art currently stands at around 65 spins per Hz, with prospects to scale down to even fewer spins. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Storing quantum information in spins and high-sensitivity ESR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, John J. L.; Bertet, Patrice

    2018-02-01

    Quantum information, encoded within the states of quantum systems, represents a novel and rich form of information which has inspired new types of computers and communications systems. Many diverse electron spin systems have been studied with a view to storing quantum information, including molecular radicals, point defects and impurities in inorganic systems, and quantum dots in semiconductor devices. In these systems, spin coherence times can exceed seconds, single spins can be addressed through electrical and optical methods, and new spin systems with advantageous properties continue to be identified. Spin ensembles strongly coupled to microwave resonators can, in principle, be used to store the coherent states of single microwave photons, enabling so-called microwave quantum memories. We discuss key requirements in realising such memories, including considerations for superconducting resonators whose frequency can be tuned onto resonance with the spins. Finally, progress towards microwave quantum memories and other developments in the field of superconducting quantum devices are being used to push the limits of sensitivity of inductively-detected electron spin resonance. The state-of-the-art currently stands at around 65 spins per √{ Hz } , with prospects to scale down to even fewer spins.

  1. Affective and cognitive factors influencing sensitivity to probabilistic information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyszka, Tadeusz; Sawicki, Przemyslaw

    2011-11-01

    In study 1 different groups of female students were randomly assigned to one of four probabilistic information formats. Five different levels of probability of a genetic disease in an unborn child were presented to participants (within-subject factor). After the presentation of the probability level, participants were requested to indicate the acceptable level of pain they would tolerate to avoid the disease (in their unborn child), their subjective evaluation of the disease risk, and their subjective evaluation of being worried by this risk. The results of study 1 confirmed the hypothesis that an experience-based probability format decreases the subjective sense of worry about the disease, thus, presumably, weakening the tendency to overrate the probability of rare events. Study 2 showed that for the emotionally laden stimuli, the experience-based probability format resulted in higher sensitivity to probability variations than other formats of probabilistic information. These advantages of the experience-based probability format are interpreted in terms of two systems of information processing: the rational deliberative versus the affective experiential and the principle of stimulus-response compatibility. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  2. Towards Identifying and Disclosing Intellectual Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Karami

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Intellectual capital (IC is one of the most valuable assets of firms, which has a significant role in success and wealth creation of the entities. Although these assets do not meet recognition criteria of accounting standards and are not reflected in financial statements, but they exist and the evidence indicates that they can affect managers, investors and other stakeholders’ decisions. It is expected that companies have incentives voluntarily report information about IC, due to the benefits thereof. Moreover because of the latest changes in the conceptual framework, we can expect acceleration in the movement towards recognition, measurement and disclosure of IC. In this article first we present the definition and the most important elements of IC, and then different ways of measuring this asset in accounting will be discussed. In rest of the paper incentives for disclosing IC will be presented, in order that the attention of the standard setters is attracted to the latest developments in this field and also the attention of investors becomes focused on this important asset of companies.

  3. Radiation-sensitive material and method of recording information upon radiation-sensitive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, V.V.; Krjuchin, A.A.

    1981-01-01

    The invention can be employed for recording binary information in memory units of electronic computers, in video-recording equipment, laser recording devices and other recording means. The proposed radiation-sensitive material comprises a metallic layer made of silver, or copper, or nickel, or thallium, or alloy thereof, an inorganic material layer made of arsenic chalcogenide, or antimony chalcogenide, or bismuth chalcogenide, and a separation layer disposed between the metallic layer and the inorganic material layer made of a material which is inert relative to said layers, which separation layer has a thickness sufficient for preventing interaction between the metallic layer and the inorganic material layer when the radiation-sensitive materials is exposed to electromagnetic or corpuscular radiation having a power density lower than a threshold value required for the breakdown of the separation layer in the area exposed to radiation. The separation layer can be made from As, Sb, Si or Ge or their oxides, metallic oxides of e.g. Al, Ti, V or Fe, or from polyorganosiloxane films. (author)

  4. Disclosing harmful medical errors to patients: tackling three tough cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Thomas H; Bell, Sigall K; Smith, Kelly M; Mello, Michelle M; McDonald, Timothy B

    2009-09-01

    A gap exists between recommendations to disclose errors to patients and current practice. This gap may reflect important, yet unanswered questions about implementing disclosure principles. We explore some of these unanswered questions by presenting three real cases that pose challenging disclosure dilemmas. The first case involves a pancreas transplant that failed due to the pancreas graft being discarded, an error that was not disclosed partly because the family did not ask clarifying questions. Relying on patient or family questions to determine the content of disclosure is problematic. We propose a standard of materiality that can help clinicians to decide what information to disclose. The second case involves a fatal diagnostic error that the patient's widower was unaware had happened. The error was not disclosed out of concern that disclosure would cause the widower more harm than good. This case highlights how institutions can overlook patients' and families' needs following errors and emphasizes that benevolent deception has little role in disclosure. Institutions should consider whether involving neutral third parties could make disclosures more patient centered. The third case presents an intraoperative cardiac arrest due to a large air embolism where uncertainty around the clinical event was high and complicated the disclosure. Uncertainty is common to many medical errors but should not deter open conversations with patients and families about what is and is not known about the event. Continued discussion within the medical profession about applying disclosure principles to real-world cases can help to better meet patients' and families' needs following medical errors.

  5. An Examination of the Explicit Costs of Sensitive Information Security Breaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toe, Cleophas Adeodat

    2013-01-01

    Data security breaches are categorized as loss of information that is entrusted in an organization by its customers, partners, shareholders, and stakeholders. Data breaches are significant risk factors for companies that store, process, and transmit sensitive personal information. Sensitive information is defined as confidential or proprietary…

  6. Perspective: Disclosing hidden sources of funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B

    2009-09-01

    In this article, the author discusses ethical and policy issues related to the disclosure of hidden sources of funding in research. The author argues that authors have an ethical obligation to disclose hidden sources of funding and that journals should adopt policies to enforce this obligation. Journal policies should require disclosure of hidden sources of funding that authors know about and that have a direct relation to their research. To stimulate this discussion, the author describes a recent case: investigators who conducted a lung cancer screening study had received funding from a private foundation that was supported by a tobacco company, but they did not disclose this relationship to the journal. Investigators and journal editors must be prepared to deal with these issues in a manner that promotes honesty, transparency, fairness, and accountability in research. The development of well-defined, reasonable policies pertaining to hidden sources of funding can be a step in this direction.

  7. Genomics dataset of unidentified disclosed isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagwan N. Rekadwad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of DNA sequences is necessary for higher hierarchical classification of the organisms. It gives clues about the characteristics of organisms and their taxonomic position. This dataset is chosen to find complexities in the unidentified DNA in the disclosed patents. A total of 17 unidentified DNA sequences were thoroughly analyzed. The quick response codes were generated. AT/GC content of the DNA sequences analysis was carried out. The QR is helpful for quick identification of isolates. AT/GC content is helpful for studying their stability at different temperatures. Additionally, a dataset on cleavage code and enzyme code studied under the restriction digestion study, which helpful for performing studies using short DNA sequences was reported. The dataset disclosed here is the new revelatory data for exploration of unique DNA sequences for evaluation, identification, comparison and analysis. Keywords: BioLABs, Blunt ends, Genomics, NEB cutter, Restriction digestion, Short DNA sequences, Sticky ends

  8. Duty to disclose in medical genetics: a legal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelias, M Z

    1991-06-01

    As technical knowledge and public information in medical genetics continue to expand, the geneticist may expect to be held responsible for informing patients and clients about new developments in research and diagnosis. The long legal evolution of the physician's duty to disclose, and more recent findings of a physician's duty to recall former patients to inform them about newly discovered risks of treatment, indicate that medical geneticists may have a duty to disclose both current and future information about conditions that are or could be inherited. Recent case law supports findings of professional liability for both present and future disclosure, even in the absence of an active physician-patient relationship. The requirement of candid and complete disclosure will affect the counseling approach in testing for deleterious genes and in providing medical treatment for minors with hereditary diseases. Finding a duty to recall may impose further professional burdens on the geneticist to reach beyond the immediate counseling arena and to recontact patients, perhaps years after their initial visit to genetics clinic.

  9. Context-sensitive Information security Risk identification and evaluation techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ionita, Dan

    2014-01-01

    The objective of my research is to improve and support the process of Information security Risk Assessment by designing a scalable Risk argumentation framework for socio-digital-technical Risk. Due to the various types of IT systems, diversity of architectures and dynamic nature of Risk, there is no

  10. 49 CFR 1520.5 - Sensitive security information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... transportation or transportation systems and sources and methods used to gather or develop threat information... operational or administrative data systems operated by the Federal government that have been identified by the... Circulars. Any notice issued by DHS or DOT regarding a threat to aviation or maritime transportation...

  11. Sensitivity age and information opening to the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asashina, Shu.

    1996-01-01

    Incident of Chernobyl nuclear power plant No. 4 reactor occurred on April 26th, 1986 was the worst one of the developmental history in the world, which brought a big effect in region of not only operation management and safety culture but also social system called the most fundamental nation. But, the Chernobyl nuclear plant continues to generate total electric power of 2 million kW at Nos. 1 and 3 reactors in Ukraine still now. The reason why it is repeated to put off their closing at each time is that the nuclear power is non-alternative energy source for Ukraine facing a serious energy short. In Moscow Atomic Energy Samit to which heads of advanced 7 countries, Russia, and EU joined on April, 1996, the Chernobyl power plants was confirmed to be closed till 2000. The most serious fact in effects given to many people by the Chernobyl accident was diffusion of distrust of 'None can be reliable in the world'. The Chernobyl accident gave distrust to anyone who admitted the nuclear power plant as well as TMI and Monju accidents did. This teaching is, after all, a problem of information opening to the public. It is essential to hide no information, and to open every information as soon as possible. The secretism gives people suspicion and may give people a motive power to bury future technology called atomic energy. (G.K.)

  12. Is the auditory sensory memory sensitive to visual information?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besle, Julien; Fort, Alexandra; Giard, Marie-Hélène

    2005-10-01

    The mismatch negativity (MMN) component of auditory event-related brain potentials can be used as a probe to study the representation of sounds in auditory sensory memory (ASM). Yet it has been shown that an auditory MMN can also be elicited by an illusory auditory deviance induced by visual changes. This suggests that some visual information may be encoded in ASM and is accessible to the auditory MMN process. It is not known, however, whether visual information affects ASM representation for any audiovisual event or whether this phenomenon is limited to specific domains in which strong audiovisual illusions occur. To highlight this issue, we have compared the topographies of MMNs elicited by non-speech audiovisual stimuli deviating from audiovisual standards on the visual, the auditory, or both dimensions. Contrary to what occurs with audiovisual illusions, each unimodal deviant elicited sensory-specific MMNs, and the MMN to audiovisual deviants included both sensory components. The visual MMN was, however, different from a genuine visual MMN obtained in a visual-only control oddball paradigm, suggesting that auditory and visual information interacts before the MMN process occurs. Furthermore, the MMN to audiovisual deviants was significantly different from the sum of the two sensory-specific MMNs, showing that the processes of visual and auditory change detection are not completely independent.

  13. Disclosing medical mistakes: a communication management plan for physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petronio, Sandra; Torke, Alexia; Bosslet, Gabriel; Isenberg, Steven; Wocial, Lucia; Helft, Paul R

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing consensus that disclosure of medical mistakes is ethically and legally appropriate, but such disclosures are made difficult by medical traditions of concern about medical malpractice suits and by physicians' own emotional reactions. Because the physician may have compelling reasons both to keep the information private and to disclose it to the patient or family, these situations can be conceptualized as privacy dilemmas. These dilemmas may create barriers to effectively addressing the mistake and its consequences. Although a number of interventions exist to address privacy dilemmas that physicians face, current evidence suggests that physicians tend to be slow to adopt the practice of disclosing medical mistakes. This discussion proposes a theoretically based, streamlined, two-step plan that physicians can use as an initial guide for conversations with patients about medical mistakes. The mistake disclosure management plan uses the communication privacy management theory. The steps are 1) physician preparation, such as talking about the physician's emotions and seeking information about the mistake, and 2) use of mistake disclosure strategies that protect the physician-patient relationship. These include the optimal timing, context of disclosure delivery, content of mistake messages, sequencing, and apology. A case study highlighted the disclosure process. This Mistake Disclosure Management Plan may help physicians in the early stages after mistake discovery to prepare for the initial disclosure of a medical mistakes. The next step is testing implementation of the procedures suggested.

  14. To disclose or not to disclose: The moral complexities of HIV status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AIDS and the associated stigma make it difficult for people, either suffering or suspected to be suffering from the opportunistic infections related with HIV, to go for testing and when they do to accept and disclose their status and seek the ...

  15. 12 CFR 268.205 - Employment of aliens; Access to sensitive information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employment of aliens; Access to sensitive... Complaints § 268.205 Employment of aliens; Access to sensitive information. (a) Definitions. The definitions...— (i) A citizen or National of the United States, (ii) An alien who: (A) Meets the conditions set forth...

  16. Status of multigroup sensitivity profiles and covariance matrices available from the radiation shielding information center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roussin, R.W.; Drischler, J.D.; Marable, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    In recent years multigroup sensitivity profiles and covariance matrices have been added to the Radiation Shielding Information Center's Data Library Collection (DLC). Sensitivity profiles are available in a single package. DLC-45/SENPRO, and covariance matrices are found in two packages, DLC-44/COVERX and DLC-77/COVERV. The contents of these packages are described and their availability is discussed

  17. 48 CFR 1837.203-70 - Providing contractors access to sensitive information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... documents as in sensitive-secret-top secret. (2) As used in this subpart, “requiring organization” refers to... Freedom of Information Act, which is not currently in the public domain, may embody trade secrets or...

  18. Physician privacy concerns when disclosing patient data for public health purposes during a pandemic influenza outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Emam, Khaled; Mercer, Jay; Moreau, Katherine; Grava-Gubins, Inese; Buckeridge, David; Jonker, Elizabeth

    2011-06-09

    Privacy concerns by providers have been a barrier to disclosing patient information for public health purposes. This is the case even for mandated notifiable disease reporting. In the context of a pandemic it has been argued that the public good should supersede an individual's right to privacy. The precise nature of these provider privacy concerns, and whether they are diluted in the context of a pandemic are not known. Our objective was to understand the privacy barriers which could potentially influence family physicians' reporting of patient-level surveillance data to public health agencies during the Fall 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza outbreak. Thirty seven family doctors participated in a series of five focus groups between October 29-31 2009. They also completed a survey about the data they were willing to disclose to public health units. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the amount of patient detail the participants were willing to disclose, factors that would facilitate data disclosure, and the consensus on those factors. The analysis of the qualitative data was based on grounded theory. The family doctors were reluctant to disclose patient data to public health units. This was due to concerns about the extent to which public health agencies are dependable to protect health information (trusting beliefs), and the possibility of loss due to disclosing health information (risk beliefs). We identified six specific actions that public health units can take which would affect these beliefs, and potentially increase the willingness to disclose patient information for public health purposes. The uncertainty surrounding a pandemic of a new strain of influenza has not changed the privacy concerns of physicians about disclosing patient data. It is important to address these concerns to ensure reliable reporting during future outbreaks.

  19. Sensitive maintenance: a cognitive process underlying individual differences in memory for threatening information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Jan H; Hock, Michael; Krohne, Heinz Walter

    2012-01-01

    Dispositional styles of coping with threat influence memory for threatening information. In particular, sensitizers excel over repressors in their memory for threatening information after long retention intervals, but not after short ones. We therefore suggested that sensitizers, but not repressors, employ active maintenance processes during the retention interval to selectively retain threatening material. Sensitive maintenance was studied in 2 experiments in which participants were briefly exposed to threatening and nonthreatening pictures (Experiment 1, N = 128) or words (Experiment 2, N = 145). Following, we administered unannounced recognition tests before and after an intervening task that generated either high or low cognitive load, assuming that high cognitive load would impede sensitizers' memory maintenance of threatening material. Supporting our hypotheses, the same pattern of results was obtained in both experiments: Under low cognitive load, sensitizers forgot less threat material than repressors did; no such differences were observed under high cognitive load.

  20. Record of hospitalizations for ambulatory care sensitive conditions: validation of the hospital information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehem, Tania Cristina Morais Santa Barbara; de Oliveira, Maria Regina Fernandes; Ciosak, Suely Itsuko; Egry, Emiko Yoshikawa

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values of the Unified Health System's Hospital Information System for the appropriate recording of hospitalizations for ambulatory care-sensitive conditions. The hospital information system records for conditions which are sensitive to ambulatory care, and for those which are not, were considered for analysis, taking the medical records as the gold standard. Through simple random sampling, a sample of 816 medical records was defined and selected by means of a list of random numbers using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences. The sensitivity was 81.89%, specificity was 95.19%, the positive predictive value was 77.61% and the negative predictive value was 96.27%. In the study setting, the Hospital Information System (SIH) was more specific than sensitive, with nearly 20% of care sensitive conditions not detected. There are no validation studies in Brazil of the Hospital Information System records for the hospitalizations which are sensitive to primary health care. These results are relevant when one considers that this system is one of the bases for assessment of the effectiveness of primary health care.

  1. Record of hospitalizations for ambulatory care sensitive conditions: validation of the hospital information system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Cristina Morais Santa Barbara Rehem

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to estimate the sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values of the Unified Health System's Hospital Information System for the appropriate recording of hospitalizations for ambulatory care-sensitive conditions. METHOD: the hospital information system records for conditions which are sensitive to ambulatory care, and for those which are not, were considered for analysis, taking the medical records as the gold standard. Through simple random sampling, a sample of 816 medical records was defined and selected by means of a list of random numbers using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences. RESULT: the sensitivity was 81.89%, specificity was 95.19%, the positive predictive value was 77.61% and the negative predictive value was 96.27%. In the study setting, the Hospital Information System (SIH was more specific than sensitive, with nearly 20% of care sensitive conditions not detected. CONCLUSION: there are no validation studies in Brazil of the Hospital Information System records for the hospitalizations which are sensitive to primary health care. These results are relevant when one considers that this system is one of the bases for assessment of the effectiveness of primary health care.

  2. [Women with AIDS: disclosing risk stories].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermelho, L L; Barbosa, R H; Nogueira, S A

    1999-01-01

    This study approaches the social and cultural profile concerning risk for HIV infection in women, describing some epidemiological variables and disclosing reports of risk situations, the meaning of living with AIDS, and support received. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to interview 25 women from the University Hospital of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, prior to the availability of multi-drug treatment. The majority reported limited schooling, were housewives or engaged in under-skilled occupations, and had family incomes lower than average for users of this public teaching hospital. The view of AIDS as "someone else's disease" was prevalent, and STDs were perceived as male infections, although several women reported episodes of STDs prior to HIV. They had received their diagnosis and initial medical care only after their partners' and/or children's illness or death. The study points to preventive strategies reinforcing these silent women's bargaining power, acting on men as potential active participants in reproductive health programs that incorporate STD/AIDS issues.

  3. College Students' Health Information Activities on Facebook: Investigating the Impacts of Health Topic Sensitivity, Information Sources, and Demographics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syn, Sue Yeon; Kim, Sung Un

    2016-07-01

    College students tend to lack access to health information. Because social networking sites (SNSs) are popularly adopted by college students, SNSs are considered to be good media channels for college students to obtain health-related information. This study examines the factors that influence college students' health information-seeking and -sharing activities on Facebook. An online survey was distributed to college students between the ages of 18 and 29 to determine intentions pertaining to health information activities according to the factors identified for the study. The factors included both contextual factors (such as health topic sensitivity and health information sources) as well as user factors (such as demographics). Our findings showed that college students are willing to read and post health-related information on Facebook when the health topic is not sensitive. In addition, there are clear differences in preferences between professional sources and personal sources as health information sources. It was found that most user factors, except gender, have no influence on health information activities. The impacts of SNS contexts, awareness of information sources, types of interlocutors, and privacy concerns are further discussed.

  4. Effects of Disclosing Financial Interests on Attitudes Toward Clinical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Mark A.; Dinan, Michaela A.; DePuy, Venita; Friedman, Joëlle Y.; Allsbrook, Jennifer S.; Sugarman, Jeremy

    2008-01-01

    Background The effects of disclosing financial interests to potential research participants are not well understood. Objective To examine the effects of financial interest disclosures on potential research participants’ attitudes toward clinical research. Design and Participants Computerized experiment conducted with 3,623 adults in the United States with either diabetes mellitus or asthma, grouped by lesser and greater severity. Respondents read a description of a hypothetical clinical trial relevant to their diagnosis that included a financial disclosure statement. Respondents received 1 of 5 disclosure statements. Measurements Willingness to participate in the hypothetical clinical trial, relative importance of information about the financial interest, change in trust after reading the disclosure statement, surprise regarding the financial interest, and perceived effect of the financial interest on the quality of the clinical trial. Results Willingness to participate in the hypothetical clinical trial did not differ substantially among the types of financial disclosures. Respondents viewed the disclosed information as less important than other factors in deciding to participate. Disclosures were associated with some respondents trusting the researchers less, although trust among some respondents increased. Most respondents were not surprised to learn of financial interests. Researchers owning equity were viewed as more troubling than researchers who were compensated for the costs of research through per capita payments. Conclusions Aside from a researcher holding an equity interest, the disclosure to potential research participants of financial interests in research, as recommended in recent policies, is unlikely to affect willingness to participate in research. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11606-008-0590-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:18386101

  5. 75 FR 15635 - Delegations of Authority To Disclose Confidential Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... commercial markets offering significant price discovery contracts, and to require that registered entities... be used for market surveillance, audit, investigative or rule enforcement purposes and would remove... [[Page 15636

  6. Which information should entrepreneurs on German crowdinvesting-platforms disclose?

    OpenAIRE

    Mäschle, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    The disclosure requirements for firms issuing equity on German crowdinvestingplatforms are quite lax at the moment. This paper states that this loose requirement policy is not optimal in the presence of competition among platforms. First, a simple three-staged theoretical model is derived to demonstrate that competition among the platforms should result in a maximization of disclosure requirements. Second, characteristics about firms and entrepreneurs that should be revealed are identified be...

  7. Use of genotoxicity information in the development of integrated testing strategies (ITS) for skin sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekenyan, Ovanes; Patlewicz, Grace; Dimitrova, Gergana; Kuseva, Chanita; Todorov, Milen; Stoeva, Stoyanka; Kotov, Stefan; Donner, E Maria

    2010-10-18

    Skin sensitization is an end point of concern for various legislation in the EU, including the seventh Amendment to the Cosmetics Directive and Registration Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH). Since animal testing is a last resort for REACH or banned (from 2013 onward) for the Cosmetics Directive, the use of intelligent/integrated testing strategies (ITS) as an efficient means of gathering necessary information from alternative sources (e.g., in vitro, (Q)SARs, etc.) is gaining widespread interest. Previous studies have explored correlations between mutagenicity data and skin sensitization data as a means of exploiting information from surrogate end points. The work here compares the underlying chemical mechanisms for mutagenicity and skin sensitization in an effort to evaluate the role mutagenicity information can play as a predictor of skin sensitization potential. The Tissue Metabolism Simulator (TIMES) hybrid expert system was used to compare chemical mechanisms of both end points since it houses a comprehensive set of established structure-activity relationships for both skin sensitization and mutagenicity. The evaluation demonstrated that there is a great deal of overlap between skin sensitization and mutagenicity structural alerts and their underlying chemical mechanisms. The similarities and differences in chemical mechanisms are discussed in light of available experimental data. A number of new alerts for mutagenicity were also postulated for inclusion into TIMES. The results presented show that mutagenicity information can provide useful insights on skin sensitization potential as part of an ITS and should be considered prior to any in vivo skin sensitization testing being initiated.

  8. Keeping the door open: Exploring experiences of, and responses to, university students who disclose mental illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna McAuliffe

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available University educators increasingly manage situations where students disclose serious mental health issues. This is a significant issue, particularly for health and human service professions, as the importance of valuing the lived experience of mental illness lies alongside concerns for professional practice standards. Thus the responsibilities of students to disclose their mental health status and the responsibilities of Universities to provide appropriate support within established disability frameworks must be clear. However, students often do not know who they should disclose to, what will happen to disclosed information, and who has access to this information. Student's often fear embarrassment, stigma, and shame about disclosing mental illness, which is compounded by the diverse attitudes, experiences, and beliefs of educators. Consequently, this paper will review existing literature on university responses to, and students’ experiences of, mental illness in order to set a research agenda for this topic. The authors argue that such research must be undertaken urgently, in a context of inclusivity in higher education that gives voice to the experiences of students, their families and carers, university staff, and practitioners in the field.

  9. Exploring the concepts of privacy and the sharing of sensitive health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiri, Eman; Asiri, Hanan; Househ, Mowafa

    2014-01-01

    People are increasingly sharing their personal information on social networks such as Facebook. Patients, in particular, join online support groups for specific conditions to get support and share their experience with other members of a social media group. Throughout this process, sensitive health information could be shared by group members as a part of this information exchange and privacy concerns can arise as a result. The purpose of this study is to explore various aspects relating to privacy and the sharing of sensitive health information through social media platforms. Our review found that social media such as Facebook already plays a large role in patients' lives as it helps patients to understand their health conditions and gain support from other people who suffer from the same condition. However, there are major concerns for those patients as their privacy and confidentiality can be harmed by improper use of their posted sensitive health information by governments, hospitals or individuals. More importantly, there is an increased need for laws and legislations that protect and empower patients. We recommend that healthcare organizations collaborate with social media software companies and create educational and awareness campaigns on the impacts of sharing sensitive health information through social media.

  10. Sensitive But Unclassified Information and Other Controls: Policy and Options for Scientific and Technical Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-29

    veterinary medicine , plant health, national security, biodefense, law enforcement, scientific publishing, and related fields. The NSABB also includes...leading edge of science. The three presidents of the National Academies [of Science, Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine ] opposed such controls...information to clone, counterfeit , or circumvent a process or system.209 CRS-49 210 Section 306(a) of P.L. 107-296 provides that “to the greatest extent

  11. Stochasticity in Ca2+ increase in spines enables robust and sensitive information coding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya Koumura

    Full Text Available A dendritic spine is a very small structure (∼0.1 µm3 of a neuron that processes input timing information. Why are spines so small? Here, we provide functional reasons; the size of spines is optimal for information coding. Spines code input timing information by the probability of Ca2+ increases, which makes robust and sensitive information coding possible. We created a stochastic simulation model of input timing-dependent Ca2+ increases in a cerebellar Purkinje cell's spine. Spines used probability coding of Ca2+ increases rather than amplitude coding for input timing detection via stochastic facilitation by utilizing the small number of molecules in a spine volume, where information per volume appeared optimal. Probability coding of Ca2+ increases in a spine volume was more robust against input fluctuation and more sensitive to input numbers than amplitude coding of Ca2+ increases in a cell volume. Thus, stochasticity is a strategy by which neurons robustly and sensitively code information.

  12. 48 CFR 8.608 - Protection of classified and sensitive information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Prison Industries, Inc. 8.608 Protection of classified and sensitive information. Agencies shall not enter into any contract with FPI that allows an inmate worker access to any— (a) Classified data; (b) Geographic data regarding the location of— (1) Surface and subsurface infrastructure providing communications...

  13. Fisher Information and the Quantum Cramér-Rao Sensitivity Limit of Continuous Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelmark, Søren; Mølmer, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Precision measurements with quantum systems rely on our ability to trace the differences between experimental signals to variations in unknown physical parameters. In this Letter we derive the Fisher information and the ensuing Cramér-Rao sensitivity limit for parameter estimation by continuous...

  14. The process of disclosing a diagnosis of dementia and mild cognitive impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T Rune; Svensson, Birthe Hjorth; Rohr, Gitte

    2018-01-01

    aspects of disclosing a diagnosis of dementia and mild cognitive impairment. Method A total of 54 specialist physicians in Danish dementia diagnostic departments completed an online survey on their practices regarding diagnostic disclosure of dementia and mild cognitive impairment. The influence...... of respondent characteristics was assessed, and differences on key aspects of disclosing a diagnosis of dementia and mild cognitive impairment were analyzed. Results The results suggest that among Danish specialist physicians, there is a general consensus regarding the organization of diagnostic disclosure...... meetings. However, differences in employed terminology and information provided when disclosing a dementia diagnosis were evident. Significant differences were present on key aspects of the diagnostic disclosure of dementia and mild cognitive impairment. For instance, 91% would use the term dementia during...

  15. Sharing sensitive health information through social media in the Arab world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiri, Eman; Khalifa, Mohamed; Shabir, Syed-Abdul; Hossain, Md Nassif; Iqbal, Usman; Househ, Mowafa

    2017-02-01

    Sharing daily activities on social media has become a part of our lifestyle, but little is known about sharing sensitive health information in the Arab world. The objective of this study is to explore how social media users in the Arab world share sensitive health information through Facebook. A retrospective qualitative analysis was used in the study. A total of 110 Facebook groups, related to HIV, sickle cell and depression were screened between 5 June and 1 December 2014. Forty four Facebook groups met the inclusion criteria. 28 471 posts were extracted, of which 649 met inclusion criteria. Forty two percent of health information exchanged were related to HIV, 34% to depression and 24% to sickle cell diseases. The majority of postings were from Egypt 21.1%, Saudi Arabia 20%, Algeria 10% and Libya 9.2%. Male posts were 54.2% while 45.8% were posted by females. Individuals utilized Facebook groups to share personal experiences of their disease 31%, in addition to being used for seeking queries 13.6%, offering explicit advice 8.3%, reporting signs and symptoms of the disease 7.3% and posting their communication with the health-care provider 6.6%. Users in the Arab world use social media to exchange sensitive health information, which could have serious implications regarding the privacy of the information shared with other members of the group. On the other hand, sharing health information could have positive effects for patients, such as sharing disease experiences and peer support. However, more work is needed to ensure that Facebook users in the Arab world are aware of the potential consequences of sharing sensitive health information through social media. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  16. Parametric sensitivity analysis for stochastic molecular systems using information theoretic metrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsourtis, Anastasios, E-mail: tsourtis@uoc.gr [Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Crete, Crete (Greece); Pantazis, Yannis, E-mail: pantazis@math.umass.edu; Katsoulakis, Markos A., E-mail: markos@math.umass.edu [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003 (United States); Harmandaris, Vagelis, E-mail: harman@uoc.gr [Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Crete, and Institute of Applied and Computational Mathematics (IACM), Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas (FORTH), GR-70013 Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2015-07-07

    In this paper, we present a parametric sensitivity analysis (SA) methodology for continuous time and continuous space Markov processes represented by stochastic differential equations. Particularly, we focus on stochastic molecular dynamics as described by the Langevin equation. The utilized SA method is based on the computation of the information-theoretic (and thermodynamic) quantity of relative entropy rate (RER) and the associated Fisher information matrix (FIM) between path distributions, and it is an extension of the work proposed by Y. Pantazis and M. A. Katsoulakis [J. Chem. Phys. 138, 054115 (2013)]. A major advantage of the pathwise SA method is that both RER and pathwise FIM depend only on averages of the force field; therefore, they are tractable and computable as ergodic averages from a single run of the molecular dynamics simulation both in equilibrium and in non-equilibrium steady state regimes. We validate the performance of the extended SA method to two different molecular stochastic systems, a standard Lennard-Jones fluid and an all-atom methane liquid, and compare the obtained parameter sensitivities with parameter sensitivities on three popular and well-studied observable functions, namely, the radial distribution function, the mean squared displacement, and the pressure. Results show that the RER-based sensitivities are highly correlated with the observable-based sensitivities.

  17. Consumer Rights in Counseling: Duty to Disclose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradise, Louis V.

    1990-01-01

    Contends counselors should give potential clients enough information in the initial session to make a decision about whether they are right for their counselor and whether their counselor is right for them. Claims using a brochure detailing consumer rights and responsibilities, qualifications of the counselor, and general grievance procedures is…

  18. Use of sensitivity-information for the adaptive simulation of thermo-hydraulic system codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerner, Alexander M.

    2011-01-01

    Within the scope of this thesis the development of methods for online-adaptation of dynamical plant simulations of a thermal-hydraulic system code to measurement data is depicted. The described approaches are mainly based on the use of sensitivity-information in different areas: statistical sensitivity measures are used for the identification of the parameters to be adapted and online-sensitivities for the parameter adjustment itself. For the parameter adjustment the method of a ''system-adapted heuristic adaptation with partial separation'' (SAHAT) was developed, which combines certain variants of parameter estimation and control with supporting procedures to solve the basic problems. The applicability of the methods is shown by adaptive simulations of a PKL-III experiment and by selected transients in a nuclear power plant. Finally the main perspectives for the application of a tracking simulator on a system code are identified.

  19. Parametric sensitivity analysis for biochemical reaction networks based on pathwise information theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantazis, Yannis; Katsoulakis, Markos A; Vlachos, Dionisios G

    2013-10-22

    Stochastic modeling and simulation provide powerful predictive methods for the intrinsic understanding of fundamental mechanisms in complex biochemical networks. Typically, such mathematical models involve networks of coupled jump stochastic processes with a large number of parameters that need to be suitably calibrated against experimental data. In this direction, the parameter sensitivity analysis of reaction networks is an essential mathematical and computational tool, yielding information regarding the robustness and the identifiability of model parameters. However, existing sensitivity analysis approaches such as variants of the finite difference method can have an overwhelming computational cost in models with a high-dimensional parameter space. We develop a sensitivity analysis methodology suitable for complex stochastic reaction networks with a large number of parameters. The proposed approach is based on Information Theory methods and relies on the quantification of information loss due to parameter perturbations between time-series distributions. For this reason, we need to work on path-space, i.e., the set consisting of all stochastic trajectories, hence the proposed approach is referred to as "pathwise". The pathwise sensitivity analysis method is realized by employing the rigorously-derived Relative Entropy Rate, which is directly computable from the propensity functions. A key aspect of the method is that an associated pathwise Fisher Information Matrix (FIM) is defined, which in turn constitutes a gradient-free approach to quantifying parameter sensitivities. The structure of the FIM turns out to be block-diagonal, revealing hidden parameter dependencies and sensitivities in reaction networks. As a gradient-free method, the proposed sensitivity analysis provides a significant advantage when dealing with complex stochastic systems with a large number of parameters. In addition, the knowledge of the structure of the FIM can allow to efficiently address

  20. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Waterfowl Database, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_waterfowl_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for waterfowl species in coastal Louisiana. Vector polygons in this data represent waterfowl habitats with...

  1. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Shorebird Database, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_shorebird_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for shorebird species in coastal Louisiana. Vector polygons represent concentration areas and "hotspots"...

  2. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Crawfish Database, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_crawfish_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data representing major concentration areas for harvested or potentially harvested crawfish and river shrimp in...

  3. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Alligator Database, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_gator_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for American alligator in coastal Louisiana. Vector polygons represent alligator habitats with nest density...

  4. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Swamps, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_swamp_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) swamps data of coastal Louisiana. The ESI is a classification and ranking system, which characterizes...

  5. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Polygons, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esip_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains polygons representing the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) classification of coastal Louisiana. The ESI is a classification and ranking...

  6. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Bear Database, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_bear_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for the Louisiana black bear in coastal Louisiana. Vector polygons represent occupied habitat for this...

  7. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Salinity, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_salinity_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) salinity data of coastal Louisiana. The ESI is a classification and ranking system, which characterizes...

  8. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Habitats Database, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_habitats_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for coastal habitats in Louisiana. Vector polygons represent various habitats, including marsh types, other...

  9. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Marsh, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_fresh_marsh_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) fresh marsh data of coastal Louisiana. The ESI is a classification and ranking system, which...

  10. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Seagrass, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_seagrass_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) seagrass data of coastal Louisiana. The ESI is a classification and ranking system, which characterizes...

  11. Assessing the sensitivity of information distortion to four potential influences in studies of risky choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth A. Miller

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of a leading alternative during the course of a decision is known to bias the evaluation of new information in a manner that favors that alternative. We report 3 studies that address the sensitivity of predecisional information distortion and its effects in hypothetical risky decisions with regard to 4 potential influences: choice domain, repeated choice, memory requirements, and intermediate progress questions. In Experiment 1 (N = 515, the magnitude of information distortion was similar in 5 choice domains (varied between participants involving monetary gambles, song downloads, frequent-flyer miles, political decisions, or medical decisions. Information distortion mediated the relationship between our manipulation of initial preferences and participants' final choices, with the magnitude of the indirect effect being roughly similar across domains. These results replicate and extend previous findings. Additionally, distortion decreased significantly over 4 similar decision problems (within participants, but remained significant in the fourth problem. In Experiment 2 (N = 214, information distortion increased significantly when previously viewed information remained available, apparently because reiterating that information strengthened emerging preferences. In Experiment 3 (N = 223, the removal of intermediate progress questions that measure information distortion and emerging preferences did not significantly affect final choices, again replicating previous results. We conclude that predecisional information distortion is a relatively stable and robust phenomenon that deserves a prominent role in descriptive theories of choice.

  12. Development of a Standardized Approach to Disclosing Amyloid Imaging Research Results in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Lingler, Jennifer H.; Butters, Meryl A.; Gentry, Amanda L.; Hu, Lu; Hunsaker, Amanda E.; Klunk, William E.; Mattos, Meghan K.; Parker, Lisa A.; Roberts, J. Scott; Schulz, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The increased use of PET amyloid imaging in clinical research has sparked numerous concerns about whether and how to return such research test results to study participants. Chief among these is the question of how best to disclose amyloid imaging research results to individuals who have cognitive symptoms that could impede comprehension of the information conveyed. We systematically developed and evaluated informational materials for use in pre-test counseling and post-test...

  13. Disclosing the temperature of columnar jointing in lavas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamur, Anthony; Lavallée, Yan; Iddon, Fiona E; Hornby, Adrian J; Kendrick, Jackie E; von Aulock, Felix W; Wadsworth, Fabian B

    2018-04-12

    Columnar joints form by cracking during cooling-induced contraction of lava, allowing hydrothermal fluid circulation. A lack of direct observations of their formation has led to ambiguity about the temperature window of jointing and its impact on fluid flow. Here we develop a novel thermo-mechanical experiment to disclose the temperature of columnar jointing in lavas. Using basalts from Eyjafjallajökull volcano (Iceland) we show that contraction during cooling induces stress build-up below the solidus temperature (980 °C), resulting in localised macroscopic failure between 890 and 840 °C. This temperature window for incipient columnar jointing is supported by modelling informed by mechanical testing and thermal expansivity measurements. We demonstrate that columnar jointing takes place well within the solid state of volcanic rocks, and is followed by a nonlinear increase in system permeability of <9 orders of magnitude during cooling. Columnar jointing may promote advective cooling in magmatic-hydrothermal environments and fluid loss during geothermal drilling and thermal stimulation.

  14. An HVS-based location-sensitive definition of mutual information between two images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haijun; Wu, Huayi

    2006-10-01

    Quantitative measure of image information amount is of great importance in many image processing applications, e.g. image compression and image registration. Many commonly used metrics are defined mathematically. However, the ultimate consumers of images are human observers in most situations, thus such measures without consideration of internal mechanism of human visual system (HVS) may not be appropriate. This paper proposes an improved definition of mutual information between two images based on the visual information which is actually perceived by human beings in different subbands of image. This definition is both sensitive to the pixels' spatial location and correlates well with human perceptual feeling than mutual information purely calculated by pixels' grayscale value. Experimental results on images with different noises and JPEG&JPEG2000 compressed images are also given.

  15. Clinical information has low sensitivity for postmortem diagnosis of heart valve disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Sean; Harper, Andrew R; Cairns, Benjamin J; Roberts, Ian Sd; Prendergast, Bernard D

    2017-07-01

    Accuracy of routinely collected information concerning cause of death is essential for public health and health systems planning. Since clinical examination has relatively low sensitivity for detection of valvular heart disease (VHD), mortality data based on clinical information alone might routinely underestimate the number of deaths due to VHD. We compared autopsy findings against premortem clinical information for 8198 consecutive adult postmortems (mean age 69.1 years, 61.3% men), performed in a single UK tertiary referral centre with on-site cardiac surgical facilities over a 10-year period (2004-2013) during which 21% of the adult population underwent postmortem examination. Following postmortem, VHD was the principal cause of death in 165 individuals (2.0%), a principal or contributory cause ('any cause') of death in 326 (4.0%) and an incidental (ie, non-causal) finding in a further 346 (4.2%). Clinical documentation of VHD before death was highly specific but relatively insensitive for postmortem identification of VHD as the principal (specificity 96.8%; 95% CI 96.4% to 97.2%; sensitivity 69.7%, 95% CI 62.1% to 76.6%) or any (specificity 98.1%; 95% CI 97.8% to 98.4%; sensitivity 68.4%, 95% CI 63.1% to 73.4%) cause of death. VHD (principally aortic stenosis, endocarditis and rheumatic heart disease) was newly noted at postmortem and listed as a cause of death in 142 individuals (1.7%). Clinical information recorded premortem is highly specific but relatively insensitive for the cause of death established at autopsy. Population-based mortality statistics that depend on premortem clinical information are likely to routinely underestimate the mortality burden of VHD. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. [On the Way to Culture-Sensitive Patient Information Materials: Results of a Focus Group Study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Zivile; Frank, Fabian; Bermejo, Isaac; Kalaitsidou, Chariklia; Zill, Jördis; Dirmaier, Jörg; Härter, Martin; Bengel, Jürgen; Hölzel, Lars

    2018-06-01

    This study was part of a double-blind randomised controlled trial aimed to evaluate the effects of culture-sensitive patient information materials (PIM) compared with standard translated material. The study aimed to obtain the data for the development of culture sensitive PIM about unipolar depression for the 4 largest migrant groups in Germany (Turkish, Polish, Russian and Italian migration background). A qualitative study using 4 manual-based focus groups (FG), one for each migrant group, with 29 participants (9 with a Turkish (TüG), 8 with a Polish (PoG), 5 with a Russian (RuG) and 7 with an Italian (ItG) migration background) was conducted. The discussions were recorded, transcribed and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. 7 categories were identified. For the (1.) development of a good culture-sensitive PIM an easy language, a clear structure, an assessable extent of information and the avoidance of stereotypes were highlighted cross-culturally in all four FG. RuG and PoG had the largest (2.) lack of information about the German health care system. Concerning the (3.) illness perception RuG named problems with recognizing and understanding depression. PoG, RuG and TüG thematized (4.) feared consequences of the illness and of professional helpseeking. ItG, PoG, RuG had fears concerning (5.) psychotropic drugs as a result from insufficient knowledge about medication. For (6.) doctor-patient relationship cultural specifics were identified in RuG and TüG and for (7.) migration or culture specific reasons for depression in RuG, ItG and TüG. Although the identified categories were relevant for all or for the majority of migrant groups, for most categories specific cultural aspects were discovered. These findings show the importance of a culture sensitive adaptation of PIM. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Obese and overweight individuals are less sensitive to information about meal times in portion size judgements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, A R; Mason, A; Rogers, P J; Brunstrom, J M

    2017-11-16

    Obesity is related to a tendency to discount the future. Information regarding inter-meal interval (IMI) allows meal planning. We sought to assess how obese, overweight, and lean people select portion sizes based on the length of an IMI. We hypothesised that individuals with a high BMI would discount information about the IMI. In addition, we investigated how reduced sensitivity to IMIs relates to monetary temporal discounting. Participants (lean, n=35; overweight, n=31; obese, n=22), selected lunchtime portion sizes in response to information about the timings of their next meal. In seven trials, the time of the IMI was systematically manipulated, ranging from 'right now' to '8 h'. Participants then completed a monetary temporal discounting task. BMI was included as a continuous measure. For each participant, we conducted a linear regression of portion size on IMI to yield a gradient that reflected reduced sensitivity to future meal timings. As expected, participants selected larger portion sizes in response to a long IMI. Consistent with our hypothesis, individuals with a high BMI discounted information about the IMI (β=-3.49, P=0.015; confidence interval (CI) 6.29 to -0.70). Monetary discounting also negatively predicted BMI (β=-8.1, P=0.003; CI=-13.43 to -2.77), but did not correlate with IMI sensitivity (P>0.05). These results are the first to demonstrate that temporal discounting operates in planning from one meal to the next, and is more prevalent in obese and overweight, relative to lean individuals. Participants with a high BMI discounted concerns about potential future fullness and hunger in the IMI. Our observations might begin to explain associations between obesity and irregular meal timings or help to form the basis for a targeted intervention that promotes future thinking in meal planning.International Journal of Obesity accepted article preview online, 16 November 2017. doi:10.1038/ijo.2017.275.

  18. Simple, complex and hyper-complex understanding - enhanced sensitivity in observation of information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bering Keiding, Tina

    for construction and analysis of empirical information. A quick overview on empirical research drawing on Luhmann reveals a diverse complex of analytical strategies and empirical methods. Despite differences between strategies and methods they have in common that understanding of uttered information is crucial...... in their production of empirically founded knowledge. However research generally seems to pay more attention to production of uttered information than to selection of understanding. The aim of this contribution is to sketch out a suggestion to how selection of understanding can be systematized in order to produce...... enhanced transparency in selection of understanding as well as enhanced sensitivity and definition in dept. The contribution suggest that we distinguish between three types of understanding; simple, complex and hyper-complex understanding. Simple understanding is the simultaneous selection of understanding...

  19. Self-disclosing my ostomy to the dominant culture: an autoethnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohlich, Dennis Owen

    2012-01-01

    Living with an ostomy is a major change to a person's body and poses difficult questions about how to disclose personal medical information to others. This autoethnography examines my time with an ostomy through the lens of co-cultural theory and sheds light on how people with ostomies communicate with the dominant culture, in this case people without ostomies. I discuss how my communication goals and approaches evolved over time.

  20. A Mapping of Tools for Informing Water Sensitive Urban Design Planning Decisions—Questions, Aspects and Context Sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerer, Sara Maria; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2015-01-01

    Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) poses new challenges for decision makers compared with traditional stormwater management, e.g., because WSUD offers a larger selection of measures and because many measures are multifunctional. These challenges have motivated the development of many decision...

  1. 14 CFR 1213.107 - Preventing unauthorized release of sensitive but unclassified (SBU) information/material to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .../material to the news media. (a) All NASA SBU information requires accountability and approval for release... sensitive but unclassified (SBU) information/material to the news media. 1213.107 Section 1213.107 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION RELEASE OF INFORMATION TO NEWS AND...

  2. Ethical, Legal, and Clinical Considerations when Disclosing a High-Risk Syndrome for Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Vijay A; Dean, Derek J; Mittal, Jyoti; Saks, Elyn R

    2015-10-01

    There are complex considerations when planning to disclose an attenuated psychosis syndrome (APS) diagnosis. In this review, we evaluate ethical, legal, and clinical perspectives as well as caveats related to full, non- and partial disclosure strategies, discuss societal implications, and provide clinical suggestions. Each of the disclosure strategies is associated with benefits as well as costs/considerations. Full disclosure promotes autonomy, allows for the clearest psychoeducation about additional risk factors, helps to clarify and/or correct previous diagnoses/treatments, facilitates early intervention and bolsters communication between providers but there are important considerations involving heritability, comorbidity, culture, and stigma. Non-disclosure advances nonmaleficence by limiting stigma and stress (which may inadvertently exacerbate the condition), and confusion (related to the rapidly evolving diagnosis) in a sensitive developmental period but is complicated by varying patient preferences and the possibility that, as new treatments without adverse effects become available, the risk with false positives no longer justifies the accompanying loss of autonomy. Partial disclosure balances ethical considerations by focusing on symptoms instead of labels, but evidence that laypersons may interpret this information as a pseudo-diagnosis and that symptoms alone also contribute to stigma limits the efficacy of this approach. In addition, there are notable societal considerations relating to disclosure involving conservatorship, the reach of insurance companies, and discrimination. We advocate a hybrid approach to disclosure and recommend future research aimed at understanding the effects of stigma on clinical course and a renewed focus on those help-seeking cases that do not transition but remain clinically relevant. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Subsurface information for risk-sensitive urban spatial planning in Dhaka Metropolitan City, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Andreas; Aziz Patwary, Mohammad Abdul; Bahls, Rebecca; Asaduzzaman, Atm; Ludwig, Rüdiger; Ashraful Kamal, Mohammad; Nahar Faruqa, Nurun; Jabeen, Sarwat

    2016-04-01

    Dhaka Metropolitan City (including Dhaka and five adjacent municipal areas) is one of the fastest developing urban regions in the world. Densely build-up areas in the developed metropolitan area of Dhaka City are subject to extensive restructuring as common six- or lower storied buildings are replaced by higher and heavier constructions. Additional stories are built on existing houses, frequently exceeding the allowable bearing pressure on the subsoil as supported by the foundations. In turn, newly developing city areas are projected in marshy terrains modified by extensive, largely unengineered landfills. In most areas, these terrains bear unfavorable building ground conditions within 30 meters. Within a collaborative technical cooperation project between Bangladesh and Germany, BGR supports GSB in the provision of geo-information for the Capital Development Authority (RAJUK). For general urban planning, RAJUK successively develops a detailed area plan (DAP) at scale 1 : 50000 for the whole Dhaka Metropolitan City area (approx. 1700 km2). Geo-information have not been considered in the present DAP. Within the project, geospatial information in form of a geomorphic map, a digital terrain model and a 3-D subsurface model covering the whole city area have been generated at a scale of 1 : 50000. An extensive engineering geological data base consisting of more than 2200 borehole data with associated Standard Penetration Testing (SPT) and lab data has been compiled. With the field testing (SPT) and engineering geological lab data, the 3-D subsurface model can be parameterized to derive important spatial subsurface information for urban planning like bearing capacity evaluations for different foundation designs or soil liquefaction potential assessments for specific earthquake scenarios. In conjunction with inundation potential evaluations for different flooding scenarios, comprehensive building ground suitability information can be derived to support risk-sensitive

  4. Is Investment-Cash Flow Sensitivity Caused by the Agency Costs or Asymmetric Information? Evidence from the UK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pawlina, G.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the investment-cash flow sensitivity of a large sample of the UK listed firms and confirm that investment is strongly cash flow-sensitive.Is this suboptimal investment policy the result of agency problems when managers with high discretion overinvest, or of asymmetric information when

  5. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Puerto Rico - 2000, maps and geographic information systems data DVD (NODC Accession 0014188)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — ESI data characterize coastal environments and wildlife by their sensitivity to spilled oil. The ESI data include information for three main components: shoreline...

  6. Primary care physicians' willingness to disclose oncology errors involving multiple providers to patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazor, Kathleen; Roblin, Douglas W; Greene, Sarah M; Fouayzi, Hassan; Gallagher, Thomas H

    2016-10-01

    Full disclosure of harmful errors to patients, including a statement of regret, an explanation, acceptance of responsibility and commitment to prevent recurrences is the current standard for physicians in the USA. To examine the extent to which primary care physicians' perceptions of event-level, physician-level and organisation-level factors influence intent to disclose a medical error in challenging situations. Cross-sectional survey containing two hypothetical vignettes: (1) delayed diagnosis of breast cancer, and (2) care coordination breakdown causing a delayed response to patient symptoms. In both cases, multiple physicians shared responsibility for the error, and both involved oncology diagnoses. The study was conducted in the context of the HMO Cancer Research Network Cancer Communication Research Center. Primary care physicians from three integrated healthcare delivery systems located in Washington, Massachusetts and Georgia; responses from 297 participants were included in these analyses. The dependent variable intent to disclose included intent to provide an apology, an explanation, information about the cause and plans for preventing recurrences. Independent variables included event-level factors (responsibility for the event, perceived seriousness of the event, predictions about a lawsuit); physician-level factors (value of patient-centred communication, communication self-efficacy and feelings about practice); organisation-level factors included perceived support for communication and time constraints. A majority of respondents would not fully disclose in either situation. The strongest predictors of disclosure were perceived personal responsibility, perceived seriousness of the event and perceived value of patient-centred communication. These variables were consistently associated with intent to disclose. To make meaningful progress towards improving disclosure; physicians, risk managers, organisational leaders, professional organisations and

  7. Sensitivity-Informed De Novo Programming for Many-Objective Water Portfolio Planning Under Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprzyk, J. R.; Reed, P. M.; Kirsch, B. R.; Characklis, G. W.

    2009-12-01

    Risk-based water supply management presents severe cognitive, computational, and social challenges to planning in a changing world. Decision aiding frameworks must confront the cognitive biases implicit to risk, the severe uncertainties associated with long term planning horizons, and the consequent ambiguities that shape how we define and solve water resources planning and management problems. This paper proposes and demonstrates a new interactive framework for sensitivity informed de novo programming. The theoretical focus of our many-objective de novo programming is to promote learning and evolving problem formulations to enhance risk-based decision making. We have demonstrated our proposed de novo programming framework using a case study for a single city’s water supply in the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) in Texas. Key decisions in this case study include the purchase of permanent rights to reservoir inflows and anticipatory thresholds for acquiring transfers of water through optioning and spot leases. A 10-year Monte Carlo simulation driven by historical data is used to provide performance metrics for the supply portfolios. The three major components of our methodology include Sobol globoal sensitivity analysis, many-objective evolutionary optimization and interactive tradeoff visualization. The interplay between these components allows us to evaluate alternative design metrics, their decision variable controls and the consequent system vulnerabilities. Our LRGV case study measures water supply portfolios’ efficiency, reliability, and utilization of transfers in the water supply market. The sensitivity analysis is used interactively over interannual, annual, and monthly time scales to indicate how the problem controls change as a function of the timescale of interest. These results have been used then to improve our exploration and understanding of LRGV costs, vulnerabilities, and the water portfolios’ critical reliability constraints. These results

  8. Optimised sensitivity to leptonic CP violation from spectral information: the LBNO case at 2300 km baseline

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwalla, S K; Aittola, M; Alekou, A; Andrieu, B; Antoniou, F; Asfandiyarov, R; Autiero, D; Bésida, O; Balik, A; Ballett, P; Bandac, I; Banerjee, D; Bartmann, W; Bay, F; Biskup, B; Blebea-Apostu, A M; Blondel, A; Bogomilov, M; Bolognesi, S; Borriello, E; Brancus, I; Bravar, A; Buizza-Avanzini, M; Caiulo, D; Calin, M; Calviani, M; Campanelli, M; Cantini, C; Cata-Danil, G; Chakraborty, S; Charitonidis, N; Chaussard, L; Chesneanu, D; Chipesiu, F; Crivelli, P; Dawson, J; De Bonis, I; Declais, Y; Sanchez, P Del Amo; Delbart, A; Di Luise, S; Duchesneau, D; Dumarchez, J; Efthymiopoulos, I; Eliseev, A; Emery, S; Enqvist, T; Enqvist, K; Epprecht, L; Erykalov, A N; Esanu, T; Franco, D; Friend, M; Galymov, V; Gavrilov, G; Gendotti, A; Giganti, C; Gilardoni, S; Goddard, B; Gomoiu, C M; Gornushkin, Y A; Gorodetzky, P; Haesler, A; Hasegawa, T; Horikawa, S; Huitu, K; Izmaylov, A; Jipa, A; Kainulainen, K; Karadzhov, Y; Khabibullin, M; Khotjantsev, A; Kopylov, A N; Korzenev, A; Kosyanenko, S; Kryn, D; Kudenko, Y; Kuusiniemi, P; Lazanu, I; Lazaridis, C; Levy, J -M; Loo, K; Maalampi, J; Margineanu, R M; Marteau, J; Martin-Mari, C; Matveev, V; Mazzucato, E; Mefodiev, A; Mineev, O; Mirizzi, A; Mitrica, B; Murphy, S; Nakadaira, T; Narita, S; Nesterenko, D A; Nguyen, K; Nikolics, K; Noah, E; Novikov, Yu; Oprima, A; Osborne, J; Ovsyannikova, T; Papaphilippou, Y; Pascoli, S; Patzak, T; Pectu, M; Pennacchio, E; Periale, L; Pessard, H; Popov, B; Ravonel, M; Rayner, M; Resnati, F; Ristea, O; Robert, A; Rubbia, A; Rummukainen, K; Saftoiu, A; Sakashita, K; Sanchez-Galan, F; Sarkamo, J; Saviano, N; Scantamburlo, E; Sergiampietri, F; Sgalaberna, D; Shaposhnikova, E; Slupecki, M; Smargianaki, D; Stanca, D; Steerenberg, R; Sterian, A R; Sterian, P; Stoica, S; Strabel, C; Suhonen, J; Suvorov, V; Toma, G; Tonazzo, A; Trzaska, W H; Tsenov, R; Tuominen, K; Valram, M; Vankova-Kirilova, G; Vannucci, F; Vasseur, G; Velotti, F; Velten, P; Venturi, V; Viant, T; Vihonen, S; Vincke, H; Vorobyev, A; Weber, A; Wu, S; Yershov, N; Zambelli, L; Zito, M

    2014-01-01

    One of the main goals of the Long Baseline Neutrino Observatory (LBNO) is to study the $L/E$ behaviour (spectral information) of the electron neutrino and antineutrino appearance probabilities, in order to determine the unknown CP-violation phase $\\delta_{CP}$ and discover CP-violation in the leptonic sector. The result is based on the measurement of the appearance probabilities in a broad range of energies, covering t he 1st and 2nd oscillation maxima, at a very long baseline of 2300 km. The sensitivity of the experiment can be maximised by optimising the energy spectra of the neutrino and anti-neutrino fluxes. Such an optimisation requires exploring an extended range of parameters describing in details the geometries and properties of the primary protons, hadron target and focusing elements in the neutrino beam line. In this paper we present a numerical solution that leads to an optimised energy spectra and study its impact on the sensitivity of LBNO to discover leptonic CP violation. In the optimised flux ...

  9. New infrared-sensitive photopolymer materials for information storage and processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagtegaele, Patrice; Galstian, Tigran V.

    2001-11-01

    In response to the increasing demand of information systems, we need new materials with high performance for storage and processing applications. Available on the market optical storage materials present very useful characteristics but are still limited in the visible spectrum and are expansive. Recently, we have developed holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal (H-PDLC) materials sensitive in the near infrared region (800 nm to 850 nm). These compounds are based on acrylate monomers and different liquid crystals (LC) and allow highly efficient in-situ recording of holographic optical elements using infra red lasers. Diffraction efficiency above 95% is demonstrated. Photosensitivity of the material, its dark ­development and photochemical stability of recorded gratings are investigated. The angular and spectral selectivities of gratings, recorded in these films are examined for recovering the refractive index modulation profile.

  10. Categorias de Riscos Evidenciadas nos Relatórios da Administração de Empresas Brasileiras com ADRsRisk Categories Disclosed in the Administration Reports of Brazilian Companies with ADRsCategorías de Riesgos Constatadas en los Informes de Administración de Empresas Brasileñas con ADRs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZONATTO, Vinícius Costa da Silva

    2010-06-01

    and image risks. The survey results show that in general there is no standardization of the types of risks disclosed by the companies. A total of 14 types of risks have been identified. The predominant category in the disclosure was the operational risk, with 20.72% of the observations. There was no disclosure of image risk in the AR of the companies surveyed. It was found that 19 companies, 67.86% of the surveyed companies, demonstrate some kind of risk to which they are exposed. On the other hand, nine companies (32.14% did not show any kind of risk.RESUMENEl estudio tiene como objetivo identificar las categorías de riesgos que constan en el Informe de Administración, referente al año 2007, de Empresas Brasileñas con emisión de ADRs. La investigación, definida como descriptiva se realizó por medio de análisis documental. La muestra comprende 28 empresas brasileñas con emisión de American Depositary Receipt (ADRs en la Bolsa de valores de Nueva York (EEUU. Se consideraron siete categorías de riesgos corporativos, identificadas a partir de la metodología COSO (2004: riesgos estratégicos, riesgos de mercado, riesgos de crédito, riesgos de liquidez, riesgos operacionales, riesgos legales y riesgos de imagen. Los resultados de la investigación muestran que, en general, no hay una estandarización de los tipos de riesgo constatados por las empresas. En total se identificaron 14 tipos de riesgo. El riesgo operacional fue la categoría predominante en la constatación, con el 20.72% de las observaciones. No se encontró evidencia de riesgos de imagen en los I.A. de las empresas investigadas. Se constató que 19 empresas manifiestan algún tipo de riesgo al que la empresa está expuesta, lo que representa el 67.86% de la muestra. Por otro lado, en nueve empresas (el 32.14% no se constató la existencia de ningún tipo de riesgo.

  11. Brain response during the M170 time interval is sensitive to socially relevant information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arviv, Oshrit; Goldstein, Abraham; Weeting, Janine C; Becker, Eni S; Lange, Wolf-Gero; Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva

    2015-11-01

    Deciphering the social meaning of facial displays is a highly complex neurological process. The M170, an event related field component of MEG recording, like its EEG counterpart N170, was repeatedly shown to be associated with structural encoding of faces. However, the scope of information encoded during the M170 time window is still being debated. We investigated the neuronal origin of facial processing of integrated social rank cues (SRCs) and emotional facial expressions (EFEs) during the M170 time interval. Participants viewed integrated facial displays of emotion (happy, angry, neutral) and SRCs (indicated by upward, downward, or straight head tilts). We found that the activity during the M170 time window is sensitive to both EFEs and SRCs. Specifically, highly prominent activation was observed in response to SRC connoting dominance as compared to submissive or egalitarian head cues. Interestingly, the processing of EFEs and SRCs appeared to rely on different circuitry. Our findings suggest that vertical head tilts are processed not only for their sheer structural variance, but as social information. Exploring the temporal unfolding and brain localization of non-verbal cues processing may assist in understanding the functioning of the social rank biobehavioral system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A Mapping of Tools for Informing Water Sensitive Urban Design Planning Decisions—Questions, Aspects and Context Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Maria Lerer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD poses new challenges for decision makers compared with traditional stormwater management, e.g., because WSUD offers a larger selection of measures and because many measures are multifunctional. These challenges have motivated the development of many decision support tools. This review shows that the tools differ in terms of the types of questions they can assist in answering. We identified three main groups: “How Much”-tools, “Where”-tools and “Which”-tools. The “How Much”-tools can further be grouped into tools quantifying hydraulic impacts, hydrologic impacts, water quality impacts, non-flow-related impacts and economic impacts. Additionally, the tools differ in terms of how many aspects of water they address, from those focused only on bio-physical aspects to those attempting to find the best WSUD based on multiple criteria. Finally, we suggest that variability among the tools can partly be explained by variability in local context including conditions such as type of existing stormwater systems, groundwater conditions and legislative frameworks.

  13. Safety of disclosing amyloid status in cognitively normal older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jeffrey M; Johnson, David K; Liebmann, Edward P; Bothwell, Rebecca J; Morris, Jill K; Vidoni, Eric D

    2017-09-01

    Disclosing amyloid status to cognitively normal individuals remains controversial given our lack of understanding the test's clinical significance and unknown psychological risk. We assessed the effect of amyloid status disclosure on anxiety and depression before disclosure, at disclosure, and 6 weeks and 6 months postdisclosure and test-related distress after disclosure. Clinicians disclosed amyloid status to 97 cognitively normal older adults (27 had elevated cerebral amyloid). There was no difference in depressive symptoms across groups over time. There was a significant group by time interaction in anxiety, although post hoc analyses revealed no group differences at any time point, suggesting a minimal nonsustained increase in anxiety symptoms immediately postdisclosure in the elevated group. Slight but measureable increases in test-related distress were present after disclosure and were related to greater baseline levels of anxiety and depression. Disclosing amyloid imaging results to cognitively normal adults in the clinical research setting with pre- and postdisclosure counseling has a low risk of psychological harm. Copyright © 2017 the Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Decrypting Information Sensitivity: Risk, Privacy, and Data Protection Law in the United States and the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazlioglu, Muge

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation examines the risk-based approach to privacy and data protection and the role of information sensitivity within risk management. Determining what information carries the greatest risk is a multi-layered challenge that involves balancing the rights and interests of multiple actors, including data controllers, data processors, and…

  15. Cultural Variations in the Effect of Interview Privacy and the Need for Social Conformity on Reporting Sensitive Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mneimneh Zeina M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Privacy is an important feature of the interview interaction mainly due to its potential effect on reporting information, especially sensitive information. Here we examine the effect of third-party presence on reporting both sensitive and relatively neutral outcomes. We investigate whether the effect of third-party presence on reporting sensitive information is moderated by the respondent’s need for social conformity and the respondent’s country of residence. Three types of outcomes are investigated: behavioral, attitudinal, and relatively neutral health events. Using data from 22,070 interviews and nine countries in the cross-national World Mental Health Survey Initiative, we fit multilevel logistic regression to study reporting effects on questions about suicidal behavior and marital ratings, and contrast these with questions about having high blood pressure, asthma, or arthritis. We find that there is an effect of third-party presence on reporting sensitive information and no effect on reporting of neutral information. Further, the effect of the interview privacy setting on reporting sensitive information is moderated by the need for social conformity and the cultural setting.

  16. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Guam - 2005 maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0033616)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The most widely used approach to sensitive environment mapping in the U.S. is NOAA's Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI). This approach systematically complies...

  17. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Hawaii - 2001, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0033632)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The most widely used approach to sensitive environment mapping in the U.S. is NOAA's Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI). This approach systematically complies...

  18. Cyber security: a critical examination of information sharing versus data sensitivity issues for organisations at risk of cyber attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallinder, Jason; Drabwell, Peter

    Cyber threats are growing and evolving at an unprecedented rate.Consequently, it is becoming vitally important that organisations share information internally and externally before, during and after incidents they encounter so that lessons can be learned, good practice identified and new cyber resilience capabilities developed. Many organisations are reluctant to share such information for fear of divulging sensitive information or because it may be vague or incomplete. This provides organisations with a complex dilemma: how to share information as openly as possibly about cyber incidents, while protecting their confidentiality and focusing on service recovery from such incidents. This paper explores the dilemma of information sharing versus sensitivity and provides a practical overview of considerations every business continuity plan should address to plan effectively for information sharing in the event of a cyber incident.

  19. Support Seeking or Familial Obligation: An Investigation of Motives for Disclosing Genetic Test Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Marisa; Smith, Rachel A

    2016-01-01

    Genetic test results reveal not only personal information about a person's likelihood of certain medical conditions but also information about the person's genetic relatives. Given the familial nature of genetic information, one's obligation to protect family members may be a motive for disclosing genetic test results, but this claim has not been methodically tested. Existing models of disclosure decision making presume self-interested motives, such as seeking social support, instead of other-interested motives, like familial obligation. This study investigated young adults' (N = 173) motives to share a genetic-based health condition, alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, after reading a hypothetical vignette. Results show that social support and familial obligation were both reported as motives for disclosure. In fact, some participants reported familial obligation as their primary motivator for disclosure. Finally, stronger familial obligation predicted increased likelihood of disclosing hypothetical genetic test results. Implications of these results were discussed in reference to theories of disclosure decision-making models and the practice of genetic disclosures.

  20. The source of investment cash flow sensitivity in manufacturing firms: Is it asymmetric information or agency costs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Makina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the literature, positive investment cash flow sensitivity is attributed to either asymmetric information induced financing constraints or the agency costs of free cash flow. Using data from a sample of 68 manufacturing firms listed on the South African JSE, this paper contributes to the literature by investigating the source of investment cash flow sensitivity. We have found that asymmetric information explains the positive investment cash flow sensitivity better than agency costs. Furthermore, asymmetric information has been observed to be more pronounced in low-dividend-paying firms and small firms. Despite South Africa’s having a developed financial system by international standards, small firms are seen to be financially constrained. We attribute the absence of investment cash flow sensitivity due to agency costs to good corporate governance of South African listed firms. Thus the paper provides further evidence in support of the proposition in the literature that the source of investment cash flow sensitivity may depend on the institutional setting of a country, such as its corporate governance.

  1. GPs' communication skills - a study into women's comfort to disclose intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Eleanor; O'Doherty, Lorna; Hegarty, Kelsey

    2012-07-01

    Quantitative research investigating the effects of general practitioner communication on a patient's comfort to disclose intimate partner violence is lacking. We explored the association between GPs' communication and patients' comfort to discuss fear of an intimate partner. A health/lifestyle survey mailed to 14 031 women (aged 16-50 years) who attended the participating GPs of 40 Victorian general practices during the previous year. There was a 32% response rate (n=4467). The results showed that female GPs were perceived as having better communication; an association between female GPs and comfort to disclose was not apparent in multivariate analyses. Time, caring, involving the patient in decisions and putting the patient at ease maintained associations with comfort to discuss, as did language, lower education, age >25 years and current fear. This study advocates increasing communication competence to allow for greater disclosure of sensitive issues such as intimate partner violence in the primary care context. However, it also signals a need in research and practice to focus on marginalised groups and intimate partner violence.

  2. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Northern California maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0013175)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps for the shoreline of northern California which were designed to be utilized in desktop GIS...

  3. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Hudson River, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0014791)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for the Hudson River from 1942 to 2005. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and...

  4. How Does Microanalysis of Mother-Infant Communication Inform Maternal Sensitivity and Infant Attachment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Beatrice; Steele, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    Microanalysis research on 4-month mother-infant face-to-face communication operates like a “social microscope” and identifies aspects of maternal sensitivity and the origins of attachment with a more detailed lens. We hope to enhance a dialogue between these two paradigms, microanalysis of mother-infant communication and maternal sensitivity and emerging working models of attachment. The prediction of infant attachment from microanalytic approaches and their contribution to concepts of maternal sensitivity are described. We summarize aspects of one microanalytic study by Beebe and colleagues (2010) that documents new communication patterns between mothers and infants at 4 months that predict future disorganized (vs. secure) attachment. The microanalysis approach opens up a new window on the details of the micro-processes of face-to-face communication. It provides a new, rich set of behaviors with which to extend our understanding of the origins of infant attachment and of maternal sensitivity. PMID:24299136

  5. How does microanalysis of mother-infant communication inform maternal sensitivity and infant attachment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Beatrice; Steele, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    Microanalysis research on 4-month infant-mother face-to-face communication operates like a "social microscope" and identifies aspects of maternal sensitivity and the origins of attachment with a more detailed lens. We hope to enhance a dialogue between these two paradigms, microanalysis of mother-infant communication and maternal sensitivity and emerging working models of attachment. The prediction of infant attachment from microanalytic approaches and their contribution to concepts of maternal sensitivity are described. We summarize aspects of one microanalytic study by Beebe and colleagues published in 2010 that documents new communication patterns between mothers and infants at 4 months that predict future disorganized (vs. secure) attachment. The microanalysis approach opens up a new window on the details of the micro-processes of face-to-face communication. It provides a new, rich set of behaviors with which to extend our understanding of the origins of infant attachment and of maternal sensitivity.

  6. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Virginia, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0014794)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Virginia from 1998 to 2004 (vs. 2 GDB). ESI data characterize estuarine environments and...

  7. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: New Hampshire, maps and Geographic Information Systems data (NODC Accession 0014789)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for the New Hampshire coast from 2003 to 2004. ESI data characterize estuarine environments...

  8. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: West Florida, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0006249)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps in Portable Document Format (.PDF) for the shoreline of West Florida (to encompass the coastal...

  9. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Cook Inlet, Alaska, maps and geographic information systems (NODC Accession 0046027)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and...

  10. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Georgia, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0013780)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps for the shoreline of Georgia. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by...

  11. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Columbia River, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0013951)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for the Columbia River from 1979 to 2004. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and...

  12. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Kodiak, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0026418)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps for the shoreline of Kodiak Island and Shelikof Strait, Alaska. ESI data characterize...

  13. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Mississippi, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0013801)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps for the shoreline of Mississippi. ESI data characterize coastal environments and wildlife by...

  14. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Louisiana maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0013802)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps for the shoreline of Louisiana. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by...

  15. How are important life events disclosed on facebook? Relationships with likelihood of sharing and privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevan, Jennifer L; Cummings, Megan B; Kubiniec, Ashley; Mogannam, Megan; Price, Madison; Todd, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    This study examined an aspect of Facebook disclosure that has as yet gone unexplored: whether a user prefers to share information directly, for example, through status updates, or indirectly, via photos with no caption or relationship status changes without context or explanation. The focus was on the sharing of important positive and negative life events related to romantic relationships, health, and work/school in relation to likelihood of sharing this type of information on Facebook and general attitudes toward privacy. An online survey of 599 adult Facebook users found that when positive life events were shared, users preferred to do so indirectly, whereas negative life events were more likely to be disclosed directly. Privacy shared little association with how information was shared. Implications for understanding the finer nuances of how news is shared on Facebook are discussed.

  16. Managing Sensitive Information: DOD Can More Effectively Reduce the Risk of Classification Errors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D'Agostino, Davi M; Borseth, Ann; Fenton, Mattias; Hatton, Adam; Hills, Barbara; Keefer, David; Mayfield, David; Reid, Jim; Richardson, Terry; Schwartz, Marc

    2006-01-01

    ...) information security program are increasing the risk of misclassification. DoD's information security program is decentralized to the DoD component level, and the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence (OUSD...

  17. Characterizing, Classifying, and Understanding Information Security Laws and Regulations: Considerations for Policymakers and Organizations Protecting Sensitive Information Assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaw, David Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Current scholarly understanding of information security regulation in the United States is limited. Several competing mechanisms exist, many of which are untested in the courts and before state regulators, and new mechanisms are being proposed on a regular basis. Perhaps of even greater concern, the pace at which technology and threats change far…

  18. Geographic information systems-based expert system modelling for shoreline sensitivity to oil spill disaster in Rivers State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olanrewaju Lawal

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the absence of adequate and appropriate actions, hazards often result in disaster. Oil spills across any environment are very hazardous; thus, oil spill contingency planning is pertinent, supported by Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI mapping. However, a significant data gap exists across many low- and middle-income countries in aspect of environmental monitoring. This study developed a geographic information system (GIS-based expert system (ES for shoreline sensitivity to oiling. It focused on the biophysical attributes of the shoreline with Rivers State as a case study. Data on elevation, soil, relative wave exposure and satellite imageries were collated and used for the development of ES decision rules within GIS. Results show that about 70% of the shoreline are lined with swamp forest/mangroves/nympa palm, and 97% have silt and clay as dominant sediment type. From the ES, six ranks were identified; 61% of the shoreline has a rank of 9 and 19% has a rank of 3 for shoreline sensitivity. A total of 568 km out of the 728 km shoreline is highly sensitive (ranks 7–10. There is a clear indication that the study area is a complex mixture of sensitive environments to oil spill. GIS-based ES with classification rules for shoreline sensitivity represents a rapid and flexible framework for automatic ranking of shoreline sensitivity to oiling. It is expected that this approach would kick-start sensitivity index mapping which is comprehensive and openly available to support disaster risk management around the oil producing regions of the country.

  19. Sensitivity to Morphosyntactic Information in 3-Year-Old Children With Typical Language Development: A Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deevy, Patricia; Leonard, Laurence B; Marchman, Virginia A

    2017-03-01

    This study tested the feasibility of a method designed to assess children's sensitivity to tense/agreement information in fronted auxiliaries during online comprehension of questions (e.g., Are the nice little dogs running?). We expected that a group of children who were proficient in auxiliary use would show this sensitivity, indicating an awareness of the relation between the subject-verb sequence (e.g., dogs running) and preceding information (e.g., are). Failure to grasp this relation is proposed to play a role in the protracted inconsistency in auxiliary use in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Fifteen 3-year-old typically developing children who demonstrated proficiency in auxiliary use viewed pairs of pictures showing a single agent and multiple agents while hearing questions with or without an agreeing fronted auxiliary. Proportion looking to the target was measured. Children showed anticipatory looking on the basis of the number information contained in the auxiliary (is or are). The children tested in this study represent a group that frequently serves as a comparison for older children with SLI. Because the method successfully demonstrated their sensitivity to tense/agreement information in questions, future research that involves direct comparisons of these 2 groups is warranted.

  20. 78 FR 68076 - Request for Information on Alternative Skin Sensitization Test Methods and Testing Strategies and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... Laboratory for Alternatives to Animal Testing (EURL ECVAM), and by the industry organization Cosmetics Europe... products. Pesticides and other marketed chemicals, including cosmetic ingredients, are routinely tested for... sensitization. NICEATM collaboration with industry scientists to develop an open-source Bayesian network as an...

  1. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Brackish Marsh, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_brackish_marsh_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) brackish marshes data of coastal Louisiana. The ESI is a classification and ranking system, which...

  2. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Intermediate Marsh, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_intermediate_marsh_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) intermediate marshes data of coastal Louisiana. The ESI is a classification and ranking system, which...

  3. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Oyster Leases, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_oyster_lease_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) oyster leases data of coastal Louisiana. The ESI is a classification and ranking system, which...

  4. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index National Heritage Program Database, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_nhp_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data developed from the Louisiana National Heritage Program (NHP) database for coastal Louisiana. Vector...

  5. Traditional Sex and Gender Stereotypes in the Relationships of Non-Disclosing Behaviorally Bisexual Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Karolynn; Meunier, Étienne

    2018-06-04

    Traditional stereotypes about sex and gender present men as assertive, aggressive, sexually adventurous, and emotionally restrained, and women as docile, passive, sexually modest, and emotionally sensitive. Past research has shown that such stereotypes impose constraints on heterosexual relationships that decrease sexual satisfaction for men and women. This study examined the impact of traditional sex and gender stereotypes on a sample of 203 behaviorally bisexual men who were in a heterosexual relationship with a woman to whom they did not disclose their same-sex behaviors. Participants' descriptions of their partners reified several traditional stereotypes regarding men's and women's sexual dispositions (e.g., men are more sexually adventurous than women), role during sex (e.g., men should be dominant and women submissive), relationship desires (i.e., women prefer long-term intimate relationships and men prefer unattached sexual gratification), and emotional involvement (e.g., women are emotionally sensitive and men emotionally detached). These stereotypes shaped participants' sexual relations with women and men, which were widely conceived as acts of domination-submission. Perceiving women as more skilled for emotional intimacy and affection, most participants would only develop intimate relationships with them; however, some participants also perceived women as too emotionally sensitive and described men as better companions. Many participants were dissatisfied with these gender norms although they conformed to them, further supporting that traditional sex and gender stereotypes impose constraints on relationships that can limit authentic sexual expression and intimate satisfaction.

  6. Musical ability and non-native speech-sound processing are linked through sensitivity to pitch and spectral information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempe, Vera; Bublitz, Dennis; Brooks, Patricia J

    2015-05-01

    Is the observed link between musical ability and non-native speech-sound processing due to enhanced sensitivity to acoustic features underlying both musical and linguistic processing? To address this question, native English speakers (N = 118) discriminated Norwegian tonal contrasts and Norwegian vowels. Short tones differing in temporal, pitch, and spectral characteristics were used to measure sensitivity to the various acoustic features implicated in musical and speech processing. Musical ability was measured using Gordon's Advanced Measures of Musical Audiation. Results showed that sensitivity to specific acoustic features played a role in non-native speech-sound processing: Controlling for non-verbal intelligence, prior foreign language-learning experience, and sex, sensitivity to pitch and spectral information partially mediated the link between musical ability and discrimination of non-native vowels and lexical tones. The findings suggest that while sensitivity to certain acoustic features partially mediates the relationship between musical ability and non-native speech-sound processing, complex tests of musical ability also tap into other shared mechanisms. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  7. Entrepreneurial Tournaments: Towards Disclosing the Rivalry Process Among Corporate Entrepreneurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Zarei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The notons and motvatons of inter-organisatonal rivalries among employees have to some extent been highlighted by classical theories of management such as tournament theory. However, employees’ and entrepreneurs’ compettons are fundamentally different in patern. Based on the doctrine of entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial compettons are essental for a productve economy. Even so, there have been few in-depth holistc atempts to understand the rivalry process among corporate entrepreneurs. During the last three decades, various fragmented studies have been conducted from different standpoints to clarify the process of corporate entrepreneurship (CE. Nevertheless, considerable room remains for developing a model of the rivalry process with respect to entrepreneurial actvites within large and complex organisatons. Hence, the main contributon of the research can be claimed as investgatng and formulatng the rivalry process. For this purpose, a systematc qualitatve grounded theory methodology (GTM was used. During a fve-month period, corporate entrepreneurs from one of the chief Iranian research insttutes were systematcally interviewed. Based on the research results, in additon to endorsing the existence of such a rivalry process among corporate entrepreneurs, the GTM model extends the literature of CE by examining the previously unaddressed part of the process, i.e., disclosing the corporate entrepreneurs’ implemented strategies, among other blocks of the theory.

  8. Segmental hair testing to disclose chronic exposure to psychoactive drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchei, Emilia; Palmi, Ilaria; Pichini, Simona; Pacifici, Roberta; Anton Airaldi, Ileana-Rita; Costa Orvay, Juan Antonio; García Serra, Joan; Bonet Serra, Bartolomé; García-Algar, Óscar

    2016-06-15

    This study presents the case of a 4-year-old healthy child admitted to the paediatric ward for suspected accidental intoxication due to ingestion of narcoleptic drugs (methylphenidate, sertraline and quetiapine), taken on a regular basis by his 8-year-old brother affected by Asperger syndrome.Intoxication can be objectively assessed by measurements of drugs and metabolites in biological matrices with short-term (blood and urine) or long-term (hair) detection windows. At the hospital, the child's blood and urine were analysed by immunoassay (confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry), and sertraline and quetiapine and their metabolites were identified. The suspicion that the mother administered drugs chronically prompted the analysis of six, consecutive 2-cm segments of the child's hair, using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, thereby accounting for ingestion over the previous 12 months. Quetiapine was found in the first four segments with a mean concentration of 1.00 ng/mg ± 0.94 ng/mg hair while sertraline and its metabolite, desmethyl-sertraline, were found in all segments with a mean concentration of 2.65 ± 0.94 ng/mg and 1.50 ± 0.94 ng/mg hair, respectively. Hair analyses were negative for methylphenidate and its metabolite (ritalinic acid). Biological matrices testing for psychoactive drugs disclosed both acute and chronic intoxication with quetiapine and sertraline administered by the mother.

  9. Global sensitivity analysis of water age and temperature for informing salmonid disease management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaheri, Amir; Babbar-Sebens, Meghna; Alexander, Julie; Bartholomew, Jerri; Hallett, Sascha

    2018-06-01

    Many rivers in the Pacific Northwest region of North America are anthropogenically manipulated via dam operations, leading to system-wide impacts on hydrodynamic conditions and aquatic communities. Understanding how dam operations alter abiotic and biotic variables is important for designing management actions. For example, in the Klamath River, dam outflows could be manipulated to alter water age and temperature to reduce risk of parasite infections in salmon by diluting or altering viability of parasite spores. However, sensitivity of water age and temperature to the riverine conditions such as bathymetry can affect outcomes from dam operations. To examine this issue in detail, we conducted a global sensitivity analysis of water age and temperature to a comprehensive set of hydraulics and meteorological parameters in the Klamath River, California, where management of salmonid disease is a high priority. We applied an analysis technique, which combined Latin-hypercube and one-at-a-time sampling methods, and included simulation runs with the hydrodynamic numerical model of the Lower Klamath. We found that flow rate and bottom roughness were the two most important parameters that influence water age. Water temperature was more sensitive to inflow temperature, air temperature, solar radiation, wind speed, flow rate, and wet bulb temperature respectively. Our results are relevant for managers because they provide a framework for predicting how water within 'high infection risk' sections of the river will respond to dam water (low infection risk) input. Moreover, these data will be useful for prioritizing the use of water age (dilution) versus temperature (spore viability) under certain contexts when considering flow manipulation as a method to reduce risk of infection and disease in Klamath River salmon.

  10. 18 CFR 401.112 - Exempt information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Public Access to Records and Information § 401.112 Exempt... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy, (4) disclose the identity of a confidential source, (5) disclose...

  11. Record completeness and data concordance in an anesthesia information management system using context-sensitive mandatory data-entry fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avidan, Alexander; Weissman, Charles

    2012-03-01

    Use of an anesthesia information management system (AIMS) does not insure record completeness and data accuracy. Mandatory data-entry fields can be used to assure data completeness. However, they are not suited for data that is mandatory depending on the clinical situation (context sensitive). For example, information on equal breath sounds should be mandatory with tracheal intubation, but not with mask ventilation. It was hypothesized that employing context-sensitive mandatory data-entry fields can insure high data-completeness and accuracy while maintaining usability. A commercial off-the-shelf AIMS was enhanced using its built-in VBScript programming tool to build event-driven forms with context-sensitive mandatory data-entry fields. One year after introduction of the system, all anesthesia records were reviewed for data completeness. Data concordance, used as a proxy for accuracy, was evaluated using verifiable age-related data. Additionally, an anonymous satisfaction survey on general acceptance and usability of the AIMS was performed. During the initial 12 months of AIMS use, 12,241 (99.6%) of 12,290 anesthesia records had complete data. Concordances of entered data (weight, size of tracheal tubes, laryngoscopy blades and intravenous catheters) with patients' ages were 98.7-99.9%. The AIMS implementation was deemed successful by 98% of the anesthesiologists. Users rated the AIMS usability in general as very good and the data-entry forms in particular as comfortable. Due to the complexity and the high costs of implementation of an anesthesia information management system it was not possible to compare various system designs (for example with or without context-sensitive mandatory data entry-fields). Therefore, it is possible that a different or simpler design would have yielded the same or even better results. This refers also to the evaluation of usability, since users did not have the opportunity to work with different design approaches or even different

  12. Sensitivity Analysis of Multiple Informant Models When Data Are Not Missing at Random

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blozis, Shelley A.; Ge, Xiaojia; Xu, Shu; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Scaramella, Laura V.; Leve, Leslie D.; Reiss, David

    2013-01-01

    Missing data are common in studies that rely on multiple informant data to evaluate relationships among variables for distinguishable individuals clustered within groups. Estimation of structural equation models using raw data allows for incomplete data, and so all groups can be retained for analysis even if only 1 member of a group contributes…

  13. Information needs and priorities for assessing the sensitivity of marine birds to oil spills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiens, J.A.; Ford, G.; Heinemann, D.

    1984-01-01

    Experience in developing models to predict the potential impacts of oil spills on colonially breeding marine birds has revealed some major gaps in the information available on these systems. The authors consider the availability of data for a variety of parameters of seabird biology that are required in modelling efforts, and assign provisional priorities to the information needs. In order to develop means of predicting the impacts of oil spills on seabirds, the authors suggest that colony- or site-specific information on the timing of reproduction and colony occupancy, chick growth rates and body weights, several metabolic parameters, flight speed, and food load size is of relatively low overall priority. Intermediate priority is assigned to the collection of specific data on the dynamics of oil spills, the age and breeding structure of the populations, reproductive success, foraging activity budgets and flight paths, flight costs, and the response of growing chicks to food deprivation. The authors suggest that studies of seabird biology should give highest priority to obtaining information of population sizes, the probability of adult death upon encountering a spill, age-specific fecundity and survivorship, the time required in foraging trips, the lag time in the response of birds to an oil spill, foraging rate as a function of resource density, and changes in the availability of resources to the birds as a consequence of oil spills.

  14. Integrating non-animal test information into an adaptive testing strategy - skin sensitization proof of concept case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworska, Joanna; Harol, Artsiom; Kern, Petra S; Gerberick, G Frank

    2011-01-01

    There is an urgent need to develop data integration and testing strategy frameworks allowing interpretation of results from animal alternative test batteries. To this end, we developed a Bayesian Network Integrated Testing Strategy (BN ITS) with the goal to estimate skin sensitization hazard as a test case of previously developed concepts (Jaworska et al., 2010). The BN ITS combines in silico, in chemico, and in vitro data related to skin penetration, peptide reactivity, and dendritic cell activation, and guides testing strategy by Value of Information (VoI). The approach offers novel insights into testing strategies: there is no one best testing strategy, but the optimal sequence of tests depends on information at hand, and is chemical-specific. Thus, a single generic set of tests as a replacement strategy is unlikely to be most effective. BN ITS offers the possibility of evaluating the impact of generating additional data on the target information uncertainty reduction before testing is commenced.

  15. Real Time MODBUS Transmissions and Cryptography Security Designs and Enhancements of Protocol Sensitive Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aamir Shahzad

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Information technology (IT security has become a major concern due to the growing demand for information and massive development of client/server applications for various types of applications running on modern IT infrastructure. How has security been taken into account and which paradigms are necessary to minimize security issues while increasing efficiency, reducing the influence on transmissions, ensuring protocol independency and achieving substantial performance? We have found cryptography to be an absolute security mechanism for client/server architectures, and in this study, a new security design was developed with the MODBUS protocol, which is considered to offer phenomenal performance for future development and enhancement of real IT infrastructure. This study is also considered to be a complete development because security is tested in almost all ways of MODBUS communication. The computed measurements are evaluated to validate the overall development, and the results indicate a substantial improvement in security that is differentiated from conventional methods.

  16. Interspecialty communication supported by health information technology associated with lower hospitalization rates for ambulatory care-sensitive conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Ann S; Reschovsky, James D; Saiontz-Martinez, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Practice tools such as health information technology (HIT) have the potential to support care processes, such as communication between health care providers, and influence care for "ambulatory care-sensitive conditions" (ACSCs). ACSCs are conditions for which good outpatient care can potentially prevent the need for hospitalization. To date, associations between such primary care practice capabilities and hospitalizations for ambulatory care-sensitive conditions have been primarily limited to smaller, local studies or unique delivery systems rather than nationally representative studies of primary care physicians in the United States. We analyzed a nationally representative sample of 1,819 primary care physicians who responded to the Center for Studying Health System Change's Physician Survey. We linked 3 years of Medicare claims (2007 to 2009) with these primary care physician survey respondents. This linkage resulted in the identification of 123,760 beneficiaries with one or more of 4 ambulatory care-sensitive chronic conditions (diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, and congestive heart failure) for whom these physicians served as the usual provider. Key independent variables of interest were physicians' practice capabilities, including communication with specialists, use of care managers, participation in quality and performance measurement, use of patient registries, and HIT use. The dependent variable was a summary measure of ambulatory care-sensitive hospitalizations for one or more of these 4 conditions. Higher provider-reported levels of communication between primary care and specialist physicians were associated with lower rates of potentially avoidable hospitalizations. While there was no significant main effect between HIT use and ACSC hospitalizations, the associations between interspecialty communication and ACSC hospitalizations were magnified in the presence of higher HIT use. For example, patients in practices with both the

  17. Development of a Standardized Approach to Disclosing Amyloid Imaging Research Results in Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingler, Jennifer H; Butters, Meryl A; Gentry, Amanda L; Hu, Lu; Hunsaker, Amanda E; Klunk, William E; Mattos, Meghan K; Parker, Lisa A; Roberts, J Scott; Schulz, Richard

    2016-03-08

    The increased use of PET amyloid imaging in clinical research has sparked numerous concerns about whether and how to return such research test results to study participants. Chief among these is the question of how best to disclose amyloid imaging research results to individuals who have cognitive symptoms that could impede comprehension of the information conveyed. We systematically developed and evaluated informational materials for use in pre-test counseling and post-test disclosures of amyloid imaging research results in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Using simulated sessions, persons with MCI and their family care partners (N = 10 dyads) received fictitious but realistic information regarding brain amyloid status, followed by an explanation of how results impact Alzheimer's disease risk. Satisfaction surveys, comprehension assessments, and focus group data were analyzed to evaluate the materials developed. The majority of persons with MCI and their care partners comprehended and were highly satisfied with the information presented. Focus group data reinforced findings of high satisfaction and included 6 recommendations for practice: 1) offer pre-test counseling, 2) use clear graphics, 3) review participants' own brain images during disclosures, 4) offer take-home materials, 5) call participants post-disclosure to address emerging questions, and 6) communicate seamlessly with primary care providers. Further analysis of focus group data revealed that participants understood the limitations of amyloid imaging, but nevertheless viewed the prospect of learning one's amyloid status as valuable and empowering.

  18. Male Survivors of Sexual Abuse: Becoming Gender-Sensitive and Trauma-Informed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Elkins

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available While there is a wide body of literature examining the behavioral, emotional, and social consequences associated with being sexually abused, comparatively few studies have focused on males. Sexual abuse victimization among males remains largely under-reported, under-treated, and under-recognized by researchers, practitioners, and the public. Researchers trying to clarify why sexual abuse in males has been overlooked point to prevailing cultural norms, myths, assumptions, stigma, and biases about masculinity. Consequently, there is often an assumption that males are not negatively affected by sexual abuse. Drawing extensively from the literature, this article provides a critical review of: (1 the nature, experience and impact of sexual abuse victimization for males; and (2 the multidimensional processes that promote and inhibit resilient outcomes. It concludes with a discussion of trauma-informed and gender-responsive recommendations and future directions for social work practice, policy, and research.

  19. The culture of pretence: a hidden barrier to recognising, disclosing and ending domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Lyn; Loxton, Deborah; James, Colin

    2017-08-01

    To explore in detail how women perceived their experience of domestic violence and leaving or ending the abuse. This research also examined how service providers identified their professional role in assisting women to end such relationships. Domestic violence against women continues to occur internationally. Reliable statistics are difficult to capture because of inconsistent definitions, contradictory methods of acquiring data and unreported incidents. A qualitative study, undertaken in two phases, was conducted in Australia. Twelve women who had experienced domestic violence and ended those relationships participated in one semistructured interview (Phase 1). Twenty-five professionals from health, social sciences and law, whose work included assisting women experiencing domestic violence, participated in three focus groups (Phase 2). Thematic analysis guided by a narrative inquiry approach forms the framework for information collection and interpretation of data in this project. The barriers that impede women from disclosing abuse and taking action to end domestic violence are complex and varied between participants. Women did not always acknowledge or realise their relationship was precarious and often denied or minimised the abuse to cope with the domestic violence. Professionals identified that women did not always identify or acknowledge abuse inherent in their relationship although this delayed the provision of appropriate services. Whether women disclose abuse or deny violence in their relationship, acceptance by service providers and the offer of support is crucial to assisting women in violent relationships. It is hoped that the findings may assist health practitioners, including nurses, to provide nonjudgemental support to women experiencing domestic violence whether women acknowledge the abusive relationship or not. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Information content and sensitivity of the 3β + 2α lidar measurement system for aerosol microphysical retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Sharon P.; Chemyakin, Eduard; Liu, Xu; Knobelspiesse, Kirk; Stamnes, Snorre; Sawamura, Patricia; Moore, Richard H.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Ferrare, Richard A.

    2016-11-01

    There is considerable interest in retrieving profiles of aerosol effective radius, total number concentration, and complex refractive index from lidar measurements of extinction and backscatter at several wavelengths. The combination of three backscatter channels plus two extinction channels (3β + 2α) is particularly important since it is believed to be the minimum configuration necessary for the retrieval of aerosol microphysical properties and because the technological readiness of lidar systems permits this configuration on both an airborne and future spaceborne instrument. The second-generation NASA Langley airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL-2) has been making 3β + 2α measurements since 2012. The planned NASA Aerosol/Clouds/Ecosystems (ACE) satellite mission also recommends the 3β + 2α combination.Here we develop a deeper understanding of the information content and sensitivities of the 3β + 2α system in terms of aerosol microphysical parameters of interest. We use a retrieval-free methodology to determine the basic sensitivities of the measurements independent of retrieval assumptions and constraints. We calculate information content and uncertainty metrics using tools borrowed from the optimal estimation methodology based on Bayes' theorem, using a simplified forward model look-up table, with no explicit inversion. The forward model is simplified to represent spherical particles, monomodal log-normal size distributions, and wavelength-independent refractive indices. Since we only use the forward model with no retrieval, the given simplified aerosol scenario is applicable as a best case for all existing retrievals in the absence of additional constraints. Retrieval-dependent errors due to mismatch between retrieval assumptions and true atmospheric aerosols are not included in this sensitivity study, and neither are retrieval errors that may be introduced in the inversion process. The choice of a simplified model adds clarity to the

  1. The process of disclosing a diagnosis of dementia and mild cognitive impairment: A national survey of specialist physicians in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, T Rune; Svensson, Birthe Hjorth; Rohr, Gitte; Gottrup, Hanne; Vestergaard, Karsten; Høgh, Peter; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2018-01-01

    Background Although general recommendations for diagnostic disclosure of dementia are available, little is known about how these recommendations are implemented. The aim of the current study was to investigate the process and content of dementia diagnostic disclosure meetings, and to compare key aspects of disclosing a diagnosis of dementia and mild cognitive impairment. Method A total of 54 specialist physicians in Danish dementia diagnostic departments completed an online survey on their practices regarding diagnostic disclosure of dementia and mild cognitive impairment. The influence of respondent characteristics was assessed, and differences on key aspects of disclosing a diagnosis of dementia and mild cognitive impairment were analyzed. Results The results suggest that among Danish specialist physicians, there is a general consensus regarding the organization of diagnostic disclosure meetings. However, differences in employed terminology and information provided when disclosing a dementia diagnosis were evident. Significant differences were present on key aspects of the diagnostic disclosure of dementia and mild cognitive impairment. For instance, 91% would use the term dementia during diagnostic disclosures compared to just 72% for mild cognitive impairment. Conclusion The range of practices reflected in the present study confirms the complexity of diagnostic disclosure and highlights the importance of preparation and follow-up strategies to tailor the disclosure process to the needs of individual patients with dementia and their caregivers. Due to earlier diagnosis of neurodegenerative disorders, more research is urgently needed on this aspect of the diagnostic process, especially to develop evidence-based models for the disclosure of mild cognitive impairment.

  2. 48 CFR 30.604 - Processing changes to disclosed or established cost accounting practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... disclosed or established cost accounting practices. 30.604 Section 30.604 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION CAS Administration 30.604 Processing changes to disclosed or established cost accounting practices...

  3. Contrast sensitivity test and conventional and high frequency audiometry: information beyond that required to prescribe lenses and headsets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comastri, S. A.; Martin, G.; Simon, J. M.; Angarano, C.; Dominguez, S.; Luzzi, F.; Lanusse, M.; Ranieri, M. V.; Boccio, C. M.

    2008-04-01

    In Optometry and in Audiology, the routine tests to prescribe correction lenses and headsets are respectively the visual acuity test (the first chart with letters was developed by Snellen in 1862) and conventional pure tone audiometry (the first audiometer with electrical current was devised by Hartmann in 1878). At present there are psychophysical non invasive tests that, besides evaluating visual and auditory performance globally and even in cases catalogued as normal according to routine tests, supply early information regarding diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, renal failure, cardiovascular problems, etc. Concerning Optometry, one of these tests is the achromatic luminance contrast sensitivity test (introduced by Schade in 1956). Concerning Audiology, one of these tests is high frequency pure tone audiometry (introduced a few decades ago) which yields information relative to pathologies affecting the basal cochlea and complements data resulting from conventional audiometry. These utilities of the contrast sensitivity test and of pure tone audiometry derive from the facts that Fourier components constitute the basis to synthesize stimuli present at the entrance of the visual and auditory systems; that these systems responses depend on frequencies and that the patient's psychophysical state affects frequency processing. The frequency of interest in the former test is the effective spatial frequency (inverse of the angle subtended at the eye by a cycle of a sinusoidal grating and measured in cycles/degree) and, in the latter, the temporal frequency (measured in cycles/sec). Both tests have similar duration and consist in determining the patient's threshold (corresponding to the inverse multiplicative of the contrast or to the inverse additive of the sound intensity level) for each harmonic stimulus present at the system entrance (sinusoidal grating or pure tone sound). In this article the frequencies, standard normality curves and abnormal threshold shifts

  4. Low-Intrusion Techniques and Sensitive Information Management for Warhead Counting and Verification: FY2011 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarman, Kenneth D.; Robinson, Sean M.; McDonald, Benjamin S.; Gilbert, Andrew J.; Misner, Alex C.; Pitts, W. Karl; White, Timothy A.; Seifert, Allen; Miller, Erin A.

    2011-09-01

    Future arms control treaties may push nuclear weapons limits to unprecedented low levels and may entail precise counting of warheads as well as distinguishing between strategic and tactical nuclear weapons. Such advances will require assessment of form and function to confidently verify the presence or absence of nuclear warheads and/or their components. Imaging with penetrating radiation can provide such an assessment and could thus play a unique role in inspection scenarios. Yet many imaging capabilities have been viewed as too intrusive from the perspective of revealing weapon design details, and the potential for the release of sensitive information poses challenges in verification settings. A widely held perception is that verification through radiography requires images of sufficient quality that an expert (e.g., a trained inspector or an image-matching algorithm) can verify the presence or absence of components of a device. The concept of information barriers (IBs) has been established to prevent access to relevant weapon-design information by inspectors (or algorithms), and has, to date, limited the usefulness of radiographic inspection. The challenge of this project is to demonstrate that radiographic information can be used behind an IB to improve the capabilities of treaty-verification weapons-inspection systems.

  5. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Florida 1995-1997 maps in portable document format (pdf) and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0014187)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — ESI data characterize coastal environments and wildlife by their sensitivity to spilled oil. The ESI data include information for three main components: shoreline...

  6. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Classification of the Outer Coast, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains arcs representing the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) classification of the outer coast of Louisiana. The ESI is a classification and...

  7. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Semi-aquatic, Fur-bearing Mammal Database, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_s_mammal_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for small semi-aquatic, fur-bearing mammals in coastal Louisiana. Vector polygons represent areas of...

  8. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Scrub-Shrub and Wetlands, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_scrub-shrub_wetland_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) scrub-shrub and wetlands data of coastal Louisiana. The ESI is a classification and ranking system,...

  9. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Bird Nesting Colonies Database, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_nests_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for seabird and wading bird nesting colonies in coastal Louisiana. Vector points in this data set represent...

  10. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: North Slope, Alaska, Volume 1, geographic information systems data, Volume 2, maps in portable document format (NODC Accession 0014928)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — ESI data characterize the marine and coastal environments and wildlife by their sensitivity to spilled oil. The ESI data include information for three main...

  11. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Freshwater Fish Database, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_freshwater_fish_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for freshwater (inland) fish species in coastal Louisiana. Vector polygons represent water-bodies and other...

  12. Psychophysical estimate of plantar vibration sensitivity brings additional information to the detection threshold in young and elderly subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Jammes

    Full Text Available Objective: Vibration detection threshold of the foot sole was compared to the psychophysical estimate of vibration in a wide range of amplitudes in young (20–34 years old and elderly subjects (53–67 years old. Methods: The vibration detection threshold was determined on the hallux, 5th metatarsal head, and heel at frequencies of 25, 50 and 150 Hz. For vibrations of higher amplitude (reaching 360 μm, the Stevens power function (Ψ = k * Φn allowed to obtain regression equations between the vibration estimate (Ψ and its physical magnitude (Φ, the n coefficient giving the subjective intensity in vibration perception. We searched for age-related changes in the vibration perception by the foot sole. Results: In all participants, higher n values were measured at vibration frequencies of 150 Hz and, compared to the young adults the elderly had lower n values measured at this frequency. Only in the young participants, the vibration detection threshold was lowered at 150 Hz. Conclusion: The psychophysical estimate brings further information than the vibration detection threshold which is less affected by age. Significance: The clinical interest of psychophysical vibration estimate was assessed in a patient with a unilateral alteration of foot sensitivity. Keywords: Vibration sensitivity, Vibration detection threshold, Foot sole, Elderly

  13. Spherical oligo-silicic acid SOSA disclosed as possible endogenous digitalis-like factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz eKerek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Na+/K+-ATPase is a membrane ion-transporter protein, specifically inhibited by digitalis glycosides used in cardiac-therapy. The existence in mammals of some endogenous digitalis-like factors (EDLF as presumed ATPase ligands is generally accepted. But the chemical structure of these factors remained elusive because no weighable amounts of pure EDLF have been isolated. Recent high resolution crystal structure data of Na+/K+-ATPase have located the hydrophobic binding pocket of the steroid glycoside ouabain. Our recently disclosed spherical oligo-silicic acids (SOSA fulfill the main criteria to be identified with the presumed EDL factor. SOSA was found as a very potent inhibitor of the Na+/K+-ATPase, Ca2+-ATPase, H+/K+-ATPase and of K-dp-ATPase, with IC50 values between 0.2-0.5µg/ml. These findings are even more astonishing while so far, neither mono silicic acid nor its poly-condensed derivatives have been remarked biologically active. With the diameter ϕ between 1 - 3nm, SOSA still belong to molecular species definitely smaller than silica nano-particles with ϕ >5nm. In SOSA molecules almost all Si-OH bonds are displayed on the external shell which facilitates the binding to hydrophilic ATPase domains. SOSA is stable for long-term in solution but is sensitive to freeze-drying which could explain the failure of countless attempts to isolate pure EDLF. There is a strong resemblance between SOSA and vanadates, the previously known general inhibitors of P-type ATPases. SOSA may be generated endogenously by spherical oligomerization of the mono-silicic acid ubiquitously present in animal cells and fluids. Based on the finding that the SOSA structure is sensitive to the concentration and nature of the cationic species a presumably archaic mechanism to regulate the activity of the ATPase pumps is proposed.

  14. Young Adults' Support Strategies when Peers Disclose Suicidal Intent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Katherine

    2004-01-01

    In response to the growing suicide rate among adolescents and young adults, researchers have noted the importance of peer responses to suicidal disclosures in this population. The most adaptive response is to inform a responsible adult about the suicidal peer, but existing data indicate that most adolescents and young adults choose to talk to the…

  15. Disclosing the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis: the Profile Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Vittorio; Ghezzi, A; Montanari, E; Radaelli, M; Comi, G; Bossa, R

    2012-12-01

    Communicating the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) is a challenging task, often undertaken with discomfort by most neurologists. Only a few studies have investigated patients' satisfaction with timing and way of receiving the diagnosis, but surveys regarding physicians' attitude towards diagnosis disclosure are even more limited. The goal of this work was to highlight Italian neurologists' behavioral and emotional approach to MS patients, making them sensitive to their difficulties and to the importance of an empathic relationship. The majority of Italian neurologists participating in our study have a good perception of their ability to manage this difficult communicating process and believe in the great effect this moment may have on a life-long disease experience. Improving communication skills may help the therapeutic alliance, enhancing patients' acceptance of the disease, as well as motivation and adherence to treatment.

  16. Effects of culture-sensitive adaptation of patient information material on usefulness in migrants: a multicentre, blinded randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölzel, Lars P; Ries, Zivile; Kriston, Levente; Dirmaier, Jörg; Zill, Jördis M; Rummel-Kluge, Christine; Niebling, Wilhelm; Bermejo, Isaac; Härter, Martin

    2016-11-23

    To evaluate the usefulness of culture-sensitive patient information material compared with standard translated material. Multicentre, double-blind randomised controlled trial. 37 primary care practices. 435 adult primary care patients with a migration background with unipolar depressive disorder or non-specific chronic low back pain were randomised. Patients who were unable to read in the language of their respective migration background were excluded. Sufficient data were obtained from 203 women and 106 men. The largest group was of Russian origin (202 patients), followed by those of Turkish (52), Polish (30) and Italian (25) origin. Intervention group: provision of culture-sensitive adapted material. provision of standard translated material. Primary outcome: patient-rated usefulness (USE) assessed immediately after patients received the material. patient-rated usefulness after 8 weeks and 6 months, symptoms of depression (PHQ-9), back pain (Back Pain Core Set) and quality of life (WHO-5) assessed at all time points. Usefulness was found to be significantly higher (t=1.708, one-sided p=0.04) in the intervention group (USE-score=65.08, SE=1.43), compared with the control group (61.43, SE=1.63), immediately after patients received the material, in the intention-to-treat analysis, with a mean difference of 3.65 (one-sided 95% lower confidence limit=0.13). No significant differences were found for usefulness at follow-up (p=0.16, p=0.71). No significant effect was found for symptom severity in depression (p=0.95, p=0.66, p=0.58), back pain (p=0.40, p=0.45, p=0.32) or quality of life (p=0.76, p=0.86, p=0.21), either immediately after receiving the material, or at follow-up (8 weeks; 6 months). Patients with a lower level of dominant society immersion benefited substantially and significantly more from the intervention than patients with a high level of immersion (p=0.005). Cultural adaptation of patient information material provides benefits over high quality

  17. Disclosing discourses: biomedical and hospitality discourses in patient education materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öresland, Stina; Friberg, Febe; Määttä, Sylvia; Öhlen, Joakim

    2015-09-01

    Patient education materials have the potential to strengthen the health literacy of patients. Previous studies indicate that readability and suitability may be improved. The aim of this study was to explore and analyze discourses inherent in patient education materials since analysis of discourses could illuminate values and norms inherent in them. Clinics in Sweden that provided colorectal cancer surgery allowed access to written information and 'welcome letters' sent to patients. The material was analysed by means of discourse analysis, embedded in Derrida's approach of deconstruction. The analysis revealed a biomedical discourse and a hospitality discourse. In the biomedical discourse, the subject position of the personnel was interpreted as the messenger of medical information while that of the patients as the carrier of diagnoses and recipients of biomedical information. In the hospitality discourse, the subject position of the personnel was interpreted as hosts who invite and welcome the patients as guests. The study highlights the need to eliminate paternalism and fosters a critical reflective stance among professionals regarding power and paternalism inherent in health care communication. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The prevalence and quality of silent, socially silent, and disclosed autobiographical memories across adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alea, Nicole

    2010-02-01

    Two separate studies examined the prevalence and quality of silent (infrequently recalled), socially silent (i.e., recalled but not shared), and disclosed autobiographical memories. In Study 1 young and older men and women remembered positive events. Positive memories were more likely to be disclosed than to be kept socially silent or completely silent. However, socially silent and disclosed memories did not differ in memory quality: the memories were equally vivid, significant, and emotional. Silent memories were less qualitatively rich. This pattern of results was generally replicated in Study 2 with a lifespan sample for both positive and negative memories, and with additional qualitative variables. The exception was that negative memories were kept silent more often. Age differences were minimal. Women disclosed their autobiographical memories more, but men told a greater variety of people. Results are discussed in terms of the functions that memory telling and silences might serve for individuals.

  19. 48 CFR 30.603 - Changes to disclosed or established cost accounting practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... established cost accounting practices. 30.603 Section 30.603 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION CAS Administration 30.603 Changes to disclosed or established cost accounting practices. ...

  20. A Heuristic Dynamically Dimensioned Search with Sensitivity Information (HDDS-S and Application to River Basin Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinggang Chu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available River basin simulation and multi-reservoir optimal operation have been critical for river basin management. Due to the intense interaction between human activities and river basin systems, the river basin model and multi-reservoir operation model are complicated with a large number of parameters. Therefore, fast and stable optimization algorithms are required for river basin management under the changing conditions of climate and current human activities. This study presents a new global optimization algorithm, named as heuristic dynamically dimensioned search with sensitivity information (HDDS-S, to effectively perform river basin simulation and multi-reservoir optimal operation during river basin management. The HDDS-S algorithm is built on the dynamically dimensioned search (DDS algorithm; and has an improved computational efficiency while maintaining its search capacity compared to the original DDS algorithm. This is mainly due to the non-uniform probability assigned to each decision variable on the basis of its changing sensitivity to the optimization objectives during the adaptive change from global to local search with dimensionality reduced. This study evaluates the new algorithm by comparing its performance with the DDS algorithm on a river basin model calibration problem and a multi-reservoir optimal operation problem. The results obtained indicate that the HDDS-S algorithm outperforms the DDS algorithm in terms of search ability and computational efficiency in the two specific problems. In addition; similar to the DDS algorithm; the HDDS-S algorithm is easy to use as it does not require any parameter tuning and automatically adjusts its search to find good solutions given an available computational budget.

  1. Willingness to disclose child maltreatment: CSA vs other forms of child abuse in relation to gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; First, Maya

    2018-05-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the role of gender in willingness to disclose childhood sexual abuse (CSA) compared to other forms of abuse (physical, emotional and neglect) in young adolescents. Willingness was examined through two terms: reluctance- the level of unwillingness or disinclination to disclose, and urge-the need to share in order to get rid of unbearable feelings. The sample consisted of 3,156 boys (n = 1,544) and girls (n = 1,612) between the ages of 11-16 who reported having been abused at least once during their life. Participants were divided into three groups: experiencing other than CSA, sexual abuse with no physical contact, and sexual abuse with physical contact. Regarding measures, a self-report questionnaire incorporating the following instruments was administered: Demographics, the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire (JVQ), and the Disclosure of Trauma Questionnaire (DTQ). Study results indicated that CSA victims were more reluctant to disclose than victims of other than CSA forms of abuse. The more severe the CSA (physical contact) the lower was the willingness to disclose. Boys were more reluctant than girls to disclose sexual abuse whether or not it involved physical contact. Reluctance to disclose was positively associated with emotional reactions to disclosure while urge to talk was negatively correlated with emotional reactions to disclosure. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. A Right to Disclose: LGBTQ Youth Representation in Data, Science, and Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snapp, Shannon D; Russell, Stephen T; Arredondo, Mariella; Skiba, Russell

    2016-01-01

    There has been growing attention to sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI) in child and adolescent development, public discourse, and research. A strong tension is clear: The right for participation, and thus representation in data, science, and policy, is often understood as conflicting with the right for protection, that is, safety from disclosure of a marginalized orientation or identity. Both participation and protection rights are also closely tied to young people's rights to privacy (or lack thereof). We review recent scholarship on SOGI in developmental sciences in light of this tension. We focus on schooling as a salient developmental context for all youth, a place that is historically unsafe for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and questioning (LGBTQ) youth, and a context where researchers have identified gaps of knowledge as well as strategies for improvement. Our review focuses on the politics and processes of SOGI inclusion in education data collection efforts in the United States, an area where SOGI data collection is scarce in comparison to other systems of care, such as health. We suggest that one solution to the dilemma would be that youth have the right to disclose their SOGI information to whom and when they choose. We offer strategies on how to hold these tensions in balance and move toward SOGI-inclusive research and data collection so that LGBTQ youth can be represented in data, science, and policy. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Bristol Bay, Alaska, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0033382)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The most widely used approach to sensitive environment mapping in the United States is the NOAA Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI). This approach systematically...

  4. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0002825)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Currently, the most widely used approach to sensitive environment mapping in the United States is the NOAA Environmental Sensitivity Index or ESI. This approach...

  5. University Student Expectations of Confidentiality When Disclosing Information to Their Professors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Gregory E.; Dalton, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore university students' expectations of confidentiality when they make disclosures to their university professors. A secondary purpose was to consider if students have a higher expectation of confidentiality when talking with Psychology professors versus professors in other disciplines. Students were asked to…

  6. Informing consumers about 'hidden' advertising. A literature review of the effects of disclosing sponsored content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerman, S.C.; van Reijmersdal, E.A.; De Pelsmacker, P.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of what is currently known in the scientific literature about the effects of disclosures of sponsored content on consumers' responses. Methodology We provide a qualitative literature review of 21 empirical studies. Findings Awareness of disclosures is rather low,

  7. Types of employee benefits in Lithuania – information disclosed in companies’ financial statements

    OpenAIRE

    Legenzova, Renata

    2012-01-01

    Employees have always been recognized among the most important resources of the companies. To attract, retain and motivate their employees, companies introduce various motivation and compensation methods. In accounting they are commonly named as employee benefits. Employee benefits typically refer to wages and salaries, retirement plans, health insurance, life insurance, disability insurance, vacation and employee stock ownership plans. The aim of this paper is to assess what employee benefit...

  8. Disclosing and concealing: internet governance, information control and the management of visibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikkel Flyverbom

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The ubiquity of digital technologies and the datafication of many domains of social life raise important questions about governance. In the emergent field of internet governance studies, most work has explored novel governance arrangements, institutional developments and the effects of interactions among public and private actors in the emergence of the internet as a matter of concern in global politics. But the digital realm involves more subtle forms of governance and politics that also deserve attention. In this paper, I suggest that the 'ordering' effects of digital infrastructures also revolve around what I term the ‘management of visibilities’. Drawing on insights from science and technology studies and sociologies of visibility, the paper articulates how digital technologies afford and condition ordering through the production of visibilities and the guidance of attention. The basic tenet of the argument is that there is an intimate relationship between seeing, knowing and governing, and that digitalisation and datafication processes fundamentally shape how we make things visible or invisible, knowable or unknowable and governable or ungovernable. Having articulated this conceptual argument, the article offers a number of illustrations of such forms of ordering.

  9. 34 CFR 99.31 - Under what conditions is prior consent not required to disclose information?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... must ensure that its administrative policy for controlling access to education records is effective and... identification of parents and students by individuals other than representatives of the organization that have... permit personal identification of parents and students, as defined in this part, by anyone other than...

  10. 16 CFR 1101.23 - Providing less than 15 days notice before disclosing information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... comment, the firm involved agrees to the earlier disclosure; notifies the Commission that it has no comment; or notifies the Commission that it does not object to disclosure. (b) Commission finding a lesser...

  11. Cyber crisis management: a decision-support framework for disclosing security incident information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulikova, Olga; Heil, Ronald; van den Berg, Jan; Pieters, Wolter

    2012-01-01

    The growing sophistication and frequency of cyber attacks force modern companies to be prepared beforehand for potential cyber security incidents and data leaks. A proper incident disclosure strategy can significantly improve timeliness and effectiveness of incident response activities, reduce legal

  12. Visual motion-sensitive neurons in the bumblebee brain convey information about landmarks during a navigational task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel eMertes

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Bees use visual memories to find the spatial location of previously learnt food sites. Characteristic learning flights help acquiring these memories at newly discovered foraging locations where landmarks - salient objects in the vicinity of the goal location - can play an important role in guiding the animal’s homing behavior. Although behavioral experiments have shown that bees can use a variety of visual cues to distinguish objects as landmarks, the question of how landmark features are encoded by the visual system is still open. Recently, it could be shown that motion cues are sufficient to allow bees localizing their goal using landmarks that can hardly be discriminated from the background texture. Here, we tested the hypothesis that motion sensitive neurons in the bee’s visual pathway provide information about such landmarks during a learning flight and might, thus, play a role for goal localization. We tracked learning flights of free-flying bumblebees (Bombus terrestris in an arena with distinct visual landmarks, reconstructed the visual input during these flights, and replayed ego-perspective movies to tethered bumblebees while recording the activity of direction-selective wide-field neurons in their optic lobe. By comparing neuronal responses during a typical learning flight and targeted modifications of landmark properties in this movie we demonstrate that these objects are indeed represented in the bee’s visual motion pathway. We find that object-induced responses vary little with object texture, which is in agreement with behavioral evidence. These neurons thus convey information about landmark properties that are useful for view-based homing.

  13. Mapping the sensitivity of citrus crops to freeze stress using a geographical information system in Ramsar, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Zabihi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Citrus, a cold-sensitive plant, often suffers from low temperature, which seriously affects citrus productivity. Environmental constraint factors have mixed impacts on horticulture that differ among the areas, periods and crops. This study presents a statistical analysis to investigate the freeze stress (FS conditions and morphometry, especially altitude and minimum temperature on citriculture at a regional scale. Based on the temperature isolines map and topography, this paper highlights the impact of altitude and minimum temperature on the citrus crop production using geographic information system (GIS techniques, statistical analysis and climatic data in Ramsar, Iran over a period of 30 years from 1980 to 2010. This study shows that the suitability varies in relation to the critical temperature and concludes that both minimum temperature and altitude have significant negative impact on citrus crop production. Climate change, in particular, occurring cold fronts in recent years during the citrus harvest time have been complicating this issue and increased the importance of freezes stress (FS. The results highlight that citrus crop orchards were more strongly affected by the minimum temperature, and along with the elevation ranges theses are major challenging factors.

  14. Cost-Risk Trade-off of Solar Radiation Management and Mitigation under Probabilistic Information on Climate Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabbazan, Mohammad Mohammadi; Roshan, Elnaz; Held, Hermann

    2017-04-01

    In principle solar radiation management (SRM) offers an option to ameliorate anthropogenic temperature rise. However we cannot expect it to simultaneously compensate for anthropogenic changes in further climate variables in a perfect manner. Here, we ask to what extent a proponent of the 2°C-temperature target would apply SRM in conjunction with mitigation in view of global or regional disparities in precipitation changes. We apply cost-risk analysis (CRA), which is a decision analytic framework that makes a trade-off between the expected welfare-loss from climate policy costs and the climate risks from transgressing a climate target. Here, in both global-scale and 'Giorgi'-regional-scale analyses, we evaluate the optimal mixture of SRM and mitigation under probabilistic information about climate sensitivity. To do so, we generalize CRA for the sake of including not only temperature risk, but also globally aggregated and regionally disaggregated precipitation risks. Social welfare is maximized for the following three valuation scenarios: temperature-risk-only, precipitation-risk-only, and equally weighted both-risks. For now, the Giorgi regions are treated by equal weight. We find that for regionally differentiated precipitation targets, the usage of SRM will be comparably more restricted. In the course of time, a cooling of up to 1.3°C can be attributed to SRM for the latter scenario and for a median climate sensitivity of 3°C (for a global target only, this number reduces by 0.5°C). Our results indicate that although SRM would almost completely substitute for mitigation in the globally aggregated analysis, it only saves 70% to 75% of the welfare-loss compared to a purely mitigation-based analysis (from economic costs and climate risks, approximately 4% in terms of BGE) when considering regional precipitation risks in precipitation-risk-only and both-risks scenarios. It remains to be shown how the inclusion of further risks or different regional weights would

  15. "How Do We Start? And How Will They React?" Disclosing to Young People with Perinatally Acquired HIV in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namukwaya, Stella; Paparini, Sara; Seeley, Janet; Bernays, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    can inform the ways in which mainstream HIV services support caregivers through the disclosure process. This includes providing positive encouragement to disclose fully and to be more confident in initiating and sustaining the timely process of disclosure.

  16. Evaluations of children who have disclosed sexual abuse via facilitated communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botash, A S; Babuts, D; Mitchell, N; O'Hara, M; Lynch, L; Manuel, J

    1994-12-01

    To review the findings of interdisciplinary team evaluations of children who disclosed sexual abuse via facilitated communication. Case series. Tertiary care hospital outpatient child sexual abuse program in central New York. Between January 1990 and March 1993, 13 children who disclosed sexual abuse via facilitated communication and were referred to a university hospital child abuse referral and evaluation center. The range of previously determined developmental diagnosis included mental retardation, speech delay, and autism. None. Medical records were reviewed for (1) disclosure, (2) physical evidence, (3) child's behavioral and medical history, (4) disclosures by siblings, (5) perpetrator's confession, (6) child protective services determinations, and (7) court findings. Four children had evidence of sexual abuse: two had physical findings consistent with sexual abuse, one also disclosed the allegation verbally, and one perpetrator confessed. These results neither support nor refute validation of facilitated communication. However, many children had other evidence of sexual abuse, suggesting that each child's case should be evaluated without bias.

  17. Requirements of health policy and services journals for authors to disclose financial and non-financial conflicts of interest: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamis, Assem M; Hakoum, Maram B; Bou-Karroum, Lama; Habib, Joseph R; Ali, Ahmed; Guyatt, Gordon; El-Jardali, Fadi; Akl, Elie A

    2017-09-19

    The requirements of the health policy and services journals for authors to report their financial and non-financial conflicts of interest (COI) are unclear. The present article aims to assess the requirements of health policy and services journals for authors to disclose their financial and non-financial COIs. This is a cross-sectional study of journals listed by the Web of Science under the category of 'Health Policy and Services'. We reviewed the 'Instructions for Authors' on the journals' websites and then simulated the submission of a manuscript to obtain any additional relevant information made available during that step. We abstracted data in duplicate and independently using a standardised form. Out of 72 eligible journals, 67 (93%) had a COI policy. A minority of policies described how the disclosed COIs of authors would impact the editorial process (34%). None of the policies had clear-cut criteria for rejection based on the content of the disclosure. Approximately a fifth of policies (21%) explicitly stated that inaccurate or incomplete disclosures might lead to manuscript rejection or retraction. No policy described whether the journal would verify the accuracy or completeness of authors' disclosed COIs. Most journals' policies (93%) required the disclosure of at least one form of financial COI. While the majority asked for specification of source of payment (71%), a minority asked for the amount (18%). Overall, 81% of policies explicitly required disclosure of non-financial COIs. A majority of health policy and services journal policies required the disclosure of authors' financial and non-financial COIs, but few required details on disclosed COIs. Health policy journals should provide specific definitions and instructions for disclosing non-financial COIs. A framework providing clear typology and operational definitions of the different types of COIs will facilitate both their disclosure by authors and reviewers and their assessment and management by

  18. How Radiation Oncologists Would Disclose Errors: Results of a Survey of Radiation Oncologists and Trainees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Suzanne B.; Yu, James B.; Chagpar, Anees

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze error disclosure attitudes of radiation oncologists and to correlate error disclosure beliefs with survey-assessed disclosure behavior. Methods and Materials: With institutional review board exemption, an anonymous online survey was devised. An email invitation was sent to radiation oncologists (American Society for Radiation Oncology [ASTRO] gold medal winners, program directors and chair persons of academic institutions, and former ASTRO lecturers) and residents. A disclosure score was calculated based on the number or full, partial, or no disclosure responses chosen to the vignette-based questions, and correlation was attempted with attitudes toward error disclosure. Results: The survey received 176 responses: 94.8% of respondents considered themselves more likely to disclose in the setting of a serious medical error; 72.7% of respondents did not feel it mattered who was responsible for the error in deciding to disclose, and 3.9% felt more likely to disclose if someone else was responsible; 38.0% of respondents felt that disclosure increased the likelihood of a lawsuit, and 32.4% felt disclosure decreased the likelihood of lawsuit; 71.6% of respondents felt near misses should not be disclosed; 51.7% thought that minor errors should not be disclosed; 64.7% viewed disclosure as an opportunity for forgiveness from the patient; and 44.6% considered the patient's level of confidence in them to be a factor in disclosure. For a scenario that could be considerable, a non-harmful error, 78.9% of respondents would not contact the family. Respondents with high disclosure scores were more likely to feel that disclosure was an opportunity for forgiveness (P=.003) and to have never seen major medical errors (P=.004). Conclusions: The surveyed radiation oncologists chose to respond with full disclosure at a high rate, although ideal disclosure practices were not uniformly adhered to beyond the initial decision to disclose the occurrence of the error.

  19. Information Acquisition and Strategic Disclosure in Oligopoly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Jos

    2008-01-01

    I study the incentives of oligopolists to acquire and disclose information on a common demand intercept. Because firms may fail to acquire information even when they invest in information acquisition, firms can credibly conceal unfavorable news while disclosing favorable news. Firms may earn high...... Cournot duopolists prefer strategic disclosure, if their goods are sufficiently differentiated....

  20. [Hospitalizations for ambulatory care-sensitive conditions: validation study at a Hospital Information System (SIH) in the Federal District, Brazil, in 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante, Danyelle Monteiro; de Oliveira, Maria Regina Fernandes; Rehem, Tânia Cristina Morais Santa Bárbara

    2016-03-01

    This study analyzes hospitalizations due to ambulatory care-sensitive conditions with a focus on infectious and parasitic diseases (IPDs) and validates the Hospital Information System, Brazilian Unified National Health System (SIH/SUS) for recording hospitalizations due to ambulatory care-sensitive conditions in a hospital in the Federal District, Brazil, in 2012. The study estimates the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the SIH for recording hospitalizations due to ambulatory care-sensitive conditions, with the patient's medical file as the gold standard. There were 1,604 hospitalizations for hospitalizations due to ambulatory care-sensitive conditions (19.6%, 95%CI: 18.7-20.5), and the leading IPDs were renal and urinary tract infection, infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissue, and infectious gastroenteritis. IPDs were the leading cause of hospitalization in the 20 to 29-year age bracket and caused 28 deaths. Sensitivity was 70.1% (95%CI: 60.5-79.7), specificity 88.4% (95%CI: 85.6-91.2), PPV = 51.7% (95%CI: 42.7-60.7), and NPV = 94.3% (95%CI: 92.2-96.4). The findings for admissions due to ACSCs in this hospital were similar to those of other studies, featuring admissions for IPDs. The SIH/SUS database was more specific than sensitive.

  1. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Northwest Arctic, Alaska, volume 2, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0046028)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Northwest Arctic, Alaska. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by...

  2. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Central California (Including Monterey Bay Sanctuary), maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0013176)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps have been developed for the coastal areas of Central California from Point Conception to Point Reyes National Seashore....

  3. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: San Francisco Bay - 1998, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0036884)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps for the shoreline of San Francisco Bay. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and...

  4. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: San Francisco Bay, California maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0013224)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps for the shoreline of San Francisco Bay. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and...

  5. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Aleutian Islands, Alaska, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0014927)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps for the Aleutian Islands, Alaska. ESI data characterize coastal environments and wildlife by...

  6. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: US and British Virgin Islands, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0002069)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for the Virgin Islands. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by their...

  7. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Delaware, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0014793)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Delaware, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania from 1969 to 2000(May 2002 v.3). ESI data...

  8. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Prince William Sound, Alaska, Volumes 1 and 2, geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0019218)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Prince William Sound, Alaska. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by...

  9. Prostate Cancer Information Available in Health-Care Provider Offices: An Analysis of Content, Readability, and Cultural Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seul Ki; Seel, Jessica S; Yelton, Brooks; Steck, Susan E; McCormick, Douglas P; Payne, Johnny; Minter, Anthony; Deutchki, Elizabeth K; Hébert, James R; Friedman, Daniela B

    2018-07-01

    Prostate cancer (PrCA) is the most common cancer affecting men in the United States, and African American men have the highest incidence among men in the United States. Little is known about the PrCA-related educational materials being provided to patients in health-care settings. Content, readability, and cultural sensitivity of materials available in providers' practices in South Carolina were examined. A total of 44 educational materials about PrCA and associated sexual dysfunction was collected from 16 general and specialty practices. The content of the materials was coded, and cultural sensitivity was assessed using the Cultural Sensitivity Assessment Tool. Flesch Reading Ease, Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, and the Simple Measure of Gobbledygook were used to assess readability. Communication with health-care providers (52.3%), side effects of PrCA treatment (40.9%), sexual dysfunction and its treatment (38.6%), and treatment options (34.1%) were frequently presented. All materials had acceptable cultural sensitivity scores; however, 2.3% and 15.9% of materials demonstrated unacceptable cultural sensitivity regarding format and visual messages, respectively. Readability of the materials varied. More than half of the materials were written above a high-school reading level. PrCA-related materials available in health-care practices may not meet patients' needs regarding content, cultural sensitivity, and readability. A wide range of educational materials that address various aspects of PrCA, including treatment options and side effects, should be presented in plain language and be culturally sensitive.

  10. Disclosive Computer Ethics: The Exposure and Evaluation of Embedded Normativity in Computer Technology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brey, Philip A.E.

    2000-01-01

    This essay provides a critique of mainstream computer ethics and argues for the importance of a complementary approach called disclosive computer ethics, which is concerned with the moral deciphering of embedded values and norms in computer systems, applications and practices. Also, four key values

  11. This is advertising! Effects of disclosing television brand placement on adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijmersdal, E.A. van; Boerman, S.C.; Buijzen, M.A.; Rozendaal, E.

    2017-01-01

    As heavy media users, adolescents are frequently exposed to embedded advertising formats such as brand placements. Because this may lead to unwitting persuasion, regulations prescribe disclosure of brand placements. This study aimed to increase our understanding of the effects of disclosing

  12. Adolescents' Self-Disclosure to Parents across Cultures: Who Discloses and Why

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Sally B.; Barber, Brian K.; Olsen, Joseph A.; McNeely, Clea A.; Bose, Krishna

    2011-01-01

    Much attention has been given to self-disclosure as an important component of parent-adolescent relationships. The authors address gaps in the current literature via a multimethod, multicultural design, interviewing 120 adolescents in Costa Rica, Thailand, and South Africa about their reasons for disclosing to parents, and then constructing items…

  13. How practice breakdowns disclose existing structures and contribute to practice innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loohuis, Raymond Petrus Antonius

    2015-01-01

    Practice breakdowns provide fertile ground for practice innovation because they demand a shift from structure to process. Practice breakdowns are fruitful subjects for research and practice because they disclose existing structures by prompting situated actors to become reflective on the otherwise

  14. This is Advertising! Effects of Disclosing Television Brand Placement on Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Reijmersdal, E.A.; Boerman, S.C.; Buijzen, M.; Rozendaal, E.

    As heavy media users, adolescents are frequently exposed to embedded advertising formats such as brand placements. Because this may lead to unwitting persuasion, regulations prescribe disclosure of brand placements. This study aimed to increase our understanding of the effects of disclosing

  15. 75 FR 78160 - Requirement of a Statement Disclosing Uncertain Tax Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    ... amendments to the Income Tax Regulations (26 CFR part 1) under section 6012 relating to the returns of income... every person liable for income tax to make the returns required by regulation. Section 6012 requires... corporations to file a schedule disclosing uncertain tax positions related to the tax return as required by the...

  16. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Hydrography Database, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_hydro_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains arcs and polygons representing hydrography for coastal Louisiana. This data set comprises a portion of the Gulf-Wide Information System...

  17. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Managed Lands, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_mgt_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains boundaries for managed lands in coastal Louisiana. Feature-specific contact, type, and source information are stored in relational data tables...

  18. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Cities Database, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_cities_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains boundaries for municipal areas in coastal Louisiana. Feature-specific contact, type, and source information are stored in relational data...

  19. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Parishes, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_parish_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains boundaries for parishes in coastal Louisiana. Feature-specific contact, type, and source information are stored in relational data tables...

  20. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Database, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_index_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains polygons representing the boundaries of the USGS 1:100,000 topographic maps in the study area of the Louisiana Gulf-Wide Information System...

  1. Expression and Evolution of Short Wavelength Sensitive Opsins in Colugos: A Nocturnal Lineage That Informs Debate on Primate Origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Gillian L; Lim, Norman T-L; Neitz, Maureen; Peichl, Leo; Dominy, Nathaniel J

    2013-01-01

    A nocturnal activity pattern is central to almost all hypotheses on the adaptive origins of primates. This enduring view has been challenged in recent years on the basis of variation in the opsin genes of nocturnal primates. A correspondence between the opsin genes and activity patterns of species in Euarchonta-the superordinal group that includes the orders Primates, Dermoptera (colugos), and Scandentia (treeshrews)-could prove instructive, yet the basic biology of the dermopteran visual system is practically unknown. Here we show that the eye of the Sunda colugo ( Galeopterus variegatus ) lacks a tapetum lucidum and has an avascular retina, and we report on the expression and spectral sensitivity of cone photopigments. We found that Sunda colugos have intact short wavelength sensitive (S-) and long wavelength sensitive (L-) opsin genes, and that both opsins are expressed in cone photoreceptors of the retina. The inferred peak spectral sensitivities are 451 and 562 nm, respectively. In line with adaptation to nocturnal vision, cone densities are low. Surprisingly, a majority of S-cones coexpress some L-opsin. We also show that the ratio of rates of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions of exon 1 of the S-opsin gene is indicative of purifying selection. Taken together, our results suggest that natural selection has favored a functional S-opsin in a nocturnal lineage for at least 45 million years. Accordingly, a nocturnal activity pattern remains the most likely ancestral character state of euprimates.

  2. Challenges and strategies for conducting sensitive research with an Arab American population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timraz, Shahrazad M; Alhasanat, Dalia I; Albdour, Maha M; Lewin, Linda; Giurgescu, Carmen; Kavanaugh, Karen

    2017-02-01

    Recruiting minority groups such as Arab Americans (Ar-Am) for research studies has been challenging. To date no studies were found that explicitly addressed challenges to recruit Ar-Am for sensitive research. The purpose of this article is to present the challenges across three pilot studies that involved Ar-Am samples and the strategies that were implemented to overcome these challenges. The challenges faced with conducting studies with Ar-Am included difficulty for participants to express emotions, influence of male/female authority to consent for the study, lack of trust to disclose sensitive information, language barrier, and slow recruitment. Having bilingual female recruiters of Arabic descent, engaging the women's family members in the consent process, and addressing the sensitive topics in culturally appropriate language were effective strategies to overcome these challenges. These strategies might be helpful for other researchers who recruit Ar-Am for sensitive research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Different communication strategies for disclosing a diagnosis of schizophrenia and related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Saeed; Johal, Rupinder K; Ziff, Charlotte; Naeem, Farooq

    2017-10-24

    Delivering the diagnosis of a serious illness is an important skill in most fields of medicine, including mental health. Research has found that communication skills can impact on a person's recall and understanding of the diagnosis, treatment options and prognosis. People may feel confused and perplexed when information about their illness is not communicated properly. Sharing information about diagnosis of a serious mental illness is particularly challenging. The nature of mental illness is often difficult to explain since there may be no clear aetiology, and the treatment options and prognosis may vary enormously. In addition, newly diagnosed psychiatric patients, who are actively ill, often may not accept their diagnosis due to lack of insight or stigma attached to the condition. There are several interventions that aim to help clinicians to communicate life changing medical diagnoses to people; however, little is known specifically for delivering a diagnosis of schizophrenia. To evaluate evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) for the efficacy of different communication strategies used by clinicians to inform people about the diagnosis and outcome of schizophrenia compared with treatment as usual and to compare efficacy between different communication strategies. On 22 June 2015 and 29 June 2016, we searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Study-Based Register of Trials. We also searched sources of grey literature (e.g., dissertations, theses, clinical reports, evaluations published on websites, clinical guidelines and reports from regulatory agencies). We planned to include all relevant RCTs that included adults with schizophrenia or related disorders, including schizophreniform disorder, schizoaffective disorder and delusional disorder. The trials would have investigated the effects of communication strategy or strategies that helped clinicians deliver information specifically about a diagnosis of schizophrenia (which can also include

  4. Consideration on the current status and issues of sensitive information management concerning the physical protection of nuclear material and nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inamura, Tomoaki; Madarame, Haruki

    2009-01-01

    The confidentiality system concerning the physical protection of nuclear materials and nuclear facilities was enacted by revision of the Nuclear Reactor Regulation Law in 2005. We made a comparative analysis with the information security in governmental agencies or financial sectors, in order to consider the way the sensitive information management concerning the physical protection of nuclear materials and nuclear facilities should be. The considerations in this paper are as follows. (1) In order to secure a suitable level of security, close cooperation should be achieved among related governmental agencies. (2) A cycle that continuously evaluates whether suitable management is performed should be established. (3) Excessive secretiveness should be eliminated. (4) An information-sharing system among the related persons beyond the frame of governmental agencies and electricity companies should be established. (5) Improvement in the social acceptability of the sensitive information management is important. (6) Although it is important to perform evaluation by the consideration of suitable balance with information disclosure, it is also important that it is positively shown to society. (author)

  5. Using Real-time Event Tracking Sensitivity Analysis to Overcome Sensor Measurement Uncertainties of Geo-Information Management in Drilling Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, S.; Poslad, S.; Fruhwirth, R.; Winter, M.

    2012-04-01

    This paper introduces an application of a novel EventTracker platform for instantaneous Sensitivity Analysis (SA) of large scale real-time geo-information. Earth disaster management systems demand high quality information to aid a quick and timely response to their evolving environments. The idea behind the proposed EventTracker platform is the assumption that modern information management systems are able to capture data in real-time and have the technological flexibility to adjust their services to work with specific sources of data/information. However, to assure this adaptation in real time, the online data should be collected, interpreted, and translated into corrective actions in a concise and timely manner. This can hardly be handled by existing sensitivity analysis methods because they rely on historical data and lazy processing algorithms. In event-driven systems, the effect of system inputs on its state is of value, as events could cause this state to change. This 'event triggering' situation underpins the logic of the proposed approach. Event tracking sensitivity analysis method describes the system variables and states as a collection of events. The higher the occurrence of an input variable during the trigger of event, the greater its potential impact will be on the final analysis of the system state. Experiments were designed to compare the proposed event tracking sensitivity analysis with existing Entropy-based sensitivity analysis methods. The results have shown a 10% improvement in a computational efficiency with no compromise for accuracy. It has also shown that the computational time to perform the sensitivity analysis is 0.5% of the time required compared to using the Entropy-based method. The proposed method has been applied to real world data in the context of preventing emerging crises at drilling rigs. One of the major purposes of such rigs is to drill boreholes to explore oil or gas reservoirs with the final scope of recovering the content

  6. Psychological, behavioral and social effects of disclosing Alzheimer's disease biomarkers to research participants: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemelmans, S A S A; Tromp, K; Bunnik, E M; Milne, R J; Badger, S; Brayne, C; Schermer, M H; Richard, E

    2016-11-10

    Current Alzheimer's disease (AD) research initiatives focus on cognitively healthy individuals with biomarkers that are associated with the development of AD. It is unclear whether biomarker results should be returned to research participants and what the psychological, behavioral and social effects of disclosure are. This systematic review therefore examines the psychological, behavioral and social effects of disclosing genetic and nongenetic AD-related biomarkers to cognitively healthy research participants. We performed a systematic literature search in eight scientific databases. Three independent reviewers screened the identified records and selected relevant articles. Results extracted from the included articles were aggregated and presented per effect group. Fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the data synthesis. None of the identified studies examined the effects of disclosing nongenetic biomarkers. All studies but one concerned the disclosure of APOE genotype and were conducted in the USA. Study populations consisted largely of cognitively healthy first-degree relatives of AD patients. In this group, disclosure of an increased risk was not associated with anxiety, depression or changes in perceived risk in relation to family history. Disclosure of an increased risk did lead to an increase in specific test-related distress levels, health-related behavior changes and long-term care insurance uptake and possibly diminished memory functioning. In cognitively healthy research participants with a first-degree relative with AD, disclosure of APOE ε4-positivity does not lead to elevated anxiety and depression levels, but does increase test-related distress and results in behavior changes concerning insurance and health. We did not find studies reporting the effects of disclosing nongenetic biomarkers and only one study included people without a family history of AD. Empirical studies on the effects of disclosing nongenetic biomarkers

  7. Do analysts disclose cash flow forecasts with earnings estimates when earnings quality is low?

    OpenAIRE

    Bilinski, P.

    2014-01-01

    Cash flows are incrementally useful to earnings in security valuation mainly when earnings quality is low. This suggests that when earnings quality decreases, analysts will be more likely to supplement their earnings forecasts with cash flow estimates. Contrary to this prediction, we find that analysts do not disclose cash flow forecasts when the quality of earnings is low. This is because cash flow forecast accuracy depends on the accuracy of the accrual estimates and the precision of accrua...

  8. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Survey Boundaries, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_survey_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains vector polygons representing survey boundaries for the various data collection efforts used as sources in the larger Louisiana G-WIS database....

  9. 49 CFR 385.321 - What failures of safety management practices disclosed by the safety audit will result in a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... disclosed by the safety audit will result in a notice to a new entrant that its USDOT new entrant... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES New Entrant Safety Assurance Program § 385.321 What failures of safety management practices disclosed by the safety audit will result in a notice...

  10. 38 CFR 1.492 - Order not applicable to records disclosed without consent to researchers, auditors and evaluators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Order not applicable to records disclosed without consent to researchers, auditors and evaluators. 1.492 Section 1.492 Pensions... Disclosures and Use § 1.492 Order not applicable to records disclosed without consent to researchers, auditors...

  11. Attitudes towards disclosing a mental illness among German soldiers and their comrades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüsch, Nicolas; Rose, Carolyn; Holzhausen, Fabian; Mulfinger, Nadine; Krumm, Silvia; Corrigan, Patrick W; Willmund, Gerd-Dieter; Zimmermann, Peter

    2017-12-01

    Many soldiers with mental illness (SWMIs) struggle with the decision whether to disclose their condition in or outside the military. This study therefore explored views on (self-)labeling as 'mentally ill', experiences of discrimination and coping, risks and benefits of (non-)disclosure, service use, disclosure decisions and consequences of disclosing. Active-duty SWMIs as well as soldiers without mental illness (commanding officers; enlisted ranks) and military social workers participated in focus groups. Transcripts were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. SWMIs perceived negative stereotypes about their group (weakness, incompetence, blame, malingering) and saw stigma as a barrier to help-seeking. Being labeled 'mentally ill' was seen as harmful for one's career. Self-labeling led to poor self-esteem, greater need for help and feelings of weakness. Many SWMIs had experienced discrimination, such as gossip or inappropriate comments. Social isolation was a disadvantage of secrecy. Most SWMIs preferred selective disclosure and many did not disclose to their family. Military staff without mental illness expressed partly different views and described organizational challenges posed by SWMIs. Our findings suggest that disclosure decisions are personal and difficult and that stigma remains a barrier to re-integration and recovery of SWMIs in the military. Implications for interventions to support SWMIs are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Quantitative Evaluation of Contamination on Dental Zirconia Ceramic by Silicone Disclosing Agents after Different Cleaning Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Wille

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of cleaning procedures for air-abraded zirconia after contamination with two silicone disclosing agents. Air-abraded zirconia ceramic specimens (IPS e.max ZirCAD were contaminated with either GC Fit Checker white or GC Fit Checker II. Untreated zirconia specimens were used as control. Afterwards the surfaces were cleaned either with waterspray or ultrasonically in 99% isopropanol or using a newly developed cleaning paste (Ivoclean. After cleaning X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS was performed and the relative peak intensities of Zr, C and Si were used for a qualitative comparison of the residuals. There was no significant difference between the two different silicone disclosing agents. An additional cleaning step with isopropanol led to a significantly lower amount of residuals on the surface, but an additional cleaning process with Ivoclean did not reduce the amount of carbon residuals in comparison to the isopropanol cleaning. Just the silicone amount on the surface was reduced. None of the investigated cleaning processes removed all residuals from the contaminated surface. Standard cleaning processes do not remove all residuals of the silicone disclosing agent from the surface. This may lead to a failure of the resin-ceramic bonding.

  13. An industry perspective on the use of seasonal forecasts and weather information for evaluating sensitivities in traded commodity supply chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domeisen, Daniela; Slavov, Georgi

    2015-04-01

    Weather information on seasonal timescales is crucial to various end users, from the level of subsistence farming to the government level. Also the financial industry is ever more aware of and interested in the benefits that early and correctly interpreted forecast information provides. Straight forward and often cited applications include the estimation of rainfall and temperature anomalies for drought - prone agricultural areas producing traded commodities, as well as some of the rather direct impacts of weather on energy production. Governments, weather services, as well as both academia and private companies are working on tailoring climate and weather information to a growing number of customers. However, also other large markets, such as coal, iron ore, and gas, are crucially dependent on seasonal weather information and forecasts, while the needs are again very dependent on the direction of the predicted signal. So far, relatively few providers in climate services address these industries. All of these commodities show a strong seasonal and weather dependence, and an unusual winter or summer can crucially impact their demand and supply. To name a few impacts, gas is crucially driven by heating demand, iron ore excavation is dependent on the available water resources, and coal mining is dependent on winter temperatures and rainfall. This contribution will illustrate and provide an inside view of the type of climate and weather information needed for the various large commodity industries.

  14. Evidence for Non-Opponent Coding of Colour Information in Human Visual Cortex: Selective Loss of "Green" Sensitivity in a Subject with Damaged Ventral Occipito-Temporal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Franziska G; Plant, Gordon T; James-Galton, Merle; Barbur, John L

    2011-01-01

    Damage to ventral occipito-temporal extrastriate visual cortex leads to the syndrome of prosopagnosia often with coexisting cerebral achromatopsia. A patient with this syndrome resulting in a left upper homonymous quadrantanopia, prosopagnosia, and incomplete achromatopsia is described. Chromatic sensitivity was assessed at a number of locations in the intact visual field using a dynamic luminance contrast masking technique that isolates the use of colour signals. In normal subjects chromatic detection thresholds form an elliptical contour when plotted in the Commission Internationale d'Eclairage, (x-y), chromaticity diagram. Because the extraction of colour signals in early visual processing involves opponent mechanisms, subjects with Daltonism (congenital red/green loss of sensitivity) show symmetric increase in thresholds towards the long wavelength ("red") and middle wavelength ("green") regions of the spectrum locus. This is also the case with acquired loss of chromatic sensitivity as a result of retinal or optic nerve disease. Our patient's results were an exception to this rule. Whilst his chromatic sensitivity in the central region of the visual field was reduced symmetrically for both "red/green" and "yellow/blue" directions in colour space, the subject's lower left quadrant showed a marked asymmetry in "red/green" thresholds with the greatest loss of sensitivity towards the "green" region of the spectrum locus. This spatially localized asymmetric loss of "green" but not "red" sensitivity has not been reported previously in human vision. Such loss is consistent with selective damage of neural substrates in the visual cortex that process colour information, but are spectrally non-opponent.

  15. Occupational contact sensitization in female geriatric nurses: Data of the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK) 2005-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, S; Bauer, A; Molin, S; Skudlik, C; Geier, J

    2017-03-01

    Geriatric nurses (GN) have a high risk of occupational contact dermatitis (OCD), with chronic irritant contact dermatitis predominating. However, allergic contact dermatitis is an important issue as well. Little is known whether the relevant occupational allergen spectrum reported in the 1990s, including fragrances, preservatives, rubber chemicals and ingredients of surface disinfectants to be the most common sensitizers in GN, is still valid. To monitor the current allergen spectrum in GN with OCD and verify the validity of the patch test recommendations (baseline-, preservative-, ointment base-, rubber-, disinfectant, series and fragrances) in GN with suspected OCD given by the German Contact Dermatitis Research Group (DKG). Retrospective analysis of IVDK data (2005-2014) of 743 female GN with OCD, in comparison to 695 GN without OCD. GN with OCD reacted significantly more frequently to both fragrance mixes, hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (HICC), thiuram mix, zinc diethyldithiocarbamate and mercaptobenzothiazole than GN without OCD. Reactions to MDBGN, methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone and oil of turpentine occurred substantially, but not significantly more frequently among GN with OCD. The latter may be due to former use of a special alcoholic liniment in geriatric care. Among material from the patients' workplaces, tetrazepam was a frequent allergen, due to dust exposure from pill crushing. Furthermore, occupationally used protective gloves, body care products as well as surface disinfectants were often tested positively. The general allergen spectrum in GN with OCD is unchanged, so the DKG patch test recommendations are still valid. Prevention of occupational sensitization should focus on fragrance-free hygiene and body care products, usage of accelerator-free protective gloves and avoidance of drug dust exposure. © 2016 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  16. Radioecological sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, Brenda J.; Strand, Per; Assimakopoulos, Panayotis

    2003-01-01

    After the release of radionuclide into the environment it is important to be able to readily identify major routes of radiation exposure, the most highly exposed individuals or populations and the geographical areas of most concern. Radioecological sensitivity can be broadly defined as the extent to which an ecosystem contributes to an enhanced radiation exposure to Man and biota. Radioecological sensitivity analysis integrates current knowledge on pathways, spatially attributes the underlying processes determining transfer and thereby identifies the most radioecologically sensitive areas leading to high radiation exposure. This identifies where high exposure may occur and why. A framework for the estimation of radioecological sensitivity with respect to humans is proposed and the various indicators by which it can be considered have been identified. These are (1) aggregated transfer coefficients (Tag), (2) action (and critical) loads, (3) fluxes and (4) individual exposure of humans. The importance of spatial and temporal consideration of all these outputs is emphasized. Information on the extent of radionuclide transfer and exposure to humans at different spatial scales is needed to reflect the spatial differences which can occur. Single values for large areas, such as countries, can often mask large variation within the country. Similarly, the relative importance of different pathways can change with time and therefore assessments of radiological sensitivity are needed over different time periods after contamination. Radioecological sensitivity analysis can be used in radiation protection, nuclear safety and emergency preparedness when there is a need to identify areas that have the potential of being of particular concern from a risk perspective. Prior identification of radioecologically sensitive areas and exposed individuals improve the focus of emergency preparedness and planning, and contribute to environmental impact assessment for future facilities. The

  17. Exposure to culturally sensitive sexual health information and impact on health literacy: a qualitative study among newly arrived refugee women in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Pia; Carlzén, Katarina; Agardh, Anette

    2017-07-01

    In Sweden, migrants have poorer sexual and reproductive health compared to the general population. Health literacy, in the form of the cognitive and social skills enabling access to health promoting activities, is often poorer among migrants, partly due to language and cultural barriers. Culturally sensitive health education provides a strategy for enhancing health literacy. Since 2012, specially trained civic and health communicators have provided sexual and reproductive health and rights information to newly arrived refugees in Skåne, Sweden. The aim of this study was to explore how information on sexual and reproductive health and rights was perceived by female recipients and whether being exposed to such information contributed to enhanced sexual and reproductive health and rights literacy. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with nine women and analysed using qualitative content analysis. Two themes emerged: (1) opening the doors to new understandings of sexual and reproductive health and rights and (2) planting the seed for engagement in sexual and reproductive health and rights issues, illustrating how cultural norms influenced perceptions, but also how information opened up opportunities for challenging these norms. Gender-separate groups may facilitate information uptake, while discussion concerning sexual health norms may benefit from taking place in mixed groups.

  18. Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyard, Pierre.

    1981-01-01

    The fear for nuclear energy and more particularly for radioactive wastes is analyzed in the sociological context. Everybody agree on the information need, information is available but there is a problem for their diffusion. Reactions of the public are analyzed and journalists, scientists and teachers have a role to play [fr

  19. Health information, behavior change, and decision support for patients with type 2 diabetes: development of a tailored, preference-sensitive health communication application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weymann N

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nina Weymann,1 Martin Härter,1 Frank Petrak,2 Jörg Dirmaier11Department of Medical Psychology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, 2Clinic of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, LWL University Hospital, Ruhr-University Bochum, Bochum, GermanyPurpose: Patient involvement in diabetes treatment such as shared decision-making and patient self-management has significant effects on clinical parameters. As a prerequisite for active involvement, patients need to be informed in an adequate and preference-sensitive way. Interactive Health Communication Applications (IHCAs that combine web-based health information for patients with additional support offer the opportunity to reach great numbers of patients at low cost and provide them with high-quality information and support at the time, place, and learning speed they prefer. Still, web-based interventions often suffer from high attrition. Tailoring the intervention to patients’ needs and preferences might reduce attrition and should thereby increase effectiveness. The purpose of this study was to develop a tailored IHCA offering evidence-based, preference-sensitive content and treatment decision support to patients with type 2 diabetes. The content was developed based on a needs assessment and two evidence-based treatment guidelines. The delivery format is a dialogue-based, tunneled design tailoring the content and tone of the dialogue to relevant patient characteristics (health literacy, attitudes toward self-care, and psychological barriers to insulin treatment. Both content and tailoring were revised by an interdisciplinary advisory committee.Conclusion: The World Wide Web holds great potential for patient information and self-management interventions. With the development and evaluation of a tailored IHCA, we complement face-to-face consultations of patients with their health care practitioners and make them more efficient and satisfying for both sides. Effects of the

  20. Disclosing a disability: Do strategy type and onset controllability make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Brent J; Volpone, Sabrina D; Wessel, Jennifer L; Alonso, Natalya M

    2017-09-01

    In hiring contexts, individuals with concealable disabilities make decisions about how they should disclose their disability to overcome observers' biases. Previous research has investigated the effectiveness of binary disclosure decisions-that is, to disclose or conceal a disability-but we know little about how, why, or under what conditions different types of disclosure strategies impact observers' hiring intentions. In this article, we examine disability onset controllability (i.e., whether the applicant is seen as responsible for their disability onset) as a boundary condition for how disclosure strategy type influences the affective reactions (i.e., pity, admiration) that underlie observers' hiring intentions. Across 2 experiments, we found that when applicants are seen as responsible for their disability, strategies that de-emphasize the disability (rather than embrace it) lower observers' hiring intentions by elevating their pity reactions. Thus, the effectiveness of different types of disability disclosure strategies differs as a function of onset controllability. We discuss implications for theory and practice for individuals with disabilities and organizations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Institutional review board perspectives on obligations to disclose genetic incidental findings to research participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gliwa, Catherine; Yurkiewicz, Ilana R; Lehmann, Lisa Soleymani; Hull, Sara Chandros; Jones, Nathan; Berkman, Benjamin E

    2016-07-01

    Researchers' obligations to disclose genetic incidental findings (GIFs) have been widely debated, but there has been little empirical study of the engagement of institutional review boards (IRBs) with this issue. This article presents data from the first extensive (n = 796) national survey of IRB professionals' understanding of, experience with, and beliefs surrounding GIFs. Most respondents had dealt with questions about GIFs (74%), but only a minority (47%) felt prepared to address them. Although a majority believed that there is an obligation to disclose GIFs (78%), there is still not consensus about the supporting ethical principles. Respondents generally did not endorse the idea that researchers' additional time and effort (7%), and lack of resources (29%), were valid reasons for diminishing a putative obligation. Most (96%) supported a right not to know, but this view became less pronounced (63%) when framed in terms of specific case studies. IRBs are actively engaged with GIFs but have not yet reached consensus. Respondents were uncomfortable with arguments that could be used to limit an obligation to return GIFs. This could indicate that IRBs are providing some of the impetus for the trend toward returning GIFs, although questions remain about the relative contribution of other stakeholders.Genet Med 18 7, 705-711.

  2. The mere exposure effect is sensitive to color information: evidence for color effects in a perceptual implicit memory test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupbach, Almut; Melzer, André; Hardt, Oliver

    2006-01-01

    Priming effects in perceptual tests of implicit memory are assumed to be perceptually specific. Surprisingly, changing object colors from study to test did not diminish priming in most previous studies. However, these studies used implicit tests that are based on object identification, which mainly depends on the analysis of the object shape and therefore operates color-independently. The present study shows that color effects can be found in perceptual implicit tests when the test task requires the processing of color information. In Experiment 1, reliable color priming was found in a mere exposure design (preference test). In Experiment 2, the preference test was contrasted with a conceptually driven color-choice test. Altering the shape of object from study to test resulted in significant priming in the color-choice test but eliminated priming in the preference test. Preference judgments thus largely depend on perceptual processes. In Experiment 3, the preference and the color-choice test were studied under explicit test instructions. Differences in reaction times between the implicit and the explicit test suggest that the implicit test results were not an artifact of explicit retrieval attempts. In contrast with previous assumptions, it is therefore concluded that color is part of the representation that mediates perceptual priming.

  3. Patient's Decision to Disclose the Use of Traditional and Complementary Medicine to Medical Doctor: A Descriptive Phenomenology Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelak, Johny Anak; Safii, Razitasham

    2018-01-01

    Nondisclosure of traditional and complementary medicine (T&CM) use may cause individual to be at risk of undue harm. This study aimed to explore patient's experience and views on their decision to disclose the use of T&CM to the doctor. An exploratory qualitative study using in-depth interview involving 10 primary care clinics attendees in Kuching was conducted. The results indicated that disclosure of T&CM use will motivate them to get information, increase doctor's awareness, and get support from family and friends for disclosure. Fear of negative relationship and negative response from doctors was a barrier for disclosure. Doctor's interpersonal and communication skills of being involved, treating patients respectfully, listening attentively, respecting privacy, and taking time for the patient were a critical component for disclosure. Intrapersonal trust regarding doctor influences their satisfaction on healthcare. Women are more open and receptive to a health concern and expressing negative emotions and tend to share problems, whereas men always described themselves as healthy, tended to keep their own personal feeling to themselves, and tended to not share. The doctor should consider gender differences in disclosure, their attitude towards T&CM use, and gained patient's trust in the delivery of healthcare services. Good interpersonal and communication skills must be maintained between doctor and patients. PMID:29636778

  4. Did I Tell You That? Ethical Issues Related to Using Computational Methods to Discover Non-Disclosed Patient Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cato, Kenrick D; Bockting, Walter; Larson, Elaine

    2016-07-01

    Widespread availability of electronic health records coupled with sophisticated statistical methods offer great potential for a variety of applications for health and disease surveillance, developing predictive models and advancing decision support for clinicians. However, use of "big data" mining and discovery techniques has also raised ethical issues such as how to balance privacy and autonomy with the wider public benefits of data sharing. Furthermore, electronic data are being increasingly used to identify individual characteristics, which can be useful for clinical prediction and management, but were not previously disclosed to a clinician. This process in computer parlance is called electronic phenotyping, and has a number of ethical implications. Using the Belmont Report's principles of respect for persons, beneficence, and justice as a framework, we examined the ethical issues posed by electronic phenotyping. Ethical issues identified include the ability of the patient to consent for the use of their information, the ability to suppress pediatric information, ensuring that the potential benefits justify the risks of harm to patients, and acknowledging that the clinician's biases or stereotypes, conscious or unintended, may become a factor in the therapeutic interaction. We illustrate these issues with two vignettes, using the person characteristic of gender minority status (i.e., transgender identity) and health history characteristic of substance abuse. Data mining has the potential to uncover patient characteristics previously obscured, which can provide clinicians with beneficial clinical information. Hence, ethical guidelines must be updated to ensure that electronic phenotyping supports the principles of respect for persons, beneficence, and justice. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Informe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egon Lichetenberger

    1950-10-01

    Full Text Available Informe del doctor Egon Lichetenberger ante el Consejo Directivo de la Facultad, sobre el  curso de especialización en Anatomía Patológica patrocinado por la Kellogg Foundation (Departamento de Patología

  6. An Information Technology Framework for the Development of an Embedded Computer System for the Remote and Non-Destructive Study of Sensitive Archaeology Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliya Georgiev

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes an information technology framework for the development of an embedded remote system for non-destructive observation and study of sensitive archaeological sites. The overall concept and motivation are described. The general hardware layout and software configuration are presented. The paper concentrates on the implementation of the following informational technology components: (a a geographically unique identification scheme supporting a global key space for a key-value store; (b a common method for octree modeling for spatial geometrical models of the archaeological artifacts, and abstract object representation in the global key space; (c a broadcast of the archaeological information as an Extensible Markup Language (XML stream over the Web for worldwide availability; and (d a set of testing methods increasing the fault tolerance of the system. This framework can serve as a foundation for the development of a complete system for remote archaeological exploration of enclosed archaeological sites like buried churches, tombs, and caves. An archaeological site is opened once upon discovery, the embedded computer system is installed inside upon a robotic platform, equipped with sensors, cameras, and actuators, and the intact site is sealed again. Archaeological research is conducted on a multimedia data stream which is sent remotely from the system and conforms to necessary standards for digital archaeology.

  7. Perceived Benefits and Drawbacks of Disclosure Practices: An Analysis of PLWHAs' Strategies for Disclosing HIV Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catona, Danielle; Greene, Kathryn; Magsamen-Conrad, Kate

    2015-01-01

    People living with HIV/AIDS must make decisions about how, where, when, what, and to whom to disclose their HIV status. This study explores their perceptions of benefits and drawbacks of various HIV disclosure strategies. The authors interviewed 53 people living with HIV/AIDS from a large AIDS service organization in a northeastern U.S. state and used a combination of deductive and inductive coding to analyze disclosure strategies and advantages and disadvantages of disclosure strategies. Deductive codes consisted of eight strategies subsumed under three broad categories: mode (face-to-face, non-face-to-face, and third-party disclosure), context (setting, bringing a companion, and planning a time), and content (practicing and incremental disclosure). Inductive coding identified benefits and drawbacks for enacting each specific disclosure strategy. The discussion focuses on theoretical explanations for the reasons for and against disclosure strategy enactment and the utility of these findings for practical interventions concerning HIV disclosure practices and decision making.

  8. Doctors' duty to disclose error: a deontological or Kantian ethical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Mark; Brown, Barry

    2004-05-01

    Medical (surgical) error is being talked about more openly and besides being the subject of retrospective reviews, is now the subject of prospective research. Disclosure of error has been a difficult issue because of fear of embarrassment for doctors in the eyes of their peers, and fear of punitive action by patients, consisting of medicolegal action and/or complaints to doctors' governing bodies. This paper examines physicians' and surgeons' duty to disclose error, from an ethical standpoint; specifically by applying the moral philosophical theory espoused by Immanuel Kant (ie. deontology). The purpose of this discourse is to apply moral philosophical analysis to a delicate but important issue which will be a matter all physicians and surgeons will have to confront, probably numerous times, in their professional careers.

  9. How does disclosing countertransference affect perceptions of the therapist and the session?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Yun-Jy; Hayes, Jeffrey A

    2011-12-01

    Therapist self-disclosure has been theorized and found to have both positive and negative effects. These effects depend, in part, on the nature of the disclosure. This study sought to examine the differential effects of therapist disclosures of more and less resolved countertransference issues on perceptions of therapists and therapy sessions. Using an analogue method, undergraduate participants (N = 116) were randomly assigned to watch one of two videos in which a therapist disclosed personal issues that were relatively resolved or relatively unresolved. As hypothesized, therapist disclosure of issues that were more resolved caused the therapist to be rated as more attractive and trustworthy and instilled greater hope than therapist disclosure of less resolved issues. The type of therapist disclosure, however, did not affect ratings of the expertness of the therapist, the depth or smoothness of the session, or the perceived universality between client and therapist. Implications of the results for the judicious use of self-disclosure are discussed.

  10. The ethics and practical importance of defining, distinguishing and disclosing nursing errors: a discussion paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Megan-Jane; Kanitsaki, Olga

    2006-03-01

    Nurses globally are required and expected to report nursing errors. As is clearly demonstrated in the international literature, fulfilling this requirement is not, however, without risks. In this discussion paper, the notion of 'nursing error', the practical and moral importance of defining, distinguishing and disclosing nursing errors and how a distinct definition of 'nursing error' fits with the new 'system approach' to human-error management in health care are critiqued. Drawing on international literature and two key case exemplars from the USA and Australia, arguments are advanced to support the view that although it is 'right' for nurses to report nursing errors, it will be very difficult for them to do so unless a non-punitive approach to nursing-error management is adopted.

  11. Empresas brasileiras revelam as informações ambientais? Evidências de declarações financeiras publicadas no ‘New York Securities Exchange’ (NYSE e na Bolsa de Valores de São Paulo (BOVESPA = Do Brazilian Corporations Disclose Environmental Information? Evidences from Financial Statements Published in the New York Securities Exchange (NYSE and in the Bolsa de Valores de São Paulo (BOVESPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alonso Borba

    2008-11-01

    Brazilian corporations is increasing over the course of the 3years. However, there is an information asymmetry between the Brazilian Market and theNorth American Market. This study evidences the Brazilian corporation’s disclosure moreinformation in the North American Market. At the same time, only two corporations seemto evidence specific information about environmental liabilities. Although a small numberof years were analyzed, this study’s findings raises questions about the credibility of thedata disclosure by Brazilian corporations in both markets and alerts financial statementsuser’s of possible signs of manipulation of relevant environmental information.

  12. Bactericidal action of photogenerated singlet oxygen from photosensitizers used in plaque disclosing agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirika Ishiyama

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Photodynamic therapy (PDT has been suggested as an efficient clinical approach for the treatment of dental plaque in the field of dental care. In PDT, once the photosensitizer is irradiated with light of a specific wavelength, it transfers the excitation energy to molecular oxygen, which gives rise to singlet oxygen. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Since plaque disclosing agents usually contain photosensitizers such as rose bengal, erythrosine, and phloxine, they could be used for PTD upon photoactivation. The aim of the present study is to compare the ability of these three photosensitizers to produce singlet oxygen in relation to their bactericidal activity. The generation rates of singlet oxygen determined by applying an electron spin resonance technique were in the order phloxine > erythrosine ≒ rose bengal. On the other hand, rose bengal showed the highest bactericidal activity against Streptococcus mutans, a major causative pathogen of caries, followed by erythrosine and phloxine, both of which showed activity similar to each other. One of the reasons for the discrepancy between the singlet oxygen generating ability and bactericidal activity was the incorporation efficiency of the photosensitizers into the bacterial cells. The incorporation rate of rose bengal was the highest among the three photosensitizers examined in the present study, likely leading to the highest bactericidal activity. Meanwhile, the addition of L-histidine, a singlet oxygen quencher, cancelled the bactericidal activity of any of the three photoactivated photosensitizers, proving that singlet oxygen was responsible for the bactericidal action. CONCLUSIONS: It is strongly suggested that rose bengal is a suitable photosensitizer for the plaque disclosing agents as compared to the other two photosensitizers, phloxine and erythrosine, when used for PDT.

  13. 75 FR 54143 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; The SunWise...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ... information collection activity or ICR does this apply to? Affected entities: Entities potentially affected by... behaviors, and will help guide the program's further improvement. Additionally, information is collected... information, processing and maintaining information, and disclosing and providing information; adjust the...

  14. HIV knowledge, stigma, and illness beliefs among pediatric caregivers in Ghana who have not disclosed their child's HIV status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paintsil, Elijah; Renner, Lorna; Antwi, Sampson; Dame, Joycelyn; Enimil, Anthony; Ofori-Atta, Angela; Alhassan, Amina; Ofori, Irene Pokuaa; Cong, Xiangyu; Kyriakides, Tassos; Reynolds, Nancy R

    2015-01-01

    The majority of HIV-infected children in sub-Saharan Africa have not been informed of their HIV status. Caregivers are reluctant to disclose HIV status to their children because of concern about the child's ability to understand, parental sense of guilt, and fear of social rejection and isolation. We hypothesized that the low prevalence of pediatric HIV disclosure in Ghana is due to lack of accurate HIV information and high HIV stigma among caregivers. This is a preliminary analysis of baseline data of an HIV pediatric disclosure intervention study in Ghana ("Sankofa"). "Sankofa" - is a two-arm randomized controlled clinical trial comparing disclosure intervention plus usual care (intervention arm) vs usual care (control arm) at Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital (KBTH; control arm) and Komfo-Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH; intervention arm). We enrolled HIV-infected children, ages 7-18 years who do not know their HIV status, and their caregivers. Baseline data of caregivers included demographic characteristics; Brief HIV Knowledge Questionnaire (HIV-KQ-18); Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire; and HIV Stigma Scale. Simple and multivariable linear regression analyses were used to assess the relationship between caregiver characteristics and HIV knowledge, stigma, and illness perception. Two hundred and ninety-eight caregivers were enrolled between January 2013 and July 2014 at the two study sites; KBTH (n = 167) and KATH (n = 131). The median age of caregivers was 41 years; 80.5% of them were female and about 60% of caregivers were HIV-positive. Seventy-eight percent of caregivers were self-employed with low household income. In both unadjusted and adjusted analyses, HIV negative status and lower level of education were associated with poor scores on HIV-KQ. HIV positive status remained significant for higher level of stigma in the adjusted analyses. None of the caregiver's characteristics predicted caregiver's illness perception. Intensification of HIV education in

  15. “How Do We Start? And How Will They React?” Disclosing to Young People with Perinatally Acquired HIV in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Namukwaya

    2017-12-01

    disclosure process. Our findings can inform the ways in which mainstream HIV services support caregivers through the disclosure process. This includes providing positive encouragement to disclose fully and to be more confident in initiating and sustaining the timely process of disclosure.

  16. A rural/urban comparison of privacy and confidentiality concerns associated with providing sensitive location information in epidemiologic research involving persons who use drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Abby E; Young, April M; Havens, Jennifer R

    2017-11-01

    Analyses that link contextual factors with individual-level data can improve our understanding of the "risk environment"; however, the accuracy of information provided by participants about locations where illegal/stigmatized behaviors occur may be influenced by privacy/confidentiality concerns that may vary by setting and/or data collection approach. We recruited thirty-five persons who use drugs from a rural Appalachian town and a Mid-Atlantic city to participate in in-depth interviews. Through thematic analyses, we identified and compared privacy/confidentiality concerns associated with two survey methods that (1) collect self-reported addresses/cross-streets and (2) use an interactive web-based map to find/confirm locations in rural and urban settings. Concerns differed more by setting than between methods. For example, (1) rural participants valued interviewer rapport and protections provided by the Certificate of Confidentiality more; (2) locations considered to be sensitive differed in rural (i.e., others' homes) and urban (i.e., where drugs were used) settings; and (3) urban participants were more likely to view providing cross-streets as an acceptable alternative to providing exact addresses for sensitive locations and to prefer the web-based map approach. Rural-urban differences in privacy/confidentiality concerns reflect contextual differences (i.e., where drugs are used/purchased, population density, and prior drug-related arrests). Strategies to alleviate concerns include: (1) obtain a Certificate of Confidentiality, (2) collect geographic data at the scale necessary for proposed analyses, and (3) permit participants to provide intersections/landmarks in close proximity to actual locations rather than exact addresses or to skip questions where providing an intersection/landmark would not obfuscate the actual address. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas, Gulf of Mexico, Alabama 2007, Louisiana 2003, Mississippi 1995, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0036821)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The most widely used approach to sensitive environment mapping in the U.S. is NOAA's Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI). This approach systematically complies...

  18. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Puerto Rico - Volume 1, geographic information systems data, Volume 2, maps in portable document format (NODC Accession 0006584)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Currently, the most widely used approach to sensitive environment mapping in the United States is the NOAA Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI). This approach...

  19. This is Advertising! Effects of Disclosing Television Brand Placement on Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Reijmersdal, Eva A; Boerman, Sophie C; Buijzen, Moniek; Rozendaal, Esther

    2017-02-01

    As heavy media users, adolescents are frequently exposed to embedded advertising formats such as brand placements. Because this may lead to unwitting persuasion, regulations prescribe disclosure of brand placements. This study aimed to increase our understanding of the effects of disclosing television brand placements and disclosure duration on adolescents' persuasion knowledge (i.e., recognition of brand placement as being advertising, understanding that brand placement has a persuasive intent and critical attitude toward brand placement) and brand responses (i.e., brand memory and brand attitude). To do so, an earlier study that was conducted among adults was replicated among adolescents aged 13-17 years (N = 221, 44 % female). The present study shows that brand placement disclosure had limited effects on adolescents' persuasion knowledge as it only affected adolescents' understanding of persuasive intent, did not mitigate persuasion, but did increase brand memory. These findings suggest that brand placement disclosure has fundamentally different effects on adolescents than on adults: the disclosures had less effects on activating persuasion knowledge and mitigating persuasion among adolescents than among adults. Implications for advertising disclosure regulation and consequences for advertisers are discussed.

  20. Evolution of the Theoretical Approaches to Disclosing the Economic Substance of Accumulation of Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yemets Vadym V.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes a classification for periods of evolution of theoretical approaches to disclosing the economic substance of accumulation of capital, taking into account the civilizational approach to the development of society. The author has proposed five stages in the evolution of theoretical approaches, which are closely related to the development of economy and stipulate dominance of a certain form of accumulation of capital. So, the first stage (time period B.C. – the 5th Century is referred to as Individual-social significance of accumulation of capital; the second stage (from the 6th century to the 16th century – Accumulation of monetary capitals; the third stage (from the mid-17th century until the end of the 18th century – Industrialproduction accumulation of capital; the fourth stage (from the mid-19th century until the 70s of the 20th century – Investment-oriented accumulation of capital; the fifth stage (from the 70s of the 20th century up to the current period – Globally-intensive accumulation of capital.

  1. 17 CFR 140.73 - Delegation of authority to disclose information to United States, States, and foreign government...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Intermediary Oversight, the Chief Economist of the Office of the Chief Economist, the Deputy Chief Economist of the Office of the Chief Economist, and the Director of the Office of International Affairs or, in his...

  2. 17 CFR 140.72 - Delegation of authority to disclose confidential information to a contract market, registered...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Regional Administrators, each of the Directors of the Market Surveillance Branches, the Chief Economist of the Office of the Chief Economist, the Deputy Chief Economist of the Office of the Chief Economist...

  3. Disclosing Information about Epilepsy and Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: The Effect on Teachers' Understanding of Classroom Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodrich, David L.

    2005-01-01

    In an analog study, 122 continuing education and preservice teachers rated potential sources of one of two students' classroom problems. One student's behavior, described in a cumulative folder and a videotaped teacher/school psychologist conference, matched the symptoms of epilepsy, the other matched the symptoms of type 1 diabetes mellitus.…

  4. Development and testing of culturally sensitive patient information material for Turkish, Polish, Russian and Italian migrants with depression or chronic low back pain (KULTINFO): study protocol for a double-blind randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölzel, Lars P; Ries, Zivile; Zill, Jördis M; Kriston, Levente; Dirmaier, Jörg; Härter, Martin; Bermejo, Isaac

    2014-07-04

    Many of the approximately 15 million people with a migration background living in Germany (19% of the population) are inadequately reached by existing healthcare provision. In the literature, the necessity for cultural adaptation of information material for patients with a migration background is often cited as a measure for improving healthcare.In this study, culturally sensitive information material will be developed and evaluated for patients with a migration background and depression or chronic low back pain. In this respect, it will be examined whether culturally sensitive information material is judged as more useful by the patients than standard translated patient information without cultural adaptation. The implementation and evaluation of culturally sensitive patient information material will occur in the framework of a double-blind randomized controlled parallel-group study in four study centres in Germany. Primary care patients with a Turkish, Polish, Russian or Italian migration background with a diagnosis of depressive disorder or chronic low back pain will be included and randomly allocated to the intervention group or the control group. In the intervention group, culturally sensitive patient information will be handed to the patient at the end of the physician consultation, while in the control group, standard translated patient information material will be provided. The patients will be surveyed by means of questionnaires following the consultation as well as after 8 weeks and 6 months. In addition to the primary outcome (subjective usefulness), several patient- and physician-rated secondary outcomes will be considered. The study will provide an empirical answer to the question of whether persons with a migration background perceive culturally sensitive patient information material as more useful than translated information material without cultural adaptation. Deutsches Register Klinischer Studien (DRKS-ID) DRKS00004241 and Universal Trial Number

  5. 31 CFR 1.6 - Business information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Business information. 1.6 Section 1.6... Information Act § 1.6 Business information. (a) In general. Business information provided to the Department of the Treasury by a business submitter shall not be disclosed pursuant to a Freedom of Information Act...

  6. The many faces of information disclosure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Thakor, A.V.

    1998-01-01

    In this article we ask: what kind of information and how much of it should firms voluntarily disclose? Three types of disclosures are considered. One is information that complements the information available only to informed investors (to-be-processed complementary information). The second is

  7. 37 CFR 102.9 - Business Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Business Information. 102.9... COMMERCE ADMINISTRATION DISCLOSURE OF GOVERNMENT INFORMATION Freedom of Information Act § 102.9 Business Information. (a) In general. Business information obtained by USPTO from a submitter will be disclosed under...

  8. 41 CFR 105-64.502 - How do I find out if my record has been disclosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Subpart 105-64.2, providing no restrictions to disclosure or accounting of disclosures applies. ... Services Administration 64-GSA PRIVACY ACT RULES 64.5-Disclosure of Records § 105-64.502 How do I find out if my record has been disclosed? You may request an accounting of the persons or agencies to whom...

  9. 12 CFR 617.7105 - When must a qualified lender disclose the effective interest rate to a borrower?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... effective interest rate to a borrower? 617.7105 Section 617.7105 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM BORROWER RIGHTS Disclosure of Effective Interest Rates § 617.7105 When must a qualified lender disclose the effective interest rate to a borrower? (a) Disclosure to prospective borrowers...

  10. Effects of Disclosing Sponsored Content in Blogs: How the Use of Resistance Strategies Mediates Effects on Persuasion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. van Reijmersdal (Eva); M.L. Fransen (Marieke); G. van Noort (Guda); S.J. Opree (Suzanna); L. Vandeberg (Lisa); Reusch, S. (Sanne); van Lieshout, F. (Floor); Boerman, S.C. (Sophie C.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis article presents two studies examining the effects of disclosing online native advertising (i.e., sponsored content in blogs) on people’s brand attitude and purchase intentions. To investigate the mechanisms underlying these effects, we integrated resistance theories with the

  11. Effects of disclosing sponsored content in blogs : how the use of resistance strategies mediates effects on persuasion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Reijmersdal, E.A.; Fransen, M.L.; van Noort, G.; Opree, S.J.; Vandeberg, L.; Reusch, S.; van Lieshout, F.; Boerman, S.C.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents two studies examining the effects of disclosing online native advertising (i.e., sponsored content in blogs) on people’s brand attitude and purchase intentions. To investigate the mechanisms underlying these effects, we integrated resistance theories with the persuasion

  12. 42 CFR 2.62 - Order not applicable to records disclosed without consent to researchers, auditors and evaluators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Order not applicable to records disclosed without consent to researchers, auditors and evaluators. 2.62 Section 2.62 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE... without consent to researchers, auditors and evaluators. A court order under these regulations may not...

  13. 48 CFR 232.072-2 - Appropriate information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Summary history of the contractor and its principal managers, disclosing any previous insolvencies—corporate or personal, and describing its products or services. (3) Statement of all affiliations disclosing... information that discloses— (i) Availability of cash to finance contract performance; (ii) Contractor's...

  14. Experiencing a probabilistic approach to clarify and disclose uncertainties when setting occupational exposure limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernez, David; Fraize-Frontier, Sandrine; Vincent, Raymond; Binet, Stéphane; Rousselle, Christophe

    2018-03-15

    Assessment factors (AFs) are commonly used for deriving reference concentrations for chemicals. These factors take into account variabilities as well as uncertainties in the dataset, such as inter-species and intra-species variabilities or exposure duration extrapolation or extrapolation from the lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL) to the noobserved- adverse-effect level (NOAEL). In a deterministic approach, the value of an AF is the result of a debate among experts and, often a conservative value is used as a default choice. A probabilistic framework to better take into account uncertainties and/or variability when setting occupational exposure limits (OELs) is presented and discussed in this paper. Each AF is considered as a random variable with a probabilistic distribution. A short literature was conducted before setting default distributions ranges and shapes for each AF commonly used. A random sampling, using Monte Carlo techniques, is then used for propagating the identified uncertainties and computing the final OEL distribution. Starting from the broad default distributions obtained, experts narrow it to its most likely range, according to the scientific knowledge available for a specific chemical. Introducing distribution rather than single deterministic values allows disclosing and clarifying variability and/or uncertainties inherent to the OEL construction process. This probabilistic approach yields quantitative insight into both the possible range and the relative likelihood of values for model outputs. It thereby provides a better support in decision-making and improves transparency. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  15. Disclose or not? Effect of impression management tactics on hireability of persons with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Connie; Lin, Chien-Chun; Connor, Annemarie; Chan, Fong

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of assertive impression management (IM) tactics, such as personal storytelling and self-promotion, on job interview outcomes of people with epilepsy. Specifically, the effect of IM on interviewers' subjective impressions and evaluation of hireability of job candidates with epilepsy were examined. Ninety-nine master's level graduate students majoring in business or human resources were randomly assigned to three experimental conditions to view one of three 15-min video clips of a job applicant interviewing for a technical computer sales position. The three experimental conditions were (1) job applicant who did not disclose any disability, (2) job applicant with epilepsy who did not use IM tactics, and (3) job applicant with epilepsy who used IM tactics. After watching the job interview video portraying the experimental conditions, participants were asked to rate the job applicant in terms of general impression and hireability for the described position. The use of IM was found to have a significant effect on job interview outcomes (p business/human resources students on both general impression and hireability for the job applicant with epilepsy and IM condition were significantly higher than for the job applicant with epilepsy who did not use IM condition. Furthermore, mediation analysis revealed that general impression is a mediator for the relationship between IM and interview outcomes. This study demonstrates that IM has a significant and positive effect on job interview outcomes for persons with epilepsy. IM can be used as a powerful strategy for empowering people with epilepsy to combat disability stigma, and offset negative perceptions of employers about the potential of this population to be productive workers. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.

  16. Methodological issues associated with collecting sensitive information over the telephone - experience from an Australian non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI prevalence study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fullerton Simon

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Collecting population data on sensitive issues such as non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI is problematic. Case note audits or hospital/clinic based presentations only record severe cases and do not distinguish between suicidal and non-suicidal intent. Community surveys have largely been limited to school and university students, resulting in little much needed population-based data on NSSI. Collecting these data via a large scale population survey presents challenges to survey methodologists. This paper addresses the methodological issues associated with collecting this type of data via CATI. Methods An Australia-wide population survey was funded by the Australian Government to determine prevalence estimates of NSSI and associations, predictors, relationships to suicide attempts and suicide ideation, and outcomes. Computer assisted telephone interviewing (CATI on a random sample of the Australian population aged 10+ years of age from randomly selected households, was undertaken. Results Overall, from 31,216 eligible households, 12,006 interviews were undertaken (response rate 38.5%. The 4-week prevalence of NSSI was 1.1% (95% ci 0.9-1.3% and lifetime prevalence was 8.1% (95% ci 7.6-8.6. Methodological concerns and challenges in regard to collection of these data included extensive interviewer training and post interview counselling. Ethical considerations, especially with children as young as 10 years of age being asked sensitive questions, were addressed prior to data collection. The solution required a large amount of information to be sent to each selected household prior to the telephone interview which contributed to a lower than expected response rate. Non-coverage error caused by the population of interest being highly mobile, homeless or institutionalised was also a suspected issue in this low prevalence condition. In many circumstances the numbers missing from the sampling frame are small enough to not cause worry

  17. Mulheres com Aids: desvendando histórias de risco Women with AIDS: disclosing risk stories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Legay Vermelho

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa procurou conhecer o perfil social e cultural relacionado a risco de infecção pelo HIV em mulheres, descrevendo algumas variáveis epidemiológicas e revelando relatos de risco, o significado de sua vivência com AIDS e assistência recebida. Através de um questionário semi-estruturado, entrevistou-se 25 mulheres internadas no Hospital Universitário da UFRJ, no período anterior à disponibilização das drogas combinadas. A maioria referiu baixa escolaridade, ocupações de baixa qualificação ou eram donas de casa, sendo sua renda familiar, em alguns casos, pior que a média dos usuários deste hospital. A representação predominante sobre risco associava a Aids a uma "doença do outro" e DSTs eram percebidas como infecções masculinas, embora várias relatassem episódios destas, anteriormente ao HIV. Elas tiveram seu diagnóstico/tratamento só após o adoecimento ou morte do companheiro e ou filho. O estudo sugere estratégias preventivas que, prioritariamente, reforçam o poder de negociação sexual destas mulheres silenciosas e atuam sobre os homens, como participantes potencialmente ativos nos programas de saúde reprodutiva, os quais incorporam a questão DST/AIDS.This study approaches the social and cultural profile concerning risk for HIV infection in women, describing some epidemiological variables and disclosing reports of risk situations, the meaning of living with AIDS, and support received. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to interview 25 women from the University Hospital of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, prior to the availability of multi-drug treatment. The majority reported limited schooling, were housewives or engaged in under-skilled occupations, and had family incomes lower than average for users of this public teaching hospital. The view of AIDS as "someone else's disease" was prevalent, and STDs were perceived as male infections, although several women reported episodes of STDs

  18. Sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003741.htm Sensitivity analysis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Sensitivity analysis determines the effectiveness of antibiotics against microorganisms (germs) ...

  19. 28 CFR 16.8 - Business information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Business information. 16.8 Section 16.8... Procedures for Disclosure of Records Under the Freedom of Information Act § 16.8 Business information. (a) In general. Business information obtained by the Department from a submitter will be disclosed under the FOIA...

  20. 4 CFR 201.13 - Business information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Business information. 201.13 Section 201.13 Accounts RECOVERY ACCOUNTABILITY AND TRANSPARENCY BOARD PUBLIC INFORMATION AND REQUESTS § 201.13 Business information. (a) In general. Business information obtained by the Board from a submitter shall be disclosed...

  1. Communicating genetic risk information for common disorders in the era of genomic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautenbach, Denise M; Christensen, Kurt D; Sparks, Jeffrey A; Green, Robert C

    2013-01-01

    Communicating genetic risk information in ways that maximize understanding and promote health is increasingly important given the rapidly expanding availability and capabilities of genomic technologies. A well-developed literature on risk communication in general provides guidance for best practices, including presentation of information in multiple formats, attention to framing effects, use of graphics, sensitivity to the way numbers are presented, parsimony of information, attentiveness to emotions, and interactivity as part of the communication process. Challenges to communicating genetic risk information include deciding how best to tailor it, streamlining the process, deciding what information to disclose, accepting that communications may have limited influence, and understanding the impact of context. Meeting these challenges has great potential for empowering individuals to adopt healthier lifestyles and improve public health, but will require multidisciplinary approaches and collaboration.

  2. 28 CFR 2.37 - Disclosure of information concerning parolees; Statement of policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) pursuant to a request under 18 U.S.C. 4203(e). (c) Information deemed to be “public sector” information may be disclosed to third parties without the consent of the file subject. Public sector information...

  3. 78 FR 41407 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Public Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... programs responsible for making award decisions. This announcement is a request for comments on the..., validating and verifying information, processing and maintaining information, and disclosing and providing... Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Public Comment Request AGENCY: Health Resources and...

  4. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: South Carolina - Volume 1, geographic information systems data, Volume 2, maps and data in portable document format (NODC Accession 0013822)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps for the shoreline of South Carolina. ESI data characterize coastal environments and wildlife...

  5. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlases: A sampling of digital data for geographic information systems, South Carolina, California, Hawaii, Oregon, Washington (NODC Accession 0046075)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This CD-ROM product from the NOAA National Ocean Service Hazardous Materials Response and Assessment Division contains a collection of Environmental Sensitivity...

  6. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: U.S. and British Virgin Islands maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0049955)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises an update of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for the Virgin Islands. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife...

  7. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Puget Sound and Strait of Juan de Fuca, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0013952)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for the Puget Sound and Strait of Juan de Fuca from 1978 to 2006. ESI data characterize...

  8. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Alaska, Prince William Sound-2000, Aleutians-2001, Bristol Bay-2004, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0014162)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Alaska; Prince William Sound (2000), Aleutians (2001), and Bristol Bay (2004). ESI data...

  9. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Western Alaska - volume 1, geographic information systems data and data tables and volume 2, maps in portable document format (PDF) (NODC Accession 0046030)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Western Alaska. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by their...

  10. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: North Carolina - Volume 1, geographic information systems data, Volume 2, maps and data in portable document format (NODC Accession 0013821)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps for the shoreline of North Carolina. ESI data characterize coastal environments and wildlife...

  11. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Southeast Alaska - volume 1, geographic information systems data and volume 2, maps in portable document format (NODC Accession 0046029)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Northwest Arctic, Alaska. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by...

  12. 16 CFR 313.6 - Information to be included in privacy notices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... nonpublic personal information about your former customers that you disclose and the categories of... former customers, other than those parties to whom you disclose information under §§ 313.14 and 313.15... marketing services on your behalf or on behalf of you and another financial institution; or (B) A financial...

  13. 12 CFR 40.6 - Information to be included in privacy notices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... categories of nonpublic personal information about the bank's former customers that the bank discloses and... personal information about the bank's former customers, other than those parties to whom the bank discloses... performs marketing services on the bank's behalf or on behalf of the bank and another financial institution...

  14. 12 CFR 332.6 - Information to be included in privacy notices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of nonpublic personal information about your former customers that you disclose and the categories of... former customers, other than those parties to whom you disclose information under §§ 332.14 and 332.15... third party is: (A) A service provider that performs marketing services on your behalf or on behalf of...

  15. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Socio-Economic Features, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_socecon_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains socio-economic features in coastal Louisiana. Feature-specific contact, type, and source information are stored in relational data tables...

  16. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Dispersant Preapproval Zone, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_dispersant_preapproval_zone_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains dispersant preapproval zones in coastal Louisiana. Feature-specific contact, type, and source information are stored in relational data tables...

  17. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index In-Situ Burning Database, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_in_situ_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains boundaries for in-situ burning preapproval and exclusion areas in coastal Louisiana. Feature-specific contact, type, and source information...

  18. 48 CFR 214.407-3 - Other mistakes disclosed before award.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Opening of... Information Systems Agency: General Counsel, DISA. (iii) Defense Intelligence Agency: Principal Assistant for.... (v) National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency: General Counsel, NGA. (vi) Defense Threat Reduction...

  19. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Massachusetts - Volume 1, geographic information systems data and Volume 2, maps and data in portable document format maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0014790)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Massachusetts from 1980 to 2000. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife...

  20. Allergic sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Ree, Ronald; Hummelshøj, Lone; Plantinga, Maud

    2014-01-01

    Allergic sensitization is the outcome of a complex interplay between the allergen and the host in a given environmental context. The first barrier encountered by an allergen on its way to sensitization is the mucosal epithelial layer. Allergic inflammatory diseases are accompanied by increased pe...

  1. A quantitative study on gender differences in disclosing child sexual abuse and reasons for nondisclosure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okur, Pinar; van der Knaap, Leontien; Bogaerts, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Despite the available literature on disclosure of child sexual abuse (CSA), little is known about how gender affects disclosure. This article aims to quantitatively examine whether gender differences exist in formal (to legal or child protection authorities) and informal (to a family member or

  2. 37 CFR 251.37 - Use of nonpublic information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... arbitrator shall disclose in any manner any information contained in filings, pleadings, or evidence that the arbitration panel has ruled to be confidential in nature. (b) Unless required by law, no arbitrator shall...

  3. 31 CFR 323.2 - Rules governing availability of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Privacy interests, in the sense of the right to control, use, or disclose information about oneself, cease... survive death where disclosure would cause embarrassment, pain, grief, or disrupt the peace of mind, of...

  4. Statement by the Federal Government: Treatment of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants with regard to the irregularities disclosed in the Transnuklear GmbH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toepfer, K.

    1988-01-01

    The Federal Government sees three major tasks to be done after inquiries have shown that irregularities disclosed in the Transnuklear business also include some relating to nuclear safety: (1) Initiate investigation of possible hazards to man or the environment, and into events and scope of events in order to provide full information. (2) Immediate consequences with regard to the treatment of low and intermediate level radioactive waste from nuclear power plant, and state supervision thereof. (3) Investigate possible consequences with regard to nuclear waste management in the FRG. The Federal Government has taken immediate action on all three levels. (orig./HSCH) [de

  5. Statement by the Federal Government: Treatment of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants with regard to the irregularities disclosed in the Transnuklear GmbH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toepfer, K.

    1988-03-02

    The Federal Government sees three major tasks to be done after inquiries have shown that irregularities disclosed in the Transnuklear business also include some relating to nuclear safety: (1) Initiate investigation of possible hazards to man or the environment, and into events and scope of events in order to provide full information. (2) Immediate consequences with regard to the treatment of low and intermediate level radioactive waste from nuclear power plant, and state supervision thereof. (3) Investigate possible consequences with regard to nuclear waste management in the FRG. The Federal Government has taken immediate action on all three levels. (orig./HSCH).

  6. Federal Family Education Loan Information System. Weak Computer Controls Increase Risk of Unauthorized Access to Sensitive Data. Report to the Secretary of Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Accounting and Information Management Div.

    This report presents an evaluation of the general controls over the Federal Family Education Loan Program (FFELP) information system maintained and operated by a contractor for the U.S. Department of Education (ED), which administers FFELP. The evaluation found that ED's general controls over the FFELP information system did not adequately protect…

  7. Climate Sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindzen, Richard [M.I.T.

    2011-11-09

    Warming observed thus far is entirely consistent with low climate sensitivity. However, the result is ambiguous because the sources of climate change are numerous and poorly specified. Model predictions of substantial warming aredependent on positive feedbacks associated with upper level water vapor and clouds, but models are notably inadequate in dealing with clouds and the impacts of clouds and water vapor are intimately intertwined. Various approaches to measuring sensitivity based on the physics of the feedbacks will be described. The results thus far point to negative feedbacks. Problems with these approaches as well as problems with the concept of climate sensitivity will be described.

  8. 24 CFR 15.109 - How will HUD respond to a request for information from Form HUD-92410 (Statement of Profit and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... with their investment decision. (c) To whom may potential investors disclose such information... for information from Form HUD-92410 (Statement of Profit and Loss)? 15.109 Section 15.109 Housing and... Form HUD-92410 (Statement of Profit and Loss)? (a) To whom will HUD disclose the information? HUD will...

  9. Abuse Characteristics and Individual Differences Related to Disclosing Childhood Sexual, Physical, and Emotional Abuse and Witnessed Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottoms, Bette L; Peter-Hagene, Liana C; Epstein, Michelle A; Wiley, Tisha R A; Reynolds, Carrie E; Rudnicki, Aaron G

    2016-04-01

    Many adult survivors of childhood abuse hide their victimization, avoiding disclosure that could identify perpetrators, end the abuse, and bring help to the victim. We surveyed 1,679 women undergraduates to understand disclosure of childhood sexual, physical, and emotional abuse, and, for the first time, witnessed domestic violence, which many consider to be emotionally abusive. A substantial minority of victims failed to ever disclose their sexual abuse (23%), physical abuse (34%), emotional abuse (20%), and witnessed domestic violence (29%). Overall, abuse-specific factors were better predictors of disclosure than individual-level characteristics. Disclosure of sexual abuse was related to experiencing more frequent abuse (by the same and by multiple perpetrators), being more worried about injury and more upset at the time of the abuse, and self-labeling as a victim of abuse. Disclosure of physical abuse was related to experiencing more frequent abuse (by the same and multiple perpetrators), being less emotionally close to the perpetrator, being older when the abuse ended, being more worried and upset, and self-labeling as a victim. Disclosure of emotional abuse was associated with being older when the abuse ended, and being more worried and upset. Disclosure was unrelated to victim demographic characteristics or defensive reactions (dissociative proneness, fantasy proneness, repressive coping style, and temporary forgetting), except that among physical and emotional abuse victims, repressors were less likely to disclose than non-repressors. Disclosure of witnessing domestic violence was not significantly related to any factors measured. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Full genome sequences are key to disclose RHDV2 emergence in the Macaronesian islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Ana M; Blanco-Aguiar, Jose; Martín-Alonso, Aaron; Leitão, Manuel; Foronda, Pilar; Mendes, Marco; Gonçalves, David; Abrantes, Joana; Esteves, Pedro J

    2018-02-01

    A recent publication by Carvalho et al. in "Virus Genes" (June 2017) reported the presence of the new variant of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV2) in the two larger islands of the archipelago of Madeira. Based on the capsid protein sequence, the authors suggested that the high sequence identity, along with the short time spanning between outbreaks, points to dissemination from Porto Santo to Madeira. By including information of the full RHDV2 genome of strains from Azores, Madeira, and the Canary Islands, we confirm the results obtained by Carvalho et al., but further show that several subtypes of RHDV2 circulate in these islands: non-recombinant RHDV2 in the Canary Islands, G1/RHDV2 in Azores, Porto Santo and Madeira, and NP/RHDV2 also in Madeira. Here we conclude that RHDV2 has been independently introduced in these archipelagos, and that in Madeira at least two independent introductions must have occurred. We provide additional information on the dynamics of RHDV2 in the Macaronesian archipelagos of Azores, Madeira, and the Canary Islands and highlight the importance of analyzing RHDV2 complete genome.

  11. Protocol of a randomized controlled trial of culturally sensitive interventions to improve African Americans' and non-African Americans' early, shared, and informed consideration of live kidney transplantation: the Talking About Live Kidney Donation (TALK) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulware, L Ebony; Hill-Briggs, Felicia; Kraus, Edward S; Melancon, J Keith; McGuire, Raquel; Bonhage, Bobbie; Senga, Mikiko; Ephraim, Patti; Evans, Kira E; Falcone, Brenda; Troll, Misty U; Depasquale, Nicole; Powe, Neil R

    2011-07-08

    Live kidney transplantation (LKT) is underutilized, particularly among ethnic/racial minorities. The effectiveness of culturally sensitive educational and behavioral interventions to encourage patients' early, shared (with family and health care providers) and informed consideration of LKT and ameliorate disparities in consideration of LKT is unknown. We report the protocol of the Talking About Live Kidney Donation (TALK) Study, a two-phase study utilizing qualitative and quantitative research methods to design and test culturally sensitive interventions to improve patients' shared and informed consideration of LKT. Study Phase 1 involved the evidence-based development of culturally sensitive written and audiovisual educational materials as well as a social worker intervention to encourage patients' engagement in shared and informed consideration of LKT. In Study Phase 2, we are currently conducting a randomized controlled trial in which participants with progressing chronic kidney disease receive: 1) usual care by their nephrologists, 2) usual care plus the educational materials, or 3) usual care plus the educational materials and the social worker intervention. The primary outcome of the randomized controlled trial will include patients' self-reported rates of consideration of LKT (including family discussions of LKT, patient-physician discussions of LKT, and identification of an LKT donor). We will also assess differences in rates of consideration of LKT among African Americans and non-African Americans. The TALK Study rigorously developed and is currently testing the effectiveness of culturally sensitive interventions to improve patients' and families' consideration of LKT. Results from TALK will provide needed evidence on ways to enhance consideration of this optimal treatment for patients with end stage renal disease. ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00932334.

  12. 75 FR 43486 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Voluntary Self-Disclosure of Antiboycott...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... Request; Voluntary Self- Disclosure of Antiboycott Violations AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and Security... Administration Regulations (EAR) by providing a method for industry to voluntarily self-disclose antiboycott violations. Companies wishing to voluntarily self-disclose antiboycott may submit pertinent information, as...

  13. 17 CFR 160.6 - Information to be included in privacy notices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... future to disclose, but to whom you do not currently disclose, nonpublic personal information. (f) Model... privacy notices. 160.6 Section 160.6 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING... that you make disclosures to other nonaffiliated companies: (1) For your everyday business purposes...

  14. 42 CFR 480.140 - Disclosure of quality review study information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... health when there is substantial risk to the public health; CMS; or to Federal and State fraud and abuse... Accounting Office as necessary to carry out statutory responsibilities. (c) A QIO may disclose information... Accounting Office as necessary to carry out its statutory responsibilities. (g) The QIO must disclose to CMS...

  15. 12 CFR 216.6 - Information to be included in privacy notices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... customers that you disclose and the categories of affiliates and nonaffiliated third parties to whom you disclose nonpublic personal information about your former customers, other than those parties to whom you... applicable; and (ii) State whether the third party is: (A) A service provider that performs marketing...

  16. Evidence for Non-Opponent Coding of Colour Information in Human Visual Cortex: Selective Loss of “Green” Sensitivity in a Subject with Damaged Ventral Occipito-Temporal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Franziska G.; Plant, Gordon T.; James-Galton, Merle; Barbur, John L.

    2011-01-01

    Damage to ventral occipito-temporal extrastriate visual cortex leads to the syndrome of prosopagnosia often with coexisting cerebral achromatopsia. A patient with this syndrome resulting in a left upper homonymous quadrantanopia, prosopagnosia, and incomplete achromatopsia is described. Chromatic sensitivity was assessed at a number of locations in the intact visual field using a dynamic luminance contrast masking technique that isolates the use of colour signals. In normal subjects chromatic detection thresholds form an elliptical contour when plotted in the Commission Internationale d’Eclairage, (x-y), chromaticity diagram. Because the extraction of colour signals in early visual processing involves opponent mechanisms, subjects with Daltonism (congenital red/green loss of sensitivity) show symmetric increase in thresholds towards the long wavelength (“red”) and middle wavelength (“green”) regions of the spectrum locus. This is also the case with acquired loss of chromatic sensitivity as a result of retinal or optic nerve disease. Our patient’s results were an exception to this rule. Whilst his chromatic sensitivity in the central region of the visual field was reduced symmetrically for both “red/green” and “yellow/blue” directions in colour space, the subject’s lower left quadrant showed a marked asymmetry in “red/green” thresholds with the greatest loss of sensitivity towards the “green” region of the spectrum locus. This spatially localized asymmetric loss of “green” but not “red” sensitivity has not been reported previously in human vision. Such loss is consistent with selective damage of neural substrates in the visual cortex that process colour information, but are spectrally non-opponent. PMID:27956924

  17. Legislative Issues in Disclosing Financial Conflicts of Interest to Participants in Biomedical Research: Effectiveness and Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Sun

    2017-12-01

    This research focuses on the analysis regarding disclosure of financial conflicts of interest (FCOI) after Gelsinger v. University of Pennsylvania (Penn). The main legal issue was that the participants did not have enough opportunity to make an autonomous decision about participating in the research because he was not informed about the researchers' and the institution's substantial FCOI. The disclosure system was adopted by the Code of Federal Regulations. Under the regulation, researchers and institutions need to report FCOI over $5,000 to the institution, and the internal review boards have to report to the federal authority if needed. In case of human research, the disclosure to Food and Drug Administration is mandatory. FCOI disclosure system would help participants to make an autonomous decision, and increase trust to the research process and researchers. Moreover, the system would let researchers keep fiduciary duty while (possibly) lowering legal liability in case of a lawsuit. There were discussions about the disclosure methodology in the United States. However, there have not been a lot of discussions in Korea even after the "Humidifier Disinfectant" case. Therefore, new legislations need to be considered. First, the system requires disclosure funded by not only government but also private institutions. Second, like California Supreme Court, the subject would be reviewed under the reasonable person standard by participants, including patents, equity, and stock. Third, the disclosure needs to include simple or brief explanation to the FCOI to be better understood by the participants. Fourth, the disclosure should be in the informed consent process. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  18. When parents disclose BRCA1/2 test results: their communication and perceptions of offspring response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Angela R; Patrick-Miller, Linda; Egleston, Brian L; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Daly, Mary B; Moore, Cynthia W; Sands, Colleen B; Schmidheiser, Helen; Kondamudi, Preethi K; Feigon, Maia; Ibe, Comfort N; Daugherty, Christopher K

    2012-07-01

    BRCA1/2 testing is not recommended for children, as risk reduction measures and screening are not generally recommended before 25 years old (YO). Little is known about the prevalence and predictors of parent communication to offspring and how offspring respond to this communication. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents who had BRCA1/2 testing and at least 1 child parents completed interviews (61% response rate), reporting on 505 offspring. Twenty-nine percent of parents were BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Three hundred thirty-four (66%) offspring learned of their parent's test result. Older offspring age (P ≤ .01), offspring gender (female, P = .05), parents' negative test result (P = .03), and parents' education (high school only, P = .02) were associated with communication to offspring. The most frequently reported initial offspring responses were neutral (41%) or relief (28%). Thirteen percent of offspring were reported to experience concern or distress (11%) in response to parental communication of their test results. Distress was more frequently perceived among offspring learning of their parent's BRCA1/2 positive or variant of uncertain significance result. Many parents communicate their BRCA1/2 test results to young offspring. Parents' perceptions of offspring responses appear to vary by offspring age and parent test result. A better understanding of how young offspring respond to information about hereditary risk for adult cancer could provide opportunities to optimize adaptive psychosocial responses to risk information and performance of health behaviors, in adolescence and throughout an at-risk life span. Copyright © 2012 American Cancer Society.

  19. Photoreceptor spectral sensitivity of the compound eyes of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) informing the design of LED-based illumination to enhance indoor reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oonincx, D G A B; Volk, N; Diehl, J J E; van Loon, J J A; Belušič, G

    2016-12-01

    Mating in the black soldier fly (BSF) is a visually mediated behaviour that under natural conditions occurs in full sunlight. Artificial light conditions promoting mating by BSF were designed based on the spectral characteristics of the compound eye retina. Electrophysiological measurements revealed that BSF ommatidia contained UV-, blue- and green-sensitive photoreceptor cells, allowing trichromatic vision. An illumination system for indoor breeding based on UV, blue and green LEDs was designed and its efficiency was compared with illumination by fluorescent tubes which have been successfully used to sustain a BSF colony for five years. Illumination by LEDs and the fluorescent tubes yielded equal numbers of egg clutches, however, the LED illumination resulted in significantly more larvae. The possibilities to optimize the current LED illumination system to better approximate the skylight illuminant and potentially optimize the larval yield are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Disclosing incidental findings in brain research: the rights of minors in decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pietro, Nina C; Illes, Judy

    2013-11-01

    MRI is used routinely in research with children to generate new knowledge about brain development. The detection of unexpected brain abnormalities (incidental findings; IFs) in these studies presents unique challenges. While key issues surrounding incidence and significance, duty of care, and burden of disclosure have been addressed substantially for adults, less empirical data and normative analyses exist for minors who participate in minimal risk research. To identify ethical concerns and fill existing gaps, we conducted a comprehensive review of papers that focused explicitly on the discovery of IFs in minors. The discourse in the 21 papers retrieved for this analysis amply covered practical issues such as informed consent and screening, difficulties in ascertaining clinical significance, the economic costs and burden of responsibility on researchers, and risks (physical or psychological). However, we found little discussion about the involvement of minors in decisions about disclosure of IFs in the brain, especially for IFs of low clinical significance. In response, we propose a framework for managing IFs that integrates practical considerations with explicit appreciation of rights along the continuum of maturity. This capacity-adjusted framework emphasizes the importance of involving competent minors and respecting their right to make decisions about disclosure. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Disclosing the truth: a dilemma between instilling hope and respecting patient autonomy in everyday clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarafis, Pavlos; Tsounis, Andreas; Malliarou, Maria; Lahana, Eleni

    2013-12-20

    While medical ethics place a high value on providing truthful information to patients, disclosure practices are far from being the norm in many countries. Transmitting bad news still remains a big problem that health care professionals face in their every day clinical practice. Through the review of relevant literature, an attempt to examine the trends in this issue worldwide will be made. Various electronic databases were searched by the authors and through systematic selection 51 scientific articles were identified that this literature review is based on. There are many parameters that lead to the concealment of truth. Factors related to doctors, patients and their close environment, still maintain a strong resistance against disclosure of diagnosis and prognosis in terminally ill patients, while cultural influences lead to different approaches in various countries. Withholding the truth is mainly based in the fear of causing despair to patients. However, fostering a spurious hope, hides the danger of its' total loss, while it can disturb patient-doctor relationship.

  2. Disclosing large scale adverse events in the US Veterans Health Administration: lessons from media responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, E M; Bokhour, B G; Asch, S M; Wagner, T H; Gifford, A L; Gallagher, T H; Durfee, J M; Martinello, R A; Elwy, A R

    2016-06-01

    We examined print, broadcast and social media reports about health care systems' disclosures of large scale adverse events to develop future effective messaging. Directed content analysis. We systematically searched four communication databases, YouTube and Really Simple Syndication (RSS) feeds relating to six disclosures of lapses in infection control practices in the Department of Veterans Affairs occurring between 2009 and 2012. We assessed these with a coding frame derived from effective crisis and risk communication models. We identified 148 unique media reports. Some components of effective communication (discussion of cause, reassurance, self-efficacy) were more present than others (apology, lessons learned). Media about 'promoting secrecy' and 'slow response' appeared in reports when time from event discovery to patient notification was over 75 days. Elected officials' quotes (n = 115) were often negative (83%). Hospital officials' comments (n = 165) were predominantly neutral (92%), and focused on information sharing. Health care systems should work to ensure that they develop clear messages focused on what is not well covered by the media, including authentic apologies, remedial actions taken, and shorten the timeframe between event identification and disclosure to patients. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. 7 CFR 993.71 - Confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential information. 993.71 Section 993.71 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... information constituting a trade secret or disclosing of the trade position, financial condition, or business...

  4. 15 CFR 705.6 - Confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... EFFECT OF IMPORTED ARTICLES ON THE NATIONAL SECURITY § 705.6 Confidential information. (a) Any... the investigation that would disclose national security classified information or business... Security Classified” or “Business Confidential,” as appropriate, marked at the top of each sheet. Any...

  5. Two-Dimensional Cysteine and Cystine Cluster Networks on Au(111) Disclosed by Voltammetry and in Situ Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jingdong; Chi, Qijin; Nielsen, Jens Ulrik

    2000-01-01

    Microscopic structures for molecular monolayers of L-cysteine and L-cystine assembled on Au(111) have been disclosed by employing electrochemistry and in situ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). HighresolutionSTMimages show that the adlayers of both cyteine and cystine exhibit highly......-ordered networklike clusters with (3x3 6)R30° structure. By combining the surface coverage estimated from voltammetric data, each cluster is demonstrated to include six individual cysteine molecules or three cystine molecules. As a comparison, no cluster structure is observed for the 1-butanethiol adlayer prepared...... and examined under the same conditions as those for cysteine and cystine. This suggests that intermolecular and intramolecular hydrogen bonds among adsorbed cysteine or cystine molecules could be responsible for the origin of the cluster-network structures for the adlayers. Several models are proposed and used...

  6. Micro-scale novel stable isotope fractionation during weathering disclosed by femtosecond laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuessler, J. A.; von Blanckenburg, F.

    2012-12-01

    The stable isotope fractionation of metals and metalloids during chemical weathering and alteration of rocks at low temperature is a topic receiving increasing scientific attention. For these systems, weathering of primary minerals leads to selective partitioning of isotopes between the secondary minerals formed from them, and the dissolved phase of soil or river water. While the isotopic signatures of these processes have been mapped-out at the catchment or the soil scale, the actual isotopic fractionation is occurring at the mineral scale. To identify the processes underlying such micro-scale fractionation, the development of micro-analytical tools allows to investigate mechanisms of isotope fractionation in-situ, in combination with textural information of weathering reactions. We have developed a second-generation UV femtosecond (fs) laser system at GFZ Potsdam. The advantage of UV-fs laser ablation is the reduction of laser-induced isotopic and elemental fractionation by avoiding 'thermal effects' during ablation, such that accurate isotope ratios can be measured by standard-sample-standard bracketing using laser ablation multicollector ICP-MS; where the matrix of the bracketing standard does not need to match that of the sample [1]. Our system consists of the latest generation femtosecond solid-state laser (Newport Spectra Physics Solstice), producing an ultra short pulse width of about 100 femtoseconds at a wavelength of 196 nm. The system is combined with a custom-build computer-controlled sample stage and allows fully automated isotope analyses through synchronised operation of the laser with the Neptune MC-ICP-MS. To assess precision and accuracy of our laser ablation method, we analysed various geological reference materials. We obtained δ30Si values of -0.31 ± 0.23 (2SD, n = 13) for basalt glass BHVO-2G, and -1.25 ± 0.21 (2SD, n = 27) for pure Si IRMM17 when bracketed against NBS-28 quartz. δ56Fe and δ26Mg values obtained from non-matrix matched

  7. Integrating Information Networks for Collective Planetary Stewardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, A.

    2016-12-01

    Responsible behaviour resulting from climate literacy in global environmental movement is limited to policy and planning institutions in the Global South, while remaining absent for ends-user. Thus, planetary stewardship exists only at earth system boundaries where pressures sink to the local scale while ethics remains afloat. Existing citizen participation is restricted within policy spheres, appearing synonymous to enforcements in social psychology. Much, accounted reason is that existing information mechanisms operate mostly through linear exchanges between institutions and users, therefore reinforcing only hierarchical relationships. This study discloses such relationships that contribute to broad networking gaps through information demand assessment of stakeholders in a dozen development projects based in South Asia. Two parameters widely used for this purpose are: a. Feedback: Ends-user feedback to improve consumption literacy of climate sensitive resources (through consumption displays, billing, advisory services ecolabelling, sensors) and, b. Institutional Policy: Rewarding punishing to enforce desired behaviour (subsidies, taxation). Research answered: 1. Who gets the information (Equity in Information Distribution)? As existing information publishing mechanisms are designed by and for analysts, 2. How information translates to climate action Transparency of Execution)? Findings suggested that climate goals manifested in economic policy, than environmental policy, have potential clear short-term benefits and costs, and coincide with people's economic goals Also grassroots roles for responsible behaviour are empowered with presence of end user information. Barier free climate communication process and decision making is ensured among multiplicity of stakeholders with often conflicting perspectives. Research finds significance where collaboration among information networks can better translate regional policies into local action for climate adaptation and

  8. Time-sensitive remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Lippitt, Christopher; Coulter, Lloyd

    2015-01-01

    This book documents the state of the art in the use of remote sensing to address time-sensitive information requirements. Specifically, it brings together a group of authors who are both researchers and practitioners, who work toward or are currently using remote sensing to address time-sensitive information requirements with the goal of advancing the effective use of remote sensing to supply time-sensitive information. The book addresses the theoretical implications of time-sensitivity on the remote sensing process, assessments or descriptions of methods for expediting the delivery and improving the quality of information derived from remote sensing, and describes and analyzes time-sensitive remote sensing applications, with an emphasis on lessons learned. This book is intended for remote sensing scientists, practitioners (e.g., emergency responders or administrators of emergency response agencies), and students, but will also be of use to those seeking to understand the potential of remote sensing to addres...

  9. A force-matching Stillinger-Weber potential for MoS2: Parameterization and Fisher information theory based sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Mingjian; Shirodkar, Sharmila N.; Plecháč, Petr; Kaxiras, Efthimios; Elliott, Ryan S.; Tadmor, Ellad B.

    2017-12-01

    Two-dimensional molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is a promising material for the next generation of switchable transistors and photodetectors. In order to perform large-scale molecular simulations of the mechanical and thermal behavior of MoS2-based devices, an accurate interatomic potential is required. To this end, we have developed a Stillinger-Weber potential for monolayer MoS2. The potential parameters are optimized to reproduce the geometry (bond lengths and bond angles) of MoS2 in its equilibrium state and to match as closely as possible the forces acting on the atoms along a dynamical trajectory obtained from ab initio molecular dynamics. Verification calculations indicate that the new potential accurately predicts important material properties including the strain dependence of the cohesive energy, the elastic constants, and the linear thermal expansion coefficient. The uncertainty in the potential parameters is determined using a Fisher information theory analysis. It is found that the parameters are fully identified, and none are redundant. In addition, the Fisher information matrix provides uncertainty bounds for predictions of the potential for new properties. As an example, bounds on the average vibrational thickness of a MoS2 monolayer at finite temperature are computed and found to be consistent with the results from a molecular dynamics simulation. The new potential is available through the OpenKIM interatomic potential repository at https://openkim.org/cite/MO_201919462778_000.

  10. Sensitive Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinowska Anna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper engages with what we refer to as “sensitive media,” a concept associated with developments in the overall media environment, our relationships with media devices, and the quality of the media themselves. Those developments point to the increasing emotionality of the media world and its infrastructures. Mapping the trajectories of technological development and impact that the newer media exert on human condition, our analysis touches upon various forms of emergent affect, emotion, and feeling in order to trace the histories and motivations of the sensitization of “the media things” as well as the redefinition of our affective and emotional experiences through technologies that themselves “feel.”

  11. Sensitive innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Katia Dupret

    Present paper discusses sources of innovation as heterogenic and at times intangible processes. Arguing for heterogeneity and intangibility as sources of innovation originates from a theoretical reading in STS and ANT studies (e.g. Callon 1986, Latour 1996, Mol 2002, Pols 2005) and from field work...... in the area of mental health (Dupret Søndergaard 2009, 2010). The concept of sensitive innovation is developed to capture and conceptualise exactly those heterogenic and intangible processes. Sensitive innovation is therefore primarily a way to understand innovative sources that can be......, but are not necessarily, recognized and acknowledged as such in the outer organisational culture or by management. The added value that qualifies these processes to be defined as “innovative” are thus argued for along different lines than in more traditional innovation studies (e.g. studies that build on the classic...

  12. Avoiding malpractice suits through the use of informed consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annas, G J

    1976-03-01

    The doctrine of informed consent is based on a long tradition of promoting self-autonomy and rational decision-making. The amount of information required to be disclosed by the doctor to the patient is that which permits the patient to decide for himself whether or not to undergo the recommended treatment. It includes information about risks of death or serious bodily harm, probability of success, problems of recuperation, and alternative modes of treatment. Disclosing such information contributes to the doctor-patient relationship and therefore makes recourse to malpractice litigation in the face of an unsatisfactory or untoward result less likely. Attempts to abolish the doctrine are potentially counterproductive and could lead to widespread mistrust of the medical profession on the part of a society that increasingly demands more information in all areas. Physicians will best serve both themselves and their patients by fully disclosing all relevant information before asking patients to consent to specific therapies.

  13. Clinical utility of self-disclosure for adults who stutter: Apologetic versus informative statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Courtney T; Croft, Robyn; Gkalitsiou, Zoi; Hampton, Elizabeth

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore the clinical utility of self-disclosure, particularly, whether disclosing in an informative manner would result in more positive observer ratings of the speaker who stutters than either disclosing in an apologetic manner or choosing not to self-disclose at all. Observers (N=338) were randomly assigned to view one of six possible videos (i.e., adult male informative self-disclosure, adult male apologetic self-disclosure, adult male no self-disclosure, adult female informative self-disclosure, adult female apologetic self-disclosure, adult female no self-disclosure). Observers completed a survey assessing their perceptions of the speaker they viewed immediately after watching the video. Results suggest that self-disclosing in an informative manner leads to significantly more positive observer ratings than choosing not to self-disclose. In contrast, use of an apologetic statement, for the most part, does not yield significantly more positive ratings than choosing not to self-disclose. Clinicians should recommend their clients self-disclose in an informative manner to facilitate more positive observer perceptions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Energetic materials and methods of tailoring electrostatic discharge sensitivity of energetic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, Michael A.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Wallace, Ronald S.; Pantoya, Michelle L.; Collins, Eric S.

    2016-11-01

    An energetic material comprising an elemental fuel, an oxidizer or other element, and a carbon nanofiller or carbon fiber rods, where the carbon nanofiller or carbon fiber rods are substantially homogeneously dispersed in the energetic material. Methods of tailoring the electrostatic discharge sensitivity of an energetic material are also disclosed.

  15. Characterization of AVHRR global cloud detection sensitivity based on CALIPSO-CALIOP cloud optical thickness information: demonstration of results based on the CM SAF CLARA-A2 climate data record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Karl-Göran; Håkansson, Nina

    2018-02-01

    The sensitivity in detecting thin clouds of the cloud screening method being used in the CM SAF cloud, albedo and surface radiation data set from AVHRR data (CLARA-A2) cloud climate data record (CDR) has been evaluated using cloud information from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) onboard the CALIPSO satellite. The sensitivity, including its global variation, has been studied based on collocations of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and CALIOP measurements over a 10-year period (2006-2015). The cloud detection sensitivity has been defined as the minimum cloud optical thickness for which 50 % of clouds could be detected, with the global average sensitivity estimated to be 0.225. After using this value to reduce the CALIOP cloud mask (i.e. clouds with optical thickness below this threshold were interpreted as cloud-free cases), cloudiness results were found to be basically unbiased over most of the globe except over the polar regions where a considerable underestimation of cloudiness could be seen during the polar winter. The overall probability of detecting clouds in the polar winter could be as low as 50 % over the highest and coldest parts of Greenland and Antarctica, showing that a large fraction of optically thick clouds also remains undetected here. The study included an in-depth analysis of the probability of detecting a cloud as a function of the vertically integrated cloud optical thickness as well as of the cloud's geographical position. Best results were achieved over oceanic surfaces at mid- to high latitudes where at least 50 % of all clouds with an optical thickness down to a value of 0.075 were detected. Corresponding cloud detection sensitivities over land surfaces outside of the polar regions were generally larger than 0.2 with maximum values of approximately 0.5 over the Sahara and the Arabian Peninsula. For polar land surfaces the values were close to 1 or higher with maximum values of 4.5 for the parts

  16. Neurobehavioral and neurometabolic (SPECT) correlates of paranormal information: involvement of the right hemisphere and its sensitivity to weak complex magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roll, W G; Persinger, M A; Webster, D L; Tiller, S G; Cook, C M

    2002-02-01

    Experiments were designed to help elucidate the neurophysiological correlates for the experiences reported by Sean Harribance. For most of his life he has routinely experienced "flashes of images" of objects that were hidden and of accurate personal information concerning people with whom he was not familiar. The specificity of details for target pictures of people was correlated positively with the proportion of occipital alpha activity. Results from a complete neuropsychological assessment, Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT), and screening electroencephalography suggested that his experiences were associated with increased activity within the parietal lobe and occipital regions of the right hemisphere. Sensed presences (subjectively localized to his left side) were evoked when weak, magnetic fields, whose temporal structure simulated long-term potentiation in the hippocampus, were applied over his right temporoparietal lobes. These results suggest that the phenomena attributed to paranormal or "extrasensory" processes are correlated quantitatively with morphological and functional anomalies involving the right parietotemporal cortices (or its thalamic inputs) and the hippocampal formation.

  17. The internal model: A study of the relative contribution of proprioception and visual information to failure detection in dynamic systems. [sensitivity of operators versus monitors to failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, C.; Wickens, C. D.

    1978-01-01

    The development of the internal model as it pertains to the detection of step changes in the order of control dynamics is investigated for two modes of participation: whether the subjects are actively controlling those dynamics or are monitoring an autopilot controlling them. A transfer of training design was used to evaluate the relative contribution of proprioception and visual information to the overall accuracy of the internal model. Sixteen subjects either tracked or monitored the system dynamics as a 2-dimensional pursuit display under single task conditions and concurrently with a sub-critical tracking task at two difficulty levels. Detection performance was faster and more accurate in the manual as opposed to the autopilot mode. The concurrent tracking task produced a decrement in detection performance for all conditions though this was more marked for the manual mode. The development of an internal model in the manual mode transferred positively to the automatic mode producing enhanced detection performance. There was no transfer from the internal model developed in the automatic mode to the manual mode.

  18. Disclosing and Concealing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyverbom, Mikkel

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquity of digital technologies and the datafication of many domains of social liferaise important questions about governance. In the emergent field of internet governancestudies, most work has explored novel governance arrangements, institutional developmentsand the effects of interactions...... of the argument is that there is anintimate relationship between seeing, knowing and governing, and that digitalisation anddatafication processes fundamentally shape how we make things visible or invisible, knowableor unknowable and governable or ungovernable. Having articulated this conceptual argument...

  19. Sensitive Ceramics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Sensitive Ceramics is showing an interactive digital design tool for designing wall like composition with 3d ceramics. The experiment is working on two levels. One which has to do with designing compositions and patterns in a virtual 3d universe based on a digital dynamic system that responds on ...... with realizing the modules in ceramics by 3d printing directly in porcelain with a RapMan printer that coils up the 3d shape in layers. Finally the ceramic modules are mounted in a laser cut board that reflects the captured composition of the movement of the hands....

  20. Improving the information environment for analysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; Nielsen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    they have more information. Our results also show that intellectual capital disclosure related to employees and strategic statements are the most important disclosures for analysts. Research limitations/implications: More relevant methods, such as survey or interviews with management, may be used to improve...... the information content of intellectual capital disclosure. Analysts, probably, deduce intellectual capital of a firm from interaction with management rather than financial statements. Practical implications: Firms in biotechnology sector can improve their information environment by disclosing more information...

  1. Caregiver perceptions and motivation for disclosing or concealing the diagnosis of HIV infection to children receiving HIV care in Mbarara, Uganda: a qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Kiwanuka

    Full Text Available Disclosure of the diagnosis of HIV to HIV-infected children is challenging for caregivers. Despite current recommendations, data suggest that levels of disclosure of HIV status to HIV-infected children receiving care in resource-limited settings are very low. Few studies describe the disclosure process for children in these settings, particularly the motivators, antecedent goals, and immediate outcomes of disclosure to HIV-infected children. This study examined caregivers' perception of the disclosure concept prior to disclosure, their motivation towards or away from disclosure, and their short- and long-term intentions for disclosure to their HIV-infected children.In-depth interviews were conducted with primary caregivers of 40 HIV-infected children (ages 5-15 years who were receiving HIV care but did not know their HIV status.Caregivers of HIV-infected children mainly perceived disclosure as a single event rather than a process of gradual delivery of information about the child's illness. They viewed disclosure as potentially beneficial both to children and themselves, as well as an opportunity to explain the parents' role in the transmission of HIV to the children. Caregivers desired to personally conduct the disclosure; however, most reported being over-whelmed with fear of negative outcomes and revealed a lack of self-efficacy towards managing the disclosure process. Consequently, most cope by deception to avoid or delay disclosure until they perceive their own readiness to disclose.Interventions for HIV disclosure should consider that caregivers may desire to be directly responsible for disclosure to children under their care. They, however, need to be empowered with practical skills to recognize opportunities to initiate the disclosure process early, as well as supported to manage it in a phased, developmentally appropriate manner. The potential role for peer counselors in the disclosure process deserves further study.

  2. 78 FR 73864 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission to OMB for Review and Approval; Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... information to inform program and policy decision-making. Need and Proposed Use of the Information: ASPE's..., validating and verifying information, processing and maintaining information, and disclosing and providing...-30D] Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission to OMB for Review and Approval; Public...

  3. Cheat Sensitive Quantum Bit Commitment

    OpenAIRE

    Hardy, Lucien; Kent, Adrian

    1999-01-01

    We define cheat sensitive cryptographic protocols between mistrustful parties as protocols which guarantee that, if either cheats, the other has some nonzero probability of detecting the cheating. We give an example of an unconditionally secure cheat sensitive non-relativistic bit commitment protocol which uses quantum information to implement a task which is classically impossible; we also describe a simple relativistic protocol.

  4. Cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Lucien; Kent, Adrian

    2004-04-16

    We define cheat sensitive cryptographic protocols between mistrustful parties as protocols which guarantee that, if either cheats, the other has some nonzero probability of detecting the cheating. We describe an unconditionally secure cheat sensitive nonrelativistic bit commitment protocol which uses quantum information to implement a task which is classically impossible; we also describe a simple relativistic protocol.

  5. [Effects of the recipient's response on the emotions and cognitions of female undergraduates disclosing negative emotional experiences in interpersonal relationships].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Hiroko; Yukawa, Shintaro

    2013-04-01

    The relationship between a recipient's response to a disclosure of negative emotional experiences, and the resulting negative emotions, hesitation in self-disclosure (interpersonal and intra-personal hesitation), and negatively-confused thoughts of the person making the disclosure were investigated. Female undergraduates (N=271) were asked to write about angry or sad events in their interpersonal relationships that they had disclosed to someone. Then they completed a questionnaire assessing the recipient's responses, negative emotions such as anger and depression caused by the recipient's responses, hesitation in self-disclosure about the events, and negatively-confused thoughts about the events. The results of covariance structure analysis indicated that a recipient's rejection in response to the disclosure of negative emotional experiences resulted in negative thoughts caused by an increase of negative emotions and hesitation in self-disclosure. The results also showed that a recipient's acceptance also increased depression in the person making the self-disclosure, which intensified the intra-personal hesitation, and increased negatively-confused thoughts.

  6. Understanding the hesitancy to disclose teen dating violence: Correlates of self-efficacy to deal with teen dating violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hébert Martine

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dating violence (DV is now recognized as an important public health issue. Prevention and intervention programs are being implemented in school contexts. Such initiatives aim to raise awareness among potential victims and offenders as well as among peer bystanders and offer adequate interventions following disclosure. Yet, a major challenge remains as teenagers may not disclose their victimization or may not feel self-efficient to deal with DV if they witness such violence. As such, teen DV remains largely hidden. A representative sample of 8194 students (age 14-18 in the province of Quebec, Canada was used to explore teenagers’ self-efficacy to reach out for help or to help others in a situation of DV victimization and perpetration. Analyses are conducted to identify possible correlates of self-efficacy in terms of socio-demographic variable (sex, age and a history of child sexual abuse and dating victimization. Implications for preven­tion and support strategies are discussed.

  7. Disclosure of information on intellectual capital in Danish IPO prospectuses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukh, Per Nikolaj; Nielsen, Christian; Gormsen, P.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine whether information on intellectual capital (non-financial information on knowledge based resources) is disclosed in Danish IPO prospectuses. Further, to analyse whether this voluntary disclosure has changed in the period from 1999 to 2001 and to analyse what...... do not affect disclosure. The results are interpreted in the light of the increasing importance of disclosing information on value drivers, strategy and intellectual capital to the capital market and constitute a contribution to the ongoing debate on corporate reporting practices. Practical...... implications - Since information on intellectual capital is already disclosed in IPO prospectuses this reporting form can be used as inspiration when an intellectual capital report is developed. The results also indicate that companies and their advisers believe that this type of information is important...

  8. Context Sensitive Health Informatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuziemsky, Craig; Nøhr, Christian; Aarts, Jos

    2013-01-01

    Context is a key consideration when designing and evaluating health information technology (HIT) and cannot be overstated. Unintended consequences are common post HIT implementation and even well designed technology may not achieve desired outcomes because of contextual issues. While context should...... be considered in the design and evaluation of health information systems (HISs) there is a shortcoming of empirical research on contextual aspects of HIT. This conference integrates the sociotechnical and Human-Centered-Design (HCD) approaches and showcases current research on context sensitive health...... informatics. The papers and presentations outlines theories and models for studying contextual issues and insights on how we can better design HIT to accommodate different healthcare contexts....

  9. How to be Open about Spending : Innovating in Public Sector Reporting in the Information Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, A.S.C.; Budding, G.

    2017-01-01

    The field of public sector reporting is moving from vertical to horizontal accountability: from hierarchical relationships that mediate between public organisations and citizens to directly disclosing available information. IT developments play an important role in innovative forms of reporting that

  10. How to Be Open About Spending : Innovating in Public Sector Reporting in the Information Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, A.S.C.

    2018-01-01

    The field of public sector reporting is moving from vertical to horizontal accountability: from hierarchical relationships that mediate between public organisations and citizens to directly disclosing available information. IT developments play an important role in innovative forms of reporting that

  11. 78 FR 48413 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Voluntary Self-Disclosure of Antiboycott...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Voluntary Self- Disclosure of Antiboycott Violations AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and Security... Administration Regulations by providing a method for industry to voluntarily self-disclose Antiboycott violations...

  12. 32 CFR 700.1121 - Disclosure, publication and security of official information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... communications, publication, graphic (including photographic) or other means, any classified information except... shall convey or disclose by oral or written communication, publication or other means except as may be...

  13. 45 CFR 1622.5 - Grounds on which meetings may be closed or information withheld.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... in a civil action or proceeding, an action in a foreign court or international tribunal, or an... matters to be withheld; (c) Disclose trade secrets and commercial or financial information obtained from a...

  14. Articles Published in Technical Journals, Reports Published, Papers Presented at the Geneva Conference and at Scientific Meetings, and Inventions Disclosed During 1958 by ORNL Staff Members

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1958-01-01

    This compilation presents the articles that were published in the open literature or as unclassified ORNL reports, papers presented at the Geneva Conference and at scientific meetings, and inventions disclosed during 1957 by members of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Topics include biology, chemistry, general studies, health physics, instrumentation, mathematics, metallurgy and materials, physics, and technology.

  15. Shall I Tell You Where I Live and Who I Am? Factors Influencing the Behavioral Intention to Disclose Personal Data for Online Government Transactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beldad, Ardion Daroca; van der Geest, Thea; de Jong, Menno D.T.; Steehouder, M.F.

    2012-01-01

    The success of an online transaction with a government organization depends on citizen's willingness to share personal data relevant for the transaction. However, disclosing personal data online is oftentimes considered risky. It has been substantiated in a number of empirical studies that

  16. I trust not therefore it must be risky: Determinants of the perceived risks of disclosing personal data for e-government transactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beldad, Ardion Daroca; de Jong, Menno D.T.; Steehouder, M.F.

    2011-01-01

    Although it is plausible to assume that the risks of disclosing personal data online are inexorably more prevalent in transactions with commercial organizations than with government organizations, such risks can also thrive in exchanges with the latter. While it is argued that risk perceptions

  17. Infrared sensing based sensitive skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Zheng-cai; FU Yi-li; WANG Shu-guo; JIN Bao

    2006-01-01

    Developed robotics sensitive skin is a modularized, flexible, mini-type array of infrared sensors with data processing capabilities, which can be used to cover the body of a robot. Depending on the infrared sensors and periphery processing circuit, robotics sensitive skin can in real-time provide existence and distance information about obstacles for robots within sensory areas. The methodology of designing sensitive skin and the algorithm of a mass of IR data fusion are presented. The experimental results show that the multi-joint robot with this sensitive skin can work autonomously in an unknown environment.

  18. 78 FR 53172 - Agency Information Collection Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ...-199). The law strengthens the protections for federal employees who disclose evidence of waste, fraud... 312 will now appear in new section 11. Abstract: The National Security Act of 1947, as amended by the... Access to Classified National Security Information,'' authorizes the DNI as the Security Executive Agent...

  19. 7 CFR 984.79 - Confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential information. 984.79 Section 984.79 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... or disclosing the trade position, or financial condition or business operations of the handler shall...

  20. 7 CFR 982.70 - Confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential information. 982.70 Section 982.70 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... trade secret or disclosing of the trade position, financial condition, or business operations of the...

  1. 7 CFR 930.73 - Confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential information. 930.73 Section 930.73 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... a trade secret or disclosing trade position, financial condition, or business operations of the...

  2. 7 CFR 926.19 - Confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... RECORDKEEPING REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.19... data or information constituting a trade secret or disclosing the trade position or financial condition...

  3. 77 FR 2054 - Proposed Agency Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-13

    ... Consumption Data Access and Control Questionnaire; (3) Type of Request: New; (4) Purpose: The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will generate a ``crowd-sourced map'' that discloses consumer access to personal... questionnaire device that captures and publishes the necessary information as a series of web-based maps upon...

  4. Information Content of Mutual Fund Portfolio Disclosure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Wang (Yu)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAcademic financial economists have been keenly interested in the value of active portfolio management since the seminal paper of Jensen (1968). This book examines the information advantages that active mutual fund managers attain in financial markets through an analysis of disclosed fund

  5. Performance enhancement in the workplace: why and when healthy individuals should disclose their reliance on pharmaceutical cognitive enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garasic, Mirko D; Lavazza, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The use of pharmaceuticals cognitive enhancers (PCE) has been stirring growing interest, not only in the scientific domain but also in the popular media, and has probably had some increase recently in academic, professional and military quarters. So this phenomenon is deemed as a normal procedure aimed at improving the performance of an individual as well as the overall standards of an organization. Although the vast majority of countries have some kind of restrictions to reduce the wide non-medical usage of PCE, these can be overcome quite easily. In arguing for our explicit claim that, in many contexts, the use of cognitive enhancers should be disclosed-as a moral and socially relevant duty-we maintain that PCE present typical, or at least not rare, properties. The features are the following: (a) the enhancer has acute and/or chronic effects. In the first case, shortly after taking the drug the performance is significantly better than average; in the second case, there is a growing or lasting effect, which, however, is poised to diminish when one stops taking the drug; (b) those effects are significant (there is a difference in the outcome considered between taking and not taking the drug) and sometimes dramatic; and (c) a third feature, not directly related to enhancers as such, is their varying safety, availability, and legal permissibility, which might either induce people to take them or refrain them from doing so. We will consider the issue of fairness due to "unenhanced" people as well as the potentially dysfunctional social consequences of an undisclosed PCE use.

  6. “How should I tell my child?” Disclosing the Diagnosis of Sex Chromosome Aneuploidies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Anna; Howell, Susan; Cordeiro, Lisa; Tartaglia, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    To date, the disclosure of a sex chromosome aneuploidy (SCA) diagnosis to an affected individual has not been explored. This study aimed to assess the timing and content revealed to an affected child by his or her parent(s), resources accessed in preparation, parental feelings of preparedness, common parental concerns, and recommendations for disclosure approaches. Two online surveys were created: 1) for parents of a child with a diagnosis and 2) for individuals with a diagnosis. One-hundred thirty-nine parent surveys (XXY n=68, XXX n=21, XYY n=9, other SCAs n=41) and 67 individual surveys (XXY n=58, XXX n=9) were analyzed. Parents most frequently discussed the topics of learning disabilities (47%) and genetics (45%) with their child during the initial disclosure. A significantly greater proportion of parent respondents reported feeling prepared vs. unprepared for disclosure, regardless of their child’s diagnosis (z-test of proportions, all p’sparents most frequently accessed resources such as websites, support groups, and discussion with the child’s physician prior to disclosure, with unprepared parents accessing fewer resources (M = 2.0 ± 1.41) than prepared parents [M= 2. ± 1.56; t(101) = −2.02, pparental concerns included making the conversation age-appropriate, discussing infertility, and possible impact on the child’s self-esteem. Both parent and individual respondents endorsed being honest with the child, disclosing the diagnosis early and before puberty, and discussing the diagnosis gradually over time. These results provide recommendations for parents, and suggest benefits from additional resources and supports to alleviate concerns when approaching diagnosis disclosure. PMID:25179748

  7. Nutritional value of diets disclosed in non-scientific magazines - doi: 10.5020/18061230.2010.p349

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Vanessa Gomes de Lima

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the nutritional value of weight-loss diets disclosed in non-scientific magazines. Methods: A quantitative cross-sectional study carried out in two phases (first investigation in 2007; second investigation in 2009, in which 120 weight-loss diets were randomly selected from 24 magazines divided into three groups based on cost. The menus were evaluated with regard to calories, macronutrients and fiber, using the Diet Pro 2 program. The SPSS program (version 15.0 was used for statistical analysis, with the results expressed as mean, standard deviation and confidence intervals. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA with Tukey’s paired post hoc comparison was used for the quantitative study of the nutrients in each group of magazines and each phase of the study. The Student’s t-test was used for the comparisons of mean values obtained with the diets and established recommendations. The level of significance was set at 5.0%. Results: The energy supply was higher in 2007. Over time, mean protein content in the diets diminished, lipid content remained similar and glucose content increased. Based on the recommended values, the diets were characterized as hypoglycemic, high-protein and normolipidemic. The content of micronutrients was lower than recommended amounts in both years assessed. The fiber content increased in the second year in relation to the first, but did not reach the recommended level. Conclusion: Diets showed inadequacies of macro and micronutrients in the two studied years, with an imbalance between their components.

  8. Disclosing intimate partner violence to health care clinicians - What a difference the setting makes: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finley Erin

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite endorsement by national organizations, the impact of screening for intimate partner violence (IPV is understudied, particularly as it occurs in different clinical settings. We analyzed interviews of IPV survivors to understand the risks and benefits of disclosing IPV to clinicians across specialties. Methods Participants were English-speaking female IPV survivors recruited through IPV programs in Massachusetts. In-depth interviews describing medical encounters related to abuse were analyzed for common themes using Grounded Theory qualitative research methods. Encounters with health care clinicians were categorized by outcome (IPV disclosure by patient, discovery evidenced by discussion of IPV by clinician without patient disclosure, or non-disclosure, attribute (beneficial, unhelpful, harmful, and specialty (emergency department (ED, primary care (PC, obstetrics/gynecology (OB/GYN. Results Of 27 participants aged 18–56, 5 were white, 10 Latina, and 12 black. Of 59 relevant health care encounters, 23 were in ED, 17 in OB/GYN, and 19 in PC. Seven of 9 ED disclosures were characterized as unhelpful; the majority of disclosures in PC and OB/GYN were characterized as beneficial. There were no harmful disclosures in any setting. Unhelpful disclosures resulted in emotional distress and alienation from health care. Regardless of whether disclosure occurred, beneficial encounters were characterized by familiarity with the clinician, acknowledgement of the abuse, respect and relevant referrals. Conclusion While no harms resulted from IPV disclosure, survivor satisfaction with disclosure is shaped by the setting of the encounter. Clinicians should aim to build a therapeutic relationship with IPV survivors that empowers and educates patients and does not demand disclosure.

  9. Stock Price Synchronicity and Material Sustainability Information

    OpenAIRE

    Grewal, Jody; Hauptmann, Clarissa; Serafeim, Georgios

    2017-01-01

    We examine if, and under what conditions, disclosure of sustainability information identified as investor relevant by market-driven innovations in accounting standard-setting, is associated with stock prices reflecting more firm-specific information and thereby lower synchronicity with market and industry returns. We find that firms voluntarily disclosing more sustainability information, identified as material by the Sustainability Accounting Standards Board (SASB), have lower stock price syn...

  10. Ethical and legal issues involved in the pro-active collection of personal information with the aim of reducing online disclosure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, J

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available aims to highlight some of the major ethical and legal issues when pro-actively collecting personal information, through a South African case study, to assist in reducing the amounts of personal information being disclosed online....

  11. Non-completion and informed consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertheimer, Alan

    2014-02-01

    There is a good deal of biomedical research that does not produce scientifically useful data because it fails to recruit a sufficient number of subjects. This fact is typically not disclosed to prospective subjects. In general, the guidance about consent concerns the information required to make intelligent self-interested decisions and ignores some of the information required for intelligent altruistic decisions. Bioethics has worried about the 'therapeutic misconception', but has ignored the 'completion misconception'. This article argues that, other things being equal, prospective subjects should be informed about the possibility of non-completion as part of the standard consent process if (1) it is or should be anticipatable that there is a non-trivial possibility of non-completion and (2) that information is likely to be relevant to a prospective subject's decision to consent. The article then considers several objections to the argument, including the objection that disclosing non-completion information would make recruitment even more difficult.

  12. Phase sensitive multichannel OCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trasischker, W.

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of this thesis was to develop and improve phase sensitive, multichannel methods for optical coherence tomography (OCT) using light in the 840 nm and 1040 nm regime. Conventional OCT provides purely structural information by illuminating the sample by one beam and recording the backscattered signal with one detection channel. Combination of this approach with a raster scan enables the acquisition of 2D and 3D structural information with a resolution in the micrometer regime. However, sometimes additional image contrast or information is desired. Amongst other approaches, this can be provided by a phase sensitive analysis of the interference pattern. Combining phase sensitivity with the illumination of the sample by more than one beam and/or by recording the data using more than one data acquisition channel allows for even more enhanced imaging. While phase sensitive OCT gives access to additional contrast and information, multichannel OCT can provide higher imaging speed, scan eld size and exible dierential measurements. Amongst the dierential, phase sensitive approaches, Doppler OCT (DOCT) and polarization sensitive OCT (PS-OCT) are two of the most promising OCT modalities. While the former targets information on the movement of backscattering particles, the latter measures alterations of the polarization state of the light induced by the sample. Both techniques provide additional image contrast and are, due to the non-invasive and fast character of OCT, well suited for in vivo imaging of the human eye. In the course of this thesis, two dierent multichannel, phase sensitive OCT systems will be presented. First, a D-OCT system with three dierent sampling beams is described. With a central wavelength of 840 nm these three beams are emitted by three individual laser sources. This eectively eliminates any cross talk and provides the full depth range for each channel. Furthermore, by illuminating the sample from three dierent directions, the absolute

  13. Schizophrenia spectrum participants have reduced visual contrast sensitivity to chromatic (red/green and luminance (light/dark stimuli: new insights into information processing, visual channel function and antipsychotic effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Suzanne Cadenhead

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Individuals with schizophrenia spectrum diagnoses have deficient visual information processing as assessed by a variety of paradigms including visual backward masking, motion perception and visual contrast sensitivity (VCS. In the present study, the VCS paradigm was used to investigate potential differences in magnocellular (M versus parvocellular (P channel function that might account for the observed information processing deficits of schizophrenia spectrum patients. Specifically, VCS for near threshold luminance (black/white stimuli is known to be governed primarily by the M channel, while VCS for near threshold chromatic (red/green stimuli is governed by the P channel. Methods: VCS for luminance and chromatic stimuli (counterphase-reversing sinusoidal gratings, 1.22 c/deg, 8.3 Hz was assessed in 53 patients with schizophrenia (including 5 off antipsychotic medication, 22 individuals diagnosed with schizotypal personality disorder and 53 healthy comparison subjects. Results: Schizophrenia spectrum groups demonstrated reduced VCS in both conditions relative to normals, and there was no significant group by condition interaction effect. Post-hoc analyses suggest that it was the patients with schizophrenia on antipsychotic medication as well as SPD participants who accounted for the deficits in the luminance condition. Conclusions: These results demonstrate visual information processing deficits in schizophrenia spectrum populations but do not support the notion of selective abnormalities in the function of subcortical channels as suggested by previous studies. Further work is needed in a longitudinal design to further assess VCS as a vulnerability marker for psychosis as well as the effect of antipsychotic agents on performance in schizophrenia spectrum populations.

  14. Phylogeographic pattern and extensive mitochondrial DNA divergence disclose a species complex within the Chagas disease vector Triatoma dimidiata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando A Monteiro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Triatoma dimidiata is among the main vectors of Chagas disease in Latin America. However, and despite important advances, there is no consensus about the taxonomic status of phenotypically divergent T. dimidiata populations, which in most recent papers are regarded as subspecies. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: A total of 126 cyt b sequences (621 bp long were produced for specimens from across the species range. Forty-seven selected specimens representing the main cyt b clades observed (after a preliminary phylogenetic analysis were also sequenced for an ND4 fragment (554 bp long and concatenated with their respective cyt b sequences to produce a combined data set totalling 1175 bp/individual. Bayesian and Maximum-Likelihood phylogenetic analyses of both data sets (cyt b, and cyt b+ND4 disclosed four strongly divergent (all pairwise Kimura 2-parameter distances >0.08, monophyletic groups: Group I occurs from Southern Mexico through Central America into Colombia, with Ecuadorian specimens resembling Nicaraguan material; Group II includes samples from Western-Southwestern Mexico; Group III comprises specimens from the Yucatán peninsula; and Group IV consists of sylvatic samples from Belize. The closely-related, yet formally recognized species T. hegneri from the island of Cozumel falls within the divergence range of the T. dimidiata populations studied. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that Groups I-IV, as well as T. hegneri, should be regarded as separate species. In the Petén of Guatemala, representatives of Groups I, II, and III occur in sympatry; the absence of haplotypes with intermediate genetic distances, as shown by multimodal mismatch distribution plots, clearly indicates that reproductive barriers actively promote within-group cohesion. Some sylvatic specimens from Belize belong to a different species - likely the basal lineage of the T. dimidiata complex, originated ~8.25 Mya. The evidence presented here strongly supports the proposition

  15. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas, Gulf of Mexico, Upper Coast of Texas PDFs 1996, Louisiana 2003, Mississippi 2009, Alabama 2007, Florida 1995-2003 maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0064870)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The most widely used approach to sensitive environment mapping in the U.S. is NOAA's Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI). This approach systematically complies...

  16. Generalized tolerance sensitivity and DEA metric sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Neralić, Luka; E. Wendell, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the relationship between Tolerance sensitivity analysis in optimization and metric sensitivity analysis in Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). Herein, we extend the results on the generalized Tolerance framework proposed by Wendell and Chen and show how this framework includes DEA metric sensitivity as a special case. Further, we note how recent results in Tolerance sensitivity suggest some possible extensions of the results in DEA metric sensitivity.

  17. Generalized tolerance sensitivity and DEA metric sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luka Neralić

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the relationship between Tolerance sensitivity analysis in optimization and metric sensitivity analysis in Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA. Herein, we extend the results on the generalized Tolerance framework proposed by Wendell and Chen and show how this framework includes DEA metric sensitivity as a special case. Further, we note how recent results in Tolerance sensitivity suggest some possible extensions of the results in DEA metric sensitivity.

  18. Information acquisition and disclosure by firms in the presence of additional available information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenigsgruber, R.; Boisits, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we analyze a model which addresses two stylized facts which have received little attention in disclosure theory. (a) Information that is acquired for internal decision-making can subsequently be disclosed to outside investors who can use it to update their assessment of the firm’s

  19. When the face reveals what words do not: facial expressions of emotion, smiling, and the willingness to disclose childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanno, George A; Keltner, Dacher; Noll, Jennie G; Putnam, Frank W; Trickett, Penelope K; LeJeune, Jenna; Anderson, Cameron

    2002-07-01

    For survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA), verbal disclosure is often complex and painful. The authors examined the voluntary disclosure-nondisclosure of CSA in relation to nonverbal expressions of emotion in the face. Consistent with hypotheses derived from recent theorizing about the moral nature of emotion, CSA survivors who did not voluntarily disclose CSA showed greater facial expressions of shame, whereas CSA survivors who voluntarily disclosed CSA expressed greater disgust. Expressions of disgust also signaled sexual abuse accompanied by violence. Consistent with recent theorizing about smiling behavior, CSA nondisclosers made more polite smiles, whereas nonabused participants expressed greater genuine positive emotion. Discussion addressed the implications of these findings for the study of disclosure of traumatic events, facial expression, and the links between morality and emotion.

  20. 5 CFR 1631.17 - Deletion of exempted information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deletion of exempted information. 1631.17... Deletion of exempted information. Where requested records contain matters which are exempted under 5 U.S.C... disclosed by the Board with deletions. To each such record, the Board shall attach a written justification...

  1. 5 CFR 2502.18 - Deletion of exempted information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deletion of exempted information. 2502.18... Charges for Search and Reproduction § 2502.18 Deletion of exempted information. Where requested records... the remainder of the records, they shall be disclosed by the Office with deletions. To each such...

  2. Shaping Political Preferences: Information Effects in Political-Administrative Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blom-Hansen, Jens; Bækgaard, Martin; Serritzlew, Søren

    2016-01-01

    shows that even in a setting where the information is not disclosed by a powerful sender, information may have a stronger impact on political preferences than other well-known determinants such as committee and party affiliation. Our findings speak to learning theories, knowledge perspectives...

  3. 77 FR 4404 - Agency Information Collection Activity; Proposed Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... by family members who make gifts of common stock or partnership interests and retain senior interests... information is required, and how the transfer is to be disclosed on the gift tax return (Form 709). Current..., maintenance, and purchase of services to provide information. Approved: January 17, 2012. Yvette Lawrence, IRS...

  4. 12 CFR 4.12 - Information available under the FOIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... commercial or financial information, furnished in confidence, that relates to the business, personal, or... commercial information); (5) An intra-agency or interagency memorandum or letter not routinely available by... an agency conducting a lawful national security intelligence investigation; (vi) Disclose techniques...

  5. A Survey on the Attitude of Professors & Residents of Clinical Wards about Disclosing the Results of Diagnoses for Incurable Patients at Urmia University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH Miri Ghaffarzadeh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: One of the most important and complicated problems in medical ethics is to disclose the full truth about diagnosis of incurable diseases which leads to death, and each therapist may be encountered with it during the years of medical profession.

    The aim of this study was to survey on attitude of professors and residents of clinical wards to disclose the diagnosis for incurable patients leading to death.

     

    Methods: In this descriptive study, sampling was carried out by a survey. All faculty members and their residents of teaching hospitals of Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran, were surveyed as sample in 2007. Of 145 subjects, 138 responded to the questionnaire. The collected data were analyzed using Pearson and Spearman correlation tests with a p≤0.05 being considered as significant.

     

    Results: In this study, the tendency to disclose the diagnosis among faculty members and residents was 64.63%. Also, there was no significant relation between age, sex, university degree, educational field, years of service of the faculty members and residents of clinical wards with the tendency for telling the truth to incurable patients.

     

    Conclusion: Final analyses revealed that the faculty members and clinical residents of different fields in terms of diagnosis disclosure do not have a definite idea. However, the majority of them agree to disclose the full truth about diagnoses.

     

  6. 40 CFR 1603.7 - Grounds on which meetings may be closed or information may be withheld.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... court or international tribunal, or an arbitration, or the initiation, conduct, or disposition by the... withheld; (d) Disclose trade secrets and commercial or financial information obtained from a person and...

  7. 12 CFR 216.11 - Limits on redisclosure and reuse of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... RESERVE SYSTEM PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION (REGULATION P) Limits on Disclosures § 216.11... disclose that information to a third party for marketing purposes or use that information for your own marketing purposes. (b)(1) Information you receive outside of an exception. If you receive nonpublic...

  8. 17 CFR 160.11 - Limits on redisclosure and reuse of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... COMMISSION PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Limits on Disclosures § 160.11 Limits on redisclosure... personal information from a nonaffiliated financial institution under an exception in §§ 160.14 or 160.15, your disclosure and use of that information is limited as follows: (i) You may disclose the information...

  9. 12 CFR 573.11 - Limits on redisclosure and reuse of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Limits on Disclosures § 573.11 Limits on redisclosure and reuse... information from a nonaffiliated financial institution under an exception in § 573.14 or 573.15 of this part, your disclosure and use of that information is limited as follows: (i) You may disclose the information...

  10. Context Sensitive Health Informatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    involves careful consideration of both human and organizational factors. This book presents the proceedings of the Context Sensitive Health Informatics (CSHI) conference, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August 2013. The theme of this year’s conference is human and sociotechnical approaches. The Human...... different healthcare contexts. Healthcare organizations, health policy makers and regulatory bodies globally are starting to acknowledge this essential role of human and organizational factors for safe and effective health information technology. This book will be of interest to all those involved......Healthcare information technologies are now routinely deployed in a variety of healthcare contexts. These contexts differ widely, but the smooth integration of IT systems is crucial, so the design, implementation, and evaluation of safe, effective, efficient and easy to adopt health informatics...

  11. Strategic Information Disclosure and Competition for an Imperfectly Protected Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Jos

    2010-01-01

    The imperfect appropriability of revenues from innovation affects the incentives of firms to invest, and to disclose information about their innovative productivity. It creates a free-rider effect in the competition for the innovation that countervails the familiar business-stealing effect. Moreo...... appropriability and strategic disclosure for the firms’ profits and the probability of innovation.......The imperfect appropriability of revenues from innovation affects the incentives of firms to invest, and to disclose information about their innovative productivity. It creates a free-rider effect in the competition for the innovation that countervails the familiar business-stealing effect...

  12. Financial Management: Issues to Be Considered by DoD in Developing Guidance for Disclosing Deferred Maintenance on Ships

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    ..., and help make difficult policy choices. Recognizing the extent of incomplete and unreliable information on the cost and consequences of government programs and activities, these laws have made implementing new accounting standards...

  13. Change of risk information disclosure in annual report. Before and after earthquake disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Takefumi

    2011-01-01

    This research examines how risk information disclosure is changing in annual report before and after East Japan Great Earthquake Disaster. Company voluntary disclose risk information in annual report. Manager can decide a style and items of risk information. This paper explores risk information disclosures of Tokyo Electric Power Company, Chubu Power Electric Company, Kansai Electric Power Company and Toyota Motor Corporation. The managers except Tokyo Electric Company are likely to disclose own catastrophe risk before the disaster. However, they do not try to reduce their risk. Corporations' risk information do not link with own risk management. (author)

  14. Sensitization to palladium in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muris, Joris; Goossens, An; Gonçalo, Margarida

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently, sodium tetrachloropalladate (Na2 PdCl4 ) was found to be a more sensitive palladium patch test allergen than palladium dichloride (PdCl2 ). OBJECTIVES: To determine the optimal test concentration of Na2 PdCl4 , to evaluate the prevalence of palladium sensitization with Na2 P...... patch test concentration. Sensitization to palladium is almost as prevalent as sensitization to nickel. The sex distribution is different between nickel-sensitized and palladium-sensitized patients, suggesting different sources of exposure.......Cl4 and PdCl2 , and to compare the results with nickel sensitization in a European multicentre study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In addition to the European or national baseline series including NiSO4 ·6H2 0 5% pet., consecutive patients were tested with PdCl2 and Na2 PdCl4 2%, 3% and 4% pet. in eight...... European dermatology clinics. The age and sex distributions were also evaluated in patients sensitized to nickel and palladium. RESULTS: In total, 1651 patients were tested. Relative to 3% Na2 PdCl4 , 4% Na2 PdCl4 did not add any information. Two per cent Na2 PdCl4 resulted in more doubtful reactions...

  15. Legal, cultural and ethical considerations on the informing of the cancer patient: a perspective from Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kousathana, L; Kousathana, F; Karamanou, M; Kousoulis, A A

    2013-01-01

    To discuss the current official legal position of the Greek Council and the official international statement on the subject, as well as the emerging cultural and moral aspects on the issue of informing the cancer patient. Perusal of national and international legal and ethics sources, under a multidisciplinary perspective. According to the Council of State of Greece the violation of informing the patient by the physician constitutes urban liability and disciplinary offence. The Greek Code of Medical Ethics declares that the physician is obliged to inform his patient about his health and respect the desire of the patient who decides not to be informed. The UNESCO declaration does not seem to clarify the subject. In Greece, physicians have the tendency to tell the truth more often today than in the past, reflecting the global tendency, although the majority still discloses the truth to the next of kin. The difference in the tactics of informing in several nations reflects huge cultural, social, economic and religious differences in each society. Well informed and knowledgeable health-care and legal professionals, alongside with patients and ethical directors, should sit at the same table in order to productively discuss the most sensitive matters of the contemporary medical practice.

  16. 24 CFR 5.218 - Penalties for failing to disclose and verify Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and verify Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers. 5.218 Section 5.218 Housing and Urban... REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Disclosure and Verification of Social Security Numbers and Employer Identification Numbers; Procedures for Obtaining Income Information Disclosure and Verification of Social Security...

  17. Aged-care nurses in rural Tasmanian clinical settings more likely to think hypothetical medication error would be reported and disclosed compared to hospital and community nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnes, Debra; Kilpatrick, Sue; Iedema, Rick

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to determine the likelihood that rural nurses perceive a hypothetical medication error would be reported in their workplace. This employs cross-sectional survey using hypothetical error scenario with varying levels of harm. Clinical settings in rural Tasmania. Participants were 116 eligible surveys received from registered and enrolled nurses. Frequency of responses indicating the likelihood that severe, moderate and near miss (no harm) scenario would 'always' be reported or disclosed. Eighty per cent of nurses viewed a severe error would 'always' be reported, 64.8% a moderate error and 45.7% a near-miss error. In regards to disclosure, 54.7% felt this was 'always' likely to occur for a severe error, 44.8% for a moderate error and 26.4% for a near miss. Across all levels of severity, aged-care nurses were more likely than nurses in other settings to view error to 'always' be reported (ranging from 72-96%, P = 0.010 to 0.042,) and disclosed (68-88%, P = 0.000). Those in a management role were more likely to view error to 'always' be disclosed compared to those in a clinical role (50-77.3%, P = 0.008-0.024). Further research in rural clinical settings is needed to improve the understanding of error management and disclosure. © 2015 The Authors. Australian Journal of Rural Health published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of National Rural Health Alliance.

  18. Information disclosure in corporate social responsibility reports. The case of Lithuanian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sviesa Leitoniene

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Though the phenomenon of corporate social responsibility (CSR is closely scrutinized in studies of both Lithuanian and foreign scholars, the problem is the quality of social information disclosed in social re-sponsibility reports. The objective of this article is to analyse the quality of disclosed information in CRS reports of Lithuanian companies. The characteristics of quality of information were comparability, relia-bility, objectivity and sustainability. The research demonstrated that in Lithuania, CSR reports provide unreliable information, which is only partly comparable and objective, however, relatively sustainable.

  19. Information disclosure in corporate social responsibility reports. The case of Lithuanian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sviesa Leitoniene

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Though the phenomenon of corporate social responsibility (CSR is closely scrutinized in studies of both Lithuanian and foreign scholars, the problem is the quality of social information disclosed in social re- sponsibility reports. The objective of this article is to analyse the quality of disclosed information in CRS reports of Lithuanian companies. The characteristics of quality of information were comparability, relia- bility, objectivity and sustainability. The research demonstrated that in Lithuania, CSR reports provide unreliable information, which is only partly comparable and objective, however, relatively sustainable.

  20. 12 CFR 366.13 - What is my obligation regarding confidential information?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... services on your behalf may use or disclose information obtained from us or a third party in connection... general public. (b) The following are examples of when your use of confidential information is... financial information, such as a financial statement to an unauthorized party. ...

  1. 47 CFR 64.2011 - Notification of customer proprietary network information security breaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... information security breaches. 64.2011 Section 64.2011 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... Proprietary Network Information § 64.2011 Notification of customer proprietary network information security... criminal investigation or national security, such agency may direct the carrier not to so disclose or...

  2. 78 FR 22888 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    ... to be collected, and (4) the use of automated collection techniques or other forms of information... with the Division of Grants Management Operations for their assistance in the overall evaluation of... information, and disclosing and providing information, to train personnel and to be able to respond to a...

  3. 42 CFR 423.128 - Dissemination of Part D plan information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dissemination of Part D plan information. 423.128... Protections § 423.128 Dissemination of Part D plan information. (a) Detailed description. A Part D sponsor must disclose the information specified in paragraph (b) of this section in the manner specified by CMS...

  4. 12 CFR 573.6 - Information to be included in privacy notices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and 573.15; (4) The categories of nonpublic personal information about your former customers that you... personal information about your former customers, other than those parties to whom you disclose information... applicable; and (ii) State whether the third party is: (A) A service provider that performs marketing...

  5. 77 FR 67656 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection: Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-13

    ... beyond their contracted periods of service. However, many sites are unaware of their influence and impact on clinician retention levels. The purpose of this project is to gather survey information from..., processing and maintaining information, and disclosing and providing information; to train personnel and to...

  6. Strategic Disclosure of Demand Information by Duopolists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Jos; Pollak, Andreas

    We study the strategic disclosure of demand information and product-market strategies of duopolists. In a setting where firms may fail to receive information, we show that firms selectively disclose information in equilibrium in order to influence their competitor's product-market strategy....... Subsequently, we analyze the firms' behavior in a laboratory experiment. We find that subjects often use selective disclosure strategies, and this finding appears to be robust to changes in the information structure, the mode of competition, and the degree of product-market conduct that is largely consistent...

  7. Professional Performance and Bureaucratic Benchmarking Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Melanie L.; Mahlendorf, Matthias D.; Schäffer, Utz

    Prior research documents positive effects of benchmarking information provision on performance and attributes this to social comparisons. However, the effects on professional recipients are unclear. Studies of professional control indicate that professional recipients often resist bureaucratic...... controls because of organizational-professional conflicts. We therefore analyze the association between bureaucratic benchmarking information provision and professional performance and suggest that the association is more positive if prior professional performance was low. We test our hypotheses based...... on archival, publicly disclosed, professional performance data for 191 German orthopedics departments, matched with survey data on bureaucratic benchmarking information given to chief orthopedists by the administration. We find a positive association between bureaucratic benchmarking information provision...

  8. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Rhode Island, Connecticut, and the New York-New Jersey Metropolitan Area - Volume 1, Geographic Information Systems data and Volume 2, Maps in Portable Document Format (NODC Accession 0014792)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Rhode Island, Connecticut, and the New York - New Jersey Metropolitan Area from 1999 to...

  9. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas (2): Cook Inlet - 2002, Kodiak - 1998, Southeast - 2002, Bristol Bay - 2004, Prince William Sound - 2000, Aleutians - 2001, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0050372)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Alaska; Kodiak (1998), Prince William Sound (2000), Aleutians (2001), Cook Inlet (2002),...

  10. Security Notice To Federal, State and Local Officials Receiving Access to the Risk Management Program’s Off-site Consequence Analysis Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Based on the Chemical Safety Information, Site Security and Fuels Regulatory Relief Act (CSISSFRRA), this notice states that while you may share with the public data from OCA sections, it is illegal to disclose/distribute the sections themselves.

  11. Coming Out to Dad: Young Gay and Bisexual Men's Experiences Disclosing Same-Sex Attraction to Their Fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadwin-Cakmak, Laura A; Pingel, Emily S; Harper, Gary W; Bauermeister, José A

    2015-07-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between young gay and bisexual men (YGBM) and their fathers. Based on a phenomenological framework, this study investigated the role of fathers in YGBM's coming-out experience, focusing on how fathers responded to disclosure of same-sex attraction, how fathers' responses compared with sons' expectations, and what sons perceived as having influenced their fathers' responses. Semistructured in-depth interviews with 30 gay and bisexual men aged 18 to 24 years were conducted as part of a larger study; topics explored in the interview included experiences coming out to family and others. Nineteen participants' narratives included discussion about their fathers and were included in the current analyses. The YGBM who were interviewed perceived a complex range of responses upon coming out to their fathers, ranging from enthusiastic acceptance to physical violence. Participants spoke of fathers who were accepting in different manners and who often held contradictory attitudes about same-sex attraction. Fathers' responses commonly differed from sons' expectations, which were informed by homophobic talk and gendered expectations. Sons spoke about what informed their expectations as well as what they perceived as influencing their fathers' responses, including gender norms, beliefs regarding the cause of same-sex attraction, religious and sociopolitical views, and concerns about HIV/AIDS. Particularly striking was the pervasive influence of hegemonic masculinity throughout the YGBM's stories. The implications of these findings for future research and intervention development are discussed, as well as study strengths and limitations. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Single TCR-Vβ2 evaluation discloses the circulating T cell clone in Sezary syndrome: one family fits all!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scala, Enrico; Abeni, Damiano; Pomponi, Debora; Russo, Nicoletta; Russo, Giandomenico; Narducci, Maria Grazia

    2015-08-01

    Sézary Syndrome (SS/L-CTCL) is a rare but aggressive variant of cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL), characterized by erythroderma, lymphadenopathy, and the presence of a circulating memory CD4(+) T cell malignant clone with a skin homing behavior, lacking CD26 and CD49d and over-expressing CD60. The availability of a panel of monoclonal antibodies recognizing distinct TCR-Vβ families, allows to typify the clone by flow cytometry in about 70 % of cases. The TCR-Vβ repertoire of 533 individuals, comprising 308 patients affected by CTCL, 50 healthy donors, and subjects affected by various non-neoplastic dermatological affections was evaluated by flow cytometry. Statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS statistical software package for Microsoft Windows (SPSS, version 21, Chicago, IL). TCR-Vβ2 levels below 5.4 % or above 39.5 %, within total CD4(+) T cells, showed the best balance between sensitivity (98.1 %) and specificity (96 %) to identify the presence of a clone in the peripheral blood of patients affected by SS. Based on this observation, a "two-step" procedure in the detection of the malignant T cell clone in CTCLs is herein suggested. TCR-Vβ2 assessment in all cases (first step). In the case of TCR-Vβ2 levels above 39.5 %, the presence of a clonal expansion of this family is suggested, deserving further confirmation by means of T cell gene rearrangement evaluation. In patients having a TCR-Vβ2 reactivity below 5.4 % (second step), the entire TCR-Vβ repertoire should be evaluated to typify the expanded clone. In conclusion, the single TCR-Vβ2 expression check, instead of the entire repertoire assessment, represents an easy and cost-effective method for the recognition of CTCL aggressive leukemic variant.

  13. Japanese Adolescents' Disclosure and Information Management with Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nucci, Larry; Smetana, Judith; Araki, Noriyuki; Nakaue, Masataka; Comer, Jessamy

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents' obligation to disclose and their actual disclosure about their activities to parents, justifications for nondisclosure, and strategies for information management were examined in different domains in 460 middle adolescents (M[subscript age] = 16.6 years) from working and middle-class families in Japan. Adolescents felt most obligated…

  14. 17 CFR 200.80 - Commission records and information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... intelligence investigation, information furnished by a confidential source; (v) Would disclose techniques or... Commission publishes weekly the SEC Docket, which prints the full text of every Commission release. (iii) The... obtained from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402. (iv...

  15. THE DISCLOSURE OF INFORMATION ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ON THE CORPORATE WEBSITE OF THE CERTIFIED PORTUGUESE ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Carvalho

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Internet is a privileged means of communication towards Sustainable Development (SD, where information disclosed knows no borders. The aim of the study is to determine the nature of the content that is disclosed on the corporate website and the profile of the certified Portuguese organizations which disclose information on SD, that is, about Integrated Management Systems (IMS, Corporate Sustainability (CS and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR. This research consists of an exploratory analysis of the institutional website of 422 organizations with certified management systems in quality (ISO 9001, environment (ISO 14001 and occupational health and safety (BS OHSAS 18001. The research was based on the content analysis method, which allowed quantifying the contents of the information disclosed on the website by category and subcategories of analysis. The content available on the website was quantified using the Information Disclosure Index (IDI. The certified Portuguese organizations with greater business volume (turnover and the public limited companies (PLC disclose more information on SD on their website than the others.

  16. Coming out to dad: Young gay and bisexual men’s experiences disclosing same-sex attraction to their fathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadwin-Cakmak, Laura A.; Pingel, Emily S.; Harper, Gary; Bauermeister, José A.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between young gay and bisexual men and their fathers. Using a phenomenological framework, this study investigated the role of fathers in young gay and bisexual men’s coming out experience, focusing on how fathers responded to disclosure of same-sex attraction, how fathers’ responses compared with sons’ expectations, and what sons perceived as having influenced their fathers’ responses. Semi-structured in-depth interviews with 30 gay and bisexual men ages 18–24 were conducted as part of a larger study; topics explored in the interview included experiences coming out to family and others. Nineteen participants’ narratives included discussion about their fathers and were included in the current analyses. The young gay and bisexual men who were interviewed perceived a complex range of responses upon coming out to their fathers, ranging from enthusiastic acceptance to physical violence. Participants spoke of fathers who were accepting in different manners and who often held contradictory attitudes about same-sex attraction. Fathers’ responses commonly differed from sons’ expectations, which were informed by homophobic talk and gendered expectations. Sons spoke about what informed their expectations as well as what they perceived as influencing their fathers’ response, including gender norms, beliefs regarding the cause of SSA, religious views, sociopolitical views, and concerns about HIV/AIDS. The pervasive influence of hegemonic masculinity throughout the young gay and bisexual men’s stories was particularly striking. The implications of these findings for future research and intervention development are discussed, as well as study strengths and limitations. PMID:24989422

  17. Inform@ed space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Peter; Olsen, Kasper Nefer

    2001-01-01

    Inform@ed space Sensorial Perception And Computer Enchancement - bidrag til Nordisk Arkitekturforskningsforenings IT-konference, AAA april 2001.......Inform@ed space Sensorial Perception And Computer Enchancement - bidrag til Nordisk Arkitekturforskningsforenings IT-konference, AAA april 2001....

  18. Ghost peaks observed after AP-MALDI experiment may disclose new ionization mechanism of matrix assisted hypersonic velocity impact ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskovets, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    RATIONALE Understanding the mechanisms of MALDI promises improvements in the sensitivity and specificity of many established applications in the field of mass spectrometry. This paper reports a serendipitous observation of a significant ion yield in a post-ionization experiment conducted after the sample has been removed from a standard atmospheric pressure (AP)-MALDI source. This post-ionization is interpreted in terms of collisions of microparticles moving with a hypersonic velocity into a solid surface. Calculations show that the thermal energy released during such collisions is close to that absorbed by the top matrix layer in traditional MALDI. The microparticles, containing both the matrix and analytes, could be detached from a film produced inside the inlet capillary during the sample ablation and accelerated by the flow rushing through the capillary. These observations contribute some new perspective to ion formation in both laser and laserless matrix-assisted ionization. METHODS An AP-MALDI ion source hyphenated with a three-stage high-pressure ion funnel system was utilized for peptide mass analysis. After the laser was turned off and MALDI sample was removed, ions were detected during a gradual reduction of the background pressure in the first funnel. The constant-rate pressure reduction led to the reproducible appearance of different singly- and doubly-charged peptide peaks in mass spectra taken a few seconds after the end of the MALDI analysis of a dried-droplet spot. RESULTS The ion yield as well as the mass range of ions observed with a significant delay after a completion of the primary MALDI analysis depended primarily on the background pressure inside the first funnel. The production of ions in this post-ionization step was exclusively observed during the pressure drop. A lower matrix background and significant increase in relative yield of double-protonated ions are reported. CONCLUSIONS The observations were partially consistent with a model of

  19. Disclosing A Side Of Internal Submission Control And Payment Of Claims: Study Of Ethnomethodology On The BPJS In Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mega Harum Ramadhani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is conducted to know the implementation of internal control on the process of submission and payment of claims by BPJS Kesehatan Yogyakarta. As well as knowing the process of submission and payment of claims. This type of research is qualitative research using ethnomethodology approach. Researchers use ethnomethodology method as the basis to expose the daily activities of the process of submission and payment of claims. Technique of Data collection through interviews with relevant informants and make direct observation to the object of research. The results of this research are to answer the problem and the purpose of this research, that BPJS Kesehatan has implemented internal control with maximum. Internal controls are capable to detect red flags in the submission process and payment of claims. Although there are some "problems" that occur also in the realm of BPJS kesehatan, but the management has been controlling against the various risks that are most likely to occur mainly in the process of submission and payment of claims. Thus the strengthening of internal control system in all aspects of activity in BPJS Kesehatan should always be attempted.

  20. Public health journals' requirements for authors to disclose funding and conflicts of interest: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daou, Karim N; Hakoum, Maram B; Khamis, Assem M; Bou-Karroum, Lama; Ali, Ahmed; Habib, Joseph R; Semaan, Aline T; Guyatt, Gordon; Akl, Elie A

    2018-04-23

    Public health journals need to have clear policies for reporting the funding of studies and authors' personal financial and non-financial conflicts of interest (COI) disclosures. This study aims to assess the policies of public health journals on reporting of study funding and the disclosure of authors' COIs. This is a cross-sectional study of "Public, Environmental & Occupational Health" journals. Teams of two researchers abstracted data in duplicate and independently using REDCap software. Of 173 public health journals, 155 (90%) had a policy for reporting study funding information. Out of these, a majority did not require reporting of the phase of the study for which funding was received (88%), nor the types of funding sources (87%). Of the 173 journals, 163 (94%) had a policy requiring disclosure of authors' COI. However, the majority of these journals did not require financial conflicts of interest disclosures relating to institutions (75%) nor to the author's family members (90%) while 56% required the disclosure of at least one form of non-financial COI. The policies of the majority of public health journals do not require the reporting of important details such as the role of the funder, and non-financial COI. Journals and publishers should consider revising their editorial policies to ensure complete and transparent reporting of funding and COI.

  1. Phase-sensitive flow cytometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinkamp, J.A.

    1992-12-31

    This report describes phase-sensitive flow cytometer (FCM) which provides additional FCM capability to use the fluorescence lifetime of one or more fluorochromes bound to single cells to provide additional information regarding the cells. The resulting fluorescence emission can be resolved into individual fluorescence signals if two fluorochromes are present or can be converted directly to a decay lifetime from a single fluorochrome. The excitation light for the fluorochromes is modulated to produce an amplitude modulated fluorescence pulse as the fluorochrome is excited in the FCM. The modulation signal also forms a reference signal that is phase-shifted a selected amount for subsequent mixing with the output modulated fluorescence intensity signal in phase-sensitive detection circuitry. The output from the phase-sensitive circuitry is then an individual resolved fluorochrome signal or a single fluorochrome decay lifetime, depending on the applied phase shifts.

  2. Chemical kinetic functional sensitivity analysis: Elementary sensitivities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demiralp, M.; Rabitz, H.

    1981-01-01

    Sensitivity analysis is considered for kinetics problems defined in the space--time domain. This extends an earlier temporal Green's function method to handle calculations of elementary functional sensitivities deltau/sub i//deltaα/sub j/ where u/sub i/ is the ith species concentration and α/sub j/ is the jth system parameter. The system parameters include rate constants, diffusion coefficients, initial conditions, boundary conditions, or any other well-defined variables in the kinetic equations. These parameters are generally considered to be functions of position and/or time. Derivation of the governing equations for the sensitivities and the Green's funciton are presented. The physical interpretation of the Green's function and sensitivities is given along with a discussion of the relation of this work to earlier research

  3. An ESDIRK Method with Sensitivity Analysis Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Morten Rode; Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Thomsen, Per Grove

    2004-01-01

    of the sensitivity equations. A key feature is the reuse of information already computed for the state integration, hereby minimizing the extra effort required for sensitivity integration. Through case studies the new algorithm is compared to an extrapolation method and to the more established BDF based approaches...

  4. Priming states of mind can affect disclosure of threatening self-information: Effects of self-affirmation, mortality salience, and attachment orientations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Deborah; Soref, Assaf; Villalobos, J Guillermo; Mikulincer, Mario

    2016-08-01

    Interviewers often face respondents reluctant to disclose sensitive, embarrassing or potentially damaging information. We explored effects of priming 5 states of mind on willingness to disclose: including 2 expected to facilitate disclosure (self-affirmation, attachment security), and 3 expected to inhibit disclosure (self-disaffirmation, attachment insecurity, mortality salience). Israeli Jewish participants completed a survey including a manipulation of 1 of these states of mind, followed by questions concerning hostile thoughts and behaviors toward the Israeli Arab outgroup, past minor criminal behaviors, and socially undesirable traits and behaviors. Self-affirmation led to more disclosures of all undesirable behaviors than neutral priming, whereas self-disaffirmation led to less disclosures. Mortality salience led to fewer disclosures of socially undesirable and criminal behaviors compared to neutral priming, but more disclosures of hostile thoughts and behaviors toward Israeli Arabs. Security priming facilitated disclosure of hostile attitudes toward Israeli Arabs. However, neither security nor insecurity priming had any other significant effects. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Guam, 2006 Environmental Sensitivity Index Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  6. Male-Partnered Bisexual Women's Perceptions of Disclosing Sexual Orientation to Family Across the Transition to Parenthood: Intensifying Heteronormativity or Queering Family?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Abbie E; Allen, Katherine R; Ellawala, Themal; Ross, Lori E

    2018-01-01

    Drawing from queer and communication privacy management frameworks, this study examines the narratives of 22 bisexual, male-partnered women who were interviewed during the perinatal period and one year postnatally about their disclosures of sexual identity to family of origin. Most women rarely discussed their sexual identity with family; participants who had disclosed described such disclosures as provoking discomfort. Some women stated that their parental status seemed to invalidate the need to talk about their sexual history or identity with family, due its declining salience and increased concerns about judgment. This study reveals how partnership and parenthood statuses contribute to the intensification of heteronormative pressures in relation to family. Therapists should attend to the role of heteronormative values regarding partnering, family-building, and parenting. © 2017 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  7. Different Somatic Hypermutation Levels among Antibody Subclasses Disclosed by a New Next-Generation Sequencing-Based Antibody Repertoire Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazutaka Kitaura

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A diverse antibody repertoire is primarily generated by the rearrangement of V, D, and J genes and subsequent somatic hypermutation (SHM. Class-switch recombination (CSR produces various isotypes and subclasses with different functional properties. Although antibody isotypes and subclasses are considered to be produced by both direct and sequential CSR, it is still not fully understood how SHMs accumulate during the process in which antibody subclasses are generated. Here, we developed a new next-generation sequencing (NGS-based antibody repertoire analysis capable of identifying all antibody isotype and subclass genes and used it to examine the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 12 healthy individuals. Using a total of 5,480,040 sequences, we compared percentage frequency of variable (V, junctional (J sequence, and a combination of V and J, diversity, length, and amino acid compositions of CDR3, SHM, and shared clones in the IgM, IgD, IgG3, IgG1, IgG2, IgG4, IgA1, IgE, and IgA2 genes. The usage and diversity were similar among the immunoglobulin (Ig subclasses. Clonally related sequences sharing identical V, D, J, and CDR3 amino acid sequences were frequently found within multiple Ig subclasses, especially between IgG1 and IgG2 or IgA1 and IgA2. SHM occurred most frequently in IgG4, while IgG3 genes were the least mutated among all IgG subclasses. The shared clones had almost the same SHM levels among Ig subclasses, while subclass-specific clones had different levels of SHM dependent on the genomic location. Given the sequential CSR, these results suggest that CSR occurs sequentially over multiple subclasses in the order corresponding to the genomic location of IGHCs, but CSR is likely to occur more quickly than SHMs accumulate within Ig genes under physiological conditions. NGS-based antibody repertoire analysis should provide critical information on how various antibodies are generated in the immune system.

  8. Informing patients of risks inherent in treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Richard; Tengnah, Cassam

    2009-11-01

    Consent to treatment lies at the heart of autonomous decision making by patients who are entitled to make a free choice about whether to accept or refuse treatment. To help patients arrive at their decision district nurses must ensure that they give sufficient information about the nature and risks inherent in the treatment to allow an informed choice to be made. This article considers how much information regarding risks needs to be disclosed. It discusses how the law requires a different level of disclosure for patients who ask no questions about risks, those who make general enquiries about risks and those who ask specific questions about the risks inherent in treatment.

  9. Disclosing Sex Trading Histories to Providers: Barriers and Facilitators to Navigation of Social Services Among Women Impacted by Commercial Sexual Exploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerassi, Lara; Edmond, Tonya E; Fabbre, Vanessa; Howard, Abby; Nichols, Andrea J

    2017-12-01

    Sex trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation (CSE) can lead to devastating health and mental health consequences for women, such as elevated rates of substance use, trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and HIV. Consequently, engagement with services that address addiction, mental health, and housing, and provide general advocacy is critically important to women's increased safety, stabilization, and quality of life. The purpose of this study is to identify perceived barriers and facilitators to service access and engagement with social services among women involved in CSE. Drawing from a larger grounded theory study that partnered with an anti-trafficking coalition and a substance use treatment center for women, in-depth, semistructured interviews were conducted with 30 adult women who traded sex as adults and 20 service providers who come into contact with this population. Women engaging in services were sampled through maximum variation sampling ( n = 24) and women not engaged with services ( n = 6) were recruited through snowball sampling. Providers were recruited through purposive sampling through the coalition ( n = 10) and nominations sampling ( n = 10). Open and focused coding were conducted. Multiple enhancements to methodological and analytic rigor were taken, including collaboration with multiple key stakeholders, use of nonstigmatizing language, self-reflexivity processes, analytic memo-writing, and member checking. Findings suggest that women experienced judgment when disclosing sex trading in social service intakes, and individual and group sessions from providers and other women in the groups. Although some women saw disclosure as helpful in addressing the complex feelings stemming from sex trading, as well as the desire to help or relate to other women in similar situations, they also identified risk of harm and multiple barriers to disclosing during intake meetings and individual sessions

  10. Information, Precedent, and Statute

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Yalnazov (Orlin)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractI compare precedent and statute in cost-effectiveness terms. To make laws, a lawmaker needs information. Information has a cost. That cost is sensitive to the choice of law production technology. The orthodoxy is that the courts acquire information more cheaply. Litigants volunteer it in

  11. Aggregation of plaque disclosing agent in a dentifrice Incorporação de evidenciador de placa bacteriana a um dentifrício

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Dias da Silva

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Dental plaque removal is an important issue in health promotion. Toothbrushing is one of the main methods employed for such purpose, since it can prevent dental caries by means of the fluoride present in the dentifrice. Dentifrices might contain plaque disclosing agents and thus allow dental plaque observation. The aim of this study was to assess whether utilization of a plaque disclosing agent interfered with plaque removal among adolescents, as well as the difference between utilization of erythrosine tablets and dentifrices containing plaque disclosing agent. The sample was composed of 62 students from Piracicaba, SP, Brazil, aged 12 to 14 years old, divided into 3 groups: G1 or control group (toothbrushing without plaque disclosure; G2 (plaque disclosing with an erythrosine tablet and toothbrushing and G3 (toothbrushing with dentifrice containing plaque disclosing agent. After toothbrushing, disclosure of the remaining dental plaque was performed in all groups with a fuchsin tablet and measured through the Simplified Oral Health Assessment Index (OHI-S, in two stages with a 2-month interval between them. The analysis of variance (ANOVA showed that there was no difference in the OHI-S index between the groups (p>0.05, however the G3 displayed a higher proportion of students with plaque reduction (23% than G2 (21%, besides the smallest difference in the mean remaining dental plaque. There was no difference between groups; however, it was suggested that the dentifrice with plaque disclosing agent had positive results in relation to the erythrosine tablet, even though the small sample size may have interfered with the results, indicating the need of complementary studies.Na promoção de saúde, a remoção da placa bacteriana é um fator importante e um dos métodos que incentivam sua remoção, é a escovação dentária, podendo-se prevenir a cárie dental através do íon flúor dos dentifrícios. Estes podem conter evidenciadores

  12. Information barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, J.L.; Wolford, J.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: An information barrier (IB) consists of procedures and technology that prevent the release of sensitive information during a joint inspection of a sensitive nuclear item, and provides confidence that the measurement system into which it has been integrated functions exactly as designed and constructed. Work in the U.S. on radiation detection system information barriers dates back at least to 1990, even though the terminology is more recent. In January 1999 the Joint DoD-DOE Information Barrier Working Group was formed in the United States to help coordinate technical efforts related to information barrier R and D. This paper presents an overview of the efforts of this group, by its Chairs, as well as recommendations for further information barrier R and D. Progress on the demonstration of monitoring systems containing IBs is also provided. From the U.S. perspective, the basic, top-level functional requirements for the information barrier portion of an integrated radiation signature-information barrier inspection system are twofold: The host must be assured that his classified information is protected from disclosure to the inspecting party; and The inspecting party must be confident that the integrated inspection system measures, processes, and presents the radiation-signature-based measurement conclusion in an accurate and reproducible manner. It is the position of the United States that in the absence of any agreement to share classified nuclear weapons design information in the conduct of an inspection regime, the requirement to protect host country classified warhead design information is paramount and admits no tradeoff versus the confidence provided to the inspecting party in the accuracy and reproducibility of the measurements. The U.S. has reached an internal consensus on several critical design elements that define a general standard for radiation signature information barrier design. These criteria have stood the test of time under intense

  13. Sensitivity functions for uncertainty analysis: Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of reactor performance parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.

    1982-01-01

    This chapter presents the mathematical basis for sensitivity functions, discusses their physical meaning and information they contain, and clarifies a number of issues concerning their application, including the definition of group sensitivities, the selection of sensitivity functions to be included in the analysis, and limitations of sensitivity theory. Examines the theoretical foundation; criticality reset sensitivities; group sensitivities and uncertainties; selection of sensitivities included in the analysis; and other uses and limitations of sensitivity functions. Gives the theoretical formulation of sensitivity functions pertaining to ''as-built'' designs for performance parameters of the form of ratios of linear flux functionals (such as reaction-rate ratios), linear adjoint functionals, bilinear functions (such as reactivity worth ratios), and for reactor reactivity. Offers a consistent procedure for reducing energy-dependent or fine-group sensitivities and uncertainties to broad group sensitivities and uncertainties. Provides illustrations of sensitivity functions as well as references to available compilations of such functions and of total sensitivities. Indicates limitations of sensitivity theory originating from the fact that this theory is based on a first-order perturbation theory

  14. 48 CFR 3004.470 - Security requirements for access to unclassified facilities, Information Technology resources...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... access to unclassified facilities, Information Technology resources, and sensitive information. 3004.470... Technology resources, and sensitive information. ... ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Safeguarding Classified and Sensitive Information...

  15. Sex: a sensitive issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Health care workers and educators may need to improve their skills in discussing sensitive issues in order to elicit and understand what influences people's attitudes toward sex. While the health worker may be bent upon preventing HIV infection, advising on family planning, or teaching youth about sexual relationships, his or her audience may have other priorities. A good counselor/teacher must learn what people's concerns are and discuss sexual health within that context. It can be difficult talking about sex because sex is a private concern and many people are embarrassed discussing it. Even sex partners often find it difficult to talk to each other about sex. Appropriate communication techniques vary depending upon the situation. It depends upon whether one is addressing people on an individual basis or in groups, which people are being addressed, which organization one is representing, and what one's role is. Good communication is a two-way sharing of information. The different stages of life, common beliefs and myths, culture and religion, relationships between men and women, reasons for having sex, and sex practices are discussed.

  16. Radiation Sensitivity of Societies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uray, I.; Hille, R.; Rohloff, F.

    1998-01-01

    Investigating the mean dose values as well as dose distributions of the inhabitants in a large number of settlements maybe set down, that the generally calculated mean exposure is a good measure to estimate the collective dose for a settlement or for a large region. Its uncertainty is however too high, and the dose distribution is very broad (250-300%) to estimate the external exposure of any single person. However, models may take into account more details of influencing factors. First of all the surveying of the local contamination density distribution could be more detailed and more accurate. Measure and distribution of the internal exposure (is not the subject of the present work, but it is similarly problematic. In this situation it is very difficult to search the dose-effect relationships exactly, and is also difficult to satisfy the people that their fears are unjustified. Society pays the costs of the nuclear industry and of the possible consequences as well. But society can neither control the nuclear industry nor the possible consequences at all. Both science and single people are waiting for more and detailed information. If we can not decrease the r adiation sensitivity of societies , then the consequences of Chernobyl will be growing unnecessarily, and it can strongly retard the justified development of the nuclear industry as well. (author)

  17. 40 CFR 1601.26 - Special procedures for confidential business information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... described in paragraph (c) of this section, the CSB shall, to the extent permitted by law, afford a business... business information. 1601.26 Section 1601.26 Protection of Environment CHEMICAL SAFETY AND HAZARD... Requesting and Disclosing Records § 1601.26 Special procedures for confidential business information. (a) In...

  18. 78 FR 73200 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection: Public Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-05

    ... Information Collection Clearance Officer, Room 10-29, Parklawn Building, 5600 Fishers Lane, Rockville, MD... in the past under a formal relationship, to work together to establish and improve local capacity and... expended by persons to generate, maintain, retain, disclose or provide the information requested. This...

  19. 36 CFR 1256.48 - Information about internal agency rules and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... withhold from disclosure, in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(b)(2), the following: (1) Records that contain information on substantial internal matters of agencies that, if disclosed, could risk circumvention of a legal requirement, such as a statute or an agency regulation. (2) Records containing information that...

  20. 78 FR 77465 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission to OMB for Review and Approval; Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... technology, as well as practices that are not working with a Regional Extension Center. The survey data will... services? (5) Is REC participation associated with experiencing less difficulty in adoption of EHRs? (6) Is... information, and to transmit or otherwise disclose the information. The total annual burden hours estimated...

  1. 14 CFR 193.7 - What does it mean for the FAA to designate information as protected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What does it mean for the FAA to designate... INFORMATION § 193.7 What does it mean for the FAA to designate information as protected? (a) General. When the FAA issues an order designating information as protected under this part, the FAA does not disclose...

  2. 24 CFR 5.236 - Procedures for termination, denial, suspension, or reduction of assistance based on information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... or participant based on income information obtained from a SWICA or a Federal agency. Procedures... information reveals an employer or other income source that was not disclosed by the assistance applicant or..., the PHA shall request the undisclosed employer or other income source to furnish any information...

  3. Softening the blow : Company self-disclosure of negative information lessens the damaging effects on consumer judgment and decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fennis, Bob M.; Stroebe, Wolfgang

    Is self-disclosure of negative information a viable strategy for a company to lessen the damage done to consumer responses? Three experiments assessed whether self-disclosing negative information in itself lessened the damaging impact of this information compared to third-party disclosure of the

  4. Softening the Blow : Company Self-Disclosure of Negative Information Lessens Damaging Effects on Consumer Judgment and Decision Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fennis, Bob M.; Stroebe, Wolfgang

    Is self-disclosure of negative information a viable strategy for a company to lessen the damage done to consumer responses? Three experiments assessed whether self-disclosing negative information in itself lessened the damaging impact of this information compared to third-party disclosure of the

  5. Context Sensitive Modeling of Cancer Drug Sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Juen Chen

    Full Text Available Recent screening of drug sensitivity in large panels of cancer cell lines provides a valuable resource towards developing algorithms that predict drug response. Since more samples provide increased statistical power, most approaches to prediction of drug sensitivity pool multiple cancer types together without distinction. However, pan-cancer results can be misleading due to the confounding effects of tissues or cancer subtypes. On the other hand, independent analysis for each cancer-type is hampered by small sample size. To balance this trade-off, we present CHER (Contextual Heterogeneity Enabled Regression, an algorithm that builds predictive models for drug sensitivity by selecting predictive genomic features and deciding which ones should-and should not-be shared across different cancers, tissues and drugs. CHER provides significantly more accurate models of drug sensitivity than comparable elastic-net-based models. Moreover, CHER provides better insight into the underlying biological processes by finding a sparse set of shared and type-specific genomic features.

  6. X ray sensitive area detection device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Daniel C. (Inventor); Witherow, William K. (Inventor); Pusey, Marc L. (Inventor); Yost, Vaughn H. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A radiation sensitive area detection device is disclosed which comprises a phosphor-containing film capable of receiving and storing an image formed by a pattern of incoming x rays, UV, or other radiation falling on the film. The device is capable of fluorescing in response to stimulation by a light source in a manner directly proportional to the stored radiation pattern. The device includes: (1) a light source capable of projecting light or other appropriate electromagnetic wave on the film so as to cause it to fluoresce; (2) a means to focus the fluoresced light coming from the phosphor-containing film after light stimulation; and (3) at least one charged coupled detector or other detecting element capable of receiving and digitizing the pattern of fluoresced light coming from the phosphor-containing film. The device will be able to generate superior x ray images of high resolution from a crystal or other sample and will be particularly advantageous in that instantaneous near-real-time images of rapidly deteriorating samples can be obtained. Furthermore, the device can be made compact and sturdy, thus capable of carrying out x ray or other radiation imaging under a variety of conditions, including those experienced in space.

  7. Personal anticipated information need

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bruce

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The role of personal information collections is a well known feature of personal information management. The World Wide Web has introduced to such collections ideas such as filing Web pages or noting their existence in 'Bookmarks' and 'Favourites'. Argument. It is suggested that personal information collections are created in anticipation of some future need for that information-personal, anticipated information need, which also underlies the design of formal information systems. Elaboration. Examination of the literature of information needs and information seeking behaviour leads to the formulation of five propositions that elaborate the concept of personal, anticipated information need. These propositions draw upon concepts such as uncertainty, predictability, sensitivity and the valuation of information sources. Conclusion. An individual's understanding of personal, anticipated information need and how this understanding guides the acquisition and management of personal information will determine the effectiveness of that collection.

  8. Accessing and disclosing protected resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning; Khajuria, Samant

    2014-01-01

    TODAY, DATA IS MONEY. Whether it is private users’ personal data or confidential data and assets belonging to service providers, all parties have a strong need to protect their resources when interacting with each other, i.e. for access control and authorization. For service providers and enterpr......TODAY, DATA IS MONEY. Whether it is private users’ personal data or confidential data and assets belonging to service providers, all parties have a strong need to protect their resources when interacting with each other, i.e. for access control and authorization. For service providers...... and enterprises resources are usually well safeguarded, while private users are often missing the tools and the know-how to protect their own data and preserve their privacy. The user’s personal data have become an economic asset, not necessarily to the owners of these data, but to the service providers, whose...... business mod- els often includes the use of these data. In this paper we focus on the user – service provider interaction and discuss how recent technological progress, in particular the framework of User Managed Access (UMA), can enable users to understand the value of their protected resources...

  9. Accessing and disclosing protected resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning; Khajuria, Samant

    2015-01-01

    Today, data is money. Whether it is private users' personal data or confidential data and assets belonging to service providers, all parties have a strong need to protect their resources when interacting with each other, i.e. for access control and authorization measures to be deployed. Enabling...... advanced user controlled privacy is essential to realize the visions of 5G applications and services. For service providers and enterprises resources are usually well safeguarded, while private users are often missing the tools and the know-how to protect their own data and preserve their privacy. The user...... the framework of User Managed Access (UMA), can enable users to understand the value of their protected resources and possibly give them control of how their data will be used by service providers....

  10. Disclosing finding and development costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janisch, M.L.

    1998-01-01

    The importance of finding and development costs in the petroleum industry and the issue of how they can be either manipulated or misunderstood was discussed. Finding and development costs are usually expressed in terms of $/BOE (barrel of oil equivalents) and reflect the total capital expenditures divided by the total reserves replaced and added. Various examples of the importance of finding and development costs in making investment decisions were used to illustrate the effects of potential bias by the resource company, and the need for care and understanding of what the numbers issued by the company actually mean. In general, low and consistent finding and development costs, combined with good netbacks, are the key to value added for shareholders. tabs

  11. Chorea disclosing a polycythemia vera

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Guidong; Chang, Jie; Liu, Zhijun; Qiang, Qiang; Gu, Chunhui; Zhang, Yingying; Wei, Wenshi

    2014-01-01

    Guidong Liu, Jie Chang, Zhijun Liu, Qiang Qiang, Chunhui Gu, Yingying Zhang, Wenshi Wei Department of Neurology, Huadong Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China Abstract: Chorea is a rare complication of polycythemia. We report the case of a 70 year-old woman whose polycythemia vera (PV), with Janus Kinase-2 (JAK2) mutation, presented as chorea. Chorea resolved quickly after hydroxyurea therapy. Keywords: chorea, polycythemia vera, elderly, JAK2

  12. Structure sensitivity in adsorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Bjørk; Nielsen, Ole Holm; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    1997-01-01

    The structure sensitivity of CO adsorption on different flat, stepped, kinked and reconstructed Pt surfaces is studied using large-scale density-functional calculations. We find an extremely strong structure sensitivity in the adsorption energy with variations up to 1 eV (or 100%) from one...... structure to the next. We propose a model to explain this behavior, and use it to discuss more generally the origin of structure sensitivity in heterogeneous catalysis....

  13. How sensitizing is chlorocresol?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Hamann, K

    1984-01-01

    Chlorocresol is a biocide with widespread use in industry and pharmaceutical products. It is an occasional human contact sensitizer. The sensitizing potential of chlorocresol was judged strong using the guinea pig maximization test (GPMT) and doubtful in the less sensitive open epicutaneous test......% in pet. showed 11 reactions among 1462 patients tested, but none were explainable and reproducible during re-tests and provocative use tests, indicating that the GPMT overestimated the sensitization potential. The results from guinea pig allergy tests cannot stand alone but have to be validated by other...

  14. Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Cacuci, Dan G; Navon, Ionel Michael

    2005-01-01

    As computer-assisted modeling and analysis of physical processes have continued to grow and diversify, sensitivity and uncertainty analyses have become indispensable scientific tools. Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis. Volume I: Theory focused on the mathematical underpinnings of two important methods for such analyses: the Adjoint Sensitivity Analysis Procedure and the Global Adjoint Sensitivity Analysis Procedure. This volume concentrates on the practical aspects of performing these analyses for large-scale systems. The applications addressed include two-phase flow problems, a radiative c

  15. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis of biochemical reaction systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Xuan; Dempsey, William P; Goutsias, John

    2009-09-07

    Sensitivity analysis is an indispensable tool for studying the robustness and fragility properties of biochemical reaction systems as well as for designing optimal approaches for selective perturbation and intervention. Deterministic sensitivity analysis techniques, using derivatives of the system response, have been extensively used in the literature. However, these techniques suffer from several drawbacks, which must be carefully considered before using them in problems of systems biology. We develop here a probabilistic approach to sensitivity analysis of biochemical reaction systems. The proposed technique employs a biophysically derived model for parameter fluctuations and, by using a recently suggested variance-based approach to sensitivity analysis [Saltelli et al., Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.) 105, 2811 (2005)], it leads to a powerful sensitivity analysis methodology for biochemical reaction systems. The approach presented in this paper addresses many problems associated with derivative-based sensitivity analysis techniques. Most importantly, it produces thermodynamically consistent sensitivity analysis results, can easily accommodate appreciable parameter variations, and allows for systematic investigation of high-order interaction effects. By employing a computational model of the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling cascade, we demonstrate that our approach is well suited for sensitivity analysis of biochemical reaction systems and can produce a wealth of information about the sensitivity properties of such systems. The price to be paid, however, is a substantial increase in computational complexity over derivative-based techniques, which must be effectively addressed in order to make the proposed approach to sensitivity analysis more practical.

  16. Many-to-Many Information Flow Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldan, Paolo; Beggiato, Alessandro; Lluch Lafuente, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Information flow techniques typically classify information according to suitable security levels and enforce policies that are based on binary relations between individual levels, e.g., stating that information is allowed to flow from one level to another. We argue that some information flow...... of competing agencies might agree to disclose their secrets, with individual disclosures being undesired, etc. Motivated by this we propose a simple language for expressing information flow policies where the usual admitted flow relation between individual security levels is replaced by a relation between sets...... of security levels, thus allowing to capture coordinated flows of information. The flow of information is expressed in terms of causal dependencies and the satisfaction of a policy is defined with respect to an event structure that is assumed to capture the causal structure of system computations. We suggest...

  17. Optimally matching support and perceived spousal sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutrona, Carolyn E; Shaffer, Philip A; Wesner, Kristin A; Gardner, Kelli A

    2007-12-01

    Partner sensitivity is an important antecedent of both intimacy (H. T. Reis & P. Shaver, 1988) and attachment (M. D. S. Ainsworth, 1989). On the basis of the optimal matching model of social support (C. E. Cutrona & D. Russell, 1990), support behaviors that "matched" the support goals of the stressed individual were predicted to lead to the perception of partner sensitivity. Predictions were tested with 59 married couples, who engaged in a videotaped self-disclosure task. Matching support was defined as the disclosure of emotions followed by emotional support or a request for information followed by informational support. Partial evidence was found for the predictions. Matching support following the disclosure of emotions was predictive of perceived partner sensitivity. Mismatched support following the disclosure of emotions predicted lower marital satisfaction, through the mediation of partner sensitivity. Matching support following a request for information was not predictive of perceived partner sensitivity, but negative partner responses (e.g., criticism or sarcasm) following a request for information negatively predicted perceptions of partner sensitivity. The importance of considering the context of support transactions is discussed.

  18. Tuned cavity magnetometer sensitivity.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okandan, Murat; Schwindt, Peter

    2009-09-01

    We have developed a high sensitivity (sensitivity levels.

  19. Cobalt sensitization and dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P

    2012-01-01

    : This clinical review article presents clinical and scientific data on cobalt sensitization and dermatitis. It is concluded that cobalt despite being a strong sensitizer and a prevalent contact allergen to come up on patch testing should be regarded as a very complex metal to test with. Exposure...

  20. Multiple chemical sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Marie Thi Dao; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Kupers, Ron

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS) is a chronic condition characterized by recurrent, non-specific symptoms in response to chemically unrelated exposures in non-toxic concentrations. Although the pathophysiology of MCS remains unknown, central sensitization may be an important factor...

  1. Assessing Sensitiveness to Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lieb, Christoph; Suter, Stefan; Sánchez, Alfredo

    Summary The EU-project ASSET (ASessing SEnsitiveness to Transport) aims at developing and implementing a concise concept to assess transport sensitive areas (TSA) in a European context, i.e. areas in which transport leads to more serious impacts than in other areas. The aim of work package 2 (WP2...

  2. Children of the closet: a measurement of the anxiety and self-esteem of children raised by a non-disclosed homosexual or bisexual parent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Paul D; McClintock, Karen

    2005-01-01

    This research examined whether a parent's non-disclosure of his or her homosexual or bisexual orientation within the family unit negatively affects self-esteem and anxiety in children, as measured in adulthood. Thirty-six subjects indicated that they had not known of their parent's sexual orientation until an average age of sixteen for the children of lesbian or bisexual mothers, and twenty-two for the children of gay or bisexual fathers. This group's scores on the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Marlowe Crowne Social Desirabilty Scale and the State-Trait Anxiety Scale were compared to scores obtained by sixty-three participants who did not have a homosexual/bisexual parent. The number of years a secretive environment surrounded the child was measured, as were participants' attitudes about the secret sexual identity. Although the study did not find that adults previously raised with a closeted parent had significantly higher levels of anxiety or lower levels of self-esteem, results indicated that those who had been raised as children with non-disclosed lesbian mothers showed a significantly higher level of self-esteem than participants with heterosexual parents. Implications of the findings for the targeted population are discussed.

  3. The age related slow and fast contributions to the overall changes in tibialis anterior contractile features disclosed by maximal single twitch scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orizio, Claudio; Cogliati, Marta; Bissolotti, Luciano; Diemont, Bertrand; Gobbo, Massimiliano; Celichowski, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This work aimed to verify if maximal electrically evoked single twitch (STmax) scan discloses the relative functional weight of fast and slow small bundles of fibres (SBF) in determining the contractile features of tibialis anterior (TA) with ageing. SBFs were recruited by TA main motor point stimulation through 60 increasing levels of stimulation (LS): 20 stimuli at 2Hz for each LS. The lowest and highest LS provided the least ST and STmax, respectively. The scanned STmax was decomposed into individual SBF STs. They were identified when twitches from adjacent LS were significantly different and then subtracted from each other. Nine young (Y) and eleven old (O) subjects were investigated. Contraction time (CT) and STarea/STpeak (A/PT) were calculated per each SBF ST. 143 and 155 SBF STs were obtained in Y and O, respectively. Y: CT and A/PT range: 45-105ms and 67-183mNs/mN, respectively. Literature data set TA fast fibres at 34% so, from the arrays of CT and A/PT, 65ms and 100mNs/mN were identified as the upper limit for SBF fast ST classification. O: no SBF ST could be classified as fast. STmax scan reveals age-related changes in the relative contribution of fast and slow SBFs to the overall muscle mechanics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Suicidality Disclosed Online: Using a Simulated Facebook Task to Identify Predictors of Support Giving to Friends at Risk of Self-harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbitt-Hall, Darcy J; Gauthier, Jami M; Troop-Gordon, Wendy

    2018-03-31

    Although peer support in response to online disclosures of suicidality may be imperative for suicide prevention efforts, little is known as to how often support is provided or what predicts giving support. This study addresses this issue by investigating the odds of providing peer support in response to simulated online disclosures of suicidality. While interacting with a simulated Facebook newsfeed, participants (N = 690, M age  = 20.24, 527 female) were given the opportunity to leave comments on two posts disclosing low, moderate, or severe risk for suicide. Participants also completed questionnaires on their symptoms of depression and anxiety, experience with a loved one's suicidality, and Facebook use strategies. Only 33.6% of participants left a positive, supportive comment on at least one of the two suicide posts. Content severity, experience with a loved one's suicide attempts, and use of Facebook to meet people were predictive of providing positive comments. These findings suggest that young adults vary in their propensity to provide support after encountering a suicide disclosure online and that giving support is driven by a combination of contextual and intrapersonal factors. © 2018 The American Association of Suicidology.

  5. Essays on information disclosure and the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathai, Koshy

    The essays in this dissertation study information disclosure and environmental policy. The first chapter challenges the longstanding result that firms will, in general, voluntarily disclose information about product quality, in light of the unrealism of the assumption, common to much of the literature, that consumers are identical. When this assumption is relaxed, an efficiency-enhancing role may emerge for disclosure regulation, insofar as it can improve information provision and thus help protect consumers with "moderately atypical" preferences. The paper also endogenizes firms's choice of quality and suggests that disclosure regulation may also raise welfare indirectly, by inducing firms to improve product quality. The second chapter explores the significance of policy-induced technological change (ITC) for the design of carbon-abatement policies. The paper considers both R&D-based and learning-by-doing-based knowledge accumulation, examining each specification under both a cost-effectiveness and a benefit-cost policy criterion. We show analytically that the presence of ITC generally implies a lower profile of optimal carbon taxes, a shifting of abatement effort into the future (in the R&D scenarios), and an increase in the scale of abatement (in the benefit-cost scenarios). Numerical simulations indicate that the impact of ITC on abatement timing is very slight, but the effects on costs, optimal carbon taxes, and cumulative abatement can be large. The third chapter uses a World Bank dataset on Chinese state-owned enterprises to estimate price elasticities of industrial coal demand. A simple coal-demand equation is estimated in many forms, and significant price sensitivity is almost always found: the own-price elasticity is estimated to be roughly -0.5. A cost-function/share-equation system is also estimated, and although the function is frequently ill-behaved, indicating that firms may not be minimizing costs, the elasticity estimates again are large and

  6. Finnish Teachers’ Ethical Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina Kuusisto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the ethical sensitivity of Finnish teachers (=864 using a 28-item Ethical Sensitivity Scale Questionnaire (ESSQ. The psychometric qualities of this instrument were analyzed, as were the differences in self-reported ethical sensitivity between practicing and student teachers and teachers of different subjects. The results showed that the psychometric qualities of the ESSQ were satisfactory and enabled the use of an explorative factor analysis. All Finnish teachers rated their level of ethical sensitivity as high, which indicates that they had internalized the ethical professionalism of teaching. However, practicing teachers’ assessments were higher than student teachers’. Moreover, science as a subject was associated with lower self-ratings of ethical sensitivity.

  7. Insulin sensitivity and albuminuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilz, Stefan; Rutters, Femke; Nijpels, Giel

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Accumulating evidence suggests an association between insulin sensitivity and albuminuria, which, even in the normal range, is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. We evaluated whether insulin sensitivity is associated with albuminuria in healthy subjects. RESEARCH DESIGN...... AND METHODS: We investigated 1,415 healthy, nondiabetic participants (mean age 43.9 ± 8.3 years; 54.3% women) from the RISC (Relationship between Insulin Sensitivity and Cardiovascular Disease) study, of whom 852 participated in a follow-up examination after 3 years. At baseline, insulin sensitivity...... was assessed by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps, expressed as the M/I value. Oral glucose tolerance test-based insulin sensitivity (OGIS), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) were determined at baseline and follow-up. RESULTS...

  8. Environmental Financial Information: differences in disclosure levels among Brazilian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína da Silva Ferreira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Issues related to the environment and sustainability have motivated interests of the academic community and organizations. The current model of society is permeated by excessive production and consumption, which is exacerbating man's relationship with nature. It is a fact that, to subsist, society needs the manufacturing of products and delivery of services, but it is also known that manufacturing products and providing services impact the environment. The impact also differs according to the activity that is developed. In Brazil, Law No. 10.165/2000 determines on the National Environmental Policy and ranks companies according to the environmental impact they cause. This research analyzed the voluntary disclosure of environmental financial information in Brazilian companies, classified into sectors with different environmental impacts. Therefore, we investigated the Standardized Financial Statements of the companies that make up the IBRX-50 index, in its portfolio from May to August 2014, in the years 2011, 2012 and 2013. The measure ranked the environmental financial information, distributing the data into seven categories and 30 subcategories. The most evidenced category relates to environmental investments, with 58% of the information disclosed. The highest amount presented was in the category of environmental liabilities and contingencies, with R$259.84 billion. The results show that there is a difference in the disclosure of environmental financial information compared to the amount of sentences disclosed without the number of subcategories evidenced. The nonparametric test and content analysis showed that, in the years analyzed, companies with high environmental impact disclose more environmental financial information.

  9. Information security protecting the global enterprise

    CERN Document Server

    Pipkin, Donald L

    2000-01-01

    In this book, IT security expert Donald Pipkin addresses every aspect of information security: the business issues, the technical process issues, and the legal issues. Pipkin starts by reviewing the key business issues: estimating the value of information assets, evaluating the cost to the organization if they are lost or disclosed, and determining the appropriate levels of protection and response to security incidents. Next, he walks through the technical processes required to build a consistent, reasonable information security system, with appropriate intrusion detection and reporting features. Finally, Pipkin reviews the legal issues associated with information security, including corporate officers' personal liability for taking care that information is protected. The book's coverage is applicable to businesses of any size, from 50 employees to 50,000 or more, and ideal for everyone who needs at least a basic understanding of information security: network/system administrators, managers, planners, archite...

  10. The Commodity Form of Safety Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Finkelstein

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The production of safety information is deemed a vital resource to protect human lives at the work site. The injury rate, lost days, incapacity rate, and fatality rate, are key indicators to prop up labour risk awareness and identify job hazards. However, safety information gets highly distorted because it does not only measure risk but serves as a means of exchange. It determines the amount of money to be swapped between Workers’ Compensation Boards and their client corporations. Moreover, as a depository of exchange value, safety information tends to exert pressure over social reality rather than just being a passive reflection of it. This paper discloses the commodity form of safety information. Based on a political economy of information framework, it identifies, describes, and analyses the safety information commodity in its active role of organizing safety and labour health.

  11. Toward sensitive document release with privacy guarantees

    OpenAIRE

    David Sánchez; Montserrat Batet

    2017-01-01

    Toward sensitive document release with privacy guarantees DOI: 10.1016/j.engappai.2016.12.013 URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0952197616302408 Filiació URV: SI Inclòs a la memòria: SI Privacy has become a serious concern for modern Information Societies. The sensitive nature of much of the data that are daily exchanged or released to untrusted parties requires that responsible organizations undertake appropriate privacy protection measures. Nowadays, much...

  12. Developing cultural sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruddock, Heidi; Turner, deSalle

    2007-01-01

    . Background. Many countries are becoming culturally diverse, but healthcare systems and nursing education often remain mono-cultural and focused on the norms and needs of the majority culture. To meet the needs of all members of multicultural societies, nurses need to develop cultural sensitivity......Title. Developing cultural sensitivity: nursing students’ experiences of a study abroad programme Aim. This paper is a report of a study to explore whether having an international learning experience as part of a nursing education programme promoted cultural sensitivity in nursing students...... and incorporate this into caregiving. Method. A Gadamerian hermeneutic phenomenological approach was adopted. Data were collected in 2004 by using in-depth conversational interviews and analysed using the Turner method. Findings. Developing cultural sensitivity involves a complex interplay between becoming...

  13. Spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthel, Petra; Bauer, Axel; Müller, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Low baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) indicates poor prognosis after acute myocardial infarction. Noninvasive BRS assessment is complicated by nonstationarities and noise in electrocardiogram and pressure signals. Phase-rectified signal averaging is a novel signal processing technology overcoming thes...

  14. Central sensitization as the mechanism underlying pain in joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Stefano, G; Celletti, C; Baron, R; Castori, M; Di Franco, M; La Cesa, S; Leone, C; Pepe, A; Cruccu, G; Truini, A; Camerota, F

    2016-09-01

    Patients with joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type (JHS/EDS-HT) commonly suffer from pain. How this hereditary connective tissue disorder causes pain remains unclear although previous studies suggested it shares similar mechanisms with neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia. In this prospective study seeking information on the mechanisms underlying pain in patients with JHS/EDS-HT, we enrolled 27 consecutive patients with this connective tissue disorder. Patients underwent a detailed clinical examination, including the neuropathic pain questionnaire DN4 and the fibromyalgia rapid screening tool. As quantitative sensory testing methods, we included thermal-pain perceptive thresholds and the wind-up ratio and recorded a standard nerve conduction study to assess non-nociceptive fibres and laser-evoked potentials, assessing nociceptive fibres. Clinical examination and diagnostic tests disclosed no somatosensory nervous system damage. Conversely, most patients suffered from widespread pain, the fibromyalgia rapid screening tool elicited positive findings, and quantitative sensory testing showed lowered cold and heat pain thresholds and an increased wind-up ratio. While the lack of somatosensory nervous system damage is incompatible with neuropathic pain as the mechanism underlying pain in JHS/EDS-HT, the lowered cold and heat pain thresholds and increased wind-up ratio imply that pain in JHS/EDS-HT might arise through central sensitization. Hence, this connective tissue disorder and fibromyalgia share similar pain mechanisms. WHAT DOES THIS STUDY ADD?: In patients with JHS/EDS-HT, the persistent nociceptive input due to joint abnormalities probably triggers central sensitization in the dorsal horn neurons and causes widespread pain. © 2016 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  15. Research Project on the Design for the Optimum Disclosure System Volume 2: Sustainable Growth of Japanese Companies and the Direction of Non-financial Information Disclosure (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    KOKUBU Katsuhiko; SAKAUE Manabu; KOGA Chitoshi; KONISHI Noriyuki; HISAMOCHI Eiji; YAO Jun; SHIMADA Yoshinori

    2011-01-01

    For quite some time there has been a debate surrounding the issue requiring companies to disclose not only financial information but also non-financial information, as shown in recent efforts for enhanced business reporting (EBR). This discussion paper explores non-financial information in three aspects: social and environmental information, intellectual capital information, and risk information, and it also examines the extent and reasons for the disclosure of non-financial information. In a...

  16. Radiation sensitivity of mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    The authors tested various aspects of the so-called ''competition'' model for radiation sensitization/protection. In this model, sensitizers and/or protectors react in first order chemical reactions with radiation-induced target radicals in the cell, producing damage fixation or repair respectively. It is only because of these parallel, first-order competing reactions that they may assign net amounts of damage on the basis of the chemical reactivity of the sentiziers/protectors with the radicals. It might be expected that such a simple model could not explain all aspects of cellular radiosensitivity and this has indeed been found to be true. However, one is able, with the simple model, to pose quite specific questions, and obtain quantitative information with respect to the relative agreement between experiment and theory. Many experiments by several investigators have found areas of disagreement with the competition theory, particularly with respect to the follow items: 1) role of cellular glutathione as the most important endogeneous radiation protector 2) characteristics of various sensitizers which cause them to behave differently from each other 3) methods relating to the quantitative kinetic analysis of experimenal results. This paper addresses these specific areas of disagreement from both an experimental and theoretical basis

  17. 2 CFR 180.355 - What information must I provide to a higher tier participant before entering into a covered...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What information must I provide to a higher....355 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND...) Responsibilities of Participants Regarding Transactions Doing Business With Other Persons Disclosing Information...

  18. 76 FR 66066 - Information Collection(s) Being Submitted for Review to the Office of Management and Budget for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... opportunity to be present) to decision-making personnel in ``permit-but-disclose'' proceedings, such as notice... word- processing version of the document is not available. Confidential information may continue to be... entailing increased information collection are the requirement that parties making permissible ex parte...

  19. Information and Informality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Magnus; Segerstéen, Solveig; Svensson, Cathrin

    2011-01-01

    leaders on the basis of their possession of reliable knowledge in technical as well as organizational domains. The informal leaders engaged in interpretation and brokering of information and knowledge, as well as in mediating strategic values and priorities on both formal and informal arenas. Informal...... leaders were thus seen to function on the level of the organization as a whole, and in cooperation with formal leaders. Drawing on existing theory of leadership in creative and professional contexts, this cooperation can be specified to concern task structuring. The informal leaders in our study...... contributed to task structuring through sensemaking activities, while formal leaders focused on aspects such as clarifying output expectations, providing feedback, project structure, and diversity....

  20. Money makes you reveal more: consequences of monetary cues on preferential disclosure of personal information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sumitava; Manjaly, Jaison A; Nargundkar, Maithilee

    2013-01-01

    With continuous growth in information aggregation and dissemination, studies on privacy preferences are important to understand what makes people reveal information about them. Previous studies have demonstrated that short-term gains and possible monetary rewards make people risk disclosing information. Given the malleability of privacy preferences and the ubiquitous monetary cues in daily lives, we measured the contextual effect of reminding people about money on their privacy disclosure preferences. In experiment 1, we found that priming money increased willingness to disclose their personal information that could be shared with an online shopping website. Beyond stated willingness, experiment 2 tested whether priming money increases propensity for actually giving out personal information. Across both experiments, we found that priming money increases both the reported willingness and the actual disclosure of personal information. Our results imply that not only do short-term rewards make people trade-off personal security and privacy, but also mere exposure to money increases self-disclosure.