WorldWideScience

Sample records for direct-view multi-point two-component

  1. High temperature two component explosive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, James E.; Poole, Donald R.; Schmidt, Eckart W.; Wang, Charles

    1981-01-01

    A two component, high temperature, thermally stable explosive composition comprises a liquid or low melting oxidizer and a liquid or low melting organic fuel. The oxidizer and fuel in admixture are incapable of substantial spontaneous exothermic reaction at temperatures on the order of 475.degree. K. At temperatures on the order of 475.degree. K., the oxidizer and fuel in admixture have an activation energy of at least about 40 kcal/mol. As a result of the high activation energy, the preferred explosive compositions are nondetonable as solids at ambient temperature, and become detonable only when heated beyond the melting point. Preferable oxidizers are selected from alkali or alkaline earth metal nitrates, nitrites, perchlorates, and/or mixtures thereof. Preferred fuels are organic compounds having polar hydrophilic groups. The most preferred fuels are guanidinium nitrate, acetamide and mixtures of the two. Most preferred oxidizers are eutectic mixtures of lithium nitrate, potassium nitrate and sodium nitrate, of sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate, and of potassium nitrate, calcium nitrate and sodium nitrate.

  2. Two component theory and electron magnetic moment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, M.J.G.

    1998-01-01

    The two-component formulation of quantum electrodynamics is studied. The relation with the usual Dirac formulation is exhibited, and the Feynman rules for the two-component form of the theory are presented in terms of familiar objects. The transformation from the Dirac theory to the two-component

  3. Two component plasma vortex approach to fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikuta, Kazunari.

    1978-09-01

    Two component operation of the field reversed theta pinch plasma by injection of the energetic ion beam with energy of the order of 1 MeV is considered. A possible trapping scheme of the ion beam in the plasma is discussed in detail. (author)

  4. Collective behaviors of two-component swarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Sang Koo; Kwon, Dae Hyuk; Park, Yong-ik; Kim, Sun Myong; Chung, Myung-Hoon; Kim, Chul Koo

    2009-12-07

    We present a particle-based simulation study on two-component swarms where there exist two different types of groups in a swarm. Effects of different parameters between the two groups are studied systematically based on Langevin's equation. It is shown that the mass difference can introduce a protective behavior for the lighter members of the swarm in a vortex state. When the self-propelling strength is allowed to differ between two groups, it is observed that the swarm becomes spatially segregated and finally separated into two components at a certain critical value. We also investigate effects of different preferences for shelters on their collective decision making. In particular, it is found that the probability of selecting a shelter from the other varies sigmoidally as a function of the number ratio. The model is shown to describe the dynamics of the shelter choosing process of the cockroach-robot mixed group satisfactorily. It raises the possibility that the present model can be applied to the problems of pest control and fishing using robots and decoys.

  5. Capturing rogue waves by multi-point statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjihosseini, A; Wächter, Matthias; Peinke, J; Hoffmann, N P

    2016-01-01

    As an example of a complex system with extreme events, we investigate ocean wave states exhibiting rogue waves. We present a statistical method of data analysis based on multi-point statistics which for the first time allows the grasping of extreme rogue wave events in a highly satisfactory statistical manner. The key to the success of the approach is mapping the complexity of multi-point data onto the statistics of hierarchically ordered height increments for different time scales, for which we can show that a stochastic cascade process with Markov properties is governed by a Fokker–Planck equation. Conditional probabilities as well as the Fokker–Planck equation itself can be estimated directly from the available observational data. With this stochastic description surrogate data sets can in turn be generated, which makes it possible to work out arbitrary statistical features of the complex sea state in general, and extreme rogue wave events in particular. The results also open up new perspectives for forecasting the occurrence probability of extreme rogue wave events, and even for forecasting the occurrence of individual rogue waves based on precursory dynamics. (paper)

  6. A direct-view customer-oriented digital holographic camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besaga, Vira R.; Gerhardt, Nils C.; Maksimyak, Peter P.; Hofmann, Martin R.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a direct-view digital holographic camera system consisting mostly of customer-oriented components. The camera system is based on standard photographic units such as camera sensor and objective and is adapted to operate under off-axis external white-light illumination. The common-path geometry of the holographic module of the system ensures direct-view operation. The system can operate in both self-reference and self-interference modes. As a proof of system operability, we present reconstructed amplitude and phase information of a test sample.

  7. Two Component Signal Transduction in Desulfovibrio Species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luning, Eric; Rajeev, Lara; Ray, Jayashree; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila

    2010-05-17

    The environmentally relevant Desulfovibrio species are sulfate-reducing bacteria that are of interest in the bioremediation of heavy metal contaminated water. Among these, the genome of D. vulgaris Hildenborough encodes a large number of two component systems consisting of 72 putative response regulators (RR) and 64 putative histidinekinases (HK), the majority of which are uncharacterized. We classified the D. vulgaris Hildenborough RRs based on their output domains and compared the distribution of RRs in other sequenced Desulfovibrio species. We have successfully purified most RRs and several HKs as His-tagged proteins. We performed phospho-transfer experiments to verify relationships between cognate pairs of HK and RR, and we have also mapped a few non-cognate HK-RR pairs. Presented here are our discoveries from the Desulfovibrio RR categorization and results from the in vitro studies using purified His tagged D. vulgaris HKs and RRs.

  8. Primordial two-component maximally symmetric inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enqvist, K.; Nanopoulos, D. V.; Quirós, M.; Kounnas, C.

    1985-12-01

    We propose a two-component inflation model, based on maximally symmetric supergravity, where the scales of reheating and the inflation potential at the origin are decoupled. This is possible because of the second-order phase transition from SU(5) to SU(3)×SU(2)×U(1) that takes place when φ≅φcinflation at the global minimum, and leads to a reheating temperature TR≅(1015-1016) GeV. This makes it possible to generate baryon asymmetry in the conventional way without any conflict with experimental data on proton lifetime. The mass of the gravitinos is m3/2≅1012 GeV, thus avoiding the gravitino problem. Monopoles are diluted by residual inflation in the broken phase below the cosmological bounds if φcUSA.

  9. Multi-point meteorological observation for Cross-country skiing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, K.; Tadashi, O.; Kawarabayashi, S.; Iwadate, N.; Kobayashi, Y.; Watanabe, K.; Imai, M.; Watanabe, K.; Naruse, N.; Takahashi, Y.

    2016-12-01

    To select the glide wax in the cross-country skiing competition is important, because it can work as a reduction of the friction between skiing and snow surface. Inherently, we need to select the wax judged from meteorological conditions, such as temperature, humidity, snow surface temperature, and wind speed in the whole course, however, the wax has been decided on the basis of meteorological conditions in one representative place so far. This study aims to develop a meteorological multi-point observation system using wireless network to select the suitable wax for cross-country skiing on the basis of quantitative analysis. The observation points in this study are temperature and illumination sensors connected to a wireless module. These sensors was put within 0.1m apart from the snow surface. We made 40 sets of the above sensors, and set on the actual cross-country skiing course (Hokkaido) in interval of 50-100m. Observed meteorological data were recorded by PC through the sending by wireless communication (XBee pro). We have succeeded in multi-point meteorological observation for the actual of cross-country skiing course. To escape the effect of sunlight for the air temperature, we cunducted to measure in the case of cloudy. As the results, the positional dependence of the air temperature was in the range of less than 2 degrees Celcius. This value is equivalent to the standard deviation of our sensors. Moreover, we observed in the case of occationally cloudy, air temperature by each point was more than 4 degrees Celcius. This indicates that the local difference of temperature can originate from the existence of cloud from the analysis of the data of illumination sensors. In conclusion, we have observed the local difference of temperature to occur under the influence of cloud on the corse of cross-country skiing , which can affect to select the wax.

  10. Two component-theory and radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wideroee, R.

    1990-01-01

    The two component theory which describes the biological effect of X-ray and particle irradiation divides radiation into densely ionizing radiation (ion density in water greater than four ions per 100 A, i.e. LET>12 keV/μm) und loosely ionizing radiation with low ion densities. In case of densely ionizing radiation, the ions can produce breaks of both cords of DNA thus causing the death of the cell (α effect). Lower ion densities will produce only slight damages which are possibly lethal but can be partly repaired (β effect). If the cell parameters are known (L. Cohen 1983), the number of surviving cells after an irradiation can be calculated. The surviving lung cells and tumor cells (squamous cell carcinoma) have been calculated for a pulmonary irradiation with 30 MeV electrons and 200 keV X-rays (single doses of 2 and 5 Gy), respectively. The electron irradiation with single doses of 5 Gy turned out to be the most favorable therapy sparing the greatest number of lung cells and reducing the tumor cells in the most effective way (down to 1.6x10 -10 ). (orig.) [de

  11. Development of a Multi-Point Microwave Interferometry (MPMI) Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, Paul Elliott [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cooper, Marcia A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jilek, Brook Anton [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    A multi-point microwave interferometer (MPMI) concept was developed for non-invasively tracking a shock, reaction, or detonation front in energetic media. Initially, a single-point, heterodyne microwave interferometry capability was established. The design, construction, and verification of the single-point interferometer provided a knowledge base for the creation of the MPMI concept. The MPMI concept uses an electro-optic (EO) crystal to impart a time-varying phase lag onto a laser at the microwave frequency. Polarization optics converts this phase lag into an amplitude modulation, which is analyzed in a heterodyne interfer- ometer to detect Doppler shifts in the microwave frequency. A version of the MPMI was constructed to experimentally measure the frequency of a microwave source through the EO modulation of a laser. The successful extraction of the microwave frequency proved the underlying physical concept of the MPMI design, and highlighted the challenges associated with the longer microwave wavelength. The frequency measurements made with the current equipment contained too much uncertainty for an accurate velocity measurement. Potential alterations to the current construction are presented to improve the quality of the measured signal and enable multiple accurate velocity measurements.

  12. High-resolution wave number spectrum using multi-point measurements in space – the Multi-point Signal Resonator (MSR technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Narita

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A new analysis method is presented that provides a high-resolution power spectrum in a broad wave number domain based on multi-point measurements. The analysis technique is referred to as the Multi-point Signal Resonator (MSR and it benefits from Capon's minimum variance method for obtaining the proper power spectral density of the signal as well as the MUSIC algorithm (Multiple Signal Classification for considerably reducing the noise part in the spectrum. The mathematical foundation of the analysis method is presented and it is applied to synthetic data as well as Cluster observations of the interplanetary magnetic field. Using the MSR technique for Cluster data we find a wave in the solar wind propagating parallel to the mean magnetic field with relatively small amplitude, which is not identified by the Capon spectrum. The Cluster data analysis shows the potential of the MSR technique for studying waves and turbulence using multi-point measurements.

  13. High-resolution wave number spectrum using multi-point measurements in space - the Multi-point Signal Resonator (MSR) technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Y.; Glassmeier, K.-H.; Motschmann, U.

    2011-02-01

    A new analysis method is presented that provides a high-resolution power spectrum in a broad wave number domain based on multi-point measurements. The analysis technique is referred to as the Multi-point Signal Resonator (MSR) and it benefits from Capon's minimum variance method for obtaining the proper power spectral density of the signal as well as the MUSIC algorithm (Multiple Signal Classification) for considerably reducing the noise part in the spectrum. The mathematical foundation of the analysis method is presented and it is applied to synthetic data as well as Cluster observations of the interplanetary magnetic field. Using the MSR technique for Cluster data we find a wave in the solar wind propagating parallel to the mean magnetic field with relatively small amplitude, which is not identified by the Capon spectrum. The Cluster data analysis shows the potential of the MSR technique for studying waves and turbulence using multi-point measurements.

  14. Two component micro injection moulding for moulded interconnect devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul

    2008-01-01

    is to explore and overcome the challenges associated with MID production by two component injection moulding. Fabrication of micro scale MIDs by two component injection moulding, calls for plastic materials suitable for two component micro injection moulding and requires optimization in injection moulding...... component injection moulding is one of the most industrially adaptive processes. However, the use of two component injection moulding for MID fabrication, with circuit patterns in the sub-millimeter range, is still a big challenge at the present state of technology. The scope of the current Ph.D. project...... and selective metallization. Integrated knowledge about the materials, tooling, process conditions and product development is needed. The main issues to be taken into account for two component injection moulded MIDs are: • Two component injection moulding with a sharp interface between the two polymers...

  15. Research on optimal driver steering model based on Multi-Point preview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jun; Ma, Aijing

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, multi-point preview control algorithm is applied to driver steering control model. This paper builds multi-point preview road model in the form of state shift register. Based on the linear quadratic regulator (LQR) optimal control theory it optimizes driver steering control model with multi-point preview. Meanwhile, in the Matlab Simulink environment, based on vehicle system dynamics and optimal control theory, different preview points and weighted coefficients are simulated to study the influence of driver steering model. The simulation results show that the multi-point preview control mode has excellent driving performance. And in this paper, the main parameters affecting the preview control algorithm such as speed, preview weighted coefficients and the number of preview points and so on are discussed.

  16. Laser-induced multi-point ignition for enabling high-performance engines

    KAUST Repository

    Chung, Suk-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Various multi-point laser-induced ignition techniques were reviewed, which adopted conical cavity and prechamber configurations. Up to five-point ignitions have been achieved with significant reduction in combustion duration, demonstrating potential increase in combustion system efficiency.

  17. Examination of soldier target recognition with direct view optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Frederick H.; Larkin, Gabriella; Bisordi, Danielle; Dorsey, Shauna; Marianucci, Damien; Goss, Lashawnta; Bastawros, Michael; Misiuda, Paul; Rodgers, Glenn; Mazz, John P.

    2017-10-01

    Target recognition and identification is a problem of great military and scientific importance. To examine the correlation between target recognition and optical magnification, ten U.S. Army soldiers were tasked with identifying letters on targets at 800 and 1300 meters away. Letters were used since they are a standard method for measuring visual acuity. The letters were approximately 90 cm high, which is the size of a well-known rifle. Four direct view optics with angular magnifications of 1.5x, 4x, 6x, and 9x were used. The goal of this approach was to measure actual probabilities for correct target identification. Previous scientific literature suggests that target recognition can be modeled as a linear response problem in angular frequency space using the established values for the contrast sensitivity function for a healthy human eye and the experimentally measured modulation transfer function of the optic. At the 9x magnification, the soldiers could identify the letters with almost no errors (i.e., 97% probability of correct identification). At lower magnification, errors in letter identification were more frequent. The identification errors were not random but occurred most frequently with a few pairs of letters (e.g., O and Q), which is consistent with the literature for letter recognition. In addition, in the small subject sample of ten soldiers, there was considerable variation in the observer recognition capability at 1.5x and a range of 800 meters. This can be directly attributed to the variation in the observer visual acuity.

  18. Augmenting reality in Direct View Optical (DVO) overlay applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Tim; Edwards, Tim

    2014-06-01

    The integration of overlay displays into rifle scopes can transform precision Direct View Optical (DVO) sights into intelligent interactive fire-control systems. Overlay displays can provide ballistic solutions within the sight for dramatically improved targeting, can fuse sensor video to extend targeting into nighttime or dirty battlefield conditions, and can overlay complex situational awareness information over the real-world scene. High brightness overlay solutions for dismounted soldier applications have previously been hindered by excessive power consumption, weight and bulk making them unsuitable for man-portable, battery powered applications. This paper describes the advancements and capabilities of a high brightness, ultra-low power text and graphics overlay display module developed specifically for integration into DVO weapon sight applications. Central to the overlay display module was the development of a new general purpose low power graphics controller and dual-path display driver electronics. The graphics controller interface is a simple 2-wire RS-232 serial interface compatible with existing weapon systems such as the IBEAM ballistic computer and the RULR and STORM laser rangefinders (LRF). The module features include multiple graphics layers, user configurable fonts and icons, and parameterized vector rendering, making it suitable for general purpose DVO overlay applications. The module is configured for graphics-only operation for daytime use and overlays graphics with video for nighttime applications. The miniature footprint and ultra-low power consumption of the module enables a new generation of intelligent DVO systems and has been implemented for resolutions from VGA to SXGA, in monochrome and color, and in graphics applications with and without sensor video.

  19. Normal-mode diagonalization for two-component topological kinks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boya, L.J.; Casahorran, J.

    1989-01-01

    We present a linear-stability analysis for the kink solutions of a two-component nonlinear scalar model in (1+1) dimensions. The study follows the traditional approaches which directly treat the normal-mode problem

  20. Two component micro injection moulding for moulded interconnect devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Among the available MID process chains, two component (2k) injection moulding with subsequent selective metallization is one of the most industrially adaptive processes. However the use of two component injection moulding for MID fabrication, with circuit patterns in the sub-millimeter range, is ......, is a challenge for industrial MID production. This research work demonstrates the feasibilities and challenges of MID fabrication by 2k moulding for highly precise and technically challenging applications......Among the available MID process chains, two component (2k) injection moulding with subsequent selective metallization is one of the most industrially adaptive processes. However the use of two component injection moulding for MID fabrication, with circuit patterns in the sub-millimeter range...

  1. Spin-excited oscillations in two-component fermion condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Tomoyuki; Bertsch, George F.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate collective spin excitations in two-component fermion condensates with special consideration of unequal populations of the two components. The frequencies of monopole and dipole modes are calculated using Thomas-Fermi theory and the scaling approximation. As the fermion-fermion coupling is varied, the system shows various phases of the spin configuration. We demonstrate that spin oscillations have more sensitivity to the spin phase structures than the density oscillations

  2. Two-component micro injection moulding for hearing aid applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Marhöfer, David Maximilian

    2012-01-01

    Two-component (2k) injection moulding is an important process technique at the present state of technology, and it is growing rapidly in the field of precision micro moulding. Besides combining different material properties in the same product, two-component moulding can eliminate many assembly...... parts. An intensive search for suitable 2k materials is made and few combinations of plastic materials are presented in the paper which can be used for highly demanding application areas like hearing aids. By using these material combinations, a demonstrator 2k micro part has been fabricated...

  3. TWO-COMPONENT JETS AND THE FANAROFF-RILEY DICHOTOMY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meliani, Z.; Keppens, R.; Sauty, C.

    2010-01-01

    Transversely stratified jets are observed in many classes of astrophysical objects, ranging from young stellar objects, mu-quasars, to active galactic nuclei and even in gamma-ray bursts. Theoretical arguments support this transverse stratification of jets with two components induced by intrinsic

  4. Two component injection moulding: Present and future perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2009-01-01

    Two component injection moulding has widespread industrial applications. Still the technology is yet to gain its full potential in highly demanding and technically challenging applications areas. The smart use of this technology can open the doors for cost effective and convergent manufacturing...

  5. Two component permeation through thin zeolite MFI membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizer, K.; Burggraaf, A.J.; Vroon, Z.A.E.P.; Verweij, H.

    1998-01-01

    Two component permeation measurements have been performed by the Wicke-Kallenbach method on a thin (3 μm) zeolite MFI (Silicalite-1) membrane with molecules of different kinetic diameters, d(k). The membrane was supported by a flat porous α-Al2O3 substrate. The results obtained could be classified

  6. On the partition dimension of two-component graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D O Haryeni

    2017-11-17

    Nov 17, 2017 ... Abstract. In this paper, we continue investigating the partition dimension for disconnected graphs. We determine the partition dimension for some classes of disconnected graphs G consisting of two components. If G = G1 ∪ G2, then we give the bounds of the partition dimension of G for G1 = Pn or G1 = Cn ...

  7. A two-component NZRI metamaterial based rectangular cloak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikder Sunbeam Islam

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A new two-component, near zero refractive index (NZRI metamaterial is presented for electromagnetic rectangular cloaking operation in the microwave range. In the basic design a pi-shaped, metamaterial was developed and its characteristics were investigated for the two major axes (x and z-axis wave propagation through the material. For the z-axis wave propagation, it shows more than 2 GHz bandwidth and for the x-axis wave propagation; it exhibits more than 1 GHz bandwidth of NZRI property. The metamaterial was then utilized in designing a rectangular cloak where a metal cylinder was cloaked perfectly in the C-band area of microwave regime. The experimental result was provided for the metamaterial and the cloak and these results were compared with the simulated results. This is a novel and promising design for its two-component NZRI characteristics and rectangular cloaking operation in the electromagnetic paradigm.

  8. Two Component Injection Moulding for Moulded Interconnect Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul

    The moulded interconnect devices (MIDs) contain huge possibilities for many applications in micro electro-mechanical-systems because of their potential in reducing the number of components, process steps and finally in miniaturization of the product. Among the available MID process chains, two...... component (2k) injection moulding is one of the most industrially adaptive processes. However, the use of two component injection moulding for MID fabrication, with circuit patterns in sub-millimeter range, is still a big challenge. This book searches for the technical difficulties associated...... which can effectively control the quality of 2k moulded parts and metallized MIDs. This book presents documented knowledge about MID process chains, 2k moulding and selective metallization which can be valuable source of information for both academic and industrial users....

  9. Brazilian two-component TLD albedo neutron individual monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, M.M., E-mail: marcelo@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Av. Salvador Allende, s/n, CEP: 22780-160, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mauricio, C.L.P., E-mail: claudia@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Av. Salvador Allende, s/n, CEP: 22780-160, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Fonseca, E.S. da, E-mail: evaldo@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Av. Salvador Allende, s/n, CEP: 22780-160, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, A.X. da, E-mail: ademir@con.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia, COPPE/PEN Caixa Postal 68509, CEP: 21941-972, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-12-15

    Since 1983, Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Brazil, uses a TLD one-component albedo neutron monitor, which has a single different calibration factor specifically for each installation type. In order to improve its energy response, a two-component albedo monitor was developed, which measure the thermal neutron component besides the albedo one. The two-component monitor has been calibrated in reference neutron fields: thermal, five accelerator-produced monoenergetic beams (70, 144, 565, 1200 and 5000 keV) and five radionuclide sources ({sup 252}Cf, {sup 252}Cf(D{sub 2}O), {sup 241}Am-Be, {sup 241}Am-B and {sup 238}Pu-Be) at several distances. Since January 2008, mainly Brazilian workers who handle neutron sources at different distances and moderation, such as in well logging and calibration facilities are using it routinely.

  10. On the partition dimension of two-component graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, we continue investigating the partition dimension for disconnected graphs. We determine the partition dimension for some classes of disconnected graphs G consisting of two components. If G = G 1 ∪ G 2 , then we give the bounds of the partition dimension of G for G 1 = P n or G 1 = C n and also for p ...

  11. Two-component gravitational instability in spiral galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchuk, A. A.; Sotnikova, N. Y.

    2018-04-01

    We applied a criterion of gravitational instability, valid for two-component and infinitesimally thin discs, to observational data along the major axis for seven spiral galaxies of early types. Unlike most papers, the dispersion equation corresponding to the criterion was solved directly without using any approximation. The velocity dispersion of stars in the radial direction σR was limited by the range of possible values instead of a fixed value. For all galaxies, the outer regions of the disc were analysed up to R ≤ 130 arcsec. The maximal and sub-maximal disc models were used to translate surface brightness into surface density. The largest destabilizing disturbance stars can exert on a gaseous disc was estimated. It was shown that the two-component criterion differs a little from the one-fluid criterion for galaxies with a large surface gas density, but it allows to explain large-scale star formation in those regions where the gaseous disc is stable. In the galaxy NGC 1167 star formation is entirely driven by the self-gravity of the stars. A comparison is made with the conventional approximations which also include the thickness effect and with models for different sound speed cg. It is shown that values of the effective Toomre parameter correspond to the instability criterion of a two-component disc Qeff < 1.5-2.5. This result is consistent with previous theoretical and observational studies.

  12. Radial Basis Functional Model of Multi-Point Dieless Forming Process for Springback Reduction and Compensation

    OpenAIRE

    Misganaw Abebe; Jun-Seok Yoon; Beom-Soo Kang

    2017-01-01

    Springback in multi-point dieless forming (MDF) is a common problem because of the small deformation and blank holder free boundary condition. Numerical simulations are widely used in sheet metal forming to predict the springback. However, the computational time in using the numerical tools is time costly to find the optimal process parameters value. This study proposes radial basis function (RBF) to replace the numerical simulation model by using statistical analyses that are based on a desi...

  13. Intracavity Rayleigh/Mie Scattering for Multipoint, Two-Component Velocity Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bivolaru, Daniel; Danehy, Paul M.; Lee, Joseph W.

    2006-01-01

    A simultaneous multi-point two-component Doppler velocimeter is described. The system uses two optical cavities: a Fabry-Perot etalon and an optical cavity for collecting and re-circulating the Rayleigh/Mie scattered light that is collected from the measurement volume in two parallel, but opposite directions. Single-pulse measurements of two orthogonal components of the velocity vector in a supersonic free jet were performed to demonstrate the technique. The re-circulation of the light rejected by the interferometer input mirror also increased the signal intensity by a factor of 3.5. 2005 Optical Society of America Interferometric Rayleigh scattering has previously been used for single-point velocity measurements in unseeded gas flow. However, this past work has generally been limited to probing with continuous-wave lasers resulting in time-averaged measurements of velocity. Multiple velocity components have been measured simultaneously by separate instruments.1,2 It has also been demonstrated that two orthogonal velocity components can be measured simultaneously at one point using one interferometer by reflecting back the probing laser beam, although this approach results in directional ambiguity of the flow velocity vector.3 This measurement ambiguity was removed by prior knowledge of the approximate magnitude and sign of the velocity components. Furthermore, it was shown that multiple points could be measured simultaneously with a Rayleigh scattering interferometric approach, but only one component of velocity was measured.4 Another method of performing multiple component velocity measurements with Rayleigh scattering uses a pair of cameras to image the flow, one of which views the flow through an iodine gas filter. This iodine-filter technique has the advantage of allowing high-resolution velocity imaging, but it generally has a lower dynamic range.

  14. Interaction potentials and thermodynamic properties of two component semiclassical plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramazanov, T. S.; Moldabekov, Zh. A.; Ismagambetova, T. N. [Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, IETP, 71 al-Farabi Av., Almaty 050040 (Kazakhstan); Gabdullin, M. T. [Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, NNLOT, 71 al-Farabi Av., Almaty 050040 (Kazakhstan)

    2014-01-15

    In this paper, the effective interaction potential in two component semiclassical plasma, taking into account the long-range screening and the quantum-mechanical diffraction effects at short distances, is obtained on the basis of dielectric response function method. The structural properties of the semiclassical plasma are considered. The thermodynamic characteristics (the internal energy and the equation of state) are calculated using two methods: the method of effective potentials and the method of micropotentials with screening effect taken into account by the Ornstein-Zernike equation in the HNC approximation.

  15. Two-component microinjection moulding for MID fabrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Tang, Peter Torben

    2010-01-01

    Moulded interconnect devices (MIDs) are plastic substrates with electrical infrastructure. The fabrication of MIDs is usually based on injection moulding, and different process chains may be identified from this starting point. The use of MIDs has been driven primarily by the automotive sector......-component injection moulding and subsequent metallisation. This technology promises cost effective and convergent manufacturing approaches for both macro- and microapplications. This paper presents the results of industrial MID production based on two-component injection moulding and discusses the important issues...

  16. Two component micro injection molding for MID fabrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Mohammad Aminul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Tang, Peter Torben

    2009-01-01

    Molded Interconnect Devices (MIDs) are plastic substrates with electrical infrastructure. The fabrication of MIDs is usually based on injection molding and different process chains may be identified from this starting point. The use of MIDs has been driven primarily by the automotive sector......, but recently the medical sector seems more and more interested. In particular the possibility of miniaturization of 3D components with electrical infrastructure is attractive. The paper describes possible manufacturing routes and challenges of miniaturized MIDs based on two component micro injection molding...

  17. Scalar perturbations in regular two-component bouncing cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    Bozza, V

    2005-01-01

    We consider a two-component regular cosmology bouncing from contraction to expansion, where, in order to include both scalar fields and perfect fluids as particular cases, the dominant component is allowed to have an intrinsic isocurvature mode. We show that the spectrum of the growing mode of the Bardeen potential in the pre-bounce is never transferred to the dominant mode of the post-bounce. The latter acquires at most a dominant isocurvature component, depending on the relative properties of the two fluids. Our results imply that several claims in the literature need substantial revision.

  18. Nonthermal effects in two component DT fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, T.A.; Chu, T.C.

    1975-01-01

    Net energy generation rates and f-factors are calculated for a variety of two component DT reactor configurations using a computer code that follows the energy distributions of the reactants and products explicitly, utilizing the Fokker--Planck approximation for low-angle Coulomb scattering and a transfer matrix for high-angle Coulomb, nuclear, and radiative processes. The relative importance of such non-thermal effects as alpha particle deposition, non-Maxwellian energy distributions for the target tritons and electrons, and the influence of high-angle Coulomb and nuclear scattering on the energy loss rate of the injected deuterons is explicitly assessed

  19. Bond strength of two component injection moulded MID

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Mohammad Aminul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Tang, Peter Torben

    2006-01-01

    Most products of the future will require industrially adapted, cost effective production processes and on this issue two-component (2K) injection moulding is a potential candidate for MID manufacturing. MID based on 2k injection moulded plastic part with selectively metallised circuit tracks allows...... the two different plastic materials in the MID structure require good bonding between them. This paper finds suitable combinations of materials for MIDs from both bond strength and metallisation view-point. Plastic parts were made by two-shot injection moulding and the effects of some important process...... the integration of electrical and mechanical functionalities in a real 3D structure. If 2k injection moulding is applied with two polymers, of which one is plateable and the other is not, it will be possible to make 3D electrical structures directly on the component. To be applicable in the real engineering field...

  20. Efficient two-component relativistic method for large systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakai, Hiromi [Department of Chemitsry and Biochemistry, School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Elements Strategy Initiative for Catalysts and Batteries (ESICB), Kyoto University, Katsura, Kyoto 615-8520 (Japan)

    2015-12-31

    This paper reviews a series of theoretical studies to develop efficient two-component (2c) relativistic method for large systems by the author’s group. The basic theory is the infinite-order Douglas-Kroll-Hess (IODKH) method for many-electron Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian. The local unitary transformation (LUT) scheme can effectively produce the 2c relativistic Hamiltonian, and the divide-and-conquer (DC) method can achieve linear-scaling of Hartree-Fock and electron correlation methods. The frozen core potential (FCP) theoretically connects model potential calculations with the all-electron ones. The accompanying coordinate expansion with a transfer recurrence relation (ACE-TRR) scheme accelerates the computations of electron repulsion integrals with high angular momenta and long contractions.

  1. Two-component systems and toxinogenesis regulation in Clostridium botulinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connan, Chloé; Popoff, Michel R

    2015-05-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most potent toxins ever known. They are mostly produced by Clostridium botulinum but also by other clostridia. BoNTs associate with non-toxic proteins (ANTPs) to form complexes of various sizes. Toxin production is highly regulated through complex networks of regulatory systems involving an alternative sigma factor, BotR, and at least 6 recently described two-component systems (TCSs). TCSs allow bacteria to sense environmental changes and to respond to various stimuli by regulating the expression of specific genes at a transcriptional level. Several environmental stimuli have been identified to positively or negatively regulate toxin synthesis; however, the link between environmental stimuli and TCSs is still elusive. This review aims to highlight the role of TCSs as a central point in the regulation of toxin production in C. botulinum. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Collective and static properties of model two-component plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhipov, Yu. V.; Askaruly, A.; Davletov, A. E.; Meirkanova, G. M.; Ballester, D.; Tkachenko, I. M.

    2007-01-01

    Classical MD data on the charge-charge dynamic structure factor of two-component plasmas (TCP) modeled in Phys. Rev. A 23, 2041 (1981) are analyzed using the sum rules and other exact relations. The convergent power moments of the imaginary part of the model system dielectric function are expressed in terms of its partial static structure factors, which are computed by the method of hypernetted chains using the Deutsch effective potential. High-frequency asymptotic behavior of the dielectric function is specified to include the effects of inverse bremsstrahlung. The agreement with the MD data is improved, and important statistical characteristics of the model TCP, such as the probability to find both electron and ion at one point, are determined

  3. Phosphatase activity tunes two-component system sensor detection threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Brian P; Palanki, Rohan; Dyulgyarov, Nikola; Hartsough, Lucas A; Tabor, Jeffrey J

    2018-04-12

    Two-component systems (TCSs) are the largest family of multi-step signal transduction pathways in biology, and a major source of sensors for biotechnology. However, the input concentrations to which biosensors respond are often mismatched with application requirements. Here, we utilize a mathematical model to show that TCS detection thresholds increase with the phosphatase activity of the sensor histidine kinase. We experimentally validate this result in engineered Bacillus subtilis nitrate and E. coli aspartate TCS sensors by tuning their detection threshold up to two orders of magnitude. We go on to apply our TCS tuning method to recently described tetrathionate and thiosulfate sensors by mutating a widely conserved residue previously shown to impact phosphatase activity. Finally, we apply TCS tuning to engineer B. subtilis to sense and report a wide range of fertilizer concentrations in soil. This work will enable the engineering of tailor-made biosensors for diverse synthetic biology applications.

  4. Partial delocalization of two-component condensates in optical lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, H A; Brazhnyi, V A; Konotop, V V

    2008-01-01

    We study management of localized modes in two-component (spinor) Bose-Einstein condensates embedded in optical lattices by means of changing interspecies interactions. By numerical integration of the coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations, we find three different regimes of the delocalizing transition: (i) the partial delocalization when the chemical potential of one of the components collapses with a gap edge and the respective component transforms into a Bloch state, while the other component remains localized; (ii) the partial delocalization as a consequence of instability of one of the components; and (iii) the situation where a vector soliton reaches the limits of the existence domain. It is shown that there exists a critical value for the interspecies scattering length, below which solutions can be manipulated and above which one of the components is irreversibly destroyed

  5. Two-component multistep direct reactions: A microscopic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koning, A.J.; Chadwick, M.B.

    1998-03-01

    The authors present two principal advances in multistep direct theory: (1) A two-component formulation of multistep direct reactions, where neutron and proton excitations are explicitly accounted for in the evolution of the reaction, for all orders of scattering. While this may at first seem to be a formidable task, especially for multistep processes where the many possible reaction pathways becomes large in a two-component formalism, the authors show that this is not so -- a rather simple generalization of the FKK convolution expression 1 automatically generates these pathways. Such considerations are particularly relevant when simultaneously analyzing both neutron and proton emission spectra, which is always important since these processes represent competing decay channels. (2) A new, and fully microscopic, method for calculating MSD cross sections which does not make use of particle-hole state densities but instead directly calculates cross sections for all possible particle-hole excitations (again including an exact book-keeping of the neutron/proton type of the particle and hole at all stages of the reaction) determined from a simple non-interacting shell model. This is in contrast to all previous numerical approaches which sample only a small number of such states to estimate the DWBA strength, and utilize simple analytical formulae for the partial state density, based on the equidistant spacing model. The new approach has been applied, along with theories for multistep compound, compound, and collective reactions, to analyze experimental emission spectra for a range of targets and energies. The authors show that the theory correctly accounts for double-differential nucleon spectra

  6. Macroscopic structural coherence in two-component superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bar-Yam, Y.

    1991-01-01

    In two-component theory pairing arises from localized negative-U states and mobility arises from extended single particle states. A small hybridization of localized and extended states enables mobility and pairing to provide a high Tc. RPA analysis of the ''normal'' state implies uncondensed charged pairs carry current, while long lived single particle excitations are neutral electron-hole hybrids. At Tc pairs condense and single particle states undergo Cooper pairing. In the superconducting state pair-pair excitations exist in the BCS-like fermionic gap. Signatures of this theory range from distintive Tc, Δ, H c , ξ, conductance anomalies in sound and bulk modulii at Tc, linear temperature dependence of normal state resistivity, 2e charge carriers in the normal state, linear voltage dependence in normal-state-tunneling conductance, and finite zero-bias conductance in superconducting state tunneling. Quantitative comparisons with superconducting properties of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 were presented. A distinctive signature is the prediction of dynamical structural correlations which are local above Tc and macroscopic below Tc. Experiments provide direct evidence for such dynamical correlations: neutron diffraction ''thermal ovals'', channeling experiment cross section changes as a function of temperature near Tc, pair-distribution-function neutron diffraction including inelastic and elastic scattering showing direct evidence for dynamic correlations which change at Tc, and EXAFS showing a large dynamical displacement of oxygen atoms tunneling between sites separated by 0.13A. In two-component theory strong lattice coupling is consistent with low isotope shifts since tunneling occurs by a virtual Franck-Condon transition. Predictions for the dynamical structure factor are presented. (orig.)

  7. Multi-point Distribution Function for the Continuous Time Random Walk

    OpenAIRE

    Barkai, E.; Sokolov, I. M.

    2007-01-01

    We derive an explicit expression for the Fourier-Laplace transform of the two-point distribution function $p(x_1,t_1;x_2,t_2)$ of a continuous time random walk (CTRW), thus generalizing the result of Montroll and Weiss for the single point distribution function $p(x_1,t_1)$. The multi-point distribution function has a structure of a convolution of the Montroll-Weiss CTRW and the aging CTRW single point distribution functions. The correlation function $$ for the biased CTRW process is found. T...

  8. A minimal model for two-component dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esch, Sonja; Klasen, Michael; Yaguna, Carlos E.

    2014-01-01

    We propose and study a new minimal model for two-component dark matter. The model contains only three additional fields, one fermion and two scalars, all singlets under the Standard Model gauge group. Two of these fields, one fermion and one scalar, are odd under a Z 2 symmetry that renders them simultaneously stable. Thus, both particles contribute to the observed dark matter density. This model resembles the union of the singlet scalar and the singlet fermionic models but it contains some new features of its own. We analyze in some detail its dark matter phenomenology. Regarding the relic density, the main novelty is the possible annihilation of one dark matter particle into the other, which can affect the predicted relic density in a significant way. Regarding dark matter detection, we identify a new contribution that can lead either to an enhancement or to a suppression of the spin-independent cross section for the scalar dark matter particle. Finally, we define a set of five benchmarks models compatible with all present bounds and examine their direct detection prospects at planned experiments. A generic feature of this model is that both particles give rise to observable signals in 1-ton direct detection experiments. In fact, such experiments will be able to probe even a subdominant dark matter component at the percent level.

  9. Light-front QCD. II. Two-component theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, W.; Harindranath, A.

    1993-01-01

    The light-front gauge A a + =0 is known to be a convenient gauge in practical QCD calculations for short-distance behavior, but there are persistent concerns about its use because of its ''singular'' nature. The study of nonperturbative field theory quantizing on a light-front plane for hadronic bound states requires one to gain a priori systematic control of such gauge singularities. In the second paper of this series we study the two-component old-fashioned perturbation theory and various severe infrared divergences occurring in old-fashioned light-front Hamiltonian calculations for QCD. We also analyze the ultraviolet divergences associated with a large transverse momentum and examine three currently used regulators: an explicit transverse cutoff, transverse dimensional regularization, and a global cutoff. We discuss possible difficulties caused by the light-front gauge singularity in the applications of light-front QCD to both old-fashioned perturbative calculations for short-distance physics and upcoming nonperturbative investigations for hadronic bound states

  10. Exploring microwave resonant multi-point ignition using high-speed schlieren imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng; Zhang, Guixin; Xie, Hong; Deng, Lei; Wang, Zhi

    2018-03-01

    Microwave plasma offers a potential method to achieve rapid combustion in a high-speed combustor. In this paper, microwave resonant multi-point ignition and its control method have been studied via high-speed schlieren imaging. The experiment was conducted with the microwave resonant ignition system and the schlieren optical system. The microwave pulse in 2.45 GHz with 2 ms width and 3 kW peak power was employed as an ignition energy source to produce initial flame kernels in the combustion chamber. A reflective schlieren method was designed to illustrate the flame development process with a high-speed camera. The bottom of the combustion chamber was made of a quartz glass coated with indium tin oxide, which ensures sufficient microwave reflection and light penetration. Ignition experiments were conducted at 2 bars of stoichiometric methane-air mixtures. Schlieren images show that flame kernels were generated at more than one location simultaneously and flame propagated with different speeds in different flame kernels. Ignition kernels were discussed in three types according to their appearances. Pressure curves and combustion duration also show that multi-point ignition plays a significant role in accelerating combustion.

  11. Design and Performance of a Multi-Point Scan Confocal Microendoscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D. Risi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Confocal fluorescence microendoscopy provides high-resolution cellular-level imaging via a minimally invasive procedure, but requires fast scanning to achieve real-time imaging in vivo. Ideal confocal imaging performance is obtained with a point scanning system, but the scan rates required for in vivo biomedical imaging can be difficult to achieve. By scanning a line of illumination in one direction in conjunction with a stationary confocal slit aperture, very high image acquisition speeds can be achieved, but at the cost of a reduction in image quality. Here, the design, implementation, and experimental verification of a custom multi-point aperture modification to a line-scanning multi-spectral confocal microendoscope is presented. This new design improves the axial resolution of a line-scan system while maintaining high imaging rates. In addition, compared to the line-scanning configuration, previously reported simulations predicted that the multi-point aperture geometry greatly reduces the effects of tissue scatter on image quality. Experimental results confirming this prediction are presented.

  12. Limits in multi-point forming based on a small scaled flexible 9-point die device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Petra; Ruback, Christian; Rümmler, Paul; Schellhorn, Harry

    2017-10-01

    Being more flexible in the shaping of the work-piece, multi-point forming based on flexible multi-point dies is gaining interest as a manufacturing technique for 3D sheet metal. The shapes of the dies can be changed according to requirements and the punches are composed of a pair of reconfigurable dies. In this study, a small scale flexible 9-point die device at a laboratory scale is used for experiments. Only the middle punch can be controlled. The other dies fix the sheet metal, either all 8 or only the 4 corner ones. The forming limit is defined when wrinkling or dimpling is observed. Force-displacement curves are monitored and give information about the amount of spring back. Curve characteristics give information about the amount of wrinkling. In agreement with the literature the springback effect decreases with increasing plastic deformation. Optical 3D surface measurements are used to compare target to actual deformation. A second focus in this study is the pressure distribution of the contact area of the punch head and work piece. Hardness measurements are used to determine the amount of strain hardening and the size of hardened area around the controlled middle die as well as the fixing dies. These values are compared to the contact force evaluated using FEM, which also gives information about the force in dependence on the sheet thickness and deformation degree.

  13. Agreement of Tracing and Direct Viewing Techniques for Cervical Vertebral Maturation Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwatworakul, Opas; Manosudprasit, Montian; Pisek, Poonsak; Chatrchaiwiwatana, Supaporn; Wangsrimongkol, Tasanee

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate agreement among three methods for cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) assessment, comprising direct viewing, tracing only, and tracing with digitized points. Two examiners received training and tests of reliability with each CVM method before evaluation of agreement among methods. The subjects were 96 female-cleft lateral cephalometric radiographs (films of eight subjects for each age ranged from seven to 18 years). The examiners interpreted CVM stages of the subjects with four-week interval between uses of each method. The range of weighted kappa values for paired comparisons among the three methods were: 0.96-0.98 for direct viewing and tracing only comparison; 0.93-0.94 for direct viewing and tracing with digitized points comparison; and 0.96-0.97 for tracing only and tracing with digitized points comparison. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) value among the three methods was 0.95. These results indicated very good agreement among methods. Use of direct viewing is suitable for CVM assessment without spending more time for tracing. However, the three methods might be used interchangeably.

  14. The fractional virial potential energy in two-component systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caimmi R.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-component systems are conceived as macrogases, and the related equation of state is expressed using the virial theorem for subsystems, under the restriction of homeoidally striated density profiles. Explicit calculations are performed for a useful reference case and a few cases of astrophysical interest, both with and without truncation radius. Shallower density profiles are found to yield an equation of state, φ = φ(y, m, characterized (for assigned values of the fractional mass, m = Mj /Mi by the occurrence of two extremum points, a minimum and a maximum, as found in an earlier attempt. Steeper density profiles produce a similar equation of state, which implies that a special value of m is related to a critical curve where the above mentioned extremum points reduce to a single horizontal inflexion point, and curves below the critical one show no extremum points. The similarity of the isofractional mass curves to van der Waals' isothermal curves, suggests the possibility of a phase transition in a bell-shaped region of the (Oyφ plane, where the fractional truncation radius along a selected direction is y = Rj /Ri , and the fractional virial potential energy is φ = (Eji vir /(Eij vir . Further investigation is devoted to mass distributions described by Hernquist (1990 density profiles, for which an additional relation can be used to represent a sample of N = 16 elliptical galaxies (EGs on the (Oyφ plane. Even if the evolution of elliptical galaxies and their hosting dark matter (DM haloes, in the light of the model, has been characterized by equal fractional mass, m, and equal scaled truncation radius, or concentration, Ξu = Ru /r† , u = i, j, still it cannot be considered as strictly homologous, due to different values of fractional truncation radii, y, or fractional scaling radii, y† = r† /r† , deduced from sample objects.

  15. Two component systems: physiological effect of a third component.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldiri Salvado

    Full Text Available Signal transduction systems mediate the response and adaptation of organisms to environmental changes. In prokaryotes, this signal transduction is often done through Two Component Systems (TCS. These TCS are phosphotransfer protein cascades, and in their prototypical form they are composed by a kinase that senses the environmental signals (SK and by a response regulator (RR that regulates the cellular response. This basic motif can be modified by the addition of a third protein that interacts either with the SK or the RR in a way that could change the dynamic response of the TCS module. In this work we aim at understanding the effect of such an additional protein (which we call "third component" on the functional properties of a prototypical TCS. To do so we build mathematical models of TCS with alternative designs for their interaction with that third component. These mathematical models are analyzed in order to identify the differences in dynamic behavior inherent to each design, with respect to functionally relevant properties such as sensitivity to changes in either the parameter values or the molecular concentrations, temporal responsiveness, possibility of multiple steady states, or stochastic fluctuations in the system. The differences are then correlated to the physiological requirements that impinge on the functioning of the TCS. This analysis sheds light on both, the dynamic behavior of synthetically designed TCS, and the conditions under which natural selection might favor each of the designs. We find that a third component that modulates SK activity increases the parameter space where a bistable response of the TCS module to signals is possible, if SK is monofunctional, but decreases it when the SK is bifunctional. The presence of a third component that modulates RR activity decreases the parameter space where a bistable response of the TCS module to signals is possible.

  16. Fabrication and Optimization of Bilayered Nanoporous Anodic Alumina Structures as Multi-Point Interferometric Sensing Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Nemati

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we present an innovative strategy for optimizing hierarchical structures of nanoporous anodic alumina (NAA to advance their optical sensing performance toward multi-analyte biosensing. This approach is based on the fabrication of multilayered NAA and the formation of differential effective medium of their structure by controlling three fabrication parameters (i.e., anodization steps, anodization time, and pore widening time. The rationale of the proposed concept is that interferometric bilayered NAA (BL-NAA, which features two layers of different pore diameters, can provide distinct reflectometric interference spectroscopy (RIfS signatures for each layer within the NAA structure and can therefore potentially be used for multi-point biosensing. This paper presents the structural fabrication of layered NAA structures, and the optimization and evaluation of their RIfS optical sensing performance through changes in the effective optical thickness (EOT using quercetin as a model molecule. The bilayered or funnel-like NAA structures were designed with the aim of characterizing the sensitivity of both layers of quercetin molecules using RIfS and exploring the potential of these photonic structures, featuring different pore diameters, for simultaneous size-exclusion and multi-analyte optical biosensing. The sensing performance of the prepared NAA platforms was examined by real-time screening of binding reactions between human serum albumin (HSA-modified NAA (i.e., sensing element and quercetin (i.e., analyte. BL-NAAs display a complex optical interference spectrum, which can be resolved by fast Fourier transform (FFT to monitor the EOT changes, where three distinctive peaks were revealed corresponding to the top, bottom, and total layer within the BL-NAA structures. The spectral shifts of these three characteristic peaks were used as sensing signals to monitor the binding events in each NAA pore in real-time upon exposure to different

  17. The Fractional Virial Potential Energy in Two-Component Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caimmi, R.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Two-component systems are conceived as macrogases, and the related equation of state is expressed using the virial theorem for subsystems, under the restriction of homeoidally striated density profiles. Explicit calculations are performed for a useful reference case and a few cases of astrophysical interest, both with and without truncation radius. Shallower density profiles are found to yield an equation of state, $phi=phi(y,m$, characterized (for assigned values of the fractional mass, $m=M_j/ M_i$ by the occurrence of two extremum points, a minimum and a maximum, as found in an earlier attempt. Steeper density profiles produce a similar equation of state, which implies that a special value of $m$ is related to a critical curve where the above mentioned extremum points reduce to a single horizontal inflexion point, and curves below the critical one show no extremum points. The similarity of the isofractional mass curves to van der Waals' isothermal curves, suggests the possibility of a phase transition in a bell-shaped region of the $({sf O}yphi$ plane, where the fractional truncation radius along a selected direction is $y=R_j/R_i$, and the fractional virial potential energy is $phi=(E_{ji}_mathrm{vir}/(E_{ij}_mathrm{vir}$. Further investigation is devoted to mass distributions described by Hernquist (1990 density profiles, for which an additional relation can be used to represent a sample of $N=16$ elliptical galaxies (EGs on the $({sf O}yphi$ plane. Even if the evolution of elliptical galaxies and their hosting dark matter (DM haloes, in the light of the model, has been characterized by equal fractional mass, $m$, and equal scaled truncation radius, or concentration, $Xi_u=R_u/r_u^dagger$, $u=i,j$, still it cannot be considered as strictly homologous, due to different values of fractional truncation radii, $y$, or fractional scaling radii, $y^dagger=r_j^dagger/r_i^dagger$, deduced from sample objects.

  18. Numerical investigation of wrinkle for multi-point thermoforming of Polymethylmethacrylate sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Heli; Liu, Haijian; Zhang, Xiaolong

    2017-09-01

    The multi-point thermoforming (MPTF) machine and process of resin sheet were introduced, the glass transition temperature and stress relaxation curves of Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) sheet were tested, and the material parameters of PMMA sheet were got. Lots of numerical simulation of wrinkle for spherical part with MPTF of PMMA sheet were put forward, the effects of thickness, radius and forming temperature on the wrinkle were investigated, and the non-wrinkle forming limit diagram are determined. Then, MPTF experiments of spherical part with PMMA sheet was done to verify the numerical results. Consequently, the spherical part has good shape accuracy, which confirms that PMMA sheet formed by MPTF is feasible and the non-wrinkle forming limit diagram obtained by numerical simulation is practicable.

  19. Surface electronic transport measurements: A micro multi-point probe approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barreto, Lucas

    2014-01-01

    This work is mostly focused on the study of electronic transport properties of two-dimensional materials, in particular graphene and topological insulators. To study these, we have improved a unique micro multi-point probe instrument used to perform transport measurements. Not only the experimental...... quantities are extracted, such as conductivity, carrier density and carrier mobility. • A method to insulate electrically epitaxial graphene grown on metals, based on a stepwise intercalation methodology, is developed and transport measurements are performed in order to test the insulation. • We show...... a direct measurement of the surface electronic transport on a bulk topological insulator. The surface state conductivity and mobility are obtained. Apart from transport properties, we also investigate the atomic structure of the Bi2Se3(111) surface via surface x-ray diraction and low-energy electron...

  20. Surface-sensitive conductivity measurement using a micro multi-point probe approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perkins, Edward; Barreto, Lucas; Wells, Justin

    2013-01-01

    measurements with an equidistant four-point probe for a wide range of contact spacings. In this way, it is possible to distinguish between bulk-like and surface-like conduction. The paper describes the design of the instrument and the approach to data and error analysis. Application examples are given......An instrument for microscale electrical transport measurements in ultra-high vacuum is presented. The setup is constructed around collinear lithographically-created multi-point probes with a contact spacing down to 500 nm. Most commonly, twelve-point probes are used. These probes are approached...... to the surface via piezoelectric positioners. Standard four-point resistance measurements can be performed using any combination of contacts out of the twelve available. Current/voltage measurements are taken semi-automatically for a variety of the possible contact configurations, effectively emulating...

  1. Unscented Multi-Point Smoother for Fusion of Delayed Displacement Measurements: Application to Agricultural Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Hauan Arbo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Visual Odometry (VO is increasingly a useful tool for robotic navigation in a variety of applications, including weed removal for agricultural robotics. The methods of evaluating VO are often computationally expensive and can cause the VO measurements to be significantly delayed with respect to a compass, wheel odometry, and GPS measurements. In this paper we present a Bayesian formulation of fusing delayed displacement measurements. We implement solutions to this problem based on the unscented Kalman filter (UKF, leading to what we term an unscented multi-point smoother. The proposed methods are tested in simulations of an agricultural robot. The simulations show improvements in the localization RMS error when including the VO measurements with a variety of latencies.

  2. Throughput analysis of point-to-multi-point hybric FSO/RF network

    KAUST Repository

    Rakia, Tamer

    2017-07-31

    This paper presents and analyzes a point-to-multi-point (P2MP) network that uses a number of free-space optical (FSO) links for data transmission from the central node to the different remote nodes. A common backup radio-frequency (RF) link is used by the central node for data transmission to any remote node in case of the failure of any one of FSO links. We develop a cross-layer Markov chain model to study the throughput from central node to a tagged remote node. Numerical examples are presented to compare the performance of the proposed P2MP hybrid FSO/RF network with that of a P2MP FSO-only network and show that the P2MP Hybrid FSO/RF network achieves considerable performance improvement over the P2MP FSO-only network.

  3. Synthesis and Characterization of Two Component Alloy Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaei, Salomeh

    Alloying is an old trick used to produce new materials by synergistically combining at least two components. New developments in nanoscience have enabled new degrees of freedom, such as size, solubility and concentration of the alloying element to be utilized in the design of the physical properties of alloy nanoparticles (ANPs). ANPs as multi-functional materials have applications in catalysis, biomedical technologies and electronics. Phase diagrams of ANPs are very little known and may not represent that of bulk picture, furthermore, ANPs with different crystallite orientation and compositions could remain far from equilibrium. Here, we studied the synthesis and stability of Au-Sn and Ag-Ni ANPs with chemical reduction method at room temperature. Due to the large difference in the redox potentials of Au and Sn, co-reduction is not a reproducible method. However, two step successive reductions was found to be more reliable to generate Au-Sn ANPs which consists of forming clusters in the first step (either without capping agent or with weakly coordinated surfactant molecules) and then undergoing a second reduction step in the presence of another metal salt. Our observation also showed that capping agents (Cetrimonium bromide or (CTAB)) and Polyacrylic acid (PAA)) play a key role in the alloying process and shorter length capping agent (PAA) may facilitate the diffusion of individual components and thus enabling better alloying. Different molar ratios of Sn and Au precursors were used to study the effect of alloying elements on the melting point and the crystalline structures and melting points were determined by various microscopy and spectroscopy techniques and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A significant depression (up to150°C) in the melting transition was observed for the Au-Sn ANPs compared to the bulk eutectic point (Tm 280°C) due to the size and shape effect. Au-Sn ANPs offer a unique set of advantages as lead-free solder material which can

  4. Intraluminal laser speckle rheology using an omni-directional viewing catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Hosoda, Masaki; Tshikudi, Diane M; Hajjarian, Zeinab; Nadkarni, Seemantini K

    2017-01-01

    A number of disease conditions in luminal organs are associated with alterations in tissue mechanical properties. Here, we report a new omni-directional viewing Laser Speckle Rheology (LSR) catheter for mapping the mechanical properties of luminal organs without the need for rotational motion. The LSR catheter incorporates multiple illumination fibers, an optical fiber bundle and a multi-faceted mirror to permit omni-directional viewing of the luminal wall. By retracting the catheter using a motor-drive assembly, cylindrical maps of tissue mechanical properties are reconstructed. Evaluation conducted in a test phantom with circumferentially-varying mechanical properties demonstrates the capability of the LSR catheter for the accurate mechanical assessment of luminal organs.

  5. Development, validation and application of multi-point kinetics model in RELAP5 for analysis of asymmetric nuclear transients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradhan, Santosh K., E-mail: santosh@aerb.gov.in [Nuclear Safety Analysis Division, Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, Mumbai 400094 (India); Obaidurrahman, K. [Nuclear Safety Analysis Division, Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, Mumbai 400094 (India); Iyer, Kannan N. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Gaikwad, Avinash J. [Nuclear Safety Analysis Division, Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, Mumbai 400094 (India)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • A multi-point kinetics model is developed for RELAP5 system thermal hydraulics code. • Model is validated against extensive 3D kinetics code. • RELAP5 multi-point kinetics formulation is used to investigate critical break for LOCA in PHWR. - Abstract: Point kinetics approach in system code RELAP5 limits its use for many of the reactivity induced transients, which involve asymmetric core behaviour. Development of fully coupled 3D core kinetics code with system thermal-hydraulics is the ultimate requirement in this regard; however coupling and validation of 3D kinetics module with system code is cumbersome and it also requires access to source code. An intermediate approach with multi-point kinetics is appropriate and relatively easy to implement for analysis of several asymmetric transients for large cores. Multi-point kinetics formulation is based on dividing the entire core into several regions and solving ODEs describing kinetics in each region. These regions are interconnected by spatial coupling coefficients which are estimated from diffusion theory approximation. This model offers an advantage that associated ordinary differential equations (ODEs) governing multi-point kinetics formulation can be solved using numerical methods to the desired level of accuracy and thus allows formulation based on user defined control variables, i.e., without disturbing the source code and hence also avoiding associated coupling issues. Euler's method has been used in the present formulation to solve several coupled ODEs internally at each time step. The results have been verified against inbuilt point-kinetics models of RELAP5 and validated against 3D kinetics code TRIKIN. The model was used to identify the critical break in RIH of a typical large PHWR core. The neutronic asymmetry produced in the core due to the system induced transient was effectively handled by the multi-point kinetics model overcoming the limitation of in-built point kinetics model

  6. New spatial upscaling methods for multi-point measurements: From normal to p-normal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Li, Xin

    2017-12-01

    Careful attention must be given to determining whether the geophysical variables of interest are normally distributed, since the assumption of a normal distribution may not accurately reflect the probability distribution of some variables. As a generalization of the normal distribution, the p-normal distribution and its corresponding maximum likelihood estimation (the least power estimation, LPE) were introduced in upscaling methods for multi-point measurements. Six methods, including three normal-based methods, i.e., arithmetic average, least square estimation, block kriging, and three p-normal-based methods, i.e., LPE, geostatistics LPE and inverse distance weighted LPE are compared in two types of experiments: a synthetic experiment to evaluate the performance of the upscaling methods in terms of accuracy, stability and robustness, and a real-world experiment to produce real-world upscaling estimates using soil moisture data obtained from multi-scale observations. The results show that the p-normal-based methods produced lower mean absolute errors and outperformed the other techniques due to their universality and robustness. We conclude that introducing appropriate statistical parameters into an upscaling strategy can substantially improve the estimation, especially if the raw measurements are disorganized; however, further investigation is required to determine which parameter is the most effective among variance, spatial correlation information and parameter p.

  7. Radial Basis Functional Model of Multi-Point Dieless Forming Process for Springback Reduction and Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misganaw Abebe

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Springback in multi-point dieless forming (MDF is a common problem because of the small deformation and blank holder free boundary condition. Numerical simulations are widely used in sheet metal forming to predict the springback. However, the computational time in using the numerical tools is time costly to find the optimal process parameters value. This study proposes radial basis function (RBF to replace the numerical simulation model by using statistical analyses that are based on a design of experiment (DOE. Punch holding time, blank thickness, and curvature radius are chosen as effective process parameters for determining the springback. The Latin hypercube DOE method facilitates statistical analyses and the extraction of a prediction model in the experimental process parameter domain. Finite element (FE simulation model is conducted in the ABAQUS commercial software to generate the springback responses of the training and testing samples. The genetic algorithm is applied to find the optimal value for reducing and compensating the induced springback for the different blank thicknesses using the developed RBF prediction model. Finally, the RBF numerical result is verified by comparing with the FE simulation result of the optimal process parameters and both results show that the springback is almost negligible from the target shape.

  8. Area under rheogram as multi-point viscosity characteristic of the sterilized hypromellose hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklubalová, Zdenka; Zatloukal, Zdenek

    2011-01-01

    In this work, the cone and plate rheological viscometry readings of the sterilized hydrogels of hypromellose 4000 (60 g/L) were investigated by using of the three-parameter Herschel a nd Bulkley powerlaw and the new empirical two-parameter model. In it, the independent variable of shear rate was transformed by logarithm and the dependent variable of shear stress by square root. The two-parameter model showed only non-significantly lower mean value of the coefficient of determination when compared with the results of the three-parameter power law model being of good promise in other investigation of the near pseudoplastic rheograms of hypromellose hydrogels. To express the influence of the addition of the isotonic concentration of sodium chloride and/or pilocarpine hydrochloride, respectively, on the viscosity of sterilized hydrogels of hypromellose, the area under rheogram (AUR) data was employed as a multi-point theological characteristic. No significant differences were noted between AUR calculated using three parameters of the power law model and those calculated using two parameters of the proposed one. The significant increase in viscosity was observed in the presence of the isotonic concentration of sodium chloride in comparison to the hydrogel without additives. In the opposite, the addition of the isotonic concentration of pilocarpine hydrochloride resulted in the significant viscosity decrease. In conclusion, the proposed empirical two-parameter model could be used as the rheological model in investigation of the near pseudoplastic rheograms of the sterilized hypromellose hydrogels.

  9. The real time multi point Thomson scattering diagnostic at NSTX-U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laggner, Florian; Kolemen, Egemen; Diallo, Ahmed; Leblanc, Benoit; Rozenblat, Roman; Tchilinguirian, Greg; NSTX-U team Team

    2017-10-01

    This contribution presents the upgrade of the multi point Thomson scattering (MPTS) diagnostic for real time application. As a key diagnostic at NSTX-U, the MPTS diagnostic simultaneously measures the electron density (ne) and electron temperature (Te) profiles of a plasma discharge. Therefore, this powerful diagnostic can directly access the electron pressure of the plasma. Currently, only post-discharge evaluation of the data is available, however, since the plasma pressure is one important drive for instabilities, real time measurements of this quantities would be beneficial for plasma control. In a first step, ten MPTS channels were equipped with real time electronics, which improve the data acquisition rate by five orders of magnitude. The commissioning of the system is ongoing and first benchmarks of the real time evaluation routines against the standard, post-discharge evaluation show promising results: The Te as well as ne profiles of both types of analyses agree within their uncertainties. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy under DE-SC0015878 and DE-SC0015480.

  10. Progress on the HIT--II Multi-Point Thomson Scattering Diagnostic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamp, W. T.; Jarboe, T. R.; Smith, R. J.; Nelson, B. A.; Rogers, J. A.; Leblanc, B. P.; Phillips, P. E.

    2002-11-01

    The Helicity Injected Torus (HIT--II) multi-point Thomson scattering diagnostic (MPTS) has been designed and built to determine electron temperature and density at 11 radial positions at one time during the plasma discharge. The system includes collection optics and a Littrow mount spectrometer on loan from Princeton, and a 1 GW laser and multi-anode microchannel plate detector (MCP) from the University of Texas. The MPTS is currently operational at 6 spatial positions, indicating electron temperatures greater than 100 eV in transformer driven plasmas. The remaining 5 spatial positions are overloaded by stray laser light. Light reemerging from the beam dump is the primary suspect for stray light. A new beam dump has been constructed in an effort to reduce the stray light and increase the number of operational channels. A new diffraction grating has been constructed to increase the dispersion of the spectrometer to counteract the excessively broad frequency response of the MCP. Plans for MPTS operation include the characterization of density and temperature evolution across reconnection events in CHI driven plasmas, as well as temperature and density characterizations of optimized CHI and transformer driven plasmas in the HIT--II device.

  11. A parallelized Python based Multi-Point Thomson Scattering analysis in NSTX-U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jared; Diallo, Ahmed; Leblanc, Benoit

    2014-10-01

    Multi-Point Thomson Scattering (MPTS) is a reliable and accurate method of finding the temperature, density, and pressure of a magnetically confined plasma. Nd:YAG (1064 nm) lasers are fired into the plasma with a frequency of 60 Hz, and the light is Doppler shifted by Thomson scattering. Polychromators on the midplane of the tokamak pick up the light at various radii/scattering angles, and the avalanche photodiode's voltages are added to an MDSplus tree for later analysis. This project ports and optimizes the prior serial IDL MPTS code into a well-documented Python package that runs in parallel. Since there are 30 polychromators in the current NSTX setup (12 more will be added when NSTX-U is completed), using parallelism offers vast savings in performance. NumPy and SciPy further accelerate numerical calculations and matrix operations, Matplotlib and PyQt make an intuitive GUI with plots of the output, and Multiprocessing parallelizes the computationally intensive calculations. The Python package was designed with portability and flexibility in mind so it can be adapted for use in any polychromator-based MPTS system.

  12. Rogue waves in terms of multi-point statistics and nonequilibrium thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjihosseini, Ali; Lind, Pedro; Mori, Nobuhito; Hoffmann, Norbert P.; Peinke, Joachim

    2017-04-01

    Ocean waves, which lead to rogue waves, are investigated on the background of complex systems. In contrast to deterministic approaches based on the nonlinear Schroedinger equation or focusing effects, we analyze this system in terms of a noisy stochastic system. In particular we present a statistical method that maps the complexity of multi-point data into the statistics of hierarchically ordered height increments for different time scales. We show that the stochastic cascade process with Markov properties is governed by a Fokker-Planck equation. Conditional probabilities as well as the Fokker-Planck equation itself can be estimated directly from the available observational data. This stochastic description enables us to show several new aspects of wave states. Surrogate data sets can in turn be generated allowing to work out different statistical features of the complex sea state in general and extreme rogue wave events in particular. The results also open up new perspectives for forecasting the occurrence probability of extreme rogue wave events, and even for forecasting the occurrence of individual rogue waves based on precursory dynamics. As a new outlook the ocean wave states will be considered in terms of nonequilibrium thermodynamics, for which the entropy production of different wave heights will be considered. We show evidence that rogue waves are characterized by negative entropy production. The statistics of the entropy production can be used to distinguish different wave states.

  13. MLAOS: A Multi-Point Linear Array of Optical Sensors for Coniferous Foliage Clumping Index Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghua Qu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The canopy foliage clumping effect is primarily caused by the non-random distribution of canopy foliage. Currently, measurements of clumping index (CI by handheld instruments is typically time- and labor-intensive. We propose a low-cost and low-power automatic measurement system called Multi-point Linear Array of Optical Sensors (MLAOS, which consists of three above-canopy and nine below-canopy optical sensors that capture plant transmittance at different times of the day. Data communication between the MLAOS node is facilitated by using a ZigBee network, and the data are transmitted from the field MLAOS to a remote data server using the Internet. The choice of the electronic element and design of the MLAOS software is aimed at reducing costs and power consumption. A power consumption test showed that, when a 4000 mAH Li-ion battery is used, a maximum of 8–10 months of work can be achieved. A field experiment on a coniferous forest revealed that the CI of MLAOS may reveal a clumping effect that occurs within the canopy. In further work, measurement of the multi-scale clumping effect can be achieved by utilizing a greater number of MLAOS devices to capture the heterogeneity of the plant canopy.

  14. Implementation Of Water Level Conditioning System Using Wireless Multi-Point Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohnmar Htwe

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Wireless communication is the most popular in these days. Recently people are trying to use the wireless communication systems in home appliances. In this system that is designed and development of a water level conditioning system using wireless which is being used to control the water distribution system. The development system based on the wireless RF Radio Frequency technology which can be installed in industries departments domestics and so on. The level controller is used with ultrasonic sensors to sense the level of water in the tanks and a reservoir. The system used microcontrollersthesecontrollers have the ability to detect the level of water in a Tank1 Tank2 and a Reservoir and then display the status of water on LCD screen and moreover the buzzer will be work depending on the condition of water level in a reservoir. The main objectives of this paper are to design and develop a wireless water level conditioning system using point-to-multi-point RF communication technology. It is reliable because it has no problems arising after installation such as a breakage of wire.

  15. Multi-Point Velocity Correlations in the Wake of a Three-Dimensional Bluff Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Patrick; Glauser, Mark

    2013-11-01

    Three-dimensional bluff-bodies known as turrets are commonly used for housing optical systems on airborne platforms. These geometries generate highly turbulent wakes that decrease the performance of the optical systems and the aircraft. The current experimental study used dynamic suction in both open and closed-loop control configurations to actively control the wake turret. The experiments were carried out at a Reynolds number of 5 × 105, and the flow field was characterized using stereoscopic PIV measurements acquired in the wake of the turret. These data were processed using traditional single-point statistics which showed that the active control system was able to significantly alter the wake of the turret. Using multi-point correlations, turbulent characteristics such as the integral length scale can be calculated. For the turret wake, estimates of the integral length scales were found to be highly dependent upon the region of the flow that was evaluated, especially when comparing the shear layers to the center of the wake. With the application of the active control, the integral length scales were generally found to increase.

  16. Detecting the local transport properties and the dimensionality of transport of epitaxial graphene by a multi-point probe approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barreto, Lucas; Perkins, Edward; Johannsen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    The electronic transport properties of epitaxial monolayer graphene (MLG) and hydrogen-intercalated quasi free-standing bilayer graphene (QFBLG) on SiC(0001) are investigated by micro multi-point probes. Using a probe with 12 contacts, we perform four-point probe measurements with the possibility...

  17. Experimental research and numerical optimisation of multi-point sheet metal forming implementation using a solid elastic cushion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolipov, A. A.; Elghawail, A.; Shushing, S.; Pham, D.; Essa, K.

    2017-09-01

    There is a growing demand for flexible manufacturing techniques that meet the rapid changes in customer needs. A finite element analysis numerical optimisation technique was used to optimise the multi-point sheet forming process. Multi-point forming (MPF) is a flexible sheet metal forming technique where the same tool can be readily changed to produce different parts. The process suffers from some geometrical defects such as wrinkling and dimpling, which have been found to be the cause of the major surface quality problems. This study investigated the influence of parameters such as the elastic cushion hardness, blank holder force, coefficient of friction, cushion thickness and radius of curvature, on the quality of parts formed in a flexible multi-point stamping die. For those reasons, in this investigation, a multipoint forming stamping process using a blank holder was carried out in order to study the effects of the wrinkling, dimpling, thickness variation and forming force. The aim was to determine the optimum values of these parameters. Finite element modelling (FEM) was employed to simulate the multi-point forming of hemispherical shapes. Using the response surface method, the effects of process parameters on wrinkling, maximum deviation from the target shape and thickness variation were investigated. The results show that elastic cushion with proper thickness and polyurethane with the hardness of Shore A90. It has also been found that the application of lubrication cans improve the shape accuracy of the formed workpiece. These final results were compared with the numerical simulation results of the multi-point forming for hemispherical shapes using a blank-holder and it was found that using cushion hardness realistic to reduce wrinkling and maximum deviation.

  18. Multi-Point Measurements to Characterize Radiation Belt Electron Precipitation Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, L. W.

    2017-12-01

    Multipoint measurements in the inner magnetosphere allow the spatial and temporal evolution of various particle populations and wave modes to be disentangled. To better characterize and quantify radiation belt precipitation loss, we utilize multi-point measurements both to study precipitating electrons directly as well as the potential drivers of this loss process. Magnetically conjugate CubeSat and balloon measurements are combined to estimate of the temporal and spatial characteristics of dusk-side precipitation features and quantify loss due to these events. To then understand the drivers of precipitation events, and what determines their spatial structure, we utilize measurements from the dual Van Allen Probes to estimate spatial and temporal scales of various wave modes in the inner magnetosphere, and compare these to precipitation characteristics. The structure, timing, and spatial extent of waves are compared to those of MeV electron precipitation during a few individual events to determine when and where EMIC waves cause radiation belt electron precipitation. Magnetically conjugate measurements provide observational support of the theoretical picture of duskside interaction of EMIC waves and MeV electrons leading to radiation belt loss. Finally, understanding the drivers controlling the spatial scales of wave activity in the inner magnetosphere is critical for uncovering the underlying physics behind the wave generation as well as for better predicting where and when waves will be present. Again using multipoint measurements from the Van Allen Probes, we estimate the spatial and temporal extents and evolution of plasma structures and their gradients in the inner magnetosphere, to better understand the drivers of magnetospheric wave characteristic scales. In particular, we focus on EMIC waves and the plasma parameters important for their growth, namely cold plasma density and cool and warm ion density, anisotropy, and composition.

  19. Multi-point optimization on meridional shape of a centrifugal pump impeller for performance improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, Ji; Wang, Wen Jie; Yuan, Shouqi

    2016-01-01

    A wide operating band is important for a pump to safely perform at maximum efficiency while saving energy. To widen the operating range, a multi-point optimization process based on numerical simulations in order to improve impeller performance of a centrifugal pump used in nuclear plant applications is proposed by this research. The Reynolds average Navier Stokes equations are utilized to perform the calculations. The meridional shape of the impeller was optimized based on the following four parameters; shroud arc radius, hub arc radius, shroud angle, and hub angle as the design variables. Efficiencies calculated under 0.6Qd, 1.0Qd and 1.62Qd were selected as the three optimized objectives. The Design of experiment method was applied to generate various impellers while 35 impellers were generated by the Latin hypercube sampling method. A Response surface function based on a second order function was applied to construct a mathematical relationship between the objectives and design variables. A multi-objective genetic algorithm was utilized to solve the response surface function to obtain the best optimized objectives as well as the best combination of design parameters. The results indicated that the pump performance predicted by numerical simulation was in agreement with the experimental performance. The optimized efficiencies based on the three operating conditions were increased by 3.9 %, 6.1 % and 2.6 %, respectively. In addition, the velocity distribution, pressure distribution, streamline and turbulence kinetic energy distribution of the optimized and reference impeller were compared and analyzed to illustrate the performance improvement

  20. Integrated Multi-Point Space Plasma Measurements With Four Ionospheric Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siefring, C. L.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Selcher, C.; Wilkens, M. R.; McHarg, M. G.; Krause, L.; Chun, F.; Enloe, L.; Panholzer, R.; Sakoda, D.; Phelps, R.; D Roussel-Dupre, D.; Colestock, P.; Close, S.

    2006-12-01

    at 401.25 and 2036.25 MHz. The multi-point techniques provide redundant measurements of radio scintillations and other ionospheric distortions. The causative density irregularities will be imaged using computerized ionospheric tomographic and inverse-diffraction algorithms. The STP-1 sensors in low-earth-orbit will relate electron and ion density fluctuations and radio scintillation effects over a wide range of frequencies. This research supported at NRL by ONR.

  1. Relativistic two-component jet evolutions in 2D and 3D

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meliani, Z.; Keppens, R.

    2009-01-01

    Observations of astrophysical jets and theoretical arguments suggest a transverse stratification with two components induced by intrinsic features of the central engine (accretion disk + black hole). We study two-component jet dynamics for an inner fast low density jet, surrounded by a slower,

  2. 3D Laser Scanning Assisted by Ordinary Plane Mirror for Non-direct Viewing Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Fan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial 3D laser scanning is one of principal methods to get the geometric information of object surface,and the integrity of the scanned object is a basic requirement in data acquisition. In order to solve the missing point cloud problem due to the scanning dead angle caused by confined working space,this paper proposes a method using ordinary plane mirror to obtain laser scanning data for non-direct viewing area according to the plane mirror reflection principle,analyzes the influence mechanism of the ordinary plane mirror on the propagation path and distance of laser beam,deduces the coordinate equation of the object point corresponding to the image point reflected by ordinary plane mirror in laser scanning. Given the laser scanning characteristic,this paper introduces a mirror reflection system included target balls and ordinary plane mirror,and expounds the system construction,system calibration and constructing method of system coordinate system. The feasibility and precision of the method are verified by experiments.

  3. Methods of producing epoxides from alkenes using a two-component catalyst system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Mayfair C.; Kung, Harold H.; Jiang, Jian

    2013-07-09

    Methods for the epoxidation of alkenes are provided. The methods include the steps of exposing the alkene to a two-component catalyst system in an aqueous solution in the presence of carbon monoxide and molecular oxygen under conditions in which the alkene is epoxidized. The two-component catalyst system comprises a first catalyst that generates peroxides or peroxy intermediates during oxidation of CO with molecular oxygen and a second catalyst that catalyzes the epoxidation of the alkene using the peroxides or peroxy intermediates. A catalyst system composed of particles of suspended gold and titanium silicalite is one example of a suitable two-component catalyst system.

  4. Thermodynamics of two component gaseous and solid state plasmas at any degeneracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraeft, W.D.; Stolzmann, W.; Fromhold-Treu, I.; Rother, T.

    1988-10-01

    We give the results of thermodynamical calculations for two component plasmas which are of interest for dense hydrogen, noble gas and alkali plasmas and for electron hole plasmas in optically excited semiconductors as well. 25 refs, 4 figs

  5. Competitive Adsorption of a Two-Component Gas on a Deformable Adsorbent

    OpenAIRE

    Usenko, A. S.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the competitive adsorption of a two-component gas on the surface of an adsorbent whose adsorption properties vary in adsorption due to the adsorbent deformation. The essential difference of adsorption isotherms for a deformable adsorbent both from the classical Langmuir adsorption isotherms of a two-component gas and from the adsorption isotherms of a one-component gas taking into account variations in adsorption properties of the adsorbent in adsorption is obtained. We establi...

  6. Effect of weld line positions on the tensile deformation of two-component metal injection moulding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manonukul, Anchalee; Songkuea, Sukrit; Moonchaleanporn, Pongporn; Tange, Makiko

    2017-12-01

    Knowledge of the mechanical properties of two-component parts is critical for engineering functionally graded components. In this study, mono- and two-component tensile test specimens were metal injection moulded. Three different weld line positions were generated in the two-component specimens. Linear shrinkage of the two-component specimens was greater than that of the mono-component specimens because the incompatibility of sintering shrinkage of both materials causes biaxial stresses and enhances sintering. The mechanical properties of 316L stainless steel were affected by the addition of a coloured pigment used to identify the weld line position after injection moulding. For the two-component specimens, the yield stress and ultimate tensile stress were similar to those of 316L stainless steel. Because 316L and 630 (also known as 17-4PH) stainless steels were well-sintered at the interface, the mechanical properties of the weaker material (316L stainless steel) were dominant. However, the elongations of the two-component specimens were lower than those of the mono-component specimens. An interfacial zone with a microstructure that differed from those of the mono-material specimens was observed; its different microstructure was attributed to the gradual diffusion of nickel and copper.

  7. Transcriptome analysis of all two-component regulatory system mutants of Escherichia coli K-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Taku; Aiba, Hirofumi; Masuda, Yasushi; Kanaya, Shigehiko; Sugiura, Masahito; Wanner, Barry L; Mori, Hirotada; Mizuno, Takeshi

    2002-10-01

    We have systematically examined the mRNA profiles of 36 two-component deletion mutants, which include all two-component regulatory systems of Escherichia coli, under a single growth condition. DNA microarray results revealed that the mutants belong to one of three groups based on their gene expression profiles in Luria-Bertani broth under aerobic conditions: (i) those with no or little change; (ii) those with significant changes; and (iii) those with drastic changes. Under these conditions, the anaeroresponsive ArcB/ArcA system, the osmoresponsive EnvZ/OmpR system and the response regulator UvrY showed the most drastic changes. Cellular functions such as flagellar synthesis and expression of the RpoS regulon were affected by multiple two-component systems. A high correlation coefficient of expression profile was found between several two-component mutants. Together, these results support the view that a network of functional interactions, such as cross-regulation, exists between different two-component systems. The compiled data are avail-able at our website (http://ecoli.aist-nara.ac.jp/xp_analysis/ 2_components).

  8. Two component injection moulding: an interface quality and bond strength dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Mohammad Aminul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Tang, Peter Torben

    2008-01-01

    on quality parameters of the two component parts. Most engineering applications of two component injection moulding calls for high bond strength between the two polymers, on the other hand a sharp and well-defined interface between the two polymers are required for applications like selective metallization...... of polymers, parts for micro applications and also for the aesthetic purpose of the final product. The investigation presented in this paper indicates a dilemma between obtaining reasonably good bond strength and at the same time keeping the interface quality suitable for applications. The required process...... conditions for a sharp and well-defined interface are exactly the opposite of what is congenial for higher bond strength. So in the production of two component injection moulded parts, there is a compromise to make between the interface quality and the bond strength of the two polymers. Also the injection...

  9. Two components in charged particle production in heavy-ion collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Bylinkin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Transverse momentum spectra of charged particle production in heavy-ion collisions are considered in terms of a recently introduced Two Component parameterization combining exponential (“soft” and power-law (“hard” functional forms. The charged hadron densities calculated separately for them are plotted versus number of participating nucleons, Npart. The obtained dependences are discussed and the possible link between the two component parameterization introduced by the authors and the two component model historically used for the case of heavy-ion collisions is established. Next, the variations of the parameters of the introduced approach with the center of mass energy and centrality are studied using the available data from RHIC and LHC experiments. The spectra shapes are found to show universal dependences on Npart for all investigated collision energies.

  10. MODELING THERMAL DUST EMISSION WITH TWO COMPONENTS: APPLICATION TO THE PLANCK HIGH FREQUENCY INSTRUMENT MAPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meisner, Aaron M.; Finkbeiner, Douglas P.

    2015-01-01

    We apply the Finkbeiner et al. two-component thermal dust emission model to the Planck High Frequency Instrument maps. This parameterization of the far-infrared dust spectrum as the sum of two modified blackbodies (MBBs) serves as an important alternative to the commonly adopted single-MBB dust emission model. Analyzing the joint Planck/DIRBE dust spectrum, we show that two-component models provide a better fit to the 100-3000 GHz emission than do single-MBB models, though by a lesser margin than found by Finkbeiner et al. based on FIRAS and DIRBE. We also derive full-sky 6.'1 resolution maps of dust optical depth and temperature by fitting the two-component model to Planck 217-857 GHz along with DIRBE/IRAS 100 μm data. Because our two-component model matches the dust spectrum near its peak, accounts for the spectrum's flattening at millimeter wavelengths, and specifies dust temperature at 6.'1 FWHM, our model provides reliable, high-resolution thermal dust emission foreground predictions from 100 to 3000 GHz. We find that, in diffuse sky regions, our two-component 100-217 GHz predictions are on average accurate to within 2.2%, while extrapolating the Planck Collaboration et al. single-MBB model systematically underpredicts emission by 18.8% at 100 GHz, 12.6% at 143 GHz, and 7.9% at 217 GHz. We calibrate our two-component optical depth to reddening, and compare with reddening estimates based on stellar spectra. We find the dominant systematic problems in our temperature/reddening maps to be zodiacal light on large angular scales and the cosmic infrared background anisotropy on small angular scales

  11. MODELING THERMAL DUST EMISSION WITH TWO COMPONENTS: APPLICATION TO THE PLANCK HIGH FREQUENCY INSTRUMENT MAPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meisner, Aaron M.; Finkbeiner, Douglas P., E-mail: ameisner@fas.harvard.edu, E-mail: dfinkbeiner@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Physics, Harvard University, 17 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2015-01-10

    We apply the Finkbeiner et al. two-component thermal dust emission model to the Planck High Frequency Instrument maps. This parameterization of the far-infrared dust spectrum as the sum of two modified blackbodies (MBBs) serves as an important alternative to the commonly adopted single-MBB dust emission model. Analyzing the joint Planck/DIRBE dust spectrum, we show that two-component models provide a better fit to the 100-3000 GHz emission than do single-MBB models, though by a lesser margin than found by Finkbeiner et al. based on FIRAS and DIRBE. We also derive full-sky 6.'1 resolution maps of dust optical depth and temperature by fitting the two-component model to Planck 217-857 GHz along with DIRBE/IRAS 100 μm data. Because our two-component model matches the dust spectrum near its peak, accounts for the spectrum's flattening at millimeter wavelengths, and specifies dust temperature at 6.'1 FWHM, our model provides reliable, high-resolution thermal dust emission foreground predictions from 100 to 3000 GHz. We find that, in diffuse sky regions, our two-component 100-217 GHz predictions are on average accurate to within 2.2%, while extrapolating the Planck Collaboration et al. single-MBB model systematically underpredicts emission by 18.8% at 100 GHz, 12.6% at 143 GHz, and 7.9% at 217 GHz. We calibrate our two-component optical depth to reddening, and compare with reddening estimates based on stellar spectra. We find the dominant systematic problems in our temperature/reddening maps to be zodiacal light on large angular scales and the cosmic infrared background anisotropy on small angular scales.

  12. Modeling Thermal Dust Emission with Two Components: Application to the Planck High Frequency Instrument Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisner, Aaron M.; Finkbeiner, Douglas P.

    2015-01-01

    We apply the Finkbeiner et al. two-component thermal dust emission model to the Planck High Frequency Instrument maps. This parameterization of the far-infrared dust spectrum as the sum of two modified blackbodies (MBBs) serves as an important alternative to the commonly adopted single-MBB dust emission model. Analyzing the joint Planck/DIRBE dust spectrum, we show that two-component models provide a better fit to the 100-3000 GHz emission than do single-MBB models, though by a lesser margin than found by Finkbeiner et al. based on FIRAS and DIRBE. We also derive full-sky 6.'1 resolution maps of dust optical depth and temperature by fitting the two-component model to Planck 217-857 GHz along with DIRBE/IRAS 100 μm data. Because our two-component model matches the dust spectrum near its peak, accounts for the spectrum's flattening at millimeter wavelengths, and specifies dust temperature at 6.'1 FWHM, our model provides reliable, high-resolution thermal dust emission foreground predictions from 100 to 3000 GHz. We find that, in diffuse sky regions, our two-component 100-217 GHz predictions are on average accurate to within 2.2%, while extrapolating the Planck Collaboration et al. single-MBB model systematically underpredicts emission by 18.8% at 100 GHz, 12.6% at 143 GHz, and 7.9% at 217 GHz. We calibrate our two-component optical depth to reddening, and compare with reddening estimates based on stellar spectra. We find the dominant systematic problems in our temperature/reddening maps to be zodiacal light on large angular scales and the cosmic infrared background anisotropy on small angular scales.

  13. Domain Walls and Textured Vortices in a Two-Component Ginzburg-Landau Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Søren Peder; Gaididei, Yu. B.; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    2005-01-01

    We look for domain wall and textured vortex solutions in a two-component Ginzburg-Landau model inspired by two-band superconductivity. The two-dimensional two-component model, with equal coherence lengths and no magnetic field, shows some interesting properties. In the absence of a Josephson type...... coupling between the two order parameters a ''textured vortex'' is found by analytical and numerical solution of the Ginzburg-Landau equations. With a Josephson type coupling between the two order parameters we find the system to split up in two domains separated by a domain wall, where the order parameter...

  14. A two-component rain model for the prediction of attenuation statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, R. K.

    1982-01-01

    A two-component rain model has been developed for calculating attenuation statistics. In contrast to most other attenuation prediction models, the two-component model calculates the occurrence probability for volume cells or debris attenuation events. The model performed significantly better than the International Radio Consultative Committee model when used for predictions on earth-satellite paths. It is expected that the model will have applications in modeling the joint statistics required for space diversity system design, the statistics of interference due to rain scatter at attenuating frequencies, and the duration statistics for attenuation events.

  15. Anisotropic properties of phase separation in two-component dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Li, Jinbin

    2018-03-01

    Using Crank-Nicolson method, we calculate ground state wave functions of two-component dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) and show that, due to dipole-dipole interaction (DDI), the condensate mixture displays anisotropic phase separation. The effects of DDI, inter-component s-wave scattering, strength of trap potential and particle numbers on the density profiles are investigated. Three types of two-component profiles are present, first cigar, along z-axis and concentric torus, second pancake (or blood cell), in xy-plane, and two non-uniform ellipsoid, separated by the pancake and third two dumbbell shapes.

  16. Solutions to second order non-homogeneous multi-point BVPs using a fixed-point theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Liu

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we study five non-homogeneous multi-point boundary-value problems (BVPs of second order differential equations with the one-dimensional p-Laplacian. These problems have a common equation (in different function domains and different boundary conditions. We find conditions that guarantee the existence of at least three positive solutions. The results obtained generalize several known ones and are illustrated by examples. It is also shown that the approach for getting three positive solutions by using multi-fixed-point theorems can be extended to nonhomogeneous BVPs. The emphasis is on the nonhomogeneous boundary conditions and the nonlinear term involving first order derivative of the unknown. Some open problems are also proposed.

  17. A Multi-Point, Boundary-Value Problem, Collocation Toolbox for the Continuation of sets of Constrained Orbit Segments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dankowicz, Harry; Schilder, Frank

    This paper presents a collocation toolbox for multi-point, boundary-value problems. This toolbox has been recently developed by the authors to support general-purpose parameter continuation of sets of constrained orbit segments, such as i) segmented trajectories in hybrid dynamical systems......, for example, mechanical systems with impacts, friction, and switching control, ii) homoclinic orbits represented by an equilibrium point and a finite-time trajectory that starts and ends near this equilibrium point, and iii) collections of trajectories that represent quasi-periodic invariant tori...... the continuation of families of periodic orbits in a hybrid dynamical system with impacts and friction as well as detection and constrained continuation of selected degeneracies characteristic of such systems, such as grazing and switching-sliding bifurcations....

  18. Multi-point injection demonstration for solidification of shallow buried waste at Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    The multi-point injection (MPI) technology is a precision, high-velocity jetting process for the in situ delivery of various agents to treat radiological and/or chemical wastes. A wide variety of waste forms can be treated, varying from heterogeneous waste dumped into shallow burial trenches to contaminated soils consisting of sands/gravels, silts/clays and soft rock. The robustness of the MPI system is linked to its broad range of applications which vary from in situ waste treatment to creation of both vertical and horizontal barriers. The only major constraint on the type of in situ treatment which can be delivered by the NTI system is that agents must be in a slurry form

  19. Axial velocity distribution of a two-component plasma in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study we investigate the combined effects of channel indentation and presence of neutral gas (impurities) on the flow of a two-component plasma gas through a magnetized cylinder with indentation. For small indentation, expressed in e, analytic solutions are obtained for the axial velocities, induced magnetic fields, ...

  20. Density profiles and collective excitations of a trapped two-component Fermi vapour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoruso, M.; Meccoli, I.; Minguzzi, A.; Tosi, M.P.

    1999-08-01

    We discuss the ground state and the small-amplitude excitations of a degenerate vapour of fermionic atoms placed in two hyperfine states inside a spherical harmonic trap. An equations-of-motion approach is set up to discuss the hydrodynamic dissipation processes from the interactions between the two components of the fluid beyond mean-field theory and to emphasize analogies with spin dynamics and spin diffusion in a homogeneous Fermi liquid. The conditions for the establishment of a collisional regime via scattering against cold-atom impurities are analyzed. The equilibrium density profiles are then calculated for a two-component vapour of 40 K atoms: they are little modified by the interactions for presently relevant values of the system parameters, but spatial separation of the two components will spontaneously arise as the number of atoms in the trap is increased. The eigenmodes of collective oscillation in both the total particle number density and the concentration density are evaluated analytically in the special case of a symmetric two-component vapour in the collisional regime. The dispersion relation of the surface modes for the total particle density reduces in this case to that of a one-component Fermi vapour, whereas the frequencies of all other modes are shifted by the interactions. (author)

  1. Light Responsive Two-Component Supramolecular Hydrogel: A Sensitive Platform for Humidity Sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Samai, Suman

    2016-02-15

    The supramolecular assembly of anionic azobenzene dicarboxylate and cationic cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) formed a stimuli responsive hydrogel with a critical gelation concentration (CGC) of 0.33 wt%. This self-sustainable two-component system was able to repair damage upon light irradiation. Moreover, it was successfully employed in the fabrication of highly sensitive humidity sensors for the first time.

  2. Transport of a two-component mixture in one-dimensional channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borman, VD; Tronin, VN; Tronin, [No Value; Troyan, [No Value

    2004-01-01

    The transport of a two-component gas mixture in subnanometer channels is investigated theoretically for an arbitrary filling of channels. Special attention is paid to consistent inclusion of density effects, which are associated both with the interaction and with a finite size of particles. The

  3. A novel two-component system involved in secretion stress response in Streptomyces lividans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Gullón

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Misfolded proteins accumulating outside the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane can interfere with the secretory machinery, hence the existence of quality factors to eliminate these misfolded proteins is of capital importance in bacteria that are efficient producers of secretory proteins. These bacteria normally use a specific two-component system to respond to the stress produced by the accumulation of the misfolded proteins, by activating the expression of HtrA-like proteases to specifically eliminate the incorrectly folded proteins. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Overproduction of alpha-amylase in S. lividans causing secretion stress permitted the identification of a two-component system (SCO4156-SCO4155 that regulates three HtrA-like proteases which appear to be involved in secretion stress response. Mutants in each of the genes forming part of the two-genes operon that encodes the sensor and regulator protein components accumulated misfolded proteins outside the cell, strongly suggesting the involvement of this two-component system in the S. lividans secretion stress response. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge this is the first time that a specific secretion stress response two-component system is found to control the expression of three HtrA-like protease genes in S. lividans, a bacterium that has been repeatedly used as a host for the synthesis of homologous and heterologous secretory proteins of industrial application.

  4. A two-component dark matter model with real singlet scalars ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-05

    Jan 5, 2016 ... We propose a two-component dark matter (DM) model, each component of which is a real singlet scalar, to explain results from both direct and indirect detection experiments. We put the constraints on the model parameters from theoretical bounds, PLANCK relic density results and direct DM experiments.

  5. The chemistry of two-component fluoride crystalline optical media for heavy, fast, radiation hard scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobolev, B.P.; Krivandina, E.A.; Fedorov, P.P.; Vasilchenko, V.G.

    1994-01-01

    Prospects for preparation of two-component dense optical materials for scintillators are shown, using data on phase diagrams of about 300 MF m - RF n (m, n ≤ 4) type systems, formed by metal fluorides. Primary characteristics (decay time and light output of luminescence, radiation hardness, etc.) of some multicomponent crystals are reported

  6. Susceptor-assisted induction curing behaviour of a two component epoxy paste adhesive for aerospace applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Severijns, C.; Teixeira De Freitas, S.; Poulis, J.A.

    2017-01-01

    The curing behaviour and the mechanical behaviour of susceptor-assisted induction-cured adhesively bonded joints has been investigated. Induction Heating (IH) was established by mixing Iron particles into a two component epoxy paste adhesive. The effect of different process parameters, such as

  7. Comparing numerical and analytical approaches to strongly interacting two-component mixtures in one dimensional traps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellotti, Filipe Furlan; Salami Dehkharghani, Amin; Zinner, Nikolaj Thomas

    2017-01-01

    We investigate one-dimensional harmonically trapped two-component systems for repulsive interaction strengths ranging from the non-interacting to the strongly interacting regime for Fermi-Fermi mixtures. A new and powerful mapping between the interaction strength parameters from a continuous...

  8. Vortices of a rotating two-component dipolar Bose–Einstein condensate in an optical lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lin-Xue [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Key Laboratory of Time and Frequency Primary Standards, National Time Service Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an 710600 (China); Dong, Biao; Chen, Guang-Ping [Key Laboratory of Time and Frequency Primary Standards, National Time Service Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an 710600 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Han, Wei; Zhang, Shou-Gang [Key Laboratory of Time and Frequency Primary Standards, National Time Service Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an 710600 (China); Shi, Yu-Ren, E-mail: shiyr@nwnu.edu.cn [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Zhang, Xiao-Fei, E-mail: xfzhang@ntsc.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Time and Frequency Primary Standards, National Time Service Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an 710600 (China)

    2016-01-28

    We consider a two-component Bose–Einstein condensate, which consists of both dipolar and scalar bosonic atoms, in a confinement that is composed of a harmonic oscillator and an underlying optical lattice set rotation. When the dipoles are polarized along the symmetry axis of the harmonic potential, the ground-state density distributions of such a system are investigated as a function of the relative strength between the dipolar and contact interactions, and of the rotation frequency. Our results show that the number of vortices and its related vortex structures of such a system depend strongly on such system parameters. The special two-component system considered here opens up alternate ways for exploring the rich physics of dipolar quantum gases. - Highlights: • Only one component possesses dipole moment. • Spin-dependent optical lattices support exotic vortex structures. • Both the dipole–dipole interaction and rotation frequency are discussed in detail.

  9. A hybrid two-component Bose–Einstein condensate interferometer for measuring magnetic field gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Fei [Key Laboratory of Fiber Optic Sensing Technology and Information Processing, Ministry of Education, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Huang, Jiahao, E-mail: hjiahao@mail2.sysu.edu.cn [TianQin Research Center & School of Physics and Astronomy, Sun Yat-Sen University, SYSU Zhuhai Campus, Zhuhai 519082 (China); Liu, Quan [Key Laboratory of Fiber Optic Sensing Technology and Information Processing, Ministry of Education, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2017-03-03

    Highlights: • A scheme for detecting magnetic field gradients via a double-well two-component Bose–Einstein condensate interferometer. • The magnetic field gradient can be extracted by either the spin population or the external state. • Our proposal is potentially sensitive to weak magnetic field inhomogeneity due to its small sensor size. - Abstract: We have proposed a scheme to detect magnetic field gradients via an interferometer based on a double-well two-component Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC). Utilizing a sequence of quantum control operations on both external and internal degree of the BEC, one can extract the magnetic field gradients by measuring either the population in one component or the fidelity between the final external state and the initial ground state. Our scheme can be implemented by current experimental techniques of manipulating ultracold atoms.

  10. Geotail observations of temperature anisotropy of the two-component protons in the dusk plasma sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Nishino

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In search for clues towards the understanding of the cold plasma sheet formation under northward IMF, we study the temperature anisotropy of the two-component protons in the plasma sheet near the dusk low-latitude boundary observed by the Geotail spacecraft. The two-component protons result from mixing of the cold component from the solar wind and the hot component of the magnetospheric origin, and may be the most eloquent evidence for the transport process across the magnetopause. The cold component occasionally has a strong anisotropy in the dusk flank, and the sense of the anisotropy depends on the observed locations: the parallel temperature is enhanced in the tail flank while the perpendicular temperature is enhanced on the dayside. The hot component is nearly isotropic in the tail while the perpendicular temperature is enhanced on the dayside. We discuss possible mechanism that can lead to the observed temperature anisotropies.

  11. Fingering instabilities and pattern formation in a two-component dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Kui-Tian; Byrnes, Tim; Saito, Hiroki

    2018-02-01

    We study fingering instabilities and pattern formation at the interface of an oppositely polarized two-component Bose-Einstein condensate with strong dipole-dipole interactions in three dimensions. It is shown that the rotational symmetry is spontaneously broken by fingering instability when the dipole-dipole interactions are strengthened. Frog-shaped and mushroom-shaped patterns emerge during the dynamics due to the dipolar interactions. We also demonstrate the spontaneous density modulation and domain growth of a two-component dipolar BEC in the dynamics. Bogoliubov analyses in the two-dimensional approximation are performed, and the characteristic lengths of the domains are estimated analytically. Patterns resembling those in magnetic classical fluids are modulated when the number ratio of atoms, the trap ratio of the external potential, or tilted polarization with respect to the z direction is varied.

  12. Preventive effect of two-component chemical radioprotector and variability in its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambov, V.; Metodiev, S.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the radioprotective efficiency of two-component radioprotective schema consisting of the chemically synthesized radioprotector WR-2721 (OK-79) and a new glycoside pigment obtained from melanoidine CL. The application of melanoidine 7-21 days before WR-2721 significantly increases the radioprotective efficiency of the chemically obtained product and enhances the 30-day survival of hybrid mice treated with 15 Gy whole body gamma irradiation. The effect of potentiated radioprotection is not observed when the interval between the application of the two agents is reduced to 24 h. It is suggested that the observed enhancement of the radioprotective efficiency in the two-component schema is due to the antioxidant and immuno modulating properties of the pigment product, observed and described in our previous investigations. (author)

  13. Effective one-component description of two-component Bose-Einstein condensate dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutton, Zachary; Clark, Charles W.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate dynamics in two-component Bose-Einstein condensates in the context of coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations and derive results for the evolution of the total density fluctuations. Using these results, we show how, in many cases of interest, the dynamics can be accurately described with an effective one-component Gross-Pitaevskii equation for one of the components, with the trap and interaction coefficients determined by the relative differences in the scattering lengths. We discuss the model in various regimes, where it predicts breathing excitations, and the formation of vector solitons. An effective nonlinear evolution is predicted for some cases of current experimental interest. We then apply the model to construct quasistationary states of two-component condensates

  14. Weak separation limit of a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Sourdis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies of the behaviour of the wave functions of a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate in the case of weak segregation. This amounts to the study of the asymptotic behaviour of a heteroclinic connection in a conservative Hamiltonian system of two coupled second order ODE's, as the strength of the coupling tends to its infimum. For this purpose, we apply geometric singular perturbation theory.

  15. Two-component injection moulding simulation of ABS-POM micro structured surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Islam, Aminul

    2013-01-01

    Multi-component micro injection moulding (μIM) processes such as two-component (2k) μIM are the key technologies for the mass fabrication of multi-material micro products. 2k-μIM experiments involving a miniaturized test component with micro features in the sub-mm dimensional range and moulding a...... process. Flow front predictions are compared with experimental results using the short shots technique over the whole miniaturized component and within the surface micro structures....

  16. An intimate link: two-component signal transduction systems and metal transport systems in bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Kamna; Senadheera, Dilani B; Cvitkovitch, Dennis G

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria have evolved various strategies to contend with high concentrations of environmental heavy metal ions for rapid, adaptive responses to maintain cell viability. Evidence gathered in the past two decades suggests that bacterial two-component signal transduction systems (TCSTSs) are intimately involved in monitoring cation accumulation, and can regulate the expression of related metabolic and virulence genes to elicit adaptive responses to changes in the concentration of these ions. Usi...

  17. Kinetics and mechanism of the oxidation process of two-component Fe-Al alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przewlocka, H.; Siedlecka, J.

    1982-01-01

    The oxidation process of two-component Fe-Al alloys containing up to 7.2% Al and from 18 to 30% Al was studied. Kinetic measurements were conducted using the isothermal gravimetric method in the range of 1073-1223 K and 1073-1373 K for 50 hours. The methods used in studies of the mechanism of oxidation included: X-ray microanalysis, X-ray structural analysis, metallographic analysis and marker tests.

  18. Role of Streptococcus mutans two-component systems in antimicrobial peptide resistance in the oral cavity

    OpenAIRE

    Kawada-Matsuo, Miki; Komatsuzawa, Hitoshi

    2017-01-01

    Summary Approximately 100 trillion microorganisms exist in the oral cavity. For the commensal bacteria of the oral cavity, it is important to adapt to environmental stimuli, including human- or bacteria-derived antimicrobial agents. Recently, bacterial-specific signal transduction regulatory systems, called two-component systems (TCSs), which appear to be focused on sensing and adapting to the environment, were discovered. Streptococcus mutans is an oral commensal bacteria and is also known a...

  19. Two-component bond for coating materials coming into contact with radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svoboda, L.; Fajfr, K.

    1989-01-01

    The two-component bonding agent consists of an epoxy resin of the diane-bis-glycidyl ether type and an amine hardener containing benzyl alcohol and bis-2-ethylhexyl phthalate. The claimed bond features high radiation stability and very good decontaminability. Thanks to low viscosity of the bond, pigmented reactor-plastics can be prepared. The procedure is described of applying the bond onto a concrete surface. (E.S.)

  20. A two-component generalized extreme value distribution for precipitation frequency analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rulfová, Zuzana; Buishand, A.; Roth, M.; Kyselý, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 534, March (2016), s. 659-668 ISSN 0022-1694 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-18675S Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : precipitation extremes * two-component extreme value distribution * regional frequency analysis * convective precipitation * stratiform precipitation * Central Europe Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 3.483, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022169416000500

  1. Theoretical calculation of cryogenic distillation for two-component hydrogen isotope system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Xiulong; Luo Yangming; Wang Heyi; Fu Zhonghua; Liu Jun; Han Jun; Gu Mei

    2005-10-01

    Cryogenic distillation model for single column was built to simulating hydrogen isotope separation system. Three two-component system H 2 /HD, H 2 /HT and D 2 /DT was studied. Both temperature and concentration distribution was obtained and the results show a clear separation characteristics. H 2 /HT has the best separation performance while D 2 /DT was the most difficult to separate. (authors)

  2. Two components of Na emission in sonoluminescence spectrum from surfactant aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yuichi; Choi, Pak-Kon

    2015-03-01

    Sonoluminescence from sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) aqueous solutions exhibits Na emission. The spectrum of Na emission was measured as a function of sonication time for a total of 30 min at an ultrasonic frequency of 148 kHz. The spectral line profiles changed with the sonication time, suggesting that the Na emission consists of two components: broadened lines, which are shifted from the original D lines, and unshifted narrow lines. The intensity of the unshifted narrow lines decreased at a greater rate than that of the broadened lines with increasing sonication time. This effect was enhanced at a higher acoustic power. The shifted broadened lines remained after sonication for 30 min. We propose that these quenching effects are caused by the accumulation of gases decomposed from SDS molecules inside bubbles. The CO₂ gas dependence of Na emission in NaCl aqueous solutions showed a similar change in the line profiles to that in SDS aqueous solutions, which supported this proposition. The unshifted narrow lines are easily affected by foreign gases. The results suggest that the two components originate from different environments around the emitting species, although both of them originate from the gas phase inside bubbles. The generation mechanisms of the two components are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Umov effect in application to an optically thin two-component cloud of cosmic dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubko, Evgenij; Videen, Gorden; Zubko, Nataliya; Shkuratov, Yuriy

    2018-04-01

    The Umov effect is an inverse correlation between linear polarization of the sunlight scattered by an object and its geometric albedo. The Umov effect has been observed in particulate surfaces, such as planetary regoliths, and recently it also was found in single-scattering small dust particles. Using numerical modeling, we study the Umov effect in a two-component mixture of small irregularly shaped particles. Such a complex chemical composition is suggested in cometary comae and other types of optically thin clouds of cosmic dust. We find that the two-component mixtures of small particles also reveal the Umov effect regardless of the chemical composition of their end-member components. The interrelation between log(Pmax) and log(A) in a two-component mixture of small irregularly shaped particles appears either in a straight linear form or in a slightly curved form. This curvature tends to decrease while the index n in a power-law size distribution r-n grows; at n > 2.5, the log(Pmax)-log(A) diagrams are almost straight linear in appearance. The curvature also noticeably decreases with the packing density of constituent material in irregularly shaped particles forming the mixture. That such a relation exists suggest the Umov effect may also be observed in more complex mixtures.

  4. Investigating the use of multi-point coupling for single-sensor bearing estimation in one direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolard, Americo G.; Phoenix, Austin A.; Tarazaga, Pablo A.

    2018-04-01

    Bearing estimation of radially propagating symmetric waves in solid structures typically requires a minimum of two sensors. As a test specimen, this research investigates the use of multi-point coupling to provide directional inference using a single-sensor. By this provision, the number of sensors required for localization can be reduced. A finite-element model of a beam is constructed with a symmetrically placed bipod that has asymmetric joint-stiffness properties. Impulse loading is applied at different points along the beam, and measurements are taken from the apex of the bipod. A technique is developed to determine the direction-of-arrival of the propagating wave. The accuracy when using the bipod with the developed technique is compared against results gathered without the bipod and measuring from an asymmetric location along the beam. The results show 92% accuracy when the bipod is used, compared to 75% when measuring without the bipod from an asymmetric location. A geometry investigation finds the best accuracy results when one leg of the bipod has a low stiffness and a large diameter relative to the other leg.

  5. Solvability of fractional multi-point boundary-value problems with p-Laplacian operator at resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengfei Shen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we consider the multi-point boundary-value problem for nonlinear fractional differential equations with $p$-Laplacian operator: $$\\displaylines{ D_{0^+}^\\beta \\varphi_p (D_{0^+}^\\alpha u(t = f(t,u(t,D_{0^+}^{\\alpha - 2} u(t,D_{0^+}^{\\alpha - 1} u(t, D_{0^+}^\\alpha u(t,\\quad t \\in (0,1, \\cr u(0 = u'(0=D_{0^+}^\\alpha u(0 = 0,\\quad D_{0^+}^{\\alpha - 1} u(1 = \\sum_{i = 1}^m {\\sigma_i D_{0^+}^{\\alpha - 1} u(\\eta_i } , }$$ where $2 < \\alpha \\le 3$, $0 < \\beta \\le 1$, $3 < \\alpha + \\beta \\le 4$, $\\sum_{i = 1}^m {\\sigma_i } = 1$, $D_{0^+}^\\alpha$ is the standard Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative. $\\varphi_{p}(s=|s|^{p-2}s$ is p-Laplacians operator. The existence of solutions for above fractional boundary value problem is obtained by using the extension of Mawhin's continuation theorem due to Ge, which enrich konwn results. An example is given to illustrate the main result.

  6. Evaluation of magnetic helicity density in the wave number domain using multi-point measurements in space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Narita

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available We develop an estimator for the magnetic helicity density, a measure of the spiral geometry of magnetic field lines, in the wave number domain as a wave diagnostic tool based on multi-point measurements in space. The estimator is numerically tested with a synthetic data set and then applied to an observation of magnetic field fluctuations in the Earth foreshock region provided by the four-point measurements of the Cluster spacecraft. The energy and the magnetic helicity density are determined in the frequency and the wave number domain, which allows us to identify the wave properties in the plasma rest frame correcting for the Doppler shift. In the analyzed time interval, dominant wave components have parallel propagation to the mean magnetic field, away from the shock at about Alfvén speed and a left-hand spatial rotation sense of helicity with respect to the propagation direction, which means a right-hand temporal rotation sense of polarization. These wave properties are well explained by the right-hand resonant beam instability as the driving mechanism in the foreshock. Cluster observations allow therefore detailed comparisons with various theories of waves and instabilities.

  7. High-spatial-resolution electron density measurement by Langmuir probe for multi-point observations using tiny spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, H.; Røed, K.; Bekkeng, T. A.; Trondsen, E.; Clausen, L. B. N.; Miloch, W. J.; Moen, J. I.

    2017-11-01

    A method for evaluating electron density using a single fixed-bias Langmuir probe is presented. The technique allows for high-spatio-temporal resolution electron density measurements, which can be effectively carried out by tiny spacecraft for multi-point observations in the ionosphere. The results are compared with the multi-needle Langmuir probe system, which is a scientific instrument developed at the University of Oslo comprising four fixed-bias cylindrical probes that allow small-scale plasma density structures to be characterized in the ionosphere. The technique proposed in this paper can comply with the requirements of future small-sized spacecraft, where the cost-effectiveness, limited space available on the craft, low power consumption and capacity for data-links need to be addressed. The first experimental results in both the plasma laboratory and space confirm the efficiency of the new approach. Moreover, detailed analyses on two challenging issues when deploying the DC Langmuir probe on a tiny spacecraft, which are the limited conductive area of the spacecraft and probe surface contamination, are presented in the paper. It is demonstrated that the limited conductive area, depending on applications, can either be of no concern for the experiment or can be resolved by mitigation methods. Surface contamination has a small impact on the performance of the developed probe.

  8. PIV study of non-Marangoni surface flows in thin liquid films induced by single- and multi-point thermodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Nai-Yi; Wang, Song-Po

    2018-03-01

    The non-Marangoni directional flows, which can occur in only very thin liquid films, have been studied using particle image velocimetry techniques. Single- and multi-point thermodes have been used in this study for generating the flows. The results show that the direction of these flows is governed by the variation trend of the thickness of the film and the shape of the temperature profile. A hot thermode always drives a thick-to-thin flow, whereas a cold thermode always drives a flow in the opposite direction. Increasing the temperature difference between the thermode and the ambience, or decreasing the thickness of the liquid film, can accelerate the flow speed. However, the flow speed cannot exceed an upper limit. When more than one thermode was used, different flow patterns, including thick-to-thin streams driven by hot thermodes and thin-to-thick streams driven by cold thermodes, could be formed. The experimental results strongly suggest that these flows were not driven by thermo-capillary forces but by a newly proposed thermo-dynamic mechanism.

  9. A novel two-component system involved in the transition to secondary metabolism in Streptomyces coelicolor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rozas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bacterial two-component signal transduction regulatory systems are the major set of signalling proteins frequently mediating responses to changes in the environment. They typically consist of a sensor, a membrane-associated histidine kinase and a cytoplasmic response regulator. The membrane-associated sensor detects the environmental signal or stress, whereas the cytoplasmic regulatory protein controls the cellular response usually by gene transcription modulation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPALFINDINGS: The Streptomyces coelicolor two genes operon SCO5784-SCO5785 encodes a two-component system, where SCO5784 encodes a histidine-kinase sensor and SCO5785 encodes a response regulator protein. When the expression level of the regulator gene decreases, the antibiotic synthesis and sporulation is delayed temporarily in addition to some ribosomal genes became up regulated, whereas the propagation of the regulatory gene in high copy number results in the earlier synthesis of antibiotics and sporulation, as well as the down regulation of some ribosomal genes and, moreover, in the overproduction of several extracellular proteins. Therefore, this two-component system in S. coelicolor seems to influence various processes characterised by the transition from primary to secondary metabolism, as determined by proteomic and transcriptomic analyses. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Propagation of SCO5785 in multicopy enhances the production of antibiotics as well as secretory proteins. In particular, the increase in the expression level of secretory protein encoding genes, either as an artefactual or real effect of the regulator, could be of potential usefulness when using Streptomyces strains as hosts for homologous or heterologous extracellular protein production.

  10. The Two-Component Virial Theorem and the Physical Properties of Stellar Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas; Ribeiro; Capelato; de Carvalho RR

    2000-01-01

    Motivated by present indirect evidence that galaxies are surrounded by dark matter halos, we investigate whether their physical properties can be described by a formulation of the virial theorem that explicitly takes into account the gravitational potential term representing the interaction of the dark halo with the baryonic or luminous component. Our analysis shows that the application of such a "two-component virial theorem" not only accounts for the scaling relations displayed by, in particular, elliptical galaxies, but also for the observed properties of all virialized stellar systems, ranging from globular clusters to galaxy clusters.

  11. Mapping the Two-Component Atomic Fermi Gas to the Nuclear Shell-Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Özen, C.; Zinner, Nikolaj Thomas

    2014-01-01

    of the external potential becomes important. A system of two-species fermionic cold atoms with an attractive zero-range interaction is analogous to a simple model of nucleus in which neutrons and protons interact only through a residual pairing interaction. In this article, we discuss how the problem of a two......-component atomic fermi gas in a tight external trap can be mapped to the nuclear shell model so that readily available many-body techniques in nuclear physics, such as the Shell Model Monte Carlo (SMMC) method, can be directly applied to the study of these systems. We demonstrate an application of the SMMC method...

  12. Phase separation and dynamics of two-component Bose-Einstein condensates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Kean Loon; Jørgensen, Nils Byg; Liu, I-Kang

    2016-01-01

    The miscibility of two interacting quantum systems is an important testing ground for the understanding of complex quantum systems. Two-component Bose-Einstein condensates enable the investigation of this scenario in a particularly well controlled setting. In a homogeneous system, the transition...... critically on atom numbers. We demonstrate how monitoring of damping rates and frequencies of dipole oscillations enables the experimental mapping of the phase diagram by numerical implementation of a fully self-consistent finite-temperature kinetic theory for binary condensates. The change in damping rate...

  13. Three-wave interaction in two-component quadratic nonlinear lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konotop, V. V.; Cunha, M. D.; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    1999-01-01

    We investigate a two-component lattice with a quadratic nonlinearity and find with the multiple scale technique that integrable three-wave interaction takes place between plane wave solutions when these fulfill resonance conditions. We demonstrate that. energy conversion and pulse propagation known...... from three-wave interaction is reproduced in the lattice and that exact phase matching of parametric processes can be obtained in non-phase-matched lattices by tilting the interacting plane waves with respect to each other. [S1063-651X(99)15110-9]....

  14. Disorder-Induced Order in Two-Component Bose-Einstein Condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niederberger, A.; Schulte, T.; Wehr, J.; Lewenstein, M.; Sanchez-Palencia, L.; Sacha, K.

    2008-01-01

    We propose and analyze a general mechanism of disorder-induced order in two-component Bose-Einstein condensates, analogous to corresponding effects established for XY spin models. We show that a random Raman coupling induces a relative phase of π/2 between the two BECs and that the effect is robust. We demonstrate it in one, two, and three dimensions at T=0 and present evidence that it persists at small T>0. Applications to phase control in ultracold spinor condensates are discussed

  15. Evaluation of solution stability for two-component polydisperse systems by small-angle scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryukova, A. E.; Konarev, P. V.; Volkov, V. V.

    2017-12-01

    The article is devoted to the modelling of small-angle scattering data using the program MIXTURE designed for the study of polydisperse multicomponent mixtures. In this work we present the results of solution stability studies for theoretical small-angle scattering data sets from two-component models. It was demonstrated that the addition of the noise to the data influences the stability range of the restored structural parameters. The recommendations for the optimal minimization schemes that permit to restore the volume size distributions for polydisperse systems are suggested.

  16. Topological aspects in a two-component Bose condensed system in a neutron star

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji-Rong, Ren; Heng, Guo

    2009-01-01

    By making use of Duan–Ge's decomposition theory of gauge potential and the topological current theory proposed by Prof. Duan Yi–Shi, we study a two-component superfluid Bose condensed system, which is supposed to be realized in the interior of neutron stars in the form of the coexistence of a neutron superfluid and a protonic superconductor. We propose that this system possesses vortex lines. The topological charges of the vortex lines are characterized by the Hopf indices and the Brower degrees of ø-mapping. (the physics of elementary particles and fields)

  17. Correlation inequalities for two-component hypercubic /varreverse arrowphi/4 models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soria, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    A collection of new and already known correlation inequalities is found for a family of two-component hypercubic /varreverse arrowphi/ 4 models, using techniques of duplicated variables, rotated correlation inequalities, and random walk representation. Among the interesting new inequalities are: rotated very special Dunlop-Newman inequality 2 ; /varreverse arrowphi//sub 1z/ 2 + /varreverse arrowphi//sub 2z/ 2 ≥ 0, rotated Griffiths I inequality 2 - /varreverse arrowphi//sub 2z/ 2 > ≥ 0, and anti-Lebowitz inequality u 4 1111 ≥ 0

  18. Two-component Thermal Dust Emission Model: Application to the Planck HFI Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisner, Aaron M.; Finkbeiner, Douglas P.

    2014-06-01

    We present full-sky, 6.1 arcminute resolution maps of dust optical depth and temperature derived by fitting the Finkbeiner et al. (1999) two-component dust emission model to the Planck HFI and IRAS 100 micron maps. This parametrization of the far infrared thermal dust SED as the sum of two modified blackbodies serves as an important alternative to the commonly adopted single modified blackbody dust emission model. We expect our Planck-based maps of dust temperature and optical depth to form the basis for a next-generation, high-resolution extinction map which will additionally incorporate small-scale detail from WISE imaging.

  19. Morphology-tunable and photoresponsive properties in a self-assembled two-component gel system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yifeng; Xu, Miao; Yi, Tao; Xiao, Shuzhang; Zhou, Zhiguo; Li, Fuyou; Huang, Chunhui

    2007-01-02

    Photoresponsive C3-symmetrical trisurea self-assembling building blocks containing three azobenzene groups (LC10 and LC4) at the rim were designed and synthesized. By introducing a trisamide gelator (G18), which can self-aggregate through hydrogen bonds of acylamino moieties to form a fibrous network, the mixture of LC10 (or LC4) and G18 forms an organogel with coral-like supramolecular structure from 1,4-dioxane. The cooperation of hydrogen bonding and the hydrophobic diversity between these components are the main contributions to the specific superstructure. The two-component gel exhibits reversible photoisomerization from trans to cis transition without breakage of the gel state.

  20. Rational Design of Inhibitors of VirA-VirG Two-Component Signal Transduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maresh, Justin; Zhang, Jin; Tzeng, Yih-Ling; Goodman, Nora A; Lynn, David G

    2010-01-01

    VirA-VirG two-component system regulates the vir (virulence) operon in response specific host factors (xenognosins) in the plant pathogen A. tumefaciens. Using whole cell assays, stable inhibitors inspired by the labile natural benzoxazinone inhibitor HDMBOA are developed. It is found that aromatic aldehydes represent a minimal structural unit for activity. In particular, 3-hydroxy-4,6-dimethoxy-3H-isobenzofuran-1-one (HDI) was found to have the highest activity, making it the most potent developed inhibitor of virulence gene expression in Agrobacterium. PMID:17470391

  1. Self-duality for the two-component asymmetric simple exclusion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belitsky, V. [Instituto de Matemática e Estátistica, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão, 1010, CEP 05508-090 São Paulo-SP (Brazil); Schütz, G. M. [Institute of Complex Systems II, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    We study a two-component asymmetric simple exclusion process (ASEP) that is equivalent to the ASEP with second-class particles. We prove self-duality with respect to a family of duality functions which are shown to arise from the reversible measures of the process and the symmetry of the generator under the quantum algebra U{sub q}[gl{sub 3}]. We construct all invariant measures in explicit form and discuss some of their properties. We also prove a sum rule for the duality functions.

  2. A novel multi-aperture based sun sensor based on a fast multi-point MEANSHIFT (FMMS) algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Zheng; Sun, Jian; Xing, Fei; Zhang, Gao-Fei

    2011-01-01

    With the current increased widespread interest in the development and applications of micro/nanosatellites, it was found that we needed to design a small high accuracy satellite attitude determination system, because the star trackers widely used in large satellites are large and heavy, and therefore not suitable for installation on micro/nanosatellites. A Sun sensor + magnetometer is proven to be a better alternative, but the conventional sun sensor has low accuracy, and cannot meet the requirements of the attitude determination systems of micro/nanosatellites, so the development of a small high accuracy sun sensor with high reliability is very significant. This paper presents a multi-aperture based sun sensor, which is composed of a micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) mask with 36 apertures and an active pixels sensor (APS) CMOS placed below the mask at a certain distance. A novel fast multi-point MEANSHIFT (FMMS) algorithm is proposed to improve the accuracy and reliability, the two key performance features, of an APS sun sensor. When the sunlight illuminates the sensor, a sun spot array image is formed on the APS detector. Then the sun angles can be derived by analyzing the aperture image location on the detector via the FMMS algorithm. With this system, the centroid accuracy of the sun image can reach 0.01 pixels, without increasing the weight and power consumption, even when some missing apertures and bad pixels appear on the detector due to aging of the devices and operation in a harsh space environment, while the pointing accuracy of the single-aperture sun sensor using the conventional correlation algorithm is only 0.05 pixels.

  3. A Novel Multi-Aperture Based Sun Sensor Based on a Fast Multi-Point MEANSHIFT (FMMS Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao-Fei Zhang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available With the current increased widespread interest in the development and applications of micro/nanosatellites, it was found that we needed to design a small high accuracy satellite attitude determination system, because the star trackers widely used in large satellites are large and heavy, and therefore not suitable for installation on micro/nanosatellites. A Sun sensor + magnetometer is proven to be a better alternative, but the conventional sun sensor has low accuracy, and cannot meet the requirements of the attitude determination systems of micro/nanosatellites, so the development of a small high accuracy sun sensor with high reliability is very significant. This paper presents a multi-aperture based sun sensor, which is composed of a micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS mask with 36 apertures and an active pixels sensor (APS CMOS placed below the mask at a certain distance. A novel fast multi-point MEANSHIFT (FMMS algorithm is proposed to improve the accuracy and reliability, the two key performance features, of an APS sun sensor. When the sunlight illuminates the sensor, a sun spot array image is formed on the APS detector. Then the sun angles can be derived by analyzing the aperture image location on the detector via the FMMS algorithm. With this system, the centroid accuracy of the sun image can reach 0.01 pixels, without increasing the weight and power consumption, even when some missing apertures and bad pixels appear on the detector due to aging of the devices and operation in a harsh space environment, while the pointing accuracy of the single-aperture sun sensor using the conventional correlation algorithm is only 0.05 pixels.

  4. Bacillus subtilis Two-Component System Sensory Kinase DegS Is Regulated by Serine Phosphorylation in Its Input Domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jers, Carsten; Kobir, Ahasanul; Søndergaard, Elsebeth Oline

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis two-component system DegS/U is well known for the complexity of its regulation. The cytosolic sensory kinase DegS does not receive a single predominant input signal like most two-component kinases, instead it integrates a wide array of metabolic inputs that modulate its activity......S phosphorylation at serine 76 and the level of DegU phosphorylation, establishing this post-translational modification as an additional trigger for this two-component system....

  5. Rotation and toroidal magnetic field effects on the stability of two-component jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millas, Dimitrios; Keppens, Rony; Meliani, Zakaria

    2017-09-01

    Several observations of astrophysical jets show evidence of a structure in the direction perpendicular to the jet axis, leading to the development of 'spine and sheath' models of jets. Most studies focus on a two-component jet consisting of a highly relativistic inner jet and a slower - but still relativistic - outer jet surrounded by an unmagnetized environment. These jets are believed to be susceptible to a relativistic Rayleigh-Taylor-type instability, depending on the effective inertia ratio of the two components. We extend previous studies by taking into account the presence of a non-zero toroidal magnetic field. Different values of magnetization are examined to detect possible differences in the evolution and stability of the jet. We find that the toroidal field, above a certain level of magnetization σ, roughly equal to 0.01, can stabilize the jet against the previously mentioned instabilities and that there is a clear trend in the behaviour of the average Lorentz factor and the effective radius of the jet when we continuously increase the magnetization. The simulations are performed using the relativistic MHD module from the open source, parallel, grid adaptive, mpi-amrvac code.

  6. Approximate singly excited states from a two-component Hartree-Fock reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goings, Joshua J; Ding, Feizhi; Davidson, Ernest R; Li, Xiaosong

    2015-10-14

    For many molecules, relaxing the spin symmetry constraint on the wave function results in the lowest energy mean-field solution. The two-component Hartree-Fock (2cHF) method relaxes all spin symmetry constraints, and the wave function is no longer an eigenfunction of the total spin, spin projection, or time-reversal symmetry operators. For ground state energies, 2cHF is a superior mean-field method for describing spin-frustrated molecules. For excited states, the utility of 2cHF is uncertain. Here, we implement the 2cHF extensions of two single-reference excited state methods, the two-component configuration interaction singles and time-dependent Hartree-Fock. We compare the results to the analogous methods based off of the unrestricted Hartree-Fock approximation, as well as the full configuration interaction for three small molecules with distinct 2cHF solutions, and discuss the nature of the 2cHF excited state solutions.

  7. Numerical analysis of a non equilibrium two-component two-compressible flow in porous media

    KAUST Repository

    Saad, Bilal Mohammed

    2013-09-01

    We propose and analyze a finite volume scheme to simulate a non equilibrium two components (water and hydrogen) two phase flow (liquid and gas) model. In this model, the assumption of local mass non equilibrium is ensured and thus the velocity of the mass exchange between dissolved hydrogen and hydrogen in the gas phase is supposed finite. The proposed finite volume scheme is fully implicit in time together with a phase-by-phase upwind approach in space and it is discretize the equations in their general form with gravity and capillary terms We show that the proposed scheme satisfies the maximum principle for the saturation and the concentration of the dissolved hydrogen. We establish stability results on the velocity of each phase and on the discrete gradient of the concentration. We show the convergence of a subsequence to a weak solution of the continuous equations as the size of the discretization tends to zero. At our knowledge, this is the first convergence result of finite volume scheme in the case of two component two phase compressible flow in several space dimensions.

  8. Shape-persistent two-component 2D networks with atomic-size tunability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Zhang, Xu; Wang, Dong; Wang, Jie-Yu; Pei, Jian; Stang, Peter J; Wan, Li-Jun

    2011-09-05

    Over the past few years, two-dimensional (2D) nanoporous networks have attracted great interest as templates for the precise localization and confinement of guest building blocks, such as functional molecules or clusters on the solid surfaces. Herein, a series of two-component molecular networks with a 3-fold symmetry are constructed on graphite using a truxenone derivative and trimesic acid homologues with carboxylic-acid-terminated alkyl chains. The hydrogen-bonding partner-recognition-induced 2D crystallization of alkyl chains makes the flexible alkyl chains act as rigid spacers in the networks to continuously tune the pore size with an accuracy of one carbon atom per step. The two-component networks were found to accommodate and regulate the distribution and aggregation of guest molecules, such as COR and CuPc. This procedure provides a new pathway for the design and fabrication of molecular nanostructures on solid surfaces. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Re-engineering the two-component systems as light-regulated in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Siya; Luo, Siwei; Wu, L I; Liang, Zhi; Wu, Jia-Rui

    2017-12-01

    Bacteria live in environments with dynamic changes. To sense and respond to different external stimuli, bacteria make use of various sensor-response circuits, called two-component systems (TCSs). A TCS comprises a histidine protein kinase (HK) sensing environmental stimuli and a response regulator protein (RR) regulating downstream genes. The two components are coupled via a phosphorylation control mechanism. In a recent study, we adopted an optogenetics approach to re-engineer the sensor HKs in Escherichia coli as a light-sensing fusion protein. We constructed a light-controllable HK by replacing the original signal-specific sensing domain of HK with the light-sensing domain of Cph1 from Cyanobacteria Synechocystis , so that HK can be investigated by red light. Here, we extended the study to other 16 HK-RR TCSs and constructed a library of light-responsible HK-Cph1 chimeras. By taking the NarX-NarL system as an example, we demonstrated the light responsiveness of the constructed chimera and investigated the frequency response of the NarXNarL system. The constructed library serves as a toolkit for future TCS study using optogenetics approach.

  10. Two-Component Signal Transduction System SaeRS Positively Regulates Staphylococcus epidermidis Glucose Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Lou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus epidermidis, which is a causative pathogen of nosocomial infection, expresses its virulent traits such as biofilm and autolysis regulated by two-component signal transduction system SaeRS. In this study, we performed a proteomic analysis of differences in expression between the S. epidermidis 1457 wild-type and saeRS mutant to identify candidates regulated by saeRS using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption/lonization mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS. Of 55 identified proteins that significantly differed in expression between the two strains, 15 were upregulated and 40 were downregulated. The downregulated proteins included enzymes related to glycolysis and TCA cycle, suggesting that glucose is not properly utilized in S. epidermidis when saeRS was deleted. The study will be helpful for treatment of S. epidermidis infection from the viewpoint of metabolic modulation dependent on two-component signal transduction system SaeRS.

  11. Regularity for 3D Navier-Stokes equations in terms of two components of the vorticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadek Gala

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We establish regularity conditions for the 3D Navier-Stokes equation via two components of the vorticity vector. It is known that if a Leray-Hopf weak solution $u$ satisfies $$ ilde{omega}in L^{2/(2-r}(0,T;L^{3/r}(mathbb{R}^3quad hbox{with }0two components of the vorticity, $omega =operatorname{curl}u$, then $u$ becomes the classical solution on $(0,T]$ (see [5]. We prove the regularity of Leray-Hopf weak solution $u$ under each of the following two (weaker conditions: $$displaylines{ ilde{omega}in L^{2/(2-r}(0,T;dot {mathcal{M}}_{2, 3/r}(mathbb{R}^3quad hbox{for }0

  12. Determination of two-dimensional correlation lengths in an anisotropic two-component flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, O.

    1994-05-01

    Former studies have shown that correlation methods can be used for determination of various two-component flow parameters, among these the correlation length. In cases where the flow can be described as a mixture, in which the minority component forms spatially limited perturbations within the majority component, this parameter gives a good indication of the maximum extension of these perturbations. In the former studies, spherical symmetry of the perturbations has been assumed, and the correlation length has been measured in the direction of the flow (axially) only. However, if the flow structure is anisotropic, the correlation length will be different in different directions. In the present study, the method has been developed further, allowing also measurements perpendicular to the flow direction (radially). The measurements were carried out using laser beams and the two-component flows consisted of either glass beads and air or air and water. In order to make local measurements of both the axial and radial correlation length simultaneously, it is necessary to use 3 laser beams and to form the triple cross-covariance. This lead to some unforeseen complications, due to the character of this function. The experimental results are generally positive and size determinations with an accuracy of better than 10% have been achieved in most cases. Less accurate results appeared only for difficult conditions (symmetrical signals), when 3 beams were used. 5 refs, 13 figs, 3 tabs

  13. Method of estimating changes in vapor concentrations continuously generated from two-component organic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Hajime; Ishidao, Toru; Ishimatsu, Sumiyo

    2010-12-01

    We measured vapor concentrations continuously evaporated from two-component organic solvents in a reservoir and proposed a method to estimate and predict the evaporation rate or generated vapor concentrations. Two kinds of organic solvents were put into a small reservoir made of glass (3 cm in diameter and 3 cm high) that was installed in a cylindrical glass vessel (10 cm in diameter and 15 cm high). Air was introduced into the glass vessel at a flow rate of 150 ml/min, and the generated vapor concentrations were intermittently monitored for up to 5 hours with a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector. The solvent systems tested in this study were the methanoltoluene system and the ethyl acetate-toluene system. The vapor concentrations of the more volatile component, that is, methanol in the methanol-toluene system and ethyl acetate in the ethyl acetate-toluene system, were high at first, and then decreased with time. On the other hand, the concentrations of the less volatile component were low at first, and then increased with time. A model for estimating multicomponent organic vapor concentrations was developed, based on a theory of vapor-liquid equilibria and a theory of the mass transfer rate, and estimated values were compared with experimental ones. The estimated vapor concentrations were in relatively good agreement with the experimental ones. The results suggest that changes in concentrations of two-component organic vapors continuously evaporating from a liquid reservoir can be estimated by the proposed model.

  14. Two component WIMP-FImP dark matter model with singlet fermion, scalar and pseudo scalar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta Banik, Amit; Pandey, Madhurima; Majumdar, Debasish [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, HBNI, Astroparticle Physics and Cosmology Division, Kolkata (India); Biswas, Anirban [Harish Chandra Research Institute, Allahabad (India)

    2017-10-15

    We explore a two component dark matter model with a fermion and a scalar. In this scenario the Standard Model (SM) is extended by a fermion, a scalar and an additional pseudo scalar. The fermionic component is assumed to have a global U(1){sub DM} and interacts with the pseudo scalar via Yukawa interaction while a Z{sub 2} symmetry is imposed on the other component - the scalar. These ensure the stability of both dark matter components. Although the Lagrangian of the present model is CP conserving, the CP symmetry breaks spontaneously when the pseudo scalar acquires a vacuum expectation value (VEV). The scalar component of the dark matter in the present model also develops a VEV on spontaneous breaking of the Z{sub 2} symmetry. Thus the various interactions of the dark sector and the SM sector occur through the mixing of the SM like Higgs boson, the pseudo scalar Higgs like boson and the singlet scalar boson. We show that the observed gamma ray excess from the Galactic Centre as well as the 3.55 keV X-ray line from Perseus, Andromeda etc. can be simultaneously explained in the present two component dark matter model and the dark matter self interaction is found to be an order of magnitude smaller than the upper limit estimated from the observational results. (orig.)

  15. A two-component system regulates hemin acquisition in Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodie C Scott

    Full Text Available Porphyromonas gingivalis is a Gram-negative oral anaerobe associated with infection of the periodontia. The organism has a small number of two-component signal transduction systems, and after comparing genome sequences of strains W83 and ATCC 33277 we discovered that the latter was mutant in histidine kinase (PGN_0752, while the cognate response regulator (PGN_0753 remained intact. Microarray-based transcriptional profiling and ChIP-seq assays were carried out with an ATCC 33277 transconjugant containing the functional histidine kinase from strain W83 (PG0719. The data showed that the regulon of this signal transduction system contained genes that were involved in hemin acquisition, including gingipains, at least three transport systems, as well as being self-regulated. Direct regulation by the response regulator was confirmed by electrophoretic mobility shift assays. In addition, the system appears to be activated by hemin and the regulator acts as both an activator and repressor.

  16. The two-component virial theorem and the acceleration-discrepancy relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Christine C.; Ribeiro, André L. B.; Capelato, Hugo V.

    2018-02-01

    We revisit the `two-component virial theorem' (2VT) in the light of recent theoretical and observational results related to the `dark matter problem'. This modification of the virial theorem offers a physically meaningful framework to investigate possible dynamical couplings between the baryonic and dark matter components of extragalactic systems. In particular, we examine the predictions of the 2VT with respect to the `acceleration-discrepancy relation' (ADR). Considering the combined data (composed of systems supported by rotation and by velocity dispersion), we find the following: (i) The overall behaviour of the 2VT is consistent with the ADR. (ii) The 2VT predicts a nearly constant behaviour in the lower acceleration regime, as suggested in recent data on dwarf spheroidals. We also briefly comment on possible differentiations between the 2VT and some modified gravity theories.

  17. Measuring two-phase and two-component mixtures by radiometric technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackuliak, D.; Rajniak, I.

    1984-01-01

    The possibility was tried of the application of the radiometric method in measuring steam water content. The experiments were carried out in model conditions where steam was replaced with the two-component mixture of water and air. The beta radiation source was isotope 204 Tl (Esub(max)=0.765 MeV) with an activity of 19.35 MBq. Measurements were carried out within the range of the surface density of the mixture from 0.119 kg.m -2 to 0.130 kg.m -2 . Mixture speed was 5.1 m.s -1 to 7.1 m.s -1 . The observed dependence of relative pulse frequency on the specific water content in the mixture was approximated by a linear regression. (B.S.)

  18. The two-component physics in cuprates in the real space and in the momentum representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gor'kov, L. P.; Teitel'Baum, G. B.

    2008-03-01

    Gradual evolution of two phase coexistence between dynamical and static regimes in cuprates is first investigated in the real space by making use of available neutron scattering, NMR and μSR data. Analyses of the Hall effect and the ARPES spectra reveals the presence of two groups of charge carriers in LSCO. The T-dependent component is due to the thermal activation of bound electron-hole structures seen near antinodal points in the Brillouin zone, thus introducing the two component physics also for the momentum representation. Interpretation of so-called 'van Hove bands' undergoes drastic changes. Importance of the findings for pseudo-gap physics is stressed. Relation to some recent STM and STS results is discussed.

  19. The two-component physics in cuprates in the real space and in the momentum representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gor' kov, L P [NHMFL, Florida State University, 1800 E P. Dirac Dr., Tallahassee FL 32310 (United States); Teitel' baum, G B [E.K.Zavoiskii Institute for Technical Physics of the RAS, Sibirskii Trakt 10/7, Kazan 420029 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: gorkov@magnet.fsu.edu, E-mail: grteit@yahoo.com

    2008-03-15

    Gradual evolution of two phase coexistence between dynamical and static regimes in cuprates is first investigated in the real space by making use of available neutron scattering, NMR and {mu}SR data. Analyses of the Hall effect and the ARPES spectra reveals the presence of two groups of charge carriers in LSCO. The T-dependent component is due to the thermal activation of bound electron-hole structures seen near antinodal points in the Brillouin zone, thus introducing the two component physics also for the momentum representation. Interpretation of so-called 'van Hove bands' undergoes drastic changes. Importance of the findings for pseudo-gap physics is stressed. Relation to some recent STM and STS results is discussed.

  20. TWO-COMPONENT SYSTEM: A MOLECULAR DIALOGUE BETWEEN RUMINAL BACTERIA AND FEED PARTICLES (FORAGE PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Marcela Galicia Jimenez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability to adapt rapidly to changes in the environment is one of the main characteristics of the bacterial cell. The rumen is a highly dynamic environment, and none of the changes are permanent due to the various microbial species found in the rumen. Signal transduction networks are information processing pathways that recognize various physical and chemical stimuli, amplification, signal processing, and trigger responses of the bacterial cell. The aim of the present review is to show the importance of these two component systems in rumen bacteria, because it is based on the knowledge of the principles governing the bacterial population communication, its main interactions and products of metabolism, we can approach the manipulation of Ruminal fermentation to improve animal health, productivity and food safety.

  1. Two-component hybrid time-dependent density functional theory within the Tamm-Dancoff approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kühn, Michael [Institut für Physikalische Chemie, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Kaiserstraße 12, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Weigend, Florian, E-mail: florian.weigend@kit.edu [Institut für Physikalische Chemie, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Kaiserstraße 12, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Institut für Nanotechnologie, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Postfach 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-01-21

    We report the implementation of a two-component variant of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) for hybrid functionals that accounts for spin-orbit effects within the Tamm-Dancoff approximation (TDA) for closed-shell systems. The influence of the admixture of Hartree-Fock exchange on excitation energies is investigated for several atoms and diatomic molecules by comparison to numbers for pure density functionals obtained previously [M. Kühn and F. Weigend, J. Chem. Theory Comput. 9, 5341 (2013)]. It is further related to changes upon switching to the local density approximation or using the full TDDFT formalism instead of TDA. Efficiency is demonstrated for a comparably large system, Ir(ppy){sub 3} (61 atoms, 1501 basis functions, lowest 10 excited states), which is a prototype molecule for organic light-emitting diodes, due to its “spin-forbidden” triplet-singlet transition.

  2. Small-molecule inhibition of bacterial two-component systems to combat antibiotic resistance and virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Roberta J; Blackledge, Meghan S; Melander, Christian

    2013-07-01

    Infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria are a considerable and increasing global problem. The development of new antibiotics is not keeping pace with the rapid evolution of resistance to almost all clinically available drugs, and novel strategies are required to fight bacterial infections. One such strategy is the control of pathogenic behaviors, as opposed to simply killing bacteria. Bacterial two-component system (TCS) signal transduction pathways control many pathogenic bacterial behaviors, such as virulence, biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance and are, therefore, an attractive target for the development of new drugs. This review presents an overview of TCS that are potential targets for such a strategy, describes small-molecules inhibitors of TCS identified to date and discusses assays for the identification of novel inhibitors. The future perspective for the identification and use of inhibitors of TCS to potentially provide new therapeutic options for the treatment of drug-resistant bacterial infections is discussed.

  3. Characterization of a two-component thermoluminescent albedo dosemeter according to ISO 21909

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, M.M., E-mail: marcelo@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN), Av. Salvador Allende s/n, CEP 22780-160, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mauricio, C.L.P., E-mail: claudia@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN), Av. Salvador Allende s/n, CEP 22780-160, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pereira, W.W., E-mail: walsan@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN), Av. Salvador Allende s/n, CEP 22780-160, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, A.X. da, E-mail: ademir@con.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia, COPPE/PEN Caixa Postal 68509, CEP 21941-972, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-05-15

    A two-component thermoluminescent albedo neutron monitoring system was developed at Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Brazil. As there is no Brazilian regulation for neutron individual monitoring service, the system was tested according to the ISO 21909 standard. This standard provides performance and test requirements for determining the acceptability of personal neutron dosemeters to be used for the measurement of personal dose equivalent, H{sub p}(10), in neutron fields with energies ranging from thermal to 20 MeV. Up to 40 dosemeters were used in order to accomplish satisfactorily the requirements of some tests. Despite operational difficulties, this albedo system passed all ISO 21909 performance requirements. The results and problems throughout this characterization are discussed in this paper.

  4. Plasma oscillations and sound waves in collision-dominated two-component plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, J.P.; Sjoegren, L.

    1982-01-01

    Charge, mass, and electron density fluctuation spectra of strongly correlated, fully ionized two-component plasmas within the framework of the Mori--Zwanzig memory function formalism are analyzed. All dynamical correlation functions are expressed in terms of the memory functions of the ion and electron velocity autocorrelation functions by a generalized effective field approximation which preserves the exact initial values (i.e., static correlations). The theory reduces correctly to the mean field (or collisionless Vlasov) results in the weak coupling limit, and yields charge density fluctuation spectra in good agreement with available computer simulation data, as well as reasonable estimates of the transport coefficients. The collisional damping and frequency shift of the plasma oscillation mode are sizeable, even in the long wavelength limit. The theory also predicts the propagation of well-defined sound waves in dense plasmas in thermal equilibrium

  5. The Two-Component Signal Transduction System VxrAB Positively Regulates Vibrio cholerae Biofilm Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschler, Jennifer K; Cheng, Andrew T; Yildiz, Fitnat H

    2017-09-15

    Two-component signal transduction systems (TCSs), typically composed of a sensor histidine kinase (HK) and a response regulator (RR), are the primary mechanism by which pathogenic bacteria sense and respond to extracellular signals. The pathogenic bacterium Vibrio cholerae is no exception and harbors 52 RR genes. Using in-frame deletion mutants of each RR gene, we performed a systematic analysis of their role in V. cholerae biofilm formation. We determined that 7 RRs impacted the expression of an essential biofilm gene and found that the recently characterized RR, VxrB, regulates the expression of key structural and regulatory biofilm genes in V. cholerae vxrB is part of a 5-gene operon, which contains the cognate HK vxrA and three genes of unknown function. Strains carrying Δ vxrA and Δ vxrB mutations are deficient in biofilm formation, while the Δ vxrC mutation enhances biofilm formation. The overexpression of VxrB led to a decrease in motility. We also observed a small but reproducible effect of the absence of VxrB on the levels of cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP). Our work reveals a new function for the Vxr TCS as a regulator of biofilm formation and suggests that this regulation may act through key biofilm regulators and the modulation of cellular c-di-GMP levels. IMPORTANCE Biofilms play an important role in the Vibrio cholerae life cycle, providing protection from environmental stresses and contributing to the transmission of V. cholerae to the human host. V. cholerae can utilize two-component systems (TCS), composed of a histidine kinase (HK) and a response regulator (RR), to regulate biofilm formation in response to external cues. We performed a systematic analysis of V. cholerae RRs and identified a new regulator of biofilm formation, VxrB. We demonstrated that the VxrAB TCS is essential for robust biofilm formation and that this system may regulate biofilm formation via its regulation of key biofilm regulators and cyclic di-GMP levels. This research furthers

  6. Structural Basis for DNA Recognition by the Two-Component Response Regulator RcsB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippova, Ekaterina V; Zemaitaitis, Bozena; Aung, Theint; Wolfe, Alan J; Anderson, Wayne F

    2018-02-27

    RcsB is a highly conserved transcription regulator of the Rcs phosphorelay system, a complex two-component signal transduction system (N. Majdalani and S. Gottesman, Annu Rev Microbiol 59:379-405, 2005; A. J. Wolfe, Curr Opin Microbiol 13:204-209, 2010, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mib.2010.01.002; D. J. Clarke, Future Microbiol 5:1173-1184, 2010, https://doi.org/10.2217/fmb.10.83). RcsB plays an important role in virulence and pathogenicity in human hosts by regulating biofilm formation. RcsB can regulate transcription alone or together with its auxiliary transcription regulators by forming heterodimers. This complexity allows RcsB to regulate transcription of more than 600 bacterial genes in response to different stresses (D. Wang et al., Mol Plant Microbe Interact 25:6-17, 2012, https://doi.org/10.1094/MPMI-08-11-0207). Despite increasing knowledge of RcsB importance, molecular mechanisms that drive the ability of RcsB to control transcription of a large number of genes remain unclear. Here, we present crystal structures of unphosphorylated RcsB in complex with the consensus DNA-binding sequence of 22-mer (DNA22) and 18-mer (DNA18) of the flhDC operon from Escherichia coli determined at 3.15- and 3.37-Å resolution, respectively. The results of our structural analysis combined with the results of in vitro binding assays provide valuable insights to the protein regulatory mechanism, demonstrate how RcsB recognizes target DNA sequences, and reveal a unique oligomeric state that allows RcsB to form homo- and heterodimers. This information will help us understand the complex mechanisms of transcriptional regulation by RcsB in bacteria. IMPORTANCE RcsB is a well-studied two-component response regulator of the Rcs phosphorelay system, conserved within the family Enterobacteriaceae , which includes many pathogens. It is a global regulator, controlling more than 5% of bacterial genes associated with capsule biosynthesis, flagellar biogenesis, cell wall biosynthesis

  7. Counterbalancing Regulation in Response Memory of a Positively Autoregulated Two-Component System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Rong; Godfrey, Katherine A; Sufian, Mahir A; Stock, Ann M

    2017-09-15

    Fluctuations in nutrient availability often result in recurrent exposures to the same stimulus conditions. The ability to memorize the past event and use the "memory" to make adjustments to current behaviors can lead to a more efficient adaptation to the recurring stimulus. A short-term phenotypic memory can be conferred via carryover of the response proteins to facilitate the recurrent response, but the additional accumulation of response proteins can lead to a deviation from response homeostasis. We used the Escherichia coli PhoB/PhoR two-component system (TCS) as a model system to study how cells cope with the recurrence of environmental phosphate (Pi) starvation conditions. We discovered that "memory" of prior Pi starvation can exert distinct effects through two regulatory pathways, the TCS signaling pathway and the stress response pathway. Although carryover of TCS proteins can lead to higher initial levels of transcription factor PhoB and a faster initial response in prestarved cells than in cells not starved, the response enhancement can be overcome by an earlier and greater repression of promoter activity in prestarved cells due to the memory of the stress response. The repression counterbalances the carryover of the response proteins, leading to a homeostatic response whether or not cells are prestimulated. A computational model based on sigma factor competition was developed to understand the memory of stress response and to predict the homeostasis of other PhoB-regulated response proteins. Our insight into the history-dependent PhoBR response may provide a general understanding of how TCSs respond to recurring stimuli and adapt to fluctuating environmental conditions. IMPORTANCE Bacterial cells in their natural environments experience scenarios that are far more complex than are typically replicated in laboratory experiments. The architectures of signaling systems and the integration of multiple adaptive pathways have evolved to deal with such complexity

  8. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia PhoP, a Two-Component Response Regulator, Involved in Antimicrobial Susceptibilities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Che Liu

    Full Text Available Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, a gram-negative bacterium, has increasingly emerged as an important nosocomial pathogen. It is well-known for resistance to a variety of antimicrobial agents including cationic antimicrobial polypeptides (CAPs. Resistance to polymyxin B, a kind of CAPs, is known to be controlled by the two-component system PhoPQ. To unravel the role of PhoPQ in polymyxin B resistance of S. maltophilia, a phoP mutant was constructed. We found MICs of polymyxin B, chloramphenicol, ampicillin, gentamicin, kanamycin, streptomycin and spectinomycin decreased 2-64 fold in the phoP mutant. Complementation of the phoP mutant by the wild-type phoP gene restored all of the MICs to the wild type levels. Expression of PhoP was shown to be autoregulated and responsive to Mg2+ levels. The polymyxin B and gentamicin killing tests indicated that pretreatment of low Mg2+ can protect the wild-type S. maltophilia from killing but not phoP mutant. Interestingly, we found phoP mutant had a decrease in expression of SmeZ, an efflux transporter protein for aminoglycosides in S. maltophilia. Moreover, phoP mutant showed increased permeability in the cell membrane relative to the wild-type. In summary, we demonstrated the two-component regulator PhoP of S. maltophilia is involved in antimicrobial susceptibilities and low Mg2+ serves as a signal for triggering the pathway. Both the alteration in membrane permeability and downregulation of SmeZ efflux transporter in the phoP mutant contributed to the increased drug susceptibilities of S. maltophilia, in particular for aminoglycosides. This is the first report to describe the role of the Mg2+-sensing PhoP signaling pathway of S. maltophilia in regulation of the SmeZ efflux transporter and in antimicrobial susceptibilities. This study suggests PhoPQ TCS may serve as a target for development of antimicrobial agents against multidrug-resistant S. maltophilia.

  9. Structure, Stability and Emissions of Lean Direct Injection Combustion, including a Novel Multi-Point LDI System for NOx Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalva Gomez, Rodrigo

    Experimental research on Lean Direct Injection (LDI) combustors for gas turbine applications is presented. LDI combustion is an alternative to lean premixed combustion which has the potential of equivalent reduction of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions and of peak combustor exit temperatures, but without some drawbacks of premixed combustors, such as flashback and autoignition. Simultaneous observations of the velocity field and reaction zone of an LDI swirl-stabilized combustor with a mixing tube at atmospheric conditions, with the goal of studying the flame stabilization mechanism, are shown. The flame was consistently anchored at the shear layer formed by the high-speed reactants exiting the mixing tube and the low speed recirculation region. Individual image analysis of the location of the tip of the recirculation zone and tip of the reaction region confirmed previously observed trends, but showed that calculation of the distance between these two points for corresponding image pairs yields results no different than when calculated from random image pairs. This most likely indicates a lag in the anchoring of the flame to changes in the recirculation zone, coupled with significant stochastic variation. An alternate LDI approach, multi-point LDI (MLDI), is also tested experimentally. A single large fuel nozzle is replaced by multiple small fuel nozzles to improve atomization and reduce the total volume of the high-temperature, low velocity recirculation zones, reducing NOx formation. The combustor researched employs a novel staged approach to allow good performance across a wide range of conditions by using a combination of nozzle types optimized to various power settings. The combustor has three independent fuel circuits referenced as pilot, intermediate, and outer. Emissions measurements, OH* chemiluminescence imaging, and thermoacoustic instability studies were run in a pressurized combustion facility at pressures from 2.0 to 5.3 bar. Combustor performance

  10. ACOUSTIC WAVES EMISSION IN THE TWO-COMPONENT HEREDITARY-ELASTIC MEDIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Polenov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. On the dynamics of two-component media a number of papers, which address the elastic waves in a homogeneous, unbounded fluid-saturated porous medium. In other studies address issues of dissipative processes in harmonic deformation hereditary elastic medium. In the article the dissipative processes of the viscoelastic porous medium, which hereditary properties are described by the core relaxation fractional exponential function U.N. Rabotnova integro-differential Boltzmann-Volterr ratio, harmonic deformation by the straining saturated incompressible liquid are investigated. Speed of wave propagation, absorption coefficient, mechanical loss tangent, logarithmic decrement, depending on fractional parameter γ, determining formulas received. The frequency logarithm and temperature graph dependences with the goal fractional parameter are constructed. Shows the dependences velocity and attenuation coefficient of the tangent of the phase angle of the logarithm of the temperature, and the dependence of the attenuation coefficient of the logarithm of the frequency. Dependencies the speed and the tangent of the phase angle of the frequency identical function of the logarithm of temperature.

  11. Two-component mixture cure rate model with spline estimated nonparametric components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Du, Pang; Liang, Hua

    2012-09-01

    In some survival analysis of medical studies, there are often long-term survivors who can be considered as permanently cured. The goals in these studies are to estimate the noncured probability of the whole population and the hazard rate of the susceptible subpopulation. When covariates are present as often happens in practice, to understand covariate effects on the noncured probability and hazard rate is of equal importance. The existing methods are limited to parametric and semiparametric models. We propose a two-component mixture cure rate model with nonparametric forms for both the cure probability and the hazard rate function. Identifiability of the model is guaranteed by an additive assumption that allows no time-covariate interactions in the logarithm of hazard rate. Estimation is carried out by an expectation-maximization algorithm on maximizing a penalized likelihood. For inferential purpose, we apply the Louis formula to obtain point-wise confidence intervals for noncured probability and hazard rate. Asymptotic convergence rates of our function estimates are established. We then evaluate the proposed method by extensive simulations. We analyze the survival data from a melanoma study and find interesting patterns for this study. © 2011, The International Biometric Society.

  12. Short and medium range order in two-component silica glasses by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, K.; Kataoka, H.; Nagai, Y.; Hasegawa, M.; Kobayashi, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The dependence of chemical composition on the average sizes of subnanometer-scale intrinsic structural open spaces surrounded by glass random networks in two-component silica-based glasses was investigated systematically using positronium (Ps) confined in the open spaces. The average sizes of the open spaces for SiO 2 -B 2 O 3 and SiO 2 -GeO 2 glasses are only slightly dependent on the chemical compositions because the B 2 O 3 and GeO 2 are glass network formers that are incorporated into the glass network of the base SiO 2 . However, the open space sizes for all SiO 2 -R 2 O (R = Li, Na, K) glasses, where R 2 O is a glass network modifier that occupies the open spaces, decrease rapidly with an increase in the R 2 O concentration. Despite the large difference in the ionic radii of the alkali metal (R) atoms, the open space sizes decrease similarly for all the alkali metal atoms studied. This dependence of the chemical composition on the open space sizes in SiO 2 -R 2 O observed by Ps shows that the alkali metal atoms do not randomly occupy the structural open spaces, but filling of the open spaces by R 2 O proceeds selectively from the larger to the smaller open spaces as the R 2 O concentrations are increased.

  13. A hybrid two-component system protein from Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 was involved in chemotaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yanhua; Tu, Ran; Wu, Lixian; Hong, Yuanyuan; Chen, Sanfeng

    2011-09-20

    We here report the sequence and functional analysis of org35 of Azospirillum brasilense Sp7, which was originally identified to be able to interact with NifA in yeast-two-hybrid system. The org35 encodes a hybrid two-component system protein, including N-terminal PAS domains, a histidine kinase (HPK) domain and a response regulator (RR) domain in C-terminal. To determine the function of the Org35, a deletion-insertion mutant in PAS domain [named Sp7353] and a complemental strain Sp7353C were constructed. The mutant had reduced chemotaxis ability compared to that of wild-type, and the complemental strain was similar to the wild-type strain. These data suggested that the A. brasilense org35 played a key role in chemotaxis. Variants containing different domains of the org35 were expressed, and the functions of these domains were studied in vitro. Phosphorylation assays in vitro demonstrated that the HPK domain of Org35 possessed the autokinase activity and that the phosphorylated HPK was able to transfer phosphate groups to the RR domain. The result indicated Org35 was a phosphorylation-communicating protein. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Calibration of the IRD two-component TLD albedo neutron dosemeter in some moderated neutron fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, Bruno M.; Silva, Ademir X. da

    2015-01-01

    In some stray neutron fields, like those found in practices involving the handling of radionuclide sources, the neutron calibration factor for albedo neutron dosemeter can vary widely compared to the factor for bare sources. This is the case for well logging, which is the area with the largest number of workers exposed to neutrons in Brazil. The companies employ routinely 241 Am-Be neutron sources. The albedo response variation is mainly due to the presence of scattered and moderated neutrons. This paper studies the response variation of the two-component TLD albedo neutron dosemeter used in the neutron individual monitoring service of Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, in different radionuclide neutron source beams. The neutron spectra were evaluated applying a Bonner sphere spectrometer with a 6 LiI(Eu) detector in the Brazilian National Metrology Neutron Laboratory. Standard neutron sources of 241 Am-Be and 252 Cf were employed, besides 238 Pu-Be. Measurements were also made with scattered and moderated neutron beams, including 252 Cf(D 2 O) reference spectrum, 241 Am-Be moderated with paraffin and silicone and a thermal neutron flux facility. New neutron calibration factors, as a function of the incident to albedo neutron ratio, were proposed for use in the albedo algorithm for occupational fields where the primary neutron beam is one of those studied sources. (author)

  15. Adaptation to Environmental Stimuli within the Host: Two-Component Signal Transduction Systems of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretl, Daniel J.; Demetriadou, Chrystalla; Zahrt, Thomas C.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Pathogenic microorganisms encounter a variety of environmental stresses following infection of their respective hosts. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiological agent of tuberculosis, is an unusual bacterial pathogen in that it is able to establish lifelong infections in individuals within granulomatous lesions that are formed following a productive immune response. Adaptation to this highly dynamic environment is thought to be mediated primarily through transcriptional reprogramming initiated in response to recognition of stimuli, including low-oxygen tension, nutrient depletion, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, altered pH, toxic lipid moieties, cell wall/cell membrane-perturbing agents, and other environmental cues. To survive continued exposure to these potentially adverse factors, M. tuberculosis encodes a variety of regulatory factors, including 11 complete two-component signal transduction systems (TCSSs) and several orphaned response regulators (RRs) and sensor kinases (SKs). This report reviews our current knowledge of the TCSSs present in M. tuberculosis. In particular, we discuss the biochemical and functional characteristics of individual RRs and SKs, the environmental stimuli regulating their activation, the regulons controlled by the various TCSSs, and the known or postulated role(s) of individual TCSSs in the context of M. tuberculosis physiology and/or pathogenesis. PMID:22126994

  16. Development and characterization of two-component albedo based neutron individual monitoring system using thermoluminescent detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Marcelo Marques

    2008-01-01

    A TLD-albedo based two-component neutron individual monitoring system was developed and characterized in this work. The monitor consists of a black plastic holder, an incident neutron boron loaded shield, a moderator polyethylene body (to increase its response), two pairs of TLD-600 and TLD-700 (one pair to each component) and an adjustable belt. This monitoring system was calibrated in thermal neutron fields and in 70 keV, 144 keV, 565 keV, 1.2 MeV and 5 MeV monoenergetic neutron fields. In addition, it was calibrated in 252C f(D 2 O), 252 Cf, 241 Am-B, 241 Am-Be and 238 Pu-Be source fields. For the latter, the lower detection levels are, respectively, 0.009 mSv, 0.06 mSv, 0.12 mSv, 0.09 mSv and 0.08 mSv. The participation in an international intercomparison sponsored by IAEA with simulated workplace fields validated the system. The monitoring system was successfully characterized in the ISO 21909 standard and in an IRD - the Brazilian Institute for Radioprotection and Dosimetry - technical regulation draft. Nowadays, the neutron individual system is in use by IRD for whole body individual monitoring of five institutions, which comprehend several activities. (author)

  17. Nonstationary Frequency Analysis of Extreme Floods Using the Time-varying Two-component Mixture Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, L.; Xiong, L.; Liu, D.; Hu, T.; Xu, C. Y.

    2016-12-01

    The basic IID assumption of the traditional flood frequency analysis has been challenged by nonstationarity. The most popular practice for analyzing nonstationarity of flood series is to use a fixed single-type probability distribution incorporated with the time-varying moments. However, the type of probability distribution could be both complex because of distinct flood populations and time-varying under changing environments. To allow the investigation of this complex nature, the time-varying two-component mixture distributions (TTMD) method is proposed in this study by considering the time variations of not only the moments of its component distributions but also the weighting coefficients. Having identified the existence of mixed flood populations based on circular statistics, the proposed TTMD was applied to model the annual maximum flood series (AMFS) of two stations in the Weihe River basin (WRB), with the model parameters calibrated by the meta-heuristic maximum likelihood (MHML) method. The performance of TTMD was evaluated by different diagnostic plots and indexes and compared with stationary single-type distributions, stationary mixture distributions and time-varying single-type distributions. The results highlighted the advantages of using TTMD models and physically-based covariates in nonstationary flood frequency analysis. Besides, the optimal TTMD models were considered to be capable of settling the issue of nonstationarity and capturing the mixed flood populations satisfactorily. It is concluded that the TTMD model is a good alternative in the nonstationary frequency analysis and can be applied to other regions with mixed flood populations.

  18. Role of two-component systems in the resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to antibacterial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada-Matsuo, Miki; Yoshida, Yuuma; Nakamura, Norifumi; Komatsuzawa, Hitoshi

    2011-01-01

    Two-component systems (TCSs) play important roles in the adaptation of bacteria to environmental changes and the regulation of virulence factor expression. In addition, the association of TCSs with susceptibility to antibacterial agents has been demonstrated in some bacterial species. Staphylococcus aureus, a major human pathogen that can cause serious problems due to nosocomial infections, possesses 16 TCSs. Here we report a TCS, designated BceRS (MW2 gene ID: MW2545-44), which is related to bacitracin susceptibility. We found that BceRS regulates the expression of two transporters that determine susceptibility to bacitracin. One of these, BceAB (MW2543-42), is located downstream of BceRS, while the other, VraDE (MW2620-21), is more distant. With regard to other TCSs, VraRS and Aps/GraRS are reportedly associated with susceptibility to cell wall synthesis inhibitors and cationic antibacterial agents, respectively. Therefore, S. aureus possesses at least three TCSs that are involved in mediating its resistance to antibacterial agents.

  19. Molecular Mechanism of the Two-Component Suicidal Weapon of Neocapritermes taracua Old Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourguignon, Thomas; Šobotník, Jan; Brabcová, Jana; Sillam-Dussès, David; Buček, Aleš; Krasulová, Jana; Vytisková, Blahoslava; Demianová, Zuzana; Mareš, Michael; Roisin, Yves; Vogel, Heiko

    2016-03-01

    In termites, as in many social insects, some individuals specialize in colony defense, developing diverse weaponry. As workers of the termite Neocapritermes taracua (Termitidae: Termitinae) age, their efficiency to perform general tasks decreases, while they accumulate defensive secretions and increase their readiness to fight. This defensive mechanism involves self-sacrifice through body rupture during which an enzyme, stored as blue crystals in dorsal pouches, converts precursors produced by the labial glands into highly toxic compounds. Here, we identify both components of this activated defense system and describe the molecular basis responsible for the toxicity of N. taracua worker autothysis. The blue crystals are formed almost exclusively by a specific protein named BP76. By matching N. taracua transcriptome databases with amino acid sequences, we identified BP76 to be a laccase. Following autothysis, the series of hydroquinone precursors produced by labial glands get mixed with BP76, resulting in the conversion of relatively harmless hydroquinones into toxic benzoquinone analogues. Neocapritermes taracua workers therefore rely on a two-component activated defense system, consisting of two separately stored secretions that can react only after suicidal body rupture, which produces a sticky and toxic cocktail harmful to opponents. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. PLA and two components silicon rubber blends aiming for frozen foods packaging applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utai Meekum

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Designing of PLA and two components silicone rubber blends was studies. Frozen food packaging application is the main ultimate aim. The statistical method using 23 DOE was conducted. The standard testing methods, in particular impact testing at sub-zero temperature, were performed. The preliminary blend formula comprised 1.0 phr of silane and polyester polyols, respectively, was initially resolved. Then, the optimize the silicone portion in the blends was determined. Blending formula using 8.0 phr of silicone with respect to PLA matrix gave rise to the overall satisfactory properties. 3. TETA was used as the silicone curing agent and reactively blended onto the ingredients. TETA at 0.4 phr, with respect to the silicone, enhanced the mechanical properties, especially flexibility and toughness, of the PLA/silicone blend. Exceeding the optimal TETA loading would cause the chain scission and also the dilution effects. Hence, marginal inferior properties of the blends were be experienced. The preliminary biodegradability investigation found that the PLA/silicone blend initially triggered at the second week. Its degradation rate was likely to be faster than neat PLA. Keywords: PLA/silicone blends, Mechanical properties, Sub-zero impact strength

  1. A two component system is involved in acid adaptation of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yanhua; Liu, Wei; Qu, Xiaojun; Chen, Zhangting; Zhang, Xu; Liu, Tong; Zhang, Lanwei

    2012-05-20

    The Gram-positive bacterium Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus is of vital importance to the food industry, especially to the dairy industry. Two component systems (TCSs) are one of the most important mechanisms for environmental sensing and signal transduction in the majority of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. A typical TCS consists of a histidine protein kinase (HPK) and a cytoplasmic response regulator (RR). To investigate the functions of TCSs during acid adaptation in L. bulgaricus, we used quantitative PCR to reveal how TCSs expression changes during acid adaptation. Two TCSs (JN675228/JN675229 and JN675230/JN675231) and two HPKs (JN675236 and JN675240) were induced during acid adaptation. These TCSs were speculated to be related with the acid adaptation ability of L. bulgaricus. The mutants of JN675228/JN675229 were constructed in order to investigate the functions of JN675228/JN675229. The mutants showed reduced acid adaptation compared to that of wild type, and the complemented strains were similar to the wild-type strain. These observations suggested that JN675228 and JN675229 were involved in acid adaptation in L. bulgaricus. The interaction between JN675228 and JN675229 was identified by means of yeast two-hybrid system. The results indicated there is interaction between JN675228 and JN675229. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Two-component relativistic coupled-cluster methods using mean-field spin-orbit integrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junzi; Shen, Yue; Asthana, Ayush; Cheng, Lan

    2018-01-01

    A novel implementation of the two-component spin-orbit (SO) coupled-cluster singles and doubles (CCSD) method and the CCSD augmented with the perturbative inclusion of triple excitations [CCSD(T)] method using mean-field SO integrals is reported. The new formulation of SO-CCSD(T) features an atomic-orbital-based algorithm for the particle-particle ladder term in the CCSD equation, which not only removes the computational bottleneck associated with the large molecular-orbital integral file but also accelerates the evaluation of the particle-particle ladder term by around a factor of 4 by taking advantage of the spin-free nature of the instantaneous electron-electron Coulomb interaction. Benchmark calculations of the SO splittings for the thallium atom and a set of diatomic 2Π radicals as well as of the bond lengths and harmonic frequencies for a set of closed-shell diatomic molecules are presented. The basis-set and core-correlation effects in the calculations of these properties have been carefully analyzed.

  3. Vapour-mediated sensing and motility in two-component droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cira, N. J.; Benusiglio, A.; Prakash, M.

    2015-03-01

    Controlling the wetting behaviour of liquids on surfaces is important for a variety of industrial applications such as water-repellent coatings and lubrication. Liquid behaviour on a surface can range from complete spreading, as in the `tears of wine' effect, to minimal wetting as observed on a superhydrophobic lotus leaf. Controlling droplet movement is important in microfluidic liquid handling, on self-cleaning surfaces and in heat transfer. Droplet motion can be achieved by gradients of surface energy. However, existing techniques require either a large gradient or a carefully prepared surface to overcome the effects of contact line pinning, which usually limit droplet motion. Here we show that two-component droplets of well-chosen miscible liquids such as propylene glycol and water deposited on clean glass are not subject to pinning and cause the motion of neighbouring droplets over a distance. Unlike the canonical predictions for these liquids on a high-energy surface, these droplets do not spread completely but exhibit an apparent contact angle. We demonstrate experimentally and analytically that these droplets are stabilized by evaporation-induced surface tension gradients and that they move in response to the vapour emitted by neighbouring droplets. Our fundamental understanding of this robust system enabled us to construct a wide variety of autonomous fluidic machines out of everyday materials.

  4. Temporal evolution of photon energy emitted from two-component advective flows: origin of time lag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Arka; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.; Ghosh, Himadri

    2017-12-01

    X-ray time lag of black hole candidates contains important information regarding the emission geometry. Recently, study of time lags from observational data revealed very intriguing properties. To investigate the real cause of this lag behavior with energy and spectral states, we study photon paths inside a two-component advective flow (TCAF) which appears to be a satisfactory model to explain the spectral and timing properties. We employ the Monte Carlo simulation technique to carry out the Comptonization process. We use a relativistic thick disk in Schwarzschild geometry as the CENtrifugal pressure supported BOundary Layer (CENBOL) which is the Compton cloud. In TCAF, this is the post-shock region of the advective component. Keplerian disk on the equatorial plane which is truncated at the inner edge i.e. at the outer boundary of the CENBOL, acts as the soft photon source. Ray-tracing code is employed to track the photons to a distantly located observer. We compute the cumulative time taken by a photon during Comptonization, reflection and following the curved geometry on the way to the observer. Time lags between various hard and soft bands have been calculated. We study the variation of time lags with accretion rates, CENBOL size and inclination angle. Time lags for different energy channels are plotted for different inclination angles. The general trend of variation of time lag with QPO frequency and energy as observed in satellite data is reproduced.

  5. Two-Component Signal Transduction Systems of Pathogenic Bacteria As Targets for Antimicrobial Therapy: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Tiwari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The bacterial communities in a wide range of environmental niches sense and respond to numerous external stimuli for their survival. Primarily, a source they require to follow up this communication is the two-component signal transduction system (TCS, which typically comprises a sensor Histidine kinase for receiving external input signals and a response regulator that conveys a proper change in the bacterial cell physiology. For numerous reasons, TCSs have ascended as convincing targets for antibacterial drug design. Several studies have shown that TCSs are essential for the coordinated expression of virulence factors and, in some cases, for bacterial viability and growth. It has also been reported that the expression of antibiotic resistance determinants may be regulated by some TCSs. In addition, as a mode of signal transduction, phosphorylation of histidine in bacteria differs from normal serine/threonine and tyrosine phosphorylation in higher eukaryotes. Several studies have shown the molecular mechanisms by which TCSs regulate virulence and antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria. In this review, we list some of the characteristics of the bacterial TCSs and their involvement in virulence and antibiotic resistance. Furthermore, this review lists and discusses inhibitors that have been reported to target TCSs in pathogenic bacteria.

  6. Two-Component Noncollinear Time-Dependent Spin Density Functional Theory for Excited State Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egidi, Franco; Sun, Shichao; Goings, Joshua J; Scalmani, Giovanni; Frisch, Michael J; Li, Xiaosong

    2017-06-13

    We present a linear response formalism for the description of the electronic excitations of a noncollinear reference defined via Kohn-Sham spin density functional methods. A set of auxiliary variables, defined using the density and noncollinear magnetization density vector, allows the generalization of spin density functional kernels commonly used in collinear DFT to noncollinear cases, including local density, GGA, meta-GGA and hybrid functionals. Working equations and derivations of functional second derivatives with respect to the noncollinear density, required in the linear response noncollinear TDDFT formalism, are presented in this work. This formalism takes all components of the spin magnetization into account independent of the type of reference state (open or closed shell). As a result, the method introduced here is able to afford a nonzero local xc torque on the spin magnetization while still satisfying the zero-torque theorem globally. The formalism is applied to a few test cases using the variational exact-two-component reference including spin-orbit coupling to illustrate the capabilities of the method.

  7. PLA and two components silicon rubber blends aiming for frozen foods packaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meekum, Utai; Khiansanoi, Apichart

    2018-03-01

    Designing of PLA and two components silicone rubber blends was studies. Frozen food packaging application is the main ultimate aim. The statistical method using 23 DOE was conducted. The standard testing methods, in particular impact testing at sub-zero temperature, were performed. The preliminary blend formula comprised 1.0 phr of silane and polyester polyols, respectively, was initially resolved. Then, the optimize the silicone portion in the blends was determined. Blending formula using 8.0 phr of silicone with respect to PLA matrix gave rise to the overall satisfactory properties. 3. TETA was used as the silicone curing agent and reactively blended onto the ingredients. TETA at 0.4 phr, with respect to the silicone, enhanced the mechanical properties, especially flexibility and toughness, of the PLA/silicone blend. Exceeding the optimal TETA loading would cause the chain scission and also the dilution effects. Hence, marginal inferior properties of the blends were be experienced. The preliminary biodegradability investigation found that the PLA/silicone blend initially triggered at the second week. Its degradation rate was likely to be faster than neat PLA.

  8. Study of the catalytic selectivity of an aqueous two-component polyurethane system by ftir spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamenković Jakov V.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The difficulty in formulating a two component waterborne polyurethane, is the isocyanate-water side reaction, which can lead to gassing/foaming, loss of isocyanate functionality, low gloss and a reduced pot life. To compensate for this side reaction, these formulations usually contain a large excess of isocyanate. Tin compounds, especially dibutyltin dilaurate, are widely used in coatings as catalysts for the isocyanate/hydroxyl reaction. Because of the high aquatic toxicity of some organotin compounds, there has been an attempt to ban organotin compounds from all coating applications. As a general rule, organotin catalysts are not selective, they catalyze the reaction of isocyanates with both hydroxyl groups and water and also catalyze the hydrolysis of ester groups. One novel approach to control the water side reaction is the use of catalysts which selectively catalyze the isocyanate-polyol reaction and not the isocyanate-water reaction. The selectivity of a variety of metal catalysts (metal octoates, metal acetylacetonates and mangan chelates with mixed ligands to catalyze the preferred reaction was measured using the FTIR method.

  9. The Evolution of Two-Component Systems in Bacteria RevealsDifferent Strategies for Niche Adaptation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alm, Eric; Huang, Katherine; Arkin, Adam

    2006-09-13

    Two-component systems including histidine protein kinasesrepresent the primary signal transduction paradigm in prokaryoticorganisms. To understand how these systems adapt to allow organisms todetect niche-specific signals, we analyzed the phylogenetic distributionof nearly 5000 histidine protein kinases from 207 sequenced prokaryoticgenomes. We found that many genomes carry a large repertoire of recentlyevolved signaling genes, which may reflect selective pressure to adapt tonew environmental conditions. Both lineage-specific gene family expansionand horizontal gene transfer play major roles in the introduction of newhistidine kinases into genomes; however, there are differences in howthese two evolutionary forces act. Genes imported via horizontal transferare more likely to retain their original functionality as inferred from asimilar complement of signaling domains, while gene family expansionaccompanied by domain shuffling appears to be a major source of novelgenetic diversity. Family expansion is the dominantsource of newhistidine kinase genes in the genomes most enriched in signalingproteins, and detailed analysis reveals that divergence in domainstructure and changes in expression patterns are hallmarks of recentexpansions. Finally, while these two modes of gene acquisition arewidespread across bacterial taxa, there are clear species-specificpreferences for which mode is used.

  10. A two-component Matched Interface and Boundary (MIB) regularization for charge singularity in implicit solvation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Weihua; Zhao, Shan

    2017-12-01

    We present a new Matched Interface and Boundary (MIB) regularization method for treating charge singularity in solvated biomolecules whose electrostatics are described by the Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) equation. In a regularization method, by decomposing the potential function into two or three components, the singular component can be analytically represented by the Green's function, while other components possess a higher regularity. Our new regularization combines the efficiency of two-component schemes with the accuracy of the three-component schemes. Based on this regularization, a new MIB finite difference algorithm is developed for solving both linear and nonlinear PB equations, where the nonlinearity is handled by using the inexact-Newton's method. Compared with the existing MIB PB solver based on a three-component regularization, the present algorithm is simpler to implement by circumventing the work to solve a boundary value Poisson equation inside the molecular interface and to compute related interface jump conditions numerically. Moreover, the new MIB algorithm becomes computationally less expensive, while maintains the same second order accuracy. This is numerically verified by calculating the electrostatic potential and solvation energy on the Kirkwood sphere on which the analytical solutions are available and on a series of proteins with various sizes.

  11. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analysis of Two-Component System Genes in Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun He

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The two-component system (TCS, which comprises histidine kinases (HKs, phosphotransfers (HPs, and response regulator proteins (RRs, plays pivotal roles in regulating plant growth, development, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. TCS genes have been comprehensively identified and investigated in various crops but poorly characterized in tomato. In this work, a total of 65 TCS genes consisting of 20 HK(Ls, six HPs, and 39 RRs were identified from tomato genome. The classification, gene structures, conserved domains, chromosome distribution, phylogenetic relationship, gene duplication events, and subcellular localization of the TCS gene family were predicted and analyzed in detail. The amino acid sequences of tomato TCS family members, except those of type-B RRs, are highly conserved. The gene duplication events of the TCS family mainly occurred in the RR family. Furthermore, the expansion of RRs was attributed to both segment and tandem duplication. The subcellular localizations of the selected green fluorescent protein (GFP fusion proteins exhibited a diverse subcellular targeting, thereby confirming their predicted divergent functionality. The majority of TCS family members showed distinct organ- or development-specific expression patterns. In addition, most of TCS genes were induced by abiotic stresses and exogenous phytohormones. The full elucidation of TCS elements will be helpful for comprehensive analysis of the molecular biology and physiological role of the TCS superfamily.

  12. The essential YycFG two-component system controls cell wall metabolism in Bacillus subtilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisicchia, Paola; Noone, David; Lioliou, Efthimia

    2007-01-01

    Adaptation of bacteria to the prevailing environmental and nutritional conditions is often mediated by two-component signal transduction systems (TCS). The Bacillus subtilis YycFG TCS has attracted special attention as it is essential for viability and its regulon is poorly defined. Here we show...... that YycFG is a regulator of cell wall metabolism. We have identified five new members of the YycFG regulon: YycF activates expression of yvcE, lytE and ydjM and represses expression of yoeB and yjeA. YvcE(CwlO) and LytE encode endopeptidase-type autolysins that participate in peptidoglycan synthesis...... to lysozyme digestion and YdjM is also predicted to have a role in cell wall metabolism. A genetic analysis shows that YycFG essentiality is polygenic in nature, being a manifestation of disrupted cell wall metabolism caused by aberrant expression of a number of YycFG regulon genes....

  13. Discrete Boltzmann modeling of Rayleigh-Taylor instability in two-component compressible flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chuandong; Xu, Aiguo; Zhang, Guangcai; Luo, Kai Hong; Li, Yingjun

    2017-11-01

    A discrete Boltzmann model (DBM) is proposed to probe the Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) in two-component compressible flows. Each species has a flexible specific-heat ratio and is described by one discrete Boltzmann equation (DBE). Independent discrete velocities are adopted for the two DBEs. The collision and force terms in the DBE account for the molecular collision and external force, respectively. Two types of force terms are exploited. In addition to recovering the modified Navier-Stokes equations in the hydrodynamic limit, the DBM has the capability of capturing detailed nonequilibrium effects. Furthermore, we use the DBM to investigate the dynamic process of the RTI. The invariants of tensors for nonequilibrium effects are presented and studied. For low Reynolds numbers, both global nonequilibrium manifestations and the growth rate of the entropy of mixing show three stages (i.e., the reducing, increasing, and then decreasing trends) in the evolution of the RTI. On the other hand, the early reducing tendency is suppressed and even eliminated for high Reynolds numbers. Relevant physical mechanisms are analyzed and discussed.

  14. Experimental investigation of the factors influencing the polymer-polymer bond strength during two-component injection moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bondo, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Two-component injection moulding is a commercially important manufacturing process and a key technology for combining different material properties in a single plastic product. It is also one of most industrially adaptive process chain for manufacturing so-called moulded interconnect devices (MIDs...... and environmental conditions were done based on the suitability of MID production, but the results could be useful for two-component polymer processing for a wide range of industrial applications. The results and discussion presented in this paper are only valid for the two-component plastic parts moulded by over...

  15. Two-component jets from 3-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic jet simulations of disk winds at sub-parsec scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staff Jan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We explore the effect of large scale magnetic field on the formation of two-component jets in magnetohydrodynamic disk winds simulations. Our simulations show a one-component and two-component jets develop depending on the magnetic field distribution along the surface of the accretion disk. Magnetic field configurations with the least steep gradient along the disk lead to a well defined two-component jet with the self-similar (Blandford-Payne configuration separating the two regimes. Our results have direct implications to jets models of AGN and GRBs if indeed two-component jets emanate directly from the accretion disk. Our findings imply that a three-component jets may exist in AGN jets if one takes into account a Blandford-Znajek component in the innermost, relativistic, regions.

  16. Physical and petrologic evidence for a two component mantle MORB source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, H.; Standish, J.; Snow, J.; Michael, P.; Salters, V.

    2003-04-01

    Study of ultra-slow spreading sections of the Southwest Indian and Gakkel Ridges support a two-component (veined?) mantle source for MORB. At both the Southwest Indian and Gakkel Ridges, mantle upwelling slows continuously over long sections of the ridge system due to changing ridge geometry and position with respect to the pole of rotation. For a simple peridotitic mantle this predicts steadily decreasing crustal production due to conductive heat loss depressing the top of the mantle-melting column. Instead, at 16 degrees E on the Southwest Indian Ridge and at 3 degrees E on the Gakkel, seafloor spreading abruptly goes from magmatic to amagmatic, with peridotite instead of basalt emplaced to the sea floor for long distances. As the mantle upwelling rate continues to decrease, however, volcanism reappears on both ridges at point source volcanoes and at large long-lived cross-axis volcanic highs, with intervening amagmatic segments. Such low levels of crustal production show that mantle melting is limited, and that abyssal peridotites there must have compositions close to unmelted mantle. However, significant areas of the amagmatic sections of the SW Indian and Gakkel Ridges appear to be floored dominantly by harzburgite, while other regions predominantly expose lherzolite. This poses a problem for modeling the MORB source as simply peridotite; as harzburgite is too depleted too generate MORB. The limited melt production during ultra-slow spreading also makes it difficult to produce the harzburgite during the axial mantle-melting event from lherzolite. In this case there is likely another mantle component contributing to MORB generation. Basalts over the transition from slow to ultra-slow spreading show a regular compositional gradient over 1000 km. Helium isotopes range from only 7.3 RA to 6.3 RA across this region, suggesting that while there is a chemical gradient in the mantle, there is not an abrupt change in the mantle source at the 16 degree E discontinuity

  17. TWO-COMPONENT GALACTIC BULGE PROBED WITH RENEWED GALACTIC CHEMICAL EVOLUTION MODEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujimoto, Takuji; Bekki, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    Results of recent observations of the Galactic bulge demand that we discard a simple picture of its formation, suggesting the presence of two stellar populations represented by two peaks of stellar metallicity distribution (MDF) in the bulge. To assess this issue, we construct Galactic chemical evolution models that have been updated in two respects: first, the delay time distribution of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) recently revealed by extensive SN Ia surveys is incorporated into the models. Second, the nucleosynthesis clock, the s-processing in asymptotic giant branch stars, is carefully considered in this study. This novel model first shows that the Galaxy feature tagged by the key elements, Mg, Fe, and Ba, for the bulge as well as thin and thick disks is compatible with a short-delay SN Ia. We present a successful modeling of a two-component bulge including the MDF and the evolutions of [Mg/Fe] and [Ba/Mg], and reveal its origin as follows. A metal-poor component (([Fe/H]) ∼ –0.5) is formed with a relatively short timescale of ∼1 Gyr. These properties are identical to the thick disk's characteristics in the solar vicinity. Subsequently from its remaining gas mixed with a gas flow from the disk outside the bulge, a metal-rich component (([Fe/H]) ∼ +0.3) is formed with a longer timescale (∼4 Gyr) together with a top-heavy initial mass function that might be identified with the thin disk component within the bulge.

  18. Structural studies of the activation of the two component receiver domain NTRC by multidimensional heteronuclear NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nohaile, Michael James [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-05-01

    Multidimensional heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy was used to investigate the N-terminal domain of the transcriptional enhancer NTRC (NiTrogen Regulatory protein C). This domain belongs to the family of receiver domains of two-component regulatory systems involved in signal transduction. Phosphorylation of NTRC at D54 leads to an activated form of the molecule which stimulates transcription of genes involved in nitrogen regulation. Three and four dimensional NMR techniques were used to determine an intermediate resolution structure of the unphosphorylated, inactive form of the N-terminal domain of NTRC. The structure is comprised of five α-helices and a five-stranded β-sheet in a (β/α)5 topology. Analysis of the backbone dynamics of NTRC indicate that helix 4 and strand 5 are significantly more flexible than the rest of the secondary structure of the protein and that the loops making up the active site are flexible. The short lifetime of phospho-NTRC hampers the study of this form. However, conditions for determining the resonance assignments and, possibly, the three dimensional structure of phosphorylated NTRC have been obtained. Tentative assignments of the phosphorylated form indicate that the majority of the changes that NTRC experiences upon phosphorylation occur in helix 3, strand 4, helix 4, strand 5, and the loop between strand 5 and helix 5 (the 3445 face of NTRC) as well as near the site of phosphorylation. In order to examine a stable, activated form of the protein, constitutively active mutants of NTRC were investigated.

  19. Analysis of water hammer in two-component two-phase flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warde, H.; Marzouk, E.; Ibrahim, S.

    1989-01-01

    The water hammer phenomena caused by a sudden valve closure in air-water two-phase flows must be clarified for the safety analysis of LOCA in reactors and further for the safety of boilers, chemical plants, pipe transport of fluids such as petroleum and natural gas. In the present work water hammer phenomena caused by sudden valve closure in two-component two-phase flows are investigated theoretically and experimentally. The phenomena are more complicated than in single phase-flows due to the fact of the presence of compressible component. Basic partial differential equations based on a one-dimensional homogeneous flow model are solved by the method of characteristic. The analysis is extended to include friction in a two-phase mixture depending on the local flow pattern. The profiles of the pressure transients, the propagation velocity of pressure waves and the effect of valve closure on the transient pressure are found. Different two-phase flow pattern and frictional pressure drop correlations were used including Baker, Chesholm and Beggs and Bril correlations. The effect of the flow pattern on the characteristic of wave propagation is discussed primarily to indicate the effect of void fraction on the velocity of wave propagation and on the attenuation of pressure waves. Transient pressure in the mixture were recorded at different air void fractions, rates of uniform valve closure and liquid flow velocities with the aid of pressure transducers, transient wave form recorders interfaced with an on-line pc computer. The results are compared with computation, and good agreement was obtained within experimental accuracy

  20. Transcriptome analysis of the Brucella abortus BvrR/BvrS two-component regulatory system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Viadas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The two-component BvrR/BvrS system is essential for Brucella abortus virulence. It was shown previously that its dysfunction alters the expression of some major outer membrane proteins and the pattern of lipid A acylation. To determine the genes regulated by BvrR/BvrS, we performed a whole-genome microarray analysis using B. abortus RNA obtained from wild type and bvrR mutant cells grown in the same conditions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 127 differentially expressed genes were found: 83 were over expressed and 44 were less expressed in the bvrR mutant. Two operons, the phosphotransferase system and the maltose transport system, were down-regulated. Several genes involved in cell envelope or outer membrane biogenesis were differentially expressed: genes for outer membrane proteins (omp25a, omp25d, lipoproteins, LPS and fatty acid biosynthesis, stress response proteins, chaperones, flagellar genes, and twelve genes encoding ABC transport systems. Ten genes related with carbon metabolism (pckA and fumB among others were up-regulated in the bvrR mutant, and denitrification genes (nirK, norC and nosZ were also regulated. Notably, seven transcriptional regulators were affected, including VjbR, ExoR and OmpR that were less expressed in the bvrR mutant. Finally, the expression of eleven genes which have been previously related with Brucella virulence was also altered. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: All these data corroborate the impact of BvrR/BvrS on cell envelope modulation, confirm that this system controls the carbon and nitrogen metabolism, and suggest a cross-talk among some regulators to adjust the Brucella physiology to the shift expected to occur during the transit from the extracellular to the intracellular niche.

  1. Structural Basis for DNA Recognition by the Two-Component Response Regulator RcsB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina V. Filippova

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available RcsB is a highly conserved transcription regulator of the Rcs phosphorelay system, a complex two-component signal transduction system (N. Majdalani and S. Gottesman, Annu Rev Microbiol 59:379–405, 2005; A. J. Wolfe, Curr Opin Microbiol 13:204–209, 2010, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mib.2010.01.002; D. J. Clarke, Future Microbiol 5:1173–1184, 2010, https://doi.org/10.2217/fmb.10.83. RcsB plays an important role in virulence and pathogenicity in human hosts by regulating biofilm formation. RcsB can regulate transcription alone or together with its auxiliary transcription regulators by forming heterodimers. This complexity allows RcsB to regulate transcription of more than 600 bacterial genes in response to different stresses (D. Wang et al., Mol Plant Microbe Interact 25:6–17, 2012, https://doi.org/10.1094/MPMI-08-11-0207. Despite increasing knowledge of RcsB importance, molecular mechanisms that drive the ability of RcsB to control transcription of a large number of genes remain unclear. Here, we present crystal structures of unphosphorylated RcsB in complex with the consensus DNA-binding sequence of 22-mer (DNA22 and 18-mer (DNA18 of the flhDC operon from Escherichia coli determined at 3.15- and 3.37-Å resolution, respectively. The results of our structural analysis combined with the results of in vitro binding assays provide valuable insights to the protein regulatory mechanism, demonstrate how RcsB recognizes target DNA sequences, and reveal a unique oligomeric state that allows RcsB to form homo- and heterodimers. This information will help us understand the complex mechanisms of transcriptional regulation by RcsB in bacteria.

  2. Two-Component Fitting of Coronal-Hole and Quiet-Sun He I 1083 Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harrison P.; Malanushenko, Elena V.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We present reduction techniques and first results for detailed fitting of solar spectra obtained with the NASA/National Solar Observatory Spectromagnetograph (NASA/NSO SPM over a 2 nm bandpass centered on the He 1 1083 nm line. The observation for this analysis was a spectra-spectroheliogram obtained at the NSO/Kitt Peak Vacuum Telescope (KPVT) on 00 Apr 17 at 21:46 UT spanning an area of 512 x 900 arc-seconds; the field of view included a coronal hole near disk center as well as surrounding quiet sun. Since the He I line is very weak and blended with nearby solar and telluric lines, accurate determination of the continuum intensity as a function of wavelength is crucial. We have modified the technique of Malanushenko {\\it et al.) (1992; {\\it AA) (\\bf 259), 567) to tie regions of continuua and the wings of spectral lines which show little variation over the image to standard reference spectra such as the NSO Fourier Transform Spectrometer atlas (Wallace {\\it et al). 1993; NSO Tech Report \\#93-001). We performed detailed least-squares fits of spectra from selected areas, accounting for all the known telluric and solar absorbers in the spectral bandpass. The best physically consistent fits to the Helium lines were obtained with Gaussian profiles from two components (one ''cool'', characteristic of the upper chromosphere; one ''hot'', representing the cool transition region at 2-3 x 10$^{4)$ K). In the coronal hole, the transition-region component, shifted by 6-7 km/s to the blue, is mildly dominant, consistent with mass outflow as suggested by Dupree {\\it et all. (1996; {\\it Ap. J.}-{\\bf 467), 121). In quiet-sun spectra there is less evidence of outward flow, and the chromospheric component is more important. All our fitted spectra show a very weak unidentified absorption feature at 1082.880 nm in the red wing of the nearby Si I line.

  3. The Two-Component System ChtRS Contributes to Chlorhexidine Tolerance in Enterococcus faecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán Prieto, Ana M; Wijngaarden, Jessica; Braat, Johanna C; Rogers, Malbert R C; Majoor, Eline; Brouwer, Ellen C; Zhang, Xinglin; Bayjanov, Jumamurat R; Bonten, Marc J M; Willems, Rob J L; van Schaik, Willem

    2017-05-01

    Enterococcus faecium is one of the primary causes of nosocomial infections. Disinfectants are commonly used to prevent infections with multidrug-resistant E. faecium in hospitals. Worryingly, E. faecium strains that exhibit tolerance to disinfectants have already been described. We aimed to identify and characterize E. faecium genes that contribute to tolerance to the disinfectant chlorhexidine (CHX). We used a transposon mutant library, constructed in a multidrug-resistant E. faecium bloodstream isolate, to perform a genome-wide screen to identify genetic determinants involved in tolerance to CHX. We identified a putative two-component system (2CS), composed of a putative sensor histidine kinase (ChtS) and a cognate DNA-binding response regulator (ChtR), which contributed to CHX tolerance in E. faecium Targeted chtR and chtS deletion mutants exhibited compromised growth in the presence of CHX. Growth of the chtR and chtS mutants was also affected in the presence of the antibiotic bacitracin. The CHX- and bacitracin-tolerant phenotype of E. faecium E1162 was linked to a unique, nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism in chtR Transmission electron microscopy showed that upon challenge with CHX, the Δ chtR and Δ chtS mutants failed to divide properly and formed long chains. Normal growth and cell morphology were restored when the mutations were complemented in trans Morphological abnormalities were also observed upon exposure of the Δ chtR and Δ chtS mutants to bacitracin. The tolerance to both chlorhexidine and bacitracin provided by ChtRS in E. faecium highlights the overlap between responses to disinfectants and antibiotics and the potential for the development of cross-tolerance for these classes of antimicrobials. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  4. Large-scale Models Reveal the Two-component Mechanics of Striated Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Jarosch

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a comprehensive explanation of striated muscle mechanics and contraction on the basis of filament rotations. Helical proteins, particularly the coiled-coils of tropomyosin, myosin and α-actinin, shorten their H-bonds cooperatively and produce torque and filament rotations when the Coulombic net-charge repulsion of their highly charged side-chains is diminished by interaction with ions. The classical “two-component model” of active muscle differentiated a “contractile component” which stretches the “series elastic component” during force production. The contractile components are the helically shaped thin filaments of muscle that shorten the sarcomeres by clockwise drilling into the myosin cross-bridges with torque decrease (= force-deficit. Muscle stretch means drawing out the thin filament helices off the cross-bridges under passive counterclockwise rotation with torque increase (= stretch activation. Since each thin filament is anchored by four elastic α-actinin Z-filaments (provided with forceregulating sites for Ca2+ binding, the thin filament rotations change the torsional twist of the four Z-filaments as the “series elastic components”. Large scale models simulate the changes of structure and force in the Z-band by the different Z-filament twisting stages A, B, C, D, E, F and G. Stage D corresponds to the isometric state. The basic phenomena of muscle physiology, i. e. latency relaxation, Fenn-effect, the force-velocity relation, the length-tension relation, unexplained energy, shortening heat, the Huxley-Simmons phases, etc. are explained and interpreted with the help of the model experiments.

  5. Two-component HLMC-gas flow instability and inhomogeneity phenomena in open-pool reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergey I Shcherbakov

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Consideration is being given to two-component gas-liquid flows with inhomogeneous gas content. The inhomogeneity of gas content over flow space can be caused by local mixing of gas and liquid, gas injection, gas-containing liquid jet penetration into the bulk of liquid without gas. The paper presents the computational results obtained using the direct non-stationary calculation with the TURBO-FLOW computer code. The results refer to flows near the liquid level, flows in downcomer gaps, collectors, elements with varying geometry (jet outlet into space, flow turn) for the pool-type reactors and experimental models. The following processes have been shown and discussed: formation of new liquid levels, entrainment of gas from the level, change in density composition of gas, flow stratification, effect of gas emergence rate and density convection on flow pattern. At gas phase transfer by liquid, two phenomena governing this transfer proceed: gas slip in liquid and density convection of non-uniformly aerated liquid. In horizontal flows, a vertical stratification of gas content always occurs. If the flow changes its direction to an upward one (collector at core inlet), the gas content maximum would be observed in channels nearest to the inlet. At the liquid level, the processes of gas separation from liquid and gas entrainment take place. The separation is a self-sustained process due to circulations arising near the level. The rate of gas entrainment is proportional to the rate of overflow and inversely proportional to the height of liquid level. At the downcomer region in case of its expansion, there occurs the instability of flow resulting in formation of liquid level and falling jet. The level is lower the more the gas content at inlet. The accumulation of gas occurs at sharp turns, encumbered regions (tube bundle), at all regions with upper (ceiling) constraints of flow. The flow instability being often observed in gas-liquid flows

  6. Two-Component Systems Involved in Susceptibility to Nisin A in Streptococcus pyogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada-Matsuo, Miki; Tatsuno, Ichiro; Arii, Kaoru; Zendo, Takeshi; Oogai, Yuichi; Noguchi, Kazuyuki; Hasegawa, Tadao; Sonomoto, Kenji; Komatsuzawa, Hitoshi

    2016-10-01

    Two-component systems (TCSs) are regulatory systems in bacteria that play important roles in sensing and adapting to the environment. In this study, we systematically evaluated the roles of TCSs in the susceptibility of the group A Streptococcus (GAS; Streptococcus pyogenes) SF370 strain to several types of lantibiotics. Using individual TCS deletion mutants, we found that the deletion of srtRK (spy_1081-spy_1082) in SF370 increased the susceptibility to nisin A, which is produced by Lactococcus lactis ATCC 11454, but susceptibility to other types of lantibiotics (nukacin ISK-1, produced by Staphylococcus warneri, and staphylococcin C55, produced by Staphylococcus aureus) was not altered in the TCS mutants tested. The expression of srtFEG (spy_1085 to spy_1087), which is located downstream of srtRK and is homologous to ABC transporters, was increased in response to nisin A. However, srtEFG expression was not induced by nisin A in the srtRK mutant. The inactivation of srtFEG increased the susceptibility to nisin A. These results suggest that SrtRK controls SrtFEG expression to alter the susceptibility to nisin A. Further experiments showed that SrtRK is required for coexistence with L. lactis ATCC 11454, which produces nisin A. Our results elucidate the important roles of S. pyogenes TCSs in the interactions between different bacterial species, including bacteriocin-producing bacteria. In this study, we focused on the association of TCSs with susceptibility to bacteriocins in S. pyogenes SF370, which has no ability to produce bacteriocins, and reported two major new findings. We demonstrated that the SrtRK TCS is related to susceptibility to nisin A by controlling the ABC transporter SrtFEG. We also showed that S. pyogenes SrtRK is important for survival when the bacteria are cocultured with nisin A-producing Lactococcus lactis This report highlights the roles of TCSs in the colocalization of bacteriocin-producing bacteria and non-bacteriocin-producing bacteria. Our

  7. Characterization of an archaeal two-component system that regulates methanogenesis in Methanosaeta harundinacea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Li

    Full Text Available Two-component signal transduction systems (TCSs are a major mechanism used by bacteria in response to environmental changes. Although many sequenced archaeal genomes encode TCSs, they remain poorly understood. Previously, we reported that a methanogenic archaeon, Methanosaeta harundinacea, encodes FilI, which synthesizes carboxyl-acyl homoserine lactones, to regulate transitions of cellular morphology and carbon metabolic fluxes. Here, we report that filI, the cotranscribed filR2, and the adjacent filR1 constitute an archaeal TCS. FilI possesses a cytoplasmic kinase domain (histidine kinase A and histidine kinase-like ATPase and its cognate response regulator. FilR1 carries a receiver (REC domain coupled with an ArsR-related domain with potential DNA-binding ability, while FilR2 carries only a REC domain. In a phosphorelay assay, FilI was autophosphorylated and specifically transferred the phosphoryl group to FilR1 and FilR2, confirming that the three formed a cognate TCS. Through chromatin immunoprecipitation-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (ChIP-qPCR using an anti-FilR1 antibody, FilR1 was shown to form in vivo associations with its own promoter and the promoter of the filI-filR2 operon, demonstrating a regulatory pattern common among TCSs. ChIP-qPCR also detected FilR1 associations with key genes involved in acetoclastic methanogenesis, acs4 and acs1. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays confirmed the in vitro tight binding of FilR1 to its own promoter and those of filI-filR2, acs4, and mtrABC. This also proves the DNA-binding ability of the ArsR-related domain, which is found primarily in Archaea. The archaeal promoters of acs4, filI, acs1, and mtrABC also initiated FilR1-modulated expression in an Escherichia coli lux reporter system, suggesting that FilR1 can up-regulate both archaeal and bacterial transcription. In conclusion, this work identifies an archaeal FilI/FilRs TCS that regulates the methanogenesis of M. harundinacea.

  8. Experimental investigation of the factors influencing the polymer-polymer bond strength during two component injection moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Mohammad Aminul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Tang, Peter Torben

    2007-01-01

    Two component injection moulding is a commercially important manufacturing process and a key technology for Moulded Interconnect Devices (MIDs). Many fascinating applications of two component or multi component polymer parts are restricted due to the weak interfacial adhesion of the polymers....... A thorough understanding of the factors that influence the bond strength of polymers is necessary for multi component polymer processing. This paper investigates the effects of the process and material parameters on the bond strength of two component polymer parts and identifies the factors which can...... effectively control the adhesion between two polymers. The effects of environmental conditions on the bond strength after moulding are also investigated. The material selections and environmental conditions were chosen based on the suitability of MID production, but the results and discussion presented...

  9. A Multi-Point Method Considering the Maximum Power Point Tracking Dynamic Process for Aerodynamic Optimization of Variable-Speed Wind Turbine Blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Yang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to the dynamic process of maximum power point tracking (MPPT caused by turbulence and large rotor inertia, variable-speed wind turbines (VSWTs cannot maintain the optimal tip speed ratio (TSR from cut-in wind speed up to the rated speed. Therefore, in order to increase the total captured wind energy, the existing aerodynamic design for VSWT blades, which only focuses on performance improvement at a single TSR, needs to be improved to a multi-point design. In this paper, based on a closed-loop system of VSWTs, including turbulent wind, rotor, drive train and MPPT controller, the distribution of operational TSR and its description based on inflow wind energy are investigated. Moreover, a multi-point method considering the MPPT dynamic process for the aerodynamic optimization of VSWT blades is proposed. In the proposed method, the distribution of operational TSR is obtained through a dynamic simulation of the closed-loop system under a specific turbulent wind, and accordingly the multiple design TSRs and the corresponding weighting coefficients in the objective function are determined. Finally, using the blade of a National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL 1.5 MW wind turbine as the baseline, the proposed method is compared with the conventional single-point optimization method using the commercial software Bladed. Simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  10. A principle of corresponding states for two-component, self-gravitating fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caimmi R.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrogases are defined as two-component, large-scale celestial objects where the subsystems interact only via gravitation. The macrogas equation of state is formulated and compared to the van der Waals (VDW equation of state for ordinary gases. By analogy, it is assumed that real macroisothermal curves in macrogases occur as real isothermal curves in ordinary gases, where a phase transition (vapour-liquid observed in ordinary gases and gas-stars assumed in macrogases takes place along a horizontal line in the macrovolume-macropressure (O, Xv, Xp plane. The intersections between real and theoretical (deduced from the equation of state macroisothermal curves, make two regions of equal surface as for ordinary gases obeying the VDW equation of state. A numerical algorithm is developed for determining the following points of a selected theoretical macroisothermal curve on the (O, Xv, Xp plane: the three intersections with the related real macroisothermal curve, and the two extremum points (one maximum and one minimum. Different kinds of macrogases are studied in detail: UU, where U density profiles are flat, to be conceived as a simple guidance case; HH, where H density profiles obey the Hernquist (1990 law, which satisfactorily fits the observed spheroidal components of galaxies; HN/NH, where N density profiles obey the Navarro-Frenk-White (1995, 1996, 1997 law, which satisfactorily fits the simulated nonbaryonic dark matter haloes. A different trend is shown by theoretical macroisothermal curves on the (O/XV/Xp plane, according to whether density profiles are sufficiently mild (UU or sufficiently steep (HH, HN/NH. In the former alternative, no critical macroisothermal curve exists, below or above which the trend is monotonous. In the latter alternative, a critical macroisothermal curve exists, as shown by VDW gases, where the critical point may be defined as the horizontal inflexion point. In any case, by analogy with VDW gases, the first quadrant

  11. A Principle of Corresponding States for Two-Component, Self-Gravitating Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caimmi, R.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Macrogases are defined as two-component,large-scale celestial objects where the subsystems interact only via gravitation.The macrogas equation of state is formulated and compared to the van der Waals (VDWequation of state for ordinary gases.By analogy, it is assumed that real macroisothermal curves in macrogases occur as real isothermal curves in ordinary gases, where a phase transition(vapour-liquid observed in ordinary gases and gas-stars assumed in macrogases takesplace along a horizontal linein the macrovolume-macropressure{small $({sf O}sX_mathrm{V}sX_mathrm{p}$} plane.The intersections between real and theoretical(deduced from the equation of state macro isothermalcurves, make two regions of equal surface as for ordinary gases obeying the VDW equation of state.A numerical algorithm is developed for determining the following points of a selected theoretical macroisothermal curve on the {small $({sf O}sX_mathrm{V}sX_mathrm{p}$} plane:the three intersections with the related real macroisothermal curve,and the two extremum points (one maximum and one minimum. Different kinds of macrogases are studied in detail: UU, where U density profiles are flat, to be conceived as a simple guidance case; HH, where H density profiles obey the Hernquist (1990 law, which satisfactorily fits the observed spheroidal components of galaxies; HN/NH, where N density profiles obey the Navarro-Frenk-White (1995,1996, 1997 law, which satisfactorily fits the simulated nonbaryonic dark matter haloes.A different trend is shown by theoretical macroisothermal curves on the{small $({sf O}sX_mathrm{V}sX_mathrm{p}$} plane,according to whether density profiles are sufficiently mild (UU or sufficiently steep (HH, HN/NH.In the former alternative, no critical macroisothermal curve exists, below or above which the trend is monotonous. In the latter alternative, a critical macroisothermal curve exists, as shown by VDW gases, where the critical point may be defined as the horizontal

  12. Cloning of a two-component signal transduction system of Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli var. fuscans strain BXPF65

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, JWYF; Maynard, Scott; Goodwin, PH

    1998-01-01

    A putative two-component signal transduction system was amplified and cloned from the plant pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli var. fuscans isolate BXPF65. The 620 bp amplified fragment was sequenced and analyzed with the BLAST Enhanced Alignment Utility (BEAUTY). BEAUTY ana...

  13. The YvfTU Two-component System is involved in plcR expression in Bacillus cereus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brillard, Julien; Susanna, Kim; Michaud, Caroline; Dargaignaratz, Claire; Gohar, Michel; Nielsen-Leroux, Christina; Ramarao, Nalini; Kolsto, Anne-Brit; Nguyen-The, Christophe; Lereclus, Didier; Broussolle, Veronique

    2008-01-01

    Background: Most extracellular virulence factors produced by Bacillus cereus are regulated by the pleiotropic transcriptional activator PlcR. Among strains belonging to the B. cereus group, the plcR gene is always located in the vicinity of genes encoding the YvfTU two-component system. The putative

  14. Dispersion calculation method based on S-transform and coordinate rotation for Love channel waves with two components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lei; Zhang, Yugui

    2017-08-01

    Dispersion analysis is an important part of in-seam seismic data processing, and the calculation accuracy of the dispersion curve directly influences pickup errors of channel wave travel time. To extract an accurate channel wave dispersion curve from in-seam seismic two-component signals, we proposed a time-frequency analysis method based on single-trace signal processing; in addition, we formulated a dispersion calculation equation, based on S-transform, with a freely adjusted filter window width. To unify the azimuth of seismic wave propagation received by a two-component geophone, the original in-seam seismic data undergoes coordinate rotation. The rotation angle can be calculated based on P-wave characteristics, with high energy in the wave propagation direction and weak energy in the vertical direction. With this angle acquisition, a two-component signal can be converted to horizontal and vertical directions. Because Love channel waves have a particle vibration track perpendicular to the wave propagation direction, the signal in the horizontal and vertical directions is mainly Love channel waves. More accurate dispersion characters of Love channel waves can be extracted after the coordinate rotation of two-component signals.

  15. The dynamics of a tri-trophic food chain with two-component populations from a biochemical perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanegraaf, P.P.F.; Kooi, B.W.

    2002-01-01

    Theoretical considerations and curve fitting of data support the proposition that models for heterotrophic organisms are more realistic when individuals consist of two components: reserves and structure. Predators that prey on a population of such individuals can choose to assimilate the reserves or

  16. Viscous Growth in Spinodal Decomposition of the Two-component Lennard-Jones Model in Two Dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laradji, M.; Toxvaerd, S.; Mouritsen, Ole G.

    1997-01-01

    The dynamics of phase separation of a two-component Lennard-Jones model in three dimensions is investigated by means of large scale molecular dynamics simulation. A systematic study over a wide range of quench temperatures within the coexistence region shows that the binary system reaches...

  17. Differences in two-component signal transduction proteins among the genus Brucella: implications for host preference and pathogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binnewies, Tim Terence; Ussery, David; Lavín, JL

    2010-01-01

    Two-component systems (TCSs) are the predominant bacterial signal transduction mechanisms. Species of the genus Brucella are genetically highly related and differ mainly in mammalian host adaptation and pathogenesis. In this study, TCS proteins encoded in the available genome sequences of Brucell...

  18. Relevance of the two-component sensor protein CiaH to acid and oxidative stress responses in Streptococcus pyogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsuno, Ichiro; Isaka, Masanori; Okada, Ryo; Zhang, Yan; Hasegawa, Tadao

    2014-03-28

    The production of virulence proteins depends on environmental factors, and two-component regulatory systems are involved in sensing these factors. We previously established knockout strains in all suspected two-component regulatory sensor proteins of the emm1 clinical strain of S. pyogenes and examined their relevance to acid stimuli in a natural atmosphere. In the present study, their relevance to acid stimuli was re-examined in an atmosphere containing 5% CO2. The spy1236 (which is identical to ciaHpy) sensor knockout strain showed significant growth reduction compared with the parental strain in broth at pH 6.0, suggesting that the Spy1236 (CiaHpy) two-component sensor protein is involved in acid response of S. pyogenes. CiaH is also conserved in Streptococcus pneumoniae, and it has been reported that deletion of the gene for its cognate response regulator (ciaRpn) made the pneumococcal strains more sensitive to oxidative stress. In this report, we show that the spy1236 knockout mutant of S. pyogenes is more sensitive to oxidative stress than the parental strain. These results suggest that the two-component sensor protein CiaH is involved in stress responses in S. pyogenes.

  19. ‘Forcing the issue’ - Aromatic tuning facilitates stimulus-independent modulation of a two-component signaling circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørholm, Morten; von Heijne, Gunnar; Draheim, Roger R.

    2014-01-01

    Two-component signaling circuits allow bacteria to detect and respond to external stimuli. Unfortunately, the input stimulus remains unidentified for the majority of these circuits. Therefore, development of a synthetic method for stimulus-independent modulation of these circuits is highly desira...

  20. Ketones as electrophiles in two component Baylis-Hillman reaction: a facile one-pot synthesis of substituted indolizines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basavaiah, Deevi; Veeraraghavaiah, Gorre; Badsara, Satpal Singh

    2014-03-14

    2-Alkanoyl(aroyl)-pyridines have been successfully used for coupling with alkyl vinyl ketones under the influence of TMSOTf providing a facile protocol for the synthesis of substituted indolizines, thus demonstrating the application of ketones as electrophiles in a two component Baylis-Hillman reaction.

  1. Solvability of a (p, n-p-type multi-point boundary-value problem for higher-order differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Liu

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we study the differential equation $$ (-1^{n-p} x^{(n}(t=f(t,x(t,x'(t,dots,x^{(n-1}(t, $$ subject to the multi-point boundary conditions $$displaylines{ x^{(i}(0=0 quad hbox{for }i=0,1,dots,p-1,cr x^{(i}(1=0 quad hbox{for }i=p+1,dots,n-1,cr sum_{i=1}^malpha_ix^{(p}(xi_i=0, }$$ where $1le ple n-1$. We establish sufficient conditions for the existence of at least one solution at resonance and another at non-resonance. The emphasis in this paper is that $f$ depends on all higher-order derivatives. Examples are given to illustrate the main results of this article.

  2. Measurement and Modeling of Lateral Subsurface Transient Soil Moisture Dynamics Using Multi-Point Direct-Current Resistivity in Homogeneous Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, T. E.; Nolan, J. T.; Caylor, K. K.; Nordbotten, J. M.; Slater, L. D.

    2010-12-01

    Direct measurements of soil moisture are extremely difficult to obtain between the spatial scales of point measurements and remote sensing. Nevertheless, the spatiotemporal distribution of soil moisture remains a key variable in ecohydrology. Recent ecological evidence has linked the spatial patterns of termite nests with increases in plant productivity and trophic-level responses. In an idealized laboratory setting, we explore the use of multi-point direct-current resistivity to examine spatiotemporal changes in soil moisture following a rapid infiltration event into a large macropore. The methodology was selected because the timescale of flow processes in the homogeneous isotropic sand prevented the use of imaging techniques. Selection of an appropriate electrode array was critical for collecting the required high-resolution spatiotemporal resistivity measurements. Direct placement of a dense array of electrodes in the sand allowed us to use geostatistical methods for spatial interpolation, thereby removing the inherent uncertainty resulting from inversion mechanics. Instead, conversion of resistivity to saturation was directly performed using Archie’s Law given the simplified material properties of the system. We compared the observations to a 2-dimensional axisymmetric numerical solution of the system, using the HYDRUS 2D/3D software, and to a semi-analytical solution in order to estimate soil hydraulic properties. We found satisfactory comparisons between the observations, numerical, and semi-analytical solutions of the system, which indicates that this technique may be applicable for field scale settings. While the use of Archie’s Law may only be appropriate in idealized laboratory settings, the rapid measurements and localized support volumes of multi-point direct-current resistivity methods has the potential to provide an invaluable constraint for joint or coupled geophysical surveys in more complex field settings.

  3. A new pair of hard-soft plastic combination for precision manufacturing of two component plastic parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Marhöfer, David Maximilian

    2011-01-01

    Two component (2k) injection moulding is growing rapidly even in the field of precision micro moulding. Besides combining different material properties in the same product, two component moulding can eliminate many assembly steps in manufacturing process chain. One of the biggest technical...... and functional properties of the materials proved to be suitable for precision hearing aid applications. Replication quality of the 2k parts was investigated by visual and microscopic investigation. The adhesion of the two plastic materials was characterized by moulding 2k tensile bar test specimens by both...... sequential and simultaneous injection of two materials and afterwards by using a precision tensile testing machine. To characterize the sealing properties of the sealing ring material, a sealing test device was developed. It could provide hydraulic pressure inside the socket house and precisely detect...

  4. Recovering four-component solutions by the inverse transformation of the infinite-order two-component wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barysz, Maria; Mentel, Lukasz; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2009-01-01

    The two-component Hamiltonian of the infinite-order two-component (IOTC) theory is obtained by a unitary block-diagonalizing transformation of the Dirac-Hamiltonian. Once the IOTC spin orbitals are calculated, they can be back transformed into four-component solutions. The transformed four component solutions are then used to evaluate different moments of the electron density distribution. This formally exact method may, however, suffer from certain approximations involved in its numerical implementation. As shown by the present study, with sufficiently large basis set of Gaussian functions, the Dirac values of these moments are fully recovered in spite of using the approximate identity resolution into eigenvectors of the p 2 operator.

  5. Ubiquitous transient stagnant domain formation during thermal convection in a well-mixed two component fluid with large viscosity difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kazuya U; Kurita, Rei

    2017-10-11

    The formation of a transient stagnant domain in the presence of thermal convection was previously reported near the sol-gel transition temperature of a gelatin solution. The transient stagnant domain is observed near a critical Rayleigh number where a "roll" pattern is usually stable. It is important to understand the origin of the transient stagnant domain formation since it induces a large deformation of convection patterns; the nature of the formation of the transient stagnant domain remains unclear. Here, we observe thermal convection using several different fluids and find that stagnant domain formation is ubiquitous in two component mixtures. In addition, we find that difference in viscosity between the two components is crucial for transient stagnant domain formation, more so than the concentration gradient induced by the temperature gradient.

  6. Bioorthogonal, two-component delivery systems based on antibody and drug-loaded nanocarriers for enhanced internalization of nanotherapeutics

    OpenAIRE

    Hapuarachchige, Sudath; Zhu, Wenlian; Kato, Yoshinori; Artemov, Dmitri

    2013-01-01

    Nanocarriers play an important role in targeted cancer chemotherapy. The optimal nanocarrier delivery system should provide efficient and highly specific recognition of the target cells and rapid internalization of the therapeutic cargo to reduce systemic toxicity as well as to increase the cytotoxicity to cancer cells. To this end, we developed a two-step, two-component targeted delivery system based on antibody and drug-loaded nanocarrier that uses bioorthogonal click reactions for specific...

  7. Crossover between integer and fractional vortex lattices in coherently coupled two-component Bose-Einstein condensates

    OpenAIRE

    Cipriani, Mattia; Nitta, Muneto

    2013-01-01

    We study effects of the internal coherent (Rabi) coupling in vortex lattices in two-component BECs under rotation. We find how the vortex lattices without the Rabi coupling known before are connected to the Abrikosov lattice of integer vortices with increasing the Rabi coupling. We find that 1) for small Rabi couplings, fractional vortices in triangular or square lattice for small or large inter-component coupling constitute hexamers or tetramers, namely multi-dimer bound states made of six o...

  8. Systematic dissection and trajectory-scanning mutagenesis of the molecular interface that ensures specificity of two-component signaling pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily J Capra

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Two-component signal transduction systems enable bacteria to sense and respond to a wide range of environmental stimuli. Sensor histidine kinases transmit signals to their cognate response regulators via phosphorylation. The faithful transmission of information through two-component pathways and the avoidance of unwanted cross-talk require exquisite specificity of histidine kinase-response regulator interactions to ensure that cells mount the appropriate response to external signals. To identify putative specificity-determining residues, we have analyzed amino acid coevolution in two-component proteins and identified a set of residues that can be used to rationally rewire a model signaling pathway, EnvZ-OmpR. To explore how a relatively small set of residues can dictate partner selectivity, we combined alanine-scanning mutagenesis with an approach we call trajectory-scanning mutagenesis, in which all mutational intermediates between the specificity residues of EnvZ and another kinase, RstB, were systematically examined for phosphotransfer specificity. The same approach was used for the response regulators OmpR and RstA. Collectively, the results begin to reveal the molecular mechanism by which a small set of amino acids enables an individual kinase to discriminate amongst a large set of highly-related response regulators and vice versa. Our results also suggest that the mutational trajectories taken by two-component signaling proteins following gene or pathway duplication may be constrained and subject to differential selective pressures. Only some trajectories allow both the maintenance of phosphotransfer and the avoidance of unwanted cross-talk.

  9. The graphic representations for the one-dimensional solutions of problem from elastic mechanic deformations of two-component mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghenadie Bulgac

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we find the analytical solution of simple one-dimensional unsteady elastic problem of two-component mixture using Laplace integral transformation. The integral transformations simplify the initial motion systems for finding analytical solutions. The analytical solutions are represented as the graphic on time dependence in the fixed point of medium, and the graphic on the horizontal coordinate at the fixed time.

  10. WE-G-BRB-04: BEST IN PHYSICS (THERAPY) - A Novel Multi-Point Plastic Scintillation Detector for in Vivo Dosimetry and Quality Assurance in Radiation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therriault-Proulx, F; Beaulieu, L; Archambault, L; Beddar, S

    2012-06-01

    To develop a novel multi-point plastic scintillation detector (mPSD) capable of accurately measuring dose at multiple positions simultaneously with the use of a single optical guide. We built a new generation of plastic scintillation detectors composed of multiple scintillating elements along a same optical transmission line. Three different scintillating fibers were optically coupled to a single collecting optical fiber. A primary challenge for this new type of detector is that the output signal is a superposition of multiple scintillation spectra and contaminating elements. Acquisition with a spectrometry setup allows for the implementation of a new hyperspectral approach that accounts for each light-emitting component separately, and allows spectral unmixing. The mPSD and an ion chamber were irradiated in a water phantom with a 6 MV photon beam. Profiles and depth-dose curves were measured and compared between detectors. This detector and the corresponding calibration approach were also applied to Ir- 192 HDR brachytherapy. Doses measured with the mPSD were in good agreement with the ion chamber measurements for external beam irradiations. Average relative differences of (2.3±1.1)%, (1.6±0.4)% and (0.32±0.19)% were observed for each scintillating element. The mPSD measurements tended to be at least as accurate as published measurements from single-point PSDs. For the Ir-192 HDR brachytherapy application, the average difference between the treatment planning system and the measurements were (4.6±1.0)% per dwell-position and (2.1±1.0)% per catheter. The accuracy of each scintillating element was shown to depend on light attenuation and on the similarity of its scintillation spectrum in comparison to the other light emitters. The feasibility and accuracy of mPSDs using a single transmission line was demonstrated. In addition to well-documented advantages of single-point PSDs, the multi-point capability of this single-fiber detector makes mPSDs a very promising

  11. Raman-shifted eye-safe aerosol lidar (REAL) in 2010: instrument status and two-component wind measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Shane D.

    2010-10-01

    This paper and corresponding seminar given on 20 September 2010 at the 16th International School for Quantum Electronics in Nesebar, Bulgaria, will describe the key hardware aspects of the Raman-shifted Eye-safe Aerosol Lidar (REAL) and recent advances in extracting two-component wind vector fields from the images it produces. The REAL is an eye-safe, ground-based, scanning, elastic aerosol backscatter lidar operating at 1.54 microns wavelength. Operation at this wavelength offers several advantages compared to other laser wavelengths including: (1) maximum eye-safety, (2) invisible beam, (3) superior performance photodetectors compared with those used at longer wavelengths, (4) low atmospheric molecular scattering when compared with operation at shorter wavelengths, (5) good aerosol backscattering, (6) atmospheric transparency, and (7) availability of optical and photonic components used in the modern telecommunations industry. A key issue for creating a high-performance direct-detection lidar at 1.5 microns is the use of InGaAs avalanche photodetectors that have active areas of at most 200 microns in diameter. The small active area imposes a maximum limitation on the field-of-view of the receiver (about 0.54 mrad full-angle for REAL). As a result, a key requirement is a transmitter that can produce a pulsed (>10 Hz) beam with low divergence (150 mJ), and short pulse-duration (Doppler lidars in that two components of motion can be sensed. (Doppler lidars can sense only the radial component of flow.) Two-component velocity estimation is done by computing two-dimensional cross-correlation functions (CCFs) and noting the displacement of the peak of the CCF with respect to the origin. Motion vectors derived from this method are compared with coincident sonic anemometer measurements at 1.6 km range. Preliminary results indicate the method performs best when the atmosphere is stable with light winds.

  12. Classification of the ground states and topological defects in a rotating two-component Bose-Einstein condensate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, Peter [Laboratoire de Physique Statistique, Ecole Normale Superieure, UPMC Paris 06, Universite Paris Diderot, CNRS, 24 rue Lhomond, F-75005 Paris (France); Institut Jean Le Rond D' Alembert, UMR 7190 CNRS-UPMC, 4 place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France); Aftalion, Amandine [CNRS and Universite Versailles-Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Laboratoire de Mathematiques de Versailles, CNRS UMR 8100, 45 avenue des Etats-Unis, F-78035 Versailles Cedex (France)

    2011-09-15

    We classify the ground states and topological defects of a rotating two-component condensate when varying several parameters: the intracomponent coupling strengths, the intercomponent coupling strength, and the particle numbers. No restriction is placed on the masses or trapping frequencies of the individual components. We present numerical phase diagrams which show the boundaries between the regions of coexistence, spatial separation, and symmetry breaking. Defects such as triangular coreless vortex lattices, square coreless vortex lattices, and giant skyrmions are classified. Various aspects of the phase diagrams are analytically justified thanks to a nonlinear {sigma} model that describes the condensate in terms of the total density and a pseudo-spin representation.

  13. Two-component relativistic density functional theory modeling of the adsorption of element 114(eka-lead) on gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitsevskii, Andréi; van Wüllen, Christoph; Rykova, Elena A; Titov, Anatoly V

    2010-04-28

    A cluster modeling of the interaction of an eka-Pb atom with the stable Au(111) surface using accurate small-core relativistic pseudopotentials and two-component non-collinear DFT is reported. The results obtained with two different types of exchange-correlation functionals (generalized-gradient and hybrid) are generally consistent and give rise to E114/Au(111) adsorption energy estimates within the range 0.4-0.5 eV. Substantial differences between the E114-Au and Pb-Au interactions are further corroborated.

  14. Simultaneous and multi-point measurement of ammonia emanating from human skin surface for the estimation of whole body dermal emission rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Shota; Sekine, Yoshika; Kimura, Keita; Umezawa, Kazuo; Asai, Satomi; Miyachi, Hayato

    2017-05-15

    Ammonia is one of the members of odor gases and a possible source of odor in indoor environment. However, little has been known on the actual emission rate of ammonia from the human skin surface. Then, this study aimed to estimate the whole-body dermal emission rate of ammonia by simultaneous and multi-point measurement of emission fluxes of ammonia employing a passive flux sampler - ion chromatography system. Firstly, the emission fluxes of ammonia were non-invasively measured for ten volunteers at 13 sampling positions set in 13 anatomical regions classified by Kurazumi et al. The measured emission fluxes were then converted to partial emission rates using the surface body areas estimated by weights and heights of volunteers and partial rates of 13 body regions. Subsequent summation of the partial emission rates provided the whole body dermal emission rate of ammonia. The results ranged from 2.9 to 12mgh -1 with an average of 5.9±3.2mgh -1 per person for the ten healthy young volunteers. The values were much greater than those from human breath, and thus the dermal emission of ammonia was found more significant odor source than the breath exhalation in indoor environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Bioorthogonal, two-component delivery systems based on antibody and drug-loaded nanocarriers for enhanced internalization of nanotherapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapuarachchige, Sudath; Zhu, Wenlian; Kato, Yoshinori; Artemov, Dmitri

    2014-02-01

    Nanocarriers play an important role in targeted cancer chemotherapy. The optimal nanocarrier delivery system should provide efficient and highly specific recognition of the target cells and rapid internalization of the therapeutic cargo to reduce systemic toxicity as well as to increase the cytotoxicity to cancer cells. To this end, we developed a two-step, two-component targeted delivery system based on antibody and drug-loaded nanocarrier that uses bioorthogonal click reactions for specific internalization of nanotherapeutics. The pretargeting component, anti-HER2 humanized monoclonal antibody, trastuzumab, functionalized with azide groups labels cancer cells that overexpress HER2 surface receptors. The drug carrier component, dibenzylcyclooctyne substituted albumin conjugated with paclitaxel, reacts specifically with the pretargeting component. These two components form cross-linked clusters on the cell surface, which facilitates the internalization of the complex. This strategy demonstrated substantial cellular internalization of clusters consisted of HER2 receptors, modified trastuzumab and paclitaxel-loaded albumin nanocarriers, and subsequent significant cytotoxicity in HER2-positive BT-474 breast cancer cells. Our results show high efficacy of this strategy for targeted nanotherapeutics. We foresee to broaden the applications of this strategy using agents such as radionuclides, toxins, and interfering RNA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The YvfTU Two-component System is involved in plcR expression in Bacillus cereus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen-the Christophe

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most extracellular virulence factors produced by Bacillus cereus are regulated by the pleiotropic transcriptional activator PlcR. Among strains belonging to the B. cereus group, the plcR gene is always located in the vicinity of genes encoding the YvfTU two-component system. The putative role of YvfTU in the expression of the PlcR regulon was therefore investigated. Results Expression of the plcR gene was monitored using a transcriptional fusion with a lacZ reporter gene in a yvfTU mutant and in its B. cereus ATCC 14579 parental strain. Two hours after the onset of the stationary phase, a stage at which the PlcR regulon is highly expressed, the plcR expression in the yvfTU mutant was only 50% of that of its parental strain. In addition to the reduced plcR expression in the yvfTU mutant, a few members of the PlcR regulon showed a differential expression, as revealed by transcriptomic and proteomic analyses. The virulence of the yvfTU mutant in a Galleria mellonella insect model was slightly lower than that of the parental strain. Conclusion The YvfTU two-component system is not required for the expression of most of the virulence factors belonging to the PlcR regulon. However, YvfTU is involved in expression of plcR, a major regulator of virulence in B. cereus.

  17. An Overview of Two-Component Signal Transduction Systems Implicated in Extra-Intestinal Pathogenic E. coli Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin J. Breland

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Extra-intestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC infections are common in mammals and birds. The predominant ExPEC types are avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC, neonatal meningitis causing E. coli/meningitis associated E. coli (NMEC/MAEC, and uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC. Many reviews have described current knowledge on ExPEC infection strategies and virulence factors, especially for UPEC. However, surprisingly little has been reported on the regulatory modules that have been identified as critical in ExPEC pathogenesis. Two-component systems (TCSs comprise the predominant method by which bacteria respond to changing environments and play significant roles in modulating bacterial fitness in diverse niches. Recent studies have highlighted the potential of manipulating signal transduction systems as a means to chemically re-wire bacterial pathogens, thereby reducing selective pressure and avoiding the emergence of antibiotic resistance. This review begins by providing a brief introduction to characterized infection strategies and common virulence factors among APEC, NMEC, and UPEC and continues with a comprehensive overview of two-component signal transduction networks that have been shown to influence ExPEC pathogenesis.

  18. How insects overcome two-component plant chemical defence: plant β-glucosidases as the main target for herbivore adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentzold, Stefan; Zagrobelny, Mika; Rook, Fred; Bak, Søren

    2014-08-01

    Insect herbivory is often restricted by glucosylated plant chemical defence compounds that are activated by plant β-glucosidases to release toxic aglucones upon plant tissue damage. Such two-component plant defences are widespread in the plant kingdom and examples of these classes of compounds are alkaloid, benzoxazinoid, cyanogenic and iridoid glucosides as well as glucosinolates and salicinoids. Conversely, many insects have evolved a diversity of counteradaptations to overcome this type of constitutive chemical defence. Here we discuss that such counter-adaptations occur at different time points, before and during feeding as well as during digestion, and at several levels such as the insects’ feeding behaviour, physiology and metabolism. Insect adaptations frequently circumvent or counteract the activity of the plant β-glucosidases, bioactivating enzymes that are a key element in the plant’s two-component chemical defence. These adaptations include host plant choice, non-disruptive feeding guilds and various physiological adaptations as well as metabolic enzymatic strategies of the insect’s digestive system. Furthermore, insect adaptations often act in combination, may exist in both generalists and specialists, and can act on different classes of defence compounds. We discuss how generalist and specialist insects appear to differ in their ability to use these different types of adaptations: in generalists, adaptations are often inducible, whereas in specialists they are often constitutive. Future studies are suggested to investigate in detail how insect adaptations act in combination to overcome plant chemical defences and to allow ecologically relevant conclusions.

  19. The YvfTU two-component system is involved in plcR expression in Bacillus cereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brillard, Julien; Susanna, Kim; Michaud, Caroline; Dargaignaratz, Claire; Gohar, Michel; Nielsen-Leroux, Christina; Ramarao, Nalini; Kolstø, Anne-Brit; Nguyen-the, Christophe; Lereclus, Didier; Broussolle, Véronique

    2008-10-16

    Most extracellular virulence factors produced by Bacillus cereus are regulated by the pleiotropic transcriptional activator PlcR. Among strains belonging to the B. cereus group, the plcR gene is always located in the vicinity of genes encoding the YvfTU two-component system. The putative role of YvfTU in the expression of the PlcR regulon was therefore investigated. Expression of the plcR gene was monitored using a transcriptional fusion with a lacZ reporter gene in a yvfTU mutant and in its B. cereus ATCC 14579 parental strain. Two hours after the onset of the stationary phase, a stage at which the PlcR regulon is highly expressed, the plcR expression in the yvfTU mutant was only 50% of that of its parental strain. In addition to the reduced plcR expression in the yvfTU mutant, a few members of the PlcR regulon showed a differential expression, as revealed by transcriptomic and proteomic analyses. The virulence of the yvfTU mutant in a Galleria mellonella insect model was slightly lower than that of the parental strain. The YvfTU two-component system is not required for the expression of most of the virulence factors belonging to the PlcR regulon. However, YvfTU is involved in expression of plcR, a major regulator of virulence in B. cereus.

  20. Mutational activation of the AmgRS two-component system in aminoglycoside-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Calvin Ho-Fung; Fraud, Sebastien; Jones, Marcus; Peterson, Scott N; Poole, Keith

    2013-05-01

    The amgRS operon encodes a presumed membrane stress-responsive two-component system linked to intrinsic aminoglycoside resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Genome sequencing of a lab isolate showing modest pan-aminoglycoside resistance, strain K2979, revealed a number of mutations, including a substitution in amgS that produced an R182C change in the AmgS sensor kinase product of this gene. Introduction of this mutation into an otherwise wild-type strain recapitulated the resistance phenotype, while correcting the mutation in the resistant mutant abrogated the resistant phenotype, confirming that the amgS mutation is responsible for the aminoglycoside resistance of strain K2979. The amgSR182 mutation promoted an AmgR-dependent, 2- to 3-fold increase in expression of the AmgRS target genes htpX and PA5528, mirroring the impact of aminoglycoside exposure of wild-type cells on htpX and PA5528 expression. This suggests that amgSR182 is a gain-of-function mutation that activates AmgS and the AmgRS two-component system in promoting modest resistance to aminoglycosides. Screening of several pan-aminoglycoside-resistant clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa revealed three that showed elevated htpX and PA5528 expression and harbored single amino acid-altering mutations in amgS (V121G or D106N) and no mutations in amgR. Introduction of the amgSV121G mutation into wild-type P. aeruginosa generated a resistance phenotype reminiscent of the amgSR182 mutant and produced a 2- to 3-fold increase in htpX and PA5528 expression, confirming that it, too, is a gain-of-function aminoglycoside resistance-promoting mutation. These results highlight the contribution of amgS mutations and activation of the AmgRS two-component system to acquired aminoglycoside resistance in lab and clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa.

  1. Crossover between Integer and Fractional Vortex Lattices in Coherently Coupled Two-Component Bose-Einstein Condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriani, Mattia; Nitta, Muneto

    2013-10-01

    We study the effects of the internal coherent (Rabi) coupling in vortex lattices in two-component BECs under rotation. We find how the vortex lattices without the Rabi coupling known before are connected to the Abrikosov lattice of integer vortices with increasing the Rabi coupling. We find that (1) for small Rabi couplings, fractional vortices in a triangular or square lattice for small or large intercomponent coupling constitute hexamers or tetramers, namely multidimer bound states made of six or four vortices, respectively, (2) these bound states are broken into a set of dimers at intermediate Rabi couplings, and (3) vortices change their partners in various ways depending on the intercomponent coupling, to organize themselves for constituting the Abrikosov lattice of integer vortices at strong Rabi couplings.

  2. Genome-wide DNA binding pattern of two-component system response regulator RhpR in Pseudomonas syringae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianhong Zhou

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although Pseudomonas syringae uses the two-component system RhpRS to modulate the expression of type III secretion system (T3SS genes and pathogenicity, the molecular mechanisms and the regulon of RhpRS have yet to be fully demonstrated. We have performed a genome-wide analysis of RhpR binding to DNA prepared from P. syringae pv. phaseolicola in order to identify candidate direct targets of RhpR-mediated transcriptional regulation, as described in our recent article [1]. The data are available from NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO with the accession number GSE58533. Here we describe the detailed methods and data analyses of our RhpR ChIP-seq dataset.

  3. Temperature-controlled structure and kinetics of ripple phases in one- and two-component supported lipid bilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaasgaard, Thomas; Leidy, Chad; Crowe, J.H.

    2003-01-01

    Temperature-controlled atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been used to visualize and study the structure and kinetics of ripple phases in one-component dipalmitoylphosphaticlylcholine (DPPC) and two-component dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine-distearoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC-DSPC) lipid bilayers....... The lipid bilayers are mica-supported double bilayers in which ripple-phase formation occurs in the top bilayer. In one-component DPPC lipid bilayers, the stable and metastable ripple phases were observed. In addition, a third ripple structure with approximately twice the wavelength of the metastable...... ripples was seen. From height profiles of the AFM images, estimates of the amplitudes of the different ripple phases are reported. To elucidate the processes of ripple formation and disappearance, a ripple-phase DPPC lipid bilayer was taken through the pretransition in the cooling and the heating...

  4. ResDE Two-Component Regulatory System Mediates Oxygen Limitation-Induced Biofilm Formation by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xuan; Zhang, Nan; Xia, Liming; Li, Qing; Shao, Jiahui; Shen, Qirong; Zhang, Ruifu

    2018-04-15

    Efficient biofilm formation and root colonization capabilities facilitate the ability of beneficial plant rhizobacteria to promote plant growth and antagonize soilborne pathogens. Biofilm formation by plant-beneficial Bacillus strains is triggered by environmental cues, including oxygen deficiency, but the pathways that sense these environmental signals and regulate biofilm formation have not been thoroughly elucidated. In this study, we showed that the ResDE two-component regulatory system in the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain SQR9 senses the oxygen deficiency signal and regulates biofilm formation. ResE is activated by sensing the oxygen limitation-induced reduction of the NAD + /NADH pool through its PAS domain, stimulating its kinase activity, and resulting in the transfer of a phosphoryl group to ResD. The phosphorylated ResD directly binds to the promoter regions of the qoxABCD and ctaCDEF operons to improve the biosynthesis of terminal oxidases, which can interact with KinB to activate biofilm formation. These results not only revealed the novel regulatory function of the ResDE two-component system but also contributed to the understanding of the complicated regulatory network governing Bacillus biofilm formation. This research may help to enhance the root colonization and the plant-beneficial efficiency of SQR9 and other Bacillus rhizobacteria used in agriculture. IMPORTANCE Bacillus spp. are widely used as bioinoculants for plant growth promotion and disease suppression. The exertion of their plant-beneficial functions is largely dependent on their root colonization, which is closely related to their biofilm formation capabilities. On the other hand, Bacillus is the model bacterium for biofilm study, and the process and molecular network of biofilm formation are well characterized (B. Mielich-Süss and D. Lopez, Environ Microbiol 17:555-565, 2015, https://doi.org/10.1111/1462-2920.12527; L. S. Cairns, L. Hobley, and

  5. Thusin, a novel two-component lantibiotic with potent antimicrobial activity against several Gram-positive pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingyue Xin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the rapidly increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant bacterial strains, the need for new antimicrobial drugs to treat infections has become urgent. Bacteriocins, which are antimicrobial peptides of bacterial origin, are considered potential alternatives to conventional antibiotics and have attracted widespread attention in recent years. Among these bacteriocins, lantibiotics, especially two-component lantibiotics, exhibit potent antimicrobial activity against some clinically relevant Gram-positive pathogens and have potential applications in the pharmaceutical industry. In this study, we characterized a novel two-component lantibiotic termed thusin that consists of Thsα, Thsβ and Thsβ' (mutation of Thsβ, A14G and that was isolated from a B. thuringiensis strain BGSC 4BT1. Thsα and Thsβ (or Thsβ' exhibit optimal antimicrobial activity at a 1:1 ratio and act sequentially to affect target cells, and they are all highly thermostable (100°C for 30 min and pH tolerant (pH 2.0 to 9.0. Thusin shows remarkable efficacy against all tested Gram-positive bacteria and greater activities than two known lantibiotics thuricin 4A-4 and ticin A4, and one antibiotic vancomycin against various bacterial pathogens (Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, Staphylococcus sciuri, Enterococcus faecalis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Moreover, thusin is also able to inhibit the outgrowth of Bacillus cereus spores. The potent antimicrobial activity of thusin against some Gram-positive pathogens indicates that it has potential for the development of new drugs.

  6. A Large-Area Nanoplasmonic Sensor Fabricated by Rapid Thermal Annealing Treatment for Label-Free and Multi-Point Immunoglobulin Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Tzu-Han Lin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Immunoglobulins are important biomarkers to evaluate the immune status or development of infectious diseases. To provide timely clinical treatments, it is important to continuously monitor the level of multiple immunoglobulins. Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR-based nanoplasmonic sensors have been demonstrated for multiplex immunoglobulins detection. However, the sensor fabrication process is usually slow and complicated, so it is not accessible for large-area and batch fabrication. Herein, we report a large-area (2 cm × 2 cm nanofabrication method using physical vapor deposition followed by a rapid thermal annealing treatment. To optimize the sensor performance, we systematically characterized three fabrication conditions, including (1 the deposition thickness; (2 the maximum annealing temperature, and (3 the annealing time. The corresponding absorbance spectrum profile and surface morphology of the nanostructures were observed by a UV-VIS spectrometer and atomic force microscopy. We then tested the sensitivity of the sensor using a glucose solution at different concentrations. The results showed that the sensor with 10 nm gold deposition thickness under 5-min 900 °C rapid thermal annealing can achieve the highest sensitivity (189 nm RIU−1. Finally, we integrated this nanoplasmonic sensor with a microchannel and a motorized stage to perform a 10-spot immunoglobulin detection in 50 min. Based on its real-time, dynamic and multi-point analyte detection capability, the nanoplasmonic sensor has the potential to be applied in high-throughput or multiplex immunoassay analysis, which would be beneficial for disease diagnosis or biomedical research in a simple and cost-effective platform.

  7. Rationale and design of a randomized trial to assess the safety and efficacy of MultiPoint Pacing (MPP) in cardiac resynchronization therapy: The MPP Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassoni, Gery; Baker, James; Corbisiero, Raffaele; Love, Charles; Martin, David; Sheppard, Robert; Worley, Seth J; Lee, Kwangdeok; Niazi, Imran

    2017-11-01

    Although the majority of Class III congestive heart failure (HF) patients treated with cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) show a clinical benefit, up to 40% of patients do not respond to CRT. This paper reports the design of the MultiPoint Pacing (MPP) trial, a prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of CRT using MPP compared to standard biventricular (Bi-V) pacing. A maximum of 506 patients with a standard CRT-D indication will be enrolled at up to 50 US centers. All patients will be implanted with a CRT-D system (Quartet LV lead Model 1458Q with a Quadra CRT-D, Abbott) that can deliver both MPP and Bi-V pacing. Standard Bi-V pacing will be activated at implant. At 3 months postimplant, patients in whom the echocardiographic parameters during MPP are equal or better than during Bi-V pacing are randomized (1:1) to either an MPP or Bi-V arm. The primary safety endpoint is freedom from system-related complications at 9 months. Each patient's response to CRT will be evaluated using a heart-failure clinical composite score, consisting of a change in NYHA functional class, patient global assessment score, HF events, and cardiovascular death. The primary efficacy endpoint is the proportion of responders in the MPP arm compared with the Bi-V arm between 3 and 9 months. This trial seeks to evaluate whether MPP via a single quadripolar LV lead improves hemodynamic and clinical responses to CRT, both in clinical responders and nonresponders. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Stereo ENA Imaging of the Ring Current and Multi-point Measurements of Suprathermal Particles and Magnetic Fields by TRIO-CINEMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, R. P.; Sample, J. G.; Immel, T. J.; Lee, D.; Horbury, T. S.; Jin, H.; SEON, J.; Wang, L.; Roelof, E. C.; Lee, E.; Parks, G. K.; Vo, H.

    2012-12-01

    The TRIO (Triplet Ionospheric Observatory) - CINEMA (Cubesat for Ions, Neutrals, Electrons, & Magnetic fields) mission consists of three identical 3-u cubesats to provide high sensitivity, high cadence, stereo measurements of Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENAs) from the Earth's ring current with ~1 keV FWHM energy resolution from ~4 to ~200 keV, as well as multi-point in situ measurements of magnetic fields and suprathermal electrons (~2 -200 keV) and ions (~ 4 -200 keV) in the auroral and ring current precipitation regions in low Earth orbit (LEO). A new Suprathermal Electron, Ion, Neutral (STEIN) instrument, using a 32-pixel silicon semiconductor detector with an electrostatic deflection system to separate ENAs from ions and from electrons below 30 keV, will sweep over most of the sky every 15 s as the spacecraft spins at 4 rpm. In addition, inboard and outboard (on an extendable 1m boom) miniature magnetoresistive sensor magnetometers will provide high cadence 3-axis magnetic field measurements. An S-band transmitter will be used to provide ~8 kbps orbit-average data downlink to the ~11m diameter antenna of the Berkeley Ground Station.The first CINEMA (funded by NSF) is scheduled for launch on August 14, 2012 into a 65 deg. inclination LEO. Two more identical CINEMAs are being developed by Kyung Hee University (KHU) in Korea under the World Class University (WCU) program, for launch in November 2012 into a Sun-synchronous LEO to form TRIO-CINEMA. A fourth CINEMA is being developed for a 2013 launch into LEO. This LEO constellation of nanosatellites will provide unique measurements highly complementary to NASA's RBSP and THEMIS missions. Furthermore, CINEMA's development of miniature particle and magnetic field sensors, and cubesat-size spinning spacecraft may be important for future constellation space missions. Initial results from the first CINEMA will be presented if available.

  9. A Large-Area Nanoplasmonic Sensor Fabricated by Rapid Thermal Annealing Treatment for Label-Free and Multi-Point Immunoglobulin Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hana Tzu-Han; Yang, Chuan-Kai; Lin, Chi-Chen; Wu, Albert Meng-Hsin; Wang, Lon A; Huang, Nien-Tsu

    2017-05-02

    Immunoglobulins are important biomarkers to evaluate the immune status or development of infectious diseases. To provide timely clinical treatments, it is important to continuously monitor the level of multiple immunoglobulins. Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR)-based nanoplasmonic sensors have been demonstrated for multiplex immunoglobulins detection. However, the sensor fabrication process is usually slow and complicated, so it is not accessible for large-area and batch fabrication. Herein, we report a large-area (2 cm × 2 cm) nanofabrication method using physical vapor deposition followed by a rapid thermal annealing treatment. To optimize the sensor performance, we systematically characterized three fabrication conditions, including (1) the deposition thickness; (2) the maximum annealing temperature, and (3) the annealing time. The corresponding absorbance spectrum profile and surface morphology of the nanostructures were observed by a UV-VIS spectrometer and atomic force microscopy. We then tested the sensitivity of the sensor using a glucose solution at different concentrations. The results showed that the sensor with 10 nm gold deposition thickness under 5-min 900 °C rapid thermal annealing can achieve the highest sensitivity (189 nm RIU -1 ). Finally, we integrated this nanoplasmonic sensor with a microchannel and a motorized stage to perform a 10-spot immunoglobulin detection in 50 min. Based on its real-time, dynamic and multi-point analyte detection capability, the nanoplasmonic sensor has the potential to be applied in high-throughput or multiplex immunoassay analysis, which would be beneficial for disease diagnosis or biomedical research in a simple and cost-effective platform.

  10. Multi-point Shock and Flux Rope Analysis of Multiple Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections around 2010 August 1 in the Inner Heliosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möstl, C.; Farrugia, C. J.; Kilpua, E. K. J.; Jian, L. K.; Liu, Y.; Eastwood, J. P.; Harrison, R. A.; Webb, D. F.; Temmer, M.; Odstrcil, D.; Davies, J. A.; Rollett, T.; Luhmann, J. G.; Nitta, N.; Mulligan, T.; Jensen, E. A.; Forsyth, R.; Lavraud, B.; de Koning, C. A.; Veronig, A. M.; Galvin, A. B.; Zhang, T. L.; Anderson, B. J.

    2012-10-01

    We present multi-point in situ observations of a complex sequence of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) which may serve as a benchmark event for numerical and empirical space weather prediction models. On 2010 August 1, instruments on various space missions, Solar Dynamics Observatory/Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Solar-TErrestrial-RElations-Observatory (SDO/SOHO/STEREO), monitored several CMEs originating within tens of degrees from the solar disk center. We compare their imprints on four widely separated locations, spanning 120° in heliospheric longitude, with radial distances from the Sun ranging from MESSENGER (0.38 AU) to Venus Express (VEX, at 0.72 AU) to Wind, ACE, and ARTEMIS near Earth and STEREO-B close to 1 AU. Calculating shock and flux rope parameters at each location points to a non-spherical shape of the shock, and shows the global configuration of the interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs), which have interacted, but do not seem to have merged. VEX and STEREO-B observed similar magnetic flux ropes (MFRs), in contrast to structures at Wind. The geomagnetic storm was intense, reaching two minima in the Dst index (≈ - 100 nT), and was caused by the sheath region behind the shock and one of two observed MFRs. MESSENGER received a glancing blow of the ICMEs, and the events missed STEREO-A entirely. The observations demonstrate how sympathetic solar eruptions may immerse at least 1/3 of the heliosphere in the ecliptic with their distinct plasma and magnetic field signatures. We also emphasize the difficulties in linking the local views derived from single-spacecraft observations to a consistent global picture, pointing to possible alterations from the classical picture of ICMEs.

  11. MULTI-POINT SHOCK AND FLUX ROPE ANALYSIS OF MULTIPLE INTERPLANETARY CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS AROUND 2010 AUGUST 1 IN THE INNER HELIOSPHERE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moestl, C.; Liu, Y.; Luhmann, J. G. [Space Science Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Farrugia, C. J. [Space Science Center and Department of Physics, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States); Kilpua, E. K. J. [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, FI-00560 Helsinki (Finland); Jian, L. K. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Eastwood, J. P.; Forsyth, R. [The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Harrison, R. A.; Davies, J. A. [RAL Space, Harwell Oxford, Didcot (United Kingdom); Webb, D. F. [Institute for Scientific Research, Boston College, Newton, MA (United States); Temmer, M.; Rollett, T.; Veronig, A. M. [Kanzelhoehe Observatory-IGAM, Institute of Physics, University of Graz, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Odstrcil, D. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Nitta, N. [Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Mulligan, T. [Space Science Applications Laboratory, The Aerospace Corporation, El Segundo, CA (United States); Jensen, E. A. [ACS Consulting, Houston, TX (United States); Lavraud, B. [Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, Universite de Toulouse (UPS), F-31400 Toulouse (France); De Koning, C. A., E-mail: christian.moestl@uni-graz.at [NOAA/SWPC, Boulder, Colorado (United States); and others

    2012-10-10

    We present multi-point in situ observations of a complex sequence of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) which may serve as a benchmark event for numerical and empirical space weather prediction models. On 2010 August 1, instruments on various space missions, Solar Dynamics Observatory/Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Solar-TErrestrial-RElations-Observatory (SDO/SOHO/STEREO), monitored several CMEs originating within tens of degrees from the solar disk center. We compare their imprints on four widely separated locations, spanning 120 Degree-Sign in heliospheric longitude, with radial distances from the Sun ranging from MESSENGER (0.38 AU) to Venus Express (VEX, at 0.72 AU) to Wind, ACE, and ARTEMIS near Earth and STEREO-B close to 1 AU. Calculating shock and flux rope parameters at each location points to a non-spherical shape of the shock, and shows the global configuration of the interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs), which have interacted, but do not seem to have merged. VEX and STEREO-B observed similar magnetic flux ropes (MFRs), in contrast to structures at Wind. The geomagnetic storm was intense, reaching two minima in the Dst index ( Almost-Equal-To - 100 nT), and was caused by the sheath region behind the shock and one of two observed MFRs. MESSENGER received a glancing blow of the ICMEs, and the events missed STEREO-A entirely. The observations demonstrate how sympathetic solar eruptions may immerse at least 1/3 of the heliosphere in the ecliptic with their distinct plasma and magnetic field signatures. We also emphasize the difficulties in linking the local views derived from single-spacecraft observations to a consistent global picture, pointing to possible alterations from the classical picture of ICMEs.

  12. The two-component signal transduction system YvcPQ regulates the bacterial resistance to bacitracin in Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shumeng; Li, Xinfeng; Wang, Xun; Li, Zhou; He, Jin

    2016-10-01

    YvcPQ is one of the two-component signal transduction systems that respond to specific stimuli and enable cells to adjust multiple cellular functions. It consists of a histidine kinase YvcQ and a response regulator YvcP. In this study, through searching the consensus sequence recognized by YvcP, we found four YvcP-binding motifs in the promoter regions of genes yvcR (BMB171_C4100), BMB171_C4385, kapD (BMB171_C4525) and BMB171_C4835 in Bacillus thuringiensis BMB171 which is a representative of Bacillus cereus group, and confirmed that these genes are regulated by YvcP. We compared the sequence of yvcPQ and its downstream genes in genus Bacillus, and found two different kinds of yvc locus, one was the yvcPQ-RS in B. subtilis species and the other was the yvcPQ-R-S1S2 in B. cereus group. Furthermore, we found that YvcP activates the transcription of yvcS1S2 (downstream of yvcR) to promote bacterial resistance to bacitracin and deletion of either yvcPQ operon or yvcS1S2 operon renders the bacterial cells more sensitive to bacitracin. This study enriched our understanding of both the YvcPQ's function and the mechanism of bacterial resistance to bacitracin.

  13. The two-component system CBO2306/CBO2307 is important for cold adaptation of Clostridium botulinum ATCC 3502.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derman, Yağmur; Isokallio, Marita; Lindström, Miia; Korkeala, Hannu

    2013-10-01

    Clostridium botulinum is a notorious foodborne pathogen. Its ability to adapt to and grow at low temperatures is of interest for food safety. Two-component systems (TCSs) have been reported to be involved in cold-shock and growth at low temperatures. Here we show the importance of TCS CBO2306/CBO2307 in the cold-shock response of C. botulinum ATCC 3502. The relative expression levels of the cbo2306 and cbo2307 were up to 4.4-fold induced in the cold-shocked cultures but negatively regulated in the late-log and stationary growth phase in relation to early logarithmic growth phase in non-shocked cultures. Importance of the CBO2306/CBO2307 in the cold stress was further demonstrated by impaired growth of insertional cbo2306 or cbo2307 knockout mutants in relation to the wild-type strain ATCC 3502. The results suggest that the TCS CBO2306/CBO2307 is important for cold-shock response and adaptation of C. botulinum ATCC 3502 to low temperature. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Oxidative stress enhances cephalosporin resistance of Enterococcus faecalis through activation of a two-component signaling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djorić, Dušanka; Kristich, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is a low-GC Gram-positive bacterium, a normal resident of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, and an important hospital-acquired pathogen. An important risk factor for hospital-acquired enterococcal infections is prior therapy with broad-spectrum cephalosporins, antibiotics that impair cell wall biosynthesis by inhibiting peptidoglycan cross-linking. Enterococci are intrinsically resistant to cephalosporins; however, environmental factors that modulate cephalosporin resistance have not been described. While searching for the genetic determinants of cephalosporin resistance in E. faecalis, we unexpectedly discovered that oxidative stress, whether from external sources or derived from endogenous metabolism, drives enhanced intrinsic resistance to cephalosporins. A particular source of oxidative stress, H2O2, activates signaling through the CroR-CroS two-component signaling system, a known determinant of cephalosporin resistance in E. faecalis. We find that CroR-CroS is required for adaptation to H2O2 stress and that H2O2 potentiates the activities of cephalosporins against E. faecalis when the CroR-CroS signaling system is nonfunctional. Rather than directly detecting H2O2, our data suggest that the CroR-CroS system responds to cell envelope damage caused by H2O2 exposure in order to promote cell envelope repair and enhanced cephalosporin resistance. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. The PhoBR two-component system regulates antibiotic biosynthesis in Serratia in response to phosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everson Lee

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Secondary metabolism in Serratia sp. ATCC 39006 (Serratia 39006 is controlled via a complex network of regulators, including a LuxIR-type (SmaIR quorum sensing (QS system. Here we investigate the molecular mechanism by which phosphate limitation controls biosynthesis of two antibiotic secondary metabolites, prodigiosin and carbapenem, in Serratia 39006. Results We demonstrate that a mutation in the high affinity phosphate transporter pstSCAB-phoU, believed to mimic low phosphate conditions, causes upregulation of secondary metabolism and QS in Serratia 39006, via the PhoBR two-component system. Phosphate limitation also activated secondary metabolism and QS in Serratia 39006. In addition, a pstS mutation resulted in upregulation of rap. Rap, a putative SlyA/MarR-family transcriptional regulator, shares similarity with the global regulator RovA (regulator of virulence from Yersina spp. and is an activator of secondary metabolism in Serratia 39006. We demonstrate that expression of rap, pigA-O (encoding the prodigiosin biosynthetic operon and smaI are controlled via PhoBR in Serratia 39006. Conclusion Phosphate limitation regulates secondary metabolism in Serratia 39006 via multiple inter-linked pathways, incorporating transcriptional control mediated by three important global regulators, PhoB, SmaR and Rap.

  16. Two-component systems are involved in the regulation of botulinum neurotoxin synthesis in Clostridium botulinum type A strain Hall.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloé Connan

    Full Text Available Clostridium botulinum synthesizes a potent neurotoxin (BoNT which associates with non-toxic proteins (ANTPs to form complexes of various sizes. The bont and antp genes are clustered in two operons. In C. botulinum type A, bont/A and antp genes are expressed during the end of the exponential growth phase and the beginning of the stationary phase under the control of an alternative sigma factor encoded by botR/A, which is located between the two operons. In the genome of C. botulinum type A strain Hall, 30 gene pairs predicted to encode two-component systems (TCSs and 9 orphan regulatory genes have been identified. Therefore, 34 Hall isogenic antisense strains on predicted regulatory genes (29 TCSs and 5 orphan regulatory genes have been obtained by a mRNA antisense procedure. Two TCS isogenic antisense strains showed more rapid growth kinetics and reduced BoNT/A production than the control strain, as well as increased bacterial lysis and impairment of the bacterial cell wall structure. Three other TCS isogenic antisense strains induced a low level of BoNT/A and ANTP production. Interestingly, reduced expression of bont/A and antp genes was shown to be independent of botR/A. These results indicate that BoNT/A synthesis is under the control of a complex network of regulation including directly at least three TCSs.

  17. Preparation and properties of high storage stability polyester polyol dispersion for two-component waterborne polyurethane coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, H.; Hu, J. Q.; Wang, F.; Tu, W. P.

    2017-01-01

    A new type of polyester polyol dispersion with good storage stability was prepared based on a hydrophilic monomer 5-sodium sulfodimethyl isophthalate (5-SIPM), and frequently-used monomers such as neopentyl glycol (NPG), dimethyl terephthalate (DMT), dimethyl phthalate (DMP) and trimethylolpropane (TMP) by the transpolycondensation and polycondensation method. The polyester polyol dispersion was characterized by FTIR and GPC. The proper content of these monomers were determined by the performance of polyester dispersion: the content of TMP was 15wt%, the content of NPG was 7.5wt% and the hydrophilic monomer 5-SIPM content was 5wt%. Two-component waterborne polyurethane (2K-WPU) coatings were prepared by Bayhydur® XP2487/1 and polyester polyol dispersions, which were stored before and after at 40 ° for 6 weeks, the prepared films have no differences in drying time, adhesion, pencil hardness, gloss and chemical resistance, the result also reveals that the polyester polyol dispersion have excellent storage stability resistance.

  18. Modification of CusSR bacterial two-component systems by the introduction of an inducible positive feedback loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, Sambandam; Pham, Van Dung; Lee, Seung Hwan; Yoo, Ik-Keun; Hong, Soon Ho

    2012-06-01

    The CusSR two-component system (TCS) is a copper-sensing apparatus of E. coli that is responsible for regulating the copper-related homeostatic system. The dynamic characteristics of the CusSR network were modified by the introduction of a positive feedback loop. To construct the feedback loop, the CusR, which is activated by the cusC promoter, was cloned downstream of the cusC promoter and reporter protein. The feedback loop system, once activated by environmental copper, triggers the activation of the cusC promoter, which results in the amplification of a reporter protein and CusR expression. The threshold copper concentration for the activation of the modified CusSR TCS network was lowered from 2,476.5 μg/l to 247.7 μg/l, which indicates a tenfold increase in sensitivity. The intensity of the output signal was increased twofold, and was maintained for 16 h. The strategy proposed in this study can also be applied to modify the dynamic characteristics of other TCSs.

  19. The YvqE two-component system controls biofilm formation and acid production in Streptococcus pyogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaka, Masanori; Tatsuno, Ichiro; Maeyama, Jun-Ichi; Matsui, Hideyuki; Zhang, Yan; Hasegawa, Tadao

    2016-07-01

    In Streptococcus pyogenes, proteins involved in determining virulence are controlled by stand-alone response regulators and by two-component regulatory systems. Previous studies reported that, compared to the parental strain, the yvqE sensor knockout strain showed significantly reduced growth and lower virulence. To determine the function of YvqE, we performed biofilm analysis and pH assays on yvqE mutants, and site-directed mutagenesis of YvqE. The yvqE deletion mutant showed a slower acid production rate, indicating that YvqE regulates acid production from sugar fermentation. The mutant strain, in which the Asp(26) residue in YvqE was replaced with Asn, affected biofilm formation, suggesting that this amino acid senses hydrogen ions produced by fermentative sugar metabolism. Signals received by YvqE were directly or indirectly responsible for inducing pilus expression. This study shows that at low environmental pH, biofilm formation in S. pyogenes is mediated by YvqE and suggests that regulation of pilus expression by environmental acidification could be directly under the control of YvqE. © 2016 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Phosphorescence lifetimes of organic light-emitting diodes from two-component time-dependent density functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kühn, Michael [Institut für Physikalische Chemie, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Kaiserstraße 12, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Weigend, Florian, E-mail: florian.weigend@kit.edu [Institut für Physikalische Chemie, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Kaiserstraße 12, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Institut für Nanotechnologie, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Postfach 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2014-12-14

    “Spin-forbidden” transitions are calculated for an eight-membered set of iridium-containing candidate molecules for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) using two-component time-dependent density functional theory. Phosphorescence lifetimes (obtained from averaging over relevant excitations) are compared to experimental data. Assessment of parameters like non-distorted and distorted geometric structures, density functionals, relativistic Hamiltonians, and basis sets was done by a thorough study for Ir(ppy){sub 3} focussing not only on averaged phosphorescence lifetimes, but also on the agreement of the triplet substate structure with experimental data. The most favorable methods were applied to an eight-membered test set of OLED candidate molecules; Boltzmann-averaged phosphorescence lifetimes were investigated concerning the convergence with the number of excited states and the changes when including solvent effects. Finally, a simple model for sorting out molecules with long averaged phosphorescence lifetimes is developed by visual inspection of computationally easily achievable one-component frontier orbitals.

  1. A Two-Component Regulatory System Impacts Extracellular Membrane-Derived Vesicle Production in Group A Streptococcus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Resch

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Export of macromolecules via extracellular membrane-derived vesicles (MVs plays an important role in the biology of Gram-negative bacteria. Gram-positive bacteria have also recently been reported to produce MVs; however, the composition and mechanisms governing vesiculogenesis in Gram-positive bacteria remain undefined. Here, we describe MV production in the Gram-positive human pathogen group A streptococcus (GAS, the etiological agent of necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. M1 serotype GAS isolates in culture exhibit MV structures both on the cell wall surface and in the near vicinity of bacterial cells. A comprehensive analysis of MV proteins identified both virulence-associated protein substrates of the general secretory pathway in addition to “anchorless surface proteins.” Characteristic differences in the contents, distributions, and fatty acid compositions of specific lipids between MVs and GAS cell membrane were also observed. Furthermore, deep RNA sequencing of vesicular RNAs revealed that GAS MVs contained differentially abundant RNA species relative to bacterial cellular RNA. MV production by GAS strains varied in a manner dependent on an intact two-component system, CovRS, with MV production negatively regulated by the system. Modulation of MV production through CovRS was found to be independent of both GAS cysteine protease SpeB and capsule biosynthesis. Our data provide an explanation for GAS secretion of macromolecules, including RNAs, lipids, and proteins, and illustrate a regulatory mechanism coordinating this secretory response.

  2. Two-component system response regulators involved in virulence of Streptococcus pneumoniae TIGR4 in infective endocarditis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    My Trihn

    Full Text Available Streptococci resident in the oral cavity have been linked to infective endocarditis (IE. While other viridans streptococci are commonly studied in relation to IE, less research has been focused on Streptococcus pneumoniae. We established for the first time an animal model of S. pneumoniae IE, and examined the virulence of the TIGR4 strain in this model. We hypothesized that two-component systems (TCS may mediate S. pneumoniae TIGR4 strain virulence in IE and examined TCS response regulator (RR mutants of TIGR4 in vivo with the IE model. Thirteen of the 14 RR protein genes were mutagenized, excluding only the essential gene SP_1227. The requirement of the 13 RRs for S. pneumoniae competitiveness in the IE model was assessed in vivo through use of quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR and competitive index assays. Using real-time PCR, several RR mutants were detected at significantly lower levels in infected heart valves compared with a control strain suggesting the respective RRs are candidate virulence factors for IE. The virulence reduction of the ΔciaR mutant was further confirmed by competitive index assay. Our data suggest that CiaR is a virulence factor of S. pneumoniae strain TIGR4 for IE.

  3. Phase separation and near-critical fluctuations in two-component lipid membranes: Monte Carlo simulations on experimentally relevant scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrig, Jens; Petrov, Eugene P; Schwille, Petra

    2011-01-01

    By means of lattice-based Monte Carlo simulations, we address the properties of two-component lipid membranes on the experimentally relevant spatial scales of the order of a micrometer and time intervals of the order of 1 s, using DMPC/DSPC lipid mixtures as a model system. Our large-scale simulations allowed us to obtain important results not reported previously in simulation studies of lipid membranes. We find that, for a certain range of lipid compositions, the phase transition from the fluid phase to the fluid-gel phase coexistence proceeds via near-critical fluctuations, whereas for other lipid compositions this phase transition has a quasi-abrupt character. In the presence of near-critical fluctuations, transient subdiffusion of lipid molecules is observed. These features of the system are stable with respect to perturbations in lipid interaction parameters used in our simulations. The line tension characterizing lipid domains in the fluid-gel coexistence region is found to be in the pN range. On approaching the critical point, the line tension, the inverse correlation length of fluid-gel spatial fluctuations and the corresponding inverse order parameter susceptibility of the membrane vanish. All these results are in agreement with recent experimental findings for model lipid membranes. Our analysis of the domain coarsening dynamics after an abrupt quench of the membrane to the fluid-gel coexistence region reveals that lateral diffusion of lipids plays an important role in the fluid-gel phase separation process.

  4. Functionalization of PDMS modified and plasma activated two-component polyurethane coatings by surface attachment of enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreider, Alexej; Richter, Katharina; Sell, Stephan; Fenske, Mandus; Tornow, Christian; Stenzel, Volkmar; Grunwald, Ingo

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a new strategy for coupling the enzyme horseradish peroxidase to a two-component polyurethane (2C-PUR) coating. A stable polymer conjugate was achieved by combining the enzyme and the 2C-PUR coating which was modified with poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), located at the surface. An atmospheric pressure plasma jet system was used to convert alkyl groups from the PDMS into polar silanol functionalities. This conversion was proven by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and dynamic contact angle measurements. In addition, the stability of the activated 2C-PUR surface containing silanol groups was determined by measuring the contact angle as a function of time. Compared to the non-modified 2C-PUR systems the one with PDMS displayed a higher stability over a time period over 28 h. In a silanization process the coating was treated with (3-aminopropyl) trimethoxysilane and the enzyme was subsequently immobilized to the coating via the cross linker glutaraldehyde to receive new biomimetic catalytic/enzymatic functions. The chemical immobilization (chemisorption) of the enzyme to the surface showed statistically significant higher biological activity as compared to references samples without using a cross linker (physisorption). The presented technique offers the opportunity to design new and smart multifunctional surface coatings which employ biomimetic capabilities.

  5. The Two-Component Regulatory System VicRK is Important to Virulence of Streptococcus equi Subspecies equi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mengyao; McClure, Michael J; Zhu, Hui; Xie, Gang; Lei, Benfang

    2008-01-01

    This study aims at evaluating the importance of the two-component regulatory system VicRK to virulence of the horse pathogen Streptococcus equi subspecies equi and the potential of a vicK mutant as a live vaccine candidate using mouse infection models. The vicK gene was deleted by gene replacement. The DeltavicK mutant is attenuated in virulence in both subcutaneous and intranasal infections in mice. DeltavicK grows less slowly than the parent strain but retains the ability of S. equi to resist to phagocytosis by polymorphoneuclear leukocytes, suggesting that the vicK deletion causes growth defect. DeltavicK infection protects mice against reinfection with a wild-type S. equi strain. Intranasal DeltavicK infection induces production of anti-SeM mucosal IgA and systemic IgG. These results indicate that VicRK is important to S. equi growth and virulence and suggest that DeltavicK has the potential to be developed as a live S. equi vaccine.

  6. Two-component regulatory systems in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: an intricate network mediating fimbrial and efflux pump gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaneson, Melissa; Mikkelsen, Helga; Ventre, Isabelle; Bordi, Christophe; Filloux, Alain

    2011-03-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is responsible for chronic and acute infections in humans. Chronic infections are associated with production of fimbriae and the formation of a biofilm. The two-component system Roc1 is named after its role in the regulation of cup genes, which encode components of a machinery allowing assembly of fimbriae. A non-characterized gene cluster, roc2, encodes components homologous to the Roc1 system. We show that cross-regulation occurs between the Roc1 and Roc2 signalling pathways. We demonstrate that the sensors RocS2 and RocS1 converge on the response regulator RocA1 to control cupC gene expression. This control is independent of the response regulator RocA2. Instead, we show that these sensors act via the RocA2 response regulator to repress the mexAB-oprM genes. These genes encode a multidrug efflux pump and are upregulated in the rocA2 mutant, which is less susceptible to antibiotics. It has been reported that in cystic fibrosis lungs, in which P. aeruginosa adopts the biofilm lifestyle, most isolates have an inactive MexAB-OprM pump. The concomitant RocS2-dependent upregulation of cupC genes (biofilm formation) and downregulation of mexAB-oprM genes (antibiotic resistance) is in agreement with this observation. It suggests that the Roc systems may sense the environment in the cystic fibrosis lung. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. The Role of CzcRS Two-Component Systems in the Heavy Metal Resistance of Pseudomonas putida X4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pulin Liu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of different czcRS genes in metal resistance and the cross-link between czcRS and czcCBA in Pseudomonas putida X4 were studied to advance understanding of the mechanisms by which P. putida copes with metal stress. Similar to P. putida KT2440, two complete czcRS1 and czcRS2 two-component systems, as well as a czcR3 without the corresponding sensing component were amplified in P. putida X4. The histidine kinase genes czcS1 and czcS2 were inactivated and fused to lacZ by homologous recombination. The lacZ fusion assay revealed that Cd2+ and Zn2+ caused a decrease in the transcription of czcRS1, whereas Cd2+ treatment enhanced the transcription of czcRS2. The mutation of different czcRSs showed that all czcRSs are necessary to facilitate full metal resistance in P. putida X4. A putative gene just downstream of czcR3 is related to metal ion resistance, and its transcription was activated by Zn2+. Data from quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR strongly suggested that czcRSs regulate the expression of czcCBA, and a cross-link exists between different czcRSs.

  8. The Role of CzcRS Two-Component Systems in the Heavy Metal Resistance of Pseudomonas putida X4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pulin; Chen, Xi; Huang, Qiaoyun; Chen, Wenli

    2015-07-27

    The role of different czcRS genes in metal resistance and the cross-link between czcRS and czcCBA in Pseudomonas putida X4 were studied to advance understanding of the mechanisms by which P. putida copes with metal stress. Similar to P. putida KT2440, two complete czcRS1 and czcRS2 two-component systems, as well as a czcR3 without the corresponding sensing component were amplified in P. putida X4. The histidine kinase genes czcS1 and czcS2 were inactivated and fused to lacZ by homologous recombination. The lacZ fusion assay revealed that Cd2+ and Zn2+ caused a decrease in the transcription of czcRS1, whereas Cd2+ treatment enhanced the transcription of czcRS2. The mutation of different czcRSs showed that all czcRSs are necessary to facilitate full metal resistance in P. putida X4. A putative gene just downstream of czcR3 is related to metal ion resistance, and its transcription was activated by Zn2+. Data from quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) strongly suggested that czcRSs regulate the expression of czcCBA, and a cross-link exists between different czcRSs.

  9. Two-component laser Doppler anemometer for measurement of velocity and turbulent shear stress near prosthetic heart valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Y R; Yoganathan, A P

    1985-01-01

    The velocity and turbulent shear stress measured in the immediate vicinity of prosthetic heart valves play a vital role in the design and evaluation of these devices. In the past hot wire/film and one-component laser Doppler anemometer (LDA) systems were used extensively to obtain these measurements. Hot wire/film anemometers, however, have some serious disadvantages, including the inability to measure the direction of the flow, the disturbance of the flow field caused by the probe, and the need for frequent calibration. One-component LDA systems do not have these problems, but they cannot measure turbulent shear stresses directly. Since these measurements are essential and are not available in the open literature, a two-component LDA system for measuring velocity and turbulent shear stress fields under pulsatile flow conditions was assembled under an FDA contract. The experimental methods used to create an in vitro data base of velocity and turbulent shear stress fields in the immediate vicinity of prosthetic heart valves of various designs in current clinical use are also discussed.

  10. Two-Component Structure of the Radio Source 0014+813 from VLBI Observations within the CONT14 Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, O. A.; Lopez, Yu. R.

    2018-03-01

    We consider a method of reconstructing the structure delay of extended radio sources without constructing their radio images. The residuals derived after the adjustment of geodetic VLBI observations are used for this purpose. We show that the simplest model of a radio source consisting of two point components can be represented by four parameters (the angular separation of the components, the mutual orientation relative to the poleward direction, the flux-density ratio, and the spectral index difference) that are determined for each baseline of a multi-baseline VLBI network. The efficiency of this approach is demonstrated by estimating the coordinates of the radio source 0014+813 observed during the two-week CONT14 program organized by the International VLBI Service (IVS) in May 2014. Large systematic deviations have been detected in the residuals of the observations for the radio source 0014+813. The averaged characteristics of the radio structure of 0014+813 at a frequency of 8.4 GHz can be calculated from these deviations. Our modeling using four parameters has confirmed that the source consists of two components at an angular separation of 0.5 mas in the north-south direction. Using the structure delay when adjusting the CONT14 observations leads to a correction of the average declination estimate for the radio source 0014+813 by 0.070 mas.

  11. Evolution of multidrug resistance during Staphylococcus aureus infection involves mutation of the essential two component regulator WalKR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin P Howden

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance in Staphylococcus aureus is a major public health threat, compounded by emergence of strains with resistance to vancomycin and daptomycin, both last line antimicrobials. Here we have performed high throughput DNA sequencing and comparative genomics for five clinical pairs of vancomycin-susceptible (VSSA and vancomycin-intermediate ST239 S. aureus (VISA; each pair isolated before and after vancomycin treatment failure. These comparisons revealed a frequent pattern of mutation among the VISA strains within the essential walKR two-component regulatory locus involved in control of cell wall metabolism. We then conducted bi-directional allelic exchange experiments in our clinical VSSA and VISA strains and showed that single nucleotide substitutions within either walK or walR lead to co-resistance to vancomycin and daptomycin, and caused the typical cell wall thickening observed in resistant clinical isolates. Ion Torrent genome sequencing confirmed no additional regulatory mutations had been introduced into either the walR or walK VISA mutants during the allelic exchange process. However, two potential compensatory mutations were detected within putative transport genes for the walK mutant. The minimal genetic changes in either walK or walR also attenuated virulence, reduced biofilm formation, and led to consistent transcriptional changes that suggest an important role for this regulator in control of central metabolism. This study highlights the dramatic impacts of single mutations that arise during persistent S. aureus infections and demonstrates the role played by walKR to increase drug resistance, control metabolism and alter the virulence potential of this pathogen.

  12. BarA-UvrY two-component system regulates virulence of uropathogenic E. coli CFT073.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniyandi, Senthilkumar; Mitra, Arindam; Herren, Christopher D; Lockatell, C Virginia; Johnson, David E; Zhu, Xiaoping; Mukhopadhyay, Suman

    2012-01-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), a member of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli, cause ∼80% of community-acquired urinary tract infections (UTI) in humans. UPEC initiates its colonization in epithelial cells lining the urinary tract with a complicated life cycle, replicating and persisting in intracellular and extracellular niches. Consequently, UPEC causes cystitis and more severe form of pyelonephritis. To further understand the virulence characteristics of UPEC, we investigated the roles of BarA-UvrY two-component system (TCS) in regulating UPEC virulence. Our results showed that mutation of BarA-UvrY TCS significantly decreased the virulence of UPEC CFT073, as assessed by mouse urinary tract infection, chicken embryo killing assay, and cytotoxicity assay on human kidney and uroepithelial cell lines. Furthermore, mutation of either barA or uvrY gene reduced the production of hemolysin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) and chemokine (IL-8). The virulence phenotype was restored similar to that of wild-type by complementation of either barA or uvrY gene in trans. In addition, we discussed a possible link between the BarA-UvrY TCS and CsrA in positively and negatively controlling virulence in UPEC. Overall, this study provides the evidences for BarA-UvrY TCS regulates the virulence of UPEC CFT073 and may point to mechanisms by which virulence regulations are observed in different ways may control the long-term survival of UPEC in the urinary tract.

  13. A novel two-component signaling system facilitates uropathogenic Escherichia coli's ability to exploit abundant host metabolites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentong Cai

    Full Text Available Two-component signaling systems (TCSs are major mechanisms by which bacteria adapt to environmental conditions. It follows then that TCSs would play important roles in the adaptation of pathogenic bacteria to host environments. However, no pathogen-associated TCS has been identified in uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC. Here, we identified a novel TCS, which we termed KguS/KguR (KguS: α-ketoglutarate utilization sensor; KguR: α-ketoglutarate utilization regulator in UPEC CFT073, a strain isolated from human pyelonephritis. kguS/kguR was strongly associated with UPEC but was found only rarely among other E. coli including commensal and intestinal pathogenic strains. An in vivo competition assay in a mouse UTI model showed that deletion of kguS/kguR in UPEC CFT073 resulted in a significant reduction in its colonization of the bladders and kidneys of mice, suggesting that KguS/KguR contributed to UPEC fitness in vivo. Comparative proteomics identified the target gene products of KguS/KguR, and sequence analysis showed that TCS KguS/KguR and its targeted-genes, c5032 to c5039, are encoded on a genomic island, which is not present in intestinal pathogenic E. coli. Expression of the target genes was induced by α-ketoglutarate (α-KG. These genes were further shown to be involved in utilization of α-KG as a sole carbon source under anaerobic conditions. KguS/KguR contributed to the regulation of the target genes with the direct regulation by KguR verified using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. In addition, oxygen deficiency positively modulated expression of kguS/kguR and its target genes. Taken altogether, this study describes the first UPEC-associated TCS that functions in controlling the utilization of α-ketoglutarate in vivo thereby facilitating UPEC adaptation to life inside the urinary tract.

  14. Genome-wide survey of two-component signal transduction systems in the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borland, Stéphanie; Oudart, Anne; Prigent-Combaret, Claire; Brochier-Armanet, Céline; Wisniewski-Dyé, Florence

    2015-10-22

    Two-component systems (TCS) play critical roles in sensing and responding to environmental cues. Azospirillum is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium living in the rhizosphere of many important crops. Despite numerous studies about its plant beneficial properties, little is known about how the bacterium senses and responds to its rhizospheric environment. The availability of complete genome sequenced from four Azospirillum strains (A. brasilense Sp245 and CBG 497, A. lipoferum 4B and Azospirillum sp. B510) offers the opportunity to conduct a comprehensive comparative analysis of the TCS gene family. Azospirillum genomes harbour a very large number of genes encoding TCS, and are especially enriched in hybrid histidine kinases (HyHK) genes compared to other plant-associated bacteria of similar genome sizes. We gained further insight into HyHK structure and architecture, revealing an intriguing complexity of these systems. An unusual proportion of TCS genes were orphaned or in complex clusters, and a high proportion of predicted soluble HKs compared to other plant-associated bacteria are reported. Phylogenetic analyses of the transmitter and receiver domains of A. lipoferum 4B HyHK indicate that expansion of this family mainly arose through horizontal gene transfer but also through gene duplications all along the diversification of the Azospirillum genus. By performing a genome-wide comparison of TCS, we unraveled important 'genus-defining' and 'plant-specifying' TCS. This study shed light on Azospirillum TCS which may confer important regulatory flexibility. Collectively, these findings highlight that Azospirillum genomes have broad potential for adaptation to fluctuating environments.

  15. Extrusion foaming of thermoplastic cellulose acetate from renewable resources using a two-component physical blowing agent system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopmann, Ch.; Windeck, C.; Hendriks, S.; Zepnik, S.; Wodke, T.

    2014-05-01

    Thermoplastic cellulose acetate (CA) is a bio-based polymer with optical, mechanical and thermal properties comparable to those of polystyrene (PS). The substitution of the predominant petrol-based PS in applications like foamed food trays can lead to a more sustainable economic practice. However, CA is also suitable for more durable applications as the biodegradability rate can be controlled by adjusting the degree of substitutions. The extrusion foaming of CA still has to overcome certain challenges. CA is highly hydrophilic and can suffer from hydrolytic degradation if not dried properly. Therefore, the influence of residual moisture on the melt viscosity is rather high. Beyond, the surface quality of foam CA sheets is below those of PS due to the particular foaming behaviour. This paper presents results of a recent study on extrusion foamed CA, using a two-component physical blowing agent system compromising HFO 1234ze as blowing agent and organic solvents as co-propellant. Samples with different co-propellants are processed on a laboratory single screw extruder at IKV. Morphology and surface topography are investigated with respect to the blowing agent composition and the die pressure. In addition, relationships between foam density, foam morphology and the propellants are analysed. The choice of the co-propellant has a significant influence on melt-strength, foaming behaviour and the possible blow-up ratio of the sheet. Furthermore, a positive influence of the co-propellant on the surface quality can be observed. In addition, the focus is laid on the effect of external contact cooling of the foamed sheets after the die exit.

  16. The RpfCG two-component system negatively regulates the colonization of sugar cane stalks by Xanthomonas albilineans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rott, Philippe; Fleites, Laura A; Mensi, Imène; Sheppard, Lauren; Daugrois, Jean-Heinrich; Dow, J Maxwell; Gabriel, Dean W

    2013-06-01

    The genome of Xanthomonas albilineans, the causal agent of sugar cane leaf scald, carries a gene cluster encoding a predicted quorum sensing system that is highly related to the diffusible signalling factor (DSF) systems of the plant pathogens Xylella fastidiosa and Xanthomonas campestris. In these latter pathogens, a cluster of regulation of pathogenicity factors (rpf) genes encodes the DSF system and is involved in control of various cellular processes. Mutation of Xanthomonas albilineans rpfF, encoding a predicted DSF synthase, in Florida strain XaFL07-1 resulted in a small reduction of disease severity (DS). Single-knockout mutations of rpfC and rpfG (encoding a predicted DSF sensor and regulator, respectively) had no effect on DS or swimming motility of the pathogen. However, capacity of the pathogen to cause disease was slightly reduced and swimming motility was severely affected when rpfG and rpfC were both deleted. Similar results were obtained when the entire rpfGCF region was deleted. Surprisingly, when the pathogen was mutated in rpfG or rpfC (single or double mutations) it was able to colonize sugar cane spatially more efficiently than the wild-type. Mutation in rpfF alone did not affect the degree of spatial invasion. We conclude that the DSF signal contributes to symptom expression but not to invasion of sugar cane stalks by Xanthomonas albilineans strain XaFL07-1, which is mainly controlled by the RpfCG two-component system.

  17. Two-component regulatory system ActS/ActR is required for Sinorhizobium meliloti adaptation to oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Guirong; Wang, Sunjun; Lu, Dawei; Huang, Leqi; Li, Ningning; Luo, Li

    2017-05-01

    The two-component system ActS/ActR plays important roles in bacterial adaptation to abiotic stress, including acid tolerance and oxidant resistance. However, the underlying regulatory mechanism is not clear. In this study, we found that the ActS/ActR system is required for adaptation to oxidative stress by regulating the transcription of the genes actR, katB, gshA and gshB1. The actS and actR mutants were sensitive to low pH and oxidants such as H 2 O 2 , oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP). The expression of actR by using a plasmid rescued the defect of SNP sensitivity for all actS and actR mutants. The expression of actS and actR were suppressed by treatment with H 2 O 2 . The expression of actS, actR, oxyR, katA and katB was required for ActS and ActR under normal conditions. The induction of katB, gshA and gshB1 depended on ActS and ActR during treatment with H 2 O 2 and SNP. Our findings revealed that the ActS/ActR system is a key redox regulator in S. meliltoi and provides a new cue to understanding Rhizobium-legume symbiosis. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  18. Role of the SaeRS two-component regulatory system in Staphylococcus epidermidis autolysis and biofilm formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Staphylococcus epidermidis (SE) has emerged as one of the most important causes of nosocomial infections. The SaeRS two-component signal transduction system (TCS) influences virulence and biofilm formation in Staphylococcus aureus. The deletion of saeR in S. epidermidis results in impaired anaerobic growth and decreased nitrate utilization. However, the regulatory function of SaeRS on biofilm formation and autolysis in S. epidermidis remains unclear. Results The saeRS genes of SE1457 were deleted by homologous recombination. The saeRS deletion mutant, SE1457ΔsaeRS, exhibited increased biofilm formation that was disturbed more severely (a 4-fold reduction) by DNase I treatment compared to SE1457 and the complementation strain SE1457saec. Compared to SE1457 and SE1457saec, SE1457ΔsaeRS showed increased Triton X-100-induced autolysis (approximately 3-fold) and decreased cell viability in planktonic/biofilm states; further, SE1457ΔsaeRS also released more extracellular DNA (eDNA) in the biofilms. Correlated with the increased autolysis phenotype, the transcription of autolysis-related genes, such as atlE and aae, was increased in SE1457ΔsaeRS. Whereas the expression of accumulation-associated protein was up-regulated by 1.8-fold in 1457ΔsaeRS, the expression of an N-acetylglucosaminyl transferase enzyme (encoded by icaA) critical for polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA) synthesis was not affected by the deletion of saeRS. Conclusions Deletion of saeRS in S. epidermidis resulted in an increase in biofilm-forming ability, which was associated with increased eDNA release and up-regulated Aap expression. The increased eDNA release from SE1457ΔsaeRS was associated with increased bacterial autolysis and decreased bacterial cell viability in the planktonic/biofilm states. PMID:21702925

  19. Role of the SaeRS two-component regulatory system in Staphylococcus epidermidis autolysis and biofilm formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois Patrice

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus epidermidis (SE has emerged as one of the most important causes of nosocomial infections. The SaeRS two-component signal transduction system (TCS influences virulence and biofilm formation in Staphylococcus aureus. The deletion of saeR in S. epidermidis results in impaired anaerobic growth and decreased nitrate utilization. However, the regulatory function of SaeRS on biofilm formation and autolysis in S. epidermidis remains unclear. Results The saeRS genes of SE1457 were deleted by homologous recombination. The saeRS deletion mutant, SE1457ΔsaeRS, exhibited increased biofilm formation that was disturbed more severely (a 4-fold reduction by DNase I treatment compared to SE1457 and the complementation strain SE1457saec. Compared to SE1457 and SE1457saec, SE1457ΔsaeRS showed increased Triton X-100-induced autolysis (approximately 3-fold and decreased cell viability in planktonic/biofilm states; further, SE1457ΔsaeRS also released more extracellular DNA (eDNA in the biofilms. Correlated with the increased autolysis phenotype, the transcription of autolysis-related genes, such as atlE and aae, was increased in SE1457ΔsaeRS. Whereas the expression of accumulation-associated protein was up-regulated by 1.8-fold in 1457ΔsaeRS, the expression of an N-acetylglucosaminyl transferase enzyme (encoded by icaA critical for polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA synthesis was not affected by the deletion of saeRS. Conclusions Deletion of saeRS in S. epidermidis resulted in an increase in biofilm-forming ability, which was associated with increased eDNA release and up-regulated Aap expression. The increased eDNA release from SE1457ΔsaeRS was associated with increased bacterial autolysis and decreased bacterial cell viability in the planktonic/biofilm states.

  20. The CsrR/CsrS two-component system of group A Streptococcus responds to environmental Mg2+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryllos, Ioannis; Levin, James C; Wessels, Michael R

    2003-04-01

    Group A streptococci control expression of key virulence determinants via the two-component sensorregulator system CsrRCsrS. The membrane-bound sensor CsrS is thought to respond to previously unknown environmental signal(s) by controlling phosphorylation of its cognate regulator component CsrR. Phosphorylation of CsrR increases its affinity for binding to the promoter regions of Csr-regulated genes to repress transcription. Here we show that environmental Mg(2+) concentration is a potent and specific stimulus for CsrRCsrS-mediated regulation. We studied the effect of divalent cations on expression of the Csr-regulated hyaluronic acid capsule genes (hasABC) by measuring chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) activity in a reporter strain of group A Streptococcus carrying a has operon promoter-cat fusion. Addition of Mg(2+), but not of Ca(2+), Mn(2+), or Zn(2+), repressed capsule gene expression by up to 80% in a dose-dependent fashion. The decrease in capsule gene transcription was associated with a marked reduction in cell-associated capsular polysaccharide. RNA hybridization analysis demonstrated reduced expression of the Csr-regulated hasABC operon, streptokinase (ska), and streptolysin S (sagA) during growth in the presence of 15 mM Mg(2+) for the wild-type strain 003CAT but not for an isogenic csrS mutant. We propose that Mg(2+) binds to CsrS to induce phosphorylation of CsrR and subsequent repression of virulence gene expression. The low concentration of Mg(2+) in extracellular body fluids predicts that the CsrRCsrS system is maintained in the inactive state during infection, thereby allowing maximal expression of critical virulence determinants in the human host.

  1. The Two Components of the Evolved Massive Binary LZ Cephei: Testing the Effects of Binarity on Stellar Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahy, L.; Martins, F.; Donati, J.-F.; Bouret, J.-C.

    2011-01-01

    We present an in-dep(h study of the two components of the binary system LZ Cep to constrain the effects of binarity on the evolution of massive stars. Methods. We analyzed a set of high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio optical spectra obtained over the orbital period of the system to perform a spectroscopic disentangling and derive an orbital solution. We subsequently determine the stellar properties of each component by means of an analysis with the CMFGEN atmosphere code. Finally, with the derived stellar parameters, we model the Hipparcos photometric light curve using the program NIGHTFALL to obtain the orbit inclination and the stellar masses. Results.LZ Cep is a O9III+ON9.7V binary. It is as a semi-detailed system in which either the primary or the secondary star almost fills up its Roche lobe. The dynamical masses are about 16.0 Stellar Mass (primary) and 6.5 Stellar Mass (secondary). The latter is lower than the typical mass of late-type O stars. The secondary component is chemically more evolved than the primary (which barely shows any sign of CNO processing), with strong helium and nitrogen enhancements as well as carbon and oxygen depletions. These properties (surface abundances and mass) are typical of Wolf-Rayet stars, although the spectral type is ON9.7V. The luminosity of the secondary is consistent with that of core He-burning objects. The preferred, tentative evolutionary scenario to explain abe observed properties involves mass transfer from the secondary - which was initially more massive- towards the primary. The secondary is now almost a core He-burning object, probably with only a thin envelope of H-rich and CNO processed material. A very inefficient mass transfer is necessary to explain the chemical appearance of the primary. Alternative scenarios are discussed but they are affected by greater uncertainties.

  2. A copper-activated two-component system interacts with zinc and imipenem resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caille, Olivier; Rossier, Claude; Perron, Karl

    2007-07-01

    The effects of copper (Cu) on trace metal and antibiotic resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa have been investigated. Cu treatments induced resistance not only to this metal but also, surprisingly, to zinc (Zn). Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed that after Cu treatment the transcription of the czcRS two-component system (TCS) operon was enhanced as well as that of the czcCBA operon encoding an efflux pump specific for zinc, cadmium, and cobalt. Cu treatments at the same time caused a decrease in the production of OprD porin, resulting in resistance to the carbapenem antibiotic imipenem. The CzcR regulator was known to repress oprD. However, Cu was still able to decrease the production of OprD and induce imipenem resistance in a czcRS knockout mutant. This strongly suggested that another Cu-dependent regulatory system was acting negatively on oprD expression. TCS regulator genes copR-copS have been shown to be involved in Cu tolerance in P. aeruginosa. qRT-PCR showed that overproduction of the CopR or of the CzcR regulator resulted in increased transcription of the czcC gene as well as in a decrease in oprD gene transcription, either in the wild-type strain or in the czcRS knockout mutant. Overproduction experiments suggest that a metal-dependent mechanism operates at the posttranscriptional level to control the production of the CzcCBA efflux pump. This study shows that CopR is a new negative regulator of OprD porin and that it links Zn, Cu, and imipenem resistances by interacting with the CzcRS TCS.

  3. BarA-UvrY two-component system regulates virulence of uropathogenic E. coli CFT073.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthilkumar Palaniyandi

    Full Text Available Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC, a member of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli, cause ∼80% of community-acquired urinary tract infections (UTI in humans. UPEC initiates its colonization in epithelial cells lining the urinary tract with a complicated life cycle, replicating and persisting in intracellular and extracellular niches. Consequently, UPEC causes cystitis and more severe form of pyelonephritis. To further understand the virulence characteristics of UPEC, we investigated the roles of BarA-UvrY two-component system (TCS in regulating UPEC virulence. Our results showed that mutation of BarA-UvrY TCS significantly decreased the virulence of UPEC CFT073, as assessed by mouse urinary tract infection, chicken embryo killing assay, and cytotoxicity assay on human kidney and uroepithelial cell lines. Furthermore, mutation of either barA or uvrY gene reduced the production of hemolysin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS, proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6 and chemokine (IL-8. The virulence phenotype was restored similar to that of wild-type by complementation of either barA or uvrY gene in trans. In addition, we discussed a possible link between the BarA-UvrY TCS and CsrA in positively and negatively controlling virulence in UPEC. Overall, this study provides the evidences for BarA-UvrY TCS regulates the virulence of UPEC CFT073 and may point to mechanisms by which virulence regulations are observed in different ways may control the long-term survival of UPEC in the urinary tract.

  4. A two-component mantle source feeding Mt. Etna magmatism: Insights from the geochemistry of primitive magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correale, Alessandra; Paonita, Antonio; Martelli, Mauro; Rizzo, Andrea; Rotolo, Silvio G.; Corsaro, Rosa Anna; Di Renzo, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    The major elements, trace elements and Sr and Nd isotopes of selected Etnean primitive rocks (Y versus La/Yb), can be attributed to varying degrees of melting of a common mantle source. Numerical simulations performed with the MELTS program allowed the melting percentages associated with each product to be estimated. This led us to recalculate the hypothetical parental trace-element content of the Etnean mantle source, which was common to all of the investigated rocks. The characteristics of the Sr, Nd and He isotopes confirmed the primitive nature of the rocks, with the most-depleted and primitive lava being that of Mt. Spagnolo (SPA; 143Nd/144Nd = 0.512908 87Sr/86Sr = 0.703317-0.703325 and 3He/4He = 7.6 Ra), and highlighted the similarity of the mantle sources feeding the volcanic activity of Mt. Etna and the Hyblean Plateau (a region to the south of Mt. Etna and characterized by older magmatism than Mt. Etna). The coupling of noble gases and trace elements suggests an origin for the investigated Etnean lavas from melting of a Hyblean-like mantle, consisting of a two-component source where a peridotitic matrix is veined by 10% pyroxenite. A variable degree of mantle contamination by crustal-like fluids, probably related to subduction, is proposed to explain the higher Sr-isotope and lower Nd-isotope values in some rocks (143Nd/144Nd up to 0.512865 and 87Sr/86Sr up to 0.703707). This process probably occurred in the source prior to magma generation, refertilizing some portions of the mantle. Accordingly, the estimated degree of melting responsible for each magma appears to be related to its 87Sr/86Sr enrichment. In contrast, the decoupling between 3He/4He and 87Sr/86Sr ratios requires the occurrence in the crustal reservoirs of further processes capable of shifting the He isotope ratio towards slightly more radiogenic values, such as magma aging or a contribution of shallow fluid. Therefore, different residence times in the Etnean reservoir and/or various rates of

  5. Polymyxin resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa phoQ mutants is dependent on additional two-component regulatory systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutu, Alina D; Sgambati, Nicole; Strasbourger, Pnina; Brannon, Mark K; Jacobs, Michael A; Haugen, Eric; Kaul, Rajinder K; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Høiby, Niels; Moskowitz, Samuel M

    2013-05-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa can develop resistance to polymyxin as a consequence of mutations in the PhoPQ regulatory system, mediated by covalent lipid A modification. Transposon mutagenesis of a polymyxin-resistant phoQ mutant defined 41 novel loci required for resistance, including two regulatory systems, ColRS and CprRS. Deletion of the colRS genes, individually or in tandem, abrogated the polymyxin resistance of a ΔphoQ mutant, as did individual or tandem deletion of cprRS. Individual deletion of colR or colS in a ΔphoQ mutant also suppressed 4-amino-L-arabinose addition to lipid A, consistent with the known role of this modification in polymyxin resistance. Surprisingly, tandem deletion of colRS or cprRS in the ΔphoQ mutant or individual deletion of cprR or cprS failed to suppress 4-amino-L-arabinose addition to lipid A, indicating that this modification alone is not sufficient for PhoPQ-mediated polymyxin resistance in P. aeruginosa. Episomal expression of colRS or cprRS in tandem or of cprR individually complemented the Pm resistance phenotype in the ΔphoQ mutant, while episomal expression of colR, colS, or cprS individually did not. Highly polymyxin-resistant phoQ mutants of P. aeruginosa isolated from polymyxin-treated cystic fibrosis patients harbored mutant alleles of colRS and cprS; when expressed in a ΔphoQ background, these mutant alleles enhanced polymyxin resistance. These results define ColRS and CprRS as two-component systems regulating polymyxin resistance in P. aeruginosa, indicate that addition of 4-amino-L-arabinose to lipid A is not the only PhoPQ-regulated biochemical mechanism required for resistance, and demonstrate that colRS and cprS mutations can contribute to high-level clinical resistance.

  6. An Oxygen-Sensing Two-Component System in the Burkholderia cepacia Complex Regulates Biofilm, Intracellular Invasion, and Pathogenicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew M Schaefers

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia dolosa is a member of the Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC, which is a group of bacteria that cause chronic lung infection in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF and can be associated with outbreaks carrying high morbidity and mortality. While investigating the genomic diversity of B. dolosa strains collected from an outbreak among CF patients, we previously identified fixL as a gene showing signs of strong positive selection. This gene has homology to fixL of the rhizobial FixL/FixJ two-component system. The goals of this study were to determine the functions of FixLJ and their role in virulence in B. dolosa. We generated a fixLJ deletion mutant and complemented controls in B. dolosa strain AU0158. Using a fixK-lacZ reporter we found that FixLJ was activated in low oxygen in multiple BCC species. In a murine pneumonia model, the B. dolosa fixLJ deletion mutant was cleared faster from the lungs and spleen than wild-type B. dolosa strain AU0158 at 7 days post infection. Interestingly, the fixLJ deletion mutant made more biofilm, albeit with altered structure, but was less motile than strain AU0158. Using RNA-seq with in vitro grown bacteria, we found ~11% of the genome was differentially expressed in the fixLJ deletion mutant relative to strain AU0158. Multiple flagella-associated genes were down-regulated in the fixLJ deletion mutant, so we also evaluated virulence of a fliC deletion mutant, which lacks a flagellum. We saw no difference in the ability of the fliC deletion mutant to persist in the murine model relative to strain AU0158, suggesting factors other than flagella caused the phenotype of decreased persistence. We found the fixLJ deletion mutant to be less invasive in human lung epithelial and macrophage-like cells. In conclusion, B. dolosa fixLJ is a global regulator that controls biofilm formation, motility, intracellular invasion/persistence, and virulence.

  7. A two-component regulatory system interconnects resistance to polymyxins, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, and β-lactams in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Cédric; Plésiat, Patrick; Jeannot, Katy

    2011-03-01

    Constitutive overexpression of the active efflux system MexXY/OprM is a major cause of resistance to aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, and cefepime in clinical strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Upregulation of this pump often results from mutations occurring in mexZ, the local repressor gene of the mexXY operon. In this study, analysis of MexXY-overproducing mutants selected in vitro from reference strain PAO1Bes on amikacin (at a concentration 1.5-fold higher than the MIC) led to identification of a new class of mutants harboring an intact mexZ gene and exhibiting increased resistance to colistin and imipenem in addition to aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, and cefepime. Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) experiments on a selected clone named PAOW2 demonstrated that mexXY overexpression was independent of mexZ and the PA5471 gene, which is required for drug-dependent induction of mexXY. Furthermore, the transcript levels of the oprD gene, which encodes the carbapenem-selective porin OprD, were found to be reduced drastically in PAOW2. Whole-genome sequencing revealed a single mutation resulting in an M59I substitution in the ParR protein, the response regulator of the ParRS two-component regulatory system (with ParS being the sensor kinase), which is required for adaptive resistance of P. aeruginosa to polycationic peptides such as colistin. The multidrug resistance phenotype was suppressed in PAOW2 by deletion of the parS and parRS genes and conferred to PAO1Bes by chromosomal insertion of the mutated parRS locus from PAOW2. As shown by transcriptomic analysis, only a very small number of genes were expressed differentially between PAOW2 and PAO1Bes, including the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) modification operon arnBCADTEF-ugd, responsible for resistance to polycationic agents. Exposure of wild-type PAO1Bes to different polycationic peptides, including colistin, was shown to result in increased mexY and repressed oprD expression via Par

  8. Two-Component Model for the Interstellar Scattering along the Line of Sight to the Pulsar PSR B0136+57

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ai-Zhi, Zhou; Jin-Yu, Tan; Esamdin, Ali; Xin-Ji, Wu

    2009-01-01

    A rigorous treatment of the refractive scintillation caused by a two-component interstellar scattering medium and a Kolmogorov form of density spectrum is discussed. It is assumed that the interstellar scattering medium is composed of a thin screen ISM and an extended interstellar medium. We conclude that the refractive scintillation caused by this two-component ISM scattering gives a more satisfactory explanation for the observed flux density variation than the single extended medium model along the line of sight to the pulsar PSR B0136+57

  9. Rhodococcus rhodochrous DSM 43269 3-Ketosteroid 9 alpha-Hydroxylase, a Two-Component Iron-Sulfur-Containing Monooxygenase with Subtle Steroid Substrate Specificity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrusma, M.; Dijkhuizen, L.; van der Geize, R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the biochemical characterization of a purified and reconstituted two-component 3-ketosteroid 9 alpha-hydroxylase (KSH). KSH of Rhodococcus rhodochrous DSM 43269, consisting of a ferredoxin reductase (KshB) and a terminal oxygenase (KshA), was heterologously expressed in

  10. The oligomeric assembly of the novel haem-degrading protein HbpS is essential for interaction with its cognate two-component sensor kinase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ortiz de Orué Lucana, Darío; Bogel, Gabriele; Zou, Peijian; Groves, Matthew R

    2009-01-01

    HbpS, a novel protein of previously unknown function from Streptomyces reticuli, is up-regulated in response to haemin- and peroxide-based oxidative stress and interacts with the SenS/SenR two-component signal transduction system. In this study, we report the high-resolution crystal structures (2.2

  11. A two-component model of host–parasitoid interactions: determination of the size of inundative releases of parasitoids in biological pest contro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grasman, J.; Herwaarden, van O.A.; Hemerik, L.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2001-01-01

    A two-component differential equation model is formulated for a host–parasitoid interaction. Transient dynamics and population crashes of this system are analysed using differential inequalities. Two different cases can be distinguished: either the intrinsic growth rate of the host population is

  12. The ArcBA two-component system of Escherichia coli is regulated by the redox state of both the ubiquinone and the menaquinone pool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, M.; Alexeeva, S.; Laan, W.; Sawers, G.; Teixeira De Mattos, J.; Hellingwerf, K.

    2010-01-01

    ArcBA is a two-component regulatory system of Escherichia coli involved in sensing oxygen availability and the concomitant transcriptional regulation of oxidative and fermentative catabolism. Based on in vitro data, it has been postulated that the redox state of the ubiquinone pool is the

  13. Two-component end mills with multilayer composite nano-structured coatings as a viable alternative to monolithic carbide end mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereschaka, Alexey; Mokritskii, Boris; Mokritskaya, Elena; Sharipov, Oleg; Oganyan, Maksim

    2018-03-01

    The paper deals with the challenges of the application of two-component end mills, which represent a combination of a carbide cutting part and a shank made of cheaper structural material. The calculations of strains and deformations of composite mills were carried out in comparison with solid carbide mills, with the use of the finite element method. The study also involved the comparative analysis of accuracy parameters of machining with monolithic mills and two-component mills with various shank materials. As a result of the conducted cutting tests in milling aluminum alloy with monolithic and two-component end mills with specially developed multilayer composite nano-structured coatings, it has been found that the use of such coatings can reduce strains and, correspondingly, deformations, which can improve the accuracy of machining. Thus, the application of two-component end mills with multilayer composite nano-structured coatings can provide a reduction in the cost of machining while maintaining or even improving the tool life and machining accuracy parameters.

  14. Virulence control in group A Streptococcus by a two-component gene regulatory system: global expression profiling and in vivo infection modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Morag R; Smoot, Laura M; Migliaccio, Cristi A Lux; Virtaneva, Kimmo; Sturdevant, Daniel E; Porcella, Stephen F; Federle, Michael J; Adams, Gerald J; Scott, June R; Musser, James M

    2002-10-15

    Two-component gene regulatory systems composed of a membrane-bound sensor and cytoplasmic response regulator are important mechanisms used by bacteria to sense and respond to environmental stimuli. Group A Streptococcus, the causative agent of mild infections and life-threatening invasive diseases, produces many virulence factors that promote survival in humans. A two-component regulatory system, designated covRS (cov, control of virulence; csrRS), negatively controls expression of five proven or putative virulence factors (capsule, cysteine protease, streptokinase, streptolysin S, and streptodornase). Inactivation of covRS results in enhanced virulence in mouse models of invasive disease. Using DNA microarrays and quantitative RT-PCR, we found that CovR influences transcription of 15% (n = 271) of all chromosomal genes, including many that encode surface and secreted proteins mediating host-pathogen interactions. CovR also plays a central role in gene regulatory networks by influencing expression of genes encoding transcriptional regulators, including other two-component systems. Differential transcription of genes influenced by covR also was identified in mouse soft-tissue infection. This analysis provides a genome-scale overview of a virulence gene network in an important human pathogen and adds insight into the molecular mechanisms used by group A Streptococcus to interact with the host, promote survival, and cause disease.

  15. Extraction of chemical information of suspensions using radiative transfer theory to remove multiple scattering effects: application to a model two-component system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steponavicius, Raimundas; Thennadil, Suresh N

    2009-09-15

    An approach for removing multiple light scattering effects using the radiative transfer theory (RTE) in order to improve the performance of multivariate calibration models is proposed. This approach is then applied to the problem of building calibration models for predicting the concentration of a scattering (particulate) component. Application of this approach to a simulated four component system showed that it will lead to calibration models which perform appreciably better than when empirically scatter corrected measurements of diffuse transmittance (T(d)) or reflectance (R(d)) are used. The validity of the method was also tested experimentally using a two-component (polystyrene-water) system. While the proposed method led to a model that performed better than the one built using R(d), its performance was worse compared to when T(d) measurements were used. Analysis indicates that this is because the model built using T(d) benefits from the strong secondary correlation between particle concentration and path length traveled by the photons which occurs due to the system containing only two components. On the other hand, the model arising from the proposed methodology uses essentially only the chemical (polystyrene) signal. Thus, this approach can be expected to work better in multicomponent systems where the path length correlation would not exist.

  16. The two-component spin-fermion model for high-Tc cuprates: its applications in neutron scattering and ARPES experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, Yunkyu

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by neutron scattering experiments in high-T c cuprates, we propose the two-component spin-fermion model as a minimal phenomenological model, which has both local spins and itinerant fermions as independent degrees of freedom (d.o.f.). Our calculations of the dynamic spin correlation function provide a successful description of the puzzling neutron experiment data and show that: (i) the upward dispersion branch of magnetic excitations is mostly due to local spin excitations; (ii) the downward dispersion branch is from collective particle-hole excitations of fermions; and (iii) the resonance mode is a mixture of both d.o.f. Using the same model with the same set of parameters, we calculated the renormalized quasiparticle (q.p.) dispersion and successfully reproduced one of the key features of the angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) experiments, namely the high-energy kink structure in the fermion q.p. dispersion, thus supporting the two-component spin-fermion phenomenology. (paper)

  17. Approach for selecting boundary value to retrieve Mie-scattering lidar data based on segmentation and two-component fitting methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Feiyue; Wang, Wei; Min, Qilong; Gong, Wei

    2015-06-01

    Fernald method is regarded as the standard method for retrieving lidar data, but the retrieval can be performed only when a boundary value is given. Generally, we can select clear atmosphere above the tropopause as a reference to determine the boundary value, but we need to use the slope method to fit the boundary value when the detecting range is lower than the tropopause. The slope method involves significant uncertainty because this algorithm is based on two hypotheses: one is that aerosol vertical distribution is homogeneous, and the other is that either molecule or aerosol components exist in the atmosphere. To reduce the uncertainty, we proposed a new approach, which segments a signal into "uniform" sub-signals to avoid the first hypothesis, and then uses nonlinear two-component fitting to avoid the second one. Compared with the approach based on the slope method, the new approach obtained more accurate boundary values and retrieving results for both of the simulated and real signals. Thus the automatic segmentation algorithm and the two-component fitting method are useful for determining the reference bin and boundary values when the effective detecting range of lidar is lower than the tropopause.

  18. Control of CydB and GltA1 expression by the SenX3 RegX3 two component regulatory system of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gretta Roberts

    Full Text Available Two component regulatory systems are used widely by bacteria to coordinate changes in global gene expression profiles in response to environmental signals. The SenX3-RegX3 two component system of Mycobacterium tuberculosis has previously been shown to play a role in virulence and phosphate-responsive control of gene expression. We demonstrate that expression of SenX3-RegX3 is controlled in response to growth conditions, although the absolute changes are small. Global gene expression profiling of a RegX3 deletion strain and wild-type strain in different culture conditions (static, microaerobic, anaerobic, as well as in an over-expressing strain identified a number of genes with changed expression patterns. Among those were genes previously identified as differentially regulated in aerobic culture, including ald (encoding alanine dehydrogenase cyd,encoding a subunit of the cytochrome D ubiquinol oxidase, and gltA1, encoding a citrate synthase. Promoter activity in the upstream regions of both cydB and gltA1 was altered in the RegX3 deletion strain. DNA-binding assays confirmed that RegX3 binds to the promoter regions of ald, cydB and gltA1 in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. Taken together these data suggest a direct role for the SenX-RegX3 system in modulating expression of aerobic respiration, in addition to its role during phosphate limitation.

  19. AN ENTROPIC ORDER QUANTITY MODEL WITH FUZZY HOLDING COST AND FUZZY DISPOSAL COST FOR PERISHABLE ITEMS UNDER TWO COMPONENT DEMAND AND DISCOUNTED SELLING PRICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.K. Tripathy

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available A new type of replenishment policy is suggested in an entropy order quantity model for a perishable product possessing fuzzy holding cost and fuzzy disposal cost. This model represents an appropriate combination of two component demand with discounted selling price, particularly over a finite time horizon. Its main aim lies in the need for an entropic cost of the cycle time is a key feature of specific perishable product like fruits, vegetables, food stuffs, fishes etc. To handle this multiplicity of objectives in a pragmatic approach, entropic ordering quantity model with discounted selling price during pre and post deterioration of perishable items to optimize its payoff is proposed. It has been imperative to demonstrate this model by analysis, which reveals some important characteristics of discounted structure. Furthermore, numerical experiments are conducted to evaluate the difference between the crisp and fuzzy cases in EOQ and EnOQ separately. This paper explores the economy of investing in economics of lot sizing in Fuzzy EOQ, Crisp EOQ and Crisp EnOQ models. The proposed paper reveals itself as a pragmatic alternative to other approaches based on two component demand function with very sound theoretical underpinnings but with few possibilities of actually being put into practice. The results indicate that this can become a good model and can be replicated by researchers in neighbourhood of its possible extensions.

  20. Requirement of the CroRS Two-Component System for Resistance to Cell Wall-Targeting Antimicrobials in Enterococcus faecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Stephanie L; Little, Jaime L; Hoff, Jessica S; Kristich, Christopher J

    2017-05-01

    Enterococci are serious opportunistic pathogens that are resistant to many cell wall-targeting antibiotics. The CroRS two-component signaling system responds to antibiotic-mediated cell wall stress and is critical for resistance to cell wall-targeting antibiotics in Enterococcus faecalis Here, we identify and characterize an orthologous two-component system found in Enterococcus faecium that is functionally equivalent to the CroRS system of E. faecalis Deletion of croRS in E. faecium resulted in marked susceptibility to cell wall-targeting agents including cephalosporins and bacitracin, as well as moderate susceptibility to ampicillin and vancomycin. As in E. faecalis , exposure to bacitracin and vancomycin stimulates signaling through the CroRS system in E. faecium Moreover, the CroRS system is critical in E. faecium for enhanced beta-lactam resistance mediated by overexpression of Pbp5. Expression of a Pbp5 variant that confers enhanced beta-lactam resistance cannot overcome the requirement for CroRS function. Thus, the CroRS system is a conserved signaling system that responds to cell wall stress to promote intrinsic resistance to important cell wall-targeting antibiotics in clinically relevant enterococci. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  1. Evidence of Two Component Accretion Flows as revealed by time lag properties: Results of Long-Term RXTE/ASM Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Arindam; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Long-term RXTE/ASM X-ray data of several Galactic black hole candidates (BHCs) are analyzed. The results of this analysis show the existence of two component accretion flow (TCAF) in both low-mass and high-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs & HMXBs). Large disks with long viscous timescales in the accreting matter with high angular momentum are prevalent in LMXBs due to processes like Roche lobe overflow, while small disks with little viscous delays are observed in HMXBs, primarily because of wind accretion. Two parameters are defined as photon indices, independent of the choice of a BHC, in order to find correlation between the two components, namely, the Keplerian disk component and the sub-Keplerian component, thereby estimating the time lag between two aforesaid timescales. Fluxes of hard and soft photons are observed to be anti-correlated with respect to these photon indices. The time lags give us an idea of the viscosity in the Keplerian component.

  2. Structural features of the two-component system LisR/LisK suggests multiple responses for the adaptation and survival of Listeria monocytogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Enrique Arenas Suarez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Here, we characterized the structure of the two-component regulatory system, LisR/LisK, in Listeria monocytogenes. To predict the structure of both proteins and the relationship between them, we employed several bioinformatic tools and databases. Based on our results, LisK protein is embedded in the cell membrane and its modular composition (HAMP, histidine kinase and ATPase domains is associated with its autophosphorylation (His-266. A stimulus-response likely determines the sequential signal propagation from the bacterial cell surface to its cytoplasmic components. According to our results, LisR is a cytoplasmic protein with a receptor domain (homologous to CheY that comprises a phosphoacceptor residue (Asp-52 and a DNA-binding domain, which may allow the transmission of a specific transcriptional response. LisR/LisK has been experimentally characterized both biochemically andfunctionally in other Bacilli pathophysiology; our structure-function approach may facilitate the design of suitable inhibitors.

  3. Quantum theory for the dynamic structure factor in correlated two-component systems in nonequilibrium: Application to x-ray scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorberger, J.; Chapman, D. A.

    2018-01-01

    We present a quantum theory for the dynamic structure factors in nonequilibrium, correlated, two-component systems such as plasmas or warm dense matter. The polarization function, which is needed as the input for the calculation of the structure factors, is calculated in nonequilibrium based on a perturbation expansion in the interaction strength. To make our theory applicable for x-ray scattering, a generalized Chihara decomposition for the total electron structure factor in nonequilibrium is derived. Examples are given and the influence of correlations and exchange on the structure and the x-ray-scattering spectrum are discussed for a model nonequilibrium distribution, as often encountered during laser heating of materials, as well as for two-temperature systems.

  4. Short-range intervortex interaction and interacting dynamics of half-quantized vortices in two-component Bose-Einstein condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasamatsu, Kenichi; Eto, Minoru; Nitta, Muneto

    2016-01-01

    We study the interaction and dynamics of two half-quantized vortices in two-component Bose-Einstein condensates. Using the Padé approximation for the vortex core profile, we calculate the intervortex potential, whose asymptotic form for a large distance has been derived by Eto et al. [Phys. Rev. A 83, 063603 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevA.83.063603]. Through numerical simulations of the two-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equations, we reveal different kinds of dynamical trajectories of the vortices depending on the combinations of signs of circulations and the intercomponent density coupling. Under the adiabatic limit, we derive the equations of motion for the vortex coordinates, in which the motion is caused by the balance between Magnus force and the intervortex forces. The initial velocity of the vortex motion can be explained quantitatively by this point vortex approximation, but understanding the long-time behavior of the dynamics needs more consideration beyond our model.

  5. Construction of Methanol-SensingEscherichia coliby the Introduction of aParacoccus denitrificansMxaY-Based Chimeric Two-Component System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, Irisappan; Vidhya, Selvamani; Eom, Gyeong Tae; Hong, Soon Ho

    2017-06-28

    Escherichia coli was engineered to sense methanol by employing a chimeric two-component system (TCS) strategy. A chimeric MxaY/EnvZ (MxaYZ) TCS was constructed by fusing the Paracoccus denitrificans MxaY with the E. coli EnvZ. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis and GFP-based fluorescence analysis showed maximum transcription of ompC and the fluorescence at 0.01% of methanol, respectively. These results suggested that E. coli was successfully engineered to sense methanol by the introduction of chimeric MxaYZ. By using this strategy, various chimeric TCS-based bacterial biosensors can be constructed and used for the development of biochemical-producing recombinant microorganisms.

  6. Quantum theory for the dynamic structure factor in correlated two-component systems in nonequilibrium: Application to x-ray scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorberger, J; Chapman, D A

    2018-01-01

    We present a quantum theory for the dynamic structure factors in nonequilibrium, correlated, two-component systems such as plasmas or warm dense matter. The polarization function, which is needed as the input for the calculation of the structure factors, is calculated in nonequilibrium based on a perturbation expansion in the interaction strength. To make our theory applicable for x-ray scattering, a generalized Chihara decomposition for the total electron structure factor in nonequilibrium is derived. Examples are given and the influence of correlations and exchange on the structure and the x-ray-scattering spectrum are discussed for a model nonequilibrium distribution, as often encountered during laser heating of materials, as well as for two-temperature systems.

  7. The Two-Component System CprRS Senses Cationic Peptides and Triggers Adaptive Resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Independently of ParRS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez, Luca; Jenssen, Håvard; Bains, Manjeet

    2012-01-01

    Cationic antimicrobial peptides pass across the outer membrane by interacting with negatively charged lipopolysaccharide (LPS), leading to outer membrane permeabilization in a process termed self-promoted uptake. Resistance can be mediated by the addition of positively charged arabinosamine through...... ParRS. Here, we report the identification of a new two-component system, CprRS, which, upon exposure to a wide range of antimicrobial peptides, triggered the expression of the LPS modification operon. Thus, mutations in the cprRS operon blocked the induction of the arn operon in response to several...... antimicrobial peptides independently of ParRS but did not affect the response to low Mg2+. Distinct patterns of arn induction were identified. Thus, the responses to polymyxins were abrogated by either parR or cprR mutations, while responses to other peptides, including indolicidin, showed differential...

  8. Impact of the Staphylococcus epidermidis LytSR two-component regulatory system on murein hydrolase activity, pyruvate utilization and global transcriptional profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Fangyou

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus epidermidis has emerged as one of the most important nosocomial pathogens, mainly because of its ability to colonize implanted biomaterials by forming a biofilm. Extensive studies are focused on the molecular mechanisms involved in biofilm formation. The LytSR two-component regulatory system regulates autolysis and biofilm formation in Staphylococcus aureus. However, the role of LytSR played in S. epidermidis remained unknown. Results In the present study, we demonstrated that lytSR knock-out in S. epidermidis did not alter susceptibility to Triton X-100 induced autolysis. Quantitative murein hydrolase assay indicated that disruption of lytSR in S. epidermidis resulted in decreased activities of extracellular murein hydrolases, although zymogram showed no apparent differences in murein hydrolase patterns between S. epidermidis strain 1457 and its lytSR mutant. Compared to the wild-type counterpart, 1457ΔlytSR produced slightly more biofilm, with significantly decreased dead cells inside. Microarray analysis showed that lytSR mutation affected the transcription of 164 genes (123 genes were upregulated and 41 genes were downregulated. Specifically, genes encoding proteins responsible for protein synthesis, energy metabolism were downregulated, while genes involved in amino acid and nucleotide biosynthesis, amino acid transporters were upregulated. Impaired ability to utilize pyruvate and reduced activity of arginine deiminase was observed in 1457ΔlytSR, which is consistent with the microarray data. Conclusions The preliminary results suggest that in S. epidermidis LytSR two-component system regulates extracellular murein hydrolase activity, bacterial cell death and pyruvate utilization. Based on the microarray data, it appears that lytSR inactivation induces a stringent response. In addition, LytSR may indirectly enhance biofilm formation by altering the metabolic status of the bacteria.

  9. A hybrid two-component system protein of a prominent human gut symbiont couples glycan sensing in vivo to carbohydrate metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenburg, Erica D; Sonnenburg, Justin L; Manchester, Jill K; Hansen, Elizabeth E; Chiang, Herbert C; Gordon, Jeffrey I

    2006-06-06

    Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron is a prominent member of our normal adult intestinal microbial community and a useful model for studying the foundations of human-bacterial mutualism in our densely populated distal gut microbiota. A central question is how members of this microbiota sense nutrients and implement an appropriate metabolic response. B. thetaiotaomicron contains a large number of glycoside hydrolases not represented in our own proteome, plus a markedly expanded collection of hybrid two-component system (HTCS) proteins that incorporate all domains found in classical two-component environmental sensors into one polypeptide. To understand the role of HTCS in nutrient sensing, we used B. thetaiotaomicron GeneChips to characterize their expression in gnotobiotic mice consuming polysaccharide-rich or -deficient diets. One HTCS, BT3172, was selected for further analysis because it is induced in vivo by polysaccharides, and its absence reduces B. thetaiotaomicron fitness in polysaccharide-rich diet-fed mice. Functional genomic and biochemical analyses of WT and BT3172-deficient strains in vivo and in vitro disclosed that alpha-mannosides induce BT3172 expression, which in turn induces expression of secreted alpha-mannosidases. Yeast two-hybrid screens revealed that the cytoplasmic portion of BT3172's sensor domain serves as a scaffold for recruiting glucose-6-phosphate isomerase and dehydrogenase. These interactions are a unique feature of BT3172 and specific for the cytoplasmic face of its sensor domain. Loss of BT3172 reduces glycolytic pathway activity in vitro and in vivo. Thus, this HTCS functions as a metabolic reaction center, coupling nutrient sensing to dynamic regulation of monosaccharide metabolism. An expanded repertoire of HTCS proteins with diversified sensor domains may be one reason for B. thetaiotaomicron's success in our intestinal ecosystem.

  10. A connecter-like factor, CacA, links RssB/RpoS and the CpxR/CpxA two-component system in Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Akinori; Hayashi, Hironori; Nomura, Wataru; Emori, Haruka; Hagihara, Kei; Utsumi, Ryutaro

    2012-10-02

    Bacteria integrate numerous environmental stimuli when generating cellular responses. Increasing numbers of examples describe how one two-component system (TCS) responds to signals detected by the sensor of another TCS. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain poorly defined. Here, we report a connector-like factor that affects the activity of the CpxR/CpxA two-component system in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. We isolated a clone that induced the expression of a cpxP-lac gene fusion from a high-copy-number plasmid pool of random Salmonella genomic fragments. A 63-amino acid protein, CacA, was responsible for the CpxA/CpxR-dependent activation of the cpxP gene. The CpxR-activated genes cpxP and spy exhibited approximately 30% and 50% reductions in transcription, respectively, in a clean cacA deletion mutant strain in comparison to wild-type. From 33 response regulator (RR) deletion mutants, we identified that the RssB regulator represses cacA transcription. Substitution mutations in a conserved -10 region harboring the RNA polymerase recognition sequence, which is well conserved with a known RpoS -10 region consensus sequence, rendered the cacA promoter RpoS-independent. The CacA-mediated induction of cpxP transcription was affected in a trxA deletion mutant, which encodes thioredoxin 1, suggesting a role for cysteine thiol-disulfide exchange(s) in CacA-dependent Cpx activation. We identified CacA as an activator of the CpxR/CpxA system in the plasmid clone. We propose that CacA may integrate the regulatory status of RssB/RpoS into the CpxR/CpxA system. Future investigations are necessary to thoroughly elucidate how CacA activates the CpxR/CpxA system.

  11. A connecter-like factor, CacA, links RssB/RpoS and the CpxR/CpxA two-component system in Salmonella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kato Akinori

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacteria integrate numerous environmental stimuli when generating cellular responses. Increasing numbers of examples describe how one two-component system (TCS responds to signals detected by the sensor of another TCS. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain poorly defined. Results Here, we report a connector-like factor that affects the activity of the CpxR/CpxA two-component system in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. We isolated a clone that induced the expression of a cpxP-lac gene fusion from a high-copy-number plasmid pool of random Salmonella genomic fragments. A 63-amino acid protein, CacA, was responsible for the CpxA/CpxR-dependent activation of the cpxP gene. The CpxR-activated genes cpxP and spy exhibited approximately 30% and 50% reductions in transcription, respectively, in a clean cacA deletion mutant strain in comparison to wild-type. From 33 response regulator (RR deletion mutants, we identified that the RssB regulator represses cacA transcription. Substitution mutations in a conserved -10 region harboring the RNA polymerase recognition sequence, which is well conserved with a known RpoS -10 region consensus sequence, rendered the cacA promoter RpoS-independent. The CacA-mediated induction of cpxP transcription was affected in a trxA deletion mutant, which encodes thioredoxin 1, suggesting a role for cysteine thiol-disulfide exchange(s in CacA-dependent Cpx activation. Conclusions We identified CacA as an activator of the CpxR/CpxA system in the plasmid clone. We propose that CacA may integrate the regulatory status of RssB/RpoS into the CpxR/CpxA system. Future investigations are necessary to thoroughly elucidate how CacA activates the CpxR/CpxA system.

  12. Identification of genes for small non-coding RNAs that belong to the regulon of the two-component regulatory system CiaRH in Streptococcus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakenbeck Regine

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Post-transcriptional regulation by small RNAs (sRNAs in bacteria is now recognized as a wide-spread regulatory mechanism modulating a variety of physiological responses including virulence. In Streptococcus pneumoniae, an important human pathogen, the first sRNAs to be described were found in the regulon of the CiaRH two-component regulatory system. Five of these sRNAs were detected and designated csRNAs for cia-dependent small RNAs. CiaRH pleiotropically affects β-lactam resistance, autolysis, virulence, and competence development by yet to be defined molecular mechanisms. Since CiaRH is highly conserved among streptococci, it is of interest to determine if csRNAs are also included in the CiaRH regulon in this group of organisms consisting of commensal as well as pathogenic species. Knowledge on the participation of csRNAs in CiaRH-dependent regulatory events will be the key to define the physiological role of this important control system. Results Genes for csRNAs were predicted in streptococcal genomes and data base entries other than S. pneumoniae by searching for CiaR-activated promoters located in intergenic regions that are followed by a transcriptional terminator. 61 different candidate genes were obtained specifying csRNAs ranging in size from 51 to 202 nt. Comparing these genes among each other revealed 40 different csRNA types. All streptococcal genomes harbored csRNA genes, their numbers varying between two and six. To validate these predictions, S. mitis, S. oralis, and S. sanguinis were subjected to csRNA-specific northern blot analysis. In addition, a csRNA gene from S. thermophilus plasmid pST0 introduced into S. pneumoniae was also tested. Each of the csRNAs was detected on these blots and showed the anticipated sizes. Thus, the method applied here is able to predict csRNAs with high precision. Conclusions The results of this study strongly suggest that genes for small non-coding RNAs, csRNAs, are part of

  13. TceSR two-component regulatory system of Brucella melitensis 16M is involved in invasion, intracellular survival and regulated cytotoxicity for macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z; Fu, Q; Wang, Z; Li, T; Zhang, H; Guo, F; Wang, Y; Zhang, J; Chen, C

    2015-06-01

    The mechanisms of invasion and intracellular survival of Brucella are still poorly understood. Previous studies showed that the two-component regulatory systems (TCSs) play an important role in the intracellular survival of Brucella. To investigate if TCSs involve in the virulence and cytotoxicity of Brucella melitensis, we introduced a mutation into one of the TCSs in chromosome II in Br. melitensis 16M strain, and generated 16MΔTceSR, a mutant of Br. melitensis 16M strain. In vitro infection experiments using murine macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7) showed that the survival of 16MΔTceSR mutant in macrophages decreased 0·91-log compared with that of wild type Br. melitensis 16M strain at 2 h postinfection, replication of 16MΔTceSR mutant in macrophages was 5·65-log, which was much lower than that wild type strain. Results of lactate dehydrogenase cytotoxicity assays in macrophages demonstrated high dose infection with wide type strain produced high level cytotoxicity to macrophages, but 16MΔTceSR mutant had very low level cytotoxicity, indicating mutation of TCSs impaired the cytotoxicity of Br. melitensis to macrophages. Animal experiments showed that the spleen colonization of 16MΔTceSR was significantly reduced compared with its wild type strains. The lower levels of survival of 16MΔTceSR in various stress conditions suggested that the mutation of the TCSs of Br. melitensis was the causative factor of its reduced resistance to stress conditions. Taken together, our results demonstrated TCS TceSR involves in the intracellular survival, virulence and cytotoxicity of Br. melitensis during its infection. Significance and impact of the study: Two-component systems (TCSs) are predominant bacterial signal transduction mechanisms. The pathogenicity of Brucella is due to its ability to adapt to the intracellular environment including low levels of acidic pH, high-salt and heat shock. TCSs are designed to sense diverse stimuli, transfer signals and enact an

  14. The CpxRA two-component system is involved in the maintenance of the integrity of the cell envelope in the rumen bacterium Mannheimia succiniciproducens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Seulgi; Lee, Eun-Gyeong; Kim, Sang-Yoon; Shin, Jong Moon; Jung, Won Seok; Oh, Doo-Byoung; Lee, Sang Yup; Kwon, Ohsuk

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we characterized the CpxRA two-component signal transduction system of the rumen bacterium Mannheimia succiniciproducens. The truncated form of the CpxA sensor kinase protein without its transmembrane domain was able to autophosphorylate and transphosphorylate the CpxR response regulator protein in vitro. We identified 152 putative target genes for the Cpx system in M. succiniciproducens, which were differentially expressed by more than twofold upon overexpression of the CpxR protein. Genes of a putative 16-gene operon related to the cell wall and lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis were induced strongly upon CpxR overexpression. The promoter region of the first gene of this operon, wecC encoding UDP-N-acetyl-D-mannosaminuronate dehydrogenase, was analyzed and found to contain a sequence homologous to the CpxR box of Escherichia coli. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that the phosphorylated CpxR proteins were able to bind specifically to PCR-amplified DNA fragments containing the promoter sequence of wecC. Furthermore, a cpxR-disrupted mutant strain exhibited increased envelope permeability compared with a wild-type strain. These results suggest that the Cpx system of M. succiniciproducens is involved in the maintenance of the integrity of the cell envelope.

  15. Back to basics: the development of a simple, homogenous, two-component dry-powder inhaler formulation for the delivery of budesonide using miscible vinyl polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttini, F; Colombo, P; Wenger, M P E; Mesquida, P; Marriott, C; Jones, Stuart A

    2008-03-01

    It was hypothesised that formulating a dry-powder inhaler (DPI) using a refined, smooth grade of lactose, without fines and a polymer coated drug microparticle should produce an homogeneous formulation in which aerosolization behaviour could be modified. Hence, the aim of this study was to develop a simple two component polymer coated-budesonide/lactose blend in which the drug microparticle adhesive forces could be optimised by modifying the drug coating in order to improve aerosolization from a DPI. Budesonide microparticles (1.83 +/- 0.03 microm) were coated with the vinyl polymers by adsorption and then spray-dried. The drug was blended with three different types of lactose, checked for uniformity of mixing and loaded into Pulvinal devices. The median volume particle size of all but one of the polymer coated microparticles remained below 4 microm after spray-drying and the content uniformity for all the blends >96%. Coating the budesonide with 0.01% poly(vinyl alcohol) increased the fine particle fraction (FPF) in the next generation impactor (NGI) from 29.1 +/- 0.7% to 52.8 +/- 1.0% and reduced the force of adhesion from 410 +/- 182 to 241 +/- 82 nN with smooth lactose. This illustrates that vinyl polymers could effectively modify adhesive interactions without the need for ternary components such as fines. (Copyright) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Two component silicone modified epoxy foul release coatings: Effect of modulus, surface energy and surface restructuring on pseudobarnacle and macrofouling behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rath, S.K.; Chavan, J.G.; Sasane, Savita; Jagannath; Patri, M.; Samui, A.B.; Chakraborty, B.C.

    2010-01-01

    Two component silicone modified epoxy resin based low surface energy and non-toxic foul release coatings were developed. Silicone modified epoxy resin with 15 and 30% silicone content was used as component A and a polyether diamine (Jeffamine-500) was used as the component B. Free standing films were prepared by casting a mixture of components A and B in stoichiometric proportions. The surface composition, surface topography and wetting properties of the coatings were studied by angle resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle goniometry respectively. The mechanical properties of the cured films were evaluated by tensile measurements as well as dynamic mechanical analysis. Pseudobarnacles made of aluminium studs were attached to the coated panels and adhesion tests were carried out by a pseudobarnacle tester. Coated panels were exposed in Mumbai harbor for fouling studies for a period of 90 days. Surface restructuring studies of the coatings upon immersion in seawater were carried out by measuring the changes in advancing and receding contact angles by contact angle goniometry. The effect of surface energy, modulus and surface restructuring of the coatings on the macrofouling and pseudobarnacle adhesion properties has been discussed in detail.

  17. The weathervane model, a functional and structural organization of the two-component alkanesulfonate oxidoreductase SsuD from Xanthomonas citri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pegos, V.R. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Oliveira, P.S.L.; Balan, A. [Laboratorio Nacional de Biociencias - LNBIO, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: In Xanthomonas citri, the phytopathogen responsible for the canker citrus disease, we identified in the ssuABCDE operon, genes encoding the alkanesulfonate ABC transporter as well as the two enzymes responsible for oxido reduction of the respective substrates. SsuD and SsuE proteins represent a two-component system that can be assigned to the group of FMNH{sub 2} -dependent monooxygenases. How- ever, despite of the biochemical information about SsuD and SsuE orthologs from Escherichia coli, there is no structural information of how the two proteins work together. In this work, we used ultracentrifugation, SAXS data and molecular modeling to construct a structural/functional model, which consists of eight molecules organized in a weathervane shape. Through this model, SsuD ligand-binding site for NADPH{sub 2} and FMN substrates is clearly exposed, in a way that might allow the protein-protein interactions with SsuE. Moreover, based on molecular dynamics simulations of SsuD in apo state, docked with NADPH{sub 2}, FMN or both substrates, we characterized the residues of the pocket, the mechanism of substrate interaction and transfer of electrons from NADPH{sub 2} to FMN. This is the first report that links functional and biochemical data with structural analyses. (author)

  18. Ground-state and rotational properties of a two-component Bose–Einstein condensate in a harmonic plus quartic trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Guang-Ping [Key Laboratory of Time and Frequency Primary Standards, National Time Service Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an 710600 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Zhi-Yuan [The School of Physics and Mech-tronic Engineering, Sichuan University of Art and Science, DaZhou 635000 (China); Dong, Biao [Key Laboratory of Time and Frequency Primary Standards, National Time Service Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an 710600 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang, Lin-Xue [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Zhang, Xiao-Fei, E-mail: xfzhang@ntsc.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Time and Frequency Primary Standards, National Time Service Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an 710600 (China); Zhang, Shou-Gang, E-mail: szhang@ntsc.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Time and Frequency Primary Standards, National Time Service Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an 710600 (China)

    2015-10-02

    We consider a two-component Bose–Einstein condensate under extreme elongation in a harmonic plus quartic trap. The ground-state and rotational properties of such a system are numerically studied as a function of intra- and inter-component contact interactions, and of the rotational frequency. For the nonrotational case, we obtain the exact phase diagram showing the ground-state density distributions as contact-interactions varied. For both slowly and ultrarapidly rotational cases, we demonstrate that the vortex configurations depend strongly on the relative strength of the contact interactions, as well as on the rotational frequency. The controllable system may be used to investigate the interplay of interaction and rotation, and to explore more exotic quantum phases. - Highlights: • Quartic trap extends the parameter space to a fast rotating region. • Different ground state density distributions and novel vortex structures are obtained within the full parameter space. • Effects of the contact interactions and rotation are discussed in detail.

  19. Survey of studies on the flow and heat transfer of two-component, two-phase flow of liquid metal in magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumamaru, Hiroshige

    1980-01-01

    Brief review of the studies on the flow and heat transfer of two-component, two-phase flow of liquid metal in magnetic field is presented. R.J. Thome measured the distribution of void rate, slip ratio and pressure loss for the two-phase flow of NaK-N 2 under vertical magnetic field. The void rate distribution became even and the slip ratio increased with the increasing magnetic field. The experimental results of pressure loss was compared with the calculation by an equation derived from the homogeneous flow model. R.G. Owen et al. made the analytical studies of the MHD friction loss of two phase flow. Michiyoshi et al. made experimental studies on the hydrodynamic local properties of Hg-Ar two-phase flow of slug region in a vertically ascending tube under magnetic field, and Kimi et al. also made studies on the heat transfer of Hg-Ar flow under magnetic field. Saito et al. measured the slip ratio and pressure loss of NaK-N 2 flow. As a whole, it can be said that the average void rate decreases, and its distribution becomes even under magnetic field. The slip ratio increases, and the friction loss factor becomes nearly one. It was hard to make clear the heat transfer characteristics. (Kato, T.)

  20. Two-component spin-coated Ag/CNT composite films based on a silver heterogeneous nucleation mechanism adhesion-enhanced by mechanical interlocking and chemical grafting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Kang, Zhixin; Bessho, Takeshi

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, a new method for the synthesis of silver carbon nanotube (Ag/CNT) composite films as conductive connection units for flexible electronic devices is presented. This method is about a two-component solution process by spin coating with an after-treatment annealing process. In this method, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) act as the core of silver heterogeneous nucleation, which can be observed and analyzed by a field-emission scanning electron microscope. With the effects of mechanical interlocking, chemical grafting, and annealing, the interfacial adhesive strength between films and PET sheets was enhanced to 12 N cm-1. The tensile strength of the Ag/CNT composite films was observed to increase by 38% by adding 5 g l-1 MWCNTs. In the four-probe method, the resistivity of Ag/CNT-5 declined by 78.2% compared with pristine Ag films. The anti-fatigue performance of the Ag/CNT composite films was monitored by cyclic bending deformation and the results revealed that the growth rate of electrical resistance during the deformation was obviously retarded. As for industrial application, this method provides an efficient low-cost way to prepare Ag/CNT composite films and can be further applied to other coating systems.

  1. Increasing l-isoleucine production in Corynebacterium glutamicum by overexpressing global regulator Lrp and two-component export system BrnFE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, L; Shi, F; Hu, X; Chen, C; Wang, X

    2013-05-01

    To increase the l-isoleucine production in Corynebacterium glutamicum by overexpressing the global regulator Lrp and the two-component export system BrnFE. The brnFE operon and the lrp gene were cloned into the shuttle vector pDXW-8 individually or in combination. The constructed plasmids were transformed into an l-isoleucine-producing strain C. glutamicum JHI3-156, and the l-isoleucine production in these different strains was analysed and compared. More l-isoleucine was produced when only Lrp was expressed than when only BrnFE was expressed. Significant increase in l-isoleucine production was observed when Lrp and BrnFE were expressed in combination. Compared to the control strain, l-isoleucine production in JHI3-156/pDXW-8-lrp-brnFE increased 63% in flask cultivation, and the specific yield of l-isoleucine increased 72% in fed-batch fermentation. Both Lrp and BrnFE are important to enhance the l-isoleucine production in C. glutamicum. The results provide useful information to enhance l-isoleucine or other branched-chain amino acid production in C. glutamicum. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. The Role of the Two-Component System BaeSR in Disposing Chemicals through Regulating Transporter Systems in Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Feng Lin

    Full Text Available Bacterial two-component regulatory systems (TCSs facilitate changes in gene expression in response to environmental stimuli. TCS BaeR regulons influence tigecycline susceptibility in Acinetobacter baumannii through positively regulating the pump genes adeA and adeB. In this study, we demonstrate that an additional two transport systems, AdeIJK and MacAB-TolC, are also regulated by BaeSR. In the wild type and clinical tigecycline-resistant A. baumannii strains, gene expression of AdeIJK and MacAB-TolC increased after tigecycline induction, implicating their importance to tigecycline resistance in addition to AdeABC. Phenotypic microarray results showed that A. baumannii is vulnerable to certain chemicals, especially tannic acid, after deleting baeR, which was confirmed using the spot assay. The wild-type strain of A. baumannii also exhibited 1.6-fold and 4.4-fold increase in gene expression of adeJ and macB in the medium with 100 μg/mL tannic acid, but the increase was fully inhibited by baeR deletion. An electrophoretic motility shift assay based on an interaction between His-BaeR and the adeA, adeI and macA promoter regions did not demonstrate direct binding. In conclusion, A. baumannii can use the TCS BaeSR in disposing chemicals, such as tannic acid and tigecycline, through regulating the efflux pumps.

  3. Perturbative treatment of spin-orbit-coupling within spin-free exact two-component theory using equation-of-motion coupled-cluster methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lan; Wang, Fan; Stanton, John F.; Gauss, Jürgen

    2018-01-01

    A scheme is reported for the perturbative calculation of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) within the spin-free exact two-component theory in its one-electron variant (SFX2C-1e) in combination with the equation-of-motion coupled-cluster singles and doubles method. Benchmark calculations of the spin-orbit splittings in 2Π and 2P radicals show that the accurate inclusion of scalar-relativistic effects using the SFX2C-1e scheme extends the applicability of the perturbative treatment of SOC to molecules that contain heavy elements. The contributions from relaxation of the coupled-cluster amplitudes are shown to be relatively small; significant contributions from correlating the inner-core orbitals are observed in calculations involving third-row and heavier elements. The calculation of term energies for the low-lying electronic states of the PtH radical, which serves to exemplify heavy transition-metal containing systems, further demonstrates the quality that can be achieved with the pragmatic approach presented here.

  4. Regulation of Inducible Potassium Transporter KdpFABC by the KdpD/KdpE Two-Component System in Mycobacterium smegmatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin He

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Kdp-ATPase is an inducible high affinity potassium uptake system that is widely distributed in bacteria, and is generally regulated by the KdpD/KdpE two-component system (TCS. In this study, conducted on Mycobacterium smegmatis, the kdpFABC (encoding Kdp-ATPase expression was found to be affected by low concentration of K+, high concentrations of Na+, and/or NH4+ of the medium. The KdpE was found to be a transcriptional regulator that bound to a specific 22-bp sequence in the promoter region of kdpFABC operon to positively regulate kdpFABC expression. The KdpE binding motif was highly conserved in the promoters of kdpFABC among the mycobacterial species. 5′-RACE data indicated a transcriptional start site (TSS of the kdpFABC operon within the coding sequence of MSMEG_5391, which comprised a 120-bp long 5′-UTR and an open reading frame of the 87-bp kdpF gene. The kdpE deletion resulted in altered growth rate under normal and low K+ conditions. Furthermore, under K+ limiting conditions, a single transcript (kdpFABCDE spanning kdpFABC and kdpDE operons was observed. This study provided the first insight into the regulation of kdpFABC operon by the KdpD/KdpE TCS in M. smegmatis.

  5. Modeling L2,3-Edge X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy with Real-Time Exact Two-Component Relativistic Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Joseph M; Lestrange, Patrick J; Stetina, Torin F; Li, Xiaosong

    2018-03-29

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy is a powerful technique to probe local electronic and nuclear structure. There has been extensive theoretical work modeling K-edge spectra from first principles. However, modeling L-edge spectra directly with density functional theory poses a unique challenge requiring further study. Spin-orbit coupling must be included in the model, and a noncollinear density functional theory is required. Using the real-time exact two-component method, we are able to variationally include one-electron spin-orbit coupling terms when calculating the absorption spectrum. The abilities of different basis sets and density functionals to model spectra for both closed- and open-shell systems are investigated using SiCl 4 and three transition metal complexes, TiCl 4 , CrO 2 Cl 2 , and [FeCl 6 ] 3- . Although we are working in the real-time framework, individual molecular orbital transitions can still be recovered by projecting the density onto the ground state molecular orbital space and separating contributions to the time evolving dipole moment.

  6. A putative Vibrio cholerae two-component system controls a conserved periplasmic protein in response to the antimicrobial peptide polymyxin B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyl S Matson

    Full Text Available The epidemic pathogen Vibrio cholerae senses and responds to different external stresses it encounters in the aquatic environment and in the human host. One stress that V. cholerae encounters in the host is exposure to antimicrobial peptides on mucosal surfaces. We used massively parallel cDNA sequencing (RNA-Seq to quantitatively identify the transcriptome of V. cholerae grown in the presence and absence of sub-lethal concentrations of the antimicrobial peptide polymyxin B. We evaluated the transcriptome of both wild type V. cholerae and a mutant carrying a deletion of vc1639, a putative sensor kinase of an uncharacterized two-component system, under these conditions. In addition to many previously uncharacterized pathways responding with elevated transcript levels to polymyxin B exposure, we confirmed the predicted elevated transcript levels of a previously described LPS modification system in response to polymyxin B exposure. Additionally, we identified the V. cholerae homologue of visP (ygiW as a regulatory target of VC1639. VisP is a conserved periplasmic protein implicated in lipid A modification in Salmonellae. This study provides the first systematic analysis of the transcriptional response of Vibrio cholerae to polymyxin B, raising important questions for further study regarding mechanisms used by V. cholerae to sense and respond to envelope stress.

  7. Replenishment policy for Entropic Order Quantity (EnOQ model with two component demand and partial back-logging under inflation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhanupriya Dash

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Replenishment policy for entropic order quantity model with two component demand and partial backlogging under inflation is an important subject in the stock management. Methods: In this paper an inventory model for  non-instantaneous  deteriorating items with stock dependant consumption rate and partial back logged in addition the effect of inflection and time value of money on replacement policy with zero lead time consider was developed. Profit maximization model is formulated by considering the effects of partial backlogging under inflation with cash discounts. Further numerical example presented to evaluate the relative performance between the entropic order quantity and EOQ models separately. Numerical example is present to demonstrate the developed model and to illustrate the procedure. Lingo 13.0 version software used to derive optimal order quantity and total cost of inventory. Finally sensitivity analysis of the optimal solution with respect to different parameters of the system carried out. Results and conclusions: The obtained inventory model is very useful in retail business. This model can extend to total backorder.

  8. Two-component signal transduction system CBO0787/CBO0786 represses transcription from botulinum neurotoxin promoters in Clostridium botulinum ATCC 3502.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Korkeala, Hannu; Dahlsten, Elias; Sahala, Elina; Heap, John T; Minton, Nigel P; Lindström, Miia

    2013-03-01

    Blocking neurotransmission, botulinum neurotoxin is the most poisonous biological substance known to mankind. Despite its infamy as the scourge of the food industry, the neurotoxin is increasingly used as a pharmaceutical to treat an expanding range of muscle disorders. Whilst neurotoxin expression by the spore-forming bacterium Clostridium botulinum appears tightly regulated, to date only positive regulatory elements, such as the alternative sigma factor BotR, have been implicated in this control. The identification of negative regulators has proven to be elusive. Here, we show that the two-component signal transduction system CBO0787/CBO0786 negatively regulates botulinum neurotoxin expression. Single insertional inactivation of cbo0787 encoding a sensor histidine kinase, or of cbo0786 encoding a response regulator, resulted in significantly elevated neurotoxin gene expression levels and increased neurotoxin production. Recombinant CBO0786 regulator was shown to bind to the conserved -10 site of the core promoters of the ha and ntnh-botA operons, which encode the toxin structural and accessory proteins. Increasing concentration of CBO0786 inhibited BotR-directed transcription from the ha and ntnh-botA promoters, demonstrating direct transcriptional repression of the ha and ntnh-botA operons by CBO0786. Thus, we propose that CBO0786 represses neurotoxin gene expression by blocking BotR-directed transcription from the neurotoxin promoters. This is the first evidence of a negative regulator controlling botulinum neurotoxin production. Understanding the neurotoxin regulatory mechanisms is a major target of the food and pharmaceutical industries alike.

  9. The CasKR two-component system is required for the growth of mesophilic and psychrotolerant Bacillus cereus strains at low temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diomandé, Sara Esther; Chamot, Stéphanie; Antolinos, Vera; Vasai, Florian; Guinebretière, Marie-Hélène; Bornard, Isabelle; Nguyen-the, Christophe; Broussolle, Véronique; Brillard, Julien

    2014-04-01

    The different strains of Bacillus cereus can grow at temperatures covering a very diverse range. Some B. cereus strains can grow in chilled food and consequently cause food poisoning. We have identified a new sensor/regulator mechanism involved in low-temperature B. cereus growth. Construction of a mutant of this two-component system enabled us to show that this system, called CasKR, is required for growth at the minimal temperature (Tmin). CasKR was also involved in optimal cold growth above Tmin and in cell survival below Tmin. Microscopic observation showed that CasKR plays a key role in cell shape during cold growth. Introducing the casKR genes in a ΔcasKR mutant restored its ability to grow at Tmin. Although it was first identified in the ATCC 14579 model strain, this mechanism has been conserved in most strains of the B. cereus group. We show that the role of CasKR in cold growth is similar in other B. cereus sensu lato strains with different growth temperature ranges, including psychrotolerant strains.

  10. Perturbative treatment of spin-orbit-coupling within spin-free exact two-component theory using equation-of-motion coupled-cluster methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lan; Wang, Fan; Stanton, John F; Gauss, Jürgen

    2018-01-28

    A scheme is reported for the perturbative calculation of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) within the spin-free exact two-component theory in its one-electron variant (SFX2C-1e) in combination with the equation-of-motion coupled-cluster singles and doubles method. Benchmark calculations of the spin-orbit splittings in 2 Π and 2 P radicals show that the accurate inclusion of scalar-relativistic effects using the SFX2C-1e scheme extends the applicability of the perturbative treatment of SOC to molecules that contain heavy elements. The contributions from relaxation of the coupled-cluster amplitudes are shown to be relatively small; significant contributions from correlating the inner-core orbitals are observed in calculations involving third-row and heavier elements. The calculation of term energies for the low-lying electronic states of the PtH radical, which serves to exemplify heavy transition-metal containing systems, further demonstrates the quality that can be achieved with the pragmatic approach presented here.

  11. The Conserved Actinobacterial Two-Component System MtrAB Coordinates Chloramphenicol Production with Sporulation in Streptomyces venezuelae NRRL B-65442

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolle F. Som

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Streptomyces bacteria make numerous secondary metabolites, including half of all known antibiotics. Production of antibiotics is usually coordinated with the onset of sporulation but the cross regulation of these processes is not fully understood. This is important because most Streptomyces antibiotics are produced at low levels or not at all under laboratory conditions and this makes large scale production of these compounds very challenging. Here, we characterize the highly conserved actinobacterial two-component system MtrAB in the model organism Streptomyces venezuelae and provide evidence that it coordinates production of the antibiotic chloramphenicol with sporulation. MtrAB are known to coordinate DNA replication and cell division in Mycobacterium tuberculosis where TB-MtrA is essential for viability but MtrB is dispensable. We deleted mtrB in S. venezuelae and this resulted in a global shift in the metabolome, including constitutive, higher-level production of chloramphenicol. We found that chloramphenicol is detectable in the wild-type strain, but only at very low levels and only after it has sporulated. ChIP-seq showed that MtrA binds upstream of DNA replication and cell division genes and genes required for chloramphenicol production. dnaA, dnaN, oriC, and wblE (whiB1 are DNA binding targets for MtrA in both M. tuberculosis and S. venezuelae. Intriguingly, over-expression of TB-MtrA and gain of function TB- and Sv-MtrA proteins in S. venezuelae also switched on higher-level production of chloramphenicol. Given the conservation of MtrAB, these constructs might be useful tools for manipulating antibiotic production in other filamentous actinomycetes.

  12. Gene expression analysis of two extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis isolates show that two-component response systems enhance drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guohua; Cui, Zhenling; Sun, Xian; Peng, Jinfu; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Wei; Huang, Wenhua; Chu, Kaili; Zhang, Lu; Ge, Baoxue; Li, Yao

    2015-05-01

    Global analysis of expression profiles using DNA microarrays was performed between a reference strain H37Rv and two clinical extensively drug-resistant isolates in response to three anti-tuberculosis drug exposures (isoniazid, capreomycin, and rifampicin). A deep analysis was then conducted using a combination of genome sequences of the resistant isolates, resistance information, and related public microarray data. Certain known resistance-associated gene sets were significantly overrepresented in upregulated genes in the resistant isolates relative to that observed in H37Rv, which suggested a link between resistance and expression levels of particular genes. In addition, isoniazid and capreomycin response genes, but not rifampicin, either obtained from published works or our data, were highly consistent with the differentially expressed genes of resistant isolates compared to those of H37Rv, indicating a strong association between drug resistance of the isolates and genes differentially regulated by isoniazid and capreomycin exposures. Based on these results, 92 genes of the studied isolates were identified as candidate resistance genes, 10 of which are known resistance-related genes. Regulatory network analysis of candidate resistance genes using published networks and literature mining showed that three two-component regulatory systems and regulator CRP play significant roles in the resistance of the isolates by mediating the production of essential envelope components. Finally, drug sensitivity testing indicated strong correlations between expression levels of these regulatory genes and sensitivity to multiple anti-tuberculosis drugs in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These findings may provide novel insights into the mechanism underlying the emergence and development of drug resistance in resistant tuberculosis isolates and useful clues for further studies on this issue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Antimicrobial Tolerance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms Is Activated during an Early Developmental Stage and Requires the Two-Component Hybrid SagS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Kajal; Marques, Cláudia N. H.; Petrova, Olga E.

    2013-01-01

    A hallmark characteristic of biofilms is their extraordinary tolerance to antimicrobial agents. While multiple factors are thought to contribute to the high level of antimicrobial tolerance of biofilms, little is known about the timing of induction of biofilm tolerance. Here, we asked when over the course of their development do biofilms gain their tolerance to antimicrobial agents? We demonstrate that in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, biofilm tolerance is linked to biofilm development, with transition to the irreversible attachment stage regulated by the two-component hybrid SagS, marking the timing when biofilms switch to the high-level tolerance phenotype. Inactivation of sagS rendered biofilms but not planktonic cells more susceptible to tobramycin, norfloxacin, and hydrogen peroxide. Moreover, inactivation of sagS also eliminated the recalcitrance of biofilms to killing by bactericidal antimicrobial agents, a phenotype comparable to that observed upon inactivation of brlR, which encodes a MerR-like transcriptional regulator required for biofilm tolerance. Multicopy expression of brlR in a ΔsagS mutant restored biofilm resistance and recalcitrance to killing by bactericidal antibiotics to wild-type levels. In contrast, expression of sagS did not restore the susceptibility phenotype of ΔbrlR mutant biofilms to wild-type levels, indicating that BrlR functions downstream of SagS. Inactivation of sagS correlated with reduced BrlR levels in biofilms, with the produced BrlR being impaired in binding to the previously described BrlR-activated promoters of the two multidrug efflux pump operons mexAB-oprM and mexEF-oprN. Our findings demonstrate that biofilm tolerance is linked to early biofilm development and SagS, with SagS contributing indirectly to BrlR activation. PMID:23995639

  14. Two-component signal transduction system CBO0787/CBO0786 represses transcription from botulinum neurotoxin promoters in Clostridium botulinum ATCC 3502.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Zhang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Blocking neurotransmission, botulinum neurotoxin is the most poisonous biological substance known to mankind. Despite its infamy as the scourge of the food industry, the neurotoxin is increasingly used as a pharmaceutical to treat an expanding range of muscle disorders. Whilst neurotoxin expression by the spore-forming bacterium Clostridium botulinum appears tightly regulated, to date only positive regulatory elements, such as the alternative sigma factor BotR, have been implicated in this control. The identification of negative regulators has proven to be elusive. Here, we show that the two-component signal transduction system CBO0787/CBO0786 negatively regulates botulinum neurotoxin expression. Single insertional inactivation of cbo0787 encoding a sensor histidine kinase, or of cbo0786 encoding a response regulator, resulted in significantly elevated neurotoxin gene expression levels and increased neurotoxin production. Recombinant CBO0786 regulator was shown to bind to the conserved -10 site of the core promoters of the ha and ntnh-botA operons, which encode the toxin structural and accessory proteins. Increasing concentration of CBO0786 inhibited BotR-directed transcription from the ha and ntnh-botA promoters, demonstrating direct transcriptional repression of the ha and ntnh-botA operons by CBO0786. Thus, we propose that CBO0786 represses neurotoxin gene expression by blocking BotR-directed transcription from the neurotoxin promoters. This is the first evidence of a negative regulator controlling botulinum neurotoxin production. Understanding the neurotoxin regulatory mechanisms is a major target of the food and pharmaceutical industries alike.

  15. Equation-free analysis of two-component system signalling model reveals the emergence of co-existing phenotypes in the absence of multistationarity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca B Hoyle

    Full Text Available Phenotypic differences of genetically identical cells under the same environmental conditions have been attributed to the inherent stochasticity of biochemical processes. Various mechanisms have been suggested, including the existence of alternative steady states in regulatory networks that are reached by means of stochastic fluctuations, long transient excursions from a stable state to an unstable excited state, and the switching on and off of a reaction network according to the availability of a constituent chemical species. Here we analyse a detailed stochastic kinetic model of two-component system signalling in bacteria, and show that alternative phenotypes emerge in the absence of these features. We perform a bifurcation analysis of deterministic reaction rate equations derived from the model, and find that they cannot reproduce the whole range of qualitative responses to external signals demonstrated by direct stochastic simulations. In particular, the mixed mode, where stochastic switching and a graded response are seen simultaneously, is absent. However, probabilistic and equation-free analyses of the stochastic model that calculate stationary states for the mean of an ensemble of stochastic trajectories reveal that slow transcription of either response regulator or histidine kinase leads to the coexistence of an approximate basal solution and a graded response that combine to produce the mixed mode, thus establishing its essential stochastic nature. The same techniques also show that stochasticity results in the observation of an all-or-none bistable response over a much wider range of external signals than would be expected on deterministic grounds. Thus we demonstrate the application of numerical equation-free methods to a detailed biochemical reaction network model, and show that it can provide new insight into the role of stochasticity in the emergence of phenotypic diversity.

  16. Two-photon compatibility and single-voxel, single-trial detection of subthreshold neuronal activity by a two-component optical voltage sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Ann E; Bender, Kevin J; Trussell, Laurence O; Otis, Thomas S; DiGregorio, David A

    2012-01-01

    Minimally invasive measurements of neuronal activity are essential for understanding how signal processing is performed by neuronal networks. While optical strategies for making such measurements hold great promise, optical sensors generally lack the speed and sensitivity necessary to record neuronal activity on a single-trial, single-neuron basis. Here we present additional biophysical characterization and practical improvements of a two-component optical voltage sensor (2cVoS), comprised of the neuronal tracer dye, DiO, and dipicrylamine (DiO/DPA). Using laser spot illumination we demonstrate that membrane potential-dependent fluorescence changes can be obtained in a wide variety of cell types within brain slices. We show a correlation between membrane labeling and the sensitivity of the magnitude of fluorescence signal, such that neurons with the brightest membrane labeling yield the largest ΔF/F values per action potential (AP; ∼40%). By substituting a blue-shifted donor for DiO we confirm that DiO/DPA works, at least in part, via a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) mechanism. We also describe a straightforward iontophoretic method for labeling multiple neurons with DiO and show that DiO/DPA is compatible with two-photon (2P) imaging. Finally, exploiting the high sensitivity of DiO/DPA, we demonstrate AP-induced fluorescence transients (fAPs) recorded from single spines of hippocampal pyramidal neurons and single-trial measurements of subthreshold synaptic inputs to granule cell dendrites. Our findings suggest that the 2cVoS, DiO/DPA, enables optical measurements of trial-to-trial voltage fluctuations with very high spatial and temporal resolution, properties well suited for monitoring electrical signals from multiple neurons within intact neuronal networks.

  17. Two-photon compatibility and single-voxel, single-trial detection of subthreshold neuronal activity by a two-component optical voltage sensor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann E Fink

    Full Text Available Minimally invasive measurements of neuronal activity are essential for understanding how signal processing is performed by neuronal networks. While optical strategies for making such measurements hold great promise, optical sensors generally lack the speed and sensitivity necessary to record neuronal activity on a single-trial, single-neuron basis. Here we present additional biophysical characterization and practical improvements of a two-component optical voltage sensor (2cVoS, comprised of the neuronal tracer dye, DiO, and dipicrylamine (DiO/DPA. Using laser spot illumination we demonstrate that membrane potential-dependent fluorescence changes can be obtained in a wide variety of cell types within brain slices. We show a correlation between membrane labeling and the sensitivity of the magnitude of fluorescence signal, such that neurons with the brightest membrane labeling yield the largest ΔF/F values per action potential (AP; ∼40%. By substituting a blue-shifted donor for DiO we confirm that DiO/DPA works, at least in part, via a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET mechanism. We also describe a straightforward iontophoretic method for labeling multiple neurons with DiO and show that DiO/DPA is compatible with two-photon (2P imaging. Finally, exploiting the high sensitivity of DiO/DPA, we demonstrate AP-induced fluorescence transients (fAPs recorded from single spines of hippocampal pyramidal neurons and single-trial measurements of subthreshold synaptic inputs to granule cell dendrites. Our findings suggest that the 2cVoS, DiO/DPA, enables optical measurements of trial-to-trial voltage fluctuations with very high spatial and temporal resolution, properties well suited for monitoring electrical signals from multiple neurons within intact neuronal networks.

  18. Systems level analysis of two-component signal transduction systems in Erwinia amylovora: Role in virulence, regulation of amylovoran biosynthesis and swarming motility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundin George W

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two-component signal transduction systems (TCSTs, consisting of a histidine kinase (HK and a response regulator (RR, represent a major paradigm for signal transduction in prokaryotes. TCSTs play critical roles in sensing and responding to environmental conditions, and in bacterial pathogenesis. Most TCSTs in Erwinia amylovora have either not been identified or have not yet been studied. Results We used a systems approach to identify TCST and related signal transduction genes in the genome of E. amylovora. Comparative genomic analysis of TCSTs indicated that E. amylovora TCSTs were closely related to those of Erwinia tasmaniensis, a saprophytic enterobacterium isolated from apple flowers, and to other enterobacteria. Forty-six TCST genes in E. amylovora including 17 sensor kinases, three hybrid kinases, 20 DNA- or ligand-binding RRs, four RRs with enzymatic output domain (EAL-GGDEF proteins, and two kinases were characterized in this study. A systematic TCST gene-knockout experiment was conducted, generating a total of 59 single-, double-, and triple-mutants. Virulence assays revealed that five of these mutants were non-pathogenic on immature pear fruits. Results from phenotypic characterization and gene expression experiments indicated that several groups of TCST systems in E. amylovora control amylovoran biosynthesis, one of two major virulence factors in E. amylovora. Both negative and positive regulators of amylovoran biosynthesis were identified, indicating a complex network may control this important feature of pathogenesis. Positive (non-motile, EnvZ/OmpR, negative (hypermotile, GrrS/GrrA, and intermediate regulators for swarming motility in E. amylovora were also identified. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that TCSTs in E. amylovora played major roles in virulence on immature pear fruit and in regulating amylovoran biosynthesis and swarming motility. This suggested presence of regulatory networks governing

  19. A survey of HK, HPt, and RR domains and their organization in two-component systems and phosphorelay proteins of organisms with fully sequenced genomes

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    Baldiri Salvado

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Two Component Systems and Phosphorelays (TCS/PR are environmental signal transduction cascades in prokaryotes and, less frequently, in eukaryotes. The internal domain organization of proteins and the topology of TCS/PR cascades play an important role in shaping the responses of the circuits. It is thus important to maintain updated censuses of TCS/PR proteins in order to identify the various topologies used by nature and enable a systematic study of the dynamics associated with those topologies. To create such a census, we analyzed the proteomes of 7,609 organisms from all domains of life with fully sequenced and annotated genomes. To begin, we survey each proteome searching for proteins containing domains that are associated with internal signal transmission within TCS/PR: Histidine Kinase (HK, Response Regulator (RR and Histidine Phosphotranfer (HPt domains, and analyze how these domains are arranged in the individual proteins. Then, we find all types of operon organization and calculate how much more likely are proteins that contain TCS/PR domains to be coded by neighboring genes than one would expect from the genome background of each organism. Finally, we analyze if the fusion of domains into single TCS/PR proteins is more frequently observed than one might expect from the background of each proteome. We find 50 alternative ways in which the HK, HPt, and RR domains are observed to organize into single proteins. In prokaryotes, TCS/PR coding genes tend to be clustered in operons. 90% of all proteins identified in this study contain just one of the three domains, while 8% of the remaining proteins combine one copy of an HK, a RR, and/or an HPt domain. In eukaryotes, 25% of all TCS/PR proteins have more than one domain. These results might have implications for how signals are internally transmitted within TCS/PR cascades. These implications could explain the selection of the various designs in alternative circumstances.

  20. Phosphorylation-dependent and Phosphorylation-independent Regulation of Helicobacter pylori Acid Acclimation by the ArsRS Two-component System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Elizabeth A; Sachs, George; Wen, Yi; Scott, David R

    2016-02-01

    The pH-sensitive Helicobacter pylori ArsRS two-component system (TCS) aids survival of this neutralophile in the gastric environment by directly sensing and responding to environmental acidity. ArsS is required for acid-induced trafficking of urease and its accessory proteins to the inner membrane, allowing rapid, urea-dependent cytoplasmic and periplasmic buffering. Expression of ArsR, but not its phosphorylation, is essential for bacterial viability. The aim of this study was to characterize the roles of ArsS and ArsR in the response of H. pylori to acid. Wild-type H. pylori and an arsR(D52N) phosphorylation-deficient strain were incubated at acidic or neutral pH. Gene and protein expression, survival, membrane trafficking of urease proteins, urease activity, and internal pH were studied. Phosphorylation of ArsR is not required for acid survival. ArsS-driven trafficking of urease proteins to the membrane in acid, required for recovery of internal pH, is independent of ArsR phosphorylation. ArsR phosphorylation increases expression of the urease gene cluster, and the loss of negative feedback in a phosphorylation-deficient mutant leads to an increase in total urease activity. ArsRS has a dual function in acid acclimation: regulation of urease trafficking to UreI at the cytoplasmic membrane, driven by ArsS, and regulation of urease gene cluster expression, driven by phosphorylation of ArsR. ArsS and ArsR work through phosphorylation-dependent and phosphorylation-independent regulatory mechanisms to impact acid acclimation and allow gastric colonization. Furthering understanding of the intricacies of acid acclimation will impact the future development of targeted, nonantibiotic treatment regimens. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Involvement of the CasK/R two-component system in optimal unsaturation of the Bacillus cereus fatty acids during low-temperature growth.

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    Diomandé, Sara Esther; Nguyen-the, Christophe; Abee, Tjakko; Tempelaars, Marcel H; Broussolle, Véronique; Brillard, Julien

    2015-11-20

    Bacillus cereus sensu lato is composed of a set of ubiquitous strains including human pathogens that can survive a range of food processing conditions, grow in refrigerated food, and sometimes cause food poisoning. We previously identified the two-component system CasK/R that plays a key role in cold adaptation. To better understand the CasK/R-controlled mechanisms that support low-temperature adaptation, we performed a transcriptomic analysis on the ATCC 14579 strain and its isogenic ∆casK/R mutant grown at 12°C. Several genes involved in fatty acid (FA) metabolism were downregulated in the mutant, including desA and desB encoding FA acyl-lipid desaturases that catalyze the formation of a double-bond on the FA chain in positions ∆5 and ∆10, respectively. A lower proportion of FAs presumably unsaturated by DesA was observed in the ΔcasK/R strain compared to the parental strain while no difference was found for FAs presumably unsaturated by DesB. Addition of phospholipids from egg yolk lecithin rich in unsaturated FAs, to growth medium, abolished the cold-growth impairment of ΔcasK/R suggesting that exogenous unsaturated FAs can support membrane-level modifications and thus compensate for the decreased production of these FAs in the B. cereus ∆casK/R mutant during growth at low temperature. Our findings indicate that CasK/R is involved in the regulation of FA metabolism, and is necessary for cold adaptation of B. cereus unless an exogenous source of unsaturated FAs is available. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The two-component signal transduction system ArlRS regulates Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation in an ica-dependent manner.

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    Yang Wu

    Full Text Available Due to its ability to form biofilms on medical devices, Staphylococcus epidermidis has emerged as a major pathogen of nosocomial infections. In this study, we investigated the role of the two-component signal transduction system ArlRS in regulating S. epidermidis biofilm formation. An ArlRS-deficient mutant, WW06, was constructed using S. epidermidis strain 1457 as a parental strain. Although the growth curve of WW06 was similar to that of SE1457, the mutant strain was unable to form biofilms in vitro. In a rabbit subcutaneous infection model, sterile disks made of polymeric materials were implanted subcutaneously followed with inoculation of WW06 or SE1457. The viable bacteria cells of WW06 recovered from biofilms on the embedded disks were much lower than that of SE1457. Complementation of arlRS genes expression from plasmid in WW06 restored biofilm-forming phenotype both in vivo and in vitro. WW06 maintained the ability to undergo initial attachment. Transcription levels of several genes involved in biofilm formation, including icaADBC, sigB, and sarA, were decreased in WW06, compared to SE1457; and icaR expression was increased in WW06, detected by real-time reverse-transcription PCR. The biofilm-forming phenotype was restored by overexpressing icaADBC in WW06 but not by overexpressing sigB, indicating that ArlRS regulates biofilm formation through the regulation of icaADBC. Gel shift assay showed that ArlR can bind to the promoter region of the ica operon. In conclusion, ArlRS regulates S. epidermidis biofilm formation in an ica-dependent manner, distinct from its role in S. aureus.

  3. X-ray-induced specific-locus mutations in the ad-3 region of two-component heterokaryons of Neurospora crass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Serres, F.J.

    1990-01-01

    More extensive complementation tests than those performed initially on a series of 832 X-ray-induced specific-locus mutations in the adenine-4 (ad-3) region of a two-component heterokaryon (H-12) of Neurospora crassa showed that unexpectedly high frequencies of specific-locus mutations in the ad-3 region have additional, but separate, sites of recessive lethal damage in the immediately adjacent genetic regions. In the present paper, X-ray-induced irreparable ad-3 mutants of the folowing genotypes and numbers (ad-3A ad-3B, ad-3A ad-3B nic-2, and ad-3B nic-2) have also subjected to the same genetic fine structure analysis. These experiments, in the previous and present papers, were designed to determine the extent of the functional inactivation in the ad-3 and immediately adjacent genetic regions in individual mutants classified as presumptive multilocus deletions or multiplelocus mutations. The data in the present paper have shown that in Neurospora crassa most X-ray-induced irreparable mutants of genotype ad-3A ad-3B, ad-3A ad-3B nic-2, and ad-3 nic-2 map as a series of overlapping multilocus deletions. In addition, genetic fine structure analysis has shown that some of the mutants classified, initially, as multilocus deletions, are actually multiple-locus mutations: multilocus deletions with closely linked, and separate, sites of recessive lethal damage with a wide variety of genotyes. Combining data from the present experiments with previously published date, the frequency of multiple-locus mutations among X-ray-induced gene/point mutations and multilocus deletions in the ad-3 region is 6.2%. (author). 27 refs.; 4 figs.; 7 tab

  4. A conserved two-component regulatory system, PidS/PidR, globally regulates pigmentation and virulence-related phenotypes of Burkholderia glumae.

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    Karki, Hari Sharan; Barphagha, Inderjit Kaur; Ham, Jong Hyun

    2012-09-01

    Burkholderia glumae is a rice pathogenic bacterium that causes bacterial panicle blight. Some strains of this pathogen produce dark brown pigments when grown on casamino-acid peptone glucose (CPG) agar medium. A pigment-positive and highly virulent strain of B. glumae, 411gr-6, was randomly mutagenized with mini-Tn5gus, and the resulting mini-Tn5gus derivatives showing altered pigmentation phenotypes were screened on CPG agar plates to identify the genetic elements governing the pigmentation of B. glumae. In this study, a novel two-component regulatory system (TCRS) composed of the PidS sensor histidine kinase and the PidR response regulator was identified as an essential regulatory factor for pigmentation. Notably, the PidS/PidR TCRS was also required for the elicitation of the hypersensitive response on tobacco leaves, indicating the dependence of the hypersensitive response and pathogenicity (Hrp) type III secretion system of B. glumae on this regulatory factor. In addition, B. glumae mutants defective in the PidS/PidR TCRS showed less production of the phytotoxin, toxoflavin, and less virulence on rice panicles and onion bulbs relative to the parental strain, 411gr-6. The presence of highly homologous PidS and PidR orthologues in other Burkholderia species suggests that PidS/PidR-family TCRSs may exert the same or similar functions in different Burkholderia species, including both plant and animal pathogens. © 2012 THE AUTHORS. MOLECULAR PLANT PATHOLOGY © 2012 BSPP AND BLACKWELL PUBLISHING LTD.

  5. A Moraxella catarrhalis Two-Component Signal Transduction System Necessary for Growth in Liquid Media Affects Production of Two Lysozyme Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joslin, Stephanie N.; Pybus, Christine; Labandeira-Rey, Maria; Evans, Amanda S.; Attia, Ahmed S.; Brautigam, Chad A.

    2014-01-01

    There are a paucity of data concerning gene products that could contribute to the ability of Moraxella catarrhalis to colonize the human nasopharynx. Inactivation of a gene (mesR) encoding a predicted response regulator of a two-component signal transduction system in M. catarrhalis yielded a mutant unable to grow in liquid media. This mesR mutant also exhibited increased sensitivity to certain stressors, including polymyxin B, SDS, and hydrogen peroxide. Inactivation of the gene (mesS) encoding the predicted cognate sensor (histidine) kinase yielded a mutant with the same inability to grow in liquid media as the mesR mutant. DNA microarray and real-time reverse transcriptase PCR analyses indicated that several genes previously shown to be involved in the ability of M. catarrhalis to persist in the chinchilla nasopharynx were upregulated in the mesR mutant. Two other open reading frames upregulated in the mesR mutant were shown to encode small proteins (LipA and LipB) that had amino acid sequence homology to bacterial adhesins and structural homology to bacterial lysozyme inhibitors. Inactivation of both lipA and lipB did not affect the ability of M. catarrhalis O35E to attach to a human bronchial epithelial cell line in vitro. Purified recombinant LipA and LipB fusion proteins were each shown to inhibit human lysozyme activity in vitro and in saliva. A lipA lipB deletion mutant was more sensitive than the wild-type parent strain to killing by human lysozyme in the presence of human apolactoferrin. This is the first report of the production of lysozyme inhibitors by M. catarrhalis. PMID:25312959

  6. Potentiation of Aminoglycoside Activity in Pseudomonas aeruginosa by Targeting the AmgRS Envelope Stress-Responsive Two-Component System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Keith; Gilmour, Christie; Farha, Maya A; Mullen, Erin; Lau, Calvin Ho-Fung; Brown, Eric D

    2016-06-01

    A screen for agents that potentiated the activity of paromomycin (PAR), a 4,5-linked aminoglycoside (AG), against wild-type Pseudomonas aeruginosa identified the RNA polymerase inhibitor rifampin (RIF). RIF potentiated additional 4,5-linked AGs, such as neomycin and ribostamycin, but not the clinically important 4,6-linked AGs amikacin and gentamicin. Potentiation was absent in a mutant lacking the AmgRS envelope stress response two-component system (TCS), which protects the organism from AG-generated membrane-damaging aberrant polypeptides and, thus, promotes AG resistance, an indication that RIF was acting via this TCS in potentiating 4,5-linked AG activity. Potentiation was also absent in a RIF-resistant RNA polymerase mutant, consistent with its potentiation of AG activity being dependent on RNA polymerase perturbation. PAR-inducible expression of the AmgRS-dependent genes htpX and yccA was reduced by RIF, suggesting that AG activation of this TCS was compromised by this agent. Still, RIF did not compromise the membrane-protective activity of AmgRS, an indication that it impacted some other function of this TCS. RIF potentiated the activities of 4,5-linked AGs against several AG-resistant clinical isolates, in two cases also potentiating the activity of the 4,6-linked AGs. These cases were, in one instance, explained by an observed AmgRS-dependent expression of the MexXY multidrug efflux system, which accommodates a range of AGs, with RIF targeting of AmgRS undermining mexXY expression and its promotion of resistance to 4,5- and 4,6-linked AGs. Given this link between AmgRS, MexXY expression, and pan-AG resistance in P. aeruginosa, RIF might be a useful adjuvant in the AG treatment of P. aeruginosa infections. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Requirement of the Lactobacillus casei MaeKR two-component system for L-malic acid utilization via a malic enzyme pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landete, José María; García-Haro, Luisa; Blasco, Amalia; Manzanares, Paloma; Berbegal, Carmen; Monedero, Vicente; Zúñiga, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Lactobacillus casei can metabolize L-malic acid via malolactic enzyme (malolactic fermentation [MLF]) or malic enzyme (ME). Whereas utilization of L-malic acid via MLF does not support growth, the ME pathway enables L. casei to grow on L-malic acid. In this work, we have identified in the genomes of L. casei strains BL23 and ATCC 334 a cluster consisting of two diverging operons, maePE and maeKR, encoding a putative malate transporter (maeP), an ME (maeE), and a two-component (TC) system belonging to the citrate family (maeK and maeR). Homologous clusters were identified in Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Streptococcus uberis. Our results show that ME is essential for L-malic acid utilization in L. casei. Furthermore, deletion of either the gene encoding the histidine kinase or the response regulator of the TC system resulted in the loss of the ability to grow on L-malic acid, thus indicating that the cognate TC system regulates and is essential for the expression of ME. Transcriptional analyses showed that expression of maeE is induced in the presence of L-malic acid and repressed by glucose, whereas TC system expression was induced by L-malic acid and was not repressed by glucose. DNase I footprinting analysis showed that MaeR binds specifically to a set of direct repeats [5'-TTATT(A/T)AA-3'] in the mae promoter region. The location of the repeats strongly suggests that MaeR activates the expression of the diverging operons maePE and maeKR where the first one is also subjected to carbon catabolite repression.

  8. The two-component system CpxRA negatively regulates the Locus of Enterocyte Effacement of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli involving sigma 32 and Lon protease

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    MIGUEL A. eDE LA CRUZ

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC is a significant cause of serious human gastrointestinal disease worldwide. EHEC strains contain a pathogenicity island called the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE, which encodes virulence factors responsible for damaging the gut mucosa. The Cpx envelope stress response of E. coli is controlled by a two-component system consisting of a sensor histidine kinase (CpxA and a cytoplasmic response regulator (CpxR. In this study, we investigated the role of CpxRA in the expression of LEE-encoded virulence factors of EHEC. We found that a mutation in cpxA significantly affected adherence of EHEC to human epithelial cells. Analysis of this mutant revealed the presence of high levels of CpxR which repressed transcription of grlA and ler, the main positive virulence regulators of the LEE, and influenced negatively the production of the type 3 secretion system–associated EspABD translocator proteins. It is known that CpxR activates rpoH (Sigma factor 32, which in turns activates transcription of the lon protease gene. We found that transcription levels of ler and grlA were significantly increased in the lon and cpxA lon mutants suggesting that lon is involved in down-regulating LEE genes. In addition, the Galleria mellonella model of infection was used to analyze the effect of the loss of the cpx and lon genes in EHEC’s ability to kill the larvae. We found that the cpxA mutant was significantly deficient at killing the larvae however, the cpxA lon mutant which overexpresses LEE genes in vitro, was unable to kill the larvae, suggesting that virulence in the G. mellonella model is T3SS independent and that CpxA modulates virulence through a yet unknown EHEC-specific factor. Our data provides new insights and broadens our scope into the complex regulatory network of the LEE in which the CpxA sensor kinase plays an important role in a cascade involving both global and virulence regulators.

  9. The Two-Component System CpxRA Negatively Regulates the Locus of Enterocyte Effacement of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Involving σ(32) and Lon protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Cruz, Miguel A; Morgan, Jason K; Ares, Miguel A; Yáñez-Santos, Jorge A; Riordan, James T; Girón, Jorge A

    2016-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is a significant cause of serious human gastrointestinal disease worldwide. EHEC strains contain a pathogenicity island called the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE), which encodes virulence factors responsible for damaging the gut mucosa. The Cpx envelope stress response of E. coli is controlled by a two-component system (TCS) consisting of a sensor histidine kinase (CpxA) and a cytoplasmic response regulator (CpxR). In this study, we investigated the role of CpxRA in the expression of LEE-encoded virulence factors of EHEC. We found that a mutation in cpxA significantly affected adherence of EHEC to human epithelial cells. Analysis of this mutant revealed the presence of high levels of CpxR which repressed transcription of grlA and ler, the main positive virulence regulators of the LEE, and influenced negatively the production of the type 3 secretion system-associated EspABD translocator proteins. It is known that CpxR activates rpoH (Sigma factor 32), which in turns activates transcription of the lon protease gene. We found that transcription levels of ler and grlA were significantly increased in the lon and cpxA lon mutants suggesting that lon is involved in down-regulating LEE genes. In addition, the Galleria mellonella model of infection was used to analyze the effect of the loss of the cpx and lon genes in EHEC's ability to kill the larvae. We found that the cpxA mutant was significantly deficient at killing the larvae however, the cpxA lon mutant which overexpresses LEE genes in vitro, was unable to kill the larvae, suggesting that virulence in the G. mellonella model is T3SS independent and that CpxA modulates virulence through a yet unknown EHEC-specific factor. Our data provides new insights and broadens our scope into the complex regulatory network of the LEE in which the CpxA sensor kinase plays an important role in a cascade involving both global and virulence regulators.

  10. Modeling the monthly mean soil-water balance with a statistical-dynamical ecohydrology model as coupled to a two-component canopy model

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    J. P. Kochendorfer

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The statistical-dynamical annual water balance model of Eagleson (1978 is a pioneering work in the analysis of climate, soil and vegetation interactions. This paper describes several enhancements and modifications to the model that improve its physical realism at the expense of its mathematical elegance and analytical tractability. In particular, the analytical solutions for the root zone fluxes are re-derived using separate potential rates of transpiration and bare-soil evaporation. Those potential rates, along with the rate of evaporation from canopy interception, are calculated using the two-component Shuttleworth-Wallace (1985 canopy model. In addition, the soil column is divided into two layers, with the upper layer representing the dynamic root zone. The resulting ability to account for changes in root-zone water storage allows for implementation at the monthly timescale. This new version of the Eagleson model is coined the Statistical-Dynamical Ecohydrology Model (SDEM. The ability of the SDEM to capture the seasonal dynamics of the local-scale soil-water balance is demonstrated for two grassland sites in the US Great Plains. Sensitivity of the results to variations in peak green leaf area index (LAI suggests that the mean peak green LAI is determined by some minimum in root zone soil moisture during the growing season. That minimum appears to be close to the soil matric potential at which the dominant grass species begins to experience water stress and well above the wilting point, thereby suggesting an ecological optimality hypothesis in which the need to avoid water-stress-induced leaf abscission is balanced by the maximization of carbon assimilation (and associated transpiration. Finally, analysis of the sensitivity of model-determined peak green LAI to soil texture shows that the coupled model is able to reproduce the so-called "inverse texture effect", which consists of the observation that natural vegetation in dry climates tends

  11. A Two-Component DNA-Prime/Protein-Boost Vaccination Strategy for Eliciting Long-Term, Protective T Cell Immunity against Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shivali; Garg, Nisha J

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we evaluated the long-term efficacy of a two-component subunit vaccine against Trypanosoma cruzi infection. C57BL/6 mice were immunized with TcG2/TcG4 vaccine delivered by a DNA-prime/Protein-boost (D/P) approach and challenged with T. cruzi at 120 or 180 days post-vaccination (dpv). We examined whether vaccine-primed T cell immunity was capable of rapid expansion and intercepting the infecting T. cruzi. Our data showed that D/P vaccine elicited CD4+ (30-38%) and CD8+ (22-42%) T cells maintained an effector phenotype up to 180 dpv, and were capable of responding to antigenic stimulus or challenge infection by a rapid expansion (CD8>CD4) with type 1 cytokine (IFNγ+ and TFNα+) production and cytolytic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity. Subsequently, challenge infection at 120 or 180 dpv, resulted in 2-3-fold lower parasite burden in vaccinated mice than was noted in unvaccinated/infected mice. Co-delivery of IL-12- and GMCSF-encoding expression plasmids provided no significant benefits in enhancing the anti-parasite efficacy of the vaccine-induced T cell immunity. Booster immunization (bi) with recombinant TcG2/TcG4 proteins 3-months after primary vaccine enhanced the protective efficacy, evidenced by an enhanced expansion (1.2-2.8-fold increase) of parasite-specific, type 1 CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and a potent CTL response capable of providing significantly improved (3-4.5-fold) control of infecting T. cruzi. Further, CD8+T cells in vaccinated/bi mice were predominantly of central memory phenotype, and capable of responding to challenge infection 4-6-months post bi by a rapid expansion to a poly-functional effector phenotype, and providing a 1.5-2.3-fold reduction in tissue parasite replication. We conclude that the TcG2/TcG4 D/P vaccine provided long-term anti-T. cruzi T cell immunity, and bi would be an effective strategy to maintain or enhance the vaccine-induced protective immunity against T. cruzi infection and Chagas disease.

  12. Regulation of acetyl-CoA synthetase transcription by the CrbS/R two-component system is conserved in genetically diverse environmental pathogens.

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    Kristin Jacob

    Full Text Available The CrbS/R two-component signal transduction system is a conserved regulatory mechanism through which specific Gram-negative bacteria control acetate flux into primary metabolic pathways. CrbS/R governs expression of acetyl-CoA synthase (acsA, an enzyme that converts acetate to acetyl-CoA, a metabolite at the nexus of the cell's most important energy-harvesting and biosynthetic reactions. During infection, bacteria can utilize this system to hijack host acetate metabolism and alter the course of colonization and pathogenesis. In toxigenic strains of Vibrio cholerae, CrbS/R-dependent expression of acsA is required for virulence in an arthropod model. Here, we investigate the function of the CrbS/R system in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas entomophila, and non-toxigenic V. cholerae strains. We demonstrate that its role in acetate metabolism is conserved; this system regulates expression of the acsA gene and is required for growth on acetate as a sole carbon source. As a first step towards describing the mechanism of signaling through this pathway, we identify residues and domains that may be critical for phosphotransfer. We further demonstrate that although CrbS, the putative hybrid sensor kinase, carries both a histidine kinase domain and a receiver domain, the latter is not required for acsA transcription. In order to determine whether our findings are relevant to pathogenesis, we tested our strains in a Drosophila model of oral infection previously employed for the study of acetate-dependent virulence by V. cholerae. We show that non-toxigenic V. cholerae strains lacking CrbS or CrbR are significantly less virulent than are wild-type strains, while P. aeruginosa and P. entomophila lacking CrbS or CrbR are fully pathogenic. Together, the data suggest that the CrbS/R system plays a central role in acetate metabolism in V. cholerae, P. aeruginosa, and P. entomophila. However, each microbe's unique environmental adaptations and pathogenesis

  13. Role of the two component signal transduction system CpxAR in conferring cefepime and chloramphenicol resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae NTUH-K2044.

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    Vijaya Bharathi Srinivasan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Klebsiella pneumoniae is a gram-negative, non-motile, facultative anaerobe belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family of the γ-Proteobacteria class in the phylum Proteobacteria. Multidrug resistant K. pneumoniae have caused major therapeutic problems worldwide due to emergence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing strains. Two-component systems serve as a basic stimulus-response coupling mechanism to allow organisms to sense and respond to changes in many different environmental conditions including antibiotic stress. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we investigated the role of an uncharacterized cpxAR operon in bacterial physiology and antimicrobial resistance by generating isogenic mutant (ΔcpxAR deficient in the CpxA/CpxR component derived from the hyper mucoidal K1 strain K. pneumoniae NTUH-K2044. The behaviour of ΔcpxAR was determined under hostile conditions, reproducing stresses encountered in the gastrointestinal environment and deletion resulted in higher sensitivity to bile, osmotic and acid stresses. The ΔcpxAR was more susceptible to β-lactams and chloramphenicol than the wild-type strain, and complementation restored the altered phenotypes. The relative change in expression of acrB, acrD, eefB efflux genes were decreased in cpxAR mutant as evidenced by qRT-PCR. Comparison of outer membrane protein profiles indicated a conspicuous difference in the knock out background. Gel shift assays demonstrated direct binding of CpxR(KP to promoter region of ompC(KP in a concentration dependent manner. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The Cpx envelope stress response system is known to be activated by alterations in pH, membrane composition and misfolded proteins, and this systematic investigation reveals its direct involvement in conferring antimicrobial resistance against clinically significant antibiotics for the very first time. Overall results displayed in this report reflect the pleiotropic role of the Cpx

  14. Relationship of the CreBC two-component regulatory system and inner membrane protein CreD with swimming motility in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.

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    Hsin-Hui Huang

    Full Text Available The CreBC two-component system (TCS is a conserved regulatory system found in Escherichia coli, Aeromonas spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. In this study, we determined how CreBC TCS regulates secreted protease activities and swimming motility using creB, creC, and creBC in-frame deletion mutants (KJΔCreB, KJΔCreC, and KJΔBC of S. maltophilia KJ. Compared to wild-type KJ, KJΔCreB had a comparable secreted protease activity; however, the secreted protease activities were obviously reduced in KJΔCreC and KJΔBC, suggesting that CreC works together with another unidentified response regulator (not CreB to regulate secreted protease activity. Single gene inactivation of creB or creC resulted in mutants with an enhanced swimming motility, and this phenotype was exacerbated in a double mutant KJΔBC. To elucidate the underlying mechanism responsible for the ΔcreBC-mediated swimming enhancement, flagella morphology observation, RNA-seq based transcriptome assay, qRT-PCR, and membrane integrity and potential assessment were performed. Flagella morphological observation ruled out the possibility that swimming enhancement was due to altered flagella morphology. CreBC inactivation upregulated the expression of creD and flagella-associated genes encoding the basal body- and motor-associated proteins. Furthermore, KJΔBC had an increased membrane susceptibility to Triton X-100 and CreD upregulation in KJΔBC partially alleviated the compromise of membrane integrity. The impact of creBC TCS on bacterial membrane potential was assessed by carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazine (CCCP50 concentration at which 50% of bacterial swimming is inhibited. CCCP50 of wild-type KJ increased when creBC was deleted, indicating an association between the higher membrane potential of KJΔBC cells and enhanced motility. Upregulation of the basal body- and motor-associated genes of flagella in KJΔBC cells may explain the increased

  15. The impact of ColRS two-component system and TtgABC efflux pump on phenol tolerance of Pseudomonas putida becomes evident only in growing bacteria

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    Kivisaar Maia

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have recently found that Pseudomonas putida deficient in ColRS two-component system is sensitive to phenol and displays a serious defect on solid glucose medium where subpopulation of bacteria lyses. The latter phenotype is significantly enhanced by the presence of phenol in growth medium. Here, we focused on identification of factors affecting phenol tolerance of the colR-deficient P. putida. Results By using transposon mutagenesis approach we identified a set of phenol-tolerant derivatives of colR-deficient strain. Surprisingly, half of independent phenol tolerant clones possessed miniTn5 insertion in the ttgABC operon. However, though inactivation of TtgABC efflux pump significantly enhanced phenol tolerance, it did not affect phenol-enhanced autolysis of the colR mutant on glucose medium indicating that phenol- and glucose-caused stresses experienced by the colR-deficient P. putida are not coupled. Inactivation of TtgABC pump significantly increased the phenol tolerance of the wild-type P. putida as well. Comparison of phenol tolerance of growing versus starving bacteria revealed that both ColRS and TtgABC systems affect phenol tolerance only under growth conditions and not under starvation. Flow cytometry analysis showed that phenol strongly inhibited cell division and to some extent also caused cell membrane permeabilization to propidium iodide. Single cell analysis of populations of the ttgC- and colRttgC-deficient strains revealed that their membrane permeabilization by phenol resembles that of the wild-type and the colR mutant, respectively. However, cell division of P. putida with inactivated TtgABC pump seemed to be less sensitive to phenol than that of the parental strain. At the same time, cell division appeared to be more inhibited in the colR-mutant strain than in the wild-type P. putida. Conclusions ColRS signal system and TtgABC efflux pump are involved in the phenol tolerance of P. putida. However, as

  16. A Two-Component DNA-Prime/Protein-Boost Vaccination Strategy for Eliciting Long-Term, Protective T Cell Immunity against Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivali Gupta

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated the long-term efficacy of a two-component subunit vaccine against Trypanosoma cruzi infection. C57BL/6 mice were immunized with TcG2/TcG4 vaccine delivered by a DNA-prime/Protein-boost (D/P approach and challenged with T. cruzi at 120 or 180 days post-vaccination (dpv. We examined whether vaccine-primed T cell immunity was capable of rapid expansion and intercepting the infecting T. cruzi. Our data showed that D/P vaccine elicited CD4+ (30-38% and CD8+ (22-42% T cells maintained an effector phenotype up to 180 dpv, and were capable of responding to antigenic stimulus or challenge infection by a rapid expansion (CD8>CD4 with type 1 cytokine (IFNγ+ and TFNα+ production and cytolytic T lymphocyte (CTL activity. Subsequently, challenge infection at 120 or 180 dpv, resulted in 2-3-fold lower parasite burden in vaccinated mice than was noted in unvaccinated/infected mice. Co-delivery of IL-12- and GMCSF-encoding expression plasmids provided no significant benefits in enhancing the anti-parasite efficacy of the vaccine-induced T cell immunity. Booster immunization (bi with recombinant TcG2/TcG4 proteins 3-months after primary vaccine enhanced the protective efficacy, evidenced by an enhanced expansion (1.2-2.8-fold increase of parasite-specific, type 1 CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and a potent CTL response capable of providing significantly improved (3-4.5-fold control of infecting T. cruzi. Further, CD8+T cells in vaccinated/bi mice were predominantly of central memory phenotype, and capable of responding to challenge infection 4-6-months post bi by a rapid expansion to a poly-functional effector phenotype, and providing a 1.5-2.3-fold reduction in tissue parasite replication. We conclude that the TcG2/TcG4 D/P vaccine provided long-term anti-T. cruzi T cell immunity, and bi would be an effective strategy to maintain or enhance the vaccine-induced protective immunity against T. cruzi infection and Chagas disease.

  17. Two Component Decomposition of Dual Polarimetric HH/VV SAR Data: Case Study for the Tundra Environment of the Mackenzie Delta Region, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Ullmann

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates a two component decomposition technique for HH/VV-polarized PolSAR (Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar data. The approach is a straight forward adaption of the Yamaguchi decomposition and decomposes the data into two scattering contributions: surface and double bounce under the assumption of a negligible vegetation scattering component in Tundra environments. The dependencies between the features of this two and the classical three component Yamaguchi decomposition were investigated for Radarsat-2 (quad and TerraSAR-X (HH/VV data for the Mackenzie Delta Region, Canada. In situ data on land cover were used to derive the scattering characteristics and to analyze the correlation among the PolSAR features. The double bounce and surface scattering features of the two and three component scattering model (derived from pseudo-HH/VV- and quad-polarized data showed similar scattering characteristics and positively correlated-R2 values of 0.60 (double bounce and 0.88 (surface scattering were observed. The presence of volume scattering led to differences between the features and these were minimized for land cover classes of low vegetation height that showed little volume scattering contribution. In terms of separability, the quad-polarized Radarsat-2 data offered the best separation of the examined tundra land cover types and will be best suited for the classification. This is anticipated as it represents the largest feature space of all tested ones. However; the classes “wetland” and “bare ground” showed clear positions in the feature spaces of the C- and X-Band HH/VV-polarized data and an accurate classification of these land cover types is promising. Among the possible dual-polarization modes of Radarsat-2 the HH/VV was found to be the favorable mode for the characterization of the aforementioned tundra land cover classes due to the coherent acquisition and the preserved co-pol. phase. Contrary, HH/HV-polarized and VV

  18. The impact of ColRS two-component system and TtgABC efflux pump on phenol tolerance of Pseudomonas putida becomes evident only in growing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putrins, Marta; Ilves, Heili; Lilje, Liisa; Kivisaar, Maia; Hõrak, Rita

    2010-04-14

    We have recently found that Pseudomonas putida deficient in ColRS two-component system is sensitive to phenol and displays a serious defect on solid glucose medium where subpopulation of bacteria lyses. The latter phenotype is significantly enhanced by the presence of phenol in growth medium. Here, we focused on identification of factors affecting phenol tolerance of the colR-deficient P. putida. By using transposon mutagenesis approach we identified a set of phenol-tolerant derivatives of colR-deficient strain. Surprisingly, half of independent phenol tolerant clones possessed miniTn5 insertion in the ttgABC operon. However, though inactivation of TtgABC efflux pump significantly enhanced phenol tolerance, it did not affect phenol-enhanced autolysis of the colR mutant on glucose medium indicating that phenol- and glucose-caused stresses experienced by the colR-deficient P. putida are not coupled. Inactivation of TtgABC pump significantly increased the phenol tolerance of the wild-type P. putida as well. Comparison of phenol tolerance of growing versus starving bacteria revealed that both ColRS and TtgABC systems affect phenol tolerance only under growth conditions and not under starvation. Flow cytometry analysis showed that phenol strongly inhibited cell division and to some extent also caused cell membrane permeabilization to propidium iodide. Single cell analysis of populations of the ttgC- and colRttgC-deficient strains revealed that their membrane permeabilization by phenol resembles that of the wild-type and the colR mutant, respectively. However, cell division of P. putida with inactivated TtgABC pump seemed to be less sensitive to phenol than that of the parental strain. At the same time, cell division appeared to be more inhibited in the colR-mutant strain than in the wild-type P. putida. ColRS signal system and TtgABC efflux pump are involved in the phenol tolerance of P. putida. However, as they affect phenol tolerance of growing bacteria only, this

  19. Systemic antibody responses induced by a two-component Clostridium difficile toxoid vaccine protect against C. difficile-associated disease in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anosova, Natalie G; Brown, Anna M; Li, Lu; Liu, Nana; Cole, Leah E; Zhang, Jinrong; Mehta, Hersh; Kleanthous, Harry

    2013-09-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has been identified as the leading cause of nosocomial diarrhoea and pseudomembranous colitis associated with antibiotic therapy. Recent epidemiological changes as well as increases in the number of outbreaks of strains associated with increased virulence and higher mortality rates underscore the importance of identifying alternatives to antibiotics to manage this important disease. Animal studies have clearly demonstrated the roles that toxins A and B play in gut inflammation as well as diarrhoea; therefore it is not surprising that serum anti-toxin A and B IgG are associated with protection against recurrent CDI. In humans, strong humoral toxin-specific immune responses elicited by natural C. difficile infection is associated with recovery and lack of disease recurrence, whereas insufficient humoral responses are associated with recurrent CDI. The first generation of C. difficile vaccine that contained inactivated toxin A and B was found to be completely protective against death and diarrhoea in the hamster C. difficile challenge model. When tested in young healthy volunteers in Phase I clinical trials, this investigational vaccine was shown to be safe and immunogenic. Moreover, in a separate study this vaccine was able to prevent further relapses in three out of three patients who had previously suffered from chronic relapsing C. difficile-associated diarrhoea. Herein we examined the immunogenicity and protective activity of a next-generation Sanofi Pasteur two-component highly purified toxoid vaccine in a C. difficile hamster model. This model is widely recognized as a stringent and relevant choice for the evaluation of novel treatment strategies against C. difficile and was used in preclinical testing of the first-generation vaccine candidate. Intramuscular (i.m.) immunizations with increasing doses of this adjuvanted toxoid vaccine protected hamsters from mortality and disease symptoms in a dose-dependent manner. ELISA

  20. CesRK, a two-component signal transduction system in Listeria monocytogenes, responds to the presence of cell wall-acting antibiotics and affects beta-lactam resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallipolitis, Birgitte H; Ingmer, Hanne; Gahan, Cormac G

    2003-01-01

    of a putative two-component signal transduction system that plays a role in the virulence and ethanol tolerance of L. monocytogenes. Here we present evidence that the response regulator, CesR, and a histidine protein kinase, CesK, which is encoded by the gene downstream from cesR, are involved in the ability...

  1. Correlation between ceftriaxone resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and expression of outer membrane proteins OmpW and Ail/OmpX-like protein, which are regulated by BaeR of a two-component system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wensi S; Li, Pei-Chuan; Cheng, Chao-Yin

    2005-09-01

    Mutant 7F2 of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium has a transposon inserted in the regulator gene baeR of a two-component system and showed a more-than-fourfold reduction in resistance to ceftriaxone. Complementation analysis suggested an association among the outer membrane proteins OmpW and STM3031, ceftriaxone resistance, and baeR.

  2. Structural characterization of the heme-based oxygen sensor, AfGcHK, its interactions with the cognate response regulator, and their combined mechanism of action in a bacterial two-component signaling system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stráňava, M.; Martínek, V.; Man, Petr; Fojtíková, V.; Kavan, Daniel; Vaněk, O.; Shimizu, T.; Martínková, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 10 (2016), s. 1375-1389 ISSN 1097-0134 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : heme-based oxygen sensor * histidine kinase * two-component signal transduction system Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  3. Measures on two-component configuration spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.L. Finkelshtein

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the measures on the configuration spaces of particles of two types. Gibbs measures on such spaces are described. Main properties of corresponding relative energy densities and correlation functions are considered. In particular, we show that a support set for such Gibbs measure is the set of pairs of non-intersected configurations.

  4. Two-components UV-therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pullmann, H.; Steigleder, G.K.

    1980-01-01

    20 patients with generalized psoriasis were treated with an apparatus containing UV-A- and UV-B-fluorescence tubes to be switched separately. The therapy was started with an UV-A-dose of 12 J/cm 2 daily. After the first week of treatment UV-B in increasing doses was applicated additionally. Clearance was achieved in 80 percent. (orig.) [de

  5. Transverse steering of two-component beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murin, B.P.; Bondarev, B.U.; Durkin, A.P.; Lomize, L.G.; Soloviev, L.Yu.; Fedotov, A.P.

    Coherent transverse oscillations are considered which occur during simultaneous acceleration of proton and H - beams due to arbitrary displacements in elements of the focusing channel. To suppress these oscillations, a beam adjustment station is proposed, in which each quadrupole lens of two doublets is provided with a special dipole component of the magnetic field. These steering elements, together with the beam transverse position monitors, permit steering the transverse position of beams of opposite signs in both transverse planes. The number of steering stations needed is chosen, and some algorithms for control are discussed. It is shown that some of the control algorithms will permit not only the suppression of coherent oscillations, but a decrease in the radius and emittance of the beam

  6. Evaluation of the H-point standard additions method (HPSAM) and the generalized H-point standard additions method (GHPSAM) for the UV-analysis of two-component mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hund, E; Massart, D L; Smeyers-Verbeke, J

    1999-10-01

    The H-point standard additions method (HPSAM) and two versions of the generalized H-point standard additions method (GHPSAM) are evaluated for the UV-analysis of two-component mixtures. Synthetic mixtures of anhydrous caffeine and phenazone as well as of atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride were used. Furthermore, the method was applied to pharmaceutical formulations that contain these compounds as active drug substances. This paper shows both the difficulties that are related to the methods and the conditions by which acceptable results can be obtained.

  7. High-power gas-discharge excimer ArF, KrCl, KrF and XeCl lasers utilising two-component gas mixtures without a buffer gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razhev, A. M.; Kargapol'tsev, E. S.; Churkin, D. S.

    2016-03-01

    Results of an experimental study of the influence of a gas mixture (laser active medium) composition on an output energy and total efficiency of gas-discharge excimer lasers on ArF* (193 nm), KrCl* (222 nm), KrF* (248 nm) and XeCl* (308 nm) molecules operating without a buffer gas are presented. The optimal ratios of gas components (from the viewpoint of a maximum output energy) of an active medium are found, which provide an efficient operation of laser sources. It is experimentally confirmed that for gas-discharge excimer lasers on halogenides of inert gases the presence of a buffer gas in an active medium is not a necessary condition for efficient operation. For the first time, in two-component gas mixtures of repetitively pulsed gas-discharge excimer lasers on electron transitions of excimer molecules ArF*, KrCl*, KrF* and XeCl*, the pulsed energy of laser radiation obtained under pumping by a transverse volume electric discharge in a low-pressure gas mixture without a buffer gas reached up to 170 mJ and a high pulsed output power (of up to 24 MW) was obtained at a FWHM duration of the KrF-laser pulse of 7 ns. The maximal total efficiency obtained in the experiment with two-component gas mixtures of KrF and XeCl lasers was 0.8%.

  8. Characterization of the CrbS/R Two-Component System in Pseudomonas fluorescens Reveals a New Set of Genes under Its Control and a DNA Motif Required for CrbR-Mediated Transcriptional Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo Sepulveda

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The CrbS/R system is a two-component signal transduction system that regulates acetate utilization in Vibrio cholerae, P. aeruginosa, and P. entomophila. CrbS is a hybrid histidine kinase that belongs to a recently identified family, in which the signaling domain is fused to an SLC5 solute symporter domain through aSTAC domain. Upon activation by CrbS, CrbR activates transcription of the acs gene, which encodes an acetyl-CoA synthase (ACS, and the actP gene, which encodes an acetate/solute symporter. In this work, we characterized the CrbS/R system in Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25. Through the quantitative proteome analysis of different mutants, we were able to identify a new set of genes under its control, which play an important role during growth on acetate. These results led us to the identification of a conserved DNA motif in the putative promoter region of acetate-utilization genes in the Gammaproteobacteria that is essential for the CrbR-mediated transcriptional activation of genes under acetate-utilizing conditions. Finally, we took advantage of the existence of a second SLC5-containing two-component signal transduction system in P. fluorescens, CbrA/B, to demonstrate that the activation of the response regulator by the histidine kinase is not dependent on substrate transport through the SLC5 domain.

  9. Exposure of a 23F Serotype Strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae to Cigarette Smoke Condensate Is Associated with Selective Upregulation of Genes Encoding the Two-Component Regulatory System 11 (TCS11)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Jenny A.; Mitchell, Timothy J.; Dix-Peek, Thérèse; Dickens, Caroline; Anderson, Ronald; Feldman, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in whole genome expression profiles following exposure of the pneumococcus (strain 172, serotype 23F) to cigarette smoke condensate (160 μg/mL) for 15 and 60 min have been determined using the TIGR4 DNA microarray chip. Exposure to CSC resulted in the significant (P < 0.014–0.0006) upregulation of the genes encoding the two-component regulatory system 11 (TCS11), consisting of the sensor kinase, hk11, and its cognate response regulator, rr11, in the setting of increased biofilm formation. These effects of cigarette smoke on the pneumococcus may contribute to colonization of the airways by this microbial pathogen. PMID:25013815

  10. Fabrication and Investigation of Two-Component Film of 2,5-Diphenyloxazole and Octafluoronaphthalene Exhibiting Tunable Blue/Bluish Violet Fluorescence Based on Low Vacuum Physical Vapor Deposition Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Zhai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic luminescent materials play an important role in the fields of light-emitting diodes and fluorescent imaging. Moreover, new synthetic approaches towards π-conjugated molecular systems with high fluorescence quantum efficiency are highly desired. Herein, different 2,5-diphenyloxazole-octafluoronaphthalene (DPO-OFN films with tunable fluorescence have been prepared by Low Vacuum Physical Vapor Deposition (LVPVD method. DPO-OFN films showed some changed properties, such as molecular vibration and fluorescence. All films exhibited blue/bluish violet fluorescence and showed blue shift, in comparison with pristine DPO. This work introduced a new method to fabricate two-component molecular materials with tunable blue/bluish violet luminescence properties and provided a new perspective to prepare organic luminescent film materials, layer film materials, cocrystal materials, and cocrystal film materials. Importantly, these materials have potential applications in the fields of next generation of photofunctional materials.

  11. Exposure of a 23F Serotype Strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae to Cigarette Smoke Condensate Is Associated with Selective Upregulation of Genes Encoding the Two-Component Regulatory System 11 (TCS11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riana Cockeran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in whole genome expression profiles following exposure of the pneumococcus (strain 172, serotype 23F to cigarette smoke condensate (160 μg/mL for 15 and 60 min have been determined using the TIGR4 DNA microarray chip. Exposure to CSC resulted in the significant (P<0.014–0.0006 upregulation of the genes encoding the two-component regulatory system 11 (TCS11, consisting of the sensor kinase, hk11, and its cognate response regulator, rr11, in the setting of increased biofilm formation. These effects of cigarette smoke on the pneumococcus may contribute to colonization of the airways by this microbial pathogen.

  12. Reflected Light Monitor for Multi-point Position Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Kakoyan, V H; CERN. Geneva; Margaryan, Yu L; Danielyan, V D

    1999-01-01

    A new semitransparent straightness monitor for high-precision control of the spatial displacements is described. The monitor combines the properties of a thin semitransparent mirror and a segmented photodiode sensor. Laboratory measurements with a prototype monitor show that a position resolution of the order of 5 microns can be achieved.

  13. Multi-point observations of intermittency in the cusp regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Echim

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the statistical properties of magnetic field fluctuations measured by the four Cluster spacecraft in the cusp and close to the interface with the magnetospheric lobes, magnetopause and magnetosheath. At lower altitudes along the outbound orbit of 26 February 2001, the magnetic field fluctuations recorded by all four spacecraft are random and their Probability Distribution Functions (PDFs are Gaussian at all scales. The flatness parameter, F – related to the kurtosis of the time series, is equal to 3. At higher altitudes, in the cusp and its vicinity, closer to the interface with the magnetopause and magnetosheath, the PDFs from all Cluster satellites are non-Gaussian and show a clear intermittent behavior at scales smaller than τG≈ 61 s (or 170 km. The flatness parameter increases to values greater than 3 for scales smaller than τG. A Haar wavelet transform enables the identification of the "events" that produce sudden variations of the magnetic field and of the scales that have most of the power. The LIM parameter (i.e. normalized wavelet power indicates that events for scales below 65 s are non-uniformly distributed throughout the cusp passage. PDFs, flatness and wavelet analysis show that at coarse-grained scales larger than τG the intermittency is absent in the cusp. Fluctuations of the magnetic energy observed during the same orbit in the magnetosheath show PDFs that tend toward a Gaussian at scales smaller than τG found in the cusp. The flatness analysis confirms the decreasing of τG from cusp to magnetosheath. Our analysis reveals the turbulent cusp as a transition region from a non-intermittent turbulent state inside the magnetosphere to an intermittent turbulent state in the magnetosheath that has statistical properties resembling the solar wind turbulence. The observed turbulent fluctuations in the cusp suggests a phenomenon of nonlinear interactions of plasma coherent structures as in contemporary models of space plasma turbulence.

  14. Anaerobic expression of the gadE-mdtEF multidrug efflux operon is primarily regulated by the two-component system ArcBA through antagonizing the H-NS mediated repression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ziqing; Shan, Yue; Pan, Qing; Gao, Xiang; Yan, Aixin

    2013-01-01

    The gadE-mdtEF operon encodes a central acid resistance regulator GadE and two multidrug efflux proteins MdtEF. Although transcriptional regulation of gadE in the context of acid resistance under the aerobic growth environment of Escherichia coli has been extensively studied, regulation of the operon under the physiologically relevant environment of anaerobic growth and its effect on the expression of the multidrug efflux proteins MdtEF in the operon has not been disclosed. Our previous study revealed that anaerobic induction of the operon was dependent on ArcA, the response regulator of the ArcBA two-component system, in the M9 glucose minimal medium. However, the detailed regulatory mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we showed that anaerobic activation of mdtEF was driven by the 798 bp unusually long gadE promoter. Deletion of evgA, ydeO, rpoS, and gadX which has been shown to activate the gadE expression during acid stresses under aerobic condition did not have a significant effect on the anaerobic activation of the operon. Rather, anaerobic activation of the operon was largely dependent on the global regulator ArcA and a GTPase MnmE. Under aerobic condition, transcription of gadE was repressed by the global DNA silencer H-NS in M9 minimal medium. Interestingly, under anaerobic condition, while ΔarcA almost completely abolished transcription of gadE-mdtEF, further deletion of hns in ΔarcA mutant restored the transcription of the full-length PgadE-lacZ, and P1- and P3-lacZ fusions, suggesting an antagonistic effect of ArcA on the H-NS mediated repression. Taken together, we conclude that the anaerobic activation of the gadE-mdtEF was primarily mediated by the two-component system ArcBA through antagonizing the H-NS mediated repression.

  15. Anaerobic expression of the gadE-mdtEF multidrug efflux operon is primarily regulated by the two-component system ArcBA through antagonizing the H-NS mediated repression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziqing eDeng

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The gadE-mdtEF operon encodes a central acid resistance regulator GadE and two multidrug efflux proteins MdtEF. Although transcriptional regulation of gadE in the context of acid resistance under the aerobic growth environment of E. coli has been extensively studied, regulation of the operon under the physiologically relevant environment of anaerobic growth and its effect on the expression of the multidrug efflux proteins MdtEF has not been disclosed. Our previous study revealed that anaerobic induction of the operon was dependent on ArcA, the response regulator of the ArcBA two-component system, in the M9 glucose minimal medium. However, the detailed regulatory mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we showed that anaerobic activation of mdtEF was driven by the 798bp unusually long gadE promoter. Deletion of evgA, ydeO, rpoS, and gadX which has been shown to activate the gadE expression during acid stresses under aerobic condition did not have a significant effect on the anaerobic activation of the operon. Rather, anaerobic activation of the operon was largely dependent on the global regulator ArcA and a GTPase MnmE. Under aerobic condition, transcription of gadE was repressed by the global DNA silencer H-NS in M9 minimal medium. Interestingly, under anaerobic condition, while ΔarcA almost completely abolished transcription of gadE-mdtEF, further deletion of hns in ΔarcA mutant restored the transcription of the full length PgadE-lacZ, and P1- and P3-lacZ fusions, suggesting an antagonistic effect of ArcA on the H-NS mediated repression. Taken together, we conclude that the anaerobic activation of the gadE-mdtEF was primarily mediated by the two-component system ArcBA through antagonizing the H-NS mediated repression.

  16. The Ca2+ induced two-component system, CvsSR regulates the Type III secretion system and the extracytoplasmic function sigma-factor AlgU in Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Maxwell R; Zhang, Johnson; Bronstein, Philip A; Stodghill, Paul; Filiatrault, Melanie J

    2017-12-20

    Two-component systems (TCSs) of bacteria regulate many different aspects of the bacterial life cycle including pathogenesis. Most TCSs remain uncharacterized with no information about the signal(s) or regulatory targets and/or role in bacterial pathogenesis. Here, we characterized a TCS in the plant-pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 ( Pto ) composed of the histidine kinase, CvsS, and the response regulator, CvsR. CvsSR is necessary for virulence of Pto , since ΔcvsS and ΔcvsR strains produced fewer symptoms and demonstrated reduced growth on multiple hosts as compared to WT. We discovered that expression of cvsSR is induced by Ca 2+ concentrations found in leaf apoplastic fluid. Thus, Ca 2+ can be added to the list of signals that promote pathogenesis of Pto during host colonization. Through chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by next generation sequencing (ChIP-seq) and global transcriptome analysis (RNA-seq) we discerned the CvsR regulon. CvsR directly activated expression of the type III secretion system regulators, hrpR and hrpS , that regulates Pto virulence in a type III secretion system dependent manner. CvsR also indirectly repressed transcription of the extracytoplasmic sigma factor algU and production of alginate. Phenotypic analysis determined that CvsSR inversely regulated biofilm formation, swarming motility, and cellulose production in a Ca 2+ -dependent manner. Overall, our results show that CvsSR is a key regulatory hub critical for interaction with host plants. Importance Pathogenic bacteria must be able to react and respond to the surrounding environment, make use of available resources, and avert or counter host immune responses. Often, these abilities rely on two-component systems (TCSs) composed of interacting proteins that modulate gene expression. We identified a TCS in the plant-pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae that responds to the presence of calcium, which is an important signal during the plant

  17. Development and characterization of two-component albedo based neutron individual monitoring system using thermoluminescent detectors; Desenvolvimento e caracterizacao de um sistema de monitoracao individual de neutrons tipo albedo de duas componentes usando detectores termoluminescentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Marcelo Marques

    2008-07-01

    A TLD-albedo based two-component neutron individual monitoring system was developed and characterized in this work. The monitor consists of a black plastic holder, an incident neutron boron loaded shield, a moderator polyethylene body (to increase its response), two pairs of TLD-600 and TLD-700 (one pair to each component) and an adjustable belt. This monitoring system was calibrated in thermal neutron fields and in 70 keV, 144 keV, 565 keV, 1.2 MeV and 5 MeV monoenergetic neutron fields. In addition, it was calibrated in {sup 252C}f(D{sub 2}O), {sup 252}Cf, {sup 241}Am-B, {sup 241}Am-Be and {sup 238}Pu-Be source fields. For the latter, the lower detection levels are, respectively, 0.009 mSv, 0.06 mSv, 0.12 mSv, 0.09 mSv and 0.08 mSv. The participation in an international intercomparison sponsored by IAEA with simulated workplace fields validated the system. The monitoring system was successfully characterized in the ISO 21909 standard and in an IRD - the Brazilian Institute for Radioprotection and Dosimetry - technical regulation draft. Nowadays, the neutron individual system is in use by IRD for whole body individual monitoring of five institutions, which comprehend several activities. (author)

  18. Development of a two-phase, two-component jet pump refrigerator for utilization of low-temperature solar heat. Final report; Entwicklung einer Zweiphasen-/Zweikomponenten-Strahlpumpenkaelteanlage zur Nutzung solarer Niedertemperaturwaerme. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mostofizadeh, C.; Bohne, D.

    2001-08-01

    A solar refrigerator for air conditioning and cooling was developed. The key component is a two-phase, two-component jet pump with ammonia and water as working fluid. Both the pump flow and the suction flow can be two-phase flows. This way, the advantages of both the absorption and the compression principle will be utilized, and a compact size will be achieved. Upon termination of the calculations, the function of the pump will be investigated in a 0 W pilot plant. For this, various geometries were calculated and tested for their potential efficiencies. A prototype will be constructed on the basis of the results. [German] Das Ziel des Vorhabens besteht in der Entwicklung einer solarbetriebenen Kaelteanlage fuer Klimatisierungs- und Kuehlungszwecke. Die Hauptkomponente der Kaelteanlage ist eine Zweiphasen-/Zweikomponenten-Strahlpumpe, die mit dem Arbeitsgemisch Ammoniak/Wasser betrieben wird. Sowohl der Treib- als auch der Saugstrom koennen zweiphasig sein. Dadurch sollen einerseits die Vorteile des Absorptions- und des Kompressionsprinzips miteinander verknuepft und andererseits ein kompakter Aufbau erreicht werden. Nach Abschluss der thermodynamischen und kinetischen Berechnungen soll die Funktion der Zweiphasen-/Zweikomponenten-Strahlpumpe mit Hilfe einer Pilotanlage mit ca. 20 kW Kaelteleistung untersucht werden. Dazu werden nach Vorausberechnungen verschiedene Geometrien in Bezug auf erzielbare Wirkungsgrade getestet. Die Ergebnisse bilden die Basis fuer den Bau eines Prototyps. (orig.)

  19. The PorX Response Regulator of the Porphyromonas gingivalis PorXY Two-Component System Does Not Directly Regulate the Type IX Secretion Genes but Binds the PorL Subunit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Maxence S.; Durand, Eric; Cascales, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Type IX secretion system (T9SS) is a versatile multi-protein complex restricted to bacteria of the Bacteriodetes phylum and responsible for the secretion or cell surface exposition of diverse proteins that participate to S-layer formation, gliding motility or pathogenesis. The T9SS is poorly characterized but a number of proteins involved in the assembly of the secretion apparatus in the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis have been identified based on genome substractive analyses. Among these proteins, PorY, and PorX encode typical two-component system (TCS) sensor and CheY-like response regulator respectively. Although the porX and porY genes do not localize at the same genetic locus, it has been proposed that PorXY form a bona fide TCS. Deletion of porX in P. gingivalis causes a slight decrease of the expression of a number of other T9SS genes, including sov, porT, porP, porK, porL, porM, porN, and porY. Here, we show that PorX and the soluble cytoplasmic domain of PorY interact. Using electrophoretic mobility shift, DNA-protein co-purification and heterologous host expression assays, we demonstrate that PorX does not bind T9SS gene promoters and does not directly regulate expression of the T9SS genes. Finally, we show that PorX interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of PorL, a component of the T9SS membrane core complex and propose that the CheY-like PorX protein might be involved in the dynamics of the T9SS. PMID:27630829

  20. The PorX response regulator of the Porphyromonas gingivalis PorXY two-component system does not directly regulate the Type IX secretion genes but binds the PorL subunit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxence S Vincent

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Type IX secretion system (T9SS is a versatile multi-protein complex restricted to bacteria of the Bacteriodetes phylum and responsible for the secretion of surface attachment of diverse proteins that participate to S-layer formation, gliding motility or pathogenesis. The T9SS is poorly characterized but a number of proteins involved in the assembly of the secretion apparatus in the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis have been identified based on genome substractive analyses. Among these proteins, PorY and PorX encode typical two-component system (TCS sensor and CheY-like response regulator respectively. Although the porX and porY genes do not localize at the same genetic locus, it has been proposed that PorXY form a bona fide TCS. Deletion of the porX in P. gingivalis causes a slight decrease of the expression of a number of other T9SS genes, including sov, porT, porP, porK, porL, porM, porN and porY. Here, we show that PorX and the soluble cytoplasmic domain of PorY interact. Using electrophoretic mobility shift, DNA-protein co-purification and heterologous host expression assays, we showed that PorX does not bind and does not directly regulate expression of the T9SS genes. Finally, we show that PorX interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of PorL, a component of the T9SS membrane core complex and propose that the CheY-like PorX protein might be involved in the dynamics of the T9SS.

  1. Signaling mechanism by the Staphylococcus aureus two-component system LytSR: role of acetyl phosphate in bypassing the cell membrane electrical potential sensor LytS [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Patel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The two-component system LytSR has been linked to the signal transduction of cell membrane electrical potential perturbation and is involved in the adaptation of Staphylococcus aureus to cationic antimicrobial peptides. It consists of a membrane-bound histidine kinase, LytS, which belongs to the family of multiple transmembrane-spanning domains receptors, and a response regulator, LytR, which belongs to the novel family of non-helix-turn-helix DNA-binding domain proteins. LytR regulates the expression of cidABC and lrgAB operons, the gene products of which are involved in programmed cell death and lysis. In vivo studies have demonstrated involvement of two overlapping regulatory networks in regulating the lrgAB operon, both depending on LytR. One regulatory network responds to glucose metabolism and the other responds to changes in the cell membrane potential. Herein, we show that LytS has autokinase activity and can catalyze a fast phosphotransfer reaction, with 50% of its phosphoryl group lost within 1 minute of incubation with LytR. LytS has also phosphatase activity. Notably, LytR undergoes phosphorylation by acetyl phosphate at a rate that is 2-fold faster than the phosphorylation by LytS. This observation is significant in lieu of the in vivo observations that regulation of the lrgAB operon is LytR-dependent in the presence of excess glucose in the medium. The latter condition does not lead to perturbation of the cell membrane potential but rather to the accumulation of acetate in the cell. Our study provides insights into the molecular basis for regulation of lrgAB in a LytR-dependent manner under conditions that do not involve sensing by LytS.

  2. Identification of a putative cognate sensor kinase for the two-component response regulator HrpG, a key regulator controlling the expression of the hrp genes in Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui-Fang; Lu, Guang-Tao; Li, Lei; Su, Hui-Zhao; Feng, Guo-fang; Chen, Ya; He, Yong-Qiang; Jiang, Bo-Le; Tang, Dong-Jie; Tang, Ji-Liang

    2014-07-01

    The bacterial phytopathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) relies on the hrp (hypersensitive response and pathogenicity) genes to cause disease and induce hypersensitive response (HR). The hrp genes of bacterial phytopathogens are divided into two groups. Xcc hrp genes belong to group II. It has long been known that the group II hrp genes are activated by an AraC-type transcriptional regulator whose expression is controlled by a two-component system (TCS) response regulator (named HrpG in Xcc). However, no cognate sensor kinase has yet been identified. Here, we present evidence showing that the Xcc open-reading frame XC_3670 encodes a TCS sensor kinase (named HpaS). Mutation of hpaS almost completely abolished the HR induction and virulence. Bacterial two-hybrid and protein pull-down assays revealed that HpaS physically interacted with HrpG. Phos-tag™ SDS-PAGE analysis showed that mutation in hpaS reduced markedly the phosphorylation of HrpG in vivo. These data suggest that HpaS and HrpG are most likely to form a TCS. We also showed that XC_3669 (named hpaR2), which is adjacent to hpaS and encodes a putative TCS response regulator, is required for full virulence but not HR induction. HpaR2 also physically interacted with HpaS, suggesting that HpaS may also form another TCS with HpaR2. © 2013 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Complement-mediated opsonization of invasive group A Streptococcus pyogenes strain AP53 is regulated by the bacterial two-component cluster of virulence responder/sensor (CovRS) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrahari, Garima; Liang, Zhong; Mayfield, Jeffrey A; Balsara, Rashna D; Ploplis, Victoria A; Castellino, Francis J

    2013-09-20

    Group A Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS) strain AP53 is a primary isolate from a patient with necrotizing fasciitis. These AP53 cells contain an inactivating mutation in the sensor component of the cluster of virulence (cov) responder (R)/sensor (S) two-component gene regulatory system (covRS), which enhances the virulence of the primary strain, AP53/covR(+)S(-). However, specific mechanisms by which the covRS system regulates the survival of GAS in humans are incomplete. Here, we show a key role for covRS in the regulation of opsonophagocytosis of AP53 by human neutrophils. AP53/covR(+)S(-) cells displayed potent binding of host complement inhibitors of C3 convertase, viz. Factor H (FH) and C4-binding protein (C4BP), which concomitantly led to minimal C3b deposition on AP53 cells, further showing that these plasma protein inhibitors are active on GAS cells. This resulted in weak killing of the bacteria by human neutrophils and a corresponding high death rate of mice after injection of these cells. After targeted allelic alteration of covS(-) to wild-type covS (covS(+)), a dramatic loss of FH and C4BP binding to the AP53/covR(+)S(+) cells was observed. This resulted in elevated C3b deposition on AP53/covR(+)S(+) cells, a high level of opsonophagocytosis by human neutrophils, and a very low death rate of mice infected with AP53/covR(+)S(+). We show that covRS is a critical transcriptional regulator of genes directing AP53 killing by neutrophils and regulates the levels of the receptors for FH and C4BP, which we identify as the products of the fba and enn genes, respectively.

  4. Antibody Responses to Bordetella pertussis Fim2 or Fim3 following Immunization with a Whole-Cell, Two-Component, or Five-Component Acellular Pertussis Vaccine and following Pertussis Disease in Children in Sweden in 1997 and 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallander, Hans; Advani, Abdolreza; Alexander, Frances; Gustafsson, Lennart; Ljungman, Margaretha; Pratt, Catherine; Hall, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis fimbriae (Fim2 and Fim3) are components of a five-component acellular pertussis vaccine (diphtheria–tetanus–acellular pertussis vaccine [DTaP5]), and antibody responses to fimbriae have been associated with protection. We analyzed the IgG responses to individual Fim2 and Fim3 in sera remaining from a Swedish placebo-controlled efficacy trial that compared a whole-cell vaccine (diphtheria-tetanus-whole-cell pertussis vaccine [DTwP]), a two-component acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP2), and DTaP5. One month following three doses of the Fim-containing vaccines (DTwP or DTaP5), anti-Fim2 geometric mean IgG concentrations were higher than those for anti-Fim3, with a greater anti-Fim2/anti-Fim3 IgG ratio elicited by DTaP5. We also determined the responses in vaccinated children following an episode of pertussis. Those who received DTaP5 showed a large rise in anti-Fim2 IgG, reflecting the predominant Fim2 serotype at the time. In contrast, those who received DTwP showed an equal rise in anti-Fim2 and anti-Fim3 IgG concentrations, indicating that DTwP may provide a more efficient priming effect for a Fim3 response following contact with B. pertussis. Anti-Fim2 and anti-Fim3 IgG concentrations were also determined in samples from two seroprevalence studies conducted in Sweden in 1997, when no pertussis vaccine was used and Fim2 isolates predominated, and in 2007, when either DTaP2 or DTaP3 without fimbriae was used and Fim3 isolates predominated. Very similar distributions of anti-Fim2 and anti-Fim3 IgG concentrations were obtained in 1997 and 2007, except that anti-Fim3 concentrations in 1997 were lower. This observation, together with the numbers of individuals with both anti-Fim2 and anti-Fim3 IgG concentrations, strongly suggests that B. pertussis expresses both Fim2 and Fim3 during infection. PMID:24307240

  5. Remote sensing of land surface temperature: The directional viewing effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.A.; Schmugge, T.J.; Ballard, J.R. Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Land Surface Temperature (LST) is an important parameter in understanding global environmental change because it controls many of the underlying processes in the energy budget at the surface and heat and water transport between the surface and the atmosphere. The measurement of LST at a variety of spatial and temporal scales and extension to global coverage requires remote sensing means to achieve these goals. Land surface temperature and emissivity products are currently being derived from satellite and aircraft remote sensing data using a variety of techniques to correct for atmospheric effects. Implicit in the commonly employed approaches is the assumption of isotropy in directional thermal infrared exitance. The theoretical analyses indicate angular variations in apparent infrared temperature will typically yield land surface temperature errors ranging from 1 to 4 C unless corrective measures are applied

  6. Direct view panel type X-ray image intensifier tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, S.-P.; Robbins, C.D.; Merrit, E.

    1977-01-01

    A panel shaped, proximity type, X-ray image intensifier tube for medical X-ray fluoroscopy use is described. It has all linear components and yet a high brightness gain, in excess of 4,000 cd-sec/m 2 -R, the tube being comprised of a rugged metallic tube envelope, an inwardly concave metallic input window, a directly viewable full size output display screen, and a scintillator-photocathode screen having a thickness of at least 200 microns for a high X-ray photon utilization ability as well as X-ray stopping power, the scintillator-photocathode screen being suspended on insulators within the envelope and in between the input window and the output screen. The scintillator-photocathode screen is spaced from the output screen by at least 8mm to allow the application of a high negative potential at the scintillator-photocathode screen with respect to the output screen for high gain with low field emission, since all of the remaining components within the tube envelope are at neutral potential with respect to the output display screen. (Auth.)

  7. Direct View of Hot Carrier Dynamics in Graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Jens Christian; Ulstrup, Søren; Cilento, Federico

    2013-01-01

    The ultrafast dynamics of excited carriers in graphene is closely linked to the Dirac spectrum and plays a central role for many electronic and optoelectronic applications. Harvesting energy from excited electron-hole pairs, for instance, is only possible if these pairs can be separated before th...

  8. APPARATUS FOR SEPARATING A FLUIDUM IN AT LEAST TWO COMPONENTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diederen, A.M.; Van Zee, G.

    1997-01-01

    Abstract of WO 9738772 (A1) The invention relates to an apparatus comprising a static part and a movable part for the separation of a gas or fluid into components. The movable part is for instance formed by a rotatable wheel (4) which is provided with sorbent bed segments (7). The bed segments (7)

  9. The unstable modes of a two-component electron plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuillan, P.; McClements, K. G.

    1988-12-01

    The linear generation of electrostatic waves in a homogeneous, collisionless, unmagnetized plasma with two Maxwellian electron components, one drifting with respect to the other, is investigated. It is shown that such a system may be unstable to a beam mode rather than the well-known Langmuir mode if the drifting electron component is sufficiently dense and has a sufficiently low temperature. The dispersion characteristics of this 'electron-beam instability' and the Langmuir instability at the critical drift velocity for wave growth are determined for a wide range of parameters. The results are applied to electron beams producing hard X-ray emission in solar flares, and it is argued that such beams may be unstable to the generation of electrostatic waves at frequencies below the electron plasma frequency.

  10. A two-component nonphotochemical fluorescence quenching in eustigmatophyte algae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bína, David; Bouda, Karel; Litvín, Radek

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 131, č. 1 (2017), s. 65-77 ISSN 0166-8595 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-01377P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Nonphotochemical quenching * Xanthophyll cycle * Chl a fluorescence Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics OBOR OECD: Biophysics Impact factor: 3.864, year: 2016

  11. Bacitracin Resistance of Streptococcus mutans Regulated by Two Component System

    OpenAIRE

    北河, 憲雄

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus mutansは、主要なう蝕の原因細菌であり、バシトラシンに耐性を持つことが知られている。本研究では、この耐性メカニズムを解明するため、バシトラシン存在下で顕著に発現誘導される遺伝子をマイクロアレイを用いて探索した。4 倍以上発現誘導されていた8 つの遺伝子のうち、耐性に主に関与していたのは ABC トランスポーターをコードすると推定される 2 つの遺伝子、mbrA、mbrB であった。以前の研究から、mbrABCD 遺伝子群はバシトラシン耐性に関与することが分かっているが mbrABCD 遺伝子群による耐性のメカニズムの詳細は判明していない。アミノ酸配列のホモロジーより mbrCD は 二成分制御系 (TCS) の遺伝子と推測されており、mbrC、mbrD それぞれの欠損株を作製して検討したところ、推測通り、 mbrCD が mbrA の発現を制御していた。また、ゲルシフトアッセイにより MbrC はmbrA の発現調節領域と推定される部位と特異的に結合すること、及びリン酸化部位と予測される 54 番目のアスパラギン酸をアスパラギンに置換した変異 Mb...

  12. Mapping the Two-component Regulatory Networks in Desulfovibrio vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajeev, Lara; Luning, Eric; Dehal, Paramvir; Joachimiak, Marcin; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila

    2010-05-17

    D. vulgaris Hildenborough has 72 response regulators. The Desulfovibrio are sulfate reducing bacteria that are important in the sulfur and carbon cycles in anoxic habitats. Its large number of two componenent systems are probably critical to its ability to sense and respond to its environment. Our goal is to map these RRs to the genes they regulate using a DNA-affinity-purification-chip (DAP-chip) protocol. First target determined usuing EMSA. A positive target was determined for as many RRs as possible using EMSA. Targets were selected based on gene proximity, regulon predictions and/or predicted sigma54 dependent promoters. qPCR was used to ensure that the target was enriched from sheared genomic DNA before proceeding to the DAP-chip.

  13. Binding between two-component bosons in one dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tempfli, Emmerich; Zoellner, Sascha; Schmelcher, Peter

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the ground state of one-dimensional few-atom Bose-Bose mixtures under harmonic confinement throughout the crossover from weak to strong inter-species attraction. The calculations are based on the numerically exact multi-configurational time-dependent Hartree method. For repulsive components, we detail the condition for the formation of a molecular Tonks-Girardeau gas in the regime of intermediate inter-species interactions, and the formation of a molecular condensate for stronger coupling. Beyond a critical inter-species attraction, the system collapses to an overall bound state. Different pathways emerge for unequal particle numbers and intra-species interactions. In particular, for mixtures with one attractive component, this species can be viewed as an effective potential dimple in the trap center for the other, repulsive component.

  14. How insects overcome two-component plant chemical defence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pentzold, Stefan; Zagrobelny, Mika; Rook, Frederik

    2014-01-01

    are alkaloid, benzoxazinoid, cyanogenic and iridoid glucosides as well as glucosinolates and salicinoids. Conversely, many insects have evolved a diversity of counteradaptations to overcome this type of constitutive chemical defence. Here we discuss that such counter-adaptations occur at different time points...

  15. Two-component Superfluid Hydrodynamics of Neutron Star Cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobyakov, D. N.; Pethick, C. J.

    2017-01-01

    We consider the hydrodynamics of the outer core of a neutron star under conditions when both neutrons and protons are superfluid. Starting from the equation of motion for the phases of the wave functions of the condensates of neutron pairs and proton pairs, we derive the generalization of the Euler equation for a one-component fluid. These equations are supplemented by the conditions for conservation of neutron number and proton number. Of particular interest is the effect of entrainment, the fact that the current of one nucleon species depends on the momenta per nucleon of both condensates. We find that the nonlinear terms in the Euler-like equation contain contributions that have not always been taken into account in previous applications of superfluid hydrodynamics. We apply the formalism to determine the frequency of oscillations about a state with stationary condensates and states with a spatially uniform counterflow of neutrons and protons. The velocities of the coupled sound-like modes of neutrons and protons are calculated from properties of uniform neutron star matter evaluated on the basis of chiral effective field theory. We also derive the condition for the two-stream instability to occur.

  16. Characteristics of two-component epoxy modified bitumen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiao, Y.; Van de Ven, M.F.C.; Molenaar, A.A.A.; Su, Z.; Zandvoort, F.

    2010-01-01

    Coal tar bearing emulsions were used in the Netherlands as binder in anti-skid surfaces for runways because of their perfect adhesion and fuel resistance properties. They are however toxic and will not be allowed anymore after 2010. Therefore alternatives need to be developed. As one of the

  17. Cosmology in one dimension: A two-component model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiozawa, Yui; Miller, Bruce N.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Constructed the first one-dimensional toy universe model with both conservative (dark) matter and dissipative (luminous) matter. • Simulated bottom-up structure formation with rich multifractal structures, a robust feature of 1-D models. • Demonstrated that mass-oriented multifractal analyses can be employed to investigate the evolution of a hierarchical clustering process. • Found a significant difference in the generalized fractal dimensions for each type of matter demonstrating distribution bias within clusters. - Abstract: We investigate structure formation in a one dimensional model of a matter-dominated universe using a quasi-Newtonian formulation. In addition to dissipation-free dark matter, dissipative luminous matter is introduced to examine the potential bias in the distributions. We use multifractal analysis techniques to identify scale-dependent structures, including clusters and voids. Both dark matter and luminous matter exhibit multifractal geometry over a finite range as the universe evolves in time. We present the results for the generalized dimensions computed on various scales for each matter distribution which clearly supports the bottom-up structure formation scenario. We compare and contrast the multifractal dimensions of two types of matter for the first time and show how dynamical considerations cause them to differ.

  18. Phenomenological view at the two-component physics of cuprates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitel'baum, G. B.

    2017-08-01

    In the search for mechanisms of high- T c superconductivity it is critical to know the electronic spectrum in the pseudogap phase from which superconductivity evolves. The lack of ARPES data for every cuprate family precludes an agreement as to its structure, doping and temperature dependence and the role of charge ordering. No approach has been developed yet to address the issue theoretically, and we limit ourselves by the phenomenological analysis of the experimental data. We argue that, in the Fermi-liquid-like regime ubiquitous in underdoped cuprates, the spectrum consists of holes on the Fermi arcs and an electronic pocket in contrast to the idea of the Fermi surface reconstruction via charge ordering. At high temperatures, the electrons are dragged by holes while at lower temperatures they get decoupled. The longstanding issue of the origin of the negative Hall coefficient in YBCO and Hg1201 at low temperature is resolved: the electronic contribution prevails, as its mobility becomes temperature independent, while the mobility of holes, scattered by the shortwavelength charge density waves, decreases.

  19. A discrete surface growth model for two components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Nashar, H.F.; Cerdeira, H.A.

    2000-04-01

    We present a ballistic deposition model for the surface growth of a binary species A and C. Numerical simulations of the growth kinetics show a deviation from the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang universality class, model valid for only one kind of deposited particles. The study also shows that when the deposition of particles with less active bonds occurs more frequently the voids under the surface become relevant. However, the increase in overhang/voids processes under the moving interface does not strengthen greatly the local surface gradient. (author)

  20. Simultaneous refinement of two components of an exsolution intergrowth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topa, Dan; Petricek, Vaclav; Dusek, Michal

    2008-01-01

    Crystal structures of intergrown lindstromite and krupkaite were determined in two distinct samples by a simultaneous crystal-structure refinement using a modified JANA program package. The exsolution intergrowths have a bulk composition, determined by means of electron microprobe, equal to bd(60...

  1. On the partition dimension of two-component graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D O Haryeni

    2017-11-17

    Nov 17, 2017 ... Partition dimension; disconnected graph; component. 2010 Mathematics Subject Classification. 05C12, 05C15. 1. Introduction. The study of the partition dimension for graphs was initiated by Chartrand et al. [2] aimed at finding a new way to solve the problem in metric dimensions of graphs. Many results.

  2. Inhomogeneity growth in two-component fermionic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitani, P.; Colonna, M.

    2017-11-01

    The dynamics of fermionic many-body systems is investigated in the framework of Boltzmann-Langevin (BL) stochastic one-body approaches. Within the recently introduced Boltzmann-Langevin one-body (BLOB) model, we examine the interplay between mean-field effects and two-body correlations, of stochastic nature, for nuclear matter at moderate temperature and in several density conditions, corresponding to stable or mechanically unstable situations. Numerical results are compared with analytic expectations for the fluctuation amplitude of isoscalar and isovector densities, probing the link to the properties of the employed effective interaction; namely, symmetry energy (for isovector modes) and incompressibility (for isoscalar modes). For unstable systems, clusterization is observed. The associated features are compared with analytical results for the typical length and timescales characterizing the growth of unstable modes in nuclear matter and for the isotopic variance of the emerging fragments. We show that the BLOB model is generally better suited than simplified approaches previously introduced to solve the BL equation, and it is therefore more advantageous in applications to open systems, such as heavy-ion collisions.

  3. Effect of a two-component intervention to change hospital practice from early to delayed umbilical cord clamping in the Peruvian Amazon Efecto de una intervención de dos componentes para modificar la práctica hospitalaria de pinzamiento del cordón umbilical de precoz a tardío en la Amazonia peruana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany Blouin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of a two-component intervention to change hospital practice with regard to the timing of umbilical cord clamping. METHODS: A pre-/post-study design was used to measure the effect of a two-component intervention on mean time to clamp the umbilical cord. The study took place at Hospital Iquitos "César Garayar García" in Iquitos, Peru. A total of 224 women were recruited from the hospital labor room: 112 pre-intervention, from 18 May-3 June 2009, and 112 post-intervention, from 6-20 July 2009. The intervention consisted of 1 a "best practice" three-day training workshop on birthing, and 2 a hospital directive. All deliveries were observed and the time between delivery of the first shoulder and clamping of the umbilical cord was measured with a digital stopwatch. RESULTS: The mean time between delivery and cord clamping before the intervention was 56.8 seconds (95% confidence interval [CI]: 51.0, 62.7. This increased to 169.8 seconds (95% CI: 153.8, 185.8 following the intervention. The difference in mean time to clamp remained significant in multivariate analyses (βadjusted = 113.2 seconds, 95% CI: 96.6, 129.9. CONCLUSIONS: Hospital policy and practice can be successfully changed from early to delayed umbilical cord clamping using a simple, two-component intervention.OBJETIVO: Investigar el efecto de una intervención de dos componentes para modificar la práctica hospitalaria respecto del momento en que se practica el pinzamiento del cordón umbilical. MÉTODOS: Se empleó un estudio con diseño antes-después para medir el efecto de una intervención de dos componentes sobre el tiempo medio de pinzamiento del cordón umbilical. El estudio se llevó a cabo en el Hospital Iquitos "César Garayar Gar-cía" en Iquitos (Perú. Se incluyeron en total 224 mujeres atendidas en la sala de trabajo de parto del hospital: 112 antes de la intervención, entre el 18 de mayo y el 3 de junio del 2009, y 112 después de la

  4. Wireless Patient Monitoring System Using Point to Multi Point Zigbee Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aung Soe Phyo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A ZigBee sensor network for data acquisition and monitoring is presented in this paper. A ZigBee module is connected via a USB interface to a Microsoft Windows PC which works as a base station in the network. Data collected by sensor devices are sent to the base station PC which is set as Wireless sensorNetwork WSN. ZigBee is low power consumption built-in security method and ratified specifications make it very suitable to be used with medical sensor devices.This application of Zigbee based network consists of two transmitter sections and a receiver section.Each transmitter section consists of heartbeat sensor body temperature sensor microcontroller Zigbee and LCD module.In the proposed system the patients health is continuously monitored and theacquired data is analyzed at a personal computer using Graphical User InterfaceGUI. If a particular patients health parameter is higher or lower the threshold values an alarm system is used to alert the doctor. The aim of this system is to know the condition of patients health by the doctor immediately and to reduce the load of the staff taking care of the patient in the hospitals. In this paper wireless point to multipoint system is used between doctor and patient.

  5. Polarisation in spin-echo experiments: Multi-point and lock-in measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamtögl, Anton; Davey, Benjamin; Ward, David J.; Jardine, Andrew P.; Ellis, John; Allison, William

    2018-02-01

    Spin-echo instruments are typically used to measure diffusive processes and the dynamics and motion in samples on ps and ns time scales. A key aspect of the spin-echo technique is to determine the polarisation of a particle beam. We present two methods for measuring the spin polarisation in spin-echo experiments. The current method in use is based on taking a number of discrete readings. The implementation of a new method involves continuously rotating the spin and measuring its polarisation after being scattered from the sample. A control system running on a microcontroller is used to perform the spin rotation and to calculate the polarisation of the scattered beam based on a lock-in amplifier. First experimental tests of the method on a helium spin-echo spectrometer show that it is clearly working and that it has advantages over the discrete approach, i.e., it can track changes of the beam properties throughout the experiment. Moreover, we show that real-time numerical simulations can perfectly describe a complex experiment and can be easily used to develop improved experimental methods prior to a first hardware implementation.

  6. Multi-point accelerometric detection and principal component analysis of heart sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Panfilis, S; Moroni, C; Peccianti, M; Chiru, O M; Vashkevich, V; Parisi, G; Cassone, R

    2013-03-01

    Heart sounds are a fundamental physiological variable that provide a unique insight into cardiac semiotics. However a deterministic and unambiguous association between noises in cardiac dynamics is far from being accomplished yet due to many and different overlapping events which contribute to the acoustic emission. The current computer-based capacities in terms of signal detection and processing allow one to move from the standard cardiac auscultation, even in its improved forms like electronic stethoscopes or hi-tech phonocardiography, to the extraction of information on the cardiac activity previously unexplored. In this report, we present a new equipment for the detection of heart sounds, based on a set of accelerometric sensors placed in contact with the chest skin on the precordial area, and are able to measure simultaneously the vibration induced on the chest surface by the heart's mechanical activity. By utilizing advanced algorithms for the data treatment, such as wavelet decomposition and principal component analysis, we are able to condense the spatially extended acoustic information and to provide a synthetical representation of the heart activity. We applied our approach to 30 adults, mixed per gender, age and healthiness, and correlated our results with standard echocardiographic examinations. We obtained a 93% concordance rate with echocardiography between healthy and unhealthy hearts, including minor abnormalities such as mitral valve prolapse.

  7. Automated multi-point mini-disk infiltrometer measurements of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klipa, Vladimir; Sacha, Jan; Snehota, Michal; Dohnal, Michal; Zumr, David; Tacheci, Pavel

    2014-05-01

    Unsaturated hydraulic conductivity function K(h) is one of hydraulic characteristics needed for numerical modeling of water flow and solute transport in the vadose zone. Tension infiltrometer is advantageous tool to conduct the measurement of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity in field under near saturated conditions. Manually operated minidisk infiltrometers are often used for performing infiltration experiments, but their disadvantage is that permanent attendance is needed during experiments. Therefore automatization of the tension infiltrometer is desirable. A new automated multi-disk tension infiltrometer has been designed at the Faculty of Civil Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague to facilitate the measurements of near-saturated hydraulic conductivity. Infiltration experiment performed by device is simultaneously carried out by six tension mini-disk infiltrometer modules forming a fixed matrix as they are held by a lightweight aluminum frame. This setup is divided into the two groups of three infiltrometers. Each triplet of modules is controlled by Mariotte`s bottle. Therefore it is possible to conduct six simultaneous infiltration experiments at two different pressure heads. Amount of infiltrated water is registered via changes of buoyant force of vertical bar attached to the weighing sensor in each infiltrometer module and recorded automatically using datalogger. Cumulative infiltration and volumetric flux are calculated and displayed in real time. Near saturated hydraulic conductivity is determined from cumulative infiltration data using nonlinear optimization and improved procedure of Zhang. Device developed was to date tested on four experimental locations. Two sites were arable land (Nucice and Kopaninsky stream) and two located in headwater catchments (Sumava and Jizera Mountains). Soils at experimental sites were classified as Cambisols (empirical van Genuchten parameters α and n ranged from 0.007 to 0.043 cm-1 and from 1.13 to 1.54 respectively). The infiltration experiments confirmed, that device is suitable and efficient for determination of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity in broad range of soils. Another application of newly developed device is presented in detail by Klipa et al., "Seasonal variability of near-saturated hydraulic conductivity on cultivated soil" (EGU2014-6568). This work has been supported by internal student grant SGS 2014, by TACR TA01021844 and by GACR 13-20388P.

  8. Multi-point boundary value problems for linear functional-differential equations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Domoshnitsky, A.; Hakl, Robert; Půža, Bedřich

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 2 (2017), s. 193-206 ISSN 1072-947X Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : boundary value problems * linear functional-differential equations * functional-differential inequalities Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 0.290, year: 2016 https://www.degruyter.com/view/j/gmj.2017.24.issue-2/gmj-2016-0076/gmj-2016-0076. xml

  9. Comparing Single-Point and Multi-point Calibration Methods in Modulated DSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Buskirk, Caleb Griffith [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-06-14

    Heat capacity measurements for High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) and Ultra-high Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) were performed using Modulated Differential Scanning Calorimetry (mDSC) over a wide temperature range, -70 to 115 °C, with a TA Instruments Q2000 mDSC. The default calibration method for this instrument involves measuring the heat capacity of a sapphire standard at a single temperature near the middle of the temperature range of interest. However, this method often fails for temperature ranges that exceed a 50 °C interval, likely because of drift or non-linearity in the instrument's heat capacity readings over time or over the temperature range. Therefore, in this study a method was developed to calibrate the instrument using multiple temperatures and the same sapphire standard.

  10. Joint transfer of time and frequency signals and multi-point synchronization via fiber network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Cheng; Wei, Chen; Qin, Liu; Dan, Xu; Fei, Yang; You-Zhen, Gui; Hai-Wen, Cai

    2016-01-01

    A system of jointly transferring time signals with a rate of 1 pulse per second (PPS) and frequency signals of 10 MHz via a dense wavelength division multiplex-based (DWDM) fiber is demonstrated in this paper. The noises of the fiber links are suppressed and compensated for by a controlled fiber delay line. A method of calibrating and characterizing time is described. The 1PPS is synchronized by feed-forward calibrating the fiber delays precisely. The system is experimentally examined via a 110 km spooled fiber in laboratory. The frequency stabilities of the user end with compensation are 1.8×10-14 at 1 s and 2.0×10-17 at 104 s average time. The calculated uncertainty of time synchronization is 13.1 ps, whereas the direct measurement of the uncertainty is 12 ps. Next, the frequency and 1PPS are transferred via a metropolitan area optical fiber network from one central site to two remote sites with distances of 14 km and 110 km. The frequency stabilities of 14 km link reach 3.0×10-14 averaged in 1 s and 1.4×10-17 in 104 s respectively; and the stabilities of 110 km link are 8.3×10-14 and 1.7×10-17, respectively. The accuracies of synchronization are estimated to be 12.3 ps for the 14 km link and 13.1 ps for the 110 km link, respectively. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61405227).

  11. The Grad-Shafranov Reconstruction of Toroidal Magnetic Flux Ropes: Applications to Multi-point Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Q.

    2016-12-01

    We will present an extension of the Grad-Shafranov (GS) reconstruction technique of cylindrical flux-rope structures to the geometry of a torus. Benchmark test cases on analytic solutions to the GS equation in such a geometry are shown to illustrate the procedures. Applications to events of multi-spacecraft in-situ observations will be attempted, especially to the two events in May and November 2007. In each event, a Magnetic Cloud (MC) was observed simultaneously by three spacecraft, Wind, STEREO-A (ST-A) and B. In the November event, the ST-A and B were separated from Wind by about 20 degrees on either side. We applied the toroidal GS reconstruction procedures to the Wind spacecraft data, which exhibit the strongest signatures of a flux-rope configuration. The toroidal GS reconstruction results showed that both ST-A and B spacecraft were glancing across the upper and lower edge, not the main body of the flux rope reconstructed. Therefore whether or not the flux-rope structure maintained a coherent toroidal configuration of significant lateral extent (>0.05 AU in minor radius) over an angular span of about 40 degrees in this event remains an open question. This study demonstrated the new way to examine ICME flux rope structure transformation over a relatively large spatial extent by combining multi-spacecraft observations and the GS reconstruction technique, taking into account, at times, a more favorable toroidal geometry. We will also release the code and make it known to the community for wider usage and validation of this new tool.

  12. Positive solutions of multi-point boundary value problem of fractional differential equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-xiang Ma

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available By means of two fixed-point theorems on a cone in Banach spaces, some existence and multiplicity results of positive solutions of a nonlinear fractional differential equation boundary value problem are obtained. The proofs are based upon some properties of Green’s function, which are also the key of the paper.

  13. Multi Point Velocity, Density and Temperature Measurements using LITA, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Laser induced thermal acoustics (LITA) is a nonintrusive, transient-grating optical technique that provides simultaneous high-accuracy measurements of velocity,...

  14. Multi-Point Trilateration: A New Approach for Distributed Metrology, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For NASA missions requiring active control of segmented mirrors, optical trusses and booms, coherent, laser-based approaches such as CW laser interferometers have...

  15. Multi-point accelerometric detection and principal component analysis of heart sounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Panfilis, S; Peccianti, M; Chiru, O M; Moroni, C; Vashkevich, V; Parisi, G; Cassone, R

    2013-01-01

    Heart sounds are a fundamental physiological variable that provide a unique insight into cardiac semiotics. However a deterministic and unambiguous association between noises in cardiac dynamics is far from being accomplished yet due to many and different overlapping events which contribute to the acoustic emission. The current computer-based capacities in terms of signal detection and processing allow one to move from the standard cardiac auscultation, even in its improved forms like electronic stethoscopes or hi-tech phonocardiography, to the extraction of information on the cardiac activity previously unexplored. In this report, we present a new equipment for the detection of heart sounds, based on a set of accelerometric sensors placed in contact with the chest skin on the precordial area, and are able to measure simultaneously the vibration induced on the chest surface by the heart's mechanical activity. By utilizing advanced algorithms for the data treatment, such as wavelet decomposition and principal component analysis, we are able to condense the spatially extended acoustic information and to provide a synthetical representation of the heart activity. We applied our approach to 30 adults, mixed per gender, age and healthiness, and correlated our results with standard echocardiographic examinations. We obtained a 93% concordance rate with echocardiography between healthy and unhealthy hearts, including minor abnormalities such as mitral valve prolapse. (fast track communication)

  16. Multi-point boundary value problems for linear functional-differential equations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Domoshnitsky, A.; Hakl, Robert; Půža, Bedřich

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 2 (2017), s. 193-206 ISSN 1072-947X Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : boundary value problems * linear functional-differential equations * functional-differential inequalities Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 0.290, year: 2016 https://www.degruyter.com/view/j/gmj.2017.24.issue-2/gmj-2016-0076/gmj-2016-0076.xml

  17. Sensor system for multi-point monitoring using bending loss of single mode optical fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Heon Young; Kim, Dae Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Applications of smart sensors have been extended to safety systems in the aerospace, transportation and civil engineering fields. In particular, structural health monitoring techniques using smart sensors have gradually become necessary and have been developed to prevent dangers to human life and damage to assets. Generally, smart sensors are based on electro-magnets and have several weaknesses, including electro-magnetic interference and distortion. Therefore, fiber optic sensors are an outstanding alternative to overcome the weaknesses of electro-magnetic sensors. However, they require expensive devices and complex systems. This paper proposes a new, affordable and simple sensor system that uses a single fiber to monitor pressures at multiple-points. Moreover, a prototype of the sensor system was manufactured and tested for a feasibility study. Based on the results of this experimental test, a relationship was carefully observed between the bend loss conditions and light-intensity. As a result, it was shown that impacts at multiple-points could be monitored.

  18. Induced self-assembly and Förster resonance energy transfer studies of alkynylplatinum(II) terpyridine complex through interaction with water-soluble poly(phenylene ethynylene sulfonate) and the proof-of-principle demonstration of this two-component ensemble for selective label-free detection of human serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Clive Yik-Sham; Yam, Vivian Wing-Wah

    2011-11-23

    The interaction of conjugated polyelectrolyte, PPE-SO(3)(-), with platinum(II) complexes, [Pt(tpy)(C≡CC(6)H(4)-CH(2)NMe(3)-4)](OTf)(2) (1) and [Pt(tpy)(C≡C-CH(2)NMe(3))](OTf)(2) (2), has been studied by UV-vis, and steady-state and time-resolved emission spectroscopy. A unique FRET from PPE-SO(3)(-) to the aggregated complex 1 on the polymer chain with Pt···Pt interaction has been demonstrated, resulting in the growth of triplet metal-metal-to-ligand charge transfer ((3)MMLCT) emission in the near-infrared (NIR) region. This two-component ensemble has been employed in a "proof-of-principle" concept for the sensitive and selective label-free detection of human serum albumin (HSA) by the emission spectral changes in the visible and in the NIR region. The spectral changes have been ascribed to the disassembly of the polymer-metal complex aggregates upon the binding of PPE-SO(3)(-) to HSA, which is rich in arginine residues and hydrophobic patches, leading to the decrease in FRET from PPE-SO(3)(-) to the aggregated platinum(II) complex. The ensemble is found to have high selectivity toward HSA over a number of polyelectrolytes, proteins and small amino acids. This has been suggested to be a result of the extra stabilization gained from the Pt···Pt and π-π interactions in addition to the electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions found in the polymer-metal complex aggregates.

  19. 3d Simulation of Di Diesel Combustion and Pollutant Formation Using a Two-Component Reference Fuel Simulation 3D de la combustion et de la formation des polluants dans un moteur Diesel à injection directe en utilisant un carburant de référence à deux composants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barths H.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available By separating the fluid dynamic calculation from that of the chemistry, the unsteady flamelet model allows the use of comprehensive chemical mechanisms, which include several hundred reactions. This is necessary to describe the different processes that occur in a DI Diesel engine such as autoignition, the burnout in the partially premixed phase, the transition to diffusive burning, and formation of pollutants like NOx and soot. The highly nonlinear reaction rates need not to be simplified, and the complete structure of the combustion process is preserved. Using the Representative Interactive Flamelet (RIF model, the one-dimensional unsteady set of partial differential equations is solved online with the 3D CFD code. The flamelet solution is coupled to the flow and mixture field by several time dependent parameters (enthalpy, pressure, scalar dissipation rate. In return, the flamelet code yields the species concentrations, which are then used by the 3D CFD code to compute the temperature field and the density. The density is needed in the 3D CFD code for the solution of the turbulent flow and mixture field. Pollutant formation in a Volkswagen DI 1900 Diesel engine is investigated experimentally. The engine is fueled with Diesel and two reference fuels. One reference fuel is pure n-decane. The second is a two-component fuel consisting of 70% (liquid volume n-decane and of 30% (liquid volume alpha-methylnaphthalene (Idea-fuel. The experimental results show good agreement for the whole combustion cycle (ignition delay, maximum pressures, torque and pollutant formation between the two-component reference fuel and Diesel. The simulations are performed for both reference fuels and are compared to the experimental data. Nine different flamelet calculations are performed for each simulation to account for the variability of the scalar dissipation rate, and its effect on ignition is discussed. Pollutant formation (NOx and soot is predicted for both

  20. Photoproduction within the two-component Dual Parton Model: amplitudes and cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, R.; Siegen Univ.

    1995-01-01

    In the framework of the Dual Parton Model an approximation scheme to describe high energy photoproduction processes is presented. Based on the distinction between direct, resolved soft, and resolved hard interaction processes we construct effective impact parameter amplitudes. In order to treat low mass diffraction within the eikonal formalism in a consistent way a phenomenological ansatz is proposed. The free parameters of the model are determined by fits to high energy hadro- and photoproduction cross sections. We calculate the partial photoproduction cross sections and discuss predictions of the model at HERA energies. Using hadro- and photoproduction data together, the uncertainties of the model predictions are strongly reduced. (orig.)

  1. Two components in pathogenic mechanism of mitochondrial ATPase deficiency: energy deprivation and ROS production

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mráček, Tomáš; Pecina, Petr; Vojtíšková, Alena; Kalous, Martin; Šebesta, Ondřej; Houštěk, Josef

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 7 (2006), s. 683-687 ISSN 0531-5565 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NR7790; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : ATP synthase * ROS * mitochondrial diseases Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.930, year: 2006

  2. Two-component additive manufacturing of nanothermite structures via reactive inkjet printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Allison K.; Isik, Tugba; Ortalan, Volkan; Gunduz, I. Emre; Son, Steven F.; Chiu, George T.-C.; Rhoads, Jeffrey F.

    2017-11-01

    With an eye towards improving the safety of the deposition of energetic materials while broadening the scope of materials compatible with inkjet printing, this work demonstrates the use of combinatorial inkjet printing for the deposition of energetic materials. Two largely inert colloidal suspensions of nanoaluminum and nanocopper (II) oxide in dimethylformamide with polyvinylpyrrolidone were sequentially deposited on a substrate using piezoelectric inkjet printing. The materials were deposited in such a way that the aluminum and copper (II) oxide droplets were adjacent, and overlapping, to allow for in situ mixing of the components. The alternating deposition was repeated to create a sample with multiple layers of energetic materials. Energetic performance was subsequently tested on samples printed with 3, 5, and 7 layers of materials using a spark igniter. This ignition event was observed with a high speed camera and compared to representative samples printed with pre-mixed nanothermite. High speed thermal imaging supported a conclusion that the maximum reaction temperature of comparable samples printed with the dual nozzle technique was nominally 200 K less than the samples printed with a single nozzle. Scanning transmission electron microscopy images confirmed a claim that the material constituents were comparably mixed with the single and dual nozzle techniques. This work proves the feasibility of reactive inkjet printing as a means for depositing energetic materials from two largely inert suspensions. In doing so, it opens the doors for safer material handling and the development of a wide array of energetic materials that were previously deemed incompatible with inkjet printing.

  3. Discrete kink dynamics in hydrogen-bonded chains: The two-component model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karpan, V.M.; Zolotaryuk, Yaroslav; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    2004-01-01

    -proton interaction in the hydrogen bond. (ii) a harmonic coupling between the protons in adjacent hydrogen bonds, and (iii) a harmonic coupling between the nearest-neighbor heavy ions (an isolated diatomic chain with the lowest acoustic band) or instead a harmonic on-site potential for the heavy ions (a diatomic...

  4. Development of instrumentation for measurements of two components of velocity with a single sensing element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, C. P.; Fu, M. K.; Fan, Y.; Hultmark, M.

    2018-02-01

    A novel method of obtaining two orthogonal velocity components with high spatial and temporal resolution is investigated. Both components are obtained utilizing a single sensing nanoribbon by combining the two independent operating modes of classic hot wire anemometry and the newly discovered elastic filament velocimetry (EFV). In contrast to hot wire anemometry, EFV measures fluid velocity through correlating the fluid forcing with the internal strain of the wire. In order to utilize both modes of operation, a system that switches between the two operating modes is built and characterized, and the theoretically predicted sensing response time in water is compared to experimental results. The sensing system is capable of switching between the two modes of operation at a frequency of 100 kHz with minimal attenuation with an uncompensated repetition rate up to 3 kHz or up to 10 kHz utilizing modest signal compensation. While further characterization of the sensor performance in air is needed, this methodology enables a technique for obtaining well-resolved yet cost-efficient directional measurements of flow velocities which, for example, can be used for distributed measurements of velocity or measurements of turbulent stresses with excellent spatial resolution.

  5. A new fully automatic PIM tool to replicate two component tungsten DEMO divertor parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antusch, Steffen; Commin, Lorelei; Heneka, Jochen; Piotter, Volker; Plewa, Klaus; Walter, Heinz

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Development of a fully automatic 2C-PIM tool. • Replicate fusion relevant components in one step without additional brazing. • No cracks or gaps in the seam of the joining zone visible. • For both material combinations a solid bond of the material interface was achieved. • PIM is a powerful process for mass production as well as for joining even complex shaped parts. -- Abstract: At Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), divertor design concepts for future nuclear fusion power plants beyond ITER are intensively investigated. One promising KIT divertor design concept for the future DEMO power reactor is based on modular He-cooled finger units. The manufacturing of such parts by mechanical machining such as milling and turning, however, is extremely cost and time intensive because tungsten is very hard and brittle. Powder Injection Molding (PIM) has been adapted to tungsten processing at KIT since a couple of years. This production method is deemed promising in view of large-scale production of tungsten parts with high near-net-shape precision, hence, offering an advantage of cost-saving process compared to conventional machining. The properties of the effectively and successfully manufactured divertor part tile consisting only of pure tungsten are a microstructure without cracks and a high density (>98% T.D.). Based on the achieved results a new fully automatic multicomponent PIM tool was developed and allows the replication and joining without brazing of fusion relevant components of different materials in one step and the creation of composite materials. This contribution describes the process route to design and engineer a new fully automatic 2C-PIM tool, including the filling simulation and the implementing of the tool. The complete technological fabrication process of tungsten 2C-PIM, including material and feedstock (powder and binder) development, injection molding, and heat-treatment of real DEMO divertor parts is outlined. Characterization results of the finished parts, like for example microstructure examination and quality control of the joining zone are discussed

  6. Engineering bright solitons to enhance the stability of two-component Bose–Einstein condensates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radha, R., E-mail: radha_ramaswamy@yahoo.com [Centre for Nonlinear Science, PG and Research Dept. of Physics, Govt. College for Women (Autonomous), Kumbakonam 612001 (India); Vinayagam, P.S.; Sudharsan, J.B. [Centre for Nonlinear Science, PG and Research Dept. of Physics, Govt. College for Women (Autonomous), Kumbakonam 612001 (India); Liu, Wu-Ming, E-mail: wmliu@iphy.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing-100190 (China); Malomed, Boris A., E-mail: malomed@post.tau.ac.il [Department of Physical Electronics, School of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2015-12-04

    We consider a system of coupled Gross–Pitaevskii (GP) equations describing a binary quasi-one-dimensional Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) with intrinsic time-dependent attractive interactions, placed in a time-dependent expulsive parabolic potential, in a special case when the system is integrable (a deformed Manakov's system). Since the nonlinearity in the integrable system which represents binary attractive interactions exponentially decays with time, solitons are also subject to decay. Nevertheless, it is shown that the robustness of bright solitons can be enhanced in this system, making their respective lifetime longer, by matching the time dependence of the interaction strength (adjusted with the help of the Feshbach-resonance management) to the time modulation of the strength of the parabolic potential. The analytical results, and their stability, are corroborated by numerical simulations. In particular, we demonstrate that the addition of random noise does not impact the stability of the solitons. - Highlights: • We formulate a versatile mechanism to enhance the lifetime of vectorial condensates employing Feshbach Resonance. • Vectorial condensates in a transient harmonic trap are more long lived compared to their counterpart in a time independent harmonic trap. • Corroborate the exact analytical results with numerical simulations. • Addition of random noise does not impact the stability of vector BECs.

  7. Two-component self-assembly with solvent leading to "wet" and microcrystalline organogel fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfman, Miika; Lahtinen, Manu; Rissanen, Kari; Sievänen, Elina

    2015-01-15

    The microcrystalline fibers of N-(2-aminoethyl)-3α-hydroxy-5β-cholan-24-amide 1 provided a useful model system for studying the complex relationship between morphology, experimental parameters, solvent, and the phenomenon of organogelation. The presence of solvents in the solid forms of 1 along with crystallization behavior suggested solvate formation and polymorphic behavior. Forty solid state- and xerogel samples of 1 formed in organic solvents and in three categories of experimental conditions were analyzed with single crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Raman microscopy, and attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR FTIR). Two polymorphs and four isostructural aromatic solvates of 1 were found among some unknown forms in the samples. Single crystal X-ray structures of one polymorph and bromobenzene solvate were obtained, the latter from a xerogel. Multiple crystal forms could be present in a sample, and their contributions to gelation were estimated taking the experimental conditions into account. Gelator 1 could act as a variable component gelator, either alone or in combination with an aromatic solvent. The research brings new insight into the structures of microcrystalline organogel fibers, linking solvate/inclusion crystal formation with microcrystalline fibers of an organogelator for the first time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Re-engineering the two-component systems as light-regulated in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Siya Ma

    2017-10-20

    Oct 20, 2017 ... 2Key Laboratory of Systems Biology, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for. Biological ..... Biol. 210 551–559. Moir JWB and Wood NJ 2001 Nitrate and nitrite transport in bacteria. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 58 215–224. Nohno T, Noji S, Taniguchi S and Saito T 1989 The narX and narL.

  9. Two components in IOR: evidence for response bias and perceptual processing delays using the SAT methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuanyuan; Heinke, Dietmar; Ivanoff, Jason; Klein, Raymond M; Humphreys, Glyn W

    2011-10-01

    Inhibition of return (IOR) occurs when reaction times (RTs) are slowed to respond to a target that appears at a previously attended location. We used the speed-accuracy trade-off (SAT) procedure to obtain conjoint measures of IOR on sensitivity and processing speed by presenting targets at cued and uncued locations. The results showed that IOR is associated with both delays in processing speed and shifts in response criterion. When the target was briefly presented, the results supported a criterion shift account of IOR. However, when the target was presented until response, the evidence indicated that, in addition to a response bias effect, there was an increase in the minimal time required for information about the target to accumulate above chance level. A hybrid account of IOR is suggested that describes effects on both response bias and perceptual processing.

  10. The two-component non-perturbative pomeron and the G-Universality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolescu, Basarab E-mail: nicolesc@in2p3.fr

    2001-04-01

    In this communication we present a generalization of the Donnachie-Landshoff model inspired by the recent discovery of a 2-component Pomeron in LLA-QCD by Bartels, Lipatov and Vacca. In particular, we explore a new property, not present in the usual Regge theory - the G-Universality - which signifies the independence of one of the Pomeron components on the nature of the initial and final hadrons. The best description of the p-barp, pp, {pi}{sup {+-}}p, K{sup {+-}}p, {gamma}{gamma} and {gamma}p forward data is obtained when G-universality is imposed. Moreover, the ln{sup 2}s behaviour of the hadron amplitude, first established by Heisenberg, is clearly favoured by the data.

  11. Damping-free collective oscillations of a driven two-component Bose gas in optical lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchedrin, Gavriil; Jaschke, Daniel; Carr, Lincoln D.

    2018-04-01

    We explore the quantum many-body physics of a driven Bose-Einstein condensate in optical lattices. The laser field induces a gap in the generalized Bogoliubov spectrum proportional to the effective Rabi frequency. The lowest-lying modes in a driven condensate are characterized by zero group velocity and nonzero current. Thus, the laser field induces roton modes, which carry interaction in a driven condensate. We show that collective excitations below the energy of the laser-induced gap remain undamped, while above the gap they are characterized by a significantly suppressed Landau damping rate.

  12. A two component model for thermal emission from organic grains in Comet Halley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chyba, Christopher; Sagan, Carl

    1988-01-01

    Observations of Comet Halley in the near infrared reveal a triple-peaked emission feature near 3.4 micrometer, characteristic of C-H stretching in hydrocarbons. A variety of plausible cometary materials exhibit these features, including the organic residue of irradiated candidate cometary ices (such as the residue of irradiated methane ice clathrate, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Indeed, any molecule containing -CH3 and -CH2 alkanes will emit at 3.4 micrometer under suitable conditions. Therefore tentative identifications must rest on additional evidence, including a plausible account of the origins of the organic material, a plausible model for the infrared emission of this material, and a demonstration that this conjunction of material and model not only matches the 3 to 4 micrometer spectrum, but also does not yield additional emission features where none is observed. In the case of the residue of irradiated low occupancy methane ice clathrate, it is argued that the lab synthesis of the organic residue well simulates the radiation processing experienced by Comet Halley.

  13. Quantum phases of two-component bosons with spin-orbit coupling in optical lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Daisuke; Spielman, I. B.; Sá de Melo, C. A. R.

    2017-12-01

    Ultracold bosons in optical lattices are one of the few systems where bosonic matter is known to exhibit strong correlations. Here we push the frontier of our understanding of interacting bosons in optical lattices by adding synthetic spin-orbit coupling, and show that new kinds of density and chiral orders develop. The competition between the optical lattice period and the spin-orbit coupling length—which can be made comparable in experiments—along with the spin hybridization induced by a transverse field (i.e., Rabi coupling) and interparticle interactions create a rich variety of quantum phases including uniform, nonuniform, and phase-separated superfluids, as well as Mott insulators. The spontaneous symmetry-breaking phenomena at the transitions between them are explained by a two-order-parameter Ginzburg-Landau model with multiparticle umklapp processes. Finally, in order to characterize each phase, we calculated their experimentally measurable crystal momentum distributions.

  14. Nomenclature for Members of the Two-Component Signaling Pathway of Plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heyl, A.; Brault, M.; Frugier, F.; Kuderová, A.; Lindner, A.C.; Motyka, Václav; Rashotte, A.M.; von Schwartzenberg, K.; Vaňková, Radomíra; Schaller, G.E.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 161, č. 3 (2013), s. 1063-1065 ISSN 0032-0889 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : LIGAND-BINDING * CHASE DOMAIN * TRANSDUCTION Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 7.394, year: 2013

  15. A two component hot spot/ring model for the NIR flares of Sagittarius A*

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Meyer, L.; Eckart, A.; Schödel, R.; Duschl, W.J.; Dovčiak, Michal; Karas, Vladimír

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 54, - (2006), s. 443-447 ISSN 1742-6588. [Galactic Center Workshop 2006—From the center of the Milky Way to nearby low-luminosity galactic nuclei. Bad Honnef, 18.04.2006–22.04.2006] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : Black hole physics Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  16. A two-component dark matter model with real singlet scalars ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    dark matter relic density and the direct detection experimental results are considered. From the observation of anisotropies in CMBR, the PLANCK Collaboration estimated the relic density of dark matter in the Universe to be 0.1165 < DMh2 < 0.1227 where h is the Hubble parameter expressed in units of 100 Km/Mpc/s [1].

  17. Thermal Regulation of Membrane Lipid Fluidity by a Two-Component System in "Bacillus Subtilis"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredeston, L. M.; Marciano, D.; Albanesi, D.; De Mendoza, D.; Delfino, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a simple and robust laboratory exercise on the regulation of membrane unsaturated fatty acid composition in bacteria by a decrease in growth temperature. We take advantage of the well characterized Des pathway of "Bacillus subtilis", composed of a [delta]5-desaturase (encoded by the "des" gene) and the canonical…

  18. Wave propagation in bubble, two-component, two-phase flows. Theoretical and experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micaelli, Jean-Claude

    1982-01-01

    This research thesis first reports the theoretical study of pressure and vacuum rate waves (of low amplitude) propagating through two-phase flows. This study is performed by using hybrid models. These models, based on assessment equations averaged for each phase, are developed by using a stochastic processing of the gas phase behaviour. This stochastic processing allows the model closure. The author highlights, in the case of vacuum rate waves, the importance of mass effects, interface friction and interface heat transfer. An experimental study is performed by using a vertical test section equipped with resistive probes and pressure sensors, and a signal processing unit (Fourier transform, inter-spectrum). Experimental results are confirmed by theoretical results, and leads to quantitative information on laws governing the interaction between phases which are necessary for model closure [fr

  19. Getting into the flow: Red cells go on a roll, two-component vesicles swing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viallat, Annie; Dupire, Jules; Khelloufi, Kamel; Al Halifa, Al Hair; Adhesion and Inflammation Team

    2013-11-01

    Red blood cells are soft capsules. Under shear flow, their two known motions were ``tumbling'' and ``swinging-tank treading,'' depending on cell mechanics and flow conditions. We reveal new wobbling regimes, among which the ``rolling'' regime, where red cells move as wheels on a road. We show, by coupling two video-microscopy approaches providing multi-directional cell pictures that the orientation of cells flipping into the flow is determined by the shear rate. Rolling permits to avoid energetically costly cellular deformations and is a true signature of the cytoskeleton elasticity. We highlight two transient dynamics: an intermittent regime during the ``tank-treading-to-flipping'' transition and a Frisbee-like ``spinning'' regime during the ``rolling-to-tank-treading'' transition. We find that the biconcave red cell shape is very stable under moderate shear stresses, and we interpret this result in terms of shape memory and elastic buckling. Finally, we generate lipid vesicles with a shape memory by using two lipids with different bending rigidities. These vesicles swing in shear flow similarly to red blood cells but their non-axisymmetric stress-free shape changes the periodicity of the motion and induces specific features.

  20. Three-dimensional midwater camouflage from a novel two-component photonic structure in hatchetfish skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Eric I; Holt, Amanda L; Sweeney, Alison M

    2017-05-01

    The largest habitat by volume on Earth is the oceanic midwater, which is also one of the least understood in terms of animal ecology. The organisms here exhibit a spectacular array of optical adaptations for living in a visual void that have only barely begun to be described. We describe a complex pattern of broadband scattering from the skin of Argyropelecus sp., a hatchetfish found in the mesopelagic zone of the world's oceans. Hatchetfish skin superficially resembles the unpolished side of aluminium foil, but on closer inspection contains a complex composite array of subwavelength-scale dielectric structures. The superficial layer of this array contains dielectric stacks that are rectangular in cross-section, while the deeper layer contains dielectric bundles that are elliptical in cross-section; the cells in both layers have their longest dimension running parallel to the dorsal-ventral axis of the fish. Using the finite-difference time-domain approach and photographic radiometry, we explored the structural origins of this scattering behaviour and its environmental consequences. When the fish's flank is illuminated from an arbitrary incident angle, a portion of the scattered light exits in an arc parallel to the fish's anterior-posterior axis. Simultaneously, some incident light is also scattered downwards through the complex birefringent skin structure and exits from the ventral photophores. We show that this complex scattering pattern will provide camouflage simultaneously against the horizontal radially symmetric solar radiance in this habitat, and the predatory bioluminescent searchlights that are common here. The structure also directs light incident on the flank of the fish into the downwelling, silhouette-hiding counter-illumination of the ventral photophores. © 2017 The Authors.

  1. Digital logic circuit based on two component molecular systems of BSA and salen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai-Bin, Lin; Feng, Chen; Hong-Xu, Guo

    2018-02-01

    A new fluorescent molecular probe 1 was designed and constructed by combining bovine serum albumin (BSA) and N,N‧-bis(salicylidene)ethylenediamine (salen). Stimulated by Zn2 +, tris, or EDTAH2Na2, the distance between BSA and salen was regulated, which was accompanied by an obvious change in the fluorescence intensity at 350 or 445 nm based on Förster resonance energy transfer. Moreover, based on the encoding binary digits in these inputs and outputs applying positive logic conventions, a monomolecular circuit integrating one OR, three NOT, and three YES gates, was successfully achieved.

  2. A two-component dark matter model with real singlet scalars ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-05

    component dark matter model with real singlet scalars confronting GeV -ray excess from galactic centre and Fermi bubble. Debasish Majumdar Kamakshya Prasad Modak Subhendu Rakshit. Special: Cosmology Volume 86 Issue ...

  3. Phosphate sink containing two-component signaling systems as tunable threshold devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amin, Munia; Kothamachu, Varun B; Feliu, Elisenda

    2014-01-01

    rapid signal termination, whereby one of the RRs acts as a phosphate sink towards the other RR (i.e. the output RR), but also implements a sigmoidal signal-response relationship. We identify two mathematical conditions on system parameters that are necessary for sigmoidal signal-response relationships...

  4. Two component tungsten powder injection molding – An effective mass production process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antusch, Steffen; Commin, Lorelei; Mueller, Marcus; Piotter, Volker; Weingaertner, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Tungsten and tungsten-alloys are presently considered to be the most promising materials for plasma facing components for future fusion power plants. The Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) divertor design concept for the future DEMO power plant is based on modular He-cooled finger units and the development of suitable mass production methods for such parts was needed. A time and cost effective near-net-shape forming process with the advantage of shape complexity, material utilization and high final density is Powder Injection Molding (PIM). This process allows also the joining of two different materials e.g. tungsten with a doped tungsten alloy, without brazing. The complete technological process of 2-Component powder injection molding for tungsten materials and its application on producing real DEMO divertor parts, characterization results of the finished parts e.g. microstructure, hardness, density and joining zone quality are discussed in this contribution

  5. A comparative experimental evaluation of uncertainty estimation methods for two-component PIV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boomsma, Aaron; Troolin, Dan; Pothos, Stamatios; Bhattacharya, Sayantan; Vlachos, Pavlos

    2016-01-01

    Uncertainty quantification in planar particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurement is critical for proper assessment of the quality and significance of reported results. New uncertainty estimation methods have been recently introduced generating interest about their applicability and utility. The present study compares and contrasts current methods, across two separate experiments and three software packages in order to provide a diversified assessment of the methods. We evaluated the performance of four uncertainty estimation methods, primary peak ratio (PPR), mutual information (MI), image matching (IM) and correlation statistics (CS). The PPR method was implemented and tested in two processing codes, using in-house open source PIV processing software (PRANA, Purdue University) and Insight4G (TSI, Inc.). The MI method was evaluated in PRANA, as was the IM method. The CS method was evaluated using DaVis (LaVision, GmbH). Utilizing two PIV systems for high and low-resolution measurements and a laser doppler velocimetry (LDV) system, data were acquired in a total of three cases: a jet flow and a cylinder in cross flow at two Reynolds numbers. LDV measurements were used to establish a point validation against which the high-resolution PIV measurements were validated. Subsequently, the high-resolution PIV measurements were used as a reference against which the low-resolution PIV data were assessed for error and uncertainty. We compared error and uncertainty distributions, spatially varying RMS error and RMS uncertainty, and standard uncertainty coverages. We observed that qualitatively, each method responded to spatially varying error (i.e. higher error regions resulted in higher uncertainty predictions in that region). However, the PPR and MI methods demonstrated reduced uncertainty dynamic range response. In contrast, the IM and CS methods showed better response, but under-predicted the uncertainty ranges. The standard coverages (68% confidence interval) ranged from approximately 65%–77% for PPR and MI methods, 40%–50% for IM and near 50% for CS. These observations illustrate some of the strengths and weaknesses of the methods considered herein and identify future directions for development and improvement. (paper)

  6. Two-component Jaffe models with a central black hole - I. The spherical case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciotti, Luca; Ziaee Lorzad, Azadeh

    2018-02-01

    Dynamical properties of spherically symmetric galaxy models where both the stellar and total mass density distributions are described by the Jaffe (1983) profile (with different scalelengths and masses) are presented. The orbital structure of the stellar component is described by Osipkov-Merritt anisotropy, and a black hole (BH) is added at the centre of the galaxy; the dark matter halo is isotropic. First, the conditions required to have a nowhere negative and monotonically decreasing dark matter halo density profile are derived. We then show that the phase-space distribution function can be recovered by using the Lambert-Euler W function, while in absence of the central BH only elementary functions appears in the integrand of the inversion formula. The minimum value of the anisotropy radius for consistency is derived in terms of the galaxy parameters. The Jeans equations for the stellar component are solved analytically, and the projected velocity dispersion at the centre and at large radii are also obtained analytically for generic values of the anisotropy radius. Finally, the relevant global quantities entering the Virial Theorem are computed analytically, and the fiducial anisotropy limit required to prevent the onset of Radial Orbit Instability is determined as a function of the galaxy parameters. The presented models, even though highly idealized, represent a substantial generalization of the models presented in Ciotti, and can be useful as starting point for more advanced modelling, the dynamics and the mass distribution of elliptical galaxies.

  7. Engineering bright solitons to enhance the stability of two-component Bose-Einstein condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radha, R.; Vinayagam, P. S.; Sudharsan, J. B.; Liu, Wu-Ming; Malomed, Boris A.

    2015-12-01

    We consider a system of coupled Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equations describing a binary quasi-one-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) with intrinsic time-dependent attractive interactions, placed in a time-dependent expulsive parabolic potential, in a special case when the system is integrable (a deformed Manakov's system). Since the nonlinearity in the integrable system which represents binary attractive interactions exponentially decays with time, solitons are also subject to decay. Nevertheless, it is shown that the robustness of bright solitons can be enhanced in this system, making their respective lifetime longer, by matching the time dependence of the interaction strength (adjusted with the help of the Feshbach-resonance management) to the time modulation of the strength of the parabolic potential. The analytical results, and their stability, are corroborated by numerical simulations. In particular, we demonstrate that the addition of random noise does not impact the stability of the solitons.

  8. Engineering bright solitons to enhance the stability of two-component Bose–Einstein condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radha, R.; Vinayagam, P.S.; Sudharsan, J.B.; Liu, Wu-Ming; Malomed, Boris A.

    2015-01-01

    We consider a system of coupled Gross–Pitaevskii (GP) equations describing a binary quasi-one-dimensional Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) with intrinsic time-dependent attractive interactions, placed in a time-dependent expulsive parabolic potential, in a special case when the system is integrable (a deformed Manakov's system). Since the nonlinearity in the integrable system which represents binary attractive interactions exponentially decays with time, solitons are also subject to decay. Nevertheless, it is shown that the robustness of bright solitons can be enhanced in this system, making their respective lifetime longer, by matching the time dependence of the interaction strength (adjusted with the help of the Feshbach-resonance management) to the time modulation of the strength of the parabolic potential. The analytical results, and their stability, are corroborated by numerical simulations. In particular, we demonstrate that the addition of random noise does not impact the stability of the solitons. - Highlights: • We formulate a versatile mechanism to enhance the lifetime of vectorial condensates employing Feshbach Resonance. • Vectorial condensates in a transient harmonic trap are more long lived compared to their counterpart in a time independent harmonic trap. • Corroborate the exact analytical results with numerical simulations. • Addition of random noise does not impact the stability of vector BECs.

  9. Dopamine reward prediction-error signalling: a two-component response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Wolfram

    2017-01-01

    Environmental stimuli and objects, including rewards, are often processed sequentially in the brain. Recent work suggests that the phasic dopamine reward prediction-error response follows a similar sequential pattern. An initial brief, unselective and highly sensitive increase in activity unspecifically detects a wide range of environmental stimuli, then quickly evolves into the main response component, which reflects subjective reward value and utility. This temporal evolution allows the dopamine reward prediction-error signal to optimally combine speed and accuracy. PMID:26865020

  10. FRAN and RBF-PSO as two components of a hyper framework to recognize protein folds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Elham; Ghatee, Mehdi; Shiri, M E

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, an intelligent hyper framework is proposed to recognize protein folds from its amino acid sequence which is a fundamental problem in bioinformatics. This framework includes some statistical and intelligent algorithms for proteins classification. The main components of the proposed framework are the Fuzzy Resource-Allocating Network (FRAN) and the Radial Bases Function based on Particle Swarm Optimization (RBF-PSO). FRAN applies a dynamic method to tune up the RBF network parameters. Due to the patterns complexity captured in protein dataset, FRAN classifies the proteins under fuzzy conditions. Also, RBF-PSO applies PSO to tune up the RBF classifier. Experimental results demonstrate that FRAN improves prediction accuracy up to 51% and achieves acceptable multi-class results for protein fold prediction. Although RBF-PSO provides reasonable results for protein fold recognition up to 48%, it is weaker than FRAN in some cases. However the proposed hyper framework provides an opportunity to use a great range of intelligent methods and can learn from previous experiences. Thus it can avoid the weakness of some intelligent methods in terms of memory, computational time and static structure. Furthermore, the performance of this system can be enhanced throughout the system life-cycle. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A two-component, multimeric endolysin encoded by a single gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proença, Daniela; Velours, Christophe; Leandro, Clara; Garcia, Miguel; Pimentel, Madalena; São-José, Carlos

    2015-03-01

    Bacteriophage endolysins are bacterial cell wall degrading enzymes whose potential to fight bacterial infections has been intensively studied. Endolysins from Gram-positive systems are typically described as monomeric and as having a modular structure consisting of one or two N-terminal catalytic domains (CDs) linked to a C-terminal region responsible for cell wall binding (CWB). We show here that expression of the endolysin gene lys170 of the enterococcal phage F170/08 results in two products, the expected full length endolysin (Lys170FL) and a C-terminal fragment corresponding to the CWB domain (CWB170). The latter is produced from an in-frame, alternative translation start site. Both polypeptides interact to form the fully active endolysin. Biochemical data strongly support a model where Lys170 is made of one monomer of Lys170FL associated with up to three CWB170 subunits, which are responsible for efficient endolysin binding to its substrate. Bioinformatics analysis indicates that similar secondary translation start signals may be used to produce and add independent CWB170-like subunits to different enzymatic specificities. The particular configuration of endolysin Lys170 uncovers a new mode of increasing the number of CWB motifs associated to CD modules, as an alternative to the tandem repetition typically found in monomeric cell wall hydrolases. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Comparative genomic analysis of two-component regulatory proteins in Pseudomonas syringae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavin, J.L.; Kiil, Kristoffer; Resano, O.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Pseudomonas syringae is a widespread bacterial plant pathogen, and strains of P. syringae may be assigned to different pathovars based on host specificity among different plant species. The genomes of P. syringae pv. syringae (Psy) B728a, pv. tomato (Pto) DC3000 and pv. phaseolicola...

  13. Linearized inversion of two components seismic data; Inversion linearisee de donnees sismiques a deux composantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebrun, D.

    1997-05-22

    The aim of the dissertation is the linearized inversion of multicomponent seismic data for 3D elastic horizontally stratified media, using Born approximation. A Jacobian matrix is constructed; it will be used to model seismic data from elastic parameters. The inversion technique, relying on single value decomposition (SVD) of the Jacobian matrix, is described. Next, the resolution of inverted elastic parameters is quantitatively studies. A first use of the technique is shown in the frame of an evaluation of a sea bottom acquisition (synthetic data). Finally, a real data set acquired with conventional marine technique is inverted. (author) 70 refs.

  14. Re-engineering the two-component systems as light-regulated

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Here, we extended the study to other 16 HK-RR TCSs andconstructed a library of light-responsible HK-Cph1 chimeras. By taking the NarX-NarL system as an example, wedemonstrated the light responsiveness of the constructed chimera and investigated the frequency response of the NarXNarLsystem. The constructed ...

  15. Molecular Mechanism of the Two-Component Suicidal Weapon of Neocapritermes taracua Old Workers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bourguignon, T.; Šobotník, J.; Brabcová, Jana; Sillam-Dusses, D.; Buček, Aleš; Krasulová, Jana; Vytisková, B.; Demianova, Z.; Mareš, Michael; Roisin, Y.; Vogel, H.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 3 (2016), s. 809-819 ISSN 0737-4038 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1302 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : altruism * colony defense * termite * Isoptera * laccase Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 6.202, year: 2016

  16. Transient two-phase two-component water-steam-air flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolev, N.I.

    1983-01-01

    A mathematical model of a transient one-dimensional two-phase flow consisting of water, steam, and air is described. In the general case, a system of four partial differential equations of hyperbolic type was derived. The expression obtained for the velocity of sound is in good agreement with the results of the experiment. There is also good agreement with existing theories for the limiting cases of a missing phase or component. A numerical example demonstrating the application of the theory is shown

  17. Spatially resolved imaging of the two-component η Crv debris disk with Herschel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duchêne, G.; Arriaga, P.; Kalas, P. [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Wyatt, M.; Kennedy, G. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Sibthorpe, B. [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, P.O. Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Lisse, C. [JHU-APL, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Holland, W. [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Wisniewski, J. [H.L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks St., Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Clampin, M. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 681, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Pinte, C. [UMI-FCA, CNRS/INSU, France (UMI 3386) (France); Wilner, D. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Booth, M. [Instituto de Astrofísica, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Macul, Santiago (Chile); Horner, J. [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Matthews, B. [National Research Council of Canada Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Greaves, J. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-01

    We present far-infrared and submillimeter images of the η Crv debris disk system obtained with Herschel and SCUBA-2, as well as Hubble Space Telescope visible and near-infrared coronagraphic images. In the 70 μm Herschel image, we clearly separate the thermal emission from the warm and cold belts in the system, find no evidence for a putative dust population located between them, and precisely determine the geometry of the outer belt. We also find marginal evidence for azimuthal asymmetries and a global offset of the outer debris ring relative to the central star. Finally, we place stringent upper limits on the scattered light surface brightness of the outer ring. Using radiative transfer modeling, we find that it is impossible to account for all observed properties of the system under the assumption that both rings contain dust populations with the same properties. While the outer belt is in reasonable agreement with the expectations of steady-state collisional cascade models, albeit with a minimum grain size that is four times larger than the blow-out size, the inner belt appears to contain copious amounts of small dust grains, possibly below the blow-out size. This suggests that the inner belt cannot result from a simple transport of grains from the outer belt and rather supports a more violent phenomenon as its origin. We also find that the emission from the inner belt has not declined over three decades, a much longer timescale than its dynamical timescale, which indicates that the belt is efficiently replenished.

  18. GRAVITATIONAL INSTABILITIES IN TWO-COMPONENT GALAXY DISKS WITH GAS DISSIPATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmegreen, Bruce G.

    2011-01-01

    Growth rates for gravitational instabilities in a thick disk of gas and stars are determined for a turbulent gas that dissipates on the local crossing time. The scale heights are derived from vertical equilibrium. The accuracy of the usual thickness correction, (1 + kH) -1 , is better than 6% in the growth rate when compared to exact integrations for the gravitational acceleration in the disk. Gas dissipation extends the instability to small scales, removing the minimum Jeans length. This makes infinitesimally thin disks unstable for all Toomre-Q values and reasonably thick disks stable at high Q primarily because of thickness effects. The conventional gas+star threshold, Q tot , increases from ∼1 without dissipation to 2 or 3 when dissipation has a rate equal to the crossing rate over a perturbation scale. Observations of Q tot ∼ 2-3 and the presence of supersonic turbulence suggest that disks are unstable over a wide range of scales. Such instabilities drive spiral structure if there is shear and clumpy structure if shear is weak; they may dominate the generation of turbulence. Feedback regulation of Q tot is complex because the stellar component does not cool; the range of spiral strengths from multiple arm to flocculent galaxies suggests that feedback is weak. Gravitational instabilities may have a connection to star formation even when the star formation rate scales directly with the molecular mass because the instabilities return dispersed gas to molecular clouds and complete the cycle of cloud formation and destruction. The mass flow to dense clouds by instabilities can be 10 times larger than the star formation rate.

  19. On integrability of the Yao–Zeng two-component short-pulse equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunelli, J.C.; Sakovich, S.

    2012-01-01

    We show how the Yao–Zeng system of coupled short-pulse equations is related to the original short-pulse equation and obtain the correct zero-curvature representation of the Yao–Zeng system via this relationship.

  20. Fitting a Two-Component Scattering Model to Polarimetric SAR Data from Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    Two simple scattering mechanisms are fitted to polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) observations of forests. The mechanisms are canopy scatter from a reciprocal medium with azimuthal symmetry and a ground scatter term that can represent double-bounce scatter from a pair of orthogonal surfaces with different dielectric constants or Bragg scatter from a moderately rough surface, which is seen through a layer of vertically oriented scatterers. The model is shown to represent the behavior of polarimetric backscatter from a tropical forest and two temperate forest sites by applying it to data from the National Aeronautic and Space Agency/Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Airborne SAR (AIRSAR) system. Scattering contributions from the two basic scattering mechanisms are estimated for clusters of pixels in polarimetric SAR images. The solution involves the estimation of four parameters from four separate equations. This model fit approach is justified as a simplification of more complicated scattering models, which require many inputs to solve the forward scattering problem. The model is used to develop an understanding of the ground-trunk double-bounce scattering that is present in the data, which is seen to vary considerably as a function of incidence angle. Two parameters in the model fit appear to exhibit sensitivity to vegetation canopy structure, which is worth further exploration. Results from the model fit for the ground scattering term are compared with estimates from a forward model and shown to be in good agreement. The behavior of the scattering from the ground-trunk interaction is consistent with the presence of a pseudo-Brewster angle effect for the air-trunk scattering interface. If the Brewster angle is known, it is possible to directly estimate the real part of the dielectric constant of the trunks, a key variable in forward modeling of backscatter from forests. It is also shown how, with a priori knowledge of the forest height, an estimate for the attenuation coefficient of the canopy can be obtained directly from the multi-incidence-angle polarimetric observations. This attenuation coefficient is another key variable in forward models and is generally related to the canopy density.

  1. Fitting a Two-Component Scattering Model to Polarimetric SAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, A.

    1998-01-01

    Classification, decomposition and modeling of polarimetric SAR data has received a great deal of attention in the recent literature. The objective behind these efforts is to better understand the scattering mechanisms which give rise to the polarimetric signatures seen in SAR image data. In this Paper an approach is described, which involves the fit of a combination of two simple scattering mechanisms to polarimetric SAR observations. The mechanisms am canopy scatter from a cloud of randomly oriented oblate spheroids, and a ground scatter term, which can represent double-bounce scatter from a pair of orthogonal surfaces with different dielectric constants or Bragg scatter from a moderately rough surface, seen through a layer of vertically oriented scatterers. An advantage of this model fit approach is that the scattering contributions from the two basic scattering mechanisms can be estimated for clusters of pixels in polarimetric SAR images. The solution involves the estimation of four parameters from four separate equations. The model fit can be applied to polarimetric AIRSAR data at C-, L- and P-Band.

  2. Two-component injection moulding simulation of ABS-POM micro structured surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Islam, Aminul

    2013-01-01

    a pair of thermoplastic materials (ABS and POM) were conducted. Three dimensional process simulations based on the finite element method have been performed to explore the capability of predicting filling pattern shape at component-level and surface micro feature-level in a polymer/polymer overmoulding...

  3. The two-component system ChtRS contributes to chlorhexidine tolerance in Enterococcus faecium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guzmán Prieto, Ana M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413649903; Wijngaarden, Jessica; Braat, Johanna C.; Rogers, Malbert R.C.; Majoor, Eline; Brouwer, Ellen C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304815667; Zhang, Xinglin; Bayjanov, Jumamurat R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313070555; Bonten, Marc J.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/123144337; Willems, Rob J.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/106866370; Van Schaik, Willem|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/279958846

    2017-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium is one of the primary causes of nosocomial infections. Disinfectants are commonly used to prevent infections with multidrugresistant E. faecium in hospitals. Worryingly, E. faecium strains that exhibit tolerance to disinfectants have already been described. We aimed to identify

  4. A hydrodynamic scheme for two-component winds from hot stars

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Votruba, Viktor; Feldmeier, A.; Kubát, Jiří; Rätzel, D.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 474, č. 2 (2007), s. 549-555 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB301630501 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : hydrodynamics, hot stars, stellar wind * hot stars * stellar wind Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2007

  5. Continuous Fractionation of a two-component mixture by zone electrophoresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zalewski, D.R.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.

    2009-01-01

    Synchronized continuous-flow zone electrophoresis is a recently demonstrated tool for performing electrophoretic fractionation of a complex sample. The method resembles free flow electrophoresis, but unlike in that technique, no mechanical fluid pumping is required. Instead, fast electrokinetic flow

  6. Reflection, transmutation, annihilation, and resonance in two-component kink collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Izquierdo, A.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, the study of collisions between kinks arising in the family of MSTB models is addressed. Phenomena such as elastic kink reflection, mutual annihilation, kink-antikink transmutation and inelastic reflection are found and depend on the impact velocity.

  7. Mixing efficiency inside micro-droplets coalesced by two components in cross-structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yanlin; Liu, Zhaomiao; Pang, Yan

    2017-11-01

    The mixing of micro-droplets is used in analytical chemistry, medicine production and material synthesis owing to its advantages including the encapsulation and narrow time residence distribution. In this work, droplets are coalesced by two dispersed phase with different flow rates, generated in cross-structure and mixed in planar serpentine structure. The mixing efficiency of micro-droplets under control characters including the width of entrance and the flow rate of dispersed phases have been investigated by experiments and numerical simulations. The UDS (user-defined scalar) as dimensionless concentration of the solution is adopted in simulation, and is used to calculate the concentration and the mixing effect. By changing the flow rates and the entrances` width, the changing rules of the mixing characters have been obtained. The asymmetry distributions of components make rapid mixing process in half part of each droplet when travel through a straight channel. Increasing of the ratio of entrance width result into larger droplet and weaken the chaotic mixing effect. Meanwhile, the coalesced mechanism can be performed by ranging the ratio of flow rates, the ranges are also determined by the widths of entrances. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11572013).

  8. Experimental study of wind tunnel performance by a two-component laserDopplerAnemometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Pourmahabadian

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: This survey studies the wind tunnel performance by a two- componentlaser Doppler Anemometer, so some experiments were carried out to assess the performance of awind tunnel.Method: The tunnel was capable to produce air velocity of up to 40 m/s.. Measurements ofvelocity profiles have been made actors the test section of wind tunnel through the using a twocomponentfiber optic Laser Doppler anemometer. Measurements of velocity profiles andturbulence intensities have been made across the test section of the wind tunnel using a twocomponentfiber optic Laser Doppler anemometer (I.D.A for wind speeds ranging from 1 to3m/s.Results: Performance rests of velocity profiles at a given flow rate and various position of aerosolgenerator showed that although uniformity of flow dependent to the place of an atomizer (asaerosol generator but the variation of wind speed across the test section meets the wind speedrequirements, as specified by US EPAfor 3m/s only.Conclusion:At time which particles velocity reach to less than one micron, the air velocity relateson the similarity of particles and

  9. The 'initial burst' of human primary muscle spindle afferents has at least two components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edin, B B

    1991-10-01

    Ten muscle spindle primary afferents from the extensor digitorum communis muscle of man were studied with single unit afferent recordings. Responses to slow test stretches with three different pre-history conditions were assessed to investigate the contribution of rapid stretches to the stretch sensitization phenomenon. In two of the conditions, the slow test ramps were preceded by rapid stretch after which the parent muscle of the receptor was either (a) kept short for 5 seconds or (b) kept long for 3.2 seconds and then returned to the short muscle length for 5 seconds. The third condition (c) consisted of a slow stretch from short to long muscle length followed by a rapid return to the short muscle length, in turn followed by 5 seconds at the short muscle length. Afferent responses were depressed when the muscle had been kept at the long length after the rapid stretches (condition b) and enhanced when the muscle had been kept at the short length (conditions a & c). A prominent 'initial burst' was only present in the afferent discharge when the parent muscles of the primary endings had been kept short (condition a). A second, more prolonged burst was present for conditions (a) and (c) but was lacking or inconspicuous when the muscle had been kept long after rapid stretches (condition b). The rapid stretches in the stretch sensitization paradigm appear to be a primary factor not only for the enhanced responses of sensitized primary afferents but also for the depressed responses of desensitized primary afferents.

  10. Positive Charges on the Surface of Thaumatin Are Crucial for the Multi-Point Interaction with the Sweet Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Tetsuya; Kigo, Satomi; Mitsumoto, Mayuko; Ohta, Keisuke; Suzuki, Mamoru; Mikami, Bunzo; Kitabatake, Naofumi; Tani, Fumito

    2018-01-01

    Thaumatin, an intensely sweet-tasting protein, elicits sweet taste with a threshold of only 50 nM. Previous studies from our laboratory suggested that the complex model between the T1R2-T1R3 sweet receptor and thaumatin depends critically on the complementarity of electrostatic potentials. In order to further validate this model, we focused on three lysine residues (Lys78, Lys106, and Lys137), which were expected to be part of the interaction sites. Three thaumatin mutants (K78A, K106A, and K137A) were prepared and their threshold values of sweetness were examined. The results showed that the sweetness of K106A was reduced by about three times and those of K78A and K137A were reduced by about five times when compared to wild-type thaumatin. The three-dimensional structures of these mutants were also determined by X-ray crystallographic analyses at atomic resolutions. The overall structures of mutant proteins were similar to that of wild-type but the electrostatic potentials around the mutated sites became more negative. Since the three lysine residues are located in 20-40 Å apart each other on the surface of thaumatin molecule, these results suggest the positive charges on the surface of thaumatin play a crucial role in the interaction with the sweet receptor, and are consistent with a large surface is required for interaction with the sweet receptor, as proposed by the multipoint interaction model named wedge model.

  11. Multi-point ground-based ULF magnetic field observations in Europe during seismic active periods in 2004 and 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Prattes

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of ground-based Ultra Low Frequency (ULF magnetic field measurements observed from June to August 2004 during the Bovec earthquake on 12 July 2004. Further we give information about the seismic activity in the local observatory region for an extended time span 2004 and 2005. ULF magnetic field data are provided by the South European Geomagnetic Array (SEGMA where the experience and heritage from the CHInese MAGnetometer (CHIMAG fluxgate magnetometer comes to application. The intensities of the horizontal H and vertical Z magnetic field and the polarization ratio R of the vertical and horizontal magnetic field intensity are analyzed taking into consideration three SEGMA observatories located at different close distances and directions from the earthquake epicenter. We observed a significant increase of high polarization ratios during strong seismic activity at the observatory nearest to the Bovec earthquake epicenter. Apart from indirect ionospheric effects electromagnetic noise could be emitted in the lithosphere due to tectonic effects in the earthquake focus region causing anomalies of the vertical magnetic field intensity. Assuming that the measured vertical magnetic field intensities are of lithospheric origin, we roughly estimate the amplitude of electromagnetic noise in the Earths crust considering an average electrical conductivity of <σ>=10−3 S/m and a certain distance of the observatory to the earthquake epicenter.

  12. Positive Charges on the Surface of Thaumatin Are Crucial for the Multi-Point Interaction with the Sweet Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Tetsuya; Kigo, Satomi; Mitsumoto, Mayuko; Ohta, Keisuke; Suzuki, Mamoru; Mikami, Bunzo; Kitabatake, Naofumi; Tani, Fumito

    2018-01-01

    Thaumatin, an intensely sweet-tasting protein, elicits sweet taste with a threshold of only 50 nM. Previous studies from our laboratory suggested that the complex model between the T1R2-T1R3 sweet receptor and thaumatin depends critically on the complementarity of electrostatic potentials. In order to further validate this model, we focused on three lysine residues (Lys78, Lys106, and Lys137), which were expected to be part of the interaction sites. Three thaumatin mutants (K78A, K106A, and K137A) were prepared and their threshold values of sweetness were examined. The results showed that the sweetness of K106A was reduced by about three times and those of K78A and K137A were reduced by about five times when compared to wild-type thaumatin. The three-dimensional structures of these mutants were also determined by X-ray crystallographic analyses at atomic resolutions. The overall structures of mutant proteins were similar to that of wild-type but the electrostatic potentials around the mutated sites became more negative. Since the three lysine residues are located in 20–40 Å apart each other on the surface of thaumatin molecule, these results suggest the positive charges on the surface of thaumatin play a crucial role in the interaction with the sweet receptor, and are consistent with a large surface is required for interaction with the sweet receptor, as proposed by the multipoint interaction model named wedge model. PMID:29487853

  13. OPTIMASI OLSR ROUTING PROTOCOL PADA JARINGAN WIRELESS MESH DENGAN ADAPTIVE REFRESHING TIME INTERVAL DAN ENHANCE MULTI POINT RELAY SELECTING ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faosan Mapa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Wireless Mesh Network (WMN adalah suatu konektivitas jaringan yang self-organized, self-configured dan multi-hop. Tujuan dari WMN adalah menawarkan pengguna suatu bentuk jaringan nirkabel yang dapat dengan mudah berkomunikasi dengan jaringan konvensional dengan kecepatan tinggi dan dengan cakupan yang lebih luas serta biaya awal yang minimal. Diperlukan suatu desain protokol routing yang efisien untuk WMN yang secara adaptif dapat mendukung mesh routers dan mesh clients. Dalam tulisan ini, diusulkan untuk mengoptimalkan protokol OLSR, yang merupakan protokol routing proaktif. Digunakan heuristik yang meningkatkan protokol OLSR melalui adaptive refreshing time interval dan memperbaiki metode MPR selecting algorithm. Suatu analisa dalam meningkatkan protokol OLSR melalui adaptive refreshing time interval dan memperbaiki algoritma pemilihan MPR menunjukkan kinerja yang signifikan dalam hal throughput jika dibandingkan dengan protokol OLSR yang asli. Akan tetapi, terdapat kenaikan dalam hal delay. Pada simulasi yang dilakukan dapat disimpulkan bahwa OLSR dapat dioptimalkan dengan memodifikasi pemilihan node MPR berdasarkan cost effective dan penyesuaian waktu interval refreshing hello message sesuai dengan keadaan jaringan.

  14. Modeling and Event-Driven Simulation of Coordinated Multi-Point in LTE-Advanced with Constrained Backhaul

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artuso, Matteo; Christiansen, Henrik Lehrmann

    2014-01-01

    Inter-cell interference (ICI) is considered as the most critical bottleneck to ubiquitous 4th generation cellular access in the mobile long term evolution (LTE). To address the problem, several solutions are under evaluation as part of LTE-Advanced (LTE-A), the most promising one being coordinated...

  15. Evaluation of the impact of ionospheric disturbances on air navigation augmentation system using multi-point GPS receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omatsu, N.; Otsuka, Y.; Shiokawa, K.; Saito, S.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, GPS has been utilized for navigation system for airplanes. Propagation delays in the ionosphere due to total electron content (TEC) between GPS satellite and receiver cause large positioning errors. In precision measurement using GPS, the ionospheric delay correction is generally conducted using both GPS L1 and L2 frequencies. However, L2 frequency is not internationally accepted as air navigation band, so it is not available for positioning directly in air navigation. In air navigation, not only positioning accuracy but safety is important, so augmentation systems are required to ensure the safety. Augmentation systems such as the satellite-based augmentation system (SBAS) or the ground-based augmentation system (GBAS) are being developed and some of them are already in operation. GBAS is available in a relatively narrow area around airports. In general, it corrects for the combined effects of multiple sources of positioning errors simultaneously, including satellite clock and orbital information errors, ionospheric delay errors, and tropospheric delay errors, using the differential corrections broadcast by GBAS ground station. However, if the spatial ionospheric delay gradient exists in the area, correction errors remain even after correction by GBAS. It must be a threat to GBAS. In this study, we use the GPS data provided by the Geographical Survey Institute in Japan. From the GPS data, TEC is obtained every 30 seconds. We select 4 observation points from 24.4 to 35.6 degrees north latitude in Japan, and analyze TEC data of these points from 2001 to 2011. Then we reveal dependences of Rate of TEC change Index (ROTI) on latitude, season, and solar activity statistically. ROTI is the root-mean-square deviation of time subtraction of TEC within 5 minutes. In the result, it is the midnight of the spring and the summer of the solar maximum in the point of 26.4 degrees north latitude that the value of ROTI becomes the largest. We think it is caused by plasma bubbles, and the maximum value of ROTI is about 6 TECU/min. Since it is thought that ROTI is an index representing the spatial ionospheric delay gradient, we can evaluate the effect of spatial ionospheric delay gradient to GBAS. In addition, we will discuss azimuth angle dependence of ROTI. We have found that ROTI tends to be high when the GPS satellites are seen westward. Initial analysis results in Indonesia show a similar feature. This feature could arise from the westward tilt of the plasma bubbles with altitude. More detailed results will be reported in this presentation.

  16. Mathematical model of optimized design of multi-point sensoric measurement with Bragg gratings using wavelength divison multiplex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajkus, Marcel; Nedoma, Jan; Kepak, Stanislav; Rapant, Lukas; Martinek, Radek; Bednarek, Lukas; Novak, Martin; Vasinek, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    Fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) belongs to the single-point optical sensors used in many fields and applications where they often replace a standard sensors. They are easy to multiplex and the wavelength division multiplex is the most widely used method. FBGs in sensory branch are designed for a different Bragg wavelength which gives different measure and sensitivity coefficients. Existing algorithm is based on the determination of left and right boundaries of the measuring channel and the central Bragg wavelength. In this paper is presented the new mathematical model for calculation of Bragg wavelength, sensitivity coefficient and channel width of any FBG in the single step. The model takes into account the following input parameters: wavelength of the optical source, source bandwidth, the type of measured quantity, measuring ranges, width of the FBG reflected spectrum and the guard band between adjacent channels. The mathematical model is verified by using a simulation in software OptiSystem.

  17. The "Lung": a software-controlled air accumulator for quasi-continuous multi-point measurement of agricultural greenhouse gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Martin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe the design and testing of a flexible bag ("Lung" accumulator attached to a gas chromatographic (GC analyzer capable of measuring surface-atmosphere greenhouse gas exchange fluxes in a wide range of environmental/agricultural settings. In the design presented here, the Lung can collect up to three gas samples concurrently, each accumulated into a Tedlar bag over a period of 20 min or longer. Toggling collection between 2 sets of 3 bags enables quasi-continuous collection with sequential analysis and discarding of sample residues. The Lung thus provides a flexible "front end" collection system for interfacing to a GC or alternative analyzer and has been used in 2 main types of application. Firstly, it has been applied to micrometeorological assessment of paddock-scale N2O fluxes, discussed here. Secondly, it has been used for the automation of concurrent emission assessment from three sheep housed in metabolic crates with gas tracer addition and sampling multiplexed to a single GC.

    The Lung allows the same GC equipment used in laboratory discrete sample analysis to be deployed for continuous field measurement. Continuity of measurement enables spatially-averaged N2O fluxes in particular to be determined with greater accuracy, given the highly heterogeneous and episodic nature of N2O emissions. We present a detailed evaluation of the micrometeorological flux estimation alongside an independent tuneable diode laser system, reporting excellent agreement between flux estimates based on downwind vertical concentration differences. Whilst the current design is based around triplet bag sets, the basic design could be scaled up to a larger number of inlets or bags and less frequent analysis (longer accumulation times where a greater number of sampling points are required.

  18. The plasma sheet and boundary layers under northward IMF: A multi-point and multi-instrument perspective

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Taylor, M. G. G. T.; Lavraud, B.; Escoubet, C. P.; Milan, S.E.; Nykyri, K.; Dunlop, M. W.; Davies, J.A.; Friedel, R.H.W.; Frey, H.; Bogdanova, Y.V.; Asnes, A.; Laakso, H.; Trávníček, Pavel M.; Masson, A.; Opgenoorth, H.; Vallat, C.; Fazakerley, A. N.; Lahiff, A.; Owen, C. J.; Pitout, F.; Pu, Y.; Shen, C.; Zong, Q.-G.; Rème, H.; Scudder, J. D.; Zhang, T. L.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 10 (2008), s. 1619-1629 ISSN 0273-1177 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : plasma sheet * magnetopshere * cold dense plasma sheet Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.860, year: 2008

  19. Direct view on the phase evolution in individual LiFePO4 nanoparticles during Li-ion battery cycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.; Van Hulzen, M.; Singh, D.P.; Brownrigg, A.W.; Wright, J.P.; Van Dijk, N.H.; Wagemaker, M.

    2015-01-01

    Phase transitions in Li-ion electrode materials during (dis)charge are decisive for battery performance, limiting high-rate capabilities and playing a crucial role in the cycle life of Li-ion batteries. However, the difficulty to probe the phase nucleation and growth in individual grains is

  20. Direct view at colossal permittivity in donor-acceptor (Nb, In) co-doped rutile TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandal, Suman; Pal, Somnath; Hazarika, Abhijit; Kundu, Asish K.; Menon, Krishnakumar S. R.; Rioult, Maxime; Belkhou, Rachid

    2016-01-01

    Topical observations of colossal permittivity (CP) with low dielectric loss in donor-acceptor cations co-doped rutile TiO 2 have opened up several possibilities in microelectronics and energy-storage devices. Yet, the precise origin of the CP behavior, knowledge of which is essential to empower the device integration suitably, is highly disputed in the literature. From spectromicroscopic approach besides dielectric measurements, we explore that microscopic electronic inhomogeneities along with the nano-scale phase boundaries and the low temperature polaronic relaxation are mostly responsible for such a dielectric behavior, rather than electron-pinned defect-dipoles/grain-boundary effects as usually proposed. Donor-acceptor co-doping results in a controlled carrier-hopping inevitably influencing the dielectric loss while invariably upholding the CP value.

  1. Direct view at colossal permittivity in donor-acceptor (Nb, In) co-doped rutile TiO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandal, Suman, E-mail: suman.mandal@sscu.iisc.ernet.in; Pal, Somnath; Hazarika, Abhijit [Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru 560012 (India); Kundu, Asish K.; Menon, Krishnakumar S. R. [Surface Physics and Material Science Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata 700064 (India); Rioult, Maxime; Belkhou, Rachid [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des Merisiers Saint-Aubin, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2016-08-29

    Topical observations of colossal permittivity (CP) with low dielectric loss in donor-acceptor cations co-doped rutile TiO{sub 2} have opened up several possibilities in microelectronics and energy-storage devices. Yet, the precise origin of the CP behavior, knowledge of which is essential to empower the device integration suitably, is highly disputed in the literature. From spectromicroscopic approach besides dielectric measurements, we explore that microscopic electronic inhomogeneities along with the nano-scale phase boundaries and the low temperature polaronic relaxation are mostly responsible for such a dielectric behavior, rather than electron-pinned defect-dipoles/grain-boundary effects as usually proposed. Donor-acceptor co-doping results in a controlled carrier-hopping inevitably influencing the dielectric loss while invariably upholding the CP value.

  2. A two-component mass balance model for calibration of solid-phase microextraction fibers for pyrethroids in seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Wenjian; Maruya, Keith A; Tsukada, David

    2012-11-06

    Determination of the analyte-specific distribution coefficient between the aqueous and sorbing phases is required for estimation of the aqueous-phase concentration of the analyte of interest using polymeric materials. Poly(dimethylsiloxane)-coated solid-phase microextration (PDMS-SPME) fiber-water partition coefficient (K(f)) values for eight common-use pyrethroids were determined using a two-compartment mass balance model and parameters determined in experimental seawater microcosms. Mass balance, epimerization, and aqueous-phase degradation (i.e., hydrolysis) were characterized using gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry to facilitate K(f) estimation. Of the eight pyrethroids, only bifenthrin exhibited increasing sorption on the SPME fiber over the entire time-series exposure, indicating that its K(f) value could be estimated through a stable-compound model. The remaining pyrethroids were found to be unstable (half-life of 0.98) and the remaining unstable pyrethroids (R(2) > 0.7), leading to estimated values of log K(f) between 5.7 and 6.4, after correcting for residual dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the experimental seawater. These K(f) values can be used to determine freely dissolved pyrethroid concentrations in the pg/L range using PDMS-SPME in fresh or seawater matrices under equilibrium conditions in laboratory or field applications.

  3. Soliton and rogue wave solutions of two-component nonlinear Schrödinger equation coupled to the Boussinesq equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Cai-Qin; Xiao, Dong-Mei; Zhu, Zuo-Nong

    2017-09-01

    Not Available Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11371248, 11431008, 11271254, 11428102, and 11671255) and the Fund from the Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness of Spain (Grant Nos. MTM2012-37070 and MTM2016-80276-P (AEI/FEDER,EU)).

  4. Interfacial dynamic and dilational rheology of polyelectrolyte/surfactant two-component nanoparticle systems at air–water interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, L.J.; Bao, M.T.; Li, Y.M.; Gong, H.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • DTAB/PSS mixture can self-assemble nanoparticles in bulk solution. • The nanoparticles can adsorb at the interface forming a nanoparticle monolayer. • The nanoparticles spread at the interface undergo a disassembly process with time. • The nanoparticle monolayer presents peculiar dilational viscoelastic behavior. - Abstract: The interfacial characteristics of nanoparticles and consequent inter-particle interactions at the interface are poorly understood. In this work, the interfacial dynamic and corresponding dilational surface rheology of self-assembled polyelectrolyte/surfactant nanoparticles at the air–water interface are characterized. The nanoparticles are prepared from dodecyltrimethylammonium (DTAB) and poly (sodium 4-styrene-sulfonate) (PSS) by mixing them in aqueous solution. The interfacial dynamic characteristics have been carried out by comparing the surface pressure with the dilational rheological response of these nanoparticles at interface. The results indicate that this type of nanoparticles can adsorb at the interface forming a nanoparticle monolayer, which leads to the surface tension decreased markedly. The dependence of surface pressure on time shows the instability and disassembly process of nanoparticles at the interface. On the basis of these observations, it is proposed that the nanoparticles undergo a dynamic process that interface induced nanoparticles disassembly into DTAB/PSS complexes. The presence of PSS in the subphase can promote the process of nanoparticles disassembly. A transition point in dilational elasticity and viscosity response of the nanoparticles versus oscillation frequency further validate the micro dynamic process of nanoparticles and the formation of polyelectrolyte/surfactant complex monolayer at the interface

  5. Three-body recombination of two-component cold atomic gases into deep dimers in an optical model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Mathias; Jensen, A. S.; Fedorov, D. V.

    2015-01-01

    is usually related to the non-equal two-body systems. We account for temperature smearing which tends to wipe out the higher-lying Efimov peaks. The range and the strength of the imaginary potential determine positions and shapes of the Efimov peaks as well as the absolute value of the recombination rate....... The Efimov scaling between recombination peaks is calculated and shown to depend on both scattering lengths. Recombination is predicted to be largest for heavy-heavy-light systems. Universal properties of the optical parameters are indicated. We compare to available experiments and find in general very...

  6. Isolation of EPR spectra and estimation of spin-states in two-component mixtures of paramagnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabbra, Sonia; Smith, David M; Bode, Bela E

    2018-04-26

    The presence of multiple paramagnetic species can lead to overlapping electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signals. This complication can be a critical obstacle for the use of EPR to unravel mechanisms and aid the understanding of earth abundant metal catalysis. Furthermore, redox or spin-crossover processes can result in the simultaneous presence of metal centres in different oxidation or spin states. In this contribution, pulse EPR experiments on model systems containing discrete mixtures of Cr(i) and Cr(iii) or Cu(ii) and Mn(ii) complexes demonstrate the feasibility of the separation of the EPR spectra of these species by inversion recovery filters and the identification of the relevant spin states by transient nutation experiments. We demonstrate the isolation of component spectra and identification of spin states in a mixture of catalyst precursors. The usefulness of the approach is emphasised by monitoring the fate of the chromium species upon activation of an industrially used precatalyst system.

  7. Rationale and prospects of targeting bacterial two-component systems for antibacterial treatment of cystic fibrosis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velikova, Nadya; Wells, Jerry M.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial respiratory infections are the main reason of morbidity and mortality among cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. In early childhood, the respiratory infections are due to Staphylococcus aureus and Haemophilus influenzae. In older CF patients, pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria like Achromobacter

  8. A subset of cytokinin two-component signaling system plays a role in cold temperature stress response in Arabidopsis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeon, J.; Kim, N. Y.; Kim, S.; Kang, N. Y.; Novák, Ondřej; Ku, S. J.; Cho, D. J.; Lee, D. J.; Lee, E. J.; Strnad, Miroslav; Kim, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 285, č. 30 (2010), s. 23369-23384 ISSN 0021-9258 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA301/08/1649 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Histidine kinase * Gene-expression * Negative regulator Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 5.328, year: 2010

  9. Development of a Two-Component Strain-Gauge-Balance Load-Measurement System for the DSTO Water Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    compound designated M-coat C3, a solvent-thinned (naptha) RTV (room temperature vulcanizing) silicone rubber . Care was taken to not use excessive...Engineering Science degree in 1969, both from the University of Melbourne. His Master’s degree was concerned with the yielding of aluminium alloy when

  10. Polymyxin resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa phoQ mutants is dependent on additional two-component regulatory systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutu, Alina D; Sgambati, Nicole; Strasbourger, Pnina

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa can develop resistance to polymyxin as a consequence of mutations in the PhoPQ regulatory system, mediated by covalent lipid A modification. Transposon mutagenesis of a polymyxin-resistant phoQ mutant defined 41 novel loci required for resistance, including two regulatory s......, indicate that addition of 4-amino-L-arabinose to lipid A is not the only PhoPQ-regulated biochemical mechanism required for resistance, and demonstrate that colRS and cprS mutations can contribute to high-level clinical resistance....... with the known role of this modification in polymyxin resistance. Surprisingly, tandem deletion of colRS or cprRS in the ΔphoQ mutant or individual deletion of cprR or cprS failed to suppress 4-amino-L-arabinose addition to lipid A, indicating that this modification alone is not sufficient for Pho...

  11. A model system for pathogen detection using a two-component bacteriophage/bioluminescent signal amplification assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Nathan G.; Carroll, Richard J.; Applegate, Bruce M.

    2004-03-01

    Microbial contamination has become a mounting concern the last decade due to an increased emphasis of minimally processed food products specifically produce, and the recognition of foodborne pathogens such as Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes. This research investigates a detection approach utilizing bacteriophage pathogen specificity coupled with a bacterial bioluminescent bioreporter utilizing the quorum sensing molecule from Vibrio fischeri, N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C6-HSL). The 3-oxo-C6-HSL molecules diffuse out of the target cell after infection and induce bioluminescence from a population of 3-oxo-C6-HSL bioreporters (ROLux). E. coli phage M13, a well-characterized bacteriophage, offers a model system testing the use of bacteriophage for pathogen detection through cell-to-cell communication via a LuxR/3-oxo-C6-HSL system. Simulated temperate phage assays tested functionality of the ROLux reporter and production of 3-oxo-C6-HSL by various test strains. These assays showed detection limits of 102cfu after 24 hours in a varietry of detection formats. Assays incorporating the bacteriophage M13-luxI with the ROLux reporter and a known population of target cells were subsequently developed and have shown consistent detection limits of 105cfu target organisms. Measurable light response from high concentrations of target cells was almost immediate, suggesting an enrichment step to further improve detection limits and reduce assay time.

  12. Two-component energy spectrum of cuprates in the pseudogap phase and its evolution with temperature and at charge ordering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gor'kov, Lev P.; Teitel'Baum, Gregory B.

    2015-02-01

    In the search for mechanisms of high-temperature superconductivity it is critical to know the electronic spectrum in the pseudogap phase from which superconductivity evolves. The lack of angle-resolved photoemission data for every cuprate family precludes an agreement as to its structure, doping and temperature dependence and the role of charge ordering. Here we show that, in the entire Fermi-liquid-like regime that is ubiquitous in underdoped cuprates, the spectrum consists of holes on the Fermi arcs and an electronic pocket. We argue that experiments on the Hall coefficient identify the latter as a permanent feature at doped hole concentration x > 0.08-0.10, in contrast to the idea of the Fermi surface reconstruction via charge ordering. The longstanding issue of the origin of the negative Hall coefficient in YBCO and Hg1201 at low temperature is resolved: the electronic contribution prevails as mobility of the latter (evaluated by the Dingle temperature) becomes temperature independent, while the mobility of holes scattered by the short-wavelength charge density waves decreases.

  13. Flexible free-standing luminescent two-component fiber films with tunable hierarchical structures based on hydrogen-bonding architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dongpeng; Williams, Gareth R; Zhao, Min; Li, Changming; Fan, Guoling; Yang, Hejia

    2013-12-17

    Although the fabrication of hierarchical architectures with highly ordered functional units is of great importance for both fundamental science and practical application, the development of one-dimensional (1D) organic hierarchical micro/nanostructures based on low-molecular-weight (LMW) building blocks remains at an early stage. Herein, we report two types of micro/nanoscaled multicomponent fluorescent fiber systems with tunable hierarchical morphologies through a one-step coassembly process. With the aid of hydrogen-bonding motifs, LMW precursors (1,4-bis(5-phenyloxazol-2-yl)benzene (A) and two coassembled building blocks: 4-bromotetrafluorobenzene carboxylic acid (B) and 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorophenol (C)) have been self-organized into fibers and flexible free-standing films, which show hierarchical micro/nanostructures as well as tunable one-/two-photon luminescence. The disassembly of the multicomponent A.B and A.C fibers occurs at high temperature, which further alters the luminescence properties of the multicomponent materials. Therefore, this work provides a facile wet chemical route for fabricating multicomponent LMW self-assembled fibers and free-standing film systems with tunable hierarchical structures and photoemission behaviors, and such self-organized systems may have potential applications in fields of two-photon luminescence and thermal sensors.

  14. The IRF5-TNPO3 association with systemic lupus erythematosus has two components that other autoimmune disorders variably share.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottyan, Leah C; Zoller, Erin E; Bene, Jessica; Lu, Xiaoming; Kelly, Jennifer A; Rupert, Andrew M; Lessard, Christopher J; Vaughn, Samuel E; Marion, Miranda; Weirauch, Matthew T; Namjou, Bahram; Adler, Adam; Rasmussen, Astrid; Glenn, Stuart; Montgomery, Courtney G; Hirschfield, Gideon M; Xie, Gang; Coltescu, Catalina; Amos, Chris; Li, He; Ice, John A; Nath, Swapan K; Mariette, Xavier; Bowman, Simon; Rischmueller, Maureen; Lester, Sue; Brun, Johan G; Gøransson, Lasse G; Harboe, Erna; Omdal, Roald; Cunninghame-Graham, Deborah S; Vyse, Tim; Miceli-Richard, Corinne; Brennan, Michael T; Lessard, James A; Wahren-Herlenius, Marie; Kvarnström, Marika; Illei, Gabor G; Witte, Torsten; Jonsson, Roland; Eriksson, Per; Nordmark, Gunnel; Ng, Wan-Fai; Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Rhodus, Nelson L; Segal, Barbara M; Merrill, Joan T; James, Judith A; Guthridge, Joel M; Scofield, R Hal; Alarcon-Riquelme, Marta; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Boackle, Susan A; Criswell, Lindsey A; Gilkeson, Gary; Kamen, Diane L; Jacob, Chaim O; Kimberly, Robert; Brown, Elizabeth; Edberg, Jeffrey; Alarcón, Graciela S; Reveille, John D; Vilá, Luis M; Petri, Michelle; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind; Freedman, Barry I; Niewold, Timothy; Stevens, Anne M; Tsao, Betty P; Ying, Jun; Mayes, Maureen D; Gorlova, Olga Y; Wakeland, Ward; Radstake, Timothy; Martin, Ezequiel; Martin, Javier; Siminovitch, Katherine; Moser Sivils, Kathy L; Gaffney, Patrick M; Langefeld, Carl D; Harley, John B; Kaufman, Kenneth M

    2015-01-15

    Exploiting genotyping, DNA sequencing, imputation and trans-ancestral mapping, we used Bayesian and frequentist approaches to model the IRF5-TNPO3 locus association, now implicated in two immunotherapies and seven autoimmune diseases. Specifically, in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), we resolved separate associations in the IRF5 promoter (all ancestries) and with an extended European haplotype. We captured 3230 IRF5-TNPO3 high-quality, common variants across 5 ethnicities in 8395 SLE cases and 7367 controls. The genetic effect from the IRF5 promoter can be explained by any one of four variants in 5.7 kb (P-valuemeta = 6 × 10(-49); OR = 1.38-1.97). The second genetic effect spanned an 85.5-kb, 24-variant haplotype that included the genes IRF5 and TNPO3 (P-valuesEU = 10(-27)-10(-32), OR = 1.7-1.81). Many variants at the IRF5 locus with previously assigned biological function are not members of either final credible set of potential causal variants identified herein. In addition to the known biologically functional variants, we demonstrated that the risk allele of rs4728142, a variant in the promoter among the lowest frequentist probability and highest Bayesian posterior probability, was correlated with IRF5 expression and differentially binds the transcription factor ZBTB3. Our analytical strategy provides a novel framework for future studies aimed at dissecting etiological genetic effects. Finally, both SLE elements of the statistical model appear to operate in Sjögren's syndrome and systemic sclerosis whereas only the IRF5-TNPO3 gene-spanning haplotype is associated with primary biliary cirrhosis, demonstrating the nuance of similarity and difference in autoimmune disease risk mechanisms at IRF5-TNPO3. Published by Oxford University Press 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  15. Magnetization damping in two-component metal oxide micropowder and nanopowder compacts by broadband ferromagnetic resonance measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Jamal Ben; Brosseau, Christian

    2006-12-01

    The microwave damping mechanisms in magnetic inhomogeneous systems have displayed a richness of phenomenology that has attracted widespread interest over the years. Motivated by recent experiments, we report an extensive experimental study of the Gilbert damping parameter of multicomponent metal oxides micro- and nanophases. We label the former by M samples, and the latter by N samples. The main thrust of this examination is the magnetization dynamics in systems composed of mixtures of magnetic (γ-Fe2O3) and nonmagnetic (ZnO and epoxy resin) materials fabricated via powder processing. Detailed ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) measurements on N and M samples are described so to determine changes in the microwave absorption over the 6-18GHz frequency range as a function of composition and static magnetic field. The FMR linewidth and the field dependent resonance were measured for the M and N samples, at a given volume fraction of the magnetic phase. The asymmetry in the form and change in the linewidth for the M samples are caused by the orientation distribution of the local anisotropy fields, whereas the results for the N samples suggest that the linewidth is very sensitive to details of the spatial magnetic inhomogeneities. For N samples, the peak-to-peak linewidth increases continuously with the volume content of magnetic material. The influence of the volume fraction of the magnetic phase on the static internal field was also investigated. Furthermore, important insights are gleaned through analysis of the interrelationship between effective permeability and Gilbert damping constant. Different mechanisms have been considered to explain the FMR linewidth: the intrinsic Gilbert damping, the broadening induced by the magnetic inhomogeneities, and the extrinsic magnetic relaxation. We observed that the effective Gilbert damping constant of the series of N samples are found to be substantially smaller in comparison to M samples. This effect is attributed to the surface anisotropy contribution to the anisotropy of Fe2O3 nanoparticles. From these measurements, the characteristic intrinsic damping dependent on the selected material and the damping due to surface/interface effects and interparticle interaction were estimated. The inhomogeneous linewidth (damping) due to surface/interface effects decreases with diminishing particle size, whereas the homogeneous linewidth (damping) due to interactions increases with increasing volume fraction of magnetic particles (i.e., reducing the separation between neighboring magnetic phases) in the composite.

  16. The effect of spiritual intelligence instruction on the increasing spiritual intelligence and two components in Maybod adult physical handicaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Movahedi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this research was the effect of spiritual intelligence instruction on increasing spiritual intelligence’s Maybod adult handicaps in 2014. 28 female and male (7 men and 21 women adult handicaps participated in this research which was as done pretest quasi – experimental – intervention studing with control group. These people were chosen as purposeful sampling and set in two experimental and control group in equal numbers. After fulfilling pretest, two group were compared by T test and after ensuring of absence of significant difference between two group, In ten session (90 minutes, the experimental group were been taught spiritual intelligence and the control group didn’t have any teaching. Befor and after session, these two groups were been complete Abdollahzade spiritual intelligence test. The analysis of data did on one way covariance statistical analysis. The results showed the experimental group got significantly high scores in regard to control group of general spiritual intelligence, the underestsnding of the relation to universe sourceand spiritual life in emphasis of internal core. Regarding to findings, it results the spiritual intelligence instruction can on increase spiritual intelligence of handicaps.

  17. Do imipramine and dihydroergosine possess two components - one stimulating 5-HT1 and the other inhibiting 5-HT2 receptors?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pericic, D.; Mueck-Seler, D.

    1990-01-01

    The mechanisms by which imipramine and dihydroergosine stimulate the 5-HT syndrome in rats and inhibit the head-twitch response in rats and mice were studied. Imipramine- and dihydroergosine-included stimulation of the 5-HT syndrome was inhibited stereoselectively by propranolol, a high affinity ligand for 5-HT 1 receptor sites, but not by ritanserin, a specific 5-HT 2 receptor antagonist. (-) -Propranolol potentiated the inhibitory effect of imipramine, but not of dihydroergosine on the head-twitch response, while ritanserin was without effect. As expected, 8-OH-DPAT, a selective 5-HT 1A receptor agonist, stimulated, and 5-HT 1B agonists CGS 12066B and 1-(trifluoromethylphenyl) piperazine (TFMPP) failed to stimulate the 5-HT syndrome induced in rats by pargyline and 5-HTP administration. A higher dose of ritanserin inhibited the syndrome. While 8-OH-DPAT alone produced all behavioral components of the 5-HT syndrome, dihydroergosine or imipramine alone even at very high doses never produced tremor or a more intensive forepaw padding as seen when these drugs were given in combination with pargyline and 5-HTP. A single administration of (-)-propranolol also inhibited the head-twitch response. This effect lasted in mice longer that after ritanserin administration. In in vitro experiments dihydroergosine expressed approximately twenty-fold higher affinity for 3 H-ketanserin binding sites than imipramine

  18. Identification of a two-component Class IIb bacteriocin in Streptococcus pyogenes by recombinase-based in vivo expression technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Brent D.; Herfst, Christine A.; Tonial, Nicholas C.; Wakabayashi, Adrienne T.; Zeppa, Joseph J.; McCormick, John K.

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes is a globally prominent bacterial pathogen that exhibits strict tropism for the human host, yet bacterial factors responsible for the ability of S. pyogenes to compete within this limited biological niche are not well understood. Using an engineered recombinase-based in vivo expression technology (RIVET) system, we identified an in vivo-induced promoter region upstream of a predicted Class IIb bacteriocin system in the M18 serotype S. pyogenes strain MGAS8232. This promoter element was not active under in vitro laboratory conditions, but was highly induced within the mouse nasopharynx. Recombinant expression of the predicted mature S. pyogenes bacteriocin peptides (designated SpbM and SpbN) revealed that both peptides were required for antimicrobial activity. Using a gain of function experiment in Lactococcus lactis, we further demonstrated S. pyogenes immunity function is encoded downstream of spbN. These data highlight the importance of bacterial gene regulation within appropriate environments to help understand mechanisms of niche adaptation by bacterial pathogens. PMID:27808235

  19. Quorum sensing by peptide pheromones and two-component signal-transduction systems in Gram-positive bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleerebezem, Michiel; Quadri, Luis E.N.; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Vos, Willem M. de

    1997-01-01

    Cell-density-dependent gene expression appears to be widely spread in bacteria. This quorum-sensing phenomenon has been well established in Gram-negative bacteria, where N-acyl homoserine lactones are the diffusible communication molecules that modulate cell-density-dependent phenotypes. Similarly,

  20. Linear regression analysis and its application to multivariate chromatographic calibration for the quantitative analysis of two-component mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinç, Erdal; Ozdemir, Abdil

    2005-01-01

    Multivariate chromatographic calibration technique was developed for the quantitative analysis of binary mixtures enalapril maleate (EA) and hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) in tablets in the presence of losartan potassium (LST). The mathematical algorithm of multivariate chromatographic calibration technique is based on the use of the linear regression equations constructed using relationship between concentration and peak area at the five-wavelength set. The algorithm of this mathematical calibration model having a simple mathematical content was briefly described. This approach is a powerful mathematical tool for an optimum chromatographic multivariate calibration and elimination of fluctuations coming from instrumental and experimental conditions. This multivariate chromatographic calibration contains reduction of multivariate linear regression functions to univariate data set. The validation of model was carried out by analyzing various synthetic binary mixtures and using the standard addition technique. Developed calibration technique was applied to the analysis of the real pharmaceutical tablets containing EA and HCT. The obtained results were compared with those obtained by classical HPLC method. It was observed that the proposed multivariate chromatographic calibration gives better results than classical HPLC.