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Sample records for discipline explores theory

  1. An Exploration of the Relationships between Student Racial Background and the School Sub-Contexts of Office Discipline Referrals: A Critical Race Theory Analysis

    Anyon, Yolanda; Lechuga, Chalane; Ortega, Debora; Downing, Barbara; Greer, Eldridge; Simmons, John

    2018-01-01

    A growing body of research indicates that exclusionary school discipline practices disproportionately impact students of color. Some scholars have theorized that racial disparities likely vary across school sub-contexts, as implicit bias in perceptions of student behavior may be more influential in locations where students and adults have weaker…

  2. Critical theory and its contribution to the nursing discipline.

    Mosqueda-Díaz, Angélica; Vílchez-Barboza, Vivian; Valenzuela-Suazo, Sandra; Sanhueza-Alvarado, Olivia

    2014-01-01

    This article reflects on the Critical theory, stemming from the most important philosophical concepts and the modifications it has endured over time. Thereafter, we expose the contribution of the Critical theory to Nursing. This emphasizes on the contextual analysis of the phenomena and it is a self-critique to prevent dogmatisms and totalitarianisms. It postulates that in order to establish a truth, we must consider the historical conditions within which said truth emerges. Jürgen Habermas, with his Theory of Communicative Action, reorients the original postulates of the Critical theory, making it more coherent from the social point of view, through the Guiding Interests of Knowledge. Nursing professionals who follow the Critical theory highlight the need to improve the description of the construction of knowledge with an emancipating and liberating purpose, which permits Nursing to provide responses to approach reality through a global and dialectic vision and from a democratic position of knowledge, construct research from the social situational reality that is part of its daily experience; everything that can be unified as a "Philosophy of Nursing Care", which should be incorporated onto the professional formation of the discipline and onto the research area.

  3. Critical theory and its contribution to the nursing discipline

    Angélica Mosqueda-Díaz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on the Critical theory, stemming from the most important philosophical concepts and the modifications it has endured over time. Thereafter, we expose the contribution of the Critical theory to Nursing. This emphasizes on the contextual analysis of the phenomena and it is a self-critique to prevent dogmatisms and totalitarianisms. It postulates that in order to establish a truth, we must consider the historical conditions within which said truth emerges. Jürgen Habermas, with his Theory of Communicative Action, reorients the original postulates of the Critical theory, making it more coherent from the social point of view, through the Guiding Interests of Knowledge. Nursing professionals who follow the Critical theory highlight the need to improve the description of the construction of knowledge with an emancipating and liberating purpose, which permits Nursing to provide responses to approach reality through a global and dialectic vision and from a democratic position of knowledge, construct research from the social situational reality that is part of its daily experience; everything that can be unified as a "Philosophy of Nursing Care", which should be incorporated onto the professional formation of the discipline and onto the research area.

  4. The discipline of hospital development: a conceptual framework incorporating marketing, managerial, consumer behavior, and adult learning theories.

    Shirley, S; Stampfl, R

    1997-12-01

    The purpose of this explanatory and prescriptive article is to identify interdisciplinary theories used by hospital development to direct its practice. The article explores, explains, and applies theories and principles from behavioral, social, and managerial disciplines. Learning, motivational, organizational, marketing, and attitudinal theories are incorporated and transformed into the fundamental components of a conceptual framework that provides an overview of the practice of hospital development. How this discipline incorporates these theories to design, explain, and prescribe the focus of its own practice is demonstrated. This interdisciplinary approach results in a framework for practice that is adaptable to changing social, cultural, economic, political, and technological environments.

  5. Exploration on the Discipline Orientation and Theory System of"Corporate Finance"in Undergraduate Finance Education%"公司金融学"在金融学本科教育中的学科定位与理论体系探讨

    曹俐

    2016-01-01

    公司金融学是金融学专业的核心主干课程,随着本科高等教育应用型人才培养的需要,其学科地位日益凸显.本文对公司金融的学科定位问题进行分析,对公司金融的理论体系进行了探讨,并对未来公司金融学发展方向做出展望.%Corporate finance is a core and main course for finance specialty, and its discipline position is increasingly highlighted with the demand of applied talent cultivation in undergraduate higher education. This paper analyzes the discipline orientation of corporate finance, explores the theory system of corporate finance, and makes a prospect of the future development of Corporate Fi-nance.

  6. The Role of Theory Adaptation in the Making of a Reference Discipline

    Kjærgaard, Annemette; Vendelø, Morten Thanning

    2015-01-01

    Information Systems (IS) scholars repeatedly debate the nature of the IS discipline. A series of articles have debated whether the IS field has become a reference discipline. While many scholars have argued this question from a perceptual point of view, we address it by examining the role of theo...... adaptation, have a higher probability of being referenced by other disciplines. Finally, we discuss the implications of the manner in which IS scholars borrow theory regarding the IS discipline's prospects of becoming a reference discipline.......Information Systems (IS) scholars repeatedly debate the nature of the IS discipline. A series of articles have debated whether the IS field has become a reference discipline. While many scholars have argued this question from a perceptual point of view, we address it by examining the role of theory...... adaptation in the making of a reference discipline. Based on a review of how the sensemaking theory from organization studies is adapted and used in IS research, we show that papers that adapt and use sensemaking theory as a central construct in the theoretical framework – in other words – engaging in theory...

  7. Recovery as a Lived Experience Discipline: A Grounded Theory Study.

    Byrne, Louise; Happell, Brenda; Reid-Searl, Kerry

    2015-01-01

    Recovery is government mandated and a core facet of mental health reform. However, Recovery implementation in this country (Australia) has been inhibited by a lack of education of, and understanding from, clinicians. A grounded theory study was undertaken to explore the potential and existing role of lived experience practitioners in assisting meaningful implementations of Recovery within the Australian mental health sector. In-depth interviews were conducted with 13 people employed to work from a lived experience perspective. The findings suggest participants have experienced and observed significant barriers to the implementation of Recovery-focused practice while operating in lived experience roles. Three main issues emerged: (1) Recovery co-opted, (2) Recovery uptake, and (3) Recovery denial. For a genuine Recovery-focused mental health system to be developed, lived experience practitioners must be enabled to take their role as Recovery experts and leaders. Lived experience practitioners are the logical leaders of Recovery implementation due to their own internal experience and understandings of Recovery and the wider lived experience movement's development and championing of the concepts.

  8. he Development of Music Theory as an Independent Discipline: Beginnings, Conflicts, and New Directions

    Irna Priore

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article asserts that music theory is an independent discipline and proposes to discuss what it is and the issues of modern theory. Contrary to popular believe, music theory goes beyond knowing the fundamentals of music. Just as the alphabet is only a basis for linguistics or literature, the fundamentals of music is only the beginning of understanding music theory, leading, therefore, to the need for more profound study. This article includes a review of the long history of music theory and its scholars. The objective is to recognize the indisputable value of music theory to encourage its users to innovate and promote the development of new fields.

  9. Borrowed knowledge chaos theory and the challenge of learning across disciplines

    Kellert, Stephen H

    2009-01-01

    What happens to scientific knowledge when researchers outside the natural sciences bring elements of the latest trend across disciplinary boundaries for their own purposes? Researchers in fields from anthropology to family therapy and traffic planning employ the concepts, methods, and results of chaos theory to harness the disciplinary prestige of the natural sciences, to motivate methodological change or conceptual reorganization within their home discipline, and to justify public policies and aesthetic judgments.Using the recent explosion in the use (and abuse) of chaos theory, Borrowed Knowledge and the Challenge of Learning across Disciplines examines the relationship between science and other disciplines as well as the place of scientific knowledge within our broader culture. Stephen H. Kellert's detailed investigation of the myriad uses of chaos theory reveals serious problems that can arise in the interchange between science and other knowledge-making pursuits, as well as opportunities for constructive...

  10. 4. Assessment Typologies Used Within the Discipline Theory, Solfeggio, Musical Dictation

    Duţică Luminiţa

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Assessment is a distinct stage within the teaching process, aiming to measure the level of the knowledge, skills and competences acquired within a given time frame. The discipline Theory, Solfeggio, Musical Dictation involves a synthesis between the theoretical and the practical side of the matter, and, as a result, it uses specific assessment tools for each side. Modern assessment methods involve personalized systems based on the diversification of types of docimological tests, quizzes, practical tests, etc. In this study we will present a series of personal contributions referring to the contents specific to the discipline Theory, Solfeggio, Musical Dictation taught at university.

  11. Motivation for pilgrimage: using theory to explore motivations

    Ruth Blackwell

    2010-01-01

    This article is a discussion of the motivations for pilgrimage and it will draw upon theories of motivation to explore the continuing attraction of pilgrimage in contemporary times. This discussion is located within the field of Event Management. Event Management is a fast growing discipline which focuses on the design, production and management of planned events, such as festivals, celebrations, conferences, fund-raisers and so on. Clearly pilgrimages, as planned events, fit into this defini...

  12. Educating students to cross boundaries between disciplines and cultures and between theory and practice

    Fortuin, K.P.J.; Bush, S.R.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to evaluate and analyse the didactic model of a university course, which concerns an applied academic consultancy project and which focuses on skills related to crossing boundaries between disciplines and cultures, and between theory and practice.

  13. Trend of Medical Tourism Publications: An Attempt to Explore the Involved Academic Disciplines and Interests.

    Rokni, Ladan; Park, Sam-Hun

    2018-02-01

    Medical tourism suffers from the lack of a consensus regarding the involved categories. This study aimed to address this gap from the academic disciplines and publications perspective. Totally 1954 citations were identified through a formula of keyword search of SCOPUS. In order to classify the various subject areas, we followed the international standard classification of education (ISCED) developed by UNESCO. Moreover, the trends of publications were identified based on their popularity between 2000 and 2017. The category with the most interests on publication about medical tourism was 'health and welfare', followed by 'social science'. Even though various disciplines were involved in the medical tourism, it seems that a downward trend has been experienced since 2015. The identified key trends of medical tourism publications will benefit researchers exploring the categories of medical tourism or health travel. The results contribute to advance the state of knowledge from the academic perspective.

  14. Exploring Bundling Theory with Geometry

    Eckalbar, John C.

    2006-01-01

    The author shows how instructors might successfully introduce students in principles and intermediate microeconomic theory classes to the topic of bundling (i.e., the selling of two or more goods as a package, rather than separately). It is surprising how much students can learn using only the tools of high school geometry. To be specific, one can…

  15. Exploring Attribution Theory and Bias

    Robinson, Jessica A.

    2017-01-01

    Courses: This activity can be used in a wide range of classes, including interpersonal communication, introduction to communication, and small group communication. Objectives: After completing this activity, students should be able to: (1) define attribution theory, personality attribution, situational attribution, and attribution bias; (2)…

  16. Exploring the Theories of Radicalization

    Maskaliūnaitė Asta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available After the London bombings in July 2005, the concern of terrorism scholars and policy makers has turned to “home-grown” terrorism and potential for political violence from within the states. “Radicalization” became a new buzz word. This article follows a number of reviews of the literature on radicalization and offers another angle for looking at this research. First, it discusses the term “radicalization” and suggests the use of the following definition of radicalization as a process by which a person adopts belief systems which justify the use of violence to effect social change and comes to actively support as well as employ violent means for political purposes. Next, it proposes to see the theories of radicalization focusing on the individual and the two dimensions of his/her motivation: whether that motivation is internal or external and whether it is due to personal choice or either internal (due to some psychological traits or external compulsion. Though not all theories fall neatly within these categories, they make it possible to make comparisons of contributions from a variety of different areas thus reflecting on the interdisciplinary nature of the study of terrorism in general and radicalization as a part of it.

  17. Evaluating Art Studio Courses at Sultan Qaboos University in Light of the Discipline Based Art Education Theory

    Al-Amri, Mohammed

    2010-01-01

    Discipline-Based Art Education (DBAE), a theory developed in the USA, has been influential but also used in Art Education institutions world-wide. One of its stated goals was to develop the quality of teaching art education. Today, it is used as a theory for identifying and assessing good practices in the field of Art Education. The purpose of…

  18. Contemporary Test Validity in Theory and Practice: A Primer for Discipline-Based Education Researchers

    Reeves, Todd D.; Marbach-Ad, Gili

    2016-01-01

    Most discipline-based education researchers (DBERs) were formally trained in the methods of scientific disciplines such as biology, chemistry, and physics, rather than social science disciplines such as psychology and education. As a result, DBERs may have never taken specific courses in the social science research methodology--either quantitative…

  19. Exploring the relationship between ADHD symptoms and prison breaches of discipline amongst youths in four Scottish prisons.

    Gordon, V; Williams, D J; Donnelly, P D

    2012-04-01

    To explore the relationship between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms (inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity) and violent and non-violent prison breaches of discipline in incarcerated male youths aged 18-21 years. A case-control study of 169 male youth offenders incarcerated in Scottish prisons and classified as 'symptomatic' or 'non-symptomatic' of inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive ADHD symptoms. ADHD symptoms were measured using the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales-Self Report: Long Version, and prison breaches of discipline were gathered from the Scottish Prison Service's Prisoner Records System. Youths who were symptomatic of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM-IV) ADHD total symptoms had a significantly higher number of prison breaches of discipline than those who were non-symptomatic. Youths who were symptomatic of DSM-IV hyperactive/impulsive symptoms had a significantly higher number of violent and non-violent prison breaches of discipline than those who were non-symptomatic. However, no such significant difference was found between youths who were symptomatic and non-symptomatic of DSM-IV inattentive symptoms. Young male offenders who are symptomatic of ADHD have a higher number of prison breaches of discipline. In particular, symptoms of hyperactivity/impulsivity are associated with breaches of both a violent and non-violent nature. Implications of such symptoms on rehabilitation and recidivism are discussed. Copyright © 2012 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Investigating Students' Perceived Discipline Relevance Subsequent to Playing Educational Computer Games: A Personal Interest and Self-Determination Theory Approach

    Sorebo, Oystein; Haehre, Reidar

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explain students' perceived relevance of playing an educational game as a means for development of discipline competence. Based on self-determination theory and the concept of personal interest, we propose that: Satisfying students' basic needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness when playing educational games…

  1. Theory-of-Mind Development and Early Sibling Relationships after the Birth of a Sibling: Parental Discipline Matters

    Song, Ju-Hyun; Volling, Brenda L.

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated relations among children's Theory-of-Mind (ToM) development, early sibling interactions, and parental discipline strategies during the transition to siblinghood. Using a sample of firstborn children and their parents (N = 208), we assessed children's ToM before the birth of a sibling and 12 months after the birth, and…

  2. Exploring Shared and Distinctive Aspects of Coaching and Mentoring Approaches through Six Disciplines

    Salter, Tina; Gannon, Judie M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine where and how coaching and mentoring disciplines overlap or differ in approach. Coaching and mentoring have emerged as important interventions as the role of helping relationships have gained prominence in human resource development. However, there appear to be contexts where one or other is…

  3. Writing as a Design Discipline: Exploring the Relationship between Composition and Programming.

    Walton, Richard E.; Balestri, Diane

    1987-01-01

    Examines similarities between composition and programming processes, and reviews two studies that linked instruction in computer programming and freshman composition to help students understand writing as a design discipline. Projects at the University of Montana and Bryn Mawr College which improved students' writing abilities are described. (LRW)

  4. Motivation for pilgrimage: using theory to explore motivations

    Ruth Blackwell

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is a discussion of the motivations for pilgrimage and it will draw upon theories of motivation to explore the continuing attraction of pilgrimage in contemporary times. This discussion is located within the field of Event Management. Event Management is a fast growing discipline which focuses on the design, production and management of planned events, such as festivals, celebrations, conferences, fund-raisers and so on. Clearly pilgrimages, as planned events, fit into this definition. In this context, it is essential to recognise the importance of understanding the motives and needs of event customers so that we can plan to help our customers satisfy their motives. Whilst it might seem abhorrent and commercial to talk of pilgrims as customers, pilgrimages and religious sites have become more and more commodified and increasingly are deemed to need professional management. Key theories of motivation will be compared in order to identify the prime motivating factors underpinning people’s decisions to make pilgrimages.

  5. Exploring Virtual Enterprises Using Activity Theory

    Ronald Beckett

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available From joint Industry – University research into the key success factors that sustain Virtual Enterprises (VE’s, it has been observed that conditions for the establishment of a VE do not necessarily sustain it. Transactions that are valued by the participants, a balance between similarity and complementarity attributes of the participants and effective utilisation of time are seen as important sustaining factors. Different communication and ICT tools are utilised in different circumstances, and successful collaborations develop formal or informal “rules” underlying their operation. Considering such attributes helps us understand what happens within a successful VE, but not necessarily how. Two case studies describing long-standing collaborations – one relating to a manufacturing network, and the other to a professional virtual community are presented. A third case study relating to the development of ICT tools to be used in a VE is also presented. Activity Theory is used as a framework for discussion of the organisational attributes associated with these cases and how they operate. It is suggested that exploration of the nature of tools, communities etc is helpful in understanding VE operations, and applied at multiple levels, Activity Theory is also useful in understanding the evolution of those tools, communities etc.

  6. Interdisciplinary health promotion: a call for theory-based interventions drawing on the skills of multiple disciplines.

    Newton, Jonathon Timothy

    2012-10-01

    Promoting the health of populations demands the adoption of a perspective exploring the societal, political, community, family and individual determinants of health. I will argue that to develop interventions to modify health-related behaviours and health risks requires collaboration with a range of disciplines, in order to draw upon their theoretical, empirical and oftentimes political knowledge. To illustrate this thesis, I will draw upon research in three areas: improving oral health-related behaviours in individuals with periodontal disease and childhood caries; encouraging early recognition in head and neck cancer; and managing dental anxiety. Reviews of oral health education in the early 1990 s suggested that approaches based on education were largely ineffective in the absence of the provision of fluoride supplementation. More recently, high-quality research has identified simple, theory-based interventions that can improve adherence to specific oral hygiene-related behaviours. Similarly, a range of studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of motivational interviewing for targeting caries-related behaviours in targeted groups. Dental anxiety remains a significant barrier to the uptake of dental services, and again, by working in multi-disciplinary teams, a proportionate and comprehensive range of interventions can be adopted to alleviate the burden of dental fear. Finally, head and neck cancer has potentially serious effects for sufferers, but often presents late for a variety of reasons. Through developing a theoretical model of help-seeking behaviour, psychologists have been able to identify targets for interventions and work together with the healthcare team to develop these. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Recent Trends in Theory Use and Application within the Project Management Discipline

    Nathan Johnson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The following paper highlights the theories used to further project management (PM research spanning the 15 year time period of 1999-2013. The analysis examined 273 articles drawn from seven widely recognized PM journals with the aim of uncovering the most utilized theories in the discipline’s academic investigations. The review found these theories to be: Stakeholder Theory (ST, Fuzzy Sets Theory (FST, Utility Theory (UT, Theory of Constraints (TOC, and Actor-Network Theory (ANT. This collection of theories represents a diverse group of thought constituting a large portion of the PM literature’s theoretical foundations. Both UT and TOC have diminished in popularity while ANT and ST have improved in favor; FST has remained consistent in its use. The appendix to this manuscript includes a “ready reference” of all the theories utilized in PM research found within the reviewed journal outlets from the 15 year review period.

  8. Problems of development and putting into education process an electronic textbook on special discipline 'General theory and construction of heat-and-power engineering facilities'

    Karitskaya, S.G.; Ruzanov, K.A.; Davletov, V.S.

    2005-01-01

    The results of work of making the electronic textbook of special discipline ('General theory and construction of heat-and-power engineering facilities' are brought. The principles and requirements, presented towards literature of such type, are outlined. (author)

  9. Exploring hurdles to transfer : student experiences of applying knowledge across disciplines

    Lappalainen, Jouni; Rosqvist, Juho

    2015-04-01

    This paper explores the ways students perceive the transfer of learned knowledge to new situations - often a surprisingly difficult prospect. The novel aspect compared to the traditional transfer studies is that the learning phase is not a part of the experiment itself. The intention was only to activate acquired knowledge relevant to the transfer target using a short primer immediately prior to the situation where the knowledge was to be applied. Eight volunteer students from either mathematics or computer science curricula were given a task of designing an adder circuit using logic gates: a new context in which to apply knowledge of binary arithmetic and Boolean algebra. The results of a phenomenographic classification of the views presented by the students in their post-experiment interviews are reported. The degree to which the students were conscious of the acquired knowledge they employed and how they applied it in a new context emerged as the differentiating factors.

  10. Exploring CRM effectiveness: an institutional theory perspective

    B. Hillebrand (Bas); J.J. Nijholt (Jurriaan); E.J. Nijssen (Edwin)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis study identifies the potential contribution that institutional theory can make to understanding the success of marketing practices. Based on institutional theory, we argue that the effectiveness of marketing practices decreases when firms are motivated to adopt such practices under

  11. Exploring CRM effectiveness : an institutional theory perspective

    Hillebrand, B.; Nijholt, J.J.; Nijssen, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    This study identifies the potential contribution that institutional theory can make to understanding the success of marketing practices. Based on institutional theory, we argue that the effectiveness of marketing practices decreases when firms are motivated to adopt such practices under the

  12. Theory versus practice in the human factors and ergonomics discipline: Trends in journal publications from 1960 to 2010.

    Chung, Amy Z Q; Williamson, Ann

    2018-01-01

    The research-practice gap has been highlighted as a barrier to effective practice in human factors and ergonomics (HFE). There is also evidence of a theory-research gap that may be limiting the scientific evidence base of HFE. The purpose of this study was to examine trends in journal publications, especially relating to the research-practice gap and the involvement of theory over time. A content analysis was conducted on 425 journal articles published in Human Factors, Ergonomics, and Applied Ergonomics from 1960 to 2010. Results showed evidence of growth in applied research with increasing collaborative research between research and industry, larger research teams, and more empirical research-especially on applied problems. While there has been a corresponding increase in the involvement of theory in HFE publications, around half of the publications failed to acknowledge theory. This calls into question whether the HFE discipline may be missing the benefits of theory to guide research and subsequent practice, and to enhance the development of new ideas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Affective cognition: Exploring lay theories of emotion.

    Ong, Desmond C; Zaki, Jamil; Goodman, Noah D

    2015-10-01

    Humans skillfully reason about others' emotions, a phenomenon we term affective cognition. Despite its importance, few formal, quantitative theories have described the mechanisms supporting this phenomenon. We propose that affective cognition involves applying domain-general reasoning processes to domain-specific content knowledge. Observers' knowledge about emotions is represented in rich and coherent lay theories, which comprise consistent relationships between situations, emotions, and behaviors. Observers utilize this knowledge in deciphering social agents' behavior and signals (e.g., facial expressions), in a manner similar to rational inference in other domains. We construct a computational model of a lay theory of emotion, drawing on tools from Bayesian statistics, and test this model across four experiments in which observers drew inferences about others' emotions in a simple gambling paradigm. This work makes two main contributions. First, the model accurately captures observers' flexible but consistent reasoning about the ways that events and others' emotional responses to those events relate to each other. Second, our work models the problem of emotional cue integration-reasoning about others' emotion from multiple emotional cues-as rational inference via Bayes' rule, and we show that this model tightly tracks human observers' empirical judgments. Our results reveal a deep structural relationship between affective cognition and other forms of inference, and suggest wide-ranging applications to basic psychological theory and psychiatry. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Uranium exploration: new thinking, new theories and new technologies

    Dai Jiemin

    2000-01-01

    Uranium prospecting and exploration in China have almost past a course of a half century. At the boundary of two centuries, what is the trend of uranium prospecting and exploration? The coming uranium prospecting and exploration will be dependent on the enlightenment of new thinking, the guidance of new theories and the support of new technologies and methods. In a word, the authors must set up a creation system for uranium prospecting and exploration. The above-mentioned ideas are discussed

  15. Critical incidents: exploring theory policy and practice

    Beeke, Matthew A.

    2011-01-01

    Responding to critical incidents in school communities has become an established part of the practice of educational psychologists (EPs). Despite this the EP professional journal literature is sparse, the last major study being conducted by Houghton in 1996. Within a mixed methods design this study aimed to explore various aspects of EP practice in response to critical incidents. Firstly, critical incident policy and EP journal literature was examined to provide a definition...

  16. Connecting Structure-Property and Structure-Function Relationships across the Disciplines of Chemistry and Biology: Exploring Student Perceptions

    Kohn, Kathryn P.; Underwood, Sonia M.; Cooper, Melanie M.

    2018-01-01

    While many university students take science courses in multiple disciplines, little is known about how they perceive common concepts from different disciplinary perspectives. Structure-property and structure-function relationships have long been considered important explanatory concepts in the disciplines of chemistry and biology, respectively.…

  17. Children Balance Theories and Evidence in Exploration, Explanation, and Learning

    Bonawitz, Elizabeth Baraff; van Schijndel, Tessa J. P.; Friel, Daniel; Schulz, Laura

    2012-01-01

    We look at the effect of evidence and prior beliefs on exploration, explanation and learning. In Experiment 1, we tested children both with and without differential prior beliefs about balance relationships (Center Theorists, mean: 82 months; Mass Theorists, mean: 89 months; No Theory children, mean: 62 months). Center and Mass Theory children who…

  18. Discipline methods

    Maria Kikila; Ioannis Koutelekos

    2012-01-01

    Child discipline is one of the most important elements of successful parenting. As discipline is defined the process that help children to learn appropriate behaviors and make good choices. Aim: The aim of the present study was to review the literature about the discipline methods. The method οf this study included bibliography research from both the review and the research literature, mainly in the pubmed data base which referred to the discipline methods. Results: In the literature it is ci...

  19. Illustrating the use of concepts from the discipline of policy studies in energy research : An explorative literature review

    Hoppe, T.; Coenen, Frans; van den Berg, Maya

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing challenges the energy sector faces, energy policy strategies and instruments are becoming ever more relevant. The discipline of policy studies might offer relevant concepts to enrich multidisciplinary energy research. The main research question of this article is: How can

  20. Illustrating the use of concepts from the discipline of policy studies in energy research: An explorative literature review

    Hoppe, Thomas; Coenen, Franciscus H.J.M.; van den Berg, Maya Marieke

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing challenges the energy sector faces, energy policy strategies and instruments are becoming ever more relevant. The discipline of policy studies might offer relevant concepts to enrich multidisciplinary energy research. The main research question of this article is: How can policy

  1. Crisis behavior: An exploration of theories in concert.

    McConnell, Jason B; Crudo, Christine

    2015-01-01

    How might prominent existing communication theory better explain behavior in a crisis context, when considered in concert with one another? This theoretical work highlights the insight to be gained using Situational Crisis Communication Theory and Bandura's notions of self-efficacy to heighten the explanatory power of the Theory of Planned Behavior as applied to communication during times of crisis. Situational Crisis Communication Theory better explains how past experience with crisis influences the attitudes and social norms of crisis behavior, while Bandura's notion of self-efficacy speaks more directly to the availability of resources as contributing factors to perceived behavioral control in a crisis situation. As such, the incorporation of these well-developed notions into the broader framework of the Theory of Planned Behavior affords greater understanding of the relationship between communication and behavior during a crisis. Further exploration of this theoretical relationship is warranted.

  2. Social Cognitive Career Theory and Middle School Student Career Exploration

    Sickinger, Pamela H.

    2013-01-01

    Within the framework of social cognitive career theory, social cognitive career variables, demographic variables, and the contextual variable, parent support, were examined to determine their predictive value for eighth-grade students' career exploration behavior. Results suggest that the social cognitive career variable, intentions/goals,…

  3. Children balance theories and evidence in exploration, explanation, and learning

    Bonawitz, E.B.; van Schijndel, T.J.P.; Friel, D.; Schulz, L.

    2012-01-01

    We look at the effect of evidence and prior beliefs on exploration, explanation and learning. In Experiment 1, we tested children both with and without differential prior beliefs about balance relationships (Center Theorists, mean: 82 months; Mass Theorists, mean: 89 months; No Theory children,

  4. Exploring Spiritual Beliefs in Relation to Adlerian Theory.

    Polanski, Patricia J.

    2002-01-01

    This article describes one counselor's exploration of her spiritual beliefs in relation to Adler's theory of counseling and human development in an effort to move toward ideological consistency and to enhance competence in addressing spiritual dimensions of clients' development. (Contains 34 references.) (GCP)

  5. Effective Contraceptive Use: An Exploration of Theory-Based Influences

    Peyman, N.; Oakley, D.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore factors that influence oral contraceptive (OC) use among women in Iran using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and concept of self-efficacy (SE). The study sample consisted of 360 married OC users, aged 18-49 years recruited at public health centers of Mashhad, 900 km east of Tehran. SE had the strongest…

  6. Predicting who will major in a science discipline: Expectancy-value theory as part of an ecological model for studying academic communities

    Sullins, Ellen S.; Hernandez, Delia; Fuller, Carol; Shiro Tashiro, Jay

    Research on factors that shape recruitment and retention in undergraduate science majors currently is highly fragmented and in need of an integrative research framework. Such a framework should incorporate analyses of the various levels of organization that characterize academic communities (i.e., the broad institutional level, the departmental level, and the student level), and should also provide ways to study the interactions occurring within and between these structural levels. We propose that academic communities are analogous to ecosystems, and that the research paradigms of modern community ecology can provide the necessary framework, as well as new and innovative approaches to a very complex area. This article also presents the results of a pilot study that demonstrates the promise of this approach at the student level. We administered a questionnaire based on expectancy-value theory to undergraduates enrolled in introductory biology courses. Itself an integrative approach, expectancy-value theory views achievement-related behavior as a joint function of the person's expectancy of success in the behavior and the subjective value placed on such success. Our results indicated: (a) significant gender differences in the underlying factor structures of expectations and values related to the discipline of biology, (b) expectancy-value factors significantly distinguished biology majors from nonmajors, and (c) expectancy-value factors significantly predicted students' intent to enroll in future biology courses. We explore the expectancy-value framework as an operationally integrative framework in our ecological model for studying academic communities, especially in the context of assessing the underrepresentation of women and minorities in the sciences. Future research directions as well as practical implications are also discussed.

  7. Actions to improve the quality of the training process in the higher education from the classes of philosophical discipline and socio political theory.

    Anna Lidia Beltrán Marín; Edelso Valero Orellana; Lavinia Pérez García

    2012-01-01

    The employment of didactic materials in the classes of the philosophical discipline and socio political theory has improved the quality of the teaching and in consequence the professional's formation. With the purpose of socializing the results that have been applied and their possible implementation in entities of superior education in the territory, the following dissertation is presented which collect a synthesis of the main materials made by a community of professors and investigators of ...

  8. Validation of Theory: Exploring and Reframing Popper’s Worlds

    Steven E. Wallis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Popper’s well-known arguments describe the need for advancing social theory through a process of falsification. Despite Popper’s call, there has been little change in the academic process of theory development and testing. This paper builds on Popper’s lesser-known idea of “three worlds” (physical, emotional/conceptual, and theoretical to investigate the relationship between knowledge, theory, and action. In this paper, I explore his three worlds to identify alternative routes to support the validation of theory. I suggest there are alternative methods for validation, both between, and within, the three worlds and that a combination of validation and falsification methods may be superior to any one method. Integral thinking is also put forward to support the validation process. Rather than repeating the call for full Popperian falsification, this paper recognizes that the current level of social theorizing provides little opportunity for such falsification. Rather than sidestepping the goal of Popperian falsification, the paths suggested here may be seen as providing both validation and falsification as stepping-stones toward the goal of more effective social and organizational theory.

  9. Exploration on teaching reform of theory curriculum for engineering specialties

    Zhang, Yan; Shen, Wei-min; Shen, Chang-yu; Li, Chen-xia; Jing, Xu-feng; Lou, Jun; Shi, Yan; Jin, Shang-zhong

    2017-08-01

    The orientation of talents cultivation for local colleges is to train engineering application-oriented talents, so the exploration and practice on teaching reform of theory curriculum was carried out. We restructured the knowledge units basing on numerical solution problems, and chose the software to build algorithm models for improving the analytical and designed ability. Relying on micro video lessons platform, the teacher-student interaction was expanded from class to outside. Also, we programmed new experimental homework, which was suited for process evaluation. The new teaching mode has achieved good effect, and the students' application ability was significantly improved.

  10. Interrupting the Psy-Disciplines in Education

    to influence education, both regulating and shaping behaviour and morality. The book provides insight into different educational contexts and concerns across a child’s educational lifespan; early childhood education, inclusive education, special education, educational leadership, social media, university......This book offers critical explorations of how the psy-disciplines, Michel Foucault’s collective term for psychiatry, psychology and psycho-analysis, play out in contemporary educational spaces. With a strong focus on Foucault’s theories, it critically investigates how the psy-disciplines continue......, and beyond to enable reflection and critique of the implications of psy-based knowledge and practice. With chapters by a mixture of established and emerging international scholars in the field this is an interdisciplinary and authoritative study into the role of the psy-disciplines in the education system...

  11. Exploring Formative Assessment Using Cultural Historical Activity Theory

    Mandy Asghar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Formative assessment is a pedagogic practice that has been the subject of much research and debate, as to how it can be used most effectively to deliver enhanced student learning in the higher education setting. Often described as a complex concept it embraces activities that range from facilitating students understanding of assessment standards, to providing formative feedback on their work; from very informal opportunities of engaging in conversations, to the very formal process of submitting drafts of work. This study aims to show how cultural historical activity theory can be used as a qualitative analysis framework to explore the complexities of formative assessment as it is used in higher education. The original data for the research was collected in 2008 by semi structured interviews and analysed using a hermeneutic phenomenological approach. For this present paper three selected transcripts were re-examined, using a case study approach that sought to understand and compare the perceptions of five academic staff, from three distinct subject areas taught within a UK university. It is proposed that using activity theory can provide insight into the complexity of such experiences, about what teachers do and why, and the influence of the community in which they are situated. Individually the cases from each subject area were analysed using activity theory exploring how the mediating artefacts of formative assessment were used; the often implicit rules that governed their use and the roles of teachers and students within the local subject community. The analysis also considered the influence each aspect of the unit of activity had on the other in understanding formative assessment practice. Subsequently the three subject cases were compared and contrasted. The findings illuminate a variety of practices, including how students and staff engage together in formative assessment activities and for some, how dialogue is used as one of the key tools

  12. Exploring perturbative conformal field theory in Mellin space

    Nizami, Amin A. [International Centre for Theoretical Sciences, TIFR,Hesaraghatta, Hubli, Bengaluru-560089 (India); Rudra, Arnab [Center for Quantum Mathematics and Physics (QMAP), Department of Physics,University of California, Davis, 1 Shields Ave, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Sarkar, Sourav [Institut für Mathematik und Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, IRIS-Adlershof,Zum Großen Windkanal 6, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut,Am Mühlenberg 1, 14476 Potsdam (Germany); Verma, Mritunjay [International Centre for Theoretical Sciences, TIFR,Hesaraghatta, Hubli, Bengaluru-560089 (India); Harish-Chandra Research Institute,Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad-211019 (India)

    2017-01-24

    We explore the Mellin representation of correlation functions in conformal field theories in the weak coupling regime. We provide a complete proof for a set of Feynman rules to write the Mellin amplitude for a general tree level Feynman diagram involving only scalar operators. We find a factorised form involving beta functions associated to the propagators, similar to tree level Feynman rules in momentum space for ordinary QFTs. We also briefly consider the case where a generic scalar perturbation of the free CFT breaks conformal invariance. Mellin space still has some utility and one can consider non-conformal Mellin representations. In this context, we find that the beta function corresponding to conformal propagator uplifts to a hypergeometric function.

  13. Exploring the reducing role of boron: added insights from theory.

    Dangat, Yuvraj; Vanka, Kumar

    2016-04-14

    Carbon-carbon coupling in CO molecules is a challenging proposition, and very few main group complexes have been shown to effect this process. A recently reported triply bonded diboryne system (1) is notable for coupling four CO molecules to produce a (bis)boralactone species. The current full quantum chemical computational investigation with density functional theory (DFT) provides important insights into the nature of the CO coupling process by triply bonded diboryne systems. The complete reaction pathway leading to the formation of the (bis)boralactone has been determined. Factors that make this system so successful in coupling CO groups have been elucidated, and pertinent issues, such as why the coupling process stops after four CO additions, have been explored. Also, importantly, insights have been gained through the natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis into how the back-donation from diboryne activates CO.

  14. Discipline Admonished

    Kristensen, Peter Marcus

    2016-01-01

    that the stocktaking genre — past and present — is conducive to seeing the past as more simple, coherent and ordered while the present is marked by fragmentation and cacophony. Neat summaries of the academic scene in one’s own time are quite rare. Few stocktakers ever identified one conversation/debate driving...... the discipline, not during the first, second, third or fourth debates — and those who did disagreed on what the main trenches and its warriors were. The article concludes by arguing that International Relations’ recurrent anxieties about its fragmentation beg questions, not about whether it is real this time...

  15. Exploring the Theory-Practice Gap: Applications to Health Information Management/Technology Education and Training

    Green, Zakevia Denise

    2013-01-01

    Although research on the theory-practice gap is available across multiple disciplines, similar studies focusing on the profession of health information management/technology (HIM/T) are not yet available. The projected number of qualified HIM/T needed with advanced skills and training suggests that skillful use of electronic health records (EHR)…

  16. The Mediating Effects of Student Engagement on the Relationships between Academic Disciplines and Learning Outcomes: An Extension of Holland's Theory

    Pike, Gary R.; Smart, John C.; Ethington, Corinna A.

    2012-01-01

    This research examined the relationships among students' academic majors, levels of engagement, and learning outcomes within the context of Holland's person-environment theory of vocational and educational behavior. The study focused on the role of student engagement as a mediating agent in the relationships between academic majors and student…

  17. An extensive exploration of theories of foreign direct investment

    Patricia Lindelwa Makoni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify and examine the key foreign direct investment theories. The history and origins of FDI theories were considered, prior to dwelling in-depth on the theories themselves. FDI theories were classified under macroeconomic and microeconomic perspectives. Macroeconomic FDI theories emphasize country-specific factors, and are more aligned to trade and international economics, whereas microeconomic FDI theories are firm-specific, relate to ownership and internalisation benefits and lean towards an industrial economics, market imperfections bias. FDI theories are fairly complex to explain and apply. This paper is purely qualitative in nature, and attempted to explain the different FDI theories by providing an analyisis of the key theories used in many scholarly works

  18. Exploring the Application of Multiple Intelligences Theory to Career Counseling

    Shearer, C. Branton; Luzzo, Darrell Anthony

    2009-01-01

    This article demonstrates the practical value of applying H. Gardner's (1993) theory of multiple intelligences (MI) to the practice of career counseling. An overview of H. Gardner's MI theory is presented, and the ways in which educational and vocational planning can be augmented by the integration of MI theory in career counseling contexts are…

  19. Applying Information Processing Theory to Supervision: An Initial Exploration

    Tangen, Jodi L.; Borders, L. DiAnne

    2017-01-01

    Although clinical supervision is an educational endeavor (Borders & Brown, [Borders, L. D., 2005]), many scholars neglect theories of learning in working with supervisees. The authors describe 1 learning theory--information processing theory (Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968, 1971; Schunk, 2016)--and the ways its associated interventions may…

  20. Exploring Attitude Transformation: A Grounded Theory Study of Romanian Teachers of Roma Students

    Jones, Laura Estella

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic grounded theory study was to explore the process of change in teacher attitudes toward including Roma ("Gypsy") students in non-segregated schools in Romania. The theories guiding this study included Mezirow's (1991, 2000) theory of transformation, Gay's (2002, 2013) theory of culturally responsive…

  1. Theory and practice in medical education--expectations and development of skills experienced by students of human medicine compared with students in other disciplines.

    Piedmont, Silke; Robra, Bernt-Peter

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to compare students of human medicine (HM) with students specialising in the MINT disciplines (mathematics, computer science, natural sciences and engineering), the humanities and social sciences as well as law and economic sciences with regard to their expectations of their university study and career and the areas of competence where they feel they have been supported by their education. We present in detail issues particularly relevant to prospective physicians, which are discussed with the main focus on the "theoretical and practical orientation of medical education". We used the database in the Public Use File of the "11th Student Survey", a written survey of randomly selected students studying at 25 German tertiary institutions during the 2009/2010 winter term, which was supplied by the Tertiary Education Research working group at the University of Constance. Data on 7536 students was included, of which 488 (6.5%) were prospective physicians. Human medicine students have a clear career aim and want to complete their education quickly. They have a far above-average interest in working with and for people. About one student in two is interested in a career in science or research (53% in each case - close to the average for all subjects). Compared with the other disciplines, HM students are most likely to consider their university education to have practical and research relevance and are most likely to feel prepared for their profession. Yet over half of all students (Ø 53.3%; HM 54.5%) do not consider their education to have fostered their research skills. MINT students in particular are better able to enhance their skills through independent experimentation, while theory and practice are more likely to be communicated academically in the regular teaching of human medicine. Accordingly, the HM students feel less well supported in some areas of competence required for their later work than students in other disciplines, in developing

  2. Theory and practice in medical education – expectations and development of skills experienced by students of human medicine compared with students in other disciplines

    Piedmont, Silke

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this article is to compare students of human medicine (HM with students specialising in the MINT disciplines (mathematics, computer science, natural sciences and engineering, the humanities and social sciences as well as law and economic sciences with regard to their expectations of their university study and career and the areas of competence where they feel they have been supported by their education. We present in detail issues particularly relevant to prospective physicians, which are discussed with the main focus on the “theoretical and practical orientation of medical education”.Methods: We used the database in the Public Use File of the “11 Student Survey”, a written survey of randomly selected students studying at 25 German tertiary institutions during the 2009/2010 winter term, which was supplied by the Tertiary Education Research working group at the University of Constance. Data on 7536 students was included, of which 488 (6.5% were prospective physicians.Results: Human medicine students have a clear career aim and want to complete their education quickly. They have a far above-average interest in working with and for people. About one student in two is interested in a career in science or research (53% in each case – close to the average for all subjects. Compared with the other disciplines, HM students are most likely to consider their university education to have practical and research relevance and are most likely to feel prepared for their profession. Yet over half of all students (Ø 53.3%; HM 54.5% do not consider their education to have fostered their research skills. MINT students in particular are better able to enhance their skills through independent experimentation, while theory and practice are more likely to be communicated academically in the regular teaching of human medicine. Accordingly, the HM students feel less well supported in some areas of competence required for their later work than

  3. Exploring the relation of harsh parental discipline with child emotional and behavioral problems by using multiple informants. The generation R study

    J.D. Mackenbach (Joreintje ); A.P. Ringoot (Ank); J. van der Ende (Jan); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); A. Hofman (Albert); P.W. Jansen (Pauline); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractParental harsh disciplining, like corporal punishment, has consistently been associated with adverse mental health outcomes in children. It remains a challenge to accurately assess the consequences of harsh discipline, as researchers and clinicians generally rely on parent report of

  4. Dividing Discipline

    Kristensen, Peter Marcus

    2012-01-01

    the periphery of the network—security studies and international political economy in particular—but communication is also divided along the lines of geography and policy/theory. The article concludes that divisions notwithstanding, IR communication remains centered around American, general, and theoretical IR...

  5. Living on the edge of asthma: A grounded theory exploration.

    Shaw, Michele R; Oneal, Gail

    2014-10-01

    Most asthma-related emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalizations for asthma are preventable. Our purpose was to develop a grounded theory to guide interventions to reduce unnecessary hospitalizations and ED visits. Grounded theory inquiry guided interviews of 20 participants, including 13 parents and 7 children. Living on the edge of asthma was the emergent theory. Categories included: balancing, losing control, seeking control, and transforming. The theory provides the means for nurses to understand the dynamic process that families undergo in trying to prevent and then deal with and learn from an acute asthma attack requiring hospitalization or an ED visit. © 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Exploring the relation of harsh parental discipline with child emotional and behavioral problems by using multiple informants. The generation R study.

    Joreintje D Mackenbach

    Full Text Available Parental harsh disciplining, like corporal punishment, has consistently been associated with adverse mental health outcomes in children. It remains a challenge to accurately assess the consequences of harsh discipline, as researchers and clinicians generally rely on parent report of young children's problem behaviors. If parents rate their parenting styles and their child's behavior this may bias results. The use of child self-report on problem behaviors is not common but may provide extra information about the relation of harsh parental discipline and problem behavior. We examined the independent contribution of young children's self-report above parental report of emotional and behavioral problems in a study of maternal and paternal harsh discipline in a birth cohort. Maternal and paternal harsh discipline predicted both parent reported behavioral and parent reported emotional problems, but only child reported behavioral problems. Associations were not explained by pre-existing behavioral problems at age 3. Importantly, the association with child reported outcomes was independent from parent reported problem behavior. These results suggest that young children's self-reports of behavioral problems provide unique information on the effects of harsh parental discipline. Inclusion of child self-reports can therefore help estimate the effects of harsh parental discipline more accurately.

  7. Exploring the relation of harsh parental discipline with child emotional and behavioral problems by using multiple informants. The generation R study.

    Mackenbach, Joreintje D; Ringoot, Ank P; van der Ende, Jan; Verhulst, Frank C; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Jansen, Pauline W; Tiemeier, Henning W

    2014-01-01

    Parental harsh disciplining, like corporal punishment, has consistently been associated with adverse mental health outcomes in children. It remains a challenge to accurately assess the consequences of harsh discipline, as researchers and clinicians generally rely on parent report of young children's problem behaviors. If parents rate their parenting styles and their child's behavior this may bias results. The use of child self-report on problem behaviors is not common but may provide extra information about the relation of harsh parental discipline and problem behavior. We examined the independent contribution of young children's self-report above parental report of emotional and behavioral problems in a study of maternal and paternal harsh discipline in a birth cohort. Maternal and paternal harsh discipline predicted both parent reported behavioral and parent reported emotional problems, but only child reported behavioral problems. Associations were not explained by pre-existing behavioral problems at age 3. Importantly, the association with child reported outcomes was independent from parent reported problem behavior. These results suggest that young children's self-reports of behavioral problems provide unique information on the effects of harsh parental discipline. Inclusion of child self-reports can therefore help estimate the effects of harsh parental discipline more accurately.

  8. Approaching Southern Theory: Explorations of Gender in South African Education

    Epstein, Debbie; Morrell, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This article draws on the five other papers from South Africa in this issue of "Gender and Education" to consider how Southern theory has been developed and is developing in relation to gender and education in South Africa. We argue that Southern theory is not an on-the-shelf solution to global geopolitical inequalities but a work in…

  9. Practice Theory and Research: Exploring the Dynamics of Social Life

    Spaargaren, G.; Weenink, D.; Lamers, M.

    2016-01-01

    There has been an upsurge in scholarship concerned with theories of social practices in various fields including sociology, geography and management studies. This book provides a systematic introduction and overview of recent formulations of practice theory organised around three important themes:

  10. Adolescent Identity Exploration: A Test of Erikson's Theory of Transitional Crisis.

    Kidwell, Jeannie S.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigates Erikson's theory that adolescent identity exploration is associated with a variety of symptoms. Results support Erikson's theory, indicating that adolescents who were actively engaged in identity exploration were more likely to produce a personality pattern characterized by self-doubt, confusion, disturbed thinking, impulsivity,…

  11. Exploring Graduate Students’ Attitudes towards Team Research and Their Scholarly Productivity: A Survey Guided by the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Tianlan Wei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the attitudinal and motivational factors underlying graduate students’ attitudes towards team research. Guided by the Theory of Planned Behavior, we hypothesize that attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control are three major determinants of graduate students’ intentions to conduct team research. An instrument was developed to measure the influences of these factors on students’ intentions and relevant scholarly productivity. A total of 281 graduate students from a large, comprehensive university in the southwest United States participated in the survey. Descriptive statistics reveal that around two-thirds of graduate students have no co-authored manuscripts submitted for publication since they started graduate school. Factor analyses validated the factor structure of the instrument, and the results of Structural Equation Modeling show that (a graduate students’ attitudes towards team research have a positive correlation with their attitudes towards individual research; (b attitude towards team research, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control, along with students’ discipline/major areas and classification, account for 58% of the variance in the intention to conduct team research; and (c subjective norm appears to be the most influential factor in the model, followed by attitude; while perceived behavioral control is not of much importance. These findings provide implications for academic departments and programs to promote graduate students’ team research. Specifically, creating a climate for collaborative research in academic programs/disciplines/universities may work jointly with enhancing students’ appraisals of such collaborations.

  12. Guidance theory and practice : the status of career exploration

    Taveira, Maria do Céu; Rodríguez Moreno, Maria Luísa

    2003-01-01

    Career intervention can be designed to enhance constructive attitudes, emotions and behaviours that will improve clients’ career attainment. In this sense, mobilisation of career exploration constitutes one of the most important tasks of career counsellors, particularly with emphasis in developmental career guidance models, first developed in the 1950s. The authors present a brief review of career exploration conceptualisation and empirical research lines. The implications for career guidance...

  13. Actions to improve the quality of the training process in the higher education from the classes of philosophical discipline and socio political theory.

    Anna Lidia Beltrán Marín

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The employment of didactic materials in the classes of the philosophical discipline and socio political theory has improved the quality of the teaching and in consequence the professional's formation. With the purpose of socializing the results that have been applied and their possible implementation in entities of superior education in the territory, the following dissertation is presented which collect a synthesis of the main materials made by a community of professors and investigators of Sancti Spiritus University, As well as the way that have been employed in each case and the presentation in events and the publication of some results of the investigations made as a part of Project for the Study of philosophy, history of the education and the educational and social institutions in Sancti Spíritus. Results presented as thesis in option to academic titles of Master in Sciences of the Education and Superior Education and some experiences of professors that have assumed the teaching of the philosophy in the municipalization are exposed also.

  14. Exploring the web of heterotic string theories using anomalies

    Ruehle, Fabian

    2013-07-01

    We investigate how anomalies can be used to infer relations among different descriptions of heterotic string theory. Starting from the observation that the construction mechanism of heterotic orbifold compactifications considered up to now prevents them from being resolved into fully smooth Calabi-Yau compactification manifolds, we use a new mechanism to obtain an orbifold which does not suffer from the aforementioned limitations. We explain in general how to resolve orbifolds into smooth Calabi-Yau using toric geometry and gauged linear sigma models. The latter allow for studying the theory in various other regions of the string moduli space as well, which unveils interesting intermediate geometries. By following anomalies through the different regimes, we can match the orbifold theories to their smooth Calabi-Yau counterparts. In the process, we investigate discrete R and non-R orbifold symmetries and propose a mechanism for studying their fate in other regions of the moduli space. Finally, we introduce a novel anomaly cancelation mechanism in gauged linear sigma models, which manifests itself in target space as a description of compactification geometries with torsion and Neveu-Schwarz five branes.

  15. Exploring the web of heterotic string theories using anomalies

    Ruehle, Fabian

    2013-07-15

    We investigate how anomalies can be used to infer relations among different descriptions of heterotic string theory. Starting from the observation that the construction mechanism of heterotic orbifold compactifications considered up to now prevents them from being resolved into fully smooth Calabi-Yau compactification manifolds, we use a new mechanism to obtain an orbifold which does not suffer from the aforementioned limitations. We explain in general how to resolve orbifolds into smooth Calabi-Yau using toric geometry and gauged linear sigma models. The latter allow for studying the theory in various other regions of the string moduli space as well, which unveils interesting intermediate geometries. By following anomalies through the different regimes, we can match the orbifold theories to their smooth Calabi-Yau counterparts. In the process, we investigate discrete R and non-R orbifold symmetries and propose a mechanism for studying their fate in other regions of the moduli space. Finally, we introduce a novel anomaly cancelation mechanism in gauged linear sigma models, which manifests itself in target space as a description of compactification geometries with torsion and Neveu-Schwarz five branes.

  16. Explore Stochastic Instabilities of Periodic Points by Transition Path Theory

    Cao, Yu; Lin, Ling; Zhou, Xiang

    2016-06-01

    We consider the noise-induced transitions from a linearly stable periodic orbit consisting of T periodic points in randomly perturbed discrete logistic map. Traditional large deviation theory and asymptotic analysis at small noise limit cannot distinguish the quantitative difference in noise-induced stochastic instabilities among the T periodic points. To attack this problem, we generalize the transition path theory to the discrete-time continuous-space stochastic process. In our first criterion to quantify the relative instability among T periodic points, we use the distribution of the last passage location related to the transitions from the whole periodic orbit to a prescribed disjoint set. This distribution is related to individual contributions to the transition rate from each periodic points. The second criterion is based on the competency of the transition paths associated with each periodic point. Both criteria utilize the reactive probability current in the transition path theory. Our numerical results for the logistic map reveal the transition mechanism of escaping from the stable periodic orbit and identify which periodic point is more prone to lose stability so as to make successful transitions under random perturbations.

  17. Exploring Tinnitus-Induced Disablement by Persistent Frustration in Aging Individuals: A Grounded Theory Study

    Dauman, Nicolas; Erlandsson, Soly I.; Albarracin, Dolorès; Dauman, René

    2017-01-01

    Background: Qualitative research can help to improve the management of patients, meet their expectations and assist physicians in alleviating their suffering. The perception of moment-to-moment variability in tinnitus annoyance is an emerging field of exploration. This study sought to enlighten variability in tinnitus-induced disablement using a qualitative approach. Methods: Twelve participants (six females, six males, aged 51–79) were recruited via the French Tinnitus Association Journal for participation in recorded semi-structured interviews. Each participant had three interviews lasting 1 h, the sessions being separated one from the other by 2 weeks. Following recommendations of Charmaz (2014), the second and third interviews were aimed at gathering rich data, by enhancing the participants' reflexivity in the circumstances of distress caused by tinnitus. After transcription, the data (n = 36 interviews) were analyzed using the approach to Grounded Theory proposed by Strauss and Corbin (1998). Results: Tinnitus as persistent frustration emerged as being the core category uniting all the other categories of the study. Hence, the core category accounted for the broader scope in participants' experience of chronic tinnitus. It is suggested that tinnitus-induced disablement varied according to the degree of frustration felt by the participants in not being able to achieve their goals. The implications of this were analyzed using the following categories: “Losing body ownership,” “Lacking perspectives,” and “Persevering through difficulties.” Based on these findings, we draw a substantive theory of tinnitus tolerance that promotes an active, disciplined and individualized approach to tinnitus-induced disablement. The model distinguishes pathways from sustained suffering to reduced annoyance (i.e., emerging tolerance). It accounts for difficulties that the participants experienced with a perceived unchanged annoyance over time. Furthermore, this model

  18. Exploring Tinnitus-Induced Disablement by Persistent Frustration in Aging Individuals: A Grounded Theory Study.

    Dauman, Nicolas; Erlandsson, Soly I; Albarracin, Dolorès; Dauman, René

    2017-01-01

    Background: Qualitative research can help to improve the management of patients, meet their expectations and assist physicians in alleviating their suffering. The perception of moment-to-moment variability in tinnitus annoyance is an emerging field of exploration. This study sought to enlighten variability in tinnitus-induced disablement using a qualitative approach. Methods: Twelve participants (six females, six males, aged 51-79) were recruited via the French Tinnitus Association Journal for participation in recorded semi-structured interviews. Each participant had three interviews lasting 1 h, the sessions being separated one from the other by 2 weeks. Following recommendations of Charmaz (2014), the second and third interviews were aimed at gathering rich data, by enhancing the participants' reflexivity in the circumstances of distress caused by tinnitus. After transcription, the data ( n = 36 interviews) were analyzed using the approach to Grounded Theory proposed by Strauss and Corbin (1998). Results: Tinnitus as persistent frustration emerged as being the core category uniting all the other categories of the study. Hence, the core category accounted for the broader scope in participants' experience of chronic tinnitus. It is suggested that tinnitus-induced disablement varied according to the degree of frustration felt by the participants in not being able to achieve their goals. The implications of this were analyzed using the following categories: "Losing body ownership," "Lacking perspectives," and "Persevering through difficulties." Based on these findings, we draw a substantive theory of tinnitus tolerance that promotes an active, disciplined and individualized approach to tinnitus-induced disablement. The model distinguishes pathways from sustained suffering to reduced annoyance (i.e., emerging tolerance). It accounts for difficulties that the participants experienced with a perceived unchanged annoyance over time. Furthermore, this model identifies a

  19. Exploring Tinnitus-Induced Disablement by Persistent Frustration in Aging Individuals: A Grounded Theory Study

    Nicolas Dauman

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Qualitative research can help to improve the management of patients, meet their expectations and assist physicians in alleviating their suffering. The perception of moment-to-moment variability in tinnitus annoyance is an emerging field of exploration. This study sought to enlighten variability in tinnitus-induced disablement using a qualitative approach.Methods: Twelve participants (six females, six males, aged 51–79 were recruited via the French Tinnitus Association Journal for participation in recorded semi-structured interviews. Each participant had three interviews lasting 1 h, the sessions being separated one from the other by 2 weeks. Following recommendations of Charmaz (2014, the second and third interviews were aimed at gathering rich data, by enhancing the participants' reflexivity in the circumstances of distress caused by tinnitus. After transcription, the data (n = 36 interviews were analyzed using the approach to Grounded Theory proposed by Strauss and Corbin (1998.Results: Tinnitus as persistent frustration emerged as being the core category uniting all the other categories of the study. Hence, the core category accounted for the broader scope in participants' experience of chronic tinnitus. It is suggested that tinnitus-induced disablement varied according to the degree of frustration felt by the participants in not being able to achieve their goals. The implications of this were analyzed using the following categories: “Losing body ownership,” “Lacking perspectives,” and “Persevering through difficulties.” Based on these findings, we draw a substantive theory of tinnitus tolerance that promotes an active, disciplined and individualized approach to tinnitus-induced disablement. The model distinguishes pathways from sustained suffering to reduced annoyance (i.e., emerging tolerance. It accounts for difficulties that the participants experienced with a perceived unchanged annoyance over time. Furthermore

  20. King's theory of goal attainment: exploring functional status.

    Caceres, Billy A

    2015-04-01

    Imogene King's Theory of Goal Attainment provides a schema for nurses interested in functional status. However, the lack of a uniform definition for functional status has hindered development of a concise understanding of this phenomenon. Functional status is particularly important to nurses who are concerned with the safety and wellbeing of clients. With healthcare's increased focus on client-family-centered care it is important to develop innovative approaches for evaluating functional status that incorporate the client-family perspective. King's focus on mutual decision-making is an underutilized resource that can provide great insight into the study and understanding of functional status. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Exploration

    Lohrenz, J.

    1992-01-01

    Oil and gas exploration is a unique kind of business. Businesses providing a vast and ever-changing panoply of products to markets are a focus of several disciplines' energetic study and analysis. The product inventory problem is robust, pertinent, and meaningful, and it merits the voluminous and protracted attention received from keen business practitioners. Prototypical business practitioners, be they trained by years of business hurly-burly, or sophisticated MBAs with arrays of mathematical algorithms and computers, are not normally prepared, however, to recognize the unique nature of exploration's inventories. Put together such a business practitioner with an explorationist and misunderstandings, hidden and open, are inevitable and predictably rife. The first purpose of this paper is to articulate the inherited inventory handling paradigms of business practitioners in relation to exploration's inventories. To do so, standard pedagogy in business administration is used and a case study of an exploration venture is presented. A second purpose is to show the burdens that the misunderstandings create. The result is not just business plans that go awry, but public policies that have effects opposite from those intended

  2. Discipline in the Schools.

    Eggleton, Travis

    Discipline is a necessary ingredient for any successful school. Every teacher and school has a particular style and technique of discipline. This paper examines effective discipline strategies that help maintain school discipline. Classroom management, in school and out of school suspensions, alternative schooling, corporal punishment, and…

  3. Getting Real: Exploring the Perceived Disconnect between Education Theory and Practice in Teacher Education

    Ketter, Jean; Stoffel, Brian

    2008-01-01

    This article, inspired in part by the Levine report that criticizes teacher education programs in the United States for being out of touch with practices that work in real classrooms, is a self-study that explores the rift between educational theory, particularly theory that pushes for social constructionist, child-centered approaches to teaching,…

  4. Exploring the Components of Advanced Theory of Mind in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Pedreño, C.; Pousa, E.; Navarro, J. B.; Pàmias, M.; Obiols, J. E.

    2017-01-01

    Performance of a group of 35 youth and adults with High-Functioning Autism (HFA) was compared with a typical developing (TD) group on three Advanced Theory of Mind tests. The distinction between the social-cognitive and social-perceptual components of Theory of Mind was also explored. The HFA group had more difficulties in all tasks. Performance…

  5. A practitioner’s guide to interpersonal communication theory: An overview and exploration of selected theories

    Bylund, Carma L.; Peterson, Emily B.; Cameron, Kenzie A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To provide a brief overview of selected interpersonal theories and models, and to present examples of their use in healthcare communication research. Results Nine interpersonal communication theories and their application to healthcare communication are discussed. Conclusion As healthcare communication interactions often occur at an interpersonal level, familiarity with theories of interpersonal communication may reinforce existing best practices and lead to the development of novel communication approaches with patients. Practice Implications This article serves as an introductory primer to theories of interpersonal communication that have been or could be applied to healthcare communication research. Understanding key constructs and general formulations of these theories may provide practitioners with additional theoretical frameworks to use when interacting with patients. PMID:22112396

  6. A practitioner's guide to interpersonal communication theory: an overview and exploration of selected theories.

    Bylund, Carma L; Peterson, Emily B; Cameron, Kenzie A

    2012-06-01

    To provide a brief overview of selected interpersonal theories and models, and to present examples of their use in healthcare communication research. Nine interpersonal communication theories and their application to healthcare communication are discussed. As healthcare communication interactions often occur at an interpersonal level, familiarity with theories of interpersonal communication may reinforce existing best practices and lead to the development of novel communication approaches with patients. This article serves as an introductory primer to theories of interpersonal communication that have been or could be applied to healthcare communication research. Understanding key constructs and general formulations of these theories may provide practitioners with additional theoretical frameworks to use when interacting with patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Exploring multicollinearity using a random matrix theory approach.

    Feher, Kristen; Whelan, James; Müller, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Clustering of gene expression data is often done with the latent aim of dimension reduction, by finding groups of genes that have a common response to potentially unknown stimuli. However, what is poorly understood to date is the behaviour of a low dimensional signal embedded in high dimensions. This paper introduces a multicollinear model which is based on random matrix theory results, and shows potential for the characterisation of a gene cluster's correlation matrix. This model projects a one dimensional signal into many dimensions and is based on the spiked covariance model, but rather characterises the behaviour of the corresponding correlation matrix. The eigenspectrum of the correlation matrix is empirically examined by simulation, under the addition of noise to the original signal. The simulation results are then used to propose a dimension estimation procedure of clusters from data. Moreover, the simulation results warn against considering pairwise correlations in isolation, as the model provides a mechanism whereby a pair of genes with `low' correlation may simply be due to the interaction of high dimension and noise. Instead, collective information about all the variables is given by the eigenspectrum.

  8. Augmenting Conceptual Design Trajectory Tradespace Exploration with Graph Theory

    Dees, Patrick D.; Zwack, Mathew R.; Steffens, Michael; Edwards, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Within conceptual design changes occur rapidly due to a combination of uncertainty and shifting requirements. To stay relevant in this fluid time, trade studies must also be performed rapidly. In order to drive down analysis time while improving the information gained by these studies, surrogate models can be created to represent the complex output of a tool or tools within a specified tradespace. In order to create this model however, a large amount of data must be collected in a short amount of time. By this method, the historical approach of relying on subject matter experts to generate the data required is schedule infeasible. However, by implementing automation and distributed analysis the required data can be generated in a fraction of the time. Previous work focused on setting up a tool called multiPOST capable of orchestrating many simultaneous runs of an analysis tool assessing these automated analyses utilizing heuristics gleaned from the best practices of current subject matter experts. In this update to the previous work, elements of graph theory are included to further drive down analysis time by leveraging data previously gathered. It is shown to outperform the previous method in both time required, and the quantity and quality of data produced.

  9. Conventional Systems of Classroom Discipline (the Patriarchy Speaks).

    Blumenfeld-Jones, Donald S.

    1996-01-01

    Considers traditional classroom discipline systems as patriarchal moral systems focused on hyperindividuality and dependent upon rules, consequences, and principles focused through authoritarian structures. Critiques the Assertive Discipline, Control Theory, and Discipline with Dignity discipline systems, and proposes an alternative model for…

  10. Exploring the Role of Music in Secondary English and History Classrooms through Personal Practical Theory

    Goering, Christian Z.; Burenheide, Bradley J.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the development of utilizing music as a Personal Practical Theory (PPT) in the teaching of English and history. Specifically, the authors explore the nature of PPT's, the benefits of utilizing music, and the process through which teachers begin using a new approach in their pedagogy. Unique contributions are the application…

  11. 自由與紀律:Montessori的人格教育思想 Freedom and Discipline: A Study on Montessori’s Theory of Personality Education

    李崗 Kang Lee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available 本研究旨在分析Montessori(1870-1952)的人格教育思想,主要運用詮釋學的研究方法:一方面聚焦於《吸收性心智》(The Absorbent Mind)、《童年的秘密》(The Secret of Childhood)、《發現兒童》(The Discovery of Child)及 《了解你的孩子》(What You Should Know about Your Child)等文本的理解,二方面來回於個人經驗與文本脈絡之間的對話與省思。結果發現,可歸納為以下四點:一、人格是精神生命肉身化的結果,人格統整的關鍵是意志發展。二、人格教育的目標在於建立紀律,人格教育的原則是給予自由,人格教育的方法是透過工作。三、人格教育的歷程始於兒童的自由選擇,繼之以專注地自發性工作,透過意志發展逐漸樂於服從,最後形成內在紀律,表現出寧靜的心境。四、人格教育的實施,關鍵時期為零至三歲,可以運用靜默遊戲、走線練習、穿脫衣服、準備茶會、舉辦生日會等方式進行。最後,本文更針對其思想內涵,提出10點評析,以供參考。 This study aims to analyze Maria Montessori’s theory of personality education. The author adopts interpretative methodology to focus on the following texts: The Absorbent Mind, The Secret of Childhood, The Discovery of the Child, and What You Should Know about Your Child. In this paper, the conclusion can be summarized into four points: First, personality is formed in the development of body and spirit, and the will is the key to integrate the whole system of personality. Second, the goal of personality education is to establish the discipline of life, and the method is to let children work spontaneously with the sense of duty in a free situation. Third, children must have the freedom to choose, then they can learn how to exercise their will to obey the inner discipline. Fourth, there are five examples provided for the implementation of

  12. APPLICATION OF MODELLING SYSTEMS IN THE DISCIPLINE «MODERN THEORY OF THE DYNAMIC SYSTEMS CONTROL» OF BACHELOR DEGREE FOR THE «COMPUTER SCIENCES» SPECIALTY

    ERSHOVA N. M.

    2017-05-01

    parameters are assigned. Then, the simulation process is started. In the work [1, 2,7,8] the basic data on mathematical modeling of the automatic regulation systems (ARS are given. Mathematical models of oscillatory processes of wheeled vehicles have their own specifics of creation. In works [3,4] the process of mathematical models creating of the machines oscillatory processes for various calculation schemes is considered. In the work [4] the possibilities of the MVTU 3.7 simulation system in free and forced oscillations studying, analyzing the motion stability along a detailed structural scheme of the simplest model is considered and in the laboratory works of the discipline "Modern Theory of Control of Dynamic Systems" of the baccalaureates curriculum of the specialty "Computer science" is implemented. Transient characteristics, phase portraits and graphs of free and of forced oscillations are obtained. The unfolded structural diagram of a mechanical system with two degrees of freedom is very complicated, but it allows to construct only one phase trajectory. Therefore, an assessment of the complex dynamic systems quality should be carried out on an enlarged structural scheme by the transient characteristics analyzing. In this case, the circuit blocks have complex transfer functions for the implementation of which there is a general view on the dynamic links library. All block parameters have the dimension of a second. It appears the problem a of the transition from the mathematical model of the research system to the mathematical model for constructing an enlarged structural scheme and the transformation of transfer functions to the transfer function of the dynamic link of a general type. Results. A technique for research of the transient processes of complex dynamical systems in the MVTU 3.7 simulation system is proposed by creating enlarged structural schemes and using a general-type dynamic link. Scientific novelty. The received transient characteristics of all dynamic

  13. Parental views and experiences on child discipline

    Hlad, Maja

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is divided in two parts, theoretical and empirical. Theoretical part explains in detail, different methods of disciplining children and ways in which disciplining effects different areas of child development. Furthermore, ways of setting rules and boundaries in a family environment are studied, and disciplinary approaches and ways of reacting towards misbehaving children are examined. Moreover, the theoretical part contains psychological theories about discipline, child behaviour ...

  14. "There Has Never Been a Glory Day in Education for Non-Whites": Critical Race Theory and Discipline Reform in Denver

    Wadhwa, Anita K.

    2010-01-01

    Suspension increases the likelihood of a student being expelled, dropping out, and being incarcerated, a phenomenon dubbed the "school to prison pipeline". One less punitive model of discipline that is gaining popularity worldwide is "restorative justice". Though restorative justice is now being used in the US to address racial…

  15. Exploring reforms while learning to teach science: Facilitating exploration of theory-practice relationships in a teacher education study group

    Foster, Jacob G.

    This dissertation inserts a new view into an old problem in teacher education. The study explores the theory-practice gap, the large distance between what preservice science teachers experience in schools, are able to enact, and are told they should hold themselves to in their practice. It does so by narrowing the focus of analysis to a secondary science study group and examining how the facilitator uses sociocultural constructivism to promote discussion. The analysis surfaces key communicative moves made by the facilitator and preservice teachers that yield fruitful discussion of theory-practice relationships. Additionally, the study's use of discourse analysis as a methodology and intertextuality as a conceptual framework opens new directions for applied sociolinguistic research and scholarship in science teacher education. Findings from the study focus on what was discussed and how explorations of theory-practice relationships were facilitated. Preservice teachers in the study group engaged in meaningful conversations about constructivist theory and its application to their students and teaching of science. They discussed many science education topics such as planning science lessons that actively engage students, assessment of content understanding, and management of content-based activities. Discussions of broader science education goals, including implementation of inquiry or development of collaborative communities, were not promoted. Examination of the facilitation illuminates a number of strategies found to be helpful in supporting these explorations. This study shows that facilitation can successfully support preservice teachers to construct understanding of social constructivist assumptions underlying the National Science Education Standards (NSES), as well as a few components of the Standards themselves. The focus on the underlying assumptions suggests that science teacher education should focus on these so that preservice teachers can build a strong

  16. A Look At Discipline

    Telep, Valya Goodwin, 1955-

    2009-01-01

    This series of lessons was prepared for parents like you - parents who want to do a better job of disciplining their children. The lessons were especially written for parents of preschool children, ages two to six, but some of the discipline methods are appropriate for older children, too. This lesson focuses on a general overview of discipline.

  17. Is the universe really made of tiny rubber bands? a kid's exploration of string theory

    Lane, Shaun-Michael

    2014-01-01

    This book explores the fascinating world of string theory and quantum physics from a kid’s perspective. Originally published as an interactive text, it soon became an international best seller on Apple’s iBooks store and has been number one in the category of string theory on iTunes for the past two years. It is now available for the first time in print form. Fully illustrated and annotated. This is the black and white version.

  18. Exploration of Successful Secondary Principals' Professional Development Experiences Framed within Transformational Leadership Theory

    Minix-Wilkins, Roxanne M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the professional development experiences of successful secondary principals framed within the practices of the transformational leadership theory. At this stage in the research, professional development will be generally defined as all of the types of training that the administrator…

  19. Kolb's Experiential Learning Theory: A Meta-Model for Career Exploration.

    Atkinson, George, Jr.; Murrell, Patricia H.

    1988-01-01

    Kolb's experiential learning theory offers the career counselor a meta-model with which to structure career exploration exercises and ensure a thorough investigation of self and the world of work in a manner that provides the client with an optimal amount of learning and personal development. (Author)

  20. Exploring the Disjunctures between Theory and Practice in Community College Visual Arts Programs

    Holland, Arnold

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the perceptions of ten community college visual arts faculty in five different community college settings with regard to the theory and practice disjunctures they were experiencing in their roles as instructors teaching foundational level courses within visual arts programs. The study illuminated the responses of community…

  1. A Longitudinal Examination of Adolescent Career Planning and Exploration Using a Social Cognitive Career Theory Framework

    Rogers, Mary E.; Creed, Peter A.

    2011-01-01

    This study used social cognitive career theory (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994), as a framework to investigate predictors of career choice actions, operationalised as career planning and career exploration. The model was tested cross-sectionally and longitudinally with 631 high school students enrolled in Grades 10-12. Students completed measures of…

  2. Recognizing Social Class in the Psychotherapy Relationship: A Grounded Theory Exploration of Low-Income Clients

    Thompson, Mindi N.; Cole, Odessa D.; Nitzarim, Rachel S.

    2012-01-01

    The process of psychotherapy among 16 low-income clients was explored using grounded theory (Charmaz, 2006; Glaser & Strauss, 1967) in order to understand and identify their unique experiences and needs. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 12 women and 4 men who had attended at least 6 sessions of psychotherapy within 6 months of the…

  3. Homeless Educational Policy: Exploring a Racialized Discourse Through a Critical Race Theory Lens

    Aviles de Bradley, Ann

    2015-01-01

    A qualitative research study conducted in two public high schools in an urban area of the Midwest sought to explore the issue of race as it pertains to educational policy implementation for unaccompanied homeless youth of color. Critical Race Theory (CRT) served as the guiding frame and method, uncovering the underlying theme of race in school…

  4. Using Personal Construct Theory to Explore Self-Image with Adolescents with Learning Disabilities

    Thomas, Samantha; Butler, Richard; Hare, Dougal Julian; Green, David

    2011-01-01

    A young person's construct of self can be fundamental to their psychological well being (Glick 1999; Emler 2001). However limited research has been conducted in the United Kingdom to explore self-image with adolescents with learning disabilities. Previous studies have demonstrated the effective use of personal construct theory with children…

  5. Exploring an experiential learning project through Kolb's Learning Theory using a qualitative research method

    Yuk Chan, Cecilia Ka

    2012-08-01

    Experiential learning pedagogy is taking a lead in the development of graduate attributes and educational aims as these are of prime importance for society. This paper shows a community service experiential project conducted in China. The project enabled students to serve the affected community in a post-earthquake area by applying their knowledge and skills. This paper documented the students' learning process from their project goals, pre-trip preparations, work progress, obstacles encountered to the final results and reflections. Using the data gathered from a focus group interview approach, the four components of Kolb's learning cycle, the concrete experience, reflection observation, abstract conceptualisation and active experimentation, have been shown to transform and internalise student's learning experience, achieving a variety of learning outcomes. The author will also explore how this community service type of experiential learning in the engineering discipline allowed students to experience deep learning and develop their graduate attributes.

  6. String fields, higher spins and number theory

    Polyakov, Dimitri

    2018-01-01

    The book aims to analyze and explore deep and profound relations between string field theory, higher spin gauge theories and holography the disciplines that have been on the cutting edge of theoretical high energy physics and other fields. These intriguing relations and connections involve some profound ideas in number theory, which appear to be part of a unifying language to describe these connections.

  7. Innovative practice: exploring acculturation theory to advance rehabilitation from pediatric to adult "cultures" of care.

    Nguyen, Tram; Baptiste, Sue

    2015-01-01

    This perspective paper explores the application of acculturation and the inherent concepts and ideas associated with this theory in rehabilitation to provide a framework for interpreting patient circumstances, responses and behaviours as they move from one culture to the next. Traditionally acculturation theory has been use to examine changes in culture in an ethnic or country sense, however, this paper is among the first to apply acculturation theory to the rehabilitation service cultures from pediatric to adult care for youth with chronic health conditions. The objectives of this paper are threefold: (1) to critically appraise key literature in the development of acculturation theory, (2) to discuss how acculturation theory can be applied in rehabilitation practice through a clinical vignette, and finally (3) to discuss how acculturation theory can advance rehabilitation by enhancing client-centered practice. Acculturation theory can provide insight into how patients are experiencing a change in health care "cultures", in the context of their overarching life circumstances. This, coming from a broader societal perspective can in turn inform an optimal approach to client-centered practice, and the application of rehabilitation-specific team inputs. This theoretical framework can heighten practitioners' awareness of patients' unique worldviews related to their expectations for care and treatment thus reducing fear of diversity to establish positive partnerships between patients and clinicians. An understanding of patients' acculturation processes will add new insight into how we can best deliver services and supports to optimise health, opportunities and experiences for youth with chronic conditions.

  8. Early Childhood Discipline: A Review of the Literature

    Firmin, Michael W.; Castle, Sally L.

    2008-01-01

    In this literature review concerning early childhood discipline we particularly highlight American children's discipline with respect to historical perspectives, generational theories, gender issues, parental styles, methods of discipline, and corporal punishment. We also address corporal punishment's history, the debate among experts, beliefs and…

  9. Social Consciousness and Discipline.

    Walsh, Kevin; Cowles, Milly

    The act of disciplining children cannot be based upon merely "putting a stop" to negative actions by means of reactionary techniques of control. If educators begin to consider discipline as a major aspect of the educational aim of socialization of children, significant contributions toward their moral and social development will take place.…

  10. Disciplining Students with Disabilities.

    Dwyer, Kevin P.

    This report discusses disciplining children with disabilities in schools, in the context of the legal requirements of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Practical concepts are explained in terms of the school's responsibility to: (1) maintain a safe environment; (2) teach a code of discipline to all students; (3) use the…

  11. ["Grounded theory" develops medicine. Popular research method for exploring human behavior can discover new connections].

    Thulesius, Hans; Barfod, Toke; Ekström, Helene; Håkansson, Anders

    2004-09-30

    Grounded theory (GT) is a popular research method for exploring human behavior. GT was developed by the medical sociologists Glaser and Strauss while they studied dying in hospitals in the 1960s resulting in the book "Awareness of dying". The goal of a GT is to generate conceptual theories by using all types of data but without applying existing theories and hypotheses. GT procedures are mostly inductive as opposed to deductive research where hypotheses are tested. A good GT has a core variable that is a central concept connected to many other concepts explaining the main action in the studied area. A core variable answers the question "What's going on?". Examples of core variables are: "Cutting back after a heart attack"--how people adapt to life after a serious illness; and "Balancing in palliative cancer care"--a process of weighing, shifting, compensating and compromising when treating people with a progressive and incurable illness trajectory.

  12. Gendered language attitudes: exploring language as a gendered construct using Rasch measurement theory.

    Knisely, Kris A; Wind, Stefanie A

    2015-01-01

    Gendered language attitudes (GLAs) are gender-based perceptions of language varieties based on connections between gender-related and linguistic characteristics of individuals, including the perception of language varieties as possessing degrees of masculinity and femininity. This study combines substantive theory about language learning and gender with a model based on Rasch measurement theory to explore the psychometric properties of a new measure of GLAs. Findings suggest that GLAs is a unidimensional construct and that the items used can be used to describe differences among students in terms of the strength of their GLAs. Implications for research, theory, and practice are discussed. Special emphasis is given to the teaching and learning of languages.

  13. LDRD final report on theory and exploration of quantum-dot optical nonlinearities and coherences

    Chow, Weng Wah

    2008-01-01

    A microscopic theory for investigating quantum-dot optical properties was developed. The theory incorporated advances on various aspects of quantum-dot physics developed at Sandia and elsewhere. Important components are a non-Markovian treatment of polarization dephasing due to carrier-carrier scattering (developed at Sandia) and a nonperturbative treatment within a polaron picture of the scattering of carriers by longitudinal-optical phonons (developed at Bremen University). A computer code was also developed that provides a detailed accounting of electronic structure influences and a consistent treatment of many-body effects, the latter via the incorporation of results from the microscopic theory. This code was used to explore quantum coherence physics in a quantum-dot system. The investigation furthers the understanding of the underlying differences between atomic quantum coherence and semiconductor quantum coherence, and helps improve the potential of using quantum coherences in quantum computing, coherent control and high-resolution spectroscopy

  14. A Qualitative Exploration of the Use of Attachment Theory in Adult Psychological Therapy.

    Burke, Eilish; Danquah, Adam; Berry, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing interest into how attachment theory can inform psychotherapeutic practice with adults. This study aimed to explore how a group of therapists with an interest in attachment theory use it in their work with adult clients. A cross-sectional qualitative design was adopted. Sampling, data collection and analysis procedures were guided by grounded theory principles. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 12 therapists from a variety of training backgrounds. Data were coded and developed into thematic categories. Six primary themes were identified to describe how attachment theory influenced the clinical practice of the sample through the following: (i) complementing other therapeutic models; (ii) providing a framework to understand the development of clients' mental health problems; (iii) working with different attachment styles; (iv) thinking about the therapeutic relationship as an attachment relationship; (iv) influencing the different stages of the therapeutic process; and (vi) influencing clinical service design and delivery. It is concluded that attachment theory can play a significant role in influencing the practice of therapists and can be usefully adopted to complement therapeutic processes irrespective of the therapist's dominant clinical orientation. Further research is needed to explore the views of clinicians from different theoretical orientations and to investigate the security of the client-therapist attachment within the context of therapeutic change processes. Attachment theory may have implications for practice across a range of different types of therapy and may help therapists to bridge apparent differences between modality-specific formulation and techniques. Attachment theory can be used to understand the development of mental health problems. Therapists should assess and formulate clients' attachment styles, and these formulations should guide therapeutic approaches. Attachment theory provides a comprehensive

  15. DYNAMIC AND INCREMENTAL EXPLORATION STRATEGY IN FUSION ADAPTIVE RESONANCE THEORY FOR ONLINE REINFORCEMENT LEARNING

    Budhitama Subagdja

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the fundamental challenges in reinforcement learning is to setup a proper balance between exploration and exploitation to obtain the maximum cummulative reward in the long run. Most protocols for exploration bound the overall values to a convergent level of performance. If new knowledge is inserted or the environment is suddenly changed, the issue becomes more intricate as the exploration must compromise the pre-existing knowledge. This paper presents a type of multi-channel adaptive resonance theory (ART neural network model called fusion ART which serves as a fuzzy approximator for reinforcement learning with inherent features that can regulate the exploration strategy. This intrinsic regulation is driven by the condition of the knowledge learnt so far by the agent. The model offers a stable but incremental reinforcement learning that can involve prior rules as bootstrap knowledge for guiding the agent to select the right action. Experiments in obstacle avoidance and navigation tasks demonstrate that in the configuration of learning wherein the agent learns from scratch, the inherent exploration model in fusion ART model is comparable to the basic E-greedy policy. On the other hand, the model is demonstrated to deal with prior knowledge and strike a balance between exploration and exploitation.

  16. Exploring the relation between People’s Theories of Intelligence and Beliefs about Brain Development

    Ashley J Thomas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A person’s belief about whether intelligence can change (called their implicit theory of intelligence predicts something about that person’s thinking and behavior. People who believe intelligence is fixed (called entity theorists attribute failure to traits (i.e. I failed the test because I’m not smart. and tend to be less motivated in school; those who believe intelligence is malleable (called incremental theorists tend to attribute failure to behavior (i.e. I failed the test because I didn’t study. and are more motivated in school. In previous studies, researchers have characterized participants as either entity or incremental theorists based on their agreement or disagreement with three statements. The present study further explored the theories-of-intelligence construct in two ways: first, we asked whether these theories are coherent, in the sense that they show up not only in participants’ responses to the three standard assessment items, but on a broad range of questions about intelligence and the brain. Second, we asked whether these theories are discrete or continuous. In other words, we asked whether people one thing or the other (i.e. that intelligence is malleable or fixed, or if there is a continuous range of beliefs (i.e., people believe in malleability to a greater or lesser degree. Study (1 asked participants a range of general questions about the malleability of intelligence and the brain. Study (2 asked participants more specific questions about the brains of a pair of identical twins who were separated at birth. Results showed that theories of intelligence are coherent: participants’ responses to the three standard survey items are correlated with their responses to questions about the brain. But the theories are not discrete: although responses to the three standard survey items fell into a bimodal distribution, responses to the broader range of questions fell into a normal distribution suggesting the theories are

  17. Adopted Children and Discipline

    ... Family Dynamics > Adoption & Foster Care > Adopted Children & Discipline Family Life ... are the reasons for these patterns of parental inaction? Some adoptive parents are afraid their youngster might stop loving ...

  18. Exploring multiple intelligences theory in the context of science education: An action research approach

    Goodnough, Karen Catherine

    2000-10-01

    Since the publication of Frames of Mind: The Theory in Practice, multiple intelligences, theory (Gardner, 1983) has been used by practitioners in a variety of ways to make teaching and learning more meaningful. However, little attention has been focused on exploring the potential of the theory for science teaching and learning. Consequently, this research study was designed to: (1) explore Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences (1983) and its merit for making science teaching and learning more meaningful; (2) provide a forum for teachers to engage in critical self-reflection about their theory and practice in science education; (3) study the process of action research in the context of science education; and (4) describe the effectiveness of collaborative action research as a framework for teacher development and curriculum development. The study reports on the experiences of four teachers (two elementary teachers, one junior high teacher, and one high school teacher) and myself, a university researcher-facilitator, as we participated in a collaborative action research project. The action research group held weekly meetings over a five-month period (January--May, 1999). The inquiry was a qualitative case study (Stake, 1994) that aimed to understand the perspectives of those directly involved. This was achieved by using multiple methods to collect data: audiotaped action research meetings, fieldnotes, semi-structured interviews, journal writing, and concept mapping. All data were analysed on an ongoing basis. Many positive outcomes resulted from the study in areas such as curriculum development, teacher development, and student learning in science. Through the process of action research, research participants became more reflective about their practice and thus, enhanced their pedagogical content knowledge (Shulman, 1987) in science. Students became more engaged in learning science, gained a greater understanding of how they learn, and experienced a

  19. Neuroscience discipline science plan

    1991-01-01

    Over the past two decades, NASA's efforts in the neurosciences have developed into a program of research directed at understanding the acute changes that occur in the neurovestibular and sensorimotor systems during short-duration space missions. However, the proposed extended-duration flights of up to 28 days on the Shuttle orbiter and 6 months on Space Station Freedom, a lunar outpost, and Mars missions of perhaps 1-3 years in space, make it imperative that NASA's Life Sciences Division begin to concentrate research in the neurosciences on the chronic effects of exposure to microgravity on the nervous system. Major areas of research will be directed at understanding (1) central processing, (2) motor systems, (3) cognitive/spatial orientation, and (4) sensory receptors. The purpose of the Discipline Science Plan is to provide a conceptual strategy for NASA's Life Sciences Division research and development activities in the comprehensive area of neurosciences. It covers the significant research areas critical to NASA's programmatic requirements for the Extended-Duration Orbiter, Space Station Freedom, and exploration mission science activities. These science activities include ground-based and flight; basic, applied, and operational; and animal and human research and development. This document summarizes the current status of the program, outlines available knowledge, establishes goals and objectives, identifies science priorities, and defines critical questions in the subdiscipline areas of nervous system function. It contains a general plan that will be used by NASA Headquarters Program Offices and the field centers to review and plan basic, applied, and operational intramural and extramural research and development activities in this area.

  20. Phenomenology of dark energy: exploring the space of theories with future redshift surveys

    Piazza, Federico; Steigerwald, Heinrich; Marinoni, Christian

    2014-01-01

    We use the effective field theory of dark energy to explore the space of modified gravity models which are capable of driving the present cosmic acceleration. We identify five universal functions of cosmic time that are enough to describe a wide range of theories containing a single scalar degree of freedom in addition to the metric. The first function (the effective equation of state) uniquely controls the expansion history of the universe. The remaining four functions appear in the linear cosmological perturbation equations, but only three of them regulate the growth history of large scale structures. We propose a specific parameterization of such functions in terms of characteristic coefficients that serve as coordinates in the space of modified gravity theories and can be effectively constrained by the next generation of cosmological experiments. We address in full generality the problem of the soundness of the theory against ghost-like and gradient instabilities and show how the space of non-pathological models shrinks when a more negative equation of state parameter is considered. This analysis allows us to locate a large class of stable theories that violate the null energy condition (i.e. super-acceleration models) and to recover, as particular subsets, various models considered so far. Finally, under the assumption that the true underlying cosmological model is the Λ Cold Dark Matter (ΛCDM) scenario, and relying on the figure of merit of EUCLID-like observations, we demonstrate that the theoretical requirement of stability significantly narrows the empirical likelihood, increasing the discriminatory power of data. We also find that the vast majority of these non-pathological theories generating the same expansion history as the ΛCDM model predict a different, lower, growth rate of cosmic structures

  1. Extraction of design rules from multi-objective design exploration (MODE) using rough set theory

    Obayashi, Shigeru

    2011-01-01

    Multi-objective design exploration (MODE) and its application for design rule extraction are presented. MODE reveals the structure of design space from the trade-off information. The self-organizing map (SOM) is incorporated into MODE as a visual data-mining tool for design space. SOM divides the design space into clusters with specific design features. The sufficient conditions for belonging to a cluster of interest are extracted using rough set theory. The resulting MODE was applied to the multidisciplinary wing design problem, which revealed a cluster of good designs, and we extracted the design rules of such designs successfully.

  2. MEG studies prohibited muon decays to explore grand unified theories of elementary particles

    Mori, Toshinori

    2009-01-01

    The MEG experiment, designed and proposed by Japanese physicists, is being carried out at Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland, in collaboration with physicists from Italy, Switzerland, Russia and U.S.A. The experiment will make an extensive search for a muon's two-body decay into an electron and a gamma ray, μ→eγ, which is prohibited in the Standard Model of elementary particles, to explore Supersymmetric Grand Unified Theories. This article gives a brief description of the MEG experiment with an emphasis on the innovative experimental techniques developed to achieve the unprecedented experimental sensitivity. (author)

  3. A test of the theory of nonrenewable resources. Controlling for exploration and market power

    Malischek, Raimund; Tode, Christian; Koeln Univ.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the central role of the Hotelling model within the theory of nonrenewable resources, tests of the model are rarely found. If existent, these tests tend to ignore two key features, namely market power and exploration. We therefore suggest an extension of the basic Hotelling framework to incorporate exploration activity and market power and propose an implicit price behavior test of the model to indicate whether firms undergo inter-temporal optimization. When applied to a newly constructed data set for the uranium mining industry, the null hypothesis of the firm optimizing inter-temporally is rejected in all settings. However, parameter estimates of the model still yield valuable information on cost structure, resource scarcity and market power. Our results suggest that the shadow price of the resource in situ is comparably small and may be overshadowed by market power, which may serve as an explanation for the firm failing to optimize inter-temporally.

  4. A test of the theory of nonrenewable resources. Controlling for exploration and market power

    Malischek, Raimund [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Energy Economics; Tode, Christian [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Energy Economics; Koeln Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Economics

    2015-05-15

    Despite the central role of the Hotelling model within the theory of nonrenewable resources, tests of the model are rarely found. If existent, these tests tend to ignore two key features, namely market power and exploration. We therefore suggest an extension of the basic Hotelling framework to incorporate exploration activity and market power and propose an implicit price behavior test of the model to indicate whether firms undergo inter-temporal optimization. When applied to a newly constructed data set for the uranium mining industry, the null hypothesis of the firm optimizing inter-temporally is rejected in all settings. However, parameter estimates of the model still yield valuable information on cost structure, resource scarcity and market power. Our results suggest that the shadow price of the resource in situ is comparably small and may be overshadowed by market power, which may serve as an explanation for the firm failing to optimize inter-temporally.

  5. Using human error theory to explore the supply of non-prescription medicines from community pharmacies.

    Watson, M C; Bond, C M; Johnston, M; Mearns, K

    2006-08-01

    The importance of theory in underpinning interventions to promote effective professional practice is gaining recognition. The Medical Research Council framework for complex interventions has assisted in promoting awareness and adoption of theory into study design. Human error theory has previously been used by high risk industries but its relevance to healthcare settings and patient safety requires further investigation. This study used this theory as a framework to explore non-prescription medicine supply from community pharmacies. The relevance to other healthcare settings and behaviours is discussed. A 25% random sample was made of 364 observed consultations for non-prescription medicines. Each of the 91 consultations was assessed by two groups: a consensus group (stage 1) to identify common problems with the consultation process, and an expert group (stages 2 and 3) to apply human error theory to these consultations. Paired assessors (most of whom were pharmacists) categorised the perceived problems occurring in each consultation (stage 1). During stage 2 paired assessors from an expert group (comprising patient safety experts, community pharmacists and psychologists) considered whether each consultation was compliant with professional guidelines for the supply of pharmacy medicines. Each non-compliant consultation identified during stage 2 was then categorised as a slip/lapse, mistake, or violation using human error theory (stage 3). During stage 1 most consultations (n = 75, 83%) were deemed deficient in information exchange. At stage 2, paired assessors varied in attributing non-compliance to specific error types. Where agreement was achieved, the error type most often selected was "violation" (n = 27, 51.9%, stage 3). Consultations involving product requests were less likely to be guideline compliant than symptom presentations (OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.95, p = 0.05). The large proportion of consultations classified as violations suggests that either

  6. The Oxford handbook of organization theory

    Tsoukas, Haridimos; Knudsen, Christian Sebell

    This text provides a forum for scholars in organization theory to engage in meta-theoretical reflection on the historical development, present state, and future prospects of organization theory as a scientific discipline. The central question explored is the epistemological status of organization...

  7. Exploring the reference point in prospect theory: gambles for length of life.

    van Osch, Sylvie M C; van den Hout, Wilbert B; Stiggelbout, Anne M

    2006-01-01

    Attitude toward risk is an important factor determining patient preferences. Risk behavior has been shown to be strongly dependent on the perception of the outcome as either a gain or a loss. According to prospect theory, the reference point determines how an outcome is perceived. However, no theory on the location of the reference point exists, and for the health domain, there is no direct evidence for the location of the reference point. This article combines qualitative with quantitative data to provide evidence of the reference point in life-year certainty equivalent (CE) gambles and to explore the psychology behind the reference point. The authors argue that goals (aspirations) in life influence the reference point. While thinking aloud, 45 healthy respondents gave certainty equivalents for life-year CE gambles with long and short durations of survival. Contrary to suggestions from the literature, qualitative data argued that the offered certainty equivalent most frequently served as the reference point. Thus, respondents perceived life-year CE gambles as mixed. Framing of the question and goals set in life appeared to be important factors behind the psychology of the reference point. On the basis of the authors' quantitative and qualitative data, they argue that goals alter the perception of outcomes as described by prospect theory by influencing the reference point. This relationship is more apparent for the near future as opposed to the remote future, as goals are mostly set for the near future.

  8. The Discipline Controversy Revisited.

    Baumrind, Diana

    1996-01-01

    Found that neither the authoritative model nor the liberal (permissive) model offers parents an efficacious model of childrearing. Each polarized model contains an element of truth, but each demonizes the other. Argues that within a responsive and supportive parent-child relationship, prudent use of punishment is a necessary tool in discipline.…

  9. Single-Discipline Schooling.

    Brady, Marion

    1993-01-01

    Traditional academic disciplines are not best available tools for teaching about reality. The concept of human survival provides an overarching aim for a general education curriculum. Survival information includes knowledge about our physical environment; inherent human characteristics and capabilities; the ideas, beliefs, and values underlying…

  10. Discipline and Due Process.

    Collins, Mildred; Dowell, Mary L.

    1998-01-01

    Increasing numbers of parents do not accept a school's discipline policy and are refusing to permit their children to comply with disciplinary sanctions. According to the California Education Code, educators have the right to expect parents to accept disciplinary decisions made in compliance with required procedures. Parental defiance might worsen…

  11. Restorative Justice: Pedagogy, Praxis, and Discipline

    Morrison, Brenda E.; Vaandering, Dorothy

    2012-01-01

    In the ongoing effort of designing school contexts in support of proactive discipline, a range of practices and theoretical frameworks have been advanced, from behaviorist approaches to social and emotional learning. This article describes the theory and practice of restorative justice with the aim of defining this distinctive paradigm, in…

  12. Gestalt Therapy: Development, Theory, and Techniques.

    Witchel, Robert

    This paper presents a full review of the literature in the area of Gestalt Therapy and could be helpful in familiarizing people with this discipline. The roots contributing to the development of Gestalt therapy as presently practiced are explored briefly. Gestalt theory is presented in a developmental way, initially exploring the relationship…

  13. Exploring sexual risk taking among American Indian adolescents through protection motivation theory.

    Chambers, Rachel; Tingey, Lauren; Mullany, Britta; Parker, Sean; Lee, Angelita; Barlow, Allison

    2016-09-01

    This paper examines decision-making around sexual behavior among reservation-based American Indian youth. Focus group discussions were conducted with youth ages 13-19 years old. Through these discussions, we explored youth's knowledge, attitudes and behaviors related to sexual risk taking through the lens of the protection motivation theory to inform the adaptation of an evidence-based HIV prevention intervention. Findings suggest that condom use self-efficacy and HIV prevention knowledge is low, vulnerability to sexually transmitted infections is lacking and alcohol plays a significant role in sexual risk taking in this population. In addition, parental monitoring and peer influence may contribute to or protect against sexual risk taking. Results suggest that future HIV prevention interventions should be delivered to gender-specific peer groups, include a parental component, teach sexual health education and communication skills, integrate substance-use prevention, and work to remove stigma around obtaining and using condoms.

  14. Exploring Partner Intimacy Among Couples Raising Children on the Autism Spectrum: A Grounded Theory Investigation.

    Johnson, Jake; Piercy, Fred P

    2017-10-01

    In this study, we explored how couples raising children with autism spectrum disorder negotiate intimacy, including what contextual and temporal factors influence these processes. We conducted conjoint interviews with 12 couples, employing grounded theory methodology to collect and analyze the data. Our results indicated that fostering intimacy in these couples' relationships involves partners working together to make key cognitive and relational shifts. Couples are aided or hindered in making these shifts by the degree to which they experience various contextual and environmental factors as resources or roadblocks. We also found that intimacy is not a fixed point at which couples one day arrive, but is an iterative process taking place over time and requiring work to develop and maintain. © 2017 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  15. The Origin and Root of the CPC’s Self-discipline Theory%中国共产党管党治党理论的源流与根脉

    雷蕾; 雷厚礼

    2016-01-01

    The CPC’s self-discipline theory originates from the think treasury of the Marxist theory on party building,flows along the Party’s tortuous development course of 95 years,roots itself in the excellent culture of the Chinese nation of 5000 years,and is connected to the world’s wonderful civilization of party governance. It is the direct heritage of the Marxist theory on party building,the rational summarization of the Party’s experiences in self -management,the critical sublation of Chinese traditional culture in clean government and traditional thought in managing officials,and the scientific learning from the world’s party governance culture and manage-ment experiences.%中国共产党管党治党理论源自于马克思主义党建理论的思想宝库,流动于中国共产党95年发展的曲折历程,根植于中华民族五千年的优秀文化,脉通于世界政党治理的灿烂文明。既是对马克思主义党建理论的直接传承,对中国共产党管党治党经验的理性总结,对中国传统优秀廉政文化和治吏思想的批判扬弃,也是对世界政党治理文化和管理经验的科学借鉴。

  16. [Explore microcosmic connection between autophagy mechanism and follicular development based on "kidney governing reproduction" theory].

    Bai, Jun; Wu, Ke-Ming; Gao, Ran-Ran

    2018-03-01

    In the theory of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) that "kidney storing essence and governing reproduction", reproductive essence is an important part of the kidney essence and acts as the original material of offspring embryos. Sperm, oocyte and zygote should be all included in the range of reproductive essence. Ovum is the essence of reproduction from inborn. The follicles maturation depends on the quality of oocyte and the vigor of kidney essence. Meanwhile, discharge of mature ovum relies on the stimulation and promotion by kidney Qi. Autophagy almost exists in different cells stages and all various of mammalian cells. Many studies have found that autophagy not only participates in the formation of follicles, but also in every phase of the follicles development, and is involved in the occurrence and development of ovarian diseases. Recently, more and more scholars believe that autophagy is a new field to explore the microcosmic relationship between autophagy and TCM. Kidney-nourishing TCM could promote follicular growth and improve variety clinical symptoms by inhibiting the apoptosis of ovarian granulosa cells and reducing follicular atresia. Meanwhile, apoptosis of ovarian granulosa cells is closely related to autophagy of ovarian granulosa cells. In order to provide some theoretical foundation for kidney-nourishing therapy's promoting effect on follicular growth and improving effect on ovarian function, also to further explore the molecular mechanism of kidney-nourishing medicine in promoting follicular development, this paper would explain the microcosmic relationship between autophagy and follicular development based on the theory of "kidney governing reproduction". All of these would be of great significance to prevent and intervene the diseases of reproductive system timely and effectively. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  17. Negotiating a Place in the Family-A Grounded Theory Exploration of Stepgrandmothers' Enactment of Roles.

    Chapman, Ashton; Ganong, Lawrence; Coleman, Marilyn; Kang, Youngjin; Sanner, Caroline; Russell, Luke T

    2017-11-10

    Stepgrandparents are becoming more common, and they can, and often do, provide affective and instrumental support to families. Little is known, however, about how they negotiate and enact their roles within families, especially with stepgrandchildren. Stepgrandmothers warrant special attention because researchers have found that women experience more challenges than men in stepfamilies. Guided by symbolic interactionism, the purposes of our study were: (a) to explore stepgrandmothers' role enactment and (b) to explore the intrapersonal, interpersonal, and contextual factors that contribute to role enactment in intergenerational steprelationships. Eighteen stepgrandmothers participated in semi-structured interviews, discussing their relationships with 94 stepgrandchildren. Consistent with grounded theory methods, data collection and analysis occurred simultaneously. Interviews with stepgrandmothers revealed that they spend considerable time and energy defining their roles with stepgrandchildren. Stepgrandmothers' role enactment is a complex, reflexive process. A few perceived that their roles were shaped by their own dispositions, desires, and expectations (evidence for role-making), but most stepgrandmothers described their roles as reflecting the dispositions, desires, and expectations of others (evidence for role-taking). Stepgrandmothers reflected on their roles as a delicate balance of intra- and inter-personal negotiations, operating within cultural expectations. Findings draw attention to the complex nature of role-taking, role-making, and gendered, relational processes in multigenerational stepfamilies. We discuss implications for research and theory related to stepgrandmotherhood as an incomplete institution. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. The Advanced Composition Explorer Shock Database and Application to Particle Acceleration Theory

    Parker, L. Neergaard; Zank, G. P.

    2015-01-01

    The theory of particle acceleration via diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) has been studied in depth by Gosling et al. (1981), van Nes et al. (1984), Mason (2000), Desai et al. (2003), Zank et al. (2006), among many others. Recently, Parker and Zank (2012, 2014) and Parker et al. (2014) using the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) shock database at 1 AU explored two questions: does the upstream distribution alone have enough particles to account for the accelerated downstream distribution and can the slope of the downstream accelerated spectrum be explained using DSA? As was shown in this research, diffusive shock acceleration can account for a large population of the shocks. However, Parker and Zank (2012, 2014) and Parker et al. (2014) used a subset of the larger ACE database. Recently, work has successfully been completed that allows for the entire ACE database to be considered in a larger statistical analysis. We explain DSA as it applies to single and multiple shocks and the shock criteria used in this statistical analysis. We calculate the expected injection energy via diffusive shock acceleration given upstream parameters defined from the ACE Solar Wind Electron, Proton, and Alpha Monitor (SWEPAM) data to construct the theoretical upstream distribution. We show the comparison of shock strength derived from diffusive shock acceleration theory to observations in the 50 keV to 5 MeV range from an instrument on ACE. Parameters such as shock velocity, shock obliquity, particle number, and time between shocks are considered. This study is further divided into single and multiple shock categories, with an additional emphasis on forward-forward multiple shock pairs. Finally with regard to forward-forward shock pairs, results comparing injection energies of the first shock, second shock, and second shock with previous energetic population will be given.

  19. Exploring agency beyond humans: the compatibility of Actor-Network Theory (ANT and resilience thinking

    Angga Dwiartama

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available At first glance, the compatibility of social theory and resilience thinking is not entirely evident, in part because the ontology of the former is rooted in social interactions among human beings rather than ecological process. Despite this difference, resilience thinking engages with particular aspects of social organization that have generated intense debates within social science, namely the role of humans as integral elements of social-ecological systems and the processes through which given social structures (including material relations are either maintained or transformed. Among social theoretical approaches, Actor-Network Theory (ANT is noted for its distinctive approach to these aspects. ANT proposes that human and nonhuman components (both referred to as actants have the same capacity to influence the development of social-ecological systems (represented as actor-networks by enacting relations and enrolling other actors. We explore the notion of agency that is employed in resilience thinking and ANT in order to extend our understandings of human-environment relationships through complementary insights from each approach. The discussion is illustrated by reference to ongoing assessment of resilience as it is experienced and expressed in two distinctive agricultural production systems: Indonesian rice and New Zealand kiwifruit. We conclude by establishing the potential for ANT to provide more profound theoretical conceptualizations of agency, both human and nonhuman, in analyses of social ecological systems.

  20. Exodus of clergy: A practical theological grounded theory exploration of Hatfield Training Centre trained pastors

    Shaun Joynt

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a shortage of clergy, at least in the Roman Catholic Church. Protestant churches in general are experiencing more of a distribution or placement challenge than a shortage. The two greatest hindrances to addressing the Protestant clergy distribution challenge are a lack of adequate compensation for clergy and the undesirable geographical location of a number of churches, as perceived by clergy. Influences such as secularisation, duality of vocation, time management, change in type of ministry, family issues, congregational and denominational conflict, burnout, sexual misconduct, divorce or marital problems, and suicide, affect clergy. Studies on the shortage of clergy have been conducted mostly in the USA and Europe and not in South Africa. This article focuses on the research gap by means of a practical theological grounded theory exploration of the exodus of clergy. Grounded theory methodology is used to identify the reasons why clergy trained at a Bible college of a Protestant charismatic mega church leave full-time pastoral ministry. Findings correspond to previous studies with two reasons appearing more frequently than others: responding to a call and leadership related issues. Firstly, respondents differed in their replies with respect to reconciling their exit from full-time pastoral ministry with their call. The replies included not being called, a dual call, or called but left anyway. Secondly, respondents indicated that leadership influence was mostly negative with regard to affirming their call.

  1. Virtual patient design: exploring what works and why. A grounded theory study.

    Bateman, James; Allen, Maggie; Samani, Dipti; Kidd, Jane; Davies, David

    2013-06-01

    Virtual patients (VPs) are online representations of clinical cases used in medical education. Widely adopted, they are well placed to teach clinical reasoning skills. International technology standards mean VPs can be created, shared and repurposed between institutions. A systematic review has highlighted the lack of evidence to support which of the numerous VP designs may be effective, and why. We set out to research the influence of VP design on medical undergraduates. This is a grounded theory study into the influence of VP design on undergraduate medical students. Following a review of the literature and publicly available VP cases, we identified important design properties. We integrated them into two substantial VPs produced for this research. Using purposeful iterative sampling, 46 medical undergraduates were recruited to participate in six focus groups. Participants completed both VPs, an evaluation and a 1-hour focus group discussion. These were digitally recorded, transcribed and analysed using grounded theory, supported by computer-assisted analysis. Following open, axial and selective coding, we produced a theoretical model describing how students learn from VPs. We identified a central core phenomenon designated 'learning from the VP'. This had four categories: VP Construction; External Preconditions; Student-VP Interaction, and Consequences. From these, we constructed a three-layer model describing the interactions of students with VPs. The inner layer consists of the student's cognitive and behavioural preconditions prior to sitting a case. The middle layer considers the VP as an 'encoded object', an e-learning artefact and as a 'constructed activity', with associated pedagogic and organisational elements. The outer layer describes cognitive and behavioural change. This is the first grounded theory study to explore VP design. This original research has produced a model which enhances understanding of how and why the delivery and design of VPs

  2. Transcending the discipline

    2009-01-01

    The international U&U seminar invites PhD work which addresses the discipline of urbanism, and encourages contributions that highlight its trans-disciplinary nature. Urbanism is grounded in various practices, discourses and realities with respect to the city. The seminar will focus on multiple approaches – from historic enquiry to project-led analysis – and cover a wide range of spaces and scales - from territories to neighborhoods, from landscapes to cityscapes. The seminar seeks contributio...

  3. Exploring a Theory Describing the Physics of Information Systems, Characterizing the Phenomena of Complex Information Systems

    Harmon, Scott

    2001-01-01

    This project accomplished all of its objectives: document a theory of information physics, conduct a workshop on planing experiments to test this theory, and design experiments that validate this theory...

  4. The Changing Nature of Theory and Practice in Marketing: on the Value of Synchrony

    O'Driscoll, Aidan; Murray, John

    1998-01-01

    Any academic discipline with a closely associated area of professional endeavour is profoundly affected by the relationship between its theory and practice. Synchrony in theory and practice adds value to the management of enterprise and to the advance of the discipline. Mindful of this assertion, this article explores the changing nature of theory and practice in marketing. It examines current trends in marketing practice which are occurring as a result of change in markets, technology and or...

  5. Motivation of Student in IT-disciplines

    Nataliya N. Datsun

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Method of systematic literature analysis for 2012-2017 about motivation of the learners in IT disciplines was applied. The growth trend in the number of publications about the motivation of students and the learners of IT disciplines, as well as the coverage by research in all regions of the world were established. 32 publications were selected from scientometric databases. The most active researches were identified among the IT bachelors, and according to the dimension "training level" - among novices. Seven psychological approaches to motivation were identified. Self-Determination Theory (SDT is the most common among them. In studies based on SDT, types of learning motivation were differentiated depending on the level of education students of IT disciplines. Nine pedagogical approaches of motivation were identified. Project-based learning were applied in most cases. It can be recommended for the formation of professional competencies.

  6. Discipline in early childhood.

    Howard, B J

    1991-12-01

    As pediatricians we have an opportunity and a responsibility to guide parents in the structure of discipline they set up for their children. The major goals of this structure are to help children develop a sense of being both lovable and capable. To feel lovable a child needs an enduring responsive relationship that conveys positive regard. Attending to children promptly, giving individual time daily, acknowledging positive behaviors, and ignoring minor transgressions all help them feel valued. Active listening without judgment demonstrates acceptance of children's feelings. Talking to children without labels or generalizations but with specific feedback about their actions and with congruent emotional tone is respectful and promotes self-esteem. Children also deserve assistance with transitions, thanks, and apologies as appropriate. To feel (and become) capable, children need a consistent structure of routines, good models, respectful instruction, and progressive expectations so that they have an ongoing experience of success. To grow as individuals they need opportunities to make choices relevant to their interests and role-taking opportunities to gain perspective on social interaction. Praise and rewards motivate as well as instruct children, but they also need to experience consequences to their actions. Natural consequences are optimal but parents also need to design logical consequences that are graded, related, prompt, and reasonable for a child's misbehaviors. Consequences are most effective when given after only one request, exactly as clearly promised by the adult involved without interference by others. Time out is one of the most effective consequences for young children when used properly. Physical punishment has multiple negative effects on a child's development, especially if used noncontingently. Intrapersonal and family factors predispose parents to predictable problems in establishing healthy discipline. Pediatricians can play an important role in

  7. Discipline and Theory in Higher Education Research

    Tight, Malcolm

    2014-01-01

    Higher education research is, by its nature, rather an introspective field of study. It is also highly dispersed within and beyond the academy: inherently, therefore, it is a multidisciplinary field of study. An analysis of 567 articles published in 15 leading higher education journals in 2010 demonstrates both the breadth of interest in higher…

  8. Exploring the perceptions and experiences of community health workers using role identity theory.

    Mlotshwa, Langelihle; Harris, Bronwyn; Schneider, Helen; Moshabela, Mosa

    2015-01-01

    Community health workers (CHWs) are an integral resource in many health systems, particularly in resource-poor settings. Their identities--'who' they are--play an important role in their hiring, training, and retention. We explore the perceptions, experiences, and identities of CHWs as they adopt a CHW role in rural South Africa, using 'role identity theory'. From April to December 2010, we conducted 18 semi-structured interviews with CHWs volunteering in non-governmental home-based care (HBC) organisations in one rural sub-district in South Africa. The role identity theory framework was used to understand the work of CHWs within their communities, addressing themes, such as entry into, and nature of, caring roles, organisational support, state resourcing, and community acceptability. A thematic content analysis was used to analyse the collected data. The study found that CHWs usually begin their 'caring work' before they formally join HBC organisations, by caring for children, neighbours, mothers, fathers, friends, and the community in some way. CHWs felt that becoming a health worker provided an elevated status within the community, but that it often led community members to believe they were able to control resources. The key role identities assumed by CHWs, as they sought to meet patients' and their own needs, were a complex mix of community 'insider', 'outsider', and 'broker'. Each of these role identities served as a unique way to position, from the CHW's perspective, themselves and the community, given the diversity of needs and expectations. These role identities reveal the tensions CHWs face as 'insider' members of the community and yet at times being treated as 'outsiders', who might be regarded with suspicion, and at the same time, appreciated for the resources that they might possess. Understanding role identities, and how best to support them, may contribute to strategies of retention and sustainability of CHW programmes, as their formalisation in

  9. Understanding psychological distress among mothers in rural Nepal: a qualitative grounded theory exploration

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a large burden of psychological distress in low and middle-income countries, and culturally relevant interventions must be developed to address it. This requires an understanding of how distress is experienced. We conducted a qualitative grounded theory study to understand how mothers experience and manage distress in Dhanusha, a low-resource setting in rural Nepal. We also explored how distressed mothers interact with their families and the wider community. Methods Participants were identified during a cluster-randomised controlled trial in which mothers were screened for psychological distress using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). We conducted 22 semi-structured interviews with distressed mothers (GHQ-12 score ≥5) and one with a traditional healer (dhami), as well as 12 focus group discussions with community members. Data were analysed using grounded theory methods and a model was developed to explain psychological distress in this setting. Results We found that distress was termed tension by participants and mainly described in terms of physical symptoms. Key perceived causes of distress were poor health, lack of sons, and fertility problems. Tension developed in a context of limited autonomy for women and perceived duty towards the family. Distressed mothers discussed several strategies to alleviate tension, including seeking treatment for perceived physical health problems and tension from doctors or dhamis, having repeated pregnancies until a son was delivered, manipulating social circumstances in the household, and deciding to accept their fate. Their ability to implement these strategies depended on whether they were able to negotiate with their in-laws or husbands for resources. Conclusions Vulnerability, as a consequence of gender and social disadvantage, manifests as psychological distress among mothers in Dhanusha. Screening tools incorporating physical symptoms of tension should be envisaged, along with

  10. Dual processing theory and experts' reasoning: exploring thinking on national multiple-choice questions.

    Durning, Steven J; Dong, Ting; Artino, Anthony R; van der Vleuten, Cees; Holmboe, Eric; Schuwirth, Lambert

    2015-08-01

    An ongoing debate exists in the medical education literature regarding the potential benefits of pattern recognition (non-analytic reasoning), actively comparing and contrasting diagnostic options (analytic reasoning) or using a combination approach. Studies have not, however, explicitly explored faculty's thought processes while tackling clinical problems through the lens of dual process theory to inform this debate. Further, these thought processes have not been studied in relation to the difficulty of the task or other potential mediating influences such as personal factors and fatigue, which could also be influenced by personal factors such as sleep deprivation. We therefore sought to determine which reasoning process(es) were used with answering clinically oriented multiple-choice questions (MCQs) and if these processes differed based on the dual process theory characteristics: accuracy, reading time and answering time as well as psychometrically determined item difficulty and sleep deprivation. We performed a think-aloud procedure to explore faculty's thought processes while taking these MCQs, coding think-aloud data based on reasoning process (analytic, nonanalytic, guessing or combination of processes) as well as word count, number of stated concepts, reading time, answering time, and accuracy. We also included questions regarding amount of work in the recent past. We then conducted statistical analyses to examine the associations between these measures such as correlations between frequencies of reasoning processes and item accuracy and difficulty. We also observed the total frequencies of different reasoning processes in the situations of getting answers correctly and incorrectly. Regardless of whether the questions were classified as 'hard' or 'easy', non-analytical reasoning led to the correct answer more often than to an incorrect answer. Significant correlations were found between self-reported recent number of hours worked with think-aloud word count

  11. Evaluation of the Discipline Helpline.

    Fine, Andrea

    The National Center for the Study of Corporal Punishment and Alternatives in the Schools, established the Discipline Helpline to guide parents in handling specific discipline problems. To evaluate the telephone counseling service, 63 persons who had contacted the Helpline for assistance with specific discipline problems completed the Helpline…

  12. The Disciplines and Their Structure: A Review of the Proposal.

    Thompson, John C., III

    1978-01-01

    Jerome Bruner's theory that the structure of the discipline should be the starting point for reorganizing school curricula is reviewed and recent commentaries, representing supporting and opposing viewpoints, are summarized. (MP)

  13. Implicit theories about intelligence and growth (personal best) goals: Exploring reciprocal relationships.

    Martin, Andrew J

    2015-06-01

    There has been increasing interest in growth approaches to students' academic development, including value-added models, modelling of academic trajectories, growth motivation orientations, growth mindsets, and growth goals. This study sought to investigate the relationships between implicit theories about intelligence (incremental and entity theories) and growth (personal best, PB) goals - with particular interest in the ordering of factors across time. The study focused on longitudinal data of 969 Australian high school students. The classic cross-lagged panel design (using structural equation modelling) was employed to shed light on the ordering of Time 1 growth goals, incremental theories, and entity theories relative to Time 2 (1 year later) growth goals, incremental theories, and entity theories. Findings showed that Time 1 growth goals predicted Time 2 incremental theories (positively) and entity theories (negatively); Time 1 entity and incremental theories negatively predicted Time 2 incremental and entity theories respectively; but, Time 1 incremental theories and entity theories did not predict growth goals at Time 2. This suggests that entity and incremental theories are negatively reciprocally related across time, but growth goals seem to be directionally salient over incremental and entity theories. Implications for promoting growth goals and growth mindsets are discussed. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  14. Exploring the transition of undergraduate medical students into a clinical clerkship using organizational socialization theory.

    Atherley, Anique E; Hambleton, Ian R; Unwin, Nigel; George, Colette; Lashley, Paula M; Taylor, Charles G

    2016-04-01

    Transitions in medical education are emotionally and socially dynamic; this may affect learning. Students transitioning from preclinical to clinical training may experience negative consequences. Less is understood about students' experiences during transitions within clinical training and influential factors. The authors used organizational socialization theory to explore a transition within the clinical years. Final-year medical students experienced a nine-week internal medicine clerkship; willing students participated. Students (n = 101; 97 %) completed a questionnaire with open-ended questions at the beginning and end of the clerkship and participated in six consecutive focus groups, until data saturation occurred (n = 37). Data were thematically analyzed. Socialization was challenging. Many students experienced difficulty developing relationships with team members. Students with a positive attitude experienced a smoother transition. Many students were uncertain of their roles, concerned about the workload and desired guidance to meet clerkship demands. This transition resulted in varied outcomes from enjoyment, increased confidence and student development through to disinterest. Transitions within clinical training are complex. Faculty should focus on adequate socialization in a new clerkship as this may facilitate a smoother transition. This may necessitate orientations, staff training, and formal student support. Further research is needed on the impact of these recommendations on learning and well-being.

  15. Exploring the effect of nanoholes on arsenene: a density functional theory study

    Mushtaq, M.; Zhou, Y. G.; Xiang, X.

    2018-05-01

    Effectively modulating the electronic and magnetic properties of a two-dimensional system is critical for the application of it in nanoscale devices. In this work, we explore the effect of nanohole on arsenene on the basis of density functional theory calculations. Our calculations show that, except slight distortion at the corner of nanoholes, geometries of both un-hydrogenated nanohole-embedded arsenene (As-NH) structure and hydrogenated nanohole-embedded arsenene (H-As-NH) structure are well maintained after optimization. Interestingly, the As-NH structure can be magnetized so that it can represent ferromagnetic, ferrimagnetic or antiferromagnetic behavior depending on the shape of the nanoholes. Furthermore, As-NH structure with triangle nanoholes is expected to exhibit remarkable magnetism. Besides, owning to the induction of flat defect levels by the nanoholes, As-NH structure can represent a relatively small band gap. In contrast, the H-As-NH structure is shown to lack the magnetism due to the saturation of unpaired As atoms. In this case, the H-As-NH structure exhibits a relatively large band gap due to the quantum confinement effect. These results indicate an opportunity for the design of arsenene-based nanoscale devices with potential applications in spintronic and optical fields.

  16. Conference - La discipline positive

    Staff Association

    2018-01-01

    Eduquer avec fermeté et bienveillance Véronique Genevay Jeudi 31 mai à 19h00 CERN Meyrin, Salle du Conseil 503-1-001 Venez vous familiariser avec la pensée et le positionnement développé dans la discipline positive. Une approche ni permissive, ni punitive, qui vise à enseigner aux enfants des compétences comme la confiance en soi, l’autonomie, le respect de soi-même et le respect mutuel, la responsabilité, la coopération… Inscrivez-vous : https://indico.cern.ch/e/disciplinepositive   Pour plus d’informations : staff.association@cern.ch ou (+41) 022 766 37 38

  17. Exploration of Holland's Theory of Vocational Choice in Graduate School Enviroments

    Frantz, Thomas T.; Walsh, E. Pierce

    1972-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to refine many of the constructs used in Holland's theory of vocational choice by investigating definitions and relationships that comprise the theory. As well, this study concerned itself with establishing usefulness of applying Holland's theory to students in a graduate school environment. (Author)

  18. Investigating Friendship Quality: An Exploration of Self-Control and Social Control Theories' Friendship Hypotheses

    Boman, John H., IV; Krohn, Marvin D.; Gibson, Chris L.; Stogner, John M.

    2012-01-01

    While associations with deviant peers are well understood to impact individual development, less is understood about the relationship between friendship quality and delinquency. Two criminological theories--social control theory and self-control theory--are able to offer an explanation for the latter relationship. Social control and self-control…

  19. Testing Error Management Theory: Exploring the Commitment Skepticism Bias and the Sexual Overperception Bias

    Henningsen, David Dryden; Henningsen, Mary Lynn Miller

    2010-01-01

    Research on error management theory indicates that men tend to overestimate women's sexual interest and women underestimate men's interest in committed relationships (Haselton & Buss, 2000). We test the assumptions of the theory in face-to-face, stranger interactions with 111 man-woman dyads. Support for the theory emerges, but potential boundary…

  20. Integrating social capital theory, social cognitive theory, and the technology acceptance model to explore a behavioral model of telehealth systems.

    Tsai, Chung-Hung

    2014-05-07

    Telehealth has become an increasingly applied solution to delivering health care to rural and underserved areas by remote health care professionals. This study integrated social capital theory, social cognitive theory, and the technology acceptance model (TAM) to develop a comprehensive behavioral model for analyzing the relationships among social capital factors (social capital theory), technological factors (TAM), and system self-efficacy (social cognitive theory) in telehealth. The proposed framework was validated with 365 respondents from Nantou County, located in Central Taiwan. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to assess the causal relationships that were hypothesized in the proposed model. The finding indicates that elderly residents generally reported positive perceptions toward the telehealth system. Generally, the findings show that social capital factors (social trust, institutional trust, and social participation) significantly positively affect the technological factors (perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness respectively), which influenced usage intention. This study also confirmed that system self-efficacy was the salient antecedent of perceived ease of use. In addition, regarding the samples, the proposed model fitted considerably well. The proposed integrative psychosocial-technological model may serve as a theoretical basis for future research and can also offer empirical foresight to practitioners and researchers in the health departments of governments, hospitals, and rural communities.

  1. Integrating Social Capital Theory, Social Cognitive Theory, and the Technology Acceptance Model to Explore a Behavioral Model of Telehealth Systems

    Chung-Hung Tsai

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Telehealth has become an increasingly applied solution to delivering health care to rural and underserved areas by remote health care professionals. This study integrated social capital theory, social cognitive theory, and the technology acceptance model (TAM to develop a comprehensive behavioral model for analyzing the relationships among social capital factors (social capital theory, technological factors (TAM, and system self-efficacy (social cognitive theory in telehealth. The proposed framework was validated with 365 respondents from Nantou County, located in Central Taiwan. Structural equation modeling (SEM was used to assess the causal relationships that were hypothesized in the proposed model. The finding indicates that elderly residents generally reported positive perceptions toward the telehealth system. Generally, the findings show that social capital factors (social trust, institutional trust, and social participation significantly positively affect the technological factors (perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness respectively, which influenced usage intention. This study also confirmed that system self-efficacy was the salient antecedent of perceived ease of use. In addition, regarding the samples, the proposed model fitted considerably well. The proposed integrative psychosocial-technological model may serve as a theoretical basis for future research and can also offer empirical foresight to practitioners and researchers in the health departments of governments, hospitals, and rural communities.

  2. Saturated fat consumption and the Theory of Planned Behaviour: exploring additive and interactive effects of habit strength

    de Bruijn, G.J.; Kroeze, W.; Oenema, O.; Brug, J.

    2008-01-01

    The additive and interactive effects of habit strength in the explanation of saturated fat intake were explored within the framework of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). Cross-sectional data were gathered in a Dutch adult sample (n = 764) using self-administered questionnaires and analyzed

  3. The Inclusion of Children with ASD: Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour as a Theoretical Framework to Explore Peer Attitudes

    Freitag, Sara; Dunsmuir, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    This study used the Theory of Planned Behaviour to explore the attitudes, behavioural intentions and behaviour of 318 mainstream primary school children in an urban East London borough towards peers with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Pupils were presented with a vignette about a hypothetical peer with ASD then completed self-report…

  4. Disability Critical Race Theory: Exploring the Intersectional Lineage, Emergence, and Potential Futures of DisCrit in Education

    Annamma, Subini Ancy; Ferri, Beth A.; Connor, David J.

    2018-01-01

    In this review, we explore how intersectionality has been engaged with through the lens of disability critical race theory (DisCrit) to produce new knowledge. In this chapter, we (1) trace the intellectual lineage for developing DisCrit, (2) review the body of interdisciplinary scholarship incorporating DisCrit to date, and (3) propose the future…

  5. Intentionality and hatha yoga: an exploration of the theory of intentionality, the matrix of healing--a growth model.

    Deary, Lauri; Roche, Joan; Plotkin, Karen; Zahourek, Rothlyn

    2011-01-01

    Hatha yoga increases self-awareness and well-being. Intentionality is creating motivation and then action. This qualitative study explored intentionality during hatha yoga sessions using narrative analysis. The results supported and expanded Zahourek's theory of intentionality, the matrix of healing, and provide new insights into intentionality in healing.

  6. An Exploration of School Communication Approaches for Newly Arrived EAL Students: Applying Three Dimensions of Organisational Communication Theory

    Schneider, Claudia; Arnot, Madeleine

    2018-01-01

    This article explores the modes of school communication associated with language and cultural diversity, demonstrating how organisational communication theory can be applied to the analysis of schools' communication responses to the presence of pupils who have English as an additional language (EAL). The article highlights three analytical…

  7. Exploring the Relationship between Self-Determination Theory, Adults' Barriers to Exercise, and Physical Activity

    Ball, James W.; Bice, Matthew R.; Maljak, Kimberly A.

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity is a preventative measure that can help decrease obesity trends. However, many individuals struggle to live a physically active lifestyle. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between Self-Determination Theory, adults' barriers to exercise, and those who have met and have not met the Center for Disease…

  8. Teaching biomedical technology innovation as a discipline.

    Yock, Paul G; Brinton, Todd J; Zenios, Stefanos A

    2011-07-20

    Recently, universities in the United States and abroad have developed dedicated educational programs in life science technology innovation. Here, we discuss the two major streams of educational theory and practice that have informed these programs: design thinking and entrepreneurship education. We make the case that the process of innovation for new medical technologies (medtech) is different from that for biopharmaceuticals and outline the challenges and opportunities associated with developing a discipline of medtech innovation.

  9. Towards a differentiated understanding of active travel behaviour: using social theory to explore everyday commuting.

    Guell, C; Panter, J; Jones, N R; Ogilvie, D

    2012-07-01

    Fostering physical activity is an established public health priority for the primary prevention of a variety of chronic diseases. One promising population approach is to seek to embed physical activity in everyday lives by promoting walking and cycling to and from work ('active commuting') as an alternative to driving. Predominantly quantitative epidemiological studies have investigated travel behaviours, their determinants and how they may be changed towards more active choices. This study aimed to depart from narrow behavioural approaches to travel and investigate the social context of commuting with qualitative social research methods. Within a social practice theory framework, we explored how people describe their commuting experiences and make commuting decisions, and how travel behaviour is embedded in and shaped by commuters' complex social worlds. Forty-nine semi-structured interviews and eighteen photo-elicitation interviews with accompanying field notes were conducted with a subset of the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study cohort, based in the UK. The findings are discussed in terms of three particularly pertinent facets of the commuting experience. Firstly, choice and decisions are shaped by the constantly changing and fluid nature of commuters' social worlds. Secondly, participants express ambiguities in relation to their reasoning, ambitions and identities as commuters. Finally, commuting needs to be understood as an embodied and emotional practice. With this in mind, we suggest that everyday decision-making in commuting requires the tactical negotiation of these complexities. This study can help to explain the limitations of more quantitative and static models and frameworks in predicting travel behaviour and identify future research directions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A systems theory approach to career development: Exploring factors that affect science as a career choice

    Liskey, Brian K.

    This research project was designed to examine the factors that affect students' choice in a career. Specifically, the factors of (a) achievement, (b) interest, (c) self-efficacy, (d) perceived preparation for a career, and (e) being informed about a career will be under investigation. Of key importance to the study is how these factors can affect a student's perception about choosing a science career. A quantitative analysis of secondary data from the 2006 and 2009 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) international assessment and attitudinal questionnaire provided data on student perceptions and aptitude in science. The sample from PISA included over 400,000 15 year-old students from 57 countries. From the 57 countries, 30 countries, comprised by Organization for Economic and Cooperative Development (OECD), were isolated for analysis. Within this group of 30, 11 were selected for comparison based on their questionnaire response to expectations for a career in science at age 30. The Institute for Educational Science's, International Data Explorer was utilized to acquire and analyze data from the 2006 and 2009 PISA international tests and questionnaires to determine significance between scaled scores and PISA indices. Variables were chosen as factors affecting student's perception on various systems outlined by the Systems Theory of Career Development (Patton & McMahon, 1997) and the Systems Theory of Career Development Framework (Patton & McMahon, 1999). Four country groups were established based on student responses to question 30a from the 2006 PISA attitudinal questionnaire, which asks what career students expected to have at age 30. The results from comparing country groups showed that countries in Group A, which showed the highest values for students expecting a career in science, also had the highest average values for achievement on the PISA science literacy assessment. Likewise, countries that had the lowest values for expecting a career in

  11. Fiscal Discipline in India

    Sanhita SUCHARITA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study broadly attempts to analyze the role of Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act in restoring fiscal balance in India. It analyses the need for fiscal rules and constraints in India. The study aims at finding out the major factor behind rising fiscal imbalance in India and to examine whether there is an electoral motive towards high fiscal deficit to GDP ratio or not. It also analyzes the effectiveness of various measures undertaken at the central and state level to inculcate fiscal discipline in the fiscal management. The study also makes an attempt to do a critical in depth reviews of the Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act and make an attempt at examining effectiveness and suitability of FRBM Act through a quantitative analysis. It also makes an attempt to suggest improvements in the fiscal monitoring mechanism in India. We employ Ordinary Least Square (OLS method to examine the impact of Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act on fiscal deficit in India using the data for the period 1980-81 to 2008-09. The regression results indicates that FRBM Act does not have a significant effect on the Gross Fiscal Deficit (GFD to GDP ratio where as GDP (at factor cost growth rate has a significant negative effect on the GFD to GDP ratio.

  12. Self Discipline: The Only Form of Discipline Acquisition for Children

    Renard, Rosamunde

    2003-01-01

    Piaget noted that "punishment renders the autonomy of conscience impossible". Yet in the Caribbean, most common folk believe that beating is an indispensable part of discipline. To understand the role that discipline or the connotations of that word play in the society, culture, economy and politics of Saint Lucia, it is indispensable to…

  13. The concept of energy justice across the disciplines

    Heffron, Raphael J.; McCauley, Darren

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decade, ‘Energy Justice’ is a concept that has emerged in research across many disciplines. This research explores the role and value of the energy justice concept across the disciplines. It provides the first critical account of the emergence of the energy justice concept in both research and practice. A diagrammatical image for examining the energy justice concepts is presented and this is a tool for interdisciplinary engagement with the concept. In this context, restorative justice is introduced and how it results in energy justice applying in practice is detailed. Energy research scholarship at universities is assessed and it is clear that through universities there is a platform for energy justice scholarship to build on the interdisciplinary energy scholarship at universities. Further, the role of education is vital to policy-making, and the understanding and development of the energy justice concept. Finally, in analysing how the energy justice concept can impact on policy-making, there is a critical examination of the energy justice and its relationship with economics, and how it can transfer directly into practice by assisting in balancing the competing aims of the energy trilemma. - Highlights: • Presents the value of the energy justice concept itself. • Introduces restorative justice as having a key role across the energy justice concept. • Expresses the need to develop a ‘common approach’ for the energy justice concept Advances the conceptual framework for energy justice – from theory to practice.

  14. Intelligent driving in traffic systems with partial lane discipline

    Assadi, Hamid; Emmerich, Heike

    2013-04-01

    It is a most common notion in traffic theory that driving in lanes and keeping lane changes to a minimum leads to smooth and laminar traffic flow, and hence to increased traffic capacity. On the other hand, there exist persistent vehicular traffic systems that are characterised by habitual disregarding of lane markings, and partial or complete loss of laminar traffic flow. Here, we explore the stability of such systems through a microscopic traffic flow model, where the degree of lane-discipline is taken as a variable, represented by the fraction of drivers that disregard lane markings completely. The results show that lane-free traffic may win over completely ordered traffic at high densities, and that partially ordered traffic leads to the poorest overall flow, while not considering the crash probability. Partial order in a lane-free system is similar to partial disorder in a lane-disciplined system in that both lead to decreased traffic capacity. This could explain the reason why standard enforcement methods, which rely on continuous increase of order, often fail to incur order to lane-free traffic systems. The results also provide an insight into the cooperative phenomena in open systems with self-driven particles.

  15. Enriching Practical Knowledge : Exploring Student teachers’ Competences in Integrating Theory and Practice of Mathematics Teaching

    Oonk, W.; Verloop, N.; Gravemeijer, K.P.E.

    2015-01-01

    This study concentrated on the theory–practice problem in mathematics teacher education. We examined 13 student teachers’ use of theory when they reflected on teaching practice in a class specifically designed to optimize the chance for theory use. We developed a Reflection Analysis Instrument with

  16. School Finance and Technology: A Case Study Using Grid and Group Theory to Explore the Connections

    Case, Stephoni; Harris, Edward L.

    2014-01-01

    Using grid and group theory (Douglas 1982, 2011), the study described in this article examined the intersections of technology and school finance in four schools located in districts differing in size, wealth, and commitment to technology integration. In grid and group theory, grid refers to the degree to which policies and role prescriptions…

  17. An anthology of theories and models of design philosophy, approaches and empirical explorations

    Blessing, Lucienne

    2014-01-01

    While investigations into both theories and models has remained a major strand of engineering design research, current literature sorely lacks a reference book that provides a comprehensive and up-to-date anthology of theories and models, and their philosophical and empirical underpinnings; An Anthology of Theories and Models of Design fills this gap. The text collects the expert views of an international authorship, covering: ·         significant theories in engineering design, including CK theory, domain theory, and the theory of technical systems; ·         current models of design, from a function behavior structure model to an integrated model; ·         important empirical research findings from studies into design; and ·         philosophical underpinnings of design itself. For educators and researchers in engineering design, An Anthology of Theories and Models of Design gives access to in-depth coverage of theoretical and empirical developments in this area; for pr...

  18. Demonstrating the Value of Education Through Exploration as a Theory of Digital Design

    Anbar, A. D.; Mead, C.; Bratton, D., III; Horodyskyj, L.; Hayes, J.; Schonstein, D.; Watt, S.; Watt, K.; Ben-Naim, D.; Leon, A.

    2017-12-01

    We present results from two online college courses - HabWorlds and BioBeyond - that teach introductory science using astrobiology as motivation, according to a new theory of digital learning design that we call "education through exploration" (ETX). ETX design, building on the research-based practices of active learning and guided inquiry, aims to engage and encourage curiosity and to promote higher order thinking skills, in addition to content mastery. Students solve problems and actively discover relationships, supported by an intelligent tutoring system which provides immediate feedback and scaffolds scientific thinking and methods. Here we report the first comparative evidence of the effectiveness of ETX designs. A historical comparative study of HabWorlds was conducted at a community college where two instructors used it to replace an existing introductory astronomy course. Data from five Habitable Worlds and three BAU sections (300 students) show that course grades shifted significantly towards A and B (p = .009). A similar study at a second community college found comparable results for BioBeyond. Here, a single instructor taught introductory biology with and without BioBeyond, totalling five and two sections, respectively (>200 students). Grades on exams using a consistent question pool showed a significant increase in A's and B's when BioBeyond was used (p business as usual (BAU) equivalents. We compared student grades in introductory biology courses using BioBeyond, either as a complete course replacement or as a course supplement in a hybrid or flipped-classroom model, and BAU courses at each institution. A regression analysis controlled for potentially confounding variables, such as cumulative GPA, part-time/full-time status, gender, or race/ethnicity. BioBeyond was associated with a statistically significant positive predictive effect on grades at three of the four schools. The effect at these three schools ranged from +0.26 to +0.46 grade units (0

  19. Exploring the perceptions and experiences of community health workers using role identity theory

    Langelihle Mlotshwa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Community health workers (CHWs are an integral resource in many health systems, particularly in resource-poor settings. Their identities – ‘who’ they are – play an important role in their hiring, training, and retention. We explore the perceptions, experiences, and identities of CHWs as they adopt a CHW role in rural South Africa, using ‘role identity theory’. Design: From April to December 2010, we conducted 18 semi-structured interviews with CHWs volunteering in non-governmental home-based care (HBC organisations in one rural sub-district in South Africa. The role identity theory framework was used to understand the work of CHWs within their communities, addressing themes, such as entry into, and nature of, caring roles, organisational support, state resourcing, and community acceptability. A thematic content analysis was used to analyse the collected data. Results: The study found that CHWs usually begin their ‘caring work’ before they formally join HBC organisations, by caring for children, neighbours, mothers, fathers, friends, and the community in some way. CHWs felt that becoming a health worker provided an elevated status within the community, but that it often led community members to believe they were able to control resources. The key role identities assumed by CHWs, as they sought to meet patients’ and their own needs, were a complex mix of community ‘insider’, ‘outsider’, and ‘broker’. Each of these role identities served as a unique way to position, from the CHW's perspective, themselves and the community, given the diversity of needs and expectations. Conclusions: These role identities reveal the tensions CHWs face as ‘insider’ members of the community and yet at times being treated as ‘outsiders’, who might be regarded with suspicion, and at the same time, appreciated for the resources that they might possess. Understanding role identities, and how best to support them, may

  20. Perceptions of motivational climate and teachers' strategies to sustain discipline as predictors of intrinsic motivation in physical education.

    Gutiérrez, Melchor; Ruiz, Luis-Miguel; López, Esther

    2010-11-01

    This study examined the relationship among pupils' perceptions of the motivational climate, pupils' perceptions of teachers' strategies to maintain discipline and pupils' intrinsic motivation in physical education. A sample of 2189 Spanish adolescents, ages 13 to 17 years, completed Spanish versions of the EPCM, SSDS, and IMI. Confirmatory factor analyses were carried out to confirm the factorial validity of the scales. Then, the relationship among the variables was explored through Structural Equation Modelling. The most important predictors of pupils' intrinsic motivation were the perceived mastery climate, and perceived teachers' emphasis on intrinsic reasons to maintain discipline. Perceived performance climate and perceived teachers' strategies to maintain discipline based on introjected reasons and indifference, predicted pupils' tension-pressure. Results are discussed in the context of theoretical propositions of self-determination theory and practical issues of enhancing adolescents' motivation in physical education.

  1. Automated Systematic Generation and Exploration of Flat Direction Phenomenology in Free Fermionic Heterotic String Theory

    Greenwald, Jared

    Any good physical theory must resolve current experimental data as well as offer predictions for potential searches in the future. The Standard Model of particle physics, Grand Unied Theories, Minimal Supersymmetric Models and Supergravity are all attempts to provide such a framework. However, they all lack the ability to predict many of the parameters that each of the theories utilize. String theory may yield a solution to this naturalness (or self-predictiveness) problem as well as offer a unifed theory of gravity. Studies in particle physics phenomenology based on perturbative low energy analysis of various string theories can help determine the candidacy of such models. After a review of principles and problems leading up to our current understanding of the universe, we will discuss some of the best particle physics model building techniques that have been developed using string theory. This will culminate in the introduction of a novel approach to a computational, systematic analysis of the various physical phenomena that arise from these string models. We focus on the necessary assumptions, complexity and open questions that arise while making a fully-automated at direction analysis program.

  2. Exploring the utility of institutional theory in analysing international health agency stasis and change.

    Gómez, Eduardo J

    2013-10-01

    Of recent interest is the capacity of international health agencies to adapt to changes in the global health environment and country needs. Yet, little is known about the potential benefits of using social science institutional theory, such as path dependency and institutional change theory, to explain why some international agencies, such as the WHO and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, fail to adapt, whereas others, such as the World Bank and UNAIDS, have. This article suggests that these institutional theories can help to better understand these differences in international agency adaptive capacity, while highlighting new areas of policy research and analysis.

  3. Exploring the Nature and Meaning of Theory in the Field of Neuroeducation Studies

    Ali Nouri

    2016-01-01

    Neuroeducation is one of the most exciting research fields which is continually evolving. However, there is a need to develop its theoretical bases in connection to practice. The present paper is a starting attempt in this regard to provide a space from which to think about neuroeducational theory and invoke more investigation in this area. Accordingly, a comprehensive theory of neuroeducation could be defined as grouping or clustering of concepts and propositions that describe and explain th...

  4. Paradoxes of a Long Life Learning: An Exploration of Peter Jarvis's Contribution to Experiential Learning Theory

    Dyke, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The paper explores the work of Peter Jarvis related to learning with particular reference to his definitions of learning and his models of the learning process. This exploration will consider different approaches to experiential learning and demonstrate the contribution Jarvis has made, noting how his writing on the subject has changed over time.…

  5. Exploring Students' Ideas about Risks and Benefits of Nuclear Power Using Risk Perception Theories

    Kilinc, Ahmet; Boyes, Edward; Stanisstreet, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Due to increased energy demand, Turkey is continuing to explore the possibilities of introducing nuclear power. Gaining acceptance from local populations, however, may be problematic because nuclear power has a negative image and risk perceptions are complicated by a range of psychological and cultural factors. In this study, we explore the views…

  6. Common and distinctive approaches to motivation in different disciplines.

    Strombach, T; Strang, S; Park, S Q; Kenning, P

    2016-01-01

    Over the last couple of decades, a body of theories has emerged that explains when and why people are motivated to act. Multiple disciplines have investigated the origins and consequences of motivated behavior, and have done so largely in parallel. Only recently have different disciplines, like psychology and economics, begun to consolidate their knowledge, attempting to integrate findings. The following chapter presents and discusses the most prominent approaches to motivation in the disciplines of biology, psychology, and economics. Particularly, we describe the specific role of incentives, both monetary and alternative, in various motivational theories. Though monetary incentives are pivotal in traditional economic theory, biological and psychological theories ascribe less significance to monetary incentives and suggest alternative drivers for motivation. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Exploring the Combination of Dempster-Shafer Theory and Neural Network for Predicting Trust and Distrust

    Xin Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In social media, trust and distrust among users are important factors in helping users make decisions, dissect information, and receive recommendations. However, the sparsity and imbalance of social relations bring great difficulties and challenges in predicting trust and distrust. Meanwhile, there are numerous inducing factors to determine trust and distrust relations. The relationship among inducing factors may be dependency, independence, and conflicting. Dempster-Shafer theory and neural network are effective and efficient strategies to deal with these difficulties and challenges. In this paper, we study trust and distrust prediction based on the combination of Dempster-Shafer theory and neural network. We firstly analyze the inducing factors about trust and distrust, namely, homophily, status theory, and emotion tendency. Then, we quantify inducing factors of trust and distrust, take these features as evidences, and construct evidence prototype as input nodes of multilayer neural network. Finally, we propose a framework of predicting trust and distrust which uses multilayer neural network to model the implementing process of Dempster-Shafer theory in different hidden layers, aiming to overcome the disadvantage of Dempster-Shafer theory without optimization method. Experimental results on a real-world dataset demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework.

  8. Cultural theory and risk perception: validity and utility explored in the French context

    Brenot, J.; Bonnefous, S.; Mays, C.

    1996-01-01

    Explaining perceived risk can draw upon factors related to the person (e.g. demographics, personality, social/professional status, political orientation), or to the risk source (e.g. health impacts, economic effects). According to Cultural Theory risk perceptions are culturally biased. Wildavsky and Dake operationalised the Cultural Theory with questionnaire scales and found that resulting 'cultural profiles' best predict individual differences in risk perception. A French version of their questionnaire was inserted into a representative national risk opinion survey of May 1993; 1022 adults (age 18 and over) were interviewed. Major results are presented. The four cultural scales (hierarchy, egalitarianism, fatalism and individualism) show high correlations with political orientation as expected, but also with, for example, age, gender, income and education level. However, scale relationships to perception of risk situations (twenty, mainly technological) are not as strong as expected. Sjoeberg found similar results in Sweden. The utility of the existing operationalisation of Cultural Theory for risk perception analysis is discussed. (author)

  9. PSS Support for Maritime Technology Ventures: From Exploration to Methodology and Theory

    Andersen, Jakob Axel Bejbro

    -efficient, competitive Eastern suppliers. The Danish suppliers - by some considered the world leaders in terms of technological knowledge - are faced with a difficult choice: Either try to survive by cutting costs and competing on price or attempt to leverage their unique knowledge of technology to the market and build...... new business ventures, which are not dependent on cost as a competitive factor. The recommendation of this thesis is to pursue the latter option and adopt entrepreneurial strategies as a means to future prosperity. To achieve this goal, the area of Product/Service-Systems (PSS) is introduced...... to validate an existing theory for entrepreneurship process against the data. This study fails to find proof for or against the assertions of the theory. In the last study, a grounded theory approach is used for building a conceptual framework for entrepreneurship processes. As such, the framework is entirely...

  10. Cultural theory and risk perception: validity and utility explored in the French context

    Brenot, J.; Bonnefous, S.; Mays, C. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire

    1996-12-31

    Explaining perceived risk can draw upon factors related to the person (e.g. demographics, personality, social/professional status, political orientation), or to the risk source (e.g. health impacts, economic effects). According to Cultural Theory risk perceptions are culturally biased. Wildavsky and Dake operationalised the Cultural Theory with questionnaire scales and found that resulting `cultural profiles` best predict individual differences in risk perception. A French version of their questionnaire was inserted into a representative national risk opinion survey of May 1993; 1022 adults (age 18 and over) were interviewed. Major results are presented. The four cultural scales (hierarchy, egalitarianism, fatalism and individualism) show high correlations with political orientation as expected, but also with, for example, age, gender, income and education level. However, scale relationships to perception of risk situations (twenty, mainly technological) are not as strong as expected. Sjoeberg found similar results in Sweden. The utility of the existing operationalisation of Cultural Theory for risk perception analysis is discussed. (author).

  11. Quantum gravity and taoist cosmology: Exploring the ancient origins of phenomenological string theory.

    Rosen, Steven M

    2017-12-01

    This paper carries forward the author's contribution to PBMP's previous special issue on Integral Biomathics (Rosen 2015). In the earlier paper, the crisis in contemporary theoretical physics was described and it was demonstrated that the problem can be addressed effectively only by shifting the foundations of physics from objectivist Cartesian philosophy to phenomenological philosophy. To that end, a phenomenological string theory was proposed based on qualitative topology and hypercomplex numbers. The current presentation takes this further by delving into the ancient Chinese origin of phenomenological string theory. First, we discover a deep connection between the Klein bottle, which is crucial to the theory, and the Ho-t'u, an old Chinese number archetype central to Taoist cosmology. The two structures are seen to mirror each other in expressing the curious psychophysical (phenomenological) action pattern at the heart of microphysics. But tackling the question of quantum gravity requires that a whole family of topological dimensions be brought into play. What we find in engaging with these structures is a closely related family of Taoist forebears that, in concert with their successors, provide a blueprint for cosmic evolution. Whereas conventional string theory accounts for the generation of nature's fundamental forces via a notion of symmetry breaking that is essentially static and thus unable to explain cosmogony successfully, phenomenological/Taoist string theory is guided by the dialectical interplay between symmetry and asymmetry inherent in the principle of synsymmetry. This dynamic concept of cosmic change is elaborated on in the three concluding sections of the paper. Here, a detailed analysis of cosmogony is offered, first in terms of the theory of dimensional development and its Taoist (yin-yang) counterpart, then in terms of the evolution of the elemental force particles through cycles of expansion and contraction in a spiraling universe. The paper

  12. Toward Principles of Construct Clarity: Exploring the Usefulness of Facet Theory in Guiding Conceptualization

    Meng Zhang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Conceptualization in theory development has received limited consideration despite its frequently stressed importance in Information Systems research. This paper focuses on the role of construct clarity in conceptualization, arguing that construct clarity should be considered an essential criterion for evaluating conceptualization and that a focus on construct clarity can advance conceptualization methodology. Drawing from Facet Theory literature, we formulate a set of principles for assessing construct clarity, particularly regarding a construct’s relationships to its extant related constructs. Conscious and targeted attention to this criterion can promote a research ecosystem more supportive of knowledge accumulation.

  13. Exploring the Intrinsic Motivation of Hedonic Information Systems Acceptance: Integrating Hedonic Theory and Flow with TAM

    Wang, Zhihuan

    Research on Information Systems (IS) acceptance is substantially focused on extrinsic motivation in workplaces, little is known about the underlying intrinsic motivations of Hedonic IS (HIS) acceptance. This paper proposes a hybrid HIS acceptance model which takes the unique characteristics of HIS and multiple identities of a HIS user into consideration by interacting Hedonic theory, Flow theory with Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). The model was empirically tested by a field survey. The result indicates that emotional responses, imaginal responses, and flow experience are three main contributions of HIS acceptance.

  14. Explorations in Policy Enactment: Feminist Thought Experiments with Basil Bernstein's Code Theory

    Singh, Parlo; Pini, Barbara; Glasswell, Kathryn

    2018-01-01

    This paper builds on feminist elaborations of Bernstein's code theory to engage in a series of thought experiments with interview data produced during a co-inquiry design-based research intervention project. It presents three accounts of thinking/writing with data. Our purpose in presenting three different accounts of interview data is to…

  15. Social Support Theory: A New Framework for Exploring Gender Differences in Business Owner Networks

    Neergaard, Helle

    The paper argues that to advance knowledge about small firm networks and consider the impact of gender, research should also consider the network experiences of women business owners. To engage in such research, this paper proposes a conceptual model of business owner networking which is informed...... by social support theory....

  16. Going around the Circle Again: Exploring Kolb's Theory of Growth and Development.

    Johns, Krista R.

    Thirty years after their development, David A. Kolb's Cycle of Learning and Learning Style Inventory are widely used to understand the stages of learning and the ways people prefer to receive and process new information. The model and the self-assessment are both based on Kolb's experiential learning theory, which emphasizes the need for learner…

  17. Implicit Theories about Intelligence and Growth (Personal Best) Goals: Exploring Reciprocal Relationships

    Martin, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: There has been increasing interest in growth approaches to students' academic development, including value-added models, modelling of academic trajectories, growth motivation orientations, growth mindsets, and growth goals. Aims: This study sought to investigate the relationships between implicit theories about intelligence…

  18. Employee engagement, organisational performance and individual wellbeing : Exploring the evidence, developing the theory

    Truss, C.; Shantz, A.; Soane, E.; Emma, C.; Alfes, K.; Delbridge, R.

    2013-01-01

    The development of mainstream human resource management (HRM) theory has long been concerned with how people management can enhance performance outcomes. It is only very recently that interest has been shown in the parallel stream of research on the link between employee engagement and performance,

  19. Exploring Physical Activity by Ethnicity and Gender in College Students Using Social Cognitive Theory

    Nehl, Eric J.; Blanchard, Chris M.; Kupperman, Janet; Sparling, Phillip; Rhodes, Ryan; Torabi, Mohammad R.; Courneya, Kerry S.

    2012-01-01

    Intervention;The psychological determinants of physical activity (PA) among college students may vary by ethnicity and gender, but few studies have considered these characteristics. This study tested constructs from Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) by ethnicity and gender to explain differences in PA. A total of 231 Blacks (70% female) and 218 White…

  20. Coping with examinations: exploring relationships between students' coping strategies, implicit theories of ability, and perceived control.

    Doron, Julie; Stephan, Yannick; Boiché, Julie; Le Scanff, Christine

    2009-09-01

    Relatively little is known about the contribution of students' beliefs regarding the nature of academic ability (i.e. their implicit theories) on strategies used to deal with examinations. This study applied Dweck's socio-cognitive model of achievement motivation to better understand how students cope with examinations. It was expected that students' implicit theories of academic ability would be related to their use of particular coping strategies to deal with exam-related stress. Additionally, it was predicted that perceived control over exams acts as a mediator between implicit theories of ability and coping. Four hundred and ten undergraduate students (263 males, 147 females), aged from 17 to 26 years old (M=19.73, SD=1.46) were volunteers for the present study. Students completed measures of coping, implicit theories of academic ability, and perception of control over academic examinations during regular classes in the first term of the university year. Multiple regression analyses revealed that incremental beliefs of ability significantly and positively predicted active coping, planning, venting of emotions, seeking social support for emotional and instrumental reasons, whereas entity beliefs positively predicted behavioural disengagement and negatively predicted active coping and acceptance. In addition, analyses revealed that entity beliefs of ability were related to coping strategies through students' perception of control over academic examinations. These results confirm that exam-related coping varies as a function of students' beliefs about the nature of academic ability and their perceptions of control when approaching examinations.

  1. Exploring the Theory of Planned Behavior to Explain Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption

    Zoellner, Jamie; Estabrooks, Paul A.; Davy, Brenda M.; Chen, Yi-Chun; You, Wen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To describe sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and to establish psychometric properties and utility of a Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) instrument for SSB consumption. Methods: This cross-sectional survey included 119 southwest Virginia participants. Most of the respondents were female (66%), white (89%), and had at least a…

  2. The First-Year University Experience for Sexual Minority Students: A Grounded Theory Exploration

    Alessi, Edward J.; Sapiro, Beth; Kahn, Sarilee; Craig, Shelley L.

    2017-01-01

    This exploratory study used grounded theory to understand the role of minority stress on the first-year experience of lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer, and questioning emerging adults attending a university in the Northeastern part of the United States. Twenty-one lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer, and questioning sophomores participated in focus groups…

  3. Expanding the Conversation: Further Explorations into Indigenous Environmental Science Education Theory, Research, and Practice

    Lowan, Greg

    2012-01-01

    Indigenous environmental science education is a diverse, dynamic, and rapidly expanding field of research, theory, and practice. This article highlights, challenges, and expands upon key areas of discussion presented by Mack et al. (Cult Stud Sci Educ 7, "2012") as part of the forum on their article "Effective Practices for Creating…

  4. Domain-General Contributions to Social Reasoning: Theory of Mind and Deontic Reasoning Re-Explored

    McKinnon, Margaret C.; Moscovitch, Morris

    2007-01-01

    Using older adults and dual-task interference, we examined performance on two social reasoning tasks: theory of mind (ToM) tasks and versions of the deontic selection task involving social contracts and hazardous conditions. In line with performance accounts of social reasoning (Leslie, Friedman, & German, 2004), evidence from both aging and the…

  5. The Reconciliation of W. Edwards Deming and John Dewey: An Exploration of Similarities in Motivation Theory.

    Towns, William C.

    1996-01-01

    Interrogates similarities and misconceptions common to W. Edwards Deming and John Dewey, examining a reconciliation of the two within the context of motivation theory and concluding that Deming and Dewey are very similar in general outlook and the shared belief in the integrity of the individual within the social system. (SM)

  6. The discipline of organizing

    2013-01-01

    Organizing is such a common activity that we often do it without thinking much about it. In our daily lives we organize physical things--books on shelves, cutlery in kitchen drawers--and digital things--Web pages, MP3 files, scientific datasets. Millions of people create and browse Web sites, blog, tag, tweet, and upload and download content of all media types without thinking "I'm organizing now" or "I'm retrieving now." This book offers a framework for the theory and practice of organizing that integrates information organization (IO) and information retrieval (IR), bridging the disciplinary chasms between Library and Information Science and Computer Science, each of which views and teaches IO and IR as separate topics and in substantially different ways. It introduces the unifying concept of an Organizing System--an intentionally arranged collection of resources and the interactions they support--and then explains the key concepts and challenges in the design and deployment of Organizing Systems in many do...

  7. Exploring themes and challenges in developing sustainable supply chains – A complexity theory perspective

    Abbasi, Maisam

    identify, classify, and tackle the challenges that can hinder the execution of such strategies. To develop innovative strategies, the patterns of current trends and themes need to be learned and the missing ones need to be identified. The purpose of this research was to explore themes and challenges......To develop sustainable supply chains in a way that their negative environmental and social effects are minimized, shortand long-term targets should be set. The transformation of supply chains towards these targets calls for the development of innovative strategies and the need to continuously...... in developing sustainable supply chain activities from theoretical and empirical perspectives. Six research studies (RS) were designed and carried out. Two explored the patterns of the themes and challenges in making supply chains environmentally and socially sustainable in general (RS1, RS2). One explored...

  8. Parents' common pitfalls of discipline.

    Witoonchart, Chatree; Fangsa-ard, Thitiporn; Chaoaree, Supamit; Ketumarn, Panom; Kaewpornsawan, Titawee; Phatthrayuttawat, Sucheera

    2005-11-01

    Problems of discipline are common among parents. These may be the results of the parents' pitfalls in disciplining their children. To find out common pitfalls of parents in disciplining their children. Parents of students with ages ranged between 60-72 months old in Bangkok-Noi district, Bangkok, were selected by random sampling. Total number of 1947 children ages between 60-72 months were recruited. Parents of these children were interviewed with a questionnaire designed to probe into problems in child rearing. There hindered and fifty questionnaires were used for data analyses. Parents had high concerns about problems in discipline their children and needed support from professional personnel. They had limited knowledge and possessed lots of wrong attitude towards discipline. Common pitfalls on the topics were problems in, 1) limit setting 2) rewarding and punishment 3) supervision on children watching TV and bedtime routines. Parents of children with ages 60-72 months old in Bangkok-Noi district, Bangkok, had several common pitfalls in disciplining their children, including attitude, knowledge and practice.

  9. [Mathematical exploration of essence of herbal properties based on "Three-Elements" theory].

    Jin, Rui; Zhao, Qian; Zhang, Bing

    2014-10-01

    Herbal property theory of traditional Chinese medicines is the theoretical guidance on authentication of medicinal plants, herborization, preparation of herbal medicines for decoction and clinical application, with important theoretical value and prac- tical significance. Our research team proposed the "three-element" theory for herbal properties for the first time, conducted a study by using combined methods of philology, chemistry, pharmacology and mathematics, and then drew the research conclusion that herbal properties are defined as the chemical compositions-based comprehensive expression with complex and multi-level (positive/negative) biological effects in specific organism state. In this paper, researchers made a systematic mathematical analysis in four aspects--the correlation between herbal properties and chemical component factors, the correlation between herbal properties and organism state fac- tor, the correlation between herbal properties and biological effect factor and the integration study of the three elements, proposed future outlook, and provided reference to mathematical studies and mathematical analysis of herbal properties.

  10. Exploring the intentions of pharmacy students towards pharmacy ownership by using theory of planned behaviour

    Khan, Muhammad Umair; Ahmad, Akram; Fayyaz, Muhammad; Ashraf, Nida; Bhagavathula, Akshaya

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to assess the association of the constructs of theory of planned behaviour (behavioural beliefs, normative beliefs, control beliefs) and demographic variables with the intentions of pharmacy students to become pharmacy owner. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted between October and November, 2014, using a pretested, self-administered questionnaire delivered to a sample of 350 pharmacy students at a private university of Pakistan. Behavioural ...

  11. Pedagogy of complex relationality exploring complexity theory, neuro-phenomenology, and attentiveness for education

    Khattar, Randa

    What do the new sciences of complex relationality offer education? This work draws on complexity theory, neurological understandings of biology and phenomenology, and attentiveness to study what the new sciences might offer education and the possibilities of a pedagogical understanding of embodied knowing. Complexity theory provides understandings of local-global relationality, self-organization, far-from-equilibrium conditions, and emergent dynamics that are important for describing pedagogical relationality. In itself, however, complexity theory is lacking an attention to issues of embodiment that respond directly to an ethical understanding of relationality. Phenomenology provides important views on the human experience of perception, for example, Merleau-Ponty's, whose research opens up possibilities for embodiment and attentiveness. At the level of pedagogical practice, I will pose, following biologists Humberto Maturana and Francisco Varela's autopoietic self-making understanding of life, that attentiveness perspectives, which have been largely absent from western pedagogical theory and practice, are crucial to promoting embodied knowing for education. Maturana and Varela's autopoietic perspective offers an embodied understanding of living---and therefore education---which opens up necessary attentive spaces to listen to one another in non judgmental awareness in the present moment of experience. I offer insights into a relationally complex conception of education drawing on this biological and autopoietically-grounded framework. These insights are framed in the context of five clusters of relations: (1) emergence, far-from-equilibrium, and local-global relationality; (2) autopoietic autonomy, structural determination and sensory-motor coupling; (3) triggering perturbations, structural plasticity, and autopoietic organization; (4) knowing as adequate action, domains of interaction, and blind spots; and (5) attentiveness and responsive relationality. Four

  12. Employee engagement, organisational performance and individual wellbeing: Exploring the evidence, developing the theory

    Truss, C.; Shantz, A.; Soane, E.; Emma, C.; Alfes, K.; Delbridge, R.

    2013-01-01

    The development of mainstream human resource management (HRM) theory has long been concerned with how people management can enhance performance outcomes. It is only very recently that interest has been shown in the parallel stream of research on the link between employee engagement and performance, bringing the two together to suggest that engagement may constitute the mechanism through which HRM practices impact individual and organisational performance. However, engagement has emerged as a ...

  13. Dignity in health-care: a critical exploration using feminism and theories of recognition.

    Aranda, Kay; Jones, Andrea

    2010-09-01

    Growing concerns over undignified health-care has meant the concept of dignity is currently much discussed in the British National Health Service. This has led to a number of policies attempting to reinstate dignity as a core ethical value governing nursing practice and health-care provision. Yet these initiatives continue to draw upon a concept of dignity which remains reliant upon a depoliticised, ahistorical and decontexualised subject. In this paper, we argue the need to revise the dignity debate through the lens of feminism and theories of recognition. Postmodern feminist theories provide major challenges to what remain dominant liberal approaches as they pay attention to the contingent, reflexive, and affective aspects of care work. Theories of recognition provide a further critical resource for understanding how moral obligations and responsibilities towards others and our public and private responses to difference arise. This re-situates dignity as a highly contested and politicised concept involving complex moral deliberations and diverse political claims of recognition. The dignity debate is thus moved beyond simplistic rational injunctions to care, or to care more, and towards critical discussions of complex politicised, moral practices infused with power that involve the recognition of difference in health-care.

  14. Foundations of quantum mechanics an exploration of the physical meaning of quantum theory

    Norsen, Travis

    2017-01-01

    Authored by an acclaimed teacher of quantum physics and philosophy, this textbook pays special attention to the aspects that many courses sweep under the carpet. Traditional courses in quantum mechanics teach students how to use the quantum formalism to make calculations. But even the best students - indeed, especially the best students - emerge rather confused about what, exactly, the theory says is going on, physically, in microscopic systems. This supplementary textbook is designed to help such students understand that they are not alone in their confusions (luminaries such as Albert Einstein, Erwin Schroedinger, and John Stewart Bell having shared them), to sharpen their understanding of the most important difficulties associated with interpreting quantum theory in a realistic manner, and to introduce them to the most promising attempts to formulate the theory in a way that is physically clear and coherent. The text is acces sible to students with at least one semester of prior exposure to quantum (or...

  15. Game-Based Learning Engagement: A Theory- and Data-Driven Exploration

    Ke, Fengfeng; Xie, Kui; Xie, Ying

    2016-01-01

    The promise of using games for learning is that play- and learning-engagement would occur cohesively as a whole to compose a highly motivated learning experience. Yet the conceptualization of such an integrative process in the development of play-based learning engagement is lacking. In this analytical paper, we explored and conceptualized the…

  16. Nurturing the Young Shoots of Talent: Using Action Research for Exploration and Theory Building

    Koshy, Valsa; Pascal, Christine

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the outcomes of a set of action research projects carried out by teacher researchers in 14 local education authorities in England, working collaboratively with university tutors, over a period of three years. The common aim of all the projects was to explore practical ways of nurturing the gifts and talents of children aged…

  17. Exploring EFL Learners' Perceptions of Integrated Skills Approach: A Grounded Theory

    Tajzad, Maryam; Ostovar-Namaghi, Seyyed Ali

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study aims at exploring EFL learners' perceptions of the integrated skills approach to language teaching. To this end, the researchers presented the integrated skills approach to a group of 30 participants and interviewed those who were willing to share their views and experience with the researchers. The researchers used grounded…

  18. Exploring the Relationship of Organizational Culture and Implicit Leadership Theory to Performance Differences in the Nuclear and Fossil Energy Industry

    Cravey, Kristopher J.

    Notable performance differences exist between nuclear and fossil power generation plants in areas such as safety, outage duration efficiency, and capacity factor. This study explored the relationship of organizational culture and implicit leadership theory to these performance differences. A mixed methods approach consisting of quantitative instruments, namely the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument and the GLOBE Leadership Scales, and qualitative interviews were used in this study. Subjects were operations middle managers in a U.S. energy company that serves nuclear or fossil power plants. Results from the quantitative instruments revealed no differences between nuclear and fossil groups in regards to organizational culture types and implicit leadership theories. However, the qualitative results did reveal divergence between the two groups in regards to what is valued in the organization and how that drives behaviors and decision making. These organizational phenomenological differences seem to explain why performance differences exist between nuclear and fossil plants because, ultimately, they affect how the organization functions.

  19. Exploring the role of experiential avoidance from the perspective of attachment theory and the dual process model.

    Shear, M Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Avoidance can be adaptive and facilitate the healing process of acute grief or it can be maladaptive and hinder this same process. Maladaptive cognitive or behavioral avoidance comprises the central feature of the condition of complicated grief. This article explores the concept of experiential avoidance as it applies to bereavement, including when it is adaptive when it is problematic. Adaptive avoidance is framed using an attachment theory perspective and incorporates insights from the dual process model (DPM). An approach to clinical management of experiential avoidance in the syndrome of complicated grief is included.

  20. Ethics and Reverence for the Discipline of Nursing.

    Milton, Constance L

    2017-01-01

    Healthcare disciplines, including nursing, are emerging sciences that contain discipline-specific theories that guide the activities of research, practice, and education. The term nursing science calls forth meaning that has long been accepted and referred to as the extant nursing theories undergirded with philosophy of science. Recent writings dispute the purposes and future usage of nursing theoretical frameworks in the science of nursing. The author of this article proposes new thinking about the importance of reverence and ethical implications for the future of formal inquiry in nursing science.

  1. Exploring potentials of sense-making theory for understanding social processes in public hearing

    Lyhne, Ivar

    authorities and the public in such planning often characterised by conflict. A sense-making framework is developed based on Karl Weick's theory to investigate how participants at the meeting change their understanding aspects like other actors' opinions and the infrastructure project. Through interviews...... and observations it is shown that participants' senses do not change except from a few aspects. The participants at the meeting thus seem stuck in their positions without interest in being open for other interpretations or arguments. The investigation leads to considerations about the benefit and role...... of such a public meeting and the importance of trust and openness in the social processes in a public hearing....

  2. Exploring Privilege in the Digital Divide: Implications for Theory, Policy, and Practice.

    Fang, Mei Lan; Canham, Sarah L; Battersby, Lupin; Sixsmith, Judith; Wada, Mineko; Sixsmith, Andrew

    2018-05-10

    The digital revolution has resulted in innovative solutions and technologies that can support the well-being, independence, and health of seniors. Yet, the notion of the "digital divide" presents significant inequities in terms of who accesses and benefits from the digital landscape. To better understand the social and structural inequities of the digital divide, a realist synthesis was conducted to inform theoretical understandings of information and communication technologies (ICTs); to understand the practicalities of access and use inequities; to uncover practices that facilitate digital literacy and participation; and to recommend policies to mitigate the digital divide. A systematic search yielded 55 articles published between 2006 and 2016. Synthesis of existing knowledge, combined with user-experience elicited through a deliberative dialogue session with community stakeholders (n = 35), made visible a pattern of privilege that determined individual agency in ICT access and use. Though age is consistently centralized as the key determinant of the digital divide, our analyses, which encompassed both van Dijk's resources and appropriation theory and intersectionality, appraised this notion and revealed that age is not the sole determinant. Findings highlight the role of other factors that contribute to digital inequity among community-dwelling middle-aged (45-64) and older (65+) adults, including education, income, gender, and generational status. Informed by results of a realist synthesis that was guided by intersectional perspectives, a conceptual framework was developed outlining implications for theory, policy, and practice to address the wicked problem that is the digital divide.

  3. How Do Individuals Develop Alcohol Use Disorder After Bariatric Surgery? A Grounded Theory Exploration.

    Yoder, Ruth; MacNeela, Padraig; Conway, Ronan; Heary, Caroline

    2018-03-01

    Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for severe obesity. However, following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery, a small minority of patients develop new-onset alcohol use disorder (AUD), the aetiology of which is poorly understood. The aim is to construct a theory to explain the development of AUD among a sample of individuals who reported problematic drinking following RYGB. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight RYGB patients diagnosed with AUD attending a multi-disciplinary outpatient weight management service at a public hospital in the Republic of Ireland. A constructivist grounded theory methodology was used to analyse interview transcripts. Participants' main concern was identified as 'unresolved psychological issues' which were managed by 'external coping mechanisms', namely, 'eating to cope'. After RYGB, comfort eating was no longer possible to the same extent. Following a 'honeymoon period', participants' need for an external coping mechanism resurfaced. 'Filling the void' provides a framework to explain how participants managed the symptoms of their unresolved psychological issues through 'behavioural substitution', that is, drinking alcohol instead of eating. The theoretical framework of 'filling the void' adds to contemporary research that conceptualises AUD behavioural substitution as 'addiction transfer' by describing the process by which the phenomenon occurs as well as the characteristics of participants. The clinical implication of this research is to advocate for a reshaping of treatment of RYGB patients, with increased psychological input following surgery.

  4. Medical licensing board characteristics and physician discipline: an empirical analysis.

    Law, Marc T; Hansen, Zeynep K

    2010-02-01

    This article investigates the relationship between the characteristics of medical licensing boards and the frequency with which boards discipline physicians. Specifically, we take advantage of variation in the structure of medical licensing boards between 1993 and 2003 to determine the effect of organizational and budgetary independence, public oversight, and resource constraints on rates of physician discipline. We find that larger licensing boards, boards with more staff, and boards that are organizationally independent from state government discipline doctors more frequently. Public oversight and political control over board budgets do not appear to influence the extent to which medical licensing boards discipline doctors. These findings are broadly consistent with theories of regulatory behavior that emphasize the importance of bureaucratic autonomy for effective regulatory enforcement.

  5. Parenting classes: focus on discipline.

    Campbell, J M

    1992-01-01

    Nurses in community settings have an opportunity to provide instruction related to health and life-style needs. An important consideration is the parental role. A particularly controversial and opinion-laden aspect of parenting is disciplining children. Discipline provides children with the security of clearly enforced rules to help them learn self-control and social standards. Parenting classes are worthwhile for people who have little formal or informal preparation. A survey of middle-class elementary school district parents' and childrens' attitudes toward discipline was conducted to develop meaningful parenting classes. Parents' feelings about being a mother or father were surprisingly negative. A parent educational program was developed to cover child growth and development and disciplinary practices. Parent evaluations led to continuation and an expansion of this program to other schools within the area.

  6. Modernizing Relationship Therapy through Social Thermoregulation Theory: Evidence, Hypotheses, and Explorations

    Hans IJzerman

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present article the authors propose to modernize relationship therapy by integrating novel sensor and actuator technologies that can help optimize people’s thermoregulation, especially as they pertain to social contexts. Specifically, they propose to integrate Social Thermoregulation Theory (IJzerman et al., 2015a; IJzerman and Hogerzeil, 2017 into Emotionally Focused Therapy by first doing exploratory research during couples’ therapy, followed by Randomized Clinical Trials (RCTs. The authors thus suggest crafting a Social Thermoregulation Therapy (STT as enhancement to existing relationship therapies. The authors outline what is known and not known in terms of social thermoregulatory mechanisms, what kind of data collection and analyses are necessary to better understand social thermoregulatory mechanisms to craft interventions, and stress the need to conduct RCTs prior to implementation. They further warn against too hastily applying these theoretical perspectives. The article concludes by outlining why STT is the way forward in improving relationship functioning.

  7. Exploring the surface reactivity of 3d metal endofullerenes: a density-functional theory study.

    Estrada-Salas, Rubén E; Valladares, Ariel A

    2009-09-24

    Changes in the preferential sites of electrophilic, nucleophilic, and radical attacks on the pristine C60 surface with endohedral doping using 3d transition metal atoms were studied via two useful reactivity indices, namely the Fukui functions and the molecular electrostatic potential. Both of these were calculated at the density functional BPW91 level of theory with the DNP basis set. Our results clearly show changes in the preferential reactivity sites on the fullerene surface when it is doped with Mn, Fe, Co, or Ni atoms, whereas there are no significant changes in the preferential reactivity sites on the C60 surface upon endohedral doping with Cu and Zn atoms. Electron affinities (EA), ionization potentials (IP), and HOMO-LUMO gaps (Eg) were also calculated to complete the study of the endofullerene's surface reactivity. These findings provide insight into endofullerene functionalization, an important issue in their application.

  8. Covalent addition of chitosan to graphene sheets: Density functional theory explorations of quadrupole coupling constants

    Mokhtari, Ali; Harismah, Kun; Mirzaei, Mahmoud

    2015-12-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been performed to detect the stabilities and properties of chitosan-functionalized graphene and graphene-oxide structures (G-Chit and GO-Chit). The model systems with two different sizes of sheets have been optimized and the molecular and atomic properties have been evaluated for them. The results indicated that investigated G-Chit and GO-Chit structures could be considered as stable structures but with different properties. The properties for GO and GO-Chit structures are almost similar; however, they are different from the original G and G-Chit structures. The results also indicated that the properties could be also size-dependent, in which different molecular and atomic properties have been observed for the investigate G sheets.

  9. Driving and sustaining culture change in Olympic sport performance teams: a first exploration and grounded theory.

    Cruickshank, Andrew; Collins, Dave; Minten, Sue

    2014-02-01

    Stimulated by growing interest in the organizational and performance leadership components of Olympic success, sport psychology researchers have identified performance director-led culture change as a process of particular theoretical and applied significance. To build on initial work in this area and develop practically meaningful understanding, a pragmatic research philosophy and grounded theory methodology were engaged to uncover culture change best practice from the perspective of newly appointed performance directors. Delivered in complex and contested settings, results revealed that the optimal change process consisted of an initial evaluation, planning, and impact phase adjoined to the immediate and enduring management of a multidirectional perception- and power-based social system. As the first inquiry of its kind, these findings provide a foundation for the continued theoretical development of culture change in Olympic sport performance teams and a first model on which applied practice can be based.

  10. Exploring Lovelock theory moduli space for Schrödinger solutions

    Dileep P. Jatkar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We look for Schrödinger solutions in Lovelock gravity in D>4. We span the entire parameter space and determine parametric relations under which the Schrödinger solution exists. We find that in arbitrary dimensions pure Lovelock theories have Schrödinger solutions of arbitrary radius, on a co-dimension one locus in the Lovelock parameter space. This co-dimension one locus contains the subspace over which the Lovelock gravity can be written in the Chern–Simons form. Schrödinger solutions do not exist outside this locus and on this locus they exist for arbitrary dynamical exponent z. This freedom in z is due to the degeneracy in the configuration space. We show that this degeneracy survives certain deformation away from the Lovelock moduli space.

  11. Exploring Lovelock theory moduli space for Schrödinger solutions

    Jatkar, Dileep P.; Kundu, Nilay

    2016-09-01

    We look for Schrödinger solutions in Lovelock gravity in D > 4. We span the entire parameter space and determine parametric relations under which the Schrödinger solution exists. We find that in arbitrary dimensions pure Lovelock theories have Schrödinger solutions of arbitrary radius, on a co-dimension one locus in the Lovelock parameter space. This co-dimension one locus contains the subspace over which the Lovelock gravity can be written in the Chern-Simons form. Schrödinger solutions do not exist outside this locus and on this locus they exist for arbitrary dynamical exponent z. This freedom in z is due to the degeneracy in the configuration space. We show that this degeneracy survives certain deformation away from the Lovelock moduli space.

  12. I want to be creative: exploring the role of hedonic contingency theory in the positive mood-cognitive flexibility link.

    Hirt, Edward R; Devers, Erin E; McCrea, Sean M

    2008-02-01

    Three studies explored the role of hedonic contingency theory as an explanation for the link between positive mood and cognitive flexibility. Study 1 examined the determinants of activity choice for participants in happy, sad, or neutral moods. Consistent with hedonic contingency theory, happy participants weighted potential for creativity as well as the pleasantness of the task more heavily in their preference ratings. In Study 2, participants were given either a neutral or mood-threatening item generation task to perform. Results illustrated that happy participants exhibited greater cognitive flexibility in all cases; when confronted with a potentially mood-threatening task, happy participants were able to creatively transform the task so as to maintain positive mood and interest. Finally, Study 3 manipulated participants' beliefs that moods could or could not be altered. Results replicated the standard positive mood-increased cognitive flexibility effect in the nonmood-freezing condition, but no effects of mood on creativity were found in the mood-freezing condition. These studies indicate that the hedonic contingency theory may be an important contributing mechanism behind the positive mood-cognitive flexibility link. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved

  13. Early history of extended irreversible thermodynamics (1953-1983): An exploration beyond local equilibrium and classical transport theory

    Lebon, G.; Jou, D.

    2015-06-01

    This paper gives a historical account of the early years (1953-1983) of extended irreversible thermodynamics (EIT). The salient features of this formalism are to upgrade the thermodynamic fluxes of mass, momentum, energy, and others, to the status of independent variables, and to explore the consistency between generalized transport equations and a generalized version of the second law of thermodynamics. This requires going beyond classical irreversible thermodynamics by redefining entropy and entropy flux. EIT provides deeper foundations, closer relations with microscopic formalisms, a wider spectrum of applications, and a more exciting conceptual appeal to non-equilibrium thermodynamics. We first recall the historical contributions by Maxwell, Cattaneo, and Grad on generalized transport equations. A thermodynamic theory wide enough to cope with such transport equations was independently proposed between 1953 and 1983 by several authors, each emphasizing different kinds of problems. In 1983, the first international meeting on this theory took place in Bellaterra (Barcelona). It provided the opportunity for the various authors to meet together for the first time and to discuss the common points and the specific differences of their previous formulations. From then on, a large amount of applications and theoretical confirmations have emerged. From the historical point of view, the emergence of EIT has been an opportunity to revisit the foundations and to open new avenues in thermodynamics, one of the most classical and well consolidated physical theories.

  14. First-generation Korean-American parents' perceptions of discipline.

    Kim, Eunjung; Hong, Seunghye

    2007-01-01

    Nurses not only need to be familiar with professional guidelines of discipline and but also need to be aware of variances in styles of acceptable discipline across cultural groups. The goal of this study was to explore cultural influences in relation to (1) first-generation Korean-American parents' perceptions of common discipline strategies in the United States, and (2) discipline strategies commonly used among first-generation Korean-American parents. Inductive content analysis was used to analyze interview data from seven first-generation Korean-American parents. Derived themes indicated that parents considered spanking/hitting and less hugging/kissing as Korean style, and time-out, use of sticker charts, hugging/kissing, removing/adding privileges, and giving chores as American style. Recent immigrant parents were not familiar with common positive discipline strategies in the United States. As they adapted to mainstream society, they discontinued what they perceived to be negative aspects of Korean style and adopted positive aspects of American style. They were sensitive to children's views on discipline, and they experienced communication difficulties with children. These findings indicated that Korean-American parents' perceptions of discipline strategies were shaped by living in two cultures and were different from western viewpoints.

  15. Pragmatic Abilities in Children with Congenital Visual Impairment: An Exploration of Non-Literal Language and Advanced Theory of Mind Understanding

    Pijnacker, Judith; Vervloed, Mathijs P. J.; Steenbergen, Bert

    2012-01-01

    Children with congenital visual impairment have been reported to be delayed in theory of mind development. So far, research focused on first-order theory of mind, and included mainly blind children, whereas the majority of visually impaired children is not totally blind. The present study set out to explore whether children with a broader range of…

  16. Using multidimensional grief theory to explore the effects of deployment, reintegration, and death on military youth and families.

    Kaplow, Julie B; Layne, Christopher M; Saltzman, William R; Cozza, Stephen J; Pynoos, Robert S

    2013-09-01

    To date, the US military has made major strides in acknowledging and therapeutically addressing trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in service members and their families. However, given the nature of warfare and high rates of losses sustained by both military members (e.g., deaths of fellow unit members) and military families (e.g., loss of a young parent who served in the military), as well as the ongoing threat of loss that military families face during deployment, we propose that a similar focus on grief is also needed to properly understand and address many of the challenges encountered by bereaved service members, spouses, and children. In this article, we describe a newly developed theory of grief (multidimensional grief theory) and apply it to the task of exploring major features of military-related experiences during the phases of deployment, reintegration, and the aftermath of combat death--especially as they impact children. We also describe implications for designing preventive interventions during each phase and conclude with recommended avenues for future research. Primary aims are to illustrate: (1) the indispensable role of theory in guiding efforts to describe, explain, predict, prevent, and treat maladaptive grief in military service members, children, and families; (2) the relevance of multidimensional grief theory for addressing both losses due to physical death as well as losses brought about by extended physical separations to which military children and families are exposed during and after deployment; and (3) a focus on military-related grief as a much-needed complement to an already-established focus on military-related PTSD.

  17. Using Multidimensional Grief Theory to Explore Effects of Deployment, Reintegration, and Death on Military Youth and Families

    Kaplow, Julie B.; Layne, Christopher M.; Saltzman, William R.; Cozza, Stephen J.; Pynoos, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    To date, the U.S. military has made major strides in acknowledging and therapeutically addressing trauma and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in service members and their families. However, given the nature of warfare and high rates of losses sustained by both military members (e.g., deaths of fellow unit members) and military families (e.g., loss of a young parent who served in the military), as well as the ongoing threat of loss that military families face during deployment, we propose that a similar focus on grief is also needed to properly understand and address many of the challenges encountered by bereaved service members, spouses, and children. In this article, we describe a newly developed theory of grief (Multidimensional Grief Theory) and apply it to the task of exploring major features of military-related experiences during the phases of deployment, reintegration, and the aftermath of combat death—especially as they impact children. We also describe implications for designing preventive interventions during each phase and conclude with recommended avenues for future research. Primary aims are to illustrate: (1) the indispensable role of theory in guiding efforts to describe, explain, predict, prevent, and treat maladaptive grief in military service members, children, and families; (2) the relevance of multidimensional grief theory for addressing both losses due to physical death as well as losses brought about by extended physical separations to which military children and families are exposed during and after deployment; and (3) a focus on military-related grief as a much-needed complement to an already-established focus on military-related PTSD. PMID:23760905

  18. Exploring the chemical kinetics of partially oxidized intermediates by combining experiments, theory, and kinetic modeling.

    Hoyermann, Karlheinz; Mauß, Fabian; Olzmann, Matthias; Welz, Oliver; Zeuch, Thomas

    2017-07-19

    Partially oxidized intermediates play a central role in combustion and atmospheric chemistry. In this perspective, we focus on the chemical kinetics of alkoxy radicals, peroxy radicals, and Criegee intermediates, which are key species in both combustion and atmospheric environments. These reactive intermediates feature a broad spectrum of chemical diversity. Their reactivity is central to our understanding of how volatile organic compounds are degraded in the atmosphere and converted into secondary organic aerosol. Moreover, they sensitively determine ignition timing in internal combustion engines. The intention of this perspective article is to provide the reader with information about the general mechanisms of reactions initiated by addition of atomic and molecular oxygen to alkyl radicals and ozone to alkenes. We will focus on critical branching points in the subsequent reaction mechanisms and discuss them from a consistent point of view. As a first example of our integrated approach, we will show how experiment, theory, and kinetic modeling have been successfully combined in the first infrared detection of Criegee intermediates during the gas phase ozonolysis. As a second example, we will examine the ignition timing of n-heptane/air mixtures at low and intermediate temperatures. Here, we present a reduced, fuel size independent kinetic model of the complex chemistry initiated by peroxy radicals that has been successfully applied to simulate standard n-heptane combustion experiments.

  19. A teacher-centered exploration of the relevance of social factors to theory of mind development.

    Wright, Barlow C; Mahfoud, Janina

    2014-02-01

    Many accounts of children's Theory of Mind (ToM) development favor a cognitive explanation, for example, in terms of mental representational improvements at or before 4 years. Here, we investigated whether social factors as rated by a child's teacher, are related to ToM development. We tested 82 children of 3-6 years on each of four ToM tasks, and their class teacher completed a social questionnaire about each child's playing behavior, sharing, talkativeness, confidence, aggressiveness and outgoingness. A measure of task memory and the child's gender were also recorded. Here, children generally passed ToM tasks after 5 years-old, but no one gender performed reliably better than the other. Teacher-rated confidence and playing behavior were correlated to ToM. But in a regression analysis, these were replaced by teacher-rated talkativeness; with age and memory given primacy in both sets of analyses. It is concluded that maturation and cognitive factors may well have primacy but social factors, facilitated during early primary education, must also be given a role in ToM development. © 2013 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Exploring the social without a separate domain for religion: on actor-network theory and religion

    Peik Ingman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In post-secular societies—after secularisation—it may increasingly be the case that the connecting and structuring of religious matter is done outsidedesignated religious sites and without appointed religious experts. The centres of calculation have changed and so the connections between these are different. The former ways of translation and ordering are transforming into new ones. By exiting the designated sites religious matter has found new freedom with the new associations and inventions in the processes of translation. Less control leads to more heterogeneous agencies and facilitates the mobility of religious materials. This less controlled mobility of religious actants can also produce an apparent increase of religious matter, but this does not necessarily mean the return of religion. In any case, this increased plurality combined with increased mobility calls for perspectives which can recognise novelty, andnot just in comparison with previous states of affairs. Actor-network theory (ANT is about tracing the webs of associations between myriad actants whose collective actions produce what we call ‘society’. Dismissing the notion of ‘the social’ as a kind of ‘stuff ’, ANT insists that sociology should focus on the interactional processes—the circulation of ‘the social’ among human and non-human actants—collectively assembling emerging states of affairs.

  1. Theory of mind in schizophrenia: exploring neural mechanisms of belief attribution.

    Lee, Junghee; Quintana, Javier; Nori, Poorang; Green, Michael F

    2011-01-01

    Although previous behavioral studies have shown that schizophrenia patients have impaired theory of mind (ToM), the neural mechanisms associated with this impairment are poorly understood. This study aimed to identify the neural mechanisms of ToM in schizophrenia, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with a belief attribution task. In the scanner, 12 schizophrenia patients and 13 healthy control subjects performed the belief attribution task with three conditions: a false belief condition, a false photograph condition, and a simple reading condition. For the false belief versus simple reading conditions, schizophrenia patients showed reduced neural activation in areas including the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) compared with controls. Further, during the false belief versus false photograph conditions, we observed increased activations in the TPJ and the MPFC in healthy controls, but not in schizophrenia patients. For the false photograph versus simple reading condition, both groups showed comparable neural activations. Schizophrenia patients showed reduced task-related activation in the TPJ and the MPFC during the false belief condition compared with controls, but not for the false photograph condition. This pattern suggests that reduced activation in these regions is associated with, and specific to, impaired ToM in schizophrenia.

  2. Exploring the intentions of pharmacy students towards pharmacy ownership by using theory of planned behaviour.

    Khan, Muhammad Umair; Ahmad, Akram; Fayyaz, Muhammad; Ashraf, Nida; Bhagavathula, Akshaya

    2016-03-22

    The objective of this study was to assess the association of the constructs of theory of planned behaviour (behavioural beliefs, normative beliefs, control beliefs) and demographic variables with the intentions of pharmacy students to become pharmacy owner. A cross sectional study was conducted between October and November, 2014, using a pretested, self-administered questionnaire delivered to a sample of 350 pharmacy students at a private university of Pakistan. Behavioural beliefs, normative beliefs and control beliefs were assessed on four point Likert scale of agreement. The scores were summed and dichotomized based on an arbitrary 50% cut-off score to assess positive and negative beliefs. Binary logistic regression was used to analyse the data. A total of 313 participants (89.4%) responded to the questionnaire. Participants' behavioural beliefs, normative beliefs and control beliefs were negative towards pharmacy ownership with the mean scores of 13.90 ± 0.41 (score range: 6-24), 9.66 ± 0.49 (score range: 4-16) and 16.88 ± 0.40 (score range: 7-28) respectively. Professional year and family business were significantly associated with intentions of pharmacy students to own a pharmacy (p entrepreneurship course in pharmacy school may transform the beliefs of pharmacy students towards pharmacy ownership.

  3. Explore the reaction mechanism of the Maillard reaction: a density functional theory study.

    Ren, Ge-Rui; Zhao, Li-Jiang; Sun, Qiang; Xie, Hu-Jun; Lei, Qun-Fang; Fang, Wen-Jun

    2015-05-01

    The mechanism of Maillard reaction has been investigated by means of density functional theory calculations in the gaseous phase and aqueous solution. The Maillard reaction is a cascade of consecutive and parallel reaction. In the present model system study, glucose and glycine were taken as the initial reactants. On the basis of previous experimental results, the mechanisms of Maillard reaction have been proposed, and the possibility for the formation of different compounds have been evaluated through calculating the relative energy changes for different steps of reaction under different pH conditions. Our calculations reveal that the TS3 in Amadori rearrangement reaction is the rate-determining step of Maillard reaction with the activation barriers of about 66.7 and 68.8 kcal mol(-1) in the gaseous phase and aqueous solution, respectively. The calculation results are in good agreement with previous studies and could provide insights into the reaction mechanism of Maillard reaction, since experimental evaluation of the role of intermediates in the Maillard reaction is quite complicated.

  4. Applying the theory of planned behavior to explore HAART adherence among HIV-positive immigrant Latinos: elicitation interview results.

    Vissman, Aaron T; Hergenrather, Kenneth C; Rojas, Gabriela; Langdon, Sarah E; Wilkin, Aimee M; Rhodes, Scott D

    2011-12-01

    This study explored influences on intention to adhere to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) among immigrant Latinos living with HIV/AIDS in the southeastern USA. Our community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnership completed individual in-depth interviews with 25 immigrant Latinos, based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB), to explore beliefs toward HAART adherence and HIV testing. Participants identified (a) seven outcomes of treatment adherence (e.g., "feeling good" and "controlling the virus"), (b) six groups of persons influencing adherence (e.g., family, partner/spouse), and (c) nine impediments to adherence (e.g., appointment scheduling, side effects of treatment). Fear of deportation, perceived costs of services, and barriers to communication emerged as impediments to both HAART adherence and HIV testing. The findings suggest the utility of TPB in identifying factors to enhance HAART adherence among immigrant Latinos. Future research should explore the extent to which these identified TPB components quantitatively influence adherence intention and immunological and virological outcomes. Culturally congruent interventions for immigrant Latinos may need to focus on facilitators of adherence, influential referent groups, and destigmatizing HIV/AIDS. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Ritualistics: a New Discipline in the History of Religions

    Jørgen Podemann Sørensen

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The history of Religions is in need of subdisciplines. Those that it has are mostly derived from other academic disciplines such as psychology, sociology, or, to mention a more recent invention, aesthetics. Interdisciplinary studies are in many ways a characteristic, inherent feature of the humanities, and certainly not to be resented or mistrusted. It is, however, worth noticing that the History of Religions has only one discipline entirely of its own: a comparative, cross-cultural, religio-specific discipline sometimes called the phenomenology of religion. The study of ritual is more than just the study of a very broad. It is with a view to the further exploration of the way meaning and form are put to work in ritual, and the way ritual determines and conditions the form of representations, that ritualistics can be suggested as a new discipline.

  6. Discipline

    ... Child and Adolescent Psychiatry website. Policy statement on corporal punishment. www.aacap.org/aacap/Policy_Statements/2012/Policy_Statement_on_Corporal_Punishment.aspx . Updated July 20, 2012. Accessed January 9, ...

  7. Retail design : A new discipline

    Christiaans, H.H.C.M.; Almendra, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper has the aim to address Retail Design as a new research and education discipline that because of its multidisciplinarity asks for a holistic approach. Although retailing as commerce is timeless, Retail Design is one of the most challenging new fields of design, embracing both design

  8. Crippling Our Children with Discipline.

    Gordon, Thomas

    1981-01-01

    Holds that the practice of disciplining children is damaging to their physical, emotional, and social well-being. Describes the democratic and egalitarian parenting model put forth in "Effectiveness Training" as an alternative to adult power based control of children. (Author/GC)

  9. Disciplining and Screening Top Executives

    S. Dominguez Martinez (Silvia); O.H. Swank (Otto); B. Visser (Bauke)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractBoards of directors face the twin task of disciplining and screening executives. To perform these tasks directors do not have detailed information about executives' behaviour, and only infrequently have information about the success or failure of initiated strategies, reorganizations,

  10. School Discipline: A Cooperative Approach

    Terrell, Henry W.

    1976-01-01

    To stem the tide of student misbehavior, teachers and administrators must present a united front. Cooperative discipline procedures can be effective when they are firm, fair, and offer the misbehaving student a personal option. Practical suggestions on disciplinary procedures are offered here. (Editor/RK)

  11. Alternative Discipline Can Benefit Learning

    Mergler, Mary Schmid; Vargas, Karla M.; Caldwell, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Schools across the country are changing how they discipline students by implementing research- and evidence-based disciplinary practices that have yielded positive results for schools and students. These disciplinary practices--known as Restorative Justice, Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports, and social and emotional learning--largely…

  12. Market Discipline and Deposit Insurance

    Peresetsky, Anatoly

    2008-01-01

    The paper examines Russian banks’ household deposit interest rates for the transition period of setting up the deposit insurance system. Monthly observations of Russian banks’ interest rates and balance sheets are used in a fixed effects panel data model. It is shown market discipline has been significantly diminished after switching to the deposit insurance.

  13. Learning HCI Across Institutions, Disciplines and Countries

    Abdelnour-Nocera, José; Clemmensen, Torkil; Guimaraes, Tatiane G.

    2017-01-01

    , we studied the performance of HCI students in design, technology and business faculties in universities in UK, India, Namibia, Mexico and China who participated in a common set of design and evaluation tasks. We obtained participants’ cognitive style profiles based on Allinson and Hayes scale......Human-computer interaction (HCI) is increasingly becoming a subject taught in universities around the world. However, little is known of the interactions of the HCI curriculum with students in different types of institutions and disciplines internationally. In order to explore these interactions...... in order to gain further insights into their learning styles and explore any relation between these and performance. We found participants’ cognitive style preferences to be predominantly in the adaptive range, i.e. with combined analytical and intuitive traits, compared to normative data for software...

  14. Good social skills despite poor theory of mind: exploring compensation in autism spectrum disorder.

    Livingston, Lucy Anne; Colvert, Emma; Bolton, Patrick; Happé, Francesca

    2018-03-26

    It is proposed that some individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) can 'compensate' for their underlying difficulties (e.g. in theory of mind; ToM), thus demonstrating relatively few behavioural symptoms, despite continued core cognitive deficits. The mechanisms underpinning compensation are largely unexplored, as is its potential impact on mental health. This study aimed to estimate compensation patterns in ASD, by contrasting overt social behaviour with ToM task performance, in order to compare the characteristics of 'Low' and 'High' Compensators. A total of 136 autistic adolescents, from the ongoing Social Relationships Study, completed a range of cognitive tasks, the Autistic Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) and a self-report anxiety questionnaire. Participants were assigned compensation group status; High Compensators demonstrated good ADOS scores despite poor ToM performance, while Low Compensators demonstrated similarly poor ToM, accompanied by poor ADOS scores. High Compensators demonstrated better IQ and executive function (EF), but greater self-reported anxiety, compared with Low Compensators. Such differences were not found when comparing individuals who had good versus poor ADOS scores, when ToM performance was good. Other core autistic characteristics (weak central coherence, nonsocial symptoms) did not differentiate the High and Low Compensators. IQ, EF and anxiety appear to be implicated in the processes by which certain autistic young people can compensate for their underlying ToM difficulties. This tendency to compensate does not appear to reflect the severity of 'hit' for ASD per se, suggesting that well-compensated individuals are not experiencing a milder form of ASD. The construct of compensation in ASD has implications for research and clinical practice. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  15. Information sharing and organizational knowledge production in two Finnish firms: an exploration using activity theory

    Gunilla Widén-Wulff

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In this paper, we discuss the link between information sharing and organizational knowledge production in two very different organizations - a company that handles insurance claims and a small entrepreneurial hi-tech company. We suggest that this link has not been adequately addressed by studies of information behaviour, though a number of recent papers (e.g. Wilson, 2005; Bartlett and Toms, 2005 have proposed that human information behaviour research should appropriate methods from workplace studies and CSCW to provide a richer account of organizational information and knowledge work. Method. Two case studies of sharing practices in Finnish firms were carried out. Analysis. The version of activity theory that has been developed by Engeström (1999 and other Finnish researchers (Kuutti, 1996 was used to analyse the data. This has provided highly specific accounts of information sharing as a constituent of the varied processes that contribute to the development of organizational knowledge. Results. The overall analysis has allowed us to explain how and why organizational information sharing happens in terms that go beyond the cognitive and descriptive accounts (e.g. Widen-Wulff and Ginman, 2004; Widen-Wulff and Davenport, 2005; ; Widen-Wulff, 2006 of our earlier studies. Conclusion. . Information behaviour is a repertoire of actions and operations and judgements about timing and ethics that are brought into play across work cycles and routines. From this perspective, the duality of organizational knowledge becomes clear: it is both individual and collective judgements about how to behave, and the incremental outcome of these judgements, embedded in decisions that support the objects of activity systems.

  16. Designing Opportunities to Learn Mathematics Theory-Building Practices

    Bass, Hyman

    2017-01-01

    Mathematicians commonly distinguish two modes of work in the discipline: "Problem solving," and "theory building." Mathematics education offers many opportunities to learn problem solving. This paper explores the possibility, and value, of designing instructional activities that provide supported opportunities for students to…

  17. Educating Through Exploration: Emerging Evidence for Improved Learning Outcomes Using a New Theory of Digital Learning Design

    Anbar, Ariel; Center for Education Through eXploration

    2018-01-01

    Advances in scientific visualization and public access to data have transformed science outreach and communication, but have yet to realize their potential impacts in the realm of education. Computer-based learning is a clear bridge between visualization and education that benefits students through adaptative personalization and enhanced access. Building this bridge requires close partnerships among scientists, technologists, and educators.The Infiniscope project fosters such partnerships to produce exploration-driven online learning experiences that teach basic science concepts using a combination of authentic space science narratives, data, and images, and a personalized guided inquiry approach. Infiniscope includes a web portal to host these digital learning experiences, as well as a teaching network of educators using and modifying these experiences. Infiniscope experiences are built around a new theory of digital learning design that we call “education through exploration” (ETX) developed during the creation of successful online, interactive science courses offered at ASU and other institutions. ETX builds on the research-based practices of active learning and guided inquiry to provide a set of design principles that aim to develop higher order thinking skills in addition to understanding of content. It is employed in these experiences by asking students to solve problems and actively discover relationships, supported by an intelligent tutoring system which provides immediate, personalized feedback and scaffolds scientific thinking and methods. The project is led by ASU’s School of Earth and Space Exploration working with learning designers in the Center for Education Through eXploration, with support from NASA’s Science Mission Directorate as part of the NASA Exploration Connection program.We will present an overview of ETX design, the Infinscope project, and emerging evidence of effectiveness.

  18. The Legal Aspects of Student Discipline in Higher Education.

    Young, D. Parker

    The proliferation of court cases involving student discipline testifies to controversy over administrative procedures. Generally, a college's disciplinary policy is viewed as part of the learning process. Courts in the past have ruled favorably on the contractual theory which decrees that an entering student agrees to abide by certain university…

  19. Medicinal chemistry matters - a call for discipline in our discipline.

    Johnstone, Craig

    2012-06-01

    Medicinal chemistry makes a vital contribution to small molecule drug discovery, and the quality of it contributes directly to research effectiveness as well as to downstream costs, speed and survival in development. In recent years, the discipline of medicinal chemistry has evolved and witnessed many noteworthy contributions that propose and offer potential improvements to medicinal chemistry practice; however, the impact of these ideas is limited by their acceptance and deployment into every-day activity and, as a result, the quality of medicinal chemistry remains variable. For the good of the industry and the medicinal chemistry discipline, there is a need to move from retrospective learning to prospective control of medicinal chemistry practice to improve cost effectiveness, probability of success and survival rates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Transcending disciplines: Scientific styles in studies of the brain in mid-twentieth century America.

    Abraham, Tara H

    2012-06-01

    Much scholarship in the history of cybernetics has focused on the far-reaching cultural dimensions of the movement. What has garnered less attention are efforts by cyberneticians such as Warren McCulloch and Norbert Wiener to transform scientific practice in an array of disciplines in the biomedical sciences, and the complex ways these efforts were received by members of traditional disciplines. In a quest for scientific unity that had a decidedly imperialistic flavour, cyberneticians sought to apply practices common in the exact sciences-mainly theoretical modeling-to problems in disciplines that were traditionally defined by highly empirical practices, such as neurophysiology and neuroanatomy. Their efforts were met with mixed, often critical responses. This paper attempts to make sense of such dynamics by exploring the notion of a scientific style and its usefulness in accounting for the contrasts in scientific practice in brain research and in cybernetics during the 1940s. Focusing on two key institutional contexts of brain research and the role of the Rockefeller and Macy Foundations in directing brain research and cybernetics, the paper argues that the conflicts between these fields were not simply about experiment vs. theory but turned more closely on the questions that defined each area and the language used to elaborate answers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Exploring different explanations for performance on a theory of mind task in Williams syndrome and autism using eye movements.

    Van Herwegen, Jo; Smith, Tim J; Dimitriou, Dagmara

    2015-01-01

    The current study explored the looking behaviours of young children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), Williams syndrome (WS), and typically developing (TD) children while they were administered a low-verbal Theory of Mind (ToM) task. Although ToM performance in both clinical groups was impaired, only participants with WS showed small differences in looking behaviour at the start of the video. Furthermore, while TD children who passed the ToM task looked longer at the original hiding place there was no such contrast in the clinical groups. This shows that looking behaviour in ASD and WS is not necessarily atypical when saliency aspects such as language, background, and colour are removed and that differences in looking behaviour cannot explain ToM performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Introducing simulation-based education to healthcare professionals: exploring the challenge of integrating theory into educational practice.

    Katoue, Maram G; Iblagh, Nadia; Somerville, Susan; Ker, Jean

    2015-11-01

    Introducing simulation-based education to the curricular programme of healthcare professionals can be challenging. This study explored the early experiences of healthcare professionals in the use of simulation. This was in the context of the Kuwait-Scotland transformational health innovation network programme. Two cohorts of healthcare professionals undertook a simulation module as part of faculty development programme in Kuwait. Participants' initial perceptions of simulators were gathered using a structured questionnaire in the clinical skills centre. Their subsequent ability to demonstrate the application of simulation was evaluated through analyses of the video-recordings of teaching sessions they undertook and written reflections of their experiences of using simulation. In theory, participants were able to identify simulators' classification and fidelity. They also recognised some of the challenges of using simulators. In their teaching sessions, most participants focused on using part-task trainers to teach procedural skills. In their written reflections, they did not articulate a justification for their choice of simulator or its limitations. This study demonstrated a theory-to-practice gap in the early use of simulation by healthcare educators. The findings highlight the need for deliberate practice and adequate mentorship for educators to develop confidence and competence in the use of simulation as part of their educational practice. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Exploring complex causal pathways between urban renewal, health and health inequality using a theory-driven realist approach.

    Mehdipanah, Roshanak; Manzano, Ana; Borrell, Carme; Malmusi, Davide; Rodriguez-Sanz, Maica; Greenhalgh, Joanne; Muntaner, Carles; Pawson, Ray

    2015-01-01

    Urban populations are growing and to accommodate these numbers, cities are becoming more involved in urban renewal programs to improve the physical, social and economic conditions in different areas. This paper explores some of the complexities surrounding the link between urban renewal, health and health inequalities using a theory-driven approach. We focus on an urban renewal initiative implemented in Barcelona, the Neighbourhoods Law, targeting Barcelona's (Spain) most deprived neighbourhoods. We present evidence from two studies on the health evaluation of the Neighbourhoods Law, while drawing from recent urban renewal literature, to follow a four-step process to develop a program theory. We then use two specific urban renewal interventions, the construction of a large central plaza and the repair of streets and sidewalks, to further examine this link. In order for urban renewal programs to affect health and health inequality, neighbours must use and adapt to the changes produced by the intervention. However, there exist barriers that can result in negative outcomes including factors such as accessibility, safety and security. This paper provides a different perspective to the field that is largely dominated by traditional quantitative studies that are not always able to address the complexities such interventions provide. Furthermore, the framework and discussions serve as a guide for future research, policy development and evaluation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. "Let's stick together"--a grounded theory exploration of interprofessional working used to provide person centered chronic back pain services.

    Howarth, Michelle; Warne, Tony; Haigh, Carol

    2012-11-01

    Chronic back pain is a global phenomenon and a common reason why patients seek help from health professionals. Person-centered interprofessional working is acknowledged as the main strategy for chronic back pain management; however, the complexity of chronic pain can present significant challenges for teams. Although methods used by interprofessional teams to collaborate have been previously explored, how they work together to deliver person-centered chronic back pain care has received limited attention. The aim of this study was to explore person-centered care from the perspectives of people with chronic back pain and the interprofessional teams who cared for them. A grounded theory methodology was used to capture the interprofessional team's perspectives of person-centered working. A purposive sample of four chronic back pain management teams participated in semi-structured face-to-face interviews and focus groups. Data were thematically analyzed using a constant comparative method. Three categories emerged, collective efficacy, negotiated space and team maturity, which illustrated the attributes of interprofessional teams that influenced person-centered working. The findings suggest that collective efficacy matures over time within a negotiated coalesced space and re-enforces the need for teams to stick together to ensure effective person-centered care.

  5. Human disease mortality kinetics are explored through a chain model embodying principles of extreme value theory and competing risks.

    Juckett, D A; Rosenberg, B

    1992-04-21

    The distributions for human disease-specific mortality exhibit two striking characteristics: survivorship curves that intersect near the longevity limit; and, the clustering of best-fitting Weibull shape parameter values into groups centered on integers. Correspondingly, we have hypothesized that the distribution intersections result from either competitive processes or population partitioning and the integral clustering in the shape parameter results from the occurrence of a small number of rare, rate-limiting events in disease progression. In this report we initiate a theoretical examination of these questions by exploring serial chain model dynamics and parameteric competing risks theory. The links in our chain models are composed of more than one bond, where the number of bonds in a link are denoted the link size and are the number of events necessary to break the link and, hence, the chain. We explored chains with all links of the same size or with segments of the chain composed of different size links (competition). Simulations showed that chain breakage dynamics depended on the weakest-link principle and followed kinetics of extreme-values which were very similar to human mortality kinetics. In particular, failure distributions for simple chains were Weibull-type extreme-value distributions with shape parameter values that were identifiable with the integral link size in the limit of infinite chain length. Furthermore, for chains composed of several segments of differing link size, the survival distributions for the various segments converged at a point in the S(t) tails indistinguishable from human data. This was also predicted by parameteric competing risks theory using Weibull underlying distributions. In both the competitive chain simulations and the parametric competing risks theory, however, the shape values for the intersecting distributions deviated from the integer values typical of human data. We conclude that rare events can be the source of

  6. Parents about disciplining their children

    Zakrajšek, Ines

    2012-01-01

    The main topic of this undergraduate dissertation is the disciplining of children in the family. The theoretical part provides deliberations on contemporary upbringing, definitions of different upbringing styles and the presentation of effects of particular upbringing styles on the development of a child. If just a couple of decades ago the authoritarian or the repressive upbringing style with the focus on an obedient individual was predominant, experts today warn about the expansion of anoth...

  7. Theory of isotope scanning; Theorie de l'Exploration par les Radioisotopes; Teoriya meditsinskikh issledovanij s primeneniem izotopov; Teoria de la exploracion mediante radioisotopos

    Brownell, G L [Physics Research Laboratory, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    1959-07-01

    The visualization of isotope distributions is an important aspect of the medical use of radioisotopes. The sensitivity patterns of various collimating systems are compared and their efficiency and resolution calculated. The collimating systems considered consist of cylindrical and tapered apertures, focusing collimators, and coincidence detection of annihilation radiation. A general theory is derived to give the optimum isotope concentration for each of the systems. A similar theory is derived to cover the scintillation camera and a comparison is made of the optimum isotope concentration of this device in relation to scanning methods. A modification of the camera concept for use with annihilation radiation is discussed. Various recording systems are compared as to efficiency and information presentation. (author) [French] La representation visuelle de la repartition des isotopes est un aspect important de l'utilisation des radioisotopes en medecine. L'auteur compare les types de sensibilite de divers systemes de collimation et calcule leur efficacite et leur pouvoir de resolution. Les systemes consideres se composent d'orifices cylindriques ou coniques, de collimateurs a focalisation et des dispositifs permettant de detecter par coincidences les rayonnements d'annihilation. Il en tire une theorie generale en vue de donner la concentration optimum d'isotopes pour chacun de ces systemes. L'auteur expose une theorie analogue pour la chambre a scintillations et procede a une comparaison de la concentration optimum d'isotopes dans le cas de cet appareil, par rapport aux resultats obtenus au moyen des methodes d'exploration. Il etudie la possibilite de modifier le principe de la chambre pour l'appliquer a la detection des rayonnements d'annihilation. Il compare divers systemes d'enregistrement du point de vue de leur efficacite et de la presentation des renseignements. (author) [Spanish] La representacion visual de la distribucion de los isotopos constituye un importante

  8. Communication in the Disciplines: Interpersonal Communication in Dietetics

    Vrchota, Denise

    2011-01-01

    This study proposes to expand the scope of oral communication across the curriculum research by exploring oral genres in a dietetics curriculum from the perspective of the dietetics faculty. The goals of this qualitative study, couched within the communication in the disciplines framework, are to identify the oral genres integral to the study and…

  9. Is Outdoor Education a Discipline? Provocations and Possibilities

    Dyment, Janet E.; Potter, Tom G.

    2015-01-01

    Outdoor education is often undervalued. As such, we believe there is merit in critiquing the field and focusing more attention on its value and importance. This paper seeks to offer a critical exploration of "if" and "how" outdoor education is a discipline. The paper begins with a brief overview of the literature that seeks to…

  10. A Comparison of Student Academic Motivations across Three Course Disciplines

    Maurer, Trent W.; Allen, Deborah; Gatch, Delena Bell; Shankar, Padmini; Sturges, Diana

    2013-01-01

    Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations of undergraduate students enrolled in human anatomy and physiology, physics, and nutrition courses were explored with course discipline-specific adapted versions of the Academic Motivation Scale. Information on students' study habits and efforts, and final course grades were also collected. Results revealed the…

  11. Faculty Research Productivity in Hong Kong across Academic Discipline

    Jung, Jisun

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the research productivity of Hong Kong academics. Specifically, it explores the individual and institutional factors that contribute to their productivity while also comparing determinants across academic disciplines. We have conducted OLS regression analysis using the international survey data from "The Changing Academics…

  12. Clinical caring science as a scientific discipline.

    Rehnsfeldt, Arne; Arman, Maria; Lindström, Unni Å

    2017-09-01

    Clinical caring science will be described from a theory of science perspective. The aim of this theoretical article to give a comprehensive overview of clinical caring science as a human science-based discipline grounded in a theory of science argumentation. Clinical caring science seeks idiographic or specific variations of the ontology, concepts and theories, formulated by caring science. The rationale is the insight that the research questions do not change when they are addressed in different contexts. The academic subject contains a concept order with ethos concepts, core and basic concepts and practice concepts that unites systematic caring science with clinical caring science. In accordance with a hermeneutic tradition, the idea of the caring act is based on the degree to which the theory base is hermeneutically appropriated by the caregiver. The better the ethos, essential concepts and theories are understood, the better the caring act can be understood. In order to understand the concept order related to clinical caring science, an example is given from an ongoing project in a disaster context. The concept order is an appropriate way of making sense of the essence of clinical caring science. The idea of the concept order is that concepts on all levels need to be united with each other. A research project in clinical caring science can start anywhere on the concept order, either in ethos, core concepts, basic concepts, practice concepts or in concrete clinical phenomena, as long as no parts are locked out of the concept order as an entity. If, for example, research on patient participation as a phenomenon is not related to core and basic concepts, there is a risqué that the research becomes meaningless. © 2016 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  13. Exploring the Impact of Commuter’s Residential Location Choice on the Design of a Rail Transit Line Based on Prospect Theory

    Ding Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the impact of prospect theory based commuter’s residential location choice on the design problem of a rail transit line located in a monocentric city. A closed-form social welfare maximization model is proposed, with special consideration given to prospect theory based commuter’s residential location choice over years. Commuters are assumed to make residential location choice by a trade-off between daily housing rent and generalized travel cost to minimize their prospect values. The solutions properties of the proposed model are explored and compared analytically. It is found that overestimation exists for the optimal solutions of rail line length, headway, and fare based on traditional utility theory, compared with the optimal solutions of the proposed prospect theory based model. A numerical example is given to illustrate the properties of the proposed model.

  14. Looking Back, Moving Forward: Technical, Normative, and Political Dimensions of School Discipline

    Wiley, Kathryn E.; Anyon, Yolanda; Yang, Jessica L.; Pauline, Malina E.; Rosch, Alyssa; Valladares, Giovana; Downing, Barbara J.; Pisciotta, Lisa

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: School discipline reformers have presumed that such work is largely a technical task, emphasizing discrete changes to discipline policies and protocols. Yet prior theory and research suggest that emphasizing technical changes may overlook additional and important aspects of reform, namely, the normative and political dimensions within…

  15. The Discipline Gap: Teachers' Views on the Over-Representation of African American Students in the Discipline System

    Gregory, Anne; Mosely, Pharmicia M.

    2004-01-01

    While the achievement gap between African American students and white and Asian students is discussed widely in the media (e.g. Schemo, 2003), the gap in discipline between African Americans and these groups has gained much less attention. Few studies have explored teacher processes that affect the over-representation of African American students…

  16. The Dojang: School of Discipline and Morality

    Gonzalo Ariel Millán

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Martial arts can be defined as history in motion. Few sport activities of international fame represent a complex symbolic and practical repertory of ethic morality and aesthetic sensuality so distinctive of a nation as the Korean martial disciplines do, especially taekwondo and gumdo. Similar to other combat sports the martial arts gym (dojang is the place where values are produced and reproduced and where the appropriation of skills, cognition and recognition – degrees, certificates, and so on – that legitimates the social and bodily devotion of an individual to a martial art takes place. This article aims to transmit the emotions generated in a neophyte by the practice of a martial art and the social and kinaesthetic strains that result from this action in modern Korean society. It also explores some of the historical factors linked to its development and rapid expansion, in barely half a century.

  17. Discipline in chaos: Foucault, dementia and aging in India.

    Brijnath, Bianca; Manderson, Lenore

    2008-12-01

    In India, care work for people in late-stage dementia is primarily conducted in the home. Using source material from urban India and drawing on Foucauldian theory, we illustrate the significance of three power/knowledge scripts in this context: social and cultural notions of acceptable, public bodies; medicalized forms of care; and the cultural contexts of the individual caregivers. The caregiver is the embodiment of these discourses and is charged with the task of mapping discipline onto inherently undisciplinable bodies. A tension exists between the caregiver's struggle to contain the unruliness of the person with dementia and, simultaneously, to act as a broker between the world of the care-recipient and the social world. We conclude that although the caregiver is the starting point for the exercise of discipline, the three power/knowledge scripts that inform care work are as much about surveying, routinizing and mobilizing caregivers' bodies as they are about disciplining the bodies of people with dementia.

  18. Nanoclusters a bridge across disciplines

    Jena, Purusottam

    2010-01-01

    This comprehensive book on Nanoclusters comprises sixteen authoritative chapters written by leading researchers in the field. It provides insight into topics that are currently at the cutting edge of cluster science, with the main focus on metal and metal compound systems that are of particular interest in materials science, and also on aspects related to biology and medicine. While there are numerous books on clusters, the focus on clusters as a bridge across disciplines sets this book apart from others. Delivers cutting edge coverage of cluster science Covers a broad range of topics in

  19. [At the limits of discipline].

    Kadi, Barbara U; Ruhs, August; Löffler-Stastka, Henriette

    2012-01-01

    According to Foucault, in medicine, the paradigm of discipline has outweighed the paradigm of sovereignty for over a hundred years now. It has become clear, however, that within the field of psychiatry, particularly in psychoanalytic and psychotherapeutic research, an interchangeable corpus of knowledge is not sufficient for the treatment of patients. Moreover, it is often the changing relationship between doctor and patient which seems to be crucial to the process and outcome of the treatment. Every treatment-relationship must be understood as a zone of transference. Psychoanalytic research on transference, its potential and pitfalls, therefore, has to be more integrated into the research of psychic disorders.

  20. Disciplining Disability under Danish Active Labour Market Policy

    Møller, Marie Østergaard; Stone, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    This article explores how caseworkers are re-constructing disability in the Danish welfare system and disciplining themselves and clients according to the active labour policy paradigm. Combining Foucault’s ideas about discipline with Maynard-Moody and Musheno’s method of interpreting street...... administer social welfare and sick leave benefits based on disability as the primary eligibility criterion. We selected stories told by caseworkers that exemplify archetypes of good and bad citizens, good and bad clients, and good and bad caseworkers. Through interpretative analysis, we elucidate how...

  1. Discipline and Punishment: What is the Difference?

    Telep, Valya Goodwin, 1955-

    2009-01-01

    This series of lessons was prepared for parents like you - parents who want to do a better job of disciplining their children. The lessons were especially written for parents of preschool children, ages two to six, but some of the discipline methods are appropriate for older children, too. This lesson focuses on the difference between discipline and punishment.

  2. Discipline in the Classroom. Revised Edition.

    National Education Association, Washington, DC.

    The articles in this booklet reflect a broad spectrum in their approach to discipline and the teaching process. Even though discipline is now called classroom control, these articles indicate that some educators question the desirability of precise prescription in the classroom. Running through the articles is a common thread: discipline is less…

  3. Perspectives on Parent Discipline and Child Outcomes

    Grusec, Joan E.; Danyliuk, Tanya; Kil, Hali; O'Neill, David

    2017-01-01

    Effective discipline involves the use of negative consequences, including reasoning as well as modest levels of power assertion, to discourage unacceptable behavior. A brief history of changing views of discipline is presented and recent positions outlined. Successful discipline requires the imposition of clear and consistent rules, autonomy…

  4. Editorial of the Special Issue on Human-Technology Interaction and Technology Adoption: Exploring Frameworks other than Actor-Network Theory

    Tanev, Stoyan

    2014-01-01

    Actor-network theory (ANT) has established itself as a valuable resource for the analysis of technology innovation and adoption. One of the main reasons for the success of the Innovation Translation Model (a specific instantiation of ANT) is the fact that it fits very well the emerging dominance...... challenges. This is why in this special issue we have focused on exploring, in parallel to ANT, other approaches that have also proven valuable in studying technology adoption and human-technology interaction. Some of these approaches share significant common ground with ANT. They also diverge in some......, Design in-use, Practice theory, Innovation diffusion, Consumer innovativeness and Activity theory....

  5. Exploring the use of grounded theory as a methodological approach to examine the 'black box' of network leadership in the national quality forum.

    Hoflund, A Bryce

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes how grounded theory was used to investigate the "black box" of network leadership in the creation of the National Quality Forum. Scholars are beginning to recognize the importance of network organizations and are in the embryonic stages of collecting and analyzing data about network leadership processes. Grounded theory, with its focus on deriving theory from empirical data, offers researchers a distinctive way of studying little-known phenomena and is therefore well suited to exploring network leadership processes. Specifically, this paper provides an overview of grounded theory, a discussion of the appropriateness of grounded theory to investigating network phenomena, a description of how the research was conducted, and a discussion of the limitations and lessons learned from using this approach.

  6. Geriatric Cardiology: An Emerging Discipline.

    Dodson, John A; Matlock, Daniel D; Forman, Daniel E

    2016-09-01

    Given changing demographics, patients with cardiovascular (CV) disease in developed countries are now older and more complex than even a decade ago. This trend is expected to continue into the foreseeable future; accordingly, cardiologists are encountering patients with a greater number of comorbid illnesses as well as "geriatric conditions," such as cognitive impairment and frailty, which complicate management and influence outcomes. Simultaneously, technological advances have widened the therapeutic options available for patients, including those with the most advanced CV disease. In the setting of these changes, geriatric cardiology has recently emerged as a discipline that aims to adapt principles from geriatric medicine to everyday cardiology practice. Accordingly, the tasks of a "geriatric cardiologist" may include both traditional evidence-based CV management plus comprehensive geriatric assessment, medication reduction, team-based coordination of care, and explicit incorporation of patient goals into management. Given that the field is still in its relative infancy, the training pathways and structure of clinical programs in geriatric cardiology are still being delineated. In this review, we highlight the rationale behind geriatric cardiology as a discipline, several current approaches by geriatric cardiology programs, and future directions for the field. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Using the theory of planned behavior to explore attitudes and beliefs about dietary supplements among HIV-positive Black women.

    Lino, Stephanie; Marshak, Helen Hopp; Herring, R Patti; Belliard, Juan Carlos; Hilliard, Charles; Campbell, Danielle; Montgomery, Susanne

    2014-04-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated whether the theory of planned behavior (TPB) constructs: attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control were related to intention of dietary supplements use among African-American women living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus and/or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS). A closed-ended questionnaire based on the TPB was utilized to explore the use of dietary supplements among a cohort of 153 HIV-positive African-American women. Overall, 45% of the respondents used dietary supplements to manage/control their HIV. Combined, attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control were significant predictors of intention toward dietary supplement use (69% of the variance explained, pbehavioral control (β=0.45, pBehavioral intention and proximal TPB constructs (attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control), as well as their underlying beliefs about dietary supplements use, were all found to be significantly more positive in users of dietary supplements compared to non-users (pbehavioral control are important predictors in the intention to use dietary supplements for control of HIV among African-American women. Implications from this study suggest that the TPB can be used to better identify and understand salient beliefs that surround intentions to use alternative therapies for management of disease. These beliefs can be used to develop interventions surrounding HIV treatment and care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Exploration of the affordances of mobile devices in integrating theory and clinical practice in an undergraduate nursing programme.

    Willemse, Juliana J; Bozalek, Vivienne

    2015-01-01

    Promoting the quality and effectiveness of nursing education is an important factor, given the increased demand for nursing professionals. It is important to establish learning environments that provide personalised guidance and feedback to students about their practical skills and application of their theoretical knowledge. To explore and describe the knowledge and points of view of students and educators about introduction of new technologies into an undergraduate nursing programme. The qualitative design used Tesch's (1990) steps of descriptive data analysis to complete thematic analysis of the data collected in focus group discussions (FGDs) and individual interviews to identify themes. Themes identified from the students’ FGDs and individual interviews included: mobile devices as a communication tool; email, WhatsApp and Facebook as methods of communication; WhatsApp as a method of communication; nurses as role-models in the clinical setting; setting personal boundaries; and impact of mobile devices in clinical practice on professionalism. Themes identified from the FGD, individual interviews and a discussion session held with educators included: peer learning via mobile devices; email, WhatsApp and Facebook as methods of communication; the mobile device as a positive learning method; students need practical guidance; and ethical concerns in clinical facilities about Internet access and use of mobile devices. The research project established an understanding of the knowledge and points of view of students and educators regarding introduction of new technologies into an undergraduate nursing programme with the aim of enhancing integration of theory and clinical practice through use of mobile devices.

  9. Using conflict theory to explore the role of nursing home social workers in home- and community-based service utilization.

    Fogler, Sarah

    2009-11-01

    Nursing home social work (NHSW) practitioners are central to home- and community-based service (HCBS) utilization. They assist residents with long-term care (LTC) decision-making and coordinate community-based LTC supports and services for older adults transitioning back into the community after a rehabilitative nursing home (NH) stay. As members of multiple groups, they must simultaneously balance the needs of NH residents, the NH organization, and social policies related to LTC. To date, policy research on HCBS has been atheoretical in that it has not accounted for the possible inherent conflicts that adversely affect the discharge planning practices of NHSW practitioners. This article applies the Conflict Theory to (a) explore the competing interests of the NH industry and the nation's government, (b) examine the potential effect of these competing interests on the effectiveness of NHSW discharge planning practices, and (c) present a conceptual framework to further investigate the relationship between NHSW and both individual LTC outcomes and national policy initiatives aimed at increasing HCBS utilization.

  10. Waltz's Theory of Theory

    Wæver, Ole

    2009-01-01

    -empiricism and anti-positivism of his position. Followers and critics alike have treated Waltzian neorealism as if it was at bottom a formal proposition about cause-effect relations. The extreme case of Waltz being so victorious in the discipline, and yet being consistently mis-interpreted on the question of theory......, shows the power of a dominant philosophy of science in US IR, and thus the challenge facing any ambitious theorising. The article suggests a possible movement of fronts away from the ‘fourth debate' between rationalism and reflectivism towards one of theory against empiricism. To help this new agenda...

  11. A Modified Model of College Student Persistence: Exploring the Relationship between Astin's Theory of Involvement and Tinto's Theory of Student Departure.

    Milem, Jeffrey F.; Berger, Joseph B.

    1997-01-01

    Provides insight into first-year undergraduate persistence by using behavioral measures--based on Alexander Astin's theory of involvement--to further understanding of Tinto's theory of student departure. Findings support the use of an integrated model in which student behaviors and perceptions interact to influence the development of academic and…

  12. TBCC Discipline Overview. Hypersonics Project

    Thomas, Scott R.

    2011-01-01

    The "National Aeronautics Research and Development Policy" document, issued by the National Science and Technology Council in December 2006, stated that one (among several) of the guiding objectives of the federal aeronautics research and development endeavors shall be stable and long-term foundational research efforts. Nearly concurrently, the National Academies issued a more technically focused aeronautics blueprint, entitled: the "Decadal Survey of Civil Aeronautics - Foundations for the Future." Taken together these documents outline the principles of an aeronautics maturation plan. Thus, in response to these overarching inputs (and others), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) organized the Fundamental Aeronautics Program (FAP), a program within the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD). The FAP initiated foundational research and technology development tasks to enable the capability of future vehicles that operate across a broad range of Mach numbers, inclusive of the subsonic, supersonic, and hypersonic flight regimes. The FAP Hypersonics Project concentrates on two hypersonic missions: (1) Air-breathing Access to Space (AAS) and (2) the (Planetary Atmospheric) Entry, Decent, and Landing (EDL). The AAS mission focuses on Two-Stage-To-Orbit (TSTO) systems using air-breathing combined-cycle-engine propulsion; whereas, the EDL mission focuses on the challenges associated with delivering large payloads to (and from) Mars. So, the FAP Hypersonic Project investments are aligned to achieve mastery and intellectual stewardship of the core competencies in the hypersonic-flight regime, which ultimately will be required for practical systems with highly integrated aerodynamic/vehicle and propulsion/engine technologies. Within the FAP Hypersonics, the technology management is further divided into disciplines including one targeting Turbine-Based Combine-Cycle (TBCC) propulsion. Additionally, to obtain expertise and support from outside

  13. Major Differences: Variations in Undergraduate and Graduate Student Mental Health and Treatment Utilization across Academic Disciplines

    Lipson, Sarah Ketchen; Zhou, Sasha; Wagner, Blake, III; Beck, Katie; Eisenberg, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This article explores variations in mental health and service utilization across academic disciplines using a random sample of undergraduate and graduate students (N = 64,519) at 81 colleges and universities. We report prevalence of depression, anxiety, suicidality, and self-injury, and rates of help-seeking across disciplines, including results…

  14. VARIETIES OF SOCIAL DISCIPLINING, HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES.

    Tomás A. Mantecón Movellán

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Historical thought has tended to explain social disciplining according to two main analytical perspectives: on one hand, German tradition about the so-called sozialdisziplinierung and, on the other hand, Foucault perspectives (focussed on disciplines practiced on the bodies-and/or-minds of people by the authorities. From these both viewpoints social disciplining was a dynamic ingredient of change, from traditional societies up to contemporary liberal societies; a machinery to provoke top-down changes (from above. On the bases of historical evidences, this research claims for a third viewpoint that stresses dynamics of social discipline and social disciplining from below; underlines the need of integrating this third perspective in the historical explanation of change in past societies throughout the analysis of social practices of everyday life; the values underneath them and, in the end, taking into account varieties of discipline and perspectives of social disciplining from below.

  15. Austerity, Discipline and Social Security

    Asja Hrvatin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the manifestations of the global crisis of financial capitalism and the policies arising from it was the imposition of austerity measures, which not only resulted in privatization of the commons and general expropriation of the people, but also managed to introduce new mechanisms of discipline and punishment. Debt, being the fundament of relations in society, forced itself into the system of social security: new legislation, regulating welfare benefits, has now shifted to a method for the criminalization of poverty, deepening class differences and transforming social workers (and the system of social security as a whole into a moralizing, bureaucratic machine for disciplining the population. The new legislation also shows a lack of reflection on the changes that need to be made to the welfare state in order to create social services that meet the needs and desires of individuals. Instead of improvements that provide decent living conditions and a new system of social rights (to deal with the problems resulting from precarious working conditions, people are faced with depersonalization, humiliation and increased hate speech and other fascist practices. The effect of austerity measures on the social security system does not end with the devastation of service users’ lives and their communities, which are slowly becoming exhausted, individualized and devoid of solidarity. It also means a big step backwards for the core ethics and principles of social work. Social workers are increasingly alienated from their clients and the communities they live in. They function more in the service of the government and its policies rather than as advocates of people’s rights.

  16. Implementing monitoring technologies in care homes for people with dementia: A qualitative exploration using Normalization Process Theory.

    Hall, Alex; Wilson, Christine Brown; Stanmore, Emma; Todd, Chris

    2017-07-01

    Ageing societies and a rising prevalence of dementia are associated with increasing demand for care home places. Monitoring technologies (e.g. bed-monitoring systems; wearable location-tracking devices) are appealing to care homes as they may enhance safety, increase resident freedom, and reduce staff burden. However, there are ethical concerns about the use of such technologies, and it is unclear how they might be implemented to deliver their full range of potential benefits. This study explored facilitators and barriers to the implementation of monitoring technologies in care homes. Embedded multiple-case study with qualitative methods. Three dementia-specialist care homes in North-West England. Purposive sample of 24 staff (including registered nurses, clinical specialists, senior managers and care workers), 9 relatives and 9 residents. 36 semi-structured interviews with staff, relatives and residents; 175h of observation; resident care record review. Data collection informed by Normalization Process Theory, which seeks to account for how novel interventions become routine practice. Data analysed using Framework Analysis. Findings are presented under three main themes: 1. Reasons for using technologies: The primary reason for using monitoring technologies was to enhance safety. This often seemed to override consideration of other potential benefits (e.g. increased resident freedom) or ethical concerns (e.g. resident privacy); 2. Ways in which technologies were implemented: Some staff, relatives and residents were not involved in discussions and decision-making, which seemed to limit understandings of the potential benefits and challenges from the technologies. Involvement of residents appeared particularly challenging. Staff highlighted the importance of training, but staff training appeared mainly informal which did not seem sufficient to ensure that staff fully understood the technologies; 3. Use of technologies in practice: Technologies generated frequent

  17. Exploring the health visiting service from the view of South Asian clients in England: a grounded theory study.

    Abdu, Lena; Stenner, Karen; Vydelingum, Vasso

    2016-09-01

    The fact that health inequalities disproportionately affect the minority ethnic population is not new and projections are that the minority ethnic population will continue to increase. The importance of early intervention and the key role that health visitors can play in attempting to reduce health inequalities is well documented as is the requirement for health providers to establish culturally sensitive services. To date, much of the research has focused on the perspectives of healthcare professionals caring for minority ethnic clients in hospital-based settings and little is known about the perspectives of minority ethnic clients regarding the health visiting service (HVS). The aim of this study was to explore the perspectives of South Asians regarding their experiences with the HVS. The study was conducted in a small town in the South of England between March and June 2013. A qualitative study using a grounded theory approach was used to capture the perspectives of this group regarding their interactions with the HVS. The sample consisted of 15 participants and data were collected through audio-recorded semi-structured interviews and analysed using constant comparative approach. Three key categories were identified: 'understanding the health visitor's role', 'sensitivity of services' and 'the significance of family'. While clients valued one-to-one support from health visitors, there was some evidence of poor communication and ethnocentric tendencies within the service. It was found that South Asian clients distinguish between health and parenting advice, being more likely to accept health advice from their health visitor and more likely to accept parenting advice from their family. The findings, although limited in their generalisability, offer important insights into how South Asians perceive the service and will equip health visitors with a better understanding of how best to improve the experience of South Asian clients accessing the health visiting.

  18. Exploration of the affordances of mobile devices in integrating theory and clinical practice in an undergraduate nursing programme

    Juliana J. Willemse

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Promoting the quality and effectiveness of nursing education is an important factor, given the increased demand for nursing professionals. It is important to establish learning environments that provide personalised guidance and feedback to students about their practical skills and application of their theoretical knowledge. Objective: To explore and describe the knowledge and points of view of students and educators about introduction of new technologies into an undergraduate nursing programme. Method: The qualitative design used Tesch’s (1990 steps of descriptive data analysis to complete thematic analysis of the data collected in focus group discussions (FGDs andindividual interviews to identify themes. Results: Themes identified from the students’ FGDs and individual interviews included:mobile devices as a communication tool; email, WhatsApp and Facebook as methods of communication; WhatsApp as a method of communication; nurses as role-models in the clinical setting; setting personal boundaries; and impact of mobile devices in clinical practiceon professionalism. Themes identified from the FGD, individual interviews and a discussion session held with educators included: peer learning via mobile devices; email, WhatsApp and Facebook as methods of communication; the mobile device as a positive learning method; students need practical guidance; and ethical concerns in clinical facilities about Internet access and use of mobile devices. Conclusion: The research project established an understanding of the knowledge and points of view of students and educators regarding introduction of new technologies into an undergraduate nursing programme with the aim of enhancing integration of theory and clinical practice through use of mobile devices.

  19. Group Dynamics as a Critical Component of Successful Space Exploration: Conceptual Theory and Insights from the Biosphere 2 Closure Experiment

    Nelson, Mark; Allen, John P.

    As space exploration and eventually habitation achieves longer durations, successfully managing group dynamics of small, physically isolated groups will become vital. The paper summarizes important underlying research and conceptual theory and how these manifested in a well-documented example: the closure experiments of Biosphere 2. Key research breakthroughs in discerning the operation of small human groups comes from the pioneering work of W.R. Bion. He discovered two competing modalities of behavior. The first is the “task-oriented” or work group governed by shared acceptance of goals, reality-thinking in relation to time, resources and rational, and intelligent management of challenges presented. The opposing, usually unconscious, modality is what Bion called the “basic-assumption” group and alternates between three “group animal” groups: dependency/kill the leader; fight/flight and pairing. If not dealt with, these dynamics work to undermine and defeat the conscious task group’s goal achievement. The paper discusses crew training and selection, various approaches to structuring the work and hierarchy of the group, the importance of contact with a larger population through electronic communication and dealing with the “us-them” syndrome frequently observed between crew and Mission Control. The experience of the first two year closure of Biosphere 2 is drawn on in new ways to illustrate vicissitudes and management of group dynamics especially as both the inside team of biospherians and key members of Mission Control had training in working with group dynamics. Insights from that experience may help mission planning so that future groups in space cope successfully with inherent group dynamics challenges that arise.

  20. The role of sovereign credit ratings in fiscal discipline

    Duygun, Meryem; Ozturk, Huseyin; Shaban, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates several aspects of the relationship between sovereign credit ratings and fiscal discipline. The analysis of over one thousand country–year observations for 93 countries during the 1999–2010 period reveals that a country’s debt level is likely to increase with higher ratings, confirming the existence of pro–cyclicality and path dependence of ratings. In addition, the study finds no evidence to support the theory of Political Business Cycle, which implies that political ...

  1. REcall Venice - Exploring disciplines of visual literacy through difficult heritage

    Tvedebrink, Tenna Doktor Olsen; Fisker, Anna Marie; Møller, Hans Ramsgaard

    2015-01-01

    According to James Elkin visual literacy is interpreted as material representations, which communicate knowledge and create insight through their visual appearance. Based on the EU Cultural Heritage project REcall, we argue that visual literacy can also relate to interdisciplinary knowledge rooted......, and archeologists question the role of architectural environments when dealing with war heritage. Today, there are still traces left from WWII in the European architectural environments, traces that by visual literacy represent unpleasant memories. However, these visual literacies have shaped our environment, yet...

  2. Exploring Discipline Differences in Student Engagement in One Institution

    Leach, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Student engagement has become increasingly important in higher education in recent years. Influenced internationally by government drivers to improve student outcomes, many countries and institutions have participated in surveys such as the National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE) and its progeny, the Australasian Survey of Student Engagement…

  3. A Systematic Review Exploring the Social Cognitive Theory of Self-Regulation as a Framework for Chronic Health Condition Interventions.

    Tougas, Michelle E; Hayden, Jill A; McGrath, Patrick J; Huguet, Anna; Rozario, Sharlene

    2015-01-01

    Theory is often recommended as a framework for guiding hypothesized mechanisms of treatment effect. However, there is limited guidance about how to use theory in intervention development. We conducted a systematic review to provide an exemplar review evaluating the extent to which use of theory is identified and incorporated within existing interventions. We searched electronic databases PubMed, PsycINFO, CENTRAL, and EMBASE from inception to May 2014. We searched clinicaltrials.gov for registered protocols, reference lists of relevant systematic reviews and included studies, and conducted a citation search in Web of Science. We included peer-reviewed publications of interventions that referenced the social cognitive theory of self-regulation as a framework for interventions to manage chronic health conditions. Two reviewers independently assessed articles for eligibility. We contacted all authors of included studies for information detailing intervention content. We describe how often theory mechanisms were addressed by interventions, and report intervention characteristics used to address theory. Of 202 articles that reported using the social cognitive theory of self-regulation, 52% failed to incorporate self-monitoring, a main theory component, and were therefore excluded. We included 35 interventions that adequately used the theory framework. Intervention characteristics were often poorly reported in peer-reviewed publications, 21 of 35 interventions incorporated characteristics that addressed each of the main theory components. Each intervention addressed, on average, six of eight self-monitoring mechanisms, two of five self-judgement mechanisms, and one of three self-evaluation mechanisms. The self-monitoring mechanisms 'Feedback' and 'Consistency' were addressed by all interventions, whereas the self-evaluation mechanisms 'Self-incentives' and 'External rewards' were addressed by six and four interventions, respectively. The present review establishes that

  4. Distinctive research patterns on public sector performance measurement of public administration and accounting disciplines

    van Helden, G. Jan; Johnsen, Age; Vakkuri, Jarmo

    2008-01-01

    This article explores distinctive research patterns of public administration and accounting disciplines concerning public sector performance measurement (PSPM). Our review shows that accounting researchers from Europe investigate reasons for limited PM use and factors explaining a rational or

  5. On the Nature of Applied Linguistics: Theory and Practice Relationships from a Critical Perspective

    Sánchez, William

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the relationships between Applied Linguistics and other related disciplines concerning language use and language teaching issues. It seeks to trace the changes in the view of the relationship between theory and practice in Applied Linguistics, to explain the reason for those changes, and to discuss the implications for…

  6. Optometry: a discipline of knowledge

    Kedzia, Boleslaw

    1998-10-01

    Optometry is a branch of science whose roots are in optics development as well as in physiology development. Among Polish scholars, whose names are firmly engraved in the history of optometry, two names should be mentioned first, they are Witelo (1237 - 1290) and Majer (1808 - 1899). Contemporary optometry began around the turn of the 19th and 20th century in the United States of America where some states erected legal regulations for those opticians who were performing refractions. Since 1993 optometry has been defined by the World Council of Optometry as a health care profession which is autonomous, educated and regulated (licensed/registered). Nevertheless, the question arises: Is optometry a separate part of science or is it only a set of practical procedures useful in vision care? In other words: does optometry have a system of definitions, laws and hypothesis with such logical interrelations that all less general statements may be derived from the most general? Even at this moment the system is not fully developed, yet we can say that optometry is a set of statements important and enough proved to be taught at the university level, being a category by itself and being sufficiently rich to be a subject for teaching as separate discipline.

  7. Learner discipline: An Australian perspective

    D. Stewart

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Australian schools by and large are safe schools. Nonetheless discipline problems do exist – including bullying behaviour. For this kind of problem schools should have management policies in place. As traditional behaviour-management practices – including corporal punishment – are largely prohibited in Australian schools, contemporary practices centre on management through supportive school programmes, including appropriate curricula and school-support structures. This article supports the belief that measures such as the exclusion of misbehaving learners should be treated with caution. Measures such as this might not reflect accepted international principles and practices and should only be exercised in the most extreme circumstances. The article also supports the view that it is part of the school’s role to ensure that all learners are aware of the reality that while they have rights, they also have corresponding responsibilities. This awareness is more likely to be achieved in a supportive school culture where each learner is recognised as having unique qualities that can mature and grow in an appropriate learning environment.

  8. The science of computing shaping a discipline

    Tedre, Matti

    2014-01-01

    The identity of computing has been fiercely debated throughout its short history. Why is it still so hard to define computing as an academic discipline? Is computing a scientific, mathematical, or engineering discipline? By describing the mathematical, engineering, and scientific traditions of computing, The Science of Computing: Shaping a Discipline presents a rich picture of computing from the viewpoints of the field's champions. The book helps readers understand the debates about computing as a discipline. It explains the context of computing's central debates and portrays a broad perspecti

  9. Contemplating Whitehead's Freedom and Discipline

    Jones, Colin

    2007-01-01

    This paper extends the previous application of Alfred Whitehead's educational ideas to the domain of enterprise education. In doing so, a unique approach to enterprise education is illustrated that links students to their reality whilst also connecting the curriculum to contemporary entrepreneurship theory. The paper reports upon past cycles of…

  10. Exploring the feasibility of theory synthesis: a worked example in the field of health related risk-taking.

    Pound, Pandora; Campbell, Rona

    2015-01-01

    The idea of synthesising theory is receiving attention within public health as part of a drive to design theoretically informed interventions. Theory synthesis is not a new idea, however, having been debated by sociologists for several decades. We consider the various methodological approaches to theory synthesis and test the feasibility of one such approach by synthesising a small number of sociological theories relevant to health related risk-taking. The synthesis consisted of three stages: (i) synthesis preparation, wherein parts of relevant theories were extracted and summarised; (ii) synthesis which involved comparing theories for points of convergence and divergence and bringing together those points that converge; and (iii) synthesis refinement whereby the synthesis was interrogated for further theoretical insights. Our synthesis suggests that serious and sustained risk-taking is associated with social isolation, liminality and a person's position in relation to the dominant social group. We reflect upon the methodological and philosophical issues raised by the practice of theory synthesis, concluding that it has the potential to reinvigorate theory and make it more robust and accessible for practical application. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Workplace Bullying in Academe: A Grounded Theory Study Exploring How Faculty Cope with the Experience of Being Bullied

    Wilkin, La Vena

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study used a grounded theory methodology to generate a theory about how targets of workplace bullying in academe may begin to heal from the aftermath of their ill-treatment. The emphasis was on understanding the experiences of university faculty members who had been targets of workplace bullying. A key factor in this study was to…

  12. Is International Relations still an American social science discipline in Latin America?

    Rafael A. Duarte Villa

    Full Text Available Abstract Over the last 40 years, investigations have shown the discipline of International Relations to reproduce the American influence on its methods, paradigms, and institutional dynamics. This article explores the case for the Latin American community, based on the survey data from the Teaching, Research, and International Politics project (TRIP 2014 developed by the Institute for the Theory and Practice of International Relations of the College of William and Mary, Virginia (USA. TRIP evaluated International Relations communities in 32 countries around the world. The article aims to answer two main questions: (i is American influence still dominant over epistemological, methodological, paradigmatic, and institutional representative terms in Latin American International Relations communities, as has been considered in the past? (ii Is there in the region any contestation to this supposed influence? Primarily, the present article shows an affirmative answer for the first issue. Therefore, and most importantly, the data analysis shows upcoming local pressures rooted in American influence, especially on its epistemic and paradigmatic terms. The data strengthens the miscegenation tendency on its epistemological and paradigmatic aspects, which underlines a lack of consensus over the structure of American dominance over the discipline of International Relations in Latin America, especially if one observes the most numerous and structured group in the region: the Brazilian International Relations community.

  13. Number theory and the periodicity of matter

    Boeyens, Jan C A

    2008-01-01

    Presents a fully scientific account of the use of the golden ratio and explores the observation that stable nucleides obey a number theory based general lawThe interest in number theory is worldwide and covers the entire spectrum of human knowledge. Those aspects covered here will not be immediately accessible to the general lay readership, but, scientists of all pursuations immediately appreciate the importance of the applications described hereThe well-known interest of engineers, medical practitioners and information technologists in popular scientific matters, should make this an attractive buy for such individuals. Undergraduate students in these disciplines should be equally interested.

  14. Information Design Theories

    Pettersson, Rune

    2014-01-01

    Information design has practical and theoretical components. As an academic discipline we may view information design as a combined discipline, a practical theory, or as a theoretical practice. So far information design has incorporated facts, influences, methods, practices, principles, processes, strategies, and tools from a large number of…

  15. A Systematic Review Exploring the Social Cognitive Theory of Self-Regulation as a Framework for Chronic Health Condition Interventions.

    Michelle E Tougas

    Full Text Available Theory is often recommended as a framework for guiding hypothesized mechanisms of treatment effect. However, there is limited guidance about how to use theory in intervention development.We conducted a systematic review to provide an exemplar review evaluating the extent to which use of theory is identified and incorporated within existing interventions. We searched electronic databases PubMed, PsycINFO, CENTRAL, and EMBASE from inception to May 2014. We searched clinicaltrials.gov for registered protocols, reference lists of relevant systematic reviews and included studies, and conducted a citation search in Web of Science. We included peer-reviewed publications of interventions that referenced the social cognitive theory of self-regulation as a framework for interventions to manage chronic health conditions. Two reviewers independently assessed articles for eligibility. We contacted all authors of included studies for information detailing intervention content. We describe how often theory mechanisms were addressed by interventions, and report intervention characteristics used to address theory.Of 202 articles that reported using the social cognitive theory of self-regulation, 52% failed to incorporate self-monitoring, a main theory component, and were therefore excluded. We included 35 interventions that adequately used the theory framework. Intervention characteristics were often poorly reported in peer-reviewed publications, 21 of 35 interventions incorporated characteristics that addressed each of the main theory components. Each intervention addressed, on average, six of eight self-monitoring mechanisms, two of five self-judgement mechanisms, and one of three self-evaluation mechanisms. The self-monitoring mechanisms 'Feedback' and 'Consistency' were addressed by all interventions, whereas the self-evaluation mechanisms 'Self-incentives' and 'External rewards' were addressed by six and four interventions, respectively. The present review

  16. Exploring ‘generative mechanisms’ of the antiretroviral adherence club intervention using the realist approach: a scoping review of research-based antiretroviral treatment adherence theories

    Ferdinand C. Mukumbang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor retention in care and non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART continue to undermine the success of HIV treatment and care programmes across the world. There is a growing recognition that multifaceted interventions – application of two or more adherence-enhancing strategies – may be useful to improve ART adherence and retention in care among people living with HIV/AIDS. Empirical evidence shows that multifaceted interventions produce better results than interventions based on a singular perspective. Nevertheless, the bundle of mechanisms by which multifaceted interventions promote ART adherence are poorly understood. In this paper, we reviewed theories on ART adherence to identify candidate/potential mechanisms by which the adherence club intervention works. Methods We searched five electronic databases (PubMed, EBSCOhost, CINAHL, PsycARTICLES and Google Scholar using Medical Subject Headings (MeSH terms. A manual search of citations from the reference list of the studies identified from the electronic databases was also done. Twenty-six articles that adopted a theory-guided inquiry of antiretroviral adherence behaviour were included for the review. Eleven cognitive and behavioural theories underpinning these studies were explored. We examined each theory for possible ‘generative causality’ using the realist evaluation heuristic (Context-Mechanism-Outcome configuration, then, we selected candidate mechanisms thematically. Results We identified three major sets of theories: Information-Motivation-Behaviour, Social Action Theory and Health Behaviour Model, which explain ART adherence. Although they show potential in explaining adherence bebahiours, they fall short in explaining exactly why and how the various elements they outline combine to explain positive or negative outcomes. Candidate mechanisms indentified were motivation, self-efficacy, perceived social support, empowerment, perceived threat, perceived

  17. Exploring 'generative mechanisms' of the antiretroviral adherence club intervention using the realist approach: a scoping review of research-based antiretroviral treatment adherence theories.

    Mukumbang, Ferdinand C; Van Belle, Sara; Marchal, Bruno; van Wyk, Brian

    2017-05-04

    Poor retention in care and non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) continue to undermine the success of HIV treatment and care programmes across the world. There is a growing recognition that multifaceted interventions - application of two or more adherence-enhancing strategies - may be useful to improve ART adherence and retention in care among people living with HIV/AIDS. Empirical evidence shows that multifaceted interventions produce better results than interventions based on a singular perspective. Nevertheless, the bundle of mechanisms by which multifaceted interventions promote ART adherence are poorly understood. In this paper, we reviewed theories on ART adherence to identify candidate/potential mechanisms by which the adherence club intervention works. We searched five electronic databases (PubMed, EBSCOhost, CINAHL, PsycARTICLES and Google Scholar) using Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms. A manual search of citations from the reference list of the studies identified from the electronic databases was also done. Twenty-six articles that adopted a theory-guided inquiry of antiretroviral adherence behaviour were included for the review. Eleven cognitive and behavioural theories underpinning these studies were explored. We examined each theory for possible 'generative causality' using the realist evaluation heuristic (Context-Mechanism-Outcome) configuration, then, we selected candidate mechanisms thematically. We identified three major sets of theories: Information-Motivation-Behaviour, Social Action Theory and Health Behaviour Model, which explain ART adherence. Although they show potential in explaining adherence bebahiours, they fall short in explaining exactly why and how the various elements they outline combine to explain positive or negative outcomes. Candidate mechanisms indentified were motivation, self-efficacy, perceived social support, empowerment, perceived threat, perceived benefits and perceived barriers. Although these candidate

  18. Linking scientific disciplines: Hydrology and social sciences

    Seidl, R.; Barthel, R.

    2017-07-01

    The integration of interdisciplinary scientific and societal knowledge plays an increasing role in sustainability science and more generally, in global change research. In the field of water resources, interdisciplinarity has long been recognized as crucial. Recently, new concepts and ideas about how to approach water resources management more holistically have been discussed. The emergence of concepts such as socio-hydrology indicates the growing relevance of connections between social and hydrological disciplines. In this paper, we determine how well social sciences are integrated with hydrological research by using two approaches. First, we conducted a questionnaire survey with a sample of hydrology researchers and professionals (N = 353) to explore current opinions and developments related to interdisciplinary collaboration between hydrologists and social scientists. Second, we analyzed the disciplinary composition of author teams and the reference lists of articles pertaining to the socio-hydrology concept. We conclude that interdisciplinarity in water resources research is on a promising track but may need to mature further in terms of its aims and methods of integration. We find that current literature pays little attention to the following questions: What kind of interdisciplinarity do different scholars want? What are social scientists' preferred roles and knowledge from a hydrology perspective?

  19. The emergent discipline of health web science.

    Luciano, Joanne S; Cumming, Grant P; Wilkinson, Mark D; Kahana, Eva

    2013-08-22

    The transformative power of the Internet on all aspects of daily life, including health care, has been widely recognized both in the scientific literature and in public discourse. Viewed through the various lenses of diverse academic disciplines, these transformations reveal opportunities realized, the promise of future advances, and even potential problems created by the penetration of the World Wide Web for both individuals and for society at large. Discussions about the clinical and health research implications of the widespread adoption of information technologies, including the Internet, have been subsumed under the disciplinary label of Medicine 2.0. More recently, however, multi-disciplinary research has emerged that is focused on the achievement and promise of the Web itself, as it relates to healthcare issues. In this paper, we explore and interrogate the contributions of the burgeoning field of Web Science in relation to health maintenance, health care, and health policy. From this, we introduce Health Web Science as a subdiscipline of Web Science, distinct from but overlapping with Medicine 2.0. This paper builds on the presentations and subsequent interdisciplinary dialogue that developed among Web-oriented investigators present at the 2012 Medicine 2.0 Conference in Boston, Massachusetts.

  20. An Exploration of Social Networking Sites (SNS) Adoption in Malaysia Using Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) And Intrinsic Motivation

    Goh Say Leng; Suddin Lada; Mohd Zulkifli Muhammad; Ag Asri Hj Ag Ibrahim; Tamrin Amboala

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to explore the factors that encourage students to adopt social network sites (SNS) in Malaysia and to use the study’s findings to develop guidelines for SNS providers on how to maximize the rate of adoption. A conceptual model of Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) and intrinsic motivation is proposed and empirically tested in the context of SNS usage. Structural Equation modelling was used on the survey data from 283 university s...

  1. 'We know them, but we don't know them': a grounded theory approach to exploring host students' perspectives on intercultural contact in an Irish university

    Dunne, Ciaran

    2008-01-01

    This study is concerned with intercultural relations among students in an Irish university. Specifically, the study explores host culture students’ perceptions of cultural difference within the student body and their experiences of intercultural contact on campus, including the factors which inform such contact. Using a grounded theory approach, 24 in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 2nd year undergraduate students from three courses. The data were rigorously analysed thro...

  2. The Law of Student Discipline in Malaysia

    Hee, Tie Fatt

    2008-01-01

    Judicial review of decisions on student discipline is limited in Malaysia. This arises because of the general presumption that in the enforcement of school discipline, educators are able to act in the best interest of the student to maintain a safe learning environment. This article examines the range of disciplinary measures in Malaysian schools…

  3. Disciplines in the Service of Educational Thought.

    Winchester, Ian

    1999-01-01

    Suggests that the 20th century has been the century of the application of disciplines - philosophy, psychology, history, sociology, statistics, cognitive science, and computer science - to educational thought on an unprecedented scale. The same disciplines, in the service of the study of women by women, have led to a whole new complex of thought…

  4. Reading and Quality Discipline in the Classroom.

    Ediger, Marlow

    Time spent on disciplining children in the classroom is time taken away from achieving the objectives of instruction. The classroom teacher needs to have appropriate guidelines to use in teaching as well as specific workable procedures which help students to achieve. This paper discusses various methods of classroom discipline. The paper first…

  5. Social Science Disciplines. Fundamental for Curriculum Development.

    McLendon, Johathan C., Ed.

    This guide is written for the social studies curriculum developer interested in developing a structured multidisciplinary program based on the concepts, methodology, and structure of social science disciplines and history. Seven 15-29 page chapters are included on each discipline: Anthropology and Psychology, by Charles R. Berryman; Economics, by…

  6. Producing "Docile Bodies": Disciplining Citizen-Subjects

    Stewart, Dafina-Lazarus

    2017-01-01

    The US academy has been anti-democratic in philosophy and practice from its inception, seeking to discipline students as docile bodies cooperative with a white supremacist status quo. This Foucauldian analysis highlights how the academy's historical and ongoing enforcement of discipline and normalizing judgments made the outcome of the 2016 US…

  7. Effective Discipline in the Home and School.

    Painter, Genevieve; Corsini, Raymond J.

    Based originally on the work of the Austrian psychiatrist, Alfred Adler, work which was further developed by Rudolph Dreikurs, this book Dreikurs, this book offers solutions to specific child discipline problems. Part I focuses on effective discipline in the home. These topics are covered: fundamentals of practical parenting; problems of routine…

  8. School Discipline, School Uniforms and Academic Performance

    Baumann, Chris; Krskova, Hana

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of school discipline in achieving academic performance. The study aims to clarify the role of permissive "vis-à-vis" authoritative teaching styles with an overarching hypothesis that better discipline leads to better academic performance. The authors also probe whether uniformed…

  9. Are Students' Learning Styles Discipline Specific?

    Jones, Cheryl; Reichard, Carla; Mokhtari, Kouider

    2003-01-01

    This study examines the extent to which community college students' learning style preferences vary as a function of discipline. Reports significant differences in students' learning style preferences across disciplines, but not by gender. Adds that student learning style preferences varied by academic performance as measured by gender. Discusses…

  10. Procedural Due Process Rights in Student Discipline.

    Pressman, Robert; Weinstein, Susan

    To assist administrators in understanding procedural due process rights in student discipline, this manual draws together hundreds of citations and case summaries of federal and state court decisions and provides detailed commentary as well. Chapter 1 outlines the general principles of procedural due process rights in student discipline, such as…

  11. The discipline of improvement: something old, something new?

    Clarke, Charlotte L; Reed, Jan; Wainwright, David; McClelland, Siobhan; Swallow, Veronica; Harden, Jane; Walton, Graham; Walsh, Anna

    2004-03-01

    In response to calls to improve the efficacy of health care services, there is an increasing focus on the processes of achieving a continuous improvement of services and practices. One specific response is that of the NHS Modernization Agency and National Health Service University in relation to the Discipline of Improvement in Health and Social Care. This paper draws on a study that explored the underpinning knowledge base of the Discipline of Improvement and focuses on describing the framework that was developed. The two-dimensional framework is composed of five primary categories, which cross-link to 11 competencies. The study concludes that the Discipline of Improvement draws together a group of ideas that together cohere to form a distinctive model to aid the improvement of health care. While some of these ideas are well-established, the way in which the Discipline of Improvement makes connections between them offers something new to our understanding of change in the complex world of health care provision, and to nursing management.

  12. [Career exploration as related to self-efficacy and the motivation based on self-determination theory].

    Yoshizaki, Satoko; Hiraoka, Kyoichi

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the multivariate relations between career exploration and its predictors. University sophomores and seniors completed a questionnaire about career exploration, career decision-making self-efficacy, career decision-making outcome expectations, and career motivation. Canonical correlation analysis showed that combining all predictors, i.e., career decision-making self-efficacy, career decision-making outcome expectations, and career motivations, accounted for a large portion of the career exploration variance. Of subfactors of career motivation, only "integrated and identified regulation" was significantly related to career exploration. This result suggests that career exploration is predicted by self-efficacy as well as a highly self-determinated extrinsic motivation.

  13. Ordering the discipline: classification in the history of science. Introduction.

    Weldon, Stephen P

    2013-09-01

    Classification of the history of science has a long history, and the essays in this Focus section explore that history and its consequences from several different angles. Two of the papers deal with how classifying schemes in bibliography have evolved. A third looks at the way archival organization has changed over the years. Finally, the last essay explores the intersection of human and machine classifying systems. All four contributions look closely at the ramifications of the digital revolution for the way we organize the knowledge of the discipline.

  14. Reconsidering punitive and harsh discipline.

    Mohr, Wanda K; Anderson, Jeffrey A

    2002-12-01

    Corporal punishment and other harsh interventions continue to be widespread despite the fact that the leading theories or models of behavioral management do not support their effectiveness. There is overwhelming evidence that harsh interventions are damaging to children, both emotionally and physically. The effects of such trauma may be compounded when a child has preexisting learning difficulties. When schools respond to these challenges using harsh methods, children can be further traumatized. The authors review principles of childhood neurodevelopment, describe a model to understand children in context, and discuss how exposure to certain noxious sensory experiences can affect children's responses to threat or perceived threat. They also describe implications for school nurses.

  15. Operational Research: A multidisciplinary discipline

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2005-01-01

    This paper is focusing on the following question: What is Operational Research (OR)? We will show that there is not a single and simple answer. Epistemological assumptions and practical traditions define different types of OR. We have identified three: The technical or hard OR, the practical...... or soft OR, and the critical OR. Following a historical perspective we will present these three schools. Habermas' theory about the three cognitive interests will provide a framework to understand this development. Finally, some final remarks about the future of OR will be outlined....

  16. The Role of Guidance and Counseling in Enhancing Student Discipline in Secondary Schools in Koibatek District

    Salgong, Victor Kipkemboi; Ngumi, Owen; Chege, Kimani

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the role of guidance and counseling in enhancing student discipline in secondary schools in Koibatek district. The study was guided by Alfred Adler (1998) theory of personality, and humanistic theory of Albert Bandura (1995) social learning model. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design.…

  17. Developing and exploring a theory for the lateral erosion of bedrock channels for use in landscape evolution models

    A. L. Langston

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how a bedrock river erodes its banks laterally is a frontier in geomorphology. Theories for the vertical incision of bedrock channels are widely implemented in the current generation of landscape evolution models. However, in general existing models do not seek to implement the lateral migration of bedrock channel walls. This is problematic, as modeling geomorphic processes such as terrace formation and hillslope–channel coupling depends on the accurate simulation of valley widening. We have developed and implemented a theory for the lateral migration of bedrock channel walls in a catchment-scale landscape evolution model. Two model formulations are presented, one representing the slow process of widening a bedrock canyon and the other representing undercutting, slumping, and rapid downstream sediment transport that occurs in softer bedrock. Model experiments were run with a range of values for bedrock erodibility and tendency towards transport- or detachment-limited behavior and varying magnitudes of sediment flux and water discharge in order to determine the role that each plays in the development of wide bedrock valleys. The results show that this simple, physics-based theory for the lateral erosion of bedrock channels produces bedrock valleys that are many times wider than the grid discretization scale. This theory for the lateral erosion of bedrock channel walls and the numerical implementation of the theory in a catchment-scale landscape evolution model is a significant first step towards understanding the factors that control the rates and spatial extent of wide bedrock valleys.

  18. Developing and exploring a theory for the lateral erosion of bedrock channels for use in landscape evolution models

    Langston, Abigail L.; Tucker, Gregory E.

    2018-01-01

    Understanding how a bedrock river erodes its banks laterally is a frontier in geomorphology. Theories for the vertical incision of bedrock channels are widely implemented in the current generation of landscape evolution models. However, in general existing models do not seek to implement the lateral migration of bedrock channel walls. This is problematic, as modeling geomorphic processes such as terrace formation and hillslope-channel coupling depends on the accurate simulation of valley widening. We have developed and implemented a theory for the lateral migration of bedrock channel walls in a catchment-scale landscape evolution model. Two model formulations are presented, one representing the slow process of widening a bedrock canyon and the other representing undercutting, slumping, and rapid downstream sediment transport that occurs in softer bedrock. Model experiments were run with a range of values for bedrock erodibility and tendency towards transport- or detachment-limited behavior and varying magnitudes of sediment flux and water discharge in order to determine the role that each plays in the development of wide bedrock valleys. The results show that this simple, physics-based theory for the lateral erosion of bedrock channels produces bedrock valleys that are many times wider than the grid discretization scale. This theory for the lateral erosion of bedrock channel walls and the numerical implementation of the theory in a catchment-scale landscape evolution model is a significant first step towards understanding the factors that control the rates and spatial extent of wide bedrock valleys.

  19. Solid modeling and applications rapid prototyping, CAD and CAE theory

    Um, Dugan

    2016-01-01

    The lessons in this fundamental text equip students with the theory of Computer Assisted Design (CAD), Computer Assisted Engineering (CAE), the essentials of Rapid Prototyping, as well as practical skills needed to apply this understanding in real world design and manufacturing settings. The book includes three main areas: CAD, CAE, and Rapid Prototyping, each enriched with numerous examples and exercises. In the CAD section, Professor Um outlines the basic concept of geometric modeling, Hermite and Bezier Spline curves theory, and 3-dimensional surface theories as well as rendering theory. The CAE section explores mesh generation theory, matrix notion for FEM, the stiffness method, and truss Equations. And in Rapid Prototyping, the author illustrates stereo lithographic theory and introduces popular modern RP technologies. Solid Modeling and Applications: Rapid Prototyping, CAD and CAE Theory is ideal for university students in various engineering disciplines as well as design engineers involved in product...

  20. Topos theory

    Johnstone, PT

    2014-01-01

    Focusing on topos theory's integration of geometric and logical ideas into the foundations of mathematics and theoretical computer science, this volume explores internal category theory, topologies and sheaves, geometric morphisms, other subjects. 1977 edition.

  1. Gold monetization and gold discipline

    Robert P. Flood; Peter M. Garber

    1981-01-01

    The paper is a study of the price level and relative price effects of a policy to monetize gold and fix its price at a given future time and at the then prevailing nominal price. Price movements are analyzed both during the transition to the gold standard and during the post-monetization period. The paper also explores the adjustments to fiat money which are necessary to ensure that this type of gold monetization is non-inflationary. Finally, some conditions which produce a run on the governm...

  2. Catastrophe Finance: An Emerging Discipline

    Elsner, James B.; Burch, R. King; Jagger, Thomas H.

    2009-08-01

    While the recent disasters in the world's financial markets demonstrate that finance theory remains far from perfected, science also faces steep challenges in the quest to predict and manage the effects of natural disasters. Worldwide, as many as half a million people have died in disasters such as earthquakes, tsunamis, and tropical cyclones since the turn of the 21st century [Wirtz, 2008]. Further, natural disasters can lead to extreme financial losses, and independent financial collapses can be exacerbated by natural disasters. In financial cost, 2008 was the second most expensive year on record for such catastrophes and for financial market declines. These extreme events in the natural and financial realms push the issue of risk management to the fore, expose the deficiencies of existing knowledge and practice, and suggest that progress requires further research and training at the graduate level.

  3. Disciplines, models, and computers: the path to computational quantum chemistry.

    Lenhard, Johannes

    2014-12-01

    Many disciplines and scientific fields have undergone a computational turn in the past several decades. This paper analyzes this sort of turn by investigating the case of computational quantum chemistry. The main claim is that the transformation from quantum to computational quantum chemistry involved changes in three dimensions. First, on the side of instrumentation, small computers and a networked infrastructure took over the lead from centralized mainframe architecture. Second, a new conception of computational modeling became feasible and assumed a crucial role. And third, the field of computa- tional quantum chemistry became organized in a market-like fashion and this market is much bigger than the number of quantum theory experts. These claims will be substantiated by an investigation of the so-called density functional theory (DFT), the arguably pivotal theory in the turn to computational quantum chemistry around 1990.

  4. Archival Discipline in Dewey Decimal Classification

    Laura Manzoni

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper regards the ways archival discipline is treated in DDC. After a short introduction about the discipline in Italy, the essay focuses on the analysis of division 020 of DDC 23, with specific attention to section 025 and with punctual reference to section 651, concerning archival material. The aim of the paper is to point out archival discipline’s peculiarities and its differences from library science, as well as underlining the critical issues on how this discipline is handled in DDC.

  5. Exploring the Intentions and Practices of Principals Regarding Inclusive Education: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    Yan, Zi; Sin, Kuen-fung

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at providing explanation and prediction of principals' inclusive education intentions and practices under the framework of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). A sample of 209 principals from Hong Kong schools was surveyed using five scales that were developed to assess the five components of TPB: attitude, subjective norm,…

  6. Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior to Explore the Relation between Smoke-Free Air Laws and Quitting Intentions

    Macy, Jonathan T.; Middlestadt, Susan E.; Seo, Dong-Chul; Kolbe, Lloyd J.; Jay, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Smoke-free air policies have been shown to reduce smoking, but the mechanism of behavior change is not well understood. The authors used structural equation modeling to conduct a theory of planned behavior analysis with data from 395 smokers living in seven Texas cities, three with a comprehensive smoke-free air law and four without a…

  7. A Study Exploring Factors of Decision to Text While Walking among College Students Based on Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB)

    Koh, Hyeseung; Mackert, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study attempted to identify critical predictors of intention to both send and read texts while walking based on Theory of Planned Behavior in order to provide resources for practitioners and campaign designers to inform college students of the perils of texting while walking and dissuade them from such a risky behavior.…

  8. Cultural-Historical Activity Theory and "The Visual" in Research: Exploring the Ontological Consequences of the Use of Visual Methods

    O'Brien, Mark; Varga-Atkins, Tunde; Umoquit, Muriah; Tso, Peggy

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses the under-theorization of visual techniques for social science research applications through the cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT). The "problem" of "the visual" in research is given an ontological framing by highlighting the ways in which the use of visual techniques as research tools--designed…

  9. Using Expectancy-Value Theory to Explore Aspects of Motivation and Engagement in Inquiry-Based Learning in Primary Mathematics

    Fielding-Wells, Jill; O'Brien, Mia; Makar, Katie

    2017-01-01

    Inquiry-based learning (IBL) is a pedagogical approach in which students address complex, ill-structured problems set in authentic contexts. While IBL is gaining ground in Australia as an instructional practice, there has been little research that considers implications for student motivation and engagement. Expectancy-value theory (Eccles and…

  10. Stakeholder Theory As an Ethical Approach to Effective Management: applying the theory to multiple contexts

    Jeffrey S. Harrison

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective – This article provides a brief overview of stakeholder theory, clears up some widely held misconceptions, explains the importance of examining stakeholder theory from a variety of international perspectives and how this type of research will advance management theory, and introduces the other articles in the special issue. Design/methodology/approach – Some of the foundational ideas of stakeholder theory are discussed, leading to arguments about the importance of the theory to management research, especially in an international context. Findings – Stakeholder theory is found to be a particularly useful perspective for addressing some of the important issues in business from an international perspective. It offers an opportunity to reinterpret a variety of concepts, models and phenomena across may different disciplines. Practical implications – The concepts explored in this article may be applied in many contexts, domestically and internationally, and across business disciplines as diverse as economics, public administration, finance, philosophy, marketing, law, and management. Originality/value – Research on stakeholder theory in an international context is both lacking and sorely needed. This article and the others in this special issue aim to help fill that void.

  11. Preschool Children's Expectations for Parental Discipline

    Graham, Angie Geertsen

    1998-01-01

    Many factors influence preschool children's expectations for parental discipline. Parent characteristics such as personality, values, social class, and disciplinary methods can affect the expectations children have for parental discipline. Children's ability to understand and interpret parental messages can also influence how they will respond. All of these factors need to be taken into consideration in order for effective communication between parents and children to occur. In this study,...

  12. Grounding new institutional theory on a micro-sociological and practice-based foundation - exploring models of translation

    Scheuer, John Damm

    interested in explaining how and why ideas travel in and out of organizations and become institutionalized in organizational fields. More specifically the paper focuses on the way actor-network theory and the concept of translation have been translated by researchers trying to understand institutionalization......Institutional and more practice-based perspectives on organizing and change are increasingly being combined in order to understand the micro-processes on which institutional "orders" are built and changed. The aim of this paper is to analyze how this work is done in practice by researchers...... processes related to ideas that travel from one place in time and space to another. The paper suggests that combining the concept of translation and theories about institutional change will make it possible to ground macro-sociological claims about how ideas travel and become institutionalized...

  13. Exploring the Photovoltaic Properties of Metal Bipyridine Complexes (Metal = Fe, Zn, Cr, and Ru) by Density Functional Theory

    Irfan, Ahmad; Abbas, Ghulam

    2018-03-01

    The synthesis and characterisation of mononuclear Fe complexes were carried out by using bipyridine (Compound 1) at ambient conditions. Additionally, three more derivatives were designed by substituting the central Fe metal with Zn, Cr, and Ru (Compound 2, Compound 3, and Compound 4), respectively. The ground state geometry calculations were carried out by using density functional theory (DFT) at B3LYP/6-31G** (LANL2DZ) level of theory. We shed light on the frontier molecular orbitals, electronic properties, photovoltaic parameters, and structure-property relationship. The open-circuit voltage is a promising parameter that considerably affects the photovoltaic performance; thus, we have estimated its value by considering the complexes as donors whereas TiO2 and/or Si were used as acceptors. The solar cell performance behaviour was also studied by shedding light on the band alignment and energy level offset.

  14. Exploring Willingness to Pay for QR Code Labeled Extra- Virgin Olive Oil: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Lombardi, Alessia; Carfora, Valentina; Cicia, Giovanni; del Giudice, Teresa; Lombardi, Pasquale; Panico, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    Quick Response Code (QR code) is the representative device of a particular branch of marketing called mobile marketing. The code is found throughout various productive sectors, including the agro-food sector. This work investigates whether consumers are willing to pay a premium price for extra information on a bottle of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) by means of the QR-code. Based on data collected from 1006 interviews conducted in Italy, we implemented the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) mod...

  15. Organizational antecedents of population-level organizational diversity: Exploring the micro-foundations of resource partitioning theory : a simulation approach

    Pagani, Giuseppe; Lomi, Alessandro; Larsen, Erik Raimer

    2008-01-01

    "Why are there so many kinds of organizations?" (Hannan and Freeman, 1977: 936). As Astley (1985) suggests, "[t]his question focuses inquiry on organizational diversity, the differentiation of organizations into varying population types" (p. 224). Out of the different literature streams, which have addressed the topic of organizational diversity, an effective explanation of the dynamics related to this organizational phenomenon has been provided by Resource Partitioning theory (Carroll,...

  16. Exploring Horticultural Employees' Attitudes Toward Their Jobs: A Qualitative Analysis Based on Herzberg's Theory of Job Satisfaction

    Bitsch, Vera; Hogberg, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Job satisfaction is likely the most studied work-related attitude and is assumed to influence a variety of behaviors. This study analyzes the job satisfaction of agricultural employees using Herzberg’s theory, which is broadly employed in management. Fourteen horticultural businesses participated in case studies of labor-management practices. Fifteen nonsupervisory employee interviews were analyzed regarding job satisfaction. Components of job satisfaction relevant to horticultural employee...

  17. An Exploration of Student Internet Use in India: The Technology Acceptance Model and the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    Fusilier, Marcelline; Durlabhji, Subhash

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore behavioral processes involved in internet technology acceptance and use with a sample in India, a developing country that can potentially benefit from greater participation in the web economy. Design/methodology/approach - User experience was incorporated into the technology acceptance model (TAM)…

  18. Exploring the Relation between the Theory of Multiple Intelligences and Games for the Purpose of Player-Centred Game Design

    Sajjadi, Pejman; Vlieghe, Joachim; De Troyer, Olga

    2017-01-01

    A large body of research work demonstrates the importance and effectiveness of adapting a learning game to its players. This process is driven by understanding the differences between individuals in terms of abilities and preferences. One of the rather interesting but least explored approaches for understanding individual differences among…

  19. Exploring Language Teachers' Perceptions of Cyclical Presentation of Materials in an EFL Context: A Grounded Theory

    Ostovar-Namaghi, Seyyed Ali; Gholami, Maryam

    2018-01-01

    Numerous studies have verified the effect of cyclical presentation of materials on learners' language proficiency and achievement. However, there is a dearth of research exploring language teachers' perceptions of cyclical approach. Since teachers' perceptions may catalyze or nullify the effect of this approach, this study aims at exploring…

  20. Childhood discipline: challenges for clinicians and parents.

    Banks, J Burton

    2002-10-15

    Although childhood discipline is an important issue for parents, this topic is seldom emphasized by family physicians during well-child examinations. Behavior problems are relatively common but frequently under-recognized by physicians. Opportunities to counsel parents about safe, effective methods of discipline are therefore missed. Discipline should be instructive and age-appropriate and should include positive reinforcement for good behavior. Punishment is only one aspect of discipline and, in order to be effective, it must be prompt, consistent, and fair. Time-out is frequently used to correct younger children, but because it is often enforced improperly, it loses its effectiveness. Corporal punishment is a controversial but common form of discipline that is less effective than some other types of punishment. Its use is linked to child and spouse abuse, as well as to future substance use, violent crime, poor self-esteem, and depression. Despite the possible negative effects of corporal punishment, it is still widely accepted in our society. Since discipline plays an important role in the social and emotional development of children, physicians should be trained to discuss this issue with parents during routine well-child examinations.

  1. The impact of stroke aphasia on health and well-being and appropriate nursing interventions: an exploration using the Theory of Human Scale Development.

    Thompson, Juliana; McKeever, Margo

    2014-02-01

    This paper considers the impact of aphasia on health and well-being and provides suggestions for appropriate nursing interventions. Background.  Effective communication is essential to holistic care and positive outcomes for individuals affected by aphasia. When verbal communication is absent, nurses fail to adequately use alternative strategies so that the standard of nurse/patient communication is frequently poor. This is a discursive paper which reviews relevant literature and uses the Theory of Human Scale Development as a framework for discussion. The Theory of Human Scale Development is introduced. This theory emphasises that quality of life depends as much upon self-actualisation and relation building as on physical health. The theory is used within the discussion to highlight the significance of communication to quality of life and how its loss has profound psychological and social consequences. Aphasia results in 'loss of self'. The situation is exacerbated by inadequate healthcare communication strategies. Suggestions are offered regarding more appropriate strategies. Efficacy of family input is considered; nursing competence regarding language practice therapies is discussed, and the 'quest approach' is explored. Aphasia has a negative impact on relationships by denying access to support networks, which results in isolation. The individual's predicament is worsened by negative nursing responses. Positive nursing strategies, which alleviate effects of aphasia on individuals' social health, are investigated. Concept analysis and self-awareness exercises as methods of enhancing compassion skills are explored. The social model of disability is discussed to highlight the benefits to individuals of environmental adaptations. The social benefits of aphasia-group affiliation are discussed. The paper concludes by emphasising that fundamental human needs involve social and psychological as well as physical aspects. Nursing interventions must address all needs to

  2. Measuring Reasoning about Teaching for Graduate Admissions in Psychology and Related Disciplines

    Robert J. Sternberg; Karin Sternberg; Rebel J. E. Todhunter

    2017-01-01

    Teaching- and teaching-evaluation skills are critically important to professional success in psychology and related disciplines. We explored the possibility of measuring reasoning-about-teaching skills as a supplementary measure for admissions in psychology and related behavioral-sciences disciplines. We tested 103 students for their reasoning about teaching and their reasoning about research, as well as for their cognitive- (abstract reasoning) and educational skills. We found that women per...

  3. Study on exploration theory and SAR technology for interlayer oxidation zone sandstone type uranium deposit and its application in Eastern Jungar Basin

    Pan Wei; Liu Dechang; Rui Benshan; Zhao Yingjun; Huang Xianfang; Huang Shutao

    2001-01-01

    Started with analyzing the features of metallogenetic epoch and space distribution of typical interlayer oxidation zone sandstone type uranium deposit both in China and abroad and their relations of basin evolution, the authors have proposed the idea that the last unconformity mainly controls the metallogenetic epoch and the strength of structure activity after the last unconformity determines the deposit space. An exploration theory with the kernel from new events to the old one is put forward. The means and method to use SAR technology to identify ore-controlling key factors are discussed. An application study in Eastern Jungar Basin is performed

  4. Exploring the interplay between Framing and Securitization theory: the case of the Arab Spring protests in Bahrain

    Vânia Carvalho Pinto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article advances the theoretical integration between securitization theory and the framing approach, resulting in a set of criteria hereby called security framing. It seeks to make a twofold contribution: to sharpen the study of the ideational elements that underlie the construction of threats, and to advance towards a greater assessment of the audience's preferences. The case study under examination is the 2011 military intervention of the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council in Bahrain. The security framing of this case will help illuminate the dynamics at play in one of the most important recent events in Gulf politics.

  5. Disciplined by the discipline: a social-epistemic fingerprint of the history of science.

    Vanderstraeten, Raf; Vandermoere, Frederic

    2015-06-01

    The scientific system is primarily differentiated into disciplines. While disciplines may be wide in scope and diverse in their research practices, they serve scientific communities that evaluate research and also grant recognition to what is published. The analysis of communication and publication practices within such a community hence allows us to shed light on the dynamics of this discipline. On the basis of an empirical analysis of Isis, we show how the process of discipline-building in history of science has led its practitioners to be socialized and sensitized in relatively strong intra-disciplinary terms--with minimal interdisciplinary openness.

  6. ["Flipped classroom" teaching model into the curriculum of Theories of Different Schools of Acupuncture and Moxibustion:exploration and practice].

    Liu, Mailan; Yuan, Yiqin; Chang, Xiaorong; Tang, Yulan; Luo, Jian; Li, Nan; Yu, Jie; Yang, Qianyun; Liu, Mi

    2016-08-12

    The "flipped classroom" teaching model practiced in the teaching of Theories of Different Schools of Acupuncture and Moxibustion curriculum was introduced. Firstly, the roles and responsibilities of teachers were clarified, indicating teachers provided examples and lectures, and a comprehensive assessment system was established. Secondly, the "flipped classroom" teaching model was split into online learning, classroom learning and offline learning. Online learning aimed at forming a study report by a wide search of relevant information, which was submitted to teachers for review and assessment. Classroom learning was designed to communicate study ideas among students and teachers. Offline learning was intended to revise and improve the study report and refined learning methods. Lastly, the teaching practice effects of "flip classroom" were evaluated by comprehensive rating and questionnaire assessment, which assessed the overall performance of students and overall levels of paper; the learning ability was enhanced, and the interest and motivation of learning were also improved. Therefore, "flipped classroom" teaching mode was suitable for the curriculum of Theories of Different Schools of Acupuncture and Moxibustion , and could be recommended into the teaching practice of related curriculum of acupuncture and tuina.

  7. Advancing theory development: exploring the leadership–climate relationship as a mechanism of the implementation of cultural competence

    Erick G. Guerrero

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leadership style and specific organizational climates have emerged as critical mechanisms to implement targeted practices in organizations. Drawing from relevant theories, we propose that climate for implementation of cultural competence reflects how transformational leadership may enhance the organizational implementation of culturally responsive practices in health care organizations. Methods Using multilevel data from 427 employees embedded in 112 addiction treatment programs collected in 2013, confirmatory factor analysis showed adequate fit statistics for our measure of climate for implementation of cultural competence (Cronbach’s alpha = .88 and three outcomes: knowledge (Cronbach’s alpha = .88, services (Cronbach’s alpha = .86, and personnel (Cronbach’s alpha = .86 practices. Results Results from multilevel path analyses indicate a positive relationship between employee perceptions of transformational leadership and climate for implementation of cultural competence (standardized indirect effect = .057, bootstrap p < .001. We also found a positive indirect effect between transformational leadership and each of the culturally competent practices: knowledge (standardized indirect effect = .006, bootstrap p = .004, services (standardized indirect effect = .019, bootstrap p < .001, and personnel (standardized indirect effect = .014, bootstrap p = .005. Conclusions Findings contribute to implementation science. They build on leadership theory and offer evidence of the mediating role of climate in the implementation of cultural competence in addiction health service organizations.

  8. FACEBOOK AS A MEDIATION TOOL IN BIOCHEMISTRY DISCIPLINE

    P. X. Gomes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The current students generation are daily connected to the Internet, wich encourages the use of mobile tools in education. Many of the students of Biochemistry feel apprehensive about the discipline and the use of facebook may contribute, among other factors, motivating them. Objectives: It was analyzed the use of facebook as a mediator and motivator in the discipline of Biochemistry, basing on socioconstrutivist interventions. Material and methods: This work was developed in the action-research perspective, using the quali-quantitative method. An investigative questionnaire was used, using Likert scale and open questions, to investigate the facebook use, as well as the preferences of students, focusing on Biochemistry group in the Biomedicine course.  The posts were analyzed identifying: frequency of the interaction`s types (post, comment, likes;  interaction's categories (question, answer, motivational; and the content itself of the post. Results: It was highlighted students' interest to search materials, answering questions, and especially seeking information about the discipline. It was emphasized that the group was motivating for learning Biochemistry, encouragement the group to study, with quick and easy access to the professor by chat. Conclusions: The results indicate a preference for students at facebook, with a great motivational potential, is at easy access to colleagues, professor and monitor, or even the ease of obtaining the materials and ask questions in real time, indicating that this tool as a possible way, still little explored, to enhance the teaching of Biochemistry.

  9. Humanitarian Aspirations of Engineering Students: Differences between Disciplines and Institutions

    Angela R. Bielefeldt

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the aspirations of undergraduate engineering students in regard to helping others, examining potential differences between disciplines and institutions. Over 1900 undergraduate students from 17 U.S. universities responded to a survey in spring 2014. In open-ended responses, 15.5% of the students included some form of helping people and/or the world as one of the factors that motivated them to select their engineering major; for 6.7% of the students this was the primary or only motivating factor listed. Helping as a motivation was not equally prevalent among different engineering disciplines, being much more common among students majoring in biomedical, environmental, materials, and civil and less common in computer and aerospace. Different disciplines also varied in the priority for helping people relative to other future job factors - highest in chemical/biological, moderate in civil and related majors, and lowest among electrical/computer and mechanical. Institutional differences were found in the extent to which students indicated an importance that their career would help people and the extent to which an ability to help others was a central message in their major. The results indicate the percentages of engineering students who are most likely to embrace humanitarian engineering; fostering these aspirations in students could help with attraction and retention.

  10. Infusing Sustainability Across Disciplines to Build Student Engagement

    Bruckner, M. Z.; O'Connell, K.; McDaris, J. R.; Kirk, K. B.; Larsen, K.; Kent, M.; Manduca, C. A.; Egger, A. E.; Blockstein, D.; Mogk, D. W.; Taber, J.

    2014-12-01

    societal issues. The InTeGrate Teaching Materials web pages highlight major outcomes from the workshops and feature community-contributed resources and pedagogic guidance designed to enhance teaching about sustainability across disciplines. Explore these materials at: serc.carleton.edu/integrate/teaching_materials/

  11. Disciplines en studies. Vernieuwing in de geesteswetenschappen

    Jo Tollebeek

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Disciplines and studies. Innovation in the humanitiesThe classic humanities disciplines took shape in the nineteenth century in a complex, contingency- driven process in which factors such as the introduction of a ‘scientific principle’ and the securing of the humanities’ position in the universities played an important role. This process resulted in flexible disciplines that lacked rigidity. For example, there was no ambitious theorising, no development of systematic methodologies and no academic monopoly. This, in turn, made renewal in the humanities a straightforward possibility, particularly when social and cultural changes called for such renewal. The liveliness that characterises teaching and research in the humanities today testifies to this. The renewed demand for cross-disciplinary approaches has led to a number of branches of study (from holocaust and genocide studies to museum studies which explicitly present themselves as contemporary, focus on a concrete social theme, and often recall a time before the humanities disciplines had emerged in the way that they are organised and function. Anyone wishing to bring stability and continuity to this uneasy pattern of development must take account the factors that reinforced the classic disciplines back then. Among other things, a sustainable policy involves monitoring the quality of the new programmes, relaxed dealings with existing institutional structures and the provision of the necessary seed capital in the field of research.

  12. The role of values in school discipline

    J. de Klerk

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that the Constitution of South Africa uses language that could be described as “value-language”, our country is experiencing an intense moral crisis. There is an urgent need to establish ways of finding answers to the value crisis in South Africa. Morality has been and is part of education. In this article the relationship between values, education and discipline is addressed from a Biblically-based (in this case, reformational perspective. The teacher as secondary educator plays an important role in the establishment of values among learners. The Department of Education has made clear its intention to establish values in schools in its Manifesto on Values, Education and Democracy. The values emphasised in this document concur with the ideals of nation-building in the new democratic South Africa. Unfortunately, the absence of discipline and self-discipline among learners and educators implies that these ideals cannot be realised. The main cause of discipline problems can possibly be ascribed to the absence of a value system rooted in a specific life and worldview, for without such a perspective the management of discipline problems can only be symptomatic.

  13. Advancing theory development: exploring the leadership-climate relationship as a mechanism of the implementation of cultural competence.

    Guerrero, Erick G; Fenwick, Karissa; Kong, Yinfei

    2017-11-14

    Leadership style and specific organizational climates have emerged as critical mechanisms to implement targeted practices in organizations. Drawing from relevant theories, we propose that climate for implementation of cultural competence reflects how transformational leadership may enhance the organizational implementation of culturally responsive practices in health care organizations. Using multilevel data from 427 employees embedded in 112 addiction treatment programs collected in 2013, confirmatory factor analysis showed adequate fit statistics for our measure of climate for implementation of cultural competence (Cronbach's alpha = .88) and three outcomes: knowledge (Cronbach's alpha = .88), services (Cronbach's alpha = .86), and personnel (Cronbach's alpha = .86) practices. Results from multilevel path analyses indicate a positive relationship between employee perceptions of transformational leadership and climate for implementation of cultural competence (standardized indirect effect = .057, bootstrap p climate in the implementation of cultural competence in addiction health service organizations.

  14. Demographic and Motivation Differences Among Online Sex Offenders by Type of Offense: An Exploration of Routine Activities Theories.

    Navarro, Jordana N; Jasinski, Jana L

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of the relationship between online sexual offenders' demographic background and characteristics indicative of motivation and offense type. Specifically, we investigate whether these characteristics can distinguish different online sexual offender groups from one another as well as inform routine activity theorists on what potentially motivates perpetrators. Using multinomial logistic regression, this study found that online sexual offenders' demographic backgrounds and characteristics indicative of motivation do vary by offense types. Two important implications of this study are that the term "online sexual offender" encompasses different types of offenders, including some who do not align with mainstream media's characterization of "predators," and that the potential offender within routine activity theory can be the focus of empirical investigation rather than taken as a given in research.

  15. Exploration of zeroth-order wavefunctions and energies as a first step toward intramolecular symmetry-adapted perturbation theory

    Gonthier, Jérôme F.; Corminboeuf, Clémence

    2014-04-01

    Non-covalent interactions occur between and within all molecules and have a profound impact on structural and electronic phenomena in chemistry, biology, and material science. Understanding the nature of inter- and intramolecular interactions is essential not only for establishing the relation between structure and properties, but also for facilitating the rational design of molecules with targeted properties. These objectives have motivated the development of theoretical schemes decomposing intermolecular interactions into physically meaningful terms. Among the various existing energy decomposition schemes, Symmetry-Adapted Perturbation Theory (SAPT) is one of the most successful as it naturally decomposes the interaction energy into physical and intuitive terms. Unfortunately, analogous approaches for intramolecular energies are theoretically highly challenging and virtually nonexistent. Here, we introduce a zeroth-order wavefunction and energy, which represent the first step toward the development of an intramolecular variant of the SAPT formalism. The proposed energy expression is based on the Chemical Hamiltonian Approach (CHA), which relies upon an asymmetric interpretation of the electronic integrals. The orbitals are optimized with a non-hermitian Fock matrix based on two variants: one using orbitals strictly localized on individual fragments and the other using canonical (delocalized) orbitals. The zeroth-order wavefunction and energy expression are validated on a series of prototypical systems. The computed intramolecular interaction energies demonstrate that our approach combining the CHA with strictly localized orbitals achieves reasonable interaction energies and basis set dependence in addition to producing intuitive energy trends. Our zeroth-order wavefunction is the primary step fundamental to the derivation of any perturbation theory correction, which has the potential to truly transform our understanding and quantification of non

  16. Exploration of zeroth-order wavefunctions and energies as a first step toward intramolecular symmetry-adapted perturbation theory

    Gonthier, Jérôme F.; Corminboeuf, Clémence

    2014-01-01

    Non-covalent interactions occur between and within all molecules and have a profound impact on structural and electronic phenomena in chemistry, biology, and material science. Understanding the nature of inter- and intramolecular interactions is essential not only for establishing the relation between structure and properties, but also for facilitating the rational design of molecules with targeted properties. These objectives have motivated the development of theoretical schemes decomposing intermolecular interactions into physically meaningful terms. Among the various existing energy decomposition schemes, Symmetry-Adapted Perturbation Theory (SAPT) is one of the most successful as it naturally decomposes the interaction energy into physical and intuitive terms. Unfortunately, analogous approaches for intramolecular energies are theoretically highly challenging and virtually nonexistent. Here, we introduce a zeroth-order wavefunction and energy, which represent the first step toward the development of an intramolecular variant of the SAPT formalism. The proposed energy expression is based on the Chemical Hamiltonian Approach (CHA), which relies upon an asymmetric interpretation of the electronic integrals. The orbitals are optimized with a non-hermitian Fock matrix based on two variants: one using orbitals strictly localized on individual fragments and the other using canonical (delocalized) orbitals. The zeroth-order wavefunction and energy expression are validated on a series of prototypical systems. The computed intramolecular interaction energies demonstrate that our approach combining the CHA with strictly localized orbitals achieves reasonable interaction energies and basis set dependence in addition to producing intuitive energy trends. Our zeroth-order wavefunction is the primary step fundamental to the derivation of any perturbation theory correction, which has the potential to truly transform our understanding and quantification of non

  17. Using three-phase theory-based formative research to explore healthy eating in Australian truck drivers.

    Vayro, Caitlin; Hamilton, Kyra

    2016-03-01

    In Australia, fruit and vegetable consumption is lower than recommended while discretionary foods (i.e., foods high in fat, sugar, and salt) are eaten in excess. Long-haul truck drivers are a group at risk of unhealthy eating but have received limited attention in the health literature. We aimed to examine long-haul truck drivers eating decisions in order to develop theory-based and empirically-driven health messages to improve their healthy food choices. Drawing on the Theory of Planned Behavior, three-phased formative research was conducted using self-report surveys. Phase 1 (N = 30, Mage = 39.53, SDage = 10.72) identified modal salient beliefs about fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and limiting discretionary choices (DC). There were nine behavioral and seven normative beliefs elicited for both FV and DC; while nine and five control beliefs were elicited for FV and DC, respectively. Phase 2 (N = 148, Mage = 44.23, SDage = 12.08) adopted a prospective design with one week follow-up to examine the predictors of FV and DC intention and behavior. A variety of behavioral and control beliefs were predictive of FV and DC intention and behavior. Normative beliefs were predictive of FV intention and behavior and DC intention only. Phase 3 (N = 20, Mage = 46.9, SDage = 12.85) elicited the reasons why each belief is held/solutions to negative beliefs, that could be used as health messages. In total, 40 reasons/solutions were identified: 26 for FV and 14 for DC. In summary, we found that specific behavioral, normative and control beliefs influenced FV and DC eating decisions. These results have implications for truck driver's health and provide formative research to inform future interventions to improve the food choices of a unique group who are at risk of unhealthy eating behaviors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Theory of Radioisotope Scanning; Theorie de l'Exploration au Moyen d'un Radioisotope; Matematicheskaya osnova radioizotopnogo skennirovaniya; Teoria de la Exploracion Radioisotopica

    Brownell, G. L. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    1964-10-15

    All scanning techniques, whether utilizing focusing collimators, positron detectors or the newer camera techniques, have certain basic problems. The success of these techniques depends in large measure upon the correct choice of various parameters of the collimating system, of which the most important is the resolution. In this paper the relationship of optimum resolution to radioisotope content and distribution are discussed. Radioisotope scanning may be considered as a process of information extraction and presentation. The primary information lies in the original radioisotope distribution. The collimator and detecting system provide the information transfer mechanism and the final scan presents the resultant information. As with all such techniques, only a small fraction of the information is retained in the final scan. It can be shown that for focusing collimator and scintillation camera systems, the number of counts per resolution area varies as the fourth power of the resolution distance. For certain radioisotope distributions it is possible to derive analytically an optimum value of resolution distance. However, for most systems the optimum resolution must be determined by trial and error. The problems here are similar to those of pattern recognition in other fields. A computer programme has been prepared to aid in determining the optimum resolution for various types of patterns. This computer is unique in having intermediate disc storage and CRT read-out. The results have general applicability to the design of many scanning systems. (author) [French] Toutes les methodes d'exploration au moyen d'un radioisotope, celles qui font appel aux collimateurs a focalisation, aux detecteurs de positons ou les techniques plus recentes utilisant des cameras a scintillation, posent certains problemes fondamentaux. Le succes de ces techniques depend beaucoup du choix des differents parametres du dispositif de collimation, dont le plus important est la resolution. L

  19. The Discipline in The Making: Appraising The Progress of Islamic Economics

    Hafas Furqani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Islamic economics is currently moving from a mere discourse on economics in Islamic perspective towards becoming a distinct science of Islamic economics. There is a systematic effort from Islamic economic scientific community to develop a discipline of Islamic economics marked by a complete body of knowledge, clear subject matter, methodology/methodologies to appraise theories and continuous growth and accumulation of knowledge. This could be done if the scientific community put strong effort in explicating all the necessary foundations of science and achieve consensus on certain important aspect of discipline. In this paper we attempt to historically survey the development of Islamic economics towards becoming a distinct discipline, evaluate the current practices a adopted by the Islamic economics’ scientific community in settling up problems, and outlining forward agenda in order to achieve this discipline status.

  20. Properties of hypothesis testing techniques and (Bayesian) model selection for exploration-based and theory-based (order-restricted) hypotheses.

    Kuiper, Rebecca M; Nederhoff, Tim; Klugkist, Irene

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, the performance of six types of techniques for comparisons of means is examined. These six emerge from the distinction between the method employed (hypothesis testing, model selection using information criteria, or Bayesian model selection) and the set of hypotheses that is investigated (a classical, exploration-based set of hypotheses containing equality constraints on the means, or a theory-based limited set of hypotheses with equality and/or order restrictions). A simulation study is conducted to examine the performance of these techniques. We demonstrate that, if one has specific, a priori specified hypotheses, confirmation (i.e., investigating theory-based hypotheses) has advantages over exploration (i.e., examining all possible equality-constrained hypotheses). Furthermore, examining reasonable order-restricted hypotheses has more power to detect the true effect/non-null hypothesis than evaluating only equality restrictions. Additionally, when investigating more than one theory-based hypothesis, model selection is preferred over hypothesis testing. Because of the first two results, we further examine the techniques that are able to evaluate order restrictions in a confirmatory fashion by examining their performance when the homogeneity of variance assumption is violated. Results show that the techniques are robust to heterogeneity when the sample sizes are equal. When the sample sizes are unequal, the performance is affected by heterogeneity. The size and direction of the deviations from the baseline, where there is no heterogeneity, depend on the effect size (of the means) and on the trend in the group variances with respect to the ordering of the group sizes. Importantly, the deviations are less pronounced when the group variances and sizes exhibit the same trend (e.g., are both increasing with group number). © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  1. Medical elementology as a new scientific discipline

    Zaichick, V.

    2006-01-01

    All legitimate scientific disciplines are characterized by: (1) the clear definition of subjects of the study and its corresponding clear-cut name, (2) some accepted postulates, (3) set of research methods, (4) methods of quality control and processing of the obtained information, and (5) specific terminology and definitions. The inaccuracies and uncertainties in medical elementology as a new scientific discipline are discussed and some corresponding statements are made. Another and no less important problem of medical elementology is the critical unsatisfactory reproducibility of data. The complex arrangements required for the harmonization of data acquired for studies in medical elementology are offered. Main strategic aims and tactical tasks of the new scientific discipline are outlined. (author)

  2. The [Un]Spoken Challenges of Administrator Collaboration: An Exploration of One District Leadership Team's Use of Protocols to Promote Reflection and Shared Theories of Action

    Szczesiul, Stacy Agee

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the use of protocol-structured dialogue in promoting reflective practices and shared theories of action within a district leadership team. Protocols have been used to make individuals' theories of action visible and subject to evaluation. This is important for leaders trying to establish coherence across a system; in…

  3. Children and Discipline: Investigating Secondary School Students' Perception of Discipline through Metaphors

    Sadik, Fatma

    2018-01-01

    This is a descriptive study investigating the perception of children about discipline through metaphors developed by them. A total of 445 students participated in the research and the data was collected with the "Discipline Metaphors Survey (DMS)" developed by the researchers. At the end of the study, 143 metaphors, 94 positive and 49…

  4. Space civil engineering - A new discipline

    Sadeh, Willy Z.; Criswell, Marvin E.

    1991-01-01

    Space Civil Engineering is an emerging engineering discipline that focuses on extending and expanding the Civil Engineering know-how and practice to the development and maintenance of infrastructure on celestial bodies. Space Civil Engineering is presently being developed as a new discipline within the Department of Civil Engineering at Colorado State University under a recently established NASA Space Grant College Program. Academic programs geared toward creating Space Civil Engineering Options at both undergraduate and graduate levels are being formulated. Basic ideas and concepts of the curriculum in the Space Civil Engineering Option at both undergraduate and graduate levels are presented. The role of Space Civil Engineering in the Space Program is discussed.

  5. Vulnerable discipline: experiences of male competitive bodybuilders.

    Bjørnestad, Jone; Kandal, Øyvind; Anderssen, Norman

    2014-09-01

    The aim was to understand experiences of male competitive bodybuilders from a non-pathologizing perspective. Six male Norwegian competitive bodybuilders were interviewed. The interviews were analysed using a meaning condensation procedure resulting in five themes: being proud of capacity for discipline, seeing a perfectionist attitude as a necessary evil, experiencing recognition within the bodybuilding community, being stigmatized outside the bodybuilding community and going on stage to display a capacity for willpower and discipline. We suggest that bodybuilders may be stigmatized for breaking social norms: by their distinctive appearance, by the way they handle suspected drug use and by challenging gender norms. © The Author(s) 2013.

  6. Exploring the Role of Theory of Mind in Moral Judgment: The Case of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Fadda, Roberta; Parisi, Marinella; Ferretti, Luca; Saba, Gessica; Foscoliano, Maria; Salvago, Azzurra; Doneddu, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    This paper adds to the growing research on moral judgment (MJ) by considering whether theory of mind (ToM) might foster children's autonomous MJ achievement. A group of 30 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was compared in MJ and ToM with 30 typically developing (TD) children. Participants were tested for MJ with a classical Piaget's task and for ToM with a second order False Belief task. In the moral task, children were told two versions of a story: in one version the protagonist acted according to a moral intention but the action resulted in a harmful consequence; in the other version the protagonist acted according to an immoral intention, but the action resulted in a harmless consequence. Children were asked which of the two protagonists was the "naughtier." In line with previous studies, the results indicated that, while the majority of TD participants succeeded in the second order False Belief task, only few individuals with ASD showed intact perspective taking abilities. The analysis of the MJ in relation to ToM showed that children with ASD lacking ToM abilities judged guilty the protagonists of the two versions of the story in the moral task because both of them violated a moral rule or because they considered the consequences of the actions, ignoring any psychological information. These results indicate a heteronomous morality in individuals with ASD, based on the respect of learned moral rules and outcomes rather than others' subjective states.

  7. Exploring the formation and electronic structure properties of the g-C3N4 nanoribbon with density functional theory.

    Wu, Hong-Zhang; Zhong, Qing-Hua; Bandaru, Sateesh; Liu, Jin; Lau, Woon Ming; Li, Li-Li; Wang, Zhenling

    2018-04-18

    The optical properties and condensation degree (structure) of polymeric g-C 3 N 4 depend strongly on the process temperature. For polymeric g-C 3 N 4 , its structure and condensation degree depend on the structure of molecular strand(s). Here, the formation and electronic structure properties of the g-C 3 N 4 nanoribbon are investigated by studying the polymerization and crystallinity of molecular strand(s) employing first-principle density functional theory. The calculations show that the width of the molecular strand has a significant effect on the electronic structure of polymerized and crystallized g-C 3 N 4 nanoribbons, a conclusion which would be indirect evidence that the electronic structure depends on the structure of g-C 3 N 4 . The edge shape also has a distinct effect on the electronic structure of the crystallized g-C 3 N 4 nanoribbon. Furthermore, the conductive band minimum and valence band maximum of the polymeric g-C 3 N 4 nanoribbon show a strong localization, which is in good agreement with the quasi-monomer characters. In addition, molecular strands prefer to grow along the planar direction on graphene. These results provide new insight on the properties of the g-C 3 N 4 nanoribbon and the relationship between the structure and properties of g-C 3 N 4 .

  8. The interaction between dietary and life goals: using goal systems theory to explore healthy diet and life goals.

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Wright, Julie A; Migneault, Jeffrey P; Quintiliani, Lisa; Friedman, Robert H

    2014-01-01

    Objective : To examine the types of life and dietary goals individuals report and how these goal domains interact as framed by goal systems theory. Methods : This work is a cross-sectional survey study. Measures included the incidence of common life and dietary goals and how these goals interact with and facilitate each other. Results : The results of a quantitative survey ( n  = 46 participants), which was informed by two focus groups ( n  = 17 participants), showed that participants are trying to achieve several different life (e.g. achieving financial success) and dietary goals (e.g. eating more fruits and vegetables, drinking more water, and losing weight) and that these two types of goals interact to both facilitate and conflict with each other. Having a life goal of exercising was significantly associated with healthy eating goals when compared with other life goals ( p 's goals may be linked and help to facilitate one another. Being in the maintenance phase with the goal of healthy eating was associated with participants feeling like they were more successful in their other non-diet-related health goals ( p  goals can facilitate success in achieving other goals. Conclusions : Life goals can have an impact on a person's ability to achieve and maintain dietary and other health goals. Health educators may help to facilitate long-term behavior change by examining a person's life goals as well as dietary goals.

  9. Dimensions of ecosystem theory

    O'Neill, R.V.; Reichle, D.E.

    1979-01-01

    Various dimensions of ecosystem structure and behavior that seem to develop from the ubiquitous phenomena of system growth and persistence were studied. While growth and persistence attributes of ecosystems may appear to be simplistic phenomena upon which to base a comprehensive ecosystem theory, these same attributes have been fundamental to the theoretical development of other biological disciplines. These attributes were explored at a hierarchical level in a self-organizing system, and adaptive system strategies that result were analyzed. Previously developed causative relations (Reichle et al., 1975c) were examined, their theoretical implications expounded upon, and the assumptions tested with data from a variety of forest types. The conclusions are not a theory in themselves, but a state of organization of concepts contributing towards a unifying theory, along the lines promulgated by Bray (1958). The inferences drawn rely heavily upon data from forested ecosystems of the world, and have yet to be validated against data from a much more diverse range of ecosystem types. Not all of the interpretations are logically tight - there is room for other explanations, which it is hoped will provide fruitful grounds for further speculation

  10. 78 FR 59654 - Possible Models for the Administration and Support of Discipline-Specific Guidance Groups for...

    2013-09-27

    ... documentary standards, monitor research and measurement standards gaps in each forensic discipline, and verify... encourage effective communication with the scientific community to explore research gaps and aid in..., comments should not include [[Page 59655

  11. EXPLORING THE CURRICULUM DIMENSIONS OF THEORIES-BASED ADULT EDUCATION - A SAMPLE COURSE OF SOUTHEAST ANATOLİAN REGION

    Emel Ültanır

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available As a result of social change over the past 20 years, there has been an economy-induced population movement in Turkey from eastern locales and rural areas to western regions and city centres. The effects of this domestic migration exemplify the problems of “integration faced by a migrating population”. In Turkey the role of Public Education Centres is primarily to provide pre-vocational training to adult learners. The aim of this research is focused upon the following five research questions: a What are the motivating factors for adults attending courses? b Are the syllabi consistent with contemporary adult education theories? c Which media are being used in the courses? d Are adult learners being taken on excursions outside of the classroom to workshops and factories? e What methods exist for measuring learning outcomes? The researchers developed a questionnaire to collect data. The questionnaire was composed within a framework of questions to provide insight to the following: i Characteristics of adult learners, ii The constructivism principles used in adult education, iii Teaching techniques suitable for adults, and iv Motivations behind course enrollment of adult learners. The content validity of the questionnaire was provided by expert opinions. Students attending Turkey-Mersin Public Education Centres between 2007-2008 were chosen as the subject population, with the questionnaires being distributed to 60 adult learners in this research. The findings can be summarized by the following: In the study it was found that students within the same course possessed educational backgrounds ranging from university graduates to those who had never attended a day of school in their lives. The motives behind course attendendance exhibits a diversity of viewpoints among the adult learners. Most of the learners stated that they were learning the subject material for the first time.

  12. A child-centred exploration of the relevance of family and friends to theory of mind development.

    Wright, Barlow C; Mahfoud, Janina

    2012-02-01

    Theory of Mind (ToM) is said to develop at around 4 years old. But some studies suggest it develops considerably earlier than this, with others suggesting it develops much later. Although several recent studies have found that social factors (like gender, family size, number of siblings, and number of friends) can impact on ToM, other studies contradict those findings. We wondered whether addressing several procedural issues and ensuring the task concerns real protagonists in real time, would bear on the above issues. Here, 114 children of 3-6 years completed four ToM tasks incorporating controls from experimental psychology, including randomly varying the order of ToM and non-ToM questions across participants. Now, children passed ToM tasks from around 5 years old, rather than 4 years or earlier. Girls did not develop ToM any earlier than boys. There was clear correlational evidence for the older-sibling effect and effects of friends but no reliable effects of nuclear or extended family. However, when these factors were set in the context of one another, the sibling effect was driven by a negative influence from younger siblings (as opposed to older siblings) and the friends effect was driven by friends at school (as opposed to friends at home). Finally, "friends" was a stronger predictor than siblings but memory (a cognitive factor) and age (a maturational factor) were the strongest predictors of all. © 2011 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2011 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  13. Exploring the role of Theory of Mind in Moral judgment: the case of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Roberta eFadda

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper adds to the growing research on moral judgment by considering whether Theory of Mind (ToM might foster children's autonomous moral judgment achievement. A group of 30 children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD was compared in moral judgment (MJ and ToM with 30 typically developing (TD children. Participants were tested for moral judgment with a classical Piaget’s task and for ToM with a second order False Belief task. In the moral task, children were told two versions of a story: in one version the protagonist acted according to a moral intention but the action resulted in a harmful consequence; in the other version the protagonist acted according to an immoral intention, but the action resulted in a harmless consequence. Children were asked which of the two protagonists was the naughtier. In line with previous studies, the results indicated that, while the majority of TD participants succeeded in the second order False Belief task, only few individuals with ASD showed intact perspective taking abilities. The analysis of the MJ in relation to ToM showed that children with ASD lacking ToM abilities judged guilty the protagonists of the two versions of the story in the moral task because both of them violated a moral rule or because they considered the consequences of the actions, ignoring any psychological information. These results indicate a heteronomous morality in individuals with ASD, based on the respect of learned moral rules and outcomes rather than others’ subjective states.

  14. Exploring Determinant Factors of Bond Trading with Inventory Management Theory (Case Study of Indonesian Capital Market, January – March 2009

    Imam Wahyudi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This  paper  studies  trading  volume  of  206  recorded  and  publicly  traded  bonds  in  Indonesian Capital Market on January 4th - March 9th 2009 observed period. The data covers almost all trading data in the market and all brokers that exist. The microstructure data used in this study is a complete understanding for almost every phenomenons in the market, and thus could explain more about bond liquidity. We ind that some bonds are actively traded and most are rare. We also construct some determinant facto tests of bond trading volume, included  descriptive  statistic,  GLS,  and  other  formal  test.  We  ind  that  bonds  with  larger par value and more seasoned tend to have smaller trading volume. We also ind that private bonds are actively traded more than public bonds (both government institution and private institution  bond.  Interest  rate  risk  and  bond  price  volatility  are  positively  inluence  bond trading volume, but opposite for bond rating. We ind that bond with higher probability to default  have  smaller  trading  volume.  While  comparing  the  bond  volume  data  with  stock price data, we ind that the relationship in two markets is not linier as the convenient theory in inance said. ";} // -->activate javascript

  15. Tautomeric equilibrium of creatinine and creatininium cation in aqueous solutions explored by Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations

    Gao, Jiao; Hu, Yongjun; Li, Shaoxin; Zhang, Yanjiao; Chen, Xue

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The tautomeric equlibrium and behavior of creatinine in aqueous solutions have been firstly studied by means of Raman spectroscopy and theoretical calculations (DFT). ► As 7 water molecules are gradually aggregated around the creatinine, theoretical results show an excellent accordance with the experimental spectrum. ► Analysis of molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) for creatinine (two tautomers and one protonated form) could explain why typical experimental Raman spectra with different pH values have obvious discrepancies at the electrical level. -- Abstract: The Raman spectral studies of creatinine with pH dependence were performed to explore the effects of pH values on the Raman spectroscopy of creatinine. Firstly, we calculated vibrational spectra by DFT to derive the equilibrium geometries and protonated form of creatinine. Comparing simulated and observed Raman spectra of creatinine in aqueous solution at pH 2, it is found the theoretical predicted spectra agree well with those of the experiment while seven water molecules are aggregated around the creatinine. Additionally, the tautomeric equilibrium of creatinine in aqueous solutions was studied and two tautomers are found to coexist by comparing its experimental and calculated Raman spectra. A water dimer being used to solvate creatinine would make the thermodynamic energy favor convert from the imino tautomer to the amino tautomer. Besides, the molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) analysis of the creatinine further confirms their discrepancies of typical experimental Raman spectra at different pH values.

  16. Discipline Based Instruction in Business Law

    Custin, Richard E.; Demas, John C.; Lampe, Marc; Custin, Colette L.

    2013-01-01

    Undergraduate business law courses typically utilize traditional textbooks organized by topic. Individual chapters, address the usual topics including contracts, torts, the court system and ethics. An innovative approach to facilitating a business law course involves segregating sections of the course into common business disciplines. Rather than…

  17. Streambeds Merit Recognition as a Scientific Discipline

    Constantz, J. E.

    2016-12-01

    Streambeds are generally viewed as simply sediments beneath streams, sediments topping alluvial aquifers, or sediments housing aquatic life, rather than as distinct geographic features comparable to soils and surficial geologic formations within watersheds. Streambeds should be viewed as distinct elements within watersheds, e.g., as akin to soils. In this presentation, streambeds are described as central features in watersheds, cycling water between the surface and underlying portions of the watershed. Regarding their kinship to soils, soils are often described as surficial sediments largely created by atmospheric weathering of underlying geologic parent material, and similarly, streambeds should be described as submerged sediments largely created by streamflow modification of underlying geologic parent material. Thus, streambeds are clearly overdue for recognition as their own scientific discipline along side other well-recognized disciplines within watersheds; however, slowing progress in this direction, the point is often made that hyporheic zones should be considered comparable to streambeds, but this is as misguided as equating unsaturated zones to soils. Streambeds and soils are physical geographic features of relatively constant volume, while hyporheic and unsaturated zones are hydrologic features of varying volume. Expanded upon in this presentation, 'Streambed Science' is proposed for this discipline, which will require both a well-designed protocol to physically characterize streambeds as well as development of streambed taxonomy, for suitable recognition as an independent discipline within watersheds.

  18. Toxicodynetics: A new discipline in clinical toxicology.

    Baud, F J; Houzé, P; Villa, A; Borron, S W; Carli, P

    2016-05-01

    Regarding the different disciplines that encompass the pharmacology and the toxicology, none is specifically dedicated to the description and analysis of the time-course of relevant toxic effects both in experimental and clinical studies. The lack of a discipline devoted to this major field in toxicology results in misconception and even in errors by clinicians. Review of the basic different disciplines that encompass pharmacology toxicology and comparing with the description of the time-course of effects in conditions in which toxicological analysis was not performed or with limited analytical evidence. Review of the literature clearly shows how misleading is the current extrapolation of toxicokinetic data to the description of the time-course of toxic effects. A new discipline entitled toxicodynetics should be developed aiming at a more systematic description of the time-course of effects in acute human and experimental poisonings. Toxicodynetics might help emergency physicians in risk assessment when facing a poisoning and contribute to a better assessment of quality control of data collected by poison control centres. Toxicodynetics would also allow a quantitative approach to the clinical effects resulting from drug-drug interaction. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  19. [The development of a nursing sciences discipline].

    Warnet, Sylvie

    2013-03-01

    Intellectual curiosity has guided the career of Michel Poisson, for the benefit of the gaze and clinical special approach of nurses and quality of care. He is also a historian. He questions the profession with regard to its identity and its desire to construct a discipline in nursing sciences.

  20. IDEA and Disciplining Children with Disabilities.

    Kolbe, Sherry L.

    1999-01-01

    The 1997 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act amendments offered a welcome shield for disabled students who found themselves unfairly disciplined within their school placements. Highlights the disagreements that continue over the bill's interpretation, and the fight by advocates for the disabled to limit unreasonable suspensions and…

  1. La Disciplina Positiva (Positive Discipline). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, Urbana, IL.

    This ERIC Digest suggests methods and language that can be used in handling difficult, but common, situations involving young children. The digest explains 12 methods of disciplining children that promote children's self-worth. These methods are: (1) showing children that the reasons for their actions are understood; (2) stating reasons; (3)…

  2. Interoperable Data Sharing for Diverse Scientific Disciplines

    Hughes, John S.; Crichton, Daniel; Martinez, Santa; Law, Emily; Hardman, Sean

    2016-04-01

    For diverse scientific disciplines to interoperate they must be able to exchange information based on a shared understanding. To capture this shared understanding, we have developed a knowledge representation framework using ontologies and ISO level archive and metadata registry reference models. This framework provides multi-level governance, evolves independent of implementation technologies, and promotes agile development, namely adaptive planning, evolutionary development, early delivery, continuous improvement, and rapid and flexible response to change. The knowledge representation framework is populated through knowledge acquisition from discipline experts. It is also extended to meet specific discipline requirements. The result is a formalized and rigorous knowledge base that addresses data representation, integrity, provenance, context, quantity, and their relationships within the community. The contents of the knowledge base is translated and written to files in appropriate formats to configure system software and services, provide user documentation, validate ingested data, and support data analytics. This presentation will provide an overview of the framework, present the Planetary Data System's PDS4 as a use case that has been adopted by the international planetary science community, describe how the framework is being applied to other disciplines, and share some important lessons learned.

  3. Philosophy and the Disciplines: The Borderlines | Minimah ...

    This work examines the borderlines of philosophy in relation to the central concern of other disciplines. As a preliminary step towards our examination, we attempt to uncover the specific nature of philosophy on the basis of its subject matter. We argue that while philosophy asks 'second order' questions about the totality of ...

  4. changing perceptions of discipline and corporal punishment

    punishment and, secondly, their perceptions of their disciplinary techniques since ... research on teachers' (un)changing perceptions with regard to the practice of corporal punishment for classroom discipline in order to achieve the vision of quality ...... teaching and classroom management with the aim of enhancing teacher ...

  5. Discipline and Methodology in Higher Education Research

    Tight, Malcolm

    2013-01-01

    Higher education research is a multidisciplinary field, engaging researchers from across the academy who make use of a wide range of methodological approaches. This article examines the relation between discipline and methodology in higher education research, analysing a database of 567 articles published in 15 leading higher education journals…

  6. Discipline: A Review of Selected Literature.

    Arsulich, Michael

    The nature of school discipline problems has changed over the past few decades. In the 1950s, teachers thought that fighting, stealing, and disrespect toward authority were the most serious forms of student misbehavior. Violent assaults on teachers and pupils, gang warfare, burglary, extortion, and destruction of school property are included among…

  7. Restorative Justice for Discipline with Respect

    Chmelynski, Carol

    2005-01-01

    Expulsion is commonly schools' last resort to maintain discipline and keep schools safe. But increasingly, educators are turning to "restorative justice"--an alternative method from the field of criminology--with promising results. According to Randall Comfort, assistant upper-school director, Mounds Park Academy, St. Paul, Minnesota, using this…

  8. Interrupting the Psy-Disciplines in Education

    , and beyond to enable reflection and critique of the implications of psy-based knowledge and practice. With chapters by a mixture of established and emerging international scholars in the field this is an interdisciplinary and authoritative study into the role of the psy-disciplines in the education system...

  9. changing perceptions of discipline and corporal punishment

    Through a qualitative research methodology of semi-structured inter- views, data ... punishment for classroom discipline in order to achieve the vision of quality education. ... committed to ending corporal punishment of children. Being hit ... are relevant to policymakers and other stakeholders who should take cognisance of.

  10. Discipline in the School. Crisis Intervention Series.

    Hartwig, Eric P.; Ruesch, Gary M.

    Despite the significant amount of attention given to student description, a serious controversy remains regarding the procedures that constitute effective discipline. This book is designed to meet the need for systematic investigation of the parameters of appropriate disciplinary practices for all students. It helps administrators formulate,…

  11. An Innovative Approach to Discipline and Management.

    Yenchko, Anne; DeBeal, Marshall Kirk

    The Effective Classroom Management and Discipline Strategies Graduate Program for Educators is organized around a series of core modules designed for use in inservice teacher education. The basic skills learned in these series of modules are communication (feedback, nonverbal, listening, self disclosure, problem solving, and conflict resolution),…

  12. Parents: How to Make Discipline Work for You.

    Ryan, Gloria

    1985-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges facing parents is disciplining children. Discipline is not controlling or imposing a parent's will upon children. It is a positive way of helping and guiding children to achieve self-discipline. Discipline tips for parents are included. (MT)

  13. From Discipline to Dynamic Pedagogy: A Re-Conceptualization of Classroom Management

    Davis, Jonathan Ryan

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to re-conceptualize the definition of classroom management, moving away from its traditional definition rooted in discipline and control toward a definition that focuses on the creation of a positive learning environment. Integrating innovative, culturally responsive classroom management theories, frameworks, and…

  14. Professionalism and the Evolution of Nursing as a Discipline: A Feminist Perspective.

    Wuest, Judith

    1994-01-01

    Liberal and socialist feminist theory is used to demonstrate how the male institution of professionalism has hindered the evolution of the predominantly female discipline of nursing. Knowledge acquired through the experience of caring should be an integral part of the vision of nursing. (SK)

  15. Political "Bildung" in the Context of Discipline, Instruction, and Moral Guidance

    Rucker, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Johann Friedrich Herbart (1776-1841) is considered the founding father of the science of education. In this article, I will try to show that Herbart sees the promotion of political "Bildung" as the task of discipline, instruction, and moral guidance, and that his work presents important components of a theory of political…

  16. Encouraged or Weeded Out: Perspectives of Students of Color in the STEM Disciplines on Faculty Interactions

    McCoy, Dorian L.; Luedke, Courtney L.; Winkle-Wagner, Rachelle

    2017-01-01

    For this multisite qualitative case study, framed in Bourdieu's social reproduction theory, we examined mentoring experiences among Students of Color majoring in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) disciplines at both a predominantly White institution and a historically Black institution. Findings revealed that faculty served…

  17. Globalisation and deterritorialisation : An example of an academic discipline in the Malay Archipelago

    Geerlings, L.R.C.; Lundberg, A.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the cultural effects of the globalisation of knowledge is of central concern in higher education research. This reading maps an analytical space for research on cultural negotiations in academic disciplines. It re-reads Appadurai's theory of global imaginaries (1996) through Deleuze

  18. Preventing School Bullying: Should Schools Prioritize an Authoritative School Discipline Approach over Security Measures?

    Gerlinger, Julie; Wo, James C.

    2016-01-01

    A common response to school violence features the use of security measures to deter serious and violent incidents. However, a second approach, based on school climate theory, suggests that schools exhibiting authoritative school discipline (i.e., high structure and support) might more effectively reduce school disorder. We tested these approaches…

  19. Connla's well: An exploration of similar elements of ancient Celtic perspectives and David Bohm's theories in quantum physics from a Jungian perspective

    Maciel, Duan

    This dissertation addresses the common elements between ancient Celtic mystical doctrines and philosophy and David Bohm's unique theories in quantum physics through a Jungian lens, using research based in dialogical hermeneutics. The premise of this dissertation is that psi, or the probability wave function of quantum physics, and its world of potentia are the same entities as Jung's objective psyche (or collective unconscious) and its domain, the unus mundus. In addition, the study explores the remarkable similarity between the ancient Celts' Otherworld, quantum physics' world of potentia, and Jung's unus mundus. These similarities argue for an in-depth Jungian analysis of this important but largely neglected mythology. The study explores the supposition, based partially on physicist David Bohm's theories of the implicate and explicate orders, that the above world of potentia intertwines with our three-dimensional world in a reciprocal creativity, designed to enhance both worlds. The study further advocates a greater emphasis on the creative arts therapies in the therapeutic situation, based on the above reciprocity. It is argued that this emphasis on creativity in the temenos may activate a profound "quantum leap" of insight in the analysand, most likely due to the reciprocity in which the objective psyche responds uniquely to the particular and individual creativity offered in order to heal the personal psyche. As we creatively access the objective psyche, that entity responds in kind, giving us new understanding and allowing us to change our attitudes and to further individuation, which in turn enhances the objective psyche. In addition, a psyche of reality is postulated in which Jung's concept of the objective psyche is expanded from the collective unconscious of humankind to a collective unconscious of All That Is, reflecting the findings in quantum physics that our universe is self-aware, organic, and holistic rather than mechanical and fragmented.

  20. Nursing theory: everything the artist spits is art?

    Timpson, J

    1996-05-01

    This paper explores the concept and utility of nursing theory in and for the practice of nursing. Working from the premise that many nurse practitioners appear uncertain as to the value of theory in relation to their everyday working experience, the paper investigates the contribution nursing theory makes in terms of sustaining and developing nursing as a practice discipline. The fact that nursing theory remains at once poorly evaluated, articulated or understood appears to be compounded by a general perception of nurse theorists as being removed from the realities of the practice setting and by the confusion precipitated, not least, by the semantic ambiguity engendered by their writings. The paper reviews the complex relationships extant between the development of nursing theory in regard to its utility for nursing practice, and concludes by suggesting a practice-led perspective by which nursing theory may be better articulated and assimilated within the discipline. In order to facilitate the study, it has been necessary to investigate the historical, theoretical and philosophical imperatives pertaining not only to the development of nursing theory but to nursing research and nursing practice per se.

  1. Some directions in ecological theory.

    Kendall, Bruce E

    2015-12-01

    The role of theory within ecology has changed dramatically in recent decades. Once primarily a source of qualitative conceptual framing, ecological theories and models are now often used to develop quantitative explanations of empirical patterns and to project future dynamics of specific ecological systems. In this essay, I recount my own experience of this transformation, in which accelerating computing power and the widespread incorporation of stochastic processes into ecological theory combined to create some novel integration of mathematical and statistical models. This stronger integration drives theory towards incorporating more biological realism, and I explore ways in which we can grapple with that realism to generate new general theoretical insights. This enhanced realism, in turn, may lead to frameworks for projecting ecological responses to anthropogenic change, which is, arguably, the central challenge for 21st-century ecology. In an era of big data and synthesis, ecologists are increasingly seeking to infer causality from observational data; but conventional biometry provides few tools for this project. This is a realm where theorists can and should play an important role, and I close by pointing towards some analytical and philosophical approaches developed in our sister discipline of economics that address this very problem. While I make no grand prognostications about the likely discoveries of ecological theory over the coming century, you will find in this essay a scattering of more or less far-fetched ideas that I, at least, think are interesting and (possibly) fruitful directions for our field.

  2. Surveillance theory and its implications for law

    Timan, Tjerk; Galic, Masa; Koops, Bert-Jaap; Brownsword, Roger; Scotford, Eloise; Yeung, Karen

    2017-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of key surveillance theories and their implications for law and regulation. It presents three stages of theories that characterise changes in thinking about surveillance in society and the disciplining, controlling, and entertaining functions of surveillance.

  3. Towards a New Theory of Feminist Coalition: Accounting for the Heterogeneity of Gender, Race, Class, and Sexuality through an Exploration of Power and Responsibility

    Holly Jeanine Boux

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a novel theory of feminist coalition that centers and redefines the concepts of power and responsibility. After outlining several key ways in which feminist coalition work has been addressed by both theorists and practitioners, it goes on to explore how accounting for the complex experiences of identity rooted in factors such as race, class, gender, and sexuality continues to complicate the process of coalition building and theorizing. From these foundations, the article develops a theory of feminist coalition that speaks to how such a movement—or organizations within such a movement—can drive the political will for transformation and turn this will into political action without glossing over vital differences in people’s daily experiences of gender as it intersects with other systems of domination and oppression. The key argument made herein is that an explicit focus on power and responsibility can help us develop more functional answers to critical and still pressing questions, such as: Who is included—explicitly or implicitly—in feminist coalitions? And what issues, or agendas, are we working towards changing through these coalitions?

  4. Exploring the perception of aid organizations' staff about factors affecting management of mass casualty traffic incidents in Iran: a grounded theory study.

    Bazeli, Javad; Aryankhesal, Aidin; Khorasani-Zavareh, Davoud

    2017-07-01

    Traffic incidents are of main health issues all around the world and cause countless deaths, heavy casualties, and considerable tangible and intangible damage. In this regard, mass casualty traffic incidents are worthy of special attention as, in addition to all losses and damage, they create challenges in the way of providing health services to the victims. The present study is an attempt to explore the challenges and facilitators in management of mass casualty traffic incidents in Iran. This qualitative grounded theory study was carried out with participation of 14 purposively selected experienced managers, paramedics and staff of aid organizations in different provinces of Iran in 2016. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in order to develop the theory. The transcribed interviews were analyzed through open, axial and selective coding. Despite the recent and relatively good improvements in facilities and management procedure of mass casualty traffic incidents in Iran, several problems such as lack of coordination, lack of centralized and integrated command system, large number of organizations participating in operations, duplicate attempts and parallel operations carried out by different organizations, intervention of lay people, and cultural factors halt provision of effective health services to the victims. It is necessary to improve the theoretical and practical knowledge of the relief personnel and paramedics, provide public with education about first aid and improve driving culture, prohibit laypeople from intervening in aid operations, and increase quality and quantity of aid facilities.

  5. A qualitative study to explore Prospect theory and message framing and diet and cancer prevention-related issues among African American adolescents

    Satia, Jessie A.; Barlow, Jameta; Armstrong-Brown, Janelle; Watters, Joanne L.

    2010-01-01

    Aims To develop and test cancer prevention messages based on Prospect theory on motivation to improve dietary intake in African American adolescents, and to explore other salient factors that may inform dietary intervention design and implementation in this population. Methods Semi-structured in-person qualitative interviews were conducted with 13 African-American male and female adolescents, 12-16 years, in North Carolina. Prospect theory and message framing were used to guide the design of the four sets of diet-related messages related to cancer prevention: short-term gain-, long-term gain-, short-term loss-, and long-term loss-framed messages. Data were also collected on demographic, behavioral, and psychological factors; usual health behaviors; and preferences for intervention delivery. Results The majority of respondents found the gain-framed, short-term messages most salient for both fruits/vegetables (8 (61.5%)), and fat consumption (7 (53.8%)). For fat consumption only, 2 (15.4%) found the loss-framed, short-term messages pertinent; none found the loss-framed, long-term messages relevant for either dietary variable. All indicated interest in participating in a dietary intervention/education program; most preferred the Internet as a channel for intervention delivery. Participants expressed diverse views regarding knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding healthy eating. Conclusions Researchers conducting dietary interventions and education initiatives and medical professionals who counsel African American adolescents should consider using Prospect Theory as a theoretical framework, should focus on gain-framed short-term messages regarding cancer prevention, and should employ the Internet for data collection and intervention and information delivery. PMID:20142738

  6. Human Capital Theory: A Holistic Criticism

    Tan, Emrullah

    2014-01-01

    Human capital theory has had a profound impact on a range of disciplines from economics to education and sociology. The theory has always been the subject of bitter criticisms from the very beginning, but it has comfortably survived and expanded its influence over other research disciplines. Not surprisingly, a considerable number of criticisms…

  7. Harsh discipline and behavior problems: the moderating effects of cortisol and alpha-amylase.

    Chen, Frances R; Raine, Adrian; Rudo-Hutt, Anna S; Glenn, Andrea L; Soyfer, Liana; Granger, Douglas A

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies link harsh discipline to adjustment problems in youth, yet not all individuals exposed to harsh discipline develop behavior problems. Contemporary theory suggests that this relationship could be moderated by individual differences in environmentally sensitive biological systems. This study investigated whether the interaction between hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity and autonomic nervous system (ANS) arousal moderated the link between harsh discipline and behavior problems. Three saliva samples were collected on a single day from 425 inner city youth (50% male, age 11-12 years, 80% African American) and were later assayed for cortisol (HPA) and alpha-amylase (ANS). Problem behavior was assessed by self- and parent-report using the Child Behavior Checklist. Youth also reported the level of harsh discipline that they experienced. Harsh discipline was positively associated with externalizing and internalizing problems only when there were asymmetrical profiles of HPA activity and ANS arousal. This pattern was evident for boys but not girls. Findings are discussed in relation to prevailing theories suggesting that biological susceptibility translates adversity into risk for behavior problems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Capitalization of multiple intelligence types during the biology disciplines

    Mariana DUMITRU

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on a sample of children at the Lăpuş School with classes I-VIII, using the teaching/learning process of the biology disciplines. A key element in applying the theory of Multiple Intelligence in a classroom is knowing the intelligence profile of children. Differentiated teaching approach was designed based on the predominant types of intelligences. For this purpose we used various methods: questionnaire, observation of children as they are given various tasks, interview, development of projects, role play, the biographical method-personal history of child, analysis of activities' results (compositions, drawings, collages, portfolios, debates in pair-groups, and case studies. In child’s profile, (types of intelligences become qualities that we capitalize in training, designing different teaching approach depending on predominant types of intelligences. The results appeared without delay. After a school's year that we worked differently with the children, they have improved school performance and became more interested in the study of biological disciplines thus arousing their curiosity and respect towards life.

  9. An analysis of natural gas exploration potential in the Qiongdongnan Basin by use of the theory of “joint control of source rocks and geothermal heat”

    Zhang Gongcheng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Oligocene Yacheng Fm contains the most important source rocks that have been confirmed by exploratory wells in the Qiongdongnan Basin. The efficiency of these source rocks is the key to the breakthrough in natural gas exploration in the study area. This paper analyzes the hydrocarbon potential of each sag in this basin from the perspective of control of both source rocks and geothermal heat. Two types of source rocks occur in the Yacheng Fm, namely mudstone of transitional facies and mudstone of neritic facies. Both of them are dominated by a kerogen of type-III, followed by type-II. Their organic matter abundances are controlled by the amount of continental clastic input. The mudstone of transitional facies is commonly higher in organic matter abundance, while that of neritic facies is lower. The coal-measure source rocks of transitional facies were mainly formed in such environments as delta plains, coastal plains and barrier tidal flat-marshes. Due to the control of Cenozoic lithosphere extension and influence of neotectonism, the geothermal gradient, terrestrial heat flow value (HFV and level of thermal evolution are generally high in deep water. The hot setting not only determines the predominance of gas generation in the deep-water sags, but can promote the shallow-buried source rocks in shallow water into oil window to generate oil. In addition to promoting the hydrocarbon generation of source rocks, the high geothermal and high heat flow value can also speed up the cracking of residual hydrocarbons, thus enhancing hydrocarbon generation efficiency and capacity. According to the theory of joint control of source quality and geothermal heat on hydrocarbon generation, we comprehensively evaluate and rank the exploration potentials of major sags in the Qiongdongnan Basin. These sags are divided into 3 types, of which type-I sags including Yanan, Lingshui, Baodao, Ledong and Huaguang are the highest in hydrocarbon exploration potential.

  10. Kind discipline: Developing a conceptual model of a promising school discipline approach.

    Winkler, Jennifer L; Walsh, Michele E; de Blois, Madeleine; Maré, Jeannette; Carvajal, Scott C

    2017-06-01

    This formative evaluation develops a novel conceptual model for a discipline approach fostering intrinsic motivation and positive relationships in schools. We used concept mapping to elicit and integrate perspectives on kind discipline from teachers, administrators, and other school staff. Three core themes describing kind discipline emerged from 11 identified clusters: (1) proactively developing a positive school climate, (2) responding to conflict with empathy, accountability, and skill, and (3) supporting staff skills in understanding and sharing expectations. We mapped the identified components of kind discipline onto a social ecological model and found that kind discipline encompasses all levels of that model including the individual, relational, environmental/structural, and even community levels. This contrasts with the dominant individual-behavioral discipline approaches that focus on fewer levels and may not lead to sustained student and staff motivation. The findings illustrate the importance of setting and communicating clear expectations and the need for them to be collaboratively developed. Products of the analysis and synthesis reported here are operationalized materials for teachers grounded in a "be kind" culture code for classrooms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Construction of Hypertexts in a Biochemistry Pos- Graduation Discipline

    W.B. Maia

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Virtual reality is an innovating manner of comprehending and acting on how the world is and, also, considered a new way of intellectual exercise.  This work took place in a  biochemistry masters discipline (Advanced Formation in ScientificEducation and had as its observation context the forum (on-line tool viability, intending the construction of hypertexts (active  collaborative writing by the 15 registered students in the  discipline in 2008. The discipline was available on the web, in  bioq.educacao.biz , where the students, teachers and monitors couldsubscribe. The virtual space was set with several environments (agenda,classroom, dictionary, email and forum; all of which were used during thediscipline. The forum, called orkuteducation, was destined to the hypertextelaboration, which was focused in three themes: 1º How to work with technology at school;   2º Teaching/learning methods and new information and communication technology; 3º Constructivism. The virtual learning environment had 2,275accesses to its content; being the forum the most visited one, with 1,026.   The built hypertext presented clear ideas about the approached themes, and realized the important role which a qualified teacher plays in the educational process. The new ways of create, organize and interact with information changes the relationship between the subject and the information itself. The hype rtext constitutes "high level computer tools", through which is possible to explore knowledge in a non -linear and interactive way. Hypertext remains a revolutionary concept oforganization and access to information and its generalization impact in society  is not known yet.

  12. THE EMERGENCE OF A DISCIPLINE: INFORMATION LAW

    Mihai-Ştefan DINU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to emphasize the fact that in the context of information society, regulations and laws governing information and data as well as information systems activities, must be prevalent. In this regard, we believe that at least on the educational and academic level the discipline of information law must be developed in accordance with the new challenges and threats to security, synchronized with the transformed paradigm of national and international security.

  13. Bridging disciplines through problem based learning

    Stentoft, Diana

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines whether a problem based approach to students’ learning may support interdisciplinary education at university level, where students are required to engage with the complexities inherent in constructing knowledge across disciplinary boundaries. These complexities include students...... engaging with multiple and conflicting epistemologies, identification and contextualisation of problems involving several disciplines in their solution etc. A practical example found in the case of newly developed BSc and MSc programs in Techno-Anthropology is provided.The paper includes some examples...

  14. Essays on market discipline, banking and regulation

    Cabrera, Matías Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Mención Internacional en el título de doctor This Dissertation presents three studies on market discipline, implicit guarantees, sovereign risk and bank regulation. Chapter one analyzes whether larger banks are deemed as Too Big to Save by analyzing their stock returns' reaction to a set of announcements regarding governments' bailout capacity. In order to assess if there has been a risk transfer from banks to sovereigns (due to implicit guarantees), chapter two analyzes the...

  15. Is Primatology an equal-opportunity discipline?

    Elsa Addessi

    Full Text Available The proportion of women occupying academic positions in biological sciences has increased in the past few decades, but women are still under-represented in senior academic ranks compared to their male colleagues. Primatology has been often singled out as a model of "equal-opportunity" discipline because of the common perception that women are more represented in Primatology than in similar fields. But is this indeed true? Here we show that, although in the past 15 years the proportion of female primatologists increased from the 38% of the early 1990s to the 57% of 2008, Primatology is far from being an "equal-opportunity" discipline, and suffers the phenomenon of "glass ceiling" as all the other scientific disciplines examined so far. In fact, even if Primatology does attract more female students than males, at the full professor level male members significantly outnumber females. Moreover, regardless of position, IPS male members publish significantly more than their female colleagues. Furthermore, when analyzing gender difference in scientific productivity in relation to the name order in the publications, it emerged that the scientific achievements of female primatologists (in terms of number and type of publications do not always match their professional achievements (in terms of academic position. However, the gender difference in the IPS members' number of publications does not correspond to a similar difference in their scientific impact (as measured by their H index, which may indicate that female primatologists' fewer articles are of higher impact than those of their male colleagues.

  16. Is Primatology an equal-opportunity discipline?

    Addessi, Elsa; Borgi, Marta; Palagi, Elisabetta

    2012-01-01

    The proportion of women occupying academic positions in biological sciences has increased in the past few decades, but women are still under-represented in senior academic ranks compared to their male colleagues. Primatology has been often singled out as a model of "equal-opportunity" discipline because of the common perception that women are more represented in Primatology than in similar fields. But is this indeed true? Here we show that, although in the past 15 years the proportion of female primatologists increased from the 38% of the early 1990s to the 57% of 2008, Primatology is far from being an "equal-opportunity" discipline, and suffers the phenomenon of "glass ceiling" as all the other scientific disciplines examined so far. In fact, even if Primatology does attract more female students than males, at the full professor level male members significantly outnumber females. Moreover, regardless of position, IPS male members publish significantly more than their female colleagues. Furthermore, when analyzing gender difference in scientific productivity in relation to the name order in the publications, it emerged that the scientific achievements of female primatologists (in terms of number and type of publications) do not always match their professional achievements (in terms of academic position). However, the gender difference in the IPS members' number of publications does not correspond to a similar difference in their scientific impact (as measured by their H index), which may indicate that female primatologists' fewer articles are of higher impact than those of their male colleagues.

  17. Comparative Medicine: An Inclusive Crossover Discipline.

    Macy, James; Horvath, Tamas L

    2017-09-01

    Comparative Medicine is typically defined as a discipline which relates and leverages the biological similarities and differences among animal species to better understand the mechanism of human and animal disease. It has also been defined as a field of study concentrating on similarities and differences between human and veterinary medicine and is increasingly associated with animal models of human disease, including the critical role veterinarians, animal resource centers, and Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees play in facilitating and ensuring humane and reproducible laboratory animal care and use. To this end, comparative medicine plays a pivotal role in reduction, refinement, and replacement in animals in biomedical research. On many levels, comparative medicine facilitates the translation of basic science knowledge into clinical applications; applying comparative medicine concepts throughout the translation process is critical for success. In addition to the supportive role of comparative medicine in the research enterprise, its role as a distinct and independent scientific discipline should not be lost. Although comparative medicine's research "niche" is not one particular discipline or disease process, rather, it is the investigative mindset that seeks to reveal common threads that weave different pathophysiologic processes into translatable approaches and outcomes using various models.

  18. QUEUEING DISCIPLINES BASED ON PRIORITY MATRIX

    Taufik I. Aliev

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with queueing disciplines for demands of general type in queueing systems with multivendor load. A priority matrix is proposed to be used for the purpose of mathematical description of such disciplines, which represents the priority type (preemptive priority, not preemptive priority or no priority between any two demands classes. Having an intuitive and simple way of priority assignment, such description gives mathematical dependencies of system operation characteristics on its parameters. Requirements for priority matrix construction are formulated and the notion of canonical priority matrix is given. It is shown that not every matrix, constructed in accordance with such requirements, is correct. The notion of incorrect priority matrix is illustrated by an example, and it is shown that such matrixes do not ensure any unambiguousness and determinacy in design of algorithm, which realizes corresponding queueing discipline. Rules governing construction of correct matrixes are given for canonical priority matrixes. Residence time for demands of different classes in system, which is the sum of waiting time and service time, is considered as one of the most important characteristics. By introducing extra event method Laplace transforms for these characteristics are obtained, and mathematical dependencies are derived on their basis for calculation of two first moments for corresponding characteristics of demands queueing

  19. Parents' perceptions of child abuse and child discipline in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Auemaneekul, Naruemon

    2013-12-01

    Violation of a child's right to protection is an issue for children all over the world. In Thailand, the greatest barrier to intervening in child abuse issues is the lack of awareness and the positive attitudes and beliefs on using violence as a way to discipline children. The incongruent definition used amongst Thai society and relevant sectors, causes incidences to be under reported and an obstacle to child survival and development. The present study is a qualitative study and aims to explore the perceptions of child abuse and child discipline definitions amongst parents in the Bangkok Metropolitan Area in order to extend broader knowledge for interpretation, definitions and to differentiate the line between child abuse and child discipline. Focus group discussions were used as the primary data collection method and content analysis was applied as the data analysis. The results produced two categories of parents' perceptions regarding child abuse and discipline. First, was the perception of the causes of child punishment and child discipline, and second was the meaning and difference between child abuse and child discipline. The study results would be beneficial for policy makers, health and related sectors to understand the meaning of the terms used amongst family members in order to apply and promote child protection strategies in culturally appropriate

  20. Disciplining young children: the role of verbal instructions and reasoning.

    Blum, N J; Williams, G E; Friman, P C; Christophersen, E R

    1995-08-01

    Pediatricians are often asked to advise parents who are having difficulty managing the oppositional behaviors of their toddlers and preschool-age children. A large number of articles provide advice to pediatricians and parents on effective disciplinary strategies. However, despite the fact that verbal explanations, reasoning, and instructions are commonly used by parents, few articles directly address the use of these strategies to affect children's behavior. In this paper, we review studies that explicitly investigate the ability of adults' verbal explanations or instructions to alter the behavior of young children. These studies suggest that under most circumstances, verbal explanations and instructions are not effective in changing young children's problem behaviors. We then discuss how theories in developmental and behavioral psychology help explain the limitations of using verbal reasoning and instructions to change young children's problem behaviors. Finally, we provide some recommendations for parents on the use of verbal explanations and instructions in disciplining young children.

  1. Visualizing context through theory deconstruction: a content analysis of three bodies of evaluation theory literature.

    Vo, Anne T

    2013-06-01

    While the evaluation field collectively agrees that contextual factors bear on evaluation practice and related scholarly endeavors, the discipline does not yet have an explicit framework for understanding evaluation context. To address this gap in the knowledge base, this paper explores the ways in which evaluation context has been addressed in the practical-participatory, values-engaged, and emergent realist evaluation literatures. Five primary dimensions that constitute evaluation context were identified for this purpose: (1) stakeholder; (2) program; (3) organization; (4) historical/political; and (5) evaluator. Journal articles, book chapters, and conference papers rooted in the selected evaluation approaches were compared along these dimensions in order to explore points of convergence and divergence in the theories. Study results suggest that the selected prescriptive theories most clearly explicate stakeholder and evaluator contexts. Programmatic, organizational, and historical/political contexts, on the other hand, require further clarification. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Using SOA Patterns to promote understanding across disciplines

    Patterson, A.

    2012-04-01

    The NETMAR consortium is building an open service network for marine environmental data by combining expertise from Ireland, France, the UK and Norway in disciplines such as Semantics, Software Engineering, UI Programming and Service Orchestration. Through the International Coastal Atlas Network, it engages user groups from Europe, Africa, Asia and the Americas. In doing so, it faces challenges in bringing these disciplines and groups together in a way that makes them greater than the sum of their parts. Service Oriented Architecture has been successfully applied in many cases to help build useful systems across organisational and geographic boundaries in order to expose diverse capabilities which can function together through a mutual exchange of value. This should make it ideally suited to a distributed decision making environment without centralised command and control. In theory, SOA should facilitate the building of global and complex infrastructures and the integration of information systems characterized by diverse protocols and interfaces,and with different data policies and security levels. The presentation will discuss a number of approaches used by NETMAR to bring the theory of SOA to bear in a useful way while maintaining the emphasis on keeping multi-disciplinary domain expertise as the primary driver of the project. It will discuss three approaches used: . Populating one or more standard reference models . Trade-off analysis based on business drivers and quality attributes . Documenting design reuse in the form of patterns. The three approaches will be compared in terms of how they succeed in bringing 'just enough' service architecture knowledge into the project. We discuss how the approaches can interact and complement each other. Finally, we present a number of SOA patterns identified as being relevant to NETMAR and explain why they are felt to be particularly effective in gaining consensus on how to build the NETMAR system of systems.

  3. "A mission-driven discipline": the growth of conservation biology.

    Meine, Curt; Soulé, Michael; Noss, Reed E

    2006-06-01

    Conservation biology emerged in the mid-1980s, drawing on established disciplines and integrating them in pursuit of a coherent goal: the protection and perpetuation of the Earth's biological diversity. Opportunistic in its borrowing and application of knowledge, conservation biology had its roots within the established biological sciences and resource management disciplines but has continually incorporated insights from the empirical experience of resource managers, from the social sciences and humanities, and from diverse cultural sources. The Society for Conservation Biology (SCB) has represented the field's core constituency, while expanding that constituency in keeping with the field's integrative spirit. Conservation Biology has served as SCB's flagship publication, promoting research, dialog, debate, and application of the field's essential concepts. Over the last 20 years the field, SCB, and the journal have evolved to meet changing conservation needs, to explore gaps in our knowledge base, to incorporate new information from related fields, to build professional capacity, and to provide expanded opportunities for international participation. In turn, the field, SCB, and journal have prompted change in related fields, organizations, and publications. In its dedication to advancing the scientific foundations of biodiversity conservation and placing that science at the service of society in a world whose variety, wildness, and beauty we care for conservation biology represents both a continuation and radical reconfiguration of the traditional relationship between science and conservation.

  4. Wage Returns to University Disciplines in Greece: Are Greek Higher Education Degrees Trojan Horses?

    Livanos, Ilias; Pouliakas, Konstantinos

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the wage returns to qualifications and academic disciplines in the Greek labour market. Exploring wage responsiveness across various degree subjects in Greece is interesting, as it is characterised by high levels of graduate unemployment, which vary considerably with the field of study, and relatively low levels of wage…

  5. Sport Sociology and the Discipline of Sociology: Present Status and Speculations about the Future.

    Snyder, Eldon E.; Spreitzer, Elmer

    The status of the sociology of sport within the discipline of sociology is explored. Review of the subfield since 1971 indicates an increase in the number of publications and communication relating to sport sociology topics. It is hypothesized, however, that sport sociology will not in the near future receive equal acceptance within sociology with…

  6. Disciplining and popularizing: evolution and its publics from the modern synthesis to the present.

    Smocovitis, Vassiliki Betty

    2014-03-01

    This paper serves as an introduction to a special collection of papers exploring the centrifugal and centripetal forces in the process of disciplining and popularizing the science of evolution in the period preceding and after the modern synthesis of evolution. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Research into Factors Contributing to Discipline Use and Disproportionality in Major Urban Schools

    Mcloughlin, Caven S.; Noltemeyer, Amity L.

    2010-01-01

    Compared to other school typologies, major urban high poverty schools more frequently use exclusionary discipline and apply these techniques disproportionately to African American students. We explored school demographic variables predicting these two outcomes using data from 440 major urban, high poverty schools. Results suggest a different set…

  8. Exclusionary Discipline of Students with Disabilities: Student and School Characteristics Predicting Suspension

    Sullivan, Amanda L.; Van Norman, Ethan R.; Klingbeil, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Given the negative outcomes associated with suspension, scholars and practitioners are concerned with discipline disparities. This study explored patterns and predictors of suspension in a sample of 2,750 students with disabilities in 39 schools in a Midwestern district. Hierarchical generalized linear modeling demonstrated that disability type,…

  9. Discipline-Specific Language Instruction for International Students in Introductory Economics

    Nguyen, Trien T.; Williams, Julia; Trimarchi, Angela

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores student perceptions of the effects of pairing discipline-specific language instruction with the traditional method of course delivery in economics. Our research involved teaching content-based English as an additional language (EAL) tutorials to a small group of ten international students taking first-year introductory…

  10. Policy Incentives and the Extension of Mortgage Credit: Increasing Market Discipline for Subprime Lending

    An, Xudong; Bostic, Raphael W.

    2009-01-01

    The lax underwriting in non-prime mortgage markets is widely perceived as one cause of the recent difficulties in the housing market. Policymakers are currently considering moves such as enforcing more careful underwriting to provide additional discipline to mortgage markets. This research explores the possibility of another approach to supplement…

  11. Visual Thinking Strategies: Teachers' Reflections on Closely Reading Complex Visual Texts within the Disciplines

    Cappello, Marva; Walker, Nancy T.

    2016-01-01

    The authors offer a new perspective on close reading that uses a range of multimodal texts to capitalize on the visual nature of contemporary society and to support literacy within the academic disciplines. Specifically, a qualitative study explored teachers' perspectives on the use of Visual Thinking Strategies (VTS), a practice borrowed from…

  12. Resisting Punitive School Discipline: Perspectives and Practices of Exemplary Urban Elementary Teachers

    Hambacher, Elyse

    2018-01-01

    Drawing on the literature related to classroom management, and culturally relevant critical teacher care, and effective teaching for students of color, this paper uses interview and observation data to explore the perspectives and practices of two exemplary fifth-grade teachers who refuse to rely on punitive discipline with their students of…

  13. Teachers' Perceptions and Concerns on the Banning of Corporal Punishment and Its Alternative Disciplines

    Lwo, Lwun-syin Laurence; Yuan, You-Shi

    2011-01-01

    Corporal punishment (CP) has been officially banned since December 2006 in Taiwan. It would be useful to explore the perceptions and concerns of elementary school teachers on the issue of banning CP and on alternative methods of discipline in 2008, two years since the ban took effect. In this study, 323 teachers were stratified randomly and drawn…

  14. Conceptual Change in Psychology Students' Acceptance of the Scientific Foundation of the Discipline

    Amsel, Eric; Ashley, Aaron; Baird, Todd; Johnston, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Two studies explored conceptual change in undergraduate psychology students' acceptance of the scientific foundations of the discipline. In Study 1, Introductory Psychology students completed the Psychology as Science questionnaire (PAS) at the beginning and end of the semester and did so from their own (Self Condition) and their instructors'…

  15. Research Article Abstracts in Two Related Disciplines: Rhetorical Variation between Linguistics and Applied Linguistics

    Suntara, Watinee; Usaha, Siriluck

    2013-01-01

    The previous studies on abstracts (e.g., Santos, 1996; Samraj, 2002; Pho, 2008) illustrate that disciplinary variation in research article abstracts is discernible. However, the studies of abstracts from two related disciplines are still limited. The present study aimed to explore the rhetorical moves of abstracts in the fields of linguistics and…

  16. Exploring Japanese nurses' perceptions of the relevance and use of assertive communication in healthcare: A qualitative study informed by the Theory of Planned Behaviour.

    Omura, Mieko; Stone, Teresa E; Maguire, Jane; Levett-Jones, Tracy

    2018-08-01

    The hierarchical nature of healthcare environments presents a key risk factor for effective interprofessional communication. Power differentials evident in traditional healthcare cultures can make it difficult for healthcare professionals to raise concerns and be assertive when they have concerns about patient safety. This issue is of particular concern in Japan where inherent cultural and social norms discourage assertive communication. The aim of this study was to (a) explore nurses' perceptions of the relevance and use of assertive communication in Japanese healthcare environments; and (b) identify the factors that facilitate or impede assertive communication by Japanese nurses. A belief elicitation qualitative study informed by the Theory of Planned Behaviour was conducted and reported according to the COnsolidated criteria for REporting Qualitative research. Twenty-three practicing Japanese registered nurses were recruited by snowball sampling from October 2016 to January 2017. Individual face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted and transcribed in Japanese and then translated into English. Two researchers independently conducted a directed content analysis informed by the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Participants' responses were labelled in order of frequency for behavioural beliefs about the consequences of assertive communication, sources of social pressure, and factors that facilitate or impede assertive communication in Japanese healthcare environments. Although person-centred care and patient advocacy were core values for many of the participants, strict hierarchies, age-based seniority, and concerns about offending a colleague or causing team disharmony impeded their use of assertive communication. Novice nurses were particularly reluctant to speak up because of their perception of having limited knowledge and experience. This study identified Japanese nurses' behavioural, normative, and control beliefs in relation to assertive

  17. The Big Data Tools Impact on Development of Simulation-Concerned Academic Disciplines

    A. A. Sukhobokov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article gives a definition of Big Data on the basis of 5V (Volume, Variety, Velocity, Veracity, Value as well as shows examples of tasks that require using Big Data tools in a diversity of areas, namely: health, education, financial services, industry, agriculture, logistics, retail, information technology, telecommunications and others. An overview of Big Data tools is delivered, including open source products, IBM Bluemix and SAP HANA platforms. Examples of architecture of corporate data processing and management systems using Big Data tools are shown for big Internet companies and for enterprises in traditional industries. Within the overview, a classification of Big Data tools is proposed that fills gaps of previously developed similar classifications. The new classification contains 19 classes and allows embracing several hundreds of existing and emerging products.The uprise and use of Big Data tools, in addition to solving practical problems, affects the development of scientific disciplines concerning the simulation of technical, natural or socioeconomic systems and the solution of practical problems based on developed models. New schools arise in these disciplines. These new schools decide peculiar to each discipline tasks, but for systems with a much bigger number of internal elements and connections between them. Characteristics of the problems to be solved under new schools, not always meet the criteria for Big Data. It is suggested to identify the Big Data as a part of the theory of sorting and searching algorithms. In other disciplines the new schools are called by analogy with Big Data: Big Calculation in numerical methods, Big Simulation in imitational modeling, Big Management in the management of socio-economic systems, Big Optimal Control in the optimal control theory. The paper shows examples of tasks and methods to be developed within new schools. The educed tendency is not limited to the considered disciplines: there are

  18. The Care of Corporal Punishment: Conceptions of Early Childhood Discipline Strategies among Parents and Grandparents in a Poor and Urban Area in Tanzania

    Frankenberg, Sofia Johnson; Holmqvist, Rolf; Rubenson, Birgitta

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates conceptions of early childhood discipline strategies discussed in focus groups with parents and grandparents in a poor urban area in Tanzania. A grounded theory analysis suggested a model that included four discipline strategies related to corporal punishment: to beat with care, to treat like an egg, as if beating a snake…

  19. Qualitative study to explore Prospect Theory and message framing and diet and cancer prevention-related issues among African American adolescents.

    Satia, Jessie A; Barlow, Jameta; Armstrong-Brown, Janelle; Watters, Joanne L

    2010-01-01

    There is a dearth of knowledge regarding factors that may motivate African American adolescents to consume healthier diets. To develop and test cancer prevention messages based on Prospect Theory on motivation to improve dietary intake in African American adolescents and to explore other salient factors that may inform dietary intervention design and implementation in this population. Semistructured in-person qualitative interviews were conducted with 13 African American male and female adolescents, aged 12 to 16 years, in North Carolina. Prospect Theory and message framing were used to guide the design of the 4 sets of diet-related messages related to cancer prevention: short-term, gain-framed; long-term, gain-framed; short-term, loss-framed; and long-term, loss-framed messages. Data were also collected on demographic, behavioral, and psychological factors; usual health behaviors; and preferences for intervention delivery. Most respondents found the gain-framed, short-term messages most salient for both fruits/vegetables (8 [61.5%]) and fat consumption (7 [53.8%]). For fat consumption only, 2 (15.4%) found the loss-framed, short-term messages pertinent; none found the loss-framed, long-term messages relevant for either dietary variable. All indicated interest in participating in a dietary intervention/education program; most preferred the Internet as a channel for intervention delivery. Participants expressed diverse views regarding knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding healthy eating. The gain-framed, short-term messages were most salient for motivating the majority of respondents to consume a healthy diet and most expressed a strong interest in participating in programs about diet and nutrition, with the Internet as the preferred communication channel. Researchers conducting dietary interventions and education initiatives and medical professionals who counsel African American adolescents should consider using Prospect Theory as a theoretical framework

  20. Architectural Theory in the Undergraduate Curriculum: A Pedagogical Alternative

    Smith, Korydon H.

    2013-01-01

    The study of architectural theory remains absent from many undergraduate design programs, or, if present, the structure of many curricula place "theory" as an autonomous, peripheral course. Theory, however, as it is in other disciplines, is the foundation of the discipline of architecture. To regain the importance and vitality of…

  1. Market discipline and incentive problems in conglomerate banks

    Boot, A.W.A.; Schmeits, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper analyzes the optimal conglomeration of bank activities. Weshow that the effectiveness of market discipline forstand-alone activities (divisions) is of crucial importance for thepotential benefits of conglomeration. We find thateffective market discipline reduces the potential benefits

  2. Is Primatology an Equal-Opportunity Discipline?

    Borgi, Marta

    2012-01-01

    The proportion of women occupying academic positions in biological sciences has increased in the past few decades, but women are still under-represented in senior academic ranks compared to their male colleagues. Primatology has been often singled out as a model of “equal-opportunity” discipline because of the common perception that women are more represented in Primatology than in similar fields. But is this indeed true? Here we show that, although in the past 15 years the proportion of female primatologists increased from the 38% of the early 1990s to the 57% of 2008, Primatology is far from being an “equal-opportunity” discipline, and suffers the phenomenon of “glass ceiling” as all the other scientific disciplines examined so far. In fact, even if Primatology does attract more female students than males, at the full professor level male members significantly outnumber females. Moreover, regardless of position, IPS male members publish significantly more than their female colleagues. Furthermore, when analyzing gender difference in scientific productivity in relation to the name order in the publications, it emerged that the scientific achievements of female primatologists (in terms of number and type of publications) do not always match their professional achievements (in terms of academic position). However, the gender difference in the IPS members' number of publications does not correspond to a similar difference in their scientific impact (as measured by their H index), which may indicate that female primatologists' fewer articles are of higher impact than those of their male colleagues. PMID:22272353

  3. Policing Norwegian Welfare: Disciplining and Differentiating within the Bottom Rungs

    Erika K. Gubrium

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Policing is a disciplining means for using welfare services to govern welfare recipients towards a desired behaviour or goal. We apply Foucault’s (1977 definition of institutional discipline as a means for exploring how the distinctions made by state and local welfare authorities in Norway when policing recipients may take shape according to normative perceptions of ethnicity and deservingness. More particularly, we explore the regulating understandings and activities linked to the inclusion and exclusion of eligibility to welfare benefits and services and the form of the services offered. Our focus lies at the point of entry from the lowest tier of Norwegian welfare benefits (social assistance into two semi-parallel and higher tiers promising more (higher benefits, better services. The tiers are represented by programmes that share aims, yet differ in reach: the 2004 Introduction Programme and the 2007 Qualification Programme. The Introduction Programme is an activation programme targeted at immigrants and refugees newly arrived to Norway. Its aim is to strengthen opportunities to participate in society and labour market, as well as to promote economic independence. The Qualification Programme is an activation programme that was explicitly modelled after the Introduction Programme, yet whose target group reaches more broadly to include long-term recipients of social assistance and those whose work ability is severely lowered. While both programmes have been premised on the need to transform participants from a status of passive welfare benefit recipients to active participants in qualifying measures and society, the target groups vary and it is this contrast that is our point of focus. We contrast the two policies at two ‘moments’ in the policy cycle: (1 policy framing (public and policymaker understandings/assumptions concerning the target group, the location of accountability for the marginal position of the policy recipient and the

  4. Translational neonatology research: transformative encounters across species and disciplines.

    Dam, Mie S; Sangild, Per T; Svendsen, Mette N

    2018-01-22

    This paper explores the laborious and intimate work of turning bodies of research animals into models of human patients. Based on ethnographic research in the interdisciplinary Danish research centre NEOMUNE, we investigate collaboration across species and disciplines, in research aiming at improving survival for preterm infants. NEOMUNE experimental studies on piglets evolved as a platform on which both basic and clinical scientists exercised professional authority. Guided by the field of multi-species research, we explore the social and material agency of research animals in the production of human health. Drawing on Anna Tsing's concept of "collaborative survival", we show that sharing the responsibility of the life and death of up to twenty-five preterm piglets fostered not only a collegial solidarity between basic and clinical scientists, but also a transformative cross-fertilization across species and disciplines-a productive "contamination"-facilitating the day-to-day survival of piglets, the academic survival of scientists and the promise of survival of preterm infants. Contamination spurred intertwined identity shifts that increased the porosity between the pig laboratory and the neonatal intensive care unit. Of particular significance was the ability of the research piglets to flexibly become animal-infant-patient hybrids in need of a united effort from basic and clinical researchers. However, 'hybrid pigs' also entailed a threat to the demarcation between humans and animals that consolidates the use of animals in biomedical research, and efforts were continuously done to keep contamination within spatial limits. We conclude that contamination facilitates transformative encounters, yet needs spatial containment to materialize bench-to-bedside translation.

  5. Op het raakvlak van historische disciplines

    Dick E.H. de Boer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available At the Meeting Point of Historical DisciplinesThis contribution introduces the way in which the interaction between history and archaeology is examined, taking the case of the identification of a tomb and remains of Count William II of Holland, King of the Holy Roman Empire (†1256, in the former abbey church of Middelburg. It stresses the necessity of strict source criticism, which should be self-evident, but is at risk of receiving less attention. This is even truer when one of the disciplines is used as an auxiliary argument to support the other instead of a balanced approach. Wishful interpretation in such a case is a clear risk. The contribution gives some examples, before sketching the advance made thanks to the reapprochement of history and archaeology, and the consequent need for a registration system of archaeological data that can facilitate multi-disciplinary analysis. It ends with an introduction to the different stands in the dossier.Deze bijdrage biedt een inleiding op de wijze waarop de interactie tussen geschiedenis en archeologie wordt bekeken aan de hand van een casus betreffende het graf en de overblijfselen van de in 1256 gesneuvelde graaf Willem II van Holland, koning van het Heilige Roomse Rijk, in de voormalige abdijkerk van Middelburg. Hij benadrukt de noodzaak van een nauwgezette bronnenkritiek. Hoewel deze als vanzelfsprekend moet worden beschouwd, is er een zeker risico van verminderde zorgvuldigheid. Dit speelt vooral wanneer één van de disciplines wordt gebruikt als een hulp-argument, dat de uitkomsten van de andere moet ondersteunen, in plaats van een benadering waarbij beide disciplines in evenwicht zijn. Bij een onbalans is het risico van interpreteren in het licht van de gewenste uitkomst duidelijk aanwezig. De bijdrage geeft hiervan enkele voorbeelden, alvorens de vooruitgang te schetsen die is geboekt juist dankzij de toenadering tussen geschiedenis en archeologie, en aan te geven dat er behoefte is aan een

  6. The art and science of disciplining children.

    Adams Larsen, Margo; Tentis, Erin

    2003-08-01

    A practical guide to working with parents on the discipline of their children is provided. Focus is specific to provide a practical tool of useful how-to information for the primary care provider who works with children and their families. This article focuses on basic principles and techniques that can be established within the office setting, so as to model for families, as well as to teach to families for use at home. This article also focuses on common applications to illustrate the use of these techniques. Finally, the art of consultation and referral is reviewed for situations that are assessed to be above and beyond the call of the primary practitioner.

  7. Entrepreneurship and the Discipline of External Finance

    Nanda, Ramana

    I confirm the finding that the propensity to start a new firm rises sharply among those in the top five per­centiles of personal wealth. This pattern is more pronounced for entrants in less capital intensive sectors. Prior to entry, founders in this group earn about 6% less compared to those who ......, these findings suggest that the spike in entry at the top end of the wealth distribution is driven by low-ability individuals who can afford to start (and sometimes continue running) weaker firms because they do not face the discipline of external finance....

  8. Perfect discipline platform and Promote interactive development

    Xiang-ming ZENG

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Through the questionnaire survey of Marxism’s course construction and Ideological and Political Theory Course in 45 universities, the paper tries to discuss how to enhance the effectiveness of ideological and political theory course by platform of Marxism’s course construction. Research shows that it can enhance the effectiveness of Ideological and Political Theory Course as long as we make full use of platform construction of Marxism’s course, fully display the Marxism’s spirit with the times and the latest achievements in Ideological and political theory course, and Strengthen academic ideological and Political Theory Education. We believe that it can better cultivate socialist builders to achieve the Chinese dream by playing the educational function of Ideological and Political Theory Course.

  9. Realism and Relativism in the Development of Nursing as a Discipline.

    Hirani, Shela Akbar Ali; Richter, Solina; Salami, Bukola Oladunni

    In today's era of nursing, the role of a unique disciplinary knowledge that is grounded in philosophy is essential to inform nursing practice, fill knowledge gaps, improve the quality of nursing education, and guide the theoretical development of nursing. Realism and relativism have contributed to the development of the nursing discipline by providing the basis of evidence-based nursing practice, nursing research, nursing education, and theoretical construction. This article explores the role of realism and relativism in the development of the discipline of nursing and presents their contributions to the work of nurse clinicians, nurse researchers, nurse educators, and nurse theorists.

  10. English as an arts discipline in environmental education | Clacherty ...

    The subject English can be used as a discipline or as a medium. This paper describes the form of English as a discipline and questions the way it is used in environmental education. A call is made to involve in environmental education those who understand the form of English as a discipline in particular and of the arts in ...

  11. Military discipline: in the history and in modern Russia

    Grigoryev O. V.

    2016-01-01

    the article deals with the problem of changing the approaches to military discipline. Analyzed and its inextricable link with the military law, the role and place of discipline in strengthening statehood and the suppression of the destructive manifestations. The analysis of the modern understanding of military discipline in passing of military service in the Russian Federation.

  12. Teen Court-School Partnerships: Reducing Disproportionality in School Discipline

    Stalker, Katie Cotter

    2018-01-01

    Reducing disproportionality in school discipline is a grand challenge for school social work. Although the causes of disproportionality in exclusionary school discipline are interrelated and complex, one solution is to introduce alternatives to suspensions and expulsions that discipline students while keeping them engaged in school. The teen court…

  13. On the Theoretical Integration of Accounting Discipline and the Boundary of Accounting

    CAO Wei

    2016-01-01

    The discipline of accounting has formed many branches,and from it split some independent majors as well,such as financial management,auditing and so on.However,due to lacking of comprehensive thinking and theoretical summary,some of the basic relationships between accounting branches still cannot be explained clearly in theory,thus making people have difficulty in understanding clearly the hierarchical structure of the accounting discipline and the nature and boundary of accounting.The idea of theoretical integration presented by this study is:to reconstruct (or return to) the basic theoretical structure of accounting,and on this basis to establish the basic accounting;to shape some accounting branches through the cross links between the basic accounting and other related disciplines;to form a narrow-sense accounting with the external and internal two information systems of the accounting entity,which should be developed on the basis of the basic accounting;and to integrate such disciplines as the narrow-sense accounting,financial management and auditing into a generalized accounting through the value management of the accounting entity,which is necessary.Some interdisciplinary subjects shaped by the accounting information system with some related crossing disciplines (such as national economic accounting,forensic accounting,etc.) belong to a more generalized accounting.

  14. Isotope hydrology: applied discipline in earth sciences

    Froehlich, K.; Rozanski, K.; Araguas Araguas, L.

    1998-01-01

    The discipline 'isotope hydrology' is being reviewed from the perspective of the Isotope Hydrology Section of the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna. The Section was created in the late fifties and is activities involved int the scientific progress of the discipline. The role of the IAEA in the development of isotope hydrology has always been of a dual nature: on one hand, the Section has been and still is heavily engaged in supporting and coordinating further development of isotope methodologies, on the other hand, it serves as an interface between the methodological development in research institutes and the applied work using proven techniques in field projects on water resources assessment and management. The paper provides a brief overview of applications of isotope-based methodologies in hydrology, with emphasis on new trends and challenges related to man's growing impact on the water cycle. This contribution is a tribute to the memory of the former Head of the Isotope Hydrology Section, Jean-Charles Fontes, to whom we owe so much. (authors)

  15. Behavior analysis and neuroscience: Complementary disciplines.

    Donahoe, John W

    2017-05-01

    Behavior analysis and neuroscience are disciplines in their own right but are united in that both are subfields of a common overarching field-biology. What most fundamentally unites these disciplines is a shared commitment to selectionism, the Darwinian mode of explanation. In selectionism, the order and complexity observed in nature are seen as the cumulative products of selection processes acting over time on a population of variants-favoring some and disfavoring others-with the affected variants contributing to the population on which future selections operate. In the case of behavior analysis, the central selection process is selection by reinforcement; in neuroscience it is natural selection. The two selection processes are inter-related in that selection by reinforcement is itself the product of natural selection. The present paper illustrates the complementary nature of behavior analysis and neuroscience through considering their joint contributions to three central problem areas: reinforcement-including conditioned reinforcement, stimulus control-including equivalence classes, and memory-including reminding and remembering. © 2017 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  16. Effects of video-feedback intervention on harmonious parent–child interaction and sensitive discipline of parents with intellectual disabilities : A randomized controlled trial

    Hodes, M. W.; Meppelder, M.; de Moor, M.; Kef, S.; Schuengel, C.

    2018-01-01

    Background: This study tested whether video-feedback intervention based on attachment and coercion theory increased harmonious parent–child interaction and sensitive discipline of parents with mild intellectual disabilities or borderline intellectual functioning. Methods: Observer ratings of

  17. Exploration: A misunderstood business

    Lohrenz, J.

    1991-01-01

    The business of exploration is persistently misunderstand. Why? Misunderstandings persist and even pervade educated, sophisticated, and obviously capable business practitioners and savants of an array of disciplines - finance, economics, and the management sciences. Routine and appropriate assumptions that apply for most businesses invoke nonsense applied to exploration, a unique business. The uniqueness of exploration, unrecognized, sustains the misunderstandings. The authors will not here obliterate these obdurate misunderstandings with some revelation. They show, however, how the misunderstandings naturally arise among those who certainly are not used to being naive

  18. Czech pension reform: how to reconcile equivalence with fiscal discipline

    Potůček Martin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the recent changes in the Czech Republic’s pension system was provoked by a petition to the Constitutional Court. The setting of bend points for determining the amount of pensions depending on the insured person’s previous earnings was contested as discrimination against higher income categories. The Constitutional Court granted the petition. The result was an approval and implementation of an amendment to Act No. 155/1995 Coll., on Pension Insurance, that for the purposes of calculating the level of old-age pensions favoured the highest income decile at the expense of most other insured persons, namely those with middle incomes. Simultaneously, the political criterion of fiscal discipline was applied to ensure the financial sustainability of the pension system. In analysing this case, we critically adopt the theory of actor-centred institutionalism and the theory of the policy cycle. From the nature of the analysed case it follows that we pay attention mainly to the legislative process which resulted in the amendment. Our methodology is dominated by analysis of documents (legal norms, court decisions, political programmes, official publications and political and administrative communication (including debates on legislative drafts in the executive and legislature.

  19. Writing disciplines: producing disciplinary knowledge in the context of contemporary higher education

    Karin Tusting

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses academic disciplinary writing practices, and how these are affected by changes in the landscape of Higher Education in the UK. After exploring the definition and understanding of the notion of “discipline”, the paper presents research from an ESRC-funded research project studying academics’ everyday writing practices, working closely with academics across different disciplines and different kinds of higher education institutions. The changing context of Higher Education in the UK is presented, in particular the emergence of new kinds of managerial practices which shape and co-ordinate the everyday writing work of academics. The paper shows that while some disciplines, such as History and Pure Mathematics, are associated with clearly-defined writing practices, others are more diverse. It discusses how managerial practices, particularly those driven by centralised national research evaluations, affect different disciplines in different ways.

  20. Examination of the "Theory of Guidance" in the View of 'Ali Ibn Abi Talib (A): An Exploration into the Nahj Al-Balaghah

    Rostami-Nasab, Abas Ali; Tajedini, Oranus; Sadatmoosavi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the "Theory of Guidance" according to 'Ali ibn Abi Talib (a). This theory is based on three divine covenants or fundamentals in guidance including the divine Prophet, the divine Book, and the divine human nature ("fitrat"). Research in this regard seems essential because this theory has not been previously…

  1. Thinking on the Theory and practice of Building the partyˊs Discipline Education platform in the New period%新时期构建党的纪律教育平台的理论与实践思考

    贺夏蓉

    2015-01-01

    To build the Party’s discipline education platform and strengthen the discipline education is a neces_sary requirement for carrying through the spirit of“managing and strictly governing the Party by itself”,an ur_gent requirement for strengthening the Party’s discipline construction,and an actual requirement for doing well the work of cadre education and training in the new period. To build an authoritative platform for party discipline education under the new situation,we must,based on the understanding of and respect to the regularities in the growth of cadres and the regularities in the education and training of cadres,further integrate resources,grasp the key points,innovate in the methods,perfect the mechanisms,improve the scientific,institutional and normative level of the Party’s discipline education,continuously tamp the ideological foundation for the cleanness of the party member cadres,consolidate the ideological and moral defense against corruption,and solve the problem of making the party member cadres“unwilling to corrupt”.%构建党的纪律教育平台,加强纪律教育,是落实党要管党、从严治党的必然要求,是加强党的纪律建设的迫切需要,是做好新时期干部教育培训工作的现实需要。新形势下构建党的纪律教育权威平台,就是要在把握和尊重干部成长规律和干部教育培训规律的基础上,进一步整合资源、突出重点、创新方法、健全机制,提高党的纪律教育的科学化、制度化、规范化水平,不断夯实党员干部廉洁从政的思想基础、筑牢拒腐防变的思想道德防线,切实解决党员干部“不想腐”的问题。

  2. Angered: Black and Non-Black Girls of Color at the Intersections of Violence and School Discipline in the United States

    Wun, Connie

    2018-01-01

    While most research examining school discipline policies have focused on the experiences of boys of color, this article explores the relationship between violence and school discipline as they shape the lives of girls of color and their disciplinary records. Using in-depth interviews, this article re-narrates the experiences of Black and non-Black…

  3. Synthetic biology: an emerging engineering discipline.

    Cheng, Allen A; Lu, Timothy K

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade, synthetic biology has emerged as an engineering discipline for biological systems. Compared with other substrates, biology poses a unique set of engineering challenges resulting from an incomplete understanding of natural biological systems and tools for manipulating them. To address these challenges, synthetic biology is advancing from developing proof-of-concept designs to focusing on core platforms for rational and high-throughput biological engineering. These platforms span the entire biological design cycle, including DNA construction, parts libraries, computational design tools, and interfaces for manipulating and probing synthetic circuits. The development of these enabling technologies requires an engineering mindset to be applied to biology, with an emphasis on generalizable techniques in addition to application-specific designs. This review aims to discuss the progress and challenges in synthetic biology and to illustrate areas where synthetic biology may impact biomedical engineering and human health.

  4. PLANT PATHOLOGY: a discipline at a crossroads.

    Weinhold, A R

    1996-01-01

    The Department of Plant Pathology at the University of California at Berkeley was destroyed as a consequence of a contentious reorganization. The circumstances that led to the reorganization provide some insight into the challenges facing the discipline of plant pathology. The underlying basis for plant pathology as a science is to address problems of plant disease. This requires a balance between disciplinary and problem-solving research and a continuum from achieving fundamental advances in knowledge to the development and implementation of problem-solving approaches. Changes in colleges and universities have placed extreme stress on this essential structure. The dilemma that must be addressed is how to reestablish the problem-solving continuum where it has been broken and strengthen it where it has been weakened. Plants are essential for life, and they will always be affected by disease. The understanding and management of these diseases is the responsibility and the challenge of plant pathology today and in the future.

  5. Conférence - La discipline positive

    Staff Association

    2018-01-01

    Eduquer avec fermeté et bienveillance Véronique Genevay Jeudi 31 mai à 19h00 CERN Meyrin, Salle du Conseil 503-1-001 Venez vous familiariser avec la pensée et le positionnement développé dans la discipline positive. Une approche ni permissive, ni punitive, qui vise à enseigner aux enfants des compétences comme la confiance en soi, l’autonomie, le respect de soi-même et le respect mutuel, la responsabilité, la coopération… Inscrivez-vous : https://indico.cern.ch/e/disciplinepositive   Pour plus d’informations : staff.association@cern.ch ou (+41) 022 766 37 38

  6. Pervasive Healthcare as a Scientific Discipline

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind

    2008-01-01

    computing technology can be designed to meet these challenges. The objective of this paper is to discuss ‘pervasive healthcare’ as a research field and tries to establish how novel and distinct it is, compared to related work within biomedical engineering, medical informatics, and ubiquitous computing....... Methods: The paper presents the research questions, approach, technologies, and methods of pervasive healthcare and discusses these in comparison to those of other related scientific disciplines. Results: A set of central research themes are presented; monitoring and body sensor networks; pervasive......-aware technologies for hospitals. Both projects approach the healthcare challenges in a new way, apply a new type of research method, and come up with new kinds of technological solutions. ‘Clinical proof-of-concept’ is recommended as a new method for pervasive healthcare research; the method helps design and test...

  7. Data science as an academic discipline

    F Jack Smith

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available I recall being a proud young academic about 1970; I had just received a research grant to build and study a scientific database, and I had joined CODATA. I was looking forward to the future in this new exciting discipline when the head of my department, an internationally known professor, advised me that data was “a low level activity” not suitable for an academic. I recall my dismay. What can we do to ensure that this does not happen again and that data science is universally recognized as a worthwhile academic activity? Incidentally, I did not take that advice, or I would not be writing this essay, but moved into computer science. I will use my experience to draw comparisons between the problems computer science had to become academically recognized and those faced by data science.

  8. A new discipline: Confined Areas Medicine

    Stefano Agostinis

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The Confined Areas Medicine is a new discipline devoted to a specific branch of the components of emergency services. In it convey the characteristics typical of behavioral intervention in hostile area peculiar of the National Fire Corps and the National Speleological and Alpine Corps. While not considering the natural events that cause the collapse of housing the Italian case reported in the last fifty years about two hundred structural collapses that are charged over a thousand deaths (source: ISTAT 2006. Analysis of the documents accessible to the public today we can say without fear of denials, that 25% of these deaths are due to relief late or ineffective treatment on the spot. In fact, the NFPA (National Fire Protection Association claims that 10% of victims trapped under the rubble can be saved with a location and an early recovery, which can significantly increase this percentage with the health care stabilization directly at the place of discovery.

  9. Exploring the theory, barriers and enablers for patient and public involvement across health, social care and patient safety: a protocol for a systematic review of reviews.

    Ocloo, Josephine; Garfield, Sarah; Dawson, Shoba; Dean Franklin, Bryony

    2017-10-24

    The emergence of patient and public involvement (PPI) in healthcare in the UK can be traced as far back as the 1970s. More recently, campaigns by harmed patients and their relatives have emerged as a result of clinical failings in the NHS, challenging paternalistic healthcare, which have led to a new focus on PPI in quality and safety, nationally and internationally. Evidence suggests that PPI within patient safety is often atheoretical and located within a biomedical discourse. This review will explore the literature on PPI across patient safety, healthcare and social care to identify theory, barriers and enablers that can be used to develop PPI in patient safety. Systematic searches of three electronic bibliographic databases will be conducted, using both MeSH and free-text terms to identify empirical literature published from database inception to May 2017. The screening process will involve input from at least two researchers and any disagreement will be resolved through discussion with a third reviewer. Initial inclusion and exclusion criteria have been developed and will be refined iteratively throughout the process. Data extraction from included articles will be conducted by at least two researchers using a data extraction form. Extracted information will be analysed using a narrative review approach, which synthesises data using a descriptive method. No ethical approval is required for this review as no empirical data were collected. We believe that the findings and recommendations from this review will be particularly relevant for an audience of academics and policymakers. The findings will, therefore, be written up and disseminated in international peer-reviewed journals and academic conferences with a health focus. They will also be disseminated to leading health policy organisations in the NHS, such as NHS England and NHS Improvement and national policy bodies such as the Health Foundation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise

  10. Using theory to explore facilitators and barriers to delayed prescribing in Australia: a qualitative study using the Theoretical Domains Framework and the Behaviour Change Wheel.

    Sargent, Lucy; McCullough, Amanda; Del Mar, Chris; Lowe, John

    2017-02-13

    Delayed antibiotic prescribing reduces antibiotic use for acute respiratory infections in trials in general practice, but the uptake in clinical practice is low. The aim of the study was to identify facilitators and barriers to general practitioners' (GPs') use of delayed prescribing and to gain pharmacists' and the public's views about delayed prescribing in Australia. This study used the Theoretical Domains Framework and the Behaviour Change Wheel to explore facilitators and barriers to delayed prescribing in Australia. Forty-three semi-structured, face-to-face interviews with general practitioners, pharmacists and patients were conducted. Responses were coded into domains of the Theoretical Domains Framework, and specific criteria from the Behaviour Change Wheel were used to identify which domains were relevant to increasing the use of delayed prescribing by GPs. The interviews revealed nine key domains that influence GPs' use of delayed prescribing: knowledge; cognitive and interpersonal skills; memory, attention and decision-making processes; optimism; beliefs about consequences; intentions; goals; emotion; and social influences: GPs knew about delayed prescribing; however, they did not use it consistently, preferring to bring patients back for review and only using it with patients in a highly selective way. Pharmacists would support GPs and the public in delayed prescribing but would fill the prescription if people insisted. The public said they would delay taking their antibiotics if asked by their GP and given the right information on managing symptoms and when to take antibiotics. Using a theory-driven approach, we identified nine key domains that influence GPs' willingness to provide a delayed prescription to patients with an acute respiratory infection presenting to general practice. These data can be used to develop a structured intervention to change this behaviour and thus reduce antibiotic use for acute respiratory infections in general practice.

  11. Pressure and judgement within a dichotomous landscape of infant feeding: a grounded theory study to explore why breastfeeding women do not access peer support provision.

    Hunt, Louise; Thomson, Gill

    2017-04-01

    Lack of support is reported as a key reason for early breastfeeding cessation. While breastfeeding peer support (BPS) is a recommended intervention to increase breastfeeding rates, a number of studies identify that engagement with BPS is problematic. Due to paucity of research in this area, this study explores why breastfeeding women do not access BPS in South-West England. Utilising a constructionist grounded theory approach, 33 participants (women (n = 13), health professionals (n = 6) and peer supporters (n = 14)) participated in a semi-structured interview (n = 22) or focus group (n = 11). Analysis involved open coding, constant comparisons and focussed coding. One core category and three main themes explicating non-access were identified. The core category concerns women's experiences of pressure and judgement around their feeding decisions within a dichotomous landscape of infant feeding language and support. Theme one, 'place and space of support', describes the contrast between perceived pressure to breastfeed and a lack of adequate and appropriate support. Theme two, 'one way or no way', outlines the rules-based approach to breastfeeding adopted by some health professionals and how women avoided BPS due to anticipating a similar approach. Theme three, 'it must be me', concerns how lack of embodied insights could lead to 'breastfeeding failure' identities. A background of dichotomised language, pressure and moral judgement, combined with the organisation of post-natal care and the model of breastfeeding adopted by health professionals, may inhibit women's access to BPS. A socio-cultural model of breastfeeding support providing clear messages regarding the value and purpose of BPS should be adopted. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Many-body theory

    Hubbard, J.

    1980-01-01

    The evolution of the discipline of many-body theory during the past 25 years is outlined and the developments originated in the Theoretical Physics Division, AERE, are discussed. Topics considered include; the connection between plasma oscillations and the dielectric properties of an electron gas, superconductivity, Fermi levels, ferromagnetism in metals, phase transformations, scaling laws, and quasi-one-dimensional solids. (UK)

  13. Exploring Science Through Polar Exploration

    Pfirman, S. L.; Bell, R. E.; Zadoff, L.; Kelsey, R.

    2003-12-01

    Exploring the Poles is a First Year Seminar course taught at Barnard College, Columbia University. First Year Seminars are required of incoming students and are designed to encourage critical analysis in a small class setting with focused discussion. The class links historical polar exploration with current research in order to: introduce non-scientists to the value of environmental science through polar literature; discuss issues related to venturing into the unknown that are of relevance to any discipline: self-reliance, leadership, preparation, decisions under uncertainty; show students the human face of science; change attitudes about science and scientists; use data to engage students in exploring/understanding the environment and help them learn to draw conclusions from data; integrate research and education. These goals are met by bringing analysis of early exploration efforts together with a modern understanding of the polar environment. To date to class has followed the efforts of Nansen in the Fram, Scott and Amundsen in their race to the pole, and Shackleton's Endurance. As students read turn-of-the-century expedition journals, expedition progress is progressively revealed on an interactive map showing the environmental context. To bring the exploration process to life, students are assigned to expedition teams for specific years and the fates of the student "expeditions" are based on their own decisions. For example, in the Arctic, they navigate coastal sea ice and become frozen into the ice north of Siberia, re-creating Nansen's polar drift. Fates of the teams varied tremendously: some safely emerged at Fram Strait in 4 years, while others nearly became hopelessly lost in the Beaufort Gyre. Students thus learn about variability in the current polar environment through first hand experience, enabling them to appreciate the experiences, decisions, and, in some cases, the luck, of polar explorers. Evaluation by the Columbia Center for New Media, Teaching

  14. World Regional Studies as a Research Framework and Academic Discipline

    Ekaterina V. Koldunova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic development of international processes at the regional level, various trajectories of regionalization in Europe, Asia, Latin America and other parts of the world created a complex and multidimensional picture of the contemporary international relations. However Social Sciences and IR retained a distinct eurocentrism. This eurocentrism only partly meant that students of IR did not take into account non-European or non-Western realities. Thus, a German Scholar J. Vullers from German Institute of Global and Area Studies analyzing in 2014 three leading International Relations journals (International Organization, World Politics, European Journal of International Relations diagnosed a serious geographic imbalance in the international studies, which meant a very limited number of articles based on the nonWestern empirical data.Even with such geographic imbalance in IR studies more important for preserving eurocentrism there was the absence of non-Western IR theories or IR theories originating from non-Western political context. The collective monograph edited by Barry Buzan and Amitav Acharya focused exactly on this problem. The title of the book was provocatively asking why there is no non-Western IR theory. Thus, the book in question provoked a lively academic debate on the topic. Russia was not covered in this book. Therefore, this very fact gives one some reasons to reflect on how Russian research in the field may face a double challenge of a changing international environment and an inappropriate level of its intellectual assessment. Against this background this article analyzes World Regional Studies, a research framework and discipline, which is rapidly developing in Russia and may to some extent contribute to a more correct understanding of the international processes.

  15. Information systems theory

    Dwivedi, Yogesh K; Schneberger, Scott L

    2011-01-01

    The overall mission of this book is to provide a comprehensive understanding and coverage of the various theories and models used in IS research. Specifically, it aims to focus on the following key objectives: To describe the various theories and models applicable to studying IS/IT management issues. To outline and describe, for each of the various theories and models, independent and dependent constructs, reference discipline/originating area, originating author(s), seminal articles, level of analysis (i.e. firm, individual, industry) and links with other theories. To provide a critical revie

  16. TEACHING MATHEMATICAL DISCIPLINES AT THE MEDICAL UNIVERSITY

    V. Ya. Gelman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction.In programs of training of students of medical specialties, Mathematics is a subject of basic education, i.e. non-core discipline. However, studying Mathematics is extremely important for future physicians, as recently there has been an impetuous development of mathematization in the field of health care. Today, a set of the new medical devices, the equipment and high technologies are being developed based on the mathematical modeling, analysis and forecasting. Mathematical methods are widely applied to diagnostics, development of life-support systems and the description of various biological processes both at the molecular level,  and at the level of a whole organism, its systems, bodies and tissues. The solution of many medical tasks in the field of taxonomy, genetics, and organization of medical service is impossible without knowledge of mathematics. Unfortunately, along with the evident importance of mathematical preparation for a medical profession, its need is poorly realized not only by junior students, but even by some teachers of specialized departments of medical schools.The aim of the publication is to discuss the problems that arise in the teaching of mathematical disciplines to students at a medical school and to suggest possible solutions to these problems.Methodology and research methods. The study is based on the use of modeling of the educational process. The methods of analysis, generalization and the method of expert assessments were applied in the course of the research.Results and scientific novelty. The aspects of mathematical preparation at the university are considered on the basis of the application of the multiplicative model of training quality. It is shown that the main students’ learning difficulties in Mathematics are connected with the following factors: the initial level of mathematical preparation of students and their motivation; outdated methods of Mathematics teaching and academic content

  17. Implicit and explicit theories in the teaching and learning processes of music theory

    Henry Roa Ordoñez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the characteristics of similarity and divergence between the pedagogical discourse of teachers and their performance in the classroom, from the different educational paradigms that guide, today, the educational events. The teaching and learning of music theory constitute the backbone of the proposed curriculum of the Department of Music, which has implications in the other musical areas and, therefore, the training program that orients the area of music theory, requires an assessment of the impacts and effects caused by the performance of the teacher in charge of running this course as an essential condition to establish elements of building and transfer of knowledge in each of the disciplines that make up the curricular structure of the Department of Music.

  18. Pragmatic Abilities in Children with Congenital Visual Impairment: An Exploration of Non-literal Language and Advanced Theory of Mind Understanding

    Pijnacker, J.; Vervloed, M.P.J.; Steenbergen, B.

    2012-01-01

    Children with congenital visual impairment have been reported to be delayed in theory of mind development. So far, research focused on first-order theory of mind, and included mainly blind children, whereas the majority of visually impaired children is not totally blind. The present study set out to

  19. Threat of the feminine identity: The emerging structure in exploring the process of women's empowerment for menopause management: A grounded theory study

    Mansoureh Yazdkhasti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Women empowerment in different spheres of life especially menopause is among the key elements of health promotion in all communities. However there is no realistic images of empowering women in menopausal symptoms management. The present survey aimed to explain the process of women's empowerment for menopausal symptoms management. This qualitative study is part of a larger project which was conducted using Grounded Theory between 2013 and 2015. The article's main focus was to explore the underlying conditions and factors affecting the process of women's empowerment. Using a purposive and theoretical sampling method, 25 participants were interviewed 28 times. Data was collected through some in-depth, semi-structural and open ended interviews with the participant and also memoing and field notes. The interviews were conducted in Neighborhoods House affiliated to Tehran municipality and two gynecological clinics affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Data analysis was applied through Strauss and Corbin approach (2008 using MAXQDA10 software. Threat of the feminine identity has been noted as the women's most common concern to being empowered in menopause management. The key theme emerged in the present study (threat of the feminine identity included four main categories (consciousness about the likelihood of femininity decline, negative attitude towards herself, inadequate supportive context, latent opportunity, two subcategories and 109 first-level codes. There is a logical, coherent and integrated relationship between all these concepts and the theme of feminine identity threat. This theme is considered as an underlying social problem and a major concern for postmenopausal women in the context of this group of women's empowerment. The factors (barriers and facilitators affecting women's empowerment in menopause management are associated with social context, intensity and origin of each society. Evaluation of Iranian women

  20. Developmental biology, the stem cell of biological disciplines

    Gilbert, Scott F.

    2017-01-01

    Developmental biology (including embryology) is proposed as "the stem cell of biological disciplines.” Genetics, cell biology, oncology, immunology, evolutionary mechanisms, neurobiology, and systems biology each has its ancestry in developmental biology. Moreover, developmental biology continues to roll on, budding off more disciplines, while retaining its own identity. While its descendant disciplines differentiate into sciences with a restricted set of paradigms, examples, and techniques, ...