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Sample records for disabled life expectancy

  1. Are gaps in disability free life expectancies diminishing in Italy?

    OpenAIRE

    Frova, Luisa; Burgio, Alessandra; Battisti, Alessandra

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies gender differences in disability free life expectancy (DFLE), taking into account mortality and disability contributions. After analysing the types of disability that account for such differences, it goes on to examine temporal variability and age contributions to mortality and disability variation. The method used is an extension of Arriaga’s model proposed by Nusselder. In 2005, disability free life expectancy at age 30 was 46.23 years for men and 48.74 years for women, w...

  2. Dental Status and Compression of Life Expectancy with Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Y; Aida, J; Watt, R G; Tsuboya, T; Koyama, S; Sato, Y; Kondo, K; Osaka, K

    2017-08-01

    This study examined whether the number of teeth contributes to the compression of morbidity, measured as a shortening of life expectancy with disability, an extension of healthy life expectancy, and overall life expectancy. A prospective cohort study was conducted. A self-reported baseline survey was given to 126,438 community-dwelling older people aged ≥65 y in Japan in 2010, and 85,161 (67.4%) responded. The onset of functional disability and all-cause mortality were followed up for 1,374 d (follow-up rate = 96.1%). A sex-stratified illness-death model was applied to estimate the adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for 3 health transitions (healthy to dead, healthy to disabled, and disabled to dead). Absolute differences in life expectancy, healthy life expectancy, and life expectancy with disability according to the number of teeth were also estimated. Age, denture use, socioeconomic status, health status, and health behavior were adjusted. Compared with the edentulous participants, participants with ≥20 teeth had lower risks of transitioning from healthy to dead (adjusted HR, 0.58 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.50-0.68] for men and 0.70 [95% CI, 0.57-0.85] for women) and from healthy to disabled (adjusted HR, 0.52 [95% CI, 0.44-0.61] for men and 0.58 [95% CI, 0.49-0.68] for women). They also transitioned from disabled to dead earlier (adjusted HR, 1.26 [95% CI, 0.99-1.60] for men and 2.42 [95% CI, 1.72-3.38] for women). Among the participants aged ≥85 y, those with ≥20 teeth had a longer life expectancy (men: +57 d; women: +15 d) and healthy life expectancy (men: +92 d; women: +70 d) and a shorter life expectancy with disability (men: -35 d; women: -55 d) compared with the edentulous participants. Similar associations were observed among the younger participants and those with 1 to 9 or 10 to 19 teeth. The presence of remaining teeth was associated with a significant compression of morbidity: older Japanese adults' life expectancy with disability was

  3. Regional patterns of disability-free life expectancy and disability-adjusted life expectancy: global Burden of Disease Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, C J; Lopez, A D

    1997-05-10

    Information on non-fatal health outcomes of disease and injury has been largely neglected in health planning because of the conceptual and definitional complexity of measuring morbidity and disability in populations. One of our major objectives was to quantify disability for inclusion in health policy debates. We analysed these health outcomes in terms of disability-free life expectancy (DFLE) and disability-adjusted life expectancy (DALE). Published and unpublished data were systematically reviewed to estimate the incidence, prevalence, and duration of 483 disabling sequelae of 107 diseases and injuries. To ensure internal consistency of these estimates, a software programme (DISMOD) was applied many times until consistent parameters were identified. The severity of disability, on a scale of 0 (perfect health) to 1 (death), was measured in a deliberate manner by the person-trade-off method. Spearman's and Pearson's correlation coefficients were used to measure disability weights among groups. Prevalence of seven classes of disability was back-calculated from the distribution of each disabling sequela across disabilities. Prevalence for each class of disability for different age-sex groups was used to calculate seven forms of DFLE and DALE based on Sullivan's method. Prevalence of most disability classes is highest in sub-Saharan Africa and lowest in established market economies. Low-severity disabilities (class I and class II) are the most common. The expectation at birth of class I disability ranges from 6.5 years in established market economies to 14.7 years in sub-Saharan Africa, and for class II disabilities, from 8.5-18.4 years. DFLE varies significantly among regions: DFLE for class I disabilities at birth ranges from 9.9 years in sub-Saharan Africa to 47.7 years in established market economies for females and DFLE for class V disabilities ranges from 43.4 years for men in sub-Saharan Africa to 74.8 years for women in established market economies. The

  4. Persistent social inequality in life expectancy and disability-free life expectancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Eriksen, Mette Lindholm; Andersen-Ranberg, Karen

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: The state old-age pension in Denmark increases to keep pace with the projected increase in average life expectancy (LE) without any regard to the social gap in LE and expected lifetime in good health. The purpose of this study was to compare changes in LE and disability-free life expectancy...... (DFLE) between groups of Danes with high, medium and low levels of education. METHODS: Nationwide register data on education and mortality were combined with data from the Surveys of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) surveys in 2006-2007, 2010-2011 and 2013-2014 and the DFLE by educational...... level was estimated by Sullivan's method for each of these three time points. RESULTS: Between 2006-2007 and 2013-2014, LE among 65-year-old men and women with a low educational level increased by 1.3 and 1.0 years, respectively, and by 1.4 and 1.3 years for highly educated men and women. The gap in LE...

  5. Trends Over 4 Decades in Disability-Free Life Expectancy in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crimmins, Eileen M; Zhang, Yuan; Saito, Yasuhiko

    2016-07-01

    To examine changes over 40 years (1970-2010) in life expectancy, life expectancy with disability, and disability-free life expectancy for American men and women of all ages. We used mortality rates from US Vital Statistics and data on disability prevalence in the community-dwelling population from the National Health Interview Survey; for the institutional population, we computed disability prevalence from the US Census. We used the Sullivan method to estimate disabled and disability-free life expectancy for 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, and 2010. Over the 40 years, there was a steady increase in both disability-free life expectancy and disabled life expectancy. At birth, increases in disabled life and nondisabled life were equal for men (4.5 years); for women, at birth the increase in life with disability (3.6 years) exceeded the increase in life free of disability (2.7 years). At age 65 years, the increase in disability-free life was greater than the increase in disabled life. Across the life cycle, there was no compression of morbidity, but at age 65 years some compression occurred.

  6. Unemployment, disability and life expectancy in the United States: A life course study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laditka, James N; Laditka, Sarah B

    2016-01-01

    Unemployment may be associated with health through factors including stress, depression, unhealthy behaviors, reduced health care, and loss of social networks. Little is known about associations of total lifetime unemployment with disability and life expectancy. People with high unemployment (≥the median) will live shorter lives with more disability than those with less unemployment. Data were nationally representative of African Americans and non-Hispanic whites, from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (37 waves 1968-2011, n = 7,970, mean work years = 24.7). Seven waves (1999-2011, 58,268 person-years) measured disability in activities of daily living. We estimated monthly probabilities of disability and death associated with unemployment using multinomial logistic Markov models adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, health status at baseline and throughout work life, and social support. We used the probabilities to create large populations with microsimulation, each individual having known monthly disability status, age 40 to death. We analyzed the populations to measure outcomes. Respectively for African American and white women and African American and white men, life expectancies (with 95% confidence intervals) from age 40 with low unemployment were ages: 77.1 (75.0-78.3), 80.6 (78.4-81.4), 71.4 (69.6-72.5), and 76.9 (74.9-77.9). Corresponding high unemployment results were: 73.7 (71.7-75.0), 77.5 (75.1-78.0), 68.4 (66.8-69.0), and 73.7 (71.5-74.3). The percentage of life disabled from age 40 was greater with high unemployment for the same groups, by 23.9%, 21.0%, 21.3%, and 21.1% (all p unemployment may be associated with a larger proportion of later life with disability and lower life expectancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Life expectancy and life expectancy with disability of normal weight, overweight, and obese smokers and nonsmokers in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majer, Istvan M; Nusselder, Wilma J; Mackenbach, Johan P; Kunst, Anton E

    2011-07-01

    The goal of this study was to estimate life expectancy (LE) and LE with disability (LwD) among normal weight, overweight, and obese smokers and nonsmokers in Western Europe. Data from four waves (1998-2001) of the European Community Household Panel (ECHP) were used; a standardized multipurpose annual longitudinal survey. Self-reported health and socioeconomic information was collected repeatedly using uniform questionnaires for 66,331 individuals in nine countries. Health status was measured in terms of disability in daily activities. Multistate Markov (MSM) models were applied to obtain hazard ratios (HRs) and age-specific transition rates according to BMI and smoking status. Multistate life tables were computed using the predicted transition probabilities to estimate LE and LwD. Significant associations were observed between disability incidence and BMI (HR = 1.15 for overweight, HR = 1.64 for obese, compared to normal weight). The risk of mortality was negatively associated with overweight status among disabled (HR = 0.77). Overweight people had higher LE than people with normal-weight and obesity. Among women, overweight and obese nonsmokers expect 3.6 and 6.1 more years of LwD than normal weight persons, respectively. In contrast, daily smokers expect lower LE but a similar LwD. The same patterns were observed among people with high education and those with low education. To conclude, daily smoking is associated with mortality more than with disability, whereas obesity is associated with disability more than with mortality. The findings suggest that further tobacco control would contribute to increasing LE, while tackling the obesity epidemic is necessary to prevent an expansion of disability.

  8. Trends in Disability-Free Life Expectancy in Japan, 1995–2004

    OpenAIRE

    Hashimoto, Shuji; Kawado, Miyuki; Seko, Rumi; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Hayashi, Masayuki; Kato, Masahiro; Noda, Tatsuya; Ojima, Toshiyuki; Nagai, Masato; Tsuji, Ichiro

    2010-01-01

    Background In Japan, life expectancy at birth is currently the highest in the world. However, recent trends in disability-free life expectancy in Japan have not been examined. Methods We used data from Japanese national surveys for the period 1995–2004. These surveys included information on activity status measured by common self-reported instruments. The numbers of expected years with and without activity limitation were estimated by using the Sullivan method. Results The numbers of expected...

  9. Persistent social inequality in life expectancy and disability-free life expectancy: Outlook for a differential pension age in Denmark?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Eriksen, Mette Lindholm; Andersen-Ranberg, Karen; Jeune, Bernard

    2017-06-01

    The state old-age pension in Denmark increases to keep pace with the projected increase in average life expectancy (LE) without any regard to the social gap in LE and expected lifetime in good health. The purpose of this study was to compare changes in LE and disability-free life expectancy (DFLE) between groups of Danes with high, medium and low levels of education. Nationwide register data on education and mortality were combined with data from the Surveys of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) surveys in 2006-2007, 2010-2011 and 2013-2014 and the DFLE by educational level was estimated by Sullivan's method for each of these three time points. Between 2006-2007 and 2013-2014, LE among 65-year-old men and women with a low educational level increased by 1.3 and 1.0 years, respectively, and by 1.4 and 1.3 years for highly educated men and women. The gap in LE between people with high and low levels of education remained more than 2 years. In 2006-2007, 65-year-old men with a high level of education could expect 3.2 more years without disability than men of the same age with a low level of education. In 2013-2014, the difference was 2.9 years. For women, the results were 3.7 and 3.4 years, respectively. With the persistent social inequality in LE of more than 2 years and the continuous gap between high and low educational groups in DFLE of about 3 years, a differential pension age is recommended.

  10. Gender differences in life expectancy with and without disability among older adults in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egüez-Guevara, Pilar; Andrade, Flávia Cristina Drumond

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge on disability's impact among older women and men in Ecuador is limited. This paper provides gender-specific estimates of disability prevalence, life expectancy with and without disability, and the factors associated with gender differences in disability at older age in Ecuador (2009-2010). Data from the Health, Well-Being, and Aging Survey (SABE) Ecuador 2009 was used. Participants were 4480 men and women aged 60 and over. Life expectancy with and without disability was calculated using the Sullivan method. Logistic regression analyses were used to explore gender differences in disability prevalence. Two disability measures, indicating limitations in activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), were used. 60-year-old women in Ecuador can expect to live 16.3 years without ADL limitations compared to 16.9 years for men. Life expectancy without IADL limitations was 12.5 years for women and 15.5 years for men. At age 60, women's length of life with ADL and IADL disability was higher (7.9 years for women vs. 4.9 years for men with ADL, and 11.7 years for women vs. 6.3 years for men with IADL). After controlling for socioeconomic characteristics, chronic conditions and lifestyle factors, gender differences in ADL disability were not statistically significant. However, older women were 58% more likely (OR=1.58, 95% CI 1.27, 1.95) to report having IADL limitations than men, even after including control variables. Interventions should tackle chronic disease, physical inactivity, and socioeconomic differences to reduce women's vulnerability to disability in older age. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Increasing disability-free life expectancy among older adults in Palestine from 2006 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Duraidi, Mohammed; Qalalwa, Khaled; Jeune, Bernard

    2015-04-01

    The population of Palestine comprises almost 200 000 Palestinians aged 60 or older. The purpose of the study was to estimate disability-free life expectancy for Palestinians living in the West Bank and Gaza Strip and to evaluate changes from 2006 to 2010. The study combined mortality data and prevalence of activity limitation derived from the Palestinian Family Health Surveys carried out in 2006 and 2010. Based on questions about the ability to perform five basic daily activities, disability-free life expectancy was estimated. Changes between 2006 and 2010 were decomposed into contributions from changes in mortality and disability. Life expectancy at age 60 increased from 17.1 years in 2006 to 17.3 years in 2010 for men and from 18.7 years to 19.0 years for women. Disability-free life expectancy increased significantly, by 1.3 years for 60-year-old men (from 12.8 years to 14.1 years) and 1.8 years for 60-year-old women (from 12.6 years to 14.4 years). This increase was seen in the Gaza Strip as well as in the West Bank. While the modest contribution of the mortality effect did not differ between gender and regions, the strong contributions from the disability effects varied, being greatest for women in the Gaza Strip. The significant increase in disability-free life expectancy for both genders is remarkable and, to our knowledge, not seen in other low-income countries. This change may be due to decreasing incidence of disability and greater recovery from disability as a result of better prevention, care and rehabilitation of chronic diseases. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of level of education on disability free life expectancy by sex: the ILSA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minicuci, N; Noale, M

    2005-12-01

    To assess the effect of education on Disability Free Life Expectancy among older Italians, using a hierarchical model as indicator of disability, with estimates based on the multistate life table method and IMaCh software. Data were obtained from the Italian Longitudinal Study on Aging which considered a random sample of 5632 individuals. Total life expectancy ranged from 16.5 years for men aged 65 years to 6 years for men aged 80. The age range for women was 19.6 and 8.4 years, respectively. For both sexes, increasing age was associated with a lower probability of recovery from a mild state of disability, with a greater probability of worsening for all individuals presenting an independent state at baseline, and with a greater probability of dying except for women from a mild state of disability. A medium/high educational level was associated with a greater probability of recovery only in men with a mild state of disability at baseline, and with a lower probability of worsening in both sexes, except for men with a mild state of disability at baseline. The positive effects of high education are well established in most research work and, being a modifiable factor, strategies focused on increasing level of education and, hence strengthening access to information and use of health services would produce significant benefits.

  13. Age at migration and disability-free life expectancy among the elder Mexican-origin population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Garcia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Migration selectivity is thought to shape the health profiles of Mexican immigrants. Objective: This study examines how the experience of Mexican migration to the United States affects the health process and the quality of life in old age by age at migration, specific to sex. Methods: We use 20 years of data from the Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly to estimate the proportion of life spent disability-free prior to death across eight subgroups by sex, nativity, and age at migration among Mexican-origin elderly in the United States. Results: Female migrants are at a significant disadvantage in terms of IADL disability-free life expectancy relative to US-born women, particularly late-life migrants. Conversely, mid- and late-life male migrants exhibit an advantage in ADL disability-free life expectancy compared to their US-born counterparts. Conclusions: Foreign-born Mexican elders are not a homogeneous group. This issue merits special attention in the development of community-based long-term care programs in order to appropriately target the specific needs of different subgroups of older Mexican individuals entering their last decades of life. Contribution: This study contributes to immigrant health literature by providing a more comprehensive documentation of nativity differentials, by distinguishing subgroups of Mexican elderly by sex, nativity, and age at migration.

  14. Increasing disability-free life expectancy among older adults in Palestine from 2006 to 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Duraidi, Mohammed; Qalalwa, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    into contributions from changes in mortality and disability. RESULTS: Life expectancy at age 60 increased from 17.1 years in 2006 to 17.3 years in 2010 for men and from 18.7 years to 19.0 years for women. Disability-free life expectancy increased significantly, by 1.3 years for 60-year-old men (from 12.8 years to 14...... mortality data and prevalence of activity limitation derived from the Palestinian Family Health Surveys carried out in 2006 and 2010. Based on questions about the ability to perform five basic daily activities, disability-free life expectancy was estimated. Changes between 2006 and 2010 were decomposed.......1 years) and 1.8 years for 60-year-old women (from 12.6 years to 14.4 years). This increase was seen in the Gaza Strip as well as in the West Bank. While the modest contribution of the mortality effect did not differ between gender and regions, the strong contributions from the disability effects varied...

  15. RELATION BETWEEN QUALITY OF LIFE, CHOICE MAKING, AND FUTURE EXPECTATIONS IN ADULTS WITH INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY

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    Vesna KOSTIKJ-IVANOVIKJ

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Quality of life of individuals depends significantly on the ability to have control over everyday life, realized through the freedom to make choices from available options and self-determination. Objective: To determine the correlation between possibilities for making choices and expectations for the future with the quality of life in adults with intellectual disabilities according self-assessment and assessment by others. Methods: Descriptive, method of correlation and comparative analysis ware applied. From techniques, analysis of documents, surveys with the Quality of life questionnaire by Schalock and Keith and Questionnaire for expectations for the future by Speck, and scaling with the Scale for assessment of the opportunities for making choices by Kishi et al. Sample consisted of 130 intellectually disabled adults and 130 proxies. For establishing connection between the examined phenomena Pearson correlation coefficient (r was used, at p<0,01. Results: There is a strong correlation between the results obtained from the questionnaires about quality of life and opportunities for making choices, self-assessment r(130=0,497, p<0,01, assessment by others r(130=0,482, p<0,01. There is a correlation between the results obtained from the questionnaires about quality of life and expectations for the future, but not very strong, self-assessment r(130=0,233, p=0,008<0,01, assessment by others r(130=0,305, p<0,01. Conclusion: There is a correlation between opportunities for making choices and expectations for the future with the quality of life in adults with intellectual disabilities. To improve the quality of life in these individuals, it is necessary to design programs that will develop self-concept, abilities for self-determination and making personal choices.

  16. Educational and sex differentials in life expectancies and disability-free life expectancies in São Paulo, Brazil, and urban areas in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram; Andrade, Flávia Cristina Drumond

    2013-08-01

    To estimate transition probabilities between disability states, total life expectancy, and the latter's decomposition into years spent disabled and disability-free by age, sex, and education among older adults in São Paulo, Brazil, and urban areas in Mexico. Applied a micro-simulation method (Interpolative Markov Chains) using longitudinal data. We found large between-country educational differences in incidence of and recovery from disability with higher rates in Mexico than in São Paulo, but no differences in mortality. Older adults in Mexico spent longer time being disability-free than in São Paulo for both levels of education. Males and females in São Paulo spent a larger fraction of their remaining life disabled at every age than their counterparts in urban areas in Mexico. There were educational differences in the prevalence of disability in São Paulo and urban areas in Mexico, and significant educational differences in disability incidence and recovery across sites.

  17. The Contribution of Specific Diseases to Educational Disparities in Disability-Free Life Expectancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusselder, Wilma J.; Looman, Caspar W.N.; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Huisman, Martijn; van Oyen, Herman; Deboosere, Patrick; Gadeyne, Sylvie; Kunst, Anton E.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the contribution that specific diseases, as causes of both death and disability, make to educational disparities in disability-free life expectancy (DFLE). Methods. We used disability data from the Belgian Health Interview Survey (1997) and mortality data from the National Mortality Follow-Up Study (1991–1996) to assess education-related disparities in DFLE and to partition these differences into additive contributions of specific diseases. Results. The DFLE advantage of higher-educated compared with lower-educated persons was 8.0 years for men and 5.9 years for women. Arthritis (men, 1.3 years; women, 2.2 years), back complaints (men, 2.1 years), heart disease/stroke (men, 1.5 years; women, 1.6 years), asthma/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (men, 1.2 years; women, 1.5 years), and “other diseases” (men, 2.4 years) contributed the most to this difference. Conclusions. Disabling diseases, such as arthritis, back complaints, and asthma/COPD, contribute substantially to differences in DFLE by education. Public health policy aiming to reduce existing disparities in the DFLE and to improve population health should not only focus on fatal diseases but also on these nonfatal diseases. PMID:16195519

  18. Inequality in disability-free life expectancies among older men and women in six countries with developing economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santosa, Ailiana; Schröders, Julia; Vaezghasemi, Masoud; Ng, Nawi

    2016-09-01

    It is unclear whether the increase in life expectancy (LE) globally is coupled with a postponement of morbidity and disability. Evidence on trends and determinants of disability-free life expectancies (DFLEs) are available in high-income countries but less in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). This study examines the levels of and inequalities in LE, disability and DFLE between men and women across different age groups aged 50 years and over in six countries with developing economies. This study utilised the cross-sectional data (n=32 724) from the WHO Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, the Russian Federation and South Africa in 2007-2010. Disability was measured with the activity of daily living (ADL) instrument. The DFLE was estimated using the Sullivan method based on the standard period life table and ADL-disability proportions. The disability prevalence ranged from 13% in China to 54% in India. The prevalence of disability was highest and occurred at younger age in both sexes in India. Women were more disadvantaged with higher prevalence of disability across all age groups, and the situation was worst among older women in Mexico and the Russian Federation. Though women had higher LE, their proportion of remaining LE free from disability was lower than men. There are inequalities in the levels of disability and DFLE among men and women in different age groups among people aged over 50 years in these six countries. Countermeasures to decrease intercountry and gender gaps in DFLE, including improvements in health promotion and healthcare distribution, with a gender equity focus, are needed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  19. Endovascular Thrombectomy for Ischemic Stroke Increases Disability-Free Survival, Quality of Life, and Life Expectancy and Reduces Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce C. V. Campbell

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundEndovascular thrombectomy improves functional outcome in large vessel occlusion ischemic stroke. We examined disability, quality of life, survival and acute care costs in the EXTEND-IA trial, which used CT-perfusion imaging selection.MethodsLarge vessel ischemic stroke patients with favorable CT-perfusion were randomized to endovascular thrombectomy after alteplase versus alteplase-only. Clinical outcome was prospectively measured using 90-day modified Rankin scale (mRS. Individual patient expected survival and net difference in Disability/Quality-adjusted life years (DALY/QALY up to 15 years from stroke were modeled using age, sex, 90-day mRS, and utility scores. Level of care within the first 90 days was prospectively measured and used to estimate procedure and inpatient care costs (US$ reference year 2014.ResultsThere were 70 patients, 35 in each arm, mean age 69, median NIHSS 15 (IQR 12–19. The median (IQR disability-weighted utility score at 90 days was 0.65 (0.00–0.91 in the alteplase-only versus 0.91 (0.65–1.00 in the endovascular group (p = 0.005. Modeled life expectancy was greater in the endovascular versus alteplase-only group (median 15.6 versus 11.2 years, p = 0.02. The endovascular thrombectomy group had fewer simulated DALYs lost over 15 years [median (IQR 5.5 (3.2–8.7 versus 8.9 (4.7–13.8, p = 0.02] and more QALY gained [median (IQR 9.3 (4.2–13.1 versus 4.9 (0.3–8.5, p = 0.03]. Endovascular patients spent less time in hospital [median (IQR 5 (3–11 days versus 8 (5–14 days, p = 0.04] and rehabilitation [median (IQR 0 (0–28 versus 27 (0–65 days, p = 0.03]. The estimated inpatient costs in the first 90 days were less in the thrombectomy group (average US$15,689 versus US$30,569, p = 0.008 offsetting the costs of interhospital transport and the thrombectomy procedure (average US$10,515. The average saving per patient treated with thrombectomy was US$4

  20. Modelling changes in small area disability free life expectancy: trends in London wards between 2001 and 2011.

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    Congdon, Peter

    2014-12-20

    Existing analyses of trends in disability free life expectancy (DFLE) are mainly at aggregate level (national or broad regional). However, major differences in DFLE, and trends in these expectancies, exist between different neighbourhoods within regions, so supporting a small area perspective. However, this raises issues regarding the stability of conventional life table estimation methods at small area scales. This paper advocates a Bayesian borrowing strength technique to model trends in mortality and disability differences across 625 small areas in London, using illness data from the 2001 and 2011 population Censuses, and deaths data for two periods centred on the Census years. From this analysis, estimates of total life expectancy and DFLE are obtained. The spatio-temporal modelling perspective allows assessment of whether significant compression or expansion of morbidity has occurred in each small area. Appropriate models involve random effects that recognise correlation and interaction effects over relevant dimensions of the observed deaths and illness data (areas, ages), as well as major spatial trends (e.g. gradients in health and mortality according to area deprivation category). Whilst borrowing strength is a primary consideration (and demonstrated by raised precision for estimated life expectancies), so also is model parsimony. Therefore, pure borrowing strength models are compared with models allowing selection of random age-area interaction effects using a spike-slab prior, and in fact borrowing strength combined with random effects selection provides better fit. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Relationships between the Active Aging Index and Disability-Free Life Expectancy: A Case Study in the Rajshahi District of Bangladesh.

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    Tareque, Md Ismail; Hoque, Nazrul; Islam, Towfiqua Mahfuza; Kawahara, Kazuo; Sugawa, Makiko

    2013-12-01

    Life expectancy has increased considerably throughout the world. In Bangladesh, life expectancy has increased from about 53 years in 1975 to 69 years in 2010. However, it is unknown whether the increase in life expectancy is simultaneously accompanied by an increase in disability-free life expectancy (DFLE). The purpose of the study described in this article was to explore the relationship between life expectancy and DFLE in the Rajshahi District of Bangladesh by examining the relationships between the Active Aging Index (AAI) and DFLE. The study fi ndings suggest that urban, more-educated, elderly males are more active in all aspects of life and have longer DFLE. Females are found to outlive males but are more likely to live a greater part of their remaining life with disability. Positive correlations between the AAI and DFLE suggest that older adults could enjoy more DFLE by involving themselves in active aging activities.

  2. Best Practice Life Expectancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medford, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    been reported previously by various authors. Though remarkable, this is simply an empirical observation. Objective: We examine best-practice life expectancy more formally by using extreme value theory. Methods: Extreme value distributions are fit to the time series (1900 to 2012) of maximum life......Background: Whereas the rise in human life expectancy has been extensively studied, the evolution of maximum life expectancies, i.e., the rise in best-practice life expectancy in a group of populations, has not been examined to the same extent. The linear rise in best-practice life expectancy has...... expectancies at birth and age 65, for both sexes, using data from the Human Mortality Database and the United Nations. Conclusions: Generalized extreme value distributions offer a theoretically justified way to model best-practice life expectancies. Using this framework one can straightforwardly obtain...

  3. Educational differences in disability-free life expectancy: a comparative study of long-standing activity limitation in eight European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäki, Netta; Martikainen, Pekka; Eikemo, Terje; Menvielle, Gwenn; Lundberg, Olle; Ostergren, Olof; Jasilionis, Domantas; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2013-10-01

    Healthy life expectancy is a composite measure of length and quality of life and an important indicator of health in aging populations. There are few cross-country comparisons of socioeconomic differences in healthy life expectancy. Most of the existing comparisons focus on Western Europe and the United States, often relying on older data. To address these deficiencies, we estimated educational differences in disability-free life expectancy for eight countries from all parts of Europe in the early 2000s. Long-standing severe disability was measured as a Global Activity Limitation Indicator (GALI) derived from the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) survey. Census-linked mortality data were collected by a recent project comparing health inequalities between European countries (the EURO-GBD-SE project). We calculated sex-specific educational differences in disability-free life expectancy between the ages of 30 and 79 years using the Sullivan method. The lowest disability-free life expectancy was found among Lithuanian men and women (33.1 and 39.1 years, respectively) and the highest among Italian men and women (42.8 and 44.4 years, respectively). Life expectancy and disability-free life expectancy were directly related to the level of education, but the educational differences were much greater in the latter in all countries. The difference in the disability-free life expectancy between those with a primary or lower secondary education and those with a tertiary education was over 10 years for males in Lithuania and approximately 7 years for males in Austria, Finland and France, as well as for females in Lithuania. The difference was smallest in Italy (4 and 2 years among men and women, respectively). Highly educated Europeans can expect to live longer and spend more years in better health than those with lower education. The size of the educational difference in disability-free life expectancy varies significantly between countries

  4. Life expectancy and education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Casper Worm; Strulik, Holger

    2017-01-01

    , we find that US states with higher mortality rates from cardiovascular disease prior to the 1970s experienced greater increases in adult life expectancy and higher education enrollment. Our estimates suggest that a one-standard deviation higher treatment intensity is associated with an increase...... in adult life expectancy of 0.37 years and 0.07–0.15 more years of higher education....

  5. Sex and life expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifarth, Joshua E; McGowan, Cheri L; Milne, Kevin J

    2012-12-01

    A sexual dimorphism in human life expectancy has existed in almost every country for as long as records have been kept. Although human life expectancy has increased each year, females still live longer, on average, than males. Undoubtedly, the reasons for the sex gap in life expectancy are multifaceted, and it has been discussed from both sociological and biological perspectives. However, even if biological factors make up only a small percentage of the determinants of the sex difference in this phenomenon, parity in average life expectancy should not be anticipated. The aim of this review is to highlight biological mechanisms that may underlie the sexual dimorphism in life expectancy. Using PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Google Scholar, as well as cited and citing reference histories of articles through August 2012, English-language articles were identified, read, and synthesized into categories that could account for biological sex differences in human life expectancy. The examination of biological mechanisms accounting for the female-based advantage in human life expectancy has been an active area of inquiry; however, it is still difficult to prove the relative importance of any 1 factor. Nonetheless, biological differences between the sexes do exist and include differences in genetic and physiological factors such as progressive skewing of X chromosome inactivation, telomere attrition, mitochondrial inheritance, hormonal and cellular responses to stress, immune function, and metabolic substrate handling among others. These factors may account for at least a part of the female advantage in human life expectancy. Despite noted gaps in sex equality, higher body fat percentages and lower physical activity levels globally at all ages, a sex-based gap in life expectancy exists in nearly every country for which data exist. There are several biological mechanisms that may contribute to explaining why females live longer than men on average, but the complexity of the

  6. Life Expectancy in 2040

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; DuGoff, Eva H; Wu, Albert W.

    2016-01-01

    We use expert clinical and public health opinion to estimate likely changes in the prevention and treatment of important disease conditions and how they will affect future life expectancy. Focus groups were held including clinical and public health faculty with expertise in the six leading causes...

  7. Aging in the Americas: Disability-free Life Expectancy Among Adults Aged 65 and Older in the United States, Costa Rica, Mexico, and Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Collin F

    2018-01-11

    To estimate and compare disability-free life expectancy (DFLE) and current age patterns of disability onset and recovery from disability between the United States and countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. Disability is measured using the activities of daily living scale. Data come from longitudinal surveys of older adult populations in Costa Rica, Mexico, Puerto Rico, and the United States. Age patterns of transitions in and out of disability are modeled with a discrete-time logistic hazard model, and a microsimulation approach is used to estimate DFLE. Overall life expectancy for women aged 65 is 20.11 years in Costa Rica, 19.2 years in Mexico, 20.4 years in Puerto Rico, and 20.5 years in the United States. For men, these figures are 19.0 years in Costa Rica, 18.4 years in Mexico, 18.1 years in Puerto Rico, and 18.1 years in the United States. Proportion of remaining life spent free of disability for women at age 65 is comparable between Mexico, Puerto Rico, and the United States, with Costa Rica trailing slightly. Male estimates of DFLE are similar across the four populations. Though the older adult population of Latin America and the Caribbean lived many years exposed to poor epidemiological and public health conditions, their functional health in later life is comparable with the older adult population of the United States. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 315 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE), 1990–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassebaum, N.J.; Arora, Megha; Barber, R.M.; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Brown, J.; Carter, Austin; Casey, Daniel C.; Charlson, Fiona J.; Coates, M.; Coggeshall, M.S.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background
    Healthy life expectancy (HALE) and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) provide summary measures of health across geographies and time that can inform assessments of epidemiological patterns and health system performance, help to prioritise investments in research and development,

  9. Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 315 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE), 1990-2015 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassebaum, Nicholas J.; Arora, Megha; Barber, Ryan M.; Bhutta, Zulfigar A.; Carter, Austin; Casey, Daniel C.; Charlson, Fiona J.; Coates, Matthew M.; Coggeshall, Megan; Cornaby, Leslie; Dandona, Lalit; Dicker, Daniel J.; Erskine, Holly E.; Ferrari, Alize J.; Fitzmaurice, Christina; Foreman, Kyle; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.; Fullman, Nancy; Gething, Peter W.; Goldberg, Ellen M.; Graetz, Nicholas; Haagsma, Juanita A.; Johnson, Catherine; Kemmer, Laura; Khalil, Ibrahim A.; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kutz, Michael J.; Kyu, Hmwe H.; Leung, Janni; Liang, Xiaofeng; Lim, Stephen S.; Lim, Stephen S.; Lozano, Rafael; Mensah, George A.; Mikesell, Joe; Mokdad, Ali H.; Mooney, Meghan D.; Naghavi, Mohsen; Nguyen, Grant; Nsoesie, Elaine; Pigott, David M.; Pinho, Christine; Rankin, Zane; Reinig, Nikolas; Salomon, Joshua A.; Sandar, Logan; Amare, Azmeraw T.; Hoek, Hans W.; Singh, Abhishek; Tura, Abera Kenay

    2016-01-01

    Background Healthy life expectancy (HALE) and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) provide summary measures of health across geographies and time that can inform assessments of epidemiological patterns and health system performance, help to prioritise investments in research and development, and

  10. Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 315 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE), 1990–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesgaard Iburg, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Healthy life expectancy (HALE) and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) provide summary measures of health across geographies and time that can inform assessments of epidemiological patterns and health system performance, help to prioritise investments in research and develop......Summary Background Healthy life expectancy (HALE) and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) provide summary measures of health across geographies and time that can inform assessments of epidemiological patterns and health system performance, help to prioritise investments in research...... birth defects, and skin, oral, and sense organ diseases) either increased or remained unchanged, leading to increases in their relative ranking in many geographies. From 2005 to 2015, HALE at birth increased by an average of 2·9 years (95% uncertainty interval 2·9–3·0) for men and 3·5 years (3...

  11. Decomposing change in life expectancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaupel, James W.; Canudas Romo, Vladimir

    2003-01-01

    We extend Nathan Keyfitz's research on continuous change in life expectancy over time by presenting and proving a new formula for decomposing such change. The formula separates change in life expectancy over time into two terms. The first term captures the general effect of reduction in death rates...... in Sweden and Japan....

  12. Life expectancy in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vradi, Eleni; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Life expectancy in patients with bipolar disorder has been reported to be decreased by 11 to 20 years. These calculations are based on data for individuals at the age of 15 years. However, this may be misleading for patients with bipolar disorder in general as most patients have a later...... onset of illness. The aim of the present study was to calculate the remaining life expectancy for patients of different ages with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder. METHODS: Using nationwide registers of all inpatient and outpatient contacts to all psychiatric hospitals in Denmark from 1970 to 2012 we...... remaining life expectancy in bipolar disorder and that of the general population decreased with age, indicating that patients with bipolar disorder start losing life-years during early and mid-adulthood. CONCLUSIONS: Life expectancy in bipolar disorder is decreased substantially, but less so than previously...

  13. FastStats: Life Expectancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home ... expectancy at birth, at 65, and 75 years of age by sex, race and Hispanic origin Health, United States 2016, table 15 [PDF – 9.8 MB] Life ...

  14. Physical activity extends life expectancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisure-time physical activity is associated with longer life expectancy, even at relatively low levels of activity and regardless of body weight, according to a study by a team of researchers led by the NCI.

  15. Predictors of life disability in trichotillomania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Esther S; Flessner, Christopher A; Grant, Jon E; Keuthen, Nancy J

    2015-01-01

    Limited research has investigated disability and functional impairment in trichotillomania (TTM) subjects. This study examined the relationships between hair pulling (HP) style and severity and disability while controlling for mood severity. Disability was measured in individual life areas (work, social, and family/home life) instead of as a total disability score as in previous studies. One hundred fifty three adult hair pullers completed several structured interviews and self-report instruments. HP style and severity, as well as depression, anxiety, and stress were correlated with work, social, and family/home life impairment on the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS). Multiple regression analyses were performed to determine significant predictors of life impairment. Depressive severity was a significant predictor for all SDS life areas. In addition, interference/avoidance associated with HP was a predictor for work and social life disability. Distress from HP was a significant predictor of social and family/home life disability. Focused HP score and anxiety were significant predictors of family/home life disability. As expected, depression in hair pullers predicted disability across life domains. Avoiding work and social situations can seriously impair functioning in those life domains. Severity of distress and worry about HP may be most elevated in social situations with friends and family and thus predict impairment in those areas. Finally, since HP often occurs at home, time spent in focused hair pulling would have a greater negative impact on family and home responsibilities than social and work life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 333 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 195 countries and territories, 1990–2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesgaard Iburg, Kim

    2017-01-01

    Background Measurement of changes in health across locations is useful to compare and contrast changing epidemiological patterns against health system performance and identify specific needs for resource allocation in research, policy development, and programme decision making. Using the Global...... Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016, we drew from two widely used summary measures to monitor such changes in population health: disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) and healthy life expectancy (HALE). We used these measures to track trends and benchmark progress compared...... from expected trends when compared with the SDI: the geometric mean of income per person, educational attainment in the population older than age 15 years, and total fertility rate. Findings The highest globally observed HALE at birth for both women and men was in Singapore, at 75·2 years (95...

  17. Forecasting Spanish natural life expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillen, Montserrat; Vidiella-i-Anguera, Antoni

    2005-10-01

    Knowledge of trends in life expectancy is of major importance for policy planning. It is also a key indicator for assessing future development of life insurance products, substantiality of existing retirement schemes, and long-term care for the elderly. This article examines the feasibility of decomposing age-gender-specific accidental and natural mortality rates. We study this decomposition by using the Lee and Carter model. In particular, we fit the Poisson log-bilinear version of this model proposed by Wilmoth and Brouhns et al. to historical (1975-1998) Spanish mortality rates. In addition, by using the model introduced by Wilmoth and Valkonen we analyze mortality-gender differentials for accidental and natural rates. We present aggregated life expectancy forecasts compared with those constructed using nondecomposed mortality rates.

  18. Life Expectancy of Brazilian Neurosurgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, Ricardo Vieira; Jardim Miranda, Bárbara Cristina; Nishikuni, Koshiro; Waisberg, Jaques

    2018-06-01

    Life expectancy (LE) refers to the number of years that an individual is expected to survive. Emphasis is frequently placed on the relationship between LE and the conditions under which a population lives, but fewer studies have investigated the relationship between stress factors associated with specific professions and their effects on LE. The aim of this study is to evaluate Brazilian neurosurgeons' life expectancies (BNLEs) and compare them with those of physicians (both Brazilian and foreign) from other fields, as well as with Brazilian nondoctors. The Brazilian Society of Neurosurgery death registry was used to obtain data that compared LEs from non-neurosurgeon physicians, as described in the national and international literature. BNLEs were also compared with the LEs of Brazilian citizens. Fifty-one neurosurgeons died between 2009 and 2016. All were males. The mean age at death was 68.31 ± 17.71 years. Among all-cause mortality, the breakdown was 20% cardiovascular diseases, 39% malignancies, 10% external factors, 6% gastrointestinal disorders, 12% neurologic illnesses, and 14% unknown causes. BNLE was shorter than LE of male Brazilian citizens. LE was similar among neurosurgeons and other doctors but shorter compared with Brazilian citizens. Further research is needed to provide data that can add to and confirm these results. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Disability-Adjusted Life-Years (DALYs) for 315 Diseases and Injuries and Healthy Life Expectancy (HALE) in Iran and its Neighboring Countries, 1990-2015: Findings from Global Burden of Disease Study 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepanlou, Sadaf G; Parsaeian, Mahboubeh; Krohn, Kristopher J; Afshin, Ashkan; Farzadfar, Farshad; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Karimkhani, Chante; Bazargan-Hejazi, Sharzad; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Djalalinia, Shirin; Ebrahimi, Hedyeh; Eshrati, Babak; Esteghamati, Ali Reza; Farvid, Maryam S; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Hassanvand, Mohammad Sadegh; Heydarpour, Pouria; Islami, Farhad; Karimi, Seyed M; Katibeh, Marzieh; Khosravi, Ardeshir; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Mahdavi, Mahdi; Pishgar, Farhad; Qorbani, Mostafa; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Safi, Sare; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Shahraz, Saeid; Sheikhbahaei, Sara; Mohammadi, Alireza; Mokdad, Ali H; Vos, Theo; Murray, Christopher J L; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Naghavi, Mohsen; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2017-07-01

    Summary measures of health are essential in making estimates of health status that are comparable across time and place. They can be used for assessing the performance of health systems, informing effective policy making, and monitoring the progress of nations toward achievement of sustainable development goals. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015) provides disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) and healthy life expectancy (HALE) as main summary measures of health. We assessed the trends of health status in Iran and 15 neighboring countries using these summary measures. We used the results of GBD 2015 to present the levels and trends of DALYs, life expectancy (LE), and HALE in Iran and its 15 neighboring countries from 1990 to 2015. For each country, we assessed the ratio of observed levels of DALYs and HALE to those expected based on socio-demographic index (SDI), an indicator composed of measures of total fertility rate, income per capita, and average years of schooling. All-age numbers of DALYs reached over 19 million years in Iran in 2015. The all-age number of DALYs has remained stable during the past two decades in Iran, despite the decreasing trends in all-age and age-standardized rates. The all-cause DALY rates decreased from 47,200 in 1990 to 28,400 per 100,000 in 2015. The share of non-communicable diseases in DALYs increased in Iran (from 42% to 74%) and all of its neighbors between 1990 and 2015; the pattern of change is similar in almost all 16 countries. The DALY rates for NCDs and injuries in Iran were higher than global rates and the average rate in High Middle SDI countries, while those for communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional disorders were much lower in Iran. Among men, cardiovascular diseases ranked first in all countries of the region except for Bahrain. Among women, they ranked first in 13 countries. Life expectancy and HALE show a consistent increase in all countries. Still, there are

  20. Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 315 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE), 1990-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-08

    Healthy life expectancy (HALE) and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) provide summary measures of health across geographies and time that can inform assessments of epidemiological patterns and health system performance, help to prioritise investments in research and development, and monitor progress toward the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). We aimed to provide updated HALE and DALYs for geographies worldwide and evaluate how disease burden changes with development. We used results from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015) for all-cause mortality, cause-specific mortality, and non-fatal disease burden to derive HALE and DALYs by sex for 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2015. We calculated DALYs by summing years of life lost (YLLs) and years of life lived with disability (YLDs) for each geography, age group, sex, and year. We estimated HALE using the Sullivan method, which draws from age-specific death rates and YLDs per capita. We then assessed how observed levels of DALYs and HALE differed from expected trends calculated with the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a composite indicator constructed from measures of income per capita, average years of schooling, and total fertility rate. Total global DALYs remained largely unchanged from 1990 to 2015, with decreases in communicable, neonatal, maternal, and nutritional (Group 1) disease DALYs offset by increased DALYs due to non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Much of this epidemiological transition was caused by changes in population growth and ageing, but it was accelerated by widespread improvements in SDI that also correlated strongly with the increasing importance of NCDs. Both total DALYs and age-standardised DALY rates due to most Group 1 causes significantly decreased by 2015, and although total burden climbed for the majority of NCDs, age-standardised DALY rates due to NCDs declined. Nonetheless, age-standardised DALY rates due to several high

  1. Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 333 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Hay, Simon I; Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Abate, Kalkidan Hassen; Abbafati, Cristiana; Abbas, Kaja M; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abdulle, Abdishakur M; Abebo, Teshome Abuka; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Aboyans, Victor; Abu-Raddad, Laith J; Ackerman, Ilana N; Adedeji, Isaac A; Adetokunboh, Olatunji; Afshin, Ashkan

    2017-01-01

    Measurement of changes in health across locations is useful to compare and contrast changing epidemiological patterns against health system performance and identify specific needs for resource allocation in research, policy development, and programme decision making. Using the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016, we drew from two widely used summary measures to monitor such changes in population health: disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) and healthy life expec...

  2. Moxie matters: associations of future orientation with active life expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laditka, Sarah B; Laditka, James N

    2017-10-01

    Being oriented toward the future has been associated with better future health. We studied associations of future orientation with life expectancy and the percentage of life with disability. We used the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (n = 5249). Participants' average age in 1968 was 33.0. Six questions repeatedly measured future orientation, 1968-1976. Seven waves (1999-2011, 33,331 person-years) measured disability in activities of daily living for the same individuals, whose average age in 1999 was 64.0. We estimated monthly probabilities of disability and death with multinomial logistic Markov models adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, childhood health, and education. Using the probabilities, we created large populations with microsimulation, measuring disability in each month for each individual, age 55 through death. Life expectancy from age 55 for white men with high future orientation was age 77.6 (95% confidence interval 75.5-79.0), 6.9% (4.9-7.2) of those years with disability; results with low future orientation were 73.6 (72.2-75.4) and 9.6% (7.7-10.7). Comparable results for African American men were 74.8 (72.9-75.3), 8.1 (5.6-9.3), 71.0 (69.6-72.8), and 11.3 (9.1-11.7). For women, there were no significant differences associated with levels of future orientation for life expectancy. For white women with high future orientation 9.1% of remaining life from age 55 was disabled (6.3-9.9), compared to 12.4% (10.2-13.2) with low future orientation. Disability results for African American women were similar but statistically significant only at age 80 and over. High future orientation during early to middle adult ages may be associated with better health in older age.

  3. Life expectancy among elderly Brazilians in 2003 according to different levels of functional disability Expectativa de vida para idosos brasileiros em 2003, segundo diferentes níveis de incapacidade funcional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Castro Santos Camargos

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to estimate disability-free life expectancy for the Brazilian elderly in 2003, by gender and age, based on different concepts of functional disability. The Sullivan method is used to combine the period life tables from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE, 2003 and the prevalence of functional disability according to the 2003 National Sample Household Survey (PNAD 2003. The main results of the study indicate that at age 60, Brazilian men can expect to live 19 years, 39% with mild, 21% with moderate, and 14% with severe functional disability, respectively. At the same age, Brazilian women can expect to live 22 years: 56% with mild, 32% with moderate, and 18% with severe functional disability.Informações sobre o número de anos a serem vividos com incapacidade funcional possibilitam direcionar políticas públicas que visem a diminuir o número de anos nestas condições. Desagregadas segundo diferentes níveis de incapacidade, podem ensejar o desenho e implementação de ações mais específicas e eficazes. O objetivo deste estudo foi medir a expectativa de vida livre de e com incapacidade funcional para os idosos brasileiros em 2003, por sexo e idade, utilizando diferentes níveis de incapacidade funcional. Empregou-se o método de Sullivan, combinando a tábua de vida e as prevalências de incapacidade funcional. Foram utilizadas as tábuas de vida publicadas pelo Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística e as prevalências de incapacidade da Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios. Os principais resultados indicam que, aos 60 anos, a expectativa de vida dos homens era de 19 anos, 39% com incapacidade funcional leve, 21% com incapacidade moderada e 14% com incapacidade funcional grave. Nessa mesma idade, a expectativa de vida das mulheres era de 22 anos (56%, 32% e 18% com incapacidades funcionais leve, moderada e grave, respectivamente.

  4. Gamma-Gompertz life expectancy at birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifon I. Missov

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The gamma-Gompertz multiplicative frailty model is the most common parametric modelapplied to human mortality data at adult and old ages. The resulting life expectancy hasbeen calculated so far only numerically. OBJECTIVE Properties of the gamma-Gompertz distribution have not been thoroughly studied. The focusof the paper is to shed light onto its first moment or, demographically speaking, characterizelife expectancy resulting from a gamma-Gompertz force of mortality. The paperprovides an exact formula for gamma-Gompertz life expectancy at birth and a simplerhigh-accuracy approximation that can be used in practice for computational convenience.In addition, the article compares actual (life-table to model-based (gamma-Gompertzlife expectancy to assess on aggregate how many years of life expectancy are not captured(or overestimated by the gamma-Gompertz mortality mechanism. COMMENTS A closed-form expression for gamma-Gomeprtz life expectancy at birth contains a special(the hypergeometric function. It aids assessing the impact of gamma-Gompertz parameterson life expectancy values. The paper shows that a high-accuracy approximation canbe constructed by assuming an integer value for the shape parameter of the gamma distribution.A historical comparison between model-based and actual life expectancy forSwedish females reveals a gap that is decreasing to around 2 years from 1950 onwards.Looking at remaining life expectancies at ages 30 and 50, we see this gap almost disappearing.

  5. Changing mortality and average cohort life expectancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Schoen

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Period life expectancy varies with changes in mortality, and should not be confused with the life expectancy of those alive during that period. Given past and likely future mortality changes, a recent debate has arisen on the usefulness of the period life expectancy as the leading measure of survivorship. An alternative aggregate measure of period mortality which has been seen as less sensitive to period changes, the cross-sectional average length of life (CAL has been proposed as an alternative, but has received only limited empirical or analytical examination. Here, we introduce a new measure, the average cohort life expectancy (ACLE, to provide a precise measure of the average length of life of cohorts alive at a given time. To compare the performance of ACLE with CAL and with period and cohort life expectancy, we first use population models with changing mortality. Then the four aggregate measures of mortality are calculated for England and Wales, Norway, and Switzerland for the years 1880 to 2000. CAL is found to be sensitive to past and present changes in death rates. ACLE requires the most data, but gives the best representation of the survivorship of cohorts present at a given time.

  6. Multiple chronic conditions and life expectancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DuGoff, Eva H; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Buttorff, Christine

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The number of people living with multiple chronic conditions is increasing, but we know little about the impact of multimorbidity on life expectancy. OBJECTIVE: We analyze life expectancy in Medicare beneficiaries by number of chronic conditions. RESEARCH DESIGN: A retrospective cohort...... study using single-decrement period life tables. SUBJECTS: Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries (N=1,372,272) aged 67 and older as of January 1, 2008. MEASURES: Our primary outcome measure is life expectancy. We categorize study subjects by sex, race, selected chronic conditions (heart disease, cancer...... and increasing numbers of comorbid conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Social Security and Medicare actuaries should account for the growing number of beneficiaries with multiple chronic conditions when determining population projections and trust fund solvency....

  7. Overprotection and lowered expectations of persons with disabilities: the unforeseen consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Karen Y

    2006-01-01

    Lowered expectations and overprotection of the individual with a disability can cause lowered self esteem which can result in a life time of underachievement and failure to reach their full potential. Both lowered expectations and overprotection are forms of discrimination. Internalization of discrimination causes the person with a disability to believe that they are less capable than a person without a disability. Parents and care providers of children with disabilities may overprotect the child to shield them from harm; however this can actually cause more damage. Successful parenting skills are required to help children and adolescents develop a positive self concept and high self esteem. Guidelines have been developed to assist parents, educators and other professionals regarding the effects of overprotection and lowered expectations.

  8. Gamma-Gompertz life expectancy at birth

    OpenAIRE

    Trifon I. Missov

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The gamma-Gompertz multiplicative frailty model is the most common parametric modelapplied to human mortality data at adult and old ages. The resulting life expectancy hasbeen calculated so far only numerically. OBJECTIVE Properties of the gamma-Gompertz distribution have not been thoroughly studied. The focusof the paper is to shed light onto its first moment or, demographically speaking, characterizelife expectancy resulting from a gamma-Gompertz force of mortality. The paperprov...

  9. Forecasting differences in life expectancy by education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.H.M. Van Baal (Pieter); F. Peters (Frederik); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan); W.J. Nusselder (Wilma)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractForecasts of life expectancy (LE) have fuelled debates about the sustainability and dependability of pension and healthcare systems. Of relevance to these debates are inequalities in LE by education. In this paper, we present a method of forecasting LE for different educational groups

  10. Life expectancies for individuals with psychiatric diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannerz, H; Borgå, P; Borritz, M

    2001-09-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate life expectancies in different diagnostic groups for individuals treated as inpatients at Swedish psychiatric clinics. All individuals, older than 18 y and alive on the first of January 1983, who had been registered in the National Hospital Discharge Registry by a psychiatric clinic in 1978-82, were monitored for mortality during 1983 by using the National Cause of Death Registry. The study group consisted of 91 385 men and 77 217 women. The patients were divided into nine diagnostic groups according to the principal diagnosis registered at the latest discharge. Actuarial mathematics was used to construct life expectancy tables, which present the number of years expected to live, by gender and diagnostic group. Expectancies of life were significantly shortened for both genders and in all nine diagnostic groups (with one exception). Mental disorders in general are life shortening. This fact should be recognised in community health when setting health priorities. It should also be addressed in curricula as well as in treatment and preventive programmes.

  11. Post-School Visions and Expectations of Latino Students with Learning Disabilities, Their Parents, and Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keel, Joanna Mossmond; Cushing, Lisa Sharon; Awsumb, Jessica M.

    2018-01-01

    This study explored perspectives about the desired components of adult life for 12th-grade Latino students with learning disabilities, their parents, and special education teachers. Focus groups and individual interviews were used to understand the similarities and differences in post-school visions and expectations among participants. Five…

  12. Social gradient in life expectancy and health expectancy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Andersen, Otto; Kjøller, Mette

    2004-01-01

    Health status of a population can be evaluated by health expectancy expressed as average lifetime in various states of health. The purpose of the study was to compare health expectancy in population groups at high, medium and low educational levels.......Health status of a population can be evaluated by health expectancy expressed as average lifetime in various states of health. The purpose of the study was to compare health expectancy in population groups at high, medium and low educational levels....

  13. Multiple chronic conditions and life expectancy: a life table analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuGoff, Eva H; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Buttorff, Christine; Leff, Bruce; Anderson, Gerard F

    2014-08-01

    The number of people living with multiple chronic conditions is increasing, but we know little about the impact of multimorbidity on life expectancy. We analyze life expectancy in Medicare beneficiaries by number of chronic conditions. A retrospective cohort study using single-decrement period life tables. Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries (N=1,372,272) aged 67 and older as of January 1, 2008. Our primary outcome measure is life expectancy. We categorize study subjects by sex, race, selected chronic conditions (heart disease, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, stroke, and Alzheimer disease), and number of comorbid conditions. Comorbidity was measured as a count of conditions collected by Chronic Conditions Warehouse and the Charlson Comorbidity Index. Life expectancy decreases with each additional chronic condition. A 67-year-old individual with no chronic conditions will live on average 22.6 additional years. A 67-year-old individual with 5 chronic conditions and ≥10 chronic conditions will live 7.7 fewer years and 17.6 fewer years, respectively. The average marginal decline in life expectancy is 1.8 years with each additional chronic condition-ranging from 0.4 fewer years with the first condition to 2.6 fewer years with the sixth condition. These results are consistent by sex and race. We observe differences in life expectancy by selected conditions at 67, but these differences diminish with age and increasing numbers of comorbid conditions. Social Security and Medicare actuaries should account for the growing number of beneficiaries with multiple chronic conditions when determining population projections and trust fund solvency.

  14. Best Practice Life Expectancy:An Extreme value Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Medford, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Background: Whereas the rise in human life expectancy has been extensively studied, the evolution of maximum life expectancies, i.e., the rise in best-practice life expectancy in a group of populations, has not been examined to the same extent. The linear rise in best-practice life expectancy has been reported previously by various authors. Though remarkable, this is simply an empirical observation. Objective: We examine best-practice life expectancy more formally by using extreme value th...

  15. Years of potential life lost and life expectancy in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorthøj, Carsten; Stürup, Anne Emilie; McGrath, John J

    2017-01-01

    was least in the Asian study and greatest in Africa. The overall weighted average life expectancy was 64·7 years (95% CI 61·1-71·3), and was lower for men than women (59·9 years, 95% CI 55·5-64·3 vs 67·6 years, 63·1-72·1). Life expectancy was lowest in Asia and Africa. Timing of publication and risk of bias...... (Africa n=1, Asia n=1, Australia n=1, Europe n=7, and North America n=3) that involved up to 247 603 patients. Schizophrenia was associated with a weighted average of 14·5 years of potential life lost (95% CI 11·2-17·8), and was higher for men than women (15·9, 13·8-18·0 vs 13·6, 11·4-15·8). Loss...

  16. Trading Stages: Life Expectancies in Structured Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Coulson, Tim; Horvitz, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Interest in stage-and age structured models has recently increased because they can describe quantitative traits such as size that are left out of age-only demography. Available methods for the analysis of effects of vital rates on lifespan in stage-structured models have not been widely applied because they are hard to use and interpret, and tools for age and stage structured populations are missing. We present easily interpretable expressions for the sensitivities and elasticities of life expectancy to vital rates in age-stage models, and illustrate their application with two biological examples. Much of our approach relies on trading of time and mortality risk in one stage for time and risk in others. Our approach contributes to the new framework of the study of age- and stage-structured biodemography. PMID:22664576

  17. Life Expectancy in Patients Treated for Osteoporosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Osmond, Clive; Cooper, Cyrus

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a chronic disease, carrying an elevated risk of fractures, morbidity, and death. Long-term treatment may be required, but the long-term risks with osteoporosis drugs remain incompletely understood. The competing risk of death may be a barrier to treating the oldest, yet this may...... not be rational if the risk of death is reduced by treatment. It is difficult to devise goal-directed long-term strategies for managing osteoporosis without firm information about residual life expectancy in treated patients. We conducted an observational study in Danish national registries tracking prescriptions...... for osteoporosis drugs, comorbid conditions, and deaths. We included 58,637 patients and 225,084 age- and sex-matched control subjects. Information on deaths until the end of 2013 was retrieved, providing a follow-up period of 10 to 17 years. In men younger than 80 years and women younger than 60 years...

  18. Forecasting differences in life expectancy by education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Baal, Pieter; Peters, Frederik; Mackenbach, Johan; Nusselder, Wilma

    2016-07-01

    Forecasts of life expectancy (LE) have fuelled debates about the sustainability and dependability of pension and healthcare systems. Of relevance to these debates are inequalities in LE by education. In this paper, we present a method of forecasting LE for different educational groups within a population. As a basic framework we use the Li-Lee model that was developed to forecast mortality coherently for different groups. We adapted this model to distinguish between overall, sex-specific, and education-specific trends in mortality, and extrapolated these time trends in a flexible manner. We illustrate our method for the population aged 65 and over in the Netherlands, using several data sources and spanning different periods. The results suggest that LE is likely to increase for all educational groups, but that differences in LE between educational groups will widen. Sensitivity analyses illustrate the advantages of our proposed method.

  19. Life Satisfaction in Persons with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas-Carrasco, Ramona; Salvador-Carulla, Luis

    2012-01-01

    We appraised life satisfaction using the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), and analysed its psychometric properties in persons with intellectual disability (ID). Ninety-nine persons with ID from four services in Spain participated. A battery of subjective assessments was used, including the SWLS, a Quality of Life measure (WHOQOL-BREF), and…

  20. Disability pension and everyday life: a period of transition and subjective aspects of future occupational life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Annica E M; Johansson, Ulla

    2011-01-01

    The purpose was to explore and describe the everyday life experiences among people with a disability pension and their expectations for future occupational life. A purposeful sample of 14 men and women were interviewed. Of these, ten people received full-time disability pension and four people were on partial disability pension while working part time. A content analysis approach revealed three themes: strategies for handling a changed life situation, adaptations to remaining functional capacity, and expectations on future occupational life. Initially, leaving the work market entailed a period of emotional discomfort. To help handle this discomfort, structures for participation and performance came to signify a balanced everyday life. The central conclusion drawn is that the informants with full-time disability pension reconciled themselves to their situation, changing their conception of what life on a disability pension means, while those informants who worked part-time saw their future role as that of worker. Thus, being employed constitutes one factor that promotes a future work career. Another factor related to work capacity is the need for balance between paid work and domestic work reported by disability pensioners working part-time. This area could serve as a point of departure for work rehabilitation.

  1. Factors Associated With Subjective Life Expectancy: Comparison With Actuarial Life Expectancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaekyoung Bae

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Subjective life expectancy (SLE has been found to show a significant association with mortality. In this study, we aimed to investigate the major factors affecting SLE. We also examined whether any differences existed between SLE and actuarial life expectancy (LE in Korea. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 1000 individuals in Korea aged 20-59 was conducted. Participants were asked about SLE via a self-reported questionnaire. LE from the National Health Insurance database in Korea was used to evaluate differences between SLE and actuarial LE. Age-adjusted least-squares means, correlations, and regression analyses were used to test the relationship of SLE with four categories of predictors: demographic factors, socioeconomic factors, health behaviors, and psychosocial factors. Results Among the 1000 participants, women (mean SLE, 83.43 years; 95% confidence interval, 82.41 to 84.46 years; 48% of the total sample had an expected LE 1.59 years longer than that of men. The socioeconomic factors of household income and housing arrangements were related to SLE. Among the health behaviors, smoking status, alcohol status, and physical activity were associated with SLE. Among the psychosocial factors, stress, self-rated health, and social connectedness were related to SLE. SLE had a positive correlation with actuarial estimates (r=0.61, p<0.001. Gender, household income, history of smoking, and distress were related to the presence of a gap between SLE and actuarial LE. Conclusions Demographic factors, socioeconomic factors, health behaviors, and psychosocial factors showed significant associations with SLE, in the expected directions. Further studies are needed to determine the reasons for these results.

  2. On the correspondence between CAL and lagged cohort life expectancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Guillot

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been established that under certain mortality assumptions, the current value of the Cross-sectional Average length of Life (CAL is equal to the life expectancy for the cohort currently reaching its life expectancy. This correspondence is important, because the life expectancy for the cohort currently reaching its life expectancy, or lagged cohort life expectancy (LCLE, has been discussed in the tempo literature as a summary mortality measure of substantive interest. In this paper, we build on previous work by evaluating the extent to which the correspondence holds in actual populations. We also discuss the implications of the CAL-LCLE correspondence (or lack thereof for using CAL as a measure of cohort life expectancy, and for understanding the connection between CAL, LCLE, and underlying period mortality conditions.

  3. Best-practice life expectancy: An extreme value approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Medford

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Whereas the rise in human life expectancy has been extensively studied, the evolution of maximum life expectancies, i.e., the rise in best-practice life expectancy in a group of populations, has not been examined to the same extent. The linear rise in best-practice life expectancy has been reported previously by various authors. Though remarkable, this is simply an empirical observation. Objective: We examine best-practice life expectancy more formally by using extreme value theory. Methods: Extreme value distributions are fit to the time series (1900 to 2012 of maximum life expectancies at birth and age 65, for both sexes, using data from the Human Mortality Database and the United Nations. Conclusions: Generalized extreme value distributions offer a theoretically justified way to model best-practice life expectancies. Using this framework one can straightforwardly obtain probability estimates of best-practice life expectancy levels or make projections about future maximum life expectancy. Comments: Our findings may be useful for policymakers and insurance/pension analysts who would like to obtain estimates and probabilities of future maximum life expectancies.

  4. Sleep duration, life satisfaction and disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagan, Ricardo

    2017-04-01

    Although sleep is considered an essential part of individuals' lives, there are no previous studies analysing how sleep duration affects the levels of life satisfaction reported by males and females with disabilities. To analyse and compare the impact of hours of sleep on life satisfaction scores reported by people without and with disabilities (stratified by sex) in Germany. Using data taken from the German Socio-Economic Panel for the period 2008-2013, we estimate life satisfaction equations for males and females (running a fixed-effects model) which include a set of variables measuring the number of sleep hours on workdays and weekends. A higher number of sleep hours on workdays increase life satisfaction for all males and females. However, the contribution of each hour of sleep on workdays is greater for males with disabilities in terms of life satisfaction, whereas for females no significant differences by disability status have been found. Although sleep hours on weekends also increase life satisfaction, the magnitude of the coefficients is relatively higher than that found for the corresponding hours of sleep on workdays, but only for the male sample (disabled or not). The participation and commitment of policymakers, governments, trade unions, employers, and health care professionals are key aspects for developing and formulating new guidelines and specific measures that promote a healthy lifestyle and increase sleep duration. Such guidelines and measures are of essence for people with disabilities who are employed (e.g. using brief sleep opportunities during prolonged work periods, which can contribute to reducing fatigue, stress and anxiety). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Growing Disparities in Life Expectancy. Economic and Budget Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchester, Joyce; Topoleski, Julie

    2008-01-01

    In a continuation of long-term trends, life expectancy has been steadily increasing in the United States for the past several decades. Accompanying the recent increases, however, is a growing disparity in life expectancy between individuals with high and low income and between those with more and less education. The difference in life expectancy…

  6. Sex life and the Oswestry Disability Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Michelle; Marshman, Laurence A G

    2015-06-01

    Despite the option to not answer, there is widespread anecdotal belief that the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) Section 8 (ODI-8/sex life) is answered inaccurately (ie, in relation to psychosocial factors, not pain) or that it repels ODI participation. Oswestry Disability Index versions have therefore been created that omit ODI-8; however, no evidence base justifies this. Interestingly, one recent study reported an ODI-8 response rate (RR) of 97%. The aims of this study were to measure RR to sex life questions in patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP) and to validate that ODI-8 is answered appropriately and represents a specific measure of CLBP-mediated sexual inactivity. Original. Eighty-eight patients. The outcome measures used in this study were the ODI, the Sexual Quality of Life Scale-version 2 (SQOL-2), the Short Form-12 version 2 (mental and physical), the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale, the Coping Strategies Questionnaire, the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire-version 2, the Opioid Risk Tool, and the Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (work and physical). Chronic low back pain patients older than 18 years attending a multicultural Western spinal clinic were prospectively offered the aforementioned questionnaires. Sex life disability questions--pain dependent (ODI-8) and pain independent (SQOL-2)--appeared first and fifth in every sequence. Results were obtained in 65 patients (male 29, female 36). Despite expected response attrition with battery progression (RRs for the first and eighth questionnaires were 100% and 64.61%, respectively), RRs for ODI-8 (52.31%) and SQOL-2 (52.31%) were equal and significantly lower than others (p<.001). Nonresponders to ODI-8 (60.57±13.3 years) and SQOL-2 (59.68±13.34 years) were significantly older than responders (ODI-8: 47.82±12.17 years, p<.001; SQOL-2: 48.27±12.76 years, p=.001). Among ODI-8 or SQOL-2 responders, ODI-8 and SQOL-2 were not correlated (r=-0.340, p=.104). Although ODI-8 significantly

  7. Disability and Bureaucratic Forms of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Abrams

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper employs a hybrid actor-network theory/phenomenological approach to a frequent bother in the lives of disabled persons: bureaucratic forms. I argue that these forms are key sites where disabled personhood emerges, something I examine through the lens of what philosopher Annemarie Mol calls ‘ontological politics’. To be disabled is to be entered into the bureaucratic form of life. These forms translate human existence into a categorize-able, transportable and combinable object, to be administered through ‘centers of calculation’. Combining Heidegger’s fundamental ontology with Latour’s theory of paperwork, I suggest that these forms represent disability in terms of ‘objective presence’, as a mere pre-existing thing, rather than a human way of being. I conclude with suggestions for further phenomenological research that takes embodied difference as its point of departure.

  8. Which life expectancy for EDF reactors?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlier, P.; Fluchere, J.; Giraud, B.; Poizat, F.

    2008-01-01

    After having recalled that the French nuclear reactors have been designed for a 40-year long life with a 30-year depreciation, the authors notice that foreign reactors which are identical or older get a 60 year operation authorization. The authors analyse the age of the nuclear reactors which are currently operating in the world, in terms of age, of country. They also discuss the license renewal process in the USA. In the next part they analyse the conditions of a life extension to 60 years. These conditions concern material monitoring, maintenance strategy for the replacement of components, the condition of installations, personnel management and behaviour. Appendices contain a table of operating reactors which are still being operated and more than 30 year old, the status of license renewal applications to the US NRC

  9. Visually Disabled Athletes' Reasons of Starting Sport and Their Expectations in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürkan, Alper Cenk

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine visually disabled athletes' reasons of starting sport, and their expectations from sport in Turkey. Totally 100 athletes with visual disability in Turkey (26 individual sport, 74 team sports) participated in the research. Athletes with visual disability answered the questionnaire which was prepared by…

  10. Expectations from different perspectives on future work outcome of young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holwerda, Anja; Brouwer, Sandra; de Boer, Michiel R.; Groothoff, Johan W.; van der Klink, Jac J. L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Expectations strongly influence future employment outcomes and social networks seem to mediate employment success of young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The aim of this study is to examine the expectations of young adults with intellectual and developmental

  11. Expectations from Different Perspectives on Future Work Outcome of Young Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holwerda, A.; Brouwer, S.; de Boer, M.R.; Groothoff, J.W.; van der Klink, J.J.L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Expectations strongly influence future employment outcomes and social networks seem to mediate employment success of young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The aim of this study is to examine the expectations of young adults with intellectual and developmental

  12. Expectations from Different Perspectives on Future Work Outcome of Young Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holwerda, Anja; Brouwer, Sandra; de Boer, Michiel R.; Groothoff, Johan W.; van der Klink, Jac J. L.

    Purpose Expectations strongly influence future employment outcomes and social networks seem to mediate employment success of young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The aim of this study is to examine the expectations of young adults with intellectual and developmental

  13. [Expectation of life at birth: sex differentials, trends, limits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubenque, M; Damiani, P

    1981-01-01

    Using information available at the end of 1979, the authors present and analyze data on expectation of life at birth in 119 countries. Differences between developing and developed countries, trends over time, sex differentials, and limits on life expectancy are examined. The analysis reveals limits of approximately 73 years for men and 80 for women in the most developed countries. In France, which displays excessive male mortality, expectation of life increases more slowly for men. The authors attribute these sex differentials both to biological factors and to behavioral factors and ways of life.

  14. Natural Variation in the Sex Gap in Life Expectancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Zarulli, Virginia; Christensen, Kaare

    of these environmental factors whereas small differences would reflect a lower action of the factors and approach the ‘natural’ biological level. Here we examine variability in sex differences in life expectancy in 47 historical and contemporary human populations to address our hypothesis: large sex differences in life...... that females withstand harsh environments better then males in terms of survival, partly explaining their higher life expectancy. If this hypothesis is true and females survive environmental stressors better then males then large sex differences in life expectancies could reflect the action...

  15. Gompertz-Makeham Life Expectancies: Expressions and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Missov, Trifon; Lenart, Adam

    2013-01-01

    In a population of individuals, whose mortality is governed by a Gompertz–Makeham hazard, we derive closed-form solutions to the life-expectancy integral, corresponding to the cases of homogeneous and gamma-heterogeneous populations, as well as in the presence/absence of the Makeham term. Derived...... expressions contain special functions that aid constructing high-accuracy approximations, which can be used to study the elasticity of life expectancy with respect to model parameters. Knowledge of Gompertz–Makeham life expectancies aids constructing life-table exposures....

  16. Political conditions and life expectancy in Europe, 1900-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenbach, Johan P

    2013-04-01

    The rise of life expectancy in Europe has been a very uneven process, both in time and space. This paper aims to identify instances in which major political conditions are likely to have influenced the rise of life expectancy, focusing on formation and dissolution of states and supranational blocs and on differences between political regimes (democratic vs. authoritarian non-communist and communist rule). Data on life expectancy, cause-specific mortality and political conditions were compiled from existing data sources. Possible relations between political conditions and life expectancy were studied by direct comparisons of changes in life expectancy in countries with different political conditions but similar starting levels of life expectancy. We found that formation and dissolution of states often went together with convergence and divergence of life expectancy, respectively, and that otherwise similar countries that did or did not become part of the Soviet bloc had distinctly different life expectancy trajectories. Democratically governed states had higher life expectancies than authoritarian states throughout the 20th century. The gap narrowed between 1920 and 1960 due to rapid catching up of infectious disease control in both non-communist and communist authoritarian states. It widened again after 1960 due to earlier and more rapid progress in democratic states against cardiovascular disease, breast cancer, motor vehicle accidents and other causes of death that have become amenable to intervention. We conclude that the history of life expectancy in Europe contains many instances in which political conditions are likely to have had a temporary or more lasting impact on population health. This suggests that there is scope for further in-depth studies of the impact of specific political determinants on the development of population health in Europe. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Decennial trends and inequalities in healthy life expectancy: The HUNT Study, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storeng, Siri H; Krokstad, Steinar; Westin, Steinar; Sund, Erik R

    2018-02-01

    Norway is experiencing a rising life expectancy combined with an increasing dependency ratio - the ratio of those outside over those within the working force. To provide data relevant for future health policy we wanted to study trends in total and healthy life expectancy in a Norwegian population over three decades (1980s, 1990s and 2000s), both overall and across gender and educational groups. Data were obtained from the HUNT Study, and the Norwegian Educational Database. We calculated total life expectancy and used the Sullivan method to calculate healthy life expectancies based on self-rated health and self-reported longstanding limiting illness. The change in health expectancies was decomposed into mortality and disability effects. During three consecutive decades we found an increase in life expectancy for 30-year-olds (~7 years) and expected lifetime in self-rated good health (~6 years), but time without longstanding limiting illness increased less (1.5 years). Women could expect to live longer than men, but the extra life years for females were spent in poor self-rated health and with longstanding limiting illness. Differences in total life expectancy between educational groups decreased, whereas differences in expected lifetime in self-rated good health and lifetime without longstanding limiting illness increased. The increase in total life expectancy was accompanied by an increasing number of years spent in good self-rated health but more years with longstanding limiting illness. This suggests increasing health care needs for people with chronic diseases, given an increasing number of elderly. Socioeconomic health inequalities remain a challenge for increasing pensioning age.

  18. Explaining Optimistic Old Age Disability and Longevity Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Font, Joan; Costa-Font, Montserrat

    2011-01-01

    Biased health care decision making has been regarded as responsible for inefficient behaviours (for example, the limited insurance purchase). This paper empirically examines two sets of biases in the perception of old age disability and longevity. Particularly, we test for the existence of a so called cumulative bias and, secondly, a so called…

  19. Life expectancy living with HIV: recent estimates and future implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Fumiyo; May, Margaret; Phillips, Andrew

    2013-02-01

    The life expectancy of people living with HIV has dramatically increased since effective antiretroviral therapy has been available, and still continues to improve. Here, we review the latest literature on estimates of life expectancy and consider the implications for future research. With timely diagnosis, access to a variety of current drugs and good lifelong adherence, people with recently acquired infections can expect to have a life expectancy which is nearly the same as that of HIV-negative individuals. Modelling studies suggest that life expectancy could improve further if there were increased uptake of HIV testing, better antiretroviral regimens and treatment strategies, and the adoption of healthier lifestyles by those living with HIV. In particular, earlier diagnosis is one of the most important factors associated with better life expectancy. A consequence of improved survival is the increasing number of people with HIV who are aged over 50 years old, and further research into the impact of ageing on HIV-positive people will therefore become crucial. The development of age-specific HIV treatment and management guidelines is now called for. Analyses on cohort studies and mathematical modelling studies have been used to estimate life expectancy of those with HIV, providing useful insights of importance to individuals and healthcare planning.

  20. Adaptation to Physical Disabilities: The Role of Meaning in Life and Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelia Psarra

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Depression is one of the most frequent psychological symptoms in people with physical disabilities, as the acquisition of a physical disability is a stressful situation, demanding an individual’s adjustment to a new distressing reality. While some individuals manage to adapt to their physical disability’s implications, others fail to accept this new situation, manifesting depressive symptoms. One factor that seems to facilitate adaptation process to physical disabilities and thus prevent from depression prevalence is meaning of life. Viktor Frankl has emphasized the importance of experiencing meaning of life in the maintenance of physical and psychological health, especially in painful and distressing situations. The present study focused initially on the assessment of meaning in life and depressive symptomatology in individuals with physical disabilities. Moreover, the relationship of meaning in life and depression with adaptation to physical disability was examined. A sample of 522 participants with various types of physical disabilities completed three questionnaires on depressive symptomatology, meaning in life and adaptation to disability. Our assumptions regarding the negative relationship between meaning of life and depression were confirmed. Additionally, meaning of life was found, as expected, to play in important role in facilitating individuals’ adaptation to their physical disabilities, a finding indicating the great utility of Frankl’s existential theory as a psychotherapeutic tool for people with physical disabilities.

  1. Status of Women in Society and Life Expectancy at Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anica Novak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of the status of women in society over life expectancy at birth. Based on the data of some of the socio-economic variables for 187 countries worldwide, collected by the United Nations within United Nations Development Programme – Human Development Report, we developed a regression model of life expectancy factors. Through empirical testing of the three hypotheses which refer to different aspects of the status of women in society, we found that the employment ratio between women and men has a statistically significant negative impact on life expectancy at birth, which is, at least at first glance, unexpected. At the same time, the number of teenage births per 100 women aged 15–19 as well as gender inequality has a statistically significant negative impact on life expectancy at birth.

  2. Gains in Life Expectancy Associated with Higher Education in Men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijwaard, G.E.; van Poppel, F.W.A.; Ekamper, Peter; Lumey, L.H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Many studies show large differences in life expectancy across the range of education, intelligence, and socio-economic status. As educational attainment, intelligence, and socio-economic status are highly interrelated, appropriate methods are required to disentangle their separate

  3. Estimating life expectancies for US small areas: a regression framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congdon, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of area mortality variations and estimation of area life tables raise methodological questions relevant to assessing spatial clustering, and socioeconomic inequalities in mortality. Existing small area analyses of US life expectancy variation generally adopt ad hoc amalgamations of counties to alleviate potential instability of mortality rates involved in deriving life tables, and use conventional life table analysis which takes no account of correlated mortality for adjacent areas or ages. The alternative strategy here uses structured random effects methods that recognize correlations between adjacent ages and areas, and allows retention of the original county boundaries. This strategy generalizes to include effects of area category (e.g. poverty status, ethnic mix), allowing estimation of life tables according to area category, and providing additional stabilization of estimated life table functions. This approach is used here to estimate stabilized mortality rates, derive life expectancies in US counties, and assess trends in clustering and in inequality according to county poverty category.

  4. Robots, Disability, and Good Human Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carnevale

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I want to show the role that emerging robotic technologies could play in the future in daily life of disabled people. When I talk about disability, I mean any temporary or permanent limitation due to a chronic disease and deficit, as well as, socially disadvantaged conditions, which imply functional and emotional restrictions experienced at any age. All these limitations can be characterized by a specific mental and physical impairment or, more often, by a cluster of medical impairments and social barriers. To this end, the academic literature has generally differentiated between two disability models: 'medical' versus 'social'. The main attempt of this paper consists into showing how the development of robotic technologies — particularly in assistive and healthcare fields — could allow us to go beyond this outdated dichotomy, contributing to create new philosophical premises to rethink the universality of the human condition, that is, the sense of what we intend for 'good human life'.

  5. Active life expectancy of Americans with diabetes: risks of heart disease, obesity, and inactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laditka, Sarah B; Laditka, James N

    2015-01-01

    Few researchers have studied whether diabetes itself is responsible for high rates of disability or mortality, or if factors associated with diabetes contribute importantly. We estimated associations of diabetes, heart disease, obesity, and physical inactivity with life expectancy (LE), the proportion of life with disability (DLE), and disability in the last year of life. Data were from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (1999-2011 and 1986, African American and white women and men ages 55+, n=1,980, 17,352 person-years). Activities of daily living defined disability. Multinomial logistic Markov models estimated disability transition probabilities adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, and the health factors. Microsimulation measured outcomes. White women and men exemplify results. LE was, for women: 3.5 years less with diabetes than without (95% confidence interval, 3.1-4.0), 11.1 less (10.3-12.0) adding heart disease, 21.9 less with all factors (15.3-28.5), all pheart disease, 52.9% (38.9-66.8) with all factors, all pheart disease, obesity, and inactivity, risks that can be modified by health behaviors and medical care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Trends in healthy life expectancy in Japan: 1986 - 2004

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    Vanessa Yong

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the increasing life expectancy of Japanese men and women in relation to their health from 1986 to 2004. We computed healthy life expectancy for seven available time-points using the prevalence-based Sullivan method. The results showed that, for both sexes and at all ages, the gains in life expectancy prior to 1995 were mostly in years of good self-rated health, while the gains thereafter were in years of poor self-rated health. The exception was for women at age 85, among whom there was an almost continuous increase in the number of years in poor health. The proportion of life spent in different health states suggested evidence of morbidity compression until 1995, followed by an expansion of morbidity.

  7. Multilevel survival analysis of health inequalities in life expectancy

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    Merlo Juan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The health status of individuals is determined by multiple factors operating at both micro and macro levels and the interactive effects of them. Measures of health inequalities should reflect such determinants explicitly through sources of levels and combining mean differences at group levels and the variation of individuals, for the benefits of decision making and intervention planning. Measures derived recently from marginal models such as beta-binomial and frailty survival, address this issue to some extent, but are limited in handling data with complex structures. Beta-binomial models were also limited in relation to measuring inequalities of life expectancy (LE directly. Methods We propose a multilevel survival model analysis that estimates life expectancy based on survival time with censored data. The model explicitly disentangles total health inequalities in terms of variance components of life expectancy compared to the source of variation at the level of individuals in households and parishes and so on, and estimates group differences of inequalities at the same time. Adjusted distributions of life expectancy by gender and by household socioeconomic level are calculated. Relative and absolute health inequality indices are derived based on model estimates. The model based analysis is illustrated on a large Swedish cohort of 22,680 men and 26,474 women aged 65–69 in 1970 and followed up for 30 years. Model based inequality measures are compared to the conventional calculations. Results Much variation of life expectancy is observed at individual and household levels. Contextual effects at Parish and Municipality level are negligible. Women have longer life expectancy than men and lower inequality. There is marked inequality by the level of household socioeconomic status measured by the median life expectancy in each socio-economic group and the variation in life expectancy within each group. Conclusion Multilevel

  8. Leaving Sweden behind: Gains in life expectancy in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Nathalie; Le Serbon, Emilie; Rostila, Mikael

    2015-06-01

    Sweden and Canada are known for quality of living and exceedingly high life expectancy, but recent data on how these countries compare are lacking. We measured life expectancy in Canada and Sweden during the past decade, and identified factors responsible for changes over time. We calculated life expectancy at birth for Canada and Sweden annually from 2000 to 2010, and determined the ages and causes of death responsible for the gap between the two countries using Arriaga's method. We determined how population growth, ageing, and mortality influenced the number of deaths over time. During 2000-2010, life expectancy in Canada caught up with Sweden for men, and surpassed Sweden by 0.4 years for women. Sweden lost ground owing to a slower reduction in circulatory and tumour mortality after age 65 years compared with Canada. Nonetheless, population ageing increased the number of deaths in Canada, especially for mental and nervous system disorders. In Sweden, the number of deaths decreased. In only one decade, life expectancy in Canada caught up and surpassed Sweden due to rapid improvements in circulatory and tumour mortality. Population ageing increased the number of deaths in Canada, potentially stressing the health care system more than in Sweden. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  9. Rise, stagnation, and rise of Danish women's life expectancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Rau, Roland; Jeune, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Health conditions change from year to year, with a general tendency in many countries for improvement. These conditions also change from one birth cohort to another: some generations suffer more adverse events in childhood, smoke more heavily, eat poorer diets, etc., than generations born earlier...... favor forecasts that hinge on cohort differences. We use a combination of age decomposition and exchange of survival probabilities between countries to study the remarkable recent history of female life expectancy in Denmark, a saga of rising, stagnating, and now again rising lifespans. The gap between...... female life expectancy in Denmark vs. Sweden grew to 3.5 y in the period 1975-2000. When we assumed that Danish women born 1915-1945 had the same survival probabilities as Swedish women, the gap remained small and roughly constant. Hence, the lower Danish life expectancy is caused by these cohorts...

  10. Mortality and life expectancy in persons with severe unipolar depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Thomas Munk; Musliner, Katherine L; Benros, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression is a common psychiatric disorder, with a lifetime prevalence of 10-15% in the Danish population. Although depression is associated with excess mortality, it is not yet understood how this affects life expectancy. Our aim was to examine mortality rates and life expectancy...... in patients with unipolar depression compared to the general population, and to assess the impact of comorbid somatic illness and substance abuse. METHODS: We followed a Danish population-based cohort from 1995-2013 (N=5,103,699). The cohort included all residents in Denmark during the study period. Mortality...... rate ratios (MRRs) and life expectancy in persons with unipolar depression were calculated using survival analysis techniques. RESULTS: The overall MRR was 2.07 (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 2.05-2.09) in people with a previous unipolar depression diagnosis compared to the general Danish population...

  11. Losing ground--Swedish life expectancy in a comparative perspective.

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    Sven Drefahl

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the beginning of the 1970s, Sweden was the country where both women and men enjoyed the world's longest life expectancy. While life expectancy continues to be high and increasing, Sweden has been losing ground in relation to other leading countries. METHODS: We look at life expectancy over the years 1970-2008 for men and women. To assess the relative contributions of age, causes of death, and smoking we decompose differences in life expectancy between Sweden and two leading countries, Japan and France. This study is the first to use this decomposition method to observe how smoking related deaths contribute to life expectancy differences between countries. RESULTS: Sweden has maintained very low mortality at young and working ages for both men and women compared to France and Japan. However, mortality at ages above 65 has become considerably higher in Sweden than in the other leading countries because the decrease has been faster in those countries. Different trends for circulatory diseases were the largest contributor to this development in both sexes but for women also cancer played a role. Mortality from neoplasms has been considerably low for Swedish men. Smoking attributable mortality plays a modest role for women, whereas it is substantially lower in Swedish men than in French and Japanese men. CONCLUSIONS: Sweden is losing ground in relation to other leading countries with respect to life expectancy because mortality at high ages improves more slowly than in the leading countries, especially due to trends in cardiovascular disease mortality. Trends in smoking rates may provide a partial explanation for the trends in women; however, it is not possible to isolate one single explanatory factor for why Sweden is losing ground.

  12. Disability transitions and health expectancies among adults 45 years and older in Malawi: a cohort-based model.

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    Collin F Payne

    Full Text Available Falling fertility and increasing life expectancy contribute to a growing elderly population in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA; by 2060, persons aged 45 y and older are projected to be 25% of SSA's population, up from 10% in 2010. Aging in SSA is associated with unique challenges because of poverty and inadequate social supports. However, despite its importance for understanding the consequences of population aging, the evidence about the prevalence of disabilities and functional limitations due to poor physical health among older adults in SSA continues to be very limited.Participants came from 2006, 2008, and 2010 waves of the Malawi Longitudinal Survey of Families and Health, a study of the rural population in Malawi. We investigate how poor physical health results in functional limitations that limit the day-to-day activities of individuals in domains relevant to this subsistence-agriculture context. These disabilities were parameterized based on questions from the SF-12 questionnaire about limitations in daily living activities. We estimated age-specific patterns of functional limitations and the transitions over time between different disability states using a discrete-time hazard model. The estimated transition rates were then used to calculate the first (to our knowledge microdata-based health expectancies calculated for SSA. The risks of experiencing functional limitations due to poor physical health are high in this population, and the onset of disabilities happens early in life. Our analyses show that 45-y-old women can expect to spend 58% (95% CI, 55%-64% of their remaining 28 y of life (95% CI, 25.7-33.5 with functional limitations; 45-y-old men can expect to live 41% (95% CI, 35%-46% of their remaining 25.4 y (95% CI, 23.3-28.8 with such limitations. Disabilities related to functional limitations are shown to have a substantial negative effect on individuals' labor activities, and are negatively related to subjective well

  13. Disability transitions and health expectancies among adults 45 years and older in Malawi: a cohort-based model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Collin F; Mkandawire, James; Kohler, Hans-Peter

    2013-01-01

    Falling fertility and increasing life expectancy contribute to a growing elderly population in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA); by 2060, persons aged 45 y and older are projected to be 25% of SSA's population, up from 10% in 2010. Aging in SSA is associated with unique challenges because of poverty and inadequate social supports. However, despite its importance for understanding the consequences of population aging, the evidence about the prevalence of disabilities and functional limitations due to poor physical health among older adults in SSA continues to be very limited. Participants came from 2006, 2008, and 2010 waves of the Malawi Longitudinal Survey of Families and Health, a study of the rural population in Malawi. We investigate how poor physical health results in functional limitations that limit the day-to-day activities of individuals in domains relevant to this subsistence-agriculture context. These disabilities were parameterized based on questions from the SF-12 questionnaire about limitations in daily living activities. We estimated age-specific patterns of functional limitations and the transitions over time between different disability states using a discrete-time hazard model. The estimated transition rates were then used to calculate the first (to our knowledge) microdata-based health expectancies calculated for SSA. The risks of experiencing functional limitations due to poor physical health are high in this population, and the onset of disabilities happens early in life. Our analyses show that 45-y-old women can expect to spend 58% (95% CI, 55%-64%) of their remaining 28 y of life (95% CI, 25.7-33.5) with functional limitations; 45-y-old men can expect to live 41% (95% CI, 35%-46%) of their remaining 25.4 y (95% CI, 23.3-28.8) with such limitations. Disabilities related to functional limitations are shown to have a substantial negative effect on individuals' labor activities, and are negatively related to subjective well-being. Individuals in this

  14. Swedish medical students' expectations of their future life.

    OpenAIRE

    Diderichsen, S.; Andersson, J.; Johansson, E.E.; Verdonk, P.; Lagro-Janssen, T.; Hamberg, K.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate future life expectations among male and female medical students in their first and final year. Methods: The study was cross-sectional and conducted at a Swedish medical school. Out of 600 invited students, 507 (85%) answered an open-ended question about their future life, 298 (59%) first-year students and 209 (41%) last-year students. Women constituted 60% of the respondents. A mixed model design was applied; qualitative content analysis was utilized to create stati...

  15. Life expectancy in elderly patients following burns injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehripour, Sarvnaz; Duggineni, Sirisha; Shahsavari, Somaya; Dheansa, Baljit

    2018-05-18

    Burn injuries commonly occur in vulnerable age and social groups. Previous research has shown that frailty may represent a more important marker of adverse outcome in healthcare rather than chronological age (Roberts et al., 2012). In this paper we determined the relationship between burn injury, frailty, co-morbidities and long-term survival. Retrospective data collection from patients aged 75 with burns injuries, treated and discharged at Queen Victoria Hospital. The Clinical Frailty Scale (Rockwood et al., 2005) was used to calculate frailty at the time of admission. The expected mortality age (life expectancy) of deceased patients was obtained from two survival predictors. The data shows a statistically significant correlation between frailty score and complications and a statistically significant correlation between total body surface area percentage and complications. No significant difference was found between expected and observed age of death or life expectancy amongst the deceased (p value of 0.109). Based on the data from our unit, sustaining a burn as an elderly person does not reduce life expectancy. Medical and surgical complications, immediate, early and late, although higher with greater frailty and TBSA of burn, but do not adversely affect survival in this population. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Whites but Not Blacks Gain Life Expectancy from Social Contacts

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    Shervin Assari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recent research suggests that the health gain from economic resources and psychological assets may be systematically larger for Whites than Blacks. Aim. This study aimed to assess whether the life expectancy gain associated with social contacts over a long follow up differs for Blacks and Whites. Methods. Data came from the Americans’ Changing Lives (ACL Study, 1986–2011. The sample was a nationally representative sample of American adults 25 and older, who were followed for up to 25 years (n = 3361. Outcome was all-cause mortality. The main predictor was social contacts defined as number of regular visits with friends, relatives, and neighbors. Baseline demographics (age and gender, socioeconomic status (education, income, and employment, health behaviors (smoking and drinking, and health (chronic medical conditions, obesity, and depressive symptoms were controlled. Race was the focal moderator. Cox proportional hazard models were used in the pooled sample and based on race. Results. More social contacts predicted higher life expectancy in the pooled sample. A significant interaction was found between race and social contacts, suggesting that the protective effect of more social contacts is smaller for Blacks than Whites. In stratified models, more social contacts predicted an increased life expectancy for Whites but not Blacks. Conclusion. Social contacts increase life expectancy for White but not Black Americans. This study introduces social contacts as another social resource that differentially affects health of Whites and Blacks.

  17. Effects of physical activity on life expectancy with cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.H. Franco (Oscar); C.E.D. de Laet (Chris); A. Peeters (Andrea); J. Jonker (Joost); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan); W.J. Nusselder (Wilma)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Physical inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, little is known about the effects of physical activity on life expectancy with and without cardiovascular disease. Our objective was to calculate the consequences of different physical

  18. Global Trends in Life Expectancy: A Club Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Lehmijoki

    2009-01-01

    Excluding the HIV prevalence rate from the threshold candidates re-allocates a considerable number of the members of the High AIDS club, indicating that incomes, literacy, and fertility are unable to predict AIDS completely. The similarity of economic and demographic conditions in the Low Literacy and High AIDS clubs, however, raises concerns about life expectancy convergence in the future.

  19. Chemical Composition of Fine Particulate Matter and Life Expectancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominici, Francesca; Wang, Yun; Correia, Andrew W.; Ezzati, Majid; Pope, C. Arden; Dockery, Douglas W.

    2016-01-01

    Background In a previous study, we provided evidence that a decline in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution during the period between 2000 and 2007 was associated with increased life expectancy in 545 counties in the United States. In this article, we investigated which chemical constituents of PM2.5 were the main drivers of the observed association. Methods We estimated associations between temporal changes in seven major components of PM2.5 (ammonium, sulfate, nitrate, elemental carbon matter, organic carbon matter, sodium, and silicon) and temporal changes in life expectancy in 95 counties between 2002 and 2007. We included US counties that had adequate chemical components of PM2.5 mass data across all seasons. We fitted single pollutant and multiple pollutant linear models, controlling for available socioeconomic, demographic, and smoking variables and stratifying by urban and nonurban counties. Results In multiple pollutant models, we found that: (1) a reduction in sulfate was associated with an increase in life expectancy; and (2) reductions in ammonium and sodium ion were associated with increases in life expectancy in nonurban counties only. Conclusions Our findings suggest that recent reductions in long-term exposure to sulfate, ammonium, and sodium ion between 2002 and 2007 are associated with improved public health. PMID:25906366

  20. Swedish medical students' expectations of their future life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Jenny; Johansson, Eva E.; Verdonk, Petra; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine; Hamberg, Katarina

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate future life expectations among male and female medical students in their first and final year. Methods The study was cross-sectional and conducted at a Swedish medical school. Out of 600 invited students, 507 (85%) answered an open-ended question about their future life, 298 (59%) first-year students and 209 (41%) last-year students. Women constituted 60% of the respondents. A mixed model design was applied; qualitative content analysis was utilized to create statistically comparable themes and categories. Results Students’ written answers were coded, categorized and clustered into four themes: “Work”, “Family”, “Leisure” and “Quality of personal life”. Almost all students included aspects of work in their answers. Female students were more detailed than male ones in their family concerns. Almost a third of all students reflected on a future work-life balance, but considerations regarding quality of personal life and leisure were more common among last-year students. Conclusions Today’s medical students expect more of life than work, especially those standing on the doorstep of working life. They intend to balance work not only with a family but also with leisure activities. Our results reflect work attitudes that challenge the health care system for more adaptive working conditions. We suggest that discussions about work-life balance should be included in medical curricula.

  1. Obesity, smoking, alcohol consumption and years lived with disability: a Sullivan life table approach

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    Kunst Anton E

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To avoid strong declines in the quality of life due to population ageing, and to ensure sustainability of the health care system, reductions in the burden of disability among elderly populations are urgently needed. Life style interventions may help to reduce the years lived with one or more disabilities, but it is not fully understood which life style factor has the largest potential for such reductions. Therefore, the primary aim of this paper is to compare the effect of BMI, smoking and alcohol consumption on life expectancy with disability, using the Sullivan life table method. A secondary aim is to assess potential improvement of the Sullivan method by using information on the association of disability with time to death. Methods Data from the Dutch Permanent Survey of the Living Situation (POLS 1997-1999 with mortality follow-up until 2006 (n = 6,446 were used. Using estimated relative mortality risks by risk factor exposure, separate life tables were constructed for groups defined in terms of BMI, smoking status and alcohol consumption. Logistic regression models were fitted to predict the prevalence of ADL and mobility disabilities in relationship to age and risk factor exposure. Using the Sullivan method, predicted age-specific prevalence rates were included in the life table to calculate years lived with disability at age 55. In further analysis we assessed whether adding information on time to death in both the regression models and the life table estimates would lead to substantive changes in the results. Results Life expectancy at age 55 differed by 1.4 years among groups defined in terms of BMI, 4.0 years by smoking status, and 3.0 years by alcohol consumption. Years lived with disability differed by 2.8 years according to BMI, 0.2 years by smoking and 1.6 by alcohol consumption. Obese persons could expect to live more years with disability (5.9 years than smokers (3.8 years and drinkers (3.1 years. Employing

  2. Animal-assisted interventions and quality of life: expectations among

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier López-Cepero

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study assessed expectations among university students (N= 474, X= 22.7, SD=5.6 years towards the possible benefits of animal-assisted interventions on quality of life. Attitudes were measured with the Improving Quality of Life scale, which is an instrument created ad hoc that demonstrated adequate psychometric properties (four easily interpretable factors, with 49% of explained variance and alphas ranging from .76 to .89. The results showed that the participants (from the departments of Social, Health or Educational Sciences had very positive attitudes (high effect sizes, ES>.80 regardless of training. The experience of sharing households with pets was associated with better expectations. These findings emphasize the high expectations that future professionals in different fields hold regarding animal-assisted interventions, and highlight the current shortcomings in training curricula. The implications of these findings for the development of animal-assisted interventions are discussed.

  3. How long do centenarians survive? Life expectancy and maximum lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modig, K; Andersson, T; Vaupel, J; Rau, R; Ahlbom, A

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the pattern of mortality above the age of 100 years. In particular, we aimed to examine whether Scandinavian data support the theory that mortality reaches a plateau at particularly old ages. Whether the maximum length of life increases with time was also investigated. The analyses were based on individual level data on all Swedish and Danish centenarians born from 1870 to 1901; in total 3006 men and 10 963 women were included. Birth cohort-specific probabilities of dying were calculated. Exact ages were used for calculations of maximum length of life. Whether maximum age changed over time was analysed taking into account increases in cohort size. The results confirm that there has not been any improvement in mortality amongst centenarians in the past 30 years and that the current rise in life expectancy is driven by reductions in mortality below the age of 100 years. The death risks seem to reach a plateau of around 50% at the age 103 years for men and 107 years for women. Despite the rising life expectancy, the maximum age does not appear to increase, in particular after accounting for the increasing number of individuals of advanced age. Mortality amongst centenarians is not changing despite improvements at younger ages. An extension of the maximum lifespan and a sizeable extension of life expectancy both require reductions in mortality above the age of 100 years. © 2017 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  4. Gains in Life Expectancy Associated with Higher Education in Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijwaard, Govert E; van Poppel, Frans; Ekamper, Peter; Lumey, L H

    2015-01-01

    Many studies show large differences in life expectancy across the range of education, intelligence, and socio-economic status. As educational attainment, intelligence, and socio-economic status are highly interrelated, appropriate methods are required to disentangle their separate effects. The aim of this paper is to present a novel method to estimate gains in life expectancy specifically associated with increased education. Our analysis is based on a structural model in which education level, IQ at age 18 and mortality all depend on (latent) intelligence. The model allows for (selective) educational choices based on observed factors and on an unobserved factor capturing intelligence. Our estimates are based on information from health examinations of military conscripts born in 1944-1947 in The Netherlands and their vital status through age 66 (n = 39,798). Our empirical results show that men with higher education have lower mortality. Using structural models to account for education choice, the estimated gain in life expectancy for men moving up one educational level ranges from 0.3 to 2 years. The estimated gain in months alive over the observational period ranges from -1.2 to 5.7 months. The selection effect is positive and amounts to a gain of one to two months. Decomposition of the selection effect shows that the gain from selection on (latent) intelligence is larger than the gain from selection on observed factors and amounts to 1.0 to 1.7 additional months alive. Our findings confirm the strong selection into education based on socio-economic status and intelligence. They also show significant higher life expectancy among individuals with higher education after the selectivity of education choice has been taken into account. Based on these estimates, it is plausible therefore that increases in education could lead to increases in life expectancy.

  5. The effect of life expectancy on aggression and generativity: a life history perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkel, Curtis S; Mathes, Eugene; Papini, Dennis R

    2010-09-23

    Following a model that is inclusive of both dispositional and situational influences on life-history behaviors and attitudes, the effect of life expectancies on aggression and generativity was examined. Consistent with the hypotheses it was found that shorter life expectancies led to an increase in the desire to aggress and a decrease in the desire to engage in generative behaviors. The results are discussed in terms of how life history theory can be used to frame research on person-situation interactions.

  6. Trends in healthy life expectancy among older Brazilian women between 1998 and 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Regina Nepomuceno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze conditional and unconditional healthy life expectancy among older Brazilian women. METHODS This cross-sectional study used the intercensal technique to estimate, in the absence of longitudinal data, healthy life expectancy that is conditional and unconditional on the individual’s current health status. The data used were obtained from the Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (National Household Sample Survey of 1998, 2003, and 2008. This sample comprised 11,171; 13,694; and 16,259 women aged 65 years or more, respectively. Complete mortality tables from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics for the years 2001 and 2006 were also used. The definition of health status was based on the difficulty in performing activities of daily living. RESULTS The remaining lifetime was strongly dependent on the current health status of the older women. Between 1998 and 2003, the amount of time lived with disability for healthy women at age 65 was 9.8%. This percentage increased to 66.2% when the women already presented some disability at age 65. Temporal analysis showed that the active life expectancy of the women at age 65 increased between 1998-2003 (19.3 years and 2003-2008 (19.4 years. However, life years gained have been mainly focused on the unhealthy state. CONCLUSIONS Analysis of conditional and unconditional life expectancy indicated that live years gained are a result of the decline of mortality in unhealthy states. This pattern suggests that there has been no reduction in morbidity among older women in Brazil between 1998 and 2008.

  7. Location, vocation, procreation: how choice influences life expectancy in doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleyman, R; Vann Jones, S

    2016-06-01

    Stress and mortality are negatively correlated and it is generally accepted that certain professions are more stressful than others. Medical graduates begin as a relatively homogenous population who then choose vastly different career options making doctors an ideal population in which to try to assess whether job stress is likely to be causal to increased mortality. To establish the influence of various modifiable risk factors on the life expectancy of UK doctors. We analysed a decade of obituaries from the British Medical Journal published between January 2003 and December 2012. Data included age at death (AAD), specialty, region (deanery), marriage status and children. A total of 3068 obituaries were eligible for inclusion. Mean AAD was 78.5 years. Male sex was associated with a significantly increased AAD by an additional 3.8 years (95% CI 2.4-5.2 years, P affect life expectancy. While this does not necessarily reflect quality of life, the additional years of life gained from having extra children have a positive effect on your quantity of life. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Obesity in adulthood and its consequences for life expectancy: a life-table analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Peeters (Anna); J.J.M. Barendregt (Jan); F. Willekens; J.P. Mackenbach (Johan); A. Al Mamun; L.G.A. Bonneux (Luc)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity in adulthood are linked to an increased risk for death and disease. Their potential effect on life expectancy and premature death has not yet been described. OBJECTIVE: To analyze reductions in life expectancy and increases in

  9. Expectations from different perspectives on future work outcome of young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holwerda, Anja; Brouwer, Sandra; de Boer, Michiel R; Groothoff, Johan W; van der Klink, Jac J L

    2015-03-01

    Expectations strongly influence future employment outcomes and social networks seem to mediate employment success of young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The aim of this study is to examine the expectations of young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities from special needs education, their parents and their school teachers regarding future work and the extent to which these expectations predict work outcome. Data on 341 young adults with intellectual or developmental disabilities, coming from special needs education, aged 17-20 years, and with an ability to work according to the Social Security Institute were examined. The school teacher's expectation was the only perspective that significantly predicted entering competitive employment, with a complementary effect of the expectation of parents and a small additional effect of the expectation of the young adult. Expectations of school teachers and parents are valuable in predicting work outcome. Therefore, it is important for professionals working with the young adult in the transition from school to work to incorporate the knowledge of school teachers and parents regarding the abilities of the young adult to enter competitive employment as a valuable source of information.

  10. Increasing life expectancy and the growing elderly population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helge Brunborg

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The life expectancy has increased rapidly in Norway in recent decades, with about ¼ year per year. The increase has been particularly fast for men, following a temporary decline in the 1950s and 1960s. Statistics Norway’s mortality projections using the Lee-Carter method indicate further improvements in this century – about 10 years higher life expectancy at birth. This implies significant mortality declines for older persons as the mortality is now small for young people. With no deaths below age 50 the life expectancy would be only 1-2 years higher.Population projections are for several reasons important for studying population ageing, including to have knowledge about the future age structure, and to estimate the effects of possible policy changes. In addition, the mortality projections are used for several other purposes than for projecting the population, such as calculating future pensions according to the new pension system, where life expectancy improvements reduce the annual pensions.The population projections show that the population will age regardless of plausible assumptions made about the demographic components births, deaths, immigration and emigration. Policies to affect these components may only marginally affect future ageing, and in some cases in the wrong direction. The only factor that may significantly affect the future ratio of the working to the non-working population, the potential support ratio, is that people work longer. This ratio will remain at the current level if the pension age is increased from the current 67 years to 78 years at the end of the century. This may be possible if the health of old persons continues to improve.

  11. The Social Distribution of Health: Estimating Quality-Adjusted Life Expectancy in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love-Koh, James; Asaria, Miqdad; Cookson, Richard; Griffin, Susan

    2015-07-01

    To model the social distribution of quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE) in England by combining survey data on health-related quality of life with administrative data on mortality. Health Survey for England data sets for 2010, 2011, and 2012 were pooled (n = 35,062) and used to model health-related quality of life as a function of sex, age, and socioeconomic status (SES). Office for National Statistics mortality rates were used to construct life tables for age-sex-SES groups. These quality-of-life and length-of-life estimates were then combined to predict QALE as a function of these characteristics. Missing data were imputed, and Monte-Carlo simulation was used to estimate standard errors. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to explore alternative regression models and measures of SES. Socioeconomic inequality in QALE at birth was estimated at 11.87 quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), with a sex difference of 1 QALY. When the socioeconomic-sex subgroups are ranked by QALE, a differential of 10.97 QALYs is found between the most and least healthy quintile groups. This differential can be broken down into a life expectancy difference of 7.28 years and a quality-of-life adjustment of 3.69 years. The methods proposed in this article refine simple binary quality-adjustment measures such as the widely used disability-free life expectancy, providing a more accurate picture of overall health inequality in society than has hitherto been available. The predictions also lend themselves well to the task of evaluating the health inequality impact of interventions in the context of cost-effectiveness analysis. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Decomposing changes in life expectancy: Compression versus shifting mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Pier Bergeron-Boucher

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In most developed countries, mortality reductions in the first half of the 20th century were highly associated with changes in lifespan disparities. In the second half of the 20th century, changes in mortality are best described by a shift in the mortality schedule, with lifespan variability remaining nearly constant. These successive mortality dynamics are known as compression and shifting mortality, respectively. Objective: To understand the effect of compression and shifting dynamics on mortality changes, we quantify the gains in life expectancy due to changes in lifespan variability and changes in the mortality schedule, respectively. Methods: We introduce a decomposition method using newly developed parametric expressions of the force of mortality that include the modal age at death as one of their parameters. Our approach allows us to differentiate between the two underlying processes in mortality and their dynamics. Results: An application of our methodology to the mortality of Swedish females shows that, since the mid-1960s, shifts in the mortality schedule were responsible for more than 70Š of the increase in life expectancy. Conclusions: The decomposition method allows differentiation between both underlying mortality processes and their respective impact on life expectancy, and also determines when and how one process has replaced the other.

  13. Middle School Teachers' Expectations of Organizational Behaviors of Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Rebecca C.; Shippen, Margaret E.; Dangel, Harry L.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the specific classroom organizational behaviors that middle school inclusive teachers report as expectations for students with learning disabilities. Practicing middle school science and social studies teachers (n = 12) responded to a survey about organization behaviors of students with learning…

  14. Staff Expectations and Views of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroese, Biza Stenfert; Jahoda, Andrew; Pert, Carol; Trower, Peter; Dagnan, Dave; Selkirk, Mhairi

    2014-01-01

    Background: The role of support workers and other professionals in the psychotherapeutic process has been commented upon but not as yet been systematically investigated. Method: To explore their views and expectations of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) for adults with intellectual disabilities, eleven paid support workers and professionals were…

  15. Future healthy life expectancy among older adults in the US: a forecast based on cohort smoking and obesity history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Bochen

    2016-01-01

    In the past three decades, the elderly population in the United States experienced increase in life expectancy (LE) and disability-free life expectancy (LE(ND)), but decrease in life expectancy with disability (LE(D)). Smoking and obesity are two major risk factors that had negative impacts on these trends. While smoking prevalence continues to decline in recent decades, obesity prevalence has been growing and is currently at a high level. This study aims to forecast the healthy life expectancy for older adults aged 55 to 85 in the US from 2011 to 2040, in relation to their smoking and obesity history. First, population-level mortality data from the Human Mortality Database (HMD) and individual-level disability data from the US National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were used to estimate the transition rates between different health states from 1982 to 2010, using a multi-state life table (MSLT) model. Second, the estimated transition rates were fitted and projected up to 2040, using a modified Lee-Carter model that incorporates cohort smoking and obesity history from NHIS. Mortality and morbidity for both sexes will continue to decline in the next decades. Relative to 2010, men are expected to have 3.2 years gain in LE(ND) and 0.8 years loss in LE(D). For women, there will be 1.8 years gain in LE(ND) and 0.8 years loss in LE(D). By 2040, men and women are expected to spend respectively 80 % and 75 % of their remaining life expectancy between 55 and 85 disability-free. Smoking and obesity have independent negative impacts on both the survival and disability of the US older population in the coming decades, and are responsible for the present and future gender disparity in mortality and morbidity. Overall, the US older population is expected to enjoy sustained health improvements and compression of disability, largely due to decline in smoking.

  16. Duration of coming life associated with disablement owing to ophthalmothology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Rustamova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available It was conducted the comparison of the middle duration of coming life associated with disablement owing to the different groups of eye disease in work. The difference between the duration of coming life of country population and the patient’ age were used as the gauge of life duration associated with disablement at the moment of the primary recognition by an invalid. It was determined that the middle duration of coming life associated with disablement changed and shook in the groups from 11,31 to 36,37 years for men and from 17,58 to 42,37 years for women subject to the reason of disablement. It is considered that the middle duration of coming life associated with disablement is integral criterion for an estimation of the medico-social burden of disease. It is differed 3 degrees of heaviness of the medico-social burden. The moderate heaviness of the medico-social burden (the middle duration of coming lif associated with disablement less than 20 years is characteristic for diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma and uveitis and the high degree of heaviness (the middle duration of coming life associated with disablement more than 30 years for disease of eyeball, visual nerve, eye traumas, myopia and anophthalmia.

  17. Duration of coming life associated with disablement owing to ophthalmothology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Rustamova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It was conducted the comparison of the middle duration of coming life associated with disablement owing to the different groups of eye disease in work. The difference between the duration of coming life of country population and the patient’ age were used as the gauge of life duration associated with disablement at the moment of the primary recognition by an invalid. It was determined that the middle duration of coming life associated with disablement changed and shook in the groups from 11,31 to 36,37 years for men and from 17,58 to 42,37 years for women subject to the reason of disablement. It is considered that the middle duration of coming life associated with disablement is integral criterion for an estimation of the medico-social burden of disease. It is differed 3 degrees of heaviness of the medico-social burden. The moderate heaviness of the medico-social burden (the middle duration of coming lif associated with disablement less than 20 years is characteristic for diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma and uveitis and the high degree of heaviness (the middle duration of coming life associated with disablement more than 30 years for disease of eyeball, visual nerve, eye traumas, myopia and anophthalmia.

  18. "It's My Life": Autonomy and People with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björnsdóttir, Kristín; Stefánsdóttir, Guðrún V; Stefánsdóttir, Ástríður

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses autonomy in the lives of adults with intellectual disabilities. The article draws on inclusive research in Iceland with 25 women and 16 men and employs ideas of relational autonomy from the perspectives of the Nordic relational approach to disability. In this article, we examine autonomy in relation to private life, that is,…

  19. A Search for Meaning: Telling Your Life with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Jaime Helena; Moss, Duncan

    2015-01-01

    Research has identified the collective experiences of oppression, stigma and isolation in the lives of people with learning disabilities. Against the backdrop of social and cultural processes that shape and limit the life experiences of people with learning disabilities, the authors are interested in how the individual develops a sense of self and…

  20. Increasing social inequality in life expectancy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Baadsgaard, Mikkel

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study was to determine trends in social inequality in mortality and life expectancy in Denmark. METHODS: The study was based on register data on educational level and mortality during the period 1981-2005 and comprised all deaths among Danes aged 30-60. Sex- and age...... with low and high educational level increased by 0.3 years. CONCLUSION: During the past 25 years, the social gap in mortality has widened in Denmark. In particular, women with a low educational level have been left behind....

  1. Inequalities in healthy life expectancy between ethnic groups in England and Wales in 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohland, Pia; Rees, Phil; Nazroo, James; Jagger, Carol

    2015-01-01

    We aim to develop robust estimates of disability-free life expectancy (DFLE) and healthy life expectancy (HLE) for ethnic groups in England and Wales in 2001 and to examine observed variations across ethnic groups. DFLE and HLE by age and gender for five-year age groups were computed for 16 ethnic groups by combining the 2001 Census data on ethnicity, self-reported limiting long-term illness and self-rated health using mortality by ethnic group estimated by two methods: the Standardised Illness Ratio (SIR) method and the Geographically Weighted Method (GWM). The SIR and GWM methods differed somewhat in their estimates of life expectancy (LE) at birth but produced very similar estimates of DFLE and HLE by ethnic group. For the more conservative method (GWM), the range in DFLE at birth was 10.5 years for men and 11.9 years for women, double that in LE. DFLE at birth was highest for Chinese men (64.7 years, 95% CI 64.0-65.3) and women (67.0 years, 95% CI 66.4-67.6). Over half of the ethnic minority groups (men: 10; women: 9) had significantly lower DFLE at birth than White British men (61.7 years, 95% CI 61.7-61.7) or women (64.1 years, 95% CI 64.1-64.2), mostly the Black, Asian and mixed ethnic groups. The lowest DFLE observed was for Bangladeshi men (54.3 years, 95% CI 53.7-54.8) and Pakistani women (55.1 years, 95% CI 54.8-55.4). Notable were Indian women whose LE was similar to White British women but who had 4.3 years less disability-free (95% CI 4.0-4.6). Inequalities in DFLE between ethnic groups are large and exceed those in LE. Moreover, certain ethnic groups have a larger burden of disability that does not seem to be associated with shorter LE. With the increasing population of the non-White British community, it is essential to be able to identify the ethnic groups at higher risk of disability, in order to target appropriate interventions.

  2. Active life expectancy from annual follow-up data with missing responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izmirlian, G; Brock, D; Ferrucci, L; Phillips, C

    2000-03-01

    Active life expectancy (ALE) at a given age is defined as the expected remaining years free of disability. In this study, three categories of health status are defined according to the ability to perform activities of daily living independently. Several studies have used increment-decrement life tables to estimate ALE, without error analysis, from only a baseline and one follow-up interview. The present work conducts an individual-level covariate analysis using a three-state Markov chain model for multiple follow-up data. Using a logistic link, the model estimates single-year transition probabilities among states of health, accounting for missing interviews. This approach has the advantages of smoothing subsequent estimates and increased power by using all follow-ups. We compute ALE and total life expectancy from these estimated single-year transition probabilities. Variance estimates are computed using the delta method. Data from the Iowa Established Population for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly are used to test the effects of smoking on ALE on all 5-year age groups past 65 years, controlling for sex and education.

  3. Long-term cost and life-expectancy consequences of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiiskinen, U; Vartiainen, E; Puska, P; Aromaa, A

    1998-08-01

    To estimate hypertension's long-term cost and impact on life expectancy. A 19-year individual follow-up study. Subjects were categorized according to their baseline (1972) diastolic blood pressure (DBP) level into three groups: normotensive (DBP 104 mmHg). By using their social security identification numbers, we linked the subjects to a set of national registers covering hospital admissions, use of major drugs, absence due to sickness, disability pensions, and deaths. A random population sample of 10 284 men and women aged 25-59 years from the provinces of Kuopio and North Karelia in eastern Finland. The numbers of years of life and years of work lost, the cost of drugs and hospitalization, and the value of productivity lost due to disability and premature mortality. The difference in life expectancy between normotensive and severely hypertensive men was 2.7 years, of which 2.0 years was due to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Among women the corresponding differences were 2.0 and 1.5 years. Severely hypertensive men lost 2.6 years of work more than did normotensive men, of which 1.7 years was due to CVD. Among women the differences were 2.2 and 1.3 years. The mean undiscounted total costs (USA dollars at 1992 prices) were $132 500 among normotensive, $146 500 among mildly hypertensive, and $219 300 among severely hypertensive men, of which CVD accounted for 28, 39, and 43%, respectively. More than 90% of the total costs were indirect productivity losses. Among women the total costs were lower for all DBP categories, as were the shares of CVD-related costs. The proportional increase in costs on going from the lowest to the highest DBP category was, however, somewhat larger among women. On the population level, severe hypertension leads to considerable losses in terms of years of life lost, years of work lost, and costs. However, the overall impact of mild hypertension is much more limited.

  4. Quality of life and patients' expectations in soft tissue sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Robin L; Cesne, Axel Le

    2018-05-01

    Assessment of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is essential for holistic care. Greater efforts are required to incorporate HRQoL measures into clinical trials and daily practice. Considerable HRQoL data are available for localized soft tissue sarcomas (STS), particularly in the orthopedic setting. In future, HRQoL is expected to become increasingly important in the evaluation of palliative therapy in advanced STS. A patient-centric approach is advocated for STS management. Greater awareness of STS by nonspecialist clinicians, and timely referral to specialized sarcoma reference centers, is crucial for patient welfare. The patient is central to shared decision-making during consultations and during case review in tumor boards. The management approach to STS should be collaborative, involving a multidisciplinary team, multiple centers and patient advocacy groups.

  5. Subjective residual life expectancy in health self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegelmann, Jochen P; Lippke, Sonia; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2006-07-01

    Applying socioemotional selectivity theory to the domain of health, we examined the interplay of social-cognitive predictors of physical exercise in two groups of people who perceived their remaining lifetime as either expansive or limited (based on subjective longevity ratings). Individuals (N = 370) who were prescribed physical exercise were assessed at discharge from orthopedic rehabilitation as well as 6 and 12 months later. Multigroup structural equation modeling showed differences in latent means, interrelations of predictors, and amount of explained variance. Individuals who perceived their time as limited reported a less favorable profile on social-cognitive variables and less exercise goal attainment. We give first insights on how health self-regulation differs in these groups, and we discuss avenues for intervention based on socioemotional selectivity theory. In contrast to chronological age, subjective life expectancy can be targeted by intervention.

  6. Apathy in late-life depression: common, persistent, and disabling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Genevieve S; Bhutani, Saumya; Lucas, Bryony J; Gunning, Faith M; AbdelMalak, Bassem; Seirup, Joanna K; Klimstra, Sibel A; Alexopoulos, George S

    2015-05-01

    The aims of this study were to examine: (1) the relationship between apathy and disability in late-life depression, and (2) the functional significance of improvement in apathy following escitalopram treatment in terms of its relationship to disability. Subjects were 71 non-demented elderly with non-psychotic major depression. After a 2-week single-blind placebo period, subjects who had Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) ≥ 18 received escitalopram 10 mg daily for 12 weeks. Apathy and disability were assessed with the Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES) and the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Scale II (WHODAS), respectively. These measures and the HDRS were administered at baseline and again following 12 weeks of treatment. At baseline, 38% of depressed subjects had significant apathy (AES ≥ 36.5). Severity of apathy at baseline significantly correlated with severity of disability. In a multivariate regression model, baseline severity of apathy, but not the overall depressive syndrome (HDRS), significantly correlated with baseline disability. Following escitalopram treatment, improvement in apathy significantly correlated with improvement in disability measures, while change in the rest of the depressive syndrome did not. The overall change in apathy and disability in response to escitalopram treatment was significant but small. Apathy is common in late-life depression and is associated with disability above and beyond the influence of other depressive symptoms. Given the strong relationship between apathy and disability, understanding the neurobiology of apathy and developing treatments for apathy may improve the functional outcomes of late-life depression. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Disability and quality of life in patients with fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verbunt Jeanine A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with fibromyalgia often feel disabled in the performance of daily activities. Psychological factors seem to play a pronounced disabling role in fibromyalgia. The objectives of the study are: Firstly, to investigate contributing factors for disability in fibromyalgia. Secondly, to study psychological distress in patients with fibromyalgia as compared to other nonspecific pain syndromes. And finally, to explore the impact of fibromyalgia on a patient's quality of life. Methods In this cross sectional study, explaining factors for disability were studied based on a regression analysis with gender, mental health, physical and social functioning as independent variables. For the assessment of disability in fibromyalgia the FIQ was used. The levels of psychological distress in patients with fibromyalgia, Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS and chronic low back pain (CLBP were compared based on scores on the Symptom Checklist (SCL90. Quality of life of patients with fibromyalgia was compared with scores (SF36 of both patients with fibromyalgia and other health conditions as derived from the literature. Results Disability in fibromyalgia seemed best explained by a patients mental health condition (β = -0.360 p = 0.02. The level of psychological distress was higher in patients with fibromyalgia as compared to patients with CRPS or CLBP (p Conclusion Patients with fibromyalgia report a considerable impact on their quality of life and their perceived disability level seems influenced by their mental health condition. In comparison with patients with other pain conditions psychological distress is higher.

  8. Accuracy of advanced cancer patients' life expectancy estimates: The role of race and source of life expectancy information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Kelly M; Zhang, Baohui; Shen, Megan J; Prigerson, Holly G

    2016-06-15

    The objective of this study was to examine the source of advanced cancer patients' information about their prognosis and determine whether this source of information could explain racial disparities in the accuracy of patients' life expectancy estimates (LEEs). Coping With Cancer was a prospective, longitudinal, multisite study of terminally ill cancer patients followed until death. In structured interviews, patients reported their LEEs and the sources of these estimates (ie, medical providers, personal beliefs, religious beliefs, and other). The accuracy of LEEs was calculated through a comparison of patients' self-reported LEEs with their actual survival. The sample for this analysis included 229 patients: 31 black patients and 198 white patients. Only 39.30% of the patients estimated their life expectancy within 12 months of their actual survival. Black patients were more likely to have an inaccurate LEE than white patients. A minority of the sample (18.3%) reported that a medical provider was the source of their LEEs; none of the black patients (0%) based their LEEs on a medical provider. Black race remained a significant predictor of an inaccurate LEE, even after the analysis had been controlled for sociodemographic characteristics and the source of LEEs. The majority of advanced cancer patients have an inaccurate understanding of their life expectancy. Black patients with advanced cancer are more likely to have an inaccurate LEE than white patients. Medical providers are not the source of information for LEEs for most advanced cancer patients and especially for black patients. The source of LEEs does not explain racial differences in LEE accuracy. Additional research into the mechanisms underlying racial differences in prognostic understanding is needed. Cancer 2016;122:1905-12. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Cancer Society. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons

  9. Evaluation of perception of quality of life of disabled athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Bartosz Bolach; Tetyana. Prystupa

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the perception of quality of life for athletes - disabled, participating in individual and team Paralympic sports. Material: The study involved 32 athletes sports club "Start" in Wroclaw in 2013, engaged in individual sports: swimming, weightlifting, powerlifting (powerlifting) and command: wheelchair basketball and volleyball in a sitting position. Results: Studies have proven that sports people with physical disabilities have a positive effect on the quality of their li...

  10. Development of a clinical prediction model to calculate patient life expectancy: the measure of actuarial life expectancy (MALE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, M G; Kennedy, K P; MacDonagh, R P

    2009-01-01

    To develop a clinical prediction model enabling the calculation of an individual patient's life expectancy (LE) and survival probability based on age, sex, and comorbidity for use in the joint decision-making process regarding medical treatment. A computer software program was developed with a team of 3 clinicians, 2 professional actuaries, and 2 professional computer programmers. This incorporated statistical spreadsheet and database access design methods. Data sources included life insurance industry actuarial rating factor tables (public and private domain), Government Actuary Department UK life tables, professional actuarial sources, and evidence-based medical literature. The main outcome measures were numerical and graphical display of comorbidity-adjusted LE; 5-, 10-, and 15-year survival probability; in addition to generic UK population LE. Nineteen medical conditions, which impacted significantly on LE in actuarial terms and were commonly encountered in clinical practice, were incorporated in the final model. Numerical and graphical representations of statistical predictions of LE and survival probability were successfully generated for patients with either no comorbidity or a combination of the 19 medical conditions included. Validation and testing, including actuarial peer review, confirmed consistency with the data sources utilized. The evidence-based actuarial data utilized in this computer program design represent a valuable resource for use in the clinical decision-making process, where an accurate objective assessment of patient LE can so often make the difference between patients being offered or denied medical and surgical treatment. Ongoing development to incorporate additional comorbidities and enable Web-based access will enhance its use further.

  11. Framing effects in choices between multioutcome life-expectancy lotteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, L M; Chapman, G B; Elstein, A S

    1999-01-01

    To explore framing or editing effects and a method to debias framing in a clinical context. Clinical scenarios using multioutcome life-expectancy lotteries of equal value required choices between two supplementary drugs that either prolonged or shortened life from the 20-year beneficial effect of a baseline drug. The effects of these supplementary drugs were presented in two conditions, using a between-subjects design. In segregated editing (n = 116) the effects were presented separately from the effects of the baseline drug. In integrated editing (n = 100), effects of supplementary and baseline drugs were combined in the lottery presentation. Each subject responded to 30 problems. To explore one method of debiasing, another 100 subjects made choices after viewing both segregated and integrated editings of 20 problems (dual framing). Statistically significant preference reversals between segregated and integrated editing of pure lotteries occurred only when one framing placed outcomes in the gain domain, and the other framing placed them in the loss domain. When both editings resulted in gain-domain outcomes only, there was no framing effect. There was a related relationship of framing-effect shifts from losses to gains in mixed-lottery-choice problems. Responses to the dual framing condition did not consistently coincide with responses to either single framing. In some situations, dual framing eliminated or lessened framing effects. The results support two components of prospect theory, coding outcomes as gains or losses from a reference point, and an s-shaped utility function (concave in gain, convex in loss domains). Presenting both alternative editings of a complex situation prior to choice more fully informs the decision maker and may help to reduce framing effects. Given the extent to which preferences shift in response to alternative presentations, it is unclear which choice represents the subject's "true preferences."

  12. Does pain deteriorate working life expectancy in aging workers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wanhyung; Hong, Kwanyoung; Lim, Sung-Shil; Yoon, Jin-Ha

    2016-11-29

    Many aging workers wish to continue working as long as they can for a better life in the future. However, symptoms of pain are a key obstacle in the continuation of work among older workers. The impact of pain on work is understudied. Thus, we investigated the relationship between pain characteristics (total site and severity) and aging workers' working life expectancy scale (WoLES) in Korea. We included 1,979 participants (1,175 men and 804 women) from a well-established survey of a nationally representative population: the Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing. A self-questionnaire was used to assess pain characteristics and WoLES. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the lower-WoLES group were calculated using multiple logistic regression models. Compared with the absence of pain, ORs and 95% CIs of the lower-WoLES group were increased, as follows: 1 pain site, 1.75 (1.20-2.55); 2 pain sites, 1.99 (1.32-3.03); 3 or more pain sites, 2.28 (1.51-3.42); mild pain, 1.74 (1.32-2.61); moderate pain, 2.02 (1.28-3.22); and severe pain, 2.12 (1.46-3.08). The statistical trend was significant in both total sites and severity of pain (p<0.001). There was a significant association between WoLES and both total pain sites and severity of pain, even after adjusting for potential confounding factors.

  13. The Relation between Self Esteem Levels and Life Quality Levels of Disabled and Non-Disabled Tennis Sportsmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civan, Adem

    2015-01-01

    This research was carried out to determine the self-esteem and life quality levels of disabled and non-disabled tennis sportsmen; and also to set forth the relation between their self-esteem and life quality levels. The research group consists of total 44 sportsmen including 22 disabled tennis sportsmen (n[subscript (female)]=9, n[subscript…

  14. Evaluation of perception of quality of life of disabled athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Bolach

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the perception of quality of life for athletes - disabled, participating in individual and team Paralympic sports. Material: The study involved 32 athletes sports club "Start" in Wroclaw in 2013, engaged in individual sports: swimming, weightlifting, powerlifting (powerlifting and command: wheelchair basketball and volleyball in a sitting position. Results: Studies have proven that sports people with physical disabilities have a positive effect on the quality of their lives. Conclusions: 1. Study aspects of perception of quality of life is a complex issue, but deserves proper attention and appropriate force to study it. 2. Athletes - Disabled involved both individual and team sports, the perception of quality of life is average.

  15. Expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    depend on the reader’s own experiences, individual feelings, personal associations or on conventions of reading, interpretive communities and cultural conditions? This volume brings together narrative theory, fictionality theory and speech act theory to address such questions of expectations...

  16. The impact of self-care education on life expectancy in acute coronary syndrome patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahshid Choobdari

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: Hospitalized acute coronary syndrome patients have a lower levels of life expectancy. Their life expectancy can increase through providing them with self-care education, which will lead to their independence promotion and self-esteem.

  17. The Crossover between Life Expectancies at Birth and at Age One

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Becker, S

    2011-01-01

    one are referred to here as imbalanced. This crossover occurs when infant mortality is equal to the inverse of life expectancy at age one. This simple relation between mortality at age zero and mortality after age one divides the world into countries that have achieved the crossover in life......The single most used demographic measure to describe population health is life expectancy at birth, but life expectancies at ages other than zero are also used in the study of human longevity. Our intuition tells us that the longest life expectancy is that of a newborn. However, historically......, the expectation of life at age one (e1) has exceeded the expectation of life at birth (e0). The crossover between e0 and e1 only occurred in the developed world in the second half of the twentieth century. Life tables for populations that have not achieved this crossing between life expectancy at birth and at age...

  18. Disability and quality of life in patients with fibromyalgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbunt, Jeanine A; Pernot, Dia HFM; Smeets, Rob JEM

    2008-01-01

    Background Patients with fibromyalgia often feel disabled in the performance of daily activities. Psychological factors seem to play a pronounced disabling role in fibromyalgia. The objectives of the study are: Firstly, to investigate contributing factors for disability in fibromyalgia. Secondly, to study psychological distress in patients with fibromyalgia as compared to other nonspecific pain syndromes. And finally, to explore the impact of fibromyalgia on a patient's quality of life. Methods In this cross sectional study, explaining factors for disability were studied based on a regression analysis with gender, mental health, physical and social functioning as independent variables. For the assessment of disability in fibromyalgia the FIQ was used. The levels of psychological distress in patients with fibromyalgia, Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) and chronic low back pain (CLBP) were compared based on scores on the Symptom Checklist (SCL90). Quality of life of patients with fibromyalgia was compared with scores (SF36) of both patients with fibromyalgia and other health conditions as derived from the literature. Results Disability in fibromyalgia seemed best explained by a patients mental health condition (β = -0.360 p = 0.02). The level of psychological distress was higher in patients with fibromyalgia as compared to patients with CRPS or CLBP (p fibromyalgia on quality of life appeared to be high as compared to the impact of other health conditions. Conclusion Patients with fibromyalgia report a considerable impact on their quality of life and their perceived disability level seems influenced by their mental health condition. In comparison with patients with other pain conditions psychological distress is higher. PMID:18211701

  19. Gender gaps--Life expectancy and proportion of life in poor health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luy, Marc; Minagawa, Yuka

    2014-12-01

    The literature suggests that women report worse health but live longer than men--a phenomenon known as the gender paradox in health and mortality. Although studies examining the paradox abound, relatively little is known about mechanisms underlying the gap. With data on healthy life expectancy from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010, this article analyses the relationship between length of life and health among men and women in 45 more-developed countries. The proportion of life spent in poor health is used as an indicator of health. This approach accounts for gender differences in longevity and illustrates the female health disadvantage pattern more clearly. Life expectancy at birth and the proportion of life in poor health are closely related for both genders. Furthermore, the larger the female excess in longevity, the larger the female excess in the proportion of life in poor health. By focusing on the proportion of life in poor health, this analysis suggests that women's longevity advantage translates into a health disadvantages relative to men. The results indicate that women suffer from poor health not in spite of living longer, but because they live longer.

  20. Health-related quality of life and expectations of patients before surgical treatment of lumbar stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian Maria Pacola

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the expectations of patients awaiting surgical treatment of lumbar canal stenosis and the association of Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL with symptoms of anxiety and depression. METHODS: The sample included 49 patients from a university hospital. HRQoL was assessed by the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI and 36-item Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form (SF-36 and symptoms of anxiety and depression by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Expectations were investigated by means of questions used in international studies. Data were analyzed descriptively and by Student's t test. RESULTS: The mean time of disease progression was 34.5 months, the mean age was 58.8 years and 55.1% of the patients were women. Most patients had the expectation of improving with surgical treatment and 46.9% expected to be "much better" with regard to leg pain, walking ability, independence in activities and mental well being. The scores of anxiety and depression were respectively, 34.7% and 12.2%. We observed statistically significant differences between the groups with and without anxiety in the domains: General Health, Mental Health, and Vitality. Between the groups with and without depression there were statistically significant differences in the General Health and Mental Health domains. CONCLUSION: Patients showed great expectation to surgical treatment and the symptoms of anxiety and depression were related to some domains of HRQoL. Thus, the study contributes to broaden our knowledge and we can therefore guide the patients as to their expectations with respect to the real possibilities arising from surgery.

  1. Causes of decreased life expectancy over the life span in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vradi, Eleni; McIntyre, Roger S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Accelerated aging has been proposed as a mechanism explaining the increased prevalence of comorbid general medical illnesses in bipolar disorder. AIMS: To test the hypothesis that lost life years due to natural causes starts in early and mid-adulthood, supporting the hypothesis...... of accelerated aging. METHODS: Using individual data from nationwide registers of patient with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder we calculated remaining life expectancies before age 90 years for values of age 15, 25, 35…75 years among all individuals alive in year 2000. Further, we estimated the reduction in life...... expectancy due to natural causes (physical illnesses) and unnatural causes (suicide and accidents) in relation to age. RESULTS: A total of 22,635 patients with bipolar disorder were included in the study in addition to data from the entire Danish general population of 5.4 million people. At age 15 years...

  2. Evaluating natural resource amenities in a human life expectancy production function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelam C. Poudyal; Donald G. Hodges; J.M. Bowker; H.K. Cordell

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effect of natural resource amenities on human life expectancy. Extending theexisting model of the life expectancy production function, and correcting for spatial dependence, weevaluated the determinants of life expectancy using county level data. Results indicate that after controlling

  3. Issues Using the Life History Calendar in Disability Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Tiffany N.; Harrison, Tracie

    2011-01-01

    Background Overall, there is a dearth of research reporting mixed-method data collection procedures using the LHC within disability research. Objective This report provides practical knowledge on use of the life history calendar (LHC) from the perspective of a mixed-method life history study of mobility impairment situated within a qualitative paradigm. Methods In this paper the method related literature referring to the LHC was reviewed along with its epistemological underpinnings. Further, the uses of the LHC in disability research were illustrated using preliminary data from reports of disablement in Mexican American and Non-Hispanic White women with permanent mobility impairment. Results From our perspective, the LHC was most useful when approached from an interpretive paradigm when gathering data from women of varied ethnic and socioeconomic strata. While we found the LHC the most useful tool currently available for studying disablement over the life course, there were challenges associated with its use. The LHC required extensive interviewer training. In addition, large segments of time were needed for completion depending on the type of participant responses. Conclusions Researchers planning to conduct a disability study may find our experience using the LHC valuable for anticipating issues that may arise when the LHC is used in mixed-method research. PMID:22014674

  4. Causes of decreased life expectancy over the life span in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vradi, Eleni; McIntyre, Roger S; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2015-07-15

    Accelerated aging has been proposed as a mechanism explaining the increased prevalence of comorbid general medical illnesses in bipolar disorder. To test the hypothesis that lost life years due to natural causes starts in early and mid-adulthood, supporting the hypothesis of accelerated aging. Using individual data from nationwide registers of patient with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder we calculated remaining life expectancies before age 90 years for values of age 15, 25, 35…75 years among all individuals alive in year 2000. Further, we estimated the reduction in life expectancy due to natural causes (physical illnesses) and unnatural causes (suicide and accidents) in relation to age. A total of 22,635 patients with bipolar disorder were included in the study in addition to data from the entire Danish general population of 5.4 million people. At age 15 years, remaining life expectancy before age 90 years was decreased 12.7 and 8.9 life years, respectively, for men and women with bipolar disorder. For 15-year old boys with bipolar disorder, natural causes accounted for 58% of all lost life years and for 15-year old girls, natural causes accounted for 67% increasing to 74% and 80% for 45-year old men and women, respectively. Data concern patients who get contact to hospital psychiatry only. Natural causes of death is the most prevalent reason for lost life years already from adolescence and increases substantially during early and mid-adulthood, in this way supporting the hypothesis of accelerated aging. Early intervention in bipolar disorder should not only focus on improving outcome of the bipolar disorder but also on decreasing the risk of comorbid general medical illnesses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Work-Life Balance and Ideal Worker Expectations for Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilk, Kelly E.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter explores the work-life experiences of administrators as well as whether and how the ideal worker model affects those experiences. Departmental and supervisory differences and technology complicate administrators' work-life experiences.

  6. Understanding Quality of Working Life of Workers with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Noelia; Jenaro, Cristina; Orgaz, M. Begona; Martin, M. Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Background: This paper examines the perceived quality of working life of workers with intellectual disabilities. Specifically, this paper looks at participants' perceptions in relation to perceived job demands and resources and their impact on experienced job satisfaction. Methods: In this cross-sectional survey, 507 workers with intellectual…

  7. Life Online: Resources for Students with an Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Kerri

    2001-01-01

    Two Australian agencies planned, developed, piloted, and evaluated an online resource for teaching independent living skills to adult students with a mild intellectual disability using technology and the Internet. The resource, called Life Online, is a package of support resource materials tested in regional classrooms in Victoria, Australia.…

  8. Life or Death of Severely Disabled Infants: A Counseling Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, David W.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Presents dimensions that serve as a background for counselors to assist families in considering options related to disabled infants. Dimensions include the meaning of life, cost to benefit ratio, medical options, legal precedent, and a theological perspective. This issue is related to counseling practice through counselor ethics and values.…

  9. The Quality of Life of Children with Severe Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ncube, B. L.; Perry, A.; Weiss, J. A.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Research examining the quality of life (QoL) of children with severe developmental disabilities (SDD) is limited. The present study examines parent perceptions of child QoL in children with SDD compared with typically developing (TD) children and then examines predictors of QoL for the SDD group. Method: Parents of 246 children with…

  10. LIFE SKILLS OF YOUNG PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES AND YOUTH WITHOUT DISABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izeta Husić-Đuzić

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine the differences in life skills of young people with and without disability in chronological age from 18-35 year-old in Tuzla Canton. The respondents sample consists of two sub-samples. First sub-sample contains 50 young people with disability, chronological age from 18-35 of both genders. Second sub-sample contained 50 young people without disability, chronological age from 18- 35 of both genders. Research data were analysed using method of parametric and non-parametric statistics. Frequencies, percentages and measures of central tendency have been calculated (arithmetic mean and standard deviation. P-values have been used for examining the difference between variables and variance analysis has been used for examining the importance of differences. The results show that there is a significant statistical difference between young people with and without disabilities in the of life skills assessed: job retention skills, skills to cope in danger. Based on the results obtained, it is recommended to start the program and training in early age which will make life easier to disabled persons and their families.

  11. Sequence Analysis of How Disability Influenced Life Trajectories in a Past Population from the Nineteenth-Century Sundsvall Region, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotta Vikström

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Historically, little is known about whether and to what extent disabled people found work and formed families. To fill this gap, this study analyses the life course trajectories of both disabled and non-disabled individuals, between the ages of 15 and 33, from the Sundsvall region in Sweden during the nineteenth century. Having access to micro-data that report disabilities in a population of 8,874 individuals from the parish registers digitised by the Demographic Data Base, Umeå University, we employ sequence analysis on a series of events that are expected to occur in life of young adults: getting a job, marrying and becoming a parent, while also taking into account out-migration and death. Through this method we obtain a holistic picture of the life course of disabled people. Main findings show that their trajectories did not include work or family to the same extent as those of non-disabled people. Secondary findings concerning migration and mortality indicate that the disabled rarely out-migrated from the region, and they suffered from premature deaths. To our knowledge this is the first study to employ sequence analysis on a substantially large number of cases to provide demographic evidence of how disability shaped human trajectories in the past during an extended period of life. Accordingly, we detail our motivation for this method, describe our analytical approach, and discuss the advantages and disadvantages associated with sequence analysis for our case study.

  12. Inequalities in US Life Expectancy by Area Unemployment Level, 1990–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gopal K.; Siahpush, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association between unemployment and life expectancy in the United States during 1990–2010. Census-based unemployment rates were linked to US county-level mortality data. Life expectancies were calculated by age, sex, race, and unemployment level during 1990–2010. Differences in life expectancy were decomposed by age and cause of death. Life expectancy was consistently lower in areas with higher unemployment rates. In 2006–2010, those in areas with high unemployment rates (≥9%) had a life expectancy of 76.9 years, compared with 80.7 years for those in areas with low unemployment rates (unemployment and life expectancy was stronger for men than for women. Life expectancy ranged from 69.9 years among black men in high unemployment areas to 90.0 years among Asian/Pacific Islander women in low unemployment areas. Disparities persisted over time. In 1990–1992, life expectancy was 4.7 years shorter in high unemployment than in low unemployment areas. In 2006–2010, the life expectancy difference between the lowest and highest unemployment areas decreased to 3.8 years. Heart disease, cancer, homicide, unintentional injuries, diabetes, HIV/AIDS, and liver cirrhosis contributed most to the lower life expectancy in high unemployment areas. High unemployment areas recorded larger gains in life expectancy than low unemployment areas, contributing to the narrowing gap during 1990–2010. PMID:27073716

  13. Inequalities in US Life Expectancy by Area Unemployment Level, 1990–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal K. Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the association between unemployment and life expectancy in the United States during 1990–2010. Census-based unemployment rates were linked to US county-level mortality data. Life expectancies were calculated by age, sex, race, and unemployment level during 1990–2010. Differences in life expectancy were decomposed by age and cause of death. Life expectancy was consistently lower in areas with higher unemployment rates. In 2006–2010, those in areas with high unemployment rates (≥9% had a life expectancy of 76.9 years, compared with 80.7 years for those in areas with low unemployment rates (<3%. The association between unemployment and life expectancy was stronger for men than for women. Life expectancy ranged from 69.9 years among black men in high unemployment areas to 90.0 years among Asian/Pacific Islander women in low unemployment areas. Disparities persisted over time. In 1990–1992, life expectancy was 4.7 years shorter in high unemployment than in low unemployment areas. In 2006–2010, the life expectancy difference between the lowest and highest unemployment areas decreased to 3.8 years. Heart disease, cancer, homicide, unintentional injuries, diabetes, HIV/AIDS, and liver cirrhosis contributed most to the lower life expectancy in high unemployment areas. High unemployment areas recorded larger gains in life expectancy than low unemployment areas, contributing to the narrowing gap during 1990–2010.

  14. Overcoming the obstacles: Life stories of scientists with learning disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Force, Crista Marie

    Scientific discovery is at the heart of solving many of the problems facing contemporary society. Scientists are retiring at rates that exceed the numbers of new scientists. Unfortunately, scientific careers still appear to be outside the reach of most individuals with learning disabilities. The purpose of this research was to better understand the methods by which successful learning disabled scientists have overcome the barriers and challenges associated with their learning disabilities in their preparation and performance as scientists. This narrative inquiry involved the researcher writing the life stories of four scientists. These life stories were generated from extensive interviews in which each of the scientists recounted their life histories. The researcher used narrative analysis to "make sense" of these learning disabled scientists' life stories. The narrative analysis required the researcher to identify and describe emergent themes characterizing each scientist's life. A cross-case analysis was then performed to uncover commonalities and differences in the lives of these four individuals. Results of the cross-case analysis revealed that all four scientists had a passion for science that emerged at an early age, which, with strong drive and determination, drove these individuals to succeed in spite of the many obstacles arising from their learning disabilities. The analysis also revealed that these scientists chose careers based on their strengths; they actively sought mentors to guide them in their preparation as scientists; and they developed coping techniques to overcome difficulties and succeed. The cross-case analysis also revealed differences in the degree to which each scientist accepted his or her learning disability. While some demonstrated inferior feelings about their successes as scientists, still other individuals revealed feelings of having superior abilities in areas such as visualization and working with people. These individuals revealed

  15. [Life expectancy at birth in Colombia, 2000-2009: inequalities by region and gender].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslava-Schmalbach, Javier H; Rincón, Carlos Javier; Guarnizo-Herreño, Carol Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Life expectancy is one of the measurements that have been used to monitor socioeconomic development within and among countries. During the last 30 years, life expectancy has increased worldwide mainly due to medical and technological developments. However, access to health care, new technologies and social determinants remain unevenly distributed among regions and countries in the world. To assess inequalities in life expectancy by gender and regions (departments) in Colombia between 2000 and 2009. Ecological study. Life expectancy was estimated for each Colombian department using yearly life tables from 2000 to 2009. We used data from the death registries and the estimated population series, provided by the Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística (DANE). For the study period, estimates of life expectancy by departments were compared with those from Japan for the years 2000, 2006 and 2009, which is the country with the highest life expectancy in the world, and with the Colombian department with the highest life expectancy from 2000 to 2009. Compared with the highest life expectancy in the world, Colombian departments showed differences ranged between 5.7 and 21 years. We found significant differences between departments, with the largest difference being 15.3 years. Additionally, in some departments life expectancy decreased during the analyzed period. This study identified differences in life expectancy in Colombian departments suggesting inequalities in health and living conditions among them. These differences increased in some departments during the period 2000-2009.

  16. Relationships Between Expectations and Life and Job Satisfaction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baker, Herbert

    1998-01-01

    .... For the job seeker, the expectations may be as clear as the money that will be earned and the training that will be received, as vague as wanting "good opportunity for advancement" or as difficult...

  17. Contribution of Leisure Satisfaction, Acceptance Disability, and Social Relationship to Life Satisfaction among Korean Individuals with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junhyoung; Schilling, Mary Lou; Kim, May; Han, Areum

    2016-01-01

    There is a dearth of literature that explores the relationships among leisure satisfaction, acceptance of disability, social relationships, and life satisfaction among adults with intellectual disability from Eastern countries. The purpose of this study was to examine how leisure satisfaction, disability acceptance, and social relationships are…

  18. Stressors and life goals of caregivers of individuals with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raver, Sharon A; Michalek, Anne P M; Gillespie, Amy M

    2011-01-01

    Caregivers of individuals with disabilities can experience stress as they manage caregiving responsibilities while they attempt to balance family, work, and the satisfaction of their personal goals. In this pilot study, 31 caregivers of individuals with a variety of disabilities completed a quantitative-qualitative survey. A statistically significant relationship was found between the age and severity of disability of the family member receiving care, the length of time care had been provided, the educational level and the relationship of the caregiver to the family member and reported feelings of optimism, humbleness, quality of family relationships, financial concerns, loss of control, and hope. When life goals were probed, the most common reported were achieving financial stability, having a strong, healthy family, and experiencing happiness. The implications for supporting caregivers and their families are discussed.

  19. An Initial Evaluation of the Comprehensive Quality of Life Scale--Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Robert A.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    A study of 59 Australian people with an intellectual disability and 69 university students evaluated a new scale to measure the life quality of people with an intellectual disability. The Comprehensive Quality of Life Scale--Intellectual Disability was found to be a useful instrument to measure comparative life quality. (Author/CR)

  20. When Things Do Not Go as Expected: Scenario Life Savers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieckmann, Peter; Lippert, A.; Glavin, R.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we discuss scenario life savers - interventions before and during simulation scenarios that allow to create and use relevant learning opportunities, even if unexpected events happen during the conduction of the scenario. Scenario life savers are needed, when the comprehension...... or acceptance of the scenario by the participants is at stake, thus compromising learning opportunities. Scenario life savers can principally work by bringing participants back on track of the planned scenario or by adapting the conduction to their actions on the fly. Interventions can be within the logic...... of the scenario or from the "outside," not being part of the scenario itself. Scenario life savers should be anticipated during the design of scenarios and used carefully during their conduction, aiming to maximize the learning for participants. (Sim Healthcare 5: 219-225, 2010)...

  1. Operationalisation of quality of life for adults with severe disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, L E; Arias, B; Verdugo, M Á; Tassé, M J; Brown, I

    2015-10-01

    The operationalisation of quality of life for people with more severe disabilities has been acknowledged in the published research for more than two decades. This study aims to contribute to our knowledge and understanding of the quality of life of adults with severe disabilities by developing a set of quality of life indicators appropriate to this population using a Delphi method and the eight-domain conceptual model proposed by Schalock & Verdugo (2002). The participating panel in the Delphi method included 12 experts who evaluated each proposed item according to four criteria: suitability, importance, observability and sensitivity. Descriptive analyses were used to select the best items in each of the four rounds of this Delphi study, as well as examining the coefficients of concordance that were calculated for the final pool of items. The four rounds of the Delphi study resulted in a final pool of 118 items (91 that were considered valid in the first round plus 27 items proposed, reformulated or discussed in the following rounds). Importance and sensitivity were the criteria that received the highest and lowest ratings, respectively, but also the ones that had the highest and lowest mean coefficients of concordance. Experts showed the strongest agreement for items related to material well-being, while the weakest was found for items related to personal development. This study further contributes to our understanding of how to operationalise and measure quality of life in adults with severe disabilities. The item pool generated may prove helpful in the development of instruments for the measurement of quality of life-related outcomes in this population. © 2015 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Mediterranean diet and life expectancy; beyond olive oil, fruits and vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel A.; Martín-Calvo, Nerea

    2018-01-01

    Purpose to review the recent relevant evidence of the effects of the Mediterranean diet and lifestyle on health (2015 and first months of 2016). Recent findings Large observational prospective epidemiological studies with adequate control of confounding and two large randomized trials support the benefits of the Mediterranean dietary pattern to increase life expectancy, reduce the risk of major chronic disease, and improve quality of life and well-being. Recently, 19 new reports from large prospective studies showed –with nearly perfect consistency– strong benefits of the Mediterranean diet to reduce the risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, total mortality, heart failure and disability. Interestingly, two large and well-conducted cohorts reported significant cardiovascular benefits after using repeated measurements of diet during a long follow-up period. Besides, PREDIMED, the largest randomized trial with Mediterranean diet, recently reported benefits of this dietary pattern to prevent cognitive decline and breast cancer. Summary In the era of evidence-based medicine, the Mediterranean diet represents the gold standard in preventive medicine, probably due to the harmonic combination of many elements with antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties, which overwhelm any single nutrient or food item. The whole seems more important than the sum of its parts. PMID:27552476

  3. The Good Life: Empowering Young Adults with Intellectual Disabilities through Everyday Life Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson-Baldauf, Dana

    2011-01-01

    Although "the good life" is a concept not easily defined or agreed upon, without a doubt it is something people want and strive to achieve. For young adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), efforts toward the good life are often hindered by harsh realities and numerous challenges encountered on the road to adulthood. School librarians can play…

  4. The Impact of Obesity on Active Life Expectancy in Older American Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Sandra L.; Saito, Yasuhiko; Crimmins, Eileen M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to estimate the effect of obesity on both the length of life and length of nondisabled life for older Americans. Design and Methods: Using data from the first 3 waves of the Asset and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old (AHEAD) survey, this article develops estimates of total, active, and disabled life…

  5. Disability Exclusion and Rights: The Life Story of Alice Jamieson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Lynch

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a commonly held belief that fear of disability by society is the reason for segregation of the disabled. Although acknowledging the validity of such a belief, this paper disputes this claim as it pertains to sufferers of mental illness. Specifically it explores one woman’s development of dissociative identity disorder as a result of years of incestuous abuse. Alice Jamieson developed multiple personalities in order to survive her horrendous childhood, which ultimately caused her to live a life of segregation and social exclusion. Alice did however; experience the enabling effects of positive, supportive relationships on rare occasions throughout her childhood (with her grandfather and her adult life (with a work colleague. The telling of her story bought Alice a powerful sense of healing and has helped raise awareness of childhood sexual abuse and its devastating consequences.

  6. Study of Subjective Life Quality in Young People with Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurtanova Yu.E.,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a study of subjective life quality in young people with disabilities compared with their healthy peers. The study sample comprised 62 women aged 14 to 18 years. The experimental study group consisted of 30 students of grades VIII-XI of Secondary School of home-based learning № 1673 "Support". The control group included 32 student of grades VIII-XI of School № 1222 with in-depth study of the German language. The methods used were: Medical Outcomes Study 36 Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36, M. Kuhn test "Who am I" (M. Kuhn, T. McPartland; modification by T.V. Rumjantseva, Method and diagnosis of health, activity and mood, projective technique "Picture of the actual self" and "Picture of the desired self" with questions. We formulated conclusions about the features of the subjective assessment of the quality of life in young people with disabilities compared with their healthy peers.

  7. Visual disability and quality of life in glaucoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesareo, Massimo; Ciuffoletti, Elena; Ricci, Federico; Missiroli, Filippo; Giuliano, Mario Alberto; Mancino, Raffaele; Nucci, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma is an optic neuropathy that can result in progressive and irreversible vision loss, thereby affecting quality of life (QoL) of patients. Several studies have shown a strong correlation between visual field damage and visual disability in patients with glaucoma, even in the early stages of the disease. Visual impairment due to glaucoma affects normal daily activities required for independent living, such as driving, walking, and reading. There is no generally accepted instrument for assessing quality of life in glaucoma patients; different factors involved in visual disability from the disease are difficult to quantify and not easily standardized. This chapter summarizes recent works from clinical and epidemiological studies, which describe how glaucoma affects the performance of important vision-related activities and QoL. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. An economic analysis of life expectancy by gender with application to the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Michael C M; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Junsen

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents an economic model to explain the behavior of life expectancy of both sexes. It explicitly examines the relationship between the gender gap in life expectancy and the gender gap in pay. It shows that as the latter narrows over the course of economic development, the former may initially expand but will eventually shrink. Simulation results from our model accord with the behavior of life expectancy for both sexes since the 1940s in the United States.

  9. The relationship between life expectancy and indexes of socioeconomy and nutrition at the prefectural level

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Junke; Kakehashi, Masayuki

    2006-01-01

    It is well known that Japanese people have the longest life expectancy in the world at present. Variouspoints of view which focus on causal contexts are reported. The present study used a database at theprefectural level in Japan, which included Japanese life expectancy at birth, employment types of thehousehold, medical resources, medical expenses, and nutrition indexes in 2000. The purpose of the studywas to clarify the major related factors on Japanese life expectancy. The results suggest ...

  10. Everyday Life of Young Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Inclusionary and Exclusionary Processes among Young Adults of Parents with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starke, Mikaela

    2013-01-01

    Ten young adults with an intellectual disability whose parents, too, have an intellectual disability were interviewed and completed questionnaires for this exploratory study aimed at charting their experiences of everyday life. Most of the participants reported high life satisfaction, especially with the domains of friends, leisure time, and…

  11. Growing into disability benefits? Psychosocial course of life of young adults with a chronic somatic disease or disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoof, Eefje; Maurice-Stam, Heleen; Heymans, Hugo; Grootenhuis, Martha

    2012-01-01

    Aim: A growing number of young adults with somatic diseases/disabilities since childhood apply for disability benefits. The achievement of psychosocial milestones while growing up (course of life) is assumed to be related to job participation. This study assessed the course of life of young adult

  12. Feminine values and happy life-expectancy in nations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arrindell, W.A.; Veenhoven, R

    2002-01-01

    Cross-national studies suggest that people are happier in feminine nations that are also economically affluent. The first objective of the present study was to replicate this finding with a quality of life index which is more comprehensive than the usual measures of subjective well-being. This

  13. Does Physical Activity Increase Life Expectancy? A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. D. Reimers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity reduces many major mortality risk factors including arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus type 2, dyslipidemia, coronary heart disease, stroke, and cancer. All-cause mortality is decreased by about 30% to 35% in physically active as compared to inactive subjects. The purpose of this paper was to synthesize the literature on life expectancy in relation to physical activity. A systematic PubMed search on life expectancy in physically active and inactive individuals was performed. In addition, articles comparing life expectancy of athletes compared to that of nonathletes were reviewed. Results of 13 studies describing eight different cohorts suggest that regular physical activity is associated with an increase of life expectancy by 0.4 to 6.9 years. Eleven studies included confounding risk factors for mortality and revealed an increase in life expectancy by 0.4 to 4.2 years with regular physical activity. Eleven case control studies on life expectancy in former athletes revealed consistently greater life expectancy in aerobic endurance athletes but inconsistent results for other athletes. None of these studies considered confounding risk factors for mortality. In conclusion, while regular physical activity increases life expectancy, it remains unclear if high-intensity sports activities further increase life expectancy.

  14. End-of-life decisions for people with intellectual disabilities, an interview study with patient representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagemans, Annemieke M A; Van Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, Henny M J; Proot, Ireen M; Metsemakers, Job; Tuffrey-Wijne, Irene; Curfs, Leopold M G

    2013-09-01

    Not much is known about the process of end-of-life decision-making for people with intellectual disabilities. To clarify the process of end-of-life decision-making for people with intellectual disabilities from the perspective of patient representatives. A qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews, recorded digitally and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed using Grounded Theory procedures. We interviewed 16 patient representatives after the deaths of 10 people with intellectual disabilities in the Netherlands. The core category 'Deciding for someone else' describes the context in which patient representatives took end-of-life decisions. The patient representatives felt highly responsible for the outcomes. They had not involved the patients in the end-of-life decision-making process, nor any professionals other than the doctor. The categories of 'Motives' and 'Support' were connected to the core category of 'Deciding for someone else'. 'Motives' refers to the patient representatives' ideas about quality of life, prevention from suffering, patients who cannot understand the burden of interventions and emotional reasons reported by patient representatives. 'Support' refers to the support that patient representatives wanted the doctors to give to them in the decision-making process. From the perspective of the patient representatives, the process of end-of-life decision-making can be improved by ensuring clear roles and an explicit description of the tasks and responsibilities of all participants. Regular discussion between everyone involved including people with intellectual disabilities themselves can improve knowledge about each other's motives for end-of-decisions and can clarify expectations towards each other.

  15. Effects of stress management training and problem solving on quality of life and life expectancy among infertile women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Zarbakhsh Bahri

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of stress management training and problem-solving training on quality of life and life expectancy of infertile women was conducted.Material and Methods: The method of this study was experimental with pretest – posttest design with a control group. population of 400 infertile women who referred to infertility center in Rasht were randomized to 250 of them were selected and the quality of life and life expectancy of the study were the 45 members of the quality of life and life expectancy lower were more randomly in three groups of 15 people, including two experimental groups and one control group were replaced. Each experimental groups were trained for 10 sessions of 90 minutes, respectively, stress management and problem-solving. Upon completion of the training program, participants were assessed again.Results: The result of present study showed that there was a significant difference between the experimental groups and control group in the scores of quality of life and life expectancy (p0.05.Conclusion: Stress management and problem solving training were effective on life expectancy and quality of life of infertile women but there was no significant difference between the effectiveness of these two methods on life expectancy and quality of life of infertile women.

  16. Landfill life expectancy with waste reduction/minimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klan, M.S.

    1990-01-01

    Although some minimally acceptable practices are presently undertaken at most landfills to protect human health and safety and the environment, a key question remains. How much effort and resources should be expended to slow the fill-rate of a landfill? The answer depends on the performance and costs of the technical options available, the difficulty and cost of acquiring additional landfill space, and the consequences for remaining landfill lifetime of current and future actions. Toward this end, the paper (1) presents a method for projecting the remaining life of a landfill, including the alternative lifetimes associated with life extension measures; (2) presents a case study of the low-level waste landfill at Los Alamos National Lab.; and (3) illustrates a procedure for determining which measures become cost-effective to adopt as a landfill's space declines

  17. A study of the life expectancy of cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolvin, M.; Chauvel, D.

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes the following different tasks of the study whose aim was to extend the life time of cooling towers for French Nuclear Power plants to 40 years. The aging factors specific to cooling towers were measured and analysed with regard to the external surface, the internal surface and inside the concrete. The safety coefficient for buckling was calculated and then the stress analysis of the materials (concrete and steel) was done. A special computer program written for cooling towers was used with a model including the soil stiffness and the supports of the tower. (author)

  18. Older adults' beliefs about physician-estimated life expectancy: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bynum Debra L

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estimates of life expectancy assist physicians and patients in medical decision-making. The time-delayed benefits for many medical treatments make an older adult's life expectancy estimate particularly important for physicians. The purpose of this study is to assess older adults' beliefs about physician-estimated life expectancy. Methods We performed a mixed qualitative-quantitative cross-sectional study in which 116 healthy adults aged 70+ were recruited from two local retirement communities. We interviewed them regarding their beliefs about physician-estimated life expectancy in the context of a larger study on cancer screening beliefs. Semi-structured interviews of 80 minutes average duration were performed in private locations convenient to participants. Demographic characteristics as well as cancer screening beliefs and beliefs about life expectancy were measured. Two independent researchers reviewed the open-ended responses and recorded the most common themes. The research team resolved disagreements by consensus. Results This article reports the life-expectancy results portion of the larger study. The study group (n = 116 was comprised of healthy, well-educated older adults, with almost a third over 85 years old, and none meeting criteria for dementia. Sixty-four percent (n = 73 felt that their physicians could not correctly estimate their life expectancy. Sixty-six percent (n = 75 wanted their physicians to talk with them about their life expectancy. The themes that emerged from our study indicate that discussions of life expectancy could help older adults plan for the future, maintain open communication with their physicians, and provide them knowledge about their medical conditions. Conclusion The majority of the healthy older adults in this study were open to discussions about life expectancy in the context of discussing cancer screening tests, despite awareness that their physicians' estimates could be inaccurate

  19. Expected Effects of Offshore Wind Farms on Mediterranean Marine Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bray

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Current climate policy and issues of energy security mean wind farms are being built at an increasing rate to meet energy demand. As wind farm development is very likely in the Mediterranean Sea, we provide an assessment of the offshore wind potential and identify expected biological effects of such developments in the region. We break new ground here by identifying potential offshore wind farm (OWF “hotspots” in the Mediterranean. Using lessons learned in Northern Europe, and small-scale experiments in the Mediterranean, we identify sensitive species and habitats that will likely be influenced by OWFs in both these hotspot areas and at a basin level. This information will be valuable to guide policy governing OWF development and will inform the industry as and when environmental impact assessments are required for the Mediterranean Sea.

  20. [The impact of hypertension on active life expectancy among senior citizens of Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhong-ying; Tang, Zhe; Feng, Ming

    2010-07-01

    The aim of the study is to explore the influence of hypertension on life expectancy (LE), active life expectancy (ALE) and active life expectancy/life expectancy (ALE/LE) among senior citizens in Beijin. The sample derived from Beijing multidimensional longitudinal study on aging, baseline survey consisted of 1847 elderly people aged 60 years and over dwelling in the communities from one urban district (Xuanwu), one suburban country (Daxing) and one mountainous country (Huairou) in Beijing, 2004. Cluster, stratified and randomly selected sampling technique was used and a follow-up program was carried out in 2007. The subjects were invited to fill in questionnaires at home through well-trained interviewers, together with medical history of hypertension and repeated blood pressure measurements adopted. The state of activity was defined according to whether they could perform activities of daily life (ADL). IMaCH software for multi-state life table method was used to calculate the life expectancy (LE), active life expectancy (ALE) and active life expectancy/life expectancy (ALE/LE) in people with hypertension and normal blood tension, as well as on those people with hypertension with or without cardio-cerebral disease. The study manifested that hypertensives were associated with the reduction of LE, ALE and ALE/LE compared to the normotensives. The ALE/LE was descending along with ageing, and the speed of reduction was much faster in the hypertensive group, especially within senile population. LE, ALE and LE/LE among the hypertensives with cardio-cerebral vascular diseases were shorter than the hypertensives without the disease. Difference in ALE/LE was striking in people with virile senility. Hypertension remarkably impacted the active life expectancy on senior citizens living in Beijing, especially for elderly. Hypertensives with cardio-cerebral vascular diseases exerted further influence on active life expectancy, particularly among population of virile senility

  1. Sexual life in subjects with intellectual disability La vida sexual de las personas con discapacidad intelectual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loïse Conod

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, the expectancies towards sexual life of people with intellectual disability have been more and more recognized by researchers, clinicians, caregivers and parents. These expectancies, that largely depend on socio-cultural and personal factors, such as the level of disability, must be supported in order to help people with intellectual disability to reach the best quality of life as possible. Therefore, it is important to identify every patient’s and resident’s personal expectancies towards sexuality and which medical and educative support he/she needs according to his/her disability and co-morbidity. The aim of the present paper is to review the different research works conducted in this area.En décadas recientes los investigadores, médicos, personal de salud y padres de las personas con discapacidad intelectual han venido reconociendo cada vez más la expectativa de una vida sexual para éstas últimas. Estas expectativas, que en gran medida dependen de factores personales y socioculturales, como por ejemplo, el grado de discapacidad, merecen apoyarse a fin de que las personas con discapacidad intelectual alcancen la mejor calidad de vida posible. Por lo tanto, es importante identificar las expectativas individuales de cada paciente con respecto a su sexualidad, para así poder saber qué clase de apoyo médico o educativo necesita de acuerdo a su discapacidad y comorbilidad. La finalidad del presente estudio será revisar las diversas investigaciones efectuadas en este campo.

  2. Social Rank, Stress, Fitness, and Life Expectancy in Wild Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Holst, Dietrich; Hutzelmeyer, Hans; Kaetzke, Paul; Khaschei, Martin; Schönheiter, Ronald

    Wild rabbits of the two sexes have separate linear rank orders, which are established and maintained by intensive fights. The social rank of individuals strongly influence their fitness: males and females that gain a high social rank, at least at the outset of their second breeding season, have a much higher lifetime fitness than subordinate individuals. This is because of two separate factors: a much higher fecundity and annual reproductive success and a 50% longer reproductive life span. These results are in contrast to the view in evolutionary biology that current reproduction can be increased only at the expense of future survival and/or fecundity. These concepts entail higher physiological costs in high-ranking mammals, which is not supported by our data: In wild rabbits the physiological costs of social positions are caused predominantly by differential psychosocial stress responses that are much lower in high-ranking than in low-ranking individuals.

  3. National independence, women's political participation, and life expectancy in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobles, Jenna; Brown, Ryan; Catalano, Ralph

    2010-05-01

    This study investigates the role of national independence and women's political participation on population health using historical lifespan data from Norway. We use time-series methods to analyze data measuring the actual length of time lived by Norwegian birth cohorts spanning a 61 year period surrounding the political emancipation of Norway from Sweden in 1905 and the establishment of a Norwegian monarchy in 1906. The use of a discrete, historical event improves our ability to interpret the population health effects of national independence and women's political participation as causal. We find a large and significant positive effect on the lifespan of Norwegian females born in the 1906 cohort. Interestingly, the effect does not extend to all living females during the Norwegian drive toward sovereignty. We conclude that the beneficial effects were likely conferred through intrauterine biological transfers and/or neonatal investments specific to the first year of life. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Dementia-free life expectancy (demFLE) in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perenboom, R.J.M.; Boshuizen, H.C.; Breteler, M.M.B.; Alewijn, O.; Water, H.P.A. van de

    1996-01-01

    To gain an insight into the burden of dementia in an aging society, life expectancy with dementia and its counterpart dementia-free life expectancy (DemFLE) in The Netherlands are presented. Sullivan's method was used to calculate DemFLE. For elderly living either independently or in homes for the

  5. Association of pain intensity with quality of life and functional disability in university students with lumbago

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatima, A.; Tanveer, F.; Ahmed, A.; Gillani, S.A.

    2017-01-01

    To determine an association of pain intensity with quality of life and functional disability in university students with lumbago. Methodology: In this cross sectional study 213 students participated. Standard questionnaire Numeric pain rating scale, Utian quality of life scale Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire were used for the data collection. Results: Mean age of students was 21.0 +- 1.970 years (range 18-24). Out of 213 students, 143 had lower quality of life. There was an association between pain intensity and quality of life (p=0.006). Out of 213 students, 120 had minimal disability with lower quality of life. There was strong association (p=0.015) between quality of life and functional disability. Conclusion: There was a strong association between pain intensity and quality of life, pain intensity and functional disability, quality of life and functional disability in university students with low back ache. (author)

  6. How much of the difference in life expectancy between Scottish cities does deprivation explain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, R; Mitchell, R; Dundas, R; Leyland, A H; Popham, F

    2015-10-16

    Glasgow's low life expectancy and high levels of deprivation are well documented. Studies comparing Glasgow to similarly deprived cities in England suggest an excess of deaths in Glasgow that cannot be accounted for by deprivation. Within Scotland comparisons are more equivocal suggesting deprivation could explain Glasgow's excess mortality. Few studies have used life expectancy, an intuitive measure that quantifies the between-city difference in years. This study aimed to use the most up-to-date data to compare Glasgow to other Scottish cities and to (i) evaluate whether deprivation could account for lower life expectancy in Glasgow and (ii) explore whether the age distribution of mortality in Glasgow could explain its lower life expectancy. Sex specific life expectancy was calculated for 2007-2011 for the population in Glasgow and the combined population of Aberdeen, Dundee and Edinburgh. Life expectancy was calculated for deciles of income deprivation, based on the national ranking of datazones, using the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation. Life expectancy in Glasgow overall, and by deprivation decile, was compared to that in Aberdeen, Dundee and Edinburgh combined, and the life expectancy difference decomposed by age using Arriaga's discrete method. Life expectancy for the whole Glasgow population was lower than the population of Aberdeen, Dundee and Edinburgh combined. When life expectancy was compared by national income deprivation decile, Glasgow's life expectancy was not systematically lower, and deprivation accounted for over 90 % of the difference. This was reduced to 70 % of the difference when carrying out sensitivity analysis using city-specific income deprivation deciles. In both analyses life expectancy was not systematically lower in Glasgow when stratified by deprivation. Decomposing the differences in life expectancy also showed that the age distribution of mortality was not systematically different in Glasgow after accounting for deprivation

  7. The promise of prevention: the effects of four preventable risk factors on national life expectancy and life expectancy disparities by race and county in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodarz Danaei

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available There has been substantial research on psychosocial and health care determinants of health disparities in the United States (US but less on the role of modifiable risk factors. We estimated the effects of smoking, high blood pressure, elevated blood glucose, and adiposity on national life expectancy and on disparities in life expectancy and disease-specific mortality among eight subgroups of the US population (the "Eight Americas" defined on the basis of race and the location and socioeconomic characteristics of county of residence, in 2005.We combined data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to estimate unbiased risk factor levels for the Eight Americas. We used data from the National Center for Health Statistics to estimate age-sex-disease-specific number of deaths in 2005. We used systematic reviews and meta-analyses of epidemiologic studies to obtain risk factor effect sizes for disease-specific mortality. We used epidemiologic methods for multiple risk factors to estimate the effects of current exposure to these risk factors on death rates, and life table methods to estimate effects on life expectancy. Asians had the lowest mean body mass index, fasting plasma glucose, and smoking; whites had the lowest systolic blood pressure (SBP. SBP was highest in blacks, especially in the rural South--5-7 mmHg higher than whites. The other three risk factors were highest in Western Native Americans, Southern low-income rural blacks, and/or low-income whites in Appalachia and the Mississippi Valley. Nationally, these four risk factors reduced life expectancy at birth in 2005 by an estimated 4.9 y in men and 4.1 y in women. Life expectancy effects were smallest in Asians (M, 4.1 y; F, 3.6 y and largest in Southern rural blacks (M, 6.7 y; F, 5.7 y. Standard deviation of life expectancies in the Eight Americas would decline by 0.50 y (18% in men and 0.45 y (21% in women if these risks

  8. Effect of patient's life expectancy on the cost-effectiveness of treatment for ocular hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kymes, Steven M; Plotzke, Michael R; Kass, Michael A; Boland, Michael V; Gordon, Mae O

    2010-05-01

    To assess the influence of expected life span on the cost-effectiveness of treating ocular hypertension to prevent primary open-angle glaucoma. We used a Markov simulation model to estimate the cost and benefit of ocular hypertension treatment over a person's remaining life. We examined the influence of age on the cost-effectiveness decision in 2 ways: (1) by evaluating specific age cohorts to assess the influence of age at the initiation of treatment; and (2) by evaluating the influence of a specific life span. At a willingness to pay $50,000/quality-adjusted life year to $100,000/quality-adjusted life year, treatment of people with a 2% or greater annual risk of developing glaucoma was cost-effective for people aged 45 years with a life expectancy of at least 18 remaining years. However, to be cost-effective, a person aged 55 years must have a life expectancy of 21 remaining years and someone aged 65 years must have a life expectancy of 23 remaining years. A person with ocular hypertension must have a life expectancy of at least 18 remaining years to justify treatment at a threshold of a 2% or greater annual risk of developing glaucoma. Persons at higher levels of risk require a life expectancy of 7 to 10 additional years to justify treatment.

  9. An Association of Total Health Expenditure with GDP and Life Expectancy

    OpenAIRE

    Zaman, Sojib Bin; Hossain, Naznin; Mehta, Varshil; Sharmin, Shuchita; Mahmood, Shakeel Ahmed Ibne

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Gradual total health expenditure (THE) has become a major concern. It is not only the increased THE, but also its unequal growth in overall economy, found among the developing countries. If increased life expectancy is considered as a leverage for an individual’s investment in health services, it can be expected that as the life expectancy increases, tendency of health care investment will also experience a boost up. Objective: The aim of the present study wa...

  10. Educational differences in life expectancy over five decades among the oldest old in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinge, Jonas Minet; Steingrímsdóttir, Ólöf Anna; Moe, Joakim Oliu; Skirbekk, Vegard; Næss, Øyvind; Strand, Bjørn Heine

    2015-11-01

    Socioeconomic inequalities in life expectancy have been shown among the middle aged and the youngest of the old individuals, but the situation in the oldest old is less clear. The aim of this study was to investigate trends in life expectancy at ages 85, 90 and 95 years by education in Norway in the period 1961-2009. This was a register-based population study including all residents in Norway aged 85 and over. Individual-level data were provided by the Central Population Register and the National Education Database. For each decade during 1961-2009, death rates by 1-year age groups were calculated separately for each sex and three educational categories. Annual life tables were used to calculate life expectancy at ages 85 (e85), 90 (e90) and 95 (e95). Educational differentials in life expectancy at each age were non-significant in the early decades, but became significant over time. For example, for the decade 2000-9, a man aged 90 years with primary education had a life expectancy of 3.4 years, while a man with tertiary education could expect to live for 3.8 years. Similar numbers in women were 4.1 and 4.5 years, respectively. Even among 95-year-old men, statistically significant differences in life expectancy were found by education in the two last decades. Education matters regarding remaining life expectancy also for the oldest old in Norway. Life expectancy at these ages is low, so a growth of 0.5 years in the life expectancy differential is sizeable. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. The Role of Parental Expectations in Understanding Social and Academic Well-Being among Children with Disabilities in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Selina; Maître, Bertrand; Watson, Dorothy; Banks, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    This paper draws on longitudinal data to examine the extent to which parents' educational expectations shape academic development and changes in self-concept among young people with different types of disability. The analysis is based on the "Growing Up in Ireland" longitudinal study, which tracked 7423 children between the primary to…

  12. Impact of shoulder complaints after neck dissection on shoulder disability and quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuiver, Martijn M.; van Wilgen, Cornelis P.; de Boer, Erlijn M.; de Goede, Cees J. T.; Koolstra, Muriel; van Opzeeland, Anita; Venema, Piet; Sterken, Margriet W.; Vincent, Andrew; Dijkstra, Pieter U.

    OBJECTIVE: To explore relationships between shoulder complaints after neck dissection, shoulder disability, and quality of life. To find clinical predictors for mid- to long-term shoulder disability. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Shoulder pain, shoulder mobility, and shoulder

  13. Impact of shoulder complaints after neck dissection on shoulder disability and quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuiver, M.M.; van Wilgen, C.P.; de Boer, E.M.J.; de Goede, C.J.T.; Koolstra, M.; van Opzeeland, A.; Venema, P.; Sterken, M.W.; Vincent, A.; Dijkstra, P.U.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore relationships between shoulder complaints after neck dissection, shoulder disability, and quality of life. To find clinical predictors for mid- to long-term shoulder disability. Study Design: Prospective. Patients and Methods: Shoulder pain, shoulder mobility, and shoulder

  14. Forecasting the Effects of Obesity and Smoking on U.S. Life Expectancy

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Susan T.; Cutler, David M.; Rosen, Allison B.

    2009-01-01

    Background: While increases in obesity over the past 30 years have adversely affected population health, there have been concomitant improvements due to reductions in smoking. Better understanding of the joint effects of these trends on longevity and quality of life will help policymakers target resources more efficiently. Methods: For each year from 2005 to 2020, we forecast life expectancy and qualityadjusted life expectancy for a representative 18 year old, assuming a continuation of past...

  15. Trajectories of life satisfaction after TBI: Influence of life roles, age, cognitive disability, and depressive symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juengst, Shannon B.; Adams, Leah M.; Bogner, Jennifer A.; Arenth, Patricia M.; O’Neil-Pirozzi, Therese M.; Dreer, Laura E.; Hart, Tessa; Bergquist, Thomas F.; Bombardier, Charles H.; Dijkers, Marcel P.; Wagner, Amy K.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives 1) Identify life satisfaction trajectories after moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), 2) establish a predictive model for these trajectories across the first 5 years post-injury, and 3) describe differences in these life satisfaction trajectory groups, focusing on age, depressive symptoms, disability, and participation in specific life roles,. Research Method Analysis of the longitudinal TBI Model Systems National Database was performed on data collected prospectively at 1, 2, and 5 years post-TBI. Participants (n=3,012) had a moderate to severe TBI and were 16 years old and older. Results Four life satisfaction trajectories were identified across the first 5 years post-injury, including: Stable Satisfaction, Initial Satisfaction Declining, Initial Dissatisfaction Improving, and Stable Dissatisfaction. Age, depressive symptoms, cognitive disability, and life role participation as a worker, leisure participant, and/ or religious participant at one year post-injury significantly predicted trajectory group membership. Life role participation and depressive symptoms were strong predictors of life satisfaction trajectories across the first 5 years post TBI. Conclusions The previously documented loss of life roles and prevalence of depression after a moderate to severe TBI make this a vulnerable population for whom low or declining life satisfaction is a particularly high risk. Examining individual life role participation may help to identify relevant foci for community-based rehabilitation interventions or supports. PMID:26618215

  16. Perceptions of quality of life and disability in homeless persons with schizophrenia and persons with schizophrenia living in non-institutional housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Plas, A G M; Hoek, H W; van Hoeken, D; Valencia, E; van Hemert, A M

    2012-11-01

    Homelessness is common in persons with schizophrenia. It is unclear how housing conditions and homelessness affect their quality of life and their disability. To explore the self-perceived quality of life and disability of homeless persons with schizophrenia and of those of persons with schizophrenia living in non-institutional housing. Seventy-six not-homeless and 50 homeless persons with schizophrenia were assessed using the World Health Organization's Quality of Life - short version (WHOQOL-Bref) and Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS-II). Univariate comparisons of the two groups were made for sociodemographic variables, clinical characteristics, perceived quality of life and disability. A regression model was used to adjust for potential confounding factors between quality of life, disability and housing. After controlling for age, gender, marital status and age of first hospital admission, homeless persons had more positive scores for the quality of life domain 'health', for the disability domain 'getting along with people' and for the total disability score than persons in non-institutional housing. Contrary to our expectations, the persons in non-institutional housing reported a lower quality of life and more disability than the homeless people. Future research should clarify whether non-institutional housing in and of itself can improve the well-being of people with schizophrenia.

  17. Impact of selected risk factors on quality-adjusted life expectancy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Juel, Knud; Davidsen, Michael

    2007-01-01

    AIMS: The construct quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) combines mortality and overall health status and can be used to quantify the impact of risk factors on population health. The purpose of the study was to estimate the impact of tobacco smoking, high alcohol consumption, physical inactivity...... Health Survey 2000, and Danish EQ-5D values. RESULTS: The quality-adjusted life expectancy of 25-year-olds was 10-11 QALYs shorter for heavy smokers than for those who never smoke. The difference in life expectancy was 9-10 years. Men and women with high alcohol consumption could expect to lose about 5...... and 3 QALYs, respectively. Sedentary persons could expect to have about 7 fewer QALYs than physically active persons. Obesity shortened QALYs by almost 3 for men and 6 for women. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking, high alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and obesity strongly reduce life expectancy and health...

  18. The Association Between Income and Life Expectancy in the United States, 2001-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetty, Raj; Stepner, Michael; Abraham, Sarah; Lin, Shelby; Scuderi, Benjamin; Turner, Nicholas; Bergeron, Augustin; Cutler, David

    2016-04-26

    The relationship between income and life expectancy is well established but remains poorly understood. To measure the level, time trend, and geographic variability in the association between income and life expectancy and to identify factors related to small area variation. Income data for the US population were obtained from 1.4 billion deidentified tax records between 1999 and 2014. Mortality data were obtained from Social Security Administration death records. These data were used to estimate race- and ethnicity-adjusted life expectancy at 40 years of age by household income percentile, sex, and geographic area, and to evaluate factors associated with differences in life expectancy. Pretax household earnings as a measure of income. Relationship between income and life expectancy; trends in life expectancy by income group; geographic variation in life expectancy levels and trends by income group; and factors associated with differences in life expectancy across areas. The sample consisted of 1,408,287,218 person-year observations for individuals aged 40 to 76 years (mean age, 53.0 years; median household earnings among working individuals, $61,175 per year). There were 4,114,380 deaths among men (mortality rate, 596.3 per 100,000) and 2,694,808 deaths among women (mortality rate, 375.1 per 100,000). The analysis yielded 4 results. First, higher income was associated with greater longevity throughout the income distribution. The gap in life expectancy between the richest 1% and poorest 1% of individuals was 14.6 years (95% CI, 14.4 to 14.8 years) for men and 10.1 years (95% CI, 9.9 to 10.3 years) for women. Second, inequality in life expectancy increased over time. Between 2001 and 2014, life expectancy increased by 2.34 years for men and 2.91 years for women in the top 5% of the income distribution, but by only 0.32 years for men and 0.04 years for women in the bottom 5% (P income individuals varied substantially across local areas. In the bottom income

  19. Treating Chronically Ill Diabetic Patients with Limited Life Expectancy: Implications for Performance Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, LeChauncy D.; Landrum, Cassie R.; Urech, Tracy H.; Profit, Jochen; Virani, Salim S.; Petersen, Laura A.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Objectives To validly assess quality-of-care differences among providers, performance measurement programs must reliably identify and exclude patients for whom the quality indicator may not be desirable, including those with limited life expectancy. We developed an algorithm to identify patients with limited life expectancy and examined the impact of limited life expectancy on glycemic control and treatment intensification among diabetic patients. Design We identified diabetic patients with coexisting congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, dementia, end-stage liver disease, and/or primary/metastatic cancers with limited life expectancy. To validate our algorithm, we assessed 5-year mortality among patients identified as having limited life expectancy. We compared rates of meeting performance measures for glycemic control between patients with and without limited life expectancy. Among uncontrolled patients, we examined the impact of limited life expectancy on treatment intensification within 90 days. Setting 110 Veterans Administration facilities; October 2006 – September 2007 Participants 888,628 diabetic patients Measurements Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) Quality measurement and performance-based reimbursement systems should acknowledge the different needs of this population. PMID:22260627

  20. Patterns of Quality Of Life among Older Urban Dwellers with Mobility Disability in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nik Nairan Abdullah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mobility disability affects the quality of life for the older urban population. The objectives of this research paper were to determine the burden of mobility disability and explore influential factors affecting the quality of life of urban community aged 50 and above with mobility disability. Total of 481 participants who were randomly selected from two urban health centres have been interviewed using structured questionnaire in December 2014. The prevalence of mobility disability was 23.1%. All domains quality of life of older urbanites with mobility disability were significantly affected as compared with those without. These factors need to be emphasized in future planning for elderly.

  1. Projected life expectancy of people with HIV according to timing of diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakagawa, Fumiyo; Lodwick, Rebecca K; Smith, Colette J

    2012-01-01

    positive in 2010. The effect of altering the diagnosis rate was investigated. Results: Assuming a high rate of HIV diagnosis (median CD4 cell count at diagnosis, 432¿cells/µl), projected median age at death (life expectancy) was 75.0 years. This implies 7.0 years of life were lost on average due to HIV......Background and objectives: Effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) has contributed greatly toward survival for people with HIV, yet many remain undiagnosed until very late. Our aims were to estimate the life expectancy of an HIV-infected MSM living in a developed country with extensive access to ART...... and healthcare, and to assess the effect of late diagnosis on life expectancy. Methods: A stochastic computer simulation model of HIV infection and the effect of ART was used to estimate life expectancy and determine the distribution of potential lifetime outcomes of an MSM, aged 30 years, who becomes HIV...

  2. Bayesian projection of life expectancy accounting for the HIV/AIDS epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Godwin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: While probabilistic projection methods for projecting life expectancy exist, few account for covariates related to life expectancy. Generalized HIV/AIDS epidemics have a large, immediate negative impact on the life expectancy in a country, but this impact can be mitigated by widespread use of antiretroviral therapy (ART. Thus, projection methods for countries with generalized HIV/AIDS epidemics could be improved by accounting for HIV prevalence, the future course of the epidemic, and ART coverage. Methods: We extend the current Bayesian probabilistic life expectancy projection methods of Raftery et al. (2013 to account for HIV prevalence and adult ART coverage in countries with generalized HIV/AIDS epidemics. Results: We evaluate our method using out-of-sample validation. We find that the proposed method performs better than the method that does not account for HIV prevalence or ART coverage for projections of life expectancy in countries with a generalized epidemic, while projections for countries without an epidemic remain essentially unchanged. Conclusions: In general, our projections show rapid recovery to pre-epidemic life expectancy levels in the presence of widespread ART coverage. After the initial life expectancy recovery, we project a steady rise in life expectancy until the end of the century. Contribution: We develop a simple Bayesian hierarchical model for long-term projections of life expectancy while accounting for HIV/AIDS prevalence and coverage of ART. The method produces well-calibrated projections for countries with generalized HIV/AIDS epidemics up to 2100 while having limited data demands.

  3. Estimated life expectancy in a Scottish cohort with type 1 diabetes, 2008-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Shona J; Levin, Daniel; Looker, Helen C; Lindsay, Robert S; Wild, Sarah H; Joss, Nicola; Leese, Graham; Leslie, Peter; McCrimmon, Rory J; Metcalfe, Wendy; McKnight, John A; Morris, Andrew D; Pearson, Donald W M; Petrie, John R; Philip, Sam; Sattar, Naveed A; Traynor, Jamie P; Colhoun, Helen M

    2015-01-06

    Type 1 diabetes has historically been associated with a significant reduction in life expectancy. Major advances in treatment of type 1 diabetes have occurred in the past 3 decades. Contemporary estimates of the effect of type 1 diabetes on life expectancy are needed. To examine current life expectancy in people with and without type 1 diabetes in Scotland. We also examined whether any loss of life expectancy in patients with type 1 diabetes is confined to those who develop kidney disease. Prospective cohort of all individuals alive in Scotland with type 1 diabetes who were aged 20 years or older from 2008 through 2010 and were in a nationwide register (n=24,691 contributing 67,712 person-years and 1043 deaths). Differences in life expectancy between those with and those without type 1 diabetes and the percentage of the difference due to various causes. Life expectancy at an attained age of 20 years was an additional 46.2 years among men with type 1 diabetes and 57.3 years among men without it, an estimated loss in life expectancy with diabetes of 11.1 years (95% CI, 10.1-12.1). Life expectancy from age 20 years was an additional 48.1 years among women with type 1 diabetes and 61.0 years among women without it, an estimated loss with diabetes of 12.9 years (95% CI, 11.7-14.1). Even among those with type 1 diabetes with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 90 mL/min/1.73 m2 or higher, life expectancy was reduced (49.0 years in men, 53.1 years in women) giving an estimated loss from age 20 years of 8.3 years (95% CI, 6.5-10.1) for men and 7.9 years (95% CI, 5.5-10.3) for women. Overall, the largest percentage of the estimated loss in life expectancy was related to ischemic heart disease (36% in men, 31% in women) but death from diabetic coma or ketoacidosis was associated with the largest percentage of the estimated loss occurring before age 50 years (29.4% in men, 21.7% in women). Estimated life expectancy for patients with type 1 diabetes in Scotland based on

  4. Faster Increases in Human Life Expectancy Could Lead to Slower Population Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Counterintuitively, faster increases in human life expectancy could lead to slower population aging. The conventional view that faster increases in human life expectancy would lead to faster population aging is based on the assumption that people become old at a fixed chronological age. A preferable alternative is to base measures of aging on people’s time left to death, because this is more closely related to the characteristics that are associated with old age. Using this alternative interpretation, we show that faster increases in life expectancy would lead to slower population aging. Among other things, this finding affects the assessment of the speed at which countries will age. PMID:25876033

  5. Corroboration of the J-value model for life-expectancy growth in industrialised countries

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Philip

    2017-01-01

    After including an allowance for the gap between male and female life expectancies at birth diminishing over the past 50 years in industrialized countries, the J-value model incorporating “male catch-up” has been validated against actual UK data on life expectancy. A close correspondence has also been found between forecasts for life expectancy at birth in 35 countries made by the J-value model and those produced in a recent study that applied Bayesian model averaging to 21 demographic projec...

  6. Agreement in Quality of Life Assessment between Adolescents with Intellectual Disability and Their Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubovic, Spela; Skrbic, Renata

    2013-01-01

    Intellectual disability affects different aspects of functioning and quality of life, as well as the ability to independently assess the quality of life itself. The paper examines the agreement in the quality of life assessments made by adolescents with intellectual disability and their parents compared with assessments made by adolescents without…

  7. The Association Between Income and Life Expectancy in the United States, 2001–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetty, Raj; Stepner, Michael; Abraham, Sarah; Lin, Shelby; Scuderi, Benjamin; Turner, Nicholas; Bergeron, Augustin; Cutler, David

    2016-01-01

    Importance The relationship between income and mortality is well established but remains poorly understood. Objectives To measure the level, temporal trend, and geographic variability in the association between income and life expectancy, and identify factors related to small area variation in this association. Design and Setting Income data for the US population were obtained from 1.4 billion de-identified tax records between 1999 and 2014. Mortality data were obtained from Social Security Administration death records. These data were used to estimate race- and ethnicity-adjusted life expectancy at 40 years of age by household income percentile, sex, and geographic area, and to evaluate factors associated with differences in life expectancy. Main Outcomes and Measures Relationship between income and life expectancy; trends in life expectancy by income group; geographic variation in life expectancy levels and trends by income group; and factors associated with differences in life expectancy across areas. Results The sample consisted of 1 408 287 218 person-year observations (mean age at which individuals were analyzed, 53.0 years; median household earnings among working individuals, $61 175 per year [mean, $97 725 per year]). Among those aged 40 to 76 years, there were 4 114 380 deaths among men (mortality rate, 596.3 per 100 000) and 2 694 808 deaths among women (mortality rate, 375.1 per 100 000). The analysis yielded four results. First, higher income was associated with greater longevity throughout the income distribution. The gap in life expectancy between the richest 1% and poorest 1% of individuals was 14.6 years (95% CI, 14.4 to 14.8 years) for men and 10.1 years (95% CI, 9.9 to 10.3 years) for women. Second, inequality in life expectancy increased over time. Between 2001 and 2014, life expectancy increased by 2.34 years for men and 2.91 years for women in the top 5% of the income distribution, but increased by only 0.32 years for men and 0.04 years for

  8. The burden of premature mortality in Spain using standard expected years of life lost: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez-Martín Elena

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measures of premature mortality have been used to guide debates on future health priorities and to monitor the population health status. Standard expected years of life lost (SEYLL is one of the methods used to assess the time lost due to premature death. This article affords an overview of premature mortality in Spain for the year 2008. Methods A population-based study was conducted estimating SEYLL by sex and age groups. SEYLL, a key component of the disability-adjusted life years measure of disease burden, was calculated using Princeton West standard life tables with life expectancy at birth fixed at 80 years for males and 82.5 years for females. Population data and specific death records were obtained from the official registers of the National Institute of Statistics. All data were analysed and prepared in GesMor and Epidat software packages. Results The burden of premature mortality was estimated at 2.1 million SEYLL when age at death is taken into account. Males lost 60.9% and females lost 39.1% of total SEYLL. Malignant tumors (34.5% and cardiovascular diseases (24.0% were the leading categories in terms of SEYLL. Ischaemic heart disease (8.5% and lung cancers (8.0% were the most common specific causes of SEYLL followed by cerebrovascular diseases (5.9%, colorectal cancer (4.1%, road traffic accidents (3.5%, Alzheimer and other dementias (2.9%, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (2.8%, breast cancer (2.8% and suicides (2.6%. Conclusions In Spain, premature mortality was essentially due to chronic non-communicable diseases. Data provided in this study are relevant for a more balanced health agenda aimed at reducing the burden of premature mortality. This study also represents a first step in estimating the overall burden of disease in terms of premature death and disability.

  9. Estimating increment-decrement life tables with multiple covariates from panel data: the case of active life expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, K C; Guralnik, J M; Blazer, D G

    1994-05-01

    A fundamental limitation of current multistate life table methodology-evident in recent estimates of active life expectancy for the elderly-is the inability to estimate tables from data on small longitudinal panels in the presence of multiple covariates (such as sex, race, and socioeconomic status). This paper presents an approach to such an estimation based on an isomorphism between the structure of the stochastic model underlying a conventional specification of the increment-decrement life table and that of Markov panel regression models for simple state spaces. We argue that Markov panel regression procedures can be used to provide smoothed or graduated group-specific estimates of transition probabilities that are more stable across short age intervals than those computed directly from sample data. We then join these estimates with increment-decrement life table methods to compute group-specific total, active, and dependent life expectancy estimates. To illustrate the methods, we describe an empirical application to the estimation of such life expectancies specific to sex, race, and education (years of school completed) for a longitudinal panel of elderly persons. We find that education extends both total life expectancy and active life expectancy. Education thus may serve as a powerful social protective mechanism delaying the onset of health problems at older ages.

  10. Understanding the contribution of suicide to life expectancy in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggie Noah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: South Korea has the highest rate and highest rate of increase in suicide among developed countries. The suicide epidemic in Korea is an anomaly, and suicide rates are high for both men and women, with no signs of decreasing. Yet we do not know the extent to which suicide has reduced life expectancy in Korea. Objective: We investigated whether and to what extent the rapid increase in suicide has contributed to changes in Korean life expectancy, a key indicator of population health. Methods: We used a recently developed decomposition method that separates the contribution of suicide's effect on change in life expectancy into two parts: that due to change in the overall suicide incidence rate and that due to change in the mean age of suicide victims. Results: From 1995 to 2010, life expectancy increased by 6.5 years in Korea, with change in most causes of death contributing to its growth. We nonetheless find, as expected, that the rise in suicides reduced the increase in life expectancy from 1995 to 2010, so life expectancy in Korea is about 0.21 years lower than it would have been without the increase in suicides. Moreover, had the age of suicide victims remained stable, we project that Korea's life expectancy would be fully 0.70 years lower than it is. Conclusions: Although the growth in suicide was the largest single factor slowing the rise in Korean life expectancy, the effect would have been even larger had the age of suicide victims not increased.

  11. Potential years lost and life expectancy in adults with newly diagnosed epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granbichler, Claudia A; Zimmermann, Georg; Oberaigner, Willi; Kuchukhidze, Giorgi; Ndayisaba, Jean-Pierre; Taylor, Alexandra; Luef, Gerhard; Bathke, Arne C; Trinka, Eugen

    2017-11-01

    Studies using relative measures, such as standardized mortality ratios, have shown that patients with epilepsy have an increased mortality. Reports on more direct and absolute measure such as life expectancy are sparse. We report potential years lost and how life expectancy has changed over 40 years in a cohort of patients with newly diagnosed epilepsy. We analyzed life expectancy in a cohort of adult patients diagnosed with definite epilepsy between 1970 and 2010. Those with brain tumor as cause of epilepsy were excluded. By retrospective probabilistic record linkage, living or death status was derived from the national death registry. We estimated life expectancy by a Weibull regression model using gender, age at diagnosis, epilepsy etiology, and year of diagnosis as covariates at time of epilepsy diagnosis, and 5, 10, 15, and 20 years after diagnosis. Results were compared to the general population, and 95% confidence intervals are given. There were 249 deaths (105 women, age at death 19.0-104.0 years) in 1,112 patients (11,978.4 person-years, 474 women, 638 men). A substantial decrease in life expectancy was observed for only a few subgroups, strongly depending on epilepsy etiology and time of diagnosis: time of life lost was highest in patients with symptomatic epilepsy diagnosed between 1970 and 1980; the impact declined with increasing time from diagnosis. Over half of the analyzed subgroups did not differ significantly from the general population. This effect was reversed in the later decades, and life expectancy was prolonged in some subgroups, reaching a maximum in those with newly diagnosed idiopathic and cryptogenic epilepsy between 2001 and 2010. Life expectancy is reduced in symptomatic epilepsies. However, in other subgroups, a prolonged life expectancy was found, which has not been reported previously. Reasons may be manifold and call for further study. © 2017 The Authors. Epilepsia published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International

  12. Citizenship Education through an Ability Expectation and “Ableism” Lens: The Challenge of Science and Technology and Disabled People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Wolbring

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Citizenship education has been debated for some time and has faced various challenges over time. This paper introduces the lens of “ableism” and ability expectations to the citizenship education discourse. The author contends that the cultural dynamic of ability expectations and ableism (not only expecting certain abilities, but also perceiving certain abilities as essential was one factor that has and will continue to shape citizenship and citizenship education. It focuses on three areas of citizenship education: (a active citizenship; (b citizenship education for a diverse population; and (c global citizenship. It covers two ability-related challenges, namely: disabled people, who are often seen as lacking expected species-typical body abilities, and, advances of science and technology that generate new abilities. The author contends that the impact of ability expectations and ableism on citizenship and citizenship education, locally and in a globalized world, is an important and under-researched area.

  13. Factors affecting life expectancy: evidence from 1980-2009 data in Singapore, Malaysia, and Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Moon Fai; Devi, M Kamala

    2015-03-01

    The authors aim to examine the impact of demographic changes, socioeconomic inequality, and the availability of health care resources on life expectancy in Singapore, Malaysia, and Thailand. This is a cross-country study collecting annual data from 3 Southeast Asian countries from 1980 to 2008. Life expectancy is the dependent variable with demographics, socioeconomic status, and health care resources as the 3 main determinants. A structural equation model is used, and results show that the availability of more health care resources and higher levels of socioeconomic advantages are more likely to increase life expectancy. In contrast, demographic changes are more likely to increase life expectancy by way of health care resources. The authors suggest that more effort should be taken to expand and improve the coverage of health care programs to alleviate regional differences in health care use and improve the overall health status of people in these 3 Southeast Asian countries. © 2012 APJPH.

  14. Socio-economic determinants of life expectancy in Nigeria (1980 - 2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sede, Peter I; Ohemeng, Williams

    2015-01-01

    Attainment of 70 years life expectancy by 2020 is one of the millennium development goals in Nigeria. This study examined the socio-economic determinants of life expectancy in Nigeria using data from 1980-2011. Judging from the endogeneity feature of the variables, A VAR and VECM frameworks were employed. Socio-economic features were proxy by secondary school enrolment, government expenditure on health, per capita income, unemployment rate and the Naira foreign exchange rate. It was found that, the conventional socio-economic variables such as per capita income, education and government expenditure on health considered to be highly effective in determining life expectancy of developing countries are not significant in the case of Nigeria. The study however suggests that, life expectancy in Nigeria could be improved if attention is given to quality of government health expenditure, unemployment and measures to halt the depreciation of the Nigerian Naira against major foreign currency.

  15. Potential Gains in Reproductive-Aged Life Expectancy by Eliminating Maternal Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Liu, L; Zimmerman, L

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We assessed the change over time in the contribution of maternal mortality to a life expectancy calculated between ages 15 and 49, or Reproductive-Aged Life Expectancy (RALE). Our goal was to estimate the increase in RALE in developed countries over the twentieth century and the hypoth......Objective: We assessed the change over time in the contribution of maternal mortality to a life expectancy calculated between ages 15 and 49, or Reproductive-Aged Life Expectancy (RALE). Our goal was to estimate the increase in RALE in developed countries over the twentieth century....... Findings: In developed countries, five years in RALE were gained over the twentieth century, of which approximately 10%, or half a year, was attributable to reductions in maternal mortality. In sub-Saharan African countries, the possible achievable gains fluctuate between 0.24 and 1.47 years, or 6% and 44...

  16. Mortality and life expectancy of people with alcohol use disorder in Denmark, Finland and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westman, J; Wahlbeck, K; Laursen, T M

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse mortality and life expectancy in people with alcohol use disorder in Denmark, Finland and Sweden. METHOD: A population-based register study including all patients admitted to hospital diagnosed with alcohol use disorder (1 158 486 person-years) from 1987 to 2006 in Denmark......, Finland and Sweden. RESULTS: Life expectancy was 24-28 years shorter in people with alcohol use disorder than in the general population. From 1987 to 2006, the difference in life expectancy between patients with alcohol use disorder and the general population increased in men (Denmark, 1.8 years; Finland......, 2.6 years; Sweden, 1.0 years); in women, the difference in life expectancy increased in Denmark (0.3 years) but decreased in Finland (-0.8 years) and Sweden (-1.8 years). People with alcohol use disorder had higher mortality from all causes of death (mortality rate ratio, 3.0-5.2), all diseases...

  17. Falling behind: life expectancy in US counties from 2000 to 2007 in an international context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezzati Majid

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The United States health care debate has focused on the nation's uniquely high rates of lack of insurance and poor health outcomes relative to other high-income countries. Large disparities in health outcomes are well-documented in the US, but the most recent assessment of county disparities in mortality is from 1999. It is critical to tracking progress of health reform legislation to have an up-to-date assessment of disparities in life expectancy across counties. US disparities can be seen more clearly in the context of how progress in each county compares to international trends. Methods We use newly released mortality data by age, sex, and county for the US from 2000 to 2007 to compute life tables separately for each sex, for all races combined, for whites, and for blacks. We propose, validate, and apply novel methods to estimate recent life tables for small areas to generate up-to-date estimates. Life expectancy rates and changes in life expectancy for counties are compared to the life expectancies across nations in 2000 and 2007. We calculate the number of calendar years behind each county is in 2000 and 2007 compared to an international life expectancy time series. Results Across US counties, life expectancy in 2007 ranged from 65.9 to 81.1 years for men and 73.5 to 86.0 years for women. When compared against a time series of life expectancy in the 10 nations with the lowest mortality, US counties range from being 15 calendar years ahead to over 50 calendar years behind for men and 16 calendar years ahead to over 50 calendar years behind for women. County life expectancy for black men ranges from 59.4 to 77.2 years, with counties ranging from seven to over 50 calendar years behind the international frontier; for black women, the range is 69.6 to 82.6 years, with counties ranging from eight to over 50 calendar years behind. Between 2000 and 2007, 80% (men and 91% (women of American counties fell in standing against this

  18. Outcomes of Nordic mental health systems: life expectancy of patients with mental disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlbeck, Kristian; Westman, Jeanette; Nordentoft, Merete

    2011-01-01

    People with mental disorders evince excess mortality due to natural and unnatural deaths. The relative life expectancy of people with mental disorders is a proxy measure of effectiveness of social policy and health service provision.......People with mental disorders evince excess mortality due to natural and unnatural deaths. The relative life expectancy of people with mental disorders is a proxy measure of effectiveness of social policy and health service provision....

  19. Arts and ageing; life expectancy of historical artists in the Low Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshta Mirzada

    Full Text Available Practising arts has been linked to lowering stress, anxiety and blood pressure. These mechanisms are all known to affect the ageing process. Therefore, we examine the relation between long-term involvement in arts and life expectancy at age 50 (LE50, in a cohort of 12,159 male acoustic, literary and visual artists, who were born between 1700 and 1899 in the Low Countries. We compared the life expectancy at age 50 of the various artists with the elite and middle class of that time. In the birth cohorts before 1850, acoustic (LE50:14.5-19.5 and literary artists (LE50:17.8-20.8 had a similar life expectancy at age 50 compared to the elite (LE50:18.0-19.0. Only visual artists (LE50:15.5-17.1 had a lower life expectancy at age 50 compared to the elite at that time. For the most recent birth cohorts from 1850 through 1899, the comparison between artists and the elite reversed and acoustic and literary artist had a lower life expectancy at age 50, while visual artists enjoyed a similar life expectancy at age 50. Although artists belonged to the middle socioeconomic class and lived predominantly in urban areas with poor living conditions, they had a life expectancy similar to the elite population. This is in line with observed favourable effects of practicing arts on health in the short-term. From our historical analysis, we hypothesize several mechanisms through which artistic creativity could influence the ageing process and life expectancy. These hypotheses, however, should be formally tested before any definite conclusions on effects of arts on ageing can be drawn.

  20. The impact of smoking on gender differences in life expectancy: more heterogeneous than often stated

    OpenAIRE

    Luy, Marc; Wegner-Siegmundt, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Background: Throughout industrialized countries, tobacco consumption is seen as the predominant driver of both the trend and the extent of gender differences in life expectancy. However, several factors raise doubts to this generalization. We hypothesize that the impact of smoking on the gender gap is context-specific and differs between populations. Methods: We decompose the gender differences in life expectancy into fractions caused by smoking and other non-biological factors for 53 industr...

  1. Life Expectancy and Economic Growth : The Role of the Demographic Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Cervellati, Matteo; Sunde, Uwe

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the causal effect of life expectancy on economic growth by explicitly accounting for the role of the demographic transition. In addition to focusing on issues of empirical identification, this paper emphasizes the role of the econometric specification. We present a simple theory of the economic and demographic transition where individuals' education and fertility decisions depend on their life expectancy. The theory predicts that before the demographic transition ...

  2. Impact of shoulder complaints after neck dissection on shoulder disability and quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuiver, Martijn M.; van Wilgen, Cornelis P.; de Boer, Erlijn M.; de Goede, Cees J. T.; Koolstra, Muriel; van Opzeeland, Anita; Venema, Piet; Sterken, Margriet W.; Vincent, Andrew; Dijkstra, Pieter U.

    2008-01-01

    To explore relationships between shoulder complaints after neck dissection, shoulder disability, and quality of life. To find clinical predictors for mid- to long-term shoulder disability. Prospective. Shoulder pain, shoulder mobility, and shoulder droop, as well as scores on shoulder disability

  3. Strategy for determining life expectancy in mechanical components in an overall system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenckhoff, E.; Erve, M.

    1990-01-01

    The safety standard at a nuclear power station achieved at the time of commissioning on the basis of the state of the art during the design and construction stage has to be maintained over the entire working life of the unit. Original design life expectancy is under review in the light of new safety experience and developments. The results of such analysis can serve not only preventive maintenance purposes but also as the basis for supporting and extending the planned or approved working life; they help increase availability. A comprehensive analysis strategy to establish the actual condition and residual life expectancy of components, systems and complete units has been developed by Siemens/KWU. The results of this analysis can lead to action to extend the life expectancy of components and systems and improvements in systems and subsystems. This report quotes a number of examples. 6 figs

  4. Why the racial gap in life expectancy is declining in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firebaugh, Glenn; Acciai, Francesco; Noah, Aggie J.; Prather, Christopher; Nau, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Blacks have lower life expectancy than whites in the United States. That disparity could be due to racial differences in the causes of death, with blacks being more likely to die of causes that affect the young, or it could be due to differences in the average ages of blacks and whites who die of the same cause. Prior studies fail to distinguish these two possibilities. OBJECTIVE In this study we determine how much of the 2000–10 reduction in the racial gap in life expectancy resulted from narrowing differences in the cause-specific mean age at death for blacks and whites, as opposed to changing cause-specific probabilities for blacks and whites. METHOD We introduce a method for separating the difference-in-probabilities and difference-inage components of group disparities in life expectancy. RESULTS Based on the new method, we find that 60% of the decline in the racial gap in life expectancy from 2000 to 2010 was attributable to reduction in the age component, largely because of declining differences in the age at which blacks and whites die of chronic diseases. CONCLUSION Our findings shed light on the sources of the declining racial gap in life expectancy in the United States, and help to identify where advances need to be made to achieve the goal of eliminating racial disparities in life expectancy. PMID:25580083

  5. Why the racial gap in life expectancy is declining in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Firebaugh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blacks have lower life expectancy than whites in the United States. That disparity could be due to racial differences in the causes of death, with blacks being more likely to die of causes that affect the young, or it could be due to differences in the average ages of blacks and whites who die of the same cause. Prior studies fail to distinguish these two possibilities. Objective: In this study we determine how much of the 2000-10 reduction in the racial gap in life expectancy resulted from narrowing differences in the cause-specific mean age at death for blacks and whites, as opposed to changing cause-specific probabilities for blacks and whites. Methods: We introduce a method for separating the difference-in-probabilities and difference-in-age components of group disparities in life expectancy. Results: Based on the new method, we find that 60Š of the decline in the racial gap in life expectancy from 2000 to 2010 was attributable to reduction in the age component, largely because of declining differences in the age at which blacks and whites die of chronic diseases. Conclusions: Our findings shed light on the sources of the declining racial gap in life expectancy in the United States, and help to identify where advances need to be made to achieve the goal of eliminating racial disparities in life expectancy.

  6. Loss of life expectancy derived from a standardized mortality ratio in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skriver, Mette Vinther; Væth, Michael; Støvring, Henrik

    2018-01-01

    The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) is a widely used measure. A recent methodological study provided an accurate approximate relationship between an SMR and difference in lifetime expectancies. This study examines the usefulness of the theoretical relationship, when comparing historic mortality data in four Scandinavian populations. For Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, data on mortality every fifth year in the period 1950 to 2010 were obtained. Using 1980 as the reference year, SMRs and difference in life expectancy were calculated. The assumptions behind the theoretical relationship were examined graphically. The theoretical relationship predicts a linear association with a slope, [Formula: see text], between log(SMR) and difference in life expectancies, and the theoretical prediction and calculated differences in lifetime expectancies were compared. We examined the linear association both for life expectancy at birth and at age 30. All analyses were done for females, males and the total population. The approximate relationship provided accurate predictions of actual differences in lifetime expectancies. The accuracy of the predictions was better when age was restricted to above 30, and improved if the changes in mortality rate were close to a proportional change. Slopes of the linear relationship were generally around 9 for females and 10 for males. The theoretically derived relationship between SMR and difference in life expectancies provides an accurate prediction for comparing populations with approximately proportional differences in mortality, and was relatively robust. The relationship may provide a useful prediction of differences in lifetime expectancies, which can be more readily communicated and understood.

  7. A comparison of different methods for decomposition of changes in expectation of life at birth and differentials in life expectancy at birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Murthy

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Several methods were proposed to decompose the difference between two life expectancies at birth into the contribution by different age groups. In this study an attempt has been made to compare different methods with that of Chandra Sekar (1949 method. The methodologies suggested by Arriaga, Lopez and Ruzicka and Pollard have been extended. It is shown that all the three methods and also Chandra Sekar method in their modified (symmetrical form will be seen to produce the same result as that of United Nations, Pollard, Andreev and Pressat. Finally it is suggested to use symmetric formulae of the above methods because the percent contribution of total of the interaction terms to the difference in the life expectancy at birth is observed to be very negligible.

  8. Impact of HIV/AIDS mortality on South Africa's life expectancy and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study seeks to raise awareness and expand knowledge about the deleterious effect of HIV/AIDS mortality on South Africa's life expectancy, a country with a relatively high HIV/AIDS prevalence rate (19. percent). Using the multiple and associated single decrement life table techniques, the study estimates the total ...

  9. Older people who are 'weary of life': their expectations for the future and perceived hopelessness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rurup, M.L.; Pasman, H.R.W.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.; Deeg, D.J.H.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.D.

    2011-01-01

    Older people who are 'weary of life': their expectations for the future and perceived hopelessness There has been a debate for over a decade in the Netherlands about whether physicians should be allowed to provide assistance with suicide to older people who are 'weary of life'. Actual knowledge

  10. Life Expectancy in Police Officers: A Comparison with the U.S. General Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violanti, John M.; Hartley, Tara A.; Gu, Ja K.; Fekedulegn, Desta; Andrew, Michael E.; Burchfiel, Cecil M.

    2016-01-01

    Previous epidemiological research indicates that police officers have an elevated risk of death relative to the general population overall and for several specific causes. Despite the increased risk for mortality found in previous research, controversy still exists over the life expectancy of police officers. The goal of the present study was to compare life expectancy of male police officers from Buffalo New York with the U.S. general male population utilizing an abridged life table method. On average, the life expectancy of Buffalo police officers in our sample was significantly lower than the U.S. population (mean difference in life expectancy =21.9 years; 95% CI: 14.5-29.3; ppolice officers was shorter and differences were more pronounced in younger age categories. Additionally, police officers had a significantly higher average probability of death than did males in the general population (mean difference= 0.40; 95% CI: 0.26,-0.54; ppolice officers was 21 times larger than that of the general population (Buffalo male officers vs. U.S. males = 21.7, 95% CI: 5.8-37.7). Possible reasons for shorter life expectancy among police are discussed, including stress, shift work, obesity, and hazardous environmental work exposures. PMID:24707585

  11. Violence deaths and its impact on life expectancy: a comparison between Mexico and Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pérez, Guillermo Julián; Vega-López, María Guadalupe; Souza, Edinilsa Ramos de; Pinto, Liana Wernersbach

    2017-09-01

    Using official data, this study analyzed violent deaths (homicide, suicide, events of undetermined intent and deaths due to legal intervention) in Brazil and Mexico in the three-year periods 2002-2004 and 2012-14, the impact of these causes of death on life expectancy in both countries and the role of the different age groups in years of life expectancy lost (YLEL). Abridged life tables were constructed for both countries for both periods. Temporary life expectancy and YLEL between zero and 80 years by selected causes and age groups were calculated for each triennium. The leading cause of YLEL among men was homicide in both periods in Brazil (1.5 years) and in the second period in Mexico (one year). Violent deaths (VD) accounted for around 16% of YLEL in Brazil and 13% in Mexico in 2012-2014. Among women, YLEL due to homicides and suicides showed the greatest relative increase in both countries, although VD accounted for barely 3% of total YLEL. The highest percentage of YLEL due to VDwas found among the 15 to 29 year age groups in both countries and for both sexes. The increase in rates of VD in Mexico, above all among young people, has curbed further increases in life expectancy in recent years, especially among men. Likewise, the high rates of VD in Brazil in both periods have hindered the growth of life expectancy.

  12. Associations between Urban Sprawl and Life Expectancy in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Hamidi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the United States has had a relatively poor performance with respect to life expectancy compared to the other developed nations. Urban sprawl is one of the potential causes of the high rate of mortality in the United States. This study investigated cross-sectional associations between sprawl and life expectancy for metropolitan counties in the United States in 2010. In this study, the measure of life expectancy in 2010 came from a recently released dataset of life expectancies by county. This study modeled average life expectancy with a structural equation model that included five mediators: annual vehicle miles traveled (VMT per household, average body mass index, crime rate, and air quality index as mediators of sprawl, as well as percentage of smokers as a mediator of socioeconomic status. After controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, this study found that life expectancy was significantly higher in compact counties than in sprawling counties. Compactness affects mortality directly, but the causal mechanism is unclear. For example, it may be that sprawling areas have higher traffic speeds and longer emergency response times, lower quality and less accessible health care facilities, or less availability of healthy foods. Compactness affects mortality indirectly through vehicle miles traveled, which is a contributor to traffic fatalities, and through body mass index, which is a contributor to many chronic diseases. This study identified significant direct and indirect associations between urban sprawl and life expectancy. These findings support further research and practice aimed at identifying and implementing changes to urban planning designed to support health and healthy behaviors.

  13. Associations between urban sprawl and life expectancy in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, Shima; Ewing, Reid; Tatalovich, Zaria; Grace, James B.; Berrigan, David

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, the United States has had a relatively poor performance with respect to life expectancy compared to the other developed nations. Urban sprawl is one of the potential causes of the high rate of mortality in the United States. This study investigated cross-sectional associations between sprawl and life expectancy for metropolitan counties in the United States in 2010. In this study, the measure of life expectancy in 2010 came from a recently released dataset of life expectancies by county. This study modeled average life expectancy with a structural equation model that included five mediators: annual vehicle miles traveled (VMT) per household, average body mass index, crime rate, and air quality index as mediators of sprawl, as well as percentage of smokers as a mediator of socioeconomic status. After controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, this study found that life expectancy was significantly higher in compact counties than in sprawling counties. Compactness affects mortality directly, but the causal mechanism is unclear. For example, it may be that sprawling areas have higher traffic speeds and longer emergency response times, lower quality and less accessible health care facilities, or less availability of healthy foods. Compactness affects mortality indirectly through vehicle miles traveled, which is a contributor to traffic fatalities, and through body mass index, which is a contributor to many chronic diseases. This study identified significant direct and indirect associations between urban sprawl and life expectancy. These findings support further research and practice aimed at identifying and implementing changes to urban planning designed to support health and healthy behaviors.

  14. Associations between Urban Sprawl and Life Expectancy in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, Shima; Ewing, Reid; Tatalovich, Zaria; Grace, James B; Berrigan, David

    2018-04-26

    In recent years, the United States has had a relatively poor performance with respect to life expectancy compared to the other developed nations. Urban sprawl is one of the potential causes of the high rate of mortality in the United States. This study investigated cross-sectional associations between sprawl and life expectancy for metropolitan counties in the United States in 2010. In this study, the measure of life expectancy in 2010 came from a recently released dataset of life expectancies by county. This study modeled average life expectancy with a structural equation model that included five mediators: annual vehicle miles traveled (VMT) per household, average body mass index, crime rate, and air quality index as mediators of sprawl, as well as percentage of smokers as a mediator of socioeconomic status. After controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, this study found that life expectancy was significantly higher in compact counties than in sprawling counties. Compactness affects mortality directly, but the causal mechanism is unclear. For example, it may be that sprawling areas have higher traffic speeds and longer emergency response times, lower quality and less accessible health care facilities, or less availability of healthy foods. Compactness affects mortality indirectly through vehicle miles traveled, which is a contributor to traffic fatalities, and through body mass index, which is a contributor to many chronic diseases. This study identified significant direct and indirect associations between urban sprawl and life expectancy. These findings support further research and practice aimed at identifying and implementing changes to urban planning designed to support health and healthy behaviors.

  15. Political and social determinants of life expectancy in less developed countries: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Ro-Ting

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to examine the longitudinal contributions of four political and socioeconomic factors to the increase in life expectancy in less developed countries (LDCs between 1970 and 2004. Methods We collected 35 years of annual data for 119 LDCs on life expectancy at birth and on four key socioeconomic indicators: economy, measured by log10 gross domestic product per capita at purchasing power parity; educational environment, measured by the literacy rate of the adult population aged 15 years and over; nutritional status, measured by the proportion of undernourished people in the population; and political regime, measured by the regime score from the Polity IV database. Using linear mixed models, we analyzed the longitudinal effects of these multiple factors on life expectancy at birth with a lag of 0-10 years, adjusting for both time and regional correlations. Results The LDCs' increases in life expectancy over time were associated with all four factors. Political regime had the least influence on increased life expectancy to begin with, but became significant starting in the 3rd year and continued to increase, while the impact of the other socioeconomic factors began strong but continually decreased over time. The combined effects of these four socioeconomic and political determinants contributed 54.74% - 98.16% of the life expectancy gains throughout the lag periods of 0-10 years. Conclusions Though the effect of democratic politics on increasing life expectancy was relatively small in the short term when compared to the effects of the other socioeconomic factors, the long-term impact of democracy should not be underestimated.

  16. Are global and regional improvements in life expectancy and in child, adult and senior survival slowing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan J Hum

    Full Text Available Improvements in life expectancy have been considerable over the past hundred years. Forecasters have taken to applying historical trends under an assumption of continuing improvements in life expectancy in the future. A linear mixed effects model was used to estimate the trends in global and regional rates of improvements in life expectancy, child, adult, and senior survival, in 166 countries between 1950 and 2010. Global improvements in life expectancy, including both child and adult survival rates, decelerated significantly over the study period. Overall life expectancy gains were estimated to have declined from 5.9 to 4.0 months per year for a mean deceleration of -0.07 months/year2; annual child survival gains declined from 4.4 to 1.6 deaths averted per 1000 for a mean deceleration of -0.06 deaths/1000/year2; adult survival gains were estimated to decline from 4.8 to 3.7 deaths averted per 1000 per year for a mean deceleration of -0.08 deaths/1000/year2. Senior survival gains however increased from 2.4 to 4.2 deaths averted per 1000 per year for an acceleration of 0.03 deaths/1000/year2. Regional variation in the four measures was substantial. The rates of global improvements in life expectancy, child survival, and adult survival have declined since 1950 despite an increase in the rate of improvements among seniors. We postulate that low-cost innovation, related to the last half-century progress in health-primarily devoted to children and middle age, is reaping diminishing returns on its investments. Trends are uneven across regions and measures, which may be due in part to the state of epidemiological transition between countries and regions and disparities in the diffusion of innovation, accessible only in high-income countries where life expectancy is already highest.

  17. The Relationship between Parent Expectations and Postschool Outcomes of Adolescents with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doren, Bonnie; Gau, Jeff M.; Lindstrom, Lauren E.

    2012-01-01

    A secondary analysis was conducted of the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 to examine (a) main effects of parents' school and postschool outcome expectations on the actual outcomes achieved, (b) demographic moderators, and (c) adolescent autonomy as a mediator of parent expectations and outcomes. Parent expectations were found to…

  18. End-of-life decisions for people with intellectual disabilities, an interview study with patient representatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagemans, A.M.; Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, H.M. van; Proot, I.M.; Metsemakers, J.; Tuffrey-Wijne, I.; Curfs, L.M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Not much is known about the process of end-of-life decision-making for people with intellectual disabilities. Aim: To clarify the process of end-of-life decision-making for people with intellectual disabilities from the perspective of patient representatives. Design: A qualitative study

  19. Grandmothers Raising Grandchildren with Disabilities: Sources of Support and Family Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresak, Karen E.; Gallagher, Peggy A.; Kelley, Susan J.

    2014-01-01

    Sources of support and quality of life of 50 grandmother-headed families raising grandchildren with and without disabilities were examined. Comparative analyses revealed significant differences between grandmothers raising grandchildren with and without disabilities in regard to sources of support and family quality of life. Informal support was…

  20. Relationships between Leisure Participation and Quality of Life of People with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badia, Marta; Orgaz, María Begoña; Verdugo, Miguel Á.; Ullán, Ana M.; Martínez, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    Background: Studies of people with developmental disabilities suggest that participation in leisure activities might be a key factor for good quality of life. This study explores the relationships between objective and subjective quality of life and leisure participation of adults with developmental disabilities. Materials and Methods: A…

  1. Recreation as a Related Service: Focusing on the Quality of Life of Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diodati, Melissa R.

    2017-01-01

    Leisure participation is influential on the quality of life of individuals. Individuals with disabilities can face barriers in leisure participation, impacting their quality of life. IDEA (2004) recognizes recreation as a related service as one way to enhance the leisure experiences for students with disabilities. The purpose of this embedded case…

  2. Disability and Quality of Life among People Living With HIV/AIDS in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hence, the focus of management for People Living With HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) has shifted to issues relating to function and Quality of Life (QoL). Information is scarce on disability issues and quality of life among people living with HIIV/AIDS in Nigeria. This was the premise of this study that assessed the level of disability and ...

  3. Development of methodology for disability-adjusted life years (DALYs calculation based on real-life data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen A Struijk

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs have the advantage that effects on total health instead of on a specific disease incidence or mortality can be estimated. Our aim was to address several methodological points related to the computation of DALYs at an individual level in a follow-up study. METHODS: DALYs were computed for 33,507 men and women aged 20-70 years when participating in the EPIC-NL study in 1993-7. DALYs are the sum of the Years Lost due to Disability (YLD and the Years of Life Lost (YLL due to premature mortality. Premature mortality was defined as death before the estimated date of individual Life Expectancy (LE. Different methods to compute LE were compared as well as the effect of different follow-up periods using a two-part model estimating the effect of smoking status on health as an example. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 12.4 years, there were 69,245 DALYs due to years lived with a disease or premature death. Current-smokers had lost 1.28 healthy years of their life (1.28 DALYs 95%CI 1.10; 1.46 compared to never-smokers. The outcome varied depending on the method used for estimating LE, completeness of disease and mortality ascertainment and notably the percentage of extinction (duration of follow-up of the cohort. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the use of DALYs in a cohort study is an appropriate way to assess total disease burden in relation to a determinant. The outcome is sensitive to the LE calculation method and the follow-up duration of the cohort.

  4. How many years of life did the fall of the Berlin Wall add? A projection of East German life expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Tobias C

    2013-01-01

    In the two decades since reunification, East Germans have experienced a large increase in life expectancy and a convergence with the West German mortality level. This gain in life expectancy appears even more impressive if we assume a different scenario in which the Berlin Wall did not fall, and the old East Germany still existed. This analysis takes into account that East German mortality would not have remained static without reunification. Thus, it shows how many years of life expectancy were actually added by the fall of the Berlin Wall. The analysis shows the improvements for single age groups by projecting life expectancy based on mortality levels during the 1970s and 1980s using the Lee-Carter method. I use national-level data for both sexes for East Germany before reunification. I find that, without reunification, current life expectancy at birth among East Germans would be 4.0 years lower for females and 5.7 years lower for males. I also show that older East Germans were the main demographic beneficiaries of reunification. Female and male mortality improvements in the age groups above 60 contributed up to 80% to the actual gains in life expectancy. Had the Berlin Wall not fallen, East German mortality would not have remained static but improved at a far slower rate. Thus, this counterfactual approach shows for the first time how many years of life were actually gained by reunification and how much of these gains were attributable to mortality improvements among the elderly. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Perceptions and expectations of regular support meetings between staff and people with an intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reuzel, E.A.A.; Embregts, P.J.C.M.; Bosman, A.; van de Nieuwenhuizen, M.; Jahoda, A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Client-centred models of care emphasise the importance of collaborative working between staff and clients with an intellectual disability (ID). How people with an ID perceive the nature of their engagement with staff is relatively unknown. This study investigated the perceptions of staff

  6. Online Activity, Offline Sociability, and Life Satisfaction Among Israelis With and Without Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Ayelet; Rimmerman, Arie

    2017-11-01

    The Internet has the power to enrich the lives of persons with and without disabilities, and increase independence and subjective well-being. Using path analysis, the study examines the role of Internet use, offline social participation, and connectedness in explaining life satisfaction among people with and without disabilities. Two mediating models have been examined: the first hypothesizes that social participation and connectedness are mediating variables between online use and life satisfaction; the second posits that the association between participation and connectedness to life satisfaction is mediated by Internet use. The secondary data utilized measures from the Kessler National Organization on Disability, 2000 and 2004-Harris survey on a national sample of 557 Israelis with disabilities and a parallel sample of 551 people without disabilities. Findings indicate that people with disabilities tend to participate less and have weaker level of connectedness, and consequently are less satisfied with their life, than persons without disabilities. No significant difference has been found between the two groups in social and other online activities. In terms of the mediating models, the first mediation model has been confirmed for people with disabilities-both connectedness and participation serve as mediators between online social activity and life satisfaction. Interestingly, among those without disabilities, only connectedness has been a mediator in the path between social and other online activities and life satisfaction. Findings are discussed is respect to future research and rehabilitation practice.

  7. How Did Cause of Death Contribute to Racial Differences in Life Expectancy in the United States in 2010?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Technical Information Service NCHS How Did Cause of Death Contribute to Racial Differences in Life Expectancy in ... National Vital Statistics System, Mortality. What causes of death influenced the difference in life expectancy between the ...

  8. Diverging Life Expectancies and Voting Patterns in the 2016 US Presidential Election

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. To assess whether voting patterns in the 2016 US presidential election were correlated with long-run trends in county life expectancy. Methods. I examined county-level voting data from the 2008 and 2016 presidential elections and assessed Donald Trump’s share of the 2016 vote, change in the Republican vote share between 2008 and 2016, and changes in absolute numbers of Democratic and Republican votes. County-level estimates of life expectancy at birth were obtained for 1980 and 2014 from the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. Results. Changes in county life expectancy from 1980 to 2014 were strongly negatively associated with Trump’s vote share, with less support for Trump in counties experiencing greater survival gains. Counties in which life expectancy stagnated or declined saw a 10-percentage-point increase in the Republican vote share between 2008 and 2016. Conclusions. Residents of counties left out from broader life expectancy gains abandoned the Democratic Party in the 2016 presidential election. Since coming to power, the Trump administration has proposed cuts to health insurance for the poor, social programs, health research, and environmental and worker protections, which are key determinants of population health. Health gaps likely will continue to widen without significant public investment in population health. PMID:28817322

  9. Life expectancy gap between the Francophone majority and Anglophone minority of a Canadian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Nathalie; Harper, Sam; Barry, Amadou D; Trempe, Normand; Daniel, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Language is an important determinant of health, but analyses of linguistic inequalities in mortality are scant, especially for Canadian linguistic groups with European roots. We evaluated the life expectancy gap between the Francophone majority and Anglophone minority of Québec, Canada, both over time and across major provincial areas. Arriaga's method was used to estimate the age and cause of death groups contributing to changes in the life expectancy gap at birth between 1989-1993 and 2002-2006, and to evaluate patterns across major provincial areas (metropolitan Montréal, other metropolitan centres, and small cities/rural areas). Life expectancy at birth was greater for Anglophones, but the gap decreased over time by 1.3 years (52% decline) in men and 0.9 years (47% decline) in women, due to relatively sharper reductions in Francophone mortality from several causes, except lung cancer which countered reductions in women. The life expectancy gap in 2002-2006 was widest in other metropolitan centres (men 5.1 years, women 3.2 years), narrowest in small cities/rural areas (men 0.8 years, women 0.7 years), and tobacco-related causes were the main contributors. Only young Anglophones time, but varied across areas of Québec. Tobacco-related causes accounted for the majority of the current life expectancy gap.

  10. [Deaths attributable to alcohol use and its impact on life expectancy in China, 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y Y; Liu, S W; Ji, N; Zeng, X Y; Liu, Y N; Zhang, M; Wang, L M; Li, Y C; Zhou, M G

    2018-01-10

    Objective: To analyze the deaths attributable to alcohol use and its impact on people's life expectancy in China in 2013. Methods: The mortality data from the Disease Surveillance Points System and alcohol use data from China Chronic Disease Surveillance (2013) were used. The deaths attributed to alcohol use and its impact on the life expectancy of Chinese residents were estimated based on the principle of comparative risk assessment by calculating population attributable fraction. Results: In 2013, alcohol use resulted in 381 200 deaths, including 97 100 hemorrhagic stroke deaths, 88 200 liver cancer deaths, 61 400 liver cirrhosis deaths and 48 700 esophageal cancer deaths, and prevented 76 500 deaths, including 68 500, 4 900 and 3 100 deaths which might be caused by ischemic heart disease, hemorrhagic stroke and diabetes respectively. If risk factor of alcohol use is removed, the people's life expectancy would rise by an average of 0.43 years, especially in western China by 0.52 years, which was 0.12 years higher than that in eastern and central China, and the life expectancy of the population in rural and urban areas would rise by 0.48 years and 0.31 years respectively. Conclusions: Although alcohol has a protective effect on reducing ischemic heart disease, stroke and diabetes deaths, alcohol use is still a risk factor influencing the mortality and life expectancy of residents in China. It is necessary to take targeted measures to reduce the health problems caused by harmful use of alcohol.

  11. The Relationship between Science Indicator and Life Expectancy in Pioneer Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Moghadami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ​Background and Objectives : The main objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between scientific productivity in the field of psychiatry and life expectancy in pioneer countries. Material and Methods : A rigorous search strategy was applied on Scopus database using psychiatry terms. The search results were narrowed to 2000-2012. No language limitation was applied. Life expectancy was extracted from World Bank database using Pearson correlation. Results : The search was led to 27516 articles. The US, England and Germany were identified as leading countries in producing the psychiatry articles, respectively. Pearson correlation test results indicated that there is a direct correlation between scientific products and life expectancy index. In other words, with the increase in producing scientific articles in psychiatry field, life expectancy rises as well. Conclusion : With increase in scientific productivity, life expectancy increases and mortality rate decreases. The results of this study can serve as a guiding document in the field of health and mental health. ​

  12. Diverging Life Expectancies and Voting Patterns in the 2016 US Presidential Election.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bor, Jacob

    2017-10-01

    To assess whether voting patterns in the 2016 US presidential election were correlated with long-run trends in county life expectancy. I examined county-level voting data from the 2008 and 2016 presidential elections and assessed Donald Trump's share of the 2016 vote, change in the Republican vote share between 2008 and 2016, and changes in absolute numbers of Democratic and Republican votes. County-level estimates of life expectancy at birth were obtained for 1980 and 2014 from the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. Changes in county life expectancy from 1980 to 2014 were strongly negatively associated with Trump's vote share, with less support for Trump in counties experiencing greater survival gains. Counties in which life expectancy stagnated or declined saw a 10-percentage-point increase in the Republican vote share between 2008 and 2016. Residents of counties left out from broader life expectancy gains abandoned the Democratic Party in the 2016 presidential election. Since coming to power, the Trump administration has proposed cuts to health insurance for the poor, social programs, health research, and environmental and worker protections, which are key determinants of population health. Health gaps likely will continue to widen without significant public investment in population health.

  13. What has contributed to the change in life expectancy in Italy between 1980 and 1992?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngongo, K N; Nante, N; Chenet, L; McKee, M

    1999-07-01

    Life expectancy at birth in southern Europe is known to be greater than expected in comparison with levels of economic development. This has been attributed to the 'Mediterranean diet'. There are, however, concerns that this comparative advantage is being lost. This paper examines the factors underlying changing life expectancy in Italy since 1980. The subjects of this analysis are obtained from data on all deaths in Italy between 1980 and 1992. Change in age specific death rates is calculated from selected causes and, using the method developed by Pollard, the contribution of deaths from different causes and at different ages to changing life expectancy at birth is estimated. Between 1980 and 1992, life expectancy at birth increased by 2.70 years for men and 2.75 years for women. Death rates have fallen among children and those over 40. In contrast, death rates have increased among men aged between 20 and 39 and have increased very slightly among women aged 25-29. Falling death rates from ischaemic heart disease are continuing to contribute to increasing life expectancy. Death rates from lung and breast cancer are rising among women but are compensated for by falling death rates from other cancers. Among men, falling death rates from cancer at younger ages are being offset by increases at older ages. The rising death rate among younger men is almost entirely due to AIDS, with accidents also making a small contribution. Life expectancy in Italy has improved throughout the 1980s, largely driven by falling death rates from cardiovascular diseases. Here are, however, some worrying trends, most notably the rising death rate among young men, due almost entirely to AIDS. The changing pattern of mortality has some similarities with Spain, another Mediterranean country, but there are also important differences.

  14. Impact of bariatric surgery on life expectancy in severely obese patients with diabetes: A Decision analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Daniel P.; Arterburn, David E.; Livingston, Edward H.; Coleman, Karen J.; Sidney, Steve; Fisher, David; O'Connor, Patrick; Fischer, David; Eckman, Mark H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To create a decision analytic model to estimate the balance between treatment risks and benefits for severely obese patients with diabetes. Summary Background Data Bariatric surgery leads to many desirable metabolic changes, but long-term impact of bariatric surgery on life expectancy in patients with diabetes has not yet been quantified. Methods We developed a Markov state transition model with multiple Cox proportional hazards models and logistic regression models as inputs to compare bariatric surgery versus no surgical treatment for severely obese diabetic patients. The model is informed by data from three large cohorts: 1) 159,000 severely obese diabetic patients (4,185 had bariatric surgery) from 3 HMO Research Network sites, 2) 23,000 subjects from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS), and 3) 18,000 subjects from the National Health Interview Survey linked to the National Death Index. Results In our main analyses, we found that a 45 year-old female with diabetes and a BMI of 45 kg/m2 gained an additional 6.7 years of life expectancy with bariatric surgery (38.4 years with surgery vs. 31.7 without). Sensitivity analyses revealed that the gain in life expectancy decreased with increasing BMI, until a BMI of 62 kg/m2 is reached, at which point nonsurgical treatment was associated with greater life expectancy. Similar results were seen for both men and women in all age groups. Conclusions For most severely obese patients with diabetes, bariatric surgery appears to improve life expectancy; however, surgery may reduce life expectancy for the super obese with BMIs over 62 kg/m2. PMID:25844968

  15. Intimacy, intercourse and adjustments: Experiences of sexual life of a group of people with physical disabilities in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Xanthe; Braathen, Stine Hellum; Swartz, Leslie; Carew, Mark Thomas; Rohleder, Poul

    2018-02-01

    There is a growing recognition of the sexual and reproductive rights of people with disabilities, and since the World Health Organisation's World Report on Disability, increased international attention has been given to these issues. Past research, however, suggests that this group encounter barriers to sexual and reproductive rights, which are both physical and attitudinal. Against this backdrop, this article employs a sequential mixed qualitative methodology to explore the practical and subjective experiences of 13 people with physical disabilities in South Africa, with regard to their sexual lives and experiences of sexuality. These experiences were marked by concerns about their 'fitness' as sexual beings and indicated that social forces were key in shaping their expectations for their own sexual life.

  16. Trends in life expectancy by education in Norway 1961-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steingrímsdóttir, Olöf Anna; Næss, Øyvind; Moe, Joakim Oliu; Grøholt, Else-Karin; Thelle, Dag Steinar; Strand, Bjørn Heine; Bævre, Kåre

    2012-03-01

    Educational attainment and longevity are strongly related. Large population studies covering long periods to provide evidence of trends in educational inequalities regarding life expectancy are scarce though, especially prior to the 1980s. Our objective was to document changes in life expectancy by education in Norway in the period 1961-2009, and to determine whether the patterns differ between sexes. This is a register-based population study of all Norwegian residents over 34 years, with data from the National Central Population Registry and the National Education Database. For each calendar year during 1961-2009, death rates by 1 year age groups were calculated separately for each sex and three educational categories (primary, secondary and tertiary). Annual life tables were used to calculate life expectancy at age 35 (e ( 35 )) and survival probability for the three age-intervals 35-44, 45-64, and 65-90. All education groups increased their e ( 35 ) over time, but inequalities in e ( 35 ) between tertiary and primary educational categories widened 5.3 years for men and 3.2 years for women during the study period. The probability for women with primary education to survive to age 64 did not improve from 1961 to 2009. The gain in life expectancy lagged about 10 years in lower compared to higher education groups which might suggest that improvements in life sustaining factors reach different segments of the population at different times. The widening of the gap seems to have partly tapered off over the last two decades, and the changes in life expectancy should be followed carefully in the future to document the development.

  17. Gender inequality and the gender gap in life expectancy in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolip, Petra; Lange, Cornelia

    2018-05-14

    The gender gap in life expectancy (GGLE) varies substantially in EU 28 Member States. This paper addresses the question of whether gender inequality affects the GGLE as well as life expectancy (LE) in both genders. We conducted an ecological study and used the gender inequality index (GII) developed by the United Nations as well as the gender difference in LE in 2015. We found a correlation between GGLE and GII (r2=0.180) and between GII and LE of 0.418 (women) and 0.430 (men). Gender equality policies are still necessary and will have an effect on women's as well as men's health.

  18. Experience in determining the residual life expectancy of conventional thermal power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolksdorf, E.

    1990-01-01

    A combination of computer analysis, degree of damage and approximate conversion to residual life expectancy gives acceptable results. There is considerable uncertainty in converting degree of damage to residual life expectancy, since structural component characteristics play a major role here. Structure damages play a major part in establishing the degree of damage. Damage categories are given, together with action if operations are to continue. Exhaustion calculations to TRD 508 are to be taken as conservative and as possible evidence of trends. 14 figs., 12 refs

  19. Life expectancies of South African adults starting antiretroviral treatment: collaborative analysis of cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Leigh F; Mossong, Joel; Dorrington, Rob E; Schomaker, Michael; Hoffmann, Christopher J; Keiser, Olivia; Fox, Matthew P; Wood, Robin; Prozesky, Hans; Giddy, Janet; Garone, Daniela Belen; Cornell, Morna; Egger, Matthias; Boulle, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Few estimates exist of the life expectancy of HIV-positive adults receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) in low- and middle-income countries. We aimed to estimate the life expectancy of patients starting ART in South Africa and compare it with that of HIV-negative adults. Data were collected from six South African ART cohorts. Analysis was restricted to 37,740 HIV-positive adults starting ART for the first time. Estimates of mortality were obtained by linking patient records to the national population register. Relative survival models were used to estimate the excess mortality attributable to HIV by age, for different baseline CD4 categories and different durations. Non-HIV mortality was estimated using a South African demographic model. The average life expectancy of men starting ART varied between 27.6 y (95% CI: 25.2-30.2) at age 20 y and 10.1 y (95% CI: 9.3-10.8) at age 60 y, while estimates for women at the same ages were substantially higher, at 36.8 y (95% CI: 34.0-39.7) and 14.4 y (95% CI: 13.3-15.3), respectively. The life expectancy of a 20-y-old woman was 43.1 y (95% CI: 40.1-46.0) if her baseline CD4 count was ≥ 200 cells/µl, compared to 29.5 y (95% CI: 26.2-33.0) if her baseline CD4 count was <50 cells/µl. Life expectancies of patients with baseline CD4 counts ≥ 200 cells/µl were between 70% and 86% of those in HIV-negative adults of the same age and sex, and life expectancies were increased by 15%-20% in patients who had survived 2 y after starting ART. However, the analysis was limited by a lack of mortality data at longer durations. South African HIV-positive adults can have a near-normal life expectancy, provided that they start ART before their CD4 count drops below 200 cells/µl. These findings demonstrate that the near-normal life expectancies of HIV-positive individuals receiving ART in high-income countries can apply to low- and middle-income countries as well. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  20. Life expectancies of South African adults starting antiretroviral treatment: collaborative analysis of cohort studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh F Johnson

    Full Text Available Few estimates exist of the life expectancy of HIV-positive adults receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART in low- and middle-income countries. We aimed to estimate the life expectancy of patients starting ART in South Africa and compare it with that of HIV-negative adults.Data were collected from six South African ART cohorts. Analysis was restricted to 37,740 HIV-positive adults starting ART for the first time. Estimates of mortality were obtained by linking patient records to the national population register. Relative survival models were used to estimate the excess mortality attributable to HIV by age, for different baseline CD4 categories and different durations. Non-HIV mortality was estimated using a South African demographic model. The average life expectancy of men starting ART varied between 27.6 y (95% CI: 25.2-30.2 at age 20 y and 10.1 y (95% CI: 9.3-10.8 at age 60 y, while estimates for women at the same ages were substantially higher, at 36.8 y (95% CI: 34.0-39.7 and 14.4 y (95% CI: 13.3-15.3, respectively. The life expectancy of a 20-y-old woman was 43.1 y (95% CI: 40.1-46.0 if her baseline CD4 count was ≥ 200 cells/µl, compared to 29.5 y (95% CI: 26.2-33.0 if her baseline CD4 count was <50 cells/µl. Life expectancies of patients with baseline CD4 counts ≥ 200 cells/µl were between 70% and 86% of those in HIV-negative adults of the same age and sex, and life expectancies were increased by 15%-20% in patients who had survived 2 y after starting ART. However, the analysis was limited by a lack of mortality data at longer durations.South African HIV-positive adults can have a near-normal life expectancy, provided that they start ART before their CD4 count drops below 200 cells/µl. These findings demonstrate that the near-normal life expectancies of HIV-positive individuals receiving ART in high-income countries can apply to low- and middle-income countries as well. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  1. Rough Set Theory based prognostication of life expectancy for terminally ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Herrera, Eleazar; Yalcin, Ali; Tsalatsanis, Athanasios; Barnes, Laura E; Djulbegovic, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    We present a novel knowledge discovery methodology that relies on Rough Set Theory to predict the life expectancy of terminally ill patients in an effort to improve the hospice referral process. Life expectancy prognostication is particularly valuable for terminally ill patients since it enables them and their families to initiate end-of-life discussions and choose the most desired management strategy for the remainder of their lives. We utilize retrospective data from 9105 patients to demonstrate the design and implementation details of a series of classifiers developed to identify potential hospice candidates. Preliminary results confirm the efficacy of the proposed methodology. We envision our work as a part of a comprehensive decision support system designed to assist terminally ill patients in making end-of-life care decisions.

  2. Technical limits on performance reserves and life expectancy in nuclear power stations with light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanner, R.; Brosi, S.; Duijvestijn, G.

    1990-01-01

    The safety margin (i.e. the difference between the loads equipment can take and those actually imposed on components) in a reactor pressure vessel is a major factor in the life expectancy of a nuclear power station. This safety margin is reduced considerably by reductions in the toughness of equipment caused by neutron irradiation and growth of cracks. Once the minimum safety margin is infringed, the nuclear power station is at the end of its working life. 13 figs., 11 refs

  3. Smoking and Endogenous Mortality: Does Heterogeneity in Life Expectancy Explain Differences in Smoking Behavior?

    OpenAIRE

    Valerie Lechene; Jéróme Adda

    2001-01-01

    This paper proposes a joint model of tobacco consumption and mortality over the life-cycle. The decision to smoke is a trade off between current utility derived from smoking and a mortality risk increasing with age. Individuals with a longer potential life expectancy have more incentive to cut back on smoking and thus self select out of smoking. Using detailed data on mortality, morbidity and smoking we are able to identify this selection effect. We empirically evaluate its importance in expl...

  4. Psychological predictors for health-related quality of life and disability in persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewes, Ricarda; Rief, Winfried; Kenn, Klaus; Ried, Jens; Stenzel, Nikola

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exhibit low physical and mental health-related quality of life (HRQL) and high susceptibility to disability. We investigated the influence of psychological factors on HRQL and disability in COPD individuals recruited from the general population. In line with Leventhal's common sense model, we expected psychological factors to be associated with HRQL and disability even after controlling for medical status. Individuals with COPD (n = 502; 59.7 years old; GOLD grades were I: 3%, II: 17%, III: 34%, IV: 46%) were assessed through an online survey administered via COPD patient organisations in Germany. Individuals filled in the Short Form Health Survey (SF-12), COPD Assessment Test, Patient Health Questionnaire (modules: GAD-2, PHQ-15, PHQ-9), Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire, a questionnaire that assesses causal illness attributions, and the internal illness-related locus of control scale of the 'KKG questionnaire for the assessment of control beliefs about illness and health'. Multiple linear regressions were calculated. The investigated factors explained high variances (disability = 56%, physical HRQL = 28%, mental HRQL = 63%, p ≤ .001). Better mental health, more optimistic illness perceptions, attribution to psychological causes, and stronger internal locus of control were associated with lower disability and better HRQL. Comorbid somatic symptoms contributed to high disability and low quality of life. Psychological factors, such as illness perception, attribution and internal locus of control, were associated with disability and HRQL. These factors should be considered when designing treatments for individuals with COPD, and adequate interventions should be provided to enhance illness understanding and self-management skills.

  5. Forecasting the Effects of Obesity and Smoking on U.S. Life Expectancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Susan T.; Cutler, David M.; Rosen, Allison B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although increases in obesity over the past 30 years have adversely affected the health of the U.S. population, there have been concomitant improvements in health because of reductions in smoking. Having a better understanding of the joint effects of these trends on longevity and quality of life will facilitate more efficient targeting of health care resources. Methods For each year from 2005 through 2020, we forecasted life expectancy and quality-adjusted life expectancy for a representative 18-year-old, assuming a continuation of past trends in smoking (based on data from the National Health Interview Survey for 1978 through 1979, 1990 through 1991, 1999 through 2001, and 2004 through 2006) and past trends in body-mass index (BMI) (based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 1971 through 1975, 1988 through 1994, 1999 through 2002, and 2003 through 2006). The 2003 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey was used to examine the effects of smoking and BMI on health-related quality of life. Results The negative effects of increasing BMI overwhelmed the positive effects of declines in smoking in multiple scenarios. In the base case, increases in the remaining life expectancy of a typical 18-year-old are held back by 0.71 years or 0.91 quality-adjusted years between 2005 and 2020. If all U.S. adults became nonsmokers of normal weight by 2020, we forecast that the life expectancy of an 18-year-old would increase by 3.76 life-years or 5.16 quality-adjusted years. Conclusions If past obesity trends continue unchecked, the negative effects on the health of the U.S. population will increasingly outweigh the positive effects gained from declining smoking rates. Failure to address continued increases in obesity could result in an erosion of the pattern of steady gains in health observed since early in the 20th century. PMID:19955525

  6. A competing risk model for reduction in life expectancy from radiogenic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, H.T.

    1978-01-01

    Latent radiogenic cancer fatalities from reactor accidents are considered to be more important than early fatalities. However, early fatalities generally result in appreciable life shortening for the affected individual whereas latent cancer fatalities generally result in limited life shortening. In this report a mathematical model is developed to express the reduction in life expectancy from radiogenic cancer as a function of dose received. The model is then used to compare the linear model of latent radiogenic cancer incidence with several nonlinear models that have appeared in the literature. (author)

  7. INCREASED LIFE EXPECTANCY OF WORKING WOMEN THROUGH PARTICIPATION IN REGULAR PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES/ YOGIC EXERCISE

    OpenAIRE

    Jahanavee Ichchhaporia

    2017-01-01

    In today’s fast and globalized life style Women hold a key position in the shaping of the next generation, plays such an important part in the life of the family. Their value is beyond measure. The changing life style demands more financial steadiness, that’s why the percentage of women in the active work population has increased rapidly in many countries around the world, including ours. As a consequence, we have seen the proliferation of dual-income families where role expectations toward m...

  8. Failure-censored accelerated life test sampling plans for Weibull distribution under expected test time constraint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, D.S.; Chun, Y.R.; Kim, J.G.

    1995-01-01

    This paper considers the design of life-test sampling plans based on failure-censored accelerated life tests. The lifetime distribution of products is assumed to be Weibull with a scale parameter that is a log linear function of a (possibly transformed) stress. Two levels of stress higher than the use condition stress, high and low, are used. Sampling plans with equal expected test times at high and low test stresses which satisfy the producer's and consumer's risk requirements and minimize the asymptotic variance of the test statistic used to decide lot acceptability are obtained. The properties of the proposed life-test sampling plans are investigated

  9. Active Life Expectancy and Functional Health Transition among Filipino Older People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace T. Cruz

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The study provides a baseline information on the functional health transition patterns of older people and computes for the Active Life Expectancy (ALE using a multistate life table method. Findings on ALE demonstrate that females and urban residents live longer and have a greater proportion of their remaining life in active state compared to their counterparts. Health transition analysis indicates a significant proportion experiencing recovery. Age, sex, place of residence and health status/behavior indicators (self-assessed health, drinking and exercise display a significant influence on future health and mortality trajectories although surprisingly, education did not show any significant effect.

  10. Extenuating Circumstances in Perceptions of Suicide: Disease Diagnosis (AIDS, Cancer), Pain Level, and Life Expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Stephen K.; Range, Lillian M.

    1991-01-01

    Examined whether illness type, pain level, and life expectancy affected reactions of undergraduates (n=160) toward a terminal illness suicide with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) or cancer. AIDS patients were more stigmatized than cancer patients; suicide was more tolerated if victim was suffering greater pain. (Author/ABL)

  11. The Influence of Subjective Life Expectancy on Retirement Transition and Planning: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Barbara; Hesketh, Beryl; Loh, Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the construct of subjective life expectancy (SLE), or the estimation of one's probable age of death. Drawing on the tenets of socioemotional selectivity theory (Carstensen, Isaacowitz, & Charles, 1999), we propose that SLE provides individuals with their own unique mental model of remaining time that is likely to affect their…

  12. An examination of the association between premature mortality and life expectancy among men in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White, Alan; McKee, Martin; de Sousa, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    A feature of the health of men across Europe is their higher rates of premature mortality and shorter life expectancy at birth than women. Following the publication of the first State of Men's Health in Europe report, we sought to explore possible reasons....

  13. Arts and ageing; Life expectancy of historical artists in the Low Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mirzada, F.; Schimberg, A.S.; Engelaer, F.M.; Bijwaard, G.E.; van Bodegom, D.; Westendorp, R.G.J.; van Poppel, F.W.A.

    2014-01-01

    Practising arts has been linked to lowering stress, anxiety and blood pressure. These mechanisms are all known to affect the ageing process. Therefore, we examine the relation between long-term involvement in arts and life expectancy at age 50 (LE50), in a cohort of 12,159 male acoustic, literary

  14. Sustainable development and quality of life : expected effects of prospective changes in economic and environmental conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlek, C.A.J.; Skolnik, M; Gatersleben, B.C.M.

    1998-01-01

    In the context of "sustainable development", we studied which attributes are important to people's quality of life (QoL) and which changes in QoL people would expect from future economic and environmental improvements or deteriorations. About 200 adult subjects evaluated the relative importance of

  15. How do Major, Violent and Nonviolent Opposition Campaigns, Impact Predicted Life Expectancy at birth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Stoddard

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the effects of major violent and nonviolent opposition campaigns for regime change, on predicted life expectancy at birth. The study measured life expectancy five and ten years after the campaign ended, so that deaths which occurred during the campaign would not be included in the metric, and thus enabling the study of changes made in the state on the social determinants affecting longevity, after the campaign was over. Life expectancy is one of the best reported World Development Indicators and is considered to be a good indication of the overall health and general living conditions of the state and therefore is an ideal indicator to reflect the changes made in the state following a major campaign. The results of this analysis showed that states have a hard time recovering from a major opposition campaign and initially drop behind the growth trend in the world average for predicted life expectancy at birth. But, the type of campaign that was waged and whether it was successful, greatly affects the state’s ability to recover. Encouragingly by a decade after the campaign ends, states that experienced a nonviolent campaign that was successful had caught up to the world average and inched ahead of it. This shows that on this important development indicator, new governments that were ushered into power by nonviolent social movements, had made positive changes in the state that enabled it to surpass world averages.

  16. Disability and quality of life in patients with fibromyalgia

    OpenAIRE

    Verbunt, Jeanine A; Pernot, Dia HFM; Smeets, Rob JEM

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Patients with fibromyalgia often feel disabled in the performance of daily activities. Psychological factors seem to play a pronounced disabling role in fibromyalgia. The objectives of the study are: Firstly, to investigate contributing factors for disability in fibromyalgia. Secondly, to study psychological distress in patients with fibromyalgia as compared to other nonspecific pain syndromes. And finally, to explore the impact of fibromyalgia on a patient's quality of li...

  17. Against the Standards: Analyzing Expectations and Discourse of Educators regarding Students with Disabilities in a Kindergarten Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda T. Orsati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This two-year ethnographic case study critically examines the language educators use to describe students with disabilities who are considered to present challenging behaviors in one classroom. Focusing on the language and practices used by one special education teacher and three teaching assistants, this paper explores how educators respond to students’ behaviors by analyzing educators’ utterances and the implication of such use for the education of the students. Using critical discourse analysis, this paper highlights how educators’ language in the classroom reflects a discourse of expectations that is based on various social standards and pressures that educators have to juggle. Educators expressed academic and behavioral standards by comparing students’ performance to the expected norm as well as through comparisons between students. Based on such comparisons, some students were constructed as always lacking and ultimately defined by the adjectives originally used to describe them. Students were perceived to embody defiance or smartness, the characteristics by which they were defined.

  18. Narrowing sex differences in life expectancy: regional variations, 1971-1991

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Trovato

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A number of industrialized nations have recently experienced some degrees of constriction in their long-standing sex differentials in life expectancy at birth. In this study we examine this phenomenon in the context of Canada’s regions between 1971 and 1991: Atlantic (Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island; Quebec, Ontario, and the West (Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, British Columbia, Yukon and Northwest Territories. Decomposition analysis based on multiple decrement life tables is applied to address three questions: (1 Are there regional differentials in the degree of narrowing in the sex gap in life expectancy? (2 What is the relative contribution of major causes of death to observed sex differences in average length of life within and across regions? (3 How do the contributions of cause-of-death components vary across regions to either widen or narrow the sex gap in survival? It is shown that the magnitude of the sex gap is not uniform across the regions, though the differences are not large. The most important contributors to a narrowing of the sex gap in life expectancy are heart disease and external types of mortality (i.e., accidents, violence, and suicide, followed by lung cancer and other types of chronic conditions. In substantive terms these results indicate that over time men have been making sufficient gains in these causes of death as to narrow some of the gender gap in overall survival. Regions show similarity in these effects.

  19. Using cohort change ratios to estimate life expectancy in populations with negligible migration: A new approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Swanson

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Census survival methods are the oldest and most widely applicable methods of estimating adult mortality, and for populations with negligible migration they can provide excellent results. The reason for this ubiquity is threefold: (1 their data requirements are minimal in that only two successive age distributions are needed; (2 the two successive age distributions are usually easily obtained from census counts; and (3 the method is straightforward in that it requires neither a great deal of judgment nor “data-fitting” techniques to implement. This ubiquity is in contrast to other methods, which require more data, as well as judgment and, often, data fitting. In this short note, the new approach we demonstrate is that life expectancy at birth can be computed by using census survival rates in combination with an identity whereby the radix of a life table is equal to 1 (l0 = 1.00. We point out that our suggested method is less involved than the existing approach. We compare estimates using our approach against other estimates, and find it works reasonably well. As well as some nuances and cautions, we discuss the benefits of using this approach to estimate life expectancy, including the ability to develop estimates of average remaining life at any age. We believe that the technique is worthy of consideration for use in estimating life expectancy in populations that experience negligible migration.

  20. Using cohort change ratios to estimate life expectancy in populations with negligible migration: A new approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucky Tedrow

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Census survival methods are the oldest and most widely applicable methods of estimating adult mortality, and for populations with negligible migration they can provide excellent results. The reason for this ubiquity is threefold: (1 their data requirements are minimal in that only two successive age distributions are needed; (2 the two successive age distributions are usually easily obtained from census counts; and (3 the method is straightforward in that it requires neither a great deal of judgment nor “data-fitting” techniques to implement. This ubiquity is in contrast to other methods, which require more data, as well as judgment and, often, data fitting. In this short note, the new approach we demonstrate is that life expectancy at birth can be computed by using census survival rates in combination with an identity whereby the radix of a life table is equal to 1 (l0 = 1.00. We point out that our suggested method is less involved than the existing approach. We compare estimates using our approach against other estimates, and find it works reasonably well. As well as some nuances and cautions, we discuss the benefits of using this approach to estimate life expectancy, including the ability to develop estimates of average remaining life at any age. We believe that the technique is worthy of consideration for use in estimating life expectancy in populations that experience negligible migration.

  1. Life expectancy of the 20th century Venda: a compilation of skeletal and cemetery data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Abbé, E N; Steyn, M; Loots, M

    2008-01-01

    Little information is available on the 20th century mortality rates of rural black South African groups, such as the Venda. The purpose of this study was to apply abridged life tables in order to estimate life expectancy from both skeletal remains and death registry information of modern South African communities. Comparisons were also made with prehistoric and contemporary groups as a means to better evaluate life expectancy for this time period. The sample consisted of 160 skeletons of known Venda origin and burial registry information for 1364 black South Africans from the Rebecca Street and Mamelodi Cemeteries in Pretoria, South Africa. Standard anthropological techniques were applied to determine sex and estimate age from the skeletal remains. The stationary and non-stationary life table models were used to analyse the data. A high rate of child mortality, low juvenile and adult mortality with a steady increase in mortality after the age of 30 years was observed for both the Venda and the cemetery samples. Throughout the 20th century, life expectancy was shown to increase for black South Africans. However, due to the widespread HIV infection/AIDS of the 21st century, infant and young adult mortality rates continue to rise at such a speed that the decline in mortality seen for South Africans in the last 50 years will most likely to be lost in the next decade due to this disease.

  2. Assessment of the Effectiveness of Public Investment in the Increase in Life Expectancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Nikolaevich Kabanov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The beginning of the 21st century was marked by the emergence of national projects in our country, which exactly correspond to the private integral indicators used by the UN in calculating the index of human capital development since 1996. The national project “Health care” is aimed at increasing life expectancy, “Education” – expanding the population’s access to knowledge, “Doubling GDP” – raising people’s income. Attaching equal importance to each indicator, the author of the article set a task to consider the economic efficiency of budgetary funds allocated to improve the nation’s health. The author assumed a proportion as the main hypotheses about the nature of correlation between life expectancy (H and expenditures on health care (G; the calculated coefficients of correlation (Pearson, r of dependence H = f(G for all RF subjects for 2003–2013 (0.49 < r < or = 0.97 confirmed the existence of correlation. The author proposed to use the slope of the straight H = f(G to x-axis as a quantitative value, indicating the economic efficiency of the transformation of budget expenditures to the increase in life expectancy. This indicator means that the achieved increase in life expectancy (Y axis motion depending on changes in budget expenditures on health (axis motion. The proposed indicator to estimate the socio-economic effectiveness of state investments in domestic health care guarantees the most objective and clear assessment, conducted on the basis of standard methods of mathematical statistics, ensuring a high accuracy of the calculations. The rate of rise in life expectancy, depending on the volume of public investment in health care, can be used for the scientific justification, for example, of the degree of Federal budget participation in the regional programs to promote national health

  3. The association between income and life expectancy revisited: deindustrialization, incarceration and the widening health gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosrati, Elias; Ash, Michael; Marmot, Michael; McKee, Martin; King, Lawrence P

    2017-11-22

    The health gap between the top and the bottom of the income distribution is widening rapidly in the USA, but the lifespan of America's poor depends substantially on where they live. We ask whether two major developments in American society, deindustrialization and incarceration, can explain variation among states in life expectancy of those in the lowest income quartile. Life expectancy estimates at age 40 of those in the bottom income quartile were used to fit panel data models examining the relationship with deindustrialization and incarceration between 2001 and 2014 for all US states. A one standard deviation (s.d.) increase in deindustrialization (mean = 11.2, s.d. = 3.5) reduces life expectancy for the poor by 0.255 years [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.090-0.419] and each additional prisoner per 1000 residents (mean = 4.0, s.d. = 1.5) is associated with a loss of 0.468 years (95% CI: 0.213-0.723). Our predictors explain over 20% of the state-level variation in life expectancy among the poor and virtually the entire increase in the life expectancy gap between the top and the bottom income quartiles since the turn of the century. In the USA between 2001 and 2014, deindustrialization and incarceration subtracted roughly 2.5 years from the lifespan of the poor, pointing to their role as major health determinants. Future research must remain conscious of the upstream determinants and the political economy of public health. If public policy responses to growing health inequalities are to be effective, they must consider strengthening industrial policy and ending hyper-incarceration. © The Author 2017; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  4. End-of-life expectations and experiences among nursing home patients and their relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosse, Anette; Schaufel, Margrethe Aase; Ruths, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    . CONCLUSION: Nursing home patients and their relatives wanted doctors more involved in end-of-life care. They expected doctors to acknowledge their preferences and provide guidance and symptom relief. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: High-quality end-of-life care in nursing homes relies on organization, funding......OBJECTIVE: Synthesize research about patients' and relatives' expectations and experiences on how doctors can improve end-of-life care in nursing homes. METHODS: We systematically searched qualitative studies in English in seven databases (Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Ageline, Cochrane...... decision-makers reported uncertainty and distress when guidance from health personnel was lacking. They worried about staff shortage and emphasized doctor availability. Relatives and health personnel seldom recognized patients' ability to consent, and patients' preferences were not always recognized...

  5. Life expectancy of modular Ti6Al4V hip implants: Influence of stress and environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chandra, A.; Ryu, J.J.; Karra, P.

    2011-01-01

    is semi-analytical and computational, where, based on the estimated Preston constant and other material and process parameters, the scratch propensity (consisting of magnitude of scratch depth and their frequency per unit area) due to micro-motion in modular hip implants is estimated. The third phase...... views these scratches as initial notches and utilizes a mixed-mode fatigue crack propagation model to estimate the critical crack length for onset of instability. The number of loading cycles needed to reach this critical crack length is then labeled as the expected life of the implant under given...... mechanical and chemical conditions. Implications of different material and process conditions to life expectancy of orthopedic implants are discussed. It is observed that transverse micro-motion, compared to longitudinal micro-motion, plays a far more critical role in determining the implant life. Patient...

  6. Raising end of life care issues for patients with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Ruth

    2012-11-30

    This qualitative study explored the views of three learning disability nurses, and three district nurses, caring for people with learning disabilities at the end of their lives. Although they saw some good practice, the nurses identified several difficulties associated with end of life care.

  7. Quality of Life, Disability, and Body Mass Index Are Related in Obese Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirtori, Anna; Brunani, Amelia; Liuzzi, Antonio; Pasqualinotto, Lucia; Villa, Valentina; Leonardi, Matilde; Raggi, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between health-related quality of life (QoL), disability, and degree of obesity. Adult obese patients (BMI greater than 30) were consecutively enrolled in this cross-sectional observational study. The WHO Disability Assessment Schedule (WHO-DAS II) and the short version of the impact of weight…

  8. Long-term medical costs and life expectancy of acute myeloid leukemia: a probabilistic decision model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Han-I; Aas, Eline; Howell, Debra; Roman, Eve; Patmore, Russell; Jack, Andrew; Smith, Alexandra

    2014-03-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) can be diagnosed at any age and treatment, which can be given with supportive and/or curative intent, is considered expensive compared with that for other cancers. Despite this, no long-term predictive models have been developed for AML, mainly because of the complexities associated with this disease. The objective of the current study was to develop a model (based on a UK cohort) to predict cost and life expectancy at a population level. The model developed in this study combined a decision tree with several Markov models to reflect the complexity of the prognostic factors and treatments of AML. The model was simulated with a cycle length of 1 month for a time period of 5 years and further simulated until age 100 years or death. Results were compared for two age groups and five different initial treatment intents and responses. Transition probabilities, life expectancies, and costs were derived from a UK population-based specialist registry-the Haematological Malignancy Research Network (www.hmrn.org). Overall, expected 5-year medical costs and life expectancy ranged from £8,170 to £81,636 and 3.03 to 34.74 months, respectively. The economic and health outcomes varied with initial treatment intent, age at diagnosis, trial participation, and study time horizon. The model was validated by using face, internal, and external validation methods. The results show that the model captured more than 90% of the empirical costs, and it demonstrated good fit with the empirical overall survival. Costs and life expectancy of AML varied with patient characteristics and initial treatment intent. The robust AML model developed in this study could be used to evaluate new diagnostic tools/treatments, as well as enable policy makers to make informed decisions. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The effect of individual differences and manipulated life expectancies on the willingness to engage in sexual coercion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkel, Curtis S; Mathes, Eugene

    2011-12-16

    The role of the individual difference variables of mate value, short-term and long-term mating preferences, and life history strategy along with the manipulated variable of life expectancy were used to predict differences in the willingness to engage in sexually coercive behaviors. Short-term preferences and long-term preferences were correlated with the willingness to engage in sexual coercion at all life expectancies. Life history strategy was correlated with the willingness to engage in sexual coercion at only the shortest and longest life expectancies. Most importantly short-term and long-term mating preferences interacted with life expectancy to predict the willingness to engage in sexually coercive behaviors. Short life expectancies increased willingness in individuals with high short-term and low long-term preferences. The results are discussed in terms of the varying theories of sexual coercion with emphasis put on a life history approach.

  10. Quality of Life Indicators for Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities: Extending Current Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ivan; Hatton, Chris; Emerson, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Quality of life is a social construct that is measured by what are considered to be its most appropriate indicators. Quality of life measurement in intellectual disability reflects a variety of indicators, often grouped under life domains. Subjective and objective methods of measuring indicators each have strengths and drawbacks, but it is…

  11. Mortality and life expectancy in homeless men and women in Rotterdam: 2001-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilma J Nusselder

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Data on mortality among homeless people are limited. Therefore, this study aimed to describe mortality patterns within a cohort of homeless adults in Rotterdam (the Netherlands and to assess excess mortality as compared to the general population in that city. METHODS: Based on 10-year follow-up of homeless adults aged ≥ 20 years who visited services for homeless people in Rotterdam in 2001, and on vital statistics, we assessed the association of mortality with age, sex and type of service used (e.g. only day care, convalescence care, other within the homeless cohort, and also compared mortality between the homeless and general population using Poisson regression. Life tables and decomposition methods were used to examine differences in life expectancy. RESULTS: During follow-up, of the 2096 adult homeless 265 died. Among the homeless, at age 30 years no significant sex differences were found in overall mortality rates and life expectancy. Compared with the general Rotterdam population, mortality rates were 3.5 times higher in the homeless cohort. Excess mortality was larger in women (rate ratio [RR] RR 5.56, 95% CI 3.95-7.82 as compared to men (RR 3.31, 95% CI 2.91-3.77, and decreased with age (RR 7.67, 95% CI 6.87-8.56 for the age group 20-44 and RR 1.63, 95% CI 1.41-1.88 for the age group 60+ years. Life expectancy at age 30 years was 11.0 (95% CI 9.1-12.9 and 15.9 (95% CI 10.3-21.5 years lower for homeless men and women compared to men and women in the general population respectively. CONCLUSION: Homeless adults face excessive losses in life expectancy, with greatest disadvantages among homeless women and the younger age groups.

  12. End-of-life training for paid carers working with people with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codling, Mary; Knowles, Jane; Vevers, Ann

    2014-04-01

    People with learning disabilities are living longer lives. Over the past few years, research has explored the needs of people with learning disabilities, their families and learning disability professionals in relation to end-of-life care and death. However, little is known about the needs of paid carers and their experience of end-of-life care. This article discusses the development, implementation and evaluation of a study day about end-of-life care that was delivered to paid carers on two separate occasions in Berkshire Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust. A total of 43 paid carers attended and the days were well evaluated. The need for further training for paid carers who work with people with learning disabilities at the end of life was highlighted.

  13. Relationship of Personality Traits With Quality of Life in Spouses of Patients With Physical Disabilities

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    Mahdiyeh Tavakouli Kohjehri

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion According to chronic nature of physical disabilities, participation of patients’ wives in care programs can cause improvement in their quality of life and daily activities. Therefore; it is recommended to participant them in care plan through training.

  14. Importance of bio-medical and socio-economic factors for increase of life expectancy

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    Radivojević Biljana M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the connection between life expectancy according to sex and numerous factors on which its level depends on. Statistical analysis understood application of correlation and regression analysis for determining the connection strength of life expectancy and researched factors separately and then all factors together, as well as separately groups of health-medical and socio-economic factors. The analysis was carried out for a group of developed countries, medium developed, mixed group and Yugoslavia (now SCG on available data for the second half of the 20th century. Analysis results for Yugoslavia showed that the greatest influence on life expectancy of all factors together were setting aside funds for social security (p<0.05. If only health-medical factors are observed, then child mortality up to 5 years and tumor mortality are in question. With women, the greatest influence is with child mortality up to five years old among all factors (life expectancy were the number of sick-beds with men (p<0.05, and with women the parameter of potentially lost years due to tumor (p<0.01. In medium developed countries the most influence on women's life expectancy was maternal mortality (p=0.014, and with men no researched factor was statistically significant. In the mixed sample, the strongest connection with men was with gross national income per capita (p<0.01, and with women with child mortality up to five years old (p=0.017. Therefore on the basis of the determined statistical importance of certain factors analysis showed that the influence of socio-economic factors on life expectancy was very strong in present conditions of mortality, not only in positive, but in negative direction as well, and that their influence in that second half of the 20th century was greater than the influence of health

  15. 'It's our everyday life' - The perspectives of persons with intellectual disabilities in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witsø, Aud Elisabeth; Hauger, Brit

    2018-01-01

    This study illuminates how adults with intellectual disabilities understand and describe their everyday life and its shortcomings when it comes to equal rights in the context of Norwegian community living. An inclusive research design, including nine persons with mild intellectual disability, two university researchers and two intellectual disability nurses from the municipality, was undertaken. An inductive thematic analysis of data identified three key themes: everyday life - context, rhythm and structure, social participation and staff - an ambiguous part of everyday life. Results show that service provision had institutional qualities; participants experienced lack of information and reduced possibilities for social inclusion and community participation like everyone else. More attention on the role of policy development, support staff and leadership, in relation to facilitating an everyday life with more user involvement, social inclusion and community participation of people needing support, is essential. Participatory, appreciative, action and reflection in workshops for persons with intellectual disabilities and support staff represent a promising approach to promote the voices and interests of persons with intellectual disabilities. Accessible abstract This article tells you about the everyday life of people with intellectual disabilities living in Norway. Nine people with intellectual disabilities worked together with two university researchers and two intellectual disability nurses in the community, in workshops. The people with intellectual disabilities liked to have their own apartment and going to work every day. They said that they wanted more social participation with friends and more participation in activities in the community, just like everyone else. They wanted to be treated with more respect by their staff. All participants in the project saw great value in working together and some of them are working together in a new project about

  16. Ages of origin and destination for a difference in life expectancy

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    Elwood Carlson

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Decomposition of a difference in life expectancies may identify ages at which the difference originates in mortality differences, or may identify age at which the difference results in different values of person-years lived (life table population. This study shows that the two approaches are orthogonally related to each other, and derives an origin-destination decomposition matrix in which summing in one direction produces Andreev's origin-decomposition results, while summing in the other direction produces destination-decomposition corresponding to directly-observed differences in nLx values.

  17. Life expectancy in individuals with type 2 diabetes: implications for annuities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Hermione C; Clarke, Philip M; Gray, Alastair M; Holman, Rury R

    2010-01-01

    Insurance companies often offer people with diabetes ''enhanced impaired life annuity'' at preferential rates, in view of their reduced life expectancy. To assess the appropriateness of ''enhanced impaired life annuity'' rates for individuals with type 2 diabetes. Patients. There were 4026 subjects with established type 2 diabetes (but not known cardiovascular or other life-threatening diseases) enrolled into the UK Lipids in Diabetes Study. Measurements. Estimated individual life expectancy using the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Outcomes Model. Subjects were a mean (SD) age of 60.7 (8.6) years, had a blood pressure of 141/83 (17/10) mm Hg, total cholesterol level of 4.5 (0.75) mmol/L, HDL cholesterol level of 1.2 (0.29) mmol/L, with median (interquartile range [IQR]) known diabetes duration of 6 (3-11) years, and HbA(1c) of 8.0% (7.2-9.0). Sixty-five percent were male, 91% white, 4% Afro-Caribbean, 5% Indian-Asian, and 15% current smokers. The UKPDS Outcomes Model median (IQR) estimated age at death was 76.6 (73.8-79.5) years compared with 81.6 (79.4-83.2) years, estimated using the UK Government Actuary's Department data for a general population of the same age and gender structure. The median (IQR) difference was 4.3 (2.8-6.1) years, a remaining life expectancy reduction of almost one quarter. The highest value annuity identified, which commences payments immediately for a 60-year-old man with insulin-treated type 2 diabetes investing 100,000, did not reflect this difference, offering 7.4K per year compared with 7.0K per year if not diabetic. The UK Government Actuary's Department data overestimate likely age at death in individuals with type 2 diabetes, and at present, ''enhanced impaired life annuity'' rates do not provide equity for people with type 2 diabetes. Using a diabetes-specific model to estimate life expectancy could provide valuable information to the annuity industry and permit more equitable annuity rates for those with type 2

  18. Capturing transitions and trajectories: the role of socioeconomic status in later life disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Miles G

    2010-11-01

    Disability is conceptualized as a life course process and measured using either transitions or trajectories. Previous research does not simultaneously explore both aspects of disablement, accounting for timing and trajectory. The role of education is noted in disability research, but its independent effects over time have not been fully examined. I investigate the effects of education and income on disability onset and progression over a decade. I use a latent curve modeling approach with four waves of the Duke Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly data to independently test the preventive and mediating effects education and income provide for disability. Education has a preventive effect for disability onset but no significant effect on progression once income is held constant. Income has both a preventive and mediating effect on disability, although preventive effects are stronger for education. Later life disability is measured here using both onset and trajectory. Findings are consistent with health research suggesting that education and income work through shared and independent mechanisms to affect disability over time. These findings also highlight the importance of modeling timing when studying health trajectories.

  19. Relationship of quality of life with disability grade in obsessive compulsive disorder and dysthymic disorder

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    N V Roopesh Gopal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is paucity of information on the relationship of quality of life (QOL in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD and dysthymic disorder (DD with disability grade in India. Aim: To assess the relation of QOL with disability level in OCD and DD. Materials and Methods: This hospital based study was conducted in a medical institution in Davanagere, Karnataka, India. Data was collected by using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV Text Revision (DSM IV TR criteria, WHO QOL BREF and IDEAS. Relationship between disability grade and QOL was assessed by independent sample t test. Results: Mild disabled OCD patients had a significantly better QOL in the Q1 domain i.e. perception on quality of life as compared to moderately disabled patients ( P 0.05. But, QOL score in physical domain showed significant difference across disability grades (56.00, SD = 6.89; 48.50, SD = 12.28 in DD, but not in other domains. Conclusion: Perception of QOL is better in those with mild disability in OCD, but in DD, physical domain of QOL score is more in mild disability compared to moderate disability.

  20. Physical environment and life expectancy at birth in Mexico: an eco-epidemiological study

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    Alvaro J. Idrovo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this ecological study was to ascertain the effects of physical environment on life expectancy at birth, using data from all 32 Mexican states. 50 environmental indicators with information about demography, housing, poverty, water, soils, biodiversity, forestry resources, and residues were included in exploratory factor analysis. Four factors were extracted: population vulnerability/susceptibility, and biodiversity (FC1, urbanization, industrialization, and environmental sustainability (FC2, ecological resilience (FC3, and free-plague environments (FC4. Using OLS regressions, FC2, FC3, and FC4 were found to be positively associated with life expectancy at birth, while FC1 was negatively associated. This study suggests that physical environment is an important macro-determinant of the health of the Mexican population, and highlights the usefulness of ecological concepts in epidemiological studies.

  1. Physical environment and life expectancy at birth in Mexico: an eco-epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrovo, Alvaro J

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this ecological study was to ascertain the effects of physical environment on life expectancy at birth, using data from all 32 Mexican states. 50 environmental indicators with information about demography, housing, poverty, water, soils, biodiversity, forestry resources, and residues were included in exploratory factor analysis. Four factors were extracted: population vulnerability/susceptibility, and biodiversity (FC1), urbanization, industrialization, and environmental sustainability (FC2), ecological resilience (FC3), and free-plague environments (FC4). Using OLS regressions, FC2, FC3, and FC4 were found to be positively associated with life expectancy at birth, while FC1 was negatively associated. This study suggests that physical environment is an important macro-determinant of the health of the Mexican population, and highlights the usefulness of ecological concepts in epidemiological studies.

  2. The Effect of Economic Variables on Life Expectancy of Males and Females

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    Dilek TEKER

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the relationship between life expectancy of men and women in Turkey and socio-economic variables are examined. The effect of demographic and economic factors such as the ratio of health expenditures to GDP, the ratio of elderly to employable population, the number of hospital beds per thousand people, the number of doctors per thousand patients are analyzed for a period of 1975-2009. In this study, the unit root test is initialy applied to each data set and then the cointegration test results is interpreted to determine whether a meaningful relationship exists between indicators in the long-term. Finally, the effects of the underlying factors on men and women were examined by vector error correction model. These results support that each factor has a significant effect on the life expectancy of men and women in Turkey.

  3. The relationship between length of vocational disability, psychiatric illness, life stressors and sociodemographic variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandarana, P; Jackson, T; Kohr, R; Iezzi, T

    1997-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to examine the relationship between vocational disability, psychiatric illness, life stressors and sociodemographic factors. Information on a variety of variables was obtained from insurance files of 147 subjects who had submitted claims for monetary compensation on grounds of psychiatric symptoms. The majority of subjects received a diagnosis of mood disorder or anxiety disorder. Extended vocational disability was associated with longer duration of psychiatric illness, rating of poorer prognosis by the treating physician, and lower income and occupational levels. Individuals with recent onset of disability reported more stressors than those experiencing extended disability. Although longer duration of psychiatric illness was associated with vocational disability, other variables play an important role in accounting for extended vocational disability.

  4. Life Expectancies Applied to Specific Statuses: a History of the Indicators and the Methods of Calculation {Population, 3, 1998)

    OpenAIRE

    N. Brouard; J.-M. Robine; E. Cambois

    1999-01-01

    Cambois (Emmanuelle), Robin? (Jean-Marie), Brouard (Nicolas).- Life Expectancies Applied to Specific Statuses: A History of the Indicators and the Methods of Calculation Indicators of life expectancy applied to specific statuses, such as the state of health or professional status, were introduced at the end of the 1930s and are currently the object of renewed interest. Because they relate mortality to different domains (health, professional activity) applied life expectancies reflect simultan...

  5. Social models of disability and other life strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Shakespeare, Tom

    2009-01-01

    The UK social model of disability (SSM) originated within a political context, which is both a strength and a weakness. Good social research has been conducted prior to, and outside, the confines of the SSM. The SSM is above all a brilliant tool for mobilising change. But it can be applied over‐zealously. Since the 1990s, various critiques of the SSM have been developed, exposing contradictions and inadequacies. Equally, some of the parallels between disability and other social movements may ...

  6. Physical environment and life expectancy at birth in Mexico: an eco-epidemiological study

    OpenAIRE

    Idrovo,Alvaro J.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this ecological study was to ascertain the effects of physical environment on life expectancy at birth, using data from all 32 Mexican states. 50 environmental indicators with information about demography, housing, poverty, water, soils, biodiversity, forestry resources, and residues were included in exploratory factor analysis. Four factors were extracted: population vulnerability/susceptibility, and biodiversity (FC1), urbanization, industrialization, and environmental sust...

  7. Seasonal life history trade-offs in two leafwing butterflies: Delaying reproductive development increases life expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElderry, Robert M

    2016-04-01

    Surviving inhospitable periods or seasons may greatly affect fitness. Evidence of this exists in the prevalence of dormant stages in the life cycles of most insects. Here I focused on butterflies with distinct seasonal morphological types (not a genetic polymorphism) in which one morphological type, or form, delays reproduction until favorable conditions return, while the other form develops in an environment that favors direct reproduction. For two butterflies, Anaea aidea and A. andria, I tested the hypothesis that the development of each seasonal form involves a differential allocation of resources to survival at eclosion. I assayed differences in adult longevity among summer and winter forms in either a warm, active environment or a cool, calm environment. Winter form adults lived 40 times longer than summer form but only in calm, cool conditions. The magnitude of this difference provided compelling evidence that the winter form body plan and metabolic strategy (i.e. resource conservatism) favor long term survival. This research suggests that winter form adults maintain lowered metabolic rate, a common feature of diapause, to conserve resources and delay senescence while overwintering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Determinants of life expectancy in eastern mediterranean region: a health production function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayati, Mohsen; Akbarian, Reza; Kavosi, Zahra

    2013-06-01

    Determinants of health or health production function in health economics literature constitute noticeable issues in health promotion. This study aimed at estimating a health production function for East Mediterranean Region (EMR) based on the Grossman theoretical model. This ecological study was performed using the econometric methods. The panel data model was used in order to determine the relationship between life expectancy and socioeconomic factors. The data for 21 EMR countries between 1995 and 2007 were used. Fixed-effect-model was employed to estimate the parameters based on Hausman test. In estimating the health production function, factors such as income per capita (β=0.05, Pdeterminants of health status, proxied by life expectancy at birth. A notable result was the elasticity of life expectancy with respect to the employment rate and its significance level was different between males (β=0.13, P0.001). In order to improve the health status in EMR countries, health policymakers should focus on the factors which lie outside the healthcare system. These factors are mainly associated with economic growth and development level. Thus, the economic stabilisation policies with the aim of increasing the productivity, economic growth, and reducing unemployment play significant roles in the health status of the people of the region.

  9. Widening Life Expectancy Advantage of Hispanics in the United States: 1990-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenelon, Andrew; Blue, Laura

    2015-08-01

    We examine trends in the Hispanic longevity advantage between 1990 and 2010, focusing on the contribution of cigarette smoking. We calculate life expectancy at age 50 for Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites between 1990 and 2010. We use an indirect method to calculate the contribution of smoking to changes over time in life expectancy. Among women, the Hispanic advantage in life expectancy grows from 2.14 years in 1990 (95 % CI 1.99-2.30 years) to 3.53 years in 2010 (3.42-3.64 years). More than 40 % of this increase reflects widening differences in smoking-attributable mortality. The advantage for Hispanic men increases from 2.27 years (2.14-2.41 years) to 2.91 years (2.81-3.01 years), although smoking makes only a small contribution. Despite persistent disadvantage, US Hispanics have increased their longevity advantage over non-Hispanic whites since 1990, much of which reflects the continuing importance of cigarette smoking to the Hispanic advantage.

  10. The Relationship between Personality Traits and Life Expectancy in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

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    Leila Zaghari

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Multiple Sclerosis is an incurable and chronic disease of the central nervous system. The main purpose of this survey is to compare the character types and life expectancy of patients suffering from M. S as compared with normal people. This survey was conducted using the Persian translation of NEO-FFI (NEO-Five Factor Inventory and Herth Life Expectancy. Methods:Thirty nine people suffering from multiple sclerosis, who were hospitalized in anursing home, were chosen. As a control group there were 39 healthy people who had no background of physical or mental diseases. These people were selected from educational centre scientific and the personnel of Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Campus. Healthy people were matched to control group according, to sex, gender, marital status and education. Results: To analyze the data, T tests were used. The results of the survey show that people suffering from multiple sclerosis were significantly different from healthy people in three factors, neuroticism, extraversion and openness. For life expectancy there was no significant difference between the two groups. Discussion: Peopleaffected by Multiple Sclerosis achieve higher marks levels of the function of neuroticism compared with the healthy people. They are also agreeableness in a lower state, due to the function of openness to experience compared with the safe ones and in a lower state compared with the healthy persons.

  11. [Diabetes mellitus: Contribution to changes in the life expectancy in Mexico 1990, 2000, and 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila-Cervantes, Claudio A; Pardo Montaño, Ana M

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the level and trend of diabetes mellitus (DM) in Mexico, and its contribution to the changes in temporary life expectancy between 20 and 100 years of age, in the period 1990-2010. Data comes from National Mortality Vital Statistics and from the Population Census from the Mexican National Institute of Geography and Statistics (INEGI). We calculated standardized mortality rates. To analyze the impact of DM on the temporary life expectancy (80e20) we used Pollard’s method. Between 1990 and 2010, the standardized mortality rate for people 20 years and older increased by 224 %. The contribution of DM for men to the change in life expectancy during 1990-2000 was a reduction of 0.31 years; for women was a reduction of 0.32 years; in the period 2000-2010 the reduction continued for both men and women (0.34 and 0.12 years respectively). Mortality from DM continues to increase, especially for men, but for women a modest reduction was observed. It is essential to apply health services and programs aimed at reducing mortality from this cause, focused on prevention, early detection and timely treatment, with concrete actions on vulnerable groups.

  12. Double impact of sterilizing pathogens: added value of increased life expectancy on pest control effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berec, Luděk; Maxin, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    Sterilizing pathogens are commonly assumed not to affect longevity of infected individuals, and if they do then negatively. Examples abound, however, of species in which the absence of reproduction actually increases life expectancy. This happens because by decreasing the energy outlay on reproduction individuals with lowered reproduction can live longer. Alternatively, fertile individuals are more susceptible to predators or parasitoids if the latter can capitalize on mating signals of the former. Here we develop and analyze an SI epidemiological model to explore whether and to what extent does such a life expectancy prolongation due to sterilizing pathogens affect host dynamics. In particular, we are interested in an added value of increased life expectancy on the possibility of successful pest control, that is, the effect of increased lifespan and hence increased potential of the infected individuals to spread the disease on pest control effectiveness. We show that although the parameter range in which we observe an effect of increased lifespan of the sterilized individuals is not large, the effect itself can be significant. In particular, the increase in pest control effectiveness can be very dramatic when disease transmission efficiency is close to birth rate, mortality rate of susceptibles is relatively high (i.e., the species is relatively short-lived), and sterilization efficiency is relatively high. Our results thus characterize pathogens that are promising candidates for an effective pest control and that might possibly be engineered if not occurring naturally.

  13. Favorable ecological circumstances promote life expectancy in chimpanzees similar to that of human hunter-gatherers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Brian M; Watts, David P; Mitani, John C; Langergraber, Kevin E

    2017-04-01

    Demographic data on wild chimpanzees are crucial for understanding the evolution of chimpanzee and hominin life histories, but most data come from populations affected by disease outbreaks and anthropogenic disturbance. We present survivorship data from a relatively undisturbed and exceptionally large community of eastern chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda. We monitored births, deaths, immigrations, and emigrations in the community between 1995 and 2016. Using known and estimated ages, we calculated survivorship curves for the whole community, for males and females separately, and for individuals ≤2 years old when identified. We used a novel method to address age estimation error by calculating stochastic survivorship curves. We compared Ngogo life expectancy, survivorship, and mortality rates to those from other chimpanzee communities and human hunter-gatherers. Life expectancy at birth for both sexes combined was 32.8 years, far exceeding estimates of chimpanzee life expectancy in other communities, and falling within the range of human hunter-gatherers (i.e., 27-37 years). Overall, the pattern of survivorship at Ngogo was more similar to that of human hunter-gatherers than to other chimpanzee communities. Maximum lifespan for the Ngogo chimpanzees, however, was similar to that reported at other chimpanzee research sites and was less than that of human-hunter gatherers. The absence of predation by large carnivores may contribute to some of the higher survivorship at Ngogo, but this cannot explain the much higher survivorship at Ngogo than at Kanyawara, another chimpanzee community in the same forest, which also lacks large carnivores. Higher survivorship at Ngogo appears to be an adaptive response to a food supply that is more abundant and varies less than that of Kanyawara. Future analyses of hominin life history evolution should take these results into account. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  14. Impact of particulate air pollution on quality-adjusted life expectancy in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Douglas; Stieb, Dave; Burnett, Richard T; DeCivita, Paul; Krewski, Daniel; Chen, Yue; Thun, Michael J

    Air pollution and premature death are important public health concerns. Analyses have repeatedly demonstrated that airborne particles are associated with increased mortality and estimates have been used to forecast the impact on life expectancy. In this analysis, we draw upon data from the American Cancer Society (ACS) cohort and literature on utility-based measures of quality of life in relation to health status to more fully quantify the effects of air pollution on mortality in terms of quality-adjusted life expectancy. The analysis was conducted within a decision analytic model using Monte Carlo simulation techniques. Outcomes were estimated based on projections of the Canadian population. A one-unit reduction in sulfate air pollution would yield a mean annual increase in Quality-Adjusted Life Years (QALYs) of 20,960, with gains being greater for individuals with lower educational status and for males compared to females. This suggests that the impact of reductions in sulfate air pollution on quality-adjusted life expectancy is substantial. Interpretation of the results is unclear. However, the potential gains in QALYs from reduced air pollutants can be contrasted to the costs of policies to bring about such reductions. Based on a tentative threshold for the value of health benefits, analysis suggests that an investment in Canada of over 1 billion dollars per annum would be an efficient use of resources if it could be demonstrated that this would reduce sulfate concentrations in ambient air by 1 microg/m(3). Further analysis can assess the efficiency of targeting such initiatives to communities that are most likely to benefit.

  15. Severity of injuries in different modes of transport, expressed with disability-adjusted life years (DALYs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tainio, Marko; Olkowicz, Dorota; Teresiński, Grzegorz; de Nazelle, Audrey; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2014-07-29

    Health impact assessment (HIA) studies are increasingly predicting the health effects of mode shifts in traffic. The challenge for such studies is to combine the health effects, caused by injuries, with the disease driven health effects, and to express the change in the health with a common health indicator. Disability-adjusted life year (DALY) combines years lived disabled or injured (YLD) and years of life lost (YLL) providing practical indicator to combine injuries with diseases. In this study, we estimate the average YLDs for one person injured in a transport crash to allow easy to use methods to predict health effects of transport injuries. We calculated YLDs and YLLs for transport fatalities and injuries based on the data from the Swedish Traffic Accident Data Acquisition (STRADA). In STRADA, all the fatalities and most of the injuries in Sweden for 2007-2011 were recorded. The type of injury was recorded with the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) codes. In this study these AIS codes were aggregated to injury types, and YLDs were calculated for each victim by multiplying the type of injury with the disability weight and the average duration of that injury. YLLs were calculated by multiplying the age of the victim with life expectancy of that age and gender. YLDs and YLLs were estimated separately for different gender, mode of transport and location of the crash. The average YLDs for injured person was 14.7 for lifelong injuries and 0.012 for temporal injuries. The average YLDs per injured person for lifelong injuries for pedestrians, cyclists and car occupants were 9.4, 12.8 and 18.4, YLDs, respectively. Lifelong injuries sustained in rural areas were on average 31% more serious than injuries in urban areas. The results show that shifting modes of transport will not only change the likelihood of injuries but also the severity of injuries sustained, if injured. The results of this study can be used to predict DALY changes in HIA studies that take into account

  16. Willingness to Pay for Environmental Health Risk Reductions When There are Varying Degrees of Life Expectancy: A White Paper (2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of existing value of statistical life (VSL) estimates in benefit-cost analysis relates to relatively short changes in life expectancy. The authors' strategy for addressing this question is to briefly survey the existing economics literature.

  17. Life expectancy inequalities in the elderly by socioeconomic status: evidence from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallo, Carlo; Raitano, Michele

    2018-04-12

    Life expectancy considerably increased in most developed countries during the twentieth century. However, the increase in longevity is neither uniform nor random across individuals belonging to various socioeconomic groups. From an economic policy perspective, the difference in mortality by socioeconomic conditions challenges the fairness of the social security systems. We focus on the case of Italy and aim at measuring differences in longevity at older ages by individuals belonging to different socioeconomic groups, also in order to assess the effective fairness of the Italian public pension system, which is based on a notional defined contribution (NDC) benefit computation formula, whose rules do not take into account individual heterogeneity in expected longevity. We use a longitudinal dataset that matches survey data on individual features recorded in the Italian module of the EU-SILC, with information on the whole working life and until death collected in the administrative archives managed by the Italian National Social Security Institute. In more detail, we follow until 2009 a sample of 11,281 individuals aged at least 60 in 2005. We use survival analysis and measure the influence of a number of events experienced in the labor market and individual characteristics on mortality. Furthermore, through Kaplan-Meier simulations of hypothetical social groups, adjusted by a Brass relational model, we estimate and compare differences in life expectancy of individuals belonging to different socioeconomic groups. Our findings confirm that socioeconomic status strongly predicts life expectancy even in old age. All estimated models show that the prevalent type of working activity before retirement is significantly associated with the risk of death, even when controlling for dozens of variables as proxies of individual demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. The risk of death for self-employed individuals is 26% lower than that of employees, and life expectancy at

  18. Depression, functional disability and quality of life among Nigerian older adults: Prevalences and relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akosile, Christopher Olusanjo; Mgbeojedo, Ukamaka Gloria; Maruf, Fatai Adesina; Okoye, Emmanuel Chiebuka; Umeonwuka, Ifeanyi Chuka; Ogunniyi, Adesola

    2018-01-01

    Ageing is associated with increased morbidity, depression and decline in function. These may consequently impair the quality of life (QoL) of older adults. This study was used to investigate the prevalence of functional disability, depression, and level of quality of life of older adults residing in Uyo metropolis and its environs, Nigeria. This cross sectional survey involved 206 (116 females and 90 males) older adults with mean age of 69.8±6.7. The World Health Organization Quality of Life-OLD, Functional status Questionnaire (FSQ) and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) were used to measure quality of life, functional disability and depression respectively. Data was analysed using frequency counts and percentages and Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient, at 0.05 alpha level. 45.5% of participants had depression, and at least 30% had functional disability in at least one domain, but their quality of life was fairly good (>60.0%) across all domains. Significant correlation existed between depression scores and individual quality of life and functional disability domains and between overall QoL and each functional disability domain (pquality of life of the older adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The Monetary Valuation of Lifetime Health Improvement and Life Expectancy Gains in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ara, Shihomi; Tekeşin, Cem

    2017-09-29

    The main objective of this study is to estimate the monetary value of the gains of healthy days and life expectancy due to the ambient air quality standard that came into effect in 2014 by estimating the country-specific value of a life year (VOLY) and the value of the healthier and longer life (VHLL) for Turkey. Contingent valuation method is adopted to reveal individuals' willingness to pay for an improvement of health condition and the extension of their life expectancy by avoiding respiratory and lung related illnesses. VHLL is composed of two parts, WTP for an extension of one's life years (VOLY) and for an increase in the number of healthy days throughout one's life time (VHLL-VOLY). We found that close to 80% of WTP is allocated to the latter component of VHLL and only 20% is for VOLY mainly due to Islamic beliefs of the respondents. A total of 1314 observations are collected by face-to-face interviews from Afsin-Elbistan, Kutahya-Tavsanli and Ankara. The estimated VHLL and VOLY are [41,750 TL, 10,258 TL] with all the observations, [30,185 TL, 7132 TL] for Afsin-Elbistan, [31,718 TL, 7081 TL] for Kutahya-Tavsanli and [52,334 TL, 14,813 TL] for Ankara. The Inverse-U shaped relationship between Age and WTP is confirmed. The income elasticities of WTP is found to be close to 0.5 for all study areas while an Inverse-U shaped relationship between the household income and Income Elasticity of WTP is observed in the income group based analysis. Age and household income are the two prominent determinants of VHLL.

  20. The Monetary Valuation of Lifetime Health Improvement and Life Expectancy Gains in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekeşin, Cem

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to estimate the monetary value of the gains of healthy days and life expectancy due to the ambient air quality standard that came into effect in 2014 by estimating the country-specific value of a life year (VOLY) and the value of the healthier and longer life (VHLL) for Turkey. Contingent valuation method is adopted to reveal individuals’ willingness to pay for an improvement of health condition and the extension of their life expectancy by avoiding respiratory and lung related illnesses. VHLL is composed of two parts, WTP for an extension of one’s life years (VOLY) and for an increase in the number of healthy days throughout one’s life time (VHLL-VOLY). We found that close to 80% of WTP is allocated to the latter component of VHLL and only 20% is for VOLY mainly due to Islamic beliefs of the respondents. A total of 1314 observations are collected by face-to-face interviews from Afsin-Elbistan, Kutahya-Tavsanli and Ankara. The estimated VHLL and VOLY are [41,750 TL, 10,258 TL] with all the observations, [30,185 TL, 7132 TL] for Afsin-Elbistan, [31,718 TL, 7081 TL] for Kutahya-Tavsanli and [52,334 TL, 14,813 TL] for Ankara. The Inverse-U shaped relationship between Age and WTP is confirmed. The income elasticities of WTP is found to be close to 0.5 for all study areas while an Inverse-U shaped relationship between the household income and Income Elasticity of WTP is observed in the income group based analysis. Age and household income are the two prominent determinants of VHLL. PMID:28961227

  1. Mass HIV Treatment and Sex Disparities in Life Expectancy: Demographic Surveillance in Rural South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Bor

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Women have better patient outcomes in HIV care and treatment than men in sub-Saharan Africa. We assessed--at the population level--whether and to what extent mass HIV treatment is associated with changes in sex disparities in adult life expectancy, a summary metric of survival capturing mortality across the full cascade of HIV care. We also determined sex-specific trends in HIV mortality and the distribution of HIV-related deaths in men and women prior to and at each stage of the clinical cascade.Data were collected on all deaths occurring from 2001 to 2011 in a large population-based surveillance cohort (52,964 women and 45,688 men, ages 15 y and older in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Cause of death was ascertained by verbal autopsy (93% response rate. Demographic data were linked at the individual level to clinical records from the public sector HIV treatment and care program that serves the region. Annual rates of HIV-related mortality were assessed for men and women separately, and female-to-male rate ratios were estimated in exponential hazard models. Sex-specific trends in adult life expectancy and HIV-cause-deleted adult life expectancy were calculated. The proportions of HIV deaths that accrued to men and women at different stages in the HIV cascade of care were estimated annually. Following the beginning of HIV treatment scale-up in 2004, HIV mortality declined among both men and women. Female adult life expectancy increased from 51.3 y (95% CI 49.7, 52.8 in 2003 to 64.5 y (95% CI 62.7, 66.4 in 2011, a gain of 13.2 y. Male adult life expectancy increased from 46.9 y (95% CI 45.6, 48.2 in 2003 to 55.9 y (95% CI 54.3, 57.5 in 2011, a gain of 9.0 y. The gap between female and male adult life expectancy doubled, from 4.4 y in 2003 to 8.6 y in 2011, a difference of 4.3 y (95% CI 0.9, 7.6. For women, HIV mortality declined from 1.60 deaths per 100 person-years (95% CI 1.46, 1.75 in 2003 to 0.56 per 100 person-years (95% CI 0.48, 0.65 in

  2. Assessment of prison life of persons with disability in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogbe, Joslin; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Edusei, Anthony; Plange-Rhule, Gyikua; Addofoh, Nicholas; Baffour-Awuah, Sandra; Sarfo-Kantanka, Osei; Hammond, Charles; Owusu, Michael

    2016-08-08

    Persons with Disabilities (PWDs) are a unique group that are often overlooked in many developing countries due to systemic weaknesses, lack of political commitment and inadequate support from government and non-governmental agencies. The population of these individuals is however steadily on the increase and currently corresponds to 15 % of the world population. Although much data exist on lifestyle and conditions of prisoners with disabilities in the western world, scanty information is available in Africa. In Ghana, there is insufficient data on the occurrence and social characteristics of prisoners with disabilities. The purpose of this current study was therefore to identify the occurrence, types and causes of disabilities among prisoners serving sentences in Ghanaian prisons. This study was a descriptive cross-sectional survey conducted in the Male and Female Regional Prisons in Kumasi, Sunyani and the Nsawam Medium Security Prison, from November to December 2011. PWDs were selected by prisons officers and interviewed using structured questionnaires on variables such as socio-demographic characteristics, causes of disabilities and accessibility to recreational facilities. Ethical approval was obtained from the security services and the Committee of Human Research Publications and Ethics (CHRPE) of the School of Medical Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST). We screened 6114 records of prisoners of which 1852 (30.3 %) were from the Kumasi Central Prisons, 3483 (57 %) from the Nsawam Medium Security and 779 (12.8 %) from the Sunyani Central Prisons. A total of 99 PWDs were identified with the commonest disability being physical, followed by visual, hearing, speech, mental and albinism. Most of the disabilities were caused by trauma (68.8 %) followed by infection (16.7 %), and drug related mental disabilities (6.3 %). Fifty (50.5 %) out of the 99 PWDs were not provided with assistive devices although they admitted the need

  3. Working life of women with disabilities--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawłowska-Cyprysiak, Karolina; Konarska, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present the situation of women with disabilities on the labour market. Women with disabilities suffer from social and professional discrimination. They are discriminated because of their gender and disability. The Q1 Labour Force Participation Study (2013) showed that, in Poland, labour force participation for men and women with disabilities was 29.4% and 14.7%, respectively, while the unemployment rate was 16.1% for men and 17.2% for women. Quarterly information on employment, unemployment and economic inactivity was gathered from a Labour Force Survey in the first quarter of 2013; data from the Ministry of Labour and Social Policy were also included. The participants of the survey were 15 years old or older; they were members of a sample household. The methodology was based on definitions recommended by the International Labour Office and Eurostat. It is important that women with disabilities are substantially less professionally active, while the unemployment rate for them is only slightly higher.

  4. Subjective life expectancy and actual mortality: results of a 10-year panel study among older workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Solinge, Hanna; Henkens, Kène

    2018-06-01

    This research examined the judgemental process underlying subjective life expectancy (SLE) and the predictive value of SLE on actual mortality in older adults in the Netherlands. We integrated theoretical insights from life satisfaction research with existing models of SLE. Our model differentiates between bottom-up (objective data of any type) and top-down factors (psychological variables). The study used data from the first wave of the Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute Work and Retirement Panel. This is a prospective cohort study among Dutch older workers. The analytical sample included 2278 individuals, assessed at age 50-64 in 2001, with vital statistics tracked through 2011. We used a linear regression model to estimate the impact of bottom-up and top-down factors on SLE. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to determine the impact of SLE on the timing of mortality, crude and adjusted for actuarial correlates of general life expectancy, family history, health and trait-like dispositions. Results reveal that psychological variables play a role in the formation of SLE. Further, the results indicate that SLE predicts actual mortality, crude and adjusted for socio-demographic, biomedical and psychological confounders. Education has an additional effect on mortality. Those with higher educational attainment were less likely to die within the follow-up period. This SES gradient in mortality was not captured in SLE. The findings indicate that SLE is an independent predictor of mortality in a pre-retirement cohort in the Netherlands. SLE does not fully capture educational differences in mortality. Particularly, higher-educated individuals underestimate their life expectancy.

  5. Health and quality of life among the caregivers of children with disabilities: A review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa, Siti Nor Ismalina; Ishak, Ismarulyusda; Ab Rahman, Azriani; Mohd Saat, Nur Zakiah; Che Din, Normah; Lubis, Syarif Husin; Mohd Ismail, Muhammad Faiz

    2016-10-01

    Families caring for children with disabilities face particular challenges and demands compared to those caring for children without disabilities. Evidence suggests that there is considerable variation in how caregivers of children with disabilities adapt to their caregiving demands and stressors. The different adaptations to the children with disabilities may cause different impacts on the health and well-being of caregivers. This paper provides a brief overview of the literature on the impact of caring for children with disabilities on the health and quality of life of caregivers and the factors related to the health outcomes and quality of life. A literature search was conducted by using various electronic databases, including PsychINFO, ScienceDirect, ProQuest, and MEDLINE using specific key terms. Thirty-one articles published in peer-review journals from the last six years (2009-2014) were reviewed. Most of the studies were quantitative studies. Factors discussed that impact on caregivers' health and quality of life include the caregivers' sociodemographic background and child's disability-related factors. Several mediators and moderators including coping strategies, social support, parental stress, self-esteem and self-efficacy are described in this paper. This review highlighted the importance of these factors to better understand the complex nature of stress processes and the caregivers' adaptations to their children's disabilities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. When work and satisfaction with life do not go hand in hand: health barriers and personal resources in the participation of people with chronic physical disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Campen, Cretien; Cardol, Mieke

    2009-07-01

    People with chronic physical disabilities participate less in both paid and voluntary work and are less satisfied with their lives than people without health problems. Governments and scientists have suggested that participation in employment is the main road to well-being. We analysed national survey data on the participation in work and satisfaction with life, comparing people with a chronic illness and a physical disability (n=603) to people with a chronic illness but without a physical disability (n=1199) and the general population (n=6128) in the Netherlands. The results show that the relationship between happiness and work is different for people with a chronic illness and a physical disability, as compared to the other two populations. Fewer people with a chronic illness and disability were categorized as 'satisfied people with work' (i.e. participating in work and satisfied with their life), while most people belonged to a group of 'satisfied people without work' and, surprisingly, not to the expected group of 'dissatisfied people without work'. In order to explain this exceptional distribution we modelled satisfied participation in work as an outcome of a balance between personal resources and barriers. By means of discriminant regression analysis, we identified the severity of motor disability as the main barrier, and education level and age, as the main resource factors that distinguish between 'satisfied people with work' and others among the group of people with a chronic illness and a physical disability.

  7. Inequalities in healthy life expectancy by Brazilian geographic regions: findings from the National Health Survey, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwarcwald, Célia Landmann; Souza Júnior, Paulo Roberto Borges de; Marques, Aline Pinto; Almeida, Wanessa da Silva de; Montilla, Dalia Elena Romero

    2016-11-17

    The demographic shift and epidemiologic transition in Brazil have drawn attention to ways of measuring population health that complement studies of mortality. In this paper, we investigate regional differences in healthy life expectancy based on information from the National Health Survey (PNS), 2013. In the survey, a three-stage cluster sampling (census tracts, households and individuals) with stratification of the primary sampling units and random selection in all stages was used to select 60,202 Brazilian adults (18 years and over). Healthy life expectancies (HLE) were estimated by Sullivan's method according to sex, age and geographic region, using poor self-rated health for defining unhealthy status. Logistic regression models were used to investigate socioeconomic and regional inequalities in poor self-rated health, after controlling by sex and age. Wide disparities by geographic region were found with the worst indicators in the North and Northeast regions, whether considering educational attainment, material deprivation, or health care utilization. Life expectancy at birth for women and men living in the richest regions was 5 years longer than for those living in the less wealthy regions. Modeling the variation across regions for poor self-rated health, statistically significant effects (p < 0.001) were found for the North and Northeast when compared to the Southeast, even after controlling for age, sex, diagnosis of at least one non-communicable chronic disease, and schooling or socioeconomic class. Marked regional inequalities in HLE were found, with the loss of healthy life much higher among residents of the poorest regions, especially among the elderly. By combining data on self-rated health status and mortality in a single indicator, Healthy Life Expectancy, this study demonstrated the excess burden of poor health experienced by populations in the less wealthy regions of Brazil. To mitigate the effects of social exclusion, the development of strategies

  8. Decrease of old age population mortality in Yugoslavia: Chance to increase anticipated life expectancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radivojević Biljana M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the level and structure of old age population mortality in Yugoslavia with an aim to determine the intensity of realized changes and to provide an answer to how much they are significant and to approach the positive trends noted in developed countries in the latest period. Although it was insufficiently represented in the demographic analysis, the analysis of mortality in old people is gaining importance in the world. Apart from the reasons which result from the increase in the number of old people and thus their greater participation in the total number of deceased, enviable results have been achieved in decreasing old age mortality, which are more and more in focus of interest. While earlier research reported on the dominant influence of the decrease of younger age mortality to the increase of the expectation of life at birth, recent analysis precisely confirm the importance of decreasing mortality in old people. In mortality conditions from 1997/98, an additional 13.4 years of life in average is expected for men in Yugoslavia, and 15.2 for women. During more than five decades, the anticipated life expectancy for people over the age of 65 increased for only 1.2 years for men and 1.9 years for women. Out of that, the greatest increase was realized in the period 1950/51 - 1960/61 in both sexes. A small decrease in the average life expectancy was marked with men in the period 1960/61 - 1970/71, and with women in the latest period. Otherwise, all up to the eighties, the annual rate of increase was considerably lower than the rate of increase for zero year. It was only in the period 1980/81-1990/91 that faster growth had an anticipated life expectancy for the 65 years old. However, during the nineties unfavorable changes continued with the older, especially, female population. When comparing the values of the average life expectancy for people over 65 in Yugoslavia with corresponding values in developed countries, the lagging in

  9. Life expectancy and health expenditure evolution in Eastern Europe-DiD and DEA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovljevic, Mihajlo B; Vukovic, Mira; Fontanesi, John

    2016-08-01

    Exploration of long-term health expenditure and longevity trends across three major sub-regions of Eastern Europe since 1989. 24 countries were classified as EU 2004, CIS, or SEE. European Health for All Database (HFA-DB) 1989-2012 data were processed using difference-in-difference (DiD) and data envelopment analysis (DEA). The strongest expenditure growth was recorded in EU 2004 followed by SEE and the CIS. A surprisingly similar longevity increase was present in SEE and EU 2004. In 1989, countries that joined EU in 2004 were relatively inefficient in the number of life-years gained yet had a lower life expectancy than the SEE region and was only slightly higher than the CIS region (DEA). By 2012 the revenue spent was roughly linear to additional life-year expectancies. EU 2004 members were the best performers in terms of balanced longevity increase followed by health expenditure growth. The SEE economies' longevity gains were lagging slightly behind at a far lower cost. An extrapolated CIS expenditure to longevity increase ratio has the fastest-growing long-term promise.

  10. A model for spatial variations in life expectancy; mortality in Chinese regions in 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congdon Peter

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Life expectancy in China has been improving markedly but health gains have been uneven and there is inequality in survival chances between regions and in rural as against urban areas. This paper applies a statistical modelling approach to mortality data collected in conjunction with the 2000 Census to formally assess spatial mortality contrasts in China. The modelling approach provides interpretable summary parameters (e.g. the relative mortality risk in rural as against urban areas and is more parsimonious in terms of parameters than the conventional life table model. Results Predictive fit is assessed both globally and at the level of individual five year age groups. A proportional model (age and area effects independent has a worse fit than one allowing age-area interactions following a bilinear form. The best fit is obtained by allowing for child and oldest age mortality rates to vary spatially. Conclusion There is evidence that age (21 age groups and area (31 Chinese administrative divisions are not proportional (i.e. independent mortality risk factors. In fact, spatial contrasts are greatest at young ages. There is a pronounced rural survival disadvantage, and large differences in life expectancy between provinces.

  11. An Initial Look at the Quality of Life of Malaysian Families That Include Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, M.; Brown, R.; Karrapaya, R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: While there is a growing body of literature in the quality of life of families that include children with disabilities, the majority of research has been conducted in western countries. The present study provides an initial exploration of the quality of life of Malaysian families that include children with developmental/intellectual…

  12. Obesity, smoking, alcohol consumption and years lived with disability: a Sullivan life table approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijs, B.; Mackenbach, J.P.; Kunst, A.E.

    2011-01-01

    To avoid strong declines in the quality of life due to population ageing, and to ensure sustainability of the health care system, reductions in the burden of disability among elderly populations are urgently needed. Life style interventions may help to reduce the years lived with one or more

  13. Obesity, smoking, alcohol consumption and years lived with disability: A Sullivan life table approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Klijs (Bart); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan); A.E. Kunst (Anton)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: To avoid strong declines in the quality of life due to population ageing, and to ensure sustainability of the health care system, reductions in the burden of disability among elderly populations are urgently needed. Life style interventions may help to reduce the years lived

  14. End-of-life decisions: an important theme in the care for people with intellectual disabilities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagemans, A.; Schrojenstein Lantman, H.M.J. van; Tuffrey-Wijne, I.; Widdershoven, G.; Curfs, L.M.G.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: While end-of-life decisions in the general population have received attention in several countries, not much is known about this in people with intellectual disabilities (IDs). Therefore, the prevalence and nature of end-of-life decisions were investigated in a Dutch centre providing

  15. Quality of Life and Quality of Support for People with Severe Intellectual Disability and Complex Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beadle-Brown, J.; Leigh, J.; Whelton, B.; Richardson, L.; Beecham, J.; Baumker, T.; Bradshaw, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: People with severe and profound intellectual disabilities often spend substantial time isolated and disengaged. The nature and quality of the support appears to be important in determining quality of life. Methods: Structured observations and staff questionnaires were used to explore the quality of life and quality of support for 110…

  16. Decomposing change in life expectancy : A bouquet of formulas in honor of Nathan Keyfitz's 90th birthday

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaupel, JW; Romo, VC

    We extend Nathan Keyfitz research on continuous change in life expectancy over time by presenting and proving a new formula for decomposing such change. The formula separates change in life expectancy over time into two terms. The first term captures the general effect of reduction in death rates at

  17. Modeling predicted that tobacco control policies targeted at lower educated will reduce the differences in life expectancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemelmans, W.J.E.; Lenthe, F. van; Hoogenveen, R.; Kunst, A.; Deeg, D.J.H.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.; Verschuren, W.M.M.

    2006-01-01

    Background and Objective: To estimate the effects of reducing the prevalence of smoking in lower educated groups on educational differences in life expectancy. Methods: A dynamic Markov-type multistate transition model estimated the effects on life expectancy of two scenarios. A "maximum scenario"

  18. Expected value information improves financial risk taking across the adult life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanez-Larkin, Gregory R; Wagner, Anthony D; Knutson, Brian

    2011-04-01

    When making decisions, individuals must often compensate for cognitive limitations, particularly in the face of advanced age. Recent findings suggest that age-related variability in striatal activity may increase financial risk-taking mistakes in older adults. In two studies, we sought to further characterize neural contributions to optimal financial risk taking and to determine whether decision aids could improve financial risk taking. In Study 1, neuroimaging analyses revealed that individuals whose mesolimbic activation correlated with the expected value estimates of a rational actor made more optimal financial decisions. In Study 2, presentation of expected value information improved decision making in both younger and older adults, but the addition of a distracting secondary task had little impact on decision quality. Remarkably, provision of expected value information improved the performance of older adults to match that of younger adults at baseline. These findings are consistent with the notion that mesolimbic circuits play a critical role in optimal choice, and imply that providing simplified information about expected value may improve financial risk taking across the adult life span.

  19. Life expectancy impacts due to heating energy utilization in China: Distribution, relations, and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaobin; Luo, Kunli

    2018-01-01

    The relation between life expectancy and energy utilization is of particular concern. Different viewpoints concerned the health impacts of heating policy in China. However, it is still obscure that what kind of heating energy or what pattern of heating methods is the most related with the difference of life expectancies in China. The aim of this paper is to comprehensively investigate the spatial relations between life expectancy at birth (LEB) and different heating energy utilization in China by using spatial autocorrelation models including global spatial autocorrelation, local spatial autocorrelation and hot spot analysis. The results showed that: (1) Most of heating energy exhibit a distinct north-south difference, such as central heating supply, stalks and domestic coal. Whereas spatial distribution of domestic natural gas and electricity exhibited west-east differences. (2) Consumption of central heating, stalks and domestic coal show obvious spatial dependence. Whereas firewood, natural gas and electricity did not show significant spatial autocorrelation. It exhibited an extinct south-north difference of heat supply, stalks and domestic coal which were identified to show significant positive spatial autocorrelation. (3) Central heating, residential boilers and natural gas did not show any significant correlations with LEB. While, the utilization of domestic coal and biomass showed significant negative correlations with LEB, and household electricity shows positive correlations. The utilization of domestic coal in China showed a negative effect on LEB, rather than central heating. To improve the solid fuel stoves and control consumption of domestic coal consumption and other low quality solid fuel is imperative to improve the public health level in China in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Convergence in male and female life expectancy: Direction, age pattern, and causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Seligman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The cornerstone of mortality- and life-expectancy forecasting in developed nations, the Lee-Carter model relies on assumptions of there being a dominant singular value that captures most of the variance within a matrix of age-specific mortality rates over time and that the time trend captured by this lead singular value is constant. We revisit the model's predictive ability and trends in mortality decline among developed nations since the end of the Cold War. Objective: To understand the predictive power of the Lee-Carter model with mortality trends since 1990. Methods: Mortality data were obtained from the Human Mortality Database. Forecasts were made using R with random walk forecasts using the package forecast. Results: While Lee-Carter forecasts of life expectancy for combined sexes were accurate, sex-specific forecasts tended to somewhat overestimate for females and significantly underestimate for males. Further investigation of the trend for males shows that the first singular value continues to capture the majority of the variation in mortality since 1990, with progress along this dimension moving at a constant rate. Conclusions: Lee-Carter forecasts have significantly underestimated gains inmale life expectancy without major changes to the model's assumptions. We believe this represents more rapid progress in tackling male mortality in the G7 countries without major changes to the age pattern of these gains. Curiously, this has not affected combined-sex forecasts, potentially being offset by slight overestimation of female mortality progress. Contribution: We show that the Lee-Carter model has made inaccurate forecasts of mortality rates unrelated to violations of its underlying assumptions.

  1. Disability and sexuality as right to quality of life aspects view of social workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available All people – including young people – are sexual beings, regardless of whether or not they live with physical, mental, or emotional disabilities. And, all people need affection, love and intimacy, acceptance, and companionship. In this light, sex education plays a key role in acknowledging matters related not only with sexual activities, but also contraception, personal hygiene, sexual feelings, sexual education, masturbation, friendship, sex, marriage so as motherhood and parenthood. Without appropriate social skills, people with disabilities may have difficulty making and maintaining relations and feel lonely and ‘different’. Without important sexual health knowledge, people with disabilities may make unwise decisions and/or take sexual health risks. Hence, the key understanding is that everyone, including a person with mental disability, is sexual – and has sexuality related emotions and desires. Several foreign scholars have already emphasized the need of sex education for the people with mental, physical and/or emotional challenges, however Lithuanian scholars seem reluctant to analyse such issues and acknowledge the need of sex education for people with mental disabilities. For the last two decades, there has been more focus to promote healthy lifestyle, which in turn influences the sex education programs. Naturally, people with mental disabilities face different challenges than those without disabilities, because they are less informed about sexuality, have less sexual experience and are more prone to sexual exploitation. Hence, the questions under consideration in this paper remain whether sex education is important and necessary to an individual who has mental disabilities? Should parents be concerned about sex education for their disabled children? How issues on disability and sexuality are addressed in Lithuania and elsewhere? How sexuality is related with the quality of life for people with disabilities? The aim – to

  2. Coordinator Role Mobility Method for Increasing the Life Expectancy of Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurenoks Aleksejs

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The general problem of wireless sensor network nodes is the low-power batteries that significantly limit the life expectancy of a network. Nowadays the technical solutions related to energy resource management are being rapidly developed and integrated into the daily lives of people. The energy resource management systems use sensor networks for receiving and processing information during the realia time. The present paper proposes using a coordinator role mobility method for controlling the routing processes for energy balancing in nodes, which provides dynamic network reconfiguration possibilities. The method is designed to operate fully in the background and can be integrated into any exiting working system.

  3. A comparison of the efficiency of health systems in providing life expectancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenart, Adam; Zarulli, Virginia

    The role of the national health systems is to provide health for their citizens but each country achieves it up to a different degree. The health systems are heterogeneous not only in their efficiency but in their funding, organization and management too. As it is difficult to measure...... their efficiency in absolute terms, the countries can be compared with each other. The relative efficiency of health systems can be measured by the life expectancy that they provide by taking education level and their funding structure into account. Based on data coming from the HMD, GGS, OECD and WHO, data...

  4. Genetic polymorphism and average life expectancy of exposed individuals and their offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telnov, V.I.; Sotnik, N.V.

    2004-01-01

    A population-genetic analysis of the average life expectancy (ALE) was performed for nuclear workers at the Mayak Production Association exposed to external and internal radiation over a wide dose range and their off spring. A methodical approach was proposed to determine ALE for individuals with different genotypes and estimate ALE in the population based on genotype distribution. The analysis has revealed significant shifts in the Hp type distribution of genetic markers in the nuclear workers off spring, especially an increased proportion of Hp 2-2 at parents external g-irradiation doses over 2Gy by the conception time

  5. Temporal polyethism, life expectancy, and entropy of workers of the ant Ectatomma vizottoi Almeida, 1987 (Formicidae: Ectatomminae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana Vieira, Alexsandro; Desidério Fernandes, Wedson; Fernando Antonialli-Junior, William

    2010-05-01

    We investigated the changes in the behavioral repertoire over the course of life and determined the life expectancy and entropy of workers of the ant Ectatomma vizottoi. Newly emerged ants were individually marked with model airplane paint for observation of behaviors and determination of the age and life expectancy. Ants were divided into two groups: young and old workers. The 36 behaviors observed were divided into eight categories. Workers exhibit a clear division of tasks throughout their lives, with young workers performing more tasks inside the colony and old workers, outside, unlike species that have small colonies. This species also exhibits an intermediate life expectancy compared to workers of other species that are also intermediary in size. This supports the hypothesis of a relationship between size and maximum life expectancy, but it also suggests that other factors may also be acting in concert. Entropy value shows a high mortality rate during the first life intervals.

  6. Health inequalities in the Netherlands: trends in quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE) by educational level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghe, Maria; Wubulihasimu, Parida; Peters, Frederik; Nusselder, Wilma; Van Baal, Pieter H M

    2016-10-01

    Quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE) has been proposed as a summary measure of population health because it encompasses multiple health domains as well as length of life. However, trends in QALE by education or other socio-economic measure have not yet been reported. This study investigates changes in QALE stratified by educational level for the Dutch population in the period 2001-2011. Using data from multiple sources, we estimated mortality rates and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) as functions of age, gender, calendar year and educational level. Subsequently, predictions from these regressions were combined for calculating QALE at ages 25 and 65. QALE changes were decomposed into effects of mortality and HRQoL. In 2001-2011, QALE increased for men and women at all educational levels, the largest increases being for highly educated resulting in a widening gap by education. In 2001, at age 25, the absolute QALE difference between the low and the highly educated was 7.4 healthy years (36.7 vs. 44.1) for men and 6.3 healthy years (39.5 vs. 45.8) for women. By 2011, the QALE difference increased to 8.1 healthy years (38.8 vs. 46.9) for men and to 7.1 healthy years (41.3 vs. 48.4) for women. Similar results were observed at age 65. Although the gap was largely attributable to widening inequalities in mortality, widening inequalities in HRQoL were also substantial. In the Netherlands, population health as measured by QALE has improved, but QALE inequalities have widened more than inequalities in life expectancy alone. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  7. Psychometric properties of the Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beauchamp, Marla K; Schmidt, Catherine T; Pedersen, Mette M

    2014-01-01

    The choice of measure for use as a primary outcome in geriatric research is contingent upon the construct of interest and evidence for its psychometric properties. The Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument (LLFDI) has been widely used to assess functional limitations and disability...... in studies with older adults. The primary aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the current available evidence for the psychometric properties of the LLFDI....

  8. Quality of Life among Persons with Physical Disability in Udupi Taluk: A Cross Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuvalekar, Kunal; Kamath, Ramachandra; Ashok, Lena; Shetty, Bhartesh; Mayya, Shreemathi; Chandrasekaran, Varalakshmi

    2015-01-01

    Disability is not just a health problem or attribute of individuals, but it reflects the problems individuals experience in their interaction with society and physical movements. Disabled persons remain neglected part of society and they also experience various barriers due to restriction of participation. The aim was to assess the quality of life (QOL) of physically disabled persons, the impact of physical disability on activities of daily living (ADL) and to study the awareness about laws and facilities available for disabled persons. A cross-sectional community based study was conducted among 130 physical disabled persons who were selected using convenience sampling technique. The WHO BREF scale was used to assess QOL, while assessment of ADL was done using Barthel Index. Socio-demographic assessment was done using Udai Pareek scale. SPSS version 15.0 was used to analyze data. Categorical variables were expressed as frequencies and percentages. As per guidelines physical, psychological, social, and environmental domain scores for WHO BREF scale were calculated. Among the study participants, 36.2% had a disability from birth that is, congenital. The second common cause of disability was found to be postpolio residual paralysis as it was found among 26.2% respondents. Other causes found were stroke/paralysis and accidents, in 19.2% and 18.5% respondents, respectively. Activities such as transfer, mobility, and stair climbing showed greater impact of physical disability. It was found that 11.5% respondents required help in one of the ADL. QOL score was found to be low under the psychological domain reflecting on negative feelings, bodily image, appearance, spirituality, and self-esteem of respondents. Physical disability had affected social participation as well as marriage of the respondents. However, it was found that very few of them are aware about facilities provided under persons with disability act.

  9. Quality of life among persons with physical disability in udupi taluk: A cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunal Kuvalekar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Disability is not just a health problem or attribute of individuals, but it reflects the problems individuals experience in their interaction with society and physical movements. Disabled persons remain neglected part of society and they also experience various barriers due to restriction of participation. Objectives: The aim was to assess the quality of life (QOL of physically disabled persons, the impact of physical disability on activities of daily living (ADL and to study the awareness about laws and facilities available for disabled persons. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional community based study was conducted among 130 physical disabled persons who were selected using convenience sampling technique. The WHO BREF scale was used to assess QOL, while assessment of ADL was done using Barthel Index. Socio-demographic assessment was done using Udai Pareek scale. SPSS version 15.0 was used to analyze data. Categorical variables were expressed as frequencies and percentages. As per guidelines physical, psychological, social, and environmental domain scores for WHO BREF scale were calculated. Results: Among the study participants, 36.2% had a disability from birth that is, congenital. The second common cause of disability was found to be postpolio residual paralysis as it was found among 26.2% respondents. Other causes found were stroke/paralysis and accidents, in 19.2% and 18.5% respondents, respectively. Activities such as transfer, mobility, and stair climbing showed greater impact of physical disability. It was found that 11.5% respondents required help in one of the ADL. QOL score was found to be low under the psychological domain reflecting on negative feelings, bodily image, appearance, spirituality, and self-esteem of respondents. Conclusion: Physical disability had affected social participation as well as marriage of the respondents. However, it was found that very few of them are aware about facilities provided under

  10. Stigma and restriction on the social life of families of children with intellectual disabilities in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Hong; Shin, Jin Y; Nhan, Nguyen Viet; Yang, Lawrence H

    2012-07-01

    Intellectual disabilities are as prevalent in East Asian countries as in the West (0.06%-1.3%). Widespread discrimination against intellectual disabilities in Asia may initiate stigma that places unfair restrictions on the social life of these individuals and their caregivers. We utilised established stigma frameworks to assess the extent to which a child's intellectual disability contributes to the social exclusion of caregivers in Vietnam. A mixed quantitative and qualitative approach was employed to examine the experience of social life restriction among parents of children with intellectual disabilities. The child's disability level and restrictions on caregivers' social experiences were assessed among 70 mothers and fathers recruited from schools in Hue City, Vietnam. Qualitative responses describing social exclusion were also recorded. Caregivers reported elevated levels of social exclusion. As hypothesised, parents of children with greater intellectual disability experienced more restrictions on their social life (Beta = 0.79, 95% confidence interval 0.27-1.30, standard error = 0.26, p stigma, which in turn restricts key social interactions among caregivers. Psycho-educational interventions may address the social domains in which caregivers are impacted and encourage sustained help-seeking among caregivers for their children.

  11. Physical culture in the life of students with disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.G. Adyrkhaev

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Consider the ratio of students with disabilities to physical education for learning. Justified starting conceptual tenets of the theory and methodology of physical education students with different nosology. Are proven theoretical knowledge of motor activity with students nosology: vision, hearing, musculoskeletal and cerebral palsy, diabetes mellitus and with somatic diseases. It is noted that in the formation of the modern system of physical education of young people with disabilities to the forefront should be nominated by the humanistic ideas of respect for the individual, taking care of his health and development. Accentuated the need to generate dynamic system of physical education students, which gives a person a deep knowledge of his body, his motor capabilities, effective means of exposure to psychophysical conditions and methods of their use, maintain and improve health.

  12. Sense of life worth living (ikigai) and incident functional disability in elderly Japanese: The Tsurugaya Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Kentaro; Kaiho, Yu; Tomata, Yasutake; Narita, Mamoru; Tanji, Fumiya; Sugiyama, Kemmyo; Sugawara, Yumi; Tsuji, Ichiro

    2017-04-01

    To test the hypothesis that elderly persons who feel ikigai (a sense of life worth living) have a lower risk of incident functional disability than those who do not. Recent studies have suggested that ikigai impacts on mortality. However, its impact upon disability is unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between ikigai and incident functional disability among elderly persons. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 830 Japanese elderly persons aged ≥70 years as a comprehensive geriatric assessment in 2003. Information on ikigai was collected by self-reported questionnaire. Data on functional disability were retrieved from the public Long-term Care Insurance database in which participants were followed up for 11 years. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for incidence of functional disability were calculated for three groups delineated according to the presence of ikigai (“no”, “uncertain” or “yes”) using the Cox proportional hazards regression model. The 11-year incidence of functional disability was 53.3% (442 cases). As compared with the “no” group, the multiple-adjusted HR (95% CI) of incident functional disability was 0.61 (0.36–1.02) for the “uncertain” group and 0.50 (0.30–0.84) for the “yes” group. A stronger degree of ikigai is significantly associated with a lower risk of incident functional disability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Trajectories of life satisfaction after traumatic brain injury: Influence of life roles, age, cognitive disability, and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juengst, Shannon B; Adams, Leah M; Bogner, Jennifer A; Arenth, Patricia M; O'Neil-Pirozzi, Therese M; Dreer, Laura E; Hart, Tessa; Bergquist, Thomas F; Bombardier, Charles H; Dijkers, Marcel P; Wagner, Amy K

    2015-11-01

    (a) Identify life satisfaction trajectories after moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI); (b) establish a predictive model for these trajectories across the first 5 years postinjury; and (c) describe differences in these life satisfaction trajectory groups, focusing on age, depressive symptoms, disability, and participation in specific life roles. Analysis of the longitudinal TBI Model Systems National Database was performed on data collected prospectively at 1-, 2-, and 5-years post-TBI. Participants (n = 3,012) had a moderate to severe TBI and were 16 years old and older. Four life satisfaction trajectories were identified across the first 5 years postinjury, including: stable satisfaction, initial satisfaction declining, initial dissatisfaction improving, and stable dissatisfaction. Age, depressive symptoms, cognitive disability, and life role participation as a worker, leisure participant, and/ or religious participant at 1-year postinjury significantly predicted trajectory group membership. Life role participation and depressive symptoms were strong predictors of life satisfaction trajectories across the first 5 years post-TBI. The previously documented loss of life roles and prevalence of depression after a moderate to severe TBI make this a vulnerable population for whom low or declining life satisfaction is a particularly high risk. Examining individual life role participation may help to identify relevant foci for community-based rehabilitation interventions or supports. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Disability-adjusted Life Years Lost to Ischemic Heart Disease in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández de Larrea-Baz, Nerea; Morant-Ginestar, Consuelo; Catalá-López, Ferrán; Gènova-Maleras, Ricard; Álvarez-Martín, Elena

    2015-11-01

    The health indicator disability-adjusted life years combines the fatal and nonfatal consequences of a disease in a single measure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the burden of ischemic heart disease in 2008 in Spain by calculating disability-adjusted life years. The years of life lost due to premature death were calculated using the ischemic heart disease deaths by age and sex recorded in the Spanish National Institute of Statistics and the life-table in the 2010 Global Burden of Disease study. The years lived with disability, calculated for acute coronary syndrome, stable angina, and ischemic heart failure, used hospital discharge data and information from population studies. Disability weights were taken from the 2010 Global Burden of Disease study. We calculated crude and age standardized rates (European Standard Population). Univariate sensitivity analyses were performed. In 2008, 539 570 disability-adjusted life years were lost due to ischemic heart disease in Spain (crude rate, 11.8/1000 population; standardized, 8.6/1000). Of the total years lost, 96% were due to premature death and 4% due to disability. Among the years lost due to disability, heart failure accounted for 83%, stable angina 15%, and acute coronary syndrome 2%. In the sensitivity analysis, weighting by age was the factor that changed the results to the greatest degree. Ischemic heart disease continues to have a huge impact on the health of our population, mainly because of premature death. The results of this study provide an overall vision of the epidemiologic situation in Spain and could serve as the basis for evaluating interventions targeting the acute and chronic manifestations of cardiac ischemia. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Healthy life expectancy and the correlates of self-rated health in Bangladesh in 1996 and 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tareque, Md Ismail; Saito, Yasuhiko; Kawahara, Kazuo

    2015-03-31

    Life expectancy (LE) at birth has increased steadily in Bangladesh since its independence. When people live longer, quality of life becomes a central issue. This study examines whether healthy life expectancy (HLE) at ages 15, 25, 35, and 45 is keeping pace with LE at those ages between 1996 and 2002. It also seeks to investigate the correlates of self-rated health (SRH) in 1996 and 2002. We used data from the World Values Survey conducted in 1996 and 2002 among individuals 15 years and older. The Sullivan method was used to compute HLE. Socio-demographic differences and their association with different states of health were examined by chi-square and Pearson's correlation tests. Multiple linear regression models were fitted to examine the correlates of SRH. The results show that perceived health improved between 1996 and 2002. For males, statistically significant increases in the expected number of years lived in good SRH were found. Proportionally, in 2002, both males and females at ages 15, 25, 35 and 45 expected more life years in good health and fewer life years in fair and poor health than did their counterparts in 1996. Comparatively, males expected fewer life years spent in good health but a much larger proportion of expected life in good health than did females. Finally, in multivariate analyses, life satisfaction was the only factor found to be significantly and positively associated with SRH for males and females in both years, although in both years the association was much more pronounced for females than for males. This study documented changes in HLE during 1996-2002. Women outlive men, but they have a lower quality of life and are more likely to live a greater part of their remaining life in poor SRH. Life satisfaction as well as other significant factors associated with SRH should be promoted, with special attention given to women, to improve healthy life expectancy and the quality of life of the Bangladeshi people.

  16. Hunger influenced life expectancy in war-torn Sub-Saharan African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchendu, Florence N

    2018-04-27

    Malnutrition is a global public health problem especially in developing countries experiencing war/conflicts. War might be one of the socio-political factors influencing malnutrition in Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries. This study aims at determining the influence of war on corruption, population (POP), number of population malnourished (NPU), food security and life expectancy (LE) in war-torn SSA countries (WTSSA) by comparing their malnutrition indicators. Fourteen countries in WTSSA were stratified into zones according to war incidences. Countries' secondary data on population (POP), NPU, Food Security Index (FSI), corruption perceptions index (CPI), Global Hunger Index (GHI) and LE were obtained from global published data. T test, multivariate and Pearson correlation analyses were performed to determine the relationship between CPI, POP, GHI, FSI, NPU, male LE (MLE) and female LE (FLE) in WTSSA at p Malnutrition indicators were similarly affected in WTSSA. Hunger influenced life expectancy. Policies promoting good governance, equity, peaceful co-existence, respect for human right and adequate food supply will aid malnutrition eradication and prevent war occurrences in Sub-Saharan African countries.

  17. Mating system, feeding type and ex situ conservation effort determine life expectancy in captive ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Dennis W H; Lackey, Laurie Bingaman; Streich, W Jürgen; Fickel, Jörns; Hatt, Jean-Michel; Clauss, Marcus

    2011-07-07

    Zoo animal husbandry aims at constantly improving husbandry, reproductive success and ultimately animal welfare. Nevertheless, analyses to determine factors influencing husbandry of different species are rare. The relative life expectancy (rLE; life expectancy (LE) as proportion of longevity) describes husbandry success of captive populations. Correlating rLE with biological characteristics of different species, reasons for variation in rLE can be detected. We analysed data of 166 901 animals representing 78 ruminant species kept in 850 facilities. The rLE of females correlated with the percentage of grass in a species' natural diet, suggesting that needs of species adapted to grass can be more easily accommodated than the needs of those adapted to browse. Males of monogamous species demonstrate higher rLE than polygamous males, which matches observed differences of sexual bias in LE in free-living populations and thus supports the ecological theory that the mating system influences LE. The third interesting finding was that rLE was higher in species managed by international studbooks when compared with species not managed in this way. Our method facilitates the identification of biological characteristics of species that are relevant for their husbandry success, and they also support ecological theory. Translating these findings into feeding recommendations, our approach can help to improve animal husbandry.

  18. Peripherality, income inequality, and life expectancy: revisiting the income inequality hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Spencer

    2006-06-01

    Recent criticisms of the income inequality and health hypothesis have stressed the lack of consistent significant evidence for the stronger effects of income inequality among rich countries. Despite such criticisms, little attention has been devoted to the income-based criteria underlying the stratification of countries into rich/poor groups and whether trade patterns and world-system role provide an alternative means of stratifying groups. To compare income-based and trade-based criteria, 107 countries were grouped into four typologies: (I) high/low income, (II) OECD membership/non-membership, (III) core/non-core, and (IV) non-periphery/periphery. Each typology was tested separately for significant differences in the effects of income inequality between groups. Separate group comparison tests and regression analyses were conducted for each typology using Rodgers (1979) specification of income, income inequality, and life expectancy. Interaction terms were introduced into Rodgers specification to test whether group classification moderated the effects of income inequality on health. Results show that the effects of income inequality are stronger in the periphery than non-periphery (IV) (-0.76 vs -0.23; P income inequality and population health have assumed (i) income differences between countries best capture global stratification and (ii) the negative effects of income inequality are stronger in high-income countries. However, present findings emphasize (i) the importance of measuring global stratification according to trading patterns and (ii) the strong, negative effects of income inequality on life expectancy among peripheral populations.

  19. Evaluation of Average Life Expectancy of Exposed Individuals and their offspring: Population Genetic Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telnov, V. I.; Sotnik, N. V.

    2004-01-01

    Average life expectancy (ALE) is a significant integrating indicator of the population health. It can be affected by many factors such as radiation and hereditary ones. A population-genetic analysis of the average life expectancy (ALE) was performed for nuclear workers at the Mayak Production. Association exposed to external and internal radiation over a wide dose range and their offspring. A methodical approach was proposed to determine ALE for individuals with different genotypes and estimate ALE in the population based on genotype distribution. The analysis of a number of genetic markers revealed significant changes in the age-specific pattern of the Hp types in workers over 60 years. Such changes were caused by both radiation and non-radiation (cardiovascular pathology) factors. In the first case ALE decreased as Hp 1-1 > Hp 2-2> Hp2-1 (radiation). In the second case, it decreased as Hp 1-1> Hp-2-1> Hp2-2 (non-radiation). analysis of genetic markers in the workers offspring indicated significant shifts in distribution of the Hp types, especially an increase in the proportion of Hp 2-2 at doses from external γ-rays over 200 cGy to parents by the time of conception. Based on the non-radiation genotype differences in ALE in this group of offspring, the preliminary calculation of ALE was carried out, which indicated its reduction by 0.52 years in comparison with the control. (Author) 21 refs

  20. Effect of physical inactivity on major noncommunicable diseases and life expectancy in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rezende, Leandro Fornias Machado; Rabacow, Fabiana Maluf; Viscondi, Juliana Yukari Kodaira; Luiz, Olinda do Carmo; Matsudo, Victor Keihan Rodrigues; Lee, I-Min

    2015-03-01

    In Brazil, one-fifth of the population reports not doing any physical activity. This study aimed to assess the impact of physical inactivity on major noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), all-cause mortality and life expectancy in Brazil, by region and sociodemographic profile. We estimated the population attributable fraction (PAF) for physical inactivity associated with coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, breast cancer, colon cancer, and all-cause mortality. To calculate the PAF, we used the physical inactivity prevalence from the 2008 Brazilian Household Survey and relative risk data in the literature. In Brazil, physical inactivity is attributable to 3% to 5% of all major NCDs and 5.31% of all-cause mortality, ranging from 5.82% in the southeastern region to 2.83% in the southern region. Eliminating physical inactivity would increase the life expectancy by an average of 0.31 years. This reduction would affect mainly individuals with ≥ 15 years of schooling, male, Asian, elderly, residing in an urban area and earning ≥ 2 times the national minimum wage. In Brazil, physical inactivity has a major impact on NCDs and mortality, principally in the southeastern and central-west regions. Public policies and interventions promoting physical activity will significantly improve the health of the population.

  1. Mortality pattern and life expectancy of Seventh-Day Adventists in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkel, J; de Waard, F

    1983-12-01

    The mortality pattern of Seventh-Day Adventists (SDAs) in the Netherlands was assessed during a ten-year study period, 1968-1977. Of 522 deceased SDAs the causes of death of 482 could be ascertained. Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMR) for total mortality (SMR = 0,45), cancer (SMR = 0,50) and cardiovascular diseases (SMR = 0,41) as well as for various subgroups differed significantly from the total Dutch population. Mean age at death as well as life-expectation at baptism were significantly higher in SDAs, both in males and females, as compared with Dutch males and females. A health survey among a sample of the total SDA population and a group of 'friend' controls' was done in order to try to explain the differences in mortality pattern and life expectancy. It is concluded that evidence was found for the thesis that abstinence from cigarette smoking is the main factor explaining the low mortality from ischaemic heart diseases among SDAs, while presumably an appropriate (prudent) diet confers additional benefit for example on colon cancer mortality.

  2. Decomposing cross-country differences in quality adjusted life expectancy: the impact of value sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijink, Richard; van Baal, Pieter; Oppe, Mark; Koolman, Xander; Westert, Gert

    2011-06-23

    The validity, reliability and cross-country comparability of summary measures of population health (SMPH) have been persistently debated. In this debate, the measurement and valuation of nonfatal health outcomes have been defined as key issues. Our goal was to quantify and decompose international differences in health expectancy based on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). We focused on the impact of value set choice on cross-country variation. We calculated Quality Adjusted Life Expectancy (QALE) at age 20 for 15 countries in which EQ-5D population surveys had been conducted. We applied the Sullivan approach to combine the EQ-5D based HRQoL data with life tables from the Human Mortality Database. Mean HRQoL by country-gender-age was estimated using a parametric model. We used nonparametric bootstrap techniques to compute confidence intervals. QALE was then compared across the six country-specific time trade-off value sets that were available. Finally, three counterfactual estimates were generated in order to assess the contribution of mortality, health states and health-state values to cross-country differences in QALE. QALE at age 20 ranged from 33 years in Armenia to almost 61 years in Japan, using the UK value set. The value sets of the other five countries generated different estimates, up to seven years higher. The relative impact of choosing a different value set differed across country-gender strata between 2% and 20%. In 50% of the country-gender strata the ranking changed by two or more positions across value sets. The decomposition demonstrated a varying impact of health states, health-state values, and mortality on QALE differences across countries. The choice of the value set in SMPH may seriously affect cross-country comparisons of health expectancy, even across populations of similar levels of wealth and education. In our opinion, it is essential to get more insight into the drivers of differences in health-state values across populations. This

  3. Decomposing cross-country differences in quality adjusted life expectancy: the impact of value sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oppe Mark

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The validity, reliability and cross-country comparability of summary measures of population health (SMPH have been persistently debated. In this debate, the measurement and valuation of nonfatal health outcomes have been defined as key issues. Our goal was to quantify and decompose international differences in health expectancy based on health-related quality of life (HRQoL. We focused on the impact of value set choice on cross-country variation. Methods We calculated Quality Adjusted Life Expectancy (QALE at age 20 for 15 countries in which EQ-5D population surveys had been conducted. We applied the Sullivan approach to combine the EQ-5D based HRQoL data with life tables from the Human Mortality Database. Mean HRQoL by country-gender-age was estimated using a parametric model. We used nonparametric bootstrap techniques to compute confidence intervals. QALE was then compared across the six country-specific time trade-off value sets that were available. Finally, three counterfactual estimates were generated in order to assess the contribution of mortality, health states and health-state values to cross-country differences in QALE. Results QALE at age 20 ranged from 33 years in Armenia to almost 61 years in Japan, using the UK value set. The value sets of the other five countries generated different estimates, up to seven years higher. The relative impact of choosing a different value set differed across country-gender strata between 2% and 20%. In 50% of the country-gender strata the ranking changed by two or more positions across value sets. The decomposition demonstrated a varying impact of health states, health-state values, and mortality on QALE differences across countries. Conclusions The choice of the value set in SMPH may seriously affect cross-country comparisons of health expectancy, even across populations of similar levels of wealth and education. In our opinion, it is essential to get more insight into the drivers

  4. Quality of life in late-life disability: "I don't feel bitter because I am in a wheelchair".

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jennifer; Yourman, Lindsey; Ahalt, Cyrus; Eng, Catherine; Knight, Sara J; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J; Smith, Alexander K

    2012-03-01

    To determine perceived quality of life in a diverse population of elderly adults with late-life disability. Qualitative cross-sectional study. Community-dwelling participants were recruited from San Francisco's On Lok Lifeways program, the first Program of All-inclusive Care for the Elderly. On Lok enrollees meet Medicaid criteria for nursing home placement. Sixty-two elderly adults with a mean age of 78 and a mean 2.4 activity of daily living dependencies and 6.6 instrumental activity of daily living dependencies were interviewed. Respondents were 63% female, 24% white, 19% black, 18% Latino, 32% Chinese American, and 6% other race. Elderly adults who scored higher than 17 points on the Mini-Mental State Examination were interviewed. Interviews were conducted in English, Spanish, and Cantonese. Respondents were asked to rate their overall quality of life on a 5-point scale. Open-ended questions explored positive and negative aspects of participants' daily experiences. Interviews were analyzed using modified grounded theory and digital coding software. Eighty-seven percent of respondents rated their quality of life in the middle range of the quality-of-life spectrum (fair to very good). Themes were similar across ethnic groups. Most themes could be grouped into four domains that dependent elderly adults considered important to their quality of life: physical (e.g., pain), psychological (e.g., depression), spiritual or religious (e.g., religious coping), and social (e.g., life-space). Dignity and a sense of control were identified as themes that are the most closely tied to overall quality of life. Factors that influence quality of life in late-life disability were similar across ethnic groups. As the number of elderly adults from diverse backgrounds with late life disability increases in the United States, interventions should be targeted to maximize daily sense of control and dignity. © 2012, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2012, The American

  5. An evaluation of gastric mass survey from the standpoint of expectation of life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Michio; Kitabatake, Takashi.

    1977-01-01

    The authors reexamined the evaluation of mass gastric survey, which had previously been reported by them, from the standpoint of expectation of life and advocated new theories, the number of years of expected lifesaving and the rate of loss and gain of years. Comparison between the new evaluation and the pre-existing evaluation produces the following differences. (1) The number of years of expected lifesaving increases rapidly from the 50s to reach a peak in the 60s and to decrease from the 70s. This is more realistic and reasonable than the pre-existing method by which the higher the age, the more is gain increased. (2) The rate of loss and gain of mass gastric survey increases in each age group. In other words, the value of mass gastric survey is evaluated more highly. While the importance of mass gastric survey has recently been recognized, the number of examinees increasing, injury due to exposure to radiation has become a serious problem. Therefore, it was thought to be important to perform mass gastric survey efficiently on subjects limited based on the theory investigated from both aspects of advantage and disadvantage. (Chiba, N.)

  6. Basic life support and children with profound and multiple learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, Stefan; Shinnick-Page, Andrea

    2008-10-01

    Nurses and other carers of people with learning disabilities must be able to manage choking events and perform basic life support effectively. UK guidelines for assessment of airway obstruction and for resuscitation do not take account of the specific needs of people with profound multiple learning disability. For example, they fail to account for inhibited gag and coughing reflexes, limited body movements or chest deformity. There are no national guidelines to assist in clinical decisions and training for nurses and carers. Basic life support training for students of learning disability nursing at Birmingham City University is supplemented to address these issues. The authors ask whether such training should be provided for all nurses including those caring for children and young people. They also invite comment and discussion on questions related to chest compression and training in basic life support for a person in a seated position.

  7. The development and validation of the Epilepsy and Learning Disabilities Quality of Life (ELDQOL) scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Deborah; Smith, Monica; Appleton, Richard; Baker, Gus A; Jacoby, Ann

    2007-02-01

    Few suitable instruments exist for use with people, especially children, with both epilepsy and learning disabilities. One such measure is the Epilepsy and Learning Disabilities Quality of Life scale (ELDQOL), which has recently undergone revision following feedback from relevant users. This article reports on the final psychometric testing phase of this scale. ELDQOL consists of 70 items covering seizure severity, seizure-related injuries, antiepileptic drug side effects, behavior, mood, physical, cognitive, and social functioning, parental concern, communication, overall quality of life, and overall health. Revalidation involved a qualitative phase, to ascertain users' opinions on the wording, coverage, and layout of the questionnaire, and a quantitative phase, to examine internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and validity. There is very good evidence of the reliability and validity of the final version of ELDQOL, making it a promising instrument for assessing quality of life in children/young adults with epilepsy and learning disabilities.

  8. Rare diseases and intellectual disability: assessment of quality of life of children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica GONZÁLEZ MARTÍN

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Antecedents. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of life in children and young people with rare diseases and intellectual disability, as well as to determine the incidence of certain predictors (i. e., gender, age, level of intellectual disability, type of school, type of illness and autonomous community in the criterion variable. Method. The KidsLife Scale was applied, a questionnaire based on the eight domain model of quality of life by Schalock and Verdugo. The sample comprised 103 participants with rare diseases and intellectual disability, aged between 3 and 21, who received supports in any organization providing educational, social, or health services. Results. The best scores were found in physical wellbeing, while the lowest were in social inclusion. The level of intellectual disability and support needs resulted in significant differences for the total score of the scale. Analyses by domains showed differences by gender, intellectual disability level, and type of schooling. Conclusions. The results argue for designing practices aimed to improve quality of life-related personal outcomes with regard to self-determination, inclusion, and interpersonal relationships.

  9. Mortality under age 50 accounts for much of the fact that US life expectancy lags that of other high-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Jessica Y

    2013-03-01

    Life expectancy at birth in the United States is among the lowest of all high-income countries. Most recent studies have concentrated on older ages, finding that Americans have a lower life expectancy at age fifty and experience higher levels of disease and disability than do their counterparts in other industrialized nations. Using cross-national mortality data to identify the key age groups and causes of death responsible for these shortfalls, I found that mortality differences below age fifty account for two-thirds of the gap in life expectancy at birth between American males and their counterparts in sixteen comparison countries. Among females, the figure is two-fifths. The major causes of death responsible for the below-fifty trends are unintentional injuries, including drug overdose--a fact that constitutes the most striking finding from this study; noncommunicable diseases; perinatal conditions, such as pregnancy complications and birth trauma; and homicide. In all, this study highlights the importance of focusing on younger ages and on policies both to prevent the major causes of death below age fifty and to reduce social inequalities.

  10. Competing Risk Approach (CRA) for Estimation of Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY's) for Female Breast Cancer in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunnavil, Radhika; Thirthahalli, Chethana; Nooyi, Shalini Chandrashekar; Shivaraj, N S; Murthy, Nandagudi Srinivasa

    2015-10-01

    Competing Risk Approach (CRA) has been used to compute burden of disease in terms of Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) based on a life table for an initially disease-free cohort over time. To compute Years of Life Lost (YLL) due to premature mortality, Years of life lost due to Disability (YLD), DALYs and loss in expectation of life (LEL) using competing risk approach for female breast cancer patients for the year 2008 in India. The published data on breast cancer by age & sex, incidence & mortality for the year 2006-2008 relating to six population based cancer registries (PBCR) under Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), general mortality rates of 2007 in India, published in national health profile 2010; based on Sample Registration System (SRS) were utilized for computations. Three life tables were constructed by applying attrition of factors: (i) risk of death from all causes ('a'; where a is the general death rate); (ii) risk of incidence and that of death from causes other than breast cancer ('b-a+c'; where 'b' is the incidence of breast cancer and 'c' is the mortality of breast cancer); and (iii) risk of death from all other causes after excluding cancer mortality ('a-c'). Taking the differences in Total Person Years Lived (TPYL), YLD and YLL were derived along with LEL. CRA revealed that the DALYs were 40209 per 100,000 females in the life time of 0-70+ years with a LEL of 0.11 years per person. Percentage of YLL to DALYs was 28.20% in the cohort. The method of calculation of DALYs based on the CRA is simple and this will help to identify the burden of diseases using minimal information in terms of YLL, YLD, DALYs and LEL.

  11. Competing risk model for reduction in life expectancy from radiogenic latent cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, H.T.

    1978-01-01

    Because of the large number of persons who could potentially receive low doses of radiation as a result of a nuclear reactor accident, the number of fatalities from latent cancers is generally larger than the early, or prompt, fatalities. For this reason the latent cancer fatality risk of reactor accidents is perceived as being more important than the early fatality risk. In addition, there exists the temptation to add the latent cancer fatality risk to the early fatality risk for the purpose of comparing reactor accident risks to other risks that society is exposed to, such as automobile accidents, airplane accidents, hurricanes, etc. However, the impact on the individual, and society as a whole, due to latent cancer fatalities is significantly different from the impact produced by early fatalities. Early fatalities generally result in appreciable life shortening for the affected individual while latent cancer fatalities generally result in very limited life shortening. A mathematical model was developed to express the reduction in life expectancy due to latent radiogenic cancer as a function of dose received

  12. Associations of Smoking, Physical Inactivity, Heavy Drinking, and Obesity with Quality-Adjusted Life Expectancy among US Adults with Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Haomiao; Zack, Matthew M; Gottesman, Irving I; Thompson, William W

    2018-03-01

    To examine associations between four health behaviors (smoking, physical inactivity, heavy alcohol drinking, and obesity) and three health indices (health-related quality of life, life expectancy, and quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE)) among US adults with depression. Data were obtained from the 2006, 2008, and 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data. The EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire (EQ-5D) health preference scores were estimated on the basis of extrapolations from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's healthy days measures. Depression scores were estimated using the eight-item Patient Health Questionnaire. Life expectancy estimates were obtained from US life tables, and QALE was estimated from a weighted combination of the EQ-5D scores and the life expectancy estimates. Outcomes were summarized by depression status for the four health behaviors (smoking, physical inactivity, heavy alcohol drinking, and obesity). For depressed adults, current smokers and the physically inactive had significantly lower EQ-5D scores (0.040 and 0.171, respectively), shorter life expectancy (12.9 and 10.8 years, respectively), and substantially less QALE (8.6 and 10.9 years, respectively). For nondepressed adults, estimated effects were similar but smaller. Heavy alcohol drinking among depressed adults, paradoxically, was associated with higher EQ-5D scores but shorter life expectancy. Obesity was strongly associated with lower EQ-5D scores but only weakly associated with shorter life expectancy. Among depressed adults, physical inactivity and smoking were strongly associated with lower EQ-5D scores, life expectancy, and QALE, whereas obesity and heavy drinking were only weakly associated with these indices. These results suggest that reducing physical inactivity and smoking would improve health more among depressed adults. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Happier countries, longer lives: an ecological study on the relationship between subjective sense of well-being and life expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Grahame F; Soliman, Elsayed Z

    2017-08-01

    The relationship between sense of well-being and longevity is not well-established across populations of varying levels of socioeconomic status. We sought to examine the relationship between happiness, or subjective sense of well-being and life expectancy using data from 151 countries. This analysis is based on the 2012 Happy Planet Index project conducted by the Center of Well-Being of the New Economics Foundation, based in the United Kingdom. Well-being data for each country were taken from responses to the 'Ladder of Life' question in the 2012 Gallup World Poll in which participants were asked to rate their quality of life on a scale from 1 (worst possible life) to 10 (best possible life). Life expectancy and gross domestic product data were taken from the 2011 United Nations records. Ecological footprint data were taken from Global Footprint Network records. Subjective sense of well-being was highly correlated with life expectancy (Pearson correlation r = 0.71, p ecological footprint, and population, each 1 unit of the well-being scale was associated with an increase in life expectancy of 4.0 years (95% confidence interval = 2.7-5.3). In conclusion, better sense of well-being has a strong relationship with life expectancy regardless of economic status or population size, suggesting that governments should foster happiness in order to support long-living populations.

  14. Expectations and Anticipations of Middle and High School Special Education Teachers in Preparing Their Students with Intellectual Disability for Future Adult Roles Including Those as Partner and Parent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Through a series of individual ethnographic interviews and focus groups, I explored the expectations and anticipations of middle and high school special education teachers as they carry out their professional charge of educating their students with intellectual disability for lives in the least restrictive environment, including possible adult…

  15. Contribution of Personality to Self-Efficacy and Outcome Expectations in Selecting a High School Major among Adolescents with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Dikla; Cinamon, Rachel Gali

    2016-01-01

    The current study focuses on the contribution of five personality traits to the development of self-efficacy and outcome expectations regarding selecting a high school major among adolescents with learning disabilities (LD). Social cognitive career theory and the Big Five personality traits model served as the theoretical framework. Participants…

  16. Core Self-Evaluations as a Mediator between Functional Disability and Life Satisfaction in College Students with Disabilities Majoring in Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedema, Susan Miller; Pfaller, Joseph S.; Yaghmaian, Rana A.; Weaver, Hayley; da Silva Cardoso, Elizabeth; Chan, Fong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the mediational effect of core self-evaluations (CSE) on the relationship between functional disability and life satisfaction. Methods: A quantitative descriptive design using multiple regression analysis. The participants were 97 college students with disabilities receiving services through Hunter College's Minority-Disability…

  17. A Follow-Up Study of Graduates with Learning Disabilities from a College of Education: Impact of the Disability on Personal and Professional Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russak, Susie; Daniel Hellwing, Ariella

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined three issues connected to the experiences of graduates with learning disabilities (LD) from a college of education (N = 45): support services that had been most beneficial during studies, positive and negative effects of the disability on personal, and professional life. Additionally, demographic data were collected. A…

  18. Question order sensitivity of subjective well-being measures: focus on life satisfaction, self-rated health, and subjective life expectancy in survey instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunghee; McClain, Colleen; Webster, Noah; Han, Saram

    2016-10-01

    This study examines the effect of question context created by order in questionnaires on three subjective well-being measures: life satisfaction, self-rated health, and subjective life expectancy. We conducted two Web survey experiments. The first experiment (n = 648) altered the order of life satisfaction and self-rated health: (1) life satisfaction asked immediately after self-rated health; (2) self-rated health immediately after life satisfaction; and (3) two items placed apart. We examined their correlation coefficient by experimental condition and further examined its interaction with objective health. The second experiment (n = 479) asked life expectancy before and after parental mortality questions. Responses to life expectancy were compared by order using ANOVA, and we examined interaction with parental mortality status using ANCOVA. Additionally, response time and probes were examined. Correlation coefficients between self-rated health and life satisfaction differed significantly by order: 0.313 (life satisfaction first), 0.508 (apart), and 0.643 (self-rated health first). Differences were larger among respondents with chronic conditions. Response times were the shortest when self-rated health was asked first. When life expectancy asked after parental mortality questions, respondents reported considering parents more for answering life expectancy; and respondents with deceased parents reported significantly lower expectancy, but not those whose parents were alive. Question context effects exist. Findings suggest placing life satisfaction and self-rated health apart to avoid artificial attenuation or inflation in their association. Asking about parental mortality prior to life expectancy appears advantageous as this leads respondents to consider parental longevity more, an important factor for true longevity.

  19. Untreated depression and tuberculosis treatment outcomes, quality of life and disability, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambaw, Fentie; Mayston, Rosie; Hanlon, Charlotte; Medhin, Girmay; Alem, Atalay

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the association between comorbid depression and tuberculosis treatment outcomes, quality of life and disability in Ethiopia. The study involved 648 consecutive adults treated for tuberculosis at 14 primary health-care facilities. All were assessed at treatment initiation (i.e. baseline) and after 2 and 6 months. We defined probable depression as a score of 10 or above on the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire. Data on treatment default, failure and success and on death were obtained from tuberculosis registers. Quality of life was assessed using a visual analogue scale and we calculated disability scores using the World Health Organization's Disability Assessment Scale. Using multivariate Poisson regression analysis, we estimated the association between probable depression at baseline and treatment outcomes and death. Untreated depression at baseline was independently associated with tuberculosis treatment default (adjusted risk ratio, aRR: 9.09; 95% confidence interval, CI: 6.72 to 12.30), death (aRR: 2.99; 95% CI: 1.54 to 5.78), greater disability ( β : 0.83; 95% CI: 0.67 to 0.99) and poorer quality of life ( β : -0.07; 95% CI: -0.07 to -0.06) at 6 months. Participants with probable depression had a lower mean quality-of-life score than those without (5.0 versus 6.0, respectively; P  < 0.001) and a higher median disability score (22.0 versus 14.0, respectively; P  < 0.001) at 6 months. Untreated depression in people with tuberculosis was associated with worse treatment outcomes, poorer quality of life and greater disability. Health workers should be given the support needed to provide depression care for people with tuberculosis.

  20. Understanding political development through an intersectionality framework: Life stories of disability activists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akemi Nishida

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article explores how those who do not share their marginalized identities with their surrounding people (e.g., family members and thus community resources relating to these identities, initiate and experience political development. The concept of intersectionality is used as an analytical tool to examine how one's political development is mediated via one's intersecting identities, communities, and experience of social in/justices. Life story interviews were conducted with disabled activists to explore this question. The stories reveal how these activists, who had initially resisted identifying as disabled for various reasons, eventually used the politicizing experiences from nondisability identities and communities to reframe and reclaim their disability status. By tracing the political developments of disabled people, this article places importance on understanding the process in a holistic way and on developing activist communities and movements that acknowledge intersecting identities and in/justices.

  1. Quality of Life and Migraine Disability among Female Migraine Patients in a Tertiary Hospital in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik, Munvar Miya; Hassan, Norul Badriah; Gan, Siew Hua

    2015-01-01

    Background. Disability caused by migraine may be one of the main causes of burden contributing to poor quality of life (QOL) among migraine patients. Thus, this study aimed to measure QOL among migraine sufferers in comparison with healthy controls. Methods. Female diagnosed migraine patients (n= 100) and healthy controls (n=100) completed the Malay version of the World Health Organization QOL Brief (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaire. Only migraine patients completed the Malay version of the Migraine Disability Assessment questionnaire. Results. Females with migraines had significantly lower total WHOQOL-BREF scores (84.3) than did healthy controls (91.9, Pmigraine patients with lower total QOL scores had 1.2 times higher odds of having disability than patients with higher total QOL scores. Conclusions. The present study showed that migraine sufferers experienced significantly lower QOL than the control group from a similar population. Disability was severe and frequent and was associated with lower QOL among the migraine patients. PMID:25632394

  2. [Aging and quality of life: challenges and opportunities for people with intellectual disabilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäper, S; Graumann, S

    2012-10-01

    In the coming years, a growing number of people with an intellectual disability will reach retirement age. In line with the change of paradigms, the leading ideas of participation, inclusion and self-determination have become the principles of the ideological and conceptual framework in social services for people with disabilities. However, in many places convincing concepts and arrangements of support for elderly people with intellectual disabilities are lacking, particularly beyond institutionalized concepts. The research project "Lebensqualität inklusiv(e)" (quality of life included) tries to bridge this gap. On the base of an estimation of the demographic development for this group of people, models of best practice have been documented and evaluated focusing on living conditions and the special requirements for elderly people with intellectual disabilities in order to gather ideas for the development of arrangements of support. The results show that an interdisciplinary cooperation is indispensable.

  3. [Prediction of life expectancy for prostate cancer patients based on the kinetic theory of aging of living systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viktorov, A A; Zharinov, G M; Neklasova, N Ju; Morozova, E E

    2017-01-01

    The article presents a methodical approach for prediction of life expectancy for people diagnosed with prostate cancer based on the kinetic theory of aging of living systems. The life expectancy is calculated by solving the differential equation for the rate of aging for three different stage of life - «normal» life, life with prostate cancer and life after combination therapy for prostate cancer. The mathematical model of aging for each stage of life has its own parameters identified by the statistical analysis of healthcare data from the Zharinov's databank and Rosstat CDR NES databank. The core of the methodical approach is the statistical correlation between growth rate of the prostate specific antigen level (PSA-level) or the PSA doubling time (PSA DT) before therapy, and lifespan: the higher the PSA DT is, the greater lifespan. The patients were grouped under the «fast PSA DT» and «slow PSA DT» categories. The satisfactory matching between calculations and experiment is shown. The prediction error of group life expectancy is due to the completeness and reliability of the main data source. A detailed monitoring of the basic health indicators throughout the each person life in each analyzed group is required. The absence of this particular information makes it impossible to predict the individual life expectancy.

  4. Investigation about semiconductor gamma ray detector - Evaluation of Ge(Li) detectors life expectation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-06-01

    A list of germanium lithium gamma ray detectors has been drawn up by a working group after investigations in various laboratories. Authors analyse the historical account of each detector and try to give an answer about some questions as: - detectors life expectation, - deficiencies and death reasons, - influence of detector type and volume. Differents parameters are also collected by the working group for future works (standard geometry, low level measurements, etc.). In the list, the characteristics of 228 detectors, collected between january 1965 and december 1977 are put together. The principal conclusions of the authors are: - with a probability of 95%, half of the detectors is dead before 6.1 years, - the average age of dead population (33% of detectors) is 3.9 years, - resolution and efficiency evolution are good indicators of possible deficiency, - the fiability of vertical cryostat is better than the other systems [fr

  5. Association of mutations in the hemochromatosis gene with shorter life expectancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bathum, L; Christiansen, L; Nybo, H

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To investigate whether the frequency of carriers of mutations in the HFE gene associated with hereditary hemochromatosis diminishes with age as an indication that HFE mutations are associated with increased mortality. It is of value in the debate concerning screening for hereditary...... hemochromatosis to determine the significance of heterozygosity. METHODS: Genotyping for mutations in exons 2 and 4 of the HFE gene using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis in 1784 participants aged 45 to 100 years from 4 population-based studies: all 183 centenarians from the Danish Centenarian Study, 601...... in the distribution of mutations in exon 2 in the different age groups. CONCLUSIONS: In a high-carrier frequency population like Denmark, mutations in HFE show an age-related reduction in the frequency of heterozygotes for C282Y, which suggests that carrier status is associated with shorter life expectancy....

  6. The intersection of life expectancy and gender in a transitional state: the case of Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockerham, William C

    2012-07-01

    This paper examines the gender-related features of the health crisis in Russia which has produced the largest gender gap in life expectancy in the world. Stress and negative health lifestyles are the two most likely causes of the long-term adverse longevity pattern in Russia. However, this development cannot be clarified by a simple cause and effect explanation. This is because gender roles and gender-based normative behaviour, along with class influences, intervened to help shape outcomes. Men and women responded to the crisis along gender lines, with stress the best single explanation for a stunted longevity for females and negative health lifestyles accounting for much of the premature mortality among males. © 2012 The Author. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2012 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. [Mortality and life expectancy that attributable to high blood pressure in Chinese people in 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, X Y; Liu, S W; Wang, L J; Zhang, M; Yin, P; Liu, Y N; Zhao, Z P; Wang, L M

    2017-08-10

    Objective: To estimate the deaths (mortality) and life expectancy that attributable to high blood pressure in people from different regions and gender, in China in 2013. Methods: Data was from the 'China Chronic Disease Risk Factor Surveillance 2013' and the 'China National Mortality Surveillance 2013'. According to the comparative risk assessment theory, population attributable fraction ( PAF ) of high blood pressure by gender, urban-rural, east-central-west regions was calculated before the estimations on deaths (mortality) and life expectancy attributable to high blood pressure was made. Results: In 2013, among the Chinese people aged 25 years old and above, the mean SBP was (129.48±20.27) mmHg. High blood pressure[SBP>(115±6) mmHg]caused 20.879 million deaths and accounted for 22.78% of the total deaths. SBP, deaths, mortality rate and standardized mortality rate that attributable to high blood pressure all appeared higher in men [(131.15±18.73) mmHg, 11.517 million, 165.56/100 000 and 106.97/100 000, respectively]than in women[(127.79±21.60) mmHg, 9.362 million, 141.99/100 000 and 68.93/100 000, respectively]. SBP, deaths, mortality rate and PAF were all seen higher in rural[(130.25±20.66) mmHg, 11.234 million, 178.58/100 000 and 23.59%, respectively]than in urban[(128.58±19.77) mmHg, 9.645 million, 132.87/100 000 and 21.54%, respectively]areas. However, levels of SBP were similar in the east, central or west regions, with attributable deaths, attributable mortality rate and PAF the highest as 7.658 million 179.93/100 000, and 26.72% respectively. In 2013, among the Chinese people aged 25 years old and above, deaths caused by cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease attributable to high blood pressure were 19.912 million and 0.966 million, accounting for 52.31% of the total deaths due to cardiovascular diseases and 62.11% to the total chronic kidney diseases. The top three deaths attributable to high blood pressure were ischemic heart disease (6

  8. The effect of urban green on small-area (healthy) life expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, M F; van Lenthe, F J; Donkers, B; Mackenbach, J P; Burdorf, A

    2014-10-01

    Several epidemiological studies have investigated the effect of the quantity of green space on health outcomes such as self-rated health, morbidity and mortality ratios. These studies have consistently found positive associations between the quantity of green and health. However, the impact of other aspects, such as the perceived quality and average distance to public green, and the effect of urban green on population health are still largely unknown. Linear regression models were used to investigate the impact of three different measures of urban green on small-area life expectancy (LE) and healthy life expectancy (HLE) in The Netherlands. All regressions corrected for average neighbourhood household income, accommodated spatial autocorrelation, and took measurement uncertainty of LE, HLE as well as the quality of urban green into account. Both the quantity and the perceived quality of urban green are modestly related to small-area LE and HLE: an increase of 1 SD in the percentage of urban green space is associated with a 0.1-year higher LE, and, in the case of quality of green, with an approximately 0.3-year higher LE and HLE. The average distance to the nearest public green is unrelated to population health. The quantity and particularly quality of urban green are positively associated with small-area LE and HLE. This concurs with a growing body of evidence that urban green reduces stress, stimulates physical activity, improves the microclimate and reduces ambient air pollution. Accordingly, urban green development deserves a more prominent place in urban regeneration and neighbourhood renewal programmes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. The influence of smoking, sedentary lifestyle and obesity on cognitive impairment-free life expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstey, Kaarin Jane; Kingston, Andrew; Kiely, Kim Matthew; Luszcz, Mary Alice; Mitchell, Paul; Jagger, Carol

    2014-12-01

    Smoking, sedentary lifestyle and obesity are risk factors for mortality and dementia. However, their impact on cognitive impairment-free life expectancy (CIFLE)has not previously been estimated. Data were drawn from the DYNOPTA dataset which was derived by harmonizing and pooling common measures from five longitudinal ageing studies. Participants for whom the Mini-Mental State Examination was available were included (N¼8111,48.6% men). Data on education, sex, body mass index, smoking and sedentary lifestyle were collected and mortality data were obtained from Government Records via data linkage.Total life expectancy (LE), CIFLE and years spent with cognitive impairment (CILE)were estimated for each risk factor and total burden of risk factors. CILE was approximately 2 years for men and 3 years for women, regardless of age. For men and women respectively, reduced LE associated with smoking was 3.82and 5.88 years, associated with obesity was 0.62 and 1.72 years and associated with being sedentary was 2.50 and 2.89 years. Absence of each risk factor was associated with longer LE and CIFLE, but also longer CILE for smoking in women and being sedentary in both sexes. Compared with participants with no risk factors, those with 2þ had shorter CIFLE of up to 3.5 years depending on gender and education level. Population level reductions in smoking, sedentary lifestyle and obesity increase longevity and number of years lived without cognitive impairment. Years lived with cognitive impairment may also increase.

  10. Against all odds: genocidal trauma is associated with longer life-expectancy of the survivors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Sagi-Schwartz

    Full Text Available Does surviving genocidal experiences, like the Holocaust, lead to shorter life-expectancy? Such an effect is conceivable given that most survivors not only suffered psychosocial trauma but also malnutrition, restriction in hygienic and sanitary facilities, and lack of preventive medical and health services, with potentially damaging effects for later health and life-expectancy. We explored whether genocidal survivors have a higher risk to die younger than comparisons without such background. This is the first population-based retrospective cohort study of the Holocaust, based on the entire population of immigrants from Poland to Israel (N = 55,220, 4-20 years old when the World War II started (1939, immigrating to Israel either between 1945 and 1950 (Holocaust group or before 1939 (comparison group; not exposed to the Holocaust. Hazard of death - a long-term outcome of surviving genocidal trauma - was derived from the population-wide official data base of the National Insurance Institute of Israel. Cox regression yielded a significant hazard ratio (HR = 0.935, CI (95% = 0.910-0.960, suggesting that the risk of death was reduced by 6.5 months for Holocaust survivors compared to non-Holocaust comparisons. The lower hazard was most substantial in males who were aged 10-15 (HR = 0.900, CI (95% = 0.842-0.962, i.e., reduced by 10 months or 16-20 years at the onset of the Holocaust (HR = 0.820, CI (95% = 0.782-0.859, i.e., reduced by18 months. We found that against all odds genocidal survivors were likely to live longer. We suggest two explanations: Differential mortality during the Holocaust and "Posttraumatic Growth" associated with protective factors in Holocaust survivors or in their environment after World War II.

  11. The relationship between the expectation of life of workers and the evolution of radiological protection's norms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Marcio Pereira

    2008-01-01

    Full text: With the evolution of the norms of radiological protection in the world in last the 20 years, the life expectancy of Workers increased in direct ratio. The technological advance of the equipment that uses radiation sources and the deepening in the studies and knowledge on the ionizing radiations- e consequent deleterious effect- had contributed significantly for the reduction of the doses received for the Workers in its daily hours of working. Methods: A simple analysis of data, comparing itself the past and the gift, becomes evident that, in if treating to radiological protection, the humanity walks for a new age, which hardly will retrocede. If before the radiological protection was understood as a concern only in the practical doctors, with emphasis in the immediate effects, today already becomes gift in all the practical ones, especially in that they put into motion the planet and its wealth, in the industry. Major Values: Modernity took the man to the daily dependence of the not ionizing radiations, each time inserted of the people's day. As similar to, the radiological protection today if makes gift in diverse practical, to guarantee the cares to be taken and the fulfilment of pertinent norms. The present study it looks for to evidence that last the 20 years- marked for accidents with radioactive sources- they had been essential for a reflection of the norms of radiological protection. Thus, workers, as well as the technological sector, changed it the new reality, either demanding bigger training technician for the practical ones, attention special in security and radiological protection, or same establishing more rigid norms, through the regulating agencies. In the present work had a projection of values of life expectancy of the population, the past until the present. Analyzing Tables, as much for workers how much for the members of the public is noticed that the radiological protection offers to one better quality of life to all those involved

  12. Real time capable control design with increased life expectancy for research purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epple, S.; Jung, R.; Jalba, K.; Nasui, V.

    2017-05-01

    A new, freely programmable, scalable control system for academic research purposes was developed. The intention was, to have a control unit capable of handling multiple PT1000 temperature sensors at reasonable accuracy and temperature range, as well as digital input signals and providing more powerful output signals at 230V AC than conventional control units. To take full advantage of the system, control-loops are run in real time. The whole system runs independently of a personal computer. The two on-board RS232 connectors allow to connect further units to use more sensors or actuators or to connect other laboratory equipment, as required. To allow usage for long-time experiments, systematically electronic components with low failure-in-time (FIT) rate have been chosen in order to achieve high life expectancy. This paper describes the third prototype, which now provides stable measurements, and an improvement in accuracy compared to the previous designs. A rough estimation about the expected mean time between failures is given. As test case, a thermal solar system to produce hot tap water and assist heating in a single-family house was implemented. The solar fluid pump was power-controlled and several temperatures at different points in the hydraulic system were measured and used in the control algorithms. The hardware design proved suitable to test several different control strategies and their corresponding algorithms for the thermal solar system.

  13. Bring out your dead!: A study of income inequality and life expectancy in the United States, 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Terrence D; Jorgenson, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    We test whether income inequality undermines female and male life expectancy in the United States. We employ data for all 50 states and the District of Columbia and two-way fixed effects to model state-level average life expectancy as a function of multiple income inequality measures and time-varying characteristics. We find that state-level income inequality is inversely associated with female and male life expectancy. We observe this general pattern across four measures of income inequality and under the rigorous conditions of state-specific and year-specific fixed effects. If income inequality undermines life expectancy, redistribution policies could actually improve the health of states. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Learning disabilities in neuromuscular disorders: a springboard for adult life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrea, Guja; Battini, Roberta; Lenzi, Sara; Frosini, Silvia; Bonetti, Silvia; Moretti, Elena; Perazza, Silvia; Santorelli, Filippo M; Pecini, Chiara

    2016-10-01

    Although the presence of cognitive deficits in Duchenne muscular dystrophy or myotonic dystrophy DM1 is well established in view of brain-specific expression of affected muscle proteins, in other neuromuscular disorders, such as congenital myopathies and limb-girdle muscular dystrophies, cognitive profiles are poorly defined. Also, there are limited characterization of the cognitive profile of children with congenital muscular dystrophies, notwithstanding the presence of cerebral abnormality in some forms, and in spinal muscular atrophies, with the exception of distal spinal muscular atrophy (such as the DYN1CH1- associated form). Starting from the Duchenne muscular dystrophy, which may be considered a kind of paradigm for the co-occurrence of learning disabilities in the contest of a progressive muscular involvement, the findings of neuropsychological (or cognitive) dysfunctions in several forms of neuromuscular diseases will be examined and reviewed.

  15. Perception and coping with the specific learning disabilities impacts on everyday life of children with this diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Vilímová, Zuzana

    2015-01-01

    TITLE: Perception and coping with the specific learning disabilities impacts on everyday life of children with this diagnosis. ABSTRACT This text is focused on recognition of impacts of the specific learning disabilities on everyday life as the children with this diagnosis themselves see it and the strategies used by these children in order to cope with these disabilities. The theoretical part summarizes the necessary knowledge of the early school age developmental stage, the interaction of a...

  16. Closing the gap: increases in life expectancy among treated HIV-positive individuals in the United States and Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasina Samji

    Full Text Available Combination antiretroviral therapy (ART has significantly increased survival among HIV-positive adults in the United States (U.S. and Canada, but gains in life expectancy for this region have not been well characterized. We aim to estimate temporal changes in life expectancy among HIV-positive adults on ART from 2000-2007 in the U.S. and Canada.Participants were from the North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design (NA-ACCORD, aged ≥20 years and on ART. Mortality rates were calculated using participants' person-time from January 1, 2000 or ART initiation until death, loss to follow-up, or administrative censoring December 31, 2007. Life expectancy at age 20, defined as the average number of additional years that a person of a specific age will live, provided the current age-specific mortality rates remain constant, was estimated using abridged life tables.The crude mortality rate was 19.8/1,000 person-years, among 22,937 individuals contributing 82,022 person-years and 1,622 deaths. Life expectancy increased from 36.1 [standard error (SE 0.5] to 51.4 [SE 0.5] years from 2000-2002 to 2006-2007. Men and women had comparable life expectancies in all periods except the last (2006-2007. Life expectancy was lower for individuals with a history of injection drug use, non-whites, and in patients with baseline CD4 counts <350 cells/mm(3.A 20-year-old HIV-positive adult on ART in the U.S. or Canada is expected to live into their early 70 s, a life expectancy approaching that of the general population. Differences by sex, race, HIV transmission risk group, and CD4 count remain.

  17. Explaining the Cross-National Time Series Variation in Life Expectancy: Income, Women’s Education, Shifts, and What Else?

    OpenAIRE

    Lant Pritchett; Martina Viarengo

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the variation across countries and evolution over time of life expectancy. Using historical data going back to the beginning of the 20th century several basic facts about the relationship between national income and life expectancy are established. The paper shows that even by examining the augmented Preston curve there is no indication that the Preston curve is “breaking down” and no indication from over 100 years of data that a very strong relationship between national i...

  18. Quality of Life and Psychosocial Adaptation to Chronic Illness and Disability: Preliminary Analysis of a Conceptual and Theoretical Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Malachy

    2005-01-01

    This article describes and presents an initial analysis of a quality-of-life?based model of psychosocial adaptation to chronic illness and disability. This model, termed disability centrality, represents a conceptual and theoretical synthesis of several existing theories and models, drawn from the quality-of life, rehabilitation counseling, and…

  19. 'Futureless persons': shifting life expectancies and the vicissitudes of progressive illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Barbara E; Zitzelsberger, Hilde; McKeever, Patricia

    2009-05-01

    Medical technological advances can have profound effects on people's lives by extending the life course and creating uncertain futures. This is the case for a number of persons with 'diseases of childhood' who can now survive well into adulthood with technological support. This paper draws on a Canadian qualitative study of young men with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD)which examined the effects of a shifting life expectancy on personal identities. Engaging with Pierre Bourdieu's central concept of habitus, we discuss the temporal dimensions of social exclusion and marginalised identities. Participants' narrative accounts revealed how their dispositions were orientated to a shortened lifespan that exerted damaging effects regardless of actual lifespan. Compounding their material, social and symbolic isolation was a temporal isolation whereby the men had lived every day anticipating that it could be their last for as much as a decade. The findings suggest a need to re-orient medical and social discourses to serve and include adults with DMD and other conditions previously limited to childhood in their communities.

  20. The Scandinavian Advantage: A Comparative Analysis of Life Expectancy at Birth in four European Countries during the 19th Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres, Catalina

    lower levels of living standards and a later introduction of improvements in medicine and sanitation. This study aims to illustrate the evolution of life expectancy at birth in four different countries (England and Wales 1841-1905, France 1816-1905, Norway 1846-1905, and Sweden 1800-1905) and in the 2nd......As a result of the health transition, there have been sustained gains in the average length of life (Vallin and Meslé 2009), starting as far as more than 150 years ago in some human populations. For instance, the maximum recorded levels of life expectancy at birth illustrate a linear increase since...... 1840 (Oeppen and Vaupel 2002). During the 19th century, some few countries occupied the top 1 and 2 positions in terms of life expectancy at birth (Fig. 1). In some of these countries, such as Norway and Sweden, the average length of life was longer compared to most other European populations, despite...

  1. The Impact of Higher Expectations in Math on the Perception of Achievement of High School Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybylinski, Vincent S., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    There exists a dearth of research on strategies that will help students with disabilities gain greater access to standards-based mathematics and close the mathematics achievement gap between general education students and students with disabilities (Browder et al., 2012; Jitendra, 2013; van Garderen, Scheuermann, Jackson, & Hampton, 2009).…

  2. Should schools expect poor physical and mental health, social adjustment, and participation outcomes in students with disability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Sharmila; Cordier, Reinie; Falkmer, Marita; Ciccarelli, Marina; Parsons, Richard; McAuliffe, Tomomi; Falkmer, Torbjorn

    2015-01-01

    The literature on whether students with disabilities have worse physical and mental health, social adjustment, and participation outcomes when compared to their peers without disabilities is largely inconclusive. While the majority of case control studies showed significantly worse outcomes for students with disabilities; the proportion of variance accounted for is rarely reported. The current study used a population cross-sectional approach to determine the classification ability of commonly used screening and outcome measures in determining the disability status. Furthermore, the study aimed to identify the variables, if any, that best predicted the presence of disability. Results of univariate discriminant function analyses suggest that across the board, the sensitivity of the outcome/screening tools to correctly identify students with a disability was 31.9% higher than the related Positive Predictive Value (PPV). The lower PPV and Positive Likelihood Ratio (LR+) scores suggest that the included measures had limited discriminant ability (17.6% to 40.3%) in accurately identifying students at-risk for further assessment. Results of multivariate analyses suggested that poor health and hyperactivity increased the odds of having a disability about two to three times, while poor close perceived friendship and academic competences predicted disability with roughly the same magnitude. Overall, the findings of the current study highlight the need for researchers and clinicians to familiarize themselves with the psychometric properties of measures, and be cautious in matching the function of the measures with their research and clinical needs.

  3. Physical activity types and life expectancy with and without cardiovascular disease: the Rotterdam Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhana, Klodian; Koolhaas, Chantal M; Berghout, Mathilde A; Peeters, Anna; Ikram, M Arfan; Tiemeier, Henning; Hofman, Albert; Nusselder, Wilma; Franco, Oscar H

    2017-12-01

    We aimed to determine the contribution of specific physical activity (PA) types (i.e. walking, cycling, domestic work, sports and gardening) on total life expectancy (LE) and LE with and without cardiovascular disease (CVD). We constructed multistate life tables to calculate the effects of total PA and PA types on LE, among individuals older than 55 years from the Rotterdam Study. For the life table calculations, we used sex-specific prevalences, incident rates and hazard ratios for three transitions (healthy-to-CVD, healthy-to-death and CVD-to-death) by levels of PA and adjusted for confounders. High total PA was associated with gains in total and CVD-free LE. High cycling contributed to higher total LE in men (3.7 years) and women (2.1 years) and higher LE without CVD in men (3.1 years) and women (2.4 years). Total and CVD-free LE were increased by high domestic work in women (2.6 and 2.4 years, respectively) and high gardening in men (2.7 and 2.0 years, respectively). Higher PA levels are associated with increased LE and more years lived without CVD. Of the different PA types, cycling provided high effects in both men and women. Cycling could be more strongly encouraged in activity guidelines to maximize the population benefits of PA. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  4. Life in Inclusive Classrooms: Storytelling with Disability Studies in Education. Occasional Paper Series 36

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Joseph Michael, Ed.; Danforth, Scot, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    This issue of the Occasional Papers Series aims to draw attention to the use of storytelling as a medium for provoking dialogue about inclusive classrooms and school communities. It offers readers stories of classroom life that provide insights into understanding the complexities that make up the lives of children with disabilities, their…

  5. Do iPad Applications Help Students with Developmental Disabilities Improve Life-Readiness Skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Michael; Barrio, Brenda; Hsiao, Yun-Ju

    2016-01-01

    Students with developmental disabilities often struggle with life-readiness skills (e.g., literacy skills such as reading and writing, task completion, and communication), which also help prepare students for the workplace. Assistive technology tools offer these students a means to do better in these areas. In this action-research study, we…

  6. Adapting and Evaluating a Tree of Life Group for Women with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randle-Phillips, Cathy; Farquhar, Sarah; Thomas, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study describes how a specific narrative therapy approach called 'the tree of life' was adapted to run a group for women with learning disabilities. The group consisted of four participants and ran for five consecutive weeks. Materials and Methods: Participants each constructed a tree to represent their lives and presented their…

  7. Who Am I? A Life Story Intervention for Persons With Intellectual Disability and Psychiatric Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, Gerben Johan; Beernink, Janny; Sools, Anna Maria

    2016-01-01

    This article describes an innovative intervention based on narrative and life review therapy that is tailored to people with intellectual disability (ID) and psychiatric problems. The current study provides a first evaluation of the intervention. A symptom checklist (SCL-90) was used in a pre- and

  8. 6. Disability and Quality Of Life among People Living With HIV AIDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Disability and Quality of Life among People Living. With HIV/AIDS in Ibadan, ... activities of daily living as well as challenges with. 7,8 ... infected individuals, their family and the society at large. ... Independence, Social Relationships, Environment ..... efavirenz on neuropsychological performance .... Acta paul. enferm. 2015 ...

  9. Operationalizing quality of life for people with profound multiple disabilities : a Delphi study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petry, K.; Maes, B.; Vlaskamp, C.

    Background: In a recent study, we constructed an item pool that contains items on the quality of life (QOL) and related aspects of support of people with profound multiple disabilities (PMD). In the present study, a panel of experts assessed the content and the structure of this item pool in order

  10. Transitions from School for Young Adults with Intellectual Disability: Parental Perspectives on "Life as an Adjustment"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Michael D.; Beamish, Wendi

    2009-01-01

    Background: Few studies have investigated transition programs and outcomes for young adults with disabilities as viewed from the parent perspective. The current Australian study provided a voice for parents to report on the experiences of and outcomes for young adults following their recent transition from school into post-school life. Method: A…

  11. Family Voices: Life for Family Carers of People with Intellectual Disabilities in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Darren D.; Mannan, Hasheem; Garcia Iriarte, Edurne; McConkey, Roy; O'Brien, Patricia; Finlay, Frieda; Lawlor, Anne; Harrington, Gerry

    2013-01-01

    Background: Families in Ireland remain the main providers of support for people with Intellectual disabilities, and the aim of this study was to map their life experiences whilst involving their family members as co-researchers. Materials and Method: This qualitative, participatory study involved 10 focus groups attended by 70 parents and siblings…

  12. Quality of Life Measurement and Its Use in the Field of Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefort, Shelley; Fraser, Mary

    2002-01-01

    This article examines issues in the measurement of quality of life (QOL) within the field of learning disabilities. Discussion considers objective and subjective measures, value-based and value-free approaches, and traditional versus participatory approaches. The issue of using self-reports or proxies to gather and measure QOL data is addressed. A…

  13. Involvement of nurses in end-of-life discussions for severely disabled children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaal-Schuller, I. H.; Willems, D. I.; Ewals, F.; van Goudoever, J. B.; de Vos, M. A.

    2018-01-01

    In children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD), discussions about end-of-life decisions (EoLDs) are comparatively common. Nurses play a crucial role in the care for these children, yet their involvement in EoLD discussions is largely unknown. The objective of this research

  14. Exploring the Everyday Life Information Needs, Practices, and Challenges of Emerging Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson-Baldauf, Dana

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation research addresses a gap in the library and information science literature on everyday life information (ELI) needs and experiences of emerging adults with intellectual disabilities (I/DD). Emerging adulthood refers to the period between the late teen years and mid-twenties. Although this is a period of significant change for all…

  15. Who Am I? A Life Story Intervention for Persons with Intellectual Disability and Psychiatric Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhof, Gerben J.; Beernink, Janny; Sools, Anneke

    2016-01-01

    This article describes an innovative intervention based on narrative and life review therapy that is tailored to people with intellectual disability (ID) and psychiatric problems. The current study provides a first evaluation of the intervention. A symptom checklist (SCL-90) was used in a pre- and post-follow-up design, and a qualitative…

  16. Life events and disability in rheumatoid arthritis : A European cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leymarie, F; Jolly, D; Sanderman, R.; Briancon, S; Marchant, A.-C; Cuillemin, F; Eschard, J.-P; Suurmeijer, Th.P.B.M.; Pointrinal, P

    1997-01-01

    The objective was to study the relationship between life events (LE) and the clinical status of patients suffering from recently diagnosed rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in a 2 yr follow-up. As part of a multicentre European cohort study, 370 French and Dutch patients were questioned three times at I yr

  17. Disability and quality of life of patients with rheumatoid arthritis: assessment and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stancati

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Functional disability and quality of life in rheumatoid arthritis (RA are key outcomes that determine patient’s demand for care, and influence their compliance and satisfaction with treatment. In the recent years the demand to collect outcome data is ever increasing as a means for the validation of quality care, and the development of effective outcome measures has become a major thrust of health research and has contributed to better understanding the relationship between outcomes and specific elements of health care. There are several disease-generic and specific instruments available that have proven valuable in outcome testing in RA. The first instruments provide a broad picture of health status across a range of conditions, whereas the latter are more sensitive to the disorder under consideration and are therefore more likely to reflect clinically important changes. When necessary, this kind of scales can be supplemented with specialised domain-specific scales (for the assessment of psychological well-being, social role functioning, or other. As in other fields, these measurement instruments mainly focus on: a clinical signs and symptoms (physiologic and biologic; b physical and/or cognitive functioning; c well-being and emotional functioning; d social functioning; e satisfaction with care and other personal constructs (life satisfaction, spirituality, etc.; f health-related quality of life (HRQOL. Over the past 20 years, there has been a better recognition of the patient’s point of view as an important component in the assessment of health care outcomes, and an increasing interest in HRQOL as an important area of research, due to the rising burden of chronic diseases, longer expectation of life, the growing number of health intervention alternatives, and greater emphasis on humanising health care. In addition, decision-making on issues of cost-effectiveness across health inputs and resource allocation across health programs is likely

  18. Subjective life expectancy and actual mortality: results of a 10‑year panel study among older workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Solinge, H.; Henkens, K.

    2017-01-01

    This research examined the judgemental process underlying subjective life expectancy (SLE) and the predictive value of SLE on actual mortality in older adults in the Netherlands. We integrated theoretical insights from life satisfaction research with existing models of SLE. Our model differentiates

  19. R-E-S-P-E-C-T: The Relationship Between Being Respected and Quality of Life of Disabled People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carli Friedman

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations exclaims "all human beings have the right to be treated with dignity and respect" (Annan, 2005, p. 34. Yet, disabled people have long been denied respect in the United States and have been subjected to disability oppression and ableism. For these reasons, the aim of this study was to explore the relationship between respect and disability, particularly respect's impact on the quality of life of disabled people. We had two research questions: (1. what factors predict disabled people being respected? and, (2. how does being respected impact the quality of life of disabled people? To explore these questions, we used secondary Personal Outcome Measures® data from approximately 1,500 disabled people; we analyzed this data to examine relationships between disabled people's interpretations of feeling and being respected, and their quality of life. Our findings revealed being respected had a significant impact on every area of ones' quality of life. Problematically, this also included areas which should be considered non-negotiable fundamental human and civil rights, that should not depend on if, and how, people respect disabled people. While the attitudes underlying the disrespect of disabled people are harmful and problematic, human and civil rights should be inalienable – ones' access to exercise their rights, to safety, to health, and to many other domains should not depend on others' attitudes about, and treatment toward, you.

  20. Life satisfaction in patients with chronic pain – relation to pain intensity, disability, and psychological factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stålnacke BM

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Britt-Marie StålnackeDepartment of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Umeå University, Umeå, SwedenAims: To investigate pain intensity, posttraumatic stress, depression, anxiety, disability, and life satisfaction in patients with injury-related chronic pain and to analyze differences in these variables regarding gender.Methods: Questionnaires addressing pain intensity (visual analogue scale [VAS], anxiety and depression (hospital anxiety and depression [HAD] scale, posttraumatic stress (impact of event scale, disability (disability rating index, and life satisfaction [LiSat-11] were answered by 160 patients at assessment at the Pain Rehabilitation Clinic at the Umeå University Hospital (Umeå, Sweden.Results: High level of pain intensity was scored on the VAS (mean value 64.5 ± 21.1 mm together with high levels of anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress. Activity limitations in everyday life and decreased life satisfaction were reported, especially on the items physical health and psychological health. A multivariate logistic regression model showed a statistically significant association between low scores on the overall life satisfaction on LiSat-11 and high scores on HAD-depression (odds ratio = 1.141, confidence interval 1.014–1.285. Few gender differences were found.Conclusion: These findings highlight the value of a broad screening in patients with injury-related chronic pain with respect to the relationship of life satisfaction with pain intensity, anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress, and disability. In addition, these findings support the biopsychosocial approach to assess and treat these patients optimally.Keywords: whiplash injuries, depression, quality of life

  1. Tying it all together: telomeres, sexual size dimorphism and the gender gap in life expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stindl, Reinhard

    2004-01-01

    The classic explanation that women outlive men solely due to hormonal and lifestyle differences, does not withstand a critical analysis. In developed countries, the average gap in life expectancy between the sexes is 7 years. It has widened over the last decades, despite the trend of women copying the 'unhealthy' lifestyle of men. Estrogen levels in postmenopausal women are virtually identical to estrogen levels in males and can hardly explain the discrepancy. Furthermore, testosterone got its bad reputation from one study on mentally retarded men, which has to be interpreted with caution. However, sexual size dimorphism with men being the larger sex in conjunction with the limited replication potential of human somatic cells might account for higher mortality rates in males, especially at old age. The hypothesis, as presented here, is based on the well-known concept of a cellular mitotic clock, which was discovered by Leonard Hayflick almost half a century ago. The underlying counting mechanism, namely the gradual erosion of chromosome ends (telomeres) due to the end replication problem of linear DNA molecules, was first described by Alexey Olovnikov in 1971 and with minor modifications has become a widely accepted paradigm. In a recent Lancet study, an inverse correlation between mean telomere length and mortality in people has been found. In this and two other studies, it was confirmed that males do have shorter telomeres than females at the same age. This is almost certainly a consequence of men being usually taller than women, although nobody has done an investigation yet. Clearly, a larger body requires more cell doublings, especially due to the ongoing regeneration of tissues over a lifetime. Accordingly, the replicative history of male cells might be longer than that of female cells, resulting in the exhaustion of the regeneration potential and the early onset of age-associated diseases predominantly in large-bodied males. Inherited telomere length

  2. Prediction of expected years of life using whole-genome markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo de los Campos

    Full Text Available Genetic factors are believed to account for 25% of the interindividual differences in Years of Life (YL among humans. However, the genetic loci that have thus far been found to be associated with YL explain a very small proportion of the expected genetic variation in this trait, perhaps reflecting the complexity of the trait and the limitations of traditional association studies when applied to traits affected by a large number of small-effect genes. Using data from the Framingham Heart Study and statistical methods borrowed largely from the field of animal genetics (whole-genome prediction, WGP, we developed a WGP model for the study of YL and evaluated the extent to which thousands of genetic variants across the genome examined simultaneously can be used to predict interindividual differences in YL. We find that a sizable proportion of differences in YL--which were unexplained by age at entry, sex, smoking and BMI--can be accounted for and predicted using WGP methods. The contribution of genomic information to prediction accuracy was even higher than that of smoking and body mass index (BMI combined; two predictors that are considered among the most important life-shortening factors. We evaluated the impacts of familial relationships and population structure (as described by the first two marker-derived principal components and concluded that in our dataset population structure explained partially, but not fully the gains in prediction accuracy obtained with WGP. Further inspection of prediction accuracies by age at death indicated that most of the gains in predictive ability achieved with WGP were due to the increased accuracy of prediction of early mortality, perhaps reflecting the ability of WGP to capture differences in genetic risk to deadly diseases such as cancer, which are most often responsible for early mortality in our sample.

  3. Correlates of healthy life expectancy in low- and lower-middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Shariful; Mondal, Md Nazrul Islam; Tareque, Md Ismail; Rahman, Md Aminur; Hoque, Md Nazrul; Ahmed, Md Munsur; Khan, Hafiz T A

    2018-04-11

    Healthy life expectancy (HALE) at birth is an important indicator of health status and quality of life of a country's population. However, little is known about the determinants of HALE as yet globally or even country-specific level. Thus, we examined the factors that are associated with HALE at birth in low- and lower-middle-income countries. In accordance with the World Bank (WB) classification seventy-nine low- and lower-middle-income countries were selected for the study. Data on HALE, demographic, socioeconomic, social structural, health, and environmental factors from several reliable sources, such as the World Health Organization, the United Nations Development Program, Population Reference Bureau, WB, Heritage Foundation, Transparency International, Freedom House, and International Center for Prison Studies were obtained as selected countries. Descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, and regression analysis were performed to reach the research objectives. The lowest and highest HALE were observed in Sierra Leone (44.40 years) and in Sri Lanka (67.00 years), respectively. The mean years of schooling, total fertility rate (TFR), physician density, gross national income per capita, health expenditure, economic freedom, carbon dioxide emission rate, freedom of the press, corruption perceptions index, prison population rate, and achieving a level of health-related millennium development goals (MDGs) were revealed as the correlates of HALE. Among all the correlates, the mean years of schooling, TFR, freedom of the press, and achieving a level of health-related MDGs were found to be the most influential factors. To increase the HALE in low- and lower-middle-income countries, we suggest that TFR is to be reduced as well as to increase the mean years of schooling, freedom of the press, and the achievement of a level of health-related MDGs.

  4. How to determine life expectancy change of air pollution mortality: a time series study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chau PYK

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on life expectancy (LE change is of great concern for policy makers, as evidenced by discussions of the "harvesting" (or "mortality displacement" issue, i.e. how large an LE loss corresponds to the mortality results of time series (TS studies. Whereas loss of LE attributable to chronic air pollution exposure can be determined from cohort studies, using life table methods, conventional TS studies have identified only deaths due to acute exposure, during the immediate past (typically the preceding one to five days, and they provide no information about the LE loss per death. Methods We show how to obtain information on population-average LE loss by extending the observation window (largest "lag" of TS to include a sufficient number of "impact coefficients" for past exposures ("lags". We test several methods for determining these coefficients. Once all of the coefficients have been determined, the LE change is calculated as time integral of the relative risk change after a permanent step change in exposure. Results The method is illustrated with results for daily data of non-accidental mortality from Hong Kong for 1985 - 2005, regressed against PM10 and SO2 with observation windows up to 5 years. The majority of the coefficients is statistically significant. The magnitude of the SO2 coefficients is comparable to those for PM10. But a window of 5 years is not sufficient and the results for LE change are only a lower bound; it is consistent with what is implied by other studies of long term impacts. Conclusions A TS analysis can determine the LE loss, but if the observation window is shorter than the relevant exposures one obtains only a lower bound.

  5. [Profiles of resilience and quality of life in people with acquired disability due to traffic accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriá Martínez, Raquel

    2015-09-01

    To identify distinct profiles of resilience in people with spinal cord injuries due to traffic accidents and to determine whether the profiles identified are related to differences in subjective well-being. The Resilience Scale (Wagnild and Young, 1993) and an adapted quality of life scale (GENCAT) were administered to 98 people with physical disabilities due to traffic accidents. Cluster analyses identified three different resilience profiles: a high-resilience group, a low-resilience group, and a group showing a predominance of high scores in self and life acceptance and social competence. The results also revealed statistically significant differences among profiles in most domains of subjective well-being. The results suggest the need to study resilience in greater depth and to design programs to enhance quality of life among people with disabilities due to traffic accidents. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Life expectancy and years of life lost in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Findings from the NHANES III Follow-up Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M Shavelle

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Robert M Shavelle1, David R Paculdo1, Scott J Kush1, David M Mannino2, David J Strauss11Life Expectancy Project, San Francisco, CA, USA; 2Pulmonary Epidemiology Research Laboratory, University of Kentucky School of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Lexington, KY, USARationale: Previous studies have demonstrated that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD causes increased mortality in the general population. But life expectancy and the years of life lost have not been reported.Objectives: To quantify mortality, examine how it varies with age, sex, and other risk factors, and determine how life expectancy is affected.Methods: We constructed mortality models using the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, adjusting for age, sex, race, and major medical conditions. We used these to compute life expectancy and the years of life lost. Measurements and main results: Pulmonary function testing classifi ed patients as having Global Initiative on Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD stage 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4 COPD or restriction. COPD is associated with only a modest reduction in life expectancy for never smokers, but with a very large reduction for current and former smokers. At age 65, the reductions in male life expectancy for stage 1, stage 2, and stages 3 or 4 disease in current smokers are 0.3 years, 2.2 years, and 5.8 years. These are in addition to the 3.5 years lost due to smoking. In former smokers the reductions are 1.4 years and 5.6 years for stage 2 and stages 3 or 4 disease, and in never smokers they are 0.7 and 1.3 years.Conclusions: Persons with COPD have an increased risk of mortality compared to those who do not, with consequent reduction in life expectancy. The effect is most marked in current smokers, and this is further reason for smokers to quit.Keywords: survival, mortality, longevity, COPD

  7. Optimizing life success through residential immersive life skills programs for youth with disabilities: study protocol of a mixed-methods, prospective, comparative cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Amy C; King, Gillian; Rudzik, Alanna; Kingsnorth, Shauna; Gorter, Jan Willem

    2016-09-06

    Young people with disabilities often lag behind their typically developing peers in the achievement of adult roles, which has been attributed to a lack of opportunities to develop critical life skills. Residential Immersive Life Skills (RILS) programs provide situated learning opportunities to develop life skills alongside peers and away from home in real-world settings. Retrospective research suggests that attending RILS programs is a transformative experience that empowers youth, provides parental hope, and increases service provider expertise. However, prospective, comparative research is needed to determine longer term benefits of these programs on youth life trajectories, in addition to exploring the program features and participant experiences that optimize program success. This protocol describes a 5-year, multi-site prospective study examining the effects of RILS programs for youth with disabilities. The study involves RILS programs at three sites in Ontario, Canada. Cohorts of treatment and control groups will receive the study protocol over 3 successive years. Thirty English-speaking participants aged 14-21 years with a child-onset disability and the cognitive capacity to engage in goal setting will be recruited every year for 3 years in the following groups: youth attending a RILS program (Group A); a deferred RILS control group of youth (Group B); a control group of youth attending a non-residential life skills program (Group C); and a control group matched on age, diagnoses, and cognitive capacity not receiving any life skills intervention (Group D). All participants will complete measures of self-determination and self-efficacy at four time points. Program opportunities and experiences will also be assessed in-the-moment at the RILS programs. Qualitative interviews pre-program and at 3- and 12-months post-program will be undertaken with a sub-sample of youth and parents to explore their expectations and experiences. This study will address key gaps

  8. Cost per quality-adjusted life year and disability-adjusted life years: the need for a new paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevan, Gwyn; Hollinghurst, Sandra

    2003-08-01

    Two different paradigms have been proposed for setting priorities for access to healthcare: cost per quality-adjusted life year based on interventions, and disability-adjusted life years based on the burden of disease in a population. These formal paradigms make explicit the assumptions made implicitly every day in delivering and hence rationing access to healthcare. This paper outlines each paradigm's methodological problems and argues that each paradigm is incomplete in terms of providing the information necessary for making budgetary decisions on healthcare. It argues that a scientific revolution is required to create a new paradigm by combining the strengths of each.

  9. Disability, psychiatric symptoms, and quality of life in infertile women: a cross-sectional study in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezgin, Hacer; Hocaoglu, Cicek; Guvendag-Guven, Emine Seda

    2016-04-25

    Infertility is a major life crisis which can lead to the development of psychiatric symptoms and negative effects on the quality of life of affected couples, but the magnitude of the effects may vary depending on cultural expectations. We compare the level of psychiatric symptoms, disability, and quality of life in fertile and infertile women in urban Turkey. This cross-sectional study enrolled 100 married women being treated for infertility at the outpatient department of the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of the Rize Education and Research Hospital and a control group of 100 fertile married women. All study participants were evaluated with a socio-demographic data screening form, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Brief Disability Questionnaire (BDQ), and the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). The mean anxiety subscale score and depression subscale score of HADS were slightly higher in the infertile group than in controls, but the differences were not statistically significant. The proportion of subjects with clinically significant anxiety (i.e., anxiety subscale score of HADS ≥11) was significantly higher in infertile women than in fertile women (31% v. 17%, χ (2)=5.37, p=0.020), but the proportion with clinically significant depressive symptoms (i.e., depression subscale score of HADS >8) was not significantly different (43% v. 33%, χ (2)=2.12, p=0.145). Self-reported disability over the prior month was significantly worse in the infertile group than in the controls, and 4 of the 8 subscales of the SF-36 - general health, vitality, social functioning, and mental health - were significantly worse in the infertile group. Compared to infertile women who were currently working, infertile women who were not currently working reported less severe depression and anxiety and better general health, vitality, and mental health. Married women from urban Turkey seeking treatment for infertility do not have significantly more severe depressive

  10. Calculating expected years of life lost for assessing local ethnic disparities in causes of premature death

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    Katcher Brian S

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A core function of local health departments is to conduct health assessments. The analysis of death certificates provides information on diseases, conditions, and injuries that are likely to cause death – an important outcome indicator of population health. The expected years of life lost (YLL measure is a valid, stand-alone measure for identifying and ranking the underlying causes of premature death. The purpose of this study was to rank the leading causes of premature death among San Francisco residents, and to share detailed methods so that these analyses can be used in other local health jurisdictions. Methods Using death registry data and population estimates for San Francisco deaths in 2003–2004, we calculated the number of deaths, YLL, and age-standardized YLL rates (ASYRs. The results were stratified by sex, ethnicity, and underlying cause of death. The YLL values were used to rank the leading causes of premature death for men and women, and by ethnicity. Results In the years 2003–2004, 6312 men died (73,627 years of life lost, and 5726 women died (51,194 years of life lost. The ASYR for men was 65% higher compared to the ASYR for women (8971.1 vs. 5438.6 per 100,000 persons per year. The leading causes of premature deaths are those with the largest average YLLs and are largely preventable. Among men, these were HIV/AIDS, suicide, drug overdose, homicide, and alcohol use disorder; and among women, these were lung cancer, breast cancer, hypertensive heart disease, colon cancer, and diabetes mellitus. A large health disparity exists between African Americans and other ethnic groups: African American age-adjusted overall and cause-specific YLL rates were higher, especially for homicide among men. Except for homicide among Latino men, Latinos and Asians have comparable or lower YLL rates among the leading causes of death compared to whites. Conclusion Local death registry data can be used to measure, rank, and

  11. The Contribution of Smoking to Educational Gradients in U.S. Life Expectancy*

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    Ho, Jessica Y.; Fenelon, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have documented widening educational gradients in mortality in the United States since the 1970s. While smoking has been proposed as a key explanation for this trend, no prior study has quantified the contribution of smoking to increasing education gaps in longevity. We estimate the contribution of smoking to educational gradients in life expectancy using data on white men and women aged 50 and above from the National Longitudinal Mortality Study (N=283,430; 68,644 deaths) and the National Health Interview Survey (N=584,811; 127,226 deaths) in five periods covering the 1980s to 2006. In each period, smoking makes an important contribution to education gaps in longevity for white men and women. Smoking accounts for half the increase in the gap for white women but does not explain the widening gap for white men in the most recent period. Addressing greater initiation and continued smoking among the less educated may reduce mortality inequalities. PMID:26199287

  12. The life expectancy gap between North and South Korea from 1993 to 2008.

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    Bahk, Jinwook; Ezzati, Majid; Khang, Young-Ho

    2018-03-12

    Comparative research on health outcomes in North and South Korea offers a unique opportunity to explore political and social determinants of health. We examined the age- and cause-specific contributions to the life expectancy (LE) gap between the two Koreas. We calculated the LE at birth in 1993 and 2008 among North and South Koreans, and cause-specific contributions to the LE discrepancy between the two Koreas in 2008. The cause-specific mortality data from South Korea were used as proxies for the cause-specific mortality data in North Korea in 2008. The LE gap between the two Koreas was approximately 1 year in 1993, but grew to approximately 10 years in 2008. This discrepancy was attributable to increased gaps in mortality among children younger than 1 year and adults 55 years of age or older. The major causes of the increased LE gap were circulatory diseases, digestive diseases, infant mortality, external causes, cancers and infectious diseases. This study underscores the urgency of South Korean and international humanitarian aid programs to reduce the mortality rate of the North Korean people.

  13. The effect of regional politics on regional life expectancy in Italy (1980-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Marcel F; D'Ippolito, Edoardo; Eikemo, Terje A; Congdon, Peter D; Nante, Nicola; Mackenbach, Johan P; Kamphuis, Carlijn B M

    2017-03-01

    The evidence on the association between politics and health is scarce considering the importance of this topic for population health. Studies that investigated the effect of different political regimes on health outcomes show inconsistent results. Bayesian time-series cross-section analyses are used to examine the overall impact of regional politics on variations in Italian regional life expectancy (LE) at birth during the period 1980-2010. Our analyses control for trends in and unobserved determinants of regional LE, correct for temporal as well as spatial autocorrelation, and employ a flexible specification for the timing of the political effects. In the period from 1980 to 1995, we find no evidence that the communist, left-oriented coalitions and Christian Democratic, centre-oriented coalitions have had an effect on regional LE. In the period from 1995 onwards, after a major reconfiguration of Italy's political regimes and a major healthcare reform, we again find no evidence that the Centre-Left and Centre-Right coalitions have had a significant impact on regional LE. The presented results provide no support for the notion that different regional political regimes in Italy have had a differential effect on regional LE, even though Italian regions have had considerable and increasing autonomy over healthcare and health-related policies and expenditures.

  14. Factors Associated with Life Expectancy in Patients with Metastatic Spine Disease from Adenocarcinoma of the Lung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, C. Rory; Khattab, Mohamed H.; Sankey, Eric W.; Elder, Benjamin D.; Kosztowski, Thomas A.; Sarabia-Estrada, Rachel; Bydon, Ali; Witham, Timothy F.; Wolinsky, Jean-Paul; Gokaslan, Ziya L.; Sciubba, Daniel M.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective study. Objective Our objective was to identify preoperative prognostic factors associated with survival in patients with spinal metastasis from lung carcinoma. Methods A retrospective analysis of 26 patients diagnosed with lung carcinoma metastatic to the spinal column was performed to determine factors associated with survival. We used 3 months survival as the clinical cutoff for whether surgical intervention should be performed. We analyzed patients who survived less than 3 months compared with those who survived more than 3 months. Demographic, preoperative, operative, and postoperative factors including functional scores were collected for analysis. Results The median survival for all patients in our study was 3.5 months. We found a statistically significant difference between the group that survived less than 3 months and the group that survived greater than 3 months in terms of extrathoracic metastasis, visceral metastasis, and average postoperative modified Rankin score. Conclusion Determining which patients with lung cancer spinal metastases will benefit from surgical intervention is often dictated by the patient's predicted life expectancy. Factors associated with poorer prognosis include age, functional status, visceral metastases, and extrathoracic metastases. Although the prognosis for patients with lung cancer spinal metastases is poor, some patients may experience long-term benefit from surgical intervention. PMID:26430597

  15. Obesidad y Esperanza de Vida en México Obesity and life expectancy in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteverde, Malena; Novak, Beatriz

    2008-01-01

    The high and increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in Latin American and the Caribbean and the increasing prevalence of some obesity-related chronic diseases could be changing the current mortality patterns and the improvements in life expectancy of this population. The main objective of this study is to measure the effect of overweight and obesity on mortality in Mexico among elderly people (60 years and older). We use the Mexican Health and Ageing Study (MHAS, 2001 and 2003) that is a panel nationally-representative study of the population 50 years and older in Mexico. Our results show that excess body weight (defined by the two highest quintiles of Body Mass Index-BMI-) increases the risk of mortality at 60 years and older in Mexico. As much as 11% of the deaths among elderly that occurred during the period 2001-2003 in Mexico would have been avoided if overweight and obese people (individuals belonging to the highest two quintiles of BMI) had had the "ideal" weight (defined by the middle quintile, or third quintile, of BMI). At individual level, we estimate that individuals 60 years old with excess body weight (fourth and fifth quintiles of BMI) survive four years less, in average, than individuals with normal body weight (third quintile of BMI).

  16. Injury, disability and quality of life after the 2009 earthquake in Padang, Indonesia: a prospective cohort study of adult survivors

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    Mondastri K. Sudaryo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: On 30 September 2009, a 7.6 magnitude earthquake severely hit the coast of Padang city in West Sumatra, Indonesia leaving about 1,117 people dead and injuring another 3,515. Health consequences such as physical injury, co-morbidity, disability and quality of life over time are seldom reported among survivors after earthquakes. Objectives: To investigate the associations between injury, disability and quality of life amongst adult survivors in Padang city after the 2009 earthquake.Design/Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted to compare adult injured (184 and adult non-injured (93 subjects over a 6-month period. Data on physical injury, co-morbidities, disability and quality of life were collected through interviews and measured quantitatively in three phases, i.e. at baseline, end of 3 and 6 months. Results: Disability scores were consistently and significantly higher among injured subjects compared to non-injured, even when adjusted for co-morbidities (i.e. acute symptoms and chronic diseases. The highest disability score amongst injured subjects was attributed to ‘feeling discomfort/pain’. Quality of life attribute (QLA scores, were significantly lower amongst injured people as compared to those non-injured even when adjusted for co-morbidities. The lowest QLA item score amongst the injured was ‘pain, depression and anxiety’. Significant and consistent negative correlations were found between disability and QLA scores in both the injured and non-injured groups. Conclusion: Physical injury is significantly correlated with both higher disability and lower quality of life, while disability has significant negative correlation with quality of life. The findings suggest that, through disability, injury may contribute to decreased quality of life. It is therefore recommended to promptly and adequately treat injuries after disasters to prevent any potential for disability and hence restore quality of life.

  17. Evaluation of the late life disability instrument in the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders Pilot (LIFE-P) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Fang-Chi; Rejeski, W Jack; Ip, Edward H; Katula, Jeff A; Fielding, Roger; Jette, Alan M; Studenski, Stephanie A; Blair, Steven N; Miller, Michael E

    2010-10-06

    The late life disability instrument (LLDI) was developed to assess limitations in instrumental and management roles using a small and restricted sample. In this paper we examine the measurement properties of the LLDI using data from the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders Pilot (LIFE-P) study. LIFE-P participants, aged 70-89 years, were at elevated risk of disability. The 424 participants were enrolled at the Cooper Institute, Stanford University, University of Pittsburgh, and Wake Forest University. Physical activity and successful aging health education interventions were compared after 12-months of follow-up. Using factor analysis, we determined whether the LLDI's factor structure was comparable with that reported previously. We further examined how each item related to measured disability using item response theory (IRT). The factor structure for the limitation domain within the LLDI in the LIFE-P study did not corroborate previous findings. However, the factor structure using the abbreviated version was supported. Social and personal role factors were identified. IRT analysis revealed that each item in the social role factor provided a similar level of information, whereas the items in the personal role factor tended to provide different levels of information. Within the context of community-based clinical intervention research in aged populations, an abbreviated version of the LLDI performed better than the full 16-item version. In addition, the personal subscale would benefit from additional research using IRT. The protocol of LIFE-P is consistent with the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki and is registered at http://www.ClinicalTrials.gov (registration # NCT00116194).

  18. Evaluation of the late life disability instrument in the lifestyle interventions and independence for elders pilot (LIFE-P study

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    Blair Steven N

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The late life disability instrument (LLDI was developed to assess limitations in instrumental and management roles using a small and restricted sample. In this paper we examine the measurement properties of the LLDI using data from the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders Pilot (LIFE-P study. Methods LIFE-P participants, aged 70-89 years, were at elevated risk of disability. The 424 participants were enrolled at the Cooper Institute, Stanford University, University of Pittsburgh, and Wake Forest University. Physical activity and successful aging health education interventions were compared after 12-months of follow-up. Using factor analysis, we determined whether the LLDI's factor structure was comparable with that reported previously. We further examined how each item related to measured disability using item response theory (IRT. Results The factor structure for the limitation domain within the LLDI in the LIFE-P study did not corroborate previous findings. However, the factor structure using the abbreviated version was supported. Social and personal role factors were identified. IRT analysis revealed that each item in the social role factor provided a similar level of information, whereas the items in the personal role factor tended to provide different levels of information. Conclusions Within the context of community-based clinical intervention research in aged populations, an abbreviated version of the LLDI performed better than the full 16-item version. In addition, the personal subscale would benefit from additional research using IRT. Trial registration The protocol of LIFE-P is consistent with the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki and is registered at http://www.ClinicalTrials.gov (registration # NCT00116194.

  19. How did national life expectation related to school years in developing countries - an approach using panel data mining.

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    Jian, Wen-Shan; Huang, Chen-Ling; Iqbal, Usman; Nguyen, Phung-Anh; Hsiao, George; Li, Hsien-Chang

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to probe into the changes in life expectancy associated with schooling years found by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). The study was based on the OECD database from the period 2000 to 2006. The data of thirty countries were constructed to allow comparisons over time and across these countries. Panel data analysis was used to estimate the relationship of national education, as defined as school years, with life expectancy. The control factors considered were numbers of practicing physicians, practicing nurses, hospital beds, and GDP. We used fixed effects of both country and time through linear regression, the coefficient of school years in relation to life expectancy was statistically significant but negative. This finding is not in accord with the hypothesis that investing in human capital through education stimulates better health outcomes. Within developing countries, educational attainment is no longer keeping the same pace with life expectancy as before. Therefore, we suggest that an effective education policy should cover diverse topics, for example, balancing economic growth and mental hygiene, to improve national life expectancy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Homicides In Mexico Reversed Life Expectancy Gains For Men And Slowed Them For Women, 2000–10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aburto, José Manuel; Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram; García-Guerrero, Victor Manuel; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Life expectancy in Mexico increased for more than six decades but then stagnated in the period 2000–10. This decade was characterized by the enactment of a major health care reform—the implementation of the Seguro Popular de Salud (Popular Health Insurance), which was intended to provide coverage to the entire Mexican population—and by an unexpected increase in homicide mortality. We assessed the impact on life expectancy of conditions amenable to medical service—those sensitive to public health policies and changes in behaviors, homicide, and diabetes—by analyzing mortality trends at the state level. We found that life expectancy among males deteriorated from 2005 to 2010, compared to increases from 2000 to 2005. Females in most states experienced small gains in life expectancy between 2000 and 2010. The unprecedented rise in homicides after 2005 led to a reversal in life expectancy increases among males and a slowdown among females in most states in the first decade of the twenty-first century. PMID:26733705

  1. Homicides In Mexico Reversed Life Expectancy Gains For Men And Slowed Them For Women, 2000-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aburto, José Manuel; Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram; García-Guerrero, Victor Manuel; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Life expectancy in Mexico increased for more than six decades but then stagnated in the period 2000-10. This decade was characterized by the enactment of a major health care reform-the implementation of the Seguro Popular de Salud (Popular Health Insurance), which was intended to provide coverage to the entire Mexican population-and by an unexpected increase in homicide mortality. We assessed the impact on life expectancy of conditions amenable to medical service-those sensitive to public health policies and changes in behaviors, homicide, and diabetes-by analyzing mortality trends at the state level. We found that life expectancy among males deteriorated from 2005 to 2010, compared to increases from 2000 to 2005. Females in most states experienced small gains in life expectancy between 2000 and 2010. The unprecedented rise in homicides after 2005 led to a reversal in life expectancy increases among males and a slowdown among females in most states in the first decade of the twenty-first century. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  2. Impact of Organized Sports on Activity, Participation, and Quality of Life in People With Neurologic Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlin, K Barbara; Lexell, Jan

    2015-10-01

    Physical activity and exercise is the mainstay of chronic disease prevention and health maintenance for all people with and without a disability, and clear evidence exists of the benefits among various populations with neurologic disabilities. However, the potential benefits of organized sports for people with neurologic disabilities are not as well explored. In this narrative review, current evidence regarding the impact of organized sports on activity, participation, and quality of life in people with neurologic disabilities of all ages is summarized, and facilitators of and barriers to participation in sports for this population are discussed. The articles reviewed were divided into 2 sets: (1) children and adolescents and (2) adults. The subjects of almost all of the studies were persons with a spinal cord injury. Children and adolescents with a disability who engaged in sports reported self-concept scores close to those of able-bodied athletes, as well as higher levels of physical activity. Adults with a spinal cord injury who engaged in organized sports reported decreased depression and anxiety, increased life satisfaction, and increased opportunity for gainful employment compared with nonathletic persons with disabilities. General facilitators, regardless of age, were fitness, fun, health, competence, and social aspects, whereas overall barriers were lack of or inappropriate medical advice and facilities, decreased self-esteem, poor finances, dependency on others, and views held by others. The importance of this topic for further research is highlighted, and suggestions for future studies are proposed. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Oral health-related quality of life of Portuguese adults with mild intellectual disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo Almeida; Nunes, Manuel; Mendes, Rui Amaral

    2018-01-01

    Individuals with disabilities are regarded as a highly vulnerable population group, particularly as far as oral health is concern. However, few studies have assessed the impact of the oral condition on the quality of life of these individuals. Therefore, the aim of this study is to expand knowledge on the oral health status of the Portuguese adults with mild intellectual disability, and to assess how the patient’s oral health is related to their quality of life. A sample of 240 adults with mild intellectual disabilities linked to the Portuguese Federation for Intellectual Disability, were interviewed using a previously validated version of the Oral Health Impact Profile. An oral health examination was also conducted using three oral health indexes: Clinical Oral Health Index (COHI); Clinical Oral Care Needs Index (COCNI) and the Clinical Oral Prevention Index (COPI). Sociodemographic characteristics and dental health factors were also collected, following statistical analysis. More than half of the individuals (54,9%) presented one or more problems of major to severe impact on health (COHI level 2); only 4,6% of the individuals do not need treatment or examination (COCNI level 0) and 85% of the study sample needs measures of educational or preventive action (COPI level 1). In 76,9% of the participants, oral health had impact on the quality of life. The most affected dimensions of life were physical pain with 61,9%, followed by psychological discomfort and psychological disability with 45,1% and 45%, respectively. With relation to oral health factors and sociodemographic variables it was verified that fewer teeth and higher self-perception of need for dental treatment had a negative impact on the quality of life. On the other hand, institutionalization and an increase in at least one category in the self-perception of the oral health status had a positive impact on the quality of life. Given the high burden of oral disease and the considerable impact on quality of

  4. "It's not everyday that parents get a chance to talk like this": Exploring parents' perceptions and expectations of speech-language pathology services for children with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Clare

    2010-08-01

    Tailoring the delivery of disability services to the preferences and requirements of service users allows for more effective partnerships. The aim of this research was to explore parents' perceptions and the expectations of their child's speech-language pathology (SLP) within an intellectual disability service. Parents of school-aged children with intellectual disability who received a SLP service in Ireland participated in the research: 17 parents participated in focus groups and 103 parents answered questionnaires. The core themes from the focus groups, which subsequently informed the questionnaire design, were: experience of the SLP service, communication difficulties, expectations of the SLP service, and future developments. The key questionnaire results indicated that parents viewed their SLP as the "expert" and viewed school-based and clinic-based services differently. Parents were more likely to believe that their child would always need therapy if they received a school-based service. Whereas, parents were more likely to think that their child's speech was improving as they got older and were more likely to be aware of therapy activities if therapy was clinic-based. The findings have implications for the delivery of SLP services suggesting that clarification of parents' roles and expectations are required.

  5. Narrowing sex differences in life expectancy: regional variations, 1971-1991

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    Trovato, Frank

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishA number of industrialized nations have recently experienced some degrees ofconstriction in their long-standing sex differentials in life expectancy at birth. In this study weexamine this phenomenon in the context of Canada's regions between 1971 and 1991: Atlantic(Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island; Quebec, Ontario, and the West(Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, British Columbia, Yukon and Northwest Territories. Decompositionanalysis based on multiple decrement life tables is applied to address three questions: (1 Are thereregional differentials in the degree of narrowing in the sex gap in life expectancy? (2 What is therelative contribution of major causes of death to observed sex differences in average length of lifewithin and across regions? (3 How do the contributions of cause-of-death components vary acrossregions to either widen or narrow the sex gap in survival? It is shown that the magnitude of the sexgap is not uniform across the regions, though the differences are not large. The most importantcontributors to a narrowing of the sex gap in life expectancy are heart disease and external types ofmortality (i.e., accidents, violence, and suicide, followed by lung cancer and other types of chronicconditions. In substantive terms these results indicate that over time men have been making sufficientgains in these causes of death as to narrow some of the gender gap in overall survival. Regions showsimilarity in these effects.FrenchCertains pays industrialisés viennent de vivre quelques constrictions dans ladifférentielle sexuelle de l'espérance de vie à la naissance. Dans cette étude,nous examinons ce phénomène dans le contexte des régions canadiennes entre1971 et 1991 : région atlantique (Terre-Neuve, Nouvelle-Écosse, Nouveau-Brunswick, île du Prince-Édouard ; le Québec, l'Ontario et l'Ouest (Manitoba,Saskatchewan, Alberta, Colombie-Britannique, Yukon et les Territoires duNord-Ouest. L'analyse de

  6. Factors Associated with Pain, Disability and Quality of Life in Patients Suffering from Frozen Shoulder

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    Farshid Bagheri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Frozen shoulder is resulting in limb disability and reduction of quality of life but the factors associated with patients’ disability and quality of life is not clear. To assess pain, disability, the quality of life and factors associated with them in patients suffering from frozen shoulder.  Methods: We enrolled 120 patients (37 men and 83 women with phase-II idiopathic frozen shoulder in our cross-sectional study. Demographic data were collected and shoulder range of motion was measured in four different directions (elevation, abduction, external and internal rotation in both upper limbs. Patients were asked to fill out Visual Analog Scale for pain (VAS and, Short-Form Health Survey questionnaire (SF-36 as well as Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH questionnaires. We asked the patients to fill out the Hamilton anxiety and depression questionnaires. Results: The mean of VAS pain, DASH, PCS, and MCS scores were 69(18, 53(17, 35(8.0, and 42(10 respectively. All the domains of SF36 questionnaires where below the normal population except physical function. VAS pain score was correlated to Hamilton depression scores in both bivariate and mulivarilable analysis. DASH score were correlated to sex, age, ROM, and both Hamilton anxiety and depression scores; However, DASH score only impact with Hamilton anxiety and ROM independently. PCS is correlated to age and MCS to Hamilton depression. Conclusion: Patient with frozen shoulder are more suffering from pain and disability secondary to psychiatric parameters such as depression and anxiety than demographic features or even restriction of range of motion.

  7. Life expectancy of colon, breast, and testicular cancer patients: an analysis of US-SEER population-based data.

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    Capocaccia, R; Gatta, G; Dal Maso, L

    2015-06-01

    Cancer survivorship is an increasingly important issue in cancer control. Life expectancy of patients diagnosed with breast, colon, and testicular cancers, stratified by age at diagnosis and time since diagnosis, is provided as an indicator to evaluate future mortality risks and health care needs of cancer survivors. The standard period life table methodology was applied to estimate excess mortality risk for cancer patients diagnosed in 1985-2011 from SEER registries and mortality data of the general US population. The sensitivity of life expectancy estimates on different assumptions was evaluated. Younger patients with colon cancer showed wider differences in life expectancy compared with that of the general population (11.2 years in women and 10.7 in men at age 45-49 years) than older patients (6.3 and 5.8 at age 60-64 years, respectively). Life expectancy progressively increases in patients surviving the first years, up to 4 years from diagnosis, and then starts to decrease again, approaching that of the general population. For breast cancer, the initial drop in life expectancy is less marked, and again with wider differences in younger patients, varying from 8.7 at age 40-44 years to 2.4 at ages 70-74 years. After diagnosis, life expectancy still decreases with time, but less than that in the general population, slowly approaching that of cancer-free women. Life expectancy of men diagnosed with testicular cancer at age 30 years is estimated as 45.2 years, 2 years less than cancer-free men of the same age. The difference becomes 1.3 years for patients surviving the first year, and then slowly approaches zero with increasing survival time. Life expectancy provides meaningful information on cancer patients, and can help in assessing when a cancer survivor can be considered as cured. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Lifestyle risk factors and residual life expectancy at age 40: a German cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kuanrong; Hüsing, Anika; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2014-04-07

    Cigarette smoking, adiposity, unhealthy diet, heavy alcohol drinking and physical inactivity together are associated with about half of premature deaths in Western populations. The aim of this study was to estimate their individual and combined impacts on residual life expectancy (RLE). Lifestyle and mortality data from the EPIC-Heidelberg cohort, comprising 22,469 German adults ≥40 years and free of diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer at recruitment (1994-1998), were analyzed with multivariable Gompertz proportional hazards models to predict lifetime survival probabilities given specific baseline status of lifestyle risk factors. The life table method was then used to estimate the RLEs. For 40-year-old adults, the most significant loss of RLE was associated with smoking (9.4 [95% confidence interval: 8.3, 10.6] years for male and 7.3 [6.0, 8.9] years for female heavy smokers [>10 cigarettes/day]; 5.3 [3.6, 7.1] years for men and 5.0 [3.2, 6.6] years for women smoking ≤10 cigarettes/day). Other lifestyle risk factors associated with major losses of RLE were low body mass index (BMI 4 drinks/day, 3.1 [1.9, 4.0] years for men), and high processed/red meat consumption (≥120 g/day, 2.4 [1.0, 3.9] years for women). The obesity-associated loss of RLE was stronger in male never smokers, while the loss of RLE associated with low BMI was stronger in current smokers. The loss of RLE associated with low leisure time physical activity was moderate for women (1.1 [0.05, 2.1] years) and negligible for men (0.4 [-0.3, 1.2] years). The combined loss of RLE for heavy smoking, obesity, heavy alcohol drinking and high processed/red meat consumption, versus never smoking, optimal BMI (22.5 to 24.9), no/light alcohol drinking and low processed/red meat consumption, was 17.0 years for men and 13.9 years for women. Promoting healthy lifestyles, particularly no cigarette smoking and maintaining healthy body weight, should be the core component of public health approaches to

  9. The stagnation of the Mexican male life expectancy in the first decade of the 21st century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; García-Guerrero, Víctor Manuel; Echarri-Cánovas, Carlos Javier

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In the first decade of the 21st century, the Mexican life expectancy changed from a long trend of increase to stagnation. These changes concur with an increase in deaths by homicides that the country experienced in that decade, and an obesity epidemic that had developed over the last...... of life expectancy from 2000 to 2010. RESULTS: The apparent stagnation in life expectancy is the result of an increase in deaths by homicides and diabetes mellitus on the one hand, and the positive improvements observed in other causes of death on the other. The negative impact of homicides...... by 2 years if deaths by homicides and diabetes mellitus had been avoided....

  10. Correlations between impairment, psychological distress, disability, and quality of life in peripheral facial palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Aristizabal, U; Valdés-Vilches, M; Fernández-Ferreras, T R; Calero-Muñoz, E; Bienzobas-Allué, E; Moracén-Naranjo, T

    2017-05-23

    This paper analyses the correlations between scores on scales assessing impairment, psychological distress, disability, and quality of life in patients with peripheral facial palsy (PFP). We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study including 30 patients in whom PFP had not resolved completely. We used tools for assessing impairment (Sunnybrook Facial Grading System [FGS]), psychological distress (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HADS]), disability (Facial Disability Index [FDI]), and quality of life (Facial Clinimetric Evaluation [FaCE] scale). We found no correlations between FGS and HADS scores, or between FGS and FDI social function scores. However, we did find a correlation between FGS and FDI physical function scores (r=0.54; P<.01), FDI total score (r=0.4; P<.05), FaCE total scores (ρ=0.66; P<.01), and FaCE social function scores (ρ=0.5; P<.01). We also observed a correlation between HADS Anxiety scores and FDI physical function (r=-0.47; P<.01), FDI social function (r=-0.47; P<.01), FDI total (r=-0.55; P<.01), FaCE total (ρ=-0.49; P<.01), and FaCE social scores (ρ=-0.46; P<.05). Significant correlations were also found between HADS Depression scores and FDI physical function (r=-0.61; P<.01), FDI social function (r=-0.53; P<.01), FDI total (r=-0.66; P<.01), FaCE total (ρ=-0.67; P<.01), and FaCE social scores (ρ=-0.68; P<.01), between FDI physical function scores and FaCE total scores (ρ=0.87; P<.01) and FaCE social function (ρ=0.74; P<.01), between FDI social function and FaCE total (ρ=0.66; P<.01) and FaCE social function scores (ρ=0.72; P<.01), and between FDI total scores and FaCE total (ρ = 0,87; P<.01) and FaCE social function scores (ρ=0.84; P<.01). In our sample, patients with more severe impairment displayed greater physical and global disability and poorer quality of life without significantly higher levels of social disability and psychological distress. Patients with more disability experienced greater psychological

  11. Gender gaps in life expectancy: generalized trends and negative associations with development indices in OECD countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Arai, Asuna; Kanda, Koji; Lee, Romeo B; Glasser, Jay; Tamashiro, Hiko

    2013-08-01

    Life expectancy (LE) is a major marker of individual survival. It also serves as a guide to highlight both the progress and the gaps in total social and societal health. Comparative LE in concert with measures of gender-specific experience, indices of empowerment and societal happiness and development offer a comparative tool to examine trends and similarities of societal progress as seen through the lens of cross-national experience. To determine the gender gaps in LE (GGLE) trends, we performed a longitudinal analysis, covering a period of 49 years (1960-2008). To examine the association of GGLE with development indices, we used the 2007 GGLE data, the newest happiness data mostly drawn from 2006; the 2006 Human Development Index (HDI) data and the 2006 Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) data. It revealed that most of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries had a GGLE trend that occurred in an inverted U-curve fashion. We divided them into three subgroups based on the peak years of respective GGLE. The earlier the peak year, the happier the countries, the higher the HDI and the smaller the current GGLE are. Association analysis indicates that Happiness, HDI and GEM are all negatively associated with GGLE. This pattern suggests that GGLE undergoes three phases of growth, peak and stability and decline. Japan will soon be seeing its GGLE gradually shrinking in the foreseeable future. The continuing increases in Happiness, HDI and GEM are associated with a decrease in GGLE, which should be carefully taken into consideration.

  12. Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 291 diseases and injuries in 21 regions, 1990-2010:a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Truelsen, Thomas Clement

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Measuring disease and injury burden in populations requires a composite metric that captures both premature mortality and the prevalence and severity of ill-health. The 1990 Global Burden of Disease study proposed disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) to measure disease burden...... with strictly comparable definitions and methods. YLLs were calculated from age-sex-country-time-specific estimates of mortality by cause, with death by standardised lost life expectancy at each age. YLDs were calculated as prevalence of 1160 disabling sequelae, by age, sex, and cause, and weighted by new....... In sub-Saharan Africa, however, many communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional disorders remain the dominant causes of disease burden. The rising burden from mental and behavioural disorders, musculoskeletal disorders, and diabetes will impose new challenges on health systems. Regional...

  13. Quality of life and self-determination in students with disabilities included in regular classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Miguel Muñoz Cantero

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available At present, quality of life and self-determination begin to position itself as a key axis in interventions aimed at students with disabilities, motivating the interest of researchers and professionals to know their general well-being. This article evaluates the quality of life and self-determination of students with intellectual and developmental disabilities enrolled in regular schools. A case study methodology, descriptive-interpretative, is used through mixed data collection methods. The instruments used are Questionnaire for Assessment the Quality of Life in Teen Students (CCVA and ARC-INICO Scale for Assessment Self-Determination (for 14 students and interviews (for four teachers. A descriptive statistical analysis, contextualized by the extracted information from the interviews, was conducted. The results show high scores in different domains of quality of life, apart from emotional well-being, community inclusion and self-determination that are improvable. Adequate perception of students is observed about their ability to make decisions, choices and a good predisposition take control in different areas of their life. It is necessary to continue inquiring about the impact of educational environment, attitude and perception of teachers and the opportunities offered to students to act self-determined and increase their quality of life.

  14. Subjective Quality of Life of Women with Intellectual Disabilities: The Role of Perceived Control over Their Own Life in Self-Determined Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strnadova, Iva; Evans, David

    2012-01-01

    Background: Quality of life for people with intellectual disabilities has been reported in the research literature across differing demographics. There has been, however, little research that has examined in-depth the experiences of women with intellectual disabilities aged 40 years or older. Materials and methods: Fifty-five women from Sydney,…

  15. Trends in Education-Specific Life Expectancy, Data Quality, and Shifting Education Distributions: A Note on Recent Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendi, Arun S

    2017-06-01

    Several recent articles have reported conflicting conclusions about educational differences in life expectancy, and this is partly due to the use of unreliable data subject to a numerator-denominator bias previously reported as ranging from 20 % to 40 %. This article presents estimates of life expectancy and lifespan variation by education in the United States using more reliable data from the National Health Interview Survey. Contrary to prior conclusions in the literature, I find that life expectancy increased or stagnated since 1990 among all education-race-sex groups except for non-Hispanic white women with less than a high school education; there has been a robust increase in life expectancy among white high school graduates and a smaller increase among black female high school graduates; lifespan variation did not increase appreciably among high school graduates; and lifespan variation plays a very limited role in explaining educational gradients in mortality. I also discuss the key role that educational expansion may play in driving future changes in mortality gradients. Because of shifting education distributions, within an education-specific synthetic cohort, older age groups are less negatively selected than younger age groups. We could thus expect a greater concentration of mortality at younger ages among people with a high school education or less, which would be reflected in increasing lifespan variability for this group. Future studies of educational gradients in mortality should use more reliable data and should be mindful of the effects of shifting education distributions.

  16. Living healthier for longer: Comparative effects of three heart-healthy behaviors on life expectancy with and without cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peeters Anna

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-smoking, having a normal weight and increased levels of physical activity are perhaps the three key factors for preventing cardiovascular disease (CVD. However, the relative effects of these factors on healthy longevity have not been well described. We aimed to calculate and compare the effects of non-smoking, normal weight and physical activity in middle-aged populations on life expectancy with and without cardiovascular disease. Methods Using multi-state life tables and data from the Framingham Heart Study (n = 4634 we calculated the effects of three heart healthy behaviours among populations aged 50 years and over on life expectancy with and without cardiovascular disease. For the life table calculations, we used hazard ratios for 3 transitions (No CVD to CVD, no CVD to death, and CVD to death by health behaviour category, and adjusted for age, sex, and potential confounders. Results High levels of physical activity, never smoking (men, and normal weight were each associated with 20-40% lower risks of developing CVD as compared to low physical activity, current smoking and obesity, respectively. Never smoking and high levels of physical activity reduced the risks of dying in those with and without a history of CVD, but normal weight did not. Never-smoking was associated with the largest gains in total life expectancy (4.3 years, men, 4.1 years, women and CVD-free life expectancy (3.8 and 3.4 years, respectively. High levels of physical activity and normal weight were associated with lesser gains in total life expectancy (3.5 years, men and 3.4 years, women, and 1.3 years, men and 1.0 year women, respectively, and slightly lesser gains in CVD-free life expectancy (3.0 years, men and 3.1 years, women, and 3.1 years men and 2.9 years women, respectively. Normal weight was the only behaviour associated with a reduction in the number of years lived with CVD (1.8 years, men and 1.9 years, women. Conclusions Achieving high

  17. Using Self-Determination of Senior College Students with Disabilities to Predict Their Quality of Life One Year after Graduation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Pen-Chiang

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the correlation and predictive relationship between self-determination and quality of life of college students with disabilities. Subjects were 145 senior college students recruited from northern Taiwan. Subjects' age ranged from 22 to 25 years and their disabilities varied, including visual impairments (n =…

  18. Caring, Employment, and Quality of Life: Comparison of Employed and Nonemployed Mothers of Adults with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Yueh-Ching; Pu, Cheng-Yun; Kroger, Teppo; Fu, Li-yeh

    2010-01-01

    The effects of caregiving on mothers of adults with intellectual disability was examined by determining whether there are differences in quality of life and related factors between mothers with different employment status. Study participants were 302 working-age mothers who had adult children with intellectual disability based on the 2008 census…

  19. Thinking Ahead: Improving Support for People with Learning Disabilities and Their Families to Plan for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towers, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The increasing life expectancy of people with learning disabilities makes it imperative that families plan for the future. The number of people with learning disabilities over the age of 65 is predicted to double over the next two decades. The greatest increase in life expectancy will be amongst people with mild learning disabilities who will have…

  20. Analysis of Potentials to Increase Iranian life Expectancy with Removing the Leading Causes of Mortality in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sasanipour

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recent studies on Iranian mortality clearly underscore the role of cardiovascular diseases, unintentional injuries, and cancers as three leading causes of reduced life expectancy during the last three decades. The purpose of current study is to measure the effect of these causes on 2010 life table for Iran. Materials & Method:The number of registered death by age and sex and death distribution by cause for Iran in 2010 are obtained from death registration system operated by the Ministry of Health and to know more about the population at risk population forecast information of the Statistical Centre of Iran (SCI is used. The obtained data are analyzed using Multiple Decrement Life Table and Kitagava analysis method. Results: The results show that three leading causes of death are account for 13 years potential lost life of Iranian men and women. More detailed results indicate that cardiovascular diseases, cancers, and unintentional injuries play larger roles in this regard while men are more likely to die by unintentional injuries than women. Life expectancy of middle aged men are more affected by unintentional injuries while old aged women are more affected by cardiovascular diseases. Conclusion: Particular consideration of risk factors of cardiovascular diseases of both sexes and males death by unintentional injuries is of utmost importance in reducing mortality rate and increasing life expectancy as a result.

  1. The work environment disability-adjusted life year for use with life cycle assessment: a methodological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Kelly A; Gray, George M; Francis, Royce A; Lloyd, Shannon M; LaPuma, Peter

    2013-03-06

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a systems-based method used to determine potential impacts to the environment associated with a product throughout its life cycle. Conclusions from LCA studies can be applied to support decisions regarding product design or public policy, therefore, all relevant inputs (e.g., raw materials, energy) and outputs (e.g., emissions, waste) to the product system should be evaluated to estimate impacts. Currently, work-related impacts are not routinely considered in LCA. The objectives of this paper are: 1) introduce the work environment disability-adjusted life year (WE-DALY), one portion of a characterization factor used to express the magnitude of impacts to human health attributable to work-related exposures to workplace hazards; 2) outline the methods for calculating the WE-DALY; 3) demonstrate the calculation; and 4) highlight strengths and weaknesses of the methodological approach. The concept of the WE-DALY and the methodological approach to its calculation is grounded in the World Health Organization's disability-adjusted life year (DALY). Like the DALY, the WE-DALY equation considers the years of life lost due to premature mortality and the years of life lived with disability outcomes to estimate the total number of years of healthy life lost in a population. The equation requires input in the form of the number of fatal and nonfatal injuries and illnesses that occur in the industries relevant to the product system evaluated in the LCA study, the age of the worker at the time of the fatal or nonfatal injury or illness, the severity of the injury or illness, and the duration of time lived with the outcomes of the injury or illness. The methodological approach for the WE-DALY requires data from various sources, multi-step instructions to determine each variable used in the WE-DALY equation, and assumptions based on professional opinion. Results support the use of the WE-DALY in a characterization factor in LCA. Integrating

  2. Transition: the experiences of support workers caring for people with learning disabilities towards the end of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Gavan; Harding, Richard

    2017-06-01

    This research aims to provide a better understanding of the experience of support workers, as paid carers, caring for adults with learning disabilities (LDs) nearing the end of life in residential settings. In the past 100 years, people with LDs (also referred to as 'learning difficulty', 'mental retardation' and 'intellectual disability' internationally) are living longer with life expectancy approaching the population norm and more likely to die from diseases such as cancer, respiratory and vascular diseases. Community-based supported accommodation has become the foremost provider for people with LDs in their late 30 s or over in the UK. In the midst of the transition from living to dying for people with LDs, and even postdeath, the needs of support workers are often neglected against a background where most are unqualified, often with little experience of death and dying event, and with limited access to clinical supervision and education. 3 focus groups involving 13 support workers were conducted at 3 independent service provider settings for people with LDs in London. In recounting the experiences of these groups of support workers, 6 themes are described: strong emotional bond and identification; collaboration with other services; training issues around the extended role; support within the organisation; relationship with family/other residents; and grieving the 'loss'. Although support workers play a key role in meeting the end-of-life care needs of people with LDs in residential settings, their own needs are often neglected. There are still significant gaps in understanding these needs and practice development in this area. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Gender and ethnic health disparities among the elderly in rural Guangxi, China: estimating quality-adjusted life expectancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ethnic health inequalities for males and females among the elderly have not yet been verified in multicultural societies in developing countries. The aim of this study was to assess the extent of disparities in health expectancy among the elderly from different ethnic groups using quality-adjusted life expectancy. Design: A cross-sectional community-based survey was conducted. A total of 6,511 rural elderly individuals aged ≥60 years were selected from eight different ethnic groups in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of China and assessed for health-related quality of life (HRQoL. The HRQoL utility value was combined with life expectancy at age 60 years (LE60 data by using Sullivan's method to estimate quality-adjusted life expectancy at age 60 years (QALE60 and loss in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs for each group. Results: Overall, LE60 and QALE60 for all ethnic groups were 20.9 and 18.0 years in men, respectively, and 24.2 and 20.3 years in women. The maximum gap in QALE60 between ethnic groups was 3.3 years in males and 4.6 years in females. The average loss in QALY was 2.9 years for men and 3.8 years for women. The correlation coefficient between LE60 and QALY lost was −0.53 in males and 0.12 in females. Conclusion: Women live longer than men, but they suffer more; men have a shorter life expectancy, but those who live longer are healthier. Attempts should be made to reduce suffering in the female elderly and improve longevity for men. Certain ethnic groups had low levels of QALE, needing special attention to improve their lifestyle and access to health care.

  4. A Comparison of Quality of Life Outcomes for People with Intellectual Disabilities in Supported Employment, Day Services and Employment Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Stephen; Brown, Tony; Akandi, Rachel; Rapley, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Background: Policy objectives for people with intellectual disabilities include day service modernization and the promotion of paid employment and quality of life. Quality of life is under represented as an outcome measure in vocational research. This research compares subjective and objective quality of life, and quality of work environment for…

  5. Quality of Life in Caregivers of Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities: Use of WHOQOL-BREF Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Hu, Jung; Yen, Chia-Feng; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Lin, Lan-Ping; Loh, Ching-Hui; Chen, Mei-Hua; Wu, Sheng-Ru; Chu, Cordia M.; Wu, Jia-Ling

    2009-01-01

    The present study based on World Health Organization quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF) scale to examine quality of life of the caregivers caring for their children/adolescents with intellectual disabilities in Taiwan, and the factors contributing to their quality of life. Structured interviews were conducted with 597 caregivers of children/adolescents…

  6. A review of life expectancy and infant mortality estimations for Australian Aboriginal people

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Significant variation exists in published Aboriginal mortality and life expectancy (LE) estimates due to differing and evolving methodologies required to correct for inadequate recording of Aboriginality in death data, under-counting of Aboriginal people in population censuses, and unexplained growth in the Aboriginal population attributed to changes in the propensity of individuals to identify as Aboriginal at population censuses. The objective of this paper is to analyse variation in reported Australian Aboriginal mortality in terms of LE and infant mortality rates (IMR), compared with all Australians. Methods Published data for Aboriginal LE and IMR were obtained and analysed for data quality and method of estimation. Trends in reported LE and IMR estimates were assessed and compared with those in the entire Australian population. Results LE estimates derived from different methodologies vary by as much as 7.2 years for the same comparison period. Indirect methods for estimating Aboriginal LE have produced LE estimates sensitive to small changes in underlying assumptions, some of which are subject to circular reasoning. Most indirect methods appear to under-estimate Aboriginal LE. Estimated LE gaps between Aboriginal people and the overall Australian population have varied between 11 and 20 years. Latest mortality estimates, based on linking census and death data, are likely to over-estimate Aboriginal LE. Temporal LE changes by each methodology indicate that Aboriginal LE has improved at rates similar to the Australian population overall. Consequently the gap in LE between Aboriginal people and the total Australian population appears to be unchanged since the early 1980s, and at the end of the first decade of the 21st century remains at least 11–12 years. In contrast, focussing on the 1990–2010 period Aboriginal IMR declined steeply over 2001–08, from more than 12 to around 8 deaths per 1,000 live births, the same level as Australia overall in

  7. Mastering Everyday Life in Ordinary Housing for People with Psychiatric Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosita Brolin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a classic grounded theory about people who have psychiatric disabilities and live in ordinary housing with housing support. Interviews and observations during the interviews were analyzed, and secondary analyses of data from previous studies were performed. The impossible mission in everyday life emerged as the main concern and mastering everyday life as the pattern of behavior through which they deal with this concern. Mastering everyday life can be seen as a process, which involves identifying, organizing, tackling, challenging and boosting. Before the process is started, avoiding is used to deal with the main concern. The community support worker, providing housing support, constitutes an important facilitator during the process, and the continuity of housing support is a prerequisite for the process to succeed. If the process mastering everyday life is interrupted by, for example, changes in housing support, the strategy of avoiding is used.

  8. Influence of adapted sports on quality of life and life satisfaction in sport participants and non-sport participants with physical disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazicioglu, Kamil; Yavuz, Ferdi; Goktepe, Ahmet Salim; Tan, Arif Kenan

    2012-10-01

    The lack of controlled trials in the relationship between participation in adapted sports, and quality of life (QoL) and life satisfaction in people with physical disabilities encouraged us to consider conducting this study. The aim of this study was to compare the QoL and life satisfaction scores between people with physical disabilities who participated in adapted sports and those who did not participate in any adapted sports. This cross-sectional controlled study included 60 individuals with physical disabilities (paraplegia and amputee). Participants were divided into two groups based on sports participation and non-sports participation. Group one included 30 disabled elite athletes who participated in adapted sports. The control group included 30 disabled individuals not involved in any adapted sports. We compared scores on the World Health Organization Quality-of-Life Scale (WHOQoL-BREF) and the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) between the two groups. Participation in the community and QoL was examined as a reflection of participant's priority on sports participation. We found that WHOQoL-BREF physical, psychological, and social domain scores were significantly higher in group one than in the control group (p sports had significantly higher QoL and life satisfaction scores compared to people with physical disabilities not involved in any adapted sports. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Mortality and life expectancy in relation to long-term cigarette, cigar and pipe smoking: The Zutphen Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streppel, M.T.; Boshuizen, H.C.; Ocké, M.C.; Kok, F.J.; Kromhout, D.

    2007-01-01

    Study objective: To study the effect of long-term smoking on all-cause and cause-specific mortality, and to estimate the effects of cigarette and cigar or pipe smoking on life expectancy. Design: A long-term prospective cohort study. Setting: Zutphen, The Netherlands. Participants: 1373 men from the

  10. Family Background, Students' Academic Self-Efficacy, and Students' Career and Life Success Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mihyeon

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of family background on students' academic self-efficacy and the impact of students' self-efficacy on their career and life success expectations. The study used the national dataset of the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS: 2002), funded by the U.S. Department of Education. Based on a path…

  11. Impact of income inequality on life expectancy in a highly unequal developing country: the case of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasella, Davide; Aquino, Rosana; Barreto, Mauricio Lima

    2013-08-01

    Few studies have analysed the effects of income inequality on health in developing countries, particularly during economic growth, reduction of social disparities and reinforcement of the welfare and healthcare system. We evaluated the association between income inequality and life expectancy in Brazil, including the effect of social and health interventions, in the period 2000-2009. A panel dataset was created for the 27 Brazilian states over the referred time period. Multivariable linear regressions were performed using fixed-effects estimation with heteroscedasticity and serial correlation robust SEs. Models were fitted for life expectancy as a dependent variable, using the Gini index or a percentile income dispersion ratio as the main independent variable, and for demographic, socioeconomic and healthcare-related determinants as covariates. The Gini index, as the other measure of income inequality, was negatively associated with life expectancy (pincome inequality, contributing-together with PHC-to decreasing death rates in the population. Reducing income inequality may represent an important step towards improving health and increasing life expectancy, particularly in developing countries where inequalities are high.

  12. Mortality and life expectancy of Yokkaichi Asthma patients, Japan: Late effects of air pollution in 1960–70s

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    Suenaga Masami

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and bronchial asthma began increasing in early 1960s in the population of Yokkaichi-city (Mie Prefecture, Japan. The cause of the disease was sulfur oxide air pollution, and it is known as Yokkaichi Asthma. The pollution markedly decreased by the end of 1970s; no new cases have been reported since 1988. This study aimed at examining the late effects of air pollution on the health of Yokkaichi Asthma patients. Methods Mortality rate and life expectancy of patients, registered between 1965 and 1988, were investigated from 1975 through 2000. Results Mortality rates for COPD and asthma in patients from Yokkaichi-city were significantly higher than in the whole population of Mie Prefecture. For all ages (except for males between 80 and 84 years in 1985, the life expectancy of both males and females were significantly reduced in patients from Yokkaichi-city as compared with the whole population of Mie Prefecture. The potential gains in life expectancy excluding the mortality for respiratory diseases including COPD and asthma were larger for all ages in patients from Yokkaichi-city. Conclusion Mortality and life expectancy were adversely affected in patients from Yokkaichi-city, despite the fact that the air pollution problem has been already solved.

  13. Mental health expectancy--the European perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagger, C; Ritchie, K; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    The increase in life expectancy observed over the last decade has particular relevance for mental health conditions of old age, such as dementia. Although mental disorders have been estimated to be responsible for 60% of all disabilities, until recently population health indicators such as health...... expectancies have concentrated on calculating disability-free life expectancy based on physical functioning. In 1994, a European Network for the Calculation of Health Expectancies (Euro-REVES) was established, one of its aims being the development and promotion of mental health expectancies. Such indicators...... may have an important role in monitoring future changes in the mental health of populations and predicting service needs. This article summarizes the proceedings and recommendations of the first European Conference on Mental Health Expectancy....

  14. Disparities in Life Course Outcomes for Transition-Aged Youth with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Kruti; Meza, Regina; Msall, Michael E

    2017-10-01

    Close to 750,000 youth with special health care needs transition to adult health care in the United States every year; however, less than one-half receive transition-planning services. Using the "F-words" organizing framework, this article explores life course outcomes and disparities in transition-aged youth with disabilities, with a special focus on youth with autism, Down syndrome, and cerebral palsy. Despite the importance of transition, a review of the available literature revealed that (1) youth with disabilities continue to have poor outcomes in all six "F-words" domains (ie, function, family, fitness, fun, friends, and future) and (2) transition outcomes vary by race/ethnicity and disability. Professionals need to adopt a holistic framework to examine transition outcomes within a broader social-ecological context, as well as implement evidence-based transition practices to help improve postsecondary outcomes of youth with disabilities. [Pediatr Ann. 2017;46(10):e371-e376.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Life Disparity before, during and after Stagnation of Danish Female Life Expectancy. a Cause of Death Analysis and a Comparison with Their Scandinavian Counterparts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aburto, José Manuel; Wensink, Maarten Jan; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune

    that as Norway increasingly came to resemble Sweden in terms of high life expectancy, it also came to resemble Sweden in terms of low lifespan inequality. Next, we aim to make similar decompositions for Sweden and Norway, and aim to disentangle cohort effects from the question: what can Denmark do now...... cancers and non-infectious respiratory diseases, offsetting continuous improvement in cardiovascular mortality. Before and after stagnation, life expectancy increased as disparity decreased, as the cardiovascular revolution unfolded. Comparing Denmark and its Scandinavian counterparts, we find...

  16. Meeting needs for rehabilitation equipment and home adjustments among the disabled in their life environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Kołłątaj

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The elimination of functional barriers resulting from disability through the provision of adequate orthopaedic and rehabilitation equipment, and homes adjusted for disability is the precondition for an efficient and independent functioning, and high quality of life of the disabled. The objective of the study was recognition of the needs of the disabled declared by them, and the degree of satisfaction with these needs. Methods. The study covered 478 disabled from the Lublin Region. The research instrument was the ‘Questionnaire for the Disabled’ designed by the authors. Results. Considering the needs expressed by the respondents concerning the provision of orthopaedic and rehabilitation equipment and meeting these needs, four groups were distinguished: No Needs – 30.1%, Needs Partially Met – 22.4%, Needs Fully Met – 37.7%, Needs Not Met – 9.8%. The group Needs Not Met was characterized by younger age, in the group Needs Partially Met worse indicators of the state of health were noted, more frequent independent living, loneliness and low material standard. Considering the expressed needs for home adjustments adequate to disability and meeting these needs, three groups were distinguished: No Needs – 59.6%, Needs Not Met – 15.9%, and Needs Met – 24.7%. The group Needs Not Met more rarely covered respondents living in residential homes, compared to those living independently in rural or urban areas. The group Needs Met more rarely included rural inhabitants, while more frequently including the disabled who had a high material standard. Conclusions. Both the provision of orthopaedic equipment and adjustment of the home to disability are insufficient with respect to the needs. The meeting of these needs is significantly conditioned by high or very high material standard. The lack or incomplete satisfaction with the needs for rehabilitation equipment is associated with a relatively younger age, independent, single

  17. The effects of constant and alternating temperatures on the reproductive potential, life span, and life expectancy of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann (Dipteria: Tephritidae

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    V. V. CARDOSO

    Full Text Available Ovarian development, oviposition, larval eclosion, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC activity, ovarian, testis and ejaculatory apodeme measurements (length, width, and area, and the number of spermatozoa of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann were analyzed at alternating (20º/6ºC and 20º/13°C and constant (6°C; 25°C temperatures. Life span and life expectancy were also analyzed for both genders. All the results suggest that temperature, especially alternating temperatures, increase not only male and female reproductive potential but also their life span and life expectancy. These changes can be a powerful strategy triggered by A. fraterculus as a means to survive the stressful temperature conditions found in winter in the apple production region in Brazil, enabling this species to increase its population density and cause apple damage when spring begins.

  18. The effects of constant and alternating temperatures on the reproductive potential, life span, and life expectancy of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann (Dipteria: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARDOSO V. V.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian development, oviposition, larval eclosion, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC activity, ovarian, testis and ejaculatory apodeme measurements (length, width, and area, and the number of spermatozoa of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann were analyzed at alternating (20masculine/6masculineC and 20masculine/13degreesC and constant (6degreesC; 25degreesC temperatures. Life span and life expectancy were also analyzed for both genders. All the results suggest that temperature, especially alternating temperatures, increase not only male and female reproductive potential but also their life span and life expectancy. These changes can be a powerful strategy triggered by A. fraterculus as a means to survive the stressful temperature conditions found in winter in the apple production region in Brazil, enabling this species to increase its population density and cause apple damage when spring begins.

  19. Effects of Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy on Increased Life Expectancy of Male Patients with Gastric Cancer

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    E Mohammadian akerdi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Cancers are a broad group of diseases, each having their own etiology, treatment, and prognosis. The majority of cancer patients experience a period of mental stress during their disease. Given the effective role of life expectancy in dealing with chronic diseases, such as stomach cancer, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of cognitive-behavioral group therapy on increased life expectancy of male patients with gastric cancer. METHODS: This quasi-experiment was conducted on 92 male patients with gastric cancer referring to Tuba Medical Center, Sari, Iran in 2014. Patients were randomly divided into two groups of test (n=46 and control (n=46. The two groups completed the Adult Hope Scale (AHS by Snyder in pretest stage. At the next stage, samples of the test group were exposed to 10 sessions of cognitive-behavioral group therapy (each session: 90 min, while the control group did not receive any special treatment. Both study groups completed the questionnaire again at the posttest stage, followed by the comparison of results. FINDINGS: In terms of life expectancy, mean scores of the test and control groups at the pretest stage were 37.21±4.7 and 36.26±4.73, respectively. Meanwhile, mean scores of the mentioned groups at the posttest stage were 40.02±3.87 and 36.23±4.8, respectively. A significant increase was observed in the mean scores of test and control groups at the posttest stage compared to before the intervention. Moreover, a significant difference was found between the study groups regarding life expectancy and its components (p<0.01. CONCLUSION: According to the results, cognitive-behavioral group therapy could increase life expectancy in patients with gastric cancer.

  20. Prioritizing child health interventions in Ethiopia: modeling impact on child mortality, life expectancy and inequality in age at death.

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    Kristine Husøy Onarheim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The fourth Millennium Development Goal calls for a two-thirds reduction in under-5 mortality between 1990 and 2015. Under-5 mortality rate is declining, but many countries are still far from achieving the goal. Effective child health interventions that could reduce child mortality exist, but national decision-makers lack contextual information for priority setting in their respective resource-constrained settings. We estimate the potential health impact of increasing coverage of 14 selected health interventions on child mortality in Ethiopia (2011-2015. We also explore the impact on life expectancy and inequality in the age of death (Gini(health. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used the Lives Saved Tool to estimate potential impact of scaling-up 14 health interventions in Ethiopia (2011-2015. Interventions are scaled-up to 1 government target levels, 2 90% coverage and 3 90% coverage of the five interventions with the highest impact. Under-5 mortality rate, neonatal mortality rate and deaths averted are primary outcome measures. We used modified life tables to estimate impact on life expectancy at birth and inequality in the age of death (Gini(health. Under-5 mortality rate declines from 101.0 in 2011 to 68.8, 42.1 and 56.7 per 1000 live births under these three scenarios. Prioritizing child health would also increase life expectancy at birth from expected 60.5 years in 2015 to 62.5, 64.2 and 63.4 years and reduce inequality in age of death (Gini(health substantially from 0.24 to 0.21, 0.18 and 0.19. CONCLUSIONS: The Millennium Development Goal for child health is reachable in Ethiopia. Prioritizing child health would also increase total life expectancy at birth and reduce inequality in age of death substantially (Gini(health.

  1. Neuro-ophthalmologic evaluation, quality of life, and functional disability in patients with MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Martin, Elena; Rodriguez-Mena, Diego; Herrero, Raquel; Almarcegui, Carmen; Dolz, Isabel; Martin, Jesus; Ara, Jose R; Larrosa, Jose M; Polo, Vicente; Fernández, Javier; Pablo, Luis E

    2013-07-02

    To evaluate correlations between longitudinal changes in neuro-ophthalmologic measures and quality of life (QOL) and disability in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), using optical coherence tomography (OCT), visual evoked potentials (VEP), and visual field examination. Fifty-four patients with relapsing-remitting MS were enrolled in this study and underwent Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life questionnaire (54 items) (MSQOL-54) and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) evaluation, as well as complete neuro-ophthalmologic examination including visual field testing and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) measurements using Cirrus and Spectralis OCT and VEP. All patients were re-evaluated at 12, 24, and 36 months. Logistical regression was performed to analyze which measures, if any, could predict QOL. Overall, RNFL thickness results at the baseline evaluation were significantly different from those at 3 years (p ≤ 0.05), but there were no differences in functional measures (visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, color vision, visual field, and VEP). A reduced MSQOL-54 score was associated with an increase in EDSS score and a decrease in both functional and structural parameters. Patients with longer MS duration presented with a lower MSQOL-54 score (reduction in QOL). Patients with progressive axonal loss as seen in RNFL results had a lower QOL and more functional disability.

  2. Burden of road traffic accidents in Nepal by calculating disability-adjusted life years

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    Ling Huang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To calculate the burden of road traffic accidents in Kathmandu Valley and then extrapolate this to the national level. Methods: A prospective study was performed to compute the burden of road traffic accidents by quantification of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs using the Global Burden of Disease Study method on the basis of 1-year data from nine hospitals in Nepal and the Department of Forensic Medicine and cross-checked with the Nepal Traffic Directorate. Multiple methods were applied to the extrapolated population metrics of the burden of road traffic accidents in Nepal. Results: The total number of years of life lived in disability, years of life lost, and DALYs in Nepal were 38,848±194, 119,935±1464, and 158,783±1658 (95% confidence interval respectively. The number of years lost because of morbidity and death was similar in Kathmandu Valley. Most (75% of the DALYs resulted from years of life lost in Nepal. Males accounted for 73% of DALYs. Almost half (44% of the DALYs were contributed by the group aged 15–29 years. Conclusion: This study is the first to calculate the burden of road traffic accidents in Nepal using Nepal’s own data. Nepal needs to develop and enhance its own system to identify significant public health issues so as to set national priorities for prevention of road traffic accidents.

  3. [Impact of physical disability and concomitant emotional disturbances on post-stroke quality of life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charfi, N; Trabelsi, S; Turki, M; Mâalej Bouali, M; Zouari, L; Dammak, M; Ben Thabet, J; Mhiri, C; Mâalej, M

    2017-10-01

    The physical and/or psycho-cognitive changes after stroke may lead to a decline in the quality of life (QOL) of patients. The aims of our study were to evaluate the QOL of stroke survivors and to investigate its relationships with the physical disability degree and the emotional disorders (anxiety and depression). We conducted a cross-sectional study, which included 147 patients, followed for stroke that had occurred over the past year, in the outpatient neurology department at the university hospital Habib Bourguiba of Sfax (Tunisia). For each patient, we collected socio-demographic characteristics and clinical and therapeutic data. The quality of life of our patients was assessed using the SF-36 scale. The HAD scale was used to screen for anxiety and depression, whereas the modified Rankin scale was used to measure the degree of disability. The average age of our patients was 60.58 years. The overall mean score of the SF-36 ranged from 20.81 to 89.81 with an average of 55.27. Impaired QOL was found in 68% of patients. The study of the dimensional average scores revealed that only two dimensions of the SF-36 were not altered: physical pain and life and relationship with others. The physical component was slightly more altered than the mental component (41.4 and 42.9 respectively). A minimal disability was found in 32% of patients, while a moderate and severe disability was found in 19% and 21.1% of patients. Anxiety was detected in 55.1% of patients and depression in 67.3% of them. Impaired mental component QOL was significantly correlated with the presence of anxiety (P=0.008) and depression (Pnegative impact on all areas of QOL except that of life and relationships with others. It appears from our study that among the important effects of stroke is the constant deterioration of QOL in its various dimensions. The occurrence of emotional disturbances such as anxiety and depression and the degree of physical disability seem to be predictors of QOL impairment

  4. New way of working: Professionals' expectations and experiences of the Culture and Health Project for clients with psychiatric disabilities: A focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wästberg, Birgitta A; Sandström, Boel; Gunnarsson, Anna Birgitta

    2018-02-01

    There is a need for various types of interventions when meeting needs of clients with psychiatric disabilities and complementary interventions may also influence their well-being. The Culture and Health project, based on complementary interventions with 270 clients, was created in a county in Sweden for clients with psychiatric disabilities and for professionals to carry out the interventions. The aim of this study was to investigate the professionals' expectations regarding the project and their clients' possibilities for participating, and to investigate the professionals' experiences of the project after its completion. Focus group data with a total of 30 professionals participating were collected. A qualitative content analysis revealed four categories of the professionals' expectations before entering the project: "Clients' own possibilities and limitations for their development and independence", "Professionals' possibilities for supporting the clients", "Societal prerequisites", and "Expectations of a new way of working". Furthermore, the analysis regarding professionals' experiences after working with the project revealed three categories: "Adopting the challenges", "Having ways of working that function - prerequisites and possibilities", and "Meeting the future - an ambition to continue". Working in the Culture and Health project together with the clients in group-based activities was perceived as beneficial, although challenges arose. When implementing cultural activities, support from stakeholder organisations is needed. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  5. The association of air pollution and greenness with mortality and life expectancy in Spain: A small-area study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Keijzer, Carmen; Agis, David; Ambrós, Albert; Arévalo, Gustavo; Baldasano, Jose M; Bande, Stefano; Barrera-Gómez, Jose; Benach, Joan; Cirach, Marta; Dadvand, Payam; Ghigo, Stefania; Martinez-Solanas, Èrica; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Cadum, Ennio; Basagaña, Xavier

    2017-02-01

    Air pollution exposure has been associated with an increase in mortality rates, but few studies have focused on life expectancy, and most studies had restricted spatial coverage. A limited body of evidence is also suggestive for a beneficial association between residential exposure to greenness and mortality, but the evidence for such an association with life expectancy is still very scarce. To investigate the association of exposure to air pollution and greenness with mortality and life expectancy in Spain. Mortality data from 2148 small areas (average population of 20,750 inhabitants, and median population of 7672 inhabitants) covering Spain for years 2009-2013 were obtained. Average annual levels of PM 10 , PM 2.5 , NO 2 and O 3 were derived from an air quality forecasting system at 4×4km resolution. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was used to assess greenness in each small area. Air pollution and greenness were linked to standardized mortality rates (SMRs) using Poisson regression and to life expectancy using linear regression. The models were adjusted for socioeconomic status and lung cancer mortality rates (as a proxy for smoking), and accounted for spatial autocorrelation. The increase of 5μg/m 3 in PM 10 , NO 2 and O 3 or of 2μg/m 3 in PM 2.5 concentration resulted in a loss of life in years of 0.90 (95% credibility interval CI: 0.83, 0.98), 0.13 (95% CI: 0.09, 0.17), 0.20years (95% CI: 0.16, 0.24) and 0.64 (0.59, 0.70), respectively. Similar associations were found in the SMR analysis, with stronger associations for PM 2.5 and PM 10 , which were associated with an increased mortality risk of 3.7% (95% CI: 3.5%, 4.0%) and 5.7% (95% CI: 5.4%, 6.1%). For greenness, a protective effect on mortality and longer life expectancy was only found in areas with lower socioeconomic status. Air pollution concentrations were associated to important reductions in life expectancy. The reduction of air pollution should be a priority for public health

  6. New population and life expectancy estimates for the Indigenous population of Australia's Northern Territory, 1966-2011.

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    Tom Wilson

    Full Text Available The Indigenous population of Australia suffers considerable disadvantage across a wide range of socio-economic indicators, and is therefore the focus of many policy initiatives attempting to 'close the gap' between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. Unfortunately, past population estimates have proved unreliable as denominators for these indicators. The aim of the paper is to contribute more robust estimates for the Northern Territory Indigenous population for the period 1966-2011, and hence estimate one of the most important of socio-economic indicators, life expectancy at birth.A consistent time series of population estimates from 1966 to 2011, based off the more reliable 2011 official population estimates, was created by a mix of reverse and forward cohort survival. Adjustments were made to ensure sensible sex ratios and consistency with recent birth registrations. Standard life table methods were employed to estimate life expectancy. Drawing on an approach from probabilistic forecasting, confidence intervals surrounding population numbers and life expectancies were estimated.The Northern Territory Indigenous population in 1966 numbered between 23,800 and 26,100, compared to between 66,100 and 73,200 in 2011. In 1966-71 Indigenous life expectancy at birth lay between 49.1 and 56.9 years for males and between 49.7 and 57.9 years for females, whilst by 2006-11 it had increased to between 60.5 and 66.2 years for males and between 65.4 and 70.8 for females. Over the last 40 years the gap with all-Australian life expectancy has not narrowed, fluctuating at about 17 years for both males and females. Whilst considerable progress has been made in closing the gap in under-five mortality, at most other ages the mortality rate differential has increased.A huge public health challenge remains. Efforts need to be redoubled to reduce the large gap in life expectancy between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians.

  7. Cumulative occupational mechanical exposures during working life and risk of sickness absence and disability pension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Hansen, Åse Marie; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2017-01-01

    and Midlife Biobank with a job exposure matrix and a national register containing information on social transfer payment. By coding individual job histories from the Danish version of ISCO-codes (International Standard Classification of Occupations), we calculated cumulative occupational mechanical exposures......-regression analyses estimated the relative risk of register-based long-term sickness absence (LTSA) and disability pension with cumulative occupational mechanical exposures throughout working life. Analyses were censored for competing events and adjusted for multiple confounders. Results: During the follow-up period......, 970 persons (19.3%) had ≥1 episode of LTSA and 85 persons (1.7%) were granted a disability pension. Number of ton-, lifting- and kneeling-years showed an exposure-response association with increased risk of LTSA (P

  8. Working Life Expectancy at Age 50 in the United States and the Impact of the Great Recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudel, Christian; Myrskylä, Mikko

    2017-12-01

    A key concern about population aging is the decline in the size of the economically active population. Working longer is a potential remedy. However, little is known about the length of working life and how it relates to macroeconomic conditions. We use the U.S. Health and Retirement Study for 1992-2011 and multistate life tables to analyze working life expectancy at age 50 and study the impact of the Great Recession in 2007-2009. Despite declines of one to two years following the recession, in 2008-2011, American men aged 50 still spent 13 years, or two-fifths of their remaining life, working; American women of the same age spent 11 years, or one-third of their remaining life, in employment. Although educational differences in working life expectancy have been stable since the mid-1990s, racial differences started changing after the onset of the Great Recession. Our results show that although Americans generally work longer than people in other countries, considerable subpopulation heterogeneity exists. We also find that the time trends are fluctuating, which may prove troublesome as the population ages. Policies targeting the weakest performing groups may be needed to increase the total population trends.

  9. Long-term effects of tetanus toxoid inoculation on the demography and life expectancy of the Cayo Santiago rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Matthew J; Hernández Pacheco, Raisa; Rawlins, Richard G; Ruiz-Lambrides, Angelina; Delgado, Diana L; Sabat, Alberto M

    2015-02-01

    Tetanus was a major cause of mortality in the free-ranging population of rhesus monkeys on Cayo Santiago prior to 1985 when the entire colony was given its first dose of tetanus toxoid. The immediate reduction in mortality that followed tetanus toxoid inoculation (TTI) has been documented, but the long-term demographic effects of eliminating tetanus infections have not. This study uses the Cayo Santiago demographic database to construct comparative life tables 12 years before, and 12 years after, TTI. Life tables and matrix projection models are used to test for differences in: (i) survival among all individuals as well as among social groups, (ii) long-term fitness of the population, (iii) age distribution, (iv) reproductive value, and (v) life expectancy. A retrospective life table response experiment (LTRE) was performed to determine which life cycle transition contributed most to observed changes in long-term fitness of the population post-TTI. Elimination of clinical tetanus infections through mass inoculation improved the health and well-being of the monkeys. It also profoundly affected the population by increasing survivorship and long-term fitness, decreasing the differences in survival rates among social groups, shifting the population's age distribution towards older individuals, and increasing reproductive value and life expectancy. These findings are significant because they demonstrate the long-term effects of eradicating a major cause of mortality at a single point in time on survival, reproduction, and overa