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Sample records for directives piper aircraft

  1. 77 FR 45979 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    2012-08-02

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... (AD) for certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. (type certificate previously held by The New Piper Aircraft Inc... information identified in this proposed AD, contact Piper Aircraft, Inc., 2926 Piper Drive, Vero Beach...

  2. 77 FR 31169 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    2012-05-25

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... Piper Aircraft, Inc. (type certificate previously held by The New Piper Aircraft Inc.) Models PA-31T and..., contact Piper Aircraft, Inc., 926 Piper Drive, Vero Beach, Florida 32960; telephone: (772) 567-4361...

  3. 76 FR 18033 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. (Type Certificate Previously Held by The New Piper...

    2011-04-01

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. (Type Certificate Previously Held by The New Piper Aircraft, Inc... applies to certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-46-310P and PA- 46-350P airplanes that are equipped with... information identified in this AD, contact Piper Aircraft, Inc., 2926 Piper Drive, Vero Beach, Florida 32960...

  4. 78 FR 51121 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc.

    2013-08-20

    ...-0742; Directorate Identifier 2013-CE-012-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft...). SUMMARY: We propose to supersede an existing airworthiness directive (AD) that applies to certain Piper... identified in this AD, contact Piper Aircraft, Inc., 2926 Piper Drive, Vero Beach, Florida 32960; telephone...

  5. 76 FR 60367 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    2011-09-29

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are revising an existing airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Piper...). ADDRESSES: For service information identified in this AD, contact Piper Aircraft, Inc., 2926 Piper Drive...

  6. 78 FR 7642 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc.

    2013-02-04

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. (type certificate previously held by The New Piper Aircraft Inc.) PA-28, PA-32, PA-34, and PA-44...

  7. 77 FR 42455 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    2012-07-19

    ...-0756; Directorate Identifier 2012-CE-012-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft... adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Piper Aircraft, Inc. (type certificate previously held by The New Piper Aircraft Inc.) Models PA-18 and PA-19 airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by...

  8. 78 FR 26556 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    2013-05-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 [Docket No. FAA-2012-0756; Directorate Identifier 2012-CE-012-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft... Piper Aircraft, Inc. (type certificate previously held by The New Piper Aircraft Inc.) Models PA-18 and...

  9. 78 FR 56150 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    2013-09-12

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... published in the Federal Register. AD 2013-13-01 applies to certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-46-310P... nitrile parts are installed for certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-46-310P, PA-46-350P, PA-46R-350T...

  10. 77 FR 14316 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. (Type Certificate Previously Held by The New Piper...

    2012-03-09

    ...-0251; Directorate Identifier 2012-CE-002-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. (Type Certificate Previously Held by The New Piper Aircraft Inc.) Airplanes AGENCY: Federal... supersede an existing airworthiness directive (AD) that applies to certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. (type...

  11. 78 FR 41277 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    2013-07-10

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-46-310P, PA-46-350P, PA-46R-350T, and PA-46-500TP airplanes. This... through Friday, except Federal holidays. For service information identified in this AD, contact Piper...

  12. 75 FR 82329 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. (Type Certificate Previously Held by The New Piper...

    2010-12-30

    ...-1295; Directorate Identifier 2010-CE-060-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. (Type Certificate Previously Held by The New Piper Aircraft, Inc.) Models PA-46-310P, PA- 46-350P... applies to certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-46-310P and PA-46-350P airplanes that are equipped with...

  13. 76 FR 29176 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. PA-23, PA-31, and PA-42 Airplanes

    2011-05-20

    ...-0218; Directorate Identifier 2009-CE-006-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft... (AD) that applies to Piper Aircraft, Inc. PA-23, PA-31, and PA-42 airplanes. The existing AD currently... Federal holidays. For service information identified in this AD, contact Piper Aircraft, Inc., 2926 Piper...

  14. 75 FR 61655 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Model PA-28-161 Airplanes

    2010-10-06

    ...-1006; Directorate Identifier 2009-CE-057-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft... airworthiness directive (AD) for all Piper Aircraft, Inc. (Piper) Model PA-28-161 airplanes equipped with.... Piper Model PA-28-161 airplanes modified by STC No. SA03303AT have a similar unsafe design feature that...

  15. 75 FR 81417 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Model PA-28-161 Airplanes

    2010-12-28

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Model PA-28-161 Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... new airworthiness directive (AD): 2010-26-04 Piper Aircraft, Inc: Amendment 39-16543; Docket No. FAA... times may be Airplane approved for this part. Maintenance Manual Piper PA28-161 TAE 125-01, Doc. No...

  16. 76 FR 36395 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-24, PA-24-250, and PA-24-260 Airplanes

    2011-06-22

    ...-0639; Directorate Identifier 2011-CE-016-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft... identified in this proposed AD, contact Piper Aircraft, Inc., 2926 Piper Drive, Vero Beach, Florida 32960... September 15, 2004. This SAIB alerted owners and operators of Piper Aircraft, Inc. (Piper) Models PA-23, PA...

  17. 78 FR 54561 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    2013-09-05

    ... for Lycoming and Piper Exhaust System Parts, for the entry ``tail pipe assembly, top'' in the third...-31-350, tail pipe assembly, top. This document corrects that error. In all other respects, the... exhaust system, expanding the inspection scope to include the entirety of each airplane exhaust system...

  18. 77 FR 57534 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    2012-09-18

    ... flanges of the exhaust system (which mate with the transition), the transition, the tail pipe, and the... requires a detailed repetitive inspection of the exhaust system downstream of the turbochargers and repair... occurred due to exhaust system failures upstream of aircraft turbochargers and between recurring detailed...

  19. 75 FR 43397 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-32R-301T and PA-46-350P Airplanes

    2010-07-26

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-32R-301T and PA-46-350P Airplanes AGENCY: Federal... applies to certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-32R-301T and PA-46- 350P airplanes. AD 2010-13-07... 23, 2010), which applies to certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-32R-301T and PA-46-350P airplanes...

  20. 75 FR 43809 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. PA-28, PA-32, PA-34, and PA-44 Series Airplanes

    2010-07-27

    ... Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association (AOPA), Barry Rogers, Bruce Chien, and Harry Cook commented that... Absorbed by Piper John Witosky, Thomas McIntosh, Claude Dalrymple, Jr., M. Hefter, and George Haffey..., Barry Rogers, Matt Gunsch, Thomas McIntosh, and four other commenters stated that the FAA needs to...

  1. Profiling of Piper betle Linn. cultivars by direct analysis in real time mass spectrometric technique.

    Bajpai, Vikas; Sharma, Deepty; Kumar, Brijesh; Madhusudanan, K P

    2010-12-01

    Piper betle Linn. is a traditional plant associated with the Asian and southeast Asian cultures. Its use is also recorded in folk medicines in these regions. Several of its medicinal properties have recently been proven. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of mainly terpenes and phenols in betel leaves. These constituents vary in the different cultivars of Piper betle. In this paper we have attempted to profile eight locally available betel cultivars using the recently developed mass spectral ionization technique of direct analysis in real time (DART). Principal component analysis has also been employed to analyze the DART MS data of these betel cultivars. The results show that the cultivars of Piper betle could be differentiated using DART MS data. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. AIRTV: Broadband Direct to Aircraft

    Sorbello, R.; Stone, R.; Bennett, S. B.; Bertenyi, E.

    2002-01-01

    Airlines have been continuously upgrading their wide-body, long-haul aircraft with IFE (in-flight entertainment) systems that can support from 12 to 24 channels of video entertainment as well as provide the infrastructure to enable in-seat delivery of email and internet services. This is a direct consequence of increased passenger demands for improved in-flight services along with the expectations that broadband delivery systems capable of providing live entertainment (news, sports, financial information, etc.) and high speed data delivery will soon be available. The recent events of Sept. 11 have slowed the airline's upgrade of their IFE systems, but have also highlighted the compelling need for broadband aeronautical delivery systems to include operational and safety information. Despite the impact of these events, it is estimated that by 2005 more than 3000 long haul aircraft (servicing approximately 1 billion passengers annually) will be fully equipped with modern IFE systems. Current aircraft data delivery systems, which use either Inmarsat or NATS, are lacking in bandwidth and consequently are unsuitable to satisfy passenger demands for broadband email/internet services or the airlines' burgeoning data requirements. Present live video delivery services are limited to regional coverage and are not readily expandable to global or multiregional service. Faced with a compelling market demand for high data transport to aircraft, AirTV has been developing a broadband delivery system that will meet both passengers' and airlines' needs. AirTV is a global content delivery system designed to provide a range of video programming and data services to commercial airlines. When AirTV is operational in 2004, it will provide a broadband connection directly to the aircraft, delivering live video entertainment, internet/email service and essential operational and safety data. The system has been designed to provide seamless global service to all airline routes except for those

  3. 78 FR 35110 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    2013-06-12

    ... Jersey Avenue SE., Washington, DC 20590. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Gary Wechsler, Aerospace...; telephone: (404) 474-5575; fax: (404) 474- 5606; email: gary.wechsler@faa. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION... test exhaust systems upon the accumulation of 5 years since installing a new or overhauled exhaust...

  4. 77 FR 56993 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    2012-09-17

    ... issues on the adjacent torque tube. We disagree because corrosion preventive measures are already covered.../or repetitive inspections of the stabilator horn assembly for corrosion or cracks, as applicable. Corrosion or cracks could lead to failure of the stabilator horn. Consequently, failure of the stabilator...

  5. 78 FR 76040 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    2013-12-16

    ... magnetic particle procedures, such as those contained in FAA Advisory Circular (AC) 43.13-1B, Chapter 5... guidelines established by the American Society for Non-destructive Testing or the ``Military Standard for Nondestructive Testing Personnel Qualification and Certification'' (MIL-STD-410E), which can be found on the...

  6. 78 FR 49221 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    2013-08-13

    ... this AD, inspect the wing lift strut forks for cracks using magnetic particle procedures, such as those... American Society for Non-destructive Testing or the ``Military Standard for Nondestructive Testing... is present, the surface should be sanded or polished smooth before testing to assure a consistent and...

  7. Directed seed dispersal of Piper by Carollia perspicillata and its effect on understory plant diversity and folivory.

    Salazar, Diego; Kelm, Detlev H; Salazar, Diego

    2013-11-01

    Directed dispersal occurs when seeds are differentially deposited to sites where offspring survivorship is higher than at randomly chosen sites. Traditionally, characteristics of the dispersal target sites that could increase survivorship of the dispersed plants are thought to be intrinsic to the sites. If directed dispersal is constant over extended periods of time, however, it is likely that nonrandom patterns of dispersal could modify the ecological characteristics of the target site in ways that could increase survivorship and fitness of the dispersed plants. Here we report patterns of Piper diversity (richness, equitability, and similarity) and Piper folivory within plots near natural or artificial roosts of Carollia perspicillata vs. similar plots without bat roosts. Plots with bat roosts, both natural and artificial, had significantly higher Piper species diversity. Additionally, we found that plots with a higher Piper species diversity showed less specialist folivory, higher generalist folivory, and lower total herbivore leaf damage than plots with low Piper diversity. Finally, plots with bat roosts also showed less specialist folivory, lower generalist folivory, and lower total folivory when compared to plots without roosts. We propose that long-lasting nonrandom patterns of seed dispersal can change the local ecological characteristics of target sites via changes in plant diversity, and that these changes are likely to reduce the local rates of folivory and, therefore, increase seed and adult plant survivorship.

  8. 77 FR 41889 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    2012-07-17

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... airworthiness directive (AD) for Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-92A helicopters. This AD... identified in this AD, contact Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, Attn: Manager, Commercial Technical Support...

  9. 77 FR 23382 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    2012-04-19

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-92A helicopters. This AD was prompted by the manufacturer's..., contact Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, Attn: Manager, Commercial Technical Support, Mailstop s581a, 6900...

  10. 77 FR 49710 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    2012-08-17

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-76A helicopters to require modifying the electric rotor brake (ERB... service information identified in this AD, contact Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, Attn: Manager...

  11. 77 FR 68058 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    2012-11-15

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... airworthiness directive (AD) for Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-70, S-70A, S-70C, S-70C(M... after receipt. For service information identified in this AD, contact Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation...

  12. 77 FR 33083 - Airworthiness Directives; WACO Classic Aircraft Corporation Airplanes

    2012-06-05

    ... Airworthiness Directives; WACO Classic Aircraft Corporation Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... directive (AD) for certain WACO Classic Aircraft Corporation Models 2T-1A, 2T-1A-1, and 2T-1A-2 airplanes... information identified in this AD, contact WACO Classic Aircraft Corporation; 15955 South Airport Rd., Battle...

  13. 77 FR 56581 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    2012-09-13

    ... Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Supplemental notice of... airworthiness directive (AD) for the Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-92A helicopter, which... proposed AD, contact Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, Attn: Manager, Commercial Technical Support, mailstop...

  14. 78 FR 9796 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    2013-02-12

    ... (2) Model 172S, S/N l72S11074 through 172S11193. (d) Subject Joint Aircraft System Component (JASC)/Air Transport Association (ATA) of America Code 2820, Aircraft Fuel Distribution System. (e) Unsafe... Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT...

  15. 76 FR 70379 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    2011-11-14

    ...) Subject Joint Aircraft System Component (JASC)/Air Transport Association (ATA) of America Code Fuel, 28...-1245; Directorate Identifier 2011-CE-033-AD; RIN 2120-AA64] Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft... certain Cessna Aircraft Company (Cessna) Models 172R and 172S airplanes. The existing AD requires you to...

  16. 77 FR 67561 - Airworthiness Directives; Univair Aircraft Corporation Airplanes

    2012-11-13

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Univair Aircraft Corporation Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA...) that published in the Federal Register. That AD applies to certain Univair Aircraft Corporation Models... throughout the AD for Univair Aircraft Corporation Models (ERCO) 415-C, 415-CD, 415-D, E, G; (Forney) F-1 and...

  17. 78 FR 60656 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    2013-10-02

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-92A helicopters to require modifying the No. 1 engine forward... Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, Attn: Manager, Commercial Technical Support, mailstop s581a, 6900 Main...

  18. 77 FR 52205 - Airworthiness Directives; Univair Aircraft Corporation Airplanes

    2012-08-29

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Univair Aircraft Corporation Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... certain Univair Aircraft Corporation Models (ERCO) 415-C, 415-CD, 415-D, E, G; (Forney) F-1 and F-1A... inspection results. This new AD was prompted by a report of a Univair Aircraft Corporation Model ERCO 415-D...

  19. 77 FR 21402 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    2012-04-10

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-92A helicopters. This AD was prompted by the discovery of tail... identified in this AD, contact Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, Attn: Manager, Commercial Technical Support...

  20. 78 FR 37701 - Airworthiness Directives; Pilatus Aircraft Ltd. Airplanes

    2013-06-24

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Pilatus Aircraft Ltd. Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... directive (AD) for Pilatus Aircraft Ltd. Models PC-6, PC-6-H1, PC-6-H2, PC-6/350, PC- 6/350-H1, PC-6/350-H2... components and the flap actuator could result in loss of control. We are issuing this proposed AD to require...

  1. Direct carbon dioxide emissions from civil aircraft

    Grote, Matt; Williams, Ian; Preston, John

    2014-10-01

    Global airlines consume over 5 million barrels of oil per day, and the resulting carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted by aircraft engines is of concern. This article provides a contemporary review of the literature associated with the measures available to the civil aviation industry for mitigating CO2 emissions from aircraft. The measures are addressed under two categories - policy and legal-related measures, and technological and operational measures. Results of the review are used to develop several insights into the challenges faced. The analysis shows that forecasts for strong growth in air-traffic will result in civil aviation becoming an increasingly significant contributor to anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Some mitigation-measures can be left to market-forces as the key-driver for implementation because they directly reduce airlines' fuel consumption, and their impact on reducing fuel-costs will be welcomed by the industry. Other mitigation-measures cannot be left to market-forces. Speed of implementation and stringency of these measures will not be satisfactorily resolved unattended, and the current global regulatory-framework does not provide the necessary strength of stewardship. A global regulator with ‘teeth' needs to be established, but investing such a body with the appropriate level of authority requires securing an international agreement which history would suggest is going to be very difficult. If all mitigation-measures are successfully implemented, it is still likely that traffic growth-rates will continue to out-pace emissions reduction-rates. Therefore, to achieve an overall reduction in CO2 emissions, behaviour change will be necessary to reduce demand for air-travel. However, reducing demand will be strongly resisted by all stakeholders in the industry; and the ticket price-increases necessary to induce the required reduction in traffic growth-rates place a monetary-value on CO2 emissions of approximately 7-100 times greater than other common

  2. Direct carbon dioxide emissions from civil aircraft

    Grote, Matt; Williams, Ian; Preston, John

    2014-01-01

    Global airlines consume over 5 million barrels of oil per day, and the resulting carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted by aircraft engines is of concern. This article provides a contemporary review of the literature associated with the measures available to the civil aviation industry for mitigating CO2 emissions from aircraft. The measures are addressed under two categories – policy and legal-related measures, and technological and operational measures. Results of the review are used to develop sever...

  3. 77 FR 68057 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    2012-11-15

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-76C helicopters. This AD requires installing an improved... Corporation, Attn: Manager, Commercial Technical Support, mailstop s581a, 6900 Main Street, Stratford, CT...

  4. 77 FR 68061 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    2012-11-15

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-92A helicopters. This AD requires inspecting the tail rotor (T/R... Corporation, Attn: Manager, Commercial Technical Support, mailstop s581a, 6900 Main Street, Stratford, CT...

  5. 76 FR 6525 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia...

    2011-02-07

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia Aircraft... following new AD: 2011-03-04 Cessna Aircraft Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia Aircraft... the following Cessna Aircraft Company (type certificate previously held by Columbia Aircraft...

  6. 78 FR 1155 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    2013-01-08

    ... for the parts to be inspected and clarifies the inspection. FAA's Determination We are proposing this... the 100-hour TIS interval repetitive inspections as required in paragraph (h) of this AD. (2) If...-18033; Directorate Identifier 2004-CE-16-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft...

  7. 76 FR 4226 - Airworthiness Directives; Aircraft Industries a.s. Model L 23 Super Blanik Sailplanes

    2011-01-25

    ... through Friday, except Federal holidays. For service information identified in this AD, contact Aircraft... docket. Relevant Service Information Aircraft Industries a.s. has issued LET Aircraft Industries... Airworthiness Directives; Aircraft Industries a.s. Model L 23 Super Blanik Sailplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation...

  8. 76 FR 1349 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company (Cessna) (Type Certificate A00003SE Previously...

    2011-01-10

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company (Cessna) (Type Certificate A00003SE Previously Held by... Company (Type Certificate A00003SE previously held by Columbia Aircraft Manufacturing (previously The... Cessna Aircraft Company (Cessna) (Type Certificate A00003SE previously held by Columbia Aircraft...

  9. Direct Adaptive Aircraft Control Using Dynamic Cell Structure Neural Networks

    Jorgensen, Charles C.

    1997-01-01

    A Dynamic Cell Structure (DCS) Neural Network was developed which learns topology representing networks (TRNS) of F-15 aircraft aerodynamic stability and control derivatives. The network is integrated into a direct adaptive tracking controller. The combination produces a robust adaptive architecture capable of handling multiple accident and off- nominal flight scenarios. This paper describes the DCS network and modifications to the parameter estimation procedure. The work represents one step towards an integrated real-time reconfiguration control architecture for rapid prototyping of new aircraft designs. Performance was evaluated using three off-line benchmarks and on-line nonlinear Virtual Reality simulation. Flight control was evaluated under scenarios including differential stabilator lock, soft sensor failure, control and stability derivative variations, and air turbulence.

  10. 77 FR 70114 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    2012-11-23

    ... Aircraft Company Service Bulletin SB04-28-03, dated August 30, 2004, and Engine Fuel Return System... Aircraft System Component (JASC)/Air Transport Association (ATA) of America Code 2820, Aircraft Fuel... Modification Do not incorporate Cessna Aircraft Company Engine Fuel Return System Modification Kit MK 172-28-01...

  11. 75 FR 26885 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Model S-76A, B, and C Helicopters

    2010-05-13

    ... aircraft.'' They state that we should require overhauling any affected servo actuator at intervals of 2,000... (servo actuator), Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) part number (P/N) 76650-09805-109 or -110... Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Model S- 76A, B, and C Helicopters AGENCY: Federal...

  12. 77 FR 72250 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    2012-12-05

    ... Joint Aircraft System Component (JASC)/Air Transport Association (ATA) of America Code 2820, Aircraft Fuel Distribution System. (e) Unsafe Condition This AD was prompted by reports of chafing of a new... flight, reinstall the fuel return line assembly (Cessna P/N 0516031-1) following Cessna Aircraft Company...

  13. 77 FR 50054 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    2012-08-20

    ... Aircraft Company Service Bulletin SB04-28-03, dated August 30, 2004, and Engine Fuel Return System... Transport Association (ATA) of America Code 2820, Aircraft Fuel Distribution System. (e) Unsafe Condition... Fuel Return System Modification Do not install Cessna Aircraft Company Service Bulletin SB 04- 28-03...

  14. 78 FR 25363 - Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries Airplanes

    2013-05-01

    ... holidays. For service information identified in this AD, contact Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH, N.A... Aircraft Industries GmbH has issued Mandatory Service Bulletin 40NG-018/1, dated November 20, 2012. The... Aircraft Industries GmbH Mandatory Service Bulletin 40NG-018/1, dated November 26, 2012. (2) If chafing...

  15. 78 FR 4092 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    2013-01-18

    ... aircraft's hydraulic power pack wiring for incorrect installation, and if needed, correct the installation... hydraulic power pack wiring for incorrect installation, and if needed, correct the installation. Since...

  16. 77 FR 55770 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    2012-09-11

    ... aircraft's hydraulic power pack wiring for incorrect installation, and if needed, correct the installation... this AD, whichever occurs first, inspect the hydraulic power pack wiring for correct installation...) Correct the Installation of the Hydraulic Power Pack Wiring (1) Single engine aircraft: If you find...

  17. 76 FR 48047 - Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries Powered Sailplanes

    2011-08-08

    ... 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. For service information identified in this... Service Information Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH has issued Service Bulletin No. MSB 36-105/1, dated...-105, dated April 21, 2011, as specified in Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Service Bulletin No. MSB...

  18. 78 FR 57104 - Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries Airplanes

    2013-09-17

    ... p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. For service information identified in this... AD docket. Relevant Service Information Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH has issued Mandatory Service... service information related to this AD, contact Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH, N.A. Otto-Str.5, A-2700...

  19. 77 FR 18969 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    2012-03-29

    ... Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed... Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-76C helicopters. This proposed AD is prompted by a bird-strike to.... For service information identified in this proposed AD, contact Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, Attn...

  20. 76 FR 66615 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-92A Helicopters

    2011-10-27

    ... subject of this AD. (d) The Joint Aircraft System/Component (JASC) Code is 3233: Landing Gear Actuator. (e... Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-92A Helicopters AGENCY: Federal... landing gear retract actuator (actuator). Instead of limiting the groundspeed, replacing the affected...

  1. 78 FR 44045 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Helicopters

    2013-07-23

    ...; (iv) Aft Walking Beam Assembly, P/N 70400-08104-048; or (v) Close Tolerance Bolt, P/N 70400-26802-102... after receipt. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Michael Davison, Flight Test Engineer, Boston Aircraft... Office, FAA, may approve AMOCs for this AD. Send your proposal to: Michael Davison, Flight Test Engineer...

  2. 77 FR 29863 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    2012-05-21

    ... found free of cracks or incorporating an FAA-approved modification. This AD also requires reporting the... consequent loss of control. Relevant Service Information We reviewed Cessna Aircraft Company Single Engine... regulatory, economic, environmental, and energy aspects of this AD. We will consider all comments received by...

  3. 77 FR 5418 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    2012-02-03

    ...) Subject Joint Aircraft Service Component (JASC) Code: 2800, Fuel system. Issued in Fort Worth, Texas, on... aft fuel system 40 micron fuel filter element with a 10 micron fuel filter element. This proposed AD... AD for the Sikorsky Model S-61A, D, E, L, N, NM, R, and V helicopters with a fuel system 40 micron...

  4. 77 FR 16432 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    2012-03-21

    ... through Friday, except Federal holidays. The AD docket contains this AD, the regulatory evaluation, any... airplanes; certificated in any category; serial numbers -5002 through -5372 inclusive, -5501 through -5830 inclusive, -6002 through -6080 inclusive, and -6082 through -6086 inclusive. (d) Subject Joint Aircraft...

  5. 78 FR 23698 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    2013-04-22

    ... Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed... Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-92A helicopters to require modifying the No. 1 engine forward firewall center... Aircraft Corporation, Attn: Manager, Commercial Technical Support, mailstop s581a, 6900 Main Street...

  6. 77 FR 34281 - Airworthiness Directives; Schweizer Aircraft Corporation

    2012-06-11

    ... Corporation AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM... Corporation (Schweizer) Model 269D and Model 269D Configuration A helicopters. The type certificate for these models is currently held by Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky). This proposal is prompted by...

  7. 77 FR 28328 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    2012-05-14

    ... Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed... Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-92A helicopters, which requires inspecting the tail rotor (T/R) pylon for a... service information identified in this proposed AD, contact Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, Attn: Manager...

  8. 78 FR 41285 - Airworthiness Directives; Pilatus Aircraft Ltd. Airplanes

    2013-07-10

    ... AIRCRAFT LTD., Customer Technical Support (MCC), P.O. Box 992, CH-6371 STANS, Switzerland; telephone: +41... relevant data and determined that air safety and the public interest require adopting the AD as proposed... requirements of this AD. The average labor rate is $85 per work-hour. Required parts will cost about $10 per...

  9. 78 FR 58874 - Airworthiness Directives; PILATUS AIRCRAFT LTD. Airplanes

    2013-09-25

    ... identified in this AD, contact Pilatus Aircraft Ltd., Customer Service Manager, CH-6371 STANS, Switzerland... data and determined that air safety and the public interest require adopting this AD as proposed except... requirements of this AD. The average labor rate is $85 per work-hour. Required parts would cost about $40 per...

  10. Antimicrobial activity of Piper arboreum and Piper tuberculatum ...

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-17

    Jun 17, 2009 ... Tel.: +55-16-3301-6660. Fax: +55-16-3322-7932. previously described the occurrence of trypanocidal chromenes in Piper aduncum, Piper gaudichaudianum and amides in Piper tuberculatum (Batista-Júnior et al.,. 2008; Cotinguiba et al., 2009). Additionally, hydroqui- nones and flavanones from leaves of ...

  11. 77 FR 57994 - Airworthiness Directives; The Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    2012-09-19

    ... unit (GCU). We are issuing this AD to prevent DC generator overvoltage events, which could result in... AD was prompted by reports of direct current (DC) generator overvoltage events. We are issuing this AD to prevent DC generator overvoltage events, which could result in smoke in the cockpit and loss of...

  12. 77 FR 37827 - Airworthiness Directives; The Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    2012-06-25

    ...) generator control unit (GCU). We are proposing this AD to prevent DC generator overvoltage events, which... proposed AD. Discussion We have received reports of direct current (DC) generator overvoltage events. The... generator and the left and right engine DC generators, and corrective actions if necessary. That AD also...

  13. 78 FR 73997 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped with Wing Lift Struts

    2013-12-10

    ...-0023; Directorate Identifier 96-CE-072-AD; Amendment 39-17688; AD 99-01-05 R1] RIN 2120-AA64... Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are revising Airworthiness Directive (AD) 99-01-05 for certain aircraft equipped with wing lift struts. AD 99-01-05 required repetitively inspecting the wing...

  14. 76 FR 31457 - Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Model DA 42 Airplanes

    2011-06-01

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Model DA 42 Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation... reportedly found on DA 42 Main Landing Gear (MLG) Damper-to-Trailing Arm joints during standard maintenance... DA 42 Main Landing Gear (MLG) Damper-to-Trailing Arm joints during standard maintenance. Depending on...

  15. Numerical estimation of aircrafts' unsteady lateral-directional stability derivatives

    Maričić N.L.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A technique for predicting steady and oscillatory aerodynamic loads on general configuration has been developed. The prediction is based on the Doublet-Lattice Method, Slender Body Theory and Method of Images. The chord and span wise loading on lifting surfaces and longitudinal bodies (in horizontal and vertical plane load distributions are determined. The configuration may be composed of an assemblage of lifting surfaces (with control surfaces and bodies (with circular cross sections and a longitudinal variation of radius. Loadings predicted by this method are used to calculate (estimate steady and unsteady (dynamic lateral-directional stability derivatives. The short outline of the used methods is given in [1], [2], [3], [4] and [5]. Applying the described methodology software DERIV is developed. The obtained results from DERIV are compared to NASTRAN examples HA21B and HA21D from [4]. In the first example (HA21B, the jet transport wing (BAH wing is steady rolling and lateral stability derivatives are determined. In the second example (HA21D, lateral-directional stability derivatives are calculated for forward- swept-wing (FSW airplane in antisymmetric quasi-steady maneuvers. Acceptable agreement is achieved comparing the results from [4] and DERIV.

  16. 41 CFR 102-33.70 - What directives must we follow when planning to acquire Government aircraft?

    2010-07-01

    ... Parts Planning to Acquire Government Aircraft § 102-33.70 What directives must we follow when planning... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What directives must we follow when planning to acquire Government aircraft? 102-33.70 Section 102-33.70 Public Contracts and...

  17. Aircraft directional stability and vertical tail design: A review of semi-empirical methods

    Ciliberti, Danilo; Della Vecchia, Pierluigi; Nicolosi, Fabrizio; De Marco, Agostino

    2017-11-01

    Aircraft directional stability and control are related to vertical tail design. The safety, performance, and flight qualities of an aircraft also depend on a correct empennage sizing. Specifically, the vertical tail is responsible for the aircraft yaw stability and control. If these characteristics are not well balanced, the entire aircraft design may fail. Stability and control are often evaluated, especially in the preliminary design phase, with semi-empirical methods, which are based on the results of experimental investigations performed in the past decades, and occasionally are merged with data provided by theoretical assumptions. This paper reviews the standard semi-empirical methods usually applied in the estimation of airplane directional stability derivatives in preliminary design, highlighting the advantages and drawbacks of these approaches that were developed from wind tunnel tests performed mainly on fighter airplane configurations of the first decades of the past century, and discussing their applicability on current transport aircraft configurations. Recent investigations made by the authors have shown the limit of these methods, proving the existence of aerodynamic interference effects in sideslip conditions which are not adequately considered in classical formulations. The article continues with a concise review of the numerical methods for aerodynamics and their applicability in aircraft design, highlighting how Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solvers are well-suited to attain reliable results in attached flow conditions, with reasonable computational times. From the results of RANS simulations on a modular model of a representative regional turboprop airplane layout, the authors have developed a modern method to evaluate the vertical tail and fuselage contributions to aircraft directional stability. The investigation on the modular model has permitted an effective analysis of the aerodynamic interference effects by moving, changing, and

  18. PIPER and Polarized Galactic Foregrounds

    Chuss, David

    2009-01-01

    In addition to probing inflationary cosmology, PIPER will measure the polarized dust emission from the Galaxy. PIPER will be capable of full (I,0,U,V) measurement over four frequency bands ' These measurements will provide insight into the physics of dust grains and a probe of the Galactic magnetic field on large and intermediate scales.

  19. Insurance - Piper Alpha ''et al''

    Hales, K.

    1995-01-01

    This paper opens with some brief information about the Piper Alpha loss, how the loss was handled and its final cost. More importantly, it discusses the effect of the Piper Alpha loss on the world insurance market including the oil insurance captives such as O.I.L Limited. Finally, the insurance market current status and prognosis for the future are considered. (Author)

  20. Behind Start of Take-Off Roll Aircraft Sound Level Directivity Study - Revision 1

    Lau, Michael C.; Roof, Christopher J.; Fleming, Gregg G.; Rapoza, Amanda S.; Boeker, Eric R.; McCurdy, David A.; Shepherd, Kevin P.

    2015-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Langley Research Center (LaRC) and the Environmental Measurement and Modeling Division of the Department of Transportation's Volpe National Transportation Systems Center (Volpe) conducted a noise measurement study to examine aircraft sound level directivity patterns behind the start-of-takeoff roll. The study was conducted at Washington Dulles International Airport (IAD) from October 4 through 20, 2004.

  1. 75 FR 52292 - Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Models DA 40 and DA 40F Airplanes

    2010-08-25

    ... Industries GmbH Models DA 40 and DA 40F Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department... new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Models DA 40 and DA 40F... received information from Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH that the Models DA 40 and DA 40F airplanes have...

  2. 75 FR 66009 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia...

    2010-10-27

    ... Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia Aircraft Manufacturing (Previously the Lancair... Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia Aircraft Manufacturing (Previously The Lancair...-15895. Applicability (c) This AD applies to the following Cessna Aircraft Company (type certificate...

  3. Direct Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Emission Standards and Test Procedures

    This rule will adopt the current voluntary NOx and CO emissions standards of the United Nations International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), bringing the United States aircraft standards into alignment with the international standards.

  4. KOMPOSISI KIMIA MINYAK ATSIRI BUAH SIRIH HIJAU (PIPER BETLE L), KEMUKUS (PIPER CUBEBA L) DAN CABE JAWA (PIPER RETROFRACTUM VAHL)

    M. Widyo Wartono; Ahmad Ainurofiq; Maya Ismaniar

    2014-01-01

    Tumbuhan genus Piper mempunyai kandungan minyak atsiri hampir disemua bagiannya, namun komposisi kimianya belum semua dilaporkan. Pada laporan ini kami melakukan isolasi dan identifikasi senyawa kimia minyak atsiri pada bagian buah tumbuhan Piper. Isolasi minyak atsiri buah Piper dilakukan dengan destilasi air menggunakan destilasi Stahl dan analisis komposisi kimia dengan kromatografi gas-spektroskopi masa (GC-MS). Kandungan minyak atsiri buah sirih hijau (Piper betle) 1,4% (v/b), cabe jawa ...

  5. 75 FR 35619 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-32R-301T and PA-46-350P Airplanes

    2010-06-23

    ... this AD to prevent failure of the V-band exhaust coupling, which could cause the exhaust pipe to detach... this AD to prevent failure of the V-band exhaust coupling, which could cause the exhaust pipe to detach... requires you to replace any spot-welded, V-band exhaust coupling with a riveted, V-band exhaust coupling...

  6. 75 FR 7407 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-32R-301T and PA-46-350P Airplanes

    2010-02-19

    ..., which could cause the exhaust pipe to detach from the turbocharger. This failure could result in release...-band exhaust coupling attaches the exhaust pipe to the engine's turbocharger. The spot welds on the... the V- band exhaust coupling, which could cause the exhaust pipe to detach from the turbocharger. This...

  7. Citogenética de Piper hispidinervum e Piper aduncum Cytogenetics of Piper hispidinervum and Piper aduncum

    Juliane Dornellas Nunes

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi detectar diferenças entre duas espécies de pimenta-longa por meio de análise de cariótipos. Foram analisados cinco acessos de Piper hispidinervum (Piperaceae C. DC. e Piper aduncum L. (Piperaceae pertencentes à coleção de germoplasma da Embrapa Acre, utilizando-se o método de esmagamento e coloração de Feulgen. As duas espécies apresentaram número cromossômico 2n = 24 e cromossomos pequenos e metacêntricos com comprimento médio de 1,38 µm em P. hispidinervum e 1,32 µm em P. aduncum. Pelos descritores citogenéticos obtidos não há diferença entre as duas espécies.The aim of this work was to detect differences between two species of long pepper by karyotypic analysis. Five acessions of Piper hispidinervum C. DC. (Piperaceae and Piper aduncum L. (Piperaceae, belonging to germplasm collection of Embrapa Acre, were analysed using squashing technique and Feulgen staining. The chromosome number observed for both species was 2n = 24 and karyotype presented small metacentric chromossomes, with average length of 1.38 µm in P. hispidinervum and 1.32 µm in P. aduncum. Karyotypic descriptions pointed out that the species are not different.

  8. 75 FR 75868 - Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Models DA 40 and DA 40F Airplanes

    2010-12-07

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Models DA 40 and DA 40F Airplanes AGENCY: Federal... of the Thielert Engine Owners Group commented that the Model DA 42 has the same door design and the same unsafe condition. He recommended that the AD also apply to the Model DA 42. The FAA has discussed...

  9. 77 FR 66409 - Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Airplanes

    2012-11-05

    ...., Washington, DC 20590, between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. For service... occupants. To address this concern, Diamond Aircraft Industries (DAI) published Mandatory Service Bulletin... MCAI in the AD docket. Relevant Service Information Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH has issued Diamond...

  10. 78 FR 66666 - Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Airplanes

    2013-11-06

    ...., Washington, DC 20590, between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. For service... Aircraft Industries GmbH has issued Mandatory Service Bulletin No. MSB 42NG-003/12; Mandatory Service... Accomplishment/ Instructions section of Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Mandatory Service Bulletin No. MSB 42NG...

  11. 78 FR 26241 - Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Powered Gliders

    2013-05-06

    ... p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. For service information identified in this AD... We reviewed Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Mandatory Service Bulletin MSB 36-108, dated February 28... Industries GmbH Mandatory Service Bulletin MSB 36-108 and Diamond Aircraft [[Page 26243

  12. 77 FR 65503 - Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Airplanes

    2012-10-29

    ... through Friday, except Federal holidays. For service information identified in this proposed AD, contact.... Prompted by the reported event, Diamond Aircraft Industries (DAI) published Recommended Service Bulletin... MCAI in the AD docket. Relevant Service Information Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH has issued the...

  13. Real-time aircraft continuous descent trajectory optimization with ATC time constraints using direct collocation methods.

    Verhoeven, Ronald; Dalmau Codina, Ramon; Prats Menéndez, Xavier; de Gelder, Nico

    2014-01-01

    1 Abstract In this paper an initial implementation of a real - time aircraft trajectory optimization algorithm is presented . The aircraft trajectory for descent and approach is computed for minimum use of thrust and speed brake in support of a “green” continuous descent and approach flight operation, while complying with ATC time constraints for maintaining runway throughput and co...

  14. Citogenética de Piper hispidinervum e Piper aduncum

    Nunes,Juliane Dornellas; Torres,Giovana Augusta; Davide,Lisete Chamma; Salgado,Caio Césio

    2007-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi detectar diferenças entre duas espécies de pimenta-longa por meio de análise de cariótipos. Foram analisados cinco acessos de Piper hispidinervum (Piperaceae) C. DC. e Piper aduncum L. (Piperaceae) pertencentes à coleção de germoplasma da Embrapa Acre, utilizando-se o método de esmagamento e coloração de Feulgen. As duas espécies apresentaram número cromossômico 2n = 24 e cromossomos pequenos e metacêntricos com comprimento médio de 1,38 µm em P. hispidinervum e ...

  15. 77 FR 35890 - Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Airplanes

    2012-06-15

    ...., Washington, DC 20590, between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. For service... Service Information Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH has issued Mandatory Service Bulletin No. MSB 42-092...

  16. Ethnomedical uses and pharmacological activities of most prevalent species of genus Piper in Panama: A review.

    Durant-Archibold, Armando A; Santana, Ana I; Gupta, Mahabir P

    2018-05-10

    Piperaceae is the fifth largest family of plants in Panama. This review focuses on the ethnomedical uses of the most prevalent Panamanian species and biological activities of their extracts and/or constituents both in Panama and worldwide. Many species have a plethora of ethnomedical uses such as antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-Helicobacter pylori, antiulcer, antiprotozoal, estrogenic, insecticidal, local anesthetic, diuretic, and for women's health conditions. The aim of this review is to compile all ethnomedical uses of most prevalent species of Piper in Panama, and their extracts or phytoconstituents worldwide, through a complete literature search, so that it may allow selection of potential unexplored Piper species for future research and development of phytotherapeuticals for important ailments. This review conducted a thorough search in books and databases such as Google Scholar, PubMed, Sci-Finder, Scopus, ACS publications, Science Direct, and Reaxys (Elsevier), until October of 2017. The information provided in this review is based on peer-reviewed papers only in English. The key words used to search were: "Piper", "Piperaceae", "Panama", "Pharmacological activity", "Chemistry," "Toxicity," and "Clinical studies". Scientific names of the plants were validated through www.tropicos.org. Potential full-texts of eligible papers, irrespective of database, were identified. Study selection and data extraction were conducted by one author (AIS) and confirmed by others (MPG, ADA). The extracted data were summarized in tabular form and a narrative description was used to provide a summary of updated information. The ethnomedical uses of most prevalent 23 Panamanian species of Piper both in Panama as well in the world are provided. Of these species only Piper arboreum, Piper auritum, Piper cordulatum, Piper hispidum, Piper dariense, Piper multiplinervium and Piper umbellatum have ethnomedical uses in Panama. Some of the

  17. Citogenética de Piper hispidinervum e Piper aduncum Cytogenetics of Piper hispidinervum and Piper aduncum

    Juliane Dornellas Nunes; Giovana Augusta Torres; Lisete Chamma Davide; Caio Césio Salgado

    2007-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi detectar diferenças entre duas espécies de pimenta-longa por meio de análise de cariótipos. Foram analisados cinco acessos de Piper hispidinervum (Piperaceae) C. DC. e Piper aduncum L. (Piperaceae) pertencentes à coleção de germoplasma da Embrapa Acre, utilizando-se o método de esmagamento e coloração de Feulgen. As duas espécies apresentaram número cromossômico 2n = 24 e cromossomos pequenos e metacêntricos com comprimento médio de 1,38 µm em P. hispidinervum e ...

  18. KOMPOSISI KIMIA MINYAK ATSIRI BUAH SIRIH HIJAU (PIPER BETLE L, KEMUKUS (PIPER CUBEBA L DAN CABE JAWA (PIPER RETROFRACTUM VAHL

    M. Widyo Wartono

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Tumbuhan genus Piper mempunyai kandungan minyak atsiri hampir disemua bagiannya, namun komposisi kimianya belum semua dilaporkan. Pada laporan ini kami melakukan isolasi dan identifikasi senyawa kimia minyak atsiri pada bagian buah tumbuhan Piper. Isolasi minyak atsiri buah Piper dilakukan dengan destilasi air menggunakan destilasi Stahl dan analisis komposisi kimia dengan kromatografi gas-spektroskopi masa (GC-MS. Kandungan minyak atsiri buah sirih hijau (Piper betle 1,4% (v/b, cabe jawa (Piper retrofractum 1% (v/b, dan buah kemukus (Piper cubeba 1,7% (v/b. Hasil analisis GC-MS menunjukan kandungan utama minyak atsiri adalah senyawa golongan monoterpen, seskuiterpen dan fenil propanoid. Kandungan utama minyak atsiri buah sirih hijau (P. betle adalah eugenol (12,36%, isokaryofillena (9,55% dan β-selinena (8,09%, sedangkan komponen utama buah cabe jawa (Piper retrofractum adalah isokaryofilen (8,88%, β-bisabolen (7,01% dan zingiberen (6,32%, dan minyak atsiri buah kemukus (Piper cubeba adalah spathulanol (27,05%, sativen (8,73% dan germakren D (7,50%.

  19. Efficient DNA barcode regions for classifying Piper species (Piperaceae).

    Chaveerach, Arunrat; Tanee, Tawatchai; Sanubol, Arisa; Monkheang, Pansa; Sudmoon, Runglawan

    2016-01-01

    Piper species are used for spices, in traditional and processed forms of medicines, in cosmetic compounds, in cultural activities and insecticides. Here barcode analysis was performed for identification of plant parts, young plants and modified forms of plants. Thirty-six Piper species were collected and the three barcode regions, matK , rbcL and psbA - trnH spacer, were amplified, sequenced and aligned to determine their genetic distances. For intraspecific genetic distances, the most effective values for the species identification ranged from no difference to very low distance values. However, Piper betle had the highest values at 0.386 for the matK region. This finding may be due to Piper betle being an economic and cultivated species, and thus is supported with growth factors, which may have affected its genetic distance. The interspecific genetic distances that were most effective for identification of different species were from the matK region and ranged from a low of 0.002 in 27 paired species to a high of 0.486. Eight species pairs, Piper kraense and Piper dominantinervium , Piper magnibaccum and Piper kraense , Piper phuwuaense and Piper dominantinervium , Piper phuwuaense and Piper kraense , Piper pilobracteatum and Piper dominantinervium , Piper pilobracteatum and Piper kraense , Piper pilobracteatum and Piper phuwuaense and Piper sylvestre and Piper polysyphonum , that presented a genetic distance of 0.000 and were identified by independently using each of the other two regions. Concisely, these three barcode regions are powerful for further efficient identification of the 36 Piper species.

  20. Efficient DNA barcode regions for classifying Piper species (Piperaceae)

    Chaveerach, Arunrat; Tanee, Tawatchai; Sanubol, Arisa; Monkheang, Pansa; Sudmoon, Runglawan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Piper species are used for spices, in traditional and processed forms of medicines, in cosmetic compounds, in cultural activities and insecticides. Here barcode analysis was performed for identification of plant parts, young plants and modified forms of plants. Thirty-six Piper species were collected and the three barcode regions, matK, rbcL and psbA-trnH spacer, were amplified, sequenced and aligned to determine their genetic distances. For intraspecific genetic distances, the most effective values for the species identification ranged from no difference to very low distance values. However, Piper betle had the highest values at 0.386 for the matK region. This finding may be due to Piper betle being an economic and cultivated species, and thus is supported with growth factors, which may have affected its genetic distance. The interspecific genetic distances that were most effective for identification of different species were from the matK region and ranged from a low of 0.002 in 27 paired species to a high of 0.486. Eight species pairs, Piper kraense and Piper dominantinervium, Piper magnibaccum and Piper kraense, Piper phuwuaense and Piper dominantinervium, Piper phuwuaense and Piper kraense, Piper pilobracteatum and Piper dominantinervium, Piper pilobracteatum and Piper kraense, Piper pilobracteatum and Piper phuwuaense and Piper sylvestre and Piper polysyphonum, that presented a genetic distance of 0.000 and were identified by independently using each of the other two regions. Concisely, these three barcode regions are powerful for further efficient identification of the 36 Piper species. PMID:27829794

  1. Extraction of Lateral-Directional Stability and Control Derivatives for the Basic F-18 Aircraft at High Angles of Attack

    Iliff, Kenneth W.; Wang, Kon-Sheng Charles

    1997-01-01

    The results of parameter identification to determine the lateral-directional stability and control derivatives of an F-18 research aircraft in its basic hardware and software configuration are presented. The derivatives are estimated from dynamic flight data using a specialized identification program developed at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. The formulation uses the linearized aircraft equations of motions in their continuous/discrete form and a maximum likelihood estimator that accounts for both state and measurement noise. State noise is used to model the uncommanded forcing function caused by unsteady aerodynamics, such as separated and vortical flows, over the aircraft. The derivatives are plotted as functions of angle of attack between 3 deg and 47 deg and compared with wind-tunnel predictions. The quality of the derivative estimates obtained by parameter identification is somewhat degraded because the maneuvers were flown with the aircraft's control augmentation system engaged, which introduced relatively high correlations between the control variables and response variables as a result of control motions from the feedback control system.

  2. Composition and antifungal activity of essential oils from Piper aduncum, Piper arboreum and Piper tuberculatum

    Navickiene, HMD; Morandim, ADA; Alecio, A. C.; Regasini, L. O.; Bergamo, DCB; Telascrea, M.; Cavalheiro, Alberto José [UNESP; Lopes, Márcia Nasser [UNESP; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva [UNESP; Furlan, Maysa [UNESP; Marques, MOM; Young, MCM; Kato, M. J.

    2006-01-01

    The composition of essential oils from leaves, stems and fruits of Piper aduncum, P. arboreum and P. tuberculatum was examined by means of GC-MS and antifungal assay. There was a predominance of monoterpenes in P. aduncum and P. tuberculatum and of sesquiterpenes in P. arboreum. P. aduncum showed the richest essential oil composition, including linalool. The essential oils from fruits of P. aduncum and P. tuberculatum showed the highest antifungal activity with the MIC of 10 µg as determined ...

  3. Aircrafts' taxi noise. Sound power level and directivity frequency band results

    Asensio, C.; Pavón, I.; Ruiz, M.; Pagan Munoz, Raul; Recuero, M.

    2009-01-01

    When noise mapping airports, the main noise sources are take offs and landings. But aircrafts' taxi noise can also be important, and should be considered, for instance when there are residential buildings near the airport's terminal. Main prediction tools, like Integrated Noise Model (INM), do not

  4. 76 FR 37684 - Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Model (Diamond) DA 40 Airplanes...

    2011-06-28

    ... Industries GmbH Model (Diamond) DA 40 Airplanes Equipped With Certain Cabin Air Conditioning Systems AGENCY... inspections of the Diamond Model DA 40 airplanes equipped with a VCS installed per Premier Aircraft Service... GmbH Model (Diamond) DA 40 Airplanes Equipped With Certain Cabin Air Conditioning Systems: Docket No...

  5. 75 FR 50869 - Airworthiness Directives; Pilatus Aircraft Ltd. Model PC-12/47E Airplanes

    2010-08-18

    .... Conclusion We reviewed the available data and determined that air safety and the public interest require... basic requirements of this AD. The average labor rate is $85 per work-hour. Based on these figures, we... identified in this AD, contact PILATUS AIRCRAFT LTD., Customer Service Manager, CH-6371 STANS, Switzerland...

  6. Chemical constituents from Piper wallichii.

    Shi, Yan-Ni; Yang, Lian; Zhao, Jin-Hua; Shi, Yi-Ming; Qu, Yan; Zhu, Hong-Tao; Wang, Dong; Yang, Chong-Ren; Li, Xing-Cong; Xu, Min; Zhang, Ying-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Fifteen known compounds including four triterpenoids (1-4), one sterol (5), one diketopiperazine alkaloid (6) and nine phenolics (7-15) were isolated from the stems of Piper wallichii. Their structures were elucidated by means of spectroscopic analysis, and acidic hydrolysis in case of the 2-oxo-3β,19α,23-trihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (1). The structure of compound 1 was fully assigned by 1D and 2D NMR experiments for the first time. All isolates were tested for their antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory and antiplatelet aggregation bioactivities.

  7. Subscale Flight Testing for Aircraft Loss of Control: Accomplishments and Future Directions

    Cox, David E.; Cunningham, Kevin; Jordan, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    Subscale flight-testing provides a means to validate both dynamic models and mitigation technologies in the high-risk flight conditions associated with aircraft loss of control. The Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research (AirSTAR) facility was designed to be a flexible and efficient research facility to address this type of flight-testing. Over the last several years (2009-2011) it has been used to perform 58 research flights with an unmanned, remotely-piloted, dynamically-scaled airplane. This paper will present an overview of the facility and its architecture and summarize the experimental data collected. All flights to date have been conducted within visual range of a safety observer. Current plans for the facility include expanding the test volume to altitudes and distances well beyond visual range. The architecture and instrumentation changes associated with this upgrade will also be presented.

  8. Composition and antifungal activity of essential oils from Piper aduncum, Piper arboreum and Piper tuberculatum

    Hosana M. Debonsi Navickiene

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The composition of essential oils from leaves, stems and fruits of Piper aduncum, P. arboreum and P. tuberculatum was examined by means of GC-MS and antifungal assay. There was a predominance of monoterpenes in P. aduncum and P. tuberculatum and of sesquiterpenes in P. arboreum. P. aduncum showed the richest essential oil composition, including linalool. The essential oils from fruits of P. aduncum and P. tuberculatum showed the highest antifungal activity with the MIC of 10 µg as determined against Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum, respectively. This is the first report of the composition of essential oils from P. tuberculatum.

  9. Comprehensive Technical Report, General Electric Direct-Air-Cycle Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Program, Program Summary and References

    Thornton, G.; Rothstein, A.J.

    1962-06-28

    This is one of twenty-one volumes sumarizing the Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Program of the General Electric Company. This volume discusses the background to the General Electric program, and summarizes the various direct-air-cycle nuclear test assemblies and power plants that were developed. Because of the requirements of high performance, low weight, and small size, vast improvements in existing technology were required to meet the flight objectives. The technological progress achieved during the program is also summarized. The last appendix contains a compilation of the abstracts, tables of contents, and reference lists of the other twenty volumes.

  10. The Effect of Faster Engine Response on the Lateral Directional Control of a Damaged Aircraft

    May, Ryan D.; Lemon, Kimberly A.; Csank, Jeffrey T.; Litt, Jonathan S.; Guo, Ten-Huei

    2012-01-01

    The integration of flight control and propulsion control has been a much discussed topic, especially for emergencies where the engines may be able to help stabilize and safely land a damaged aircraft. Previous research has shown that for the engines to be effective as flight control actuators, the response time to throttle commands must be improved. Other work has developed control modes that accept a higher risk of engine failure in exchange for improved engine response during an emergency. In this effort, a nonlinear engine model (the Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40k) has been integrated with a nonlinear airframe model (the Generic Transport Model) in order to evaluate the use of enhanced-response engines as alternative yaw rate control effectors. Tests of disturbance rejection and command tracking were used to determine the impact of the engines on the aircraft's dynamical behavior. Three engine control enhancements that improve the response time of the engine were implemented and tested in the integrated simulation. The enhancements were shown to increase the engine s effectiveness as a yaw rate control effector when used in an automatic feedback loop. The improvement is highly dependent upon flight condition; the airframe behavior is markedly improved at low altitude, low speed conditions, and relatively unchanged at high altitude, high speed.

  11. 76 FR 17757 - Airworthiness Directives; Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH Models TAE 125-01, TAE 125-02-99, and...

    2011-03-31

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH Models TAE 125-01, TAE 125-02-99, and TAE 125-02-114.... Applicability (c) This AD applies to Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH models TAE 125-01, TAE 125-02-99, and TAE...) For TAE 125-02-99 and TAE 125-02-114 engines, Operation & Maintenance Manual OM-02-02, Version 2...

  12. PIPER Continuous Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator

    Kimball, Mark O.; Shirron, Peter J.; Canavan, Edgar R.; James, Bryan L.; Sampson, Michael A.; Letmate, Richard V.

    2017-01-01

    We report upon the development and testing of a 4-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) capable of continuous cooling at 0.100 Kelvin. This cooler is being built to cool the detector array aboard NASA's Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) observatory. The goal of this balloon mission is to measure the primordial gravitational waves that should exist if the theory of cosmological inflation is correct. At altitude, the ADR will hold the array of transition-edge sensors at 100 mK continuously while periodically rejecting heat to a 1.2 K pumped helium bath. During testing on ground, the array is held at the same temperature but heat is rejected to a 4.2 K helium bath indicating the flexibility in this coolers design.

  13. Direct tactile manipulation of the flight plan in a modern aircraft cockpit

    Alapetite, Alexandre; Fogh, Rune; Zammit-Mangion, David

    2012-01-01

    An original experimental approach has been chosen, with an incremental progression from a traditional physical cockpit, to a tactile flight simulator reproducing traditional controls, to a prototype navigation display with direct tactile functionality, first located in the traditional low position...

  14. Propulsion controlled aircraft computer

    Cogan, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A low-cost, easily retrofit Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) system for use on a wide range of commercial and military aircraft consists of an propulsion controlled aircraft computer that reads in aircraft data including aircraft state, pilot commands and other related data, calculates aircraft throttle position for a given maneuver commanded by the pilot, and then displays both current and calculated throttle position on a cockpit display to show the pilot where to move throttles to achieve the commanded maneuver, or is automatically sent digitally to command the engines directly.

  15. 76 FR 8607 - Airworthiness Directives; The Cessna Aircraft Company Model 750 Airplanes

    2011-02-15

    ... auxiliary power unit (APU) generator and the left and right engine direct current (DC) generators, and... prompted by a report of a DC generator overvoltage event which caused smoke in the cockpit and damage to... (DC) generators, and related corrective actions if necessary. That NPRM also proposed to require...

  16. 75 FR 68731 - Airworthiness Directives; The Cessna Aircraft Company Model 750 Airplanes

    2010-11-09

    ... auxiliary power unit (APU) generator and the left and right engine direct current (DC) generators, and... manual. This proposed AD results from a report of a DC generator overvoltage event which caused smoke in... associated with the engine and APU DC generators. Relevant Service Information We have reviewed Cessna...

  17. Investigation of high-alpha lateral-directional control power requirements for high-performance aircraft

    Foster, John V.; Ross, Holly M.; Ashley, Patrick A.

    1993-01-01

    Designers of the next-generation fighter and attack airplanes are faced with the requirements of good high angle-of-attack maneuverability as well as efficient high speed cruise capability with low radar cross section (RCS) characteristics. As a result, they are challenged with the task of making critical design trades to achieve the desired levels of maneuverability and performance. This task has highlighted the need for comprehensive, flight-validated lateral-directional control power design guidelines for high angles of attack. A joint NASA/U.S. Navy study has been initiated to address this need and to investigate the complex flight dynamics characteristics and controls requirements for high angle-of-attack lateral-directional maneuvering. A multi-year research program is underway which includes groundbased piloted simulation and flight validation. This paper will give a status update of this program that will include a program overview, description of test methodology and preliminary results.

  18. 76 FR 9963 - Airworthiness Directives; Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH Models TAE 125-02-99 and TAE 125-02-114...

    2011-02-23

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH Models TAE 125-02-99 and TAE 125-02-114 Reciprocating... TAE 125-02-99 and TAE 125-02-114 reciprocating engines installed in, but not limited to, Cessna 172... occurs later. Repetitive Replacements of Timing Chains for All TAE 125-02-99 and TAE 125-02-114 Engines...

  19. 76 FR 27861 - Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Models DA 42, DA 42 NG, and DA 42 M-NG...

    2011-05-13

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Models DA 42, DA 42 NG, and DA 42 M-NG Airplanes... on Diamond aeroplanes, the majority of which were DA 40. In additional, at least 18 doors have been... conditions) while the aeroplane was parked. All DA 40 and DA 42 aeroplanes have a system installed that...

  20. Efektivitas antibakteri ekstrak daun sirih (Piper betle Linn)terhadap bakteri Enterococcus faecalis (Antibacterial effectiveness of betel leaf extract (Piper Betle Linn) to Enterococcus faecalis)

    Armianty Armianty; Indrya Kirana Mattulada

    2014-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is one of bacteria which have resistance against the pulp tissue defense mechanism and often found in endodontic infections. This bacterial is may hold good colonization, can survive in the root canal without other bacteria, and is capable of producing toxins directly or through the induction of inflammation. Betel leaf (Piper betle Linn)contain essential oils, as the main components of the essential oils are phenols and compounds, among other derivate such a...

  1. Amides from Piper capense with CNS activity

    Pedersen, Mikael Egebjerg; Metzler, Bjørn; Stafford, Gary Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Piper capense L.f. (Piperaceae) is used traditionally in South Africa as a sleep inducing remedy. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the roots of P. capense led to the isolation of piperine (1) and 4,5-dihydropiperine (2), which showed moderate affinity for the benzodiazepine site on the GABA...

  2. Cambial variations of Piper (Piperaceae) in Taiwan.

    Yang, Sheng-Zehn; Chen, Po-Hao

    2017-12-01

    Cambial variations in lianas of Piperaceae in Taiwan have not been studied previously. The stem anatomy of seven Piper species from Taiwan was examined to document cambial variations and better distinguish the species when leaves are absent. A key for the seven species is provided, based on the internal stem anatomy. The seven Piper species climb via adventitious roots, and in cross section, the stems were generally eccentric and oblate, although a transversely elliptic stem was found in P. kadsura (Choisy) Ohwi and P. sintenense Hatus. A cambial variant with secondary growth of external primary vascular bundles and xylem in plates was observed in all species except Piper betle L., which developed another cambium variant with xylem furrowed deeply by parenchyma proliferation. The sclerenchymatous ring surrounding the medullary vascular bundles was always continuous except in P. betle, where it was discontinuous. Mucilage canals varied from absent to present in the center of the pith, or present in the pith and inner cortex. Different sizes of vessels dispersed throughout the stem were ring or diffuse porous. The numbers of medullary and peripheral vascular bundles were distinctive and the widths of rays were noticeably different in each species. Differences in the growth rate of the medullary vascular bundles produced two development types of vascular bundles, although in both types, the peripheral vascular bundles gradually lengthen and become separated from each other by wide rays. We documented the internal stem anatomy of six previously unstudied species of Piper, including three endemic species, P. kwashoense Hayata, P. sintenense, and P. taiwanense Lin and Lu, and found that P. betle had deeply furrowed xylem, which had not been reported for the species before. The descriptions and photographs of seven Piper species will also provide a basis for further morphological studies.

  3. The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER)

    Lazear, Justin Scott; Ade, Peter A.; Benford, Dominic J.; Bennett, Charles L.; Chuss, David T.; Dotson, Jessie L.; Eimer, Joseph R.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Halpern, Mark; Hinderks, James; hide

    2014-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Polarization ExploreR (Piper) is a balloon-borne cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarimeter designed to search for evidence of inflation by measuring the large-angular scale CMB polarization signal. Bicep2 recently reported a detection of B-mode power corresponding to the tensor-to-scalar ratio r = 0.2 on approximately 2 degree scales. If the Bicep2 signal is caused by inflationary gravitational waves (IGWs), then there should be a corresponding increase in B-mode power on angular scales larger than 18 degrees. Piper is currently the only suborbital instrument capable of fully testing and extending the Bicep2 results by measuring the B-mode power spectrum on angular scales theta ? = approximately 0.6 deg to 90 deg, covering both the reionization bump and recombination peak, with sensitivity to measure the tensor-to-scalar ratio down to r = 0.007, and four frequency bands to distinguish foregrounds. Piper will accomplish this by mapping 85% of the sky in four frequency bands (200, 270, 350, 600 GHz) over a series of 8 conventional balloon flights from the northern and southern hemispheres. The instrument has background-limited sensitivity provided by fully cryogenic (1.5 K) optics focusing the sky signal onto four 32×40-pixel arrays of time-domain multiplexed Transition-Edge Sensor (TES) bolometers held at 140 milli-Kelvin. Polarization sensitivity and systematic control are provided by front-end Variabledelay Polarization Modulators (VPMs), which rapidly modulate only the polarized sky signal at 3 Hz and allow Piper to instantaneously measure the full Stokes vector (I,Q,U,0V) for each pointing. We describe the Piper instrument and progress towards its first flight.

  4. Effect of Piper chaba Hunter, Piper sarmentosum Roxb. and Piper interruptum Opiz. on natural killer cell activity and lymphocyte proliferation.

    Panthong, Sumalee; Itharat, Arunporn

    2014-08-01

    Immune system is the most important system ofhuman body. Thaifolk doctors have used some medicinal plants as an adaptogenic drug or immunomodulatory agent. Piper chaba Hunter, Piper sarmentosum Roxb. and Piper interruptum Opiz. are used by folk doctors to activate immune response in cancer patients. To investigate the effect on natural killer cell activity and on lymphocyte proliferation activity of water extract of P chaba Hunter P. sarmentosum Roxb. and P interruptum Opiz. MATERIAL ANDMETHOD: Plant materials were extracted by decoction method. All extracts were testedfor an immunomodulatory effect using PBMCs from twelve healthy donors by chromium release assay. Lymphocyte proliferation was also determined by 3H-thymidine uptake assay. The degree of activation was expressed as the stimulation index. The water extract of P chaba Hunter significantly increased lymphocyte proliferation at concentrations ofl ng/ml, 10 ng/ml, 1 μg/ml, 5 μg/ml, 10 μg/ml and 100 μg/ml. P sarmentosum Roxb., and P interruptum Opiz. extracts at those concentrations significantly stimulated lymphocyteproliferation. P sarmentosum Roxb. extractsignificantly increased natural killer (NK) cell activity at a concentration of 100 μg/ml but P chaba Hunter and P interruptum Opiz. extracts did not significantly stimulate natural killer cell activity. P chaba Hunter, P interruptum Opiz. andP sarmentosum Roxb. have an immunomodulatory effect especially for P sarmentosum Roxb. extract which can activate both lymphocyte proliferation and NK cell activity.

  5. Toxicidade de óleos essenciais de Piper aduncum e Piper hispidinervum em Sitophilus zeamais Toxicity of essential oils of Piper aduncum and Piper hispidinervum against Sitophilus zeamais

    Joelma Lima Vidal Estrela; Murilo Fazolin; Valdomiro Catani; Marcio Rodrigues Alécio; Marilene Santos de Lima

    2006-01-01

    Óleos essenciais de Piper aduncum L. e Piper hispidinervum C.DC. (Piperaceae) foram avaliados quanto ao efeito inseticida em Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. por ação de contato, fumigação e tópica. Na determinação da DL50 e CL50, foi utilizada a análise de Probit. Médias porcentuais de mortalidade dos insetos foram comparadas por meio da análise de regressão linear e superposição das barras do erro padrão. S. zeamais foi mais suscetível ao efeito de contato do óleo de P. hispidinervum em relação a...

  6. Piper nigrum, Piper betle and Gnetum gnemon- Natural Food Sources with Anti-Quorum Sensing Properties

    Tan, Li Ying; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2013-01-01

    Various parts of Piper nigrum, Piper betle and Gnetum gnemon are used as food sources by Malaysians. The purpose of this study is to examine the anti-quorum sensing (anti-QS) properties of P. nigrum, P. betle and G. gnemon extracts. The hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of these plants were assessed in bioassays involving Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01, Escherichia coli [pSB401], E. coli [pSB1075] and Chromobacterium violaceum CV026. It was found that the extracts of these three plants ha...

  7. Piper (Piperaceae) in the Philippine Islands: the climbing species

    Gardner, R.O.

    2006-01-01

    Piper in the Philippine Islands is reviewed. Fifteen climbing species are recognized (many fewer than in previous treatments) and distinguished in a key. Most are widely distributed through Malesia, with ranges that end eastwards in the Solomon Islands or Australia. Piper myrmecophilum, the only

  8. Three new species of Piper (Piperaceae) from the Guianas

    Görts-van Rijn, A.R.A.; Callejas Posada, R.

    2005-01-01

    Three new species of Piper from the Guianas and adjacent areas are described: Piper aulacospermum Callejas, P. ciliomarginatum Görts & Christenh. and P. remotinervium Görts. The differences between P. aulacospermum and P. bartlingianum (Miq.) C.DC., both belonging to subg. Ottonia, are given as well

  9. 75 FR 39795 - Airworthiness Directives; Aircraft Industries a.s. (Type Certificate G60EU Previously Held by...

    2010-07-13

    ... failed near the root due to positive load. The right wing detached from the aircraft and the pilots lost... spar of the right wing failed near the root due to positive load. The right wing detached from the... have found it necessary to use different words from those in the MCAI to ensure the AD is clear for U.S...

  10. 75 FR 52250 - Airworthiness Directives; Aircraft Industries a.s. (Type Certificate G24EU Previously Held by...

    2010-08-25

    ... wing failed near the root due to positive load. The right wing detached from the aircraft and the...[Iacute]K sailplane, in which the main spar of the right wing failed near the root due to positive load... substance. But we might have found it necessary to use different words from those in the MCAI to ensure the...

  11. Estimation of directivity and sound power levels emitted by aircrafts during taxiing, for outdoor noise prediction purpose

    Asensio, C.; Pavón, I.; Ruiz, M.; Pagan Munoz, Raul; Recuero, M.

    2007-01-01

    Integrated noise model (INM) is the most internationally used software to calculate noise levels near airports. Take off, landing or pass by operations can be modeled by INM, but it does not consider aircrafts taxiing, which, in some cases, can be important to accurately evaluate and reduce

  12. A flight investigation of the ultra-deep-stall descent and spin recovery characteristics of a 1/6 scale radiocontrolled model of the Piper PA38 Tomahawk

    Blanchard, W. S., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Ultradeep stall descent and spin recovery characteristics of a 1/6 scale radio controlled model of the Piper PA38 Tomahawk aircraft was investigated. It was shown that the full scale PA38 is a suitable aircraft for conducting ultradeep stall research. Spin recovery was accomplished satisfactorily by entry to the ultradeep stall mode, followed by the exit from the ultradeep stall mode. It is concluded that since the PA38 has excellent spin recovery characteristics using normal recovery techniques (opposite rudder and forward control colum pressure), recovery using ultradeep stall would be beneficial only if the pilot suffered from disorientation.

  13. Cytotoxic and antibacterial dihydrochalcones from Piper aduncum.

    Orjala, J; Wright, A D; Behrends, H; Folkers, G; Sticher, O; Rüegger, H; Rali, T

    1994-01-01

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation of a CH2Cl2 extract from the leaves of Piper aduncum afforded three new dihydrochalcones, piperaduncins A [3], B [4], and C [5], as well as two known dihydrochalcones, 2',6'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxydihydrochalcone [1] and 2',6',4-trihydroxy-4'-methoxydihydrochalcone [2] (asebogenin), together with sakuranetin, anodendroic acid methyl ester, and the carotenoid lutein. The structures of the isolates were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, mainly 1D- and 2D nmr spectroscopy. The proposed stereochemistry for compound 4 was deduced by NOESY spectroscopy and the corresponding energy minimum was established by molecular modelling calculations and translated into a 3D structure.

  14. Proteomic profile of Piper tuberculatum (Piperaceae

    F. Cotinguiba

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Piper tuberculatum (Piperaceae is a species that accumulates especially amides as secondary metabolites and several biological activities was previously reported. In this article, we report a proteomic study of P. tuberculatum. Bidimensional electrophoresis (2D SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry (ESI-Q-TOF were used in this study. Over a hundred spots and various peptides were identified in this species and the putative functions of these peptides related to defense mechanism as biotic and abiotic stress were assigned. The information presented extend the range of molecular information of P. tuberculatum.

  15. Volatile chemical constituents of Piper aduncum L and Piper gibbilimbum C. DC (Piperaceae) from Papua New Guinea.

    Rali, Topul; Wossa, Stewart W; Leach, David N; Waterman, Peter G

    2007-03-09

    Exhaustive hydro-distillation of the leaves of Piper aduncum and fruits of Piper gibbilimbum (Piperaceae) afforded colorless and pale orange colored oils in 0.35 and 0.30 % yields, respectively. Detailed chemical analysis by GC/MS indicated the volatile constituents of Piper aduncum to be composed of dill apiole (43.3%), beta-caryophyllene (8.2%), piperitione (6.7%) and alpha-humulene (5.1%), whilst the oil of P. gibbilimbum is dominated by the gibbilimbols A-D (74.2%), with the remaining major constituents being the terpenes camphene (13.6%) and alpha-pinene (6.5%).

  16. Volatile Chemical Constituents of Piper aduncum L and Piper gibbilimbum C. DC (Piperaceae) from Papua New Guinea

    Rali, Topul; Wossa, Stewart W; Leach, David N; Waterman, Peter G

    2007-01-01

    Exhaustive hydro-distillation of the leaves of Piper aduncum and fruits of Piper gibbilimbum (Piperaceae) afforded colorless and pale orange colored oils in 0.35 and 0.30 % yields, respectively. Detailed chemical analysis by GC/MS indicated the volatile constituents of Piper aduncum to be composed of dill apiole (43.3 %), β-caryophyllene (8.2 %), piperitione (6.7 %) and α-humulene (5.1 %), whilst the oil of P. gibbilimbum is dominated by the gibbilimbols A-D (74.2 %), with the remaining major...

  17. Volatile Chemical Constituents of Piper aduncum L and Piper gibbilimbum C. DC (Piperaceae from Papua New Guinea

    Peter G Waterman

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Exhaustive hydro-distillation of the leaves of Piper aduncum and fruits of Piper gibbilimbum (Piperaceae afforded colorless and pale orange colored oils in 0.35 and 0.30 % yields, respectively. Detailed chemical analysis by GC/MS indicated the volatile constituents of Piper aduncum to be composed of dill apiole (43.3 %, β-caryophyllene (8.2 %, piperitione (6.7 % and α-humulene (5.1 %, whilst the oil of P. gibbilimbum is dominated by the gibbilimbols A-D (74.2 %, with the remaining major constituents being the terpenes camphene (13.6 % and α-pinene (6.5 %.

  18. Toxicidade de óleos essenciais de Piper aduncum e Piper hispidinervum em Sitophilus zeamais

    Estrela,Joelma Lima Vidal; Fazolin,Murilo; Catani,Valdomiro; Alécio,Marcio Rodrigues; Lima,Marilene Santos de

    2006-01-01

    Óleos essenciais de Piper aduncum L. e Piper hispidinervum C.DC. (Piperaceae) foram avaliados quanto ao efeito inseticida em Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. por ação de contato, fumigação e tópica. Na determinação da DL50 e CL50, foi utilizada a análise de Probit. Médias porcentuais de mortalidade dos insetos foram comparadas por meio da análise de regressão linear e superposição das barras do erro padrão. S. zeamais foi mais suscetível ao efeito de contato do óleo de P. hispidinervum em relação a...

  19. Piper nigrum, Piper betle and Gnetum gnemon- Natural Food Sources with Anti-Quorum Sensing Properties

    Tan, Li Ying; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2013-01-01

    Various parts of Piper nigrum, Piper betle and Gnetum gnemon are used as food sources by Malaysians. The purpose of this study is to examine the anti-quorum sensing (anti-QS) properties of P. nigrum, P. betle and G. gnemon extracts. The hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of these plants were assessed in bioassays involving Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01, Escherichia coli [pSB401], E. coli [pSB1075] and Chromobacterium violaceum CV026. It was found that the extracts of these three plants have anti-QS ability. Interestingly, the hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts from P. betle showed the most potent anti-QS activity as judged by the bioassays. Since there is a variety of plants that serve as food sources in Malaysia that have yet to be tested for anti-QS activity, future work should focus on identification of these plants and isolation of the anti-QS compounds. PMID:23519352

  20. Piper nigrum, Piper betle and Gnetum gnemon- Natural Food Sourcewith Anti-Quorum Sensing Properties

    Li Ying Tan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Various parts of Piper nigrum, Piper betle and Gnetum gnemon are used as food sources by Malaysians. The purpose of this study is to examine the anti-quorum sensing (anti-QS properties of P. nigrum, P. betle and G. gnemon extracts. The hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of these plants were assessed in bioassays involving Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01, Escherichia coli [pSB401], E. coli [pSB1075] and Chromobacterium violaceum CV026. It was found that the extracts of these three plants have anti-QS ability. Interestingly, the hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts from P. betle showed the most potent anti-QS activity as judged by the bioassays. Since there is a variety of plants that serve as food sources in Malaysia that have yet to be tested for anti-QS activity, future work should focus on identification of these plants and isolation of the anti-QS compounds.

  1. Antifungal Amide Alkaloids from the Aerial Parts of Piper flaviflorum and Piper sarmentosum.

    Shi, Yan-Ni; Liu, Fang-Fang; Jacob, Melissa R; Li, Xing-Cong; Zhu, Hong-Tao; Wang, Dong; Cheng, Rong-Rong; Yang, Chong-Ren; Xu, Min; Zhang, Ying-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Sixty-three amide alkaloids, including three new, piperflaviflorine A ( 1 ), piperflaviflorine B ( 2 ), and sarmentamide D ( 4 ), and two previously synthesized ones, (1 E ,3 S )-1-cinnamoyl-3- hydroxypyrrolidine ( 3 ) and N -[7'-(4'-methoxyphenyl)ethyl]-2-methoxybenzamide ( 5 ), were isolated from the aerial parts of Piper flaviflorum and Piper sarmentosum. Their structures were elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analysis and, in case of 3 , by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Most of the isolates were tested for their antifungal and antibacterial activities. Ten amides ( 6 - 15 ) showed antifungal activity against Cryptococcus neoformans ATCC 90 113 with IC 50 values in the range between 4.7 and 20.0 µg/mL. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Essential oil composition of different fractions of Piper guineense ...

    Mme ESTHER

    Essential oil fractions from dried seed powder of Piper guineense were analyzed by gas .... high frequency in an ultrasonic cell disruptor (Microson™). This process was to .... present on the control (Nc) and treated (Nt) areas of the discs was.

  3. Simultaneous Determination of Two Isomers of Asarone in Piper ...

    Simultaneous Determination of Two Isomers of Asarone in Piper sarmentosum Roxburgh (Piperaceae) Extracts using Different Chromatographic Columns. Mohd Shahrul Ridzuan Hamil, Abdul Hakeem Memon, Amin Malik Shah Abdul Majid, Zhari Ismail ...

  4. Cytotoxicity Screening of Plants of Genus Piper in Breast Cancer ...

    Research Laboratory of Cancer Molecular Biology, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla 90110, Thailand .... Stem. SKP 146161802. Piper betle L. Piperaceae. Leaf. SKP 146160201 ..... double-strand breaks that lead to apoptosis [18].

  5. Flavones, lignans and terpene from Piper umbellata (Piperaceae); Flavonas, lignanas e terpeno de Piper umbellata (Piperaceae)

    Baldoqui, Debora Cristina; Bolzani, Vanderlan da S.; Furlan, Maysa [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica], e-mail: maysaf@iq.unesp.br; Kato, Massuo J. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Marques, Marcia O.M. [Instituto Agronomico de Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The phytochemical investigation of Piper umbellata leaves yielded nine compounds including one terpenoid glucoside, five flavones (vitexin 2{sup -}O-{beta}-glucopyranoside, apigenin 8-C-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside, orientin 8-C-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside,5-hydroxy-7,3',4'-trimethoxy-flavone and velutin), two lignans (sesamin and dihydrocubebin) and 4-nerolidylcathecol. Excepting 4-nerolidylcathecol, all compounds have not been described from this species yet (author)

  6. Essential Oils from Neotropical Piper Species and Their Biological Activities

    da Trindade, Rafaela; Alves, Nayara Sabrina; Figueiredo, Pablo Luís; Maia, José Guilherme S.; Setzer, William N.

    2017-01-01

    The Piper genus is the most representative of the Piperaceae reaching around 2000 species distributed in the pantropical region. In the Neotropics, its species are represented by herbs, shrubs, and lianas, which are used in traditional medicine to prepare teas and infusions. Its essential oils (EOs) present high yield and are chemically constituted by complex mixtures or the predominance of main volatile constituents. The chemical composition of Piper EOs displays interspecific or intraspecific variations, according to the site of collection or seasonality. The main volatile compounds identified in Piper EOs are monoterpenes hydrocarbons, oxygenated monoterpenoids, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated sesquiterpenoids and large amounts of phenylpropanoids. In this review, we are reporting the biological potential of Piper EOs from the Neotropical region. There are many reports of Piper EOs as antimicrobial agents (fungi and bacteria), antiprotozoal (Leishmania spp., Plasmodium spp., and Trypanosoma spp.), acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activity against different tumor cells lines (breast, leukemia, melanoma, gastric, among others). These studies can contribute to the rational and economic exploration of Piper species, once they have been identified as potent natural and alternative sources to treat human diseases. PMID:29240662

  7. Aircraft operations management manual

    1992-01-01

    The NASA aircraft operations program is a multifaceted, highly diverse entity that directly supports the agency mission in aeronautical research and development, space science and applications, space flight, astronaut readiness training, and related activities through research and development, program support, and mission management aircraft operations flights. Users of the program are interagency, inter-government, international, and the business community. This manual provides guidelines to establish policy for the management of NASA aircraft resources, aircraft operations, and related matters. This policy is an integral part of and must be followed when establishing field installation policy and procedures covering the management of NASA aircraft operations. Each operating location will develop appropriate local procedures that conform with the requirements of this handbook. This manual should be used in conjunction with other governing instructions, handbooks, and manuals.

  8. Toxicidade de óleos essenciais de Piper aduncum e Piper hispidinervum em Sitophilus zeamais Toxicity of essential oils of Piper aduncum and Piper hispidinervum against Sitophilus zeamais

    Joelma Lima Vidal Estrela

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Óleos essenciais de Piper aduncum L. e Piper hispidinervum C.DC. (Piperaceae foram avaliados quanto ao efeito inseticida em Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. por ação de contato, fumigação e tópica. Na determinação da DL50 e CL50, foi utilizada a análise de Probit. Médias porcentuais de mortalidade dos insetos foram comparadas por meio da análise de regressão linear e superposição das barras do erro padrão. S. zeamais foi mais suscetível ao efeito de contato do óleo de P. hispidinervum em relação ao de P. aduncum, obtendo-se CL50 de 0,51 e 2,87 mL cm- 2 de óleo, respectivamente. Mortalidade próxima a 100% foi obtida nas concentrações de 20 e 30% do óleo de P. hispidinervum. Quanto ao efeito fumigante, a susceptibilidade foi maior no óleo de P. aduncum do que no de P. hispidinervum. Houve diferença significativa entre os óleos somente nas concentrações de 0,1 e 1,0. A DL50 foi semelhante nos dois óleos essenciais por aplicação tópica. No entanto, a mortalidade foi maior com P. aduncum. Óleos essenciais de P. aduncum e P. hispidinervum possuem efeito inseticida em S. zeamais, mas as respostas dependem da concentração e do método de exposição a que o inseto seja submetido.Essential oils of Piper aduncum L. and Piper hispidinervum C. DC. (Piperaceae were tested against Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. Contact, fumigant toxicity and topical effect were tested. Probit analysis was employed in evaluating the LC50 and LD50 response. Linear regression analysis and superposition of the bars (means error standard were used for comparison of means percentage mortality. S. zeamais was more susceptible to the contact toxicity of the P. hispidinervum oil than P. aduncum oil with LC50 values of 0.51 and 2.87 mL cm-2 of the oil, respectively. The mortality rate was nearly 100% at P. hispidinervum oil concentrations of 20 and 30%. With respect to the fumigant action, the weevil was more susceptible to the P. aduncum oil than to P

  9. Genetic diversity of "Pimenta Longa" genotypes (Piper spp., Piperaceae) of the Embrapa Acre germplasm collection

    Wadt, Lúcia Helena de Oliveira; Ehringhaus, Christiane; Kageyama, Paulo Yoshio

    2004-01-01

    The commonly known Pimenta longa is a commercially valuable natural resource found wild in Acre, Brazil. Specifically, three Piperaceae species with contested taxonomic status were studied, Piper hispidinervum, Piper aduncum, and Piper hispidum, to assesses the inter- and intra-specific genetic relationship of 49 Piper genotypes kept in the Pimenta longa germplasm collection at Embrapa Acre, using sixty six Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. The DNA polymorphism level detected w...

  10. [Identification of some Piper crude drugs based on Fourier transform infrared spectrometry].

    Zhou, Ye; Zhang, Qing-Wei; Luo, Xue-Jun; Li, Pei-Fu; Song, Heng; Zhang, Bo-Li

    2014-09-01

    The common peak ratio and variant peak ratio were calculated by FTIR spectroscopy of seven medicinal plants of Piper. The dual index sequence of common peak ratio and variant peak ratio was established, which showed the sibship of the medicinal plants. The common peak ratio of Piper kadsura (Choisy) Ohwi, Piper wallichii (Miq.) Hand.-Mazz. Piper laetispicum (C. DC.) was greater than 77%, and the variant peak ratio was less than 30%. The results showed the near sibship between the three drugs. The common peak ratio of Piper kadsura (Choisy) Ohwi, Piper nigrum L. and Piper boehmeriae folium Wall (Miq.) C. DC. Var. tonkinense (C. DC.) was about 61% which showed the farther sibship. The common peak ratio of Piper kadsura (Choisy) Ohwi and Piper betle (Linn.) was only 44%, which showed the farthest sibship. Piper kadsura (choisy) Ohwi and its adulterants, such as Piper wallichii (Miq.) Hand. -Mazz., Piper boehmeriaefolium Wall (Miq.) C. DC. Var. tonkinense C. DC. , Piper laetispicum C. DC., Piper nigrum L., could be identified by comparing their second order derivative IR spectrum of the samples. FTIR technique is a non-destructive analysis method which provides information of functional group, type and hydrogen bond without complex pretreatment procedures such as extraction and separatioin. FTIR method has some characteristics such as rapid and simple analysis procedure, good reproducibility, non-destructive testing, few amount of required sample and low cost and is environment-friendly. The method solved the problems of limit in resource of Piper kadsura (Choisy) Ohwi, many fakes and difficulties in identification, and brought the security for the clinical medication. FTIR provides a new method for identification of Piper kadsura (choisy) Ohwi and its fakes and meets the requirement for comprehensive analy sis and global analysis of traditional Chinese medicine.

  11. A new species and three taxonomic changes in Piper (Piperaceae) from Thailand

    Suwanphakdee, C.; Chantaranothai, P.

    2011-01-01

    A new species, Piper chiangdaoense from Doi Chiangdao Wildlife Sanctuary, Chiang Mai province, Thailand, is described and illustrated. Piper trichostigma is raised to specific status and an epitype is selected. Piper maculaphyllum and P. rubroglandulosum are reduced to the synonymy of P. argyrites

  12. Analysis of genetic diversity of Piper spp. in Hainan Island (China ...

    Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) analysis was used to evaluate the genetic variation of Piper spp. from Hainan, China. 247 polymorphic bands out of a total of 248 (99.60%) were generated from 74 individual plants of Piper spp. The overall level of genetic diversity among Piper spp. in Hainan was high, with the mean ...

  13. DART MS based chemical profiling for therapeutic potential of Piper betle landraces.

    Bajpai, Vikas; Pandey, Renu; Negi, Mahendra Pal Singh; Kumar, Nikhil; Kumar, Brijesh

    2012-12-01

    Piper betle Linn. leaves are traditionally used as a folk medicine in India and other Asiatic countries. Twenty-one P. betle landraces were analyzed using a Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART) mass spectral technique and evaluated on the basis of molecules detected in the leaves. Clustering of landraces based on three well known biologically active phenols (m/z 151,165,193) showed two broad groups with high and low phenol contents suggesting differences in their therapeutic potential. Findings of this study could be useful in rapid screening of the landraces for determining their medicinal potential and optimum utilization of the bioresource.

  14. Multifuel rotary aircraft engine

    Jones, C.; Berkowitz, M.

    1980-01-01

    The broad objectives of this paper are the following: (1) to summarize the Curtiss-Wright design, development and field testing background in the area of rotary aircraft engines; (2) to briefly summarize past activity and update development work in the area of stratified charge rotary combustion engines; and (3) to discuss the development of a high-performance direct injected unthrottled stratified charge rotary combustion aircraft engine. Efficiency improvements through turbocharging are also discussed.

  15. Isomerização do óleo essencial de pimenta-longa (Piper hispidinervium C. DC para a obtenção de isosafrol Isomerization of essential oil of (Piper hispidinervium C. DC to obtain isosafrole

    Marco Aurelio Cremasco

    2010-12-01

    of isosafrole directly from essential oil of Piper hispidinervium C. DC. In this case, the isomerization of essential oil was done getting 79,4 % of cis, trans-isosafrole mixture. The essential oil presented 86,4 % of safrole, resulting in 97,1 % yield to cis, trans-isosafrole.

  16. Effects of gamma irradiation on medicinal plants and spices (2): Piper cubeba, piper nigrum, piper retrofractum, amomum cardamomum, and myristica fragrans

    Chosdu, R; Hilmy, N; Bagiawati, S; Sudiro, S [National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia). Pasar Djumat Research Centre

    1983-12-01

    Effects of gamma irradiation on essential oils of five medicinal plants i.e. dried seeds of piper cubeba(cubeb), piper nigrum(black pepper), piper retrofractum, amomum cardamomum(cardamom) and myristica fragrans(mace), packed in low density polyethylene bag of 0.13 mm thickness have been investigated. After being irradiated at doses of 5 and 10 kGy, a part of the samples was analysed, and the rest were stored for six months at temperature of 30 +- 2 degC, and humidity ranging from 70 to 95%. The essential oil characteristics of control, irradiated and six month stored samples were analysed using infrared and ultraviolet spectrophotometers, HPLC, GLC and refractometer. Other parameters observed were moisture content and essential oil content of the samples. Results showed that irradiation up to a dose of 10 kGy do not give any significant effect on these parameters. Significant changes were only found in the essential oil content of piper cubeba, caused by storage treatment.

  17. The effects of gamma irradiation on medicinal plants and spices (2): Piper cubeba, piper nigrum, piper retrofractum, amomum cardamomum, and myristica fragrans

    Chosdu, Rahayu; Hilmy, Nazly; Bagiawati, S.; Sudiro, S.

    1983-01-01

    Effects of gamma irradiation on essential oils of five medicinal plants i.e. dried seeds of piper cubeba(cubeb), piper nigrum(black pepper), piper retrofractum, amomum cardamomum(cardamom) and myristica fragrans(mace), packed in low density polyethylene bag of 0.13 mm thickness have been investigated. After being irradiated at doses of 5 and 10 kGy, a part of the samples was analysed, and the rest were stored for six months at temperature of 30+-2 degC, and humidity ranging from 70 to 95%. The essential oil characteristics of control, irradiated and six month stored samples were analysed using infrared and ultraviolet spectrophotometers, HPLC, GLC and refractometer. Other parameters observed were moisture content and essential oil content of the samples. Results showed that irradiation up to a dose of 10 kGy do not give any significant effect on these parameters (P<0.05). Significant changes were only found in the essential oil content of piper cubeba, caused by storage treatment. (author)

  18. Unmanned aircraft system bridge inspection demonstration project phase II final report.

    2017-06-01

    An Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) is defined by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) as an aircraft operated without the possibility of direct human intervention from within the aircraft. Unmanned aircraft are familiarly referred to as drones, a...

  19. Antimalarial activity of methanolic leaf extract of Piper betle L.

    Al-Adhroey, Abdulelah H; Nor, Zurainee M; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Amran, Adel A; Mahmud, Rohela

    2010-12-28

    The need for new compounds active against malaria parasites is made more urgent by the rapid spread of drug-resistance to available antimalarial drugs. The crude methanol extract of Piper betle leaves (50-400 mg/kg) was investigated for its antimalarial activity against Plasmodium berghei (NK65) during early and established infections. The phytochemical and antioxidant potentials of the crude extract were evaluated to elucidate the possibilities of its antimalarial effects. The safety of the extract was also investigated in ICR mice of both sexes by the acute oral toxicity limit test. The leaf extract demonstrated significant (P Piper betle leaves is toxicologically safe by oral administration. The results suggest that the Malaysian folklorical medicinal application of the extract of Piper betle leaf has a pharmacological basis.

  20. Bioactivities of Piper aduncum L. and Piper obliquum Ruiz & Pavon (Piperaceae) essential oils from Eastern Ecuador.

    Guerrini, Alessandra; Sacchetti, Gianni; Rossi, Damiano; Paganetto, Guglielmo; Muzzoli, Mariavittoria; Andreotti, Elisa; Tognolini, Massimiliano; Maldonado, Maria E; Bruni, Renato

    2009-01-01

    Essential oils from aerial parts of Piper aduncum (Matico) and Piper obliquum (Anis del Oriente) of ecuadorian origin were analyzed by GC-FID, GC-MS, (13)C NMR and their biological and pharmacological activities were assessed. Chemical composition proved to be unusually different from previous reports for safrole-rich P. obliquum (45.8%), while P. aduncum main constituent was dillapiol (45.9%). No genotoxic activity was found in the Ames/Salmonella typhimurium (TA98 and TA100) assay, either with or without S9 activation. Mutagen-protective properties, evaluated using sodium azide, 2-nitrofluorene and 2-aminoanthracene as mutagens/promutagens, was observed against promutagen 2-aminoanthracene, likely in consequence of microsomial deactivation. Antimicrobial assays have been performed on Gram+/Gram- bacteria, dermatophyte and phytopathogenic fungi and best results were provided by P. aduncum against fungal strains with complete inhibition at 500μg/ml. Preliminary analgesic and antithrombotic activities evidenced the absence of the former in hot plate and edema assays and a limited antiplatelet action against three different agonists (ADP, AA and U46619). Both oils have a very limited antioxidant capacity. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Amides from Piper as a Diuretic: Behind the Ethnopharmacological Uses of Piper glabratum Kunth

    Thiago Bruno Lima Prando

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several species of the genus Piper are known in Brazilian folk medicine as having diuretic activity. So, we propose to investigate the acute diuretic activity and the possible toxic effects of Piper glabratum Kunth, popularly known as false Jaborandi. Additionally, we propose to check whether there is any correlation between the biological activities of the crude extract (MEPG and its 2-methoxy-4,5-methylenedioxy-trans-cinnamoyl-pyrrolidine (MMCP in Wistar rats. The MEPG was fractioned by chromatography column and the MMCP was identified by analyses of 1H and 13C RMN spectral data and correlations. Both MEPG and MMCP were assayed for diuretic activity. The preparations obtained were orally administered in a single dose to rats. The urine excretion, pH, density, conductivity, and content of Na+, K+, Cl−, and HCO3- were measured in the urine of saline-loaded animals. Additionally, acute toxicity of the extract was also evaluated. MMCP at doses of 30 mg/kg was able to increase the urine volume, pH, and HCO3- excretion. Moreover, high dosage of MEPG showed important liver toxicity and elevated mortality when injected intraperitoneally. The results indicate that the MMCP shows important diuretic properties when administered in Wistar rats. Additionally, MEPG can induce important acute toxicity if given in high doses.

  2. 76 FR 32103 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company 310, 320, 340, 401, 402, 411, 414, and 421...

    2011-06-03

    ... de-ice propeller), de-ice boots on entire span of wing as well as a different style de-ice boots... DIRECTIVES 1. The authority citation for part 39 continues to read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g...

  3. Alkaloids from piper: a review of its phytochemistry and pharmacology.

    Gutierrez, Rosa Martha Perez; Gonzalez, Adriana Maria Neira; Hoyo-Vadillo, Carlos

    2013-02-01

    Piper has been used for long timelike condiment and food, but also in traditional medicine around of the world. This work resumes the available and up to date work done on members of the Piperaceae family and their uses for therapeutic purposes. Information on Piper genus was gathered via internet using scientific databases such as Scirus, Google Scholar, CAB-abstracts, MedlinePlus, Pubmed, SciFinder, Scopus and Web of Science. The largeleafed perennial plant Piper is used for its spicy aromatic scent and flavor. It has an important presence in the cuisine of different cultures. Another quality of these plants is their known medicinal properties. It has been used as emollient, antirheumatic, diuretic, stimulant, abortifacient, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal and antidermatophytic. A survey of the literature shows that the genus Piper is mainly known for its alkaloids with cytotoxic, chemopreventive, antimetastatic and antitumor properties in several types of cancer. Studies of its alkaloids highlight the existence of various potential leads to develop new anti-cancer agents. Modern pharmacology studies have demonstrated that its crude extracts and active compounds possess wide pharmacological activities, especially asantioxidant, anti-depressive, hepatoprotective, antimicrobial, anti-obesity, neuropharmacological, to treat cognitive disorders, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-feedant, cardioactive, immuno-enhancing, and anti-inflamatory. All this evidence supporting its traditional uses. This review summarizes the up-to-date and comprehensive information concerning the botany, traditional use, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Piper together with its toxicology, and discusses the possible trend and scope for further research on Piper in the future.

  4. Isolation of Monoterpene Dihydrochalcones from Piper montealegreanum Yuncker (Piperaceae).

    Alves, Harley da Silva; Rocha, Wilma Raianny Vieira da; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Chaves, Maria Célia de Oliveira

    2017-06-09

    Four new compounds were isolated from the branches of Piper montealegreanum Yuncker, a shrub found in the Amazon rainforest, including two new dihydrochalcones named claricine ( 1 ) and maisine ( 2 ), a cinnamic acid derivative 3 and a phenylalkanoid 4 , along with a porphyrin identified as the known compound phaeophytin a ( 5 ). The structures were established using spectroscopic experiments, including 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS experiments, performed on the two monoterpene dihydrochalcones and their monoacetyl derivatives. The structural diversity of these substances is very important for the Piper genus chemotaxonomy.

  5. PIPER-ONE: an experimental apparatus to evaluate thermal-hydraulic transients in BWRs after small breaks

    Mazzini, M.; D'Auria, F.; Vigni, P.

    1981-01-01

    This paper deals with the state of art of the research performed at the Instituto di Impianti Nucleari of Pisa University, aiming at construction of PIPER-ONE experimental facility. PIPER-ONE program is devoted to acquire direct experience on some basic phenomena, arising in BWR plants subsequently to small breaks, and on the use of the main thermal-hydraulic codes. The research has been planned taking into consideration recent trends of the studies all over the world of small LOCA thermal-hydraulics and particular needs of nuclear safety in Italy. Cost limitations and availability of some components, already installed at the Institute Laboratory, have influenced the design of the loop. The development steps of PIPER-ONE project are presented. Particularly, the overall flowsheet of the apparatus is reported. Some results of preliminary calculation, executed by RELAP4-Mod 6 code concerning both the experimental loop and the reference BWR are shown, too. A comparison with similar facilities in the world closes the paper

  6. Piper (Piperaceae) in the Solomon Islands: the climbing species

    Gardner, R.O.

    2010-01-01

    Eleven climbing species of Piper in the Solomon Islands are recognized: P. abbreviatum, P. betle, P. bosnicanum, P. caninum, P. celtidiforme, P. fragile, P. insectifugum (syn. P. austrocaledonicum), P. interruptum, P. macropiper, P. majusculum, and, as the only endemic, P. sclerophloeum, for which a

  7. Two New Sphingolipids from the Leaves of Piper betle L.

    Chen, Duo-Zhi; Xiong, Hua-Bin; Tian, Kai; Guo, Jun-Ming; Huang, Xiang-Zhong; Jiang, Zhi-Yong

    2013-01-01

    Two new sphingolipids, pipercerebrosides A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the leaves of Piper betle L. Their structures, including absolute configurations, were determined by spectroscopic analysis and chemical degradation. These two compounds did not show significant cytotoxic activity against the cancer cell lines K562 and HL-60 in a MTT assay.

  8. Two new sphingolipids from the leaves of Piper betle L.

    Chen, Duo-Zhi; Xiong, Hua-Bin; Tian, Kai; Guo, Jun-Ming; Huang, Xiang-Zhong; Jiang, Zhi-Yong

    2013-09-12

    Two new sphingolipids, pipercerebrosides A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the leaves of Piper betle L. Their structures, including absolute configurations, were determined by spectroscopic analysis and chemical degradation. These two compounds did not show significant cytotoxic activity against the cancer cell lines K562 and HL-60 in a MTT assay.

  9. Two New Sphingolipids from the Leaves of Piper betle L.

    Zhi-Yong Jiang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Two new sphingolipids, pipercerebrosides A (1 and B (2, were isolated from the leaves of Piper betle L. Their structures, including absolute configurations, were determined by spectroscopic analysis and chemical degradation. These two compounds did not show significant cytotoxic activity against the cancer cell lines K562 and HL-60 in a MTT assay.

  10. Effect of Piper betle on Giardia intestinalis infection in vivo

    Pecková, R.; Doležal, Karel; Sak, Bohumil; Květoňová, Dana; Kváč, Martin; Nurcahyo, W.; Foitová, I.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 184, JAN (2018), s. 39-45 ISSN 0014-4894 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/11/1163 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : Antigiardial activity * Drug of choice * Giardia intestinalis * Natural antiparasitics * Parasites * Piper betle Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 1.724, year: 2016

  11. Original Paper Efficacy of mixed powders of Piper guineense and ...

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of mixed powders of Piper guineense (Piperaceae) and Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae) on Sitophilus zeamais population and seed weight loss percentage of stored maize. Experiment was conducted under laboratory conditions (26.94 ± 0.81 °C, 74.76 ± 4.51% r.h. and.

  12. Lignan profile of Piper cubeba, an Indonesian medicinal plant

    Elfahmi, [No Value; Ruslan, Komar; Batterman, Sieb; Bos, Rein; Kayser, Oliver; Woerdenbag, Herman J.; Quax, Wim J.

    The lignan profile of the aerial part of Piper cubeba L. (Piperaceae) was determined using GC, GC-MS and HPLC. The number of lignans found in the leaves was 15, followed by berries and the stalks with respectively 13 and five lignans. This is the first investigation of lignans from the leaves and

  13. Piper (Piperaceae) in New Guinea: the climbing species

    Gardner, R.O.

    2012-01-01

    Sixteen climbing Piper species are accepted for New Guinea. The three endemics, P. arfakianum, P. subcanirameum and P. versteegii, are fully described. Eight taxa of unclear circumscription are noted. A new variety of P. macropiper, endemic to Morobe Province of Papua New Guinea, is described. The

  14. Child Sacrifice: Black America's Price of Paying the Media Piper.

    Orange, Carolyn M.; George, Amiso M.

    2000-01-01

    Explores the sacrifice of African American children to the broadcast media and video games in terms of the players ("media pipers"), the messages ("piping"), and the consequences to children. Proposes some solutions for the problems associated with excessive television viewing and undesirable programming. (SLD)

  15. Piper (Piperaceae) in New Guinea: the non-climbing species

    Gardner, R.O.

    2003-01-01

    A taxonomic account is given of six Piper species of New Guinea: P. bolanicum spec. nov., P. gibbil­imbum, P. recessum spec. nov., P. subbullatum, P. triangulare and P. wabagense. These small shrubby trees are best represented in secondary growth and forest at 1300–2500 m altitude, with P.

  16. A new species of Piper (Piperaceae) from the Seychelles

    Gerlach, Justin

    2002-01-01

    A new species of Piper (Piperaceae), P. silhouettanum, is described from the Anse Mondon river valley, Silhouette Island, Seychelles. This species is close to P. nigrum but distinguished by its different venation, glabrous leaves, persistent elongated stipules and reduced bracts. This species is

  17. Mosquito repellent activity of piper guineense and xylopia ...

    The activity of eucalyptus oil (positive control), a commercial repellent, at 30% was only able to protect for 2h. Both oils used could be applied as repellents where protection from mosquito bite is sought for, over a short period of time. Keywords: Piper guineense, Xylopia aethiopica, volatile oils, Aedes aegypti, repellency

  18. In vitro activity of Piper sarmentosum ethanol leaf extract against ...

    of Medicine and Health Sciences, Islamic Science University of Malaysia, 55100 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia ... Abstract. Purpose: To evaluate the activity of the ethanol leaf extract of Piper sarmentosum against ..... plant extracts affect Vero cell performance using the cytotoxicity ... No conflict of interest associated with this work.

  19. In vitro conservation of Piper aduncum and Piper hispidinervum under slow-growth conditions

    Tatiane Loureiro da Silva

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate in vitro storage of Piper aduncum and P. hispidinervum under slow-growth conditions. Shoots were stored at low temperatures (10, 20 and 25°C, and the culture medium was supplemented with osmotic agents (sucrose and mannitol - at 1, 2 and 3% and abiscisic acid - ABA (0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 mg L-1. After six-months of storage, shoots were evaluated for survival and regrowth. Low temperature at 20ºC was effective for the in vitro conservation of P. aduncum and P. hispidinervum shoots. In vitro cultures maintained at 20ºC on MS medium showed 100% survival with slow-growth shoots. The presence of mannitol or ABA, in the culture medium, negatively affected shoot growth, which is evidenced by the low rate of recovered shoots.

  20. Impact analysis of composite aircraft structures

    Pifko, Allan B.; Kushner, Alan S.

    1993-01-01

    The impact analysis of composite aircraft structures is discussed. Topics discussed include: background remarks on aircraft crashworthiness; comments on modeling strategies for crashworthiness simulation; initial study of simulation of progressive failure of an aircraft component constructed of composite material; and research direction in composite characterization for impact analysis.

  1. Amphibious Aircraft

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A brief self composed research article on Amphibious Aircrafts discussing their use, origin and modern day applications along with their advantages and disadvantages...

  2. An investigation of the vegetative anatomy of Piper sarmentosum, and a comparison with the anatomy of Piper betle (Piperaceae)

    Piper sarmentosum Roxb. (synonym, P. lolot C.DC.) is a southeast Asian medicinal plant valued for its medicinal and culinary uses. Hand-sections of the vegetative parts of P. sarmentosum were prepared and the anatomical features were studied by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Th...

  3. Anticancer Principles from Medicinal Piper (胡椒 Hú Jiāo Plants

    Yue-Hu Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ethnomedical uses of Piper (胡椒 Hú Jiāo plants as anticancer agents, in vitro cytotoxic activity of both extracts and compounds from Piper plants, and in vivo antitumor activity and mechanism of action of selected compounds are reviewed in the present paper. The genus Piper (Piperaceae contains approximately 2000 species, of which 10 species have been used in traditional medicines to treat cancer or cancer-like symptoms. Studies have shown that 35 extracts from 24 Piper species and 32 compounds from Piper plants possess cytotoxic activity. Amide alkaloids account for 53% of the major active principles. Among them, piplartine (piperlongumine shows the most promise, being toxic to dozens of cancer cell lines and having excellent in vivo activity. It is worthwhile to conduct further anticancer studies both in vitro and in vivo on Piper plants and their active principles.

  4. Peranan Air Daun Sirih (Piper Betle Linn.) Dalam Menjaga Kualitas Benih Sengon (Paraserianthes Falcataria)

    Gusrandi, Yoghi; ', M. Mardhiansyah; Arlita, Tuti

    2014-01-01

    This research aimed to determine the effect of the role water immersion of Piper betle leaf. Protect Paraserianthes falcataria of seed quality and know the best dosage Piper betle leaf soaking in Paraserianthes falcataria maintain quality seed. The research method used in completely randomized design (CRD) with 4 treatments and 4 replications. The treatment consisted of: S0=Paraserianthes falcataria soaking seeds without Piper betle leaves in 1 liter of water; S1=Paraserianthes falcataria soa...

  5. Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Essential Oils from Different Species of Piper from Panama.

    Santana, Ana I; Vila, Roser; Cañigueral, Salvador; Gupta, Mahabir P

    2016-07-01

    The chemical composition of leaf essential oils from 11 species of Piper from Panama was analyzed by a combination GC-FID and GC-MS procedures. Six of them had sesquiterpene hydrocarbons as major constituents, three were characterized by monoterpene hydrocarbons, one by a diterpene, and one by a phenylpropanoid, dillapiole. The main components identified in each species were: cembratrienol (25.4 %) in Piper augustum; β-pinene (26.6 %) in Piper corrugatum; α-pinene (19.4 %) in Piper curtispicum; trans-β-farnesene (63.7 %) in Piper darienense; p-cymene (43.9 %) in Piper grande; dillapiole (57.7 %) in Piper hispidum; linalool (14.5 %), α-phellandrene (13.8 %), and limonene (12.2 %) in Piper jacquemontianum; β-caryophyllene (45.2 %) in Piper longispicum; linalool (16.5 %), α-phellandrene (11.8 %), limonene (11.4 %), and p-cymene (9.0 %) in Piper multiplinervium; β-selinene (19.0 %), β-elemene (16.1 %), and α-selinene (15.5 %) in Piper reticulatum; and germacrene D (19.7 %) in Piper trigonum. The essential oils of P. hispidum and P. longispicum at a concentration of 250 µg/mL showed larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti, while the oils from P. curtispicum, P. multiplinervium, P. reticulatum, and P. trigonum were inactive (LC100 ≥ 500 µg/mL). The essential oils of P. grande, P. jacquemontianum, and P. multiplinervium showed no significant antifungal activity (MIC > 250 µg/mL) against several yeasts and filamentous fungal strains. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Hazards from aircraft

    Grund, J.E.; Hornyik, K.

    1975-01-01

    The siting of nuclear power plants has created innumerable environmental concerns. Among the effects of the ''man-made environment'' one of increasing importance in recent nuclear plant siting hazards analysis has been the concern about aircraft hazards to the nuclear plant. These hazards are of concern because of the possibility that an aircraft may have a malfunction and crash either near the plant or directly into it. Such a crash could be postulated to result, because of missile and/or fire effects, in radioactive releases which would endanger the public health and safety. The majority of studies related to hazards from air traffic have been concerned with the determination of the probability associated with an aircraft striking vulnerable portions of a given plant. Other studies have focused on the structural response to such a strike. This work focuses on the problem of strike probability. 13 references

  7. The underlying mechanism of action for various medicinal properties of Piper betle (betel).

    Haslan, H; Suhaimi, F H; Thent, Zar Chi; Das, S

    2015-01-01

    Piper betle (betel) plant belongs to the Piperaceae family. Piper. betle is widely known for its potent medicinal properties. Various active compounds are present in Piper. betle such as allylpyrocatechol, hydroxychavicol, piperbetol, ethylpiperbetol, piperol A, piperol B, chavibetol, and alkaloids which account for these beneficial medicinal properties. In the present narrative review, we looked into the various active compounds present in the Piper betle and attempted to understand their underlying mechanism of action. Proper understanding of the molecular biology involving the mechanism of action may help in better drug formulation and provide better therapeutic actions in the field of alternative and complementary medicine.

  8. Aircraft Carriers

    Nødskov, Kim; Kværnø, Ole

    as their purchases of aircraft carrier systems, makes it more than likely that the country is preparing such an acquisition. China has territorial disputes in the South China Sea over the Spratly Islands and is also worried about the security of its sea lines of communications, by which China transports the majority......, submarines, aircraft and helicopters, is not likely to be fully operational and war-capable until 2020, given the fact that China is starting from a clean sheet of paper. The United States of America (USA), the United Kingdom (UK), Russia and India are currently building or have made decisions to build new...

  9. Antifungal derivatives from Piper mollicomum and P. lhotzkyanum (Piperaceae)

    Lago, Joao Henrique G. [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias e Humanidades]. E-mail: joaolago@iq.usp.br; Young, Maria Claudia M. [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Fisiologia e Bioquimica de Plantas; Reigada, Juliana B.; Soares, Marisi G.; Roesler, Bianca P.; Kato, Massuo J. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2007-09-15

    Bioguided fractionation of the extracts from leaves of Piper mollicomum and Piper lhotzkyanum against the fungi Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum afforded seven bioactive compounds, four being chromenes: methyl 2,2-dimethyl-2H-chromene-6-carboxylate, methyl 8-hydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-2H-chromene-6-carboxylate, 2-methyl-2-[4'-methyl-3'-pentenyl]-2H-1-benzopyrane-6-carboxylic acid, 2,2-dimethyl-2H-chromene-6-carboxylic acid, one a dihydrochalcone: 2',6'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxydihydrochalcone, and two flavanones: 7-methoxy-5,4'-dihydroxy-flavanone and 7,4'-dimethoxy-5-hydroxy-flavanone. The structures of the bioactive isolated derivatives were elucidated by interpretation of their NMR data [{sup 1}H and {sup 13}C (BBD, DEPT 135 deg)], and mass spectral data as well as by comparison with data described in the literature. (author)

  10. A new furofuran lignan from Piper terminaliflorum Tseng.

    Liu, Tie; Liang, Qian; Zhang, Xin-Min; Huang, Shen-Yang; Xu, Wen-Hui

    2018-02-01

    The chemical investigation of whole plants Piper terminaliflorum Tseng led to the isolation of one new furofuran lignan, 7-methoxyasarinin (1), along with three known amide alkaloids (2-4) as N-3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxycinnamoylpyrrole (2), dihydropipercide (3) and 1-[(2E,4E,9E)-10-(3,4-Methylenedioxyphenyl)-2,4,9-undecatrienoyl]pyrrolidine (4). Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses, including 1D, 2D NMR and HR-ESI-MS, and by comparison with the literature. Compounds (2-4) were isolated from Piper terminaliflorum Tseng for the first time. All isolated compounds (1-4) were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against five human cancer cell lines (including A-549, SMMC-7721, HL-60, MCF-7 and SW-480).

  11. Antifungal derivatives from Piper mollicomum and P. lhotzkyanum (Piperaceae)

    Lago, Joao Henrique G.; Young, Maria Claudia M.; Reigada, Juliana B.; Soares, Marisi G.; Roesler, Bianca P.; Kato, Massuo J.

    2007-01-01

    Bioguided fractionation of the extracts from leaves of Piper mollicomum and Piper lhotzkyanum against the fungi Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum afforded seven bioactive compounds, four being chromenes: methyl 2,2-dimethyl-2H-chromene-6-carboxylate, methyl 8-hydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-2H-chromene-6-carboxylate, 2-methyl-2-[4'-methyl-3'-pentenyl]-2H-1-benzopyrane-6-carboxylic acid, 2,2-dimethyl-2H-chromene-6-carboxylic acid, one a dihydrochalcone: 2',6'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxydihydrochalcone, and two flavanones: 7-methoxy-5,4'-dihydroxy-flavanone and 7,4'-dimethoxy-5-hydroxy-flavanone. The structures of the bioactive isolated derivatives were elucidated by interpretation of their NMR data [ 1 H and 13 C (BBD, DEPT 135 deg)], and mass spectral data as well as by comparison with data described in the literature. (author)

  12. Origin of the subepidermal tissue in Piper L. leaves.

    Nakamura, A T; Simão, E; Silva, L; Torres, G A

    2015-05-01

    Studies on the anatomy of Piper leaves demonstrate the presence of a subepidermal tissue distinct from the adjacent epidermis, which cells show thin walls and hyaline contents. Some authors consider such cells a hypodermal tissue, while others refer to them as components of a multiple epidermis. In this study, the nature of this subepidermal tissue was investigated through the analysis of leaf ontogeny in three Piper species. The analysis showed that the referred tissue originates from the ground meristem and, thus, should be considered a hypodermis. The studied species suggests that the role of the hypodermis would be to protect the photosynthetic apparatus from excess light, regulating the intensity of light reaching the chlorophyll parenchyma.

  13. Chemical Constituents of Piper betle Linn. (Piperaceae Roots

    T. Bhattacharya

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Column chromatography of the alcoholic extract of Piper betle roots furnished aristololactam A-II and a new phenyl propene, characterized as 4-allyl resorcinol, while the petroleum-ether extract yielded a diketosteroid, viz. stigmast-4-en-3,6-dione. All these compounds were characterized by spectroscopic means. Isolation of these compounds from this source is being reported here for the first time.

  14. Chemical constituents of Piper betle Linn. (Piperaceae) roots.

    Ghosh, K; Bhattacharya, T K

    2005-08-31

    Column chromatography of the alcoholic extract of Piper betle roots furnished aristololactam A-II and a new phenyl propene, characterized as 4-allyl resorcinol, while the petroleum-ether extract yielded a diketosteroid, viz. stigmast-4-en-3,6-dione. All these compounds were characterized by spectroscopic means. Isolation of these compounds from this source is being reported here for the first time.

  15. A new hydroxychavicol dimer from the roots of Piper betle.

    Lin, Chwan-Fwu; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Chien, Chun-Chien; Tu, Huei-Yu; Lay, Horng-Liang

    2013-02-26

    A new hydroxychavicol dimer, 2-(g'-hydroxychavicol)-hydroxychavicol (1), was isolated from the roots of Piper betle Linn. along with five known compounds, hydroxychavicol (2), aristololactam A II (3), aristololactam B II (4), piperolactam A (5) and cepharadione A (6). The structures of these isolated compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited inhibitory effects on the generation of superoxide anion and the release of elastase by human neutrophils.

  16. A New Hydroxychavicol Dimer from the Roots of Piper betle

    Huei-Yu Tu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A new hydroxychavicol dimer, 2-(g'-hydroxychavicol-hydroxychavicol (1, was isolated from the roots of Piper betle Linn. along with five known compounds, hydroxychavicol (2, aristololactam A II (3, aristololactam B II (4, piperolactam A (5 and cepharadione A (6. The structures of these isolated compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited inhibitory effects on the generation of superoxide anion and the release of elastase by human neutrophils.

  17. ARISTOLACTAMA Y ESTERÓLES DEL TALLO DE Piper chiadoense

    Luz Angela Peña O.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Del extracto etanólico del tallo de Piper chiadoense Junker (Piperaceae fueron aislados por métodos cromatográficos la aristolactama identificada como lactama del ácido 10-amino-3,4-dimetoxifenantreno-l carboxílico (cepharanone B; campesterol; estigmasterol y B-sitosterol. Sus estructuras fueron determinadas por métodos espectroscópicos y por comparación con datos reportados en la literatura.

  18. Essential oil constituents of Piper cubeba L. fils. from Indonesia

    Bos, Rein; Woerdenbag, Herman J.; Kayser, Oliver; Quax, Wim J.; Ruslan, Komar; Elfami, [No Value

    2007-01-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oil of ripe berries (11.8% v/w) and leaves (0.9% v/w) of Piper cubeba L. fils. (Piperaceae) was investigated by GC and GUMS. Sabinene (9.1%), beta-elemene (9.4%), beta-caryophyllene (3.1%), epi-cubebol (4.3%), and cubebol (5.6%) were the main components of

  19. Flavones, lignans and terpene from Piper umbellata (Piperaceae)

    Baldoqui, Debora Cristina; Bolzani, Vanderlan da S.; Furlan, Maysa

    2009-01-01

    The phytochemical investigation of Piper umbellata leaves yielded nine compounds including one terpenoid glucoside, five flavones (vitexin 2 - O-β-glucopyranoside, apigenin 8-C-β-D-glucopyranoside, orientin 8-C-β-D-glucopyranoside,5-hydroxy-7,3',4'-trimethoxy-flavone and velutin), two lignans (sesamin and dihydrocubebin) and 4-nerolidylcathecol. Excepting 4-nerolidylcathecol, all compounds have not been described from this species yet (author)

  20. Astronaut Heidemarie M. Stefanyshyn-Piper During STS-115 Training

    2005-01-01

    Wearing a training version of the shuttle launch and entry suit, STS-115 astronaut and mission specialist, Heidemarie M. Stefanyshyn-Piper, puts the final touches on her suit donning process prior to the start of a water survival training session in the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) near Johnson Space Center. Launched on September 9, 2006, the STS-115 mission continued assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) with the installation of the truss segments P3 and P4.

  1. Antimalarial Activity of Methanolic Leaf Extract of Piper betle L.

    Adel A. Amran

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The need for new compounds active against malaria parasites is made more urgent by the rapid spread of drug-resistance to available antimalarial drugs. The crude methanol extract of Piper betle leaves (50–400 mg/kg was investigated for its antimalarial activity against Plasmodium berghei (NK65 during early and established infections. The phytochemical and antioxidant potentials of the crude extract were evaluated to elucidate the possibilities of its antimalarial effects. The safety of the extract was also investigated in ICR mice of both sexes by the acute oral toxicity limit test. The leaf extract demonstrated significant (P < 0.05 schizonticidal activity in all three antimalarial evaluation models. Phytochemical screening showed that the leaf extract contains some vital antiplasmodial chemical constituents. The extract also exhibited a potent ability to scavenge the free radicals. The results of acute toxicity showed that the methanol extract of Piper betle leaves is toxicologically safe by oral administration. The results suggest that the Malaysian folklorical medicinal application of the extract of Piper betle leaf has a pharmacological basis.

  2. Antioxidant, Antitubercular and Cytotoxic Activities of Piper imperiale

    Sanjib Bhakta

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are widely distributed in Nature and act as pharmacologically active constituents in many herbal medicines. They have multiple biological properties, most notably antioxidant, antibacterial and cytotoxic activities. In the present study an attempt to correlate the phenolic composition of leaf, flower and wood extracts of Piper imperiale, with antioxidant, antitubercular and cytotoxic activities was undertaken. The total phenol content ranged from 1.98 to 6.94 mg GAE/gDW among ethanolic extracts, and gallic acid, catechin, epicatechin, ferulic acid, resveratrol and quercetin were identified and quantified by HPLC. DPPH and ABTS assays showed high antioxidant activity of the leaf extract (EC50ABTS = 15.6 µg/mL, EC50DPPH = 27.3 µg/mL with EC50 in the same order of magnitude as the hydroxyquinone (EC50ABTS = 10.2 µg/mL, EC50DPPH = 15.7 µg/mL. The flower extract showed strong antimicrobial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. All the extracts exhibited dose-dependent cytotoxic effects against MCF-7 cancer cells. This is the first time that a Piper extract has been found to be highly active against M. tuberculosis. This study shows the biological potential of Piper imperiale extracts and gives way to bio-guided studies with well-defined biological activities.

  3. Aircraft cybernetics

    1977-01-01

    The use of computers for aircraft control, flight simulation, and inertial navigation is explored. The man-machine relation problem in aviation is addressed. Simple and self-adapting autopilots are described and the assets and liabilities of digital navigation techniques are assessed.

  4. Small Transport Aircraft Technology /STAT/ Propulsion Study

    Heldenbrand, R. W.; Baerst, C. F.; Rowse, J. H.

    1980-01-01

    The NASA Small Transport Aircraft Technology (STAT) Propulsion Study was established to identify technology requirements and define the research and development required for new commuter aircraft. Interim results of the studies defined mission and design characteristics for 30- and 50-passenger aircraft. Sensitivities were defined that relate changes in engine specific fuel consumption (SFC), weight, and cost (including maintenance) to changes in the aircraft direct operating cost (DOC), takeoff gross weight, and empty weight. A comparison of performance and economic characteristics is presented between aircraft powered by 1980 production engines and those powered by a 1990 advanced technology baseline engine.

  5. Piper nigrum, Piper betle and Gnetum gnemon--natural food sources with anti-quorum sensing properties.

    Tan, Li Ying; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2013-03-20

    Various parts of Piper nigrum, Piper betle and Gnetum gnemon are used as food sources by Malaysians. The purpose of this study is to examine the anti-quorum sensing (anti-QS) properties of P. nigrum, P. betle and G. gnemon extracts. The hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of these plants were assessed in bioassays involving Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01, Escherichia coli [pSB401], E. coli [pSB1075] and Chromobacterium violaceum CV026. It was found that the extracts of these three plants have anti-QS ability. Interestingly, the hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts from P. betle showed the most potent anti-QS activity as judged by the bioassays. Since there is a variety of plants that serve as food sources in Malaysia that have yet to be tested for anti-QS activity, future work should focus on identification of these plants and isolation of the anti-QS compounds.

  6. Genetic diversity of "Pimenta Longa" genotypes (Piper spp., Piperaceae of the Embrapa Acre germplasm collection

    Lúcia Helena de Oliveira Wadt

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The commonly known Pimenta longa is a commercially valuable natural resource found wild in Acre, Brazil. Specifically, three Piperaceae species with contested taxonomic status were studied, Piper hispidinervum, Piper aduncum, and Piper hispidum, to assesses the inter- and intra-specific genetic relationship of 49 Piper genotypes kept in the Pimenta longa germplasm collection at Embrapa Acre, using sixty six Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers. The DNA polymorphism level detected was high (96.97%, but the marker frequencies for each species showed polymorphism levels of 79.4% for Piper hispidinervum and 5.3% for P. aduncum. The genetic similarity clustering analysis resulted in three distinct groups corresponding to Piper hispidinervum, Piper aduncum, and Piper hispidum. Four and nine characteristic RAPD markers were identified for P. hispidinervum and P. aduncum, respectively, supporting the existence of two separate species. However, six genotypes collected in Tarauacá county formed a distinct subgroup within the P. hispidinervum group and may be considered as an ecotype of this species or an intermediate between the P. hispidinervum and P. aduncum groups. More extensive sampling of both P. hispidinervum and P. aduncum populations throughout the region are needed to further establish their relation and its implication for breeding efforts.

  7. The invasive shrub Piper aduncum in Papua New Guinea: a review

    Hartemink, A.E.

    2010-01-01

    HARTEMINK AE. 2010. The invasive shrub Piper aduneum in Papua New Guinea: a review. Piper aduncum is a shrub native to Central America. It is found in most Central and South American countries and also in the Caribbean and southern Florida (USA). In Asia and the Pacific, P aduncum occurs in

  8. Radiometric study on bioaccumulation of gold by an alkaloid extracted from fruits of Piper nigrum

    Ghosh, K.; Lahiri, S.

    2007-01-01

    Piperine, an alkaloid derived from the fruits of Piper nigrum, has been tested as an extracting bioreagent for gold. It has been observed that piperine as well as the fruits of Piper nigrum itself can act as an efficient exchanger for gold both in trace and macro scale. The accumulation of gold by these bioreagents is highly pH dependent. (author)

  9. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of Piper species: a perspective from screening to molecular mechanisms.

    Kumar, Sarvesh; Malhotra, Shashwat; Prasad, Ashok K; Van der Eycken, Erik V; Bracke, Marc E; Stetler-Stevenson, William G; Parmar, Virinder S; Ghosh, Balaram

    2015-01-01

    Identifying novel therapeutic agents from natural sources and their possible intervention studies has been one of the major areas in biomedical research in recent years. Piper species are highly important - commercially, economically and medicinally. Our groups have been working for more than two decades on the identification and characterization of novel therapeutic lead molecules from Piper species. We have extensively studied the biological activities of various extracts of Piper longum and Piper galeatum, and identified and characterized novel molecules from these species. Using synthetic chemistry, various functional groups of the lead molecules were modified and structure activity relationship (SAR) studies identified synthetic molecules with better efficacy and lower IC50 values. Moreover, the mechanisms of actions of some of these molecules were studied at the molecular level. The objective of this review is to summarize experimental data published from our laboratories and others on antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potentials of Piper species and their chemical constituents.

  10. Piper kelleyi, a hotspot of ecological interactions and a new species from Ecuador and Peru

    Eric Tepe

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe Piper kelleyi sp. nov., a new species from the eastern Andes of Ecuador and Peru, named in honor of Dr. Walter Almond Kelley. Piper kelleyi is a member of the Macrostachys clade of the genus Piper and supports a rich community of generalist and specialist herbivores, their predators and parasitoids, as well as commensalistic earwigs, and mutualistic ants. This new species was recognized as part of an ecological study of phytochemically mediated relationships between plants, herbivores, predators, and parasitoids. Compared to over 100 other Piper species surveyed, Piper kelleyi supports the largest community of specialist herbivores and parasitoids observed to date.

  11. Piper kelleyi, a hotspot of ecological interactions and a new species from Ecuador and Peru.

    Tepe, Eric J; Rodríguez-Castañeda, Genoveva; Glassmire, Andrea E; Dyer, Lee A

    2014-01-01

    We describe Piper kelleyi sp. nov., a new species from the eastern Andes of Ecuador and Peru, named in honor of Dr. Walter Almond Kelley. Piper kelleyi is a member of the Macrostachys clade of the genus Piper and supports a rich community of generalist and specialist herbivores, their predators and parasitoids, as well as commensalistic earwigs, and mutualistic ants. This new species was recognized as part of an ecological study of phytochemically mediated relationships between plants, herbivores, predators, and parasitoids. Compared to over 100 other Piper species surveyed, Piper kelleyi supports the largest community of specialist herbivores and parasitoids observed to date.

  12. Neural networks for aircraft control

    Linse, Dennis

    1990-01-01

    Current research in Artificial Neural Networks indicates that networks offer some potential advantages in adaptation and fault tolerance. This research is directed at determining the possible applicability of neural networks to aircraft control. The first application will be to aircraft trim. Neural network node characteristics, network topology and operation, neural network learning and example histories using neighboring optimal control with a neural net are discussed.

  13. Timing of pollen release and stigma receptivity period of Piper vicosanum: New insights into sexual reproduction of the genus.

    Valentin-Silva, Adriano; Coelho, Victor Peçanha de Miranda; Ventrella, Marília Contin; Vieira, Milene Faria

    2015-04-01

    Dichogamy is a common characteristic among angiosperms, including Piper species. In this genus, the tiny flowers are morphologically similar and have an asynchronous stamen development. However, there is no information on the duration of stigma receptivity and whether it overlaps with pollen release. To better understand mechanisms of floral function in Piper vicosanum, we provide a detailed characterization of the timing of pollen release from the four stamens and the period of stigma receptivity and exposure mode of the receptive areas. We investigated plants of a natural population in a semideciduous seasonal forest (Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil), based on chemical tests, light microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy analyses. Incomplete protogyny-a mechanism that favors outcrossing-was recorded. The period of stigma receptivity was long (14 d), and the sequential exposure and senescence of stigmatic papillae occurred gradually and in a basipetal direction. Pollen release began 2-6 d after the beginning of the pistillate phase, with an average pollen viability of 87.7%, during the bisexual flower phase. Pollen was released for up to 6 d and occurred in one stamen at a time. The fruit set observed in tests of self-pollination indicated self-compatibility. The gradual and sequential exposure of stigmatic papillae in P. vicosanum flowers is described here as the mechanism for the long duration of receptivity. Anther development and pollen release were also sequential. These findings are yet unreported reproductive characteristics of the genus and offer new perspectives for future studies on the floral biology of other Piper species. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  14. Efficient DNA barcode regions for classifying Piper species (Piperaceae

    Arunrat Chaveerach

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Piper species are used for spices, in traditional and processed forms of medicines, in cosmetic compounds, in cultural activities and insecticides. Here barcode analysis was performed for identification of plant parts, young plants and modified forms of plants. Thirty-six Piper species were collected and the three barcode regions, matK, rbcL and psbA-trnH spacer, were amplified, sequenced and aligned to determine their genetic distances. For intraspecific genetic distances, the most effective values for the species identification ranged from no difference to very low distance values. However, P. betle had the highest values at 0.386 for the matK region. This finding may be due to P. betle being an economic and cultivated species, and thus is supported with growth factors, which may have affected its genetic distance. The interspecific genetic distances that were most effective for identification of different species were from the matK region and ranged from a low of 0.002 in 27 paired species to a high of 0.486. Eight species pairs, P. kraense and P. dominantinervium, P. magnibaccum and P. kraense, P. phuwuaense and P. dominantinervium, P. phuwuaense and P. kraense, P. pilobracteatum and P. dominantinervium, P. pilobracteatum and P. kraense, P. pilobracteatum and P. phuwuaense and P. sylvestre and P. polysyphonum, that presented a genetic distance of 0.000 and were identified by independently using each of the other two regions. Concisely, these three barcode regions are powerful for further efficient identification of the 36 Piper species.

  15. Aircraft engines. IV

    Ruffles, P C

    1989-01-01

    Configurational design and thermodynamic performance gain trends are projected into the next 50 years, in view of the growing interest of aircraft manufacturers in both larger and more efficient high-bypass turbofan engines for subsonic flight and variable cycle engines for supersonic flight. Ceramic- and metal-matrix composites are envisioned as the key to achievement of turbine inlet temperatures 300 C higher than the 1400 C which is characteristic of the state-of-the-art, with the requisite high stiffness, strength, and low density. Such fiber-reinforced materials can be readily tailored to furnish greatest strength in a specific direction of loading. Large, low-density engines are critical elements of future 1000-seat aircraft.

  16. Antifungal activity of natural and synthetic amides from Piper species

    Marques, Joaquim V.; Oliveira, Alberto de; Kato, Massuo J., E-mail: majokato@iq.usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IQ/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Raggi, Ludmila; Young, Maria C. [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Fisiologia e Bioquimica de Plantas

    2010-07-01

    The antifungal leaves extract from Piper scutifolium was submitted to bioactivity-guided chromatographic separation against Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum yielding piperine, piperlonguminine and corcovadine as the active principles which displayed a detection limit of 1 {mu}g. Structure-activity relationships were investigated with the preparation of twelve analogs having differences in the number of unsaturations, aromatic ring substituents and in the amide moiety. Analogs having a single double-bond and no substituent in the aromatic ring displayed higher activity, while N,N,-diethyl analogs displayed higher dose-dependent activity. (author)

  17. Radioprotective property of the ethanolic extract of Piper betel leaf

    Bhattacharya, S.; Roychowdhury, S.; Bandyopadhyay, S.K.; Subramanian, M.; Bauri, A.K.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Kamat, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    The radioprotective activity of Piper betel ethanolic extract (PE) has been studied using rat liver mitochondria and pBR 322 plasmid DNA as two model in vitro systems. The extract effectively prevented γ-ray induced lipid peroxidation as assessed by measuring thiobarbituric acid reactive substrates, lipid hydroperoxide and conjugated diene. Likewise, it prevented radiation-induced DNA strand breaks in a concentration dependent manner. The radioprotective activity of PE could be attributed to its hydroxyl and superoxide radicals scavenging property along with its lymphoproliferative activity. The radical scavenging capacity of PE was primarily due to its constituent phenolics, which were isolated and identified as chevibetol and allyl pyrocatechol. (author)

  18. Three new compounds from Piper montealegreanum Yuncker (Piperaceae)

    Alves, Harley da S.; Souza, Maria de F.V. de; Chaves, Maria C. de O., E-mail: cchaves@ltf.ufpb.b [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Lab. de Tecnologia Farmaceutica

    2011-07-01

    Three new compounds: two flavonoids [(S)-8-formyl-3',5-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-6-methylflavanone (1) and 3'-formyl-3,4',6'-trihydroxy-2'-methoxy-5'-methylchalcone (2)] and one phenylpropanoid [ethyl 3,4-methylenedioxy-5-methoxy-7,8-dihydrocinnamate (3)] were isolated from dried branches of Piper montealegreanum. Their structures were established by UV, IR, MS, 1D and 2D ({sup 1}H and {sup 13}C) NMR spectroscopic techniques, besides interpretation of spectral data ({sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR) of methylated derivatives of 1 and 2 compounds. (author)

  19. Síntese do piperonal a partir do óleo essencial de pimenta longa (Piper hispidinervium C. DC. Synthesis of piperonal from essential oil of long-pepper (Piper hispidinervium C. DC.

    Marco Aurélio Cremasco

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O óleo essencial de pimenta longa (Piper hispidinervum C. DC é rico em safrol, tornando-o suscetível à reação de isomerização para a obtenção de cis, trans-isosafrol. O presente artigo apresenta a etapa de eletroxidação dos isômeros cis, trans-isosafrol advindos da isomerização direta do óleo essencial de pimenta longa, apresentando 99,7% de conversão em isosafrol glicol, o qual é sujeito à oxidação com conversão de 99% em piperonal, este apresentando 84,9% de pureza.The essential oil of long-pepper (Piper hispidinervum C. DC is rich in safrole, then susceptible to isomerization reaction to obtain cis, trans-isosafrole. In this paper it is presented the eletroxidation of cis, trans-isosafrole from direct isomerization of essential oil of long-pepper, with 99,7% of convertion to isosafrole glicol, that it is react by oxidation to convert 99% into piperonal with 84,9% purity.

  20. Analysis of genetic diversity of certain species of Piper using RAPD-based molecular markers.

    Chowdhury, Utpal; Tanti, Bhaben; Rethy, Parakkal; Gajurel, Padma Raj

    2014-09-01

    The utility of RAPD markers in assessing genetic diversity and phenetic relationships of six different species of Piper from Northeast India was investigated. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with four arbitrary 10-mer oligonucleotide primers applied to the six species produced a total of 195 marker bands, of which, 159 were polymorphic. On average, six RAPD fragments were amplified per reaction. In the UPGMA phenetic dendrogram based on Jaccard's coefficient, the different accessions of Piper showed a high level of genetic variation. This study may be useful in identifying diverse genetic stocks of Piper, which may then be conserved on a priority basis.

  1. The pied piper of Hamelin: Exploring the story

    Leila Mury Bergmann

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article’s goal is to explore the story of The Pied Piper of Hamelin. In order to do so, social aspects of childhood in the (probable time when the story was created are presented, as well as some curiosities about the text. Furthermore, this paper brings a personal statement (by the authors of a storytelling activity in a public school nursery in Porto Alegre, based upon the version of the book The Pied Piper of Hamelin, by Tatiana Belinky. After some questions and informal conversation about the tale, the children’s verbal expositions were analyzed. The research brings, as a theoretical background, contributions of studies from authors connected, mainly, to the field of Children’s Literature and Education. It brought the conclusion that the piper’s story motivated representative interventions, since during the storytelling activity children used typical aspects of their culture and also showed their dominium of temporal arrangement of the text’s events, as well as their peculiar creativity – according to their age – of recreating in the situation of the so-called make-believe.

  2. Natural quartz TL property and similarity in Piper nigrum L

    Guzman A, S.; Cruz Z, E.; Furetta, C.; Brown, F.; Barboza F, M.

    2009-10-01

    Quartz is a mineral abundant in nature and can provide information thermoluminescent (TL), and also is located in the mineral fraction of some herbs and spices consumed. It is present the analysis of the TL properties of a sample of natural quartz rock and compared with those obtained from the fraction of Piper nigrum L. poly mineral when they were exposed to 60 Co gamma radiation. The poly minerals of Piper nigrum L. were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, where the quartz was found as a major component. They separated in different particle sizes (10, 53, 74 and 149 μm). The samples were irradiated at relatively low doses (1-500 Gy) and high (0.1-40 kGy) in order to determine the linearity of the TL emission as a function of the dose and the analysis of glow curves. Also there was the fading of the TL signal, the effect of ultra violet light. The reproducibility of the TL signal in the samples indicates that a smaller particle size gives better TL signal. (author)

  3. Volatile Constituents of Three Piper Species from Vietnam.

    Hieua, Le D; Hoic, Tran M; Thangda, Tran D; Ogunwande, Isiaka A

    2015-11-01

    The chemical compositions of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of three Piper plants grown in Vietnam are reported. The analysis was achieved by means of gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main constituents of the leaf oil of Piper majusculum Blume were β-caryophyllene (20.7%), germacrene D (18.6%) and β-elemene (11.3%). The quantitatively significant compounds of the volatile oils of P. harmandii C. DC were sabinene (leaves, 14.5%; stems, 16.2%), benzyl benzoate (leaves, 20.0%; stems, 29.40%) and benzyl salicylate (leaves, 14.1%; stems, 24.3%). Also, α-cadinol (17.0%) was identified in large proportion in the leaf oil. However, sabinene (leaves, 17.9%; stems, 13.5%), benzyl benzoate (leaves, 20.5%; stems, 32.5%) and β-eudesmol (leaves, 13.8%; stems, 8.4%) were the main constituents of P. brevicaule C. DC. This is the first report on the volatile constituents of both P. harmandii and P. brevicaule.

  4. Antioxidative and antiplatelet effects of aqueous inflorescence Piper betle extract.

    Lei, Daniel; Chan, Chiu-Po; Wang, Ying-Jan; Wang, Tong-Mei; Lin, Bor-Ru; Huang, Chun-Hsun; Lee, Jang-Jaer; Chen, Hsin-Ming; Jeng, Jiiang-Huei; Chang, Mei-Chi

    2003-03-26

    Piper betle, belonging to the Piperaceae family, is a tropical plant, and its leaf and inflorescence are popularly consumed by betel quid (BQ) chewers in Taiwan and many other South and Southeast Asian countries. However, little is known about the biochemical properties of inflorescence Piper betle (IPB) toward reactive oxygen species (ROS) and platelet functions. In the present work, aqueous IPB extract was shown to be a scavenger of H(2)O(2), superoxide radical, and hydroxyl radical with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of about 80, 28, and 73 microg/mL, respectively. IPB extract also prevented the hydroxyl radical induced PUC18 plasmid DNA breaks at concentrations higher than 40 microg/mL. Since ROS are crucial for platelet aggregation, we further found that IPB extract also inhibited the arachidonic acid (AA) induced and collagen-induced platelet aggregation, with an IC(50) of 207 and 335 microg/mL, respectively. IPB extract also inhibited the AA-, collagen- (>100 microg/mL of IPB), and thrombin (>250 microg/mL of IPB)-induced thromboxane B(2) (TXB(2)) production by more than 90%. However, IPB extract showed little effect on thrombin-induced aggregation. These results indicated that aqueous components of IPB are potential ROS scavengers and may prevent the platelet aggregation possibly via scavenging ROS or inhibition of TXB(2) production.

  5. Quantitative structure-cytotoxicity relationship of piperic acid amides.

    Shimada, Chiyako; Uesawa, Yoshihiro; Ishihara, Mariko; Kagaya, Hajime; Kanamoto, Taisei; Terakubo, Shigemi; Nakashima, Hideki; Takao, Koichi; Miyashiro, Takaki; Sugita, Yoshiaki; Sakagami, Hiroshi

    2014-09-01

    A total of 12 piperic acid amides, including piperine, were subjected to quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis, based on their cytotoxicity, tumor selectivity and anti-HIV activity, in order to find new biological activities. Cytotoxicity against four human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell lines and three human oral normal cells was determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) method. Tumor selectivity was evaluated by the ratio of the mean 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) against normal oral cells to that against OSCC cell lines. Anti-HIV activity was evaluated by the ratio of the CC50 to 50% HIV infection-cytoprotective concentration (EC50). Physicochemical, structural, and quantum-chemical parameters were calculated based on the conformations optimized by LowModeMD method followed by density functional theory method. All compounds showed low-to-moderate tumor selectivity, but no anti-HIV activity. N-Piperoyldopamine ( 8: ) which has a catechol moiety, showed the highest tumor selectivity, possibly due to its unique molecular shape and electrostatic interaction, especially its largest partial equalization of orbital electronegativities and vsurf descriptors. The present study suggests that molecular shape and ability for electrostatic interaction are useful parameters for estimating the tumor selectivity of piperic acid amides. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  6. 36 CFR 331.14 - Aircraft.

    2010-07-01

    ... GOVERNING THE PROTECTION, USE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FALLS OF THE OHIO NATIONAL WILDLIFE CONSERVATION AREA, KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.14 Aircraft. (a) The operation of aircraft on WCA lands and waters is prohibited... business of the Federal Government or used in emergency rescue in accordance with the directions of the...

  7. Piper and Vismia species from Colombian Amazonia differentially affect cell proliferation of hepatocarcinoma cells.

    Lizcano, Leandro J; Siles, Maite; Trepiana, Jenifer; Hernández, M Luisa; Navarro, Rosaura; Ruiz-Larrea, M Begoña; Ruiz-Sanz, José Ignacio

    2014-12-30

    There is an increasing interest to identify plant-derived natural products with antitumor activities. In this work, we have studied the effects of aqueous leaf extracts from Amazonian Vismia and Piper species on human hepatocarcinoma cell toxicity. Results showed that, depending on the cell type, the plants displayed differential effects; thus, Vismia baccifera induced the selective killing of HepG2, while increasing cell growth of PLC-PRF and SK-HEP-1. In contrast, these two last cell lines were sensitive to the toxicity by Piper krukoffii and Piper putumayoense, while the Piperaceae did not affect HepG2 growth. All the extracts induced cytotoxicity to rat hepatoma McA-RH7777, but were innocuous (V. baccifera at concentrations Piper genera with opposite effects as a model system to study the mechanisms of the antitumoral activity against different types of hepatocarcinoma.

  8. Secondary metabolites from the phloem of Piper solmsianum (Piperaceae) in the honeydew of Edessa meditabunda.

    Ramos, Clécio S; Kato, Massuo J

    2012-01-01

    The phytochemistry of species of the genus Piper has been studied extensively, including Piper solmsianum. However, no studies have addressed the phytochemistry of the sap content of Piper species. To evaluate the transferring of secondary compounds from the saps of P. solmsianum to the honeydew of Edessa meditabunda. The honeydew of E. meditabunda and saps of P. solmsianum were analysed by GC-MS, (1) H-NMR and LC-MS. The lignan (-)-grandisin and the phenylpropanoid (E)-isoelemicin were detected in both saps of P. solmsianum and honeydew of E. meditabunda. Analysis of honeydew secreted by the sap-sucking insect E. meditabunda indicated that (-)-grandisin and (E)-isoelemicin are absorbed from the phloem of Piper solmsianum. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Anatomia comparada de folhas de pimenta longa (Piper hispidinervum C. DC.) e pimenta de macaco (Piper aduncum L.) cultivadas in vitro, ex vitro e in vivo

    Maciel, Simone Alencar; Teixeira, Renata Beltrão; Raposo, Andrea; Fermino Junior, Paulo Cesar Poeta

    2014-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2014v27n4p11Piper hispidinervum and Piper aduncum contain the secondary metabolites safrole and dilapiol, and there is commercial interest in their essential oils. The study aimed to compare anatomical aspects related to physiological responses of leaves from P. hispidinervum and P. aduncum propagated in vitro, in vivo and during acclimatization. Paradermal sections and cross-sections of leaves from in vitro, ex vitro and in vivo culture, were obtained for ...

  10. A chromene and prenylated benzoic acid from Piper aduncum.

    Baldoqui, D C; Kato, M J; Cavalheiro, A J; Bolzani, V da S; Young, M C; Furlan, M

    1999-08-01

    In addition to nerolidol, 2',6'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxydihydrochalcone, methyl 2,2-dimethyl-8-(3'-methyl-2'-butenyl)-2H-1-chromene-6-carboxylate, methyl 2,2-dimethyl-2H-1-chromene-6-carboxylate and methyl 8-hydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-2H-1-chromene-6-carboxylate, two new natural products were isolated from the leaves of Piper aduncum, 2,2-dimethyl-2H-1-chromene-6-carboxylic acid and 3-(3',7'-dimethyl-2',6'-octadienyl)-4-methoxybenzoic acid. The structures of the isolates were established based on analysis of spectroscopic data, including ES-MS. The DNA-damaging activity of the isolated compounds was also investigated against mutant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  11. [Alkaloids and lignans from stems of Piper betle].

    Huang, Xiangzhong; Yin, Yan; Huang, Wenquan; Sun, Kuizong; Cheng, Chunmei; Bai, Lian; Dai, Yun

    2010-09-01

    Alkaloids and lignans from the stems of Piper betle were studied. Compounds were isolated and purified by repeated silica gel, reverse phase silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography and preparative thin layer chromatography. The structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral analysis. From the ethyl acetate soluble fractions of the 70% acetone extract, ten compounds were isolated and identified as piperine (1), pellitorine (2), N-isobutyl-2E,4E-dodecadienamide (3), dehydropipernonaline (4), piperdardine (5), piperolein-B (6), guineensine (7), (2E,4E)-N-isobutyl-7-(3',4'-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2,4-heptadienamide (8), syringaresinol-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (9),pinoresinol (10). All Compounds were isolated from the plant for the first time, and compounds 9 and 10 were isolated firstly from the genus.

  12. Investigations on Piper betle grown in Sri Lanka.

    Arambewela, L S R; Arawwawala, L D A M; Kumaratunga, K G; Dissanayake, D S; Ratnasooriya, W D; Kumarasingha, S P

    2011-07-01

    Piper betle is an economically important plant cultivated in Sri Lanka. Although more than 12 cultivars of betel are reported in Sri Lanka, very few scientific investigations have been carried out on them. Studies on the chemical constituents indicated that safrole is the major constituent, followed by chavibitol acetate, in the essential oil of common betel leaves of Sri Lanka. Investigations on the bioactivities of P. betle revealed the presence of antimicrobial, insecticidal, antioxidant, antinociceptive, antidiabetic and gastroprotective activities. In addition, P. betle was found to be safe in terms of hepatotoxicity, renotoxicity, hematotoxicity, gross morphology, weights of organs, stress or aversive behaviors in rats. The above findings indicate the vast potential of P. betle yet to be harnessed for the benefit of mankind and the betel industry of Sri Lanka.

  13. Estudio químico de piper steerni1

    Rafael Posso O.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Del extracto clorofórmico de las hojas de Piper steerni se aislaron por métodos cromatográficos 5,7-dihidroxyflavanona, 5-hidroxi-7-metoxinavona y P-sitosterol; cl extracto en acetato de etilo del tallo del mismo vegetal presentó iguales constituyentes que las hojas junto con bases nitrogenadas de las cuales se identificó N-(4-hidroxifcniletilen cinamamida como un nuevo compuesto en la familia Piperaceae. Los metabolitos secundarios mayoritarios del aceite esencial de las hojas de P. steerni fueron caracterizados como benzaldehido, alcohol bencílico y benzoato de etilo. Las estructuras de los compuestos fueron establecidas por métodos quimicos y espectroscópicos y por correlaciones con substancias conocidas.

  14. Amides and neolignans from the aerial parts of Piper bonii.

    Ding, Duo-Duo; Wang, Yue-Hu; Chen, Ya-Hui; Mei, Ren-Qiang; Yang, Jun; Luo, Ji-Feng; Li, Yan; Long, Chun-Lin; Kong, Yi

    2016-09-01

    Six amides, piperbonamides A-F, three neolignans piperbonins A-C, and 11 known compounds were isolated from the aerial parts of Piper bonii (Piperaceae). The structures of piperbonamides A-F and piperbonins A-C were elucidated based on the analysis of 1D and 2D NMR and MS data. Piperbonin A, (+)-trans-acuminatin, (+)-cis-acuminatin, (+)-kadsurenone, and pipernonaline showed weak activity against platelet aggregation with IC50 values of 118.2, 108.5, 90.02, 107.3, and 116.3 μM, respectively, as compared with the positive control, tirofiban, with an IC50 value of 5.24 μM. Piperbonamides A-F were inactive against five tumor cell lines at concentrations up to 40 μM. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Model of aircraft noise adaptation

    Dempsey, T. K.; Coates, G. D.; Cawthorn, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    Development of an aircraft noise adaptation model, which would account for much of the variability in the responses of subjects participating in human response to noise experiments, was studied. A description of the model development is presented. The principal concept of the model, was the determination of an aircraft adaptation level which represents an annoyance calibration for each individual. Results showed a direct correlation between noise level of the stimuli and annoyance reactions. Attitude-personality variables were found to account for varying annoyance judgements.

  16. Light aircraft sound transmission studies - Noise reduction model

    Atwal, Mahabir S.; Heitman, Karen E.; Crocker, Malcolm J.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental tests conducted on the fuselage of a single-engine Piper Cherokee light aircraft suggest that the cabin interior noise can be reduced by increasing the transmission loss of the dominant sound transmission paths and/or by increasing the cabin interior sound absorption. The validity of using a simple room equation model to predict the cabin interior sound-pressure level for different fuselage and exterior sound field conditions is also presented. The room equation model is based on the sound power flow balance for the cabin space and utilizes the measured transmitted sound intensity data. The room equation model predictions were considered good enough to be used for preliminary acoustical design studies.

  17. Morphological and phytochemical characterization of Piper hispidinervum DC. and Piper aduncum L. populations in the state of Acre

    Jacson Rondinelli da Silva Negreiros

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Because of the increasing demand of the industry for the production of essential oils, studies highlight the genetic variability of Piper hispidinervum and P. aduncum species according to their patterns of spatial distribution, showing the Amazon region as the source of superior genetic material in the production of safrole and dillapiole. Thus, the objective this study was to characterize the morphology and the phytochemistry of Piper hispidinervum and P. aduncum populations in the Active Germplasm Bank of Embrapa Acre to generate subsidies for the genetic improvement of these species. The results showed that the average values for leaf width and length were 141.67 and 48.04 mm, and petioles length and diameter measurements were 2.83 and 1.78 mm for P. hispidinervum and 189.22; 67.74; 6.03 and 2.22 mm for P. aduncum respectively. The average height and canopy volume measurements were 2.39 m and 6.30 m3 and 2.70 m and 7.78 m3 respectively for each species. For P. hispidinervum, the population with higher performance indried yield and content of safrole was population 02, with 3.9%, and the population 04 showed 94.3% safrole content, both with genetic material from the region of Acrelândia and Plácido de Castro. To P. aduncum, the populations with better performance were 207, 208 and 209, forming a homogeneous group with dried yield average of 3.8% and dillapiol content of 84-85%. Such populations are indicated for selection in breeding program of these species due to better performance.

  18. Antioxidant and anti-atherogenic activities of three Piper species on atherogenic diet fed hamsters.

    Agbor, Gabriel A; Vinson, Joe A; Sortino, Julianne; Johnson, Robert

    2012-05-01

    Atherogenic diet is known to induce high plasma lipid concentration, oxidative stress and early atherosclerosis. Antioxidants have potentials to counter the effect of atherogenic diet. The present research aims at evaluating the antioxidant and anti-atherosclerotic activities of three Piper species (Piper guineense, Piper nigrum and Piper umbellatum) on atherogenic diet fed hamsters. Hamsters divided into 8 groups: normal control, atherosclerotic control and six test groups. The normal animals fed normal rodent chow, the atherosclerotic control animals fed the same rodent chow supplemented with 0.2% cholesterol and 10% coconut oil (high cholesterol diet). The 6 test groups' animals fed same diet as the atherosclerotic control group but with additional supplementation of 2 graded doses (1 and 0.25 mg/kg body weight, o.p.) of plant extracts for 12 weeks. The atherogenic diet induced a collapse of the erythrocyte antioxidant defense system (significant decrease in superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities). Atherogenic diet also induced an increase in plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), oxidation of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) and accumulation of foam cells in the aorta a hall mark for atherosclerosis. Administration of the Piper species prevented the collapse of the antioxidant system and the increase of plasma parameters maintaining them towards normality. The Piper species also prevented LDL oxidation by increasing the time (lag time) for its oxidation. The results suggest that these Piper species have significant antioxidant and anti-atherogenic effect against atherogenic diet intoxication. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Database on aircraft accidents

    Nishio, Masahide; Koriyama, Tamio

    2013-11-01

    The Reactor Safety Subcommittee in the Nuclear Safety and Preservation Committee published 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' as the standard method for evaluating probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities in July 2002. In response to this issue, Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization has been collecting open information on aircraft accidents of commercial airplanes, self-defense force (SDF) airplanes and US force airplanes every year since 2003, sorting out them and developing the database of aircraft accidents for the latest 20 years to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities. In this report the database was revised by adding aircraft accidents in 2011 to the existing database and deleting aircraft accidents in 1991 from it, resulting in development of the revised 2012 database for the latest 20 years from 1992 to 2011. Furthermore, the flight information on commercial aircrafts was also collected to develop the flight database for the latest 20 years from 1992 to 2011 to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities. The method for developing the database of aircraft accidents to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities is based on the report 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' described above. The 2012 revised database for the latest 20 years from 1992 to 2011 shows the followings. The trend of the 2012 database changes little as compared to the last year's report. (1) The data of commercial aircraft accidents is based on 'Aircraft accident investigation reports of Japan transport safety board' of Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. The number of commercial aircraft accidents is 4 for large fixed-wing aircraft, 58 for small fixed-wing aircraft, 5 for large bladed aircraft and 99 for small bladed aircraft. The relevant accidents

  20. Selective effect of 2',6'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxychalcone isolated from Piper aduncum on Leishmania amazonensis.

    Torres-Santos, E C; Moreira, D L; Kaplan, M A; Meirelles, M N; Rossi-Bergmann, B

    1999-05-01

    2',6'-Dihydroxy-4'-methoxychalcone (DMC) was purified from the dichloromethane extract of Piper aduncum inflorescences. DMC showed significant activity in vitro against promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis, with 50% effective doses of 0.5 and 24 micrograms/ml, respectively. Its inhibitory effect on amastigotes is apparently a direct effect on the parasites and is not due to activation of the nitrogen oxidative metabolism of macrophages, since the production of nitric oxide by both unstimulated and recombinant gamma interferon-stimulated macrophages was decreased rather than increased with DMC. The phagocytic activity of macrophages was functioning normally even with DMC concentrations as high as 80 micrograms/ml, as seen by electron microscopy and by the uptake of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled beads. Ultrastructural studies also showed that in the presence of DMC the mitochondria of promastigotes were enlarged and disorganized. Despite destruction of intracellular amastigotes, no disarrangement of macrophage organelles were observed, even at 80 micrograms of DMC/ml. These observations suggest that DMC is selectively toxic to the parasites. Its simple structure may well enable it to serve as a new lead compound for the synthesis of novel antileishmanial drugs.

  1. Characteristic differences in metabolite profile in male and female plants of dioecious Piper betle L.

    Bajpai, Vikas; Pandey, Renu; Negi, Mahendra Pal Singh; Bindu, K Hima; Kumar, Nikhil; Kumar, Brijesh

    2012-12-01

    Piper betle is a dioecious pan-Asiatic plant having cultural and medicinal uses. It belongs to the family Piperaceae and is a native of the tropics although it is also cultivated in subtropical areas. Flowering in P. betle occurs only in tropical regions. Due to lack of inductive floral cycles the plant remains in its vegetative state in the subtropics. Therefore, due to lack of flowering, gender distinction cannot be made the in the subtropics. Gender distinction in P. betle in vegetative state can be made using Direct Analysis in Real Time Mass Spectroscopy (DARTMS), a robust highthroughput method. DARTMS analysis of leaf samples of two male and six female plants showed characteristic differences in the spectra between male and female plants. Semi-quantitative differences in some of the identified peaks in male and female landraces showed gender-based differences in metabolites. Cluster analysis using the peaks at m/z 151, 193, 235 and 252 showed two distinct clusters of male and female landraces. It appears that male and female plants besides having flowers of different sexes also have characteristic differences in the metabolites representing two metabolic types.

  2. In vitro cytotoxicity of nonpolar constituents from different parts of kava plant (Piper methysticum).

    Jhoo, Jin-Woo; Freeman, James P; Heinze, Thomas M; Moody, Joanna D; Schnackenberg, Laura K; Beger, Richard D; Dragull, Klaus; Tang, Chung-Shih; Ang, Catharina Y W

    2006-04-19

    Kava (Piper methysticum), a perennial shrub native to the South Pacific islands, has been used to relieve anxiety. Recently, several cases of severe hepatotoxicity have been reported from the consumption of dietary supplements containing kava. It is unclear whether the kava constituents, kavalactones, are responsible for the associated hepatotoxicity. To investigate the key components responsible for the liver toxicity, bioassay-guided fractionation was carried out in this study. Kava roots, leaves, and stem peelings were extracted with methanol, and the resulting residues were subjected to partition with a different polarity of solvents (hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water) for evaluation of their cytotoxicity on HepG2 cells based on the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and lactate dehydrogenase and aspartate aminotransferase enzyme leakage assays. Organic solvent fractions displayed a much stronger cytotoxicity than water fractions for all parts of kava. The hexane fraction of the root exhibited stronger cytotoxic effects than fractions of root extracted with other solvents or extracts from the other parts of kava. Further investigations using bioassay-directed isolation and analysis of the hexane fraction indicated that the compound responsible for the cytotoxicity was flavokavain B. The identity of the compound was confirmed by (1)H and (13) C NMR and MS techniques.

  3. System for indicating fuel-efficient aircraft altitude

    Gary, B. L. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for indicating the altitude at which an aircraft should fly so the W/d ratio (weight of the aircraft divided by the density of air) more closely approaches the optimum W/d for the aircraft. A passive microwave radiometer on the aircraft is directed at different angles with respect to the horizon to determine the air temperature, and therefore the density of the air, at different altitudes. The weight of the aircraft is known. The altitude of the aircraft is changed to fly the aircraft at an altitude at which is W/d ratio more closely approaches the optimum W/d ratio for that aircraft.

  4. Database on aircraft accidents

    Nishio, Masahide; Koriyama, Tamio

    2012-09-01

    The Reactor Safety Subcommittee in the Nuclear Safety and Preservation Committee published the report 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' as the standard method for evaluating probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities in July 2002. In response to the report, Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization has been collecting open information on aircraft accidents of commercial airplanes, self-defense force (SDF) airplanes and US force airplanes every year since 2003, sorting out them and developing the database of aircraft accidents for latest 20 years to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities. This year, the database was revised by adding aircraft accidents in 2010 to the existing database and deleting aircraft accidents in 1991 from it, resulting in development of the revised 2011 database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010. Furthermore, the flight information on commercial aircrafts was also collected to develop the flight database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010 to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities. The method for developing the database of aircraft accidents to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities is based on the report 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' described above. The 2011 revised database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010 shows the followings. The trend of the 2011 database changes little as compared to the last year's one. (1) The data of commercial aircraft accidents is based on 'Aircraft accident investigation reports of Japan transport safety board' of Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. 4 large fixed-wing aircraft accidents, 58 small fixed-wing aircraft accidents, 5 large bladed aircraft accidents and 114 small bladed aircraft accidents occurred. The relevant accidents for evaluating

  5. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Piper [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Piper 名詞 一般 * * * * コショウ属 コショウゾク コショーゾク Thesaurus2015 200906052994671517 C LS06 UNKNOWN_1 Piper

  6. Piper sarmentosum enhances fracture healing in ovariectomized osteoporotic rats: a radiological study

    Mohamed Abdalla Estai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Osteoporotic fractures are common during osteoporotic states. Piper sarmentosum extract is known to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. OBJECTIVES: To observe the radiological changes in fracture calluses following administration of a Piper sarmentosum extract during an estrogen-deficient state. METHODS: A total of 24 female Sprague-Dawley rats (200-250 g were randomly divided into 4 groups: (i the sham-operated group; (ii the ovariectomized-control group; (iii the ovariectomized + estrogen-replacement therapy (ovariectomized-control + estrogen replacement therapy group, which was supplemented with estrogen (100 μg/kg/day; and (iv the ovariectomized + Piper sarmentosum (ovariectomized + Piper sarmentosum group, which was supplemented with a water-based Piper sarmentosum extract (125 mg/kg. Six weeks after an ovariectomy, the right femora were fractured at the mid-diaphysis, and a K-wire was inserted. Each group of rats received their respective treatment for 6 weeks. Following sacrifice, the right femora were subjected to radiological assessment. RESULTS: The mean axial callus volume was significantly higher in the ovariectomized-control group (68.2 + 11.74 mm³ than in the sham-operated, estrogen-replacement-therapy and Piper sarmentosum groups (20.4 + 4.05, 22.4 + 4.14 and 17.5 + 3.68 mm³, respectively. The median callus scores for the sham-operated, estrogen-replacement-therapy and Piper sarmentosum groups had median (range, minimum - maximum value as 1.0 (0 - 2, 1.0 (1 - 2 and 1.0 (1 - 2, respectively, which were significantly lower than the ovariectomized-control group score of 2.0 (2 - 3. The median fracture scores for the sham-operated, estrogen-replacement-therapy and Piper sarmentosum groups were 3.0 (3 - 4, 3.0 (2 - 3 and 3.0 (2 - 3, respectively, which were significantly higher than the ovariectomized-control group score of 2.0 (1 - 2 (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: The Piper sarmentosum extract improved

  7. Piper sarmentosum enhances fracture healing in ovariectomized osteoporotic rats: a radiological study.

    Estai, Mohamed Abdalla; Suhaimi, Farihah Haji; Das, Srijit; Fadzilah, Fazalina Mohd; Alhabshi, Sharifah Majedah Idrus; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun; Soelaiman, Ima-Nirwana

    2011-01-01

    Osteoporotic fractures are common during osteoporotic states. Piper sarmentosum extract is known to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. To observe the radiological changes in fracture calluses following administration of a Piper sarmentosum extract during an estrogen-deficient state. A total of 24 female Sprague-Dawley rats (200-250 g) were randomly divided into 4 groups: (i) the sham-operated group; (ii) the ovariectomized-control group; (iii) the ovariectomized + estrogen-replacement therapy (ovariectomized-control + estrogen replacement therapy) group, which was supplemented with estrogen (100 μg/kg/day); and (iv) the ovariectomized + Piper sarmentosum (ovariectomized + Piper sarmentosum) group, which was supplemented with a water-based Piper sarmentosum extract (125 mg/kg). Six weeks after an ovariectomy, the right femora were fractured at the mid-diaphysis, and a K-wire was inserted. Each group of rats received their respective treatment for 6 weeks. Following sacrifice, the right femora were subjected to radiological assessment. The mean axial callus volume was significantly higher in the ovariectomized-control group (68.2 ± 11.74 mm³) than in the sham-operated, estrogen-replacement-therapy and Piper sarmentosum groups (20.4 ± 4.05, 22.4 ± 4.14 and 17.5 ± 3.68 mm³, respectively). The median callus scores for the sham-operated, estrogen-replacement-therapy and Piper sarmentosum groups had median (range, minimum - maximum value) as 1.0 (0 - 2), 1.0 (1 - 2) and 1.0 (1 - 2), respectively, which were significantly lower than the ovariectomized-control group score of 2.0 (2 - 3). The median fracture scores for the sham-operated, estrogen-replacement-therapy and Piper sarmentosum groups were 3.0 (3 - 4), 3.0 (2 - 3) and 3.0 (2 - 3), respectively, which were significantly higher than the ovariectomized-control group score of 2.0 (1 - 2) (pPiper sarmentosum extract improved fracture healing, as assessed by the reduced callus volumes and

  8. Piper species protect cardiac, hepatic and renal antioxidant status of atherogenic diet fed hamsters.

    Agbor, Gabriel A; Akinfiresoye, Luli; Sortino, Julianne; Johnson, Robert; Vinson, Joe A

    2012-10-01

    Pre-clinical and clinical studies points to the use of antioxidants as an effective measure to reduce the progression of oxidative stress related disorders. The present study evaluate the effect of three Piper species (Piper guineense, Piper nigrum and Piper umbellatum) for the protection of cardiac, hepatic and renal antioxidant status of atherogenic diet fed hamsters. Hamsters were classified into eight groups: a normal control, atherogenic control and six other experimental groups (fed atherogenic diet supplemented with different doses of P. nigrum, P. guineense and P. umbellatum (1 and 0.25 g/kg) for 12 weeks. At the end of the feeding period the heart, liver and kidney from each group were analyzed for lipid profile and antioxidant enzymes activities. Atherogenic diet induced a significant (PPiper species significantly inhibited the alteration effect of atherogenic diet on the lipid profile and antioxidant enzymes activities. The Piper extracts may possess an antioxidant protective role against atherogenic diet induced oxidative stress in cardiac, hepatic and renal tissues. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A Late Cretaceous Piper (Piperaceae) from Colombia and diversification patterns for the genus.

    Martínez, Camila; Carvalho, Mónica R; Madriñán, Santiago; Jaramillo, Carlos A

    2015-02-01

    Documented fossil floras in the neotropics are sparse, yet their records provide evidence on the spatial and temporal occurrence of taxa, allowing for testing of biogeographical and diversification scenarios on individual lineages. A new fossil Piper from the Late Cretaceous of Colombia is described here, and its importance for assessing diversification patterns in the genus is addressed. Leaf architecture of 32 fossil leaf compressions from the Guaduas Formation was compared with that of 294 extant angiosperm species. The phylogenetic position of the fossil named Piper margaritae sp. nov. was established based on leaf traits and a molecular scaffold of Piper. The age of the fossil was independently used as a calibration point for divergence time estimations. Natural affinities of P. margaritae to the Schilleria clade of Piper indicate that the genus occurred in tropical America by the Late Cretaceous. Estimates of age divergence and lineage accumulation reveal that most of the extant diversity of the genus accrued during the last ∼30 Myr. The recent radiation of Piper is coeval with both the Andean uplift and the emergence of Central America, which have been proposed as important drivers of diversity. This pattern could exemplify a recurrent theme among many neotropical plant lineages. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  10. Testosterone 5alpha-reductase inhibitory active constituents of Piper nigrum leaf.

    Hirata, Noriko; Tokunaga, Masashi; Naruto, Shunsuke; Iinuma, Munekazu; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2007-12-01

    Previously we reported that Piper nigrum leaf extract showed a potent stimulation effect on melanogenesis and that (-)-cubebin (1) and (-)-3,4-dimethoxy-3,4-desmethylenedioxycubebin (2) were isolated as active constituents. As a part of our continuous studies on Piper species for the development of cosmetic hair-care agents, testosterone 5alpha-reductase inhibitory activity of aqueous ethanolic extracts obtained from several different parts of six Piper species, namely Piper nigrum, P. methysticum, P. betle, P. kadsura, P. longum, and P. cubeba, were examined. Among them, the extracts of P. nigrum leaf, P. nigrum fruit and P. cubeba fruit showed potent inhibitory activity. Activity-guided fractionation of P. nigrum leaf extract led to the isolation of 1 and 2. Fruits of P. cubeba contain 1 as a major lignan, thus inhibitory activity of the fruit may be attributable to 1. As a result of further assay on other known constituents of the cited Piper species, it was found that piperine, a major alkaloid amide of P. nigrum fruit, showed potent inhibitory activity, thus a part of the inhibitory activity of P. nigrum fruit may depend on piperine. The 5alpha-reductase inhibitory activities of 1 and piperine were found for the first time. In addition, the P. nigrum leaf extract showed in vivo anti-androgenic activity using the hair regrowth assay in testosterone sensitive male C57Black/6CrSlc strain mice.

  11. Advanced transport aircraft technology

    Winblade, R L

    1980-06-01

    Various elements of the NASA aircraft energy efficiency program are described. Regarding composite structures, the development of three secondary and three medium-primary components to validate structural and fabrication technology is discussed. In laminar flow control, the design of advanced airfoils having large regions of supercritical flow with features which simplify laminarization are considered. Emphasis is placed on engine performance improvement, directed at developing advanced components to reduce fuel consumption in current production engines, and engine diagnostics aimed at identifying the sources and causes of performance deterioration in high-bypass turbofan engines. In addition, the results of propeller aerodynamic and acoustic tests have substantiated the feasibility of achieving the propeller efficiency goal of 80% and confirmed that the effect of blade sweep on reducing propeller source noise was 5-6 dB.

  12. Small transport aircraft technology

    Williams, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    Information on commuter airline trends and aircraft developments is provided to upgrade the preliminary findings of a NASA-formed small transport aircraft technology (STAT) team, established to determine whether the agency's research and development programs could help commuter aircraft manufacturers solve technical problems related to passenger acceptance and use of 19- to 50-passenger aircraft. The results and conclusions of the full set of completed STAT studies are presented. These studies were performed by five airplane manufacturers, five engine manufacturers, and two propeller manufacturers. Those portions of NASA's overall aeronautics research and development programs which are applicable to commuter aircraft design are summarized. Areas of technology that might beneficially be expanded or initiated to aid the US commuter aircraft manufacturers in the evolution of improved aircraft for the market are suggested.

  13. The isometric log-ratio (ilr)-ion plot: A proposed alternative to the Piper diagram

    Shelton, Jenna L.; Engle, Mark A.; Buccianti, Antonella; Blondes, Madalyn S.

    2018-01-01

    The Piper diagram has been a staple for the analysis of water chemistry data since its introduction in 1944. It was conceived to be a method for water classification, determination of potential water mixing between end-members, and to aid in the identification of chemical reactions controlling a sample set. This study uses the information gleaned over the years since the release of the Piper diagram and proposes an alternative to it, capturing the strengths of the original diagram while adding new ideas to increase its robustness. The new method uses compositional data analysis to create 4 isometric log-ratio coordinates for the 6 major chemical species analyzed in the Piper diagram and transforms the data to a 4-field bi-plot, the ilr-ion plot. This ilr-ion plot conveys all of the information in the Piper diagram (water mixing, water types, and chemical reactions) while also visualizing additional data, the ability to examine Ca2+/Mg2+ versus Cl-/SO42−. The Piper and the ilr-ion plot were also compared using multiple synthetic and real datasets in order to illustrate the caveats and the advantages of using either diagram to analyze water chemistry data. Although there are challenges with using the ilr-ion plot (e.g., missing or zero values zeros in the dataset must be imputed by positive real numbers), it appears that the use of compositional data analysis coupled with the ilr-ion plot provides a more in-depth and complete analysis of water quality data compared to the original Piper diagram.

  14. A comparison of leaf crystal macropatterns in the two sister genera Piper and Peperomia (Piperaceae).

    Horner, Harry T; Wanke, Stefan; Samain, Marie-Stéphanie

    2012-06-01

    This is the first large-scale study comparing leaf crystal macropatterns of the species-rich sister genera Piper and Peperomia. It focuses on identifying types of calcium oxalate crystals and their macropatterns in leaves of both genera. The Piper results are placed in a phylogenetic context to show evolutionary patterns. This information will expand knowledge about crystals and provide specific examples to help study their form and function. One example is the first-time observation of Piper crystal sand tumbling in chlorenchyma vacuoles. Herbarium and fresh leaves were cleared of cytoplasmic content and examined with polarizing microscopy to identify types of crystals and their macropatterns. Selected hydrated herbarium and fresh leaf punches were processed for scanning electron microscopy and x-ray elemental analysis. Vibratome sections of living Piper and Peperomia leaves were observed for anatomical features and crystal movement. Both genera have different leaf anatomies. Piper displays four crystal types in chlorenchyma-crystal sand, raphides, styloids, and druses, whereas Peperomia displays three types-druses, raphides, and prisms. Because of different leaf anatomies and crystal types between the genera, macropatterns are completely different. Crystal macropattern evolution in both is characterized by increasing complexity, and both may use their crystals for light gathering and reflection for efficient photosynthesis under low-intensity light environments. Both genera have different leaf anatomies, types of crystals and crystal macropatterns. Based on Piper crystals associated with photosynthetic tissues and low-intensity light, further study of their function and association with surrounding chloroplasts is warranted, especially active crystal movement.

  15. Evaluation of genetic diversity in Piper spp using RAPD and SRAP markers.

    Jiang, Y; Liu, J-P

    2011-11-29

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) analysis were applied to 74 individual plants of Piper spp in Hainan Island. The results showed that the SRAP technique may be more informative and more efficient and effective for studying genetic diversity of Piper spp than the RAPD technique. The overall level of genetic diversity among Piper spp in Hainan was relatively high, with the mean Shannon diversity index being 0.2822 and 0.2909, and the mean Nei's genetic diversity being 0.1880 and 0.1947, calculated with RAPD and SRAP data, respectively. The ranges of the genetic similarity coefficient were 0.486-0.991 and 0.520-1.000 for 74 individual plants of Piper spp (the mean genetic distance was 0.505 and 0.480) and the within-species genetic distance ranged from 0.063 to 0.291 and from 0.096 to 0.234, estimated with RAPD and SRAP data, respectively. These genetic indices indicated that these species are closely related genetically. The dendrogram generated with the RAPD markers was topologically different from the dendrogram based on SRAP markers, but the SRAP technique clearly distinguished all Piper spp from each other. Evaluation of genetic variation levels of six populations showed that the effective number of alleles, Nei's gene diversity and the Shannon information index within Jianfengling and Diaoluoshan populations are higher than those elsewhere; consequently conservation of wild resources of Piper in these two regions should have priority.

  16. Lignans and aromatic glycosides from Piper wallichii and their antithrombotic activities.

    Shi, Yan-Ni; Shi, Yi-Ming; Yang, Lian; Li, Xing-Cong; Zhao, Jin-Hua; Qu, Yan; Zhu, Hong-Tao; Wang, Dong; Cheng, Rong-Rong; Yang, Chong-Ren; Xu, Min; Zhang, Ying-Jun

    2015-03-13

    Piper wallichii (Miq.) Hand.-Mazz. is a medicinal plant used widely for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory diseases, cerebral infarction and angina in China. Previous study showed that lignans and neolignans from Piper spp. had potential inhibitory activities on platelet aggregation. In the present study, we investigated the chemical constituents of Piper wallichii and their antithrombotic activities, to support its traditional uses. The methanolic extract of the air-dried stems of Piper wallichii was separated and purified using various chromatographic methods, including semi-preparative HPLC. The chemical structures of the isolates were determined by detailed spectroscopic analysis, and acidic hydrolysis in case of the new glycoside 2. Determination of absolute configurations of the new compound 1 was facilitated by calculated electronic circular dichroism using time-dependent density-functional theory. All compounds were tested for their inhibitory effects on platelet aggregation induced by platelet activating factor (PAF) in rabbits׳ blood model, from which the active ones were further evaluated the in vivo antithrombotic activity in zebrafish model. A new neolignan, piperwalliol A (1), and four new aromatic glycosides, piperwalliosides A-D (2-5) were isolated from the stems of Piper wallichii, along with 25 known compounds, including 13 lignans, six aromatic glycosides, two phenylpropyl aldehydes, and four biphenyls. Five known compounds (6-10) showed in vitro antiplatelet aggregation activities. Among them, (-)-syringaresinol (6) was the most active compound with an IC50 value of 0.52 mM. It is noted that in zebrafish model, the known lignan 6 showed good in vivo antithrombotic effect with a value of 37% at a concentration of 30 μM, compared with the positive control aspirin with the inhibitory value of 74% at a concentration of 125μM. This study demonstrated that lignans, phenylpropanoid and biphenyl found in Piper wallichii may be

  17. Seed Germination and Cuttings Growth of Piper Aduncum

    Susanto, D.; Sudrajat; Suwinarti, W.; Amirta, R.

    2018-04-01

    Sirih hutan (Piper aduncum L) is one of group shurbs tropical species, has potential to be developed as raw material of biomass based electricity. The aim of this research was to know seed germination and cuttings growth of P. aduncum plant as the first step in cultivation of this plant. Observation of flowers and fruits were done in secondary forest, while seed germination and growth of shoot cuttings were done in the laboratory. The results showed that P. aduncum seeds can be germinated in a relatively short time of 17 to 25 days with a fairly high germination percentage of 90 ± 8.16% and germination rate of 4.7 ± 0.34%. The growth of seedlings at 2 months old was 4.78 ± 0.42 cm, plant height 3.97 ± 0.27 cm, and relative growth rate 0.33 ± 0.14%. The treatment of synthetic growth regulator had significant effect on shoot growth and root number on the plant stem cuttings. Preparation of seedlings ready to plant in a generative and vegetative for cultivation of these plants in the experimental plot.

  18. Bioactive phenylpropanoid analogues from Piper betle L. var. birkoli leaves.

    Atiya, Akhtar; Sinha, Barij Nayan; Lal, Uma Ranjan

    2017-11-01

    Phytochemical analyses of the chloroform extract of Piper betle L. var. birkoli, Piperaceae, leaves led to the isolation of two new phenylpropanoid analogues: bis-chavicol dodecanoyl ester (2) and bis-hydroxychavicol dodecanoyl ester (3), along with one known compound: allyl-3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzene (1) on the basis of spectroscopic data 1D ( 1 H and 13 C) and 2D ( 1 H- 1 H COSY and HMBC) NMR, as well as ESI-MS, FT-IR, HR-ESI-MS and LC-ESI-MS. Compound 2 and 3 exhibited excellent antioxidant DPPH radical scavenging activity with IC 50 values of 12.67 μg/mL and 1.08 μg/mL compared to ascorbic acid as a standard antioxidant drug with IC 50 value of 6.60 μg/mL. Evaluation of cytotoxic activity against two human oral cancer cell lines (AW13516 and AW8507) showed significant effect with GI 50 values of 19.61 and 23.01 μg/mL for compound 2 and 10.25 and 13.12 μg/mL for compound 3, compared to Doxorubicin ® as a standard cytotoxic drug with GI 50 value of < 10 μg/mL.

  19. New chemical constituents from the Piper betle Linn. (Piperaceae).

    Atiya, Akhtar; Sinha, Barij Nayan; Ranjan Lal, Uma

    2018-05-01

    The phytochemical investigation of chloroform extract from Piper betle var. haldia, Piperaceae, leaves has resulted in the isolation of two new chemical constituents which were identified as 1-n-dodecanyloxy resorcinol (H1) and desmethylenesqualenyl deoxy-cepharadione-A (H4), on the basis of spectroscopic data 1D NMR ( 1 H and 13 C) and 2D NMR ( 1 H- 1 H COSY and HMBC) as well as ESI-MS, FT-IR and HR-ESI-MS analyses. Compounds H1 and H4 showed excellent antioxidant DPPH free radical scavenging activity with IC 50 values of 7.14 μg/mL and 8.08 μg/mL compared to ascorbic acid as a standard antioxidant drug with IC 50 value of 2.52 μg/mL, respectively. Evaluation of cytotoxic activity against human hepatoma cell line (PLC-PRF-5) showed moderate effect with the GI 50 values of 35.12 μg/mL for H1, 31.01 μg/mL for H4, compared to Doxorubicin ® as a standard cytotoxic drug with GI 50 value of 18.80 μg/mL.

  20. Piper betle-mediated green synthesis of biocompatible gold nanoparticles

    Punuri, Jayasekhar Babu; Sharma, Pragya; Sibyala, Saranya; Tamuli, Ranjan; Bora, Utpal

    2012-08-01

    Here, we report the novel use of the ethonolic leaf extract of Piper betle for gold nanoparticle (AuNP) synthesis. The successful formation of AuNPs was confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy, and different parameters such as leaf extract concentration (2%), gold salt concentration (0.5 mM), and time (18 s) were optimized. The synthesized AuNPs were characterized with different biophysical techniques such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). TEM experiments showed that nanoparticles were of various shapes and sizes ranging from 10 to 35 nm. FT-IR spectroscopy revealed that AuNPs were functionalized with biomolecules that have primary amine group -NH2, carbonyl group, -OH groups, and other stabilizing functional groups. EDX showed the presence of the elements on the surface of the AuNPs. FT-IR and EDX together confirmed the presence of biomolecules bounded on the AuNPs. Cytotoxicity of the AuNPs was tested on HeLa and MCF-7 cancer cell lines, and they were found to be nontoxic, indicating their biocompatibility. Thus, synthesized AuNPs have potential for use in various biomedical applications.

  1. Piper betle extracts exhibit antitumor activity by augmenting antioxidant potential.

    Alam, Badrul; Majumder, Rajib; Akter, Shahina; Lee, Sang-Han

    2015-02-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the methanolic extract of Piper betle leaves (MPBL) and its organic fractions with regard to antitumor activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in Swiss albino mice and to confirm their antioxidant activities. At 24 h post-intraperitoneal inoculation of tumor cells into mice, extracts were administered at 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight for nine consecutive days. The antitumor effects of the extracts were then assessed according to tumor volume, packed cell count, viable and non-viable tumor cell count, median survival time and increase in life span of EAC-bearing mice. Next, hematological profiles and serum biochemical parameters were calculated, and antioxidant properties were assessed by estimating lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) levels. MPBL and the ethylacetate fraction (EPBL) at a dose of 100 mg/kg induced a significant decrease in tumor volume, packed cell volume and viable cell count and increased the life span of the EAC-bearing mice (PPiper betle extracts exhibit significant antitumor activity, which may be attributed to the augmentation of endogenous antioxidant potential.

  2. ALCALOIDES BENCILISOQUINOLÍNICOS DEL TALLO DE Piper augustum Rudge

    Wilman Delgado A.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Del extracto etanólico del tallo de P. augustum Rudge se aislaron: 3beta-hidroxi- 24-etil-delta5.22colestadieno (estigmasterol I ; l,2-metilendioxi-6-metil-4H-dibenzo(deg quinolina-4,5(6Hdiona (Cepharadione A II; lactama del ácido lO-amino-3,4- dimetoxifenantreno-1-carboxílico (Cepharanone B n i y el nuevo compuesto natural: lactama del ácido N-metil-lO-amino- 4-hidroxi-2,3-dimetoxifenantreno-1 –carboxílico IV, Todos los compuestos fueron identificados mediante técnicas espectroscópicas (EM, RMN 'H y "C, IR y UV y comparación con datos reportados en la literatura; adicionalmente I y II fueron identificados por comparación con muestras auténticas (CCF, pf, y pf, mixto. El extracto etanólico del tallo de Piper augustum Rudge presentó una moderada actividad biológica (DL50 = 350 ppm según el ensayo de mortalidad de Artemia salina Leach (Brine Shrimp Lethality.

  3. Physicochemical properties of black pepper (Piper nigrum) starch.

    Zhu, Fan; Mojel, Reuben; Li, Guantian

    2018-02-01

    Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is among the most popular spices around the world. Starch is the major component of black pepper. However, little is known about functional properties of this starch. In this study, swelling, solubility, thermal properties, rheology, and enzyme susceptibility of 2 black pepper starches were studied and compared with those of maize starch. Pepper starch had lower water solubility and swelling power than maize starch. It had higher viscosity during pasting event. In dynamic oscillatory analysis, pepper starch had lower storage modulus. Thermal analysis showed that pepper starch had much higher gelatinization temperatures (e.g., conclusion temperature of 94°C) than maize starch. The susceptibility to α-amylolysis of pepper starch was not very different from that of maize starch. Overall, the differences in the physicochemical properties of the 2 pepper starches are non-significant. The relationships between structure (especially amylopectin internal molecular structure) and properties of starch components are highlighted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Tissue culture of black pepper (piper nigrum l.) in Pakistan

    Hussain, A.; Naz, S.; Nazir, H.; Shinwari, Z.K.

    2011-01-01

    Black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) the 'King of Spices' is a universal table condiment. It is extensively used in Pakistani cuisines and herbal medicines and imported in bulk from neighboring countries. The black pepper vine is generally cultivated by seed because other vegetative propagation methods are slow and time consuming. Therefore the tissue culture technique is considered more efficient and reliable method for rapid and mass propagation of this economically important plant. The present study was initiated to develop protocol for micro-propagation of black pepper vine. The stem, leaf and shoot tip explants from mature vine were cultured on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of plant growth regulators (2,4-D, BA, IBA). Best callus was produced on MS medium with 1.5 mg/l BA by shoot tip explant. Shoot regeneration was excellent on MS medium with 0.5 mg/l BA. The plantlets formed were rooted best on 1.5 mg/l IBA. The rooted plants were transplanted in soil medium and acclimatized in growth room. The plants raised were test planted under the local conditions of Hattar. (author)

  5. Chemical constituents from Piper hainanense and their cytotoxicities.

    Shi, Yan-Ni; Xin, Ying; Ling, Yi; Li, Xing-Cong; Hao, Chao-Yun; Zhu, Hong-Tao; Wang, Dong; Yang, Chong-Ren; Xu, Min; Zhang, Ying-Jun

    2016-08-01

    Two new compounds, (Z,R)-1-phenylethylcinnamate (1) and (1R,2R,3R,6S)-pipoxide (2) were isolated from the aerial part of Piper hainanense, along with 12 known compounds, including nine benzene derivatives (4-11), one isobutylamide (12), and two polyoxygenated cyclohexene derivatives (13-14). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of the HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analyses, and ECD in cases of 2 and 3. The absolute configuration of ellipeiopsol B (3) was determined for the first time. All these compounds 1-14 were reported from the titled plant for the first time. Most of the isolates were tested for their cytotoxicities against five human cancer cell lines. Four of which, 2, 3, 9, 14 showed moderate bioactivities. Among them, the new compound 2 showed potential cytotoxicity against SMMC-7721, MCF-7, and SW-480 with IC50 values of 9.7, 15.0, and 13.2 μM, respectively.

  6. Histamine release inhibitory activity of Piper nigrum leaf.

    Hirata, Noriko; Naruto, Shunsuke; Inaba, Kazunori; Itoh, Kimihisa; Tokunaga, Masashi; Iinuma, Munekazu; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2008-10-01

    Oral administration of a methanolic extract of Piper nigrum leaf (PN-ext, 50, 200 and 500 mg/kg) showed a potent dose-dependent inhibition of dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)-induced cutaneous reaction at 1 h [immediate phase response (IPR)] after and 24 h [late phase response (LPR)] after DNFB challenge in mice which were passively sensitized with anti-dinitrophenyl (DNP) IgE antibody. Ear swelling inhibitory effect of PN-ext (50, 200 and 500 mg/kg, per os (p.o.)) on very late phase response (vLPR) in the model mice was significant but weaker than that on IPR. Oral administration of PN-ext (50, 200 and 500 mg/kg for 7 d) inhibited picryl chloride (PC)-induced ear swelling in PC sensitized mice. PN-ext exhibited in vitro inhibitory effect on compound 48/80-induced histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells. Two lignans of PN-ext, (-)-cubebin (1) and (-)-3,4-dimethoxy-3,4-desmethylenedioxycubebin (2), were identified as major active principles having histamine release inhibitory activity.

  7. Antioxidant activity of piper betel leaf extract and its constituents.

    Rathee, Jitesh S; Patro, Birija S; Mula, Soumyaditya; Gamre, Sunita; Chattopadhyay, Subrata

    2006-11-29

    The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay of the ethanol extracts of three varieties (Bangla, sweet, and Mysore) of Piper betel (pan) revealed the Bangla variety to possess the best antioxidant activity that can be correlated with the total phenolic content and reducing powers of the respective extracts. Column chromatography of the extract of the Bangla variety led to the isolation of chevibetol (CHV), allylpyrocatechol (APC), and their respective glucosides. The HPTLC analyses of the extracts revealed similar chemical profiles in all three P. betel varieties, although the concentrations of CHV and APC were significantly less in the sweet and Mysore varieties. Among the isolated compounds, APC showed the best results in all the in vitro experiments. It could prevent Fe(II)-induced lipid peroxidation (LPO) of liposomes and rat brain homogenates as well as gamma-ray-induced damage of pBR322 plasmid DNA more efficiently than CHV. The superior anti-LPO and radioprotective activities of APC vis-à-vis those of CHV could not be explained by their respective Fe(II) chelation and .OH radical scavenging capacities. The better ability of APC to scavenge O2-. radicals and H2O2 might account for the results.

  8. Phytotoxicity of sarmentine isolated from long pepper (Piper longum) fruit.

    Huang, Huazhang; Morgan, Christy M; Asolkar, Ratnakar N; Koivunen, Marja E; Marrone, Pamela G

    2010-09-22

    Discovery of novel natural herbicides has become crucial to overcome increasing weed resistance and environmental issues. In this article, we describe the finding that a methanol extract of dry long pepper (Piper longum L.) fruits is phytotoxic to lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seedlings. The bioassay-guided fractionation and purification of the crude extract led to isolation of sarmentine (1), a known compound, as the active principle. Phytotoxicity of 1 was examined with a variety of seedlings of field crops and weeds. Results indicated that 1 was a contact herbicide and possessed broad-spectrum herbicidal activity. Moreover, a series of sarmentine analogues were then synthesized to study the structure-activity relationship (SAR). SAR studies suggested that phytotoxicity of sarmentine and its analogues was specific due to chemical structures, i.e., the analogues of the acid moiety of 1 were active, but the amine and its analogues were inactive; the ester analogues and amide analogues with a primary amine of 1 were also inactive. In addition, quantification of 1 from different resources of the dry P. longum fruits using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry showed a wide variation, ranging from almost zero to 0.57%. This study suggests that 1 has potential as an active lead molecule for synthesized herbicides as well as for bioherbicides derived from natural resources.

  9. Conceptual design of high speed supersonic aircraft: A brief review on SR-71 (Blackbird) aircraft

    Xue, Hui; Khawaja, H.; Moatamedi, M.

    2014-12-01

    The paper presents the conceptual design of high-speed supersonic aircraft. The study focuses on SR-71 (Blackbird) aircraft. The input to the conceptual design is a mission profile. Mission profile is a flight profile of the aircraft defined by the customer. This paper gives the SR-71 aircraft mission profile specified by US air force. Mission profile helps in defining the attributes the aircraft such as wing profile, vertical tail configuration, propulsion system, etc. Wing profile and vertical tail configurations have direct impact on lift, drag, stability, performance and maneuverability of the aircraft. A propulsion system directly influences the performance of the aircraft. By combining the wing profile and the propulsion system, two important parameters, known as wing loading and thrust to weight ratio can be calculated. In this work, conceptual design procedure given by D. P. Raymer (AIAA Educational Series) is applied to calculate wing loading and thrust to weight ratio. The calculated values are compared against the actual values of the SR-71 aircraft. Results indicates that the values are in agreement with the trend of developments in aviation.

  10. Benzoquinona e hidroquinona preniladas y otros constituyentes aislados de Piper Bogotense C. DC.

    Luz Angela Peña; Eliseo Avella; Aura María Puentes de Díaz

    2010-01-01

    Dos compuestos, que innovan la química conocida del género Piper, (2'E,6'E)-2- famesilhidroquinona, (2'E,6'E)-2-famesil- 1,4-benzoquinona, y a-D-glucosa fueron aislados de los frutos de Piper bogotense C. DC; los tallos y las hojas presentaron, como constimyentes mayoritarios, lactama del ácido 10-amino-4-hidroxi-2,3-dimetoxifenantreno carboxílico, 1,2-metilendioxi- 6-metil-4H-dibenzo lde,g] quinolina- ,5(6H)-diona (Cefaradiona A), estigmasterol y sitosterol. Adicionalmente de las ho...

  11. Benzoquinona e hidroquinona preniladas y otros constituyentes aislados de piper bogotense c. dc.

    Peña, Luz Angela; Avella, Eliseo; Puentes de Díaz, Aura María

    2010-01-01

    Dos compuestos, que innovan la química conocida del género Piper, (2'E,6'E)-2- famesilhidroquinona, (2'E,6'E)-2-famesil- 1,4-benzoquinona, y a-D-glucosa fueron aislados de los frutos de Piper bogotense C. DC; los tallos y las hojas presentaron, como constimyentes mayoritarios, lactama del ácido 10-amino-4-hidroxi-2,3-dimetoxifenantreno carboxílico, 1,2-metilendioxi- 6-metil-4H-dibenzo lde,g] quinolina- ,5(6H)-diona (Cefaradiona A), estigmasterol y sitosterol. Adicionalmente de las ho...

  12. An Overview of Neolignans of the Genus Piper L.: Isolation Methods and Biological Activities.

    Macedo, Arthur Ladeira; Dos Santos, Thais Carvalho Costa; Valverde, Alessandra Leda; Moreira, Davyson de Lima; Vasconcelos, Thatyana Rocha Alves

    2017-01-01

    The genus Piper L. has the shikimic acid pathway predominantly expressed, biosynthesizing many cinnamic acid derivatives (CAD). Neolignans comprise an important class of CAD that exhibit a wide range of pharmacological properties such as antibacterial, antitumor, insecticidal, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, smooth muscle relaxant, neuroprotective, antiprotozoal and against platelet aggregation factor. These substances have been extracted and isolated from Piper species using different technics. The present review aims to summarize extraction and isolation methods and biological activities of the different types of neolignans covering the period from 1968 to January 2016. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. Occurrence, biological activities and 13C NMR data of amides from Piper (Piperaceae

    Jeferson C. do Nascimento

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript describes an update review with up to 285 references concerning the occurrence of amides from a variety of species of the genus Piper (Piperaceae. Besides addressing occurrence, this review also describes the biological activities attributed to extracts and pure compounds, a compiled 13C NMR data set, the main correlations between structural and NMR spectroscopic data of these compounds, and employment of hyphened techniques such as LC-MS, GC-MS and NMR for analysis of amides from biological samples and crude Piper extracts.

  14. Occurrence, biological activities and 13C NMR data of amides from Piper (Piperaceae)

    Nascimento, Jeferson C. do; Paula, Vanderlucia F. de; David, Jorge M.; David, Juceni P.

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript describes an update review with up to 285 references concerning the occurrence of amides from a variety of species of the genus Piper (Piperaceae). Besides addressing occurrence, this review also describes the biological activities attributed to extracts and pure compounds, a compiled 13 C NMR data set, the main correlations between structural and NMR spectroscopic data of these compounds, and employment of hyphened techniques such as LC-MS, GC-MS and NMR for analysis of amides from biological samples and crude Piper extracts. (author)

  15. Antimicrobial Activity of Terminalia catappa, Manilkara zapota and Piper betel Leaf Extract.

    Nair, R; Chanda, Sumitra

    2008-01-01

    Aqueous and methanol extract of the leaves of Terminalia catappa L., Manilkara zapota L. and Piper betel L. were evaluated for antibacterial activity against 10 Gram positive, 12 Gram negative bacteria and one fungal strain, Candida tropicalis. Piperacillin and gentamicin were used as standards for antibacterial assay, while fluconazole was used as standard for antifungal assay. The three plants showed different degree of activity against the microorganisms investigated. The methanolic extract was considerably more effective than aqueous extract in inhibiting the investigated microbial strains. The most active antimicrobial plant was Piper betel.

  16. Occurrence, biological activities and {sup 13}C NMR data of amides from Piper (Piperaceae)

    Nascimento, Jeferson C. do; Paula, Vanderlucia F. de [Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia, Jequie, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica e Exatas; David, Jorge M. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; David, Juceni P., E-mail: jmdavid@ufba.br [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Fac. de Farmacia

    2012-07-01

    This manuscript describes an update review with up to 285 references concerning the occurrence of amides from a variety of species of the genus Piper (Piperaceae). Besides addressing occurrence, this review also describes the biological activities attributed to extracts and pure compounds, a compiled {sup 13}C NMR data set, the main correlations between structural and NMR spectroscopic data of these compounds, and employment of hyphened techniques such as LC-MS, GC-MS and NMR for analysis of amides from biological samples and crude Piper extracts. (author)

  17. Aircraft Carrier Exposure Testing of Aircraft Materials

    Lee, Eui

    2004-01-01

    .... Test and control specimens were affixed on exposure racks and installed on aircraft carriers to compare adhesive bonding primers for aluminum and to determine the static property behavior of various...

  18. Comparative leaf anatomy of long pepper (Piper hispidinervum C. DC. and spiked pepper (Piper aduncum L. cultured in vitro, ex vitro and in vivo

    Simone de Alencar Maciel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Piper hispidinervum and Piper aduncum contain the secondary metabolites safrole and dilapiol, and there is commercial interest in their essential oils. The study aimed to compare anatomical aspects related to physiological responses of leaves from P. hispidinervum and P. aduncum propagated in vitro, in vivo and during acclimatization. Paradermal sections and cross-sections of leaves from in vitro, ex vitro and in vivo culture, were obtained for the measurement of anatomical structures using a light microscope. The thickness of the epidermis and hypodermis of P. hispidinervum and P. aduncum underwent changes in the transition from in vitro to ex vitro. Mesophyll tissues and stomatal pore opening of both species were inluenced by the environment in vitro. Different cultivation environments promote the plasticity of the cellular structures of the leaf blade and underlie the success of micropropagation of both species.

  19. Piper Ornatum and Piper Betle as Organic Dyes for TiO2 and SnO2 Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    Hayat, Azwar; Putra, A. Erwin E.; Amaliyah, Novriany; Hayase, Shuzi; Pandey, Shyam. S.

    2018-03-01

    Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) mimics the principle of natural photosynthesis are now currently investigated due to low manufacturing cost as compared to silicon based solar cells. In this report, we utilized Piper ornatum (PO) and Piper betle (PB) as sensitizer to fabricate low cost DSSCs. We compared the photovoltaic performance of both sensitizers with Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and Tin dioxide (SnO2) semiconductors. The results show that PO and PB dyes have higher Short circuit current (Jsc) when applied in SnO2 compared to standard TiO2 photo-anode film even though the Open circuit voltage (Voc) was hampered on SnO2 device. In conclusion, from the result, higher electron injections can be achieved by choosing appropriate semiconductors with band gap that match with dyes energy level as one of strategy for further low cost solar cell.

  20. Supplementation of Red Betel Leaf (Piper Crocatum) in Dairy Cattle Feed on Fermentation Characteristics by in Vitro

    Prayitno, Caribu Hadi; Suwarno, Suwarno; Sarwanto, Doso; Hidayatun, Dinar; Solihah, Ma'ratul

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact and efficiency of red betel leaf’s extract supplementation in the diet of dairy cattle on fermentation characteristics by in vitro.  The research method was experiment by using completely randomized design.  The treatments that were tested were R1: basal feed, R2:  R1 + 15 ppm of  red betel  leaf (Piper crocatum) extract, R3: R1 + 30 ppm of  red betel leaf (Piper crocatum) extract, R4: R1 + 45 ppm of red betel leaf (Piper crocatum) extract, R5: R...

  1. Comparative anatomy of the leaves of Piper lepturum(Kunth) C.DC. var. lepturum and Piper lepturum var. angustifolium (C.DC.) Yunck.

    Machado, Nelson Santana de Oliveira; Pereira, Flaviane Gomes; Santos, Paulo Roberto Dias dos; Costa, Cecília Gonçalves; Guimarães, Elsie Franklin

    2015-01-01

    This study showed anatomical differences related to Piper lepturumvar. lepturum and P. lepturum var. angustifolium species, sometimes considered varieties and in other cases synonyms. For histological analysis, fully expanded leaves were collected and for analysis by scanning electron microscope (SEM), fragments from the midrib were fixed on both leaf surfaces. The two species revealed differences in plant anatomy and it was observed that the stem of P. lepturum var. lepturum showed persisten...

  2. Biotechnological intervention in betelvine (Piper betle L.): A review on recent advances and future prospects.

    Das, Suryasnata; Parida, Reena; Sriram Sandeep, I; Nayak, Sanghamitra; Mohanty, Sujata

    2016-10-01

    Betelvine (Piper betle L.) is cultivated for its deep green heart shaped leaf for (15-20) million Indian and 2 billion foreign consumers annually. The crop provides Rs (6000-7000) million of national income per year and at the same time leaves worth Rs (30-40) million is exported to other countries. The leaves are not only used directly for chewing purposes but also possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, anti-cancer and anti-microbial properties. Besides, the leaves also contain eugenol rich essential oil (1%-3%) which is the source for medicine, stimulant, antiseptic, tonic and other ayurvedic formulations. The essential oil also contains chavibetol, caryophyllene and methyl eugenol which are the potent source for preparation in ayurvedic medicine and herbal products. Cost of betelvine essential oil is 10$ per 5 mL. In spite of its great economical and medicinal importance betelvine is still neglected by the researchers for proper characterization and authentication for selection of elite landraces. Lack of awareness among people, use of same planting material for many generations, existing of many synonyms for a single landraces, no proper characterization of available landraces are some of the significant constraints for its commercialization. Our review endeavours a complete advance in the research on betelvine, existing lacunae for its proper characterization and commercial cultivation. It also attempts to provide a comprehensive account on biotechnological interventions made in betelvine aimed at complementing conventional programmes for improvement of this nutraceutically important cash crop. Copyright © 2016 Hainan Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Antibacterial Activity of Polyaniline Coated Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized from Piper Betle Leaves Extract.

    Mamun Or Rashida, Md; Shafiul Islam, Md; Azizul Haque, Md; Arifur Rahman, Md; Tanvir Hossain, Md; Abdul Hamid, Md

    2016-01-01

    Plants or natural resources have been found to be a good alternative method for nanoparticles synthesis. In this study, polyaniline coated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized from Piper betle leaves extract were investigated for their antibacterial activity. Silver nanoparticles were prepared from the reduction of silver nitrate and NaBH4 was used as reducing agent. Silver nanoparticles and extracts were mixed thoroughly and then coated by polyaniline. Prepared nanoparticles were characterized by Visual inspection, Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV), Fourier transform infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) techniques. Antibacterial activities of the synthesized silver nanoparticles were tested against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Salmonella typhi ATCC 14028, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. UV-Vis spectrum of reaction mixture showed strong absorption peak with centering at 400 nm. The FT-IR results imply that Ag-NPs were successfully synthesized and capped with bio-compounds present in P. betle. TEM image showed that Ag-NPs formed were well dispersed with a spherical structures and particle size ranging from 10 to 30 nm. The result revealed that Ag-Extract NPs showed 32.78±0.64 mm zone of inhibition against S. aureus, whereas norfloxacin (positive control) showed maximum 32.15±0.40 mm zone of inhibition for S. aureus. Again, maximum zone of inhibition 29.55±0.45 mm was found for S. typhi, 27.12±0.38 mm for E. coli and 21.95±0.45 mm for P. aeruginosa. The results obtained by this study can't be directly extrapolated to human; so further studies should be undertaken to established the strong antimicrobial activity of Ag-Extract NPs for drug development program.

  4. Potential of Piper betle extracts on inhibition of oral pathogens.

    Phumat, Pimpak; Khongkhunthian, Sakornrat; Wanachantararak, Phenphichar; Okonogi, Siriporn

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, antimicrobial activity of Piper betle crude ethanol extract against 4 strains of oral pathogens; Candida albicans DMST 8684, C. albicans DMST 5815, Streptococcus gordonii DMST 38731 and Streptococcus mutans DMST 18777 was compared with other medicinal plants. P. betle showed the strongest antimicrobial activity against all tested strains. Fractionated extracts of P. betle using hexane, ethyl acetate, and ethanol, respectively, were subjected to antimicrobial assay. The result revealed that the fractionated extract from ethyl acetate (F-EtOAc) possessed the strongest antimicrobial activity against all tested strains. Its inhibition zones against those pathogens were 23.00 ± 0.00, 24.33 ± 0.58, 12.50 ± 0.70 and 11.00 ± 0.00 mm, respectively and its minimum inhibitory concentrations were 0.50, 1.00, 0.50 and 1.00 mg/mL, respectively. Interestingly, the minimum concentration to completely kill those pathogens was the same for all strains and found to be 2.00 mg/mL. Killing kinetic study revealed that the activity of F-EtOAc was dose dependent. HPLC chromatograms of P. betle extracts were compared with its antimicrobial activity. An obvious peak at a retention time of 4.11 min was found to be a major component of F-EtOAc whereas it was a minor compound in the other extracts. This peak was considered to be an active compound of P. betle as it was consistent with the antimicrobial activity of F-EtOAc, the most potential extract against the tested pathogens. It is suggested that F-EtOAc is a promising extract of P. betle for inhibition of oral pathogens. Separation and structure elucidation of the active compound of this extract will be further investigated.

  5. Quantitative HPLC analysis of some marker compounds of hydroalcoholic extracts of Piper aduncum L

    Oliveira, Laura C.P.; Nunomura, Sergio M. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Coordenacao de Pesquisas em Produtos Naturais]. E-mail: smnunomu@inpa.gov.br; Mause, Robert [Siema Eco Essencias da Amazonia Ltda., Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2005-11-15

    High performance liquid chromatography is one of the major analytical techniques used in the quality control of phytotherapics. This work describes a HPLC method used to determine the major components present in different hydroalcoholic extracts of aerial parts of Piper aduncum. (author)

  6. Effectiveness of Piper betle leaf infusion as a palpebral skin antiseptic

    Husnun Amalia

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The goal of an antiseptic is to eliminate or greatly reduce the number of microorganisms in the surgical field at the time of the surgery. The objective of this study was to verify the effectiveness of 20% Piper betle leaf infusion as an antiseptic solution in pre-surgery cataract patients. A clinical trial with partner-matching design was conducted on 31 pairs of eyelids. From each pair of eyelids, one eyelid was asigned to the Piper betle infusion group and the opposite one to the povidone-iodine group. The microorganisms were collected by swab from the patient’s palpebral skin, inoculated on nutrient agar, and incubated at 37oC for 20 hours. The antiseptic effectiveness was measured by counting the microbial colonies before and after administration of the antiseptic solutions. This study demonstrates that the mean colony counts after application of 20% Piper betle leaf infusion showed a significant reduction of 27-100% compared with those before administration (p=0.001. Mean colony counts after 10% povidone-iodine administration showed a significant reduction of 88-100% compared with the mean counts before the solution was applied (p=0.000. The 20% Piper betle infusion has an antiseptic potential. Nevertheless, the 10% povidone-iodine solution has more effective antiseptic capability.

  7. Hydroxychavicol: a potent xanthine oxidase inhibitor obtained from the leaves of betel, Piper betle.

    Murata, Kazuya; Nakao, Kikuyo; Hirata, Noriko; Namba, Kensuke; Nomi, Takao; Kitamura, Yoshihisa; Moriyama, Kenzo; Shintani, Takahiro; Iinuma, Munekazu; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2009-07-01

    The screening of Piperaceous plants for xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity revealed that the extract of the leaves of Piper betle possesses potent activity. Activity-guided purification led us to obtain hydroxychavicol as an active principle. Hydroxychavicol is a more potent xanthine oxidase inhibitor than allopurinol, which is clinically used for the treatment of hyperuricemia.

  8. Effectiveness of Piper betle leaf infusion as a palpebral skin antiseptic

    Husnun Amalia

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal of an antiseptic is to eliminate or greatly reduce the number of microorganisms in the surgical field at the time of the surgery. The objective of this study was to verify the effectiveness of 20% Piper betle leaf infusion as an antiseptic solution in pre-surgery cataract patients. A clinical trial with partner-matching design was conducted on 31 pairs of eyelids. From each pair of eyelids, one eyelid was asigned to the Piper betle infusion group and the opposite one to the povidone-iodine group. The microorganisms were collected by swab from the patient’s palpebral skin, inoculated on nutrient agar, and incubated at 37oC for 20 hours. The antiseptic effectiveness was measured by counting the microbial colonies before and after administration of the antiseptic solutions. This study demonstrates that the mean colony counts after application of 20% Piper betle leaf infusion showed a significant reduction of 27-100% compared with those before administration (p=0.001. Mean colony counts after 10% povidone-iodine administration showed a significant reduction of 88-100% compared with the mean counts before the solution was applied (p=0.000. The 20% Piper betle infusion has an antiseptic potential. Nevertheless, the 10% povidone-iodine solution has more effective antiseptic capability.

  9. Caldensinic acid, a benzoic acid derivative and others compounds from Piper carniconnectivum

    Alves, Harley da Silva; Souza, Maria de Fatima Vanderlei de; Chaves, Maria Celia de Oliveira, E-mail: cchaves@ltf.ufpb.b [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Lab. de Tecnologia Farmaceutica

    2010-07-01

    A benzoic acid derivative - caldensinic acid, E-phythyl hexadecanoate, {beta}-sitosterol and stigmasterol mixture and phaeophytin a were isolated from the aerial parts of Piper carniconnectivum. The structures of these compounds were established unambiguously by IR, MS, 1D and 2D NMR analysis. (author)

  10. Quantitative HPLC analysis of some marker compounds of hydroalcoholic extracts of Piper aduncum L

    Oliveira, Laura C.P.; Nunomura, Sergio M.

    2005-01-01

    High performance liquid chromatography is one of the major analytical techniques used in the quality control of phytotherapics. This work describes a HPLC method used to determine the major components present in different hydroalcoholic extracts of aerial parts of Piper aduncum. (author)

  11. New megastigmane glycoside and aromadendrane derivative from the aerial part of Piper elongatum.

    Masuoka, Chikako; Ono, Masateru; Ito, Yasuyuki; Okawa, Masafumi; Nohara, Toshihiro

    2002-10-01

    A new megastigmane glycoside, called pipeloside A, and a new aromadendrane type sesquiterpenoid, pipelol A, were isolated from the MeOH extract of the aerial part of Piper elongatum VAHL. along with a known megastigmane glycoside, byzantionoside B. The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data and chemical evidence.

  12. REPELLENCY OF ESSENTIAL OIL OF PIPER ADUNCUM AGAINST AEDES ALBOPICTUS IN THE LABORATORY

    Misni, Norashiqin; Sulaiman, Sallehudin; Othman, Hidayatulfathi; Omar, Baharudin

    2009-01-01

    The repellent activity of Piper aduncum essential oil against Aedes albopictus was investigated under laboratory conditions with human volunteers. The lowest median effective dose (ED(50)) value was 1.5 mu g/cm(2) at 60 sec of exposure when compared to 90 see (2.1 mu g/cm(2)) and 120 see (1.8 mu

  13. 5,120 Superconducting Bolometers for the PIPER Balloon-Borne CMB Polarization Experiment

    Benford, Dominic J.; Chuss, David T.; Hilton, Gene C.; Irwin, Kent D.; Jethava, Nikhil S.; Jhabvala, Christine A.; Kogut, Alan J.; Miller, Timothy M.; Mirel, Paul; Moseley, S. Harvey; hide

    2010-01-01

    We are constructing the Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) to measure the polarization o[ the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and search for the imprint of gravity waves produced during an inflationary epoch in the early universe. The signal is faint and lies behind confusing foregrounds, both astrophysical and cosmological, and so many detectors are required to complete the measurement in a limited time. We will use four of our matured 1,280 pixel, high-filling-factor backshort-under-grid bolometer arrays for efficient operation at the PIPER CMB wavelengths. All four arrays observe at a common wavelength set by passband filters in the optical path. PIPER will fly four times to observe at wavelengths of 1500, 1100, 850, and 500 microns in order to separate CMB from foreground emission. The arrays employ leg-isolated superconducting transition edge sensor bolometers operated at 128mK; tuned resonant backshorts for efficient optical coupling; and a second-generation superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) multiplexer readout. We describe the design, development, and performance of PIPER bo|ometer array technology to achieve background-limited sensitivity for a cryogenic balloon-borne telescope.

  14. Sarmentine, a natural herbicide from Piper species with multiple herbicide mechanisms of action

    Sarmentine, 1-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-(2E,4E)-2,4-decadien-1-one, is a natural amide isolated from the fruits of Piper species. The compound has a number of interesting biological properties, including its broad-spectrum activity on weeds as a contact herbicide. Initial studies highlighted a similarity in ...

  15. Validation of a Criterion Referenced Test for Young Handicapped Children: PIPER.

    Strum, Irene; Shapiro, Madelaine

    The purpose of this study was to validate the Prescriptive Instructional Program for Educational Readiness (PIPER) for utilization as a criterion referenced test (CRT) among learning disabled children. The program consisted of behavioral objectives and diagnostic and/or mastery tasks and activities for each objective in the area of gross motor…

  16. Genecology of Thurber’s needlegrass (Achnatherum thurberianum (Piper) Barkworth) in the Western U.S.

    Thurber’s needlegrass (Achnatherum thurberianum (Piper) Barkworth) is a key restoration species in the Great Basin and surrounding areas, yet comprehensive studies of how climate relates to genetic variation and seed zones for restoration projects are lacking. Potentially adaptive phenotypic traits...

  17. Views of Astronaut (Col.) Joe Engle and son Jon with L-5 Piper Cub

    1981-01-01

    Views of Astronaut (Col.) Joe Engle and son Jon with L-5 Piper Cub at Clover Airport. Photos include Engle turning propeller while his son sits in the cockpit (34323); both Engle and son examine propeller (34324); Engle works on engine while his son sits in cockpit (34325).

  18. Compositional analysis of the leaf, stem and rhizome oils of Piper lolot C. DC. from Vietnam

    Dung, N.X.; Thanh, L.; Khoi, Ta Thi; Leclercq, P.A.

    1996-01-01

    The essential oils isolated by hydrodistillation from the fresh leaves, stems and rhizomes of Piper lolot C. DC. have been analyzed for the first time by a combination of GC and GC/MS. The oils contained more than 35 compounds, of which 25 constituents could be identified according to their

  19. Lifting the Curse of the Roman: Quintus Horatius Flaccus Meets the Pied Piper of Hamelin.

    Blackburn, William

    There are many similarities between Robert Browning's "The Pied Piper of Hamelin" and Lewis Carroll's "Alice in Wonderland" that are seldom noted by literary critics. Both works were begun for the amusement of specific children, both employ a strange subterranean journey as a central device, and both are works of nonsense…

  20. Mechanical Design of a 4-Stage ADR for the PIPER mission

    James, Bryan L.; Kimball, Mark O.; Shirron, Peter J.; Sampson, Michael A.; Letmate, Richard V.; Jackson, Michael L.

    2017-01-01

    The four 1,280 bolometer detector arrays that will fly on the balloon borne PIPER mission will be cooled by a 4-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR). Two of the three mechanically independent ADR assemblies provide thermal isolation to their salt pills through Kevlar suspensions while the other provides thermal isolation to its salt pill through the use of bellows and Vespel material. The ADR integrates with the detector arrays and it sits in a large bucket Dewar containing superfluid liquid helium. This paper will describe the complex mechanical design of the PIPER ADR, and summarize the mechanical analysis done to validate the design.The four 1,280 bolometer detector arrays that will fly on the balloon borne PIPER mission will be cooled by a 4-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR). Two of the three mechanically independent ADR assemblies provide thermal isolation to their salt pills through Kevlar suspensions while the other provides thermal isolation to its salt pill through the use of bellows and Vespel material. The ADR integrates with the detector arrays and it sits in a large bucket Dewar containing superfluid liquid helium. This paper will describe the complex mechanical design of the PIPER ADR, and summarize the mechanical analysis done to validate the design.

  1. Effectiveness and safety of botanical pesticides applied in black pepper (Piper nigrum) plantations

    Wiratno,

    2008-01-01

    Black pepper (Piper nigrum L) is an important commodity of Indonesia, which has been cultivated since the 6th century. The plant plays an important role in local economies since 95% of the plantations are cultivated by smallholder farmers. Because of this important economic value, proper plant

  2. Aircraft vulnerability analysis by modeling and simulation

    Willers, Cornelius J.; Willers, Maria S.; de Waal, Alta

    2014-10-01

    Infrared missiles pose a significant threat to civilian and military aviation. ManPADS missiles are especially dangerous in the hands of rogue and undisciplined forces. Yet, not all the launched missiles hit their targets; the miss being either attributable to misuse of the weapon or to missile performance restrictions. This paper analyses some of the factors affecting aircraft vulnerability and demonstrates a structured analysis of the risk and aircraft vulnerability problem. The aircraft-missile engagement is a complex series of events, many of which are only partially understood. Aircraft and missile designers focus on the optimal design and performance of their respective systems, often testing only in a limited set of scenarios. Most missiles react to the contrast intensity, but the variability of the background is rarely considered. Finally, the vulnerability of the aircraft depends jointly on the missile's performance and the doctrine governing the missile's launch. These factors are considered in a holistic investigation. The view direction, altitude, time of day, sun position, latitude/longitude and terrain determine the background against which the aircraft is observed. Especially high gradients in sky radiance occur around the sun and on the horizon. This paper considers uncluttered background scenes (uniform terrain and clear sky) and presents examples of background radiance at all view angles across a sphere around the sensor. A detailed geometrical and spatially distributed radiometric model is used to model the aircraft. This model provides the signature at all possible view angles across the sphere around the aircraft. The signature is determined in absolute terms (no background) and in contrast terms (with background). It is shown that the background significantly affects the contrast signature as observed by the missile sensor. A simplified missile model is constructed by defining the thrust and mass profiles, maximum seeker tracking rate, maximum

  3. Relationship of species Piper based on morphological and leaf essential oils characters in Yogyakarta

    PURNOMO

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Some of Piper species were used for traditional medicines and condiments. The leaf essential oil (terpenoid of those Piper species usually were used as a main component in traditional medicine. The taxonomycal study was aimed to determined Piper species relationships based on morphological and leaf essential oils characters. The plants were obtained by exploring this province, and samples were collected for identification and leaf essential oils isolation purposes. Species identification were carried out based on identification key (Backer and Bakhuizen v.d. Brink, 1965; Heyne, 1987; Shaorong, 1982. The isolation of leaf essential oils was carried out using Stahl destillation method, and their composition were interpreted with liquid gas chromatography, using caryophyllene and -pinene as a standard of essential oils component. Dendrogram, which showed phenetic relationships among those species, were obtained by hierarchical cluster analysis method. Results of the research showed that there were 8 species found as cultivated plants in Yogyakarta, which were P. miniatum Bl., P. betle L., P. recurvum Bl., P. aduncum L., P. nigrum L., P. cubeba L.f., P. retrofractum Vahl., and P. sarmentosum Roxb. Ex Hunter. Relationship between species of Piper based on morphological character showed that P. aduncum and P. sarmentosum at the same cluster on 69.2% similarity level, and 40.4% similarity level to the other clusters. Relationsips between species of Piper based on leaf essential oils character resulted the difference cluster among the species, P. retrofractum separated from the other species at 45.5% similarity level, P. aduncum and P. cubeba indicated the higest similarity level (81.5%.

  4. Conversion of the dual training aircraft (DC into single control advanced training aircraft (SC. Part I

    Ioan ŞTEFĂNESCU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Converting the DC school jet aircraft into SC advanced training aircraft - and use them forthe combat training of military pilots from the operational units, has become a necessity due to thebudget cuts for Air Force, with direct implications on reducing the number of hours of flight assignedto operating personnel for preparing and training.The purpose of adopting such a program is to reduce the number of flight hours allocated annuallyfor preparing and training in advanced stages of instruction, for every pilot, by more intensive use ofthis type of aircraft, which has the advantage of lower flight hour costs as compared to a supersoniccombat plane.

  5. Fur-rubbing with Piper leaves in the San Martín titi monkey, Callicebus oenanthe

    R. Huashuayo-Llamocca

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We report observations on fur-rubbing with leaves from Piper aduncum by a San Martín titi monkey, Callicebus oenanthe. Fur-rubbing occurred during the transition from the dry to the rainy season in a titi monkey group living in a forest fragment in the Moyobamba region of Peru. Since Piper leaves include very potent compounds that may affect ectoparasites, we tentatively interpret the observed fur-rubbing as self-medication.

  6. Pengaruh Lama Perendaman Biji Sengon (Paraserianthes Falcataria) Menggunakan Air Daun Sirih (Piper Betle Linn.) Terhadap Kualitas Benih

    Zulkarnain, Tika; ', M. Mardhiansyah; Yoza, Defri

    2015-01-01

    Paraserianthes falcataria are fast growing trees in the tropical and has many benefits economically. In order to avoid seeds of Paraserianthes falcataria not decrease the quality of seeds during storage. Seed treatment is necessary to keep the seeds able to survive until the time of planting by using Piper betle Linn. leaf as an antiseptic and disinfectant. The purpose of this study to determine the effect of submursion seeds in water Piper betle Linn. leaf on the quality of seed germination ...

  7. Polynyas and Ice Production Evolution in the Ross Sea (PIPERS)

    Ackley, S. F.

    2017-12-01

    One focus of the PIPERS cruise into the Ross Sea ice cover during April-June 2017 was the Terra Nova Bay (TNB) polynya where joint measurements of air-ice-ocean wave interaction were conducted over twelve days. In Terra Nova Bay, measurements were made in three katabatic wind events each with sustained winds over 35 ms-1 and air temperatures below -15C. Near shore, intense wave fields with wave amplitudes of over 2m and 7-9 sec periods built and large amounts of frazil ice crystals grew. The frazil ice gathered initially into short and narrow plumes that eventually were added laterally to create longer and wider streaks or bands. Breaking waves within these wider streaks were dampened which appeared to enhance the development of pancake ice. Eventually, the open water areas between the streaks sealed off, developing a complete ice cover of 100 percent concentration (80-90 percent pancakes, 20-10 percent frazil) over a wide front (30km). The pancakes continued to grow in diameter and thickness as waves alternately contracted and expanded the ice cover, with the thicker larger floes further diminishing the wave field and lateral motion between pancakes until the initial pancake ice growth ceased. The equilibrium thickness of the ice was 20-30cm in the pancake ice. While the waves had died off however, katabatic wind velocities were sustained and resulted in a wide area of concentrated, rafted, pancake ice that was rapidly advected downstream until the end of the katabatic event. High resolution TerraSar-X radar satellite imagery showed the length of the ice area produced in one single event extended over 300km or ten times the length of the open water area during one polynya event. The TNB polynya is therefore an "ice factory" where frazil ice is manufactured into pancake ice floes that are then pushed out of the assembly area and advected, rafted (and occasionally piled up into "dragon skin" ice), until the katabatic wind dies off at the coastal source.

  8. Daedalus Project's Light Eagle - Human powered aircraft

    1987-01-01

    autopilot that could be used on high altitude or human powered aircraft, and determining the power required to fly the Daedalus aircraft. The research flights began in late December 1987 with a shake-down of the Light Eagle instrumentation and data transfer links. The first flight of the Daedalus 87 also occurred during this time. On February 7, 1988, the Daedalus 87 aircraft crashed on Rogers Dry Lakebed. The Daedalus 88, which later set the world record, was then shipped from MIT to replace the 87's research flights, and for general checkout procedures. Due to the accident, flight testing was extended four weeks and thus ended in mid-March 1988 after having achieved the major goals of the program; exploring the dynamics of low Reynolds number aircraft, and investigating the aeroelastic behavior of lightweight aircraft. The information obtained from this program had direct applications to the later design of many high-altitude, long endurance aircraft.

  9. Predicting visibility of aircraft.

    Andrew Watson

    Full Text Available Visual detection of aircraft by human observers is an important element of aviation safety. To assess and ensure safety, it would be useful to be able to be able to predict the visibility, to a human observer, of an aircraft of specified size, shape, distance, and coloration. Examples include assuring safe separation among aircraft and between aircraft and unmanned vehicles, design of airport control towers, and efforts to enhance or suppress the visibility of military and rescue vehicles. We have recently developed a simple metric of pattern visibility, the Spatial Standard Observer (SSO. In this report we examine whether the SSO can predict visibility of simulated aircraft images. We constructed a set of aircraft images from three-dimensional computer graphic models, and measured the luminance contrast threshold for each image from three human observers. The data were well predicted by the SSO. Finally, we show how to use the SSO to predict visibility range for aircraft of arbitrary size, shape, distance, and coloration.

  10. Cultivo de tejidos de Piper sp. (Piperaceae: Propagación, organogénesis y conservación de germoplasma in vitro

    Guillermo E. Delgado-Paredes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: Tissue culture of Piper sp. (Piperaceae: In vitro propagation, organogenesis and germplasm conservation Resumen: En el Nuevo Mundo el género Piper (Piperaceae comprende al menos 500 especies en las que muchos compuestos biológicamente activos fueron identificados; es por ello que el estudio sobre la química y biosíntesis de los miembros de este género son de gran interés, donde el cultivo de tejidos in vitro juega un rol fundamental. El propósito de este trabajo fue desarrollar varios sistemas de cultivo in vitro, en diferentes especies de Piper, con la finalidad de propagarlas clonalmente y regenerarlas por organogénesis directa para el establecimiento de plantas en campo, y la conservación y transferencia internacional de germoplasma. La germinación de semillas alcanzó aproximadamente entre el 20 y el 99% después de 4 semanas de cultivo. La micropropagación fue realizada en medio de cultivo MS suplementado con sacarosa 3%, AIA 0,02 mg L-1 y AG3 0,02 mg L-1. El potencial morfogenético de explantes de raíz, peciolo, hoja, nudo y entrenudo fue investigado con la finalidad de desarrollar un protocolo confiable de regeneración de plantas. La conservación e intercambio internacional de germoplasma in vitro también fue realizado, entre Perú, Brasil y Ecuador. Palabras clave: Germinación de semillas in vitro; intercambio internacional de germoplasma; morfogénesis;  reguladores de crecimiento; semillas recalcitrantes.  Abstract: In the New World the genus Piper (Piperaceae contains at least 500 species in which many biologically active compounds were identified; is why the study of the chemistry and biosynthesis in members of this genus are of interest, and here techniques in vitro tissue culture plays a fundamental role. The aim of this work was to establish several in vitro culture systems in different Piper species in order to propagate clonally and regenerate by direct organogenesis for the establishment

  11. SOLAR AIRCRAFT DESIGN

    RAHMATI, Sadegh; GHASED, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Generally domain Aircraft uses conventional fuel. These fuel having limited life, high cost and pollutant. Also nowadays price of petrol and other fuels are going to be higher, because of scarcity of those fuels. So there is great demand of use of non-exhaustible unlimited source of energy like solar energy. Solar aircraft is one of the ways to utilize solar energy. Solar aircraft uses solar panel to collect the solar radiation for immediate use but it also store the remaining part ...

  12. Aircraft Fire Protection Laboratory

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Navy Aircraft Protection Laboratory provides complete test support for all Navy air vehicle fire protection systems.The facility allows for the simulation of a...

  13. Automated Inspection of Aircraft

    1998-04-01

    This report summarizes the development of a robotic system designed to assist aircraft inspectors by remotely deploying non-destructive inspection (NDI) sensors and acquiring, processing, and storing inspection data. Carnegie Mellon University studie...

  14. Aircraft Depainting Technology

    Kozol, Joseph

    1999-01-01

    ... of aircraft and component stripping at various levels of maintenance. Under this program, the Navy pursued development of non-HAP chemical paint strippers as alternatives for methylene chloride based strippers...

  15. The Aircraft Industry, 2006

    Daniel, Keith

    2006-01-01

    .... and global economic growth. The overall outlook for the industry is positive. Orders for commercial aircraft are up from a boom in air travel that is likely to continue well into the next decade...

  16. The Aircraft Industry

    Fitzgerald, Tim; Baiche, Noureddine; Brewer, Mike; Collins, Al; Knapp, Kathy; Kott, Marilyn; McGill, Duncan; Mensah, Dunstan; Neighbors, Mark; Reardon, Dee

    2005-01-01

    .... As the airline companies prepare to buy new Boeing and Airbus passenger jets, they remain under intense pressure to cut costs in order to remain profitable, forcing aircraft and engine manufacturers...

  17. Essentials of aircraft armaments

    Kaushik, Mrinal

    2017-01-01

    This book aims to provide a complete exposure about armaments from their design to launch from the combat aircraft. The book details modern ammunition and their tactical roles in warfare. The proposed book discusses aerodynamics, propulsion, structural as well as navigation, control, and guidance of aircraft armament. It also introduces the various types of ammunition developed by different countries and their changing trends. The book imparts knowledge in the field of design, and development of aircraft armaments to aerospace engineers and covers the role of the United Nations in peacekeeping and disarmament. The book will be very useful to researchers, students, and professionals working in design and manufacturing of aircraft armaments. The book will also serve air force and naval aspirants, and those interested in working on defence research and developments organizations. .

  18. Solar thermal aircraft

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2007-09-18

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  19. The Aircraft Morphing Program

    Wlezien, R. W.; Horner, G. C.; McGowan, A. R.; Padula, S. L.; Scott, M. A.; Silcox, R. J.; Simpson, J. O.

    1998-01-01

    In the last decade smart technologies have become enablers that cut across traditional boundaries in materials science and engineering. Here we define smart to mean embedded actuation, sensing, and control logic in a tightly coupled feedback loop. While multiple successes have been achieved in the laboratory, we have yet to see the general applicability of smart devices to real aircraft systems. The NASA Aircraft Morphing program is an attempt to couple research across a wide range of disciplines to integrate smart technologies into high payoff aircraft applications. The program bridges research in seven individual disciplines and combines the effort into activities in three primary program thrusts. System studies are used to assess the highest- payoff program objectives, and specific research activities are defined to address the technologies required for development of smart aircraft systems. In this paper we address the overall program goals and programmatic structure, and discuss the challenges associated with bringing the technologies to fruition.

  20. Depreciation of aircraft

    Warner, Edward P

    1922-01-01

    There is a widespread, and quite erroneous, impression to the effect that aircraft are essentially fragile and deteriorate with great rapidity when in service, so that the depreciation charges to be allowed on commercial or private operation are necessarily high.

  1. 2002 Industry Studies: Aircraft

    2002-01-01

    aircraft to a defense electronics, systems integration and information technology company.39 Northrop Grumman no longer seeks a position as a prime...between the military and civil market . Though also upgrading the H-1 helicopter series for the USMC, Bell has mortgaged its future on tiltrotor technology ...business in export dollars, the industry has been forced to look for new markets as worldwide aircraft sales have dropped. Because the U.S. national

  2. Perbedaan Daya Hambat Ekstrak Daun Sirih Hijau ( Piper betle L. dan Daun Sirih Merah ( Piper crocatum Ruiz & Pav terhadap Pertumbuhan Escherichia coli

    Tristika Aulia Syahrinastiti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakSirih hijau (Piper betle L. dan sirih merah (Piper crocatum Ruiz & Pav dipercaya memiliki khasiat mencegah penyakit infeksi saluran kemih yang disebabkan oleh Escherichia coli. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menjelaskan perbedaan daya hambat ekstrak daun sirih hijaudan daun sirih merah terhadap pertumbuhan Escherichia coli. Jenis penelitian ini adalah eksperimental dengan desain post test only control group. Penelitian dilakukan di laboratorium mikrobiologi Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Andalas. Hasil penelitian adalah: 1. Efek daya hambat ekstrak daun sirih merah pada konsentrasi 2,5%, 5%, 7,5%, dan 10%, yaitu 0,6cm, 1,1cm, 1,2cm, dan 1,2cm; 2. Ekstrak daun sirih hijau tidak memiliki efek daya hambat pada konsentrasi 2,5%, 5%, 7,5%, dan 10%. Kesimpulan eksperimen ini adalah ekstrak daun sirih merah memiliki efek daya hambat lebih baik daripada ekstrak daun sirih hijau.Kata kunci: ekstrak daun sirih hijau, ekstrak daun sirih merah, escherichia coli, daerah bebas hambat AbstractGreen betel (Piper betle L. and red betel (Piper crocatum Ruiz & Pav are trusted of possessing an efficacy of preventing urinary tract infection caused by Eschericia coli. The objective of this study was to explain the difference of inhibition zones between the green betel and the red betel towards the growth of Eschericia coli. The type of this research was experimental study with post test only control group design. This research was carried out in Microbiology Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine Andalas University.The results of this research were: 1.The inhibition zones of red betel extract in concentration of 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10% were 0.6 cm, 1.1 cm, 1.2 cm, and 1.2 cm; 2. The extract of green betel had none of inhibition zones in concentration of of 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10%. In conclusion, the red betel extract has better inhibition zones than the green betel extrac.Keywords: green betel extract, red betel extract, eschericia coli, inhibition zone

  3. Benzoquinona e hidroquinona preniladas y otros constituyentes aislados de Piper Bogotense C. DC.

    Luz Angela Peña

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Dos compuestos, que innovan la química conocida del género Piper, (2'E,6'E-2- famesilhidroquinona, (2'E,6'E-2-famesil- 1,4-benzoquinona, y a-D-glucosa fueron aislados de los frutos de Piper bogotense C. DC; los tallos y las hojas presentaron, como constimyentes mayoritarios, lactama del ácido 10-amino-4-hidroxi-2,3-dimetoxifenantreno carboxílico, 1,2-metilendioxi- 6-metil-4H-dibenzo lde,g] quinolina- ,5(6H-diona (Cefaradiona A, estigmasterol y sitosterol. Adicionalmente de las hojas de esta planta se aisló SC-P-D-glucopiranosil-4'-0-metilapigenina (4'-0-metilvitexina, Cytisosido o Trematina. Sus estructuras fueron determinadas por métodos espectroscópicos y comparación con datos de la literatura.

  4. Protocols for Improvement of Black Pepper (Piper nigrum L.) Utilizing Biotechnological Tools.

    Nirmal Babu, K; Divakaran, Minoo; Yamuna, G; Ravindran, P N; Peter, K V

    2016-01-01

    Black pepper, Piper nigrum L., the "King of spices" is the most widely used spice growing in the South-Western region of India. The humid tropical evergreen forest bordering the Malabar Coast (Western Ghats is one of the hot spot areas of plant bio-diversity on earth) is its center of origin and diversity. However, the crop faces constraints like rampant fungal and viral diseases, lack of disease free planting material, hence biotechnological tools can be utilized to address these problems and strides have been made successfully. The standardization of micropropagation, somatic embryogenesis, in vitro conservation, protoplast isolation, and genetic transformation protocols are described here. The protocols could be utilized to achieve similar goals in the related species of Piper too.

  5. Insecticidal activity against Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) of metabolites isolated from the aerial part of Piper septuplinervium (Miq.) c. dc. and inflorescences of Piper subtomentosum Trel. and Yunck. (Piperaceae); Actividad insecticida sobre Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) de los compuestos aislados de la parte aerea de Piper septuplinervium (Miq.) c. dc. y las inflorescencias de Piper subtomentosum Trel. and Yunck. (Piperaceae)

    Murillo, Monica Constanza Avila; Suarez, Luis Enrique Cuca, E-mail: mcavilam@unal.edu.co [Laboratorio de Productos Naturales Vegetales, Departamento de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia); Salamanca, Jairo Alonso Ceron [Laboratorio de Biopesticidas, Instituto de Biotecnologia, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia)

    2014-05-15

    The bioassay-guided purification of ethanolic extracts from inflorescences of Piper subtomentosum Trel. and Yunck and aerial part of Piper septuplinervium (Miq. ) C. DC. led to isolation of five flavonoids, uvangoletin (1), galangin (2), chrysin (5), 5-hydroxy-4',7-dimethoxy-flavone (6), pinostrobin (7); one amide, N-p-coumaroil-tyramine (4); one acylglycerol, monopalmitin (3); one derivative of acid, protocatechuic acid (8); and glycosydated sterol, daucosterol (9). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopy and spectrometry data and by comparison with data reported in the literature. The isolated compounds were tested against Spodoptera frugiperda. The results showed galangin and protocatechuic acid to be the most active (LC{sub 50} 13.63 and 17.16 ppm, respectively). (author)

  6. Paying for the Piper. Capital and labour in Britain's offshore oil industry

    Woolfson, C.; Foster, J.; Beck, M.

    1996-01-01

    This book makes the first serious appraisal of the current offshore safety regulatory regime instituted after Piper Alpha, and of the oil industry's attempts to contain subsequent unwelcome regulatory interference. It concludes that, as yet, offshore safety is little or not at all improved. The fraught history of trade unionism in the offshore industry and the largely successful strategies of employers to sustain a virtually union-free environment is also examined. The conflict over health and safety offshore has been inextricably bound up with the sometimes brutal struggle over union rights as the workforce has attempted to achieve a collective voice in the reform of safety and production standards. Paying for the Piper shows how the offshore unions have attempted to alter the unfavourable balance of class forces shaped by some of the world's most powerful concerns. (author)

  7. Melanogenesis stimulation in murine B16 melanoma cells by Kava (Piper methysticum) rhizome extract and kavalactones.

    Matsuda, Hideaki; Hirata, Noriko; Kawaguchi, Yoshiko; Naruto, Shunsuke; Takata, Takanobu; Oyama, Masayoshi; Iinuma, Munekazu; Kubo, Michinori

    2006-04-01

    Melanogenesis stimulation activity of aqueous ethanolic extracts obtained from several different parts of five Piper species, namely Piper longum, P. kadsura, P. methysticum, P. betle, and P. cubeba, were examined by using cultured murine B16 melanoma cells. Among them, the extract of P. methysticum rhizome (Kava) showed potent stimulatory effect on melanogenesis as well as P. nigrum leaf extract. Activity-guided fractionation of Kava extract led to the isolation of two active kavalactones, yangonin (2) and 7,8-epoxyyangonin (5), along with three inactive kavalactones, 5,6-dehydrokawain (1), (+)-kawain (3) and (+)-methysticin (4), and a glucosylsterol, daucosterin (6). 7,8-Epoxyyangonin (5) showed a significant stimulatory effect on melanogenesis in B16 melanoma cells. Yangonin (2) exhibited a weak melanogenesis stimulation activity.

  8. Rapid purification of diastereoisomers from Piper kadsura using supercritical fluid chromatography with chiral stationary phases.

    Xin, Huaxia; Dai, Zhuoshun; Cai, Jianfeng; Ke, Yanxiong; Shi, Hui; Fu, Qing; Jin, Yu; Liang, Xinmiao

    2017-08-04

    Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) with chiral stationary phases (CSPs) is an advanced solution for the separation of achiral compounds in Piper kadsura. Analogues and stereoisomers are abundant in natural products, but there are obstacles in separation using conventional method. In this paper, four lignan diastereoisomers, (-)-Galbelgin, (-)-Ganschisandrin, Galgravin and (-)-Veraguensin, from Piper kadsura were separated and purified by chiral SFC. Purification strategy was designed, considering of the compound enrichment, sample purity and purification throughput. Two-step achiral purification method on chiral preparative columns with stacked automated injections was developed. Unconventional mobile phase modifier dichloromethane (DCM) was applied to improve the sample solubility. Four diastereoisomers was prepared at the respective weight of 103.1mg, 10.0mg, 152.3mg and 178.6mg from 710mg extract with the purity of greater than 98%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Aircraft to aircraft intercomparison during SEMAPHORE

    Lambert, Dominique; Durand, Pierre

    1998-10-01

    During the Structure des Echanges Mer-Atmosphère, Propriétés des Hétérogénéités Océaniques: Recherche Expérimentale (SEMAPHORE) experiment, performed in the Azores region in 1993, two French research aircraft were simultaneously used for in situ measurements in the atmospheric boundary layer. We present the results obtained from one intercomparison flight between the two aircraft. The mean parameters generally agree well, although the temperature has to be slightly shifted in order to be in agreement for the two aircraft. A detailed comparison of the turbulence parameters revealed no bias. The agreement is good for variances and is satisfactory for fluxes and skewness. A thorough study of the errors involved in flux computation revealed that the greatest accuracy is obtained for latent heat flux. Errors in sensible heat flux are considerably greater, and the worst results are obtained for momentum flux. The latter parameter, however, is more accurate than expected from previous parameterizations.

  10. Influence of phytochemicals in piper betle linn leaf extract on wound healing.

    Lien, Le Thi; Tho, Nguyen Thi; Ha, Do Minh; Hang, Pham Luong; Nghia, Phan Tuan; Thang, Nguyen Dinh

    2015-01-01

    Wound healing has being extensively investigated over the world. Healing impairment is caused by many reasons including increasing of free-radicals-mediated damage, delaying in granulation tissue formation, reducing in angiogenesis and decreasing in collagen reorganization. These facts consequently lead to chronic wound healing. Piper betle Linn (Betle) leaves have been folklore used as an ingredient of drugs for cutaneous wound treatment. However, the effect of betle leaf on wound healing is not yet well elucidated. In this study, we aimed to investigate the healing efficacy of methanol leaf extract of Piper betle Linn on proliferation of fibroblast NIH3T3 cells as well as full-thickness burn and excision wounds in swiss mice. Scratch wound healing assays were conducted to examine the effects of betle leaf extract on healing activity of fibroblast cells. Burn and excision wounds on swiss mouse skins were created for investigating the wound healing progress caused by the betle leaf extract. Malondialdehyde (MDA) was also evaluated to examine the products of lipid hydroperoxide (LPO) under conditions of with or without betle leaf extract treatment. The results of this study showed that Piper betle Linn leaf extract in methanol increased proliferation of NIH3T3 cells and promoted wound healing in vitro and in vivo with both burn wound and excision wound models. In addition, this extract significant decreased level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in liver of treated-mice compared with that in non-treated mice. Our results suggest that Piper betle Linn can be used as an ingredient in developing natural origin drugs for treatment of cutaneous wounds.

  11. Scanning electron microscopic study of Piper betle L. leaves extract effect against Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175.

    Rahim, Zubaidah Haji Abdul; Thurairajah, Nalina

    2011-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that Piper betle L. leaves extract inhibits the adherence of Streptococcus mutans to glass surface, suggesting its potential role in controlling dental plaque development. In this study, the effect of the Piper betle L. extract towards S. mutans (with/without sucrose) using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and on partially purified cell-associated glucosyltransferase activity were determined. S. mutans were allowed to adhere to glass beads suspended in 6 different Brain Heart Infusion broths [without sucrose; with sucrose; without sucrose containing the extract (2 mg mL(-1) and 4 mg mL(-1)); with sucrose containing the extract (2 mg mL(-1) and 4 mg mL(-1))]. Positive control was 0.12% chlorhexidine. The glass beads were later processed for SEM viewing. Cell surface area and appearance and, cell population of S. mutans adhering to the glass beads were determined upon viewing using the SEM. The glucosyltransferase activity (with/without extract) was also determined. One- and two-way ANOVA were used accordingly. It was found that sucrose increased adherence and cell surface area of S. mutans (pPiper betle L. leaves extract. It was also found that the extract inhibited glucosyltransferase activity and its inhibition at 2.5 mg mL(-1) corresponded to that of 0.12% chlorhexidine. At 4 mg mL(-1) of the extract, the glucosyltransferase activity was undetectable and despite that, bacterial cells still demonstrated adherence capacity. The SEM analysis confirmed the inhibitory effects of the Piper betle L. leaves extract towards cell adherence, cell growth and extracellular polysaccharide formation of S. mutans visually. In bacterial cell adherence, other factors besides glucosyltransferase are involved.

  12. Aristolactama y esteróles del tallo de Piper chiadoense

    Luz Angela Peña O.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Del extracto etanólico del tallo de Piper chiadoense Junker (Piperaceae fueron aislados por métodos cromatográficos la aristolactama identificada como lactama del ácido 10- mino-3,4-dimetoxifenantreno-l-carboxílico (cepharanone B; campesterol; estigmasterol y B-sitosterol. Sus estructuras fueron determinadas por métodos espectroscópicos y por comparación con datos reportados en la literatura.

  13. Aristolactama y esteróles del tallo de piper chiadoense

    Peña O., Luz Angela; P. de Díaz, Aura M.

    2010-01-01

    Del extracto etanólico del tallo de Piper chiadoense Junker (Piperaceae) fueron aislados por métodos cromatográficos la aristolactama identificada como lactama del ácido 10- mino-3,4-dimetoxifenantreno-l-carboxílico (cepharanone B); campesterol; estigmasterol y B-sitosterol. Sus estructuras fueron determinadas por métodos espectroscópicos y por comparación con datos reportados en la literatura.

  14. In vitro anti-Leishmania infantum activity of essential oil from Piper angustifolium

    Bosquiroli, Lauriane S.S.; Demarque, Daniel P.; Rizk, Yasmin S.; Cunha, Marillin C.; Marques, Maria Carolina S.; Matos, Maria de Fátima C.; Kadri, Mônica C.T.; Carollo, Carlos A.; Arruda, Carla C.P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Piper angustifolium Lam., Piperaceae, popularly known as "matito", "pimenta-de-macaco", "pimenta-longa" or "jagurandi" in Brazil, has been commonly used in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis-associated lesions, but there are few studies on the activity against visceral leishmaniasis-associated species. This study demonstrates the first in vitro antileishmanial activity of the P. angustifolium essential oil, of which the phytochemical profile showed the presence of sesquiterpene...

  15. Hydrolysis of methyl benzoate from Piper arboreum by Naupactus bipes beetle

    Ramos, Clecio S.; Kato, Massuo J.

    2009-01-01

    A new natural product was isolated from Piper arboreum (Piperaceae) leaves, the methyl 3-geranyl-4-hydroxybenzoate (1). The metabolism of P. arboreum leaves by Naupactus bipes beetle (Germar, 1824 - Coleoptera: Curculionidae) led to the hydrolysis of 1 to 3-geranyl-4-hydroxybenzoic acid (2). The structures of both compounds were determined based on spectroscopic analysis ( 1 H and 13 C NMR, MS, and IR). (author)

  16. Evaluation of Surface anesthetic action of Aqueous Extract of Piper Betel leaf On Rabbit Cornea

    Dr.T.Jayasree; Dr.Shaikh Ubedulla; Dr.Harini K; Dr.Shankar.J

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Piper betel Linn. (Piperaceae) commonly known as betel leaf and the habit of betel chewing is widely prevalent in most parts of India. It is claimed to have aphrodisiac, laxative, antimicrobial, mucolytic, antiinflammatory and euphoric properties and proven antimutagenic and anti-carcinogenic effect. It is commonly observed that chewing of betel leaf produces numbness in the mouth, suggesting a possible local anesthetic effect. This observation prompted us to take this study . The aim...

  17. Hypolipidemic activity of Piper betel in high fat diet induced hyperlipidemic rat

    Thirunavukkarasu Thirumalai; Narayanaswamy Tamilselvan; Ernest David

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the hypolipidemic effect of Piper betel (P. betel) in high fat diet induced hyperlipidemia rat. Methods: The methanol leaf extract was tested for hypolipidemic effect in the albino rats at the selected optimum dosage of 250 mg/kg body weight and administered orally. Adult male albino rats of six numbers in each group were undertaken study and evaluated. Results: In group II animals, the activity levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low densi...

  18. Green Antibiotic Daun Sirih (Piper betle l.) Sebagai Pengganti Antibiotik Komersial untuk Penanganan Mastitis

    Gabby Lutviandhitarani; Dian Wahyu Harjanti; Fajar Wahyono

    2015-01-01

    (Green antibiotic betel leaf (Piper betle l.) as a substitute  for commercial antibiotic in mastitis treatment)  ABSTRACT. The present study was carried out to investigate the possible antibacterial activity of betel leaf on the amount and microscopic appearance of mastitis-causing bacteria. The randomized block design with 5 treatment groups were : K group (mastitis milk only as negative control), Ab group (mastitis milk + antibiotic penicillin-dihydrostreptomycin as positive control),  ...

  19. Potensi Pemberian Ekstrak Daun Sirih (Piper Betle L) sebagai Pengawet Alami Ikan Selar (Selaroides Leptolepis)

    Mentari, Nona Lia

    2016-01-01

    Telah dilakukan penelitian “Potensi Ekstrak Daun Sirih (Piper betle) sebagai Pengawet Alami Ikan Selar (Selaroides leptolepis)” di Kecamatan Syiah Kuala sejak bulan September 2015 sampai Mei 2016. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh daun sirih terhadap pengawetan ikan selar, rasa, warna, tekstur dan bau. Desain penelitian ini adalah eksperimental dengan 7 perlakuan dan 3 kali ulangan. Konsentrasi ekstrak daun sirih divariasi mulai dari 10% ekstrak daun sirih (S10), 20% ekstrak ...

  20. A New Hypoxia Inducible Factor-2 Inhibitory Pyrrolinone Alkaloid from Roots and Stems of Piper sarmentosum

    BOKESCH, Heidi Rose; GARDELLA, Roberta Scott; RABE, Daniel Christopher; BOTTARO, Donald Paul; LINEHAN, William Marston; MCMAHON, James Brislin; MCKEE, Tawnya Carlene

    2011-01-01

    A new trimethoxycinnamoyl-2-pyrrolinone alkaloid, langkamide (1), along with the known compounds piplartine (2) and 3,4,5-trimethoxycinnamic acid (3) were isolated from the roots and stems of the shrub Piper sarmentosum Roxb. The structures were established by spectroscopic analyses and comparison of their spectral data with values reported in the literature. The compounds were tested for their ability to modulate hypoxia inducible factor-2 (HIF-2) transcription activity and all three showed ...

  1. Radio-sensitization by Piper longumine of human breast adenoma MDA-MB-231 cells in vitro.

    Yao, Jian-Xin; Yao, Zhi-Feng; Li, Zhan-Feng; Liu, Yong-Biao

    2014-01-01

    The current study investigated the effects of Piper longumine on radio-sensitization of human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells and underlying mechanisms. Human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells were cultured in vitro and those in logarithmic growth phase were selected for experiments divided into four groups: control, X-ray exposed, Piper longumine, and Piper longumine combined with X-rays. Conogenic assays were performed to determine the radio-sensitizing effects. Cell survival curves were fitted by single-hit multi-target model and then the survival fraction (SF), average lethal dose (D0), quasi-threshold dose (Dq) and sensitive enhancement ratio (SER) were calculated. Cell apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry (FCM).Western blot assays were employed for expression of apoptosis-related proteins (Bc1-2 and Bax) after treatment with Piper longumine and/or X-ray radiation. The intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level was detected by FCM with a DCFH-DA probe. The cloning formation capacity was decreased in the group of piperlongumine plus radiation, which displayed the values of SF2, D0, Dq significantly lower than those of radiation alone group and the sensitive enhancement ratio (SER) of D0 was1.22 and 1.29, respectively. The cell apoptosis rate was increased by the combination treatment of Piper longumine and radiation. Piper longumine increased the radiation-induced intracellular levels of ROS. Compared with the control group and individual group, the combination group demonstrated significantly decreased expression of Bcl-2 with increased Bax. Piper longumine at a non-cytotoxic concentration can enhance the radio-sensitivity of MDA- MB-231cells, which may be related to its regulation of apoptosis-related protein expression and the increase of intracellular ROS level, thus increasing radiation-induced apoptosis.

  2. 150 Passenger Commercial Aircraft

    Bucovsky, Adrian; Romli, Fairuz I.; Rupp, Jessica

    2002-01-01

    It has been projected that the need for a short-range mid-sized, aircraft is increasing. The future strategy to decrease long-haul flights will increase the demand for short-haul flights. Since passengers prefer to meet their destinations quickly, airlines will increase the frequency of flights, which will reduce the passenger load on the aircraft. If a point-to-point flight is not possible, passengers will prefer only a one-stop short connecting flight to their final destination. A 150-passenger aircraft is an ideal vehicle for these situations. It is mid-sized aircraft and has a range of 3000 nautical miles. This type of aircraft would market U.S. domestic flights or inter-European flight routes. The objective of the design of the 150-passenger aircraft is to minimize fuel consumption. The configuration of the aircraft must be optimized. This aircraft must meet CO2 and NOx emissions standards with minimal acquisition price and operating costs. This report contains all the work that has been performed for the completion of the design of a 150 passenger commercial aircraft. The methodology used is the Technology Identification, Evaluation, and Selection (TIES) developed at Georgia Tech Aerospace Systems Design laboratory (ASDL). This is an eight-step conceptual design process to evaluate the probability of meeting the design constraints. This methodology also allows for the evaluation of new technologies to be implemented into the design. The TIES process begins with defining the problem with a need established and a market targeted. With the customer requirements set and the target values established, a baseline concept is created. Next, the design space is explored to determine the feasibility and viability of the baseline aircraft configuration. If the design is neither feasible nor viable, new technologies can be implemented to open up the feasible design space and allow for a plausible solution. After the new technologies are identified, they must be evaluated

  3. Selective Effect of 2′,6′-Dihydroxy-4′-Methoxychalcone Isolated from Piper aduncum on Leishmania amazonensis

    Torres-Santos, Eduardo Caio; Moreira, Davyson Lima; Kaplan, Maria Auxiliadora C.; Meirelles, Maria Nazareth; Rossi-Bergmann, Bartira

    1999-01-01

    2′,6′-Dihydroxy-4′-methoxychalcone (DMC) was purified from the dichloromethane extract of Piper aduncum inflorescences. DMC showed significant activity in vitro against promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis, with 50% effective doses of 0.5 and 24 μg/ml, respectively. Its inhibitory effect on amastigotes is apparently a direct effect on the parasites and is not due to activation of the nitrogen oxidative metabolism of macrophages, since the production of nitric oxide by both unstimulated and recombinant gamma interferon-stimulated macrophages was decreased rather than increased with DMC. The phagocytic activity of macrophages was functioning normally even with DMC concentrations as high as 80 μg/ml, as seen by electron microscopy and by the uptake of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled beads. Ultrastructural studies also showed that in the presence of DMC the mitochondria of promastigotes were enlarged and disorganized. Despite destruction of intracellular amastigotes, no disarrangement of macrophage organelles were observed, even at 80 μg of DMC/ml. These observations suggest that DMC is selectively toxic to the parasites. Its simple structure may well enable it to serve as a new lead compound for the synthesis of novel antileishmanial drugs. PMID:10223942

  4. Ethanol extract of Piper longum L. attenuates gentamicin-induced hair cell loss in neonatal cochlea cultures.

    Du, Xiao Fei; Song, Jae-Jun; Hong, Seungug; Kim, Jihye

    2012-06-01

    Piper longum L. (PL), also as known as long pepper, a well-known spice and traditional medicine in Asia and Pacific islands, has been reported to exhibit wide spectrum activity including antioxidant activity. However, little information is available on its protective effect on gentamicin (GM) induced ototoxicity which is commonly regarded as being mediated by reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species. This study was undertaken to investigate the protective effect of PL ethanol extract on gentamicin-induced hair cell loss in neonatal cochlea cultures. Cochlea cultures from postnatal day 2-3 mice were used for analysis of the protective effects of PL against gentamicin-induced hair cell loss by phalloidin staining. E. coil cultures were used to determine whether PL interferes with the antibiotic activity of GM. Nitric oxide (NO)-scavenging activity of PL was also measured in vitro. GM induced significant dose-dependent hair cell loss in cochlea cultures. However, without interfering with the antibiotic activity of GM, PL showed a significant and concentration-dependent protective effect against GM-induced hair cell loss, and hair cells retained their stereocilia well. In addition, PL expressed direct scavenging activity toward NO radical liberated within solution of sodium nitroprusside. These findings demonstrate the protective effect of PL on GM-induced hair cell loss in neonatal cochlea cultures, and suggest that it might be of therapeutic benefit for treatment of GM-induced ototoxicity.

  5. Antidiabetic activities of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Piper betle leaves in rats.

    Arambewela, L S R; Arawwawala, L D A M; Ratnasooriya, W D

    2005-11-14

    Leaves of Piper betle (Piperaceae) possess several bioactivities and are used in traditional medicinal systems. However, its antidiabetic activity has not been scientifically investigated so far. The aim of this study therefore, was to investigate the antidiabetic activity of Piper betle leaves. This was tested in normoglycaemic and strepozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats using oral administration of hot water extract (HWE) and cold ethanolic extract (CEE). In normoglycaemic rats, both HWE and CEE significantly lowered the blood glucose level in a dose-dependent manner. In glucose tolerance test, both extracts markedly reduced the external glucose load. The antidiabetic activity of HWE is comparable to that of CEE. Moreover, HWE failed to inhibit the glucose absorption from the small intestine of rats. Both extracts were found to be non-toxic and well tolerated after following chronic oral administration (no overt signs of toxicity, hepatotoxicity or renotoxicity). However, the weight of the spleen had increased in treated groups possibly indicating lymphoproliferative activity. It is concluded that HWE and CEE of Piper betle leaves possess safe and strong antidiabetic activity.

  6. Chemical Composition and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activity of Essential Oils from Piper Species.

    Xiang, Cai-Peng; Han, Jia-Xin; Li, Xing-Cong; Li, Yun-Hui; Zhang, Yi; Chen, Lin; Qu, Yan; Hao, Chao-Yun; Li, Hai-Zhou; Yang, Chong-Ren; Zhao, San-Jun; Xu, Min

    2017-05-10

    The essential oils (EOs) derived from aromatic plants such as Piper species are considered to play a role in alleviating neuronal ailments that are associated with inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The chemical compositions of 23 EOs prepared from 16 Piper spp. were analyzed by both gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 76 compounds were identified in the EOs from the leaves and stems of 19 samples, while 30 compounds were detected in the EOs from the fruits of four samples. Sesquiterpenes and phenylpropanoids were found to be rich in these EOs, of which asaricin, caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, isospathulenol, (+)-spathulenol, and β-bisabolene are the major constituents. The EOs from the leaves and stems of Piper austrosinense, P. puberulum, P. flaviflorum, P. betle, and P. hispidimervium showed strong AChE inhibitory activity with IC 50 values in the range of 1.51 to 13.9 mg/mL. A thin-layer chromatography (TLC) bioautography assay was employed to identify active compound(s) in the most active EO from P. hispidimervium. The active compound was isolated and identified as asaricin, which gave an IC 50 value of 0.44 ± 0.02 mg/mL against AChE, comparable to galantamine with an IC 50 0.15 ± 0.01 mg/mL.

  7. Piper betle LEAVES EXTRACT PATCH: EVALUATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY, RELEASE PROFILE OF EUGENOL, AND LOCAL TOLERANCE

    Mufrod Mufrod

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Piper betle leaf in extract form is more effective than crude drug. Eugenol is a component in the extract that has antibacterial activity but irritate. Patch of piper betle leaf extract was used on the mucosa to make oral cavity hygiene. Antibacterial activity was influenced by the release of eugenol from the patch. Release enhancer substances (RES such as glycerin, propylen glicol and tween 80 were added in patch formulation to increase the release of active substances. The aim of the research was to investigate the physicochemical properties, eugenol release profiles, and local tolerance test of the patch. Extract of piper betle leaf was made using infundation method. Patch was made according to the variation concentration of extract (1, 2 and 4% and RES (glycerine, propylen glycol and tween 80 using chitosan as vehicle. Patch produced solvent casting method. Patch obtained was tested for swelling index, folding endurance, surface pH, antibacterial activity, release of eugenol, and local tolerance. Data obtained were analyzed descriptively. The result showed that the addition of RES did not affect the surface pH but increase the water absorption with in inconsistent way except patch with tween 80. The flexibility (folding endurance value increased, and the highest amount of eugenol released was achieved by patch using propylen glicol. Patch with tween 80 and glycerin for all extract concentration and patch with 1% extract concentration using propylen glycol showed medium sensation (local tolerance, and patch with 2 and 4% extract using propylen glycol showed severe sensation.

  8. Antidiabetic potential of methanol extracts from leaves of Piper umbellatum L. and Persea americana Mill.

    Guy Sedar Singor Njateng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine inhibitory activity of methanolic leaf extract of Piper umbellatum and Persea americana (P. americana (traditionally used in Cameroon against diabetes on α -glucosidase, β -glucosidase, maltase-glucoamylase, aldose reductase and aldehyde reductase activities, enzymes involved in starch digestion or diabetic complications. Methods: The methanol extracts from Piper umbellatum and P. americana were prepared by maceration. To assess relative efficacy of these extracts, the determination of concentrations that were needed to inhibit 50% of enzyme activity was done, whereas, gas chromatography-mass spectrum was used to identify components from extracts that may be responsible for the activities. Results: The tested extracts strongly inhibited α -glucosidase, maltase-glucoamylase, aldose reductase and aldehyde reductase activities with IC50 ranging from (1.07 ± 0.03 to (31.77 ± 1.17 μg/mL. Among the tested extracts, P. americana was the most active against sensitive enzymes (IC50 of 1.07 ± 0.03 to 15.63 ± 1.23. But, none of the extracts showed interesting inhibitory effect against β -glucosidase as their percentage inhibitions were less than 16%. From gas chromatography-mass spectrum analysis, 10 and 8 compounds were identified in Piper umbellatum and P. americana extracts respectively, using NIST library 2014. Conclusions: Results of this study provide the scientific credential for a prospective usage of these plants to treat diabetes.

  9. Chemical and Biological Analyses of the Essential Oils and Main Constituents of Piper Species

    Leonor Laura Leon

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils obtained from leaves of Piper duckei and Piper demeraranum by hydrodistillation were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main constituents found in P. demeraranum oil were limonene (19.3% and β-elemene (33.1% and in P. duckei oil the major components found were germacrene D (14.7% and trans-caryophyllene (27.1%. P. demeraranum and P. duckei oils exhibited biological activity, with IC50 values between 15 to 76 μg mL−1 against two Leishmania species, P. duckei oil being the most active. The cytotoxicity of the essential oils on mice peritoneal macrophage cells was insignificant, compared with the toxicity of pentamidine. The main mono- and sesquiterpene, limonene (IC50 = 278 μM and caryophyllene (IC50 = 96 μM, were tested against the strains of Leishmania amazonensis, and the IC50 values of these compounds were lower than those found for the essential oils of the Piper species. The HET-CAM test was used to evaluate the irritation potential of these oils as topical products, showing that these oils can be used as auxiliary medication in cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis, with less side effects and lower costs.

  10. Rapid green synthesis of silver nanoparticles and nanorods using Piper nigrum extract

    Mohapatra, Bandita; Kuriakose, Sini; Mohapatra, Satyabrata

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Silver nanorods were synthesized by photoreduction using Piper nigrum extract. • The morphological and structural properties were studied by XRD and AFM. • Silver nanoparticles were formed at lower AgNO 3 concentration. • Increase in AgNO 3 concentration resulted in formation of silver nanorods. - Abstract: We report sun light driven rapid green synthesis of stable aqueous dispersions of silver nanoparticles and nanorods at room temperature using photoreduction of silver ions with Piper nigrum extract. Silver nanoparticles were formed within 3 min of sun light irradiation following addition of Piper nigrum extract to the AgNO 3 solution. The effects of AgNO 3 concentration and irradiation time on the formation and plasmonic properties of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles were studied using UV–visible absorption spectroscopy. The morphology and structure of silver nanoparticles were well characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The size of Ag nanoparticles increased with increase in irradiation time, leading to the formation of anisotropic nanostructures. Increasing the AgNO 3 concentration resulted in the formation of Ag nanorods. UV–visible absorption studies revealed the presence of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peaks which red shift and broaden with increasing AgNO 3 concentration. We have demonstrated a facile, energy efficient and rapid green synthetic route to synthesize stable aqueous dispersions of silver nanoparticles and nanorods

  11. Modeling the effect of climate change to the potential invasion range of Piper aduncum Linnaeus

    J.C. Paquit

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential effect of invasive plant species on biodiversity is one of most important subject of inquiry at present. In many parts of the world, the alarming spread of these plants has been documented. Knowing that climate exerts a dominant control over the distribution of plant species, predictions can therefore be made to determine which areas the species would likely spread under a climate change scenario and that is what this study aims to tackle. In the current study, a total of 211 species occurrence points were used to model the current and projected suitability of Piper aduncum in Bukidnon, Philippines using Maxent. Results revealed that the suitability of the species was determined primarily by climatic factors with Bio 18 (precipitation of the warmest quarter as the strongest influencing variable with a mean percent contribution of 22.1%. The resulting model was highly accurate based on its mean test Area Under Curve that is equal to 0.917. Current prediction shows that suitable areas for Piper are concentrated along the southern portion of Bukidnon. Only 9% of the province is suitable for the species at present but is predicted to increase to 27% because of climate change. The central and southwestern parts of the province are the areas of high threat for invasion by Piper.

  12. Rapid green synthesis of silver nanoparticles and nanorods using Piper nigrum extract

    Mohapatra, Bandita [Multifunctional Nanomaterials Laboratory, School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, Dwarka, New Delhi 110078 (India); Kuriakose, Sini [Multifunctional Nanomaterials Laboratory, School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, Dwarka, New Delhi 110078 (India); School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, Dwarka, New Delhi 110078 (India); Mohapatra, Satyabrata, E-mail: smiuac@gmail.com [Multifunctional Nanomaterials Laboratory, School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, Dwarka, New Delhi 110078 (India); School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, Dwarka, New Delhi 110078 (India)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Silver nanorods were synthesized by photoreduction using Piper nigrum extract. • The morphological and structural properties were studied by XRD and AFM. • Silver nanoparticles were formed at lower AgNO{sub 3} concentration. • Increase in AgNO{sub 3} concentration resulted in formation of silver nanorods. - Abstract: We report sun light driven rapid green synthesis of stable aqueous dispersions of silver nanoparticles and nanorods at room temperature using photoreduction of silver ions with Piper nigrum extract. Silver nanoparticles were formed within 3 min of sun light irradiation following addition of Piper nigrum extract to the AgNO{sub 3} solution. The effects of AgNO{sub 3} concentration and irradiation time on the formation and plasmonic properties of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles were studied using UV–visible absorption spectroscopy. The morphology and structure of silver nanoparticles were well characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The size of Ag nanoparticles increased with increase in irradiation time, leading to the formation of anisotropic nanostructures. Increasing the AgNO{sub 3} concentration resulted in the formation of Ag nanorods. UV–visible absorption studies revealed the presence of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peaks which red shift and broaden with increasing AgNO{sub 3} concentration. We have demonstrated a facile, energy efficient and rapid green synthetic route to synthesize stable aqueous dispersions of silver nanoparticles and nanorods.

  13. Aircraft Engine Thrust Estimator Design Based on GSA-LSSVM

    Sheng, Hanlin; Zhang, Tianhong

    2017-08-01

    In view of the necessity of highly precise and reliable thrust estimator to achieve direct thrust control of aircraft engine, based on support vector regression (SVR), as well as least square support vector machine (LSSVM) and a new optimization algorithm - gravitational search algorithm (GSA), by performing integrated modelling and parameter optimization, a GSA-LSSVM-based thrust estimator design solution is proposed. The results show that compared to particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, GSA can find unknown optimization parameter better and enables the model developed with better prediction and generalization ability. The model can better predict aircraft engine thrust and thus fulfills the need of direct thrust control of aircraft engine.

  14. Anatomia comparada de folhas de pimenta longa (Piper hispidinervum C. DC. e pimenta de macaco (Piper aduncum L. cultivadas in vitro, ex vitro e in vivo

    Simone Alencar Maciel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2014v27n4p11 Piper hispidinervum e Piper aduncum apresentam compostos metabólitos secundários como safrol e dilapiol de interesse comercial em seus óleos essenciais. O trabalho teve como objetivo comparar aspectos anatômicos, relacionados a respostas fisiológicas das folhas de P. hispidinervum e P. aduncum propagadas in vitro, in vivo e durante a aclimatização. Secções paradérmicas e transversais da lâmina foliar do cultivo in vitro, ex vitro e in vivo, feitas à mão-livre foram realizadas para a medição das estruturas anatômicas em microscópio de luz. A espessura da epiderme e hipoderme de P. hispidinervum e P. aduncum sofrem alterações na transição de cultivo in vitro para o ex vitro. Os tecidos do mesofilo e a abertura do poro estomático de ambas as espécies são influenciados pelo ambiente in vitro. Diferentes ambientes de cultivo promovem a plasticidade das estruturas celulares da lâmina foliar e fundamentam o sucesso da micropropagação de ambas as espécies.

  15. Chemical composition of essential oils of Piper jacquemontianum and Piper variabile from Guatemala and bioactivity of the dichloromethane and methanol extracts

    Sully M. Cruz

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils from two native species from Guatemala were studied for their chemical composition and the dichloromethane and methanol extracts for their biological activity. A GC-MS analysis of the essential oil from Piper jacquemontianum Kunth, Piperaceae, showed 34 constituents, consisting mainly of linalool (69.4%, while Piper variabile C. DC. essential oil had 36 constituents, camphor (28.4%, camphene (16.6% and limonene (13.9% being the major components. Dichloromethane extracts of both species were cytotoxic against MCF-7, H-460 and SF-268 cell lines (<7 µg/mL. Dichloromethane extract of P. jacquemontianum was slightly active against bacteria (0.5 mg/mL, was active against promastigotes of Leishmania (20.4-61.0 µg/mL, and epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi (51.9 µg/mL. The methanol extract of P. variabile showed antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum F32 (4.5 µg/mL, and the dichloromethane extract against Leishmania (55.8-76.3 µg/mL and T. cruzi (45.8 µg/mL. None of the extracts from the two species was active against Aedes aegypti larvae and Artemia salina nauplii.

  16. Identification of Aircraft Hazards

    K. Ashley

    2006-12-08

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174235], Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based upon limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and upon crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a monitored geologic repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain, using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987 [DIRS 103124], Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of identified aircraft hazards based upon the criteria that apply to Category 1 and Category 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 [DIRS 176544] (Section 4). The scope of this report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the repository at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (Section 7).

  17. IDENTIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT HAZARDS

    K.L. Ashley

    2005-01-01

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in the ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2004, Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and on crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987, Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. NUREG-0800 is being used here as a reference because some of the same considerations apply. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of the identified aircraft hazards based on the criteria that apply to Category 1 and 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 (see Section 4). The scope of this technical report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the MGR at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (see Section 7)

  18. Identification of Aircraft Hazards

    K. Ashley

    2006-01-01

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174235], Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based upon limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and upon crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a monitored geologic repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain, using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987 [DIRS 103124], Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of identified aircraft hazards based upon the criteria that apply to Category 1 and Category 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 [DIRS 176544] (Section 4). The scope of this report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the repository at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (Section 7)

  19. Essential oils of leaves of Piper species display larvicidal activity against the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae

    HT. SANTANA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the vector of the dengue virus, an endemic arbovirus from tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The increasing resistance of mosquitoes to commercial insecticides impairs regular control programs; therefore, chemical prospecting originating from the Amazonian flora is promising for potential new insecticides. Several Piper species are, notably, rich in phenylpropanoids and terpenoids, substances with proven insecticidal activity. The composition and the larvicidal activity of three Piper species against A. aegypti were evaluated. Essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation in a modified Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by GC/MS. The major components found in Piper arboreum were germacrene D (31.83% and bicyclogermacrene (21.40%; in Piper marginatum: (E-methyl isoeugenol (27.08%, (E-anethole (23.98% and (Z-methyl isoeugenol (12.01%; and in Piper aduncum: (E-isocroweacin (29.52% and apiole (28.62% and elemicin (7.82%. Essential oils from the Piperaceae species studied resulted in Lethal Concentrations (LC50 of 34-55 ppm, while LC90 was higher than 100 ppm, except for P. marginatum (85 ppm.

  20. Pengaruh Pemberian Ekstrak Daun Sirih (Piper betle L. untuk Mengendalikan Damping-Off pada Tanaman Cabai Capsicum annum

    Taufiq Hidayat

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sclerotium roflsii is the causal agent of damping-off disease on pepper which difficult to control. The use of chemical pesticides cause several damage to the environment. The used of Piper betle leaves extract which is contains antifungal compounds becomes one of the solution. The aim of this study to obtain the optimum concentration of piper betle leaves extract and dipping periode of chili seed in leaves extract to control damping off disease caused by Sclerotium rolfsii. The study consists of two experiments. The first experiment was isolation and multiplication of damping off disease in chilli, this stage was conducted in laboratorium. The second experiment was performed to investigate effectivity of piper betle leaf extract to control damping off using dipping method, this stage conducted in Greenhouse. The study arranged in Completely Randomized Design (CRD with single factor experimental design consist of 13 treatment, namely consentration of 0%, 40%, 60% and 80% Piper betle leaves extract (v/v with 1 hour, 2 hour, and 3 hour dipping time. The result showed that Piper betle leaves extract of 60% with 1 hour dipping time had the best ability among the other treatment to control damping off disease cause of Sclerotium rolfsii in chili seedlings.

  1. Piper sarmentosum increases nitric oxide production in oxidative stress: a study on human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    Ugusman, Azizah; Zakaria, Zaiton; Hui, Chua Kien; Nordin, Nor Anita Megat Mohd

    2010-07-01

    Nitric oxide produced by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) possesses multiple anti-atherosclerotic properties. Hence, enhanced expression of eNOS and increased Nitric oxide levels may protect against the development of atherosclerosis. Piper sarmentosum is a tropical plant with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Piper sarmentosum on the eNOS and Nitric oxide pathway in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). HUVECS WERE DIVIDED INTO FOUR GROUPS: control, treatment with 180 microM hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), treatment with 150 microg/mL aqueous extract of Piper sarmentosum, and concomitant treatment with aqueous extract of PS and H(2)O(2) for 24 hours. Subsequently, HUVECs were harvested and eNOS mRNA expression was determined using qPCR. The eNOS protein level was measured using ELISA, and the eNOS activity and Nitric oxide level were determined by the Griess reaction. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells treated with aqueous extract of Piper sarmentosum showed a marked induction of Nitric oxide. Treatment with PS also resulted in increased eNOS mRNA expression, eNOS protein level and eNOS activity in HUVECs. Aqueous extract of Piper sarmentosum may improve endothelial function by promoting NO production in HUVECs.

  2. Piper sarmentosum increases nitric oxide production in oxidative stress: a study on human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    Azizah Ugusman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Nitric oxide produced by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS possesses multiple anti-atherosclerotic properties. Hence, enhanced expression of eNOS and increased Nitric oxide levels may protect against the development of atherosclerosis. Piper sarmentosum is a tropical plant with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Piper sarmentosum on the eNOS and Nitric oxide pathway in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. METHODS: HUVECs were divided into four groups: control, treatment with 180 μM hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, treatment with 150 μg/mL aqueous extract of Piper sarmentosum, and concomitant treatment with aqueous extract of PS and H2O2 for 24 hours. Subsequently, HUVECs were harvested and eNOS mRNA expression was determined using qPCR. The eNOS protein level was measured using ELISA, and the eNOS activity and Nitric oxide level were determined by the Griess reaction. RESULTS: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells treated with aqueous extract of Piper sarmentosum showed a marked induction of Nitric oxide. Treatment with PS also resulted in increased eNOS mRNA expression, eNOS protein level and eNOS activity in HUVECs. CONCLUSION: Aqueous extract of Piper sarmentosum may improve endothelial function by promoting NO production in HUVECs.

  3. Potensi Serbuk Daun Sirih (piper betle, Linn Sebagai Larvasida Nyamuk Aedes aegypti

    Betriyon Betriyon

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Larvacide was compound/essence used to kill  larvae stadium. Many people used Piper betle to traditional medicine. Piper betle plant L,.has contents bioactive compound as flavonoid compound, atsiri volatile, polifenol, tannin, alkaloid and saponin which have quality as larvacide. Based on the case above, this research aim to put the experiment Piper betle of the Aedes aegypti mosquito instars IV. This was pure experiment research using complete random design. This research was done at laboratory . Larva used was  Aedes aegypti mosquito instars IV. Concentration used of this research was : 0,1; 0,2; 0,3; 0,4; 05 percent b/v. This research has control (+ was temephos 0,0001 persen, control (- was aquades water not added anything. Observation done every hour up to all the larva death with the replication 5 times. Larva death cumulative data on 10th hour and 24 th used to calculate LC50 and LT50 used probit regression analysis than data analyzed using Levene’s test. The result of this research showed that the cost of LC50 piper betle plant L. on 10th hour was 0,54 ± 0,147 persen b/v, than on 24 hour LC50 on concentration 0,07 up to 0,28 percent b/v. the time needed to cross out 50 percent Aedes aegypti instar IV of the concentration 0,05 percent time needed 19. Based on a probit analysis of the relationship between the level of concentration with the number of larvae mortality, Piper betle have activities as larvacide of Aedes aegypti. Keywods: piper betle leaf powder, larvacide, Aedes aegyti AbstrakLarvasida adalah senyawa/zat yang digunakan untuk membunuh stadium larva. Tanaman Piper betle, Linn. (sirih hijau sudah banyak dimanfaatkan oleh kalangan masyarakat sebagai obat tradisional. Daun sirih hijau memiliki kandungan senyawa bioaktif seperti senyawa flavonoid, minyak atsiri, polifenol, tannin, alkaloid dan saponin yang dapat bersifat sebagai larvasida. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui manfaat daun sirih hijau yaitu

  4. Aircraft gas turbines

    Arai, M [Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1995-03-01

    Recently the international relationship has been playing an important role in the research, development and production of the aircraft gas turbine. The YSX, which is supposed to be the 100-seat class commercial aircraft, has been planned by Japan Aircraft Development (JADC) as an international cooperative project. Recently many western aeroengine companies have offered the collaboration of small turbofan engines which would be installed on YSX to Japanese aeroengine companies (IHI, KHI and MHI). The YSX is powered by 16,000-20,000 1bs thrust class engines. As for medium turbofan engine (V2500), the V 2500 family of 22,000 to 30,000 1bs thrust has been developed since 1983 through international collaboration by seven aeroengine companies in five nations. In this paper, the recent Japan`s activities of the research, development and production with viewing the world-wide movement, are described. 6 figs.

  5. AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE HANGAR

    GEAMBASU Gabriel George

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the maintenance process that is done on an airplane, at a certain period of time, or after a number of flight hours or cycles and describes the checks performed behind each inspection. The first part of research describes the aircraft maintenance process that has to be done after an updated maintenance manual according with aircraft type, followed by a short introduction about maintenance hangar. The second part of the paper presents a hangar design with a foldable roof and walls, which can be folded or extended, over an airplane when a maintenance process is done, or depending on weather condition.

  6. Combat aircraft noise

    Sgarbozza, M.; Depitre, A.

    1992-04-01

    A discussion of the characteristics and the noise levels of combat aircraft and of a transport aircraft in taking off and landing are presented. Some methods of noise reduction are discussed, including the following: operational anti-noise procedures; and concepts of future engines (silent post-combustion and variable cycle). Some measurement results concerning the noise generated in flight at great speeds and low altitude will also be examined. Finally, the protection of the environment of French air bases against noise will be described and the possibilities of regulation examined.

  7. ESCOMPTE experiment: intercomparison of four aircraft dynamical, thermodynamical, radiation and chemical measurements

    Saïd, F.; Corsmeier, U.; Kalthoff, N.; Kottmeier, C.; Lothon, M.; Wieser, A.; Hofherr, T.; Perros, P.

    2005-03-01

    Among seven airplanes involved in the Experience sur Site pour COntraindre les Modèles de Pollution atmosphérique et de Transport d'Emission (ESCOMPTE) experiment in 2001, four measured classical meteorological parameters, radiation fluxes, trace gases and turbulence (for three among four): the Dornier 128 from the Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung, the Fokker 27 ARAT from the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers, the Merlin 4 and Piper Aztec 23 from Météo France. This paper presents the results of intercomparison flights between three pairs of aircraft. The results are very similar for mean parameters except for the horizontal wind measurements provided by the Merlin that showed a problem that is probably linked to the measurement of the aircraft velocity. Further investigation is required to know whether corrections are possible or not for these wind measurements. Turbulence is studied along two legs over a flat and homogeneous area: in spite of the heterogeneity of the measured functions (one leg is close to the top of the boundary layer), the comparison is rather good. The relative accuracy of the data provided to the data base is given. It easily allows to use the huge amount of aircraft data collected during the experiment with very few restrictions. We underline some points where efforts should be borne for future experiments: wind coupling between Inertial Navigation System data and Global Positioning System (GPS) data, CO and NO x measurements.

  8. Composite materials for aircraft structures

    Baker, A. A; Dutton, Stuart; Kelly, Donald

    2004-01-01

    ... materials for aircraft structures / Alan Baker, Stuart Dutton, and Donald Kelly- 2nd ed. p. cm. - (Education series) Rev. ed. of: Composite materials for aircraft structures / edited by B. C. Hos...

  9. VALUE OF CLINICAL PULMONARY INFECTION SCORE IN CRITICALLY ILL PATIENTS: BETWEEN THE USE OF CHLORHEXIDINE AND PIPER BETLE LINN MOUTHWASH

    Irfany Nurul Hamid

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the complications of ventilator use in patients in Intensive Care Unit (ICU is Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (VAP. Oral hygienes is one of the methods to prevent VAP. Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the value of clinical infection score (CPIS in critically ill patients after given oral hygiene using chlorhexidine and Piper betle Linn mouthwash. Methods: This was an observational study with cross-sectional study design, which consisted of two intervention groups. Thirty respondents were selected using total sampling, with 15 respondents randomly assigned in each group. Independent t-test was used for data analysis. Results: Findings showed that the mean of CPIS in the Piper betle Linn group was 3.80 and the mean of CPIS in the chlorhexidine group was 4.07. Conclusion: CPIS in the treatment group using Piper betle Linn mouthwash was lower than the mean of CPIS in the treatment group using clorhexidine.

  10. The difference of salivary pH before and after toothbrushing with toothpaste containing Betel leaf (Piper Betle

    Soo Ling Fu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available There has been a long history of the use of plants to improve dental health and oral hygiene. The purpose of this research was to find out the difference of salivary pH before and after toothbrushing with toothpaste containing betel leaf (Piper betel. The type of research used was quasi-experimental. Data collected were analyzed by using a paired t-test. The result shows that there is an increase of salivary pH by an average of 0.48 after toothbrushing with toothpaste containing betel leaf (Piper betel. In conclusion, there is the difference between the salivary pH before and after toothbrushing with toothpaste containing betel leaf (Piper betel.

  11. PELATIHAN MERAMU CAIRAN PEMBASMI JENTIK NYAMUK DARI DAUN SIRIH (Piper betle L. DI DESA TIBUBIU KECAMATAN KERAMBITAN TABANAN

    I M. Sukadana

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Community Service activity about the manner of making natural mosquito antilarvae liquids from Piper betle L leaf was conducted on the 24st of October 2010 to the mothers of PKK of Tibubiu village, Kerambitan subdistrict, Tabanan district. Making natural mosquito antilarvae liquids from Piper betle L leaf used the simple formulation technique. The liquids were made by using petroleum as a solvent and Piper betle L leaf as a antilarvae agent. The result of this activity and evaluation showed that the mosquito antilarvae liquids product is as good as chemical agent like “abate”. All participants showed enthusiastic during the activity and they will try to make these liquids. All participants, moreover understand about making liquids and they want to try at home. Such public service is interesting to because the peoples have improved knowledge, skill, and possibility to open of new entrepreneur in village so that it can be vacancy and increase income to community.

  12. Long Range Aircraft Trajectory Prediction

    Magister, Tone

    2009-01-01

    The subject of the paper is the improvement of the aircraft future trajectory prediction accuracy for long-range airborne separation assurance. The strategic planning of safe aircraft flights and effective conflict avoidance tactics demand timely and accurate conflict detection based upon future four–dimensional airborne traffic situation prediction which is as accurate as each aircraft flight trajectory prediction. The improved kinematics model of aircraft relative flight considering flight ...

  13. Greenhouse effects of aircraft emissions

    Fortuin, J.P.F.; Wauben, W.M.F.; Dorland, R. van; Kelder, H.

    1996-01-01

    Ranges for direct and indirect greenhouse effects due to present day aircraft emissions are quantified for northern midlatitudes, using the concept of fixed temperature (FT) radiative forcing as calculated with a radiative transfer model. The direct greenhouse effects considered here are from emissions of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and nitrogen dioxide. To calculate the concentration increases of carbon dioxide and stratospheric water vapor, an analytical expression is developed based on a linear approximation of global fuel burn versus time. Unlike the expressions currently used in the literature, the authors' expression does not account for emission rates only, but also for a loss term--hence making it more suitable for shorter lived emittants. For midlatitude summer conditions, a total radiative forcing ranging from 0.04 to 0.09 Wm -2 is calculated for the direct greenhouse effects, whereas for midlatitude winter the range is 0.07 to 0.26 Wm -2 . The indirect greenhouse effects considered here are sulfate aerosol formation from sulfur dioxide emissions, contrail formation from emitted water vapor and condensation nuclei, and ozone formation from NO x emissions. The total radiative forcing coming from these indirect effects range from -0.67 to 0.25 Wm -2 in summer a/nd from -0.36 to 0.21 Wm -2 in winter. Further, the global distribution of NO x and ozone increases from aircraft emissions world-wide are simulated with a three-dimensional chemistry transport model for January and July. The geographical distribution of the radiative forcing associated with the simulated ozone increases is also calculated for these months

  14. A study of the free radical scavenging effects of Piper betle leaf extract in patients with vitiligo.

    Mitra, Sneha; Pati, Ayan Kumar; Manna, Alak; Ghosh, Arghyaprasun; Sen, Sumit; Chatterjee, Suparna; Chatterjee, Mitali

    2017-01-01

    Vitiligo is an idiopathic skin disease manifested by depigmented macules. It is characterised by melanocyte destruction, and redox imbalance is proposed to play a contributory role. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of an ethanolic extract of Piper betle leaves on the generation of reactive oxygen species in erythrocytes sourced from vitiligo patients. The effect of Piper betle on the generation of reactive oxygen species in erythrocytes was measured by flow cytometry in patients with active and stable vitiligo versus healthy controls, using 5-(and-6)-chloromethyl-2'-7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate. The generation of reactive oxygen species in erythrocytes was higher in patients with vitiligo (n = 23) compared to healthy controls (n = 18). The geometrical mean fluorescence channel was 23.05 ± 2.11 in patients versus 17.77 ± 1.79 in controls, P = 0.039. The levels of reactive oxygen species were higher in patients with active vitiligo. Treatment of erythrocytes with Piper betle in concentrations of 0.5 and 1.0 μg/ml significantly decreased the baseline levels of reactive oxygen species by 31.7% in healthy controls, and 47.6% and 44.3% in patients with active vitiligo, respectively. Piper betle effectively scavenged hydrogen peroxide, which was evident by a decrease in the geometrical mean fluorescence channel by 52.4% and 62.9% in healthy controls, and 45.0% and 57.0% in patients with active vitiligo. The study had a small sample size. Future studies should focus on evaluation of the antioxidant role of Piper betle at the lesional site. This pilot study indicates that patients with active vitiligo demonstrate enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species in erythrocytes, which was significantly reduced following ex vivo treatment with Piper betle.

  15. A study of the free radical scavenging effects of Piper betle leaf extract in patients with vitiligo

    Sneha Mitra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitiligo is an idiopathic skin disease manifested by depigmented macules. It is characterised by melanocyte destruction, and redox imbalance is proposed to play a contributory role. Aim: The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of an ethanolic extract of Piper betle leaves on the generation of reactive oxygen species in erythrocytes sourced from vitiligo patients. Methods: The effect of Piper betle on the generation of reactive oxygen species in erythrocytes was measured by flow cytometry in patients with active and stable vitiligo versus healthy controls, using 5-(and-6-chloromethyl-2'-7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate. Results: The generation of reactive oxygen species in erythrocytes was higher in patients with vitiligo (n = 23 compared to healthy controls (n = 18. The geometrical mean fluorescence channel was 23.05 ± 2.11 in patients versus 17.77 ± 1.79 in controls, P = 0.039. The levels of reactive oxygen species were higher in patients with active vitiligo. Treatment of erythrocytes with Piper betle in concentrations of 0.5 and 1.0 μg/ml significantly decreased the baseline levels of reactive oxygen species by 31.7% in healthy controls, and 47.6% and 44.3% in patients with active vitiligo, respectively. Piper betle effectively scavenged hydrogen peroxide, which was evident by a decrease in the geometrical mean fluorescence channel by 52.4% and 62.9% in healthy controls, and 45.0% and 57.0% in patients with active vitiligo. Limitations: The study had a small sample size. Future studies should focus on evaluation of the antioxidant role of Piper betle at the lesional site. Conclusion: This pilot study indicates that patients with active vitiligo demonstrate enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species in erythrocytes, which was significantly reduced following ex vivo treatment with Piper betle.

  16. Piper-PCA-Fisher Recognition Model of Water Inrush Source: A Case Study of the Jiaozuo Mining Area

    Pinghua Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Source discrimination of mine water plays an important role in guiding mine water prevention in mine water management. To accurately determine water inrush source from a mine in the Jiaozuo mining area, a Piper trilinear diagram based on hydrochemical experimental data of stratified underground water in the area was utilized to determine typical water samples. Additionally, principal component analysis (PCA was used for dimensionality reduction of conventional hydrochemical variables, after which mutually independent variables were extracted. The Piper-PCA-Fisher water inrush source recognition model was established by combining the Piper trilinear diagram and Fisher discrimination theory. Screened typical samples were used to conduct back-discriminate verification of the model. Results showed that 28 typical water samples in different aquifers were determined through the Piper trilinear diagram as a water sample set for training. Before PCA was carried out, the first five factors covered 98.92% of the information quantity of the original data and could effectively represent the data information of the original samples. During the one-by-one rediscrimination process of 28 groups of training samples using the Piper-PCA-Fisher water inrush source model, 100% correct discrimination rate was achieved. During the prediction and discrimination process of 13 samples, one water sample was misdiscriminated; hence, the correct prediscrimination rate was 92.3%. Compared with the traditional Fisher water source recognition model, the Piper-PCA-Fisher water source recognition model established in this study had higher accuracy in both rediscrimination and prediscrimination processes. Thus it had a strong ability to discriminate water inrush sources.

  17. Aircraft Capability Management

    Mumaw, Randy; Feary, Mike

    2018-01-01

    This presentation presents an overview of work performed at NASA Ames Research Center in 2017. The work concerns the analysis of current aircraft system management displays, and the initial development of an interface for providing information about aircraft system status. The new interface proposes a shift away from current aircraft system alerting interfaces that report the status of physical components, and towards displaying the implications of degradations on mission capability. The proposed interface describes these component failures in terms of operational consequences of aircraft system degradations. The research activity was an effort to examine the utility of different representations of complex systems and operating environments to support real-time decision making of off-nominal situations. A specific focus was to develop representations that provide better integrated information to allow pilots to more easily reason about the operational consequences of the off-nominal situations. The work is also seen as a pathway to autonomy, as information is integrated and understood in a form that automated responses could be developed for the off-nominal situations in the future.

  18. Aircrafts' taxi noise emission

    Asensio, C.; Pagan Munoz, Raul; López, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted, with the objective of creating a database of inputs that can be used with noise prediction software, to evaluate noise of aircraft taxing movements and community noise exposure levels. The acoustic consultant can use these data with any of the software packages,

  19. Aircraft parameter estimation

    With the evolution of high performance modern aircraft and spiraling developmental and experimental costs, the importance of flight validated databases for flight control design applications and for flight simulators has increased significantly in the recent past. Ground-based and in-flight simulators are increasingly used not ...

  20. Load event: Aircraft crash

    Fritsch, H.

    1985-01-01

    The bibliography includes 48 quotations, up to the year 1983, on the following issues: Experiments and computational methods. Design load for the dimensioning of reinforced concrete buildings and components with respect to the dynamic load in the event of an aircraft crash. (orig./HP) [de

  1. The effective concentration of red betel leaf (Piper crocatum infusion as root canal irrigant solution

    Fani Pangabdian

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smear layer is a debris consisting of organic and inorganic particles of calcified tissue, necrotic tissue, pulp tissue, and dentinoblast and microorganism processes that can close the entrance to the dentin tubuli. Smear layer, will not only inhibit the penetration of disinfection materials and sealers to the dentin tubuli, but will also reduce the attachment of root canal filling material so that root canal irrigation solution is needed to dissolve the smear layer. Red betel leaf (Piper crocatum infusion, on the other hand, contains saponin characterized as “surfactants” which can dissolve smear layer. Nevertheless, the effective concentration of the red betel leaf infusion has still not been known clearly. Purpose: This study is aimed to determine the effective concentration of the red betel leaf infusion for cleaning root canal walls from smear layer. Methods: Fiveteen extracted human teeth with straight single roots were randomized into 5 groups (n=3. The specimens were then shaped by using rotary instruments up to a size of 25/.07. During instrumentation, each canal was irrigated with 10, 20, 30 and, 40% red betel leaf infusion for treatment groups, while another was irrigated with aquadest for the control group. Root canal cleanliness was observed by using scanning electron microscope (SEM. Results: There were significant differences among treatment groups (p<0.05, except in the treatment groups irrigated with red betel leaf infusion with concentrations of 30% and 40% (p>0.05. Conclusion: It can be concluded that red betel leaf infusion with a concentration of 30% is effective for cleaning the root canal walls from the smear layer.Latar belakang: Smear layer adalah suatu debris yang mengandung partikel organik dan anorganik dari jaringan terkalsifikasi, jaringan nekrotik, proses dentinoblas, jaringan pulpa dan mikroorganisme yang dapat menutup jalan masuk ke tubuli dentin. Smear layer akan menghalangi penetrasi dari bahan

  2. Cytochalasin produced by Xylaria sp., a endophytic fungi of Piper aduncum (Piperaceae); Citocalasinas produzidas por Xylaria sp., um fungo endofitico de Piper aduncum (Piperaceae)

    Silva, Geraldo H.; Oliveira, Camila M. de; Teles, Helder L.; Bolzani, Vanderlan da S.; Araujo, Angela R., E-mail: araujoar@iq.unesp.b [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Pfenning, Ludwig H. [Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Fitopatologia; Young, Maria Claudia M. [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Fisiologia e Bioquimica de Plantas; Costa-Neto, Claudio M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP/RP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Dept. de Bioquimica e Imunologia; Haddad, Renato; Eberlin, Marcos N. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2010-07-01

    A chemical study on the EtOAc extract produced by Xylaria sp., an endophytic fungus from Piper aduncum, resulted in the isolation of a new cytochalasin 1, along with five known 19,20-epoxycytochalasin D (2), C (3), N (4), Q (5), and R (6). The 1-6 were evaluated against the fungi C. cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum and only 5 showed weak activity. The cytotoxicity in vitro against HeLA and CHO cells lines were investigated and the cytochalasins 2-4, and 6 showed a strong activity against HeLA. The DNA damaging activity of 1-6 were also investigated against mutant strains of S. cerevisiae. (author)

  3. Citocalasinas produzidas por Xylaria sp., um fungo endofítico de Piper aduncum (piperaceae Cytochalasins produced by Xylaria sp., an endophytic fungus from Piper aduncum

    Geraldo H. Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A chemical study on the EtOAc extract produced by Xylaria sp., an endophytic fungus from Piper aduncum, resulted in the isolation of a new cytochalasin 1, along with five known 19,20-epoxycytochalasin D (2, C (3, N (4, Q (5, and R (6. The 1-6 were evaluated against the fungi C. cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum and only 5 showed weak activity. The cytotoxicity in vitro against HeLA and CHO cells lines were investigated and the cytochalasins 2-4, and 6 showed a strong activity against HeLA. The DNAdamaging activity of 1-6 were also investigated against mutant strains of S. cerevisiae.

  4. AKTIVITAS ANTIBAKTERI FRAKSI-FRAKSI EKSTRAK SIRIH HIJAU (Piper betle Linn TERHADAP PATOGEN PANGAN [Antibacterial Activity of Fractionated Green Sirih (Piper betle Linn Extract Against Food Pathogenic Bacteria

    Maggy T. Suhartono

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fractionation of green sirih (Piper betle Linn extract by chromatography colom using the mixture of several solvents i.e. chloroform, ethanol and acetic acid (4:1:1 resulted in 17 fractions. All fractions showed antibacterial activities but only 2 fractions (fraction 3 and fraction 4 showed the highest inhibition towards the six tested bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes. Among the tested bacteria, all fractions of green sirih extracts showed the most effective inhibition against, Salmonella Typhimurium with inhibition zone diameters ranging from 10 mm to 26 mm. Identification using GC-MS found that fraction 3 and fraction 4 contained chavicol; dodecanoic acid, myristic, palmitic and oleic acid.

  5. AKTIVITAS ANTIBAKTERI EKSTRAK SIRIH HIJAU (Piper betle L TERHADAP BAKTERI PATOGEN PANGAN [Antibacterial Activity of Green Sirih (Piper betle L Extract towards Food Pathogens

    Suliantari1

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Green sirih (Piper betle L extract were prepared using water, ethanol and ethyl acetate extraction of the dried materials. The extracts were tested for their antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes. At concentrations 10-50% the extracts effectively inhibited the growth of all tested bacteria as shown by the clear zones which varied from 7 to 24 mm, while the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC varied from 0.1 to 1 %. E. coli, S. Typhimurium and S. aureus were more resistance to the green sirih extracts than other tested bacteria. The results showed that in general, ethanol extraction produced the best extract with strong antibacterial activities against E. coli and S. aureus. Analysis of the extract components with GC-MS revealed that sirih extract contained phenol, chavicol, eugenol, caryophylene, cylene, chalarene and others.

  6. Authentication of Piper betle L. folium and quantification of their antifungal-activity.

    Wirasuta, I Made Agus Gelgel; Srinadi, I Gusti Ayu Made; Dwidasmara, Ida Bagus Gede; Ardiyanti, Ni Luh Putu Putri; Trisnadewi, I Gusti Ayu Arya; Paramita, Ni Luh Putu Vidya

    2017-07-01

    The TLC profiles of intra- and inter-day precision for Piper betle L . (PBL) folium methanol extract was studied for their peak marker recognition and identification. The Numerical chromatographic parameters (NCPs) of the peak markers, the hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) and the principal component analysis (PCA) were applied to authenticate the PBL. folium extract from other Piper species folium extract and to ensure the antifungal activity quality of the PBL essential oil. The spotted extract was developed with the mobile phase of toluene: ethyl acetate; 93:7, (v/v). The eluted plate was viewed with the TLC-Visualizer, scanned under absorption and fluorescent mode detection, and on each sample the in-situ UV spectra were recorded between 190 to 400 nm. The NCPs profiles of intra- and inter-day precision results offered multi-dimensional chromatogram fingerprints for better marker peak pattern recognition and identification. Using the r -value fingerprints data series generated with this method allowed more precise discrimination the PBL. from other Piper species compared to the marker peak area fingerprint method. The cosine pair comparison was a simple method for authentication of two different fingerprints. The ward linkage clustering and the pair cross-correlation comparison were better chemometric methods to determine the consistency peak area ratio between fingerprints. The first component PCA-loading values of peak marker area fingerprints were correlated linearly to both the bio-marker concentration as well as the antifungal activity. This relationship could be used to control the quality and pharmacological potency. This simple method was developed for the authentication and quantification of herbal medicine.

  7. Chemical similarity and local community assembly in the species rich tropical genus Piper.

    Salazar, Diego; Jaramillo, M Alejandra; Marquis, Robert J

    2016-11-01

    Community ecologists have strived to find mechanisms that mediate the assembly of natural communities. Recent evidence suggests that natural enemies could play an important role in the assembly of hyper-diverse tropical plant systems. Classic ecological theory predicts that in order for coexistence to occur, species differences must be maximized across biologically important niche dimensions. For plant-herbivore interactions, it has been recently suggested that, within a particular community, plant species that maximize the difference in chemical defense profiles compared to neighboring taxa will have a relative competitive advantage. Here we tested the hypothesis that plant chemical diversity can affect local community composition in the hyper-diverse genus Piper at a lowland wet forest location in Costa Rica. We first characterized the chemical composition of 27 of the most locally abundant species of Piper. We then tested whether species with different chemical compositions were more likely to coexist. Finally, we assessed the degree to which Piper phylogenetic relationships are related to differences in secondary chemical composition and community assembly. We found that, on average, co-occurring species were more likely to differ in chemical composition than expected by chance. Contrary to expectations, there was no phylogenetic signal for overall secondary chemical composition. In addition we found that species in local communities were, on average, more phylogenetically closely related than expected by chance, suggesting that functional traits other than those measured here also influence local assembly. We propose that selection by herbivores for divergent chemistries between closely related species facilitates the coexistence of a high diversity of congeneric taxa via apparent competition. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  8. In vitro assessment of the acaricidal activity of Piper longum, Piper nigrum, and Zingiber officinale extracts against Hyalomma anatolicum ticks.

    Singh, Nirbhay K; Saini, S P S; Singh, Harkirat; Jyoti; Sharma, S K; Rath, S S

    2017-03-01

    Ticks and tick-borne diseases are a major constraint for the sustainable cattle industry in the tropical and subtropical regions including the Indian subcontinent. The development of resistance to most of the commonly used acaricides leads to an attempt to screen plant extracts and their combinations for their possible acaricidal activity to develop an eco-friendly tick control alternative. An alcoholic and various aqueous extracts of Piper longum, Piper nigrum and Zingiber officinale and their combinations were evaluated for acaricidal activity against the three-host ixodid tick, Hyalomma anatolicum by larval immersion test using 14-21 days old unfed larvae. The efficacy was assessed by measuring larval mortality (%) and the lethal concentrations for 50% (LC 50 ) and 95% (LC 95 ) with their 95% confidence limits (CL) values were estimated by applying regression equation analysis to the probit transformed data of mortality. A concentration-dependent mortality response was recorded in all extracts prepared from seeds of P. longum and P. nigrum and their combinations. The highest acaricidal property was exhibited by the alcoholic extract of P. longum seeds with the minimum LC 50 and LC 95 (95% CL) values of 0.071% (0.07-0.072) and 0.135% (0.13-0.14), respectively, followed by alcoholic combinations. Interestingly, no acaricidal activity was recorded in extracts prepared from the rhizome of Z. officinale. The results indicated that the ethanolic extracts of P. longum and P. nigrum and their combinations can be used effectively for tick control in an integrated format.

  9. Cytochalasins produced by Xylaria sp., an endophytic fungus from Piper aduncum

    Silva, Geraldo H.; Oliveira, Camila M. de; Teles, Helder L.; Bolzani, Vanderlan da S.; Araujo, Angela R.; Pfenning, Ludwig H.; Young, Maria Claudia M.; Costa-Neto, Claudio M.; Haddad, Renato; Eberlin, Marcos N.

    2010-01-01

    A chemical study on the EtOAc extract produced by Xylaria sp., an endophytic fungus from Piper aduncum, resulted in the isolation of a new cytochalasin 1, along with five known 19,20-epoxycytochalasin D (2), C (3), N (4), Q (5), and R (6). The 1-6 were evaluated against the fungi C. cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum and only 5 showed weak activity. The cytotoxicity in vitro against HeLA and CHO cells lines were investigated and the cytochalasins 2-4, and 6 showed a strong activity against...

  10. Research work to obtain pepper (Piper negrum l.) mutants resistant to Fusarium disease

    Ando, A.; Menten, J.O.M.; Tulmann Neto, A.; Albuquerque, F.C. de

    1984-01-01

    Cuttings of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) variety Singapore were irradiated at different doses (from 3.0-7.0 kR) of gamma radiation in the 60 Co source. After two successive prunings of surviving M 1 plants (from the irradiated cuttings), hundreds of vM 3 cuttings were planted separately in pots and artificially inoculated with Fusarium solani f. piperi. The surviving vM 3 plantlets were transplanted to an experimental field highly infested with this patogen. After two years in the infested field, only three UM 3 plants continue to grow. (M.A.C.) [pt

  11. Studies on bio-accumulation of 51Cr by Piper Nigrum

    Ghosh, Kalpita; Nayak, Dalia; Lahiri, Susanta

    2007-01-01

    The present study is performed to accumulate 51 Cr(III) and 51 Cr(VI) using the alkaloid piperine, derived from the fruits of Piper nigrum (Family Piperaceae) as well as by the fruit commonly known as black pepper by radiometric technique. The pH dependence and the effect of concentration of chromium on the accumulation have also been examined. The maximum accumulation (52%) of Cr(III) is found by black pepper at pH 4 whereas piperine shows slight accumulation at this condition. Accumulation of Cr(VI) by black pepper is negligible. (author)

  12. Double bypasses soxhlet apparatus for extraction of piperine from Piper nigrum

    Subramanian, R.; Subbramaniyan, P.; Noorul Ameen, J.; Raj, V.

    2016-01-01

    A simple modified soxhlet extractor, double bypasses sidearm soxhlet apparatus (DBSA) was designed and employed for extraction of piperine from Piper nigrum. Total extraction time, time taken for a cycle and yield observed in the double bypass sidearm soxhlet apparatus was compared with the soxhlet apparatus. Extraction time, time taken for an extraction cycle and yield of crude piperine obtained in DBSA were 12 ± 1 h, 8 ± 1.00 min, and 3.90 ± 0.10 g whereas the results obtained in the soxhle...

  13. Psidium guajava and Piper betle Leaf Extracts Prolong Vase Life of Cut Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) Flowers

    Rahman, M. M.; Ahmad, S. H.; Lgu, K. S.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of leaf extracts of Psidium guajava and Piper betle on prolonging vase life of cut carnation flowers was studied. “Carola” and “Pallas Orange” carnation flowers, at bud stage, were pulsed 24 hours with a floral preservative. Then, flowers were placed in a vase solution containing sprite and a “germicide” (leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle, 8-HQC, or a copper coin). Flowers treated with 8-HQC, copper coin, and leaf extracts had longer vase life, larger flower diameter, and hi...

  14. Age-dependent changes from allylphenol to prenylated benzoic acid production in Piper gaudichaudianum Kunth.

    Gaia, Anderson M; Yamaguchi, Lydia F; Jeffrey, Christopher S; Kato, Massuo J

    2014-10-01

    HPLC-DAD and principal component analysis (PCA) of the (1)H NMR spectrum of crude plant extracts showed high chemical variability among seedlings and adult organs of Piper gaudichaudianum. While gaudichaudianic acid was the major compound in the adult leaves, apiole and dillapiole were the major compounds in their seedling leaves. By the 15th month of seedling growth, the levels of apiole and dillapiole decreased and gaudichaudianic acid appeared along with two compounds, biosynthetically related to gaudichaudianic acid. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Chemodiversity Associated with Cytotoxicity and Antimicrobial Activity of Piper aduncum var. ossanum.

    Gutiérrez, Yamilet; Montes, Rodny; Scull, Ramón; Sánchez, Arturo; Cos, Paul; Monzote, Lianet; Setzer, William N

    2016-12-01

    Chemical analysis, antimicrobial activity and cytotoxic effects of essential oils (EOs) from leaves of Piper aduncum var. ossanum from two localities Bauta (EO-B) and Ceiba (EO-C), Artemisa Province, Cuba, were determined. EOs were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. EO-B demonstrated higher activity against S. aureus and L. amazonensis; while a lower cytotoxicity on mammalian cells was observed. Both EOs displayed the same activity against Plasmodium falciparum, Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma brucei, and Leishmania infantum. Both EOs were inactive against Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  16. Evaluation of antibacterial and anthelmintic activities with total phenolic contents of Piper betel leaves

    Kazi Akter

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study was conducted to investigate the antibacterial and anthelmintic activities and to determine total phenolic contents of methanolic extract of Piper betel leaves. Materials and Methods: The extract was subjected to assay for antibacterial activity using both gram positive and gram negative bacterial strains through disc diffusion method; anthelmintic activity with the determination of paralysis and death time using earthworm (Pheritima posthuma at five different concentrations and the determination of total phenolic contents using the Folin-ciocalteau method. Results: The extract showed significant (p

  17. Evaluation of antibacterial and anthelmintic activities with total phenolic contents of Piper betel leaves

    Akter, Kazi Nahid; Karmakar, Palash; Das, Abhijit; Anonna, Shamima Nasrin; Shoma, Sharmin Akter; Sattar, Mohammad Mafruhi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The study was conducted to investigate the antibacterial and anthelmintic activities and to determine total phenolic contents of methanolic extract of Piper betel leaves. Materials and Methods: The extract was subjected to assay for antibacterial activity using both gram positive and gram negative bacterial strains through disc diffusion method; anthelmintic activity with the determination of paralysis and death time using earthworm (Pheritima posthuma) at five different concentrations and the determination of total phenolic contents using the Folin-ciocalteau method. Results: The extract showed significant (pbetel leaves extract, therefore it may be processed for further drug research. PMID:25386394

  18. Aircraft engine pollution reduction.

    Rudey, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of engine operation on the types and levels of the major aircraft engine pollutants is described and the major factors governing the formation of these pollutants during the burning of hydrocarbon fuel are discussed. Methods which are being explored to reduce these pollutants are discussed and their application to several experimental research programs are pointed out. Results showing significant reductions in the levels of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen obtained from experimental combustion research programs are presented and discussed to point out potential application to aircraft engines. An experimental program designed to develop and demonstrate these and other advanced, low pollution combustor design methods is described. Results that have been obtained to date indicate considerable promise for reducing advanced engine exhaust pollutants to levels significantly below current engines.

  19. Aircraft Design Software

    1997-01-01

    Successful commercialization of the AirCraft SYNThesis (ACSYNT) tool has resulted in the creation of Phoenix Integration, Inc. ACSYNT has been exclusively licensed to the company, an outcome of a seven year, $3 million effort to provide unique software technology to a focused design engineering market. Ames Research Center formulated ACSYNT and in working with the Virginia Polytechnic Institute CAD Laboratory, began to design and code a computer-aided design for ACSYNT. Using a Joint Sponsored Research Agreement, Ames formed an industry-government-university alliance to improve and foster research and development for the software. As a result of the ACSYNT Institute, the software is becoming a predominant tool for aircraft conceptual design. ACSYNT has been successfully applied to high- speed civil transport configuration, subsonic transports, and supersonic fighters.

  20. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Red Piper Crocatum Leaves Extract Decrease TNF-α and IL-6 Levels in Wistar Rat with Atherosclerosis

    Sri Wahjuni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: This research aims to find a cure for anti-inflammation, based on the utilization of red piper crocatum. The research was started with descriptive study to explore active components of red piper crocatum leaf and followed by experimental study to investigate red piper crocatum activity of the leaf extract in anti-inflammation induced Wistar rat. In this research observed three dominant components: caryophyllene bicyclo [5.2.0] none,2 methylene-4,8,8-trimethyl-4-vinyl; phytol; 5,9-propano-5H-benzocycloheptene,6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-7,11-bis(methylene; 4,4-ethynedioxy-2-hexadecen-15-15 olide 1,4,9-trioxaspiro [4,15] eic os-6-en-8-one, 10 methyl; 1H-1,2,4-triazole-5(H-thione,4-allyl-3-(3-furyl; Benzofuran,2,3-dihydro-2-methyl-7-phenyl which are possibly active to inhibit anti-inflammation to atherosclerosis. Bad eating habits also can cause various health problems, such as obesity, dyslipidemia, inflammation to atherosclerosis. This study was conducted to investigate of red piper crocatum leaves extract as an anti-inflammation through decrease of biochemistry markers TNF-α and IL-6 levels. Method: This is a true experimental with randomized pre-test and post-test control group design, using 50 Wistar rats that are divided into 5 groups: control group using 0 mg/kg BW red piper crocatum leaves extract, treatment group 1 using 50 mg/kg BW red piper crocatum leaves extract, treatment group 2 using 100 mg/kg BW red piper crocatum leaves extract, treatment group 3 using 150 mg/kg BW red piper crocatum leaves extract, and treatment group 4 200mg/kg BW red piper crocatum leaves extract. Results: It was observed that intake of 150 mg/BW red piper crocatum leaves extract results in the highest significance decrease of 45.63% of TNF-α levels from (28.62 ± 1.25 to 15.56 ± 7.20 рg/mL and a significance decrease of 15.42% of IL-6 level from (134.64 ± 1.98 to 113.87 ± 4.30 рg/mL. Conclusion: It can be concluded that intake of red piper crocatum

  1. Combat Aircraft Maneuverability.

    1981-12-01

    rodynamique, propulsion, rdsistance den structures, etc ... - lea m~thodes d’essaia an soufflerie, aur banca au aol, sur simulateurs. A un niveau de synthbse...Dunstan Graham, "Aircraft Dynamics and Automatic Control," Princeton University Press , Princeton, N.J., 1973. 9. Hoh, Roger H., Thomas T. Myers...discussion of the roll coupling problem" Progress in Aerospace Sciences, Vol 15, Pergamon Press , Oxford 1974 17-8 (6] R.W. KLOPPENSTEIN "Zeroes of

  2. Antibacterial activity of extracts and neolignans from Piper regnellii (Miq. C. DC. var. pallescens (C. DC. Yunck

    Pessini Greisiele Lorena

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of the activity of the aqueous and ethyl acetate extracts of the leaves of Piper regnellii was tested against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The aqueous extractdisplayed a weak activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC of 1000 µg/ml. The ethyl acetate extract presented a good activity against S. aureus and B. subtilis with MIC and MBC at 15.62 µg/ml. In contrast to the relative low MICs for gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria were not inhibited by the extracts at concentrations < 1000 mg/ml. The ethyl acetate extract was fractionated on silica gel into nine fractions. The hexane and chloroform fractions were active against S. aureus (MIC at 3.9 µg/ml and B. subtilis (MIC at 3.9 and 7.8 µg/ml, respectively. Using bioactivity-directed fractionation, the hexane fraction was rechromatographed to yield the antimicrobial compounds 1, 2, 5, and 6identified as eupomatenoid-6, eupomatenoid-5, eupomatenoid-3, and conocarpan, respectively. The pure compounds 1 and 2 showed a good activity against S. aureus with MIC of 1.56 µg/ml and 3.12 µg/ml, respectively. Both compounds presented MIC of 3.12 µg/ml against B. subtilis. The pure compound 6 named as conocarpan was quite active against S. aureus and B. subtilis with MIC of 6.25 µg/ml. The antibacterial properties of P. regnellii justify its use in traditional medicine for the treatment of wounds, contaminated through bacteria infections.

  3. Aircraft gas turbines

    Sekido, T [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries, Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-03-01

    Current developmental activities of aircraft gas turbines in Japan are reviewed. V2500-A5 engine with thrust of 30,000 LBF is scheduled to be used for real aircraft in 1994, and intensive developmental activities are also proceeding in larger engines over 90,000 LBF. Recently, developmental programs of engines for 75-100 seat aircraft have been actively discussed, and Japanese engine makers are having discussions towards international collaboration. Such engines will be high bypass turbofans of 12,000-22,000 LBF. Development of SST/HST engines in a speed range from subsonic to Mach 5 is under the initiative of the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology. The Technical Research and Development Institute of Japan, Defence Agency achieved the target thrust of 3.4 tons in the small turbofan engine program, and the small turboshaft engine for small helicopters is also under development. Both National Aerospace Laboratory (NAL) and Institute of Space and Aeronautical Science (ISAS) are now conducting the research programs on turbo-ramjet engines under a component test phase. 1 fig.

  4. Soil seed banks and growth rates of an invasive species, Piper aduncum, in the lowlands of Papua New Guinea

    Rogers, H.R.; Hartemink, A.E.

    2000-01-01

    Secondary fallow vegetation in parts of the Papua New Guinea lowlands is dominated by the shrub Piper aduncum L. that originates from South America. Here we report on its seed bank, growth rate and biomass accumulation. P. aduncum accounted for 69 % (408 m[minus sign]2) of the seed bank in the

  5. Kamahouse'i asutamise pöörane lugu / Kadri Jakobson ; vahendanud Ursula Zimmermann ; kommenteerinud William Piper

    Jakobson, Kadri, 1970-

    2012-01-01

    Kunsti ja äri ühendamisest: kobarärist Koplis, kuhu kuuluvad Kamahouse Galerii, Eero Kotli Tellisstuudio, Unique Home Art, William Piper konsultatsioonibüroo, Meeskonnakoolituse ja Arenduse OÜ, kauplus-stuudio Õnneküpsis, kohvik Kamahouse'i Köök

  6. EXTRACTION AND PHYSICO-CHEMICAL STUDIES OF DIASTASE-LIKE ENZYME FROM PIPER BETLE PETIOLES: PART 1

    Ramasarma, G.V.S; Dutta, Sadhan Kumar

    1995-01-01

    Petioles of the plant piper betle-bengal variety have been subjected for extraction employing standard procedure and the crude extract obtained has been evaluated for its diastase like activity and other physico-chemical properties to investigate further its possible biological and pharmacological activities. PMID:22556729

  7. Studies on the interactions of Meloidogyne incognita, Radopholus similis and Fusarium solani on black pepper (Piper nigrum L.)

    Mustika, I.

    1990-01-01

    This study on the interactions between various cultivars of the black pepper plant (Piper nigrum L. ) and three of its pathogens, Meloidogyne Incognita (Kofoid & White) , Radopholus similis (Cobb) , Thorne and

  8. Composition of the essential oil from the aerial parts of Piper pierrei C.DC. from Vietnam

    Leclercq, P.A.; Genderen, van M.H.P.; Thanh, L.; Khien, P.V.; Dung, N.X.

    1997-01-01

    The oil of Piperpierrei C.DC. (local name Teau nlii, Tieu pierrei - Piper grown on the mountain) was isolated from its aerial parts by hydrodistillation. The oil was analyzed for the first time by high resolution GC, GC/MS and 13C-NMR. It contained more than 80 constituents of which 67 compounds

  9. Compositional analysis of the leaf oils of Piper callosum Ruiz & Pav. from Peru and Michelia montana Blume from India

    Genderen, van M.H.P.; Leclercq, P.A.; Delgado, H.S.; Kanjilal, P.B.; Singh, R.S.

    1999-01-01

    The leaf oils of Piper callosum from Peruvian Amazon and Michelia montana from Assam, India, were prepared by hydrodistillation and analyzed by a combination of GC and GC/MS. Twenty five and thirty components have been identified, representing 96.3 and 100.0% of the respective oils. The major

  10. "A New Kind of Rule": The Subversive Narrator in "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland" and "The Pied Piper of Hamelin."

    Blackburn, William

    1986-01-01

    Compares "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland" to "The Pied Piper of Hamelin," noting that both: (1) were begun for the amusement of specific children; (2) use a subterranean journey as a device; (3) are critical of social authority; and (4) have problematic endings. (SRT)

  11. Invasion of Piper aduncum in the shifting cultivation systems of Papua New Guinea: Foreword by David Pimentel

    Hartemink, A.E.

    2006-01-01

    Piper aduncum, a shrub native to Central America, arrived in Papua New Guinea before the mid-1930s possibly from West Papua. From the 1970s it started to dominate the secondary fallow vegetation in many parts of the humid lowlands. It invaded grassland areas and it also appeared in the highlands up

  12. Leaf litter decomposition of Piper aduncum, Gliricidia sepium and Imperata cylindrica in the humid lowlands of Papua New Guinea

    Hartemink, A.E.; O'Sullivan, J.N.

    2001-01-01

    No information is available on the decomposition and nutrient release pattern of Piper aduncum and Imperata cylindrica despite their importance in shifting cultivation systems of Papua New Guinea and other tropical regions. We conducted a litter bag study (24 weeks) on a Typic Eutropepts in the

  13. Contribution of Polyphenol Oxidation, Chlorophyll and Vitamin C Degradation to the Blackening of Piper nigrum L.

    Gu, Fenglin; Huang, Feifei; Wu, Guiping; Zhu, Hongying

    2018-02-09

    Black pepper ( Piper nigrum L.) is the most widely used spice in the world. Blackening is considered to be beneficial and important in the processing of black pepper because it contributes to its color and flavor. The purpose of this paper is to investigate polyphenol oxidation as well as the chlorophyll and vitamin C (VC) degradation in the blackening of Piper nigrum L. Black pepper was produced by four methods, and changes in polyphenols, chlorophyll and VC were studied by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ultraviolet-visible and visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry. The results show that polyphenol oxidase activity significantly decreased during the preparation of black pepper, and the concentrations of phenolic compounds, VC, and chlorophyll a and b also significantly decreased. Polyphenol oxidation and chlorophyll and VC degradation contribute to the blackening. A crude extract of phenolic compounds from black pepper was prepared by the system solvent method. The greater the polarity of the extraction solvent, the higher the extraction rates of the phenolic compounds and the total phenol content. Pepper phenolic compounds were analyzed by HPLC analysis.

  14. Contribution of Polyphenol Oxidation, Chlorophyll and Vitamin C Degradation to the Blackening of Piper nigrum L.

    Fenglin Gu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Black pepper (Piper nigrum L. is the most widely used spice in the world. Blackening is considered to be beneficial and important in the processing of black pepper because it contributes to its color and flavor. The purpose of this paper is to investigate polyphenol oxidation as well as the chlorophyll and vitamin C (VC degradation in the blackening of Piper nigrum L. Black pepper was produced by four methods, and changes in polyphenols, chlorophyll and VC were studied by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and ultraviolet-visible and visible (UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The results show that polyphenol oxidase activity significantly decreased during the preparation of black pepper, and the concentrations of phenolic compounds, VC, and chlorophyll a and b also significantly decreased. Polyphenol oxidation and chlorophyll and VC degradation contribute to the blackening. A crude extract of phenolic compounds from black pepper was prepared by the system solvent method. The greater the polarity of the extraction solvent, the higher the extraction rates of the phenolic compounds and the total phenol content. Pepper phenolic compounds were analyzed by HPLC analysis.

  15. Acaricidal activity and repellency of essential oil from Piper aduncum and its components against Tetranychus urticae.

    Araújo, Mário J C; Câmara, Cláudio A G; Born, Flávia S; Moraes, Marcílio M; Badji, César A

    2012-06-01

    The chemical composition of essential oil of leaves of Piper aduncum L., growing wild in a fragment of the Atlantic Rainforest biome in northeastern Brazil, was determined through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The acaricidal activity and repellency of the essential oil and its components [dillapiole (0.28 g/ml), α-humulene (0.016 g/ml), (E)-nerolidol (0.0007 g/ml) and β-caryophyllene (0.0021 g/ml)] were evaluated in the laboratory against adults of Tetranychus urticae Koch. The mites were more susceptible to the oil in fumigation tests (LC(50) = 0.01 μl/l of air) than in contact test with closed Petri dish (LC(50) = 7.17 μl/ml); mortality was reduced by approximately 50 % in the latter test. The repellent action of the oil and toxicity by fumigation and contact did not differ significantly from the positive control (eugenol). The repellent activity was attributed to the components (E)-nerolidol, α-humulene and β-caryophyllene, whereas toxicity by fumigation and contact was attributed to β-caryophyllene. The effect of Piper oil and the role of its components regarding host plant preference with a two-choice leaf disk test are also discussed.

  16. An ethanolic extract of leaves of Piper betle (Paan) Linn mediates its antileishmanial activity via apoptosis.

    Sarkar, Avijit; Sen, Rupashree; Saha, Piu; Ganguly, Sudipto; Mandal, Goutam; Chatterjee, Mitali

    2008-05-01

    An unprecedented increase in the incidence of unresponsiveness to antimonial compounds has highlighted the urgent need to develop new antileishmanial agents. The leaves of Piper betle (locally known as Paan) have long been in use in the Indian indigenous system of medicine for its antimicrobial properties but its antileishmanial potential has not been studied. Accordingly, an ethanolic extract of leaves of Piper betle (PB) was tested for its antileishmanial activity that was evidenced in both promastigotes and amastigotes, with IC50 values of 9.8 and 5.45 microg/ml, respectively; importantly, it was accompanied by a safety index of >12-fold. This leishmanicidal activity of PB was mediated via apoptosis as evidenced by morphological changes, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, in situ labeling of DNA fragments by terminal deoxyribonucleotidyltransferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labeling, and cell-cycle arrest at the sub-G0/G1 phase. Taken together, the data indicate that PB has promising antileishmanial activity that is mediated via programmed cell death and, accordingly, merits consideration and further investigation as a therapeutic option for the treatment of leishmaniasis.

  17. Effect of Piper betle on Giardia intestinalis infection in vivo.

    Pecková, Radka; Doležal, Karel; Sak, Bohumil; Květoňová, Dana; Kváč, Martin; Nurcahyo, Wisnu; Foitová, Ivona

    2018-01-01

    Piper betle has been used as a medicinal plant in traditional medical systems throughout South and South East Asia. Experimental studies have revealed its wide and diverse biological and pharmacological effects. In this study, antigiardial activity of Piper betle was tested using experimental infections of Giardia intestinalis, the most common cause of protozoal diarrhoea worldwide, in Mongolian gerbils. Plants were extracted in water, methanol and methanol:tetrahydrofuran. Gerbils were treated for ten days intragastrically twice a day, with the dose of 40 mg of the extract per 100 g of body weight. Drug metronidazole was used as a negative control. Gerbils' faeces were taken every day and examined by flotation method, the number of shed cysts were counted using a haemocytometer. After gerbils' sacrifice and dissection, their duodena were then processed for examination using histological sectioning and scanning electron microscopy. The antigiardial activity was evaluated by the course of cyst shedding throughout the entire experiment. A significant decline in cyst shedding, evaluated by linear regression was found in gerbils treated with the aqueous extract. Our results indicate that the aqueous extract of P. betle shows giardicidal effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Ethnoveterinary study for antidermatophytic activity of Piper betle, Alpinia galanga and Allium ascalonicum extracts in vitro.

    Trakranrungsie, N; Chatchawanchonteera, A; Khunkitti, W

    2008-02-01

    Crude ethanolic extracts of Piper betle leaves (Piperaceae), Alpinia galanga rhizomes (Zingiberaceae) and Allium ascalonicum bulbs (Liliaceae) were tested against selected zoonotic dermatophytes (Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophyte) and the yeast-like Candida albicans. A broth dilution method was employed to determine the inhibitory effect of the extracts and compared to those of ketoconazole and griseofulvin. All extracts suppressed the growth of the fungi in a concentration-dependent manner. Among the extracts tested, P. betle exhibited more effective antifungal properties with average IC(50) values ranging from 110.44 to 119.00 microg/ml. Subsequently, 10% Piper betle (Pb) cream was formulated, subjected to physical and microbial limit test and evaluated for antifungal effect. The disc diffusion assay revealed comparable zones of inhibition between discs of Pb cream containing 80 microg P. betle extract and 80 microg ketoconazole against tested fungi at 96 h after incubation. Thereafter, the inhibitory effect of Pb cream markedly decreased and completely lost effectiveness by day 7. In summary, the results supported the traditional wisdom of herbal remedy use and suggested a potential value-addition to agricultural products. It was suggested that the Pb cream has potential therapeutic value for treatment of dermatophytosis. However, clinical testing as well as improving the Pb cream formulation with greater efficacy and duration of action would be of interest and awaits further investigation.

  19. Aplikasi Ekstrak Daun Sirih (Piper Betle Linn dalam Menghambat Oksidasi Lemak Jambal Patin (Pangasius hypophthalmus

    Farida Ariyani

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penelitian aplikasi ekstrak daun sirih (Piper betle Linn untuk menghambat proses oksidasi jambal patin telah dilakukan. Percobaan dilakukan dengan penambahan ekstrak daun sirih (Piper betle Linn dalam larutan garam yang digunakan untuk penggaraman ikan. Perbandingan ekstrak daun sirih dan larutan garam yang digunakan adalah 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, 1:5 (v/v, sedangkan larutan garam tanpa penambahan ekstrak daun sirih digunakan sebagai kontrol. Selesai perendaman dalam campuran larutan garam dan ekstrak sirih (48 jam, patin asin dikeringkan di bawah sinar matahari selama 4–5 hari, selanjutnya disimpan pada suhu ruang (25-32oC selama 8 minggu. Perubahan mutu jambal patin dimonitor secara organoleptik dan kimiawi (angka Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances/TBARS, angka anisidin, dan produk berfluoresen, sebelum jambal patin kering disimpan dan setiap 2 minggu selama penyimpanan. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa penambahan ekstrak daun sirih pada larutan garam selama penggaraman mampu menghambat oksidasi lemak jambal patin selama penyimpanan 8 minggu tercermin dari rendahnya angka TBARS, anisidin, dan produk berfluoresen jambal patin yang diperlakukan dengan daun sirih dibanding dengan kontrol. Berdasarkan hasil uji sensori, jambal patin yang diberi ekstrak air daun sirih tidak berbau tengik, walaupun warna dan rasa jambal patin sedikit berubah. Perlakuan ekstrak sirih yang mampu menghambat oksidasi lemak jambal patin dengan nilai sensori terbaik adalah kelompok perlakuan ekstrak daun sirih dengan perbandingan 1:5 (v/v.

  20. Assessment of antinociceptive, antipyretic and antimicrobial activity of Piper cubeba L. essential oil in animal models.

    Mothana, Ramzi; Alsaid, Mansour; Khaled, Jamal M; Alharbi, Naiyf S; Alatar, Abdulrahman; Raish, Mohammad; Al-Yahya, Mohammed; Rafatullah, Syed; Parvez, Mohammad Khalid; Ahamad, Syed Rizwan

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the possible antiniciceptive, antipyretic and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil obtained from the fruits of Piper Cubeba (L.). To assess the antinociceptive and antipyretic activities, three doses (150, 300 and 600 mg/kg, i.p.) were tested in acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing, tail flick reaction and hot-plate and Brewer's yeast-induced hyperpyrexia test models in animals. Moreover, the antimicrobial activity was examined using agar diffusion method and broth micro-dilution assay for minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC). The Piper Cubeba essential oil (PCEO) showed a marked antinociception (17, 30 and 54%) and an increase in reaction time in mice in the flick tailed and hot-plate tests. The brewer's yeast induced hyperpyrexia was decreased in a dose dependent manner. PCEO also exhibited a strong antimicrobial potential. These findings confirm the traditional analgesic indications of P. cubeba oil and provide persuasive evidence and support its use in Arab traditional medicine.

  1. Flavonoids from Piper delineatum modulate quorum-sensing-regulated phenotypes in Vibrio harveyi.

    Martín-Rodríguez, Alberto J; Ticona, Juan C; Jiménez, Ignacio A; Flores, Ninoska; Fernández, José J; Bazzocchi, Isabel L

    2015-09-01

    Quorum sensing (QS), or bacterial cell-to-cell communication, is a key process for bacterial colonization of substrata through biofilm formation, infections, and production of virulence factors. In an ongoing investigation of bioactive secondary metabolites from Piper species, four new flavonoids (1-4), along with five known ones (5-9) were isolated from the leaves of Piper delineatum. Their stereostructures were established by spectroscopic and spectrometric methods, including 1D and 2D NMR experiments, and comparison with data reported in the literature. The compounds were screened for their ability to interfere with QS signaling in the bacterial model Vibrio harveyi. Four compounds from this series (2, 3, 6, and 7) exhibited remarkable activity in the micromolar range, being compounds 3 and 7 particularly attractive since they did not affect bacterial growth. The results suggest that these flavonoids disrupt QS-mediated bioluminescence by interaction with elements downstream LuxO in the QS circuit of V. harveyi, and also, they exhibited a strong dose-dependent inhibition of biofilm formation. The present findings shed light on the QS inhibition mechanisms of flavonoids, underlining their potential applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Morfoanatomia dos órgãos vegetativos de Piper hispidum Sw. (Piperaceae

    Adriana L.M. Albiero

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo o estudo morfoanatômico dos órgãos vegetativos de Piper hispidum, visando a estabelecer características marcantes para a sua identificação e auxiliar estudos taxonômicos e farmacobotânicos. O material vegetal fresco e fixado foi estudado segundo as técnicas usuais de corte e coloração, incluindo análise em MEV. Piper hispidum é um arbusto com caule cilíndrico, nodoso, verde claro, com folhas alternas, ovadas, de cor verde-escura na face adaxial e verde claro na abaxial. Dentre as características anatômicas importantes para sua identificação destacam-se: parênquima cortical da raiz apresentando grupos de esclereídes. Córtex caulinar com faixas descontínuas de colênquima do tipo angular e tecido vascular organizado em dois círculos descontínuos de feixes colaterais. A folha é dorsiventral, hipoestomática, com estômatos tetracíticos. Hipoderme adaxial descontínua e abaxial frouxa com número variável de camadas; tricomas tectores e glandulares ocorrem nas duas faces. Epiderme uniestratificada e idioblastos oleíferos ocorrem em todos os órgãos.

  3. [Determination of the healing effect of Piper aduncum (spiked pepper or matico) on human fibroblasts].

    Paco, Karen; Ponce-Soto, Luis Alberto; Lopez-Ilasaca, Marco; Aguilar, José L

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the healing effect of a Piper aduncum ethanol-water extract on an adult human dermal fibroblast cell line (hDFa). After obtaining the extract via solid-liquid extraction, concentration, and lyophilization, extract proteins were purified using reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography, identified using tandem mass spectrometry of tryptic peptides, and analyzed using MALDI-TOF-TOF on an ABSciex4800 mass spectrometer. Half maximum effective concentration values (EC50), half maximum inhibiting concentration (IC50), and percentages of cell proliferation were determined using tetrazolium salt assays. Cell migration was evaluated using a "scratch assay". Growth factor expression in cells was analyzed via quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Against the hDFa cell line, the extract had an IC50 of 200 μg/mL and EC50 of 103.5 µg/mL. In the proliferation assay, protein K2 (obtained from the extract) exhibited increased proliferative activity relative to other treatments (1 µg/mL); this agent also exhibited increased activity (50 µg/mL) in the fibroblast migration assay.Furthermore, the relative expression of platelet-derived growth factor increased by 8.6-fold in the presence of K2 protein relative to the control. The hydroethanolic extract of Piper aduncum and its component proteins increased the proliferation and migration of hDFa and increased the expression of growth factors involved in the healing process.

  4. Multidrug resistance-selective antiproliferative activity of Piper amide alkaloids and synthetic analogues.

    Wang, Yue-Hu; Goto, Masuo; Wang, Li-Ting; Hsieh, Kan-Yen; Morris-Natschke, Susan L; Tang, Gui-Hua; Long, Chun-Lin; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung

    2014-10-15

    Twenty-five amide alkaloids (1-25) from Piper boehmeriifolium and 10 synthetic amide alkaloid derivatives (39-48) were evaluated for antiproliferative activity against eight human tumor cell lines, including chemosensitive and multidrug-resistant (MDR) cell lines. The results suggested tumor type-selectivity. 1-[7-(3,4,5-Trimethoxyphenyl)heptanoyl]piperidine (46) exhibited the best inhibitory activity (IC50=4.94 μM) against the P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-overexpressing KBvin MDR sub-line, while it and all other tested compounds, except 9, were inactive (IC50 >40 μM) against MDA-MB-231 and SK-BR-3. Structure-activity relationships (SARs) indicated that (i) 3,4,5-trimethoxy phenyl substitution is critical for selectivity against KBvin, (ii) the 4-methoxy group in this pattern is crucial for antiproliferative activity, (iii) double bonds in the side chain are not needed for activity, and (iv), in arylalkenylacyl amide alkaloids, replacement of an isobutylamino group with pyrrolidin-1-yl or piperidin-1-yl significantly improved activity. Further study on Piper amides is warranted, particularly whether side chain length affects the ability to overcome the MDR cancer phenotype. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Impact of blanching, sweating and drying operations on pungency, aroma and color of Piper borbonense.

    Weil, M; Shum Cheong Sing, A; Méot, J M; Boulanger, R; Bohuon, P

    2017-03-15

    Low pungency, high aromatic potential and red color, give to Piper borbonense its originality when compared to Piper nigrum. Effects of blanching, sweating and drying on these characteristics were assessed. The three operations had no impact on the concentration of piperine and essential oil but affected the composition of essential oil slightly and considerably affected the color of the pepper. The "wet process", including blanching, sweating and drying, had the largest impact on the composition of aroma, increasing para-cymene content by 89% and reducing safrole content by 33% in dried pepper compared to fresh. Blanching increased the drying rate thus reducing drying time. Drying had a major impact on color, which changed from red to brown. The biggest differences observed led to reductions of 2.2, 7.9 and 8.4units in L ∗ , a ∗ and b ∗ values, when chromatic values measured in fresh pepper were compared to those of dried pepper. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. HSCCC separation and enantiomeric distribution of key volatile constituents of Piper claussenianum (Miq.) C. DC. (Piperaceae).

    Marques, André M; Fingolo, Catharina E; Kaplan, Maria Auxiliadora C

    2017-11-01

    High Speed Countercurrent Chromatography (HSCCC) technique was used for the preparative isolation of the major leishmanicidal compounds from the essential oils of Piper claussenianum species in Brazil. The essential oils from inflorescences of P. claussenianum were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The enantiomeric ratio of the major constituents of the P. claussenianum essential oils were determined using a Rt-DEXsm chiral capillary column by GC-FID analysis. It was found an enantiomeric excess of (+)-(E)-nerolidol in the leaves, and (+)-linalool and (+)-(E)-nerolidol in the inflorescences essential oil. The major volatile terpenes alcohols were isolated in preparative scale from inflorescences: linalool (320.0 mg) and nerolidol (95.0 mg) in high purity level. The HSCCC, a support-free liquid-liquid partition chromatographic technique, proved to be an effective and useful method for fast isolation and purification of hydrophobic and similarly structured bioactive components from essential oils of Piper species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Comparative metabolism of three amide alkaloids from Piper longum in five different species of liver microsomes].

    He, Huan; Guo, Wei-Wei; Chen, Xiao-Qing; Zhao, Hai-Yu; Wu, Xia

    2016-08-01

    Piperine, piperlonguminine and pellitorine are three major amide alkaloids from Piper longum, showing a variety of pharmacological activities. In order to investigate the different metabolism pathways of these compounds in five species of liver microsomes in vitro, the data of full mass spectrum, and MS2, MS3 spectra of these three alkaloids were collected and analyzed by using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a LTQ-orbitrap mass spectrometer (UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap MS); gragment ion information was collected and combined with fragmentation regularities of mass spectra and accurate mass spectrometry data of metabolites, to compare the metabolism difference of three amide alkaloids in liver microsomes of human, rhesus monkey, Beagle dogs, rats and mice. 3 metabolites of piperine, 2 metabolites of piperlonguminine and 1 metabolite of pellitorine were identified quickly. The results showed that the major metabolic pathways of these amide alkaloids in liver microsomes were methylenedioxy group demethylation and oxidation reaction, and metabolic rates were different between species. This study provides basis for further research on in vivo metabolism of piperine analogues from Piper longum. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  8. Chemical composition of essential oils from four Vietnamese species of piper (piperaceae).

    Hieu, Le D; Thang, Tran D; Hoi, Tran M; Ogunwande, Isiaka A

    2014-01-01

    The chemical composition of essential oils from four Piper species, Piper retrofractum Vahl., P. boehmeriaefolium (Miq.) C. DC., P. sarmentosum Roxb., and P. maclurei Merr., were analysed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Nineteen to sixty-four compounds representing 92.0%-98.4% of the total contents were identified in the oil samples. The major constituents identified in P. retrofractum leaf oil were benzyl benzoate (14.4%), myrcene (14.4%), bicycloelemene (9.9%), bicyclogermacrene (7.0%) and β-caryophyllene (5.3%). On the other hand, the main constituents of P. boehmeriaefolium were α-copaene (28.3%), α-pinene (7.4%) and 1, 8-cineole (5.7%). P. sarmentosum showed a very different chemical profile characterized mainly by aromatic compounds and devoid of monoterpene hydrocarbons. The major constituents were benzyl benzoate (49.1%), benzyl alcohol (17.9%), 2-hydroxy-benzoic acid phenylmethyl ester (10.0%) and 2-butenyl-benzene (7.9%). The leaf of P. maclurei was characterized by higher amount of (E)-cinnamic acid (37.4%) and (E)-nerolidol (19.4%). Moreover, (Z)-9-octadecanoic acid methyl ester (28.0%), (E)-cinnamyl acetate (17.2%), phytol (12.2%) and (E)-cinnamaldehyde (8.8%) were the major compounds identified in the stem oil.

  9. PIPER: Performance Insight for Programmers and Exascale Runtimes: Guiding the Development of the Exascale Software Stack

    Mellor-Crummey, John [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)

    2017-10-20

    The PIPER project set out to develop methodologies and software for measurement, analysis, attribution, and presentation of performance data for extreme-scale systems. Goals of the project were to support analysis of massive multi-scale parallelism, heterogeneous architectures, multi-faceted performance concerns, and to support both post-mortem performance analysis to identify program features that contribute to problematic performance and on-line performance analysis to drive adaptation. This final report summarizes the research and development activity at Rice University as part of the PIPER project. Producing a complete suite of performance tools for exascale platforms during the course of this project was impossible since both hardware and software for exascale systems is still a moving target. For that reason, the project focused broadly on the development of new techniques for measurement and analysis of performance on modern parallel architectures, enhancements to HPCToolkit’s software infrastructure to support our research goals or use on sophisticated applications, engaging developers of multithreaded runtimes to explore how support for tools should be integrated into their designs, engaging operating system developers with feature requests for enhanced monitoring support, engaging vendors with requests that they add hardware measure- ment capabilities and software interfaces needed by tools as they design new components of HPC platforms including processors, accelerators and networks, and finally collaborations with partners interested in using HPCToolkit to analyze and tune scalable parallel applications.

  10. Propriedade inseticida dos óleos essenciais de Piper hispidinervum C. DC.; Piper aduncum L. e Tanaecium nocturnum (Barb. Rodr. Bur. & K. Shum sobre Tenebrio molitor L., 1758 Insecticidal properties of essential oils of Piper hispidinervum C. DC.; Piper aduncum L. and Tanaecium nocturnum (Barb. Rodr. Bur. & K. Shum against Tenebrio molitor L., 1758

    Murilo Fazolin

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Óleos essenciais das piperáceas Piper aduncum L., Piper hispidinervum C. DC. e da bignoniácea Tanaecium nocturnum (Barb. Rodr. Bur. & K. Shum foram avaliados para o controle de larvas de Tenebrio molitor L., 1758. Para a avaliação do efeito por contato em superfície contaminada, foram utilizados papéis-filtro impregnados com diferentes quantidades dos óleos essenciais. Para a avaliação do efeito tópico foram aplicados 5 mL de soluções com diferentes concentrações dos óleos sobre larvas de quinto instar do inseto. A taxa de mortalidade foi a variável utilizada para avaliar os experimentos. Todos os óleos essenciais apresentaram efeito inseticida sobre larvas de T. molitor, sendo que as respostas variaram em função da concentração utilizada, assim como do método de exposição do inseto. A toxicidade dos óleos essenciais foi elevada apresentando os seguintes valores de CL50: 0,045; 0,033 e 1,515 mL de óleo cm-2 para exposição por contato (papel filtro aos óleos de P. hispidinervum,P. aduncum e T. nocturnum, respectivamente. Para a aplicação tópica, os valores da DL50 foram de: 0,000025; 0,009 e 0,000015 mL de óleo mg de inseto -1 para os óleos essenciais de P. hispidinervum,P. aduncum e T. nocturnum, respectivamente. Resultados promissores para o emprego desses óleos essenciais como inseticidas foram obtidos utilizando-se concentrações acima de 3,0% (v v-1 para P. hispidinervum e 2,5% (v v-1 para P. aduncum e T. nocturnum.Essential oils from Piper aduncum L., Piper hispidinervum C. DC. (Piperaceae and Tanaecium nocturnum (Barb. Rodr. Bur.& K. Shum (Bignoniaceae were tested against Tenebrio molitor L., 1758 larvaes. Filter paper with different amounts of oils were employed for contact toxicity effects study. For topical effect study, aliquots of 5 mL of oils at different concentrations were applied on larvaes of the fifth instar. Mortality rate was used to evaluate the assays. All essential oils possessed

  11. Insecticidal activity of Piper essential oils from the Amazon against the fire ant Solenopsis saevissima (Smith) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Souto, R N P; Harada, A Y; Andrade, E H A; Maia, J G S

    2012-12-01

    Pepper plants in the genus Piper (Piperales: Piperaceae) are common in the Brazilian Amazon and many produce compounds with biological activity against insect pests. We evaluated the insecticidal effect of essential oils from Piper aduncum, Piper marginatum (chemotypes A and B), Piper divaricatum and Piper callosum against workers of the fire ant Solenopsis saevissima (Smith) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), as well as their chemical composition by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The lowest median lethal concentration (LC50) in 48 h was obtained with the oil of P. aduncum (58.4 mg/L), followed by the oils of P. marginatum types A (122.4 mg/L) and B (167.0 mg/L), P. divaricatum (301.7 mg/L), and P. callosum (312.6 mg/L). The major chemical constituents were dillapiole (64.4%) in the oil of P. aduncum; p-mentha-1(7),8-diene (39.0%), 3,4-methylenedioxypropiophenone (19.0%), and (E)-β-ocimene (9.8%) in P. marginatum chemotype A and (E)-isoosmorhizole (32.2%), (E)-anethole (26.4%), isoosmorhizole (11.2%), and (Z)-anethole (6.0%) in P. marginatum chemotype B; methyleugenol (69.2%) and eugenol (16.2%) in P. divaricatum; and safrole (69.2%), methyleugenol (8.6%), and β-pinene (6.2%) in P. callosum. These chemical constituents have been previously known to possess insecticidal properties.

  12. Sensitivity difference of Streptococcus viridans on 35% Piper betle linn extract and 10% povidone iodine towards recurrent apthous stomatitis

    Maharani Laillyza Apriasari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral ulceration often becomes the main reason for the patients to see a dentist. Therapy of the oral ulceration is by giving the palliative therapy with topical antiseptic. Nowadays, there are many researches concerning with the traditional medicines as alternative therapy. One of them is Piper betle linn which contains the antiseptic agent. Purpose: This research is aimed to observe the sensitivity difference of Streptococcus viridans on 35% Piper betle linn extract and 10%povidone iodine. Methods: This laboratory research was conducted by the post test only design with random complete design. The research sampel is Streptococcus viridans culture that was scrapped from the ulcer of the recurrent aphthous stomatitis patient, then it was replicated by using the Federer theory. Results: Inhibitory zone of 35% Piper betle linn extract is bigger than 10% povidone iodine. Conclusion: Streptococcus viridans are more sensitive to 35% Piper bittle linn extract than 10% povidone iodine. 35% Piper betle linn extract has more antibacterial effect than 10% povidone iodine.Latar belakang: Ulserasi rongga mulut seringkali menjadi alasan utama bagi pasien untuk memeriksakan diri ke dokter gigi. Terapi ulserasi rongga mulut adalah pemberian terapi paliatif kepada penderita, seperti: pemberian obat topikal yang mengandung antiseptik. Saat ini banyak penelitian dalam pengembangan obat tradisional yang dapat dijadikan sebagai obat alternatif. Salah satu diantaranya adalah daun sirih yang mengandung zat antiseptik. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui perbedaan sensitivitas Streptococcus viridans terhadap ekstrak daun sirih 35% jika dibandingkan dengan povidone iodine 10%. Metode: Penelitian laboratoris yang dilakukan dengan post test only design dengan rancangan acak lengkap. Sampel penelitian adalah kultur Streptococcus viridans yang diambil melalui swab dari hapusan ulser pada pasien yang menderita stomatitis aftosa rekuren, kemudian dilakukan

  13. Principles for Aircraft Energy Mapping

    Berg, Frederick T N

    2013-01-01

    An increasing emphasis on energy eciency in aircraft systems has in recentyears led to greater interest in integrated design and optimisation withinthe industry. New tools are needed to understand, compare and manage energyuse of an aircraft throughout its design and operation. This thesis describes a new methodology to meet this need: aircraft exergy mapping.The choice of exergy, a 2nd law metric, to describe the energy ows is fundamental to the methodology, providing numerous advantages ove...

  14. Commercial Aircraft Integrated Vehicle Health Management Study

    Reveley, Mary S.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Evans, Joni K.; Jones, Sharon Monica; Kurtoglu, Tolga; Leone, Karen M.; Sandifer, Carl E.; Thomas, Megan A.

    2010-01-01

    Statistical data and literature from academia, industry, and other government agencies were reviewed and analyzed to establish requirements for fixture work in detection, diagnosis, prognosis, and mitigation for IVHM related hardware and software. Around 15 to 20 percent of commercial aircraft accidents between 1988 and 2003 involved inalftfnctions or failures of some aircraft system or component. Engine and landing gear failures/malfunctions dominate both accidents and incidents. The IVI vl Project research technologies were found to map to the Joint Planning and Development Office's National Research and Development Plan (RDP) as well as the Safety Working Group's National Aviation Safety Strategic. Plan (NASSP). Future directions in Aviation Technology as related to IVHlvl were identified by reviewing papers from three conferences across a five year time span. A total of twenty-one trend groups in propulsion, aeronautics and aircraft categories were compiled. Current and ftiture directions of IVHM related technologies were gathered and classified according to eight categories: measurement and inspection, sensors, sensor management, detection, component and subsystem monitoring, diagnosis, prognosis, and mitigation.

  15. 14 CFR 21.6 - Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft... Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers. (a) Except as specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, no person may manufacture a new aircraft, aircraft engine, or propeller based on...

  16. Energy and Economic Trade Offs for Advanced Technology Subsonic Aircraft

    Maddalon, D. V.; Wagner, R. D.

    1976-01-01

    Changes in future aircraft technology which conserve energy are studied, along with the effect of these changes on economic performance. Among the new technologies considered are laminar-flow control, composite materials with and without laminar-flow control, and advanced airfoils. Aircraft design features studied include high-aspect-ratio wings, thickness ratio, and range. Engine technology is held constant at the JT9D level. It is concluded that wing aspect ratios of future aircraft are likely to significantly increase as a result of new technology and the push of higher fuel prices. Composite materials may raise aspect radio to about 11 to 12 and practical laminar flow-control systems may further increase aspect ratio to 14 or more. Advanced technology provides significant reductions in aircraft take-off gross weight, energy consumption, and direct operating cost.

  17. Chemistry in aircraft plumes

    Kraabol, A.G.; Stordal, F.; Knudsen, S. [Norwegian Inst. for Air Research, Kjeller (Norway); Konopka, P. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1997-12-31

    An expanding plume model with chemistry has been used to study the chemical conversion of NO{sub x} to reservoir species in aircraft plumes. The heterogeneous conversion of N{sub 2}O{sub 5} to HNO{sub 3}(s) has been investigated when the emissions take place during night-time. The plume from an B747 has been simulated. During a ten-hour calculation the most important reservoir species was HNO{sub 3} for emissions at noon. The heterogeneous reactions had little impact on the chemical loss of NO{sub x} to reservoir species for emissions at night. (author) 4 refs.

  18. Chemistry in aircraft plumes

    Kraabol, A G; Stordal, F; Knudsen, S [Norwegian Inst. for Air Research, Kjeller (Norway); Konopka, P [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1998-12-31

    An expanding plume model with chemistry has been used to study the chemical conversion of NO{sub x} to reservoir species in aircraft plumes. The heterogeneous conversion of N{sub 2}O{sub 5} to HNO{sub 3}(s) has been investigated when the emissions take place during night-time. The plume from an B747 has been simulated. During a ten-hour calculation the most important reservoir species was HNO{sub 3} for emissions at noon. The heterogeneous reactions had little impact on the chemical loss of NO{sub x} to reservoir species for emissions at night. (author) 4 refs.

  19. Commercial Aircraft Protection

    Ehst, David A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-10-26

    This report summarizes the results of theoretical research performed during 3 years of P371 Project implementation. In results of such research a new scientific conceptual technology of quasi-passive individual infrared protection of heat-generating objects – Spatial Displacement of Thermal Image (SDTI technology) was developed. Theoretical substantiation and description of working processes of civil aircraft individual IR-protection system were conducted. The mathematical models and methodology were presented, there were obtained the analytical dependencies which allow performing theoretical research of the affect of intentionally arranged dynamic field of the artificial thermal interferences with variable contrast onto main parameters of optic-electronic tracking and homing systems.

  20. Aeroelastic tailoring of composite aircraft wings

    Mihaila-Andres, Mihai; Larco, Ciprian; Rosu, Paul-Virgil; Rotaru, Constantin

    2017-07-01

    The need of a continuously increasing size and performance of aerospace structures has settled the composite materials as the preferred materials in aircraft structures. Apart from the clear capacity to reduce the structural weight and with it the manufacture cost and the fuel consumption while preserving proper airworthiness, the prospect of tailoring a structure using the unique directional stiffness properties of composite materials allows an aerospace engineer to optimize aircraft structures to achieve particular design objectives. This paper presents a brief review of what is known as the aeroelastic tailoring of airframes with the intent of understanding the evolution of this research topic and at the same time providing useful references for further studies.

  1. High temperature aircraft research furnace facilities

    Smith, James E., Jr.; Cashon, John L.

    1992-01-01

    Focus is on the design, fabrication, and development of the High Temperature Aircraft Research Furnace Facilities (HTARFF). The HTARFF was developed to process electrically conductive materials with high melting points in a low gravity environment. The basic principle of operation is to accurately translate a high temperature arc-plasma gas front as it orbits around a cylindrical sample, thereby making it possible to precisely traverse the entire surface of a sample. The furnace utilizes the gas-tungsten-arc-welding (GTAW) process, also commonly referred to as Tungsten-Inert-Gas (TIG). The HTARFF was developed to further research efforts in the areas of directional solidification, float-zone processing, welding in a low-gravity environment, and segregation effects in metals. The furnace is intended for use aboard the NASA-JSC Reduced Gravity Program KC-135A Aircraft.

  2. Karakterisasi Simplisia, Skrining Fitokimia dan Uji Aktivitas Antibakteri Ekstrak Daun dari Dua Varietas Sirih (Piper betle L.) Terhadap Bakteri Streptococcus mutans Penyebab Karies Gigi

    Sitorus, Sulastri

    2010-01-01

    Leaf of betle (Piper betle L) has beeen used traditionally as medicine, for example as mouthwash, prevent caries and wound curing. This betle have many varieties which was differented by it colour, form and taste. Part of betle are different from colour, form, taste. Part of betle are red betle, Malay betel, black betel, silver betle, forest betle and prawn, but some people more used to sirih Melayu. It happened because almost people do not recordnice varieties of Piper betle. This observat...

  3. PENGARUH LAMA DAN SUHU PENYIMPANAN EKSTRAK DAUN SIRIH HIJAU (Piper betle linn) DENGAN AQUADES TERHADAP DAYA HAMBAT BAKTERI Streptococcus agalactiae PENYEBAB MASTITIS PADA SAPI PERAH

    Muhammad Sanjaya Kusuma; Tri Eko Susilorini; Puguh Surjowardojo

    2017-01-01

    Green betle leaf (Piper betle L.) is one of the plants used by the people of Indonesia for tradisional medicine. Green betle leaf contains antibacterial compounds consisting of phenol and its derivatives. This study aims to determine the antibacterial activity of green betle leaf (Piper betle L.) againt the bacteria Streptococcus agalactiae caused mastitis in dairy cows. Bacterial inhibition test by paper disc method. Data analysis using ANOVA by Nested design with 6 treatment and 6 repetitio...

  4. 40 CFR 721.9530 - Bis(2,2,6,6-tetra-methyl-piper-idinyl) ester of cycloalkyl spir-o-ke-tal.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bis(2,2,6,6-tetra-methyl-piper-idinyl) ester of cycloalkyl spir-o-ke-tal. 721.9530 Section 721.9530 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9530 Bis(2,2,6,6-tetra-methyl-piper-idinyl) ester...

  5. Future Integrated Systems Concept for Preventing Aircraft Loss-of-Control Accidents

    Belcastro, Christine M.; Jacobson, Steven r.

    2010-01-01

    Loss of control remains one of the largest contributors to aircraft fatal accidents worldwide. Aircraft loss-of-control accidents are highly complex in that they can result from numerous causal and contributing factors acting alone or (more often) in combination. Hence, there is no single intervention strategy to prevent these accidents. This paper presents future system concepts and research directions for preventing aircraft loss-of-control accidents.

  6. Aircraft vulnerability analysis by modelling and simulation

    Willers, CJ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available attributable to misuse of the weapon or to missile performance restrictions. This paper analyses some of the factors affecting aircraft vulnerability and demonstrates a structured analysis of the risk and aircraft vulnerability problem. The aircraft...

  7. Design for aircraft impact

    Kar, A.K.

    1978-01-01

    Aircraft impact against nuclear power plant structures leads to both local and overall effects on the structure. Among the local effects, backface spalling is most important. The overall effects of impact on structural stability are commonly evaluated in terms of the adequacy of the structure in flexure and shear. Empirical formulas are presented for the determination of local effects of aircraft impact on nuclear power plant facilities. The formulas lead to easy and reasonable estimates of the thickness required to prevent backface spalling. The impactive load depends upon the collapse load of the fuselage, its collapse mechanism, mass distribution and the impact velocity. A simplified method is given for evaluating the design load. The time history, obtained by the proposed method, closely resembles those obtained by more rigorous methods. Procedures for obtaining shear and flexural strengths of concrete walls or roofs, subjected to impact, are provided. The span-to-depth ratio is considered. Recommendations are made on the available ductility ratio and structural behavior. (Author)

  8. Evaluation of Piper aduncum Linn. Essential Oil (Fam:Piperaceae against Periplaneta americana(L.

    I Ling A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The efficacy of Piper aduncum essential oil was evaluated against Periplaneta americana adults and nymphs in the laboratory."nMethods: The plant essential oil at varying concentrations ranging between 10,000 to 80,000 ppm were placed inside glass beakers, rolled horizontally to ensure the essential oil covers all sides of the beakers and exposed to adults and nymphs of P. americana. Resigen (R 1ppm was used as positive control and distilled water as negative control. The LT50 and LT90 was obtained using Log Probit programme."nResults: Exposure of essential oil to females P. americana at concentrations between 10,000 to 80,000 ppm indicated the LT50 and LT90 values between 5.31 h-189.19 h and 14.90 h-2105.31 h, respectively. Treatment with the same con­centrations against males P. americana ,the LT50 and LT90 were 2.08 h-181.73 h and 5.4 h-8460.51 h, respectively. Treatment against the nymphal stage with the same range of concentrations indicated the LT50 and LT 90 of 4.68 h-381.02 h and 28.71 h-5313.36 h, respectively.The nymphs and males were more susceptible than the females cock­roaches. Treatment with Resigen (R at 1ppm indicated much lower LT 50 and LT 90 values of 2.54 h-9.47 h for the fe­males, 1.47 h-4.22 h for the males and 4.69 h-8.92 h for the nymphs.The negative control indicated no mortality for all stages of the cockroach."nConclusion: Piper aduncum essential oil can be used as an alternative natural product for controlling the cockroach Peri­patetic americana. "nKeywords: Piper aduncum essential oil, Periplaneta americana, Adults, Nymphs

  9. ERGONOMIC DESIGN OF AIRCRAFT COCKPIT

    CÎMPIAN Ionuţ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model for an ergonomic design of an aircraft cockpit with the specification and verification with respect to the new European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA requirements. The goal is to expressing the concepts on which the aircraft cockpit design are based.

  10. ERGONOMIC DESIGN OF AIRCRAFT COCKPIT

    CÎMPIAN Ionuţ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model for an ergonomic design of an aircraft cockpit with the specification and verification with respect to the new European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA requirements. The goal is to expressing the concepts on which the aircraft cockpit design is based.

  11. Rapid detection of Piper yellow mottle virus and Cucumber mosaic virus infecting black pepper (Piper nigrum) by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP).

    Bhat, A I; Siljo, A; Deeshma, K P

    2013-10-01

    The loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for Piper yellow mottle virus and the reverse transcription (RT) LAMP assay for Cucumber mosaic virus each consisted of a set of five primers designed against the conserved sequences in the viral genome. Both RNA and DNA isolated from black pepper were used as a template for the assay. The results were assessed visually by checking turbidity, green fluorescence and pellet formation in the reaction tube and also by gel electrophoresis. The assay successfully detected both viruses in infected plants whereas no cross-reactions were recorded with healthy plants. Optimum conditions for successful amplification were determined in terms of the concentrations of magnesium sulphate and betaine, temperature, and duration. The detection limit for both LAMP and RT-LAMP was up to 100 times that for conventional PCR and up to one-hundredth of that for real-time PCR. The optimal conditions arrived at were validated by testing field samples of infected vines of three species from different regions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Authentication of Piper betle L. folium and quantification of their antifungal-activity

    I Made Agus Gelgel Wirasuta

    2017-07-01

    The NCPs profiles of intra- and inter-day precision results offered multi-dimensional chromatogram fingerprints for better marker peak pattern recognition and identification. Using the r-value fingerprints data series generated with this method allowed more precise discrimination the PBL. from other Piper species compared to the marker peak area fingerprint method. The cosine pair comparison was a simple method for authentication of two different fingerprints. The ward linkage clustering and the pair cross-correlation comparison were better chemometric methods to determine the consistency peak area ratio between fingerprints. The first component PCA-loading values of peak marker area fingerprints were correlated linearly to both the bio-marker concentration as well as the antifungal activity. This relationship could be used to control the quality and pharmacological potency. This simple method was developed for the authentication and quantification of herbal medicine.

  13. Astronauts Stefanyshyn-Piper, Lindsey and Currie greet First Lady Hillary Clinton at the Skid Strip

    1999-01-01

    First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton is greeted by Astronauts (from left) Heidemarie M. Stefanyshyn-Piper, Steven W. Lindsey, and Nancy Jane Currie upon Mrs. Clinton's arrival at the Skid Strip at Cape Canaveral Air Station. She and her daughter, Chelsea (far right) are here to view the launch of Space Shuttle mission STS- 93, scheduled for 12:36 a.m. EDT July 20. Much attention has been generated over the launch due to Commander Eileen M. Collins, the first woman to serve as commander of a Shuttle mission. The primary payload of the five-day mission is the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The new telescope is 20 to 50 times more sensitive than any previous X-ray telescope and is expected to unlock the secrets of supernovae, quasars and black holes.

  14. Circadian rhythm of anti-fungal prenylated chromene in leaves of Piper aduncum.

    Morandim, Andreia de A; Bergamo, Débora Cristina B; Kato, Massuo Jorge; Cavalheiro, Alberto José; Bolzani, Vanderlan da S; Furlan, Maysa

    2005-01-01

    Leaves of Piper aduncum accumulate the anti-fungal chromenes methyl 2,2-dimethyl-2H-1-chromene-6-carboxylate (1) and methyl 2,2-dimethyl-8-(3'-methyl-2'-butenyl)-2H-1-chromene-6-carboxylate (2). The enzymatic formation of 2 from dimethylallyl diphosphate and 1 was investigated using cell-free extracts of the title plant. An HPLC assay for the prenylation reaction was developed and the enzyme activity measured in the protein extracts. The prenyltransferase that catalyses the transfer of the dimethylallyl group to C-2' of 1 was soluble and required dimethylallyl diphosphate as the prenyl donor. In the leaves, the biosynthesis of the prenylated chromene 2 was time-regulated and prenyltransferase activity depended upon circadian variation. Preliminary characterisation and purification experiments on the prenyltransferase from P. aduncum have been performed.

  15. Biosynthetic origin of the isoprene units in chromenes of Piper aduncum (Piperaceae)

    Leite, Ana C.; Lopes, Adriana A.; Bolzani, Vanderlan da S.; Furlan, Maysa [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: maysaf@iq.unesp.br; Kato, Massuo J. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2007-07-01

    Metabolic studies involving the incorporation of [1-{sup 13}C]-D-glucose into intact leaves of Piper aduncum (Piperaceae) have indicated that both the mevalonate (MVA) and the pyruvate-triose (MEP) non-mevalonate pathways are implicated in the biosynthesis of isoprene moieties present in methyl 2,2-dimethyl-2H-1-chromene-6-carboxylate (1) and methyl 2,2-dimethyl-8-(3'-methyl- 2'-butenyl)-2H-1-chromene-6-carboxylate (2). The pattern of incorporation of label from [1- {sup 13}C]-D-glucose into these chromenes was determined by quantitative {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy. The results confirmed that biosynthetic compartment of 1 and 2 could either be the plastid and/ or the cytosol or, possibly, an additional compartment such as the plastid inter-membrane space. (author)

  16. Psidium guajava and Piper betle leaf extracts prolong vase life of cut carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) flowers.

    Rahman, M M; Ahmad, S H; Lgu, K S

    2012-01-01

    The effect of leaf extracts of Psidium guajava and Piper betle on prolonging vase life of cut carnation flowers was studied. "Carola" and "Pallas Orange" carnation flowers, at bud stage, were pulsed 24 hours with a floral preservative. Then, flowers were placed in a vase solution containing sprite and a "germicide" (leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle, 8-HQC, or a copper coin). Flowers treated with 8-HQC, copper coin, and leaf extracts had longer vase life, larger flower diameter, and higher rate of water uptake compared to control (tap water). The leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle showed highest antibacterial and antifungal activities compared to the other treatments. Both showed similar effects on flower quality as the synthetic germicide, 8-HQC. Therefore, these extracts are likely natural germicides to prolong vase life of cut flowers.

  17. Ethanolic extract of Piper betle Linn. leaves reduces nociception via modulation of arachidonic acid pathway.

    De, Soumita; Maroo, Niteeka; Saha, Piu; Hazra, Samik; Chatterjee, Mitali

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the peripheral analgesic effect of Piper betle leaf extract (PBE) along with establishing its putative mechanism of action. Male Swiss albino mice after pre-treatment (1 h) with different doses of PBE were injected 0.8% (v/v) acetic acid i.p.; the onset and number of writhes were noted up to 15 min. To evaluate the mechanism of action, the murine peritoneal exudate was incubated with PBE for 1 h, followed by exposure to arachidonic acid (AA) and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured by flow cytometry using 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate. PBE in a dose dependent manner significantly reduced acetic acid induced writhing response in mice (P < 0.001). In peritoneal exudates, PBE significantly inhibited AA induced generation of ROS, P < 0.01. The present study indicates that PBE has promising analgesic activity, worthy of future pharmacological consideration.

  18. [Studies on the chemical constituents of the stems of Piper betle].

    Yin, Yan; Huang, Xiang-Zhong; Wang, Jiong; Dai, Jian-Hui; Liang, Hui; Dai, Yun

    2009-06-01

    To study the chemical constituents from the stems of Piper betle. Various chromatographic techniques were used to isolate and purify the constituents. The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectral analysis. Nine compounds were isolated from the petroleum ester and ethyl acetate soluble fractions of the 70% acetone extract and their structures were identified as 6beta-hydroxystigmast-4-en-3-one (1), beta-sitosterol (2), stigmasterol (3), oleanolic acid (4), 23-hydroxyursan-12-en-28-oic acid (5), beta-sitosterol-3-O-beta-D-glucoside-6'-O-palmitate (6), beta-daucosterol (7), (2S) -4'-hydroxy- 2,3-dihydroflavonone-7-O-beta-D-glucoside (8) and alpha-ethyl glucoside (9). Among these compounds, 1, 3 -9 are isolated from this plant for the first time.

  19. Effect of Piper betle leaf extract on alcoholic toxicity in the rat brain.

    Saravanan, R; Rajendra Prasad, N; Pugalendi, K V

    2003-01-01

    The protective effect of Piper betle, a commonly used masticatory, has been examined in the brain of ethanol-administered Wistar rats. Brain of ethanol-treated rats exhibited increased levels of lipids, lipid peroxidation, and disturbances in antioxidant defense. Subsequent to the experimental induction of toxicity (i.e., the initial period of 30 days), aqueous P. betle extract was simultaneously administered in three different doses (100, 200, and 300 mg kg(-1)) for 30 days along with the daily dose of alcohol. P. betle coadministration resulted in significant reduction of lipid levels (free fatty acids, cholesterol, and phospholipids) and lipid peroxidation markers such as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and hydroperoxides. Further, antioxidants, like reduced glutathione, vitamin C, vitamin E, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, were increased in P. betle-coadministered rats. The higher dose of extract (300 mg kg(-1)) was more effective, and these results indicate the neuroprotective effect of P. betle in ethanol-treated rats.

  20. Psidium guajava and Piper betle Leaf Extracts Prolong Vase Life of Cut Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus Flowers

    M. M. Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of leaf extracts of Psidium guajava and Piper betle on prolonging vase life of cut carnation flowers was studied. “Carola” and “Pallas Orange” carnation flowers, at bud stage, were pulsed 24 hours with a floral preservative. Then, flowers were placed in a vase solution containing sprite and a “germicide” (leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle, 8-HQC, or a copper coin. Flowers treated with 8-HQC, copper coin, and leaf extracts had longer vase life, larger flower diameter, and higher rate of water uptake compared to control (tap water. The leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle showed highest antibacterial and antifungal activities compared to the other treatments. Both showed similar effects on flower quality as the synthetic germicide, 8-HQC. Therefore, these extracts are likely natural germicides to prolong vase life of cut flowers.

  1. Improving the knowledge on Piper betle: targeted metabolite analysis and effect on acetylcholinesterase.

    Valentão, Patrícia; Gonçalves, Rui F; Belo, Cristóvão; de Pinho, Paula Guedes; Andrade, Paula B; Ferreres, Federico

    2010-10-01

    Piper betle is a species growing in South East Asia, where its leaves are economically and medicinally important. To screen the highest possible number of volatile and semivolatile components, the leaves were subjected to headspace solid-phase microextraction, hydrodistillation and Soxhlet extraction, prior to analysis by GC/MS. Fifty compounds (identified by comparison with standard compounds or tentatively by National Institute of Standards and Technology database) were determined, 23 being described for the first time in this matrix. An aqueous extract was also analysed, in which only seven compounds were characterized. The organic acids' composition of this extract was determined by HPLC/UV and eight compounds are reported for the first time in P. betle. This extract also displayed acetylcholinesterase inhibitory capacity.

  2. Piper betle leaf extract affects the quorum sensing and hence virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    Datta, Siraj; Jana, Debanjan; Maity, Tilak Raj; Samanta, Aveek; Banerjee, Rajarshi

    2016-06-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) plays an important role in virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, blocking of QS ability are viewed as viable antimicrobial chemotherapy and which may prove to be a safe anti-virulent drug. Bioactive components from Piper betle have been reported to possess antimicrobial ability. This study envisages on the anti-QS properties of ethanolic extract of P. betle leaf (PbLE) using P. aeruginosa PAO1 as a model organism. A marked reduction in swarming, swimming, and twitching ability of the bacteria is demonstrated in presence of PbLE. The biofilm and pyocyanin production also shows a marked reduction in presence of PbLE, though it does not affect the bacterial growth. Thus, the studies hint on the possible effect of the bioactive components of PbLE on reducing the virulent ability of the bacteria; identification of bioactive compounds should be investigated further.

  3. Antioxidant, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the methanolic extract of Piper betle leaves

    Badrul Alam

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective:The present study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory activities ofthe methanolic extract of Piper betle leaves (MPBL. Materials and Methods: MPBL was evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity using carrageenan-induced hind paw edema model. Analgesic activity of MPBL was evaluated by hot plate, writhing, and formalin tests. Total phenolic and flavonoids content, total antioxidant activity, scavenging of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical, peroxynitrate (ONOO- as well as  inhibition of total ROS generation, and assessment of reducing power were used to evaluate antioxidant potential of MPBL. Results: The extract of MPBL, at the dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg, produced a significant (p

  4. Piper betle-mediated synthesis, characterization, antibacterial and rat splenocyte cytotoxic effects of copper oxide nanoparticles.

    Praburaman, Loganathan; Jang, Jum-Suk; Muthusamy, Govarthanan; Arumugam, Sengottaiyan; Manoharan, Koildhasan; Cho, Kwang-Min; Min, Cho; Kamala-Kannan, Seralathan; Byung-Taek, Oh

    2016-09-01

    The study reports a simple, inexpensive, and eco-friendly synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuONPs) using Piper betle leaf extract. Formation of CuONPs was confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy at 280 nm. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed that the CuONPs were spherical, with an average size of 50-100 nm. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM)-energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) peak was observed approximately at 1 and 8 keV. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies indicated that the particles were crystalline in nature. CuONPs effectively inhibited the growth of phytopathogens Ralstonia solanacearum and Xanthomonas axonopodis. The cytotoxic effect of the synthesized CuONPs was analyzed using rat splenocytes. The cell viability was decreased to 94% at 300 μg/mL.

  5. FLAVONOIDES AISLADOS DE LAS INFLORESCENCIAS DE Piper hispidum Kunth (PIPERACEAE Y DERIVADOS ACETILADOS

    Luis Enrique Cuca

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A partir del extracto etanólico de las inflorescencias de la especie Piper hispidum Kunth (Piperaceae fueron aislados tres flavonoides: 5-hidroxi-7-metoxiflavanona, 5-hidroxi-4’,7-dimetoxiflavanona y 2’,4’,6’-trimetoxidihidrochalcona. De las flavanonas aisladas fueron obtenidos los  derivados acetilados: 5-acetoxi-7-metoxiflavanona y  5-acetoxi-4’,7-dimetoxiflavanona. Las estructuras fueron elucidadas empleando técnicas espectroscópicas y por comparación con datos de literatura. Los compuestos naturales y sus derivados fueron sometidos al bioensayo de letalidad frente a Artemia salina. El flavonoide 5-hidroxi-7-metoxiflavanona presenta la mayor actividad tóxica frente a los microcrustaceos CL50 1.8 µg/ml.

  6. Analysis of the blackening of green pepper (Piper nigrum Linnaeus) berries.

    Gu, Fenglin; Tan, Lehe; Wu, Huasong; Fang, Yiming; Wang, Qinghuang

    2013-06-01

    This paper investigates polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, reduced weight percentage after sun drying, and the changes in colour and appearance of green pepper (Piper nigrum Linnaeus) berries after blanching and sun drying. The results show that the degree of reduced weight percentage and browning in green pepper berries after blanching for 10 min is greater at 100°C than at 90 and 80°C. Moreover, the samples blanched at 100°C for 10 min had the fastest water loss, but the lowest PPO activity. Thus, the PPO enzymatic oxidation of polyphenols might not be the only reason for the browning of green pepper berries. This result is significantly different from that of Variyar, Pendharkar, Banerjeea, and Bandyopadhyay (1988) and therefore deserves further study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Biosynthetic origin of the isoprene units in chromenes of Piper aduncum (Piperaceae)

    Leite, Ana C.; Lopes, Adriana A.; Bolzani, Vanderlan da S.; Furlan, Maysa; Kato, Massuo J.

    2007-01-01

    Metabolic studies involving the incorporation of [1- 13 C]-D-glucose into intact leaves of Piper aduncum (Piperaceae) have indicated that both the mevalonate (MVA) and the pyruvate-triose (MEP) non-mevalonate pathways are implicated in the biosynthesis of isoprene moieties present in methyl 2,2-dimethyl-2H-1-chromene-6-carboxylate (1) and methyl 2,2-dimethyl-8-(3'-methyl- 2'-butenyl)-2H-1-chromene-6-carboxylate (2). The pattern of incorporation of label from [1- 13 C]-D-glucose into these chromenes was determined by quantitative 13 C NMR spectroscopy. The results confirmed that biosynthetic compartment of 1 and 2 could either be the plastid and/ or the cytosol or, possibly, an additional compartment such as the plastid inter-membrane space. (author)

  8. Antileishmanial activities of dihydrochalcones from piper elongatum and synthetic related compounds. Structural requirements for activity.

    Hermoso, Alicia; Jiménez, Ignacio A; Mamani, Zulma A; Bazzocchi, Isabel L; Piñero, José E; Ravelo, Angel G; Valladares, Basilio

    2003-09-01

    Two dihydrochalcones (1 and 2) were isolated from Piper elongatum Vahl by activity-guided fractionation against extracellular promastigotes of Leishmania braziliensis in vitro. Their structures were elucidated by spectral analysis, including homonuclear and heteronuclear correlation NMR experiments. Derivatives 3-7 and 20 synthetic related compounds (8-27) were also assayed to establish the structural requirements for antileishmanial activity. Compounds 1-11 that proved to be more active that ketoconazol, used as positive control, were further assayed against promastigotes of Leishmania tropica and Leishmania infantum. Compounds 7 and 11, with a C(6)-C(3)-C(6) system, proved to be the most promising compounds, with IC(50) values of 2.98 and 3.65 microg/mL, respectively, and exhibited no toxic effect on macrophages (around 90% viability). Correlation between the molecular structures and antileishmanial activity is discussed in detail.

  9. Cyclo-(trp-phe diketopiperazines from the endophytic fungus Aspergillus versicolor isolated from Piper aduncum

    Juliana R. Gubiani

    Full Text Available Six known compounds, three peptide derivatives: cyclo-(tryptophyl-phenylalanyl (2, diketopiperazine dimer WIN 64821 (3 and 3-hydroxy-15H-tryptophenaline (4, one adenine derivative: 2-hydroxy-6-N-isopentenyl-adenine (5, one phtalide derivative: 4-methoxyphtalide (1 and one benzoic acid derivative: 3-hydroxy-4-(1-hydroxy-1,5-dimethyl-hexyl benzoic acid (6, were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the endophytic fungus Aspergillus versicolor associated with the Piper aduncum plant. Their structures were determined on the basis of detailed interpretation of 1 D and 2D NMR spectra and in comparison with works reported in the literature. This paper, in effect, deals with the first report of these compounds in A. versicolor.

  10. Cytochalasin produced by Xylaria sp., a endophytic fungi of Piper aduncum (Piperaceae)

    Silva, Geraldo H.; Oliveira, Camila M. de; Teles, Helder L.; Bolzani, Vanderlan da S.; Araujo, Angela R.; Pfenning, Ludwig H.; Young, Maria Claudia M.; Costa-Neto, Claudio M.; Haddad, Renato; Eberlin, Marcos N.

    2010-01-01

    A chemical study on the EtOAc extract produced by Xylaria sp., an endophytic fungus from Piper aduncum, resulted in the isolation of a new cytochalasin 1, along with five known 19,20-epoxycytochalasin D (2), C (3), N (4), Q (5), and R (6). The 1-6 were evaluated against the fungi C. cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum and only 5 showed weak activity. The cytotoxicity in vitro against HeLA and CHO cells lines were investigated and the cytochalasins 2-4, and 6 showed a strong activity against HeLA. The DNA damaging activity of 1-6 were also investigated against mutant strains of S. cerevisiae. (author)

  11. Spermicidal activity of the hexane extract of Piper longum: an in vitro study.

    Sarwar, Abu Hasnath Md Golam; Nirala, Ranjeet Kumar; Arif, Mohammed; Khillare, Beena; Thakur, Sonu Chand

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to assess the spermicidal action of hexane extract from the fruits of Piper longum Linn. The sperm immobilisation studies showed that 20 mg/mL of hexane extract was able to immobilise sperms completely within 20 s. The sperm revival test revealed that the effects were spermicidal as sperm immobilisation effect was irreversible. There was also a significant reduction in sperm viability in the treated group in comparison to the control. The hypo-osmotic swelling of these sperms was significantly reduced, indicating that the hexane extract may probably cause injury to the sperm plasma membrane. Hence, this study showed that the hexane extract of P. longum possesses potential contraceptive spermicidal activity in vitro.

  12. Eupomatenoid-5 Isolated from Leaves of Piper regnellii Induces Apoptosis in Leishmania amazonensis

    Francielle Pelegrin Garcia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania spp. are protozoa responsible for leishmaniasis, a neglected disease that kills up to 50,000 people every year. Current therapies mainly rely on antimonial drugs that are inadequate because of their poor efficacy and safety and increased drug resistance. An urgent need exists to find new and more affordable drugs. Our previous study demonstrated the antileishmanial activity of eupomatenoid-5, a neolignan obtained from leaves of Piper regnellii var. pallescens. The aim of the present study was to clarify the mode of action of eupomatenoid-5 against L. amazonensis. We used biochemical and morphological techniques and demonstrated that eupomatenoid-5 induced cell death in L. amazonensis promastigotes, sharing some phenotypic features observed in metazoan apoptosis, including increased reactive oxygen species production, hypopolarization of mitochondrial potential, phosphatidylserine exposure, decreased cell volume, and G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest.

  13. A review of the use of Piper betel in oxidative stress disorders.

    Lee, C Y; Nurul Zaidah, A S; Nur Amalina, G; Muhammad Azree, Ema; Das, S; Zar, C T

    2014-01-01

    Increase in prevalence of disease related oxidative stress disorders have been on the rise in the entire world since the past decades. Significant positive effects with few antioxidant properties in the modern drugs pave for the alternative medicines in managing the disease. Piper betel (P. betel), a herb, is known to possess high anti-oxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-atherosclerosis, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-cancer and neuroprotective property. This review focused on the effect of P. betel on diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis and chronic kidney disease, Alzheimer's disease and breast cancer. P. betel proved to show positive effects with specific outcomes towards these diseases. Moreover, the promising effect of P. betel in vitro studies was also highlighted in the present review. It is believed that the findings obtained in this review will draw the attention of the medical professionals and general public towards P. betel and it will open the door for further detailed research.

  14. Efek Penambahan Jus dan Daun Sirih (Piper bettle linn Sebagai Aditif Pakan Terhadap Peforma Ayam Petelur

    Nining Haryun

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Pengembangan unggas telah dilakukan dalam hal perkembangbiakan, pemberian pakan dan manajemen. Namun, implementasinya masih menghadapi banyak tantangan seperti masalah penurunan produksi. Salah satu penyebab penurunan produksi adalah gangguan kesehatan yang disebabkan oleh bakteri patogen (Salmonella sp dan Escherichia coli. Salah satu cara untuk mengatasi masalah tersebut adalah penggunaan bettle linn Juice sebagai pakan tambahan. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh bettle linn Juice sebagai pakan tambahan terhadap kinerja ayam petelur. Metode yang digunakan adalah uji biologis ayam petelur umur 69 minggu Isa Brown Strain dari 250 ayam petelur, menggunakan Completely Randomized Design (RAL dengan 5 perlakuan dan 5 ulangan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Piper bettle linn Juice tidak memberikan pengaruh yang signifikan (P> 0,05 terhadap konsumsi pakan dan angka kematian. Mempengaruhi secara signifikan (P <0,01 terhadap Hen Day Production (HDP, berat telur dan Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR.

  15. Chemical constituents from three medicinal plants: Piper renitens, Siparuna guianensis and Alternanthera brasiliana

    Valdir A. Facundo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Chemical study of three medicinal plants: from leaves of Piper renitens (Miq. Yunck, Piperaceae, and Siparuna guianensis Aubl., Siparunaceae, and from flowers of Alternanthera brasiliana (L. Kuntze, Amaranthaceae, resulted in isolation of nine compounds: three steroids, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol from P. renitens and sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside from A. brasiliana, the diterpene kaurane ent-kauran-16α,17-diol from P. renitens, two derivatives kaempferol-methylether, kumatakenine (kaempferol-3,7-dimethylether and kaempferol-3,7,3'-trimethylether from S. guianensis and three flavones, crysoeriol (5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3'-methoxyflavone, tricin (5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3',5'-dimethoxyflavone and 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside-5,4'-dihydroxy-3'-methoxyflavone from A. brasiliana. Compounds structures were determinate using 1D and 2D ¹H NMR and 13C spectral data, mass and IR spectra, comparing with literature data.

  16. Chemical constituents from three medicinal plants: Piper renitens, Siparuna guianensis and Alternanthera brasiliana

    Valdir A. Facundo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemical study of three medicinal plants: from leaves of Piper renitens (Miq. Yunck, Piperaceae, and Siparuna guianensis Aubl., Siparunaceae, and from flowers of Alternanthera brasiliana (L. Kuntze, Amaranthaceae, resulted in isolation of nine compounds: three steroids, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol from P. renitens and sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside from A. brasiliana, the diterpene kaurane ent-kauran-16α,17-diol from P. renitens, two derivatives kaempferol-methylether, kumatakenine (kaempferol-3,7-dimethylether and kaempferol-3,7,3'-trimethylether from S. guianensis and three flavones, crysoeriol (5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3'-methoxyflavone, tricin (5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3',5'-dimethoxyflavone and 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside-5,4'-dihydroxy-3'-methoxyflavone from A. brasiliana. Compounds structures were determinate using 1D and 2D ¹H NMR and 13C spectral data, mass and IR spectra, comparing with literature data.

  17. Kavalactones and benzoic acid derivatives from leaves of Piper fuligineum Kunth (Piperaceae)

    Mazzeu, Bruna F.; Felippe, Lidiane G.; Furlan, Maysa, E-mail: maysaf@iq.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Cotinguiba, Fernando [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IPPN/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Pesquisas de Produtos Naturais; Kato, Massuo J. [Universidade de São Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Química

    2018-05-01

    The known kavalactones (E)-4-methoxy-6-styryl-2H-pyran-2-one, 4-methoxy6-(3-phenyloxiran-2-yl)-2H-pyran-2-one, 6-(1,2-dihydroxy-2-phenylethyl)-4-methoxy-2H-pyran2-one, the three benzoic acid derivatives methyl-4-methoxy-3-(3'-methyl-2'-butenyl)benzoate and methyl 2,2-dimethyl-4-oxochroman-6-carboxylate, and a new methyl 4-methoxy-3-(3-methylbut2-enoyl)benzoate were isolated from the ethanolic extract of Piper fuligineum. The structures of these compounds were determined by using a combination of spectroscopic methods, including 1D- and 2D-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and high-resolution mass spectrometry. This is the first report of the chemical study of P. fuligineum, and the methyl 4-methoxy-3-(3-methylbut2-enoyl)benzoate is described as a new natural product. (author)

  18. Insecticidal activity against Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) of metabolites isolated from the aerial part of Piper septuplinervium (Miq.) c. dc. and inflorescences of Piper subtomentosum Trel. and Yunck. (Piperaceae)

    Murillo, Monica Constanza Avila; Suarez, Luis Enrique Cuca; Salamanca, Jairo Alonso Ceron

    2014-01-01

    The bioassay-guided purification of ethanolic extracts from inflorescences of Piper subtomentosum Trel. and Yunck and aerial part of Piper septuplinervium (Miq. ) C. DC. led to isolation of five flavonoids, uvangoletin (1), galangin (2), chrysin (5), 5-hydroxy-4',7-dimethoxy-flavone (6), pinostrobin (7); one amide, N-p-coumaroil-tyramine (4); one acylglycerol, monopalmitin (3); one derivative of acid, protocatechuic acid (8); and glycosydated sterol, daucosterol (9). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopy and spectrometry data and by comparison with data reported in the literature. The isolated compounds were tested against Spodoptera frugiperda. The results showed galangin and protocatechuic acid to be the most active (LC 50 13.63 and 17.16 ppm, respectively). (author)

  19. Evaluation of Piper aduncum Linn. Essential Oil (Fam:Piperaceae against Periplaneta americana(L.

    I Ling A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The efficacy of Piper aduncum essential oil was evaluated against Periplaneta americana adults and nymphs in the laboratory.Methods: The plant essential oil at varying concentrations ranging between 10,000 to 80,000 ppm were placed inside glass beakers, rolled horizontally to ensure the essential oil covers all sides of the beakers and exposed to adults and nymphs of P. americana. Resigen (R 1ppm was used as positive control and distilled water as negative control. The LT50 and LT90 was obtained using Log Probit programme.Results: Exposure of essential oil to females P. americana at concentrations between 10,000 to 80,000 ppm indicated the LT50 and LT90 values between 5.31 h-189.19 h and 14.90 h-2105.31 h, respectively. Treatment with the same con­centrations against males P. americana ,the LT50 and LT90 were 2.08 h-181.73 h and 5.4 h-8460.51 h, respectively. Treatment against the nymphal stage with the same range of concentrations indicated the LT50 and LT 90 of 4.68 h-381.02 h and 28.71 h-5313.36 h, respectively.The nymphs and males were more susceptible than the females cock­roaches. Treatment with Resigen (R at 1ppm indicated much lower LT 50 and LT 90 values of 2.54 h-9.47 h for the fe­males, 1.47 h-4.22 h for the males and 4.69 h-8.92 h for the nymphs.The negative control indicated no mortality for all stages of the cockroach.Conclusion: Piper aduncum essential oil can be used as an alternative natural product for controlling the cockroach Peri­patetic americana.

  20. Evaluation of Piper aduncum Linn. Essential Oil (Fam:Piperaceae) against Periplaneta americana (L.).

    Ling A, I; Sulaiman, S; Othman, H

    2009-01-01

    The efficacy of Piper aduncum essential oil was evaluated against Periplaneta americana adults and nymphs in the laboratory. The plant essential oil at varying concentrations ranging between 10,000 to 80,000 ppm were placed inside glass beakers, rolled horizontally to ensure the essential oil covers all sides of the beakers and exposed to adults and nymphs of P. americana. Resigen (R) 1ppm was used as positive control and distilled water as negative control. The LT50 and LT90 was obtained using Log Probit programme. Exposure of essential oil to females P. americana at concentrations between 10,000 to 80,000 ppm indicated the LT50 and LT90 values between 5.31 h-189.19 h and 14.90 h-2105.31 h, respectively. Treatment with the same concentrations against males P. americana ,the LT50 and LT90 were 2.08 h-181.73 h and 5.4 h-8460.51 h, respectively. Treatment against the nymphal stage with the same range of concentrations indicated the LT50 and LT 90 of 4.68 h-381.02 h and 28.71 h-5313.36 h, respectively.The nymphs and males were more susceptible than the females cockroaches. Treatment with Resigen (R) at 1ppm indicated much lower LT 50 and LT 90 values of 2.54 h-9.47 h for the females, 1.47 h-4.22 h for the males and 4.69 h-8.92 h for the nymphs.The negative control indicated no mortality for all stages of the cockroach. Piper aduncum essential oil can be used as an alternative natural product for controlling the cockroach Peripatetic americana.

  1. Anti-inflammatory and toxicological evaluation of essential oil from Piper glabratum leaves.

    Branquinho, Lidiane Schultz; Santos, Joyce Alencar; Cardoso, Claudia Andrea Lima; Mota, Jonas da Silva; Junior, Ubirajara Lanza; Kassuya, Cândida Aparecida Leite; Arena, Arielle Cristina

    2017-02-23

    Although some of the species of the genus Piper exhibit interesting biological properties, studies on Piper glabratum Kunth are very limited. This study investigated the anti-inflammatory activity and the toxicological profile of the essential oil from P. glabratum leaves (OEPG) in mice. The acute toxicity of OEPG was evaluated by oral administration to female mice as single doses of 500, 1000, 2000 or 5000mg/kg/body weight. In the subacute toxicity test, the females received 500 or 1000mg/kg/body weight of OEPG for 28 days. The anti-inflammatory potential of OEPG was evaluated using four models including pleurisy, edema, mechanical hyperalgesia and cold allodynia models in mouse paws. No clinical signs of toxicity were observed in animals after acute treatment, which suggested that the LD 50 is greater than 5000mg/kg. The subacute exposure to OEPG produced no significant changes in the hematological or biochemical parameters. Similarly, the histology of the organs and the estrus cycle displayed no marked alterations. OEPG exhibited anti-inflammatory activity as indicated by inhibition of the leukocyte migration (100, 300, 700mg/kg) and the protein extravasation into the pleural exudates (700mg/kg). After intraplantar injection of carrageenan, it was observed that the 700mg/kg dose of OEPG reduced edema formation and decreased the sensitivity to mechanical stimulation and cold. These results demonstrate the anti-inflammatory potential of the essential oil of P. glabratum leaves in the absence of toxicity in female mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Modulatory Effect of Methanol Extract of Piper guineense in CCl₄-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Male Rats.

    Oyinloye, Babatunji Emmanuel; Osunsanmi, Foluso Oluwagbemiga; Ajiboye, Basiru Olaitan; Ojo, Oluwafemi Adeleke; Kappo, Abidemi Paul

    2017-08-24

    This study seeks to investigate the possible protective role of the methanol extract of Piper guineense seeds against CCl₄-induced hepatotoxicity in an animal model. Hepatotoxicity was induced by administering oral doses of CCl₄ (1.2 g/kg bw) three times a week for three weeks. Group 1 (Control) and Group 2 (CCl₄) were left untreated; Piper guineense (PG; 400 mg/kg bw) was administered to Group 3 (T₁) by oral gavage for 14 days prior to the administration of CCl₄ and simultaneously with CCl₄; PG (400 mg/kg bw) was administered simultaneously with CCl₄ in Group 4 (T₂); and Livolin forte (20 mg/kg bw) was administered simultaneously with CCl₄ in Group 5 (T₃), the standard drug group. The administration of CCl₄ induces histopathological alteration in the liver, with concomitant increased activities of serum hepatic marker enzymes associated with increased levels of lipid peroxidation. Similarly, there was decrease in non-enzymatic (reduced glutathione) and enzymatic antioxidants (glutathione S-transferase), superoxide dismutase, and catalase. An elevation in serum triglyceride and total cholesterol levels was noticed along with decreased levels of serum total protein. Treatment with PG 400 mg/kg bw exhibited excellent modulatory activity with respect to the different parameters studied by reversing all the above-mentioned biochemical changes significantly in the experimental animals. These results suggest that PG offered protection comparable to that of Livolin forte with better efficacy when pre-treated with 400 mg/kg bw 14 days prior to CCl₄-exposure.

  3. Optimization of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of Piper Betel Linn leaves oil and total phenolic content

    Aziz, A. H. A.; Yunus, M. A. C.; Arsad, N. H.; Lee, N. Y.; Idham, Z.; Razak, A. Q. A.

    2016-11-01

    Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (SC-CO2) Extraction was applied to extract piper betel linn leaves. The piper betel leaves oil was used antioxidant, anti-diabetic, anticancer and antistroke. The aim of this study was to optimize the conditions of pressure, temperature and flowrate for oil yield and total phenolic content. The operational conditions of SC-CO2 studied were pressure (10, 20, 30 MPa), temperature (40, 60, 80 °C) and flowrate carbon dioxide (4, 6, 8 mL/min). The constant parameters were average particle size and extraction regime, 355pm and 3.5 hours respectively. First order polynomial expression was used to express the extracted oil while second order polynomial expression was used to express the total phenolic content and the both results were satisfactory. The best conditions to maximize the total extraction oil yields and total phenolic content were 30 MPa, 80 °C and 4.42 mL/min leading to 7.32% of oil and 29.72 MPa, 67.53 °C and 7.98 mL/min leading to 845.085 mg GAE/g sample. In terms of optimum condition with high extraction yield and high total phenolic content in the extracts, the best operating conditions were 30 MPa, 78 °C and 8 mL/min with 7.05% yield and 791.709 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g sample. The most dominant condition for extraction of oil yield and phenolic content were pressure and CO2 flowrate. The results show a good fit to the proposed model and the optimal conditions obtained were within the experimental range with the value of R2 was 96.13% for percentage yield and 98.52% for total phenolic content.

  4. Thermal comfort assessment in civil aircraft cabins

    Pang Liping

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft passengers are more and demanding in terms of thermal comfort. But it is not yet easy for aircraft crew to control the environment control system (ECS that satisfies the thermal comfort for most passengers due to a number of causes. This paper adopts a corrected predicted mean vote (PMV model and an adaptive model to assess the thermal comfort conditions for 31 investigated flights and draws the conclusion that there does exist an uncomfortable thermal phenomenon in civil aircraft cabins, especially in some short-haul continental flights. It is necessary to develop an easy way to predict the thermal sensation of passengers and to direct the crew to control ECS. Due to the assessment consistency of the corrected PMV model and the adaptive model, the adaptive model of thermal neutrality temperature can be used as a method to predict the cabin optimal operative temperature. Because only the mean outdoor effective temperature ET∗ of a departure city is an input variable for the adaptive model, this method can be easily understood and implemented by the crew and can satisfy 80–90% of the thermal acceptability levels of passengers.

  5. Commercial aircraft composite technology

    Breuer, Ulf Paul

    2016-01-01

    This book is based on lectures held at the faculty of mechanical engineering at the Technical University of Kaiserslautern. The focus is on the central theme of societies overall aircraft requirements to specific material requirements and highlights the most important advantages and challenges of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) compared to conventional materials. As it is fundamental to decide on the right material at the right place early on the main activities and milestones of the development and certification process and the systematic of defining clear requirements are discussed. The process of material qualification - verifying material requirements is explained in detail. All state-of-the-art composite manufacturing technologies are described, including changes and complemented by examples, and their improvement potential for future applications is discussed. Tangible case studies of high lift and wing structures emphasize the specific advantages and challenges of composite technology. Finally,...

  6. PEMBERIAN AIR REBUSAN DAUN SIRIH MERAH (Piper crocatum Ruiz &Pav TERHADAP KADAR GLUKOSA DAN KOLESTEROL DARAH MENCIT PUTIH JANTAN

    Dewi Yudiana Shinta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to find of the effect of the water decoction of red betel leaf (Piper crocatum Ruiz & Pav on blood glucose levels and cholesterol male white mice. The method used in this study deskripstif exploration using betel leaf stew and given to a white male mice are sonde at a dose of 0.13 ml / 20gBB, 0.13 to 0.39 ml / 20gBB 0.13 and 0.26 ml / 20gBB during seven days and examined glucose and cholesterol levels of the mice. Research results show that the water decoction of red betel leaf (Piper crocatum Ruiz & Pav can lower blood glucose levels of male white mice were significantly (p <0.05 by ANOVA statistical analysis.

  7. The phytochemistry, traditional uses and pharmacology of Piper Betel. linn (Betel Leaf): A pan-asiatic medicinal plant.

    Fazal, Farhan; Mane, Prajwal P; Rai, Manoj P; Thilakchand, Karadka R; Bhat, Harshith P; Kamble, Prathibha S; Palatty, Princy L; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

    2014-08-26

    Since antiquity, Piper betel. Linn, commonly known as betel vine, has been used as a religious, recreational and medicinal plant in Southeast Asia. The leaves, which are the most commonly used plant part, are pungent with aromatic flavor and are widely consumed as a mouth freshener. It is carminative, stimulant, astringent and is effective against parasitic worms. Experimental studies have shown that it possess diverse biological and pharmacological effects, which includes antibacterial, antifungal, larvicidal, antiprotozal, anticaries, gastroprotective effects, free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory, antiulcer and chemopreventive activities. The active principles hydroxychavicol, allylpyrocatechol and eugenol with their plethora of pharmacological properties may also have the potential to develop as bioactive lead molecule. In this review, an attempt is made to summarize the religious, traditional uses, phytochemical composition and experimentally validated pharmacological properties of Piper betel. Emphasis is also placed on aspects warranting detail studies for it to be of pharmaceutical/clinical use to humans.

  8. Supplementation of Red Betel Leaf (Piper crocatum in Dairy Cattle Feed on Fermentation Characteristics by in Vitro

    Caribu Hadi Prayitno

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the impact and efficiency of red betel leaf’s extract supplementation in the diet of dairy cattle on fermentation characteristics by in vitro.  The research method was experiment by using completely randomized design.  The treatments that were tested were R1: basal feed, R2:  R1 + 15 ppm of  red betel  leaf (Piper crocatum extract, R3: R1 + 30 ppm of  red betel leaf (Piper crocatum extract, R4: R1 + 45 ppm of red betel leaf (Piper crocatum extract, R5: R1 + 60 ppm of red betel leaf (Piper crocatum extract. The parameters measured in this study were (1Dry MatterDigestibility (DMD,(2Organic Matter Digestibility (OMD  (3 total gas production  (4 methane production (CH4 and (5  total Volatille Fatty Acid (VFA.  The data were analyzed using analysis of variance followed Orthogonal Polynomial Test.The results showed that the suplementation red batel extract in the diet of dairy cow was significant (P < 0.01 on DMD, OMD, total gas production, methane production (CH4  and total VFA.Orthogonal Polynomial test showed the effect of treatment on Dry MatterDigestibility (DMD, total gas and CH4 gas production were in the form of cubic curve, as well as Organic Matter Digestibility (OMD and Volatille Fatty Acid (VFA in the form of quadrate curvewith supplementation of red betel leaf.

  9. Melanogenesis stimulation in murine B16 melanoma cells by Piper nigrum leaf extract and its lignan constituents.

    Matsuda, Hideaki; Kawaguchi, Yoshiko; Yamazaki, Miho; Hirata, Noriko; Naruto, Shunsuke; Asanuma, Yusuke; Kaihatsu, Takayuki; Kubo, Michinori

    2004-10-01

    A methanolic extract from the leaves of Piper nigrum L. showed a significant stimulatory effect on melanogenesis in cultured murine B16 melanoma cells. Activity-guided fractionation of the methanolic extract led to the isolation of two known lignans, (-)-cubebin (1) and (-)-3,4-dimethoxy-3,4-desmethylenedioxycubebin (2), together with a new lignan, (-)-3-desmethoxycubebinin (3). Among these lignans, 1 and 2 showed a significant stimulatory activity of melanogenesis without any significant effects on cell proliferation.

  10. UJI AKTIVITAS EKSTRAK DAUN SIRIH (Piper betle L.) SECARA IN VIVO TERHADAP SCABIES PADA KAMBING KACANG (Capra hircus)

    -, NUR SRIANI REZKI

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRAK Nur Sriani Rezki. O111 12 110, Uji Aktivitas Ekstrak Daun Sirih (Piper betle L.) Secara In Vivo terhadap Scabies pada Kambing Kacang (Capra hircus). Di bawah bimbingan ABDUL WAHID JAMALUDDIN dan MUHAMMAD FADHLULLAH MURSALIM. Kehidupan ternak kambing sering diganggu oleh beberapa penyakit. Salah satu yang disebabkan oleh parasit terutama ektoparasit yang sering dijumpai adalah scabies. Penyakit ini umumnya disebabkan oleh Sarcoptes scabiei. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk menguji akt...

  11. 40 CFR 87.6 - Aircraft safety.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 87.6 Section 87.6... POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES General Provisions § 87.6 Aircraft safety. The provisions of... met within the specified time without creating a safety hazard. ...

  12. Antifungal activity and computational study of constituents from Piper divaricatum essential oil against Fusarium infection in black pepper.

    da Silva, Joyce Kelly R; Silva, José Rogério A; Nascimento, Soelange B; da Luz, Shirlley F M; Meireles, Erisléia N; Alves, Cláudio N; Ramos, Alessandra R; Maia, José Guilherme S

    2014-11-04

    Fusarium disease causes considerable losses in the cultivation of Piper nigrum, the black pepper used in the culinary world. Brazil was the largest producer of black pepper, but in recent years has lost this hegemony, with a significant reduction in its production, due to the ravages produced by the Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis, the fungus which causes this disease. Scientific research seeks new alternatives for the control and the existence of other Piper species in the Brazilian Amazon, resistant to disease, are being considered in this context. The main constituents of the oil of Piper divaricatum are methyleugenol (75.0%) and eugenol (10.0%). The oil and these two main constituents were tested individually at concentrations of 0.25 to 2.5 mg/mL against F. solani f. sp. piperis, exhibiting strong antifungal index, from 18.0% to 100.0%. The 3D structure of the β-glucosidase from Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis, obtained by homology modeling, was used for molecular docking and molecular electrostatic potential calculations in order to determine the binding energy of the natural substrates glucose, methyleugenol and eugenol. The results showed that β-glucosidase (Asp45, Arg113, Lys146, Tyr193, Asp225, Trp226 and Leu99) residues play an important role in the interactions that occur between the protein-substrate and the engenol and methyleugenol inhibitors, justifying the antifungal action of these two phenylpropenes against Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis.

  13. Phosphate Solubilizers from the Rhizosphere of Piper nigrum L. in Karnataka, India Solubilizadores de Fosfatos desde la Rizósfera de Piper nigrum L. en Karnataka, India

    Usha Seshachala

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Black pepper (Piper nigrum L. is a climbing vine known for its pungent fruit used as a spice worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the available P content in the native soils where pepper is grown as a crop plant. The native population of phosphate solubilising microbes (PSM was studied from the rhizosphere of P. nigrum plants grown in the Western Ghats of Karnataka, India. A variety of phosphate solubilising bacteria and fungi were isolated from the rhizosphere soil samples. Phosphate solubilising capacity of different isolates was studied on Pikovskaya's medium. The isolates were tested for their phosphate solubilising capacity in vitro with three different phosphate sources, tricalcium phosphate (TCP, potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KHP, and rock phosphate (RP in the concentrations 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 g L-1. The three phosphate sources were solubilised by the isolates in varying proportions. The dominant PSM flora obtained from the samples included Bacillus and Aspergillus. The study showed that PSM utilised the three phosphate sources TCP, KHP, and RP with considerable variability. The phosphatase activity of the isolates showed that the predominant microorganisms were Bacillus subtilis (5.33 U mL-1 and Aspergillus (11.5 U mL¹. The predominant organisms were identified up to molecular level.La pimienta negra (Piper nigrum L. es una planta trepadora conocida por su fruto utilizado como especia en todo el mundo. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el contenido de P disponible en los suelos nativos donde se cultiva. La población nativa de microbios solubilizantes de fosfato (PSM fue estudiada en la rizósfera de plantas de P. nigrum cultivadas en los Ghats occidentales de Karnataka, India. Una variedad de hongos y bacterias solubilizantes de fosfato fueron aislados de muestras de suelo de la rizósfera. La capacidad solubilizadora de fosfato de diferentes aislamientos fue estudiada en medio de Pikovskaya. Los aislados fueron

  14. Fire resistant aircraft seat program

    Fewell, L. A.

    1979-01-01

    Foams, textiles, and thermoformable plastics were tested to determine which materials were fire retardant, and safe for aircraft passenger seats. Seat components investigated were the decorative fabric cover, slip covers, fire blocking layer, cushion reinforcement, and the cushioning layer.

  15. Western Pacific Typhoon Aircraft Fixes

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Western Pacific typhoon aircraft reconnaissance data from the years 1946 - 1965 and 1978, excluding 1952, were transcribed from original documents, or copy of...

  16. Flow Control Enabled Aircraft Design

    Nangia, Rajendar

    2004-01-01

    ...: Many future advanced aircraft concepts being considered by the Air Force fall outside the current aerodynamic design practice and will rely heavily on the use of flow control technology to optimize flight performance...

  17. Aircraft Evaluation Using Stochastic Duels

    2017-09-01

    for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and...Fighter aircraft systems and weapons designs are known to involve substantial capital investment . Due to possible budget constraints in the U.S. Navy, the...of fighter aircraft to analysts and decision-makers before they invest further resources into larger-scale, higher-resolution simulations for

  18. Commercial transport aircraft composite structures

    Mccarty, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    The role that analysis plays in the development, production, and substantiation of aircraft structures is discussed. The types, elements, and applications of failure that are used and needed; the current application of analysis methods to commercial aircraft advanced composite structures, along with a projection of future needs; and some personal thoughts on analysis development goals and the elements of an approach to analysis development are discussed.

  19. Advanced technology composite aircraft structures

    Ilcewicz, Larry B.; Walker, Thomas H.

    1991-01-01

    Work performed during the 25th month on NAS1-18889, Advanced Technology Composite Aircraft Structures, is summarized. The main objective of this program is to develop an integrated technology and demonstrate a confidence level that permits the cost- and weight-effective use of advanced composite materials in primary structures of future aircraft with the emphasis on pressurized fuselages. The period from 1-31 May 1991 is covered.

  20. Individual and collective climate control in aircraft cabins

    Jacobs, P.; Gids, W.F. de

    2006-01-01

    A new concept for aircraft cabin climatisation has been developed in which the seat is the main Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) and temperature control system for the passengers containing provisions for local supply and local exhaust of air. Direct supply of clean outside air in the breathing zone,