LIU Hong-Zhun; PAN Zu-Liang; LI Peng
2006-01-01
In this article, we will derive an equality, where the Taylor series expansion around ε = 0for any asymptotical analytical solution of the perturbed partial differential equation (PDE) with perturbing parameter ε must be admitted.By making use of the equality, we may obtain a transformation, which directly map the analytical solutions of a given unperturbed PDE to the asymptotical analytical solutions of the corresponding perturbed one. The notion of Lie-B(a)cklund symmetries is introduced in order to obtain more transformations. Hence, we can directly create more transformations in virtue of known Lie-B(a)cklund symmetries and recursion operators of corresponding unperturbed equation. The perturbed Burgers equation and the perturbed Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation are used as examples.
Direct perturbation method for perturbed complex Burgers equation
Cheng Xue-Ping; Lin Ji; Yao Jian-Ming
2009-01-01
So far, Lou's direct perturbation method has been applied successfully to solve the nonlinear Schrōdinger equa-tion(NLSE) hierarchy, such as the NLSE, the coupled NLSE, the critical NLSE, and the derivative NLSE. But to our knowledge, this method for other types of perturbed nonlinear evolution equations has still been lacking. In this paper, Lou's direct perturbation method is applied to the study of perturbed complex Burgers equation. By this method, we calculate not only the zero-order adiabatic solution, but also the first order modification.
Non-Perturbative Flat Direction Decay
Basboll, A; Riva, F; West, S M; Basboll, Anders; Maybury, David; Riva, Francesco; West, Stephen M.
2007-01-01
We argue that supersymmetric flat direction vevs can decay non-perturbatively via preheating. Considering the case of a single flat direction, we explicitly calculate the scalar potential in the unitary gauge for a U(1) theory and show that the mass matrix for excitations around the flat direction has non-diagonal entries which vary with the phase of the flat direction vev. Furthermore, this mass matrix has 2 zero eigenvalues (associated with the excitations along the flat direction) whose eigenstates change with time. We show that these 2 light degrees of freedom are produced copiously in the non-perturbative decay of the flat direction vev. We also comment on the application of these results to the MSSM flat direction H_uL.
Alternative perturbation approaches in classical mechanics
Amore, Paolo [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal DIaz del Castillo 340, Colima, Colima (Mexico); Raya, Alfredo [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal DIaz del Castillo 340, Colima, Colima (Mexico); Fernandez, Francisco M [INIFTA (Conicet, UNLP), Blvd. 113 y 64 S/N, Sucursal 4, Casilla de Correo 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)
2005-11-01
We discuss two alternative methods, based on the Lindstedt-Poincare technique, for the removal of secular terms from the equations of perturbation theory. We calculate the period of an anharmonic oscillator by means of both approaches and show that one of them is more accurate for all values of the coupling constant. We believe that present discussion and comparison may be a suitable exercise for teaching perturbation theory in advanced undergraduate courses on classical mechanics.
Analytic Approach to Perturbative QCD
Magradze, B
2000-01-01
The two-loop invariant (running) coupling of QCD is written in terms of the Lambert W function. The analyticity structure of the coupling in the complex Q^2-plane is established. The corresponding analytic coupling is reconstructed via a dispersion relation. We also consider some other approximations to the QCD beta-function, when the corresponding couplings are solved in terms of the Lambert function. The Landau gauge gluon propagator has been considered in the renormalization group invariant analytic approach (IAA). It is shown that there is a nonperturbative ambiguity in determination of the anomalous dimension function of the gluon field. Several analytic solutions for the propagator at the one-loop order are constructed. Properties of the obtained analytical solutions are discussed.
Perturbative approach to Markovian open quantum systems.
Li, Andy C Y; Petruccione, F; Koch, Jens
2014-05-08
The exact treatment of Markovian open quantum systems, when based on numerical diagonalization of the Liouville super-operator or averaging over quantum trajectories, is severely limited by Hilbert space size. Perturbation theory, standard in the investigation of closed quantum systems, has remained much less developed for open quantum systems where a direct application to the Lindblad master equation is desirable. We present such a perturbative treatment which will be useful for an analytical understanding of open quantum systems and for numerical calculation of system observables which would otherwise be impractical.
Direct Perturbation Method for Derivative Nonlinear Schrodinger Equation
CHENG Xue-Ping; LIN Ji; HAN Ping
2008-01-01
We extend Lou's direct perturbation method for solving the nonlinear SchrSdinger equation to the case of the derivative nonlinear Schrodinger equation (DNLSE). By applying this method, different types of perturbation solutions axe obtained. Based on these approximate solutions, the analytical forms of soliton parameters, such as the velocity, the width and the initial position, are carried out and the effects of perturbation on solitons are analyzed at the same time. A numerical simulation of perturbed DNLSE finally verifies the results of the perturbation method.
A perturbative approach to Lagrangian flow networks
Fujiwara, Naoya; Donges, Jonathan F; Donner, Reik V
2016-01-01
Complex network approaches have been successfully applied for studying transport processes in complex systems ranging from road, railway or airline infrastructure over industrial manufacturing to fluid dynamics. Here, we utilize a generic framework for describing the dynamics of geophysical flows such as ocean currents or atmospheric wind fields in terms of Lagrangian flow networks. In this approach, information on the passive advection of particles is transformed into a Markov chain based on transition probabilities of particles between the volume elements of a given partition of space for a fixed time step. We employ perturbation-theoretic methods to investigate the effects of modifications of transport processes in the underlying flow for three different problem classes: efficient absorption (corresponding to particle trapping or leaking), constant input of particles (with additional source terms modeling, e.g., localized contamination), and shifts of the steady state under probability mass conservation (a...
Dynamical Systems Approach to Magnetised Cosmological Perturbations
Hobbs, S; Hobbs, Stacey; Dunsby, Peter K. S.
2000-01-01
Assuming a large-scale homogeneous magnetic field, we follow the covariant and gauge-invariant approach used by Tsagas and Barrow to describe the evolution of density and magnetic field inhomogeneities and curvature perturbations in a matter-radiation universe. We use a two parameter approximation scheme to linearize their exact non-linear general-relativistic equations for magneto-hydrodynamic evolution. Using a two-fluid approach we set up the governing equations as a fourth order autonomous dynamical system. Analysis of the equilibrium points for the radiation dominated era lead to solutions similar to the super-horizon modes found analytically by Tsagas and Maartens. We find that a study of the dynamical system in the dust-dominated era leads naturally to a magnetic critical length scale closely related to the Jeans Length. Depending on the size of wavelengths relative to this scale, these solutions show three distinct behaviours: large-scale stable growing modes, intermediate decaying modes, and small-sc...
A perturbative approach to the confinement-deconfinement phase transition
Reinosa, Urko
2016-11-01
We summarize recent progress in describing the confinement-deconfinement transition from a novel perturbative approach. Based on various works in collaboration with Julien Serreau, Matthieu Tissier and Nicolás Wschebor.
Effective Hamiltonian approach to periodically perturbed quantum optical systems
Sainz, I. [Centro Universitario de los Lagos, Universidad de Guadalajara, Enrique Diaz de Leon, 47460 Lagos de Moreno, Jal. (Mexico)]. E-mail: isa@culagos.udg.mx; Klimov, A.B. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Guadalajara, Revolucion 1500, 44410 Guadalajara, Jal. (Mexico)]. E-mail: klimov@cencar.udg.mx; Saavedra, C. [Center for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile)]. E-mail: csaaved@udec.cl
2006-02-20
We apply the method of Lie-type transformations to Floquet Hamiltonians for periodically perturbed quantum systems. Some typical examples of driven quantum systems are considered in the framework of this approach and corresponding effective time dependent Hamiltonians are found.
B -> phi K decays in perturbative QCD approach
Mishima, S
2001-01-01
We calculate the branching ratios and CP asymmetries of the $B\\to \\phi K$ decays using perturbative QCD approach, which includes $k_T$ and threshold resummations. Our results of branching ratios are consistent with the experimental data and larger than those obtained from the naive factorization assumption and QCD-improved factorization approach.
Florez, H. M.; González, C.; Martinelli, M.
2016-07-01
Correlation spectroscopy has been proposed as a spectroscopic technique for measuring the coherence between the ground states in electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). While in the time domain the steep dispersion in the EIT condition accounts for the robustness of the correlation linewidth against power broadening, such physical insight was not directly established in the frequency domain. We propose a perturbative approach to describe the correlation spectroscopy of two noisy lasers coupled to a Λ transition in cold atoms, leading to EIT. Such approach leads to an analytical expression that maps the intensity correlation directly in terms of the absorption and dispersion of the light fields. Low and high perturbative regimes are investigated and demonstrate that, for coherent light sources, the first-order term in perturbation expansion represents a sufficient description for the correlation. Sideband resonances are also observed, showing the richness of the frequency domain approach.
Florez, H M; Martinelli, M
2016-01-01
Correlation spectroscopy has been proposed as a spectroscopic technique for measuring the coherence between the ground states in electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). While in time domain the steep dispersion in EIT condition accounts for the robustness of the correlation linewidth against power broadening, such physical insight was not directly established in the frequency domain. We propose a perturbative approach to describe the correlation spectroscopy of two noisy lasers coupled to a $\\Lambda$-transition in cold atoms, leading to EIT. Such approach leads to an analytical expression that maps the intensity correlation directly in terms of the absorption and dispersion of the light fields. Low and high perturbative regimes are investigated and demonstrate that, for coherent light sources, the first oder term in perturbation expansion represents a sufficient description for the correlation. Sidebands resonances are also observed, showing the richness of the frequency domain approach.
Perturbation Experiments: Approaches for Metabolic Pathway Analysis in Bioreactors.
Weiner, Michael; Tröndle, Julia; Albermann, Christoph; Sprenger, Georg A; Weuster-Botz, Dirk
2016-01-01
In the last decades, targeted metabolic engineering of microbial cells has become one of the major tools in bioprocess design and optimization. For successful application, a detailed knowledge is necessary about the relevant metabolic pathways and their regulation inside the cells. Since in vitro experiments cannot display process conditions and behavior properly, process data about the cells' metabolic state have to be collected in vivo. For this purpose, special techniques and methods are necessary. Therefore, most techniques enabling in vivo characterization of metabolic pathways rely on perturbation experiments, which can be divided into dynamic and steady-state approaches. To avoid any process disturbance, approaches which enable perturbation of cell metabolism in parallel to the continuing production process are reasonable. Furthermore, the fast dynamics of microbial production processes amplifies the need of parallelized data generation. These points motivate the development of a parallelized approach for multiple metabolic perturbation experiments outside the operating production reactor. An appropriate approach for in vivo characterization of metabolic pathways is presented and applied exemplarily to a microbial L-phenylalanine production process on a 15 L-scale.
State feedback design for singularly perturbed system using unified approach
Chenxiao CAI; Yun ZOU; Duanjin ZHANG
2004-01-01
The state feedback design for singularly perturbed systems described in Delta operator is considered.The composite state feedback controller for slow and fast subsystems is designed by using the direct method.The obtained results can bring previous conclusions of continuous and discrete time systems into the unified Delta framework.A simulation example is presented to demonstrate the validity and efficiency of the design.
A perturbation-theoretic approach to Lagrangian flow networks
Fujiwara, Naoya; Kirchen, Kathrin; Donges, Jonathan F.; Donner, Reik V.
2017-03-01
Complex network approaches have been successfully applied for studying transport processes in complex systems ranging from road, railway, or airline infrastructures over industrial manufacturing to fluid dynamics. Here, we utilize a generic framework for describing the dynamics of geophysical flows such as ocean currents or atmospheric wind fields in terms of Lagrangian flow networks. In this approach, information on the passive advection of particles is transformed into a Markov chain based on transition probabilities of particles between the volume elements of a given partition of space for a fixed time step. We employ perturbation-theoretic methods to investigate the effects of modifications of transport processes in the underlying flow for three different problem classes: efficient absorption (corresponding to particle trapping or leaking), constant input of particles (with additional source terms modeling, e.g., localized contamination), and shifts of the steady state under probability mass conservation (as arising if the background flow is perturbed itself). Our results demonstrate that in all three cases, changes to the steady state solution can be analytically expressed in terms of the eigensystem of the unperturbed flow and the perturbation itself. These results are potentially relevant for developing more efficient strategies for coping with contaminations of fluid or gaseous media such as ocean and atmosphere by oil spills, radioactive substances, non-reactive chemicals, or volcanic aerosols.
Flowing with Time: a New Approach to Nonlinear Cosmological Perturbations
Pietroni, Massimo
2008-01-01
Nonlinear effects are crucial in order to compute the cosmological matter power spectrum to the accuracy required by future generation surveys. Here, a new approach is presented, in which the power spectrum and the bispectrum are obtained -at any redshift and for any momentum scale- by integrating a coupled system of differential equations. The solution of the equations corresponds, in perturbation theory, to the summation of an infinite class of corrections. Compared to other resummation frameworks, the scheme discussed here is particularly suited to cosmologies other than LambdaCDM, such as those based on modifications of gravity and those containing massive neutrinos. As a first application, we compute the Baryonic Acoustic Oscillation feature of the power spectrum, and compare the results with perturbation theory, the halo model, and N-body simulations. The density-velocity and velocity-velocity power spectra are also computed, showing that they are much less contaminated by nonlinearities than the densit...
Supermassive black holes formed by direct collapse of inflationary perturbations
Nakama, Tomohiro; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi
2016-01-01
We propose a mechanism of producing a new type of primordial perturbations which collapse to primordial black holes whose mass can be as large as necessary for them to grow to the supermassive black holes observed at high redshifts, without contradicting COBE/FIRAS upper limits on cosmic microwave background (CMB) spectral distortions. In our model, the observable Universe consists of two kinds of many small patches which experienced different expansion histories during inflation. Large amplitudes of primordial perturbations enough to form primordial black holes are realized on patches that experienced more Hubble expansion than the others. By making these patches the minor component, the rarity of supermassive black holes can be explained. On the other hand, most regions of the Universe experienced the standard history and hence have only standard almost scale-invariant adiabatic perturbations confirmed by observations of CMB or large-scale structures of the universe. Thus our mechanism can evade the constra...
Perturbation approach to multifractal dimensions for certain critical random-matrix ensembles.
Bogomolny, E; Giraud, O
2011-09-01
Fractal dimensions of eigenfunctions for various critical random matrix ensembles are investigated in perturbation series in the regimes of strong and weak multifractality. In both regimes, we obtain expressions similar to those of the critical banded random matrix ensemble extensively discussed in the literature. For certain ensembles, the leading-order term for weak multifractality can be calculated within standard perturbation theory. For other models, such a direct approach requires modifications, which are briefly discussed. Our analytical formulas are in good agreement with numerical calculations.
Direct Calculations of the Odderon Intercept in Perturbative QCD
Braun, M A; Nicolescu, Basarab
1999-01-01
The odderon intercept is calculated directly, from its expression via an average energy of the odderon Hamiltonian, using both trial wave functions in the variational approach and the wave function recently constructed by R.A.Janik and J.Wosiek. The results confirm their reported value for the energy. The odderon intercept is calculated directly, from its expression via an average energy of the odderon Hamiltonian, using both trial wave functions in the variational approach and the wave function recently constructed by R.A.Janik and J.Wosiek.The results confirm their reported value for the energy. Variational calculations give energies some 30% higher. However they also predict the odderon intercept to be quite close to unity. In fact, for realistic values of exact one: 0.94 instead of 0.96. It is also found that the solution for $q_3=0$ does not belong to the odderon spectrum. The diffusion parameter is found to be of the order 0.6.
System-reservoir theory with anharmonic baths: a perturbative approach
Bhadra, Chitrak; Banerjee, Dhruba
2016-04-01
In this paper we develop the formalism of a general system coupled to a reservoir (the words ‘bath’ and ‘reservoir’ will be used interchangeably) consisting of nonlinear oscillators, based on perturbation theory at the classical level, by extending the standard Zwanzig approach of elimination of bath degrees of freedom order by order in perturbation. We observe that the fluctuation dissipation relation (FDR) of the second kind in its standard form for harmonic baths gets modified due to the nonlinearity and this is manifested through higher powers of {{k}\\text{B}}T in the expression for two-time noise correlation. On the flip side, this very modification allows us to define a dressed (renormalized) system-bath coupling that depends on the temperature and the nonlinear parameters of the bath in such a way that the structure of the FDR (of the second kind) is maintained. As an aside, we also observe that the first moment of the noise arising from a nonlinear bath can be non-zero, even in the absence of any external drive, if the reservoir potential is asymmetric with respect to one of its minima, about which one builds up the perturbation theory.
Singular perturbation approach for control of hydraulically driven flexible manipulator
LI Guang; WU Min
2005-01-01
The hydraulic flexible manipulator system is divided into two parts: flexible arm dynamics and hydraulic servomechanism, a driving Jacobian is derived to connect these two parts. Taking hydraulic actuator force as virtual input, a singular perturbed composite model is formulated and used to design composite controllers for the flexible link, in which the slow subsystem controller dominates the trajectory tracking, and then a fast controller is designed to damp out the vibration of the flexible structure. Moreover, the backstepping technique is applied to regulate the spool position of a hydraulic valve to provide the required force. Simulation results are provided to show the effectiveness of the presented approach.
Supermassive black holes formed by direct collapse of inflationary perturbations
Nakama, Tomohiro; Suyama, Teruaki; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi
2016-11-01
We propose a mechanism of producing a new type of primordial perturbations that collapse to primordial black holes, whose mass can be as large as necessary for them to grow to the supermassive black holes observed at high redshifts, without contradicting Cosmic Background Explorer/Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (COBE/FIRAS) upper limits on cosmic microwave background (CMB) spectral distortions. In our model, the observable Universe consists of two kinds of many small patches which experienced different expansion histories during inflation. Primordial perturbations large enough to form primordial black holes are realized on patches that experienced more Hubble expansion than the others. By making these patches the minor component, the rarity of supermassive black holes can be explained. On the other hand, most regions of the Universe experienced the standard history and, hence, only have standard almost-scale-invariant adiabatic perturbations confirmed by observations of CMB or large-scale structures of the Universe. Thus, our mechanism can evade the constraint from the nondetection of the CMB distortion set by the COBE/FIRAS measurement. Our model predicts the existence of supermassive black holes even at redshifts much higher than those observed. Hence, our model can be tested by future observations peeking into the higher-redshift Universe.
Matjacic, Zlatko; Sok, David; Jakovljevic, Miroljub; Cikajlo, Imre
2013-01-01
The objective of the study was to assess functional postural responses by analyzing the center-of-pressure trajectories resulting from perturbations delivered in multiple directions to elderly fallers. Ten elderly individuals were standing quietly on two force platforms while an apparatus delivered controlled perturbations at the level of pelvis…
Perturbative Approach to the Quasinormal Modes of Dirty Black Holes
Leung, P T; Suen, W M; Tam, C Y; Young, K
1999-01-01
Using a recently developed perturbation theory for uasinormal modes (QNM's), we evaluate the shifts in the real and imaginary parts of the QNM frequencies due to a quasi-static perturbation of the black hole spacetime. We show the perturbed QNM spectrum of a black hole can have interesting features using a simple model based on the scalar wave equation.
New Approaches and Applications for Monte Carlo Perturbation Theory
Aufiero, Manuele; Bidaud, Adrien; Kotlyar, Dan; Leppänen, Jaakko; Palmiotti, Giuseppe; Salvatores, Massimo; Sen, Sonat; Shwageraus, Eugene; Fratoni, Massimiliano
2017-02-01
This paper presents some of the recent and new advancements in the extension of Monte Carlo Perturbation Theory methodologies and application. In particular, the discussed problems involve Brunup calculation, perturbation calculation based on continuous energy functions, and Monte Carlo Perturbation Theory in loosely coupled systems.
Series approach to the Lane-Emden equation and comparison with the homotopy perturbation method
Ramos, J.I. [Room I-320-D E. T. S. Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Malaga, Plaza El Ejido, s/n, 29013 Malaga (Spain)], E-mail: jirs@lcc.uma.es
2008-10-15
Series solutions of the Lane-Emden equation based on either a Volterra integral equation formulation or the expansion of the dependent variable in the original ordinary differential equation are presented and compared with series solutions obtained by means of integral or differential equations based on a transformation of the dependent variables. It is shown that these four series solutions are the same as those obtained by a direct application of Adomian's decomposition method to the original differential equation, He's homotopy perturbation technique, and Wazwaz's two implementations of the Adomian method based on either the introduction of a new differential operator that overcomes the singularity of the Lane-Emden equation at the origin or the elimination of the first-order derivative term of the original equation. It is also shown that Adomian's decomposition technique can be interpreted as a perturbative approach which coincides with He's homotopy perturbation method. An iterative technique based on Picard's fixed-point theory is also presented and its convergence is analyzed. The convergence of this iterative approach depends on the independent variable and, therefore, this technique is not as convenient as the series solutions derived by the four methods presented in this paper, He's homotopy perturbation technique, and Adomian's decomposition method.
Perturbative stability along the supersymmetric directions of the landscape
Sousa, Kepa [Department of Theoretical Physics and History of Science, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Ortiz, Pablo, E-mail: kepa.sousa@ehu.es, E-mail: ortiz@lorentz.leidenuniv.nl [Instituut-Lorentz for Theoretical Physics, Universiteit Leiden, Niels Bohrweg 2, 2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands)
2015-02-01
We consider the perturbative stability of non-supersymmetric configurations in N=1 supergravity models with a spectator sector not involved in supersymmetry breaking. Motivated by the supergravity description of complex structure moduli in Large Volume Compactifications of type IIB-superstrings, we concentrate on models where the interactions are consistent with the supersymmetric truncation of the spectator fields, and we describe their couplings by a random ensemble of generic supergravity theories. We characterise the mass spectrum of the spectator fields in terms of the statistical parameters of the ensemble and the geometry of the scalar manifold. Our results show that the non-generic couplings between the spectator and the supersymmetry breaking sectors can stabilise all the tachyons which typically appear in the spectator sector before including the supersymmetry breaking effects, and we find large regions of the parameter space where the supersymmetric sector remains stable with probability close to one. We discuss these results about the stability of the supersymmetric sector in two physically relevant situations: non-supersymmetric Minkowski vacua, and slow-roll inflation driven by the supersymmetry breaking sector. For the class of models we consider, we have reproduced the regimes in which the KKLT and Large Volume Scenarios stabilise all supersymmetric moduli. We have also identified a new regime in which the supersymmetric sector is stabilised at a very robust type of dS minimum without invoking a large mass hierarchy.
A perturbational approach for evaluating the brain's capacity for consciousness.
Massimini, Marcello; Boly, Melanie; Casali, Adenauer; Rosanova, Mario; Tononi, Giulio
2009-01-01
How do we evaluate a brain's capacity to sustain conscious experience if the subject does not manifest purposeful behaviour and does not respond to questions and commands? What should we measure in this case? An emerging idea in theoretical neuroscience is that what really matters for consciousness in the brain is not activity levels, access to sensory inputs or neural synchronization per se, but rather the ability of different areas of the thalamocortical system to interact causally with each other to form an integrated whole. In particular, the information integration theory of consciousness (IITC) argues that consciousness is integrated information and that the brain should be able to generate consciousness to the extent that it has a large repertoire of available states (information), yet it cannot be decomposed into a collection of causally independent subsystems (integration). To evaluate the ability to integrate information among distributed cortical regions, it may not be sufficient to observe the brain in action. Instead, it is useful to employ a perturbational approach and examine to what extent different regions of the thalamocortical system can interact causally (integration) and produce specific responses (information). Thanks to a recently developed technique, transcranial magnetic stimulation and high-density electroencephalography (TMS/hd-EEG), one can record the immediate reaction of the entire thalamocortical system to controlled perturbations of different cortical areas. In this chapter, using sleep as a model of unconsciousness, we show that TMS/hd-EEG can detect clear-cut changes in the ability of the thalamocortical system to integrate information when the level of consciousness fluctuates across the sleep-wake cycle. Based on these results, we discuss the potential applications of this novel technique to evaluate objectively the brain's capacity for consciousness at the bedside of brain-injured patients.
An Overview of A Perturbation Analysis for Uni-directionally Coupled Vibratory Gyroscopes
Vu, Huy; Palacios, Antonio; In, Visarath; Longhini, Patrick; Neff, Joseph
2011-04-01
The complex behaviours of gyroscope systems have been scientifically researched and thoroughly studied for decades. Most of scientific research involving gyroscopes specifically concentrates on studying the designs and fabrications at the circuitry level. Although gaining a recent popularity with the low cost of MEMS device that offers an attractive approach for gyroscope fabrications, its performance is far from meeting the requirements for an inertial grade guidance system. To improve the performance, our current research is theoretically focusing upon investigating the dynamics of vibratory gyroscopes coupled in a ring configuration. Particularly, a certain topology of arrangements among coupled gyroscopes can be designed and studied to enhance robustness. The main operation depends mostly on an external source for a stable oscillation in the drive axis, while an oscillatory motion in the sense axis, which is used to detect an angular rate of rotation, is enabled through the transfers of energy from the drive via the Coriolis force. With the mathematical model depicted as Duffing oscillators, however, by adding a certain coupling among gyroscopes, a similar behavior to a Duffing oscillator is expected, only with more complicated dynamics at a higher dimension. A number of Perturbation methods have popularly been carried out, to seek for a general asymptotic solution of typical Duffing oscillators. In this work as an overview, the two-time scale Perturbation expansion is asymptotically applied on the uni-directionally coupled vibratory gyroscopes to find an analytical solution which is then compared to the numerical one.
A Unified Approach for Solving Nonlinear Regular Perturbation Problems
Khuri, S. A.
2008-01-01
This article describes a simple alternative unified method of solving nonlinear regular perturbation problems. The procedure is based upon the manipulation of Taylor's approximation for the expansion of the nonlinear term in the perturbed equation. An essential feature of this technique is the relative simplicity used and the associated unified…
Suliman, Mohamed
2016-01-01
In this supplementary appendix we provide proofs and additional simulation results that complement the paper (constrained perturbation regularization approach for signal estimation using random matrix theory).
{Lambda}CDM model with a scalar perturbation vs. preferred direction of the universe
Li, Xin; Lin, Hai-Nan; Wang, Sai; Chang, Zhe [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of High Energy Physics, Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities, Beijing (China)
2013-12-15
We present a scalar perturbation for the {Lambda}CDM model, which breaks the isotropic symmetry of the universe. Based on the Union2 data, the least-{chi} {sup 2} fit of the scalar perturbed {Lambda}CDM model shows that the universe has a preferred direction (l,b)=(287 {sup circle} {+-}25 {sup circle},11 {sup circle} {+-}22 {sup circle}). The magnitude of scalar perturbation is about -2.3 x 10{sup -5}. The scalar perturbation for the {Lambda}CDM model implies a peculiar velocity, which is perpendicular to the radial direction. We show that the maximum peculiar velocities at redshift z=0.15 and z=0.015 equal to 73{+-}28 km s{sup -1} and 1099{+-}427 km s{sup -1}, respectively. They are compatible with the constraints on the peculiar velocity given by the Planck Collaboration. (orig.)
$\\Lambda$CDM model with a scalar perturbation vs. preferred direction of the universe
Li, Xin; Wang, Sai; Chang, Zhe
2013-01-01
We present a scalar perturbation for the $\\Lambda$CDM model, which breaks the isotropic symmetry of the universe. Based on the Union2 data, the least-$\\chi^2$ fit of the scalar perturbed $\\Lambda$CDM model shows that the universe has a preferred direction $(l,b)=(287^\\circ\\pm25^\\circ,11^\\circ\\pm22^\\circ)$. The magnitude of scalar perturbation is about $-2.3\\times10^{-5}$. The scalar perturbation for the $\\Lambda$CDM model implies a peculiar velocity, which is perpendicular to the radial direction. We show that the maximum peculiar velocities at redshift $z=0.15$ and $z=0.015$ equal to $73\\pm28 \\rm km\\cdot s^{-1}$ and $1099\\pm427 \\rm km\\cdot s^{-1}$, respectively. They are compatible with the constraints on peculiar velocity given by Planck Collaboration.
Chiral perturbation theory approach to hadronic weak amplitudes
Rafael, E. de (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 13 - Marseille (France). Centre de Physique Theorique 2)
1989-07-01
We are concerned with applications to the non-leptonic weak interactions in the sector of light quark flavors: u, d and s. Both strangeness changing {Delta}S=1 and {Delta}S=2 non-leptonic transitions can be described as weak perturbations to the strong effective chiral Lagrangian; the chiral structure of the weak effective Lagrangian being dictated by the transformation properties of the weak non-leptonic Hamiltonian of the Standard Model under global SU(3){sub Left}xSU(3){sub Right} rotations of the quark-fields. These lectures are organized as follows. Section 2 gives a review of the basic properties of chiral symmetry. Section 3 explains the effective chiral realization of the non-leptonic weak Hamiltonian of the Standard Model to lowest order in derivatives and masses. Section 4 deals with non-leptonic weak transitions in the presence of electromagnetism. Some recent applications to radiative kaon decays are reviewed and the effect of the so called electromagnetic penguin like diagrams is also discussed. Section 5 explains the basic ideas of the QCD-hadronic duality approach to the evaluation of coupling constants of the non-leptonic chiral weak Lagrangian. (orig./HSI).
A direct approach to quantum tunneling
Andreassen, Anders; Frost, William; Schwartz, Matthew D
2016-01-01
The decay rates of quasistable states in quantum field theories are usually calculated using instanton methods. Standard derivations of these methods rely in a crucial way upon deformations and analytic continuations of the physical potential, and on the saddle point approximation. While the resulting procedure can be checked against other semi-classical approaches in some one-dimensional cases, it is challenging to trace the role of the relevant physical scales, and any intuitive handle on the precision of the approximations involved are at best obscure. In this paper, we use a physical definition of the tunneling probability to derive a formula for the decay rate in both quantum mechanics and quantum field theory directly from the Minkowski path integral, without reference to unphysical deformations of the potential. There are numerous benefits to this approach, from non-perturbative applications to precision calculations and aesthetic simplicity.
Approach to exact solutions of cosmological perturbations: Tachyon field inflation
Herrera, Ramón; Pérez, Roberto G.
2016-03-01
An inflationary universe scenario in the context of a tachyon field is studied. This study is carried out using an ansatz for the effective potential of cosmological perturbations U (η ). We describe in great detail the analytical solutions of the scalar and tensor perturbations for two different Ansätze for the effective potential of cosmological perturbations: Easther's model and an effective potential similar to power-law inflation. Also, we find from the background equations that the effective tachyonic potentials V (φ ) in both models satisfy the properties of a tachyonic potential. We consider the recent data from the Planck to constrain the parameters in our effective potential generating the cosmological perturbations.
Teaching Ethics: A Direct Approach.
Penn, William Y., Jr.
1990-01-01
Compares five designs of an undergraduate ethics course at Saint Edward's University (Texas) in a 5-year study involving 318 students. Reveals the effectiveness of directly targeting and teaching in tandem the elements of moral reasoning. Bases study on Lawrence Kohlberg's moral development theory. Argues that this approach best develops moral…
Taming Landau singularities in QCD perturbation theory: The analytic approach
Stefanis, N G
2013-01-01
The aim of this topical article is to outline the fundamental ideas underlying the recently developed Fractional Analytic Perturbation Theory (FAPT) of QCD and present its main calculational tools. For this, it is first necessary to review previous methods to apply QCD perturbation theory at low spacelike momentum scales, where the influence of the Landau singularities becomes inevitable. Several concepts are considered and their limitations are pointed out. The usefulness of FAPT is discussed in terms of two characteristic hadronic quantities: the perturbatively calculable part of the pion's electromagnetic form factor in the spacelike region and the Higgs-boson decay into a b\\bar b pair in the timelike region. In the first case, the focus is on the optimization of the prediction with respect to the choice of the renormalization scheme and the dependence on the renormalization and the factorization scales. The second case serves to show that the application of FAPT to this reaction reaches already at the fou...
Ng, C. N.; Chu, T. P.; Wu, Huasheng; Tong, S. Y.; Huang, Hong
1997-03-01
We compare multiple scattering results of angle-resolved photoelectron diffraction spectra between the exact slab method and the separable propagator perturbation method. In the slab method,footnote C.H. Li, A.R. Lubinsky and S.Y. Tong, Phys. Rev. B17, 3128 (1978). the source wave and multiple scattering within the strong scattering atomic layers are expanded in spherical waves while interlayer scattering is expressed in plane waves. The transformation between spherical waves and plane waves is done exactly. The plane waves are then matched across the solid-vacuum interface to a single outgoing plane wave in the detector's direction. The separable propagator perturbation approach uses two approximations: (i) A separable representation of the Green's function propagator and (ii) A perturbation expansion of multiple scattering terms. Results of c(2x2) S-Ni(001) show that this approximate method fails to converge due to the very slow convergence of the separable representation for scattering angles less than 90^circ. However, this method is accurate in the backscattering regime and may be applied to XAFS calculations.(J.J. Rehr and R.C. Albers, Phys. Rev. B41, 8139 (1990).) The use of this method for angle-resolved photoelectron diffraction spectra is substantially less reliable.
A non—perturbation approach in temperature Green function theory
ZuoWei; WangShun－Jin
1997-01-01
A set of differo-integral equations for many-body connected temperature Green's functions is established which is non-perturbative in nature and provides a reasonable truncation scheme with respect to the order of many-body correlations.The method can be applied to nuclear systems at finite temperature.
Control of roll and pitch motion during multi-directional balance perturbations.
Kung, U.M.; Horlings, C.G.; Honegger, F.; Duysens, J.E.J.; Allum, J.H.J.
2009-01-01
Does the central nervous system (CNS) independently control roll and pitch movements of the human body during balance corrections? To help provide an answer to this question, we perturbed the balance of 16 young healthy subjects using multi-directional rotations of the support surface. All rotations
The perturbative approach to path integrals: A succinct mathematical treatment
Nguyen, Timothy
2016-09-01
We study finite-dimensional integrals in a way that elucidates the mathematical meaning behind the formal manipulations of path integrals occurring in quantum field theory. This involves a proper understanding of how Wick's theorem allows one to evaluate integrals perturbatively, i.e., as a series expansion in a formal parameter irrespective of convergence properties. We establish invariance properties of such a Wick expansion under coordinate changes and the action of a Lie group of symmetries, and we use this to study essential features of path integral manipulations, including coordinate changes, Ward identities, Schwinger-Dyson equations, Faddeev-Popov gauge-fixing, and eliminating fields by their equation of motion. We also discuss the asymptotic nature of the Wick expansion and the implications this has for defining path integrals perturbatively and nonperturbatively.
Dark matter perturbations and viscosity: a causal approach
Acquaviva, Giovanni; Pénin, Aurélie
2016-01-01
The inclusion of dissipative effects in cosmic fluids modifies their clustering properties and could have observable effects on the formation of large scale structures. We analyse the evolution of density perturbations of cold dark matter endowed with causal bulk viscosity. The perturbative analysis is carried out in the Newtonian approximation and the bulk viscosity is described by the causal Israel-Stewart (IS) theory. In contrast to the non-causal Eckart theory, we obtain a third order evolution equation for the density contrast that depends on three free parameters. For certain parameter values, the density contrast and growth factor in IS mimic their behaviour in $\\Lambda$CDM when $z \\geq 1$. Interestingly, and contrary to intuition, certain sets of parameters lead to an increase of the clustering.
Log-periodic Critical Amplitudes: A Perturbative Approach
Derrida, Bernard; Giacomin, Giambattista
2013-06-01
Log-periodic amplitudes appear in the critical behavior of a large class of systems, in particular when a discrete scale invariance is present. Here we show how to compute these critical amplitudes perturbatively when they originate from a renormalization map which is close to a monomial. In this case, the log-periodic amplitudes of the subdominant corrections to the leading critical behavior can also be calculated.
On spherical dust fluctuations: the exact vs. the perturbative approach
Sussman, Roberto A; Dunsby, Peter K S; German, Gabriel
2014-01-01
We examine the relation between the dynamics of Lema\\^{\\i}tre-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) dust models (with and without $\\Lambda$) and the dynamics of dust perturbations in two of the more familiar formalisms used in cosmology: the metric based Cosmological Perturbation Theory (CPT) and the Covariant Gauge Invariant (GIC) perturbations. For this purpose we recast the evolution of LTB models in terms of a covariant and gauge invariant formalism of local and non-local "exact fluctuations " on a Friedmann-Lema\\^{\\i}tre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) background defined by suitable averages of covariant scalars. We examine the properties of these fluctuations, which can be defined for a confined comoving domain or for an asymptotic domain extending to whole time slices. In particular, the non-local density fluctuation provides a covariant and precise definition for the notion of the "density contrast ". We show that in their linear regime these LTB exact fluctuations (local and non-local) are fully equivalent to the conventional ...
Revisiting the $B^{0} \\to \\pi^{0}\\pi^{0} $ decays in the perturbative QCD approach
Li, Yun-Feng
2016-01-01
We recalculate the branching ratio and CP asymmetry for $\\bar{B}^{0} (B^{0})\\to \\pi^{0}\\pi^{0}$ decays in the Perturbative QCD approach. In this approach, we consider all the possible diagrams including non-factorizable contributions and annihilation contributions, and identity principle is also taken into account. We obtain the branching ratio of $B^{0}\\to\\pi^{0}\\pi^{0}$ is about $1.2\\times10^{-6}$. Our result is in agreement with the latest measured branching ratio of $B^{0}\\to\\pi^{0}\\pi^{0}$ by the Belle and HFAG Collaborations. We also predict large direct CP asymmetry and mixing CP asymmetry in $B^{0}\\to\\pi^{0}\\pi^{0}$ decays, which can be tested by the running LHC-b experiments.
A modified variation-perturbation approach to zero-point vibrational motion
Åstrand, Per-Olof; Ruud, K.; Sundholm, D.
2000-01-01
We present a detailed investigation of the perturbation approach for calculating zero-point vibrational contributions to molecular properties. It is demonstrated that if the sum of the potential energy and the zero-point vibrational energy is regarded as an effective potential energy, the leading...... contribution to the first-order wave function vanishes in the perturbation approach. Two different perturbation approaches have been investigated numerically by calculations of some magnetic properties for a few diatomic molecules and the results obtained have been compared to the exact numerical results...
Truncated Conformal Space Approach for Perturbed Wess-Zumino-Witten $SU(2)_k$ Models
Beria, M; Lepori, L; Konik, R M; Sierra, G
2013-01-01
We outline the application of the truncated conformal space approach (TCSA) to perturbations of $SU(2)_k$ Wess-Zumino-Witten theories. As examples of this methodology, we consider two distinct perturbations of $SU(2)_1$ and one of $SU(2)_2$. $SU(2)_1$ is first perturbed by its spin-1/2 field, a model which is equivalent to the sine-Gordon model at a particular value of its coupling $\\beta$. The sine-Gordon spectrum is correctly reproduced as well as the corresponding finite size corrections. We next study $SU(2)_1$ with a marginal current-current perturbation. The TCSA results can be matched to perturbation theory within an appropriate treatment of the UV divergences. Finally, we consider $SU(2)_2$ perturbed by its spin-1 field, which is equivalent to three decoupled massive Majorana fermions.In this case as well the TCSA reproduces accurately the known spectrum.
Finite-temperature perturbation theory for the random directed polymer problem
Korshunov, S. E., E-mail: dimagesh@phys.ethz.ch [Russian Academy of Sciences, Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics (Russian Federation); Geshkenbein, V. B.; Blatter, G. [Theoretische Physik (Switzerland)
2013-09-15
We study the random directed polymer problem-the short-scale behavior of an elastic string (or polymer) in one transverse dimension subject to a disorder potential and finite temperature fluctuations. We are interested in the polymer short-scale wandering expressed through the displacement correlator Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket [{delta}u(X)]{sup 2} Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket , with {delta}u(X) being the difference in the displacements at two points separated by a distance X. While this object can be calculated at short scales using the perturbation theory in higher dimensions d > 2, this approach becomes ill-defined and the problem turns out to be nonperturbative in the lower dimensions and for an infinite-length polymer. In order to make progress, we redefine the task and analyze the wandering of a string of a finite length L. At zero temperature, we find that the displacement fluctuations Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket [{delta}u(X)]{sup 2} Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket {proportional_to} LX{sup 2} depend on L and scale with the square of the segment length X, which differs from a straightforward Larkin-type scaling. The result is best understood in terms of a typical squared angle Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket {alpha}{sup 2} Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket {proportional_to} L, where {alpha} = {partial_derivative}{sub x}u, from which the displacement scaling for the segment X follows naturally, Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket [{delta}u(X)]{sup 2} Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket {proportional_to} Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket {alpha}{sup 2} Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket X{sup 2}. At high temperatures, thermal fluctuations smear the disorder potential and the lowest-order results for disorder-induced fluctuations in both the displacement field and the angle vanish in the thermodynamic limit L {yields} {infinity}. The calculation up to the second order allows us to identify the regime of validity of the perturbative approach and provides a finite expression for the displacement
Direct Approach to Quantum Tunneling
Andreassen, Anders; Farhi, David; Frost, William; Schwartz, Matthew D.
2016-12-01
The decay rates of quasistable states in quantum field theories are usually calculated using instanton methods. Standard derivations of these methods rely in a crucial way upon deformations and analytic continuations of the physical potential and on the saddle-point approximation. While the resulting procedure can be checked against other semiclassical approaches in some one-dimensional cases, it is challenging to trace the role of the relevant physical scales, and any intuitive handle on the precision of the approximations involved is at best obscure. In this Letter, we use a physical definition of the tunneling probability to derive a formula for the decay rate in both quantum mechanics and quantum field theory directly from the Minkowski path integral, without reference to unphysical deformations of the potential. There are numerous benefits to this approach, from nonperturbative applications to precision calculations and aesthetic simplicity.
Constrained Perturbation Regularization Approach for Signal Estimation Using Random Matrix Theory
Suliman, Mohamed; Ballal, Tarig; Kammoun, Abla; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.
2016-12-01
In this supplementary appendix we provide proofs and additional extensive simulations that complement the analysis of the main paper (constrained perturbation regularization approach for signal estimation using random matrix theory).
Casimir-Polder forces -- a non-perturbative approach
Buhmann, S Y; Knöll, L; Welsch, D G; Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi; Dung, Ho Trung; Kn\\"{o}ll, Ludwig; Welsch, Dirk-Gunnar
2004-01-01
Within the frame of macroscopic quantum electrodynamics in linear, causal media, the problem of radiation forces acting on excited atomic systems near dispersing and absorbing magnetodielectric bodies is studied. It is shown that minimal and multipolar coupling lead to essentially the same lowest-order perturbative result for the Casimir-Polder force. To go beyond perturbation theory, the exact Heisenberg equation of motion for the center-of-mass gross motion is used to derive a very general expression for the force. For a non-driven atomic system in the weak coupling regime the total force as a function of time is a superposition of force components that are related to the intra-atomic density matrix elements at chosen time. It is shown that even the force component associated with the atomic ground state is not exactly derivable from a potential, because of the position dependence of the atomic polarizability. Further, it is found that when the atomic system is initially prepared in a coherent superposition...
A perturbative approach to the hydrodynamics of heavy ion collisions
Floerchinger, Stefan; Beraudo, Andrea; Del Zanna, Luca; Inghirami, Gabriele; Rolando, Valentina
2014-01-01
Initial fluctuations in hydrodynamic fields such as energy density or flow velocity give access to understanding initial state and equilibration physics as well as thermodynamic and transport properties. We provide evidence that the fluid dynamic propagation of fluctuations of realistic size can be based on a background-fluctuation splitting and a systematic perturbative expansion in the fluctuating fields. Initial conditions are characterized by a Bessel-Fourier expansion for single events, event-by-event correlations and probability distributions. The evolution equations can be solved order-by-order in the expansion which allows to study the fluid dynamical propagation of single modes, the study of interaction effects between modes, the determination of the associated particle spectra and the generalization of the whole program to event-by-event correlations and distributions.
A perturbative approach to the hydrodynamics of heavy ion collisions
Floerchinger, Stefan; Wiedemann, Urs Achim; Beraudo, Andrea; Del Zanna, Luca; Inghirami, Gabriele; Rolando, Valentina
2014-11-01
Initial fluctuations in hydrodynamic fields such as energy density or flow velocity give access to understanding initial state and equilibration physics as well as thermodynamic and transport properties. We provide evidence that the fluid dynamic propagation of fluctuations of realistic size can be based on a background-fluctuation splitting and a systematic perturbative expansion in the fluctuating fields. Initial conditions are characterized by a Bessel-Fourier expansion for single events, event-by-event correlations and probability distributions. The evolution equations can be solved order-by-order in the expansion which allows to study the fluid dynamical propagation of single modes, the study of interaction effects between modes, the determination of the associated particle spectra and the generalization of the whole program to event-by-event correlations and distributions.
A perturbative approach to the hydrodynamics of heavy ion collisions
Floerchinger, Stefan; Wiedemann, Urs Achim [Physics Department, Theory Unit, CERN, CH-1211 Genève 23 (Switzerland); Beraudo, Andrea [INFN – Sezione di Torino Via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Del Zanna, Luca [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto F.no (Firenze) (Italy); INFN – Sezione di Firenze, Via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto F.no (Firenze) (Italy); INAF – Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, L.go E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Inghirami, Gabriele [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto F.no (Firenze) (Italy); INFN – Sezione di Firenze, Via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto F.no (Firenze) (Italy); Rolando, Valentina [INFN – Sezione di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, I-44100 Ferrara (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, I-44100 Ferrara (Italy)
2014-11-15
Initial fluctuations in hydrodynamic fields such as energy density or flow velocity give access to understanding initial state and equilibration physics as well as thermodynamic and transport properties. We provide evidence that the fluid dynamic propagation of fluctuations of realistic size can be based on a background-fluctuation splitting and a systematic perturbative expansion in the fluctuating fields. Initial conditions are characterized by a Bessel–Fourier expansion for single events, event-by-event correlations and probability distributions. The evolution equations can be solved order-by-order in the expansion which allows to study the fluid dynamical propagation of single modes, the study of interaction effects between modes, the determination of the associated particle spectra and the generalization of the whole program to event-by-event correlations and distributions.
Covariant approach of perturbations in Lovelock type brane gravity
Bagatella-Flores, Norma; Campuzano, Cuauhtemoc; Cruz, Miguel; Rojas, Efraín
2016-12-01
We develop a covariant scheme to describe the dynamics of small perturbations on Lovelock type extended objects propagating in a flat Minkowski spacetime. The higher-dimensional analogue of the Jacobi equation in this theory becomes a wave type equation for a scalar field Φ . Whithin this framework, we analyse the stability of membranes with a de Sitter geometry where we find that the Jacobi equation specializes to a Klein-Gordon (KG) equation for Φ possessing a tachyonic mass. This shows that, to some extent, these types of extended objects share the symmetries of the Dirac-Nambu-Goto (DNG) action which is by no means coincidental because the DNG model is the simplest included in this type of gravity.
A non-perturbative approach to relativistic quantum communication channels
Landulfo, Andre G S
2016-01-01
We investigate the transmission of both classical and quantum information between two arbitrary observers in globally hyperbolic spacetimes using a quantum field as a communication channel. The field is supposed to be in some arbitrary quasifree state and no choice of representation of its canonical commutation relations is made. Both sender and receiver posses some localized two-level quantum system with which they can interact with the quantum field to prepare the input and receive the output of the channel, respectively. The interaction between the two-level systems and the quantum field is such that one can trace out the field degrees of freedom exactly and thus obtain the quantum channel in a non-perturbative way. We end the paper determining the unassisted as well as the entanglement-assisted classical and quantum channel capacities.
Covariant approach of perturbations in Lovelock type brane gravity
Norma, Bagatella-Flores; Miguel, Cruz; Efrain, Rojas
2016-01-01
We develop a covariant scheme to describe the dynamics of small perturbations on Lovelock type branes probing a Minkowski spacetime. The higher-dimensional analogue of the Jacobi equation in this theory becomes a wave type equation for a scalar field $\\Phi$. Whithin this framework, we analyse the stability of spherically symmetric branes with a de Sitter geometry floating in a flat Minkowski spacetime where we find that the Jacobi equation specializes to a Klein-Gordon equation for a scalar field possessing a tachyonic mass. This fact shows that, to some extent, these type of branes share the symmetries of the usual Dirac-Nambu-Goto (DNG) action which is by no means coincidental because the DNG model is the simplest included in the Lovelock type brane gravity.
Identification of transmissivity fields using a Bayesian strategy and perturbative approach
Zanini, Andrea; Tanda, Maria Giovanna; Woodbury, Allan D.
2017-10-01
The paper deals with the crucial problem of the groundwater parameter estimation that is the basis for efficient modeling and reclamation activities. A hierarchical Bayesian approach is developed: it uses the Akaike's Bayesian Information Criteria in order to estimate the hyperparameters (related to the covariance model chosen) and to quantify the unknown noise variance. The transmissivity identification proceeds in two steps: the first, called empirical Bayesian interpolation, uses Y* (Y = lnT) observations to interpolate Y values on a specified grid; the second, called empirical Bayesian update, improve the previous Y estimate through the addition of hydraulic head observations. The relationship between the head and the lnT has been linearized through a perturbative solution of the flow equation. In order to test the proposed approach, synthetic aquifers from literature have been considered. The aquifers in question contain a variety of boundary conditions (both Dirichelet and Neuman type) and scales of heterogeneities (σY2 = 1.0 and σY2 = 5.3). The estimated transmissivity fields were compared to the true one. The joint use of Y* and head measurements improves the estimation of Y considering both degrees of heterogeneity. Even if the variance of the strong transmissivity field can be considered high for the application of the perturbative approach, the results show the same order of approximation of the non-linear methods proposed in literature. The procedure allows to compute the posterior probability distribution of the target quantities and to quantify the uncertainty in the model prediction. Bayesian updating has advantages related both to the Monte-Carlo (MC) and non-MC approaches. In fact, as the MC methods, Bayesian updating allows computing the direct posterior probability distribution of the target quantities and as non-MC methods it has computational times in the order of seconds.
Control of roll and pitch motion during multi-directional balance perturbations.
Küng, Ursula Margareta; Horlings, C G C; Honegger, F; Duysens, J E J; Allum, J H J
2009-04-01
Does the central nervous system (CNS) independently control roll and pitch movements of the human body during balance corrections? To help provide an answer to this question, we perturbed the balance of 16 young healthy subjects using multi-directional rotations of the support surface. All rotations had pitch and roll components, for which either the roll (DR) or the pitch (DP) component were delayed by 150 ms or not at all (ND). The outcome measures were the biomechanical responses of the body and surface EMG activity of several muscles. Across all perturbation directions, DR caused equally delayed shifts (150 ms) in peak lateral centre of mass (COM) velocity. Across directions, DP did not cause equally delayed shifts in anterior-posterior COM velocity. After 300 ms however, the vector direction of COM velocity was similar to the ND directions. Trunk, arm and knee joint rotations followed this roll compared to pitch pattern, but were different from ND rotation synergies after 300 ms, suggesting an intersegmental compensation for the delay effects. Balance correcting responses of muscles demonstrated both roll and pitch directed components regardless of axial alignment. We categorised muscles into three groups: pitch oriented, roll oriented and mixed based on their responses to DR and DP. Lower leg muscles were pitch oriented, trunk muscles were roll oriented, and knee and arm muscles were mixed. The results of this study suggest that roll, but not pitch components, of balance correcting movement strategies and muscle synergies are separately programmed by the CNS. Reliance on differentially activated arm and knee muscles to correct roll perturbations reveals a dependence of the pitch response on that of roll, possibly due to biomechanical constraints, and accounts for the failure of DP to be transmitted equally in time across all limbs segments. Thus it appears the CNS preferentially programs the roll response of the body and then adjusts the pitch response
Perturbative approach to covariance matrix of the matter power spectrum
Mohammed, Irshad; Vlah, Zvonimir
2016-01-01
We evaluate the covariance matrix of the matter power spectrum using perturbation theory up to dominant terms at 1-loop order and compare it to numerical simulations. We decompose the covariance matrix into the disconnected (Gaussian) part, trispectrum from the modes outside the survey (beat coupling or super-sample variance), and trispectrum from the modes inside the survey, and show how the different components contribute to the overall covariance matrix. We find the agreement with the simulations is at a 10\\% level up to $k \\sim 1 h {\\rm Mpc^{-1}}$. We show that all the connected components are dominated by the large-scale modes ($k<0.1 h {\\rm Mpc^{-1}}$), regardless of the value of the wavevectors $k,\\, k'$ of the covariance matrix, suggesting that one must be careful in applying the jackknife or bootstrap methods to the covariance matrix. We perform an eigenmode decomposition of the connected part of the covariance matrix, showing that at higher $k$ it is dominated by a single eigenmode. The full cova...
Perturbative approach to covariance matrix of the matter power spectrum
Mohammed, Irshad [Fermilab; Seljak, Uros [UC, Berkeley, Astron. Dept.; Vlah, Zvonimir [Stanford U., ITP
2016-06-30
We evaluate the covariance matrix of the matter power spectrum using perturbation theory up to dominant terms at 1-loop order and compare it to numerical simulations. We decompose the covariance matrix into the disconnected (Gaussian) part, trispectrum from the modes outside the survey (beat coupling or super-sample variance), and trispectrum from the modes inside the survey, and show how the different components contribute to the overall covariance matrix. We find the agreement with the simulations is at a 10\\% level up to $k \\sim 1 h {\\rm Mpc^{-1}}$. We show that all the connected components are dominated by the large-scale modes ($k<0.1 h {\\rm Mpc^{-1}}$), regardless of the value of the wavevectors $k,\\, k'$ of the covariance matrix, suggesting that one must be careful in applying the jackknife or bootstrap methods to the covariance matrix. We perform an eigenmode decomposition of the connected part of the covariance matrix, showing that at higher $k$ it is dominated by a single eigenmode. The full covariance matrix can be approximated as the disconnected part only, with the connected part being treated as an external nuisance parameter with a known scale dependence, and a known prior on its variance for a given survey volume. Finally, we provide a prescription for how to evaluate the covariance matrix from small box simulations without the need to simulate large volumes.
Perturbative approach to covariance matrix of the matter power spectrum
Mohammed, Irshad; Seljak, Uroš; Vlah, Zvonimir
2017-04-01
We evaluate the covariance matrix of the matter power spectrum using perturbation theory up to dominant terms at 1-loop order and compare it to numerical simulations. We decompose the covariance matrix into the disconnected (Gaussian) part, trispectrum from the modes outside the survey (supersample variance) and trispectrum from the modes inside the survey, and show how the different components contribute to the overall covariance matrix. We find the agreement with the simulations is at a 10 per cent level up to k ˜ 1 h Mpc-1. We show that all the connected components are dominated by the large-scale modes (k covariance matrix, suggesting that one must be careful in applying the jackknife or bootstrap methods to the covariance matrix. We perform an eigenmode decomposition of the connected part of the covariance matrix, showing that at higher k, it is dominated by a single eigenmode. The full covariance matrix can be approximated as the disconnected part only, with the connected part being treated as an external nuisance parameter with a known scale dependence, and a known prior on its variance for a given survey volume. Finally, we provide a prescription for how to evaluate the covariance matrix from small box simulations without the need to simulate large volumes.
Reconstructing the cosmic Horseshoe gravitational lens using the singular perturbative approach
Alard, C
2016-01-01
The cosmic horseshoe gravitational lens is analyzed using the perturbative approach. The two first order perturbative fields are expanded in Fourier series. The source is reconstructed using a fine adaptive grid. The expansion of the fields at order 2 produces a higher value of the chi-square. Expanding at order 3 provides a very significant improvement, while order 4 does not bring a significant improvement over order 3. The presence of the order 3 terms is not a consequence of limiting the perturbative expansion to the first order. The amplitude and signs of the third order terms are recovered by including the contribution of the other group members. This analysis demonstrates that the fine details of the potential of the lens could be recovered independently of any assumptions by using the perturbative approach.
Perturbation approach for nuclear magnetic resonance solid-state quantum computation
G. P. Berman
2003-01-01
Full Text Available A dynamics of a nuclear-spin quantum computer with a large number (L=1000 of qubits is considered using a perturbation approach. Small parameters are introduced and used to compute the error in an implementation of an entanglement between remote qubits, using a sequence of radio-frequency pulses. The error is computed up to the different orders of the perturbation theory and tested using exact numerical solution.
Crevecoeur, F; Kurtzer, I; Scott, S H
2012-05-01
A wealth of studies highlight the importance of rapid corrective responses during voluntary motor tasks. These studies used relatively large perturbations to evoke robust muscle activity. Thus it remains unknown whether these corrective responses (latency 20-100 ms) are evoked at perturbation levels approaching the inherent variability of voluntary control. To fill this gap, we examined responses for large to small perturbations applied while participants either performed postural or reaching tasks. To address multijoint corrective responses, we induced various amounts of single-joint elbow motion with scaled amounts of combined elbow and shoulder torques. Indeed, such perturbations are known to elicit a response at the unstretched shoulder muscle, which reflects an internal model of arm intersegmental dynamics. Significant muscle responses were observed during both postural control and reaching, even when perturbation-related joint angle, velocity, and acceleration overlapped in distribution with deviations encountered in unperturbed trials. The response onsets were consistent across the explored range of perturbation loads, with short-latency onset for the muscles spanning the elbow joints (20-40 ms), and long-latency for shoulder muscles (onset > 45 ms). In addition, the evoked activity was strongly modulated by perturbation magnitude. These results suggest that multijoint responses are not specifically engaged to counter motor errors that exceed a certain threshold. Instead, we suggest that these corrective processes operate continuously during voluntary motor control.
Anderson Souza Oliveira
Full Text Available This study investigated whether the modular control of changes in direction while running is influenced by perturbations to balance. Twenty-two healthy men performed 90° side-step unperturbed cutting manoeuvres while running (UPT as well as manoeuvres perturbed at initial contact (PTB, 10 cm translation of a moveable force platform. Surface EMG activity from 16 muscles of the supporting limb and trunk, kinematics, and ground reaction forces were recorded. Motor modules composed by muscle weightings and their respective activation signals were extracted from the EMG signals by non-negative matrix factorization. Knee joint moments, co-contraction ratios and co-contraction indexes (hamstrings/quadriceps and motor modules were compared between UPT and PTB. Five motor modules were enough to reconstruct UPT and PTB EMG activity (variance accounted for UPT = 92 ± 5%, PTB = 90 ± 6%. Moreover, higher similarities between muscle weightings from UPT and PTB (similarity = 0.83 ± 0.08 were observed in comparison to the similarities between the activation signals that drive the temporal properties of the motor modules (similarity = 0.71 ± 0.18. In addition, the reconstruction of PTB EMG from fixed muscle weightings from UPT resulted in higher reconstruction quality (82 ± 6% when compared to reconstruction of PTB EMG from fixed activation signals from UPT (59 ± 11%. Perturbations at initial contact reduced knee abduction moments (7%, as well as co-contraction ratio (11% and co-contraction index (12% shortly after the perturbation onset. These changes in co-contraction ratio and co-contraction index were caused by a reduced activation of hamstrings that was also verified in the activation signals of the specific motor module related to initial contact. Our results suggested that perturbations to balance influence modular control of cutting manoeuvres, especially the temporal properties of muscle recruitment, due to altered afferent
Goltsch, Mandy
Design denotes the transformation of an identified need to its physical embodiment in a traditionally iterative approach of trial and error. Conceptual design plays a prominent role but an almost infinite number of possible solutions at the outset of design necessitates fast evaluations. The corresponding practice of empirical equations and low fidelity analyses becomes obsolete in the light of novel concepts. Ever increasing system complexity and resource scarcity mandate new approaches to adequately capture system characteristics. Contemporary concerns in atmospheric science and homeland security created an operational need for unconventional configurations. Unmanned long endurance flight at high altitudes offers a unique showcase for the exploration of new design spaces and the incidental deficit of conceptual modeling and simulation capabilities. Structural and aerodynamic performance requirements necessitate light weight materials and high aspect ratio wings resulting in distinct structural and aeroelastic response characteristics that stand in close correlation with natural vibration modes. The present research effort evolves around the development of an efficient and accurate optimization algorithm for high aspect ratio wings subject to natural frequency constraints. Foundational corner stones are beam dimensional reduction and modal perturbation redesign. Local and global analyses inherent to the former suggest corresponding levels of local and global optimization. The present approach departs from this suggestion. It introduces local level surrogate models to capacitate a methodology that consists of multi level analyses feeding into a single level optimization. The innovative heart of the new algorithm originates in small perturbation theory. A sequence of small perturbation solutions allows the optimizer to make incremental movements within the design space. It enables a directed search that is free of costly gradients. System matrices are decomposed
Reconstructing the cosmic Horseshoe gravitational lens using the singular perturbative approach.
Alard, C.
2017-01-01
The reconstruction of the cosmic horseshoe gravitational lens using the perturbative method reveals the presence of significant third order terms. The presence of these higher order terms is apparent in the numerical expansion of the perturbative fields in Fourier series. The expansion of the fields at order 2 produces a higher value of the chi-square. Expanding at order 3 provides a very significant improvement, while order 4 does not bring a significant improvement over order 3. The presence of the order 3 terms is not a consequence of limiting the perturbative expansion to the first order. The amplitude and signs of the third order terms are recovered by including the contribution of the other group members. This analysis demonstrates that the fine details of the potential of the lens could be recovered independently of any initial assumptions by using the perturbative approach.
Breit-Pauli and direct perturbation theory calculations of relativistic helium polarizability.
Cencek, W; Szalewicz, K; Jeziorski, B
2001-06-18
Large Gaussian-type geminal wave function expansions and direct perturbation theory (DPT) of relativistic effects have been applied to calculate the relativistic contribution to the static dipole polarizability of the helium atom. It has been demonstrated that DPT is superior for this purpose to traditional Breit-Pauli calculations. The resulting value of the molar polarizability of 4He is 0.517254(1) cm3 x mol(-1), including a literature estimate of QED effects. As a by-product, a very accurate value of the nonrelativistic helium second hyperpolarizability, gamma = 43.104227(1) atomic units (without the mass-polarization correction), has been obtained.
Hasni, Mohd Mughti; Majid, Zanariah Abdul; Senu, Norazak; Rajalingam, Sokkalingam; Daud, Hanita; Daud, Muhamad Azlan
2016-11-01
This paper presents a four point block one-step method for solving directly boundary value problems (BVP) with Neumann boundary conditions and Singular Perturnbation BVPs. This method is formulated using Lagrange interpolating polynomial. The block method will solve the second order linear Neumann and Singular Perturbation BVPs directly without reducing it to the system of first order differential equations. This direct method will compute four points simultaneously within a block using constant step size. This method will be used together with linear shooting technique to construct the solutions. The implementation is based on the predictor and corrector formulas. Numerical results are given to show the efficiency of this method compared to the existing methods.
Propagating Linear Waves in Convectively Unstable Stellar Models: a Perturbative Approach
Papini, Emanuele; Birch, Aaron C
2013-01-01
Linear time-domain simulations of acoustic oscillations are unstable in the stellar convection zone. To overcome this problem it is customary to compute the oscillations of a stabilized background stellar model. The stabilization, however, affects the result. Here we propose to use a perturbative approach (running the simulation twice) to approximately recover the acoustic wave field, while preserving seismic reciprocity. To test the method we considered a 1D standard solar model. We found that the mode frequencies of the (unstable) standard solar model are well approximated by the perturbative approach within $1~\\mu$Hz for low-degree modes with frequencies near $3~\\mu$Hz. We also show that the perturbative approach is appropriate for correcting rotational-frequency kernels. Finally, we comment that the method can be generalized to wave propagation in 3D magnetized stellar interiors because the magnetic fields have stabilizing effects on convection.
Ambitwistor Strings: Worldsheet Approaches to perturbative Quantum Field Theories
Geyer, Yvonne
2016-01-01
Tree-level scattering amplitudes in massless theories not only exhibit a simplicity entirely unexpected from Feynman diagrams, but also an underlying structure remarkably reminiscent of worldsheet theory correlators. These features can be explained by ambitwistor strings - two-dimensional chiral conformal field theories in an auxiliary target space, the complexified phase space of null geodesics. The aim of this thesis is to explore the ambitwistor string approach to understand these structures in amplitudes, and thereby provide a new angle on quantum field theories. The first part of the thesis provides a user-friendly introduction to ambitwistor strings, as well as a condensed overview over the literature and some novel results. Emphasising the study of tree-level amplitudes, we then explore the wide-ranging impact of ambitwistor strings for an extensive family of massless theories, and discuss the duality between asymptotic symmetries and the low energy behaviour of a theory from the point of view of the w...
Pure annihilation type $ D\\to PP(V)$ decays in the perturbative QCD approach
Zou, Zhi-Tian; Lü, Cai-Dian
2013-01-01
The annihilation type diagrams are difficult to calculate in any kind of models or method. Encouraged by the the successful calculation of pure annihilation type B decays in the perturbative QCD factorization approach, we calculate the pure annihilation type $D\\to PP(V)$ decays in the perturbative QCD approach based on the $k_T$ factorization. Although the expansion parameter $1/m_D$ is not very small, our leading order numerical results agree with the existing experiment data for most channels. We expect the more accurate observation from experiments, which can help us learn about the dynamics of $D$ meson weak decays.
Perturbative and non-perturbative approaches to the quantum AdS5xS5 superstring
McKeown, Ryan
This dissertation spans perturbative to non-perturbative approaches of testing and using integrability of the IIB superstring in the AdS5xS 5 background. The integrability-based solution of string theories related to AdS n/CFTn-1 dualities relies on the worldsheet S matrix. In chapter 2 we use generalized unitarity to construct the terms with logarithmic dependence on external momenta at one- and two-loop order in the worldsheet S matrix for strings in a general integrable worldsheet theory. We also discuss aspects of calculations as it extends to higher orders. The S-matrix elements are expressed as sums of integrals with coefficients given in terms of tree-level worldsheet four-point scattering amplitudes. Off-diagonal one-loop rational functions, not determined by two-dimensional unitarity cuts, are fixed by symmetry considerations. They play an important role in the determination of the two-loop logarithmic contributions. We illustrate the general analysis by computing the logarithmic terms in the one- and two-loop four-particle S-matrix elements in the massive worldsheet sectors of string theory in AdS5xS5, AdS4xCP 3, AdS3xS3xS3xS 1 and AdS3xS3xT4. We explore the structure of the S matrices and provide explicit evidence for the absence of higher-order logarithms and for the exponentiation of the one-loop dressing phase. In chapter 3 we will construct the full coset space of AdS5xS5 SO4,1xSO 5 in terms of a Gross-Neveu model. After this non-perturbative transformation we have shown the theory to be UV finite at 1 loop and furthermore that it exhibits some non-local integrals of motion through a Lax connection. The integrability of string theory in AdS5xS 5 and of the dilatation operator of N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory has been used to propose an exact solution to the spectral problem in these theories. Weak coupling perturbation theory both in gauge theory and on the worldsheet has been extensively used to verify this solution. In chapter 4 we demonstrate
Rivera, Nicholas; Hsu, Chia Wei; Zhen, Bo; Buljan, Hrvoje; Joannopoulos, John D.; Soljačić, Marin
2016-09-01
A bound state in the continuum (BIC) is an unusual localized state that is embedded in a continuum of extended states. Here, we present the general condition for BICs to arise from wave equation separability. Then we show that by exploiting perturbations of certain symmetry such BICs can be turned into resonances that radiate with a tailorable directionality and dimensionality. Using this general framework, we construct new examples of separable BICs and resonances that can exist in optical potentials for ultracold atoms, photonic systems, and systems described by tight binding. Such resonances with easily reconfigurable radiation allow for applications such as the storage and release of waves at a controllable rate and direction, as well systems that switch between different dimensions of confinement.
Skidmore, Jeffrey; Artemiadis, Panagiotis
2016-04-01
A variety of robotic rehabilitation devices have been proposed for gait rehabilitation after stoke, but have only produced moderate results when compared to conventional physiotherapy. We suggest a novel approach to robotic interventions which takes advantage of mechanisms of inter-limb coordination. In order to test the viability of this approach, we apply unilateral floor stiffness perturbations via a unique robotic device and observe evoked contralateral leg responses in kinematics, as well as muscle activations, in healthy subjects. The real-time control of floor stiffness is utilized to uniquely differentiate force and kinematic feedback, creating novel sensory perturbations. We present results of repeatable and scalable evoked kinematic and muscular response of the unperturbed leg in healthy subjects. Moreover, we provide insight into the fundamental sensorimotor mechanisms of inter-leg coordination. We also lay the foundation for model-based rehabilitation strategies for impaired walkers by presenting a mathematical model that accurately describes the relationship between the magnitude of the stiffness perturbation and the evoked muscle activity. One of the most significant advantages of this approach over current practices is the safety of the patient, since this does not require any direct manipulation of the impaired leg. The novel methods and results presented in this paper set the foundation for a paradigm shift in robotic interventions for gait rehabilitation.
A General Approach for Synchronization of Chaotic Systems with Parameters Perturbation
LONG Min; QIU Shui-Sheng; PENG Fei
2005-01-01
By making use of the theory of stability for dynamical systems, a general approach for synchronization of chaotic systems with parameters perturbation is presented, and a general method for determining control function is introduced. The Rossler system is employed to verify the effectiveness of the method, and the theoretical results are confirmed by simulations.
On the bosonic end perturbative approaches to the study of anyons
Amelino-Camelia, G.
1992-07-01
I examine, in the case of two anyons in a common harmonic well, the validity of the perturbative approaches to the study of ``quasi-bosonic'' anyons which are discussed in the literature. Supported in part by funds provided by the ``Fondazioni Angelo Della Riccia'', Florence, Italy.
Rahman, T.
2009-01-01
In this thesis, a finite element based perturbation approach is presented for geometrically nonlinear analysis of thin-walled structures. Geometrically nonlinear static and dynamic analyses are essential for this class of structures. Nowadays nonlinear analysis of thin-walled shell structures is oft
A New Approach to Analytic, Non-Perturbative and Gauge-Invariant QCD
Fried, H M; Sheu, Y -M
2012-01-01
Following a previous calculation of quark scattering in eikonal approximation, this paper presents a new, analytic and rigorous approach to the calculation of QCD phenomena. In this formulation a basic distinction between the conventional "idealistic" description of QCD and a more "realistic" description is brought into focus by a non-perturbative, gauge-invariant evaluation of the Schwinger solution for the QCD generating functional in terms of the exact Fradkin representations of the Green's functional and the vacuum functional. Because quarks exist asymptotically only in bound states, their transverse coordinates can never be measured with arbitrary precision; the non-perturbative neglect of this statement leads to obstructions that are easily corrected by invoking in the basic Lagrangian a probability amplitude which describes such transverse imprecision. The second result of this non-perturbative analysis is the appearance of a new and simplifying output called "Effective Locality", in which the interact...
Short-time dynamics in presence of wave-particles interactions: a perturbative approach
Bachelard, Romain
2007-01-01
The self-consistent interaction between a beam of charged particles and a wave is considered, within a Vlasov picture. The model is discussed with reference to the case of a Free Electron Laser. Starting with a spatially bunched waterbag distribution, we derive, via perturbative methods, closed analytical expressions for the time evolution of the main macroscopic observables. Predictions of the theory are shown to agree with direct numerical simulations.
The perturbed universe in the deformed algebra approach of Loop Quantum Cosmology
Grain, J
2016-01-01
Loop quantum cosmology is a tentative approach to model the universe down to the Planck era where quantum gravity settings are needed. The quantization of the universe as a dynamical space-time is inspired by Loop Quantum Gravity ideas. In addition, loop quantum cosmology could bridge contact with astronomical observations, and thus potentially investigate quantum cosmology modellings in the light of observations. To do so however, modelling both the background evolution and its perturbations is needed. The latter describe cosmic inhomogeneities that are the main cosmological observables. In this context, we present the so-called deformed algebra approach implementing the quantum corrections to the perturbed universe at an effective level by taking great care of gauge issues. We particularly highlight that in this framework, the algebra of hypersurface deformation receives quantum corrections, and we discuss their meaning. The primordial power spectra of scalar and tensor inhomogeneities are then presented, a...
Ab Initio Approach to the Non-Perturbative Scalar Yukawa Model
Li, Yang; Maris, P; Vary, J P
2015-01-01
We report on the first non-perturbative calculation of the quenched scalar Yukawa model in the four-body Fock sector truncation. The light-front Hamiltonian approach with a Fock sector dependent renormalization is applied. We study the Fock sector contribution and the electromagnetic form factor in the non-perturbative region. We find that the one- and two-body contributions dominate the Fock space up to coupling $\\alpha\\approx 1.7$. By comparing with lower Fock sector truncations, we show that the form factor converges with respect to the Fock sector expansion. As we approach the coupling $\\alpha \\approx 2.2$, we discover that the four-body contribution rises rapidly and overtakes the two- and three-body contributions.
Ab initio approach to the non-perturbative scalar Yukawa model
Yang Li
2015-09-01
Full Text Available We report on the first non-perturbative calculation of the scalar Yukawa model in the single-nucleon sector up to four-body Fock sector truncation (one “scalar nucleon” and three “scalar pions”. The light-front Hamiltonian approach with a systematic non-perturbative renormalization is applied. We study the n-body norms and the electromagnetic form factor. We find that the one- and two-body contributions dominate up to coupling α≈1.7. As we approach the coupling α≈2.2, we discover that the four-body contribution rises rapidly and overtakes the two- and three-body contributions. By comparing with lower sector truncations, we show that the form factor converges with respect to the Fock sector expansion.
Piscitelli, Daniele; Falaki, Ali; Solnik, Stanislaw; Latash, Mark L
2017-03-01
We explored two aspects of feed-forward postural control, anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) and anticipatory synergy adjustments (ASAs) seen prior to self-triggered unloading with known and unknown direction of the perturbation. In particular, we tested two main hypotheses predicting contrasting changes in APAs and ASAs. The first hypothesis predicted no major changes in ASAs. The second hypothesis predicted delayed APAs with predominance of co-contraction patterns when perturbation direction was unknown. Healthy subjects stood on the force plate and held a bar with two loads acting in the forward and backward directions. They pressed a trigger that released one of the loads causing a postural perturbation. In different series, the direction of the perturbation was either known (the same load released in all trials) or unknown (the subjects did not know which of the two loads would be released). Surface electromyograms were recorded and used to quantify APAs, synergies stabilizing center of pressure coordinate (within the uncontrolled manifold hypothesis), and ASA. APAs and ASAs were seen in all conditions. APAs were delayed, and predominance of co-contraction patterns was seen under the conditions with unpredictable direction of perturbation. In contrast, no significant changes in synergies and ASAs were seen. Overall, these results show that feed-forward control of vertical posture has two distinct components, reflected in APAs and ASAs, which show qualitatively different adjustments with changes in predictability of the direction of perturbation. These results are interpreted within the recently proposed hierarchical scheme of the synergic control of motor tasks. The observations underscore the complexity of the feed-forward postural control, which involves separate changes in salient performance variables (such as coordinate of the center of pressure) and in their stability properties.
Structure and thermodynamics of hard-core Yukawa fluids: thermodynamic perturbation approaches.
Kim, Eun-Young; Kim, Soon-Chul; Seong, Baek-Seok
2011-07-21
The thermodynamic perturbation theories, which are based on the power series of a coupling constant (λ-expansion), have been proposed for studying the structural and thermodynamic properties of a hard-core Yukawa (HCY) fluid: one (A1-approximation) is the perturbation theory based on the hard-sphere repulsion as a reference system. The other (A2-approximation) is the perturbation theory based on the reference system which incorporates both the repulsive and short-range attractive interactions. The first-order mean-spherical approximation (FMSA) provided by Tang and Lu [J. Chem. Phys. 99, 9828 (1993)] has been employed for investigating the thermodynamic properties of a HCY fluid using the alternative method via the direct correlation function. The calculated results show that (i) the A1 and A2 approximations are in excellent agreements with previous computer simulation results in the literature and compare with the semi-empirical works of Shukla including the higher-order free energy terms, (ii) the A1 and A2 approximations are better than the FMSA and the mean-spherical approximation, (iii) the A2-approximation compares with the A1-approximation, even though the perturbation effect of an A2-approximation is much smaller than that of an A1-approximation, and that (iv) the FMSA study is particularly of advantage in providing the structure and thermodynamics in a simple and analytic manner.
Modal analysis of untransposed bilateral three-phase lines -- a perturbation approach
Faria, J.A.B. [Inst. Superior Tecnico, Lisboa (Portugal). Centro de Electrotecnia Teorica e Medidas Electricas; Mendes, J.H.B. [Univ. de Los Andes, Merida (Venezuela). Escuela de Ingenieria Electrica
1997-01-01
Model analysis of three-phase power lines exhibiting bilateral symmetry leads to modal transformation matrices that closely resemble Clarke`s transformation. The authors develop a perturbation theory approach to justify, interpret, and gain understanding of this well known fact. Further, the authors show how to find new frequency dependent correction terms that once added to Clarke`s transformation lead to improved accuracy.
Yoo, Sung Jin
2016-11-01
This paper presents a theoretical design approach for output-feedback formation tracking of multiple mobile robots under wheel perturbations. It is assumed that these perturbations are unknown and the linear and angular velocities of the robots are unmeasurable. First, adaptive state observers for estimating unmeasurable velocities of the robots are developed under the robots' kinematics and dynamics including wheel perturbation effects. Then, we derive a virtual-structure-based formation tracker scheme according to the observer dynamic surface design procedure. The main difficulty of the output-feedback control design is to manage the coupling problems between unmeasurable velocities and unknown wheel perturbation effects. These problems are avoided by using the adaptive technique and the function approximation property based on fuzzy logic systems. From the Lyapunov stability analysis, it is shown that point tracking errors of each robot and synchronisation errors for the desired formation converge to an adjustable neighbourhood of the origin, while all signals in the controlled closed-loop system are semiglobally uniformly ultimately bounded.
Non-perturbative heterogeneous mean-field approach to epidemic spreading in complex networks
Gomez, Sergio; Moreno, Yamir; Arenas, Alex
2011-01-01
Since roughly a decade ago, network science has focused among others on the problem of how the spreading of diseases depends on structural patterns. Here, we contribute to further advance our understanding of epidemic spreading processes by proposing a non-perturbative formulation of the heterogeneous mean field approach that has been commonly used in the physics literature to deal with this kind of spreading phenomena. The non-perturbative equations we propose have no assumption about the proximity of the system to the epidemic threshold, nor any linear approximation of the dynamics. In particular, we first develop a probabilistic description at the node level of the epidemic propagation for the so-called susceptible-infected-susceptible family of models, and after we derive the corresponding heterogeneous mean-field approach. We propose to use the full extension of the approach instead of pruning the expansion to first order, which leads to a non-perturbative formulation that can be solved by fixed point it...
Nakatsukasa, Takashi
2012-01-01
We present the basic concepts and our recent developments in the density functional approaches with the Skyrme functionals for describing nuclear dynamics at low energy. The time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) is utilized for the exact linear response with an external perturbation. For description of collective dynamics beyond the perturbative regime, we present a theory of a decoupled collective submanifold to describe for a slow motion based on the TDDFT. Selected applications are shown to demonstrate the quality of their performance and feasibility. Advantages and disadvantages in the numerical aspects are also discussed.
When do perturbative approaches accurately capture the dynamics of complex quantum systems?
Fruchtman, Amir; Lambert, Neill; Gauger, Erik M.
2016-06-01
Understanding the dynamics of higher-dimensional quantum systems embedded in a complex environment remains a significant theoretical challenge. While several approaches yielding numerically converged solutions exist, these are computationally expensive and often provide only limited physical insight. Here we address the question: when do more intuitive and simpler-to-compute second-order perturbative approaches provide adequate accuracy? We develop a simple analytical criterion and verify its validity for the case of the much-studied FMO dynamics as well as the canonical spin-boson model.
Khellat, M
2016-01-01
We first consider the idea of renormalization group-induced estimates, in the context of optimization procedures, for the Brodsky-Lepage-Mackenzie approach to generate higher-order contributions for QCD perturbative series. Secondly, we develop the deviation pattern approach (DPA) in which through a series of comparisons between lower-order RG-induced estimates and the corresponding analytical calculations, we modify higher-order RG-induced estimates. Finally, using the normal estimation procedure and DPA, we get estimates of $\\alpha_s^4$ corrections for the Bjorken sum rule of polarized deed-inelastic scattering and for the non-singlet contribution to the Adler function.
Zhao, Qiancheng; Huang, Yuewang; Campione, Salvatore; Capolino, Filippo; Boyraz, Ozdal
2015-01-01
Directive optical leaky wave antennas (OLWAs) with tunable radiation pattern are promising integrated optical modulation and scanning devices. OLWAs fabricated using CMOS-compatible semiconductor planar waveguide technology have the potential of providing high directivity with electrical tunability for modulation and switching capabilities. We experimentally demonstrate directive radiation from a silicon nitride ($Si_3N_4$) waveguide-based OLWA. The OLWA design comprises 50 crystalline Si perturbations buried inside the waveguide, with a period of 1 {\\mu}m, each with a length of 260 nm and a height of 150 nm, leading to a directive radiation pattern at telecom wavelengths. The measured far-field radiation pattern at the wavelength of 1540 nm is very directive, with the maximum intensity at the angle of 84.4{\\deg} relative to the waveguide axis and a half-power beam width around 6.2{\\deg}, which is consistent with our theoretical predictions. The use of semiconductor perturbations facilitates electronic radiat...
Coluzzi, Barbara; Bersani, Enrico
2016-01-01
We recall the perturbation expansion for Michaelis-Menten kinetics, beyond the standard quasi-steady-state approximation (sQSSA). Against this background, we are able to appropriately apply the alternative approach to the study of singularly perturbed differential equations that is based on the renormalization group (SPDERG), by clarifying similarities and differences. In the present demanding situation, we directly renormalize the bare initial condition value for the substrate. Our main results are: i) the 2nd order SPDERG uniform approximations to the correct solutions contain, up to 1st order, the same outer components as the known perturbation expansion ones; ii) the differential equation to be solved for the derivation of the 1st order outer substrate component is simpler within the SPDERG approach; iii) the approximations better reproduce the numerical solutions of the original problem in a region encompassing the matching one, because of the 2nd order terms in the inner components, calculated here for ...
Selberg zeta functions and transfer operators an experimental approach to singular perturbations
Fraczek, Markus Szymon
2017-01-01
This book presents a method for evaluating Selberg zeta functions via transfer operators for the full modular group and its congruence subgroups with characters. Studying zeros of Selberg zeta functions for character deformations allows us to access the discrete spectra and resonances of hyperbolic Laplacians under both singular and non-singular perturbations. Areas in which the theory has not yet been sufficiently developed, such as the spectral theory of transfer operators or the singular perturbation theory of hyperbolic Laplacians, will profit from the numerical experiments discussed in this book. Detailed descriptions of numerical approaches to the spectra and eigenfunctions of transfer operators and to computations of Selberg zeta functions will be of value to researchers active in analysis, while those researchers focusing more on numerical aspects will benefit from discussions of the analytic theory, in particular those concerning the transfer operator method and the spectral theory of hyperbolic spac...
Information transfer through a signaling module with feedback: a perturbative approach
Aquino, Gerardo
2015-01-01
Signal transduction in biological cells is effected by signaling pathways that typically include multiple feedback loops. Here we analyze information transfer through a prototypical signaling module with biochemical feedback. The module switches stochastically between an inactive and active state; the input to the module governs the activation rate while the output (i.e., the product concentration) perturbs the inactivation rate. Using a novel perturbative approach, we compute the rate with which information about the input is gained from observation of the output. We obtain an explicit analytical result valid to first order in feedback strength and to second order in the strength of input. The total information gained during an extended time interval is found to depend on the feedback strength only through the total number of activation/inactivation events.
A hybrid approach to black hole perturbations from extended matter sources
Ferrari, V; Rezzolla, L; Ferrari, Valeria; Gualtieri, Leonardo; Rezzolla, Luciano
2006-01-01
We present a new method for the calculation of black hole perturbations induced by extended sources in which the solution of the nonlinear hydrodynamics equations is coupled to a perturbative method based on Regge-Wheeler/Zerilli and Bardeen-Press-Teukolsky equations when these are solved in the frequency domain. In contrast to alternative methods in the time domain which may be unstable for rotating black-hole spacetimes, this approach is expected to be stable as long as an accurate evolution of the matter sources is possible. Hence, it could be used under generic conditions and also with sources coming from three-dimensional numerical relativity codes. As an application of this method we compute the gravitational radiation from an oscillating high-density torus orbiting around a Schwarzschild black hole and show that our method is remarkably accurate, capturing both the basic quadrupolar emission of the torus and the excited emission of the black hole.
Zhang, Xing; Mu, Mu; Wang, Qiang; Pierini, Stefano
2017-06-01
In this study, the initial perturbations that are the easiest to trigger the Kuroshio Extension (KE) transition connecting a basic weak jet state and a strong, fairly stable meandering state, are investigated using a reduced-gravity shallow water ocean model and the CNOP (Conditional Nonlinear Optimal Perturbation) approach. This kind of initial perturbation is called an optimal precursor (OPR). The spatial structures and evolutionary processes of the OPRs are analyzed in detail. The results show that most of the OPRs are in the form of negative sea surface height (SSH) anomalies mainly located in a narrow band region south of the KE jet, in basic agreement with altimetric observations. These negative SSH anomalies reduce the meridional SSH gradient within the KE, thus weakening the strength of the jet. The KE jet then becomes more convoluted, with a high-frequency and large-amplitude variability corresponding to a high eddy kinetic energy level; this gradually strengthens the KE jet through an inverse energy cascade. Eventually, the KE reaches a high-energy state characterized by two well defined and fairly stable anticyclonic meanders. Moreover, sensitivity experiments indicate that the spatial structures of the OPRs are not sensitive to the model parameters and to the optimization times used in the analysis.
A Non-Perturbative Approach to the Random-Bond Ising Model
Cabra, D C; Mussardo, G; Pujol, P
1997-01-01
We study the N -> 0 limit of the O(N) Gross-Neveu model in the framework of the massless form-factor approach. This model is related to the continuum limit of the Ising model with random bonds via the replica method. We discuss how this method may be useful in calculating correlation functions of physical operators. The identification of non-perturbative fixed points of the O(N) Gross-Neveu model is pursued by its mapping to a WZW model.
Liu, Xiao
2017-03-21
Privacy risks of recommender systems have caused increasing attention. Users’ private data is often collected by probably untrusted recommender system in order to provide high-quality recommendation. Meanwhile, malicious attackers may utilize recommendation results to make inferences about other users’ private data. Existing approaches focus either on keeping users’ private data protected during recommendation computation or on preventing the inference of any single user’s data from the recommendation result. However, none is designed for both hiding users’ private data and preventing privacy inference. To achieve this goal, we propose in this paper a hybrid approach for privacy-preserving recommender systems by combining differential privacy (DP) with randomized perturbation (RP). We theoretically show the noise added by RP has limited effect on recommendation accuracy and the noise added by DP can be well controlled based on the sensitivity analysis of functions on the perturbed data. Extensive experiments on three large-scale real world datasets show that the hybrid approach generally provides more privacy protection with acceptable recommendation accuracy loss, and surprisingly sometimes achieves better privacy without sacrificing accuracy, thus validating its feasibility in practice.
Vlah, Zvonimir; McDonald, Patrick; Okumura, Teppei; Baldauf, Tobias
2012-01-01
We develop a perturbative approach to redshift space distortions (RSD) using the phase space distribution function approach and apply it to the dark matter redshift space power spectrum and its moments. RSD can be written as a sum over density weighted velocity moments correlators, with the lowest order being density, momentum density and stress energy density. We use standard and extended perturbation theory (PT) to determine their auto and cross correlators, comparing them to N-body simulations. We show which of the terms can be modeled well with the standard PT and which need additional terms that include higher order corrections which cannot be modeled in PT. Most of these additional terms are related to the small scale velocity dispersion effects, the so called finger of god (FoG) effects, which affect some, but not all, of the terms in this expansion, and which can be approximately modeled using a simple physically motivated ansatz such as the halo model. We point out that there are several velocity dis...
Ibral, Asmaa [Equipe d' Optique et Electronique du Solide, Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences, Université Chouaïb Doukkali, B. P. 20 El Jadida principale, El Jadida, Royaume du Maroc (Morocco); Laboratoire d' Instrumentation, Mesure et Contrôle, Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences, Université Chouaïb Doukkali, B. P. 20 El Jadida principale, El Jadida, Royaume du Maroc (Morocco); Zouitine, Asmaa [Département de Physique, Ecole Nationale Supérieure d' Enseignement Technique, Université Mohammed V Souissi, B. P. 6207 Rabat-Instituts, Rabat, Royaume du Maroc (Morocco); Assaid, El Mahdi, E-mail: eassaid@yahoo.fr [Equipe d' Optique et Electronique du Solide, Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences, Université Chouaïb Doukkali, B. P. 20 El Jadida principale, El Jadida, Royaume du Maroc (Morocco); Laboratoire d' Instrumentation, Mesure et Contrôle, Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences, Université Chouaïb Doukkali, B. P. 20 El Jadida principale, El Jadida, Royaume du Maroc (Morocco); and others
2015-02-01
Poisson equation is solved analytically in the case of a point charge placed anywhere in a spherical core/shell nanostructure, immersed in aqueous or organic solution or embedded in semiconducting or insulating matrix. Conduction and valence band-edge alignments between core and shell are described by finite height barriers. Influence of polarization charges induced at the surfaces where two adjacent materials meet is taken into account. Original expressions of electrostatic potential created everywhere in the space by a source point charge are derived. Expressions of self-polarization potential describing the interaction of a point charge with its own image–charge are deduced. Contributions of double dielectric constant mismatch to electron and hole ground state energies as well as nanostructure effective gap are calculated via first order perturbation theory and also by finite difference approach. Dependencies of electron, hole and gap energies against core to shell radii ratio are determined in the case of ZnS/CdSe core/shell nanostructure immersed in water or in toluene. It appears that finite difference approach is more efficient than first order perturbation method and that the effect of polarization charge may in no case be neglected as its contribution can reach a significant proportion of the value of nanostructure gap.
A perturbative approach to neutron stars in f(T, T)-gravity
Pace, Mark; Said, Jackson Levi [University of Malta, Department of Physics, Msida (Malta); University of Malta, Institute of Space Sciences and Astronomy, Msida (Malta)
2017-05-15
We derive a Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation in neutron star systems within the modified f(T, T)-gravity class of models using a perturbative approach. In our approach f(T, T)-gravity is considered to be a static spherically symmetric space-time. In this instance the metric is built from a more fundamental vierbein which can be used to relate inertial and global coordinates. A linear function f = T(r) + T(r) + χh(T, T) + O(χ{sup 2}) is taken as the Lagrangian density for the gravitational action. Finally we impose the polytropic equation of state of neutron star upon the derived equations in order to derive the mass profile and mass-central density relations of the neutron star in f(T, T)-gravity. (orig.)
Alfaro, Pedro; Palavicini, Alessio; Wang, Chumin, E-mail: chumin@unam.mx
2014-11-28
Based on the density functional perturbation theory (DFPT), infrared absorption spectra of porous silicon are calculated by using an ordered pore model, in which columns of silicon atoms are removed along the [001] direction and dangling bonds are initially saturated with hydrogen atoms. When these atoms on the pore surface are gradually replaced by oxygen ones, the ab-initio infrared absorption spectra reveal oxygen, hydroxyl, and coupled hydrogen–oxygen vibrational modes. In a parallel way, freestanding porous silicon samples were prepared by using electrochemical etching and they were further thermally oxidized in a dry oxygen ambient. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to investigate the surface modifications caused by oxygen adsorption. In particular, the predicted hydroxyl and oxygen bound to the silicon pore surface are confirmed. Finally, a global analysis of measured transmittance spectra has been performed by means of a combined DFPT and thin-film optics approach. - Highlights: • The density functional perturbation theory is used to study infrared absorption. • An ordered pore model is used to investigate the oxidation in porous silicon (PSi). • Infrared transmittance spectra of oxidized PSi freestanding samples are measured.
Cook, William R; Coalson, Rob D; Evans, Deborah G
2009-08-20
A description of electron transfer in condensed-phase media requires models that adequately describe the coupling of the electronic degrees of freedom to the surrounding nuclear coordinates. The spin-boson model has been the canonical model used to understand quantum dynamic processes in condensed-phase media over the last 25 years. Inherent in the standard model of a two-state quantum system coupled to a bosonic bath is the assumption that the Condon approximation is valid. In this context, the Condon approximation assumes that the bath configurations (coordinates) have no effect on the nonadiabatic coupling matrix element. While this is a useful model for electron transfer in small molecular systems, the validity of this approximation is less likely when large-scale motions of solvent molecules are strongly coupled to the electron transfer event, e.g., in molecular clamps and long-range electron transfer in biopolymers. In the present paper a general model for two-state electron transfer which allows for system-bath coupling in both the diagonal and off-diagonal (nonadiabatic) terms is studied. Time-dependent perturbation theory for this Hamiltonian is developed using a small polaron transformation. As noted in several recent studies, in a certain regime of parameter space, the relevant Hamiltonian admits an exact solution, termed the exactly solvable non-Condon Hamiltonian (or NCE). This limit, for which exact solutions are available, is used to benchmark the short- and long-time accuracy of various perturbative approaches. The validated perturbation equations are subsequently used to explore the role of non-Condon effects on electron transfer by systematically increasing the strength of the non-Condon coupling term from zero (i.e., the canonical spin-boson model) to the value that pertains to the exactly solvable non-Condon model (where non-Condon effects are significant).
Suter, II, G W
1980-01-01
The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) was initially interpreted as requiring full disclosure of the environmental impacts of a federal action. Because of the limitations of time, money, and manpower, this requirement that all impacts be considered has led to superficial analysis of many important impacts. Data collection has largely been limited to the enumeration of species because this information can be applied to the analysis of any problem. The President's Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) has provided a solution to this problem by reinterpreting NEPA as requiring analysis of those impacts which have significant bearing on decision making. Because assessment resources can now be concentrated on a few critical issues, it should be possible to perform field perturbation experiments to provide direct evidence of the effects of a specific mixture of pollutants or physical disturbances on the specific mixture of pollutants or physical disturbances on the specific receiving ecosystem. Techniques are described for field simulation of gaseous and particulate air pollution, soil pollutants, disturbance of the earth's surface, and disturbance of wildlife. These techniques are discussed in terms of their realism, cost, and the restrictions which they place on the measurement of ecological parameters. Development and use of these field perturbation techniques should greatly improve the accuracy of predictive assessments and further our understanding of ecosystem processes.
A perturbative approach for enhancing the performance of time series forecasting.
de Mattos Neto, Paulo S G; Ferreira, Tiago A E; Lima, Aranildo R; Vasconcelos, Germano C; Cavalcanti, George D C
2017-04-01
This paper proposes a method to perform time series prediction based on perturbation theory. The approach is based on continuously adjusting an initial forecasting model to asymptotically approximate a desired time series model. First, a predictive model generates an initial forecasting for a time series. Second, a residual time series is calculated as the difference between the original time series and the initial forecasting. If that residual series is not white noise, then it can be used to improve the accuracy of the initial model and a new predictive model is adjusted using residual series. The whole process is repeated until convergence or the residual series becomes white noise. The output of the method is then given by summing up the outputs of all trained predictive models in a perturbative sense. To test the method, an experimental investigation was conducted on six real world time series. A comparison was made with six other methods experimented and ten other results found in the literature. Results show that not only the performance of the initial model is significantly improved but also the proposed method outperforms the other results previously published.
Du, Yijun; Segall, Paul; Gao, Huajian
1994-07-01
Quasi-static elastic dislocations in a homogeneous elastic half-space are commonly used to model earthquake faulting processes. Recent studies of the 1989 Kalapana, Hawaii, and Loma Prieta, California, earthquakes suggest that spatial variations in elastic properties are necessary to reconcile geodetic and seismic results. In this paper, we use a moduli perturbation approach to investigate the effect of lateral and vertical variations in elastic properties on the elastic fields produced by dislocations. The method is simple, efficient, and in some cases leads to closed form solutions. The zero-order solution is simply the solution for a homogeneous body. The first-order correction for elastic heterogeneity is given by a volume integral involving the spatial variations in moduli, the displacements due to a dislocation in a homogeneous half-space, and the half-space Green's function. The same representation can be also used to obtain higher-order solutions. If there are only piecewise constant variations in shear modulus, the volume integral can be reduced to a surface integral (or line integral in two-dimensions). Comparisons with the analytical solutions for a screw dislocation in a layered medium suggest that the perturbation solutions are valid for nearly an order of magnitude variation in modulus. It is shown that a simple two-dimensional model with both vertical and lateral variations in the elastic properties may explain a large part of the discrepancy between seismic and geodetically inferred fault depths for the 1989 Kalapana, Hawaii, earthquake.
New Approach for IIR Adaptive Lattice Filter Structure Using Simultaneous Perturbation Algorithm
Martinez, Jorge Ivan Medina; Nakano, Kazushi; Higuchi, Kohji
Adaptive infinite impulse response (IIR), or recursive, filters are less attractive mainly because of the stability and the difficulties associated with their adaptive algorithms. Therefore, in this paper the adaptive IIR lattice filters are studied in order to devise algorithms that preserve the stability of the corresponding direct-form schemes. We analyze the local properties of stationary points, a transformation achieving this goal is suggested, which gives algorithms that can be efficiently implemented. Application to the Steiglitz-McBride (SM) and Simple Hyperstable Adaptive Recursive Filter (SHARF) algorithms is presented. Also a modified version of Simultaneous Perturbation Stochastic Approximation (SPSA) is presented in order to get the coefficients in a lattice form more efficiently and with a lower computational cost and complexity. The results are compared with previous lattice versions of these algorithms. These previous lattice versions may fail to preserve the stability of stationary points.
Detecting a Weak Association by Testing its Multiple Perturbations: a Data Mining Approach
Lo, Min-Tzu; Lee, Wen-Chung
2014-05-01
Many risk factors/interventions in epidemiologic/biomedical studies are of minuscule effects. To detect such weak associations, one needs a study with a very large sample size (the number of subjects, n). The n of a study can be increased but unfortunately only to an extent. Here, we propose a novel method which hinges on increasing sample size in a different direction-the total number of variables (p). We construct a p-based `multiple perturbation test', and conduct power calculations and computer simulations to show that it can achieve a very high power to detect weak associations when p can be made very large. As a demonstration, we apply the method to analyze a genome-wide association study on age-related macular degeneration and identify two novel genetic variants that are significantly associated with the disease. The p-based method may set a stage for a new paradigm of statistical tests.
Manganotti, Paolo; Del Felice, Alessandra
2013-01-01
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) evolved from a simple method to stimulate the motor cortex to an invaluable tool for multiple diagnostic, research, and therapeutic applications. A further development of this noninvasive brain stimulation technique is concomitant electroencephalographic (EEG) recording during TMS. The theoretical underpinnings and the technological innovation of TMS-EEG co-registration have opened new ways to study brain excitability in neurological conditions previously investigated with conventional EEG alone. A further advance in TMS research applications is the perturbational approach: magnetic pulses can interfere not only with dynamic, often pathological rhythms in epilepsy or altered consciousness states, but also modulate physiological states such as sleep and sleep deprivation. So applied, TMS-EEG co-registration can reveal different neurophysiological and behavioral patterns in the awake state, sleep or sleep deprivation. In this review, we discuss the use of TMS and TMS-EEG co-registration in epilepsy, a still rather limited although promising area of study.
Perturbations to Saturn's F-ring strands at their closest approach to Prometheus
Giuliatti, Winter S.M.; Murray, C.D.; Gordon, M.
2000-01-01
The strange morphology of the F ring of Saturn is thought to be caused by the perturbing effects of two close satellites, Prometheus and Pandora. The F ring and the satellites also experience periodic close encounters as a result of differential precession arising from Saturn's oblateness. Using the orbits of the F-ring strands derived by Murray et al. (1997, Icarus 129, 304-316) the behaviour of the ring particles at their closest approach to Prometheus is analysed using numerical simulations. The results show that a gap and a wave are formed in the ring at each encounter with the satellite. However, the gap is expected to have a short lifetime due to keplerian shear. ?? 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shao Hai-Jian; Cai Guo-Liang; Wang Hao-Xiang
2010-01-01
In this study,a successful linear matrix inequality approach is used to analyse a non-parameter perturbation of multi-delay Hopfield neural network by constructing an appropriate Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional.This paper presents the comprehensive discussion of the approach and also extensive applications.
Improved estimates of the B{sub (s)}→VV decays in perturbative QCD approach
Zou, Zhi-Tian; Li, Ying [Yantai Univ. (China). Dept. of Physics; Ali, Ahmed [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Lue, Cai-Dian [Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing, BJ (China); Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities, CAS, Beijing (China); Liu, Xin [Jiangsu Normal Univ., Xuzhou (China). School of Physics and Electronic Engineering
2015-01-15
We reexamine the branching ratios, CP-asymmetries, and other observables in a large number of B{sub q}→VV(q=u,d,s) decays in the perturbative QCD (PQCD) approach, where V denotes a light vector meson (ρ,K{sup *},ω,φ). The essential difference between this work and the earlier similar works is of parametric origin and in the estimates of the power corrections related to the ratio r{sup 2}{sub i}=m{sup 2}{sub V{sub i}}/m{sup 2}{sub B} (i=2,3) (m{sub V} and m{sub B} denote the masses of the vector and B meson, respectively). In particular, we use up-to-date distribution amplitudes for the final state mesons and keep the terms proportional to the ratio r{sup 2}{sub i} in our calculations. Our updated calculations are in agreement with the experimental data, except for a limited number of decays which we discuss. We emphasize that the penguin annihilation and the hard-scattering emission contributions are essential to understand the polarization anomaly, such as in the B→φK{sup *} and B{sub s}→φφ decay modes. We also compare our results with those obtained in the QCD factorization (QCDF) approach and comment on the similarities and differences, which can be used to discriminate between these approaches in future experiments.
The Direct Method and the Communicative Approach
王丽葵
2014-01-01
The Direct Method and the Communicative Approach are two different kinds of methods in teaching foreign languages. There are obvious advantages in using the Direct Method. However,people found a number of shortcomings in this method. It is not easy to apply after the first stages of language learning when ideas and concepts become more abstract and complicated. This method assumes that adults can learn a second language the same way that children learn their first language. However,more attention should be paid to the differences between these two groups of people.Obviously,the Communicative Approach contributes a lot to the foreign language teaching. But it is certain that it’s not a perfect teaching system. There are quite a few questions needing resolutions.Developing a methodology involves the synthesis of theory and practice into a program that works. It generally means drawing from several methods and approaches in order to create an integrated curriculum that will meet the needs of the situation and students. Integrative and / or instrumental goals,the particular concepts being taught,learning and teaching preferences,cultural factors,and age and competency levels of students are all important considerations.
Sushila
2013-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we present an efficient analytical approach based on new homotopy perturbation sumudu transform method (HPSTM to investigate the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD viscous flow due to a stretching sheet. The viscous fluid is electrically conducting in the presence of magnetic field and the induced magnetic field is neglected for small magnetic Reynolds number. Finally, some numerical comparisons among the new HPSTM, the homotopy perturbation method and the exact solution have been made. The numerical solutions obtained by the proposed method show that the approach is easy to implement and computationally very attractive.
Gaurang Mahajan
Full Text Available High-throughput experiments such as microarrays and deep sequencing provide large scale information on the pattern of gene expression, which undergoes extensive remodeling as the cell dynamically responds to varying environmental cues or has its function disrupted under pathological conditions. An important initial step in the systematic analysis and interpretation of genome-scale expression alteration involves identification of a set of perturbed transcriptional regulators whose differential activity can provide a proximate hypothesis to account for these transcriptomic changes. In the present work, we propose an unbiased and logically natural approach to transcription factor enrichment. It involves overlaying a list of experimentally determined differentially expressed genes on a background regulatory network coming from e.g. literature curation or computational motif scanning, and identifying that subset of regulators whose aggregated target set best discriminates between the altered and the unaffected genes. In other words, our methodology entails testing of all possible regulatory subnetworks, rather than just the target sets of individual regulators as is followed in most standard approaches. We have proposed an iterative search method to efficiently find such a combination, and benchmarked it on E. coli microarray and regulatory network data available in the public domain. Comparative analysis carried out on artificially generated differential expression profiles, as well as empirical factor overexpression data for M. tuberculosis, shows that our methodology provides marked improvement in accuracy of regulatory inference relative to the standard method that involves evaluating factor enrichment in an individual manner.
Mahajan, Gaurang; Mande, Shekhar C
2015-01-01
High-throughput experiments such as microarrays and deep sequencing provide large scale information on the pattern of gene expression, which undergoes extensive remodeling as the cell dynamically responds to varying environmental cues or has its function disrupted under pathological conditions. An important initial step in the systematic analysis and interpretation of genome-scale expression alteration involves identification of a set of perturbed transcriptional regulators whose differential activity can provide a proximate hypothesis to account for these transcriptomic changes. In the present work, we propose an unbiased and logically natural approach to transcription factor enrichment. It involves overlaying a list of experimentally determined differentially expressed genes on a background regulatory network coming from e.g. literature curation or computational motif scanning, and identifying that subset of regulators whose aggregated target set best discriminates between the altered and the unaffected genes. In other words, our methodology entails testing of all possible regulatory subnetworks, rather than just the target sets of individual regulators as is followed in most standard approaches. We have proposed an iterative search method to efficiently find such a combination, and benchmarked it on E. coli microarray and regulatory network data available in the public domain. Comparative analysis carried out on artificially generated differential expression profiles, as well as empirical factor overexpression data for M. tuberculosis, shows that our methodology provides marked improvement in accuracy of regulatory inference relative to the standard method that involves evaluating factor enrichment in an individual manner.
Rafiq, Arif [Department of Mathematics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)], E-mail: arafiq@comsats.edu.pk; Ahmed, Munshoor [Department of Mathematics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)], E-mail: ahmed.manshoor@gmail.com; Hussain, Sifat [CASPAM, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan (Pakistan)], E-mail: siffat2002@gmail.com
2008-07-21
Homotopy perturbation method is used to solve specific second order ordinary differential equations and tested for different examples. The results obtained demonstrate efficiency of the proposed method.
Pham, Lisa M; Carvalho, Luis; Schaus, Scott; Kolaczyk, Eric D
Cellular response to a perturbation is the result of a dynamic system of biological variables linked in a complex network. A major challenge in drug and disease studies is identifying the key factors of a biological network that are essential in determining the cell's fate. Here our goal is the identification of perturbed pathways from high-throughput gene expression data. We develop a three-level hierarchical model, where (i) the first level captures the relationship between gene expression and biological pathways using confirmatory factor analysis, (ii) the second level models the behavior within an underlying network of pathways induced by an unknown perturbation using a conditional autoregressive model, and (iii) the third level is a spike-and-slab prior on the perturbations. We then identify perturbations through posterior-based variable selection. We illustrate our approach using gene transcription drug perturbation profiles from the DREAM7 drug sensitivity predication challenge data set. Our proposed method identified regulatory pathways that are known to play a causative role and that were not readily resolved using gene set enrichment analysis or exploratory factor models. Simulation results are presented assessing the performance of this model relative to a network-free variant and its robustness to inaccuracies in biological databases.
Fox, D.J.
1983-10-01
Analytic derivatives of the potential energy for Self-Consistent-Field (SCF) wave functions have been developed in recent years and found to be useful tools. The first derivative for configuration interaction (CI) wave functions is also available. This work details the extension of analytic methods to energy second derivatives for CI wave functions. The principal extension required for second derivatives is evaluation of the first order change in the CI wave function with respect to a nuclear perturbation. The shape driven graphical unitary group approach (SDGUGA) direct CI program was adapted to evaluate this term via the coupled-perturbed CI equations. Several iterative schemes are compared for use in solving these equations. The pilot program makes no use of molecular symmetry but the timing results show that utilization of molecular symmetry is desirable. The principles for defining and solving a set of symmetry adapted equations are discussed. Evaluation of the second derivative also requires the solution of the second order coupled-perturbed Hartree-Fock equations to obtain the correction to the molecular orbitals due to the nuclear perturbation. This process takes a consistently higher percentage of the computation time than for the first order equations alone and a strategy for its reduction is discussed.
Improved Estimates of The $B_{(s)}\\to V V$ Decaysin Perturbative QCD Approach
Zou, Zhi-Tian; Lu, Cai-Dian; Liu, Xin; Li, Ying
2015-01-01
We reexamine the branching ratios, $CP$-asymmetries, and other observables in a large number of $B_q\\to VV(q=u,d,s)$ decays in the perturbative QCD (PQCD) approach, where $V$ denotes a light vector meson $(\\rho, K^*, \\omega, \\phi)$. The essential difference between this work and the earlier similar works is of parametric origin and in the estimates of the power corrections related to the ratio $r_i^2=m_{V_i}^2/m_B^2(i=2,3)$ ($m_V$ and $m_B$ denote the masses of the vector and $B$ meson, respectively). In particular, we use up-to-date distribution amplitudes for the final state mesons and keep the terms proportional to the ratio $r_i^2$ in our calculations. Our updated calculations are in agreement with the experimental data, except for a limited number of decays which we discuss. We emphasize that the penguin annihilation and the hard-scattering emission contributions are essential to understand the polarization anomaly, such as in the $B\\to \\phi K^*$ and $B_s \\to \\phi\\phi$ decay modes. We also compare our re...
Vlah, Zvonimir; Okumura, Teppei; Desjacques, Vincent
2013-01-01
Numerical simulations show that redshift space distortions (RSD) introduce strong scale dependence in the power spectra of halos, with ten percent deviations relative to linear theory predictions even on relatively large scales (k<0.1h/Mpc) and even in the absence of satellites (which induce Fingers-of-God, FoG, effects). If unmodeled these effects prevent one from extracting cosmological information from RSD surveys. In this paper we use perturbation theory (PT) and halo biasing model and apply it to the distribution function approach to RSD, in which RSD is decomposed into several correlators of density weighted velocity moments. We model each of these correlators using PT and compare the results to simulations over a wide range of halo masses and redshifts. We find that with an introduction of a physically motivated halo biasing, and using dark matter power spectra from simulations, we can reproduce the simulation results at a percent level on scales up to k~0.15h/Mpc at z=0, without the need to have fr...
A new approach to cosmological perturbations in f(R) models
Bertacca, Daniele; Bartolo, Nicola; Matarrese, Sabino, E-mail: daniele.bertacca@pd.infn.it, E-mail: nicola.bartolo@pd.infn.it, E-mail: sabino.matarrese@pd.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica Galileo Galilei, Università di Padova, via F. Marzolo, 8 I-35131 Padova (Italy)
2012-08-01
We propose an analytic procedure that allows to determine quantitatively the deviation in the behavior of cosmological perturbations between a given f(R) modified gravity model and a ΛCDM reference model. Our method allows to study structure formation in these models from the largest scales, of the order of the Hubble horizon, down to scales deeply inside the Hubble radius, without employing the so-called 'quasi-static' approximation. Although we restrict our analysis here to linear perturbations, our technique is completely general and can be extended to any perturbative order.
ESDIS DOI System, Approach, and Future Direction
Wanchoo, L.; James, N.
2013-12-01
NASA's Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) Project began investigating the use of Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) in 2010 with the goal of assigning DOIs to various data products. These data products are archived and distributed by various Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) located across the United States. Each data center has a unique approach and process for generating and archiving a variety of data products that are used for global change research. These varied approaches present a challenge for developing a DOI solution that fits all the possible variations. To address this challenge, ESDIS developed processes, guidelines, and several models for creating and assigning DOIs. Initially the system was started as a prototype approach and now it is fully operational. In February 2012, ESDIS joined the California Digital Library (CDL) EZID for registering the EOSDIS-related DOIs. ESDIS's DOI operational process allows for reserving DOIs while data providers are finalizing the DOIs and its associated elements. This flexibility allows data providers to embed and test the DOI in the data product metadata before formally registering with EZID. Data providers can change any DOI metadata, including the DOI name as long as it has not been registered or reserved by another data provider. ESDIS assures the uniqueness of the DOI names before it is registered. Currently, ESDIS has 146 data product DOIs registered with EZID and data providers have reserved an additional 93 DOIs with ESDIS. A semi-automated approach is being developed for processing and validating the DOI information provided by the data providers and will cover all the steps from the collection to the registration of DOIs. ESDIS's DOI concept utilizes a few mandatory metadata elements that effectively identify the data products and the source of availability. Of these elements, the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) attribute has the very important function of identifying the landing page
Charmless hadronic $B \\to (f_1(1285),f_1(1420)) P$ decays in the perturbative QCD approach
Liu, Xin; Li, Jing-Wu; Zou, Zhi-Tian
2014-01-01
We study twenty charmless hadronic $B \\to f_1 P$ decays, with $f_1$ representing axial-vector mesons $f_1(1285)$ and $f_1(1420)$ that resulting from a mixing of quark-flavor $f_{1q}$ and $f_{1s}$ states with the angle $\\phi_{f_1}$, in the perturbative QCD(pQCD) formalism. The estimations of branching ratios and CP asymmetries of the considered $B \\to f_1 P$ decays are presented in the pQCD approach with $\\phi_{f_1} \\sim 24^\\circ$ from recently measured $B_{d/s} \\to J/\\psi f_1(1285)$ decays. It is found that (a) the tree dominant $B^+ \\to f_1 \\pi^+$ and the penguin dominant $B^+ \\to f_1 K^+$ decays with large branching ratios[${\\cal O}(10^{-6})$] and large direct CP violations(around $14\\% \\sim 28\\%$ in magnitude) simultaneously are believed to be clearly measurable at the LHCb and Super-B factory experiments; (b) the nearly pure penguin-dominated $B_d \\to f_1 K_S^0$ and $B_s \\to f_1 (\\eta, \\eta')$ modes with safely negligible tree pollution also have large decay rates in the order of $10^{-6} \\sim 10^{-5}$, w...
Quasi-two-body decays $B\\to K\\rho\\to K\\pi\\pi$ in perturbative QCD approach
Wang, Wen-Fei
2016-01-01
We analyze the quasi-two-body decays $B\\to K\\rho\\to K\\pi\\pi$ in the perturbative QCD (PQCD) approach, in which final-state interactions between the pions in the resonant regions associated with the $P$-wave states $\\rho(770)$ and $\\rho^\\prime(1450)$ are factorized into two-pion distribution amplitudes. Adopting experimental inputs for the time-like pion form factors involved in two-pion distribution amplitudes, we calculate branching ratios and direct $CP$ asymmetries of the $B\\to K\\rho(770),K\\rho^\\prime(1450)\\to K\\pi\\pi$ modes. It is shown that agreement of theoretical results with data can be achieved, through which Gegenbauer moments of the $P$-wave two-pion distribution amplitudes are determined. The consistency between the three-body and two-body analyses of the $B\\to K\\rho(770)\\to K\\pi\\pi$ decays supports the PQCD factorization framework for exclusive hadronic $B$ meson decays.
On the Application of Stark Broadening Data Determined with a Semiclassical Perturbation Approach
Milan S. Dimitrijević
2014-08-01
Full Text Available The significance of Stark broadening data for problems in astrophysics, physics, as well as for technological plasmas is discussed and applications of Stark broadening parameters calculated using a semiclassical perturbation method are analyzed.
Enea Romano, Antonio; Andrés Vallejo, Sergio
2015-02-01
Recent measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation have shown an apparent tension with the present value of the Hubble parameter inferred from local observations of supernovae, which look closer, i.e. brighter, than what is expected in a homogeneous model with a value of H0 equal to the one estimated from CMB observations. We examine the possibility that such a discrepancy is the consequence of the presence of a local inhomogeneity seeded by primordial curvature perturbations, finding that a negative peak of the order of less than two standard deviations could allow to fit low-redshift supernovae observations without the need of using a value of the Hubble parameter different from H0CMB. The type of inhomogeneity we consider does not modify the distance to the last scattering, making it compatible with the constraints of the PLANCK mission data. The effect on the luminosity distance is in fact localized around the region in space where the transition between different values of the curvature perturbations occurs, producing a local decrease, while the distance outside the inhomogeneity is not affected. Our calculation is fully relativistic and nonperturbative, and for this reason shows important effects which were missed in the previous investigations using relativistic perturbations or Newtonian approximations, because the structures seeded by primordial curvature perturbations can be today highly nonlinear, and relativist Doppler terms cannot be neglected. Because of these effects the correction to the luminosity distance necessary to explain observations is associated to a compensated structure which involves both an underdense central region and an overdense outer shell, ensuring that the distance to the last scattering surface is unaffected. Comparison with studies of local structure based on galaxy surveys analysis reveals that the density profile we find could in fact be compatible with the one obtained for the same region of sky where
Stability analysis of direct contact heat exchangers subject to system perturbations
Jacobs, H. R.
1985-01-01
The work deals with the operational stability of a spray column type heat exchanger subject to disturbances typical of those which can occur for geothermal applications. A computer program was developed to solve the one dimensional transient two phase flow problem and it was applied to the design of a spray column. The operation and design of the East Mesa 500kW/sub e/ direct contactor was assessed. It is shown that the heat transfer is governed by the internal resistance of the dispersed phase. The performance is well represented by diffusion of heat within the drops.
Perturbation of blood flow as a mechanism of anti-tumour action of direct current electrotherapy.
Jarm, Tomaz; Cemazar, Maja; Steinberg, Fritz; Streffer, Christian; Sersa, Gregor; Miklavcic, Damijan
2003-02-01
Anti-tumour effects of direct current electrotherapy are attributed to different mechanisms depending on the electrode configuration and on the parameters of electric current. The effects mostly arise from the electrochemical products of electrolysis. Direct toxicity of these products to tumour tissue is, however, not a plausible explanation for the observed tumour growth retardation in the case when the electrodes are placed into healthy tissue surrounding the tumour and not into the tumour itself. The hypothesis that the anti-tumour effectiveness of electrotherapy could result from disturbed blood flow in tumours was tested by the measurement of changes in blood perfusion and oxygenation in tumours with three different methods (in vivo tissue staining with Patent Blue Violet dye, polarographic oximetry, near-infrared spectroscopy). The effects induced by electrotherapy were evaluated in two experimental tumour models: Sa-1 fibrosarcoma in A/J mice and LPB fibrosarcoma in C57B1/6 mice. We found that perfusion and oxygenation were significantly decreased after electrotherapy. Good agreement between the results of different methods was observed. The effect of electrotherapy on local perfusion of tumours is probably the prevalent mechanism of anti-tumour action for the particular type of electrotherapy used in the study. The importance of this effect should be considered for the optimization of electrotherapy protocols in experimental and clinical trials. The non-invasive technique of near-infrared spectroscopy proved to be a reliable method for detecting perfusion and oxygenation changes in small solid tumours.
Haplotyping as perfect phylogeny: a direct approach.
Bafna, Vineet; Gusfield, Dan; Lancia, Giuseppe; Yooseph, Shibu
2003-01-01
list of "future work" in Gusfield (2002) began with the task of developing a simpler, more direct, yet still efficient algorithm. This paper accomplishes that goal, for both the rooted and unrooted PPH problems. It establishes a simple, easy-to-program, O(nm(2))-time algorithm that determines whether there is a PPH solution for input genotypes and produces a linear-space data structure to represent all of the solutions. The approach allows complete, self-contained proofs. In addition to algorithmic simplicity, the approach here makes the representation of all solutions more intuitive than in Gusfield (2002), and solves another goal from that paper, namely, to prove a nontrivial upper bound on the number of PPH solutions, showing that that number is vastly smaller than the number of haplotype solutions (each solution being a set of n pairs of haplotypes that can generate the genotypes) when the perfect phylogeny requirement is not imposed.
Perturbation approach to resonator state solution using the Fourier-Bessel numerical solver
Gauthier, Robert C.
2017-02-01
The Fourier-Bessel (FFB) numerical solver is a useful tool for obtaining the steady states of resonator structures that conform to a cylindrical symmetry. Recently the FFB solver has been greatly simplified by reconfiguring the matrix generating expressions using Maxwell's curl expressions rather than the standard wave equations. This presentation provides a numerical framework suitable for the application on non-degenerate perturbation theory within the theoretical structure of the reconfigured FFB computation environment. It is shown that the resonator structure's perturbation contribution can be isolated as a separate matrix which dictates the shift in resonator state properties. Two distinct application examples are provide; the first has the perturbation possess the same rotational symmetry as the original structure and preserves azimuthal mode order families; the second perturbation has a symmetry different than the original structure and promotes a mixing between azimuthal mode order families. The perturbation extension promises to amplify the potential usefulness of the FFB technique when theoretically considering photonic sensors such as whispering-gallery mode, photonic crystal hole infiltration and a host of others in which the measurand undergoes small changes in its optical properties.
Second Order perturbation Theory: A covariant approach involving a barotropic equation of state
Osano, Bob
2015-01-01
We first revisit the motivations for developing techniques to study Second-Order effects, before presenting the formalism. We study second-order tensor perturbations about FLRW with dust on the one hand, and with a general barotropic equation of state on the other. Solutions to the wave equations are presented.
Sudin Bhattacharya
Full Text Available The approaches to quantitatively assessing the health risks of chemical exposure have not changed appreciably in the past 50 to 80 years, the focus remaining on high-dose studies that measure adverse outcomes in homogeneous animal populations. This expensive, low-throughput approach relies on conservative extrapolations to relate animal studies to much lower-dose human exposures and is of questionable relevance to predicting risks to humans at their typical low exposures. It makes little use of a mechanistic understanding of the mode of action by which chemicals perturb biological processes in human cells and tissues. An alternative vision, proposed by the U.S. National Research Council (NRC report Toxicity Testing in the 21(st Century: A Vision and a Strategy, called for moving away from traditional high-dose animal studies to an approach based on perturbation of cellular responses using well-designed in vitro assays. Central to this vision are (a "toxicity pathways" (the innate cellular pathways that may be perturbed by chemicals and (b the determination of chemical concentration ranges where those perturbations are likely to be excessive, thereby leading to adverse health effects if present for a prolonged duration in an intact organism. In this paper we briefly review the original NRC report and responses to that report over the past 3 years, and discuss how the change in testing might be achieved in the U.S. and in the European Union (EU. EU initiatives in developing alternatives to animal testing of cosmetic ingredients have run very much in parallel with the NRC report. Moving from current practice to the NRC vision would require using prototype toxicity pathways to develop case studies showing the new vision in action. In this vein, we also discuss how the proposed strategy for toxicity testing might be applied to the toxicity pathways associated with DNA damage and repair.
Perturbative self-interacting scalar field theory: a differential equation approach
Rocha, R; Coimbra-Araujo, C H
2005-01-01
We revisit the investigation about the partition function related to a \\phi^4-scalar field theory on a n-dimensional Minkowski spacetime, which is shown to be a self-interacting scalar field theory at least in 4-dimensional Minkowski spacetime. After rederiving the analytical calculation of the perturbative expansion coefficients and also the approximate values for suitable limits using Stirling's formulae, which consists of Witten's proposed questions, solved by P. Deligne, D. Freed, L. Jeffrey, and S. Wu, we investigate a spherically symmetric scalar field in a n-dimensional Minkowski spacetime. For the first perturbative expansion coefficient it is shown how it can be derived a modified Bessel equation (MBE), which solutions are investigated in one, four, and eleven-dimensional Minkowski spacetime. The solutions of MBE are the first expansion coefficient of the series associated with the partition function of \\phi^4-scalar field theory.
RCD Large Aspect-Ratio Tokamak Equilibrium with Magnetic Islands: a Perturbed Approach
F.L.Braga
2013-01-01
Solutions of Grad-Shafranov (GS) equation with Reversed Current Density (RCD) profiles present magnetic islands when the magnetic flux is explicitly dependent on the poloidal angle.In this work it is shown that a typical cylindrical (large aspect-ratio) RCD equilibrium configuration perturbed by the magnetic tield of a circular loop (simulating a divertor) is capable of generate magnetic islands,due to the poloidal symmetry break of the GS equilibrium solution.
RCD Large Aspect-Ratio Tokamak Equilibrium with Magnetic Islands: a Perturbed Approach
F. L., Braga
2013-03-01
Solutions of Grad-Shafranov (GS) equation with Reversed Current Density (RCD) profiles present magnetic islands when the magnetic flux is explicitly dependent on the poloidal angle. In this work it is shown that a typical cylindrical (large aspect-ratio) RCD equilibrium configuration perturbed by the magnetic field of a circular loop (simulating a divertor) is capable of generate magnetic islands, due to the poloidal symmetry break of the GS equilibrium solution.
Albert, Christopher G; Kapper, Gernot; Kasilov, Sergei V; Kernbichler, Winfried; Martitsch, Andreas F
2016-01-01
Toroidal torque generated by neoclassical viscosity caused by external non-resonant, non-axisymmetric perturbations has a significant influence on toroidal plasma rotation in tokamaks. In this article, a derivation for the expressions of toroidal torque and radial transport in resonant regimes is provided within quasilinear theory in canonical action-angle variables. The proposed approach treats all low-collisional quasilinear resonant NTV regimes including superbanana plateau and drift-orbit resonances in a unified way and allows for magnetic drift in all regimes. It is valid for perturbations on toroidally symmetric flux surfaces of the unperturbed equilibrium without specific assumptions on geometry or aspect ratio. The resulting expressions are shown to match existing analytical results in the large aspect ratio limit. Numerical results from the newly developed code NEO-RT are compared to calculations by the quasilinear version of the code NEO-2 at low collisionalities. The importance of the magnetic shea...
Achour, Jibril Ben; Grain, Julien; Marciano, Antonino
2016-01-01
Scalar cosmological perturbations in loop quantum cosmology (LQC) is revisited in a covariant manner, using self dual Ashtekar variables. For real-valued Ashtekar-Barbero variables, this `deformed algebra' approach has been shown to implement holonomy corrections from loop quantum gravity (LQG) in a consistent manner, albeit deforming the algebra of modified constraints in the process. This deformation has serious conceptual ramifications, not the least of them being an effective `signature-change' in the deep quantum regime. In this paper, we show that working with self dual variables lead to an undeformed algebra of hypersurface deformations, even after including holonomy corrections in the effective constraints. As a necessary consequence, the diffeomorphism constraint picks up non-perturbative quantum corrections thus hinting at a modification of the underlying space-time structure, a novel ingredient compared to the usual treatment of (spatial) diffeomorphisms in LQG. This work extends a similar result o...
Glotzbach, C.; Braun, J.; van der Beek, P.
2015-05-01
Thermochronology is a unique tool to reconstruct the long-term exhumation history of outcropping rocks. Pronounced (palaeo-) topography can markedly perturb near-surface isotherms, which can result in erroneous exhumation histories derived from age-elevation relationships but also offers the possibility to reconstruct palaeo-topography. Here we use a synthetic dataset to illustrate the complex non-linear relationships between the degree of topographic perturbation of thermochronological ages on one hand, and exhumation rate, geothermal gradient, and topographic wavelength and relief on the other. The dataset reveals that, in theory, relief changes can be retrieved for wavelengths as low as 5 km, and wavelength changes are possible to detect for relief as low as 0.5 km. In addition, the data attest that even in regions characterised by very slow exhumation rates (e.g. 0.03 km/Ma), changes in palaeo-topography can be successfully retrieved. Coupling of this dataset with a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm to decompose complex 2D topography into sinusoidal functions allows a rapid and accurate estimation of the topographic perturbation and resulting thermochronological ages assuming steady-state exhumation. This coupled method was successfully implemented to (i) predict most promising sample sites for the estimation of palaeo-topography and (ii) correct exhumation rates derived from non-vertical age-elevation profiles.
Eleiwi, Fadi
2017-05-08
An Observer-based Perturbation Extremum Seeking Control (PESC) is proposed for a Direct-Contact Membrane Distillation (DCMD) process. The process is described with a dynamic model that is based on a 2D Advection-Diffusion Equation (ADE) model which has pump flow rates as process inputs. The objective of the controller is to optimize the trade-off between the permeate mass flux and the energy consumption by the pumps inside the process. Cases of single and multiple control inputs are considered through the use of only the feed pump flow rate or both the feed and the permeate pump flow rates. A nonlinear Lyapunov-based observer is designed to provide an estimation for the temperature distribution all over the designated domain of the DCMD process. Moreover, control inputs are constrained with an anti-windup technique to be within feasible and physical ranges. Performance of the proposed structure is analyzed, and simulations based on real DCMD process parameters for each control input are provided.
An analytic approach to sunset diagrams in chiral perturbation theory: Theory and practice
Ananthanarayan, B.; Ghosh, Shayan [Indian Institute of Science, Centre for High Energy Physics, Karnataka (India); Bijnens, Johan [Lund University, Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund (Sweden); Hebbar, Aditya [Indian Institute of Science, Centre for High Energy Physics, Karnataka (India); University of Delaware, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Newark, DE (United States)
2016-12-15
We demonstrate the use of several code implementations of the Mellin-Barnes method available in the public domain to derive analytic expressions for the sunset diagrams that arise in the two-loop contribution to the pion mass and decay constant in three-flavoured chiral perturbation theory. We also provide results for all possible two mass configurations of the sunset integral, and derive a new one-dimensional integral representation for the one mass sunset integral with arbitrary external momentum. Thoroughly annotated Mathematica notebooks are provided as ancillary files in the Electronic Supplementary Material to this paper, which may serve as pedagogical supplements to the methods described in this paper. (orig.)
Approach to Perturbative QCD Results in Transition Amplitudes of Nucleon Negative-Parity Resonances
DONG Yu-Bing
2004-01-01
The scaling behaviors of the nucleon resonance transition amplitudes from perturbative QCD (PQCD) are utilized to parametrize the amplitudes of the first negative-parity nucleon resonance S11 (1535). Our analysis indicates that the constraints of the transition amplitude for the S11 resonance at the limit Q2 →∞ by QCD sum rule calculations are not applicable at a moderate Q2 range of 2.5 ～ 4 Ge V2 compared with the present available data if the contribution of S11 is dominant in the Q2 limit.
Plasmon-photon interaction in metal nanoparticles: Second-quantization perturbative approach
Finazzi, Marco; Ciccacci, Franco
2012-07-01
We present a description of photon-plasmon interactions in metal nanoparticles based on the second quantization of electromagnetic fields and collective electron excitations. The quantum optical properties of nanostructured systems sustaining resonant charge oscillations will be derived by applying perturbation theory. The linear optical properties can be completely derived from the plasmon-photon coupling coefficients that apply to the particular particle material, environment, and geometry. Nonlinear electromagnetic phenomena such as second harmonic generation need instead to be described by explicitly accounting for the nonlinear corrections of the plasmon-photon interaction Hamiltonian.
Torrent, Marc; Jollet, Francois; Audouze, Christophe; Gonze, Xavier
2009-03-01
The density-functional perturbation theory expressions have been derived within the projector augmented-wave formalism (PAW) and compared to those found in the ultrasoft pseudopotential framework [1]. They have been recently implemented in the abinit package [2] in the case of perturbations of the atomic-displacement type. We summarize the key points of this implementation: The variational and non-variational forms of the 2nd-order total energy changes are detailed. The resolution of the variational principle by a generalized Sternheimer equation is explained (the 1st-order wave-function change is found with a band-by-band conjugate gradient algorithm). We focus on some difficulties: metallic electronic occupations, response to incommensurate perturbations of periodic systems Results on pure compounds are presented; a comparison with results from pseudopotentials approach is performed in order to highlight the effect of the PAW methodology and its accuracy. [1] Audouze, Jollet, Torrent and Gonze. Phys. Rev. B 73, 235101 (2006); 78, 035105 (2008) [2] http://www.abinit.org.
A perturbative approach to the spectral zeta functions of strings, drums, and quantum billiards
Amore, Paolo [Facultad de Ciencias, CUICBAS, Universidad de Colima, Bernal Diaz del Castillo 340, Colima, Colima (Mexico)
2012-12-15
We show that the spectral zeta functions of inhomogeneous strings and drums can be calculated using Rayleigh-Schroedinger perturbation theory. The inhomogeneities that can be treated with this method are small but otherwise arbitrary and include the previously studied case of a piecewise constant density. In two dimensions the method can be used to derive the spectral zeta function of a domain obtained from the small deformation of a square. We also obtain exact sum rules that are valid for arbitrary densities and that correspond to the values taken by the spectral zeta function at integer positive values; we have tested numerically these sum rules in specific examples. We show that the Dirichlet or Neumann Casimir energies of an inhomogeneous string, evaluated to first order in perturbation theory, contain in some cases an irremovable divergence, but that the combination of the two is always free of divergences. Finally, our calculation of the Casimir energies of a string with piecewise constant density and of two perfectly conducting concentric cylinders, of similar radius, reproduce the results previously published.
Perturbative solution to the Lane-Emden equation: An eigenvalue approach
Yip, Kenny L S; Leung, P T
2016-01-01
Under suitable scaling, the structure of self-gravitating polytropes is described by the standard Lane-Emden equation (LEE), which is characterised by the polytropic index $n$. Here we use the known exact solutions of the LEE at $n=0$ and $1$ to solve the equation perturbatively. We first introduce a scaled LEE (SLEE) where polytropes with different polytropic indices all share a common scaled radius. The SLEE is then solved perturbatively as an eigenvalue problem. Analytical approximants of the polytrope function, the radius and the mass of polytropes as a function of $n$ are derived. The approximant of the polytrope function is well-defined and uniformly accurate from the origin down to the surface of a polytrope. The percentage errors of the radius and the mass are bounded by $8.1 \\times 10^{-7}$ per cent and $8.5 \\times 10^{-5}$ per cent, respectively, for $n\\in[0,1]$. Even for $n\\in[1,5)$, both percentage errors are still less than $2$ per cent.
Perturbative solution to the Lane-Emden equation: an eigenvalue approach
Yip, Kenny L. S.; Chan, T. K.; Leung, P. T.
2017-03-01
Under suitable scaling, the structure of self-gravitating polytropes is described by the standard Lane-Emden equation (LEE), which is characterized by the polytropic index n. Here, we use the known exact solutions of the LEE at n = 0 and n = 1 to solve the equation perturbatively. We first introduce a scaled LEE (SLEE) where polytropes with different polytropic indices all share a common scaled radius. The SLEE is then solved perturbatively as an eigenvalue problem. Analytical approximants of the polytrope function, the radius and the mass of polytropes as a function of n are derived. The approximant of the polytrope function is well defined and uniformly accurate from the origin down to the surface of a polytrope. The percentage errors of the radius and the mass are bounded by 8.1 × 10-7 per cent and 8.5 × 10-5 per cent, respectively, for n ∈ [0, 1]. Even for n ∈ [1, 5), both percentage errors are still less than 2 per cent.
Sago, Norichika; Nakano, Hiroyuki
2016-01-01
We revisit the accuracy of the post-Newtonian (PN) approximation and its region of validity for quasi-circular orbits of a point particle in the Kerr spacetime, by using an analytically known highest post-Newtonian order gravitational energy flux and accurate numerical results in the black hole perturbation approach. It is found that regions of validity become larger for higher PN order results although there are several local maximums in regions of validity for relatively low-PN order results. This might imply that higher PN order calculations are also encouraged for comparable-mass binaries.
Elastic Multibody Dynamics A Direct Ritz Approach
Bremer, H
2008-01-01
This textbook is an introduction to and exploration of a number of core topics in the field of applied mechanics: On the basis of Lagrange's Principle, a Central Equation of Dynamics is presented which yields a unified view on existing methods. From these, the Projection Equation is selected for the derivation of the motion equations of holonomic and of non-holonomic systems. The method is applied to rigid multibody systems where the rigid body is defined such that, by relaxation of the rigidity constraints, one can directly proceed to elastic bodies. A decomposition into subsystems leads to a minimal representation and to a recursive representation, respectively, of the equations of motion. Applied to elastic multibody systems one obtains, along with the use of spatial operators, a straight-on procedure for the interconnected partial and ordinary differential equations and the corresponding boundary conditions. The spatial operators are eventually applied to a RITZ series for approximation. The resulting equ...
Bachschmid-Romano, Ludovica; Opper, Manfred; Roudi, Yasser
2016-01-01
We describe and analyze some novel approaches for studying the dynamics of Ising spin glass models. We first briefly consider the variational approach based on minimizing the Kullback-Leibler divergence between independent trajectories and the real ones and note that this approach only coincides with the mean field equations from the saddle point approximation to the generating functional when the dynamics is defined through a logistic link function, which is the case for the kinetic Ising model with parallel update. We then spend the rest of the paper developing two ways of going beyond the saddle point approximation to the generating functional. In the first one, we develop a variational perturbative approximation to the generating functional by expanding the action around a quadratic function of the local fields and conjugate local fields whose parameters are optimized. We derive analytical expressions for the optimal parameters and show that when the optimization is suitably restricted, we recover the mea...
Flisgen, Thomas; van Rienen, Ursula
2016-01-01
External quality factors are significant quantities to describe losses via waveguide ports in radio frequency resonators. The current contribution presents a novel approach to determine external quality factors by means of a two-step procedure: First, a state-space model for the lossless radio frequency structure is generated and its model order is reduced. Subsequently, a perturbation method is applied on the reduced model so that external losses are accounted for. The advantage of this approach results from the fact that the challenges in dealing with lossy systems are shifted to the reduced order model. This significantly saves computational costs. The present paper provides a short overview on existing methods to compute external quality factors. Then, the novel approach is introduced and validated in terms of accuracy and computational time by means of commercial software.
An approach to directly probe simultaneity
Kipreos, Edward T.; Balachandran, Riju S.
2016-08-01
The theory of special relativity derives from the Lorentz transformation. The Lorentz transformation implies differential simultaneity and light speed isotropy. Experiments to probe differential simultaneity should be able to distinguish the Lorentz transformation from a kinematically-similar alternate transformation that predicts absolute simultaneity, the absolute Lorentz transformation. Here, we describe how published optical tests of light speed isotropy/anisotropy cannot distinguish between the two transformations. We show that the shared equations of the two transformations, from the perspective of the “stationary” observer, are sufficient to predict null results in optical resonator experiments and in tests of frequency changes in one-way light paths. In an influential 1910 exposition on differential simultaneity, Comstock described how a “stationary” observer would observe different clock readings for spatially-separated “moving” clocks. The difference in clock readings is an integral aspect of differential simultaneity. We derive the equation for the difference in clock readings and show that it is equivalent to the Sagnac correction that describes light speed anisotropies in satellite communications. We describe an experimental strategy that can measure the differences in spatially-separated clock times to allow a direct probe of the nature of simultaneity.
On bifurcation delay: An alternative approach using Geometric Singular Perturbation Theory
Hsu, Ting-Hao
2017-02-01
To explain the phenomenon of bifurcation delay, which occurs in planar systems of the form x ˙ = ɛf (x , z , ɛ), z ˙ = g (x , z , ɛ) z, where f (x , 0 , 0) > 0 and g (x , 0 , 0) changes sign at least once on the x-axis, we use the Exchange Lemma in Geometric Singular Perturbation Theory to track the limiting behavior of the solutions. Using the trick of extending dimension to overcome the degeneracy at the turning point, we show that the limiting attracting and repulsion points are given by the well-known entry-exit function, and the minimum of z on the trajectory is of order exp (- 1 / ɛ). Also we prove smoothness of the return map up to arbitrary finite order in ɛ.
A Non-Perturbative, Finite Particle Number Approach to Relativistic Scattering Theory
Lindesay, James V
2001-05-11
We present integral equations for the scattering amplitudes of three scalar particles, using the Faddeev channel decomposition, which can be readily extended to any finite number of particles of any helicity. The solution of these equations, which have been demonstrated to be calculable, provide a non-perturbative way of obtaining relativistic scattering amplitudes for any finite number of particles that are Lorentz invariant, unitary, cluster decomposable and reduce unambiguously in the non-relativistic limit to the non-relativistic Faddeev equations. The aim of this program is to develop equations which explicitly depend upon physically observable input variables, and do not require ''renormalization'' or ''dressing'' of these parameters to connect them to the boundary states.
Shustorovich, Evgeny
1981-05-01
An analytical LCAO MO perturbation model has been developed for treating the polarization p-d contributions to the internal surface dipole moments of transition metal surfaces. The results are applied for treating changes in work functions (Ø) under chemisorption. The main conclusions are as follows. (1) Chemisorption of electropositive A (such as alkali metals) will always decrease Ø on all surfaces. (2) Chemisorption of electronegative A (such as H or halogens) can result in either increase or decrease in Ø depending on the nature of A and M. The smallest differences in A vs. M electronegativity are most likely to produce the paradoxical change ΔØ<0. The results obtained agree with experiment.
An approach to computing direction relations between separated object groups
Yan, H.; Wang, Z.; Li, J.
2013-09-01
Direction relations between object groups play an important role in qualitative spatial reasoning, spatial computation and spatial recognition. However, none of existing models can be used to compute direction relations between object groups. To fill this gap, an approach to computing direction relations between separated object groups is proposed in this paper, which is theoretically based on gestalt principles and the idea of multi-directions. The approach firstly triangulates the two object groups, and then it constructs the Voronoi diagram between the two groups using the triangular network. After this, the normal of each Voronoi edge is calculated, and the quantitative expression of the direction relations is constructed. Finally, the quantitative direction relations are transformed into qualitative ones. The psychological experiments show that the proposed approach can obtain direction relations both between two single objects and between two object groups, and the results are correct from the point of view of spatial cognition.
Anita R. Iskandar
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Capturing the effects of exposure in a specific target organ is a major challenge in risk assessment. Exposure to cigarette smoke (CS implicates the field of tissue injury in the lung as well as nasal and airway epithelia. Xenobiotic metabolism in particular becomes an attractive tool for chemical risk assessment because of its responsiveness against toxic compounds, including those present in CS. This study describes an efficient integration from transcriptomic data to quantitative measures, which reflect the responses against xenobiotics that are captured in a biological network model. We show here that our novel systems approach can quantify the perturbation in the network model of xenobiotic metabolism. We further show that this approach efficiently compares the perturbation upon CS exposure in bronchial and nasal epithelial cells in vivo samples obtained from smokers. Our observation suggests the xenobiotic responses in the bronchial and nasal epithelial cells of smokers were similar to those observed in their respective organotypic models exposed to CS. Furthermore, the results suggest that nasal tissue is a reliable surrogate to measure xenobiotic responses in bronchial tissue.
The Hagedorn structure of the non-perturbative gluon pressure within the mass gap approach to
Gogokhia, V; Vasuth, M
2016-01-01
We have shown in detail that the low-temperature expansion for the non-perturbative gluon pressure has the Hagedorn-type structure. Its exponential spectrum of all the effective gluonic excitations are expressed in terms of the mass gap. It is this which is responsible for the large-scale dynamical structure of the QCD ground state. The gluon pressure properly scaled has a maximum at some characteristic temperature $T=T_c = 266.5 \\ \\MeV$, separating the low- and high temperature regions. The gluon pressure is exponentially suppressed in the $T \\rightarrow 0$ limit. In the $T \\rightarrow T_c$ limit it demonstrates an exponential rise in the number of dynamical degrees of freedom. This makes it possible to identify $T_c$ with the Hagedorn transition temperature $T_h$, i.e., to put $T_h=T_c$. The gluon pressure has a complicated dependence on the mass gap and temperature near $T_c$ and up to approximately $(4-5)T_c$. In the limit of very high temperatures $T \\rightarrow \\infty$ its polynomial character is confir...
Procaccia, I
1995-01-01
The lectures presented by one of us (IP) at the Les Houches summer school dealt with the scaling properties of high Reynolds number turbulence in fluid flows. The results presented are available in the literature and there is no real need to reproduce them here. Quite on the contrary, some of the basic tools of the field and theoretical techniques are not available in a pedagogical format, and it seems worthwhile to present them here for the benefit of the interested student. We begin with a detailed exposition of the naive perturbation theory for the ensemble averages of hydrodynamic observables (the mean velocity, the response functions and the correlation functions). The effective expansion parameter in such a theory is the Reynolds number (Re); one needs therefore to perform infinite resummations to change the effective expansion parameter. We present in detail the Dyson-Wyld line resummation which allows one to dress the propagators, and to change the effective expansion parameter from Re to O(1). Next w...
An analytical model of the heat of chemisorption: A perturbation LCAO MO approach
Shustorovich, Evgeny
1982-11-01
An analytical LCAO MO perturbation model has been developed for treating the heat of chemisorption Q of an adsorbate A monolayer on a transition metal M film. The model combines parameters of the metal band (the Fermi level E F, band width W = W occ + W vac, the d occupancy N d, density of states n(ɛ), etc.) with those of the local A-M interactions (the adorbital energy ɛ A, off-diagonal matrix elements βAM, etc.). The major cases of A's having lone pair, singly occupied, and vacant adorbitals have been considered, and the analytical expressions for Q as well as some numerical estimations are presented. The relative values of Q seem to be crucially dependent on the ratio β/( ɛA - E F). The Q vs. N d plots for the donor and radical A's are rather flat, typically Q decreasing monotonically as N d increases, but for the acceptor A's the plots are very parameter dependent and show a variety of trends. The results obtained agree with straightforward computations and (scarce) experimental data.
Gil-Marín, Héctor [Institut de Ciències de l' Espai (ICE), Facultat de Ciències, Campus UAB (IEEC-CSIC), Bellaterra E-08193 (Spain); Wagner, Christian; Verde, Licia; Jimenez, Raul [Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Martí i Franquès 1, Barcelona E-08028 (Spain); Porciani, Cristiano, E-mail: hectorgil@icc.ub.edu, E-mail: cwagner@icc.ub.edu, E-mail: liciaverde@icc.ub.edu, E-mail: porciani@astro.uni-bonn.de, E-mail: raul.jimenez@icc.ub.edu [Argelander Institut für Astronomie der Universität Bonn, Auf dem Hügel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)
2012-11-01
We investigate the accuracy of Eulerian perturbation theory for describing the matter and galaxy power spectra in real and redshift space in light of future observational probes for precision cosmology. Comparing the analytical results with a large suite of N-body simulations (160 independent boxes of 13.8 (Gpc/h){sup 3} volume each, which are publicly available), we find that re-summing terms in the standard perturbative approach predicts the real-space matter power spectrum with an accuracy of ∼<2% for k ≤ 0.20 h/Mpc at redshifts z∼<1.5. This is obtained following the widespread technique of writing the resummed propagator in terms of 1-loop contributions. We show that the accuracy of this scheme increases by considering higher-order terms in the resummed propagator. By combining resummed perturbation theories with several models for the mappings from real to redshift space discussed in the literature, the multipoles of the dark-matter power spectrum can be described with sub-percent deviations from N-body results for k ≤ 0.15 h/Mpc at z∼<1. As a consequence, the logarithmic growth rate, f, can be recovered with sub-percent accuracy on these scales. Extending the models to massive dark-matter haloes in redshift space, our results describe the monopole term from N-body data within 2% accuracy for scales k ≤ 0.15 h/Mpc at z∼<0.5; here f can be recovered within < 5% when the halo bias is known. We conclude that these techniques are suitable to extract cosmological information from future galaxy surveys.
Generalized Supersymmetric Perturbation Theory
B. G(o)n(ǖ)l
2004-01-01
@@ Using the basic ingredient of supersymmetry, a simple alternative approach is developed to perturbation theory in one-dimensional non-relativistic quantum mechanics. The formulae for the energy shifts and wavefunctions do not involve tedious calculations which appear in the available perturbation theories. The model applicable in the same form to both the ground state and excited bound states, unlike the recently introduced supersymmetric perturbation technique which, together with other approaches based on logarithmic perturbation theory, are involved within the more general framework of the present formalism.
Albert, Christopher G.; Heyn, Martin F.; Kapper, Gernot; Kasilov, Sergei V.; Kernbichler, Winfried; Martitsch, Andreas F.
2016-08-01
Toroidal torque generated by neoclassical viscosity caused by external non-resonant, non-axisymmetric perturbations has a significant influence on toroidal plasma rotation in tokamaks. In this article, a derivation for the expressions of toroidal torque and radial transport in resonant regimes is provided within quasilinear theory in canonical action-angle variables. The proposed approach treats all low-collisional quasilinear resonant neoclassical toroidal viscosity regimes including superbanana-plateau and drift-orbit resonances in a unified way and allows for magnetic drift in all regimes. It is valid for perturbations on toroidally symmetric flux surfaces of the unperturbed equilibrium without specific assumptions on geometry or aspect ratio. The resulting expressions are shown to match the existing analytical results in the large aspect ratio limit. Numerical results from the newly developed code NEO-RT are compared to calculations by the quasilinear version of the code NEO-2 at low collisionalities. The importance of the magnetic shear term in the magnetic drift frequency and a significant effect of the magnetic drift on drift-orbit resonances are demonstrated.
JAYAKUMAR,RJ; MAKOWSKI,MA; ALLEN,SL; AUSTIN,ME; GAROFALO,AM; LA HAYE,RJ; REIMERDES,H; RHODES,TL
2003-11-01
OAK-B135 The local oscillating component of the poloidal magnetic field in plasma associated with MHD instabilities has been measured using the motional Stark effect (MSE) diagnostic on the DIII-D tokamak. The magnetic field perturbations associated with a resistive wall mode (RWM) rotated by internal coils at 20 Hz was measured using the conventional MSE operation mode. These first observations of perturbations due to a MHD mode were obtained on multiple MSE channels covering a significant portion of the plasma and the radial profile o the amplitude of the perturbed field oscillations was obtained. The measured profile is similar to the profile of the amplitude of the electron temperature oscillation measured by electron cyclotron emission (ECE) measurements. In a new mode of measurement, the amplitude of a tearing mode rotating at a high frequency ({approx} 7 kHz) was observed using the spectral analysis of high frequency MSE data on one channel. The spectrum consists of the harmonics of the light modulation employed in the MSE diagnostics, their mutual beat frequencies and their beat frequencies with the rotation frequency of the tearing mode. The value and time variation of the frequency of the observed perturbations is in good agreement with that measured by Mirnov probes and ECE. The paper demonstrates that the MSE diagnostic can be used for observing low and high frequency phenomena such as MHD instabilities and electromagnetic turbulence.
Automated Lattice Perturbation Theory
Monahan, Christopher
2014-11-01
I review recent developments in automated lattice perturbation theory. Starting with an overview of lattice perturbation theory, I focus on the three automation packages currently "on the market": HiPPy/HPsrc, Pastor and PhySyCAl. I highlight some recent applications of these methods, particularly in B physics. In the final section I briefly discuss the related, but distinct, approach of numerical stochastic perturbation theory.
Perturbation theory in light-cone quantization
Langnau, A.
1992-01-01
A thorough investigation of light-cone properties which are characteristic for higher dimensions is very important. The easiest way of addressing these issues is by analyzing the perturbative structure of light-cone field theories first. Perturbative studies cannot be substituted for an analysis of problems related to a nonperturbative approach. However, in order to lay down groundwork for upcoming nonperturbative studies, it is indispensable to validate the renormalization methods at the perturbative level, i.e., to gain control over the perturbative treatment first. A clear understanding of divergences in perturbation theory, as well as their numerical treatment, is a necessary first step towards formulating such a program. The first objective of this dissertation is to clarify this issue, at least in second and fourth-order in perturbation theory. The work in this dissertation can provide guidance for the choice of counterterms in Discrete Light-Cone Quantization or the Tamm-Dancoff approach. A second objective of this work is the study of light-cone perturbation theory as a competitive tool for conducting perturbative Feynman diagram calculations. Feynman perturbation theory has become the most practical tool for computing cross sections in high energy physics and other physical properties of field theory. Although this standard covariant method has been applied to a great range of problems, computations beyond one-loop corrections are very difficult. Because of the algebraic complexity of the Feynman calculations in higher-order perturbation theory, it is desirable to automatize Feynman diagram calculations so that algebraic manipulation programs can carry out almost the entire calculation. This thesis presents a step in this direction. The technique we are elaborating on here is known as light-cone perturbation theory.
S. B. Khasare
2012-01-01
The present work uses the concept of a scaled particle along with the perturbation and variation approach,to develop an equation of state (EOS) for a mixture of hard sphere (HS),Lennard-Jones (LJ) fluids.A suitable flexible functional form for the radial distribution function G(R) is assumed for the mixture,with R as a variable.The function G(R) has an arbitrary parameter m and a different equation of state can be obtained with a suitable choice of m.For m =0.75 and m =0.83 results are close to molecular dynamics (MD) result for pure HS and LJ fluid respectively.
Direct coronary stenting by transradial approach: rationale and technical issues.
Burzotta, Francesco; Hamon, Martial; Trani, Carlo; Kiemeneij, Ferdinand
2004-10-01
Direct stent implantation using radial approach represents to date the less invasive, less traumatic strategy to perform a percutaneous coronary intervention, rendering its adoption an attraction for many interventional cardiologists. A growing series of reports suggests the feasibility of transradial direct stenting in a variety of clinical situations. Here we discuss the main advantages of the adoption of this technique. Moreover, a detailed analysis of the technical issues specifically related with each phase of transradial direct stenting procedures is reported.
EXTENDE MODEL OF COMPETITIVITY THROUG APPLICATION OF NEW APPROACH DIRECTIVES
Slavko Arsovski
2009-03-01
Full Text Available The basic subject of this work is the model of new approach impact on quality and safety products, and competency of our companies. This work represents real hypothesis on the basis of expert's experiences, in regard to that the infrastructure with using new approach directives wasn't examined until now, it isn't known which product or industry of Serbia is related to directives of the new approach and CE mark, and it is not known which are effects of the use of the CE mark. This work should indicate existing quality reserves and product's safety, the level of possible competency improvement and increasing the profit by discharging new approach directive requires.
Liang, Yufeng; Vinson, John; Pemmaraju, Sri; Drisdell, Walter S.; Shirley, Eric L.; Prendergast, David
2017-03-01
Constrained-occupancy delta-self-consistent-field (Δ SCF ) methods and many-body perturbation theories (MBPT) are two strategies for obtaining electronic excitations from first principles. Using the two distinct approaches, we study the O 1 s core excitations that have become increasingly important for characterizing transition-metal oxides and understanding strong electronic correlation. The Δ SCF approach, in its current single-particle form, systematically underestimates the pre-edge intensity for chosen oxides, despite its success in weakly correlated systems. By contrast, the Bethe-Salpeter equation within MBPT predicts much better line shapes. This motivates one to reexamine the many-electron dynamics of x-ray excitations. We find that the single-particle Δ SCF approach can be rectified by explicitly calculating many-electron transition amplitudes, producing x-ray spectra in excellent agreement with experiments. This study paves the way to accurately predict x-ray near-edge spectral fingerprints for physics and materials science beyond the Bethe-Salpether equation.
Xudong Yin
2014-02-01
Full Text Available The authors propose to implement conditional non-linear optimal perturbation related to model parameters (CNOP-P through an ensemble-based approach. The approach was first used in our earlier study and is improved to be suitable for calculating CNOP-P. Idealised experiments using the Lorenz-63 model are conducted to evaluate the performance of the improved ensemble-based approach. The results show that the maximum prediction error after optimisation has been multiplied manifold compared with the initial-guess prediction error, and is extremely close to, or greater than, the maximum value of the exhaustive attack method (a million random samples. The calculation of CNOP-P by the ensemble-based approach is capable of maintaining a high accuracy over a long prediction time under different constraints and initial conditions. Further, the CNOP-P obtained by the approach is applied to sensitivity analysis of the Lorenz-63 model. The sensitivity analysis indicates that when the prediction time is set to 0.2 time units, the Lorenz-63 model becomes extremely insensitive to one parameter, which leaves the other two parameters to affect the uncertainty of the model. Finally, a serial of parameter estimation experiments are performed to verify sensitivity analysis. It is found that when the three parameters are estimated simultaneously, the insensitive parameter is estimated much worse, but the Lorenz-63 model can still generate a very good simulation thanks to the relatively accurate values of the other two parameters. When only two sensitive parameters are estimated simultaneously and the insensitive parameter is left to be non-optimised, the outcome is better than the case when the three parameters are estimated simultaneously. With the increase of prediction time and observation, however, the model sensitivity to the insensitive parameter increases accordingly and the insensitive parameter can also be estimated successfully.
Bachschmid-Romano, L.; Battistin, C.; Opper, M.; Roudi, Y.
2016-10-01
We describe and analyze some novel approaches for studying the dynamics of Ising spin glass models. We first briefly consider the variational approach based on minimizing the Kullback-Leibler divergence between independent trajectories and the real ones and note that this approach only coincides with the mean field equations from the saddle point approximation to the generating functional when the dynamics is defined through a logistic link function, which is the case for the kinetic Ising model with parallel update. We then spend the rest of the paper developing two ways of going beyond the saddle point approximation to the generating functional. In the first one, we develop a variational perturbative approximation to the generating functional by expanding the action around a quadratic function of the local fields and conjugate local fields whose parameters are optimized. We derive analytical expressions for the optimal parameters and show that when the optimization is suitably restricted, we recover the mean field equations that are exact for the fully asymmetric random couplings (Mézard and Sakellariou 2011 J. Stat. Mech. 2011 L07001). However, without this restriction the results are different. We also describe an extended Plefka expansion in which in addition to the magnetization, we also fix the correlation and response functions. Finally, we numerically study the performance of these approximations for Sherrington-Kirkpatrick type couplings for various coupling strengths and the degrees of coupling symmetry, for both temporally constant but random, as well as time varying external fields. We show that the dynamical equations derived from the extended Plefka expansion outperform the others in all regimes, although it is computationally more demanding. The unconstrained variational approach does not perform well in the small coupling regime, while it approaches dynamical TAP equations of (Roudi and Hertz 2011 J. Stat. Mech. 2011 P03031) for strong couplings.
A Bohmian approach to the perturbations of non-linear Klein--Gordon equation
FARAMARZ RAHMANI; MEHDI GOLSHANI; MOHSEN SARBISHEI
2016-08-01
In the framework of Bohmian quantum mechanics, the Klein--Gordon equation can be seen as representing a particle with mass m which is guided by a guiding wave $\\phi(x)$ in a causal manner. Here a relevant question is whether Bohmian quantum mechanics is applicable to a non-linear Klein--Gordon equation? We examine this approach for $\\phi_{4}(x)$ and sine-Gordon potentials. It turns out that this method leads to equations for quantum states which are identical to those derived by field theoretical methods used for quantum solitons. Moreover, the quantum force exerted on the particle can be determined. This method can be used for other non-linear potentials as well.
An approach for estimating the magnetization direction of magnetic anomalies
Li, Jinpeng; Zhang, Yingtang; Yin, Gang; Fan, Hongbo; Li, Zhining
2017-02-01
An approach for estimating the magnetization direction of magnetic anomalies in the presence of remanent magnetization through correlation between normalized source strength (NSS) and reduced-to-the-pole (RTP) is proposed. The observation region was divided into several calculation areas and the RTP field was transformed using different assumed values of the magnetization directions. Following this, the cross-correlation between NSS and RTP field was calculated, and it was found that the correct magnetization direction was that corresponding to the maximum cross-correlation value. The approach was tested on both simulated and real magnetic data. The results showed that the approach was effective in a variety of situations and considerably reduced the effect of remanent magnetization. Thus, the method using NSS and RTP is more effective compared to other methods such as using the total magnitude anomaly and RTP.
Quasi-two-body decays B(s )→P ρ →P π π in the perturbative QCD approach
Li, Ya; Ma, Ai-Jun; Wang, Wen-Fei; Xiao, Zhen-Jun
2017-03-01
In this work, we calculate the C P -averaged branching ratios and the direct C P -violating asymmetries of the quasi-two-body decays B(s )→P (ρ →)π π by employing the perturbative QCD (PQCD) approach (here P stands for a light pseudoscalar meson π , K , η or η'). The vector current timelike form factor Fπ, which contains the final-state interactions between the pion pair in the resonant region associated with the P -wave states ρ (770 ) along with the two-pion distribution amplitudes, is employed to describe the interactions between the ρ and the pion pair under the hypothesis of the conserved vector current. We found that (a) the PQCD predictions for the branching ratios and the direct C P -violating asymmetries for most considered B(s )→P (ρ →)π π decays agree with currently available data within errors, (b) for B (B →π0ρ0→π0(π+π-) , the PQCD prediction is much smaller than the measured one, and (c) for the B+→π+(ρ0→)π+π- decay mode, there is a negative C P asymmetry (-27.5-3.7+3.0)% , which agrees with other theoretical predictions but is different in sign from those reported by the BABAR and LHCb Collaborations.
Yuzwa, Scott A; Cheung, Adrienne H; Okon, Mark; McIntosh, Lawrence P; Vocadlo, David J
2014-04-17
The aggregation of the microtubule-associated protein tau into paired helical filaments to form neurofibrillary tangles constitutes one of the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease. Tau is post-translationally modified by the addition of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine O-linked to several serine and threonine residues (O-GlcNAc). Previously, increased O-GlcNAcylation of tau has been shown to block the accumulation of tau aggregates within a tauopathy mouse model. Here we show that O-GlcNAc modification of full-length human tau impairs the rate and extent of its heparin-induced aggregation without perturbing its activity toward microtubule polymerization. O-GlcNAcylation, however, does not impact the "global-fold" of tau as measured by a Förster resonance energy transfer assay. Similarly, nuclear magnetic resonance studies demonstrated that O-GlcNAcylation only minimally perturbs the local structural and dynamic features of a tau fragment (residues 353-408) spanning the last microtubule binding repeat to the major GlcNAc-acceptor Ser400. These data indicate that the inhibitory effects of O-GlcNAc on tau aggregation may result from enhanced monomer solubility or the destabilization of fibrils or soluble aggregates, rather than by altering the conformational properties of the monomeric protein. This work further underscores the potential of targeting the O-GlcNAc pathway for potential Alzheimer's disease therapeutics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A coordinated approach to investigating human perturbations to the Nitrogen cycle
Galloway, J. N.; Sahagian, D.
2003-12-01
Nitrogen is essential to the survival of all life forms yet the natural abundance of useable nitrogen is so low that massive human alteration of the nitrogen cycle has been required to sustain the feeding of the worldAŸA›A›ƒ_sAªA›ƒ_zA›s burgeoning population. The alteration has been made even greater by the release of nitrogen oxides to the atmosphere during fossil fuel combustion. Changes in the nitrogen cycle due to human action have exacerbated a number of environmental issues, including smog, acid deposition, climate change, coastal eutrophication, stratospheric ozone depletion, all of which have impacts on people and ecosystems on a regional or global basis. Because of the cascading nature of the effectAŸA›A›ƒ_sAªA›ƒ_zA›s on nitrogen, understanding of the effects, their underlying causes and their interactions must be studied in an integrated fashion from both science and policy perspectives. Toward that end, a coordinated effort is being made to integrate the diverse scientific, policy, industrial, and other stakeholder communities in an "International Nitrogen Initiative" (INI) with the goal of placing the global community in a position to optimize nitrogenAŸA›A›ƒ_sAªA›ƒ_zA›s beneficial role in sustainable food production and minimize nitrogenAŸA›A›ƒ_sAªA›ƒ_zA›s negative effects on human health and the environment resulting from food and energy production. Preliminary results suggest that novel approaches to fertilizer application can have a profound effect on excess nitrogen that enters surface and ground water, and that eutrophication of lakes and the coastal zone can be ameliorated by more efficient practices. In addition, as the processes involved in denitrification are more fully understood, it is becoming possible to better assess the partitioning of nitrogen between the ground/surface water and the atmosphere. As the coordinated study of the nitrogen cycle progresses, the assessment of nitrogen fluxes
HEADROOM APPROACH TO DEVICE DEVELOPMENT: CURRENT AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS
Girling, A; Lilford, R; Cole, A; Young, T
2015-01-01
OBJECTIVES: The headroom approach to medical device development relies on the estimation of a value-based price ceiling at different stages of the development cycle. Such price-ceilings delineate the commercial opportunities for new products in many healthcare systems. We apply a simple model to obtain critical business information as the product proceeds along a development pathway, and indicate some future directions for the development of the approach. METHODS: Health economic modelling in...
Kozma, Gady
2012-01-01
We proved earlier that every measurable function on the circle, after a uniformly small perturbation, can be written as a power series (i.e. a series of exponentials with positive frequencies), which converges almost everywhere. Here we show that this result is basically sharp: the perturbation cannot be made smooth or even H\\"older. We discuss also a similar problem for perturbations with lacunary spectrum.
Sadegh, Payman; Spall, J. C.
1998-01-01
The simultaneous perturbation stochastic approximation (SPSA) algorithm has attracted considerable attention for challenging optimization problems where it is difficult or impossible to obtain a direct gradient of the objective (say, loss) function. The approach is based on a highly efficient...... simultaneous perturbation approximation to the gradient based on loss function measurements. SPSA is based on picking a simultaneous perturbation (random) vector in a Monte Carlo fashion as part of generating the approximation to the gradient. This paper derives the optimal distribution for the Monte Carlo...
Sadegh, Payman; Spall, J. C.
1997-01-01
The simultaneous perturbation stochastic approximation (SPSA) algorithm has recently attracted considerable attention for optimization problems where it is difficult or impossible to obtain a direct gradient of the objective (say, loss) function. The approach is based on a highly efficient...... simultaneous perturbation approximation to the gradient based on loss function measurements. SPSA is based on picking a simultaneous perturbation (random) vector in a Monte Carlo fashion as part of generating the approximation to the gradient. This paper derives the optimal distribution for the Monte Carlo...
Helping Abused and Traumatized Children: Integrating Directive and Nondirective Approaches
Gil, Eliana
2006-01-01
Presenting an integrative model for treating traumatized children, this book combines play, art, and other expressive therapies with ideas and strategies drawn from cognitive-behavioral and family therapy. Eliana Gil demonstrates how to tailor treatment to the needs of each child by using both directive and nondirective approaches. Throughout,…
Saha, Asit; Chatterjee, Prasanta; Chatterjee
2014-08-01
Ion acoustic solitary waves and periodic waves in an unmagnetized plasma with superthermal (kappa-distributed) electrons and positrons are investigated through a non-perturbative approach. Model equations are transformed to a planar dynamical system. Then by using the bifurcations of phase portraits of this planar dynamical system, we have established that our model has solitary wave and periodic wave solutions. We have obtained two analytical solutions for these solitary and periodic waves depending on the parameters. From these solitary wave and periodic wave solutions, we have shown the combined effects of temperature ratio (σ) of electrons and positrons, spectral index (κ), speed of the traveling wave (v), and density ratio (p) of positrons and electrons on the characteristics of ion acoustic solitary and periodic waves. The spectral index, density ratio, speed of the traveling wave, and temperature ratio significantly affect the characteristics of ion acoustic solitary and periodic structures. The present study might be helpful to understand the salient features of nonlinear ion acoustic solitary and periodic structures in the interstellar medium.
Semileptonic decays of B{sub c} meson to S-wave charmonium states in the perturbative QCD approach
Rui, Zhou; Li, Hong; Wang, Guang-xin [North China University of Science and Technology, College of Sciences, Tangshan (China); Xiao, Ying [North China University of Science and Technology, College of Information Engineering, Tangshan (China)
2016-10-15
Inspired by the recent measurement of the ratio of B{sub c} branching fractions to J/ψπ{sup +} and J/ψμ{sup +}ν{sub μ} final states at the LHCb detector, we study the semileptonic decays of B{sub c} meson to the S-wave ground and radially excited 2S and 3S charmonium states with the perturbative QCD approach. After evaluating the form factors for the transitions B{sub c} → P,V, where P and V denote pseudoscalar and vector S-wave charmonia, respectively, we calculate the branching ratios for all these semileptonic decays. The theoretical uncertainty of hadronic input parameters are reduced by utilizing the light-cone wave function for the B{sub c} meson. It is found that the predicted branching ratios range from 10{sup -7} up to 10{sup -2} and could be measured by the future LHCb experiment. Our prediction for the ratio of branching fractions (BR(B{sub c}{sup +}→J/Ψπ{sup +}))/(BR(B{sub c}{sup +}→J/Ψμ{sup +}ν{sub μ})) is in good agreement with the data. For B{sub c} → Vlν{sub l} decays, the relative contributions of the longitudinal and transverse polarization are discussed in different momentum transfer squared regions. These predictions will be tested on the ongoing and forthcoming experiments. (orig.)
Golub, Robert
2014-01-01
The usual approach to considerations of apin relaxation and frequency shifts due to fluctuating fields is through the density matrix Slichter. Here we treat the problem of the influence of fluctuating fields on a spin 1/2 system based on direct solution of the Schroedinger equation in contrast to the usual treatment. Our results are seen to be in agreement with the known results in the literature McGregor, Slichter, Red2, CSH, as they must, but our derivation directly from the Schroedinger equation allows us to see the role of the necessary assumptions in a somewhat clearer way.
Kathrin Freyler
Full Text Available Unexpected sudden perturbations challenge postural equilibrium and require reactive compensation. This study aimed to assess interaction effects of the direction, displacement and velocity of perturbations on electromyographic (EMG activity, centre of pressure (COP displacement and joint kinematics to detect neuromuscular characteristics (phasic and segmental and kinematic strategies of compensatory reactions in an unilateral balance paradigm. In 20 subjects, COP displacement and velocity, ankle, knee and hip joint excursions and EMG during short (SLR, medium (MLR and long latency response (LLR of four shank and five thigh muscles were analysed during random surface translations varying in direction (anterior-posterior (sagittal plane, medial-lateral (frontal plane, displacement (2 vs. 3 cm and velocity (0.11 vs. 0.18 m/s of perturbation when balancing on one leg on a movable platform. Phases: SLR and MLR were scaled to increased velocity (P<0.05; LLR was scaled to increased displacement (P<0.05. Segments: phasic interrelationships were accompanied by segmental distinctions: distal muscles were used for fast compensation in SLR (P<0.05 and proximal muscles to stabilise in LLR (P<0.05. Kinematics: ankle joints compensated for both increasing displacement and velocity in all directions (P<0.05, whereas knee joint deflections were particularly sensitive to increasing displacement in the sagittal (P<0.05 and hip joint deflections to increasing velocity in the frontal plane (P<0.05. COP measures increased with increasing perturbation velocity and displacement (P<0.05. Interaction effects indicate that compensatory responses are based on complex processes, including different postural strategies characterised by phasic and segmental specifications, precisely adjusted to the type of balance disturbance. To regain balance after surface translation, muscles of the distal segment govern the quick regain of equilibrium; the muscles of the proximal limb
An Integral-Direct Linear-Scaling Second-Order Møller-Plesset Approach.
Nagy, Péter R; Samu, Gyula; Kállay, Mihály
2016-10-11
An integral-direct, iteration-free, linear-scaling, local second-order Møller-Plesset (MP2) approach is presented, which is also useful for spin-scaled MP2 calculations as well as for the efficient evaluation of the perturbative terms of double-hybrid density functionals. The method is based on a fragmentation approximation: the correlation contributions of the individual electron pairs are evaluated in domains constructed for the corresponding localized orbitals, and the correlation energies of distant electron pairs are computed with multipole expansions. The required electron repulsion integrals are calculated directly invoking the density fitting approximation; the storage of integrals and intermediates is avoided. The approach also utilizes natural auxiliary functions to reduce the size of the auxiliary basis of the domains and thereby the operation count and memory requirement. Our test calculations show that the approach recovers 99.9% of the canonical MP2 correlation energy and reproduces reaction energies with an average (maximum) error below 1 kJ/mol (4 kJ/mol). Our benchmark calculations demonstrate that the new method enables MP2 calculations for molecules with more than 2300 atoms and 26000 basis functions on a single processor.
Xiao, Zhen-Jun; Lin, Dong-Ting; Fan, Ying-Ying; Ma, Ai-Jun
2014-01-01
In this paper, we calculate the branching ratios and CP violating asymmetries of the five $\\bar{B}^0_s \\to (\\pi^0\\eta^{(*)},\\eta^{(*)}\\eta^{(*)})$ decays, by employing the perturbative QCD (pQCD) factorization approach and with the inclusion of all currently known next-to-leading order (NLO) contributions. We find that (a) the NLO contributions can provide about 100% enhancements to the LO pQCD predictions for the decay rates of $\\bar{B}_s^0 \\to \\eta\\eta^\\prime$ and $\\eta^\\prime \\eta^\\prime$ decays, but result in small changes to $Br(\\bar{B}_s \\to \\pi^0 \\eta^{(*)})$ and $Br(\\bar{B}_s \\to \\eta\\eta)$; (b) the newly known NLO twist-2 and twist-3 contributions to the relevant form factors can provide about 10% enhancements to the decay rates of the considered decays; (c) for $\\bar{B}_s \\to \\pi^0 \\eta^{(*)}$ decays, their direct CP-violating asymmetries $\\cala_f^{dir}$ could be enhanced significantly by the inclusion of the NLO contributions; and (d) the pQCD predictions for $Br(\\bar{B}_s \\to \\eta \\eta^{(*)})$ and...
Non-leptonic decays of $B \\to ( f_1(1285),f_1(1420) ) V$ in the perturbative QCD approach
Liu, Xin; Zou, Zhi-Tian
2016-01-01
We investigate the branching ratios, the polarization fractions, the direct CP-violating asymmetries, and the relative phases in 20 non-leptonic decay modes of $B \\to f_1 V$ within the framework of perturbative QCD approach at leading order with $f_1$ including two $^3\\!P_1$-axial-vector states $f_1(1285)$ and $f_1(1420)$. Here, $B$ denotes $B^+$, $B^0$, and $B_s^0$ mesons and $V$ stands for the lightest vector mesons $\\rho$, $K^*$, $\\omega$, and $\\phi$ , respectively. The $B_s^0 \\to f_1 V$ decays are studied theoretically for the first time in the literature. Together with the angle $\\phi_{f_1} \\approx (24^{+3.2}_{-2.7})^\\circ$ extracted from the measurement through $B_{d/s} \\to J/\\psi f_1(1285)$ modes for the $f_1(1285)-f_1(1420)$ mixing system, it is of great interest to find phenomenologically that some modes such as the tree-dominated $B^+ \\to f_1 \\rho^+$ and the penguin-dominated $B^{+,0} \\to f_1 K^{*+,0}, B_s^0 \\to f_1 \\phi$ with large branching ratios around ${\\cal O}(10^{-6})$ or even ${\\cal O}(10^{-...
The Comparison of the Direct Method and the Communicative Approach
王丽葵
2011-01-01
一、 Major Characteristics of the Direct Method and the Communicative Approach The characteristics of the communicative Approach are as follows:(1) The teaching content takes language function as the key link,which is fixed up in accordance with the different demands of studying object.For example,the demands of the scientist and technologist,the translator,the foreign language teacher,the tourist adviser,the diplomatic personnel and the economic worker are different from each other,so the most necessary language materials for achieving certain communication are chosen which are usually the most common structure form.
Direct and semi-direct approaches to lepton mixing with a massless neutrino
King, Stephen F.; Ludl, Patrick Otto [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton,Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)
2016-06-24
We discuss the possibility of enforcing a massless Majorana neutrino in the direct and semi-direct approaches to lepton mixing, in which the PMNS matrix is partly predicted by subgroups of a discrete family symmetry, extending previous group searches up to order 1535. We find a phenomenologically viable scheme for the semi-direct approach based on Q(648) which contains Δ(27) and the quaternion group as subgroups. This leads to novel predictions for the first column of the PMNS matrix corresponding to a normal neutrino mass hierarchy with m{sub 1}=0, and sum rules for the mixing angles and phase which are characterised by the solar angle being on the low side θ{sub 12}∼31{sup ∘} and the Dirac (oscillation) CP phase δ being either about ±45{sup ∘} or ±π.
Direct and Semi-Direct Approaches to Lepton Mixing with a Massless Neutrino
King, Stephen F
2016-01-01
We discuss the possibility of enforcing a massless Majorana neutrino in the direct and semi-direct approaches to lepton mixing, in which the PMNS matrix is partly predicted by subgroups of a discrete family symmetry, extending previous group searches up to order 1535. We find a phenomenologically viable scheme for the semi-direct approach based on $Q(648)$ which contains $\\Delta(27)$ and the quaternion group as subgroups. This leads to novel predictions for the first column of the PMNS matrix corresponding to a normal neutrino mass hierarchy with $m_1=0$, and sum rules for the mixing angles and phase which are characterised by the solar angle being on the low side $\\theta_{12}\\sim 31^{\\circ}$ and the Dirac (oscillation) CP phase $\\delta$ being either about $\\pm 45^\\circ$ or $\\pm \\pi$.
Direct and semi-direct approaches to lepton mixing with a massless neutrino
King, Stephen F.; Ludl, Patrick Otto
2016-06-01
We discuss the possibility of enforcing a massless Majorana neutrino in the direct and semi-direct approaches to lepton mixing, in which the PMNS matrix is partly predicted by subgroups of a discrete family symmetry, extending previous group searches up to order 1535. We find a phenomenologically viable scheme for the semi-direct approach based on Q(648) which contains Δ(27) and the quaternion group as subgroups. This leads to novel predictions for the first column of the PMNS matrix corresponding to a normal neutrino mass hierarchy with m 1 = 0, and sum rules for the mixing angles and phase which are characterised by the solar angle being on the low side θ 12 ˜ 31° and the Dirac (oscillation) CP phase δ being either about ±45° or ±π.
A discrete Lagrangian based direct approach to macroscopic modelling
Sarkar, Saikat; Nowruzpour, Mohsen; Reddy, J. N.; Srinivasa, A. R.
2017-01-01
A direct discrete Lagrangian based approach, designed at a length scale of interest, to characterize the response of a body is proposed. The main idea is to understand the dynamics of a deformable body via a Lagrangian corresponding to a coupled interaction of rigid particles in the reduced dimension. We argue that the usual practice of describing the laws of a deformable body in the continuum limit is redundant, because for most of the practical problems, analytical solutions are not available. Since continuum limit is not taken, the framework automatically relaxes the requirement of differentiability of field variables. The discrete Lagrangian based approach is illustrated by deriving an equivalent of the Euler-Bernoulli beam model. A few test examples are solved, which demonstrate that the derived non-local model predicts lower deflections in comparison to classical Euler-Bernoulli beam solutions. We have also included crack propagation in thin structures for isotropic and anisotropic cases using the Lagrangian based approach.
Menkveld, M.; Jablonska, B. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)
2013-05-15
Article 5 of the Energy Efficiency Directive (EED) is an annual obligation to renovate 3% of the building stock of central government. After renovation the buildings will meet the minimum energy performance requirements laid down in Article 4 of the EPBD. The Directive gives room to an alternative approach to achieve the same savings. The Ministry of Interior Affairs has asked ECN to assist with this alternative approach. ECN calculated what saving are achieved with the 3% renovation obligation under the directive. Then ECN looked for the possibilities for an alternative approach to achieve the same savings [Dutch] In artikel 5 van de Energie Efficiency Directive (EED) staat een verplichting om jaarlijks 3% van de gebouwvoorraad van de centrale overheid te renoveren. Die 3% van de gebouwvoorraad moet na renovatie voldoen aan de minimum eisen inzake energieprestatie die door het betreffende lidstaat zijn vastgelegd op grond van artikel 4 in de EPBD. De verplichting betreft gebouwen die in bezit en in gebruik zijn van de rijksoverheid met een gebruiksoppervlakte groter dan 500 m{sup 2}, vanaf juli 2015 groter dan 250 m{sup 2}. De gebouwen die eigendom zijn van de Rijksgebouwendienst betreft kantoren van rijksdiensten, gerechtsgebouwen, gebouwen van douane en politie en gevangenissen. Van de gebouwen van Defensie hoeven alleen kantoren en legeringsgebouwen aan de verplichting te voldoen.
Direct vs 2-stage approaches to structured motif finding
Federico Maria
2012-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The notion of DNA motif is a mathematical abstraction used to model regions of the DNA (known as Transcription Factor Binding Sites, or TFBSs that are bound by a given Transcription Factor to regulate gene expression or repression. In turn, DNA structured motifs are a mathematical counterpart that models sets of TFBSs that work in concert in the gene regulations processes of higher eukaryotic organisms. Typically, a structured motif is composed of an ordered set of isolated (or simple motifs, separated by a variable, but somewhat constrained number of “irrelevant” base-pairs. Discovering structured motifs in a set of DNA sequences is a computationally hard problem that has been addressed by a number of authors using either a direct approach, or via the preliminary identification and successive combination of simple motifs. Results We describe a computational tool, named SISMA, for the de-novo discovery of structured motifs in a set of DNA sequences. SISMA is an exact, enumerative algorithm, meaning that it finds all the motifs conforming to the specifications. It does so in two stages: first it discovers all the possible component simple motifs, then combines them in a way that respects the given constraints. We developed SISMA mainly with the aim of understanding the potential benefits of such a 2-stage approach w.r.t. direct methods. In fact, no 2-stage software was available for the general problem of structured motif discovery, but only a few tools that solved restricted versions of the problem. We evaluated SISMA against other published tools on a comprehensive benchmark made of both synthetic and real biological datasets. In a significant number of cases, SISMA outperformed the competitors, exhibiting a good performance also in most of the cases in which it was inferior. Conclusions A reflection on the results obtained lead us to conclude that a 2-stage approach can be implemented with many advantages over direct
Mao, Yuezhi; Horn, Paul R.; Mardirossian, Narbe; Head-Gordon, Teresa; Skylaris, Chris-Kriton; Head-Gordon, Martin
2016-07-01
Recently developed density functionals have good accuracy for both thermochemistry (TC) and non-covalent interactions (NC) if very large atomic orbital basis sets are used. To approach the basis set limit with potentially lower computational cost, a new self-consistent field (SCF) scheme is presented that employs minimal adaptive basis (MAB) functions. The MAB functions are optimized on each atomic site by minimizing a surrogate function. High accuracy is obtained by applying a perturbative correction (PC) to the MAB calculation, similar to dual basis approaches. Compared to exact SCF results, using this MAB-SCF (PC) approach with the same large target basis set produces modern density functionals.
A Modeling Approach for Plastic-Metal Laser Direct Joining
Lutey, Adrian H. A.; Fortunato, Alessandro; Ascari, Alessandro; Romoli, Luca
2017-09-01
Laser processing has been identified as a feasible approach to direct joining of metal and plastic components without the need for adhesives or mechanical fasteners. The present work sees development of a modeling approach for conduction and transmission laser direct joining of these materials based on multi-layer optical propagation theory and numerical heat flow simulation. The scope of this methodology is to predict process outcomes based on the calculated joint interface and upper surface temperatures. Three representative cases are considered for model verification, including conduction joining of PBT and aluminum alloy, transmission joining of optically transparent PET and stainless steel, and transmission joining of semi-transparent PA 66 and stainless steel. Conduction direct laser joining experiments are performed on black PBT and 6082 anticorodal aluminum alloy, achieving shear loads of over 2000 N with specimens of 2 mm thickness and 25 mm width. Comparison with simulation results shows that consistently high strength is achieved where the peak interface temperature is above the plastic degradation temperature. Comparison of transmission joining simulations and published experimental results confirms these findings and highlights the influence of plastic layer optical absorption on process feasibility.
Chiou, Dah-Wei; Chen, Tsung-Wei
2016-11-01
We apply the method of direct perturbation theory for the Foldy-Wouthuysen (FW) transformation upon the Dirac-Pauli Hamiltonian subject to external electromagnetic fields. The exact FW transformations exist and agree with those obtained by Eriksen's method for two special cases. In the weak-field limit of static and homogeneous electromagnetic fields, by mathematical induction on the orders of 1 /c in the power series, we rigorously prove the long-held speculation: the FW transformed Dirac-Pauli Hamiltonian is in full agreement with the classical counterpart, which is the sum of the orbital Hamiltonian for the Lorentz force equation and the spin Hamiltonian for the Thomas-Bargmann-Michel-Telegdi equation.
A Direct Approach for Finding Loop Transformation Matrices
林华; 方之熙; 等
1996-01-01
Loop transformations,such as loop interchange,reversal and skewing,have been unified under linear matrix transformations.A legal transformation matrix is usually generated based upon distance vectors or direction vectors.Unfortunately,for some nested loops,distance vectors may not be computable and direction vectors, Unfortunately,for some nested loops,distance vectors may not be computable and direction vectors,on the other hand,may not contain useful information.We propose the use of linear equations or inequalities of distance vectors to approximate data dependence.This approach is advantageous since(1) many loops having no constant distance vectors have very simple equations of distance vectors;(2) these equations contain more information than direction vectors do,thus the chance of exploiting potential parallelism is improved.In general,the equations or inequalities that approximate the data dependence of a given nested loop is not unique,hence classification is discussed for the purpose of loop transformationEfficient algorithms are developed to generate all kinds of linear equations of distance vectors for a given nested loop.The issue of how to obtain a desired transformation matrix from those equations is also addressed.
Direct data domain approach to space-time adaptive processing
Wen Xiaoqin; Han Chongzhao
2006-01-01
In non-homogeneous environment, traditional space-time adaptive processing doesn' t effectively suppress interference and detect target, because the secondary data don' t exactly reflect the statistical characteristic of the range cell under test. A novel methodology utilizing the direct data domain approach to space- time adaptive processing (STAP) in airborne radar non-homogeneous environments is presented. The deterministic least squares adaptive signal processing technique operates on a "snapshot-by-snapshot" basis to determine the adaptive weights for nulling interferences and estimating signal of interest (SOI). Furthermore, this approach eliminates the requirement for estimating the covariance through the data of neighboring range rell,which eliminates calculating the inverse of covariance, and can be implemented to operate in resl-time. Simulation results illustrate the efficiency of interference suppression in non-homogeneous environment.
Matrix converter controlled with the direct transfer function approach
Rodriguez, J.; Silva, E.; Blaabjerg, Frede
2005-01-01
Power electronics is an emerging technology. New power circuits are invented and have to be introduced into the power electronics curriculum. One of the interesting new circuits is the matrix converter (MC), and this paper analyses its working principles. A simple model is proposed to represent...... the power circuit, including the input filter. The power semiconductors are modelled as ideal bidirectional switches and the MC is controlled using a direct transfer function approach. The modulation strategy of the converter is explained in a complete and clear form. The commutation problem of two switches...
Labor Costs and Foreign Direct Investment: A Panel VAR Approach
Bahar Bayraktar-Sağlam
2017-09-01
Full Text Available This paper examines the endogenous interaction between labor costs and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI in the OECD countries via the Panel VAR approach under system GMM estimates for the period 1995–2009. The available data allows identifying the relevance of the components of labor costs, and allows a detailed analysis across different sectors. Empirical findings have revealed that sectoral composition of FDI and the decomposition of labor costs play a significant role in investigating the dynamic association between labor costs and FDI. Further, results suggest that labor market policies should focus on productivity-enhancing tools in addition to price hindering tools.
A Hybrid Lifetime Extended Directional Approach for WBANs.
Li, Changle; Yuan, Xiaoming; Yang, Li; Song, Yueyang
2015-11-05
Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) can provide real-time and reliable health monitoring, attributing to the human-centered and sensor interoperability properties. WBANs have become a key component of the ubiquitous eHealth (electronic health) revolution that prospers on the basis of information and communication technologies. The prime consideration in WBAN is how to maximize the network lifetime with battery-powered sensor nodes in energy constraint. Novel solutions in Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols are imperative to satisfy the particular BAN scenario and the need of excellent energy efficiency in healthcare applications. In this paper, we propose a hybrid Lifetime Extended Directional Approach (LEDA) MAC protocol based on IEEE 802.15.6 to reduce energy consumption and prolong network lifetime. The LEDA MAC protocol takes full advantages of directional superiority in energy saving that employs multi-beam directional mode in Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) and single-beam directional mode in Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) for alternative in data reservation and transmission according to the traffic varieties. Moreover, the impacts of some inherent problems of directional antennas such as deafness and hidden terminal problem can be decreased owing to that all nodes generate individual beam according to user priorities designated. Furthermore, LEDA MAC employs a Dynamic Polled Allocation Period (DPAP) for burst data transmissions to increase the network reliability and adaptability. Extensive analysis and simulation results show that the proposed LEDA MAC protocol achieves extended network lifetime with improved performance compared with IEEE 802.15.6.
Direction-of-arrival estimation using matrix spatial prefiltering approach
YAN Shefeng; HOU Chaohuan; MA Xiaochuan
2008-01-01
An approach to direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation for multiple narrowband farfield signals is proposed. The technique uses a novel matrix spatial prefiltering approach.Specifically, a matrix filter is designed to spatially filter the incoming data snapshots. The un-wanted components arriving from the stopband angular sectors are attenuated and the desired components from the angular sector of interest pass with minimal distortion. The matrix filter spatially filters the element-space data and the output reserves the element-space data property,which makes it very useful by passing sensor data through a spatial prefilter prior to applying many other array processors to attenuate interferences and improve system performance. Sev-eral examples of DOA estimation problem are presented to illustrate the performance of the proposed spatial prefiltering approach. Results of simulation and real data show that the pre-filter can efficiently attenuate the spatial interferences and significantly improve the estimation and resolution capability of DOA estimators at low signal-to-noise ratios for the sources located inside the passband sector. In addition, the use of spatial prefilter makes it possible to estimate DOAs for multiple sources more than the number of the elements of an array.
Master Equation Approach to Molecular Motor's Directed Motion
FENG Juan; ZHUO Yi-Zhong
2005-01-01
@@ The master equation approach based on the periodic one-dimensional three-state hopping model is developed to study the molecular motor's directed motion. An explicit solution Px ( t ) is obtained for the probability distribution as a function of the time for any initial distribution Px(0) with all the transients included. We introduce dj to represent the sub-step lengths, which can reflect how the external load affects the individual rate via load distribution factors θ+j and θ-j. A wide variety of molecular motor behaviour under external load f can readily be obtained by the unequal-distance transition model with load-dependent transition rates. By comparison with the experiments, namely of the drift velocity v and the randomness parameter r versus adenosine triphosphate concentration and external load f, it is shown that the model presented here can rather satisfactorily explain the available data.
Modularity and the Spread of Perturbations in Complex Dynamical Systems
Kolchinsky, Artemy; Rocha, Luis M
2015-01-01
We propose a method to decompose a multivariate dynamical system into weakly-coupled modules based on the idea that module boundaries constrain the spread of perturbations. Using a novel quality function called 'perturbation modularity', we find system coarse-grainings that optimally separate the dynamics of perturbation spreading into fast intra-modular and slow inter-modular components. Our method is defined directly in terms of system dynamics, unlike approaches that find communities in networks (whether in structural networks or 'functional networks' of statistical dependencies) or that impose arbitrary dynamics onto graphs. Due to this, we are able to capture the variation of modular organization across states, timescales, and in response to different perturbations, aspects of modularity which are all relevant to real-world dynamical systems. However, in certain cases, mappings exist between perturbation modularity and community detection methods of `Markov stability' and Newman's modularity. Our approac...
Mao, Yuezhi; Horn, Paul R; Mardirossian, Narbe; Head-Gordon, Teresa; Skylaris, Chris-Kriton; Head-Gordon, Martin
2016-07-28
Recently developed density functionals have good accuracy for both thermochemistry (TC) and non-covalent interactions (NC) if very large atomic orbital basis sets are used. To approach the basis set limit with potentially lower computational cost, a new self-consistent field (SCF) scheme is presented that employs minimal adaptive basis (MAB) functions. The MAB functions are optimized on each atomic site by minimizing a surrogate function. High accuracy is obtained by applying a perturbative correction (PC) to the MAB calculation, similar to dual basis approaches. Compared to exact SCF results, using this MAB-SCF (PC) approach with the same large target basis set produces set limit can be even better reproduced. With further improvement to its implementation, MAB-SCF (PC) is a promising lower-cost substitute for conventional large-basis calculations as a method to approach the basis set limit of modern density functionals.
无
2001-01-01
On the basis of singular perturbation theory, a composite controlapproach is proposed for constrained flexible manipulators in this paper. The dynamics equation of a constrained two-link flexible manipulator is divided into slow-subsystem and fast-subsystem. Based on the adaptive theory, the slow controller is designed. For the fast subsystem, a robust optimal controller is presented. Under the slow time scale and the fast time scale, a composite control strategy is constructed. Some results of numerical simulations are presented to show the effectiveness of this design procedure.
Covariant Bardeen perturbation formalism
Vitenti, S. D. P.; Falciano, F. T.; Pinto-Neto, N.
2014-05-01
In a previous work we obtained a set of necessary conditions for the linear approximation in cosmology. Here we discuss the relations of this approach with the so-called covariant perturbations. It is often argued in the literature that one of the main advantages of the covariant approach to describe cosmological perturbations is that the Bardeen formalism is coordinate dependent. In this paper we will reformulate the Bardeen approach in a completely covariant manner. For that, we introduce the notion of pure and mixed tensors, which yields an adequate language to treat both perturbative approaches in a common framework. We then stress that in the referred covariant approach, one necessarily introduces an additional hypersurface choice to the problem. Using our mixed and pure tensors approach, we are able to construct a one-to-one map relating the usual gauge dependence of the Bardeen formalism with the hypersurface dependence inherent to the covariant approach. Finally, through the use of this map, we define full nonlinear tensors that at first order correspond to the three known gauge invariant variables Φ, Ψ and Ξ, which are simultaneously foliation and gauge invariant. We then stress that the use of the proposed mixed tensors allows one to construct simultaneously gauge and hypersurface invariant variables at any order.
Makhoute, A.; Agueny, H.; Dubois, A.; Ajana, I.; Taoutioui, A.
2016-04-01
We report a detailed analysis of electron-helium scattering in the presence of a laser field; focusing on the elastic process of helium atoms from the ground state 11 S. The process under investigation is dealt with a nonperturbative approach using the Volkov wave function to describe the incident and scattered electrons, while the laser-target interaction is treated by using the Floquet method. The interaction of the incident electron with the atomic target is treated within the first Born approximation. Our results are perfectly consistent with the experimental data of DeHarak et al and with the Kroll-Watson approximation results for both one and two photon emission. We have investigated the effect of nonresonant and near resonant laser field on the electron-helium elastic collision process. It was found that the differential cross section is sensitive to the intensity and the frequency of the laser field. In the case of a non resonant laser field, dressing effects are important at small scattering angles. For a near-resonant laser photon energy, those effects are strongly reduced in the forward direction.
Ihrig, Arvid Conrad; Wieferink, Jürgen; Zhang, Igor Ying; Ropo, Matti; Ren, Xinguo; Rinke, Patrick; Scheffler, Matthias; Blum, Volker
2015-09-01
A key component in calculations of exchange and correlation energies is the Coulomb operator, which requires the evaluation of two-electron integrals. For localized basis sets, these four-center integrals are most efficiently evaluated with the resolution of identity (RI) technique, which expands basis-function products in an auxiliary basis. In this work we show the practical applicability of a localized RI-variant (‘RI-LVL’), which expands products of basis functions only in the subset of those auxiliary basis functions which are located at the same atoms as the basis functions. We demonstrate the accuracy of RI-LVL for Hartree-Fock calculations, for the PBE0 hybrid density functional, as well as for RPA and MP2 perturbation theory. Molecular test sets used include the S22 set of weakly interacting molecules, the G3 test set, as well as the G2-1 and BH76 test sets, and heavy elements including titanium dioxide, copper and gold clusters. Our RI-LVL implementation paves the way for linear-scaling RI-based hybrid functional calculations for large systems and for all-electron many-body perturbation theory with significantly reduced computational and memory cost.
Heidrich-Meisner, V.; Igel, Christian
2010-01-01
process. Exploration is realized by stochastic perturbations, which can be applied at different levels. When considering direct policy search in the space of neural network policies, exploration can be applied on the synaptic level or on the level of neuronal activity. We propose neuroevolution strategies...... (NeuroESs) for direct policy search in RL. Learning using NeuroESs can be interpreted as modelling of extrinsic perturbations on the level of synaptic weights. In contrast, policy gradient methods (PGMs) can be regarded as intrinsic perturbation of neuronal activity. We compare these two approaches...
Renormalized Cosmological Perturbation Theory
Crocce, M
2006-01-01
We develop a new formalism to study nonlinear evolution in the growth of large-scale structure, by following the dynamics of gravitational clustering as it builds up in time. This approach is conveniently represented by Feynman diagrams constructed in terms of three objects: the initial conditions (e.g. perturbation spectrum), the vertex (describing non-linearities) and the propagator (describing linear evolution). We show that loop corrections to the linear power spectrum organize themselves into two classes of diagrams: one corresponding to mode-coupling effects, the other to a renormalization of the propagator. Resummation of the latter gives rise to a quantity that measures the memory of perturbations to initial conditions as a function of scale. As a result of this, we show that a well-defined (renormalized) perturbation theory follows, in the sense that each term in the remaining mode-coupling series dominates at some characteristic scale and is subdominant otherwise. This is unlike standard perturbatio...
[Minimally invasive total hip arthroplasty via direct anterior approach].
Rachbauer, Franz; Krismer, Martin
2008-09-01
Minimally invasive total hip arthroplasty via direct anterior approach aims at reducing soft-tissue damage, diminishing blood loss and postoperative pain, shortening stay in hospital, accelerating rehabilitation, and keeping scars small. The technique is suitable for primary and secondary osteoarthritis as well as fractures of the femoral neck. Complex distortions of the proximal femur should be exempted. Complex malalignment of the proximal femur. The femoral neck is exposed in the interval between tensor fasciae latae, glutei medius and minimus muscles laterally, and sartorius and rectus femoris muscles medially. After osteotomy of the neck and extraction of the head the acetabulum is reamed to prepare for cup prosthesis. Following peritrochanteric capsulotomy the externally rotated, adducted and elevated femor is broached. Cemented and cementless implants may be used. The patients are allowed to walk full weight bearing beginning on the 1st postoperative day. As soon as they are able to safely master the transfers and stairs, they are discharged. The method is a safe procedure that allows correct placement of acetabular and femoral components. It may be performed in a reasonable time, the blood loss is little. The procedure preserves the muscles and leads to small, cosmetically pleasing scars. Patients usually do not suffer from pronounced pain, rehabilitation is accelerated. They therefore agree in an short postoperative stay in hospital.
Esther L Calderon-Gierszal
Full Text Available Studies using rodent and adult human prostate stem-progenitor cell models suggest that developmental exposure to the endocrine disruptor Bisphenol-A (BPA can predispose to prostate carcinogenesis with aging. Unknown at present is whether the embryonic human prostate is equally susceptible to BPA during its natural developmental window. To address this unmet need, we herein report the construction of a pioneer in vitro human prostate developmental model to study the effects of BPA. The directed differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESC into prostatic organoids in a spatial system was accomplished with precise temporal control of growth factors and steroids. Activin-induced definitive endoderm was driven to prostate specification by combined exposure to WNT10B and FGF10. Matrigel culture for 20-30 days in medium containing R-Spondin-1, Noggin, EGF, retinoic acid and testosterone was sufficient for mature prostate organoid development. Immunofluorescence and gene expression analysis confirmed that organoids exhibited cytodifferentiation and functional properties of the human prostate. Exposure to 1 nM or 10 nM BPA throughout differentiation culture disturbed early morphogenesis in a dose-dependent manner with 1 nM BPA increasing and 10 nM BPA reducing the number of branched structures formed. While differentiation of branched structures to mature organoids seemed largely unaffected by BPA exposure, the stem-like cell population increased, appearing as focal stem cell nests that have not properly entered lineage commitment rather than the rare isolated stem cells found in normally differentiated structures. These findings provide the first direct evidence that low-dose BPA exposure targets hESC and perturbs morphogenesis as the embryonic cells differentiate towards human prostate organoids, suggesting that the developing human prostate may be susceptible to disruption by in utero BPA exposures.
Calderon-Gierszal, Esther L; Prins, Gail S
2015-01-01
Studies using rodent and adult human prostate stem-progenitor cell models suggest that developmental exposure to the endocrine disruptor Bisphenol-A (BPA) can predispose to prostate carcinogenesis with aging. Unknown at present is whether the embryonic human prostate is equally susceptible to BPA during its natural developmental window. To address this unmet need, we herein report the construction of a pioneer in vitro human prostate developmental model to study the effects of BPA. The directed differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESC) into prostatic organoids in a spatial system was accomplished with precise temporal control of growth factors and steroids. Activin-induced definitive endoderm was driven to prostate specification by combined exposure to WNT10B and FGF10. Matrigel culture for 20-30 days in medium containing R-Spondin-1, Noggin, EGF, retinoic acid and testosterone was sufficient for mature prostate organoid development. Immunofluorescence and gene expression analysis confirmed that organoids exhibited cytodifferentiation and functional properties of the human prostate. Exposure to 1 nM or 10 nM BPA throughout differentiation culture disturbed early morphogenesis in a dose-dependent manner with 1 nM BPA increasing and 10 nM BPA reducing the number of branched structures formed. While differentiation of branched structures to mature organoids seemed largely unaffected by BPA exposure, the stem-like cell population increased, appearing as focal stem cell nests that have not properly entered lineage commitment rather than the rare isolated stem cells found in normally differentiated structures. These findings provide the first direct evidence that low-dose BPA exposure targets hESC and perturbs morphogenesis as the embryonic cells differentiate towards human prostate organoids, suggesting that the developing human prostate may be susceptible to disruption by in utero BPA exposures.
Inflationary Perturbations and Precision Cosmology
Habib, S; Heitmann, K; Jungman, G; Habib, Salman; Heinen, Andreas; Heitmann, Katrin; Jungman, Gerard
2005-01-01
Inflationary cosmology provides a natural mechanism for the generation of primordial perturbations which seed the formation of observed cosmic structure and lead to specific signals of anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background radiation. In order to test the broad inflationary paradigm as well as particular models against precision observations, it is crucial to be able to make accurate predictions for the power spectrum of both scalar and tensor fluctuations. We present detailed calculations of these quantities utilizing direct numerical approaches as well as error-controlled uniform approximations, comparing with the (uncontrolled) traditional slow-roll approach. A simple extension of the leading-order uniform approximation yields results for the power spectra amplitudes, the spectral indices, and the running of spectral indices, with accuracy of the order of 0.1% - approximately the same level at which the transfer functions are known. Several representative examples are used to demonstrate these resul...
Acoustic anisotropic wavefields through perturbation theory
Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2013-09-01
Solving the anisotropic acoustic wave equation numerically using finite-difference methods introduces many problems and media restriction requirements, and it rarely contributes to the ability to resolve the anisotropy parameters. Among these restrictions are the inability to handle media with η<0 and the presence of shear-wave artifacts in the solution. Both limitations do not exist in the solution of the elliptical anisotropic acoustic wave equation. Using perturbation theory in developing the solution of the anisotropic acoustic wave equation allows direct access to the desired limitation-free solutions, that is, solutions perturbed from the elliptical anisotropic background medium. It also provides a platform for parameter estimation because of the ability to isolate the wavefield dependency on the perturbed anisotropy parameters. As a result, I derive partial differential equations that relate changes in the wavefield to perturbations in the anisotropy parameters. The solutions of the perturbation equations represented the coefficients of a Taylor-series-type expansion of the wavefield as a function of the perturbed parameter, which is in this case η or the tilt of the symmetry axis. The expansion with respect to the symmetry axis allows use of an acoustic transversely isotropic media with a vertical symmetry axis (VTI) kernel to estimate the background wavefield and the corresponding perturbation coefficients. The VTI extrapolation kernel is about one-fourth the cost of the transversely isotropic model with a tilt in the symmetry axis kernel. Thus, for a small symmetry axis tilt, the cost of migration using a first-order expansion can be reduced. The effectiveness of the approach was demonstrated on the Marmousi model.
Perturbation approach for equation of state for hard-sphere and Lennard–Jones pure ﬂuids
S B Khasare; M S Deshpande
2011-06-01
In this paper we have established the equation of state (EOS) for liquids. The EOS was established for hard-sphere (HS) ﬂuid along with Lennard–Jones (LJ) ﬂuid incorporating perturbation techniques. The calculations are based on suitable axiomatic functional forms for surface tension $S_m (r )$, $r ≥ d/2$ with intermolecular separation , as a variable, and is an arbitrary real number (pole). The results for /ρ from the present EOS thus obtained are compared with Percus-Yevick (PY), scaled particle theory (SPT), and Carnahan–Starling (CS). In addition, we have found a simple EOS for the HS ﬂuid in the region which represents the simulation data accurately. It is observed that, this EOS for HS gives, PY (pressure) for = 0, CS for = 4/5, whereas for = 1 it corresponds to SPT.
Mackeprang, Kasper; Kjaergaard, Henrik G.
2017-04-01
The local mode perturbation theory (LMPT) model was developed to improve the description of hydrogen bonded XH-stretching transitions, where X is typically O or N. We present a modified version of the LMPT model to extend its application from hydrated bimolecular complexes to hydrogen bonded bimolecular complexes with donors such as alcohols, amines and acids. We have applied the modified model to a series of complexes of different hydrogen bond type and complex energy. We found that the differences between local mode (LM) and LMPT calculated fundamental XH-stretching transition wavenumbers and oscillator strengths were correlated with the strength of the hydrogen bond. Overall, we have found that the LMPT model in most cases predicts transition wavenumbers within 20 cm-1 of the experimental values.
Luan, Feng; Kleandrova, Valeria V; González-Díaz, Humberto; Ruso, Juan M; Melo, André; Speck-Planche, Alejandro; Cordeiro, M Natália D S
2014-09-21
Nowadays, the interest in the search for new nanomaterials with improved electrical, optical, catalytic and biological properties has increased. Despite the potential benefits that can be gathered from the use of nanoparticles, only little attention has been paid to their possible toxic effects that may affect human health. In this context, several assays have been carried out to evaluate the cytotoxicity of nanoparticles in mammalian cells. Owing to the cost in both resources and time involved in such toxicological assays, there has been a considerable increase in the interest towards alternative computational methods, like the application of quantitative structure-activity/toxicity relationship (QSAR/QSTR) models for risk assessment of nanoparticles. However, most QSAR/QSTR models developed so far have predicted cytotoxicity against only one cell line, and they did not provide information regarding the influence of important factors rather than composition or size. This work reports a QSTR-perturbation model aiming at simultaneously predicting the cytotoxicity of different nanoparticles against several mammalian cell lines, and also considering different times of exposure of the cell lines, as well as the chemical composition of nanoparticles, size, conditions under which the size was measured, and shape. The derived QSTR-perturbation model, using a dataset of 1681 cases (nanoparticle-nanoparticle pairs), exhibited an accuracy higher than 93% for both training and prediction sets. In order to demonstrate the practical applicability of our model, the cytotoxicity of different silica (SiO2), nickel (Ni), and nickel(ii) oxide (NiO) nanoparticles were predicted and found to be in very good agreement with experimental reports. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to simultaneously predict the cytotoxicity of nanoparticles under multiple experimental conditions by applying a single unique QSTR model.
Ananthanarayan, B.; Das, Diganta; Sentitemsu Imsong, I.
2012-10-01
Ampcalculator (AMPC) is a Mathematica © based program that was made publicly available some time ago by Unterdorfer and Ecker. It enables the user to compute several processes at one loop (upto O( p 4) in SU(3) chiral perturbation theory. They include computing matrix elements and form factors for strong and non-leptonic weak processes with at most six external states. It was used to compute some novel processes and was tested against well-known results by the original authors. Here we present the results of several thorough checks of the package. Exhaustive checks performed by the original authors are not publicly available, and hence the present effort. Some new results are obtained from the software especially in the kaon odd-intrinsic parity non-leptonic decay sector involving the coupling G 27. Another illustrative set of amplitudes at tree level we provide is in the context of τ-decays with several mesons including quark mass effects, of use to the BELLE experiment. All eight meson-meson scattering amplitudes have been checked. The Kaon-Compton amplitude has been checked and a minor error in the published results has been pointed out. This exercise is a tutorial-based one, wherein several input and output notebooks are also being made available as ancillary files on the arXiv. Some of the additional notebooks we provide contain explicit expressions that we have used for comparison with established results. The purpose is to encourage users to apply the software to suit their specific needs. An automatic amplitude generator of this type can provide error-free outputs that could be used as inputs for further simplification, and in varied scenarios such as applications of chiral perturbation theory at finite temperature, density and volume. This can also be used by students as a learning aid in low-energy hadron dynamics.
Ananthanarayan, B.; Sentitemsu Imsong, I. [Indian Institute of Science, Centre for High Energy Physics, Bangalore (India); Das, Diganta [The Institute of Mathematical Sciences Taramani, Chennai (India)
2012-10-15
Ampcalculator (AMPC) is a Mathematica {sup copyright} based program that was made publicly available some time ago by Unterdorfer and Ecker. It enables the user to compute several processes at one loop (upto O(p {sup 4})) in SU(3) chiral perturbation theory. They include computing matrix elements and form factors for strong and non-leptonic weak processes with at most six external states. It was used to compute some novel processes and was tested against well-known results by the original authors. Here we present the results of several thorough checks of the package. Exhaustive checks performed by the original authors are not publicly available, and hence the present effort. Some new results are obtained from the software especially in the kaon odd-intrinsic parity non-leptonic decay sector involving the coupling G{sub 27}. Another illustrative set of amplitudes at tree level we provide is in the context of {tau}-decays with several mesons including quark mass effects, of use to the BELLE experiment. All eight meson-meson scattering amplitudes have been checked. The Kaon-Compton amplitude has been checked and a minor error in the published results has been pointed out. This exercise is a tutorial-based one, wherein several input and output notebooks are also being made available as ancillary files on the arXiv. Some of the additional notebooks we provide contain explicit expressions that we have used for comparison with established results. The purpose is to encourage users to apply the software to suit their specific needs. An automatic amplitude generator of this type can provide error-free outputs that could be used as inputs for further simplification, and in varied scenarios such as applications of chiral perturbation theory at finite temperature, density and volume. This can also be used by students as a learning aid in low-energy hadron dynamics. (orig.)
Direct and Evolutionary Approaches for Optimal Receiver Function Inversion
Dugda, Mulugeta Tuji
Receiver functions are time series obtained by deconvolving vertical component seismograms from radial component seismograms. Receiver functions represent the impulse response of the earth structure beneath a seismic station. Generally, receiver functions consist of a number of seismic phases related to discontinuities in the crust and upper mantle. The relative arrival times of these phases are correlated with the locations of discontinuities as well as the media of seismic wave propagation. The Moho (Mohorovicic discontinuity) is a major interface or discontinuity that separates the crust and the mantle. In this research, automatic techniques to determine the depth of the Moho from the earth's surface (the crustal thickness H) and the ratio of crustal seismic P-wave velocity (Vp) to S-wave velocity (Vs) (kappa= Vp/Vs) were developed. In this dissertation, an optimization problem of inverting receiver functions has been developed to determine crustal parameters and the three associated weights using evolutionary and direct optimization techniques. The first technique developed makes use of the evolutionary Genetic Algorithms (GA) optimization technique. The second technique developed combines the direct Generalized Pattern Search (GPS) and evolutionary Fitness Proportionate Niching (FPN) techniques by employing their strengths. In a previous study, Monte Carlo technique has been utilized for determining variable weights in the H-kappa stacking of receiver functions. Compared to that previously introduced variable weights approach, the current GA and GPS-FPN techniques have tremendous advantages of saving time and these new techniques are suitable for automatic and simultaneous determination of crustal parameters and appropriate weights. The GA implementation provides optimal or near optimal weights necessary in stacking receiver functions as well as optimal H and kappa values simultaneously. Generally, the objective function of the H-kappa stacking problem
Scherrer, Arne; Sebastiani, Daniel; Gross, E K U; Vuilleumier, Rodolphe
2015-01-01
The nuclear velocity perturbation current-density theory (NVPT) for vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) is derived from the exact factorization of the electron-nuclear wave function. This new formalism offers an exact starting point to include correction terms to the Born-Oppenheimer (BO) form of the molecular wave function, similarly to the complete-adiabatic approximation. The corrections depend on a small parameter that, in a classical treatment of the nuclei, is identified as the nuclear velocity. Apart from proposing a rigorous basis for the NVPT, we show that the rotational strength, related to the intensity of the VCD signal, contain a new contribution beyond-BO that can be evaluated with the NVPT and that only arises when the exact factorization approach is employed. Numerical results are presented for chiral and non-chiral systems to test the validity of the approach.
Nieves, J
2001-01-01
Heavy Baryon Chiral Perturbation Theory (HBChPT) to leading order provides a kernel to solve the Bethe-Salpeter equation for the $P_{33}$ ($\\Delta(1232)$-channel) $\\pi-N$ system, in the infinite nucleon mass limit. Crossed Born terms include, when iterated within the Bethe-Salpeter equation, both {\\it all} one- and {\\it some} two-pion intermediate states, hence preserving elastic unitarity below the two-pion production threshold. This suggests searching for a solution with the help of dispersion relations and suitable subtraction constants, when all in-elasticities are explicitly neglected. The solution allows for a successful description of the experimental phase shift from threshold up to $\\sqrt{s}=1500$ MeV in terms of four subtraction constants. Next-to-leading order HBChPT calculations are also used to estimate the unknown subtraction constants which appear in the solution. Large discrepancies are encountered which can be traced to the slow convergence rate of HBChPT.
Quantitative approaches for profit maximization in direct marketing
van der Scheer, H.R.
1998-01-01
An effective direct marketing campaign aims at selecting those targets, offer and communication elements - at the right time - that maximize the net profits. The list of individuals to be mailed, i.e. the targets, is considered to be the most important component. Therefore, a large amount of direct
Quantitative approaches for profit maximization in direct marketing
van der Scheer, H.R.
1998-01-01
An effective direct marketing campaign aims at selecting those targets, offer and communication elements - at the right time - that maximize the net profits. The list of individuals to be mailed, i.e. the targets, is considered to be the most important component. Therefore, a large amount of direct
Global terrestrial biogeochemistry: Perturbations, interactions, and time scales
Braswell, B.H. Jr.
1996-12-01
Global biogeochemical processes are being perturbed by human activity, principally that which is associated with industrial activity and expansion of urban and agricultural complexes. Perturbations have manifested themselves at least since the beginning of the 19th Century, and include emissions of CO{sub 2} and other pollutants from fossil fuel combustion, agricultural emissions of reactive nitrogen, and direct disruption of ecosystem function through land conversion. These perturbations yield local impacts, but there are also global consequences that are the sum of local-scale influences. Several approaches to understanding the global-scale implications of chemical perturbations to the Earth system are discussed. The lifetime of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere is an important concept for understanding the current and future commitment to an altered atmospheric heat budget. The importance of the terrestrial biogeochemistry relative to the lifetime of excess CO{sub 2} is demonstrated using dynamic, aggregated models of the global carbon cycle.
Wong, Kin-Yiu; Gao, Jiali
2008-09-09
In this paper, we describe an automated integration-free path-integral (AIF-PI) method, based on Kleinert's variational perturbation (KP) theory, to treat internuclear quantum-statistical effects in molecular systems. We have developed an analytical method to obtain the centroid potential as a function of the variational parameter in the KP theory, which avoids numerical difficulties in path-integral Monte Carlo or molecular dynamics simulations, especially at the limit of zero-temperature. Consequently, the variational calculations using the KP theory can be efficiently carried out beyond the first order, i.e., the Giachetti-Tognetti-Feynman-Kleinert variational approach, for realistic chemical applications. By making use of the approximation of independent instantaneous normal modes (INM), the AIF-PI method can readily be applied to many-body systems. Previously, we have shown that in the INM approximation, the AIF-PI method is accurate for computing the quantum partition function of a water molecule (3 degrees of freedom) and the quantum correction factor for the collinear H(3) reaction rate (2 degrees of freedom). In this work, the accuracy and properties of the KP theory are further investigated by using the first three order perturbations on an asymmetric double-well potential, the bond vibrations of H(2), HF, and HCl represented by the Morse potential, and a proton-transfer barrier modeled by the Eckart potential. The zero-point energy, quantum partition function, and tunneling factor for these systems have been determined and are found to be in excellent agreement with the exact quantum results. Using our new analytical results at the zero-temperature limit, we show that the minimum value of the computed centroid potential in the KP theory is in excellent agreement with the ground state energy (zero-point energy) and the position of the centroid potential minimum is the expectation value of particle position in wave mechanics. The fast convergent property
A Trajectory Generation Approach for Payload Directed Flight
Ippolito, Corey A.; Yeh, Yoo-Hsiu
2009-01-01
Presently, flight systems designed to perform payload-centric maneuvers require preconstructed procedures and special hand-tuned guidance modes. To enable intelligent maneuvering via strong coupling between the goals of payload-directed flight and the autopilot functions, there exists a need to rethink traditional autopilot design and function. Research into payload directed flight examines sensor and payload-centric autopilot modes, architectures, and algorithms that provide layers of intelligent guidance, navigation and control for flight vehicles to achieve mission goals related to the payload sensors, taking into account various constraints such as the performance limitations of the aircraft, target tracking and estimation, obstacle avoidance, and constraint satisfaction. Payload directed flight requires a methodology for accurate trajectory planning that lets the system anticipate expected return from a suite of onboard sensors. This paper presents an extension to the existing techniques used in the literature to quickly and accurately plan flight trajectories that predict and optimize the expected return of onboard payload sensors.
Direction-Dependence Analysis: A Confirmatory Approach for Testing Directional Theories
Wiedermann, Wolfgang; von Eye, Alexander
2015-01-01
The concept of direction dependence has attracted growing attention due to its potential to help decide which of two competing linear regression models (X ? Y or Y ? X) is more likely to reflect the correct causal flow. Several tests have been proposed to evaluate hypotheses compatible with direction dependence. In this issue, Thoemmes (2015)…
Direction-dependent learning approach for radial basis function networks.
Singla, Puneet; Subbarao, Kamesh; Junkins, John L
2007-01-01
Direction-dependent scaling, shaping, and rotation of Gaussian basis functions are introduced for maximal trend sensing with minimal parameter representations for input output approximation. It is shown that shaping and rotation of the radial basis functions helps in reducing the total number of function units required to approximate any given input-output data, while improving accuracy. Several alternate formulations that enforce minimal parameterization of the most general radial basis functions are presented. A novel "directed graph" based algorithm is introduced to facilitate intelligent direction based learning and adaptation of the parameters appearing in the radial basis function network. Further, a parameter estimation algorithm is incorporated to establish starting estimates for the model parameters using multiple windows of the input-output data. The efficacy of direction-dependent shaping and rotation in function approximation is evaluated by modifying the minimal resource allocating network and considering different test examples. The examples are drawn from recent literature to benchmark the new algorithm versus existing methods.
A New Approach for Direct Observation of Superconducting Electrons
无
2005-01-01
@@ ASino-Japanese research team has succeeded in observing the superconducting electron directly by the photoemission spectroscopy with the highest yet resolution (360 μeV).Based on this, the researchers say,they will be able to solve problems regarding the exotic superconducting mechanism.
A Unifying Approach to Goal-Directed Evaluation
Danvy, Olivier; Rhiger, Morten; Grobauer, Bernd
2001-01-01
semantics coincides with Gudeman’s continuation semantics of Icon. We then compile Icon programs by specializing their interpreter (i.e., by using the first Futamura projection), using type-directed partial evaluation. Through various back ends, including a run-time code generator, we generate ML code, C...
Measurement of dynamic efficiency: a directional distance function parametric approach
Serra, T.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Stefanou, S.E.
2011-01-01
This research proposes a parametric estimation of the structural dynamic efficiency measures proposed by Silva and Oude Lansink (2009). Overall, technical and allocative efficiency measurements are derived based on a directional distance function and the duality between this function and the optimal
Nasal drug delivery : A direct approach to the cerebrospinal fluid?
Berg, Mascha van den
2005-01-01
With the growing number of patients suffering from central nervous system (CNS) diseases a suitable approach for drug targeting to the brain becomes more and more important. This is a major problem in drug delivery research, due to the tight blood-brain barrier (BBB) that prevents the influx of xeno
Aspects of perturbative unitarity
Anselmi, Damiano
2016-07-01
We reconsider perturbative unitarity in quantum field theory and upgrade several arguments and results. The minimum assumptions that lead to the largest time equation, the cutting equations and the unitarity equation are identified. Using this knowledge and a special gauge, we give a new, simpler proof of perturbative unitarity in gauge theories and generalize it to quantum gravity, in four and higher dimensions. The special gauge interpolates between the Feynman gauge and the Coulomb gauge without double poles. When the Coulomb limit is approached, the unphysical particles drop out of the cuts and the cutting equations are consistently projected onto the physical subspace. The proof does not extend to nonlocal quantum field theories of gauge fields and gravity, whose unitarity remains uncertain.
Aspects of perturbative unitarity
Anselmi, Damiano
2016-01-01
We reconsider perturbative unitarity in quantum field theory and upgrade several arguments and results. The minimum assumptions that lead to the largest time equation, the cutting equations and the unitarity equation are identified. Using this knowledge and a special gauge, we give a new, simpler proof of perturbative unitarity in gauge theories and generalize it to quantum gravity, in four and higher dimensions. The special gauge interpolates between the Feynman gauge and the Coulomb gauge without double poles. When the Coulomb limit is approached, the unphysical particles drop out of the cuts and the cutting equations are consistently projected onto the physical subspace. The proof does not extend to nonlocal quantum field theories of gauge fields and gravity, whose unitarity remains uncertain.
${\\Upsilon}(1S)$ ${\\to}$ $B_{c}{\\pi}$, $B_{c}K$ decays with perturbative QCD approach
Sun, Junfeng; Yang, Yueling; Li, Haiyan; Chang, Qin; Zhang, Zhiqing
2016-01-01
With the potential prospects of the ${\\Upsilon}(1S)$ at high-luminosity dedicated heavy-flavor factories, the bottom-changing ${\\Upsilon}(1S)$ ${\\to}$ $B_{c}{\\pi}$, $B_{c}K$ weak decays are studied with the pQCD approach. It is found that branching ratio for the color-favored and CKM-favored ${\\Upsilon}(1S)$ ${\\to}$ $B_{c}{\\pi}$ decay can reach up to ${\\cal O}(10^{-11})$. So the ${\\Upsilon}(1S)$ ${\\to}$ $B_{c}{\\pi}$ decay might be measured promisingly by the future experiments.
Perturbation Theory of Embedded Eigenvalues
Engelmann, Matthias
We study problems connected to perturbation theory of embedded eigenvalues in two different setups. The first part deals with second order perturbation theory of mass shells in massive translation invariant Nelson type models. To this end an expansion of the eigenvalues w.r.t. fiber parameter up...... project gives a general and systematic approach to analytic perturbation theory of embedded eigenvalues. The spectral deformation technique originally developed in the theory of dilation analytic potentials in the context of Schrödinger operators is systematized by the use of Mourre theory. The group...
A Unifying Approach to Goal-Directed Evaluation
Danvy, Olivier; Rhiger, Morten; Grobauer, Bernd
2001-01-01
Goal-directed evaluation, as embodied in Icon and Snobol, is built on the notions of backtracking and of generating successive results, and therefore it has always been something of a challenge to specify and implement. In this article, we address this challenge using computational monads...... and partial evaluation. We consider a subset of Icon and we specify it with a monadic semantics and a list monad. We then consider a spectrum of monads that also fit the bill, and we relate them to each other. For example, we derive a continuation monad as a Church encoding of the list monad. The resulting...... semantics coincides with Gudeman’s continuation semantics of Icon. We then compile Icon programs by specializing their interpreter (i.e., by using the first Futamura projection), using type-directed partial evaluation. Through various back ends, including a run-time code generator, we generate ML code, C...
Measuring causality by taking the directional symbolic mutual information approach
Chen Gui; Xie Lei; Chu Jian
2013-01-01
We propose a novel measure to assess causality through the comparison of symbolic mutual information between the future of one random quantity and the past of the other.This provides a new perspective that is different from the conventional conceptions.Based on this point of view,a new causality index is derived that uses the definition of directional symbolic mutual information.This measure presents properties that are different from the time delayed mutual information since the symbolization captures the dynamic features of the analyzed time series.In addition to characterizing the direction and the amplitude of the information flow,it can also detect coupling delays.This method has the property of robustness,conceptual simplicity,and fast computational speed.
Remarks on Definitions of Perturbation in General Relativity
HE Ping
2009-01-01
There axe two kinds of definitions of perturbation of physical quantities in the framework of general relativity: one is direct, the other is geometrical.Correspondingly, there axe two types of gauge transformation related with these two definitions.The passive approach is based on the property of general covariance, and the active one is through the action of Lie-derivative.Although under a proper coordinate choice, the two approaches seem to agree with each other, they axe different in nature.The geometrical definition of relativistic perturbation and the active approach for gauge transformation axe more rigorous in mathematics and less confusing in physical explanation.The direct definition, however, seems to be plagued with difficulties in physical meaning, and the passive approach is more awkward to use, especially for high-order gauge transformations.
Zhang, Huoming
2010-07-02
Human monocytes\\' exposure to low-level lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces temporary monocytic insensitivity to subsequent LPS challenge. The underlying mechanism of this phenomenon could have important clinical utilities in preventing and/or treating severe infections. In this study, we used an iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic approach to comprehensively characterize the membrane proteomes of monocytes before and after LPS exposure. We identified a total of 1651 proteins, of which 53.6% were membrane proteins. Ninety-four percent of the proteins were quantified and 255 proteins were shown to be tightly regulated by LPS. Subcellular location analysis revealed organelle-specific response to LPS exposure: more than 90% of identified mitochondrial membrane proteins were significant downregulated, whereas the majority of proteins from other organelles such as ER, Golgi and ribosome were upregulated. Moreover, we found that the expression of most receptors potentially involved in LPS signal pathway (CD14, toll-like receptor 4, CD11/CD18 complex) were substantially decreased, while the expression of molecules involved in LPS neutralization were enhanced after LPS challenge. Together, these findings could be of significance in understanding the mechanism of LPS tolerance and provide values for designing new approaches for regulating monocytic responses in sepsis patients.
Distribution theory approach to implementing directional acoustic sensors.
Schmidlin, Dean J
2010-01-01
The objective of directional acoustic sensors is to provide high directivity while occupying a small amount of space. An idealized point sensor achieves this objective from a knowledge of the spatial partial derivatives of acoustic pressure at a point in space. Direct measurement of these derivatives is difficult in practice. Consequently, it is expedient to come up with indirect methods. The use of pressure sensors to construct finite-difference approximations is an example of such a method. This paper utilizes the theory of distributions to derive another indirect method for estimating the various spatial partial derivatives of the pressure. This alternate method is then used to construct a multichannel filter which processes the acoustic pressure by mean of three-dimensional integral transforms throughout a 6epsilon-length cube centered at the origin. The output of the multichannel filter is a spatially and temporally filtered version of the pressure at the origin. The temporal filter is a lowpass Gaussian filter whose bandwidth is inversely proportional to epsilon. Finally, the lattice method for numerical multiple integration is utilized to develop a discrete-spatial version of the multichannel filter.
A Unifying Approach to Goal-Directed Evaluation
Danvy, Olivier; Grobauer, Bernd; Rhiger, Morten
2001-01-01
Goal-directed evaluation, as embodied in Icon and Snobol, is built on the notions of backtracking and of generating successive results, and therefore it has always been something of a challenge to specify and implement. In this article, we address this challenge using computational monads...... and partial evaluation. We consider a subset of Icon and we specify it with a monadic semantics and a list monad. We then consider a spectrum of monads that also fit the bill, and we relate them to each other. For example, we derive a continuation monad as a Church encoding of the list monad. The resulting...
A Unifying Approach to Goal-Directed Evaluation
Danvy, Olivier; Grobauer, Bernd; Rhiger, Morten
2001-01-01
Goal-directed evaluation, as embodied in Icon and Snobol, is built on the notions of backtracking and of generating successive results, and therefore it has always been something of a challenge to specify and implement. In this article, we address this challenge using computational monads...... and partial evaluation.We consider a subset of Icon and we specify it with a monadic semantics and a list monad. We then consider a spectrum of monads that also fit the bill, and we relate them to each other. For example, we derive a continuation monad as a Church encoding of the list monad. The resulting...
Opal shell structures: direct assembly versus inversion approach.
Deng, Tian-Song; Sharifi, Parvin; Marlow, Frank
2013-09-16
Opal shell structures can be fabricated in two ways: By direct assembly from hollow spheres (hs-opal) or by infiltration of precursors into opal templates and inversion. The resulting lattice disturbances were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical microscopy, and transmission spectra. The hs-opal system shows much lower disturbances, for example, a lower number of cracks and lattice deformations. The strong suppression of crack formation in one of these inverse opal structures can be considered as promising candidates for the fabrication of more perfect photonic crystals.
Efficient and simple approaches towards direct oxidative esterification of alcohols.
Ray, Ritwika; Jana, Rahul Dev; Bhadra, Mayukh; Maiti, Debabrata; Lahiri, Goutam Kumar
2014-11-17
The present article describes novel oxidative protocols for direct esterification of alcohols. The protocols involve successful demonstrations of both "cross" and "self" esterification of a wide variety of alcohols. The cross-esterification proceeds under a simple transition-metal-free condition, containing catalytic amounts of TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy)/TBAB (tetra-n-butylammonium bromide) in combination with oxone (potassium peroxo monosulfate) as the oxidant, whereas the self-esterification is achieved through simple induction of Fe(OAc)2 /dipic (dipic=2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid) as the active catalyst under an identical oxidizing environment.
Direct approach to quantum extensions of Fisher information
CHEN Ping; LUO Shunlong
2007-01-01
By manipulating classical Fisher information and employing various derivatives of density operators, and using entirely intuitive and direct methods, we introduce two families of quantum extensions of Fisher information that include those defined via the symmetric logarithmic derivative, via the right logarithmic derivative, via the Bogoliubov-Kubo-Mori derivative, as well as via the derivative in terms of commutators, as special cases. Some fundamental properties of these quantum extensions of Fisher information are investigated, a multi-parameter quantum Cramér-Rao inequality is established, and applications to characterizing quantum uncertainty are illustrated.
Cache and memory hierarchy design a performance directed approach
Przybylski, Steven A
1991-01-01
An authoritative book for hardware and software designers. Caches are by far the simplest and most effective mechanism for improving computer performance. This innovative book exposes the characteristics of performance-optimal single and multi-level cache hierarchies by approaching the cache design process through the novel perspective of minimizing execution times. It presents useful data on the relative performance of a wide spectrum of machines and offers empirical and analytical evaluations of the underlying phenomena. This book will help computer professionals appreciate the impact of ca
A direct renormalization group approach for the excluded volume problem
de Queiroz, S. L. A.; Chaves, C. M.
1980-03-01
We propose a position-space renormalization group approach for the excluded volume problem in a square lattice by considering “percolating” self-avoiding paths in a b×b cell, where b=2,3,4: Two ways of counting the paths are presented. The values obtained for the exponent v converge respectively to 0.731 and 0.720, close to the usually accepted value v=0.75. Comments on the relation between percolation and self-avoiding walks are made.
Direct current stimulation : new approach to enhancing heavy oil production
Whittle, J.K. [Electro-Petroleum Inc., Wayne, PA (United States); Hill, D.G. [Southern California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States)
2006-07-01
The limited recovery of heavy crude oil can be attributed to the high viscosity of the liquids in the oil reservoirs. A viable technology has been lacking for the economic recovery of heavy oil. This paper discussed the advantages of direct current electrical stimulation or electro-enhanced oil recovery (EEOR). The paper outlined the advantages, including data produced from field demonstrations as well as the results of recent laboratory studies. The paper provided a historical and electro-chemical background of EEOR. Field operations that were discussed included electric field maps and a comparison of direct current versus alternating current electrical power. A series of EEOR field demonstrations were presented for the Santa Maria basin in California and the eastern Alberta plains. The paper also discussed produced fluid chemical changes and electro-osmosis and effective permeability. Last, the paper provided a comparison of EEOR to other existing and emerging technologies including steam flood; surfactant flood; co-solvent flood; carbon dioxide flood; and fire flood. It was concluded that the biggest EEOR limitation is its limited field application portfolio. EEOR has produced encouraging field demonstrations to date and has facilitated beneficial chemical changes in the produced fluids. 26 refs., 5 tabs., 10 figs.
A new approach to direct somatic embryogenesis in Medicago.
Denchev, P; Velcheva, M; Atanassov, A
1991-09-01
A highly efficient system for direct somatic embryogenesis is described. Leaf sections originating from young trifoliate leaves of Medicago falcata line 47/1-5 and Medicago sativa line No2/9R, directly produced embryos after cultivation in liquid B5IV induction medium. In comparison with indirect somatic embryogenesis the system omits the callus stage and thus allows shortening of the process of somatic embryogenesis in alfalfa by 35-40 days. It permits the avoidance of secondary changes occurring during the process of dedifferentiation. A modified B5/3H medium containing Polyethylene Glycol 6000 promoted embryo development from globular up to torpedo stage. It was clearly shown that 2.5% Polyethylene Glycol stimulated this process for both H. falcata 47/1-5 and M. sativa No 2/9R. Maturation of torpedo stage embryos was carried out on solidified or liquid abscisic acidcontaining medium. A 30μM abscisic acid concentration was optimal in allowing one embryo to yield one plant. Somatic embryo conversion to plants and plant regeneration was performed on Murashige and Skoog medium. Regenerated plants showed a normal morphology.
Cosmological density perturbations from perturbed couplings
Tsujikawa, S
2003-01-01
The density perturbations generated when the inflaton decay rate is perturbed by a light scalar field $\\chi$ are studied. By explicitly solving the perturbation equations for the system of two scalar fields and radiation, we show that even in low energy-scale inflation nearly scale-invariant spectra of scalar perturbations with an amplitude set by observations are obtained through the conversion of $\\chi$ fluctuations into adiabatic density perturbations. We demonstrate that the spectra depend on the average decay rate of the inflaton & on the inflaton fluctuations. We then apply this new mechanism to string cosmologies & generalized Einstein theories and discuss the conditions under which scale-invariant spectra are possible.
Hierarchy-Direction Selective Approach for Locally Adaptive Sparse Grids
Stoyanov, Miroslav K [ORNL
2013-09-01
We consider the problem of multidimensional adaptive hierarchical interpolation. We use sparse grids points and functions that are induced from a one dimensional hierarchical rule via tensor products. The classical locally adaptive sparse grid algorithm uses an isotropic refinement from the coarser to the denser levels of the hierarchy. However, the multidimensional hierarchy provides a more complex structure that allows for various anisotropic and hierarchy selective refinement techniques. We consider the more advanced refinement techniques and apply them to a number of simple test functions chosen to demonstrate the various advantages and disadvantages of each method. While there is no refinement scheme that is optimal for all functions, the fully adaptive family-direction-selective technique is usually more stable and requires fewer samples.
A Direct Estimation Approach to Sparse Linear Discriminant Analysis
Cai, Tony
2011-01-01
This paper considers sparse linear discriminant analysis of high-dimensional data. In contrast to the existing methods which are based on separate estimation of the precision matrix $\\O$ and the difference $\\de$ of the mean vectors, we introduce a simple and effective classifier by estimating the product $\\O\\de$ directly through constrained $\\ell_1$ minimization. The estimator can be implemented efficiently using linear programming and the resulting classifier is called the linear programming discriminant (LPD) rule. The LPD rule is shown to have desirable theoretical and numerical properties. It exploits the approximate sparsity of $\\O\\de$ and as a consequence allows cases where it can still perform well even when $\\O$ and/or $\\de$ cannot be estimated consistently. Asymptotic properties of the LPD rule are investigated and consistency and rate of convergence results are given. The LPD classifier has superior finite sample performance and significant computational advantages over the existing methods that req...
Determinants of Foreign Direct Investment in Romania: a Quantitative Approach
Calcedonia Enache
2017-02-01
Full Text Available This study aims to examine the dynamic relationship between foreign direct investments (FDI and economic growth, using the Structural Vector Autoregressive model, in the period 2007-2014. The results of the econometric model show that the trajectory of FDI has its own origins, with reduced influences from economic growth. Another important conclusion is that there is a unidirectional causal relationship from the economic growth towards FDI, more precisely the influence of FDI on economic growth does not have a systematic, anticipatory nature. These results were achieved in the condition that, in the analyzed period, the net inflows of FDI were influenced by the lack of certainty on the sustainable re-launching of the economic growth both domestically and internationally, the segmentation of the financial market, the domestic structural reforms.
Current approaches and future directions in the treatment of leprosy
Worobec SM
2012-08-01
Full Text Available Sophie M WorobecDepartment of Dermatology, College of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USAAbstract: This review surveys current treatments and future treatment trends in leprosy from a clinical perspective. The World Health Organization provides a multidrug treatment regimen that targets the Mycobacterium leprae bacillus which causes leprosy. Several investigational drugs are available for the treatment of drug-resistant M. leprae. Future directions in leprosy treatment will focus on: the molecular signaling mechanism M. leprae uses to avoid triggering an immune response; prospective studies of the side effects experienced during multiple-drug therapy; recognition of relapse rates post-completion of designated treatments; combating multidrug resistance; vaccine development; development of new diagnostic tests; and the implications of the recent discovery of a genetically distinct leprosy-causing bacillus, Mycobacterium lepromatosis.Keywords: epidemiology, leprosy, Hansen’s disease, multidrug resistance, multidrug therapy
FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT AND WAGES:A BARGAINING POWER APPROACH
Ramya M. Vijaya
2015-08-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a cross-country empirical investigation of the impact of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI on manufacturing wages. Our results indicate that FDI-Flows have a negative impact on overall wages in the manufacturing sector and this impact is stronger for female wages. We argue that one possible explanation for such an impact may be a decrease in the bargaining power of labor due to new labor market arrangements in a global economy where capital is free to move across countries in search of more favorable conditions. This decline in labor power also tends to have a greater impact on the more vulnerable workers female workers whose bargainingpositions have been traditionally lower than male workers.
RISK AND THE FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT - SYNTHETIC APPROACH
LĂPĂDUŞI MIHAELA LOREDANA
2016-06-01
Full Text Available As part of the international economics flows, FDI always puts a mark on the economic development of a country. The internationalization of a company by investments involves a great many risks, from the lowest to the highest level of involvement. On the basis of these considerations one can assess that the country risk is one of the most important pillars that support the process of internationalization of a company by means of foreign direct investments. Broadly sepaking, country risk is an important component of the overall risk of trading on international levels. In other terms it can be seen as the likelihood of losses resulting from a series of macroeconomic (GDP decline on the long run, inflation increase, economic crises, etc., social (conflicts between social classes, civil wars, riots, etc. and political events (wars, territorial claims, conflicts of interest, etc.. In order to identify the main country risk factors that influence the decision of corporations to invest abroad, AT Kearney (2004 performed an extensive survery among multinational corporations. Those risk factors that were most frequently mentioned included government regulations (64%, country financial risk (60%, currency or interest rate volatility (51% and political and social disturbance (46%.[11] The purpose of this article is to highlight a number of important factors that may affect the realization of a foreign direct investment, in other terms to influence "go-no-go" decisions, that is to invest or not to invest. Also, through the analysis of the influence of country risk over FDI one aims at evaluating the relationship between risk and potential gain resulting from conducting the respective business. The purpose of this article is an attempt to identify and develop aspects that outline a number of risk factors of influence over FDI.
Cognitive enrichment and welfare: Current approaches and future directions
Fay E. Clark
2017-02-01
Full Text Available “Cognitive enrichment” is a subset of enrichment that has gained interest from researchers over the past decade, particularly those working in zoos. This review explores the forms of cognitive enrichment that have been attempted for laboratory, farmed and zoo animals with a focus on the latter, including various definitions, aims, and approaches. This review reveals the fundamental theoretical and practical problems associated with cognitive enrichment, leading to recommendations for further research in this field. Critically, more research is needed to elucidate what makes challenges appropriate for certain taxa, acknowledging that individual differences exist. Going forward, we should be prepared to incorporate more computer technology into cognitive tasks, and examine novel welfare indicators such as flow, competence, and agency.
Quality management, a directive approach to patient safety.
Ayuso-Murillo, Diego; de Andrés-Gimeno, Begoña; Noriega-Matanza, Concha; López-Suárez, Rafael Jesús; Herrera-Peco, Ivan
Nowadays the implementation of effective quality management systems and external evaluation in healthcare is a necessity to ensure not only transparency in activities related to health but also access to health and patient safety. The key to correctly implementing a quality management system is support from the managers of health facilities, since it is managers who design and communicate to health professionals the strategies of action involved in quality management systems. This article focuses on nursing managers' approach to quality management through the implementation of cycles of continuous improvement, participation of improvement groups, monitoring systems and external evaluation quality models (EFQM, ISO). The implementation of a quality management system will enable preventable adverse effects to be minimized or eliminated, and promote patient safety and safe practice by health professionals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
National policy measures. Right approach to foreign direct investment flows
Cătălin-Emilian HUIDUMAC-PETRESCU
2013-02-01
Full Text Available 2011 was a difficult year for all the countries, developed and emerging ones. For overcoming the negative effects of the financial crisis, many economies have established as purpose to adopt new economic policies regarding the foreign direct investment flows (FDI, even to stimulate the flows or to reduce it (protectionism measures. So, there can be identified two categories of national policies: measures for the FDI flows stimulation and measures whose aim was the weighting of FDI developing, through restriction and regulation. In the first category we could include the liberalization measures and promotional and faciletation policies. In this study we evidenced that the fundament of the second category of policies is the belief that the FDI outward lead to job exports, to a raise of unemployment and a weakness of the industrial base.Many reports on FDI flows, here we talk about those made by UNCTAD, show that the regulation and restriction policies are seen as a possible protectionism, especially in the agricultural and extractive industries, where there have been required nationalization processes and divestments. Even more, the economies which adopted this kind of policies have been less interested in investing abroad, the outward of FDI being affected and globally the total outward decreased.
Alloy multilayers and ternary nanostructures by direct-write approach
Porrati, F.; Sachser, R.; Gazzadi, G. C.; Frabboni, S.; Terfort, A.; Huth, M.
2017-10-01
The fabrication of nanopatterned multilayers, as used in optical and magnetic applications, is usually achieved by two independent steps, which consist in the preparation of multilayer films and in the successive patterning by means of lithography and etching processes. Here we show that multilayer nanostructures can be fabricated by using focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID), which allows the direct writing of nanostructures of any desired shape with nanoscale resolution. In particular, {[{{{Co}}}2{{Fe}}/{{Si}}]}n multilayers are prepared by the alternating deposition from the metal carbonyl precursors, {{{HFeCo}}}3{({{CO}})}12 and {{Fe}}{({{CO}})}5, and neopentasilane, {{{Si}}}5{{{H}}}12. The ability to fabricate nanopatterned multilayers by FEBID is of interest for the realization of hyperbolic metamaterials and related nanodevices. In a second experiment, we treated the multilayers by low-energy electron irradiation in order to induce atomic species intermixing with the purpose to obtain ternary nanostructured compounds. Transmission electron microscopy and electrical transport measurements indicate that in thick multilayers, (n = 12), the intermixing is only partial, taking place mainly in the upper part of the structures. However, for thin multilayers, (n = 2), the intermixing is such that a transformation into the L21 phase of the Co2FeSi Heusler compound takes place over the whole sample volume.
Preferred Spatial Directions in the Universe: a General Relativity Approach
Borissova L.
2006-10-01
Full Text Available Herein is constructed, using General Relativity, the space metric along the Earth’s trajectory in the Galaxy, where the Earth traces outs a complicated spiral in its orbital motion around the Sun and its concomitant motion with the solar system around the centre of the Galaxy. It is deduced herein that this space is inhomogeneous and anisotropic. The observable properties of the space, characterizing its gravitation, rotation, deformation, and curvature, are obtained. The theory predicts that the observable velocity of light is anisotropic, due to the anisotropy and inhomogeneity of space caused by the presence of gravitation and the space rotation, despite the world-invariance of the velocity of light remaining unchanged. It is calculated that two pairs of synchronised clocks should record a different speed of light for light beams travelling towards the Sun and orthogonal to this direction, of about 4×10−4 c (i. e. 120 km/sec, 0.04% of the measured velocity of light c. This effect should have oscillations with a 12-hour period (due to the daily rotation of the Earth and 6 month period (due to the motion of the Earth around the Sun. The best equipment for detecting the effect is that being used by R. T. Cahill (Flinders University, Australia in his current experiments measuring the velocity of light in an RF coaxial-cable equipped with a pair of high precision synchronized Rb atomic clocks.
Dunn, M; Loeser, J G
2006-01-01
In this paper, the second in a series of two, we complete the derivation of the lowest-order wave function of a dimensional perturbation theory (DPT) treatment for the N-body quantum-confined system. Taking advantage of the symmetry of the zeroth-order configuration, we use group theoretic techniques and the FG matrix method from quantum chemistry to obtain analytic results for frequencies and normal modes. This method directly accounts for each two-body interaction, rather than an average interaction so that even lowest-order results include beyond-mean-field effects. It is thus appropriate for the study of both weakly and strongly interacting systems and the transition between them. While previous work has focused on energies, lowest-order wave functions yield important information such as the nature of excitations and expectation values of physical observables at low orders including density profiles. Higher orders in DPT also require as input the zeroth-order wave functions. In the earlier paper we presen...
Zou, Zhi-Tian; Lu, Cai-Dian
2012-01-01
In perturbative QCD approach, we investigate the $B(B_{s})\\rightarrow D_{(s)}(\\bar{D}_{(s)})\\,T$ and $D_{(s)}^{*}(\\bar{D}_{(s)}^{*})\\,T$ decays, which include the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) favored decays and the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa-suppressed decays, where T denotes a light tensor meson. From our calculation, we find that the nonfactorizable emission diagrams and the annihilation type diagrams are important, especially for those color suppressed channels. For those decays with a tensor meson emitted, the factorizable emission diagrams vanish owing to the fact that a tensor meson can not be produced through the local (V-A) or tensor current. The numerical results show that the predictions for the branching ratios of considered charmed B decays are in the range of $10^{-4}$ to $10^{-6}$ for those CKM-favored decays (governed by $|V_{cb}|$) and in the range of $10^{-5}$ to $10^{-8}$ for those CKM-suppressed decays (governed by $|V_{ub}|$). We also predict large transverse polarization contributions i...
ARMA based approaches for forecasting the tuple of wind speed and direction
Erdem, Ergin; Shi, Jing [Department of Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, North Dakota State University, Dept. 2485, PO Box 6050, Fargo, ND 58108 (United States)
2011-04-15
Short-term forecasting of wind speed and direction is of great importance to wind turbine operation and efficient energy harvesting. In this study, the forecasting of wind speed and direction tuple is performed. Four approaches based on autoregressive moving average (ARMA) method are employed for this purpose. The first approach features the decomposition of the wind speed into lateral and longitudinal components. Each component is represented by an ARMA model, and the results are combined to obtain the wind direction and speed forecasts. The second approach employs two independent ARMA models - a traditional ARMA model for predicting wind speed and a linked ARMA model for wind direction. The third approach features vector autoregression (VAR) models to forecast the tuple of wind attributes. The fourth approach involves employing a restricted version of the VAR approach to predict the same. By employing these four approaches, the hourly mean wind attributes are forecasted 1-h ahead for two wind observation sites in North Dakota, USA. The results are compared using the mean absolute error (MAE) as a measure for forecasting quality. It is found that the component model is better at predicting the wind direction than the traditional-linked ARMA model, whereas the opposite is observed for wind speed forecasting. Utilizing VAR approaches rather than the univariate counterparts brings modest improvement in wind direction prediction but not in wind speed prediction. Between restricted and unrestricted versions of VAR models, there is little difference in terms of forecasting performance. (author)
Acoustic wavefield evolution as a function of source location perturbation
Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2010-12-01
The wavefield is typically simulated for seismic exploration applications through solving the wave equation for a specific seismic source location. The direct relation between the form (or shape) of the wavefield and the source location can provide insights useful for velocity estimation and interpolation. As a result, I derive partial differential equations that relate changes in the wavefield shape to perturbations in the source location, especially along the Earth\\'s surface. These partial differential equations have the same structure as the wave equation with a source function that depends on the background (original source) wavefield. The similarity in form implies that we can use familiar numerical methods to solve the perturbation equations, including finite difference and downward continuation. In fact, we can use the same Green\\'s function to solve the wave equation and its source perturbations by simply incorporating source functions derived from the background field. The solutions of the perturbation equations represent the coefficients of a Taylor\\'s series type expansion of the wavefield as a function of source location. As a result, we can speed up the wavefield calculation as we approximate the wavefield shape for sources in the vicinity of the original source. The new formula introduces changes to the background wavefield only in the presence of lateral velocity variation or in general terms velocity variations in the perturbation direction. The approach is demonstrated on the smoothed Marmousi model.
Gravitational waves from perturbed stars
Ferrari, Valeria
2011-01-01
Non radial oscillations of neutron stars are associated with the emission of gravitational waves. The characteristic frequencies of these oscillations can be computed using the theory of stellar perturbations, and they are shown to carry detailed information on the internal structure of the emitting source. Moreover, they appear to be encoded in various radiative processes, as for instance in the tail of the giant flares of Soft Gamma Repeaters. Thus, their determination is central to the theory of stellar perturbation. A viable approach to the problem consists in formulating this theory as a problem of resonant scattering of gravitational waves incident on the potential barrier generated by the spacetime curvature. This approach discloses some unexpected correspondences between the theory of stellar perturbations and the theory of quantum mechanics, and allows us to predict new relativistic effects.
Hallo, L.; Olazabal-Loumé, M.; Maire, P. H.; Breil, J.; Morse, R.-L.; Schurtz, G.
2006-06-01
This paper deals with ablation front instabilities simulations in the context of direct drive ICF. A simplified DT target, representative of realistic target on LIL is considered. We describe here two numerical approaches: the linear perturbation method using the perturbation codes Perle (planar) and Pansy (spherical) and the direct simulation method using our Bi-dimensional hydrodynamic code Chic. Numerical solutions are shown to converge, in good agreement with analytical models.
Systematic Direct Approach for Optimizing Continuous-thrust Earth-orbit Transfers
Gao Yang; Li Weiqi
2009-01-01
ed solutions are obtained from simply defined initial guesses. The proposed direct approach is briefly compared with other methods. Finally, we discussed the potential onboard guidance scheme using model predictive control.
Convergence of high order perturbative expansions in open system quantum dynamics
Xu, Meng; Song, Linze; Song, Kai; Shi, Qiang
2017-02-01
We propose a new method to directly calculate high order perturbative expansion terms in open system quantum dynamics. They are first written explicitly in path integral expressions. A set of differential equations are then derived by extending the hierarchical equation of motion (HEOM) approach. As two typical examples for the bosonic and fermionic baths, specific forms of the extended HEOM are obtained for the spin-boson model and the Anderson impurity model. Numerical results are then presented for these two models. General trends of the high order perturbation terms as well as the necessary orders for the perturbative expansions to converge are analyzed.
Direction of an approaching stimulus on coincident timing performance of a ballistic striking task.
Coker, Cheryl A
2005-06-01
The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of stimulus direction and velocity on the coincident timing performance of a ballistic striking task. 26 subjects randomly performed 20 trials at each of two stimulus velocities (4 and 8 mph) and two striking variations (moving with an approaching stimulus or in opposition to it). Analysis indicated the direction of an approaching stimulus does not appear to influence the coincident timing of a ballistic striking action.
Reanalyzing Pentaquark Θ+(1540) in Framework of QCD Sum Rules Approach with Direct Instantons
无
2006-01-01
In this article, we study the pentaquark state Θ+(1540) with a (scalar) diquark-(pseudoscalar) diquarkantiquark type interpolating current in the framework of the QCD sum rules approach by including the contributions from the direct instantons. The numerical results indicate that the contributions from the direct instantons are very small and can be safely neglected.
Somech, Anit
2005-01-01
Purpose: The educational literature reflects the widely shared belief that participative leadership has an overwhelming advantage over the contrasting style of directive leadership in organizational and team effectiveness. The purpose of this study was to examine the relative effect of a directive leadership approach as compared with a…
Somech, Anit
2005-01-01
Purpose: The educational literature reflects the widely shared belief that participative leadership has an overwhelming advantage over the contrasting style of directive leadership in organizational and team effectiveness. The purpose of this study was to examine the relative effect of a directive leadership approach as compared with a…
Default Path and Dedicated Path: A New Approach to Realize IP Directly Over WDM
无
2000-01-01
Combining IP and WDM is an attractive direction for research. Instead the point to point linking method, this paper proposes a new approach to realize IP directly over WDM, called DPDP (default path and dedicated path), presents a conceivable architecture in detail and explains its working procedure. A lot of problems related with this design are also discussed.
Brane World Cosmological Perturbations
Casali, A G; Wang, B; Casali, Adenauer G.; Abdalla, Elcio; Wang, Bin
2004-01-01
We consider a brane world and its gravitational linear perturbations. We present a general solution of the perturbations in the bulk and find the complete perturbed junction conditions for generic brane dynamics. We also prove that (spin 2) gravitational waves in the great majority of cases can only arise in connection with a non-vanishing anisotropic stress. This has far reaching consequences for inflation in the brane world. Moreover, contrary to the case of the radion, perturbations are stable.
Perturbative spacetimes from Yang-Mills theory
Luna, Andrés; Nicholson, Isobel; Ochirov, Alexander; O'Connell, Donal; Westerberg, Niclas; White, Chris D.
2017-04-12
The double copy relates scattering amplitudes in gauge and gravity theories. In this paper, we expand the scope of the double copy to construct spacetime metrics through a systematic perturbative expansion. The perturbative procedure is based on direct calculation in Yang-Mills theory, followed by squaring the numerator of certain perturbative diagrams as specified by the double-copy algorithm. The simplest spherically symmetric, stationary spacetime from the point of view of this procedure is a particular member of the Janis-Newman-Winicour family of naked singularities. Our work paves the way for applications of the double copy to physically interesting problems such as perturbative black-hole scattering.
Perturbative spacetimes from Yang-Mills theory
Luna, Andres; Nicholson, Isobel; Ochirov, Alexander; O'Connell, Donal; Westerberg, Niclas; White, Chris D.
2016-01-01
The double copy relates scattering amplitudes in gauge and gravity theories. In this paper, we expand the scope of the double copy to construct spacetime metrics through a systematic perturbative expansion. The perturbative procedure is based on direct calculation in Yang-Mills theory, followed by squaring the numerator of certain perturbative diagrams as specified by the double-copy algorithm. The simplest spherically symmetric, stationary spacetime from the point of view of this procedure is a particular member of the Janis-Newman-Winicour family of naked singularities. Our work paves the way for applications of the double copy to physically interesting problems such as perturbative black-hole scattering.
A time lag insensitive approach for estimating HIV-1 transmission direction.
Yang, Jing; Ge, Meng; Pan, Xian-Ming
2012-05-15
Identifying the direction of transmission in transmission pairs is important both for forensic investigations and for the monitoring of HIV epidemics, however, reliable methods are not yet available due to the long time lag between infection and sampling in most real cases. Based on bottleneck effect and coreceptor switching, we aimed at identifying an estimator from sequences of viral gp120 proteins to determine transmission direction between transmission pairs. The estimator should be changed with HIV transmission but was independent of disease progression in an individual. Here, we present a novel and reliable approach for identifying transmission direction. We derived a set of conserved patterns, called common patterns, from the sequences of viruses, which differed in their coreceptor usage. The number of unique common patterns in viral sequences decreased with transmission but remained almost constant with the progress of disease in an individual. We used this number as an estimator to determine transmission direction in 73 transmission pairs for which the transmission direction was already known. Our method predicted transmission direction with an accuracy of up to 94.5%. Of greater importance, our approach was not influenced by time lags between infection and sampling, and even transmission direction for transmission pairs with long time lags ranging from 2 years to more than 18 years were correctly determined. Our approach for accurately determining transmission direction between transmission pairs is irrespective of the time lag between infection and sampling, which means a promising applications prospect.
Physicochemical Perturbations of Phase Equilibriums
Dobruskin, Vladimir Kh
2010-01-01
The alternative approach to the displacement of gas/liquid equilibrium is developed on the basis of the Clapeyron equation. The phase transition in the system with well-established properties is taken as a reference process to search for the parameters of phase transition in the perturbed equilibrium system. The main equation, derived in the framework of both classical thermodynamics and statistical mechanics, establishes a correlation between variations of enthalpies of evaporation, \\Delta (\\Delta H), which is induced by perturbations, and the equilibrium vapor pressures. The dissolution of a solute, changing the surface shape, and the effect of the external field of adsorbents are considered as the perturbing actions on the liquid phase. The model provides the unified method for studying (1) solutions, (2) membrane separations (3) surface phenomena, and (4) effect of the adsorption field; it leads to the useful relations between \\Delta (\\Delta H), on the one hand, and the osmotic pressures, the Donnan poten...
Kato expansion in quantum canonical perturbation theory
Nikolaev, A S
2015-01-01
This work establishes a connection between canonical perturbation series in quantum mechanics and a Kato expansion for the resolvent of the Liouville superoperator. Our approach leads to an explicit expression for a generator of a block-diagonalizing Dyson ordered exponential in arbitrary perturbation order. Unitary intertwining of perturbed and unperturbed averaging superprojectors allows for a description of ambiguities in the generator and block-diagonalized Hamiltonian. The corresponding computational algorithm is more efficient for high perturbative orders than the algorithms of Van Vleck and Magnus methods.
Kato expansion in quantum canonical perturbation theory
Nikolaev, Andrey
2016-06-01
This work establishes a connection between canonical perturbation series in quantum mechanics and a Kato expansion for the resolvent of the Liouville superoperator. Our approach leads to an explicit expression for a generator of a block-diagonalizing Dyson's ordered exponential in arbitrary perturbation order. Unitary intertwining of perturbed and unperturbed averaging superprojectors allows for a description of ambiguities in the generator and block-diagonalized Hamiltonian. We compare the efficiency of the corresponding computational algorithm with the efficiencies of the Van Vleck and Magnus methods for high perturbative orders.
Dynamics of Cosmological Perturbations in Position Space
Bashinsky, S V; Bashinsky, Sergei; Bertschinger, Edmund
2002-01-01
We show that the linear dynamics of cosmological perturbations can be described by coupled wave equations, allowing their efficient numerical and, in certain limits, analytical integration directly in position space. The linear evolution of any perturbation can then be analyzed with the Green's function method. Prior to hydrogen recombination, assuming tight coupling between photons and baryons, neglecting neutrino perturbations, and taking isentropic (adiabatic) initial conditions, the obtained Green's functions for all metric, density, and velocity perturbations vanish beyond the acoustic horizon. At the acoustic wavefronts, a positive gravitational potential perturbation produces narrow photon-baryon density spikes, which provide one of the major contributions to the observed cosmic microwave background radiation anisotropy on all scales. The gravitational interaction between cold dark matter and baryons causes a dip in the observed temperature of the radiation at the center of the initial perturbation. We...
Perturbative analysis in higher-spin theories
Didenko, V. E.; Misuna, N. G.; Vasiliev, M. A.
2016-07-01
A new scheme of the perturbative analysis of the nonlinear HS equations is developed giving directly the final result for the successive application of the homotopy integrations which appear in the standard approach. It drastically simplifies the analysis and results from the application of the standard spectral sequence approach to the higherspin covariant derivatives, allowing us in particular to reduce multiple homotopy integrals resulting from the successive application of the homotopy trick to a single integral. Efficiency of the proposed method is illustrated by various examples. In particular, it is shown how the Central on-shell theorem of the free theory immediately results from the nonlinear HS field equations with no intermediate computations.
Fried, H. M.; Tsang, P. H.; Gabellini, Y.; Grandou, T.; Sheu, Y.-M.
2016-11-01
A new non-perturbative, gauge-invariant model QCD renormalization is applied to high energy elastic pp-scattering. The differential cross-section deduced from this model displays a diffraction dip that resembles those of experiments. Comparison with ISR and LHC data is currently underway.
Fried, H M; Gabellini, Y; Grandou, T; Sheu, Y-M
2015-01-01
A new non-perturbative, gauge-invariant model QCD renormalization is applied to high energy elastic pp-scattering. The differential cross-section deduced from this model displays a diffraction dip that resembles those of experiments. Comparison with ISR and LHC data is currently underway.
Fried H. M.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available A new non-perturbative, gauge-invariant model QCD renormalization is applied to high energy elastic pp-scattering. The differential cross-section deduced from this model displays a diffraction dip that resembles those of experiments. Comparison with ISR and LHC data is currently underway.
Metric perturbations in Einstein-Cartan Cosmology
Garcia de Andrade, L C
2002-01-01
Metric perturbations the stability of solution of Einstein-Cartan cosmology (ECC) are given. The first addresses the stability of solutions of Einstein-Cartan (EC) cosmological model against Einstein static universe background. In this solution we show that the metric is stable against first-order perturbations and correspond to acoustic oscillations. The second example deals with the stability of de Sitter metric also against first-order perturbations. Torsion and shear are also computed in these cases. The resultant perturbed anisotropic spacetime with torsion is only de Sitter along one direction or is unperturbed along one direction and perturbed against the other two. Cartan torsion contributes to the frequency of oscillations in the model. Therefore gravitational waves could be triggered by the spin-torsion scalar density .
Perturbative tests of non-perturbative counting
Dabholkar, Atish; Gomes, João
2010-03-01
We observe that a class of quarter-BPS dyons in mathcal{N} = 4 theories with charge vector ( Q, P) and with nontrivial values of the arithmetic duality invariant I := gcd( Q∧ P) are nonperturbative in one frame but perturbative in another frame. This observation suggests a test of the recently computed nonperturbative partition functions for dyons with nontrivial values of the arithmetic invariant. For all values of I, we show that the nonperturbative counting yields vanishing indexed degeneracy for this class of states everywhere in the moduli space in precise agreement with the perturbative result.
A Perturbative Window into Non-Perturbative Physics
Dijkgraaf, R; Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Vafa, Cumrun
2002-01-01
We argue that for a large class of N=1 supersymmetric gauge theories the effective superpotential as a function of the glueball chiral superfield is exactly given by a summation of planar diagrams of the same gauge theory. This perturbative computation reduces to a matrix model whose action is the tree-level superpotential. For all models that can be embedded in string theory we give a proof of this result, and we sketch an argument how to derive this more generally directly in field theory. These results are obtained without assuming any conjectured dualities and can be used as a systematic method to compute instanton effects: the perturbative corrections up to n-th loop can be used to compute up to n-instanton corrections. These techniques allow us to see many non-perturbative effects, such as the Seiberg-Witten solutions of N=2 theories, the consequences of Montonen-Olive S-duality in N=1* and Seiberg-like dualities for N=1 theories from a completely perturbative planar point of view in the same gauge theo...
Rakvongthai, Yothin; Ouyang, Jinsong; Guerin, Bastien; Li, Quanzheng; Alpert, Nathaniel M; El Fakhri, Georges
2013-10-01
Our research goal is to develop an algorithm to reconstruct cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) kinetic parametric images directly from sinograms and compare its performance with the conventional indirect approach. Time activity curves of a NCAT phantom were computed according to a one-tissue compartmental kinetic model with realistic kinetic parameters. The sinograms at each time frame were simulated using the activity distribution for the time frame. The authors reconstructed the parametric images directly from the sinograms by optimizing a cost function, which included the Poisson log-likelihood and a spatial regularization terms, using the preconditioned conjugate gradient (PCG) algorithm with the proposed preconditioner. The proposed preconditioner is a diagonal matrix whose diagonal entries are the ratio of the parameter and the sensitivity of the radioactivity associated with parameter. The authors compared the reconstructed parametric images using the direct approach with those reconstructed using the conventional indirect approach. At the same bias, the direct approach yielded significant relative reduction in standard deviation by 12%-29% and 32%-70% for 50 × 10(6) and 10 × 10(6) detected coincidences counts, respectively. Also, the PCG method effectively reached a constant value after only 10 iterations (with numerical convergence achieved after 40-50 iterations), while more than 500 iterations were needed for CG. The authors have developed a novel approach based on the PCG algorithm to directly reconstruct cardiac PET parametric images from sinograms, and yield better estimation of kinetic parameters than the conventional indirect approach, i.e., curve fitting of reconstructed images. The PCG method increases the convergence rate of reconstruction significantly as compared to the conventional CG method.
Network response to internal and external perturbations in large sand-bed braided rivers
Schuurman, F.; Kleinhans, M. G.; Middelkoop, H.
2015-03-01
The intrinsic instability of bars, bifurcations and branches in large braided rivers is a challenge to understand and predict. Even more, the reach-scale effect of human-induced perturbations on the braided channel network is still unresolved. In this study, we used a physics-based model to simulate the hydromorphodynamics in a large braided river and applied different types of perturbations. We analyzed the propagation of the perturbations through the braided channel network. The results showed that the perturbations initiate an instability that propagates in downstream direction by means of bifurcation instability. It alters and rotates the approaching flow of the bifurcations. The propagation celerity is in the same order of magnitude as the theoretical sand wave propagation rate. The adjustments of the bifurcations also change bar migration and reshape, with a feedback to the upstream bifurcation and alteration of the approaching flow to the downstream bifurcation. This way, the morphological effect of a perturbation amplifies in downstream direction. Thus, the interplay of bifurcation instability and asymmetrical reshaping of bars was found to be essential for propagation of the effects of a perturbation. The study also demonstrated that the large-scale bar statistics are hardly affected.
Density matrix perturbation theory.
Niklasson, Anders M N; Challacombe, Matt
2004-05-14
An orbital-free quantum perturbation theory is proposed. It gives the response of the density matrix upon variation of the Hamiltonian by quadratically convergent recursions based on perturbed projections. The technique allows treatment of embedded quantum subsystems with a computational cost scaling linearly with the size of the perturbed region, O(N(pert.)), and as O(1) with the total system size. The method allows efficient high order perturbation expansions, as demonstrated with an example involving a 10th order expansion. Density matrix analogs of Wigner's 2n+1 rule are also presented.
Applications of delta-functions perturbation to the pricing of derivative securities
Decamps, M.; DeSchepper, A.; Goovaerts, M.J.
2004-01-01
In the recent econophysics literature, the use of functional integrals is widespread for the calculation of option prices. In this paper, we extend this approach in several directions by means of -function perturbations. First, we show that results about infinitely repulsive -function are applicable
Teaching Higher Order Thinking in the Introductory MIS Course: A Model-Directed Approach
Wang, Shouhong; Wang, Hai
2011-01-01
One vision of education evolution is to change the modes of thinking of students. Critical thinking, design thinking, and system thinking are higher order thinking paradigms that are specifically pertinent to business education. A model-directed approach to teaching and learning higher order thinking is proposed. An example of application of the…
Teaching Higher Order Thinking in the Introductory MIS Course: A Model-Directed Approach
Wang, Shouhong; Wang, Hai
2011-01-01
One vision of education evolution is to change the modes of thinking of students. Critical thinking, design thinking, and system thinking are higher order thinking paradigms that are specifically pertinent to business education. A model-directed approach to teaching and learning higher order thinking is proposed. An example of application of the…
A direct solution deposition approach to CdTe thin films
Miskin, Caleb K.; Dubois-Camacho, Angela; Reese, Matthew O.; Agrawal, Rakesh
2016-01-01
A direct solution deposition approach to CdTe thin films is presented. The difficulty of co-dissolving Te and desirable Cd salts is overcome through a diamine-thiol solvent mixture. Thin films of densely-packed, micron-sized grains are achieved after annealing without the need for chalcogen or CdCl2 vapor treatments.
Self-directed learning skills in air-traffic control training; An eye-tracking approach
Van Meeuwen, Ludo; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen; Bock, Jeano; Kirschner, Paul A.
2011-01-01
Van Meeuwen, L. W., Brand-Gruwel, S., De Bock, J. J. P. R., Kirschner, P. A., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2010, September). Self-directed Learning Skills in Air-traffic Control Training; An Eye-tracking Approach. Paper presented at the European Association for Aviation Psychology, Budapest.
Fatih Korkmaz
2013-11-01
Full Text Available The induction motors are indispensable motor types for industrial applications due to its wellknown advantages. Therefore, many kind of control scheme are proposed for induction motors over the past years and direct torque control has gained great importance inside of them due to fast dynamic torque response behavior and simple control structure. This paper suggests a new approach on the direct torque controlled induction motors, Fuzzy logic based space vector modulation, to overcome disadvantages of conventional direct torque control like high torque ripple. In the proposed approach, optimum switching states are calculated by fuzzy logic controller and applied by space vector pulse width modulator to voltage source inverter. In order to test and compare the proposed DTC scheme with conventional DTC scheme simulations, in Matlab/Simulink, have been carried out in different speed and load conditions. The simulation results showed that a significant improvement in the dynamic torque and speed responses when compared to the conventional DTC scheme.
Initial Comparison of Direct and Legacy Modeling Approaches for Radial Core Expansion Analysis
Shemon, Emily R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
2016-10-10
Radial core expansion in sodium-cooled fast reactors provides an important reactivity feedback effect. As the reactor power increases due to normal start up conditions or accident scenarios, the core and surrounding materials heat up, causing both grid plate expansion and bowing of the assembly ducts. When the core restraint system is designed correctly, the resulting structural deformations introduce negative reactivity which decreases the reactor power. Historically, an indirect procedure has been used to estimate the reactivity feedback due to structural deformation which relies upon perturbation theory and coupling legacy physics codes with limited geometry capabilities. With advancements in modeling and simulation, radial core expansion phenomena can now be modeled directly, providing an assessment of the accuracy of the reactivity feedback coefficients generated by indirect legacy methods. Recently a new capability was added to the PROTEUS-SN unstructured geometry neutron transport solver to analyze deformed meshes quickly and directly. By supplying the deformed mesh in addition to the base configuration input files, PROTEUS-SN automatically processes material adjustments including calculation of region densities to conserve mass, calculation of isotopic densities according to material models (for example, sodium density as a function of temperature), and subsequent re-homogenization of materials. To verify the new capability of directly simulating deformed meshes, PROTEUS-SN was used to compute reactivity feedback for a series of contrived yet representative deformed configurations for the Advanced Burner Test Reactor design. The indirect legacy procedure was also performed to generate reactivity feedback coefficients for the same deformed configurations. Interestingly, the legacy procedure consistently overestimated reactivity feedbacks by 35% compared to direct simulations by PROTEUS-SN. This overestimation indicates that the legacy procedures are in fact
Performance Prediction of Differential Fibers with a Bi-Directional Optimization Approach
Yi Wang
2013-12-01
Full Text Available This paper develops a bi-directional prediction approach to predict the production parameters and performance of differential fibers based on neural networks and a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm. The proposed method does not require accurate description and calculation for the multiple processes, different modes and complex conditions of fiber production. The bi-directional prediction approach includes the forward prediction and backward reasoning. Particle swam optimization algorithms with K-means algorithm are used to minimize the prediction error of the forward prediction results. Based on the forward prediction, backward reasoning uses the multi-objective evolutionary algorithm to find the reasoning results. Experiments with polyester filament parameters of differential production conditions indicate that the proposed approach obtains good prediction results. The results can be used to optimize fiber production and to design differential fibers. This study also has important value and widespread application prospects regarding the spinning of differential fiber optimization.
Robust Position Command Shaping against Plant Perturbations under Constraint of State Variables
Yamamoto, Masafumi; Iwasaki, Makoto; Mitsuhashi, Susumu; Ito, Kazuaki; Matsui, Nobuyuki
This paper presents a novel position command shaping approach for mechanical vibration suppression in mechatronic systems. Although conventional command shaping approaches can suppress the specified mechanical vibrations, mechanical and/or electrical perturbations in a plant may deteriorate the motion performance because the commands are generally shaped in a feedforward control manner. In this research, a linear matrix inequality (LMI) design framework is applied to eliminate the deterioration in positioning, where the robust command shaping against the plant perturbations can be directly achieved under the constraint of state variables in a system. The effectiveness of the proposed shaping has been verified by numerical simulations and experiments using a prototype.
Hawes, Matthew; Mihaylova, Lyudmila; Septier, Francois; Godsill, Simon
2017-03-01
The problem of estimating the dynamic direction of arrival of far field signals impinging on a uniform linear array, with mutual coupling effects, is addressed. This work proposes two novel approaches able to provide accurate solutions, including at the endfire regions of the array. Firstly, a Bayesian compressive sensing Kalman filter is developed, which accounts for the predicted estimated signals rather than using the traditional sparse prior. The posterior probability density function of the received source signals and the expression for the related marginal likelihood function are derived theoretically. Next, a Gibbs sampling based approach with indicator variables in the sparsity prior is developed. This allows sparsity to be explicitly enforced in different ways, including when an angle is too far from the previous estimate. The proposed approaches are validated and evaluated over different test scenarios and compared to the traditional relevance vector machine based method. An improved accuracy in terms of average root mean square error values is achieved (up to 73.39% for the modified relevance vector machine based approach and 86.36% for the Gibbs sampling based approach). The proposed approaches prove to be particularly useful for direction of arrival estimation when the angle of arrival moves into the endfire region of the array.
Perturbative Topological Field Theory
Dijkgraaf, Robbert
We give a review of the application of perturbative techniques to topological quantum field theories, in particular three-dimensional Chern-Simons-Witten theory and its various generalizations. To this end we give an introduction to graph homology and homotopy algebras and the work of Vassiliev and Kontsevich on perturbative knot invariants.
Perturbing supersymmetric black hole
Onozawa, H; Mishima, T; Ishihara, H; Onozawa, Hisashi; Okamura, Takashi; Mishima, Takashi; Ishihara, Hideki
1996-01-01
An investigation of the perturbations of the Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m black hole in the N=2 supergravity is presented. In the extreme case, the black hole responds to the perturbation of each field in the same manner. This is possibly because we can match the modes of the graviton, gravitino, and photon using supersymmetry transformations.
Frame independent cosmological perturbations
Prokopec, Tomislav; Weenink, Jan, E-mail: t.prokopec@uu.nl, E-mail: j.g.weenink@uu.nl [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Leuvenlaan 4, 3585 CE Utrecht (Netherlands)
2013-09-01
We compute the third order gauge invariant action for scalar-graviton interactions in the Jordan frame. We demonstrate that the gauge invariant action for scalar and tensor perturbations on one physical hypersurface only differs from that on another physical hypersurface via terms proportional to the equation of motion and boundary terms, such that the evolution of non-Gaussianity may be called unique. Moreover, we demonstrate that the gauge invariant curvature perturbation and graviton on uniform field hypersurfaces in the Jordan frame are equal to their counterparts in the Einstein frame. These frame independent perturbations are therefore particularly useful in relating results in different frames at the perturbative level. On the other hand, the field perturbation and graviton on uniform curvature hypersurfaces in the Jordan and Einstein frame are non-linearly related, as are their corresponding actions and n-point functions.
Lee, Eun-Seo; Kim, Seung Hyun L; Lee, Hwajin; Hwang, Nathaniel S
2016-05-01
Acquiring adequate number of cells is one of the crucial factors to apply tissue engineering strategies in order to recover critical-sized defects. While the reprogramming technology used for inducing pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) opened up a direct path for generating pluripotent stem cells, a direct conversion strategy may provide another possibility to obtain desired cells for tissue engineering. In order to convert a somatic cell into any other cell type, diverse approaches have been investigated. Conspicuously, in contrast to traditional viral transduction method, non-viral delivery of conversion factors has the merit of lowering immune responses and provides safer genetic manipulation, thus revolutionizing the generation of directly converted cells and its application in therapeutics. In addition, applying various microenvironmental modulations have potential to ameliorate the conversion of somatic cells into different lineages. In this review, we discuss the recent progress in direct conversion technologies, specifically focusing on generating mesenchymal cell types. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Perturbation theory for plasmonic modulation and sensing
Raman, Aaswath
2011-05-25
We develop a general perturbation theory to treat small parameter changes in dispersive plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials. We specifically apply it to dielectric refractive index and metallic plasma frequency modulation in metal-dielectric nanostructures. As a numerical demonstration, we verify the theory\\'s accuracy against direct calculations for a system of plasmonic rods in air where the metal is defined by a three-pole fit of silver\\'s dielectric function. We also discuss new optical behavior related to plasma frequency modulation in such systems. Our approach provides new physical insight for the design of plasmonic devices for biochemical sensing and optical modulation and future active metamaterial applications. © 2011 American Physical Society.
Su, Kuan-Hao; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Fang, Yu-Hua Dean
2013-10-01
The aim of this study is to develop and evaluate a novel direct reconstruction method to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of parametric images in dynamic positron-emission tomography (PET), especially for applications in myocardial perfusion studies. Simulation studies were used to test the performance in SNR and computational efficiency for different methods. The NCAT phantom was used to generate simulated dynamic data. Noise realization was performed in the sinogram domain and repeated for 30 times with four different noise levels by varying the injection dose (ID) from standard ID to 1/8 of it. The parametric images were calculated by (1) three direct methods that compute the kinetic parameters from the sinogram and (2) an indirect method, which computes the kinetic parameter with pixel-by-pixel curve fitting in image space using weighted least-squares. The first direct reconstruction maximizes the likelihood function using trust-region-reflective (TRR) algorithm. The second approach uses tabulated parameter sets to generate precomputed time-activity curves for maximizing the likelihood functions. The third approach, as a newly proposed method, assumes separable complete data to derive the M-step for maximizing the likelihood. The proposed method with the separable complete data performs similarly to the other two direct reconstruction methods in terms of the SNR, providing a 5%-10% improvement as compared to the indirect parametric reconstruction under the standard ID. The improvement of SNR becomes more obvious as the noise level increases, reaching more than 30% improvement under 1/8 ID. Advantage of the proposed method lies in the computation efficiency by shortening the time requirement to 25% of the indirect approach and 3%-6% of other direct reconstruction methods. With results provided from this simulation study, direct reconstruction of myocardial blood flow shows a high potential for improving the parametric image quality for clinical use.
A direct PCR approach to accelerate analyses of human-associated microbial communities.
Gilberto E Flores
Full Text Available Since the composition of the human microbiome is highly variable both within and between individuals, researchers are increasingly reliant on high-throughput molecular approaches to identify linkages between the composition of these communities and human health. While new sequencing technologies have made it increasingly feasible to analyze large numbers of human-associated samples, the extraction of DNA from samples often remains a bottleneck in the process. Here we tested a direct PCR approach using the Extract-N-Amp Plant PCR Kit to accelerate the 16S rRNA gene-based analyses of human-associated bacterial communities, directly comparing this method to a more commonly-used approach whereby DNA is first extracted and purified from samples using a series of steps prior to PCR amplification. We used both approaches on replicate samples collected from each of five body habitats (tongue surface, feces, forehead skin, underarm skin, and forearm skin from four individuals. With the exception of the tongue samples, there were few significant differences in the estimates of taxon richness or phylogenetic diversity obtained using the two approaches. Perhaps more importantly, there were no significant differences between the methods in their ability resolve body habitat differences or inter-individual differences in bacterial community composition and the estimates of the relative abundances of individual taxa were nearly identical with the two methods. Overall, the two methods gave very similar results and the direct PCR approach is clearly advantageous for many studies exploring the diversity and composition of human-associated bacterial communities given that large numbers of samples can be processed far more quickly and efficiently.
Virtual directions in paleomagnetism: A global and rapid approach to evaluate the NRM components.
Ramón, Maria J.; Pueyo, Emilio L.; Oliva-Urcia, Belén; Larrasoaña, Juan C.
2017-02-01
We introduce a method and software to process demagnetization data for a rapid and integrative estimation of characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) components. The virtual directions (VIDI) of a paleomagnetic site are “all” possible directions that can be calculated from a given demagnetization routine of “n” steps (being m the number of specimens in the site). If the ChRM can be defined for a site, it will be represented in the VIDI set. Directions can be calculated for successive steps using principal component analysis, both anchored to the origin (resultant virtual directions RVD; m * (n2+n)/2) and not anchored (difference virtual directions DVD; m * (n2-n)/2). The number of directions per specimen (n2) is very large and will enhance all ChRM components with noisy regions where two components were fitted together (mixing their unblocking intervals). In the same way, resultant and difference virtual circles (RVC, DVC) are calculated. Virtual directions and circles are a global and objective approach to unravel different natural remanent magnetization (NRM) components for a paleomagnetic site without any assumption. To better constrain the stable components, some filters can be applied, such as establishing an upper boundary to the MAD, removing samples with anomalous intensities, or stating a minimum number of demagnetization steps (objective filters) or selecting a given unblocking interval (subjective but based on the expertise). On the other hand, the VPD program also allows the application of standard approaches (classic PCA fitting of directions a circles) and other ancillary methods (stacking routine, linearity spectrum analysis) giving an objective, global and robust idea of the demagnetization structure with minimal assumptions. Application of the VIDI method to natural cases (outcrops in the Pyrenees and u-channel data from a Roman dam infill in northern Spain) and their comparison to other approaches (classic end-point, demagnetization
A dynamical programming approach for controlling the directed abelian Dhar-Ramaswamy model
Cajueiro, Daniel O
2013-01-01
A dynamical programming approach is used to deal with the problem of controlling the directed abelian Dhar-Ramaswamy model on two-dimensional square lattice. Two strategies are considered to obtain explicit results to this task. First, the optimal solution of the problem is characterized by the solution of the Bellman equation obtained by numerical algorithms. Second, the solution is used as a benchmark to value how far from the optimum other heuristics that can be applied to larger systems are. This approach is the first attempt on the direction of schemes for controlling self-organized criticality that are based on optimization principles that consider explicitly a tradeoff between the size of the avalanches and the cost of intervention.
Nonlinear mechanics of thin-walled structures asymptotics, direct approach and numerical analysis
Vetyukov, Yury
2014-01-01
This book presents a hybrid approach to the mechanics of thin bodies. Classical theories of rods, plates and shells with constrained shear are based on asymptotic splitting of the equations and boundary conditions of three-dimensional elasticity. The asymptotic solutions become accurate as the thickness decreases, and the three-dimensional fields of stresses and displacements can be determined. The analysis includes practically important effects of electromechanical coupling and material inhomogeneity. The extension to the geometrically nonlinear range uses the direct approach based on the principle of virtual work. Vibrations and buckling of pre-stressed structures are studied with the help of linearized incremental formulations, and direct tensor calculus rounds out the list of analytical techniques used throughout the book. A novel theory of thin-walled rods of open profile is subsequently developed from the models of rods and shells, and traditionally applied equations are proven to be asymptotically exa...
Rong, Shu-Jun; Liu, Qiu-Yu
2012-04-01
The puma model on the basis of the Lorentz and CPT violation may bring an economical interpretation to the conventional neutrinos oscillation and part of the anomalous oscillations. We study the effect of the perturbation to the puma model. In the case of the first-order perturbation which keeps the (23) interchange symmetry, the mixing matrix element Ue3 is always zero. The nonzero mixing matrix element Ue3 is obtained in the second-order perturbation that breaks the (23) interchange symmetry.
Variational approach to direct and inverse problems of atmospheric pollution studies
Penenko, Vladimir; Tsvetova, Elena; Penenko, Alexey
2016-04-01
We present the development of a variational approach for solving interrelated problems of atmospheric hydrodynamics and chemistry concerning air pollution transport and transformations. The proposed approach allows us to carry out complex studies of different-scale physical and chemical processes using the methods of direct and inverse modeling [1-3]. We formulate the problems of risk/vulnerability and uncertainty assessment, sensitivity studies, variational data assimilation procedures [4], etc. A computational technology of constructing consistent mathematical models and methods of their numerical implementation is based on the variational principle in the weak constraint formulation specifically designed to account for uncertainties in models and observations. Algorithms for direct and inverse modeling are designed with the use of global and local adjoint problems. Implementing the idea of adjoint integrating factors provides unconditionally monotone and stable discrete-analytic approximations for convection-diffusion-reaction problems [5,6]. The general framework is applied to the direct and inverse problems for the models of transport and transformation of pollutants in Siberian and Arctic regions. The work has been partially supported by the RFBR grant 14-01-00125 and RAS Presidium Program I.33P. References: 1. V. Penenko, A.Baklanov, E. Tsvetova and A. Mahura . Direct and inverse problems in a variational concept of environmental modeling //Pure and Applied Geoph.(2012) v.169: 447-465. 2. V. V. Penenko, E. A. Tsvetova, and A. V. Penenko Development of variational approach for direct and inverse problems of atmospheric hydrodynamics and chemistry, Izvestiya, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, 2015, Vol. 51, No. 3, p. 311-319, DOI: 10.1134/S0001433815030093. 3. V.V. Penenko, E.A. Tsvetova, A.V. Penenko. Methods based on the joint use of models and observational data in the framework of variational approach to forecasting weather and atmospheric composition
The Marine Strategy Framework Directive and the ecosystem-based approach - pitfalls and solutions
Berg, Torsten; FURHAUPTER Karin; GONCALVES TEIXEIRA HELIANA; Uusitalo, Laura; ZAMPOUKAS NIKOLAOS
2015-01-01
Abstract The European Marine Strategy Framework Directive aims at good environmental status (GES) in marine waters, following an ecosystem-based approach, focused on 11 descriptors related to ecosystem features, human drivers and pressures. Furthermore, 29 subordinate criteria and 56 attributes are detailed in an EU Commission Decision. The analysis of the Decision and the associated operational indicators revealed ambiguity in the use of terms, such as indicator, impact and habitat and c...
An abstract approach to some spectral problems of direct sum differential operators
Maksim S. Sokolov
2003-07-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we study the common spectral properties of abstract self-adjoint direct sum operators, considered in a direct sum Hilbert space. Applications of such operators arise in the modelling of processes of multi-particle quantum mechanics, quantum field theory and, specifically, in multi-interval boundary problems of differential equations. We show that a direct sum operator does not depend in a straightforward manner on the separate operators involved. That is, on having a set of self-adjoint operators giving a direct sum operator, we show how the spectral representation for this operator depends on the spectral representations for the individual operators (the coordinate operators involved in forming this sum operator. In particular it is shown that this problem is not immediately solved by taking a direct sum of the spectral properties of the coordinate operators. Primarily, these results are to be applied to operators generated by a multi-interval quasi-differential system studied, in the earlier works of Ashurov, Everitt, Gesztezy, Kirsch, Markus and Zettl. The abstract approach in this paper indicates the need for further development of spectral theory for direct sum differential operators.
Perturbation analysis of Poisson processes
Last, Günter
2012-01-01
We consider a Poisson process $\\Phi$ on a general phase space. The expectation of a function of $\\Phi$ can be considered as a functional of the intensity measure $\\lambda$ of $\\Phi$. Extending ealier results of Molchanov and Zuyev (2000) on finite Poisson processes, we study the behaviour of this functional under signed (possibly infinite) perturbations of $\\lambda$. In particular we obtain general Margulis--Russo type formulas for the derivative with respect to non-linear transformations of the intensity measure depending on some parameter. As an application we study the behaviour of expectations of functions of multivariate pure jump L\\'evy processes under perturbations of the L\\'evy measure. A key ingredient of our approach is the explicit Fock space representation obtained in Last and Penrose (2011).
Block Copolymer Directed Self-Assembly Approaches for Doping Planar and Non-Planar Semiconductors
Popere, Bhooshan; Russ, Boris; Heitsch, Andrew; Trefonas, Peter; Segalman, Rachel
As electronic circuits continue to shrink, reliable nanoscale doping of functional devices presents new challenges. While directed self-assembly (DSA) of block copolymers (BCPs) has enabled excellent pitch control for lithography, controlling the 3D dopant distribution remains a fundamental challenge. To this end, we have developed a BCP self-assembly approach to confine dopants to nanoscopic domains within a semiconductor. This relies on the supramolecular encapsulation of the dopants within the core of the block copolymer (PS- b-P4VP) micelles, self-assembly of these micelles on the substrate, followed by rapid thermal diffusion of the dopants into the underlying substrate. We show that the periodic nature of the BCP domains enables precise control over the dosage and spatial position of dopant atoms on the technologically relevant length scales (10-100 nm). Additionally, as the lateral density of 2D circuit elements approaches the Moore's limit, novel 3D architectures have emerged. We have utilized our BCP self-assembly approach towards understanding the self-assembly our micelles directed by such nanoscale non-planar features. We show that the geometric confinement imposed by the hard feature walls directs the assembly of these micelles.
Comparison between AGC and a Tuning-less LFC Approach Based on Direct Observation of DERs
Prostejovsky, Alexander; Marinelli, Mattia
2017-01-01
Automatic Generation Control (AGC) used in secondary frequency control requires manual tuning to maintain a balance between reaction speed and stability. This task becomes increasingly difficult due to the rising number of inverter-coupled devices and High-Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) links......, and the resulting reduction of available inertia. In this paper, we propose a tuning-less Load-Frequency Control (LFC) approach able to cope with the changing dynamics of electric power grids. Harnessing the possibilities of modern monitoring and communication means, the so-called Direct Load-Frequency Control...... (DLFC) employs two concurrently operating processes: a power matching stage responsible for secondary power adjustment using directly observed area imbalances; and a frequency control stage that adjusts primary reserves’ frequency setpoints in a systematic manner. As opposed to the AGC, the DLFC does...
Ran, Changyan; Cheng, Xianghong
2016-09-02
This paper presents a direct and non-singular approach based on an unscented Kalman filter (UKF) for the integration of strapdown inertial navigation systems (SINSs) with the aid of velocity. The state vector includes velocity and Euler angles, and the system model contains Euler angle kinematics equations. The measured velocity in the body frame is used as the filter measurement. The quaternion nonlinear equality constraint is eliminated, and the cross-noise problem is overcome. The filter model is simple and easy to apply without linearization. Data fusion is performed by an UKF, which directly estimates and outputs the navigation information. There is no need to process navigation computation and error correction separately because the navigation computation is completed synchronously during the filter time updating. In addition, the singularities are avoided with the help of the dual-Euler method. The performance of the proposed approach is verified by road test data from a land vehicle equipped with an odometer aided SINS, and a singularity turntable test is conducted using three-axis turntable test data. The results show that the proposed approach can achieve higher navigation accuracy than the commonly-used indirect approach, and the singularities can be efficiently removed as the result of dual-Euler method.
Ran, Changyan; Cheng, Xianghong
2016-01-01
This paper presents a direct and non-singular approach based on an unscented Kalman filter (UKF) for the integration of strapdown inertial navigation systems (SINSs) with the aid of velocity. The state vector includes velocity and Euler angles, and the system model contains Euler angle kinematics equations. The measured velocity in the body frame is used as the filter measurement. The quaternion nonlinear equality constraint is eliminated, and the cross-noise problem is overcome. The filter model is simple and easy to apply without linearization. Data fusion is performed by an UKF, which directly estimates and outputs the navigation information. There is no need to process navigation computation and error correction separately because the navigation computation is completed synchronously during the filter time updating. In addition, the singularities are avoided with the help of the dual-Euler method. The performance of the proposed approach is verified by road test data from a land vehicle equipped with an odometer aided SINS, and a singularity turntable test is conducted using three-axis turntable test data. The results show that the proposed approach can achieve higher navigation accuracy than the commonly-used indirect approach, and the singularities can be efficiently removed as the result of dual-Euler method. PMID:27598169
Strongly and weakly directed approaches to teaching multiple representation use in physics
David Rosengrant
2007-06-01
Full Text Available Good use of multiple representations is considered key to learning physics, and so there is considerable motivation both to learn how students use multiple representations when solving problems and to learn how best to teach problem solving using multiple representations. In this study of two large-lecture algebra-based physics courses at the University of Colorado (CU and Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, we address both issues. Students in each of the two courses solved five common electrostatics problems of varying difficulty, and we examine their solutions to clarify the relationship between multiple representation use and performance on problems involving free-body diagrams. We also compare our data across the courses, since the two physics-education-research-based courses take substantially different approaches to teaching the use of multiple representations. The course at Rutgers takes a strongly directed approach, emphasizing specific heuristics and problem-solving strategies. The course at CU takes a weakly directed approach, modeling good problem solving without teaching a specific strategy. We find that, in both courses, students make extensive use of multiple representations, and that this use (when both complete and correct is associated with significantly increased performance. Some minor differences in representation use exist, and are consistent with the types of instruction given. Most significant are the strong and broad similarities in the results, suggesting that either instructional approach or a combination thereof can be useful for helping students learn to use multiple representations for problem solving and concept development.
Coherent site-directed transport in complex molecular networks: an effective Hamiltonian approach.
Weissman, Shira; Peskin, Uri
2010-03-21
Defining the conditions for coherent site-directed transport from an electron donor to a specific acceptor through tunneling barriers in a network of multiple donor/acceptors sites is an important step toward controlling electronic processes in molecular networks. The required analysis is most challenging since the entire network in essentially involved in coherent transport. In this work we introduce an efficient approach for formulating an effective donor/acceptor coupling in terms of the entire network parameters. The approach is based on implementation of Feshbach projection operators to map the entire network Hamiltonian onto a subspace defined by two specific donor and acceptor sites. This nonperturbative approach enables to define regimes of network parameters in which the effective donor-acceptor coupling is optimal. This is demonstrated numerically for simple models of molecular networks.
Edge-Directed Error Diffused Digital Halftoning: A Steerable Filter Approach
Pardeep Garg
2009-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper the edge-directed error diffused digital halftoning in noisy media is analyzed. It is known that there occurs error in transmitting data through a communication channel due toaddition of noise, generally additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN. The proposed work employs Steerable stochastic error diffusion (SSED approach, a hybrid scheme that utilizes the advantages of Steerable filter for edge detection purpose and five neighbor stochastic error diffusion (FNSED approach for error diffusion purpose. Analysis of different methods of edgedetectionand error diffusion in the presence of zero mean AWGN with different values of variance has also been made. The results show that the proposed scheme produces halftones of better quality in the presence of even large value of noise variance compared to other approaches of edge detection and error diffusion.
Estimation of direction of arrival of a moving target using subspace based approaches
Ghosh, Ripul; Das, Utpal; Akula, Aparna; Kumar, Satish; Sardana, H. K.
2016-05-01
In this work, array processing techniques based on subspace decomposition of signal have been evaluated for estimation of direction of arrival of moving targets using acoustic signatures. Three subspace based approaches - Incoherent Wideband Multiple Signal Classification (IWM), Least Square-Estimation of Signal Parameters via Rotation Invariance Techniques (LS-ESPRIT) and Total Least Square- ESPIRIT (TLS-ESPRIT) are considered. Their performance is compared with conventional time delay estimation (TDE) approaches such as Generalized Cross Correlation (GCC) and Average Square Difference Function (ASDF). Performance evaluation has been conducted on experimentally generated data consisting of acoustic signatures of four different types of civilian vehicles moving in defined geometrical trajectories. Mean absolute error and standard deviation of the DOA estimates w.r.t. ground truth are used as performance evaluation metrics. Lower statistical values of mean error confirm the superiority of subspace based approaches over TDE based techniques. Amongst the compared methods, LS-ESPRIT indicated better performance.
Sundaram, Brruntha; Klimenko, Alexander Yuri; Cleary, Matthew John; Ge, Yipeng
2016-07-01
This work presents a direct and transparent interpretation of two concepts for modelling turbulent combustion: generalised Multiple Mapping Conditioning (MMC) and sparse-Lagrangian Large Eddy Simulation (LES). The MMC approach is presented as a hybrid between the Probability Density Function (PDF) method and approaches based on conditioning (e.g. Conditional Moment Closure, flamelet, etc.). The sparse-Lagrangian approach, which allows for a dramatic reduction of computational cost, is viewed as an alternative interpretation of the Filtered Density Function (FDF) methods. This work presents simulations of several turbulent diffusion flame cases and discusses the universality of the localness parameter between these cases and the universality of sparse-Lagrangian FDF methods with MMC.
Perturbations of planar algebras
Das, Paramita; Gupta, Ved Prakash
2010-01-01
We introduce the concept of {\\em weight} of a planar algebra $P$ and construct a new planar algebra referred as the {\\em perturbation of $P$} by the weight. We establish a one-to-one correspondence between pivotal structures on 2-categories and perturbations of planar algebras by weights. To each bifinite bimodule over $II_1$-factors, we associate a {\\em bimodule planar algebra} bimodule corresponds naturally with sphericality of the bimodule planar algebra. As a consequence of this, we reproduce an extension of Jones' theorem (of associating 'subfactor planar algebras' to extremal subfactors). Conversely, given a bimodule planar algebra, we construct a bifinite bimodule whose associated bimodule planar algebra is the one which we start with using perturbations and Jones-Walker-Shlyakhtenko-Kodiyalam-Sunder method of reconstructing an extremal subfactor from a subfactor planar algebra. We show that the perturbation class of a bimodule planar algebra contains a unique spherical unimodular bimodule planar algeb...
Introduction to perturbation techniques
Nayfeh, Ali H
2011-01-01
Similarities, differences, advantages and limitations of perturbation techniques are pointed out concisely. The techniques are described by means of examples that consist mainly of algebraic and ordinary differential equations. Each chapter contains a number of exercises.
Observing Quantum Tunneling in Perturbation Series
Suzuki, H; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Yasuta, Hirofumi
1997-01-01
It is well-known that the quantum tunneling makes conventional perturbation series non-Borel summable. We use this fact reversely and attempt to extract the decay width of the false-vacuum from the actual perturbation series of the vacuum energy density (vacuum bubble diagrams). It is confirmed that, at least in quantum mechanical examples, our proposal provides a complimentary approach to the the conventional instanton calculus in the strong coupling region.
Perturbations around black holes
Wang, B
2005-01-01
Perturbations around black holes have been an intriguing topic in the last few decades. They are particularly important today, since they relate to the gravitational wave observations which may provide the unique fingerprint of black holes' existence. Besides the astrophysical interest, theoretically perturbations around black holes can be used as testing grounds to examine the proposed AdS/CFT and dS/CFT correspondence.
Perturbations and quantum relaxation
Kandhadai, Adithya
2016-01-01
We investigate whether small perturbations can cause relaxation to quantum equilibrium over very long timescales. We consider in particular a two-dimensional harmonic oscillator, which can serve as a model of a field mode on expanding space. We assume an initial wave function with small perturbations to the ground state. We present evidence that the trajectories are highly confined so as to preclude relaxation to equilibrium even over very long timescales. Cosmological implications are briefly discussed.
RONG Shu-Jun; LIU Qiu-Yu
2012-01-01
The puma model on the basis of the Lorentz and CPT violation may bring an economical interpretation to the conventional neutrinos oscillation and part of the anomalous oscillations.We study the effect of the perturbation to the puma model.In the case of the first-order perturbation which keeps the (23) interchange symmetry,the mixing matrix element Ue3 is always zero.The nonzero mixing matrix element Ue3 is obtained in the second-order perturbation that breaks the (23) interchange symmetry.%The puma model on the basis of the Lorentz and CPT violation may bring an economical interpretation to the conventional neutrinos oscillation and part of the anomalous oscillations. We study the effect of the perturbation to the puma model. In the case of the first-order perturbation which keeps the (23) interchange symmetry, the mixing matrix element Ue3 is always zero. The nonzero mixing matrix element Ue3 is obtained in the second-order perturbation that breaks the (23) interchange symmetry.
Overseas direct investment and exports in Korea: A time series approach
Donghwa Shin
1999-09-01
Full Text Available Overseas direct investment is one of the most important and influencing variables in globalizing economy. And it continues to be a driving force of the globalization process that characterizes the modern world economy. Among others, export related effects are prominent. In this study, the relationship between overseas direct investment and exports is investigated using quarterly data and time series approach. Firstly, the stationarity of variables is examined using unit root test. And the adequacy of using VAR model is tested with co-integration test. Next, the relationship between overseas direct investment and exports is analyzed using Granger causality method. The reliability of Granger causality tests depends on the correct specification of the information universe because the omission of relevant in a third variable exists, which cause both overseas direct investment and export, the causality tests may be spurious, reflecting the influence of the omitted variable. To avoid this problem, exchange rate is included as an exogenous variable. Finally, impulse response analysis is performed to assess the quantitative impact of overseas direct investment on exports and vice versa.
Mendoza-Torres, F.; Diaz-Viera, M. A.
2015-12-01
In many natural fractured porous media, such as aquifers, soils, oil and geothermal reservoirs, fractures play a crucial role in their flow and transport properties. An approach that has recently gained popularity for modeling fracture systems is the Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) model. This approach consists in applying a stochastic boolean simulation method, also known as object simulation method, where fractures are represented as simplified geometric objects (line segments in 2D and polygons in 3D). One of the shortcomings of this approach is that it usually does not consider the dependency relationships that may exist between the geometric properties of fractures (direction, length, aperture, etc), that is, each property is simulated independently. In this work a method for modeling such dependencies by copula theory is introduced. In particular, a nonparametric model using Bernstein copulas for direction-length fracture dependency in 2D is presented. The application of this method is illustrated in a case study for a fractured rock sample from a carbonate reservoir outcrop.
A novel approach for direct estimation of fresh groundwater discharge to an estuary
Ganju, Neil K.
2011-01-01
Coastal groundwater discharge is an important source of freshwater and nutrients to coastal and estuarine systems. Directly quantifying the spatially integrated discharge of fresh groundwater over a coastline is difficult due to spatial variability and limited observational methods. In this study, I applied a novel approach to estimate net freshwater discharge from a groundwater-fed tidal creek over a spring-neap cycle, with high temporal resolution. Acoustic velocity instruments measured tidal water fluxes while other sensors measured vertical and lateral salinity to estimate cross-sectionally averaged salinity. These measurements were used in a time-dependent version of Knudsen's salt balance calculation to estimate the fresh groundwater contribution to the tidal creek. The time-series of fresh groundwater discharge shows the dependence of fresh groundwater discharge on tidal pumping, and the large difference between monthly mean discharge and instantaneous discharge over shorter timescales. The approach developed here can be implemented over timescales from days to years, in any size estuary with dominant groundwater inputs and well-defined cross-sections. The approach also directly links delivery of groundwater from the watershed with fluxes to the coastal environment. Copyright. Published in 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.
Ion Diffusion-Directed Assembly Approach to Ultrafast Coating of Graphene Oxide Thick Multilayers.
Zhao, Xiaoli; Gao, Weiwei; Yao, Weiquan; Jiang, Yanqiu; Xu, Zhen; Gao, Chao
2017-09-05
The layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly approach has been widely used to fabricate multilayer coatings on substrates with multiple cycles, whereas it is hard to access thick films efficiently. Here, we developed an ion diffusion-directed assembly (IDDA) strategy to rapidly make multilayer thick coatings in one step on arbitrary substrates. To achieve multifunctional coatings, graphene oxide (GO) and metallic ions were selected as the typical building blocks and diffusion director in IDDA, respectively. With diffusion of metallic ions from substrate to negatively charged GO dispersion spontaneously (i.e., from high-concentration region to low-concentration region), GO was assembled onto the substrate sheet-by-sheet via sol-gel transformation. Because metallic ions with size of subnanometers can diffuse directionally and freely in the aqueous dispersion, GO was coated on the substrate efficiently, giving rise to films with desired thickness up to 10 μm per cycle. The IDDA approach shows three main merits: (1) high efficiency with a μm-scale coating rate; (2) controllability over thickness and evenness; and (3) generality for substrates of plastics, metals and ceramics with any shapes and morphologies. With these merits, IDDA strategy was utilized in the efficient fabrication of functional graphene coatings that exhibit outstanding performance as supercapacitors, electromagnetic interference shielding textiles, and anticorrosion coatings. This IDDA approach can be extended to other building blocks including polymers and colloidal nanoparticles, promising for the scalable production and application of multifunctional coatings.
The direct anterior approach in hemiarthroplasty for displaced femoral neck fractures.
Schneider, Kerstin; Audigé, Laurent; Kuehnel, Stefanie-Peggy; Helmy, Naeder
2012-09-01
Hip replacement is the most common treatment for displaced femoral neck fractures in the elderly, and minimally invasive surgery is popular in the field of orthopaedic surgery. This study evaluated the outcome of monopolar hemiarthroplasty by the direct anterior approach over a postoperative period up to 2.5 years. A total of 86 patients with displaced femoral neck fractures were included (mean age of 86.5 years). Surviving patients were reviewed three months (retrospectively) and one to 2.5 years (prospectively) after surgery. One-year mortality was 36 %. For all stems, implant positioning with respect to stem alignment, restoration of leg length and femoral offset was correct. Acetabular protrusion was observed in 55 % of the patients one to 2.5 years postoperatively. Subsidence and intraoperative periprosthetic fractures occurred in three patients (3 %) each. All revision stems for postoperative periprosthetic fractures could be implanted using the initial surgical technique without extension of the previous approach. The mean Harris hip score was 85 points at the one to 2.5-year follow-up; 85 % of the patients were satisfied with their hip and 57 % returned to their preoperative level of mobility. Based on these findings, hemiarthroplasty for hip fractures can be performed safely and effectively via the direct anterior approach with good functional outcome and high patient satisfaction.
Directional synthetic aperture flow imaging using a dual stage beamformer approach
Li, Ye; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
2011-01-01
A new method for directional synthetic aperture flow imaging using a dual stage beamformer approach is presented. The velocity estimation is angle independent and the amount of calculations is reduced compared to full synthetic aperture, but still maintains all the advantages at the same time....... In the second stage, focal points are considered as virtual sources and data is beamformed along the flow direction. Then the velocities are estimated by finding the spatial shift between two signals. In the experimental measurements the angle between the transmit beam and flow vessel was 70 and a laminar flow...... with a parabolic profile was generated by a flow rig. The flow with a peak velocity of 0.1 m/s was sampled at a pulse repetition frequency of 4 kHz. The signals were transmitted and received by the experimental scanner SARUS (Synthetic Aperture Realtime Ultrasound System). A relative standard deviation of 2...
Zhang, Huaguang; Feng, Tao; Yang, Guang-Hong; Liang, Hongjing
2015-07-01
In this paper, the inverse optimal approach is employed to design distributed consensus protocols that guarantee consensus and global optimality with respect to some quadratic performance indexes for identical linear systems on a directed graph. The inverse optimal theory is developed by introducing the notion of partial stability. As a result, the necessary and sufficient conditions for inverse optimality are proposed. By means of the developed inverse optimal theory, the necessary and sufficient conditions are established for globally optimal cooperative control problems on directed graphs. Basic optimal cooperative design procedures are given based on asymptotic properties of the resulting optimal distributed consensus protocols, and the multiagent systems can reach desired consensus performance (convergence rate and damping rate) asymptotically. Finally, two examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.
Clustering under Perturbation Resilience
Balcan, Maria Florina
2011-01-01
Recently, Bilu and Linial \\cite{BL} formalized an implicit assumption often made when choosing a clustering objective: that the optimum clustering to the objective should be preserved under small multiplicative perturbations to distances between points. They showed that for max-cut clustering it is possible to circumvent NP-hardness and obtain polynomial-time algorithms for instances resilient to large (factor $O(\\sqrt{n})$) perturbations, and subsequently Awasthi et al. \\cite{ABS10} considered center-based objectives, giving algorithms for instances resilient to O(1) factor perturbations. In this paper, we greatly advance this line of work. For the $k$-median objective, we present an algorithm that can optimally cluster instances resilient to $(1 + \\sqrt{2})$-factor perturbations, solving an open problem of Awasthi et al.\\cite{ABS10}. We additionally give algorithms for a more relaxed assumption in which we allow the optimal solution to change in a small $\\epsilon$ fraction of the points after perturbation. ...
Breugem, W.P.; Boersma, B.J.
2005-01-01
A direct numerical simulation (DNS) has been performed of turbulent channel flow over a three-dimensional Cartesian grid of 30×20×9 cubes in, respectively, the streamwise, spanwise, and wall-normal direction. The grid of cubes mimics a permeable wall with a porosity of 0.875. The flow field is resol
Modeling of microstructure evolution in direct metal laser sintering: A phase field approach
Nandy, Jyotirmoy; Sarangi, Hrushikesh; Sahoo, Seshadev
2017-02-01
Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) is a new technology in the field of additive manufacturing, which builds metal parts in a layer by layer fashion directly from the powder bed. The process occurs within a very short time period with rapid solidification rate. Slight variations in the process parameters may cause enormous change in the final build parts. The physical and mechanical properties of the final build parts are dependent on the solidification rate which directly affects the microstructure of the material. Thus, the evolving of microstructure plays a vital role in the process parameters optimization. Nowadays, the increase in computational power allows for direct simulations of microstructures during materials processing for specific manufacturing conditions. In this study, modeling of microstructure evolution of Al-Si-10Mg powder in DMLS process was carried out by using a phase field approach. A MATLAB code was developed to solve the set of phase field equations, where simulation parameters include temperature gradient, laser scan speed and laser power. The effects of temperature gradient on microstructure evolution were studied and found that with increase in temperature gradient, the dendritic tip grows at a faster rate.
The Marine Strategy Framework Directive and the ecosystem-based approach – pitfalls and solutions.
Berg, Torsten; Fürhaupter, Karin; Teixeira, Heliana; Uusitalo, Laura; Zampoukas, Nikolaos
2015-07-15
The European Marine Strategy Framework Directive aims at good environmental status (GES) in marine waters, following an ecosystem-based approach, focused on 11 descriptors related to ecosystem features, human drivers and pressures. Furthermore, 29 subordinate criteria and 56 attributes are detailed in an EU Commission Decision. The analysis of the Decision and the associated operational indicators revealed ambiguity in the use of terms, such as indicator, impact and habitat and considerable overlap of indicators assigned to various descriptors and criteria. We suggest re-arrangement and elimination of redundant criteria and attributes avoiding double counting in the subsequent indicator synthesis, a clear distinction between pressure and state descriptors and addition of criteria on ecosystem services and functioning. Moreover, we suggest the precautionary principle should be followed for the management of pressures and an evidence-based approach for monitoring state as well as reaching and maintaining GES. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
SINGULARLY PERTURBED MARKOV DECISION PROCESSES WITH INCLUSION OF TRANSIENT STATES
R. H. Liu; Q. Zhang; G. Yin
2001-01-01
This paper is concerned with the continuous-time Markov decision processes (MDP) having weak and strong interactions. Using a hierarchical approach, the state space of the underlying Markov chain can be decomposed into several groups of recurrent states and a group of transient states resulting in a singularly perturbed MDP formulation.Instead of solving the original problem directly, a limit problem that is much simpler to handle is derived. On the basis of the optimal solution of the limit problem, nearly optimal decisions are constructed for the original problem. The asymptotic optimality of the constructed control is obtained; the rate of convergence is ascertained.
A hit and run approach to inducible direct reprogramming of astrocytes to neural stem cells
Maria ePoulou
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Temporal and spatial control of gene expression can be achieved using an inducible system as a fundamental tool for regulated transcription in basic, applied and eventually in clinical research. We describe a novel hit and run inducible direct reprogramming approach. In a single step, two days post-transfection, transiently transfected Sox2FLAG under the Leu3p-αIPM inducible control (iSox2 triggers the activation of endogenous Sox2, redirecting primary astrocytes into abundant distinct nestin-positive radial glia cells. This technique introduces a unique novel tool for safe, rapid and efficient reprogramming amendable to regenerative medicine.
A New Approach for Controlling Chaos Based on Direct Optimizing Predictive Control
无
2006-01-01
We introduce the predictive control theory into the study of chaos control and propose a direct optimizing predictive control algorithm based on a neural network model. The proposed control system stabilizes the chaotic motion in an unknown chaotic system onto the desired target trajectory. Compared with the existing similar algorithms, the proposed control system has faster response, so it requires much shorter time for the stabilization of the chaotic systems.The proposed approach can control hyperchaos and the algorithm is simple. The convergence of the control algorithm and the stability of the control system can be guaranteed. The theoretic analysis and simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm.
Eikonal perturbation theory in photoionization
Cajiao Vélez, F.; Krajewska, K.; Kamiński, J. Z.
2016-02-01
The eikonal perturbation theory is formulated and applied to photoionization by strong laser pulses. A special emphasis is put on the first order approximation with respect to the binding potential, which is known as the generalized eikonal approximation [2015 Phys. Rev. A 91 053417]. The ordinary eikonal approximation and its domain of applicability is derived from the generalized eikonal approximation. While the former approach is singular for the electron trajectories which return to the potential center, the generalized eikonal avoids this problem. This property makes it a promising tool for further investigations of rescattering and high-order harmonic generation processes.
Ortiz, A Orlando; Tekchandani, Leena
2014-12-01
To determine if lumbar synovial cyst rupture in symptomatic patients results in improved clinical outcome when using direct tandem and/or coaxial percutaneous CT guided techniques. 20 patients with unilateral lower extremity radiculopathy and/or low back pain underwent CT guided percutaneous treatment for their symptomatic lumbar synovial cysts. Cysts were identified with the use of a low osmolar non-ionic contrast agent via facet joint injection or through direct injection. Cyst rupture, using a direct tandem and/or coaxial technique, was attempted in all patients using an 18 gauge guide needle and a 22 gauge insert needle. Following attempted cyst aspiration, cyst rupture was performed using 1-3 mL of a mixture of methylprednisolone (2 mL, 80 mg) and bupivacaine (3 mL, 0.5%). All patients were followed-up in clinic for a minimum of 6 months after their procedures and up to a maximum of 24 months. 11 patients were male and nine were female, with an average age of 65.6 years. 17 patients presented with severe unilateral lower extremity radiculopathy and three patients were experiencing low back pain. One of the patients had two synovial cysts, and therefore a total of 21 lumbar synovial cysts were treated in this group of patients. Direct cyst puncture was achieved using a tandem technique in nine patients, a coaxial interlaminar approach in seven patients, a coaxial transforaminal approach in two patients, and a coaxial trans-facet approach in three patients. Cyst rupture was documented in all cases, as evidenced by CT confirmation of cyst decompression and contrast agent extravasation into the epidural space. The mean surveillance period in these patients was 18 months. Six patients experienced their usual radicular pain within 2 months of their treatment. Four of these patients were re-treated for recurrent smaller cysts. These patients have not had a recurrence at 24 months of follow up. Two of these six patients elected to undergo open
Factors that affect micro-tooling features created by direct printing approach
Kumbhani, Mayur N.
Current market required faster pace production of smaller, better, and improved products in shorter amount of time. Traditional high-rate manufacturing process such as hot embossing, injection molding, compression molding, etc. use tooling to replicate feature on a products. Miniaturization of many product in the field of biomedical, electronics, optical, and microfluidic is occurring on a daily bases. There is a constant need to produce cheaper, and faster tooling, which can be utilize by existing manufacturing processes. Traditionally, in order to manufacture micron size tooling features processes such as micro-machining, Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM), etc. are utilized. Due to a higher difficulty to produce smaller size features, and longer production cycle time, various additive manufacturing approaches are proposed, e.g. selective laser sintering (SLS), inkjet printing (3DP), fused deposition modeling (FDM), etc. were proposed. Most of these approaches can produce net shaped products from different materials such as metal, ceramic, or polymers. Several attempts were made to produce tooling features using additive manufacturing approaches. Most of these produced tooling were not cost effective, and the life cycle of these tooling was reported short. In this research, a method to produce tooling features using direct printing approach, where highly filled feedstock was dispensed on a substrate. This research evaluated different natural binders, such as guar gum, xanthan gum, and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC) and their combinations were evaluated. The best binder combination was then use to evaluate effect of different metal (316L stainless steel (3 mum), 316 stainless steel (45 mum), and 304 stainless steel (45 mum)) particle size on feature quality. Finally, the effect of direct printing process variables such as dispensing tip internal diameter (500 mum, and 333 mum) at different printing speeds were evaluated.
Cosmological perturbations in teleparallel Loop Quantum Cosmology
Haro, Jaime
2013-01-01
Cosmological perturbations in Loop Quantum Cosmology (LQC) could be studied from two totally different ways. The first one, called holonomy corrected LQC, is performed in the Hamiltonian framework, where the Asthekar connection is replaced by a suitable sinus function (holonomy correction), in order to have a well-defined quantum analogue. The alternative approach is based in the fact that isotropic LQC could be also obtained as a particular case of teleparallel $F(T)$ gravity (teleparallel LQC). Then, working in the Lagrangian framework and using the well-know perturbation equations in $F(T)$ gravity, we have obtained, in teleparallel LQC, the equations for scalar and tensor perturbations, and the corresponding Mukhanov-Sasaki equations. For scalar perturbations, our equation only differs from the one obtained by holonomy corrections in the velocity of sound, leading both formulations, essentially to the same scale invariant power spectrum when a matter-dominated universe is considered. However for tensor pe...
Adiabatic perturbations in coupled scalar field cosmologies
Beyer, Joschka
2014-01-01
We present a comprehensive and gauge invariant treatment of perturbations around cosmological scaling solutions for two canonical scalar fields coupled through a common potential in the early universe, in the presence of neutrinos, photons and baryons, but excluding cold dark matter. This setup is relevant for analyzing cosmic perturbations in scalar field models of dark matter with a coupling to a quintessence field. We put strong restrictions on the shape of the common potential and adopt a matrix-eigensystem approach to determine the dominant perturbations modes in such models. Similar to recent results in scenarios where standard cold dark matter couples to quintessence, we show that the stability of the adiabatic perturbation mode can be an issue for this class of scalar field dark matter models, but only for specific choices of the common potential. For an exponential coupling potential, a rather common shape arising naturally in many instances, this problem can be avoided. We explicitly calculate the d...
Farano, Mirko; Cherubini, Stefania; Robinet, Jean-Christophe; De Palma, Pietro
2016-12-01
Subcritical transition in plane Poiseuille flow is investigated by means of a Lagrange-multiplier direct-adjoint optimization procedure with the aim of finding localized three-dimensional perturbations optimally growing in a given time interval (target time). Space localization of these optimal perturbations (OPs) is achieved by choosing as objective function either a p-norm (with p\\gg 1) of the perturbation energy density in a linear framework; or the classical (1-norm) perturbation energy, including nonlinear effects. This work aims at analyzing the structure of linear and nonlinear localized OPs for Poiseuille flow, and comparing their transition thresholds and scenarios. The nonlinear optimization approach provides three types of solutions: a weakly nonlinear, a hairpin-like and a highly nonlinear optimal perturbation, depending on the value of the initial energy and the target time. The former shows localization only in the wall-normal direction, whereas the latter appears much more localized and breaks the spanwise symmetry found at lower target times. Both solutions show spanwise inclined vortices and large values of the streamwise component of velocity already at the initial time. On the other hand, p-norm optimal perturbations, although being strongly localized in space, keep a shape similar to linear 1-norm optimal perturbations, showing streamwise-aligned vortices characterized by low values of the streamwise velocity component. When used for initializing direct numerical simulations, in most of the cases nonlinear OPs provide the most efficient route to transition in terms of time to transition and initial energy, even when they are less localized in space than the p-norm OP. The p-norm OP follows a transition path similar to the oblique transition scenario, with slightly oscillating streaks which saturate and eventually experience secondary instability. On the other hand, the nonlinear OP rapidly forms large-amplitude bent streaks and skips the phases
Library selection and directed evolution approaches to engineering targeted viral vectors.
Jang, Jae-Hyung; Lim, Kwang-il; Schaffer, David V
2007-10-15
Gene therapy, to delivery of genetic material to a patient for therapeutic benefit, has significant promise for translating basic knowledge of disease mechanism into biomedical treatments. The clinical development of the field has been slowed, however, by the need for improvements in the properties and capabilities of gene delivery vehicles. Vehicles based on viruses offer the potential for efficient gene delivery, but because viruses did not evolve to serve human therapeutic needs, many of their properties require significant improvement, including their safety, efficiency, and capacity for targeted gene delivery. Since viruses are highly complex biological entities, engineering such properties at the molecular level can be challenging. However, there has been significant progress in developing approaches that mimic the mechanisms by which viruses arose in the first place. In particular, library-based selection, the generation of one diverse genetic library and selection for new properties, and directed evolution, based on the multiple rounds of library generation and selection for iterative improvement of function, have strong potential in engineering novel properties into these complex biomolecular assemblies. This review will discuss progress in the application of peptide display, library selection, and directed evolution technologies toward engineering vectors based on retrovirus, adeno-associated virus, and adenovirus that are capable of targeted delivery to specific cell types. In addition to creating biomedically useful products, these approaches have future potential to yield novel insights into viral structure-function relationships. Copyright 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Del Ben, Mauro; Hutter, Jürg; VandeVondele, Joost
2015-09-01
The forces acting on the atoms as well as the stress tensor are crucial ingredients for calculating the structural and dynamical properties of systems in the condensed phase. Here, these derivatives of the total energy are evaluated for the second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation energy (MP2) in the framework of the resolution of identity Gaussian and plane waves method, in a way that is fully consistent with how the total energy is computed. This consistency is non-trivial, given the different ways employed to compute Coulomb, exchange, and canonical four center integrals, and allows, for example, for energy conserving dynamics in various ensembles. Based on this formalism, a massively parallel algorithm has been developed for finite and extended system. The designed parallel algorithm displays, with respect to the system size, cubic, quartic, and quintic requirements, respectively, for the memory, communication, and computation. All these requirements are reduced with an increasing number of processes, and the measured performance shows excellent parallel scalability and efficiency up to thousands of nodes. Additionally, the computationally more demanding quintic scaling steps can be accelerated by employing graphics processing units (GPU's) showing, for large systems, a gain of almost a factor two compared to the standard central processing unit-only case. In this way, the evaluation of the derivatives of the RI-MP2 energy can be performed within a few minutes for systems containing hundreds of atoms and thousands of basis functions. With good time to solution, the implementation thus opens the possibility to perform molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in various ensembles (microcanonical ensemble and isobaric-isothermal ensemble) at the MP2 level of theory. Geometry optimization, full cell relaxation, and energy conserving MD simulations have been performed for a variety of molecular crystals including NH3, CO2, formic acid, and benzene.
Del Ben, Mauro, E-mail: mauro.delben@chem.uzh.ch; Hutter, Jürg, E-mail: hutter@chem.uzh.ch [Department of Chemistry, University of Zürich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zürich (Switzerland); VandeVondele, Joost, E-mail: Joost.VandeVondele@mat.ethz.ch [Department of Materials, ETH Zürich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland)
2015-09-14
The forces acting on the atoms as well as the stress tensor are crucial ingredients for calculating the structural and dynamical properties of systems in the condensed phase. Here, these derivatives of the total energy are evaluated for the second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation energy (MP2) in the framework of the resolution of identity Gaussian and plane waves method, in a way that is fully consistent with how the total energy is computed. This consistency is non-trivial, given the different ways employed to compute Coulomb, exchange, and canonical four center integrals, and allows, for example, for energy conserving dynamics in various ensembles. Based on this formalism, a massively parallel algorithm has been developed for finite and extended system. The designed parallel algorithm displays, with respect to the system size, cubic, quartic, and quintic requirements, respectively, for the memory, communication, and computation. All these requirements are reduced with an increasing number of processes, and the measured performance shows excellent parallel scalability and efficiency up to thousands of nodes. Additionally, the computationally more demanding quintic scaling steps can be accelerated by employing graphics processing units (GPU’s) showing, for large systems, a gain of almost a factor two compared to the standard central processing unit-only case. In this way, the evaluation of the derivatives of the RI-MP2 energy can be performed within a few minutes for systems containing hundreds of atoms and thousands of basis functions. With good time to solution, the implementation thus opens the possibility to perform molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in various ensembles (microcanonical ensemble and isobaric-isothermal ensemble) at the MP2 level of theory. Geometry optimization, full cell relaxation, and energy conserving MD simulations have been performed for a variety of molecular crystals including NH{sub 3}, CO{sub 2}, formic acid, and benzene.
Del Ben, Mauro; Hutter, Jürg; VandeVondele, Joost
2015-09-14
The forces acting on the atoms as well as the stress tensor are crucial ingredients for calculating the structural and dynamical properties of systems in the condensed phase. Here, these derivatives of the total energy are evaluated for the second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation energy (MP2) in the framework of the resolution of identity Gaussian and plane waves method, in a way that is fully consistent with how the total energy is computed. This consistency is non-trivial, given the different ways employed to compute Coulomb, exchange, and canonical four center integrals, and allows, for example, for energy conserving dynamics in various ensembles. Based on this formalism, a massively parallel algorithm has been developed for finite and extended system. The designed parallel algorithm displays, with respect to the system size, cubic, quartic, and quintic requirements, respectively, for the memory, communication, and computation. All these requirements are reduced with an increasing number of processes, and the measured performance shows excellent parallel scalability and efficiency up to thousands of nodes. Additionally, the computationally more demanding quintic scaling steps can be accelerated by employing graphics processing units (GPU's) showing, for large systems, a gain of almost a factor two compared to the standard central processing unit-only case. In this way, the evaluation of the derivatives of the RI-MP2 energy can be performed within a few minutes for systems containing hundreds of atoms and thousands of basis functions. With good time to solution, the implementation thus opens the possibility to perform molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in various ensembles (microcanonical ensemble and isobaric-isothermal ensemble) at the MP2 level of theory. Geometry optimization, full cell relaxation, and energy conserving MD simulations have been performed for a variety of molecular crystals including NH3, CO2, formic acid, and benzene.
Asymptotic analysis of perturbed dust cosmologies to second order
Uggla, Claes; Wainwright, John
2013-08-01
Nonlinear perturbations of Friedmann-Lemaitre cosmologies with dust and a cosmological constant Λ >0 have recently attracted considerable attention. In this paper our first goal is to compare the evolution of the first and second order perturbations by determining their asymptotic behaviour at late times in ever-expanding models. We show that in the presence of spatial curvature K or a cosmological constant, the density perturbation approaches a finite limit both to first and second order, but the rate of approach depends on the model, being power law in the scale factor if Λ >0 but logarithmic if Λ =0 and K0 the decaying mode does not die away, i.e. it contributes on an equal footing as the growing mode to the asymptotic expression for the density perturbation. On the other hand, the future asymptotic regime of the Einstein-de Sitter universe (K=Λ =0) is completely different, as exemplified by the density perturbation which diverges; moreover, the second order perturbation diverges faster than the first order perturbation, which suggests that the Einstein-de Sitter universe is unstable to perturbations, and that the perturbation series do not converge towards the future. We conclude that the presence of spatial curvature or a cosmological constant stabilizes the perturbations. Our second goal is to derive an explicit expression for the second order density perturbation that can be used to study the effects of including a cosmological constant and spatial curvature.
张立卫; Robert Ebihart Msigwa
2014-01-01
Mathematical programs with complementarity constraints are an important class of optimi-zation problems ,which have important applications in science and engineering .For examples ,the road capacity expansion problem in transportation and the DICE model in economics are such kind of problems .Traditional nonlinear programming solvers can not be used to solve mathematical programs with complementarity constraints ,because conventional constraint qualifications do not hold for the constraint sets ,and smooth approximationmethods are proposed to overcome such a difficulty .This paper considers the perturbation approach based on the smoothed Fischer-Burmeister function for a class of optimization problems with complementarity constraints .We prove that the optimal value of the perturbed problem converges to that of the original problem and the outer limit of the solution set for the perturbed problem is contained in the solution set of the original problem w hen the smoothing parameter μ↘0 .We explain w hy the conventionally used constraint qualifications are easily satisfied and present the first-order necessary optimality conditions and the second-order sufficient optimality conditions for the perturbed problems .%互补约束优化问题是一类重要的最优化问题，在科学和工程中有着重要的应用。交通规划的道路扩容问题，经济学领域的DICE模型都是互补约束优化问题。这类问题因为约束集合不满足通常的约束规范而不能用传统的非线性规划方法处理，往往用光滑近似的方法来克服这一困难。考虑一类互补约束优化问题的基于光滑化Fischer-Burmeister 函数的扰动方法。证明了当光滑化参数μ↘0时扰动问题的值收敛到原问题的最优值，扰动问题的最优解集合的外极限包含在问题最优解集合中。说明扰动问题很容易满足通常的约束规范，并给出扰动问题的一阶必要性最优条件和二阶充分性最优条件。
Self-directed community services for older Australians: a stepped capacity-building approach.
Ottmann, Goetz; Mohebbi, Mohammedreza
2014-11-01
Consumer-directed care (CDC) is increasingly widespread among aged care service options in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries. However, the evidence base regarding the programmatic and contextual factors that affect the outcome of CDC interventions is surprisingly small. This paper reports on a self-directed care approach for older Australians with complex care needs. A multi-methods longitudinal comparative cohort study was employed comprising 4 survey tools and 56 semi-structured interviews. Participation rates were around 20%. A total of 185 (98 in the intervention and 87 in the control group) older people and carers were recruited at baseline. Eleven months later, 109 participants (59 in the intervention and 50 in the control group) completed the repeat measure. Attrition rates were around 40%. Data collection occurred between July 2010 and April 2012. The data suggest that intervention group participants were likely to be more satisfied with the way they were treated (P = 0.013), their care options (P = 0.014), the 'say' they had in their care (P < 0.001), the information they received regarding their care (P = 0.012), what they were achieving in life (P = 0.031), that the services changed their view on what could be achieved in life (P = 0.020) and with their standard of living (P = 0.008). The evaluation suggests that while only a very small segment of older people is interested in a voucher or cash option, a substantially larger group would like to have greater say over and more direct access to their care, without, however, assuming administrative and financial responsibilities. The paper concludes that a stepped capacity-building approach to CDC may improve the acceptability of CDC to older people and generate synergies that improve older people's care outcomes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Generating grids directly on CAD database surfaces using a parametric evaluator approach
Gatzhe, Timothy D.; Melson, Thomas G.
1995-01-01
A very important, but often overlooked step in grid generation is acquiring a suitable geometry definition of the vehicle to be analyzed. In the past, geometry was usually obtained by generating a number of cross-sections of each component. A number of recent efforts have focussed on non-uniform rational B-spline surfaces (NURBS) to provide as single type of analytic surface to deal with inside the grid generator. This approach has required the development of tools to read other types of surfaces and convert them, either exactly or by approximation, into a NURBS surface. This paper describes a more generic parametric evaluator approach, which does not rely on a particular surface type internal to the grid generation system and is less restrictive in the number of surface types that can be represented exactly. This approach has been implemented in the McDonnell Douglas grid generation system, MACGS, and offers direct access to all types of surfaces from a Unigraphics part file.
jora, Renata; Schechter, Joseph; Naeem Shahid, M.
2009-01-01
We study the effects of the perturbation which violates the permutation symmetry of three Majorana neutrinos but preserves the well known (23) interchange symmetry. This is done in the presenceof an arbitrary Majorana phase which serves to insure the degeneracy of the three neutrinos at the unper...
Cosmological perturbations in antigravity
Oltean, Marius; Brandenberger, Robert
2014-10-01
We compute the evolution of cosmological perturbations in a recently proposed Weyl-symmetric theory of two scalar fields with oppositely signed conformal couplings to Einstein gravity. It is motivated from the minimal conformal extension of the standard model, such that one of these scalar fields is the Higgs while the other is a new particle, the dilaton, introduced to make the Higgs mass conformally symmetric. At the background level, the theory admits novel geodesically complete cyclic cosmological solutions characterized by a brief period of repulsive gravity, or "antigravity," during each successive transition from a big crunch to a big bang. For simplicity, we consider scalar perturbations in the absence of anisotropies, with potential set to zero and without any radiation. We show that despite the necessarily wrong-signed kinetic term of the dilaton in the full action, these perturbations are neither ghostlike nor tachyonic in the limit of strongly repulsive gravity. On this basis, we argue—pending a future analysis of vector and tensor perturbations—that, with respect to perturbative stability, the cosmological solutions of this theory are viable.
Instantaneous stochastic perturbation theory
Lüscher, Martin
2015-01-01
A form of stochastic perturbation theory is described, where the representative stochastic fields are generated instantaneously rather than through a Markov process. The correctness of the procedure is established to all orders of the expansion and for a wide class of field theories that includes all common formulations of lattice QCD.
Hallo, L.; Olazabal-Loume, M.; Maire, P.H.; Breil, J.; Schurtz, G. [CELIA, 33 - Talence (France); Morse, R.L. [Arizona Univ., Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Tucson (United States)
2006-06-15
This paper deals with ablation front instabilities simulations in the context of direct drive inertial confinement fusion. A simplified deuterium-tritium target, representative of realistic target on LIL (laser integration line at Megajoule laser facility) is considered. We describe here two numerical approaches: the linear perturbation method using the perturbation codes Perle (planar) and Pansy (spherical) and the direct simulation method using our bi-dimensional hydrodynamic code Chic. Our work shows a good behaviour of all methods even for large wavenumbers during the acceleration phase of the ablation front. We also point out a good agreement between model and numerical predictions at ablation front during the shock wave transit.
Direct brow lifting: Specific indications for a simplified approach to eyebrow ptosis
Michele Pascali
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Context: Brow lifting is an essential element in the rejuvenation of the ageing face. Various surgical techniques have been described. Among these, the direct brow lifting is an easy and effective technique that is often neglected because the scar can remain visible. Thus, this approach is usually reserved for elderly patients and males, with thick bushy brows. Aims: The authors present their result from a series of fifty consecutive patients treated over 2 years with direct brow lift. The aim is to demonstrate when the hairline is high or temporal alopecia is present and whether this technique is the best in bald patients, when some surgical steps are carefully adhered to. In these cases, the scar is less visible, hidden in the brow and is a good solution in women too. Subjects and Methods: Between January 2011 and January 2013, fifty patients underwent direct brow lift surgery. All were men. In all the cases, brow lifting was undertaken together with an upper blepharoplasty. The amount of brow elevation produced was assessed by comparing the vertical distances between the superior eyebrow hairline and the inter-pupillary line, pre- and post-operatively. The result and the scar quality were assessed both by the patient and the surgeon. Statistical Analysis Used: The paired t-test. Results: The authors obtained statistically significant results in brow elevation in 98% of the patients after a 12-month follow-up. The main complication associated with this procedure was visibility of the scar in two patients. Conclusions: The direct brow lift technique in bald men and with a high anterior hairline provides excellent and long-lasting results.
High order multiplication perturbation method for singular perturbation problems
张文志; 黄培彦
2013-01-01
This paper presents a high order multiplication perturbation method for sin-gularly perturbed two-point boundary value problems with the boundary layer at one end. By the theory of singular perturbations, the singularly perturbed two-point boundary value problems are first transformed into the singularly perturbed initial value problems. With the variable coeﬃcient dimensional expanding, the non-homogeneous ordinary dif-ferential equations (ODEs) are transformed into the homogeneous ODEs, which are then solved by the high order multiplication perturbation method. Some linear and nonlinear numerical examples show that the proposed method has high precision.
An exact approach to direct aperture optimization in IMRT treatment planning
Men Chunhua [Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611-6595 (United States); Romeijn, H Edwin [Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611-6595 (United States); Taskin, Z Caner [Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611-6595 (United States); Dempsey, James F [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32610-0385 (United States)
2007-12-21
We consider the problem of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment planning using direct aperture optimization. While this problem has been relatively well studied in recent years, most approaches employ a heuristic approach to the generation of apertures. In contrast, we use an exact approach that explicitly formulates the fluence map optimization (FMO) problem as a convex optimization problem in terms of all multileaf collimator (MLC) deliverable apertures and their associated intensities. However, the number of deliverable apertures, and therefore the number of decision variables and constraints in the new problem formulation, is typically enormous. To overcome this, we use an iterative approach that employs a subproblem whose optimal solution either provides a suitable aperture to add to a given pool of allowable apertures or concludes that the current solution is optimal. We are able to handle standard consecutiveness, interdigitation and connectedness constraints that may be imposed by the particular MLC system used, as well as jaws-only delivery. Our approach has the additional advantage that it can explicitly account for transmission of dose through the part of an aperture that is blocked by the MLC system, yielding a more precise assessment of the treatment plan than what is possible using a traditional beamlet-based FMO problem. Finally, we develop and test two stopping rules that can be used to identify treatment plans of high clinical quality that are deliverable very efficiently. Tests on clinical head-and-neck cancer cases showed the efficacy of our approach, yielding treatment plans comparable in quality to plans obtained by the traditional method with a reduction of more than 75% in the number of apertures and a reduction of more than 50% in beam-on time, with only a modest increase in computational effort. The results also show that delivery efficiency is very insensitive to the addition of traditional MLC constraints; however, jaws
TEACHING THE SOCIAL SKILLS TO THE MENTALLY RETARDED STUDENTS THROUGH DIRECT INSTRUCTION APPROACH
Serpil ALPTEKİN
2012-03-01
, 120; Goldstein vd. 2002, 5; Sucuoğlu ve Özokçu, 2005, 58-61. So, it is necessary to provide students with social skills required with structured training practices to ensure the mentally retarded students to be accepted socially and participate in social environments (McLane 1998, 16; Bremer ve Smith 2004, 76; Siperstein ve Rickards, 2004, 76; Avcıoğlu, 2005, 17. Training practices based on the cognitive process approach and direct instruction approach are utilized for providing mentally handicapped students with social skills. Based on the said approaches, cooperative teaching and peer tutoring are variation thereof in social skills training. (Rosenshine 1982, 63; Collet–Klingenberg ve Chadsey–Rush 1991, 258-270; Güzel 1998, 31-34; Çiftçi ve Sucuoğlu 2004, 31-39; Dağseven 2008, 46-60. Direct instruction approach is an effective teaching method which is commonly-used for social skills training (Çiftçi ve Sucuoğlu 2004, 32. Social skills such as sharing, thanking are taught through direct instruction approach and complex social skills such as expressing feelings are taught, as well (Vaughn vd. 2003, 1; Dağseven 2008, 46. Students are motivated about the target skills to be taught through the direct instruction approach by explaining the information about where the skills will be used. Social skills to be taught by the teacher or any other person are exemplified or watched in video and thereby become a model. Guided practices by which some of social skills are performed by just recalling them in order to perform without a model for the student are included. Students are liberated by including the practices where recalls are excluded (Baumann 1985, 2 Gresham 1988, 35; Güzel 1998, 33; Çakır 2006, 26-39; Dağseven 2008, 47. In this study, instruction plan for thanking which is presented together with direct instruction approach is developed. Therefore, books on social skills (Gresham 1988, 31-41; Rutherford vd. 1998, 356; Goldstein vd. 2002, 178
Kim, Daeok; Coskun, Ali
2017-04-24
Controlling the arrangement of different metal ions to achieve ordered heterogeneity in metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) has been a great challenge. Herein, we introduce a template-directed approach, in which a 1D metal-organic polymer incorporating well-defined binding pockets for the secondary metal ions used as a structural template and starting material for the preparation of well-ordered bimetallic MOF-74s under heterogeneous-phase hydrothermal reaction conditions in the presence of secondary metal ions such as Ni(2+) and Mg(2+) in 3 h. The resulting bimetallic MOF-74s were found to possess a nearly 1:1 metal ratio regardless of their initial stoichiometry in the reaction mixture, thus demonstrating the possibility of controlling the arrangement of metal ions within the secondary building blocks in MOFs to tune their intrinsic properties such as gas affinity. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Coauthorship networks: A directed network approach considering the order and number of coauthors
Kim, Jinseok
2015-01-01
In many scientific fields, the order of coauthors on a paper conveys information about each individual's contribution to a piece of joint work. We argue that in prior network analyses of coauthorship networks, the information on ordering has been insufficiently considered because ties between authors are typically symmetrized. This is basically the same as assuming that each co-author has contributed equally to a paper. We introduce a solution to this problem by adopting a coauthorship credit allocation model proposed by Kim and Diesner (2014), which in its core conceptualizes co-authoring as a directed, weighted, and self-looped network. We test and validate our application of the adopted framework based on a sample data of 861 authors who have published in the journal Psychometrika. Results suggest that this novel sociometric approach can complement traditional measures based on undirected networks and expand insights into coauthoring patterns such as the hierarchy of collaboration among scholars. As anothe...
Proteomics Approaches to Identify Tumor Antigen Directed Autoantibodies as Cancer Biomarkers
Yuji Imafuku
2004-01-01
Full Text Available The identification of autoantibodies to tumor cell proteins by proteomics approaches has great potential impact on cancer biomarker discovery. The humoral immune response represents a form of biological amplification of signals that are otherwise weak due to very low concentrations of antigen, especially in the early stages of cancers. In addition, proteomics can detect immunoreactivity directed against protein post-translational modifications. Two-dimensional gel based Western blots, protein antigen microarrays, and multiplex ELISA reactions have been applied by our group to antigen based biomarker detection and validation. The latter two are based on liquid-phase separations that are suitable for automation. This work has resulted in the identification of numerous cancer biomarker candidates. Large clinical studies are currently planned to establish their value in early cancer diagnosis.
Internal Absorption and Foreign Direct Investment Inflows: A new approach towards Market Size
Mushtaq AHMAD
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract. In continuation of the efforts to understand the dynamics of internal market, this study proposes Internal Absorption as an instrument for measuring market size for economies which confront large trade deficit over a longer period of time. The study empirically examines the impacts of Internal Absorption along with trade openness and gross private investment on FDI inflows in Pakistan. The ARDL approach to co-integration and ECM based on ARDL is used to test the existence of long run relationships among variables for the period 1976-2009. The result establishes strong positive relationship between Internal Absorption and FDI inflows in short as well as in the long run.Keywords. Foreign direct investment, Internal absorption, Trade openness, Private investment.JEL. F18, F21, F23, O47.
Yu, Jue; Zhuang, Jian; Yu, Dehong
2015-01-01
This paper concerns a state feedback integral control using a Lyapunov function approach for a rotary direct drive servo valve (RDDV) while considering parameter uncertainties. Modeling of this RDDV servovalve reveals that its mechanical performance is deeply influenced by friction torques and flow torques; however, these torques are uncertain and mutable due to the nature of fluid flow. To eliminate load resistance and to achieve satisfactory position responses, this paper develops a state feedback control that integrates an integral action and a Lyapunov function. The integral action is introduced to address the nonzero steady-state error; in particular, the Lyapunov function is employed to improve control robustness by adjusting the varying parameters within their value ranges. This new controller also has the advantages of simple structure and ease of implementation. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed controller can achieve higher control accuracy and stronger robustness. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Directive approach for Chinese clients receiving psychotherapy: Is that really a priority?
Chi Ting Connie eNg
2013-02-01
Full Text Available The academic literature often suggests that Chinese people prefer directive approaches in therapy. However, studies on this topic are often based on therapists’ self-reports: clients’ perceptions are rarely considered. What does directive approach mean? Is it what clients prefer? Using cultural psychology and medical anthropology as a theoretical framework, the ethnography explored the experience of psychotherapy from Chinese clients’ perspectives. Specifically, using ethnographic interview, eight informants, two male and six female, ranging in age from 40 to 55, were interviewed twice in-depth about their experiences of seeing Chinese therapists. All informants are Chinese immigrants who reside in a major Canadian city and saw at least one Chinese therapist in a community counselling agency within one year prior to the interview. In the first interview, informants created groups of cards describing a list of hypothesized cultural knowledge regarding psychotherapy. After initial data analysis, the cards were presented to the informants in the second interviews, in which they confirmed and/or rejected the hypotheses by grouping, reorganizing, and ranking the cards. In the end each informant created a number of mind-maps with the cards, which served as a representation of informants’ psychological reality of psychotherapy based on their ordinary language. The maps were then further analysed for themes among informants. Results suggest that clients appreciate therapists who give homework, analyse their problems, talk about strategies that other clients have found useful, chat, and provide resources. Results also highlight informants’ understanding of their own responsibility for the therapeutic relationship which has never been documented before and has important clinical implications.
"Directive approach" for chinese clients receiving psychotherapy: is that really a priority?
Ng, Chi Ting Connie; James, Susan
2013-01-01
The academic literature often suggests that Chinese people prefer directive approaches in therapy. However, studies on this topic are often based on therapists' self-reports: clients' perceptions are rarely considered. What does "directive approach" mean? Is it what clients prefer? Using cultural psychology and medical anthropology as a theoretical framework, the ethnography explored the experience of psychotherapy from Chinese clients' perspectives. Specifically, using ethnographic interview, eight informants, two male and six female, ranging in age from 40 to 55, were interviewed twice in-depth about their experiences of seeing Chinese therapists. All informants are Chinese immigrants who reside in a major Canadian city and saw at least one Chinese therapist in a community counseling agency within 1 year prior to the interview. In the first interview, informants created group of cards describing a list of hypothesized cultural knowledge regarding psychotherapy. After initial data analysis, the cards were presented to the informants in the second interviews, in which they confirmed and/or rejected the hypotheses by grouping, reorganizing, and ranking the cards. In the end each informant created a number of mind-maps with the cards, which served as a representation of informants' psychological reality of psychotherapy based on their ordinary language. The maps were then further analyzed for themes among informants. Results suggest that clients appreciate therapists who "give homework," "analyze their problems," "talk about strategies that other clients have found useful," "chat," and "provide resources." Results also highlight informants' understanding of their own responsibility for the therapeutic relationship which has never been documented before and has important clinical implications.
The strategic use of lecture recordings to facilitate an active and self-directed learning approach.
Topale, Luminica
2016-08-12
New learning technologies have the capacity to dramatically impact how students go about learning and to facilitate an active, self-directed learning approach. In U. S. medical education, students encounter a large volume of content, which must be mastered at an accelerated pace. The added pressure to excel on the USMLE Step 1 licensing exam and competition for residency placements, require that students adopt an informed approach to the use of learning technologies so as to enhance rather than to detract from the learning process. The primary aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of how students were using recorded lectures in their learning and how their study habits have been influenced by the technology. Survey research was undertaken using a convenience sample. Students were asked to voluntarily participate in an electronic survey comprised of 27 closed ended, multiple choice questions, and one open ended item. The survey was designed to explore students' perceptions of how recorded lectures affected their choices regarding class participation and impacted their learning and to gain an understanding of how recorded lectures facilitated a strategic, active learning process. Findings revealed that recorded lectures had little influence on students' choices to participate, and that the perceived benefits of integrating recorded lectures into study practices were related to their facilitation of and impact on efficient, active, and self-directed learning. This study was a useful investigation into how the availability of lecture capture technology influenced medical students' study behaviors and how students were making valuable use of the technology as an active learning tool.
Sensitivity of the DRP-4DVar Performance to Perturbation Samples Obtained by Two Different Methods
ZHAO Juan; WANG Bin
2010-01-01
The dimension-reduced projection four-dimensional variational data assimilation (DRP-4DVar) approach utilizes the ensemble of historical forecasts to estimate the background error covariance (BEC) and directly obtains the analysis in the ensemble space. As a result, the quality of ensemble members significantly affects the DRP-4DVar performance. The historical-forecast-based initial perturbation samples are flow-dependent and can describe the error-growth pattern of the atmospheric model and the balanced relationship between different model variables. However, the ensemble spread is not big enough because of the short time interval between adjacent historical samples and the limited ensemble size. In this study, the BEC of the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) three-dimensional variational data assimilation (3DVar) system is employed to produce initial perturbation samples for the DRP-4DVar. The control variable perturbation method based on the structure characteristics of the 3DVar BEC produces initial perturbation samples that have reasonable background error correlations. Moreover, the estimated BEC also has good dynamic and physical consistency between variables after the initial perturbation samples undergo a development with a 6- or 12-h model forward integration. In terms of computational expense, the historical forecast results can be obtained without any additional computational cost at the operational numerical weather forecast centers, while the integration of samples from the 3DVar-based control variable perturbation method is time-consuming, but this difficulty can be alleviated through parallel computing. Although the assimilation run with the historical-forecast-based ensemble generates slightly better initial analysis field, the forecasts from the assimilation experiment using the 3DVar method performs better during the period from 12 to 30 h. Moreover, precipitation is simulated significantly better when the new ensemble is used. In
A nonlinear inversion for the velocity background and perturbation models
Wu, Zedong
2015-08-19
Reflected waveform inversion (RWI) provides a method to reduce the nonlinearity of the standard full waveform inversion (FWI) by inverting for the single scattered wavefield obtained using an image. However, current RWI methods usually neglect diving waves, which is an important source of information for extracting the long wavelength components of the velocity model. Thus, we propose a new optimization problem through breaking the velocity model into the background and the perturbation in the wave equation directly. In this case, the perturbed model is no longer the single scattering model, but includes all scattering. We optimize both components simultaneously, and thus, the objective function is nonlinear with respect to both the background and perturbation. The new introduced w can absorb the non-smooth update of background naturally. Application to the Marmousi model with frequencies that start at 5 Hz shows that this method can converge to the accurate velocity starting from a linearly increasing initial velocity. Application to the SEG2014 demonstrates the versatility of the approach.
Perturbations can enhance qauntum search
Bae, J; Bae, Joonwoo; Kwon, Younghun
2003-01-01
In general, a quantum algorithm wants to avoid decoherence or perturbation, since such factors may cause errors in the algorithm. In this letter, we will supply the answer to the interesting question: can the factors seemingly harmful to a quantum algorithm(for example, perturbations) enhance the algorithm? We show that some perturbations to the generalized quantum search Hamiltonian can reduce the running time and enhance the success probability. We also provide the narrow bound to the perturbation which can be beneficial to quantum search. In addition, we show that the error induced by a perturbation on the Farhi and Gutmann Hamiltonian can be corrected by another perturbation.
Scalar perturbations in a Friedmann-like metric with non-null Weyl tensor
Santos, Grasiele B; Salim, José M
2013-01-01
In a previous work some of the authors have solved the Einstein equations of General Relativity for a class of metrics with constant spatial curvature, where it was found a non vanishing Weyl tensor in the presence of an energy-momentum tensor with an anisotropic pressure component. Here, we perform the perturbative analysis of this model in order to study the gravitational stability under linear scalar perturbations. For this purpose, we take the Quasi-Maxwellian formalism of General Relativity as our framework, which offers a naturally covariant and gauge-invariant approach to deal with perturbations that are directly linked to observational quantities. We also consider a generalization of the causal thermodynamics to include the effect of the non-null Weyl tensor, which introduces a "viscosity" due solely to the gravitational tidal forces.
Conservation laws and flux bounds for gravitational perturbations of the Schwarzschild metric
Holzegel, Gustav
2016-01-01
We derive an energy conservation law for the system of gravitational perturbations on the Schwarzschild spacetime expressed in a double null gauge. The resulting identity involves only first derivatives of the metric perturbation. Exploiting the gauge invariance up to boundary terms of the fluxes that appear, we are able to establish positivity of the flux on any outgoing null hypersurface to the future of the initial data. This allows us to bound the total energy flux through any such hypersurface, including the event horizon, in terms of initial data. We similarly bound the total energy radiated to null infinity. Our estimates provide a direct approach to a weak form of stability, thereby complementing the proof of the full linear stability of the Schwarzschild solution recently obtained in [M. Dafermos, G. Holzegel and I. Rodnianski \\emph{The linear stability of the Schwarzschild solution to gravitational perturbations}, arXiv:1601.06467].
Conservation laws and flux bounds for gravitational perturbations of the Schwarzschild metric
Holzegel, Gustav
2016-10-01
We derive an energy conservation law for the system of gravitational perturbations on the Schwarzschild spacetime expressed in a double null gauge. The resulting identity involves only first derivatives of the metric perturbation. Exploiting the gauge invariance up to boundary terms of the fluxes that appear, we are able to establish positivity of the flux on any outgoing null hypersurface to the future of the initial data. This allows us to bound the total energy flux through any such hypersurface, including the event horizon, in terms of initial data. We similarly bound the total energy radiated to null infinity. Our estimates provide a direct approach to a weak form of stability, thereby complementing the proof of the full linear stability of the Schwarzschild solution recently obtained in Dafermos et al (2016 The linear stability of the Schwarzschild solution to gravitational perturbations arXiv:1601.06467).
Controllable synthesis of metal particles by a direct current electrochemical approach
无
2009-01-01
Shapes of copper and silver particles were successfully controlled by using a very simple,effective direct-current electrochemical approach without introducing any additives or templates. A diverse range of shapes and also different inner structures were thus accessible. The products prepared at relatively high potentials have flowerlike morphologies and exhibit flakes as building blocks. The uniformly thick flakes intersect mutually,have smooth surfaces and outwardly wavy edges. The particle diameter and the flake density can be easily controlled by changing potential and/or deposition time. With a decrease of potential,the particles’ shapes changed from flower to bud,to sphere and to octahedron. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) properties of the supported metal particles were investigated by UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-Vis DRS) and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). It was found that the copper octahedra exhibited three characteristic bands,and SERS effect increases with the number of flakes within individual particles. Based on the experimental results,the mechanism for direct-current electrochemical growth of metal nanostructures was discussed.
Pre-directional appliance: A new approach to correct shifted premaxilla in bilateral cleft cases
P S Daigavane
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Management of bilateral cleft lip and palate cases is a challenging task, and if the premaxilla is shifted to either side, it poses a problem for the surgeon to operate and also for the orthodontist to do the orthodontic alignment. The aim of this study was to reposition the shifted premaxilla for better retraction with presurgical infant orthopedics, thus reducing the tissue tension and further scarring which have detrimental effects on maxillary growth. The innovative technique with pre-directional (PD appliance is easy to fabricate and use and works in this direction. Acrylic, springs, permasoft liner, elastics, retentive tapes. Previous approach for the shifted premaxilla was more focused on the surgical correction. In adults, surgery with osteotomy is the only option, with its own limitations and disadvantages, in repositioning the shifted premaxilla. Thus, PD appliance aids to correct the shifted premaxilla in presurgical molding stage. The premaxilla was thus shifted 5.5 mm to the left side, with premaxilla in facial symmetry, with the PD appliance. Presurgical orthopedics with PD appliance is worth in infants with shifted premaxilla in bilateral clefts cases.
Dahl, Megan M. [ARES Corporation, Richland, WA (United States); Pikas, Joseph [Schiff Associates, Sugar Land TX (United States); Edgemon, Glenn L. [ARES Corporation, Richland, WA (United States); Philo, Sarah [ARES Corporation, Richland, WA (United States)
2013-01-22
The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site is responsible for the safe storage, retrieval, treatment, and disposal of approximately 54 million gallons (204 million liters) of radioactive waste generated since the site's inception in 1943. Today, the major structures involved in waste management at Hanford include 149 carbon steel single-shell tanks, 28 carbon-steel double-shell tanks, plus a network of buried metallic transfer lines and ancillary systems (pits, vaults, catch tanks, etc.) required to store, retrieve, and transfer waste within the tank farm system. Many of the waste management systems at Hanford are still in use today. In response to uncertainties regarding the structural integrity of these systems,' an independent, comprehensive integrity assessment of the Hanford Site piping system was performed. It was found that regulators do not require the cathodically protected pipelines located within the Hanford Site to be assessed by External Corrosion Direct Assessment (ECDA) or any other method used to ensure integrity. However, a case study is presented discussing the application of the direct assessment process on pipelines in such a nuclear environment. Assessment methodology and assessment results are contained herein. An approach is described for the monitoring, integration of outside data, and analysis of this information in order to identify whether coating deterioration accompanied by external corrosion is a threat for these waste transfer lines.
Decaris, Martin L; Leach, J Kent
2011-04-01
The presentation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins provides an opportunity to instruct the phenotype and behavior of responsive cells. Decellularized cell-secreted matrix coatings (DM) represent a biomimetic culture surface that retains the complexity of the natural ECM. Microenvironmental culture conditions alter the composition of these matrices and ultimately the ability of DMs to direct cell fate. We employed a design of experiments (DOE) multivariable analysis approach to determine the effects and interactions of four variables (culture duration, cell seeding density, oxygen tension, and media supplementation) on the capacity of DMs to direct the osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). DOE analysis revealed that matrices created with extended culture duration, ascorbate-2-phosphate supplementation, and in ambient oxygen tension exhibited significant correlations with enhanced hMSC differentiation. We validated the DOE model results using DMs predicted to have superior (DM1) or lesser (DM2) osteogenic potential for naïve hMSCs. Compared to cells on DM2, hMSCs cultured on DM1 expressed 2-fold higher osterix levels and deposited 3-fold more calcium over 3 weeks. Cells on DM1 coatings also exhibited greater proliferation and viability compared to DM2-coated substrates. This study demonstrates that DOE-based analysis is a powerful tool for optimizing engineered systems by identifying significant variables that have the greatest contribution to the target output.
Horizontal direction drill shore approach - a unique field joint coating system
Buchanan, Robert; Lemuchi, Andre; Gudme, Carl [Canusa-CPS, Toronto, ON (Canada)
2005-07-01
High performance pipeline coatings such as 3-layer polypropylene (3LPP) have been developed to meet the more demanding applications of today's pipelines. For offshore applications, this coating type is ideal because it offers lay contractors a tough, virtually holiday free coating, which enhances lay speeds. However, the field joint on polypropylene-coated pipe is one of the challenges for contractors who want to maximize lay speed and minimize cost. In recent years, a polypropylene-based heat-shrinkable sleeve has been developed to overcome some of the issues that lay contractors had, and the system is in widespread use globally. At the point where offshore pipelines transition to onshore sections the construction has also been a major challenge. Recently, contractors have used a system whereby they trench or directionally drill the pipeline up the shore approach then directionally drill through sensitive areas beyond the beach. This minimizes the environmental impact at the shoreline and can be quite cost effective. Again, the challenge of a more universally accepted field joint solution for polypropylene-coated pipelines that could withstand the rigours of the construction method was present. (author)
Un convoi exceptionnel perturbe la circulation
Duraffourd, C
2004-01-01
"Le passage d'un convoi exceptionnel hier après-midi dans le secteur de Bellegarde en direction de Cessy aura causé d'importantes perturbations. Entre la deux fois deux voies obturée et les routes secondaires bouclées, les automobilistes ont dû prendre leur mal en patience" (1 page)
Perturbed bifurcations in the BCS gap equation
Spathis, P. N.; Sørensen, Mads Peter; Lazarides, Nickos
1992-01-01
. The transitions from d- or s- to mixed s- and d-wave solutions result from pitchfork bifurcations. In the case of slightly different pairing strength in the x and y directions, perturbed pitchfork bifurcations emerge, leading to a dramatic change in the physical properties of the superconducting state....
Grid refinement for aeroacoustics in the lattice Boltzmann method: A directional splitting approach
Gendre, Félix; Ricot, Denis; Fritz, Guillaume; Sagaut, Pierre
2017-08-01
This study focuses on grid refinement techniques for the direct simulation of aeroacoustics, when using weakly compressible lattice Boltzmann models, such as the D3Q19 athermal velocity set. When it comes to direct noise computation, very small errors on the density or pressure field may have great negative consequences. Even strong acoustic density fluctuations have indeed a clearly lower amplitude than the hydrodynamic ones. This work deals with such very weak spurious fluctuations that emerge when a vortical structure crosses a refinement interface, which may contaminate the resulting aeroacoustic field. We show through an extensive literature review that, within the framework described above, this issue has never been addressed before. To tackle this problem, we develop an alternative algorithm and compare its behavior to a classical one, which fits our in-house vertex-centered data structure. Our main idea relies on a directional splitting of the continuous discrete velocity Boltzmann equation, followed by an integration over specific characteristics. This method can be seen as a specific coupling between finite difference and lattice Boltzmann, locally on the interface between the two grids. The method is assessed considering two cases: an acoustic pulse and a convected vortex. We show how very small errors on the density field arise and propagate throughout the domain when a vortical flow crosses the refinement interface. We also show that an increased free stream Mach number (but still within the weakly compressible regime) strongly deteriorates the situation, although the magnitude of the errors may remain negligible for purely aerodynamic studies. A drastically reduced level of error for the near-field spurious noise is obtained with our approach, especially for under-resolved simulations, a situation that is crucial for industrial applications. Thus, the vortex case is proved useful for aeroacoustic validations of any grid refinement algorithm.
Study of the microdoppler signature of a bicyclist for different directions of approach
Rodriguez-Hervas, Berta; Maile, Michael; Flores, Benjamin C.
2015-05-01
The successful implementation of autonomous driving in an urban setting depends on the ability of the environment perception system to correctly classify vulnerable road users such as pedestrians and bicyclists in dense, complex scenarios. Self-driving vehicles include sensor systems such as cameras, lidars, and radars to enable decision making. Among these systems, radars are particularly relevant due to their operational robustness under adverse weather and night light conditions. Classification of pedestrian and car in urban settings using automotive radar has been widely investigated, suggesting that micro-Doppler signatures are useful for target discrimination. Our objective is to analyze and study the micro-Doppler signature of bicyclists approaching a vehicle from different directions in order to establish the basis of a classification criterion to distinguish bicycles from other targets including clutter. The micro-Doppler signature is obtained by grouping individual reflecting points using a clustering algorithm and observing the evolution of all the points belonging to an object in the Doppler domain over time. A comparison is then made with simulated data that uses a kinematic model of bicyclists' movement. The suitability of the micro-Doppler bicyclist signature as a classification feature is determined by comparing it to those belonging to cars and pedestrians approaching the automotive radar system.
A direct microscopic approach to transition strengths in pre-equilibrium reactions
Guimaraes, F B
2011-01-01
We present a microscopic formalism that extends the traditional formulation of Williams, Ericson and Bloch and permits to obtain the transition strengths (TS) of pre-equilibrium nuclear reactions directly from their quantum microscopic description. We calculate the TS without resorting to the Laplace transform approach and the use of the saddle point approximation. We also analyze some problems that may appear in connection with these mathematical tools and the Darwin-Fowler approach in this case. We show that, analogously to the nuclear densities, the strengths for transitions that change the exciton number by two or leave it unchanged can be estimated microscopically as convolutions of the functions of simpler states. When using the HO basis for the Model Space we obtained important departure from the results of the exciton model (EXM), which can partially invalidate our previous analysis on the attainment of equilibrium during the PE stage. On the other hand, by using constant grid of energies for the sp-b...
Lee, Yen-Chun; Patil, Sumersing; Golz, Christopher; Strohmann, Carsten; Ziegler, Slava; Kumar, Kamal; Waldmann, Herbert
2017-02-01
The selective transformation of different starting materials by different metal catalysts under individually optimized reaction conditions to structurally different intermediates and products is a powerful approach to generate diverse molecular scaffolds. In a more unified albeit synthetically challenging strategy, common starting materials would be exposed to a common metal catalysis, leading to a common intermediate and giving rise to different scaffolds by tuning the reactivity of the metal catalyst through different ligands. Herein we present a ligand-directed synthesis approach for the gold(I)-catalysed cycloisomerization of oxindole-derived 1,6-enynes that affords distinct molecular scaffolds following different catalytic reaction pathways. Varying electronic properties and the steric demand of the gold(I) ligands steers the fate of a common intermediary gold carbene to selectively form spirooxindoles, quinolones or df-oxindoles. Investigation of a synthesized compound collection in cell-based assays delivers structurally novel, selective modulators of the Hedgehog and Wnt signalling pathways, autophagy and of cellular proliferation.
“Table-less” and “Assistant-less” Direct Anterior Approach to Hip Arthroplasty
Daniel C Allison
2015-10-01
Full Text Available In recent years, specialized, non-sterile, traction table systems have facilitated Direct Anterior Approach (DAA hip arthroplasty. To combat the potential downsides of these traction systems, a sterile, intra-operative retractor option has emerged as a means to access the surgical site more easily, minimize soft-tissue trauma, and reduce the degree of required human assistance. This chapter describes the setup, surgical approach, and early results of a retractor system (the Phantom MIS Anterior Hip Retractor system [TeDan Surgical Innovations, Inc. {TSI}, Houston, Texas, US Patent # 8,808,176 B2], which uses a standard operating table, allows preparation of both lower extremities free in the surgical field, is compatible with fluoroscopy, and aids in both acetabular and femoral exposure, preparation, and implantation. Early outcome data indicates that this system significantly minimizes the need for surgical assistance, while allowing for safe and effective DAA performance, facilitating the procedure for high-volume surgeons and shortening the learning curve for surgeons new to the procedure.
Degenerate Density Perturbation Theory
Palenik, Mark C
2016-01-01
Fractional occupation numbers can be used in density functional theory to create a symmetric Kohn-Sham potential, resulting in orbitals with degenerate eigenvalues. We develop the corresponding perturbation theory and apply it to a system of $N_d$ degenerate electrons in a harmonic oscillator potential. The order-by-order expansions of both the fractional occupation numbers and unitary transformations within the degenerate subspace are determined by the requirement that a differentiable map exists connecting the initial and perturbed states. Using the X$\\alpha$ exchange-correlation (XC) functional, we find an analytic solution for the first-order density and first through third-order energies as a function of $\\alpha$, with and without a self-interaction correction. The fact that the XC Hessian is not positive definite plays an important role in the behavior of the occupation numbers.
Large Spin Perturbation Theory
Alday, Luis F
2016-01-01
We consider conformal field theories around points of large twist degeneracy. Examples of this are theories with weakly broken higher spin symmetry and perturbations around generalised free fields. At the degenerate point we introduce twist conformal blocks. These are eigenfunctions of certain quartic operators and encode the contribution, to a given four-point correlator, of the whole tower of intermediate operators with a given twist. As we perturb around the degenerate point, the twist degeneracy is lifted. In many situations this breaking is controlled by inverse powers of the spin. In such cases the twist conformal blocks can be decomposed into a sequence of functions which we systematically construct. Decomposing the four-point correlator in this basis turns crossing symmetry into an algebraic problem. Our method can be applied to a wide spectrum of conformal field theories in any number of dimensions and at any order in the breaking parameter. As an example, we compute the spectrum of various theories ...
Cosmological Perturbations in Antigravity
Oltean, Marius
2014-01-01
We compute the evolution of cosmological perturbations in a recently proposed Weyl-symmetric theory of two scalar fields with oppositely-signed conformal couplings to Einstein gravity. It is motivated from the minimal conformal extension of the Standard Model, such that one of these scalar fields is the Higgs while the other is a new particle, the dilaton, introduced to make the Higgs mass conformally symmetric. At the background level, the theory admits novel geodesically-complete cyclic cosmological solutions characterized by a brief period of repulsive gravity, or "antigravity", during each successive transition from a Big Crunch to a Big Bang. We show that despite the necessarily wrong-signed kinetic term of the dilaton in the full action, its cosmological solutions are stable at the perturbative level.
Perturbatively charged holographic disorder
O'Keeffe, Daniel K
2015-01-01
Within the framework of holography applied to condensed matter physics, we study a model of perturbatively charged disorder in D=4 dimensions. Starting from initially uncharged AdS_4, a randomly fluctuating boundary chemical potential is introduced by turning on a bulk gauge field parameterized by a disorder strength and a characteristic scale k_0. Accounting for gravitational backreaction, we construct an asymptotically AdS solution perturbatively in the disorder strength. The disorder averaged geometry displays unphysical divergences in the deep interior. We explain how to remove these divergences and arrive at a well behaved solution. The disorder averaged DC conductivity is calculated and is found to contain a correction to the AdS result. The correction appears at second order in the disorder strength and scales inversely with k_0. We discuss the extension to a system with a finite initial charge density. The disorder averaged DC conductivity may be calculated by adopting a technique developed for hologr...
Degenerate density perturbation theory
Palenik, Mark C.; Dunlap, Brett I.
2016-09-01
Fractional occupation numbers can be used in density functional theory to create a symmetric Kohn-Sham potential, resulting in orbitals with degenerate eigenvalues. We develop the corresponding perturbation theory and apply it to a system of Nd degenerate electrons in a harmonic oscillator potential. The order-by-order expansions of both the fractional occupation numbers and unitary transformations within the degenerate subspace are determined by the requirement that a differentiable map exists connecting the initial and perturbed states. Using the X α exchange-correlation (XC) functional, we find an analytic solution for the first-order density and first- through third-order energies as a function of α , with and without a self-interaction correction. The fact that the XC Hessian is not positive definite plays an important role in the behavior of the occupation numbers.
A Graph Algorithmic Approach to Separate Direct from Indirect Neural Interactions.
Patricia Wollstadt
Full Text Available Network graphs have become a popular tool to represent complex systems composed of many interacting subunits; especially in neuroscience, network graphs are increasingly used to represent and analyze functional interactions between multiple neural sources. Interactions are often reconstructed using pairwise bivariate analyses, overlooking the multivariate nature of interactions: it is neglected that investigating the effect of one source on a target necessitates to take all other sources as potential nuisance variables into account; also combinations of sources may act jointly on a given target. Bivariate analyses produce networks that may contain spurious interactions, which reduce the interpretability of the network and its graph metrics. A truly multivariate reconstruction, however, is computationally intractable because of the combinatorial explosion in the number of potential interactions. Thus, we have to resort to approximative methods to handle the intractability of multivariate interaction reconstruction, and thereby enable the use of networks in neuroscience. Here, we suggest such an approximative approach in the form of an algorithm that extends fast bivariate interaction reconstruction by identifying potentially spurious interactions post-hoc: the algorithm uses interaction delays reconstructed for directed bivariate interactions to tag potentially spurious edges on the basis of their timing signatures in the context of the surrounding network. Such tagged interactions may then be pruned, which produces a statistically conservative network approximation that is guaranteed to contain non-spurious interactions only. We describe the algorithm and present a reference implementation in MATLAB to test the algorithm's performance on simulated networks as well as networks derived from magnetoencephalographic data. We discuss the algorithm in relation to other approximative multivariate methods and highlight suitable application scenarios
Almeida A
2011-08-01
Full Text Available Laurinda Lemos1,2, Carlos Alegria3, Joana Oliveira3, Ana Machado2, Pedro Oliveira4, Armando Almeida11Life and Health Sciences Research Institute (ICVS, School of Health Sciences, Campus de Gualtar, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal; 2Hospital Center of Alto Ave, Unit of Fafe, Fafe, Portugal; 3Department of Neurosurgery, Hospital São Marcos; 4Products and Systems Engineering, Campus de Azurém, University of Minho, Guimarães, PortugalAbstract: In idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia (TN the neuroimaging evaluation is usually normal, but in some cases a vascular compression of trigeminal nerve root is present. Although the latter condition may be referred to surgery, drug therapy is usually the first approach to control pain. This study compared the clinical outcome and direct costs of (1 a traditional treatment (carbamazepine [CBZ] in monotherapy [CBZ protocol], (2 the association of gabapentin (GBP and analgesic block of trigger-points with ropivacaine (ROP (GBP+ROP protocol, and (3 a common TN surgery, microvascular decompression of the trigeminal nerve (MVD protocol. Sixty-two TN patients were randomly treated during 4 weeks (CBZ [n = 23] and GBP+ROP [n = 17] protocols from cases of idiopathic TN, or selected for MVD surgery (n = 22 due to intractable pain. Direct medical cost estimates were determined by the price of drugs in 2008 and the hospital costs. Pain was evaluated using the Numerical Rating Scale (NRS and number of pain crises; the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Sickness Impact Profile, and satisfaction with treatment and hospital team were evaluated. Assessments were performed at day 0 and 6 months after the beginning of treatment. All protocols showed a clinical improvement of pain control at month 6. The GBP+ROP protocol was the least expensive treatment, whereas surgery was the most expensive. With time, however, GBP+ROP tended to be the most and MVD the least expensive. No sequelae resulted in any patient after drug
Ooguri, H; Ooguri, Hirosi; Yin, Zheng
1996-01-01
These lecture notes are based on a course on string theories given by Hirosi Ooguri in the first week of TASI 96 Summer School at Boulder, Colorado. It is an introductory course designed to provide students with minimum knowledge before they attend more advanced courses on non-perturbative aspects of string theories in the School. The course consists of five lectures: 1. Bosonic String, 2. Toroidal Compactifications, 3. Superstrings, 4. Heterotic Strings, and 5. Orbifold Compactifications.
The objective of this study was to develop a new approach using a one-step approach to directly construct predictive models for describing the growth of Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) in liquid egg white (LEW) and egg yolk (LEY). A five-strain cocktail of SE, induced to resist rifampicin at 100 mg/L, ...
Perturbation Method for Classical Spinning Particle Motion: I. Kerr Space-Time
Singh, Dinesh
2008-01-01
This paper presents an analytic perturbation approach to the dynamics of a classical spinning particle, according to the Mathisson-Papapetrou-Dixon (MPD) equations of motion, with a direct application to circular motion around a Kerr black hole. The formalism is established in terms of a power series expansion with respect to the particle's spin magnitude, where the particle's kinematic and dynamical degrees are expressed in a completely general form that can be constructed to infinite order ...
Developing a Model for Solving the Flight Perturbation Problem
Amirreza Nickkar
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Purpose: In the aviation and airline industry, crew costs are the second largest direct operating cost next to the fuel costs. But unlike the fuel costs, a considerable portion of the crew costs can be saved through optimized utilization of the internal resources of an airline company. Therefore, solving the flight perturbation scheduling problem, in order to provide an optimized schedule in a comprehensive manner that covered all problem dimensions simultaneously, is very important. In this paper, we defined an integrated recovery model as that which is able to recover aircraft and crew dimensions simultaneously in order to produce more economical solutions and create fewer incompatibilities between the decisions. Design/methodology/approach: Current research is performed based on the development of one of the flight rescheduling models with disruption management approach wherein two solution strategies for flight perturbation problem are presented: Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition and Lagrangian heuristic. Findings: According to the results of this research, Lagrangian heuristic approach for the DW-MP solved the problem optimally in all known cases. Also, this strategy based on the Dantig-Wolfe decomposition manage to produce a solution within an acceptable time (Under 1 Sec. Originality/value: This model will support the decisions of the flight controllers in the operation centers for the airlines. When the flight network faces a problem the flight controllers achieve a set of ranked answers using this model thus, applying crew’s conditions in the proposed model caused this model to be closer to actual conditions.
Makaula, Peter; Bloch, Paul; Banda, Hastings T.
2012-01-01
is still a major challenge for a large proportion of the rural population. Community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTi) and community-directed interventions (CDI) are participatory approaches to strengthen health care at community level. Both approaches are based on values and principles associated...... with PHC. The CDI approach has successfully been used to improve the delivery of interventions in areas that have previously used CDTi. However, little is known about the added value of community participation in areas without prior experience with CDTi. This study aimed at assessing PHC in two rural...
Perturbation semigroup of matrix algebras
Neumann, N.; Suijlekom, W.D. van
2016-01-01
In this article we analyze the structure of the semigroup of inner perturbations in noncommutative geometry. This perturbation semigroup is associated to a unital associative *-algebra and extends the group of unitary elements of this *-algebra. We compute the perturbation semigroup for all matrix algebras.
Non-perturbative QCD and hadron physics
Cobos-Martínez, J. J.
2016-10-01
A brief exposition of contemporary non-perturbative methods based on the Schwinger-Dyson (SDE) and Bethe-Salpeter equations (BSE) of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) and their application to hadron physics is given. These equations provide a non-perturbative continuum formulation of QCD and are a powerful and promising tool for the study of hadron physics. Results on some properties of hadrons based on this approach, with particular attention to the pion distribution amplitude, elastic, and transition electromagnetic form factors, and their comparison to experimental data are presented.
Perturbative and nonperturbative renormalization in lattice QCD
Goeckeler, M. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Institut fuer Theoretische Physik; Horsley, R. [University of Edinburgh (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Perlt, H. [Leipzig Univ. (DE). Institut fuer Theoretische Physik] (and others)
2010-03-15
We investigate the perturbative and nonperturbative renormalization of composite operators in lattice QCD restricting ourselves to operators that are bilinear in the quark fields (quark-antiquark operators). These include operators which are relevant to the calculation of moments of hadronic structure functions. The nonperturbative computations are based on Monte Carlo simulations with two flavors of clover fermions and utilize the Rome-Southampton method also known as the RI-MOM scheme. We compare the results of this approach with various estimates from lattice perturbation theory, in particular with recent two-loop calculations. (orig.)
Variational Perturbation Treatment of the Confined Hydrogen Atom
Montgomery, H. E., Jr.
2011-01-01
The Schrodinger equation for the ground state of a hydrogen atom confined at the centre of an impenetrable cavity is treated using variational perturbation theory. Energies calculated from variational perturbation theory are comparable in accuracy to the results from a direct numerical solution. The goal of this exercise is to introduce the…
Variational Perturbation Treatment of the Confined Hydrogen Atom
Montgomery, H. E., Jr.
2011-01-01
The Schrodinger equation for the ground state of a hydrogen atom confined at the centre of an impenetrable cavity is treated using variational perturbation theory. Energies calculated from variational perturbation theory are comparable in accuracy to the results from a direct numerical solution. The goal of this exercise is to introduce the…
Ramnarain, Umesh; Schuster, David
2014-08-01
In recent years, inquiry-based science instruction has become widely advocated in science education standards in many countries and, hence, in teacher preparation programmes. Nevertheless, in practice, one finds a wide variety of science instructional approaches. In South Africa, as in many countries, there is also a great disparity in school demographic situations, which can also affect teaching practices. This study investigated the pedagogical orientations of in-service physical sciences teachers at a diversity of schools in South Africa. Assessment items in a Pedagogy of Science Teaching Test (POSTT) were used to identify teachers' science teaching orientations, and reasons for pedagogical choices were probed in interviews. The findings reveal remarkable differences between the orientations of teachers at disadvantaged township schools and teachers at more privileged suburban schools. We found that teachers at township schools have a strong `active direct' teaching orientation overall, involving direct exposition of the science followed by confirmatory practical work, while teachers at suburban schools exhibit a guided inquiry orientation, with concepts being developed via a guided exploration phase. The study identified contextual factors such as class size, availability of resources, teacher competence and confidence, time constraints, student ability, school culture and parents' expectations as influencing the methods adopted by teachers. In view of the recent imperative for inquiry-based learning in the new South African curriculum, this study affirms the context specificity of curriculum implementation (Bybee 1993) and suggests situational factors beyond the curriculum mandate that need to be addressed to achieve successful inquiry-based classroom instruction in science.
Hypersensitivity to Perturbations in the Quantum baker's Map
Schack, R
1999-01-01
We analyze a randomly perturbed quantum version of the baker's transformation, a prototype of an area-conserving chaotic map. By numerically simulating the perturbed evolution, we estimate the information needed to follow a perturbed Hilbert-space vector in time. We find that the Landauer erasure cost associated with this information grows very rapidly and becomes much larger than the maximum statistical entropy given by the logarithm of the dimension of Hilbert space. The quantum baker's map thus displays a hypersensitivity to perturbations that is analogous to behavior found earlier in the classical case. This hypersensitivity characterizes ``quantum chaos'' in a way that is directly relevant to statistical physics.
The ATEX Directives: Explosion safety and regulation - An update on the European approach
Versloot, N.H.A.; Klein, A.J.J.; Maaijer, M. de
2007-01-01
On July 1, 2003 a transitional period has ended and two European directives became fully active: • Directive 1999/92/EC - • Directive 94/9/EC These directives have an impact on both companies with an explosion hazard (gas, vapor, mist or dust explosions) and on manufacturers of equipment intended to
On a perturbation method for partial differential equations
Fernandez, Francisco M. [CEQUINOR (Conicet), Departamento de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de la Plata, La Plata (Argentina)]. E-mail: framfer@isis.unlp.edu.ar
2001-06-08
We show that a recently developed perturbation method for partial differential equations can be rewritten in the form of an interaction picture. In this way it is possible to compare this approach with others such as the standard perturbation theory and a straightforward temporal expansion of the evolution operator. We choose a simple, exactly solvable model as an illustrative example. (author)
Perturbation calculation of thermodynamic density of states.
Brown, G; Schulthess, T C; Nicholson, D M; Eisenbach, M; Stocks, G M
2011-12-01
The density of states g (ε) is frequently used to calculate the temperature-dependent properties of a thermodynamic system. Here a derivation is given for calculating the warped density of states g*(ε) resulting from the addition of a perturbation. The method is validated for a classical Heisenberg model of bcc Fe and the errors in the free energy are shown to be second order in the perturbation. Taking the perturbation to be the difference between a first-principles quantum-mechanical energy and a corresponding classical energy, this method can significantly reduce the computational effort required to calculate g(ε) for quantum systems using the Wang-Landau approach.
Perturbative quantum chromodynamics
1989-01-01
This book will be of great interest to advanced students and researchers in the area of high energy theoretical physics. Being the most complete and updated review volume on Perturbative QCD, it serves as an extremely useful textbook or reference book. Some of the reviews in this volume are the best that have been written on the subject anywhere. Contents: Factorization of Hard Processes in QCD (J C Collins, D E Soper & G Sterman); Exclusive Processes in Quantum Chromodynamics (S J Brodsky & G P Lepage); Coherence and Physics of QCD Jets (Yu L Dokshitzer, V A Khoze & S I Troyan); Pomeron in Qu
Beane, Silas R; Vuorinen, Aleksi
2009-01-01
We present a new formulation of effective field theory for nucleon-nucleon (NN) interactions which treats pion interactions perturbatively, and we offer evidence that the expansion converges satisfactorily to third order in the expansion, which we have computed analytically for s and d wave NN scattering. Starting with the Kaplan-Savage-Wise (KSW) expansion about the nontrivial fixed point corresponding to infinite NN scattering length, we cure the convergence problems with that theory by summing to all orders the singular short distance part of the pion tensor interaction. This method makes possible a host of high precision analytic few-body calculations in nuclear physics.
Non-Perturbative Renormalization
Mastropietro, Vieri
2008-01-01
The notion of renormalization is at the core of several spectacular achievements of contemporary physics, and in the last years powerful techniques have been developed allowing to put renormalization on a firm mathematical basis. This book provides a self-consistent and accessible introduction to the sophisticated tools used in the modern theory of non-perturbative renormalization, allowing an unified and rigorous treatment of Quantum Field Theory, Statistical Physics and Condensed Matter models. In particular the first part of this book is devoted to Constructive Quantum Field Theory, providi
Aksu, Buket; Paradkar, Anant; de Matas, Marcel; Ozer, Ozgen; Güneri, Tamer; York, Peter
2012-12-01
The publication of the International Conference of Harmonization (ICH) Q8, Q9, and Q10 guidelines paved the way for the standardization of quality after the Food and Drug Administration issued current Good Manufacturing Practices guidelines in 2003. "Quality by Design", mentioned in the ICH Q8 guideline, offers a better scientific understanding of critical process and product qualities using knowledge obtained during the life cycle of a product. In this scope, the "knowledge space" is a summary of all process knowledge obtained during product development, and the "design space" is the area in which a product can be manufactured within acceptable limits. To create the spaces, artificial neural networks (ANNs) can be used to emphasize the multidimensional interactions of input variables and to closely bind these variables to a design space. This helps guide the experimental design process to include interactions among the input variables, along with modeling and optimization of pharmaceutical formulations. The objective of this study was to develop an integrated multivariate approach to obtain a quality product based on an understanding of the cause-effect relationships between formulation ingredients and product properties with ANNs and genetic programming on the ramipril tablets prepared by the direct compression method. In this study, the data are generated through the systematic application of the design of experiments (DoE) principles and optimization studies using artificial neural networks and neurofuzzy logic programs.
Sergiu Ciprian Catinas
2015-07-01
Full Text Available A detailed theoretical and practical investigation of the reinforced concrete elements is due to recent techniques and method that are implemented in the construction market. More over a theoretical study is a demand for a better and faster approach nowadays due to rapid development of the calculus technique. The paper above will present a study for implementing in a static calculus the direct stiffness matrix method in order capable to address phenomena related to different stages of loading, rapid change of cross section area and physical properties. The method is a demand due to the fact that in our days the FEM (Finite Element Method is the only alternative to such a calculus and FEM are considered as expensive methods from the time and calculus resources point of view. The main goal in such a method is to create the moment-curvature diagram in the cross section that is analyzed. The paper above will express some of the most important techniques and new ideas as well in order to create the moment curvature graphic in the cross sections considered.
Crude to leads: a triple-pronged direct NMR approach in coordination with docking simulation.
Tanoli, Sheraz A K; Tanoli, Nazish U; Bondancia, Tatiani M; Usmani, Saman; Kerssebaum, Rainer; Ferreira, Antonio G; Fernandes, Joao B; Ul-Haq, Zaheer
2013-09-01
The screening of compounds that bind to the target of interest (specific proteins) plays a vital role in drug discovery. Usually, the identification of biologically active compounds is done from a library of structurally known compounds. However, we successfully illustrate here, that NMR techniques including saturation transfer difference (STD), transfer nuclear Overhauser spectroscopy (TrNOESY) and STD-TOCSY (total correlation spectroscopy) in combination with separation methods not only enable the rapid and comprehensive screening of active components, but also their unequivocal structural characterization. Furthermore, a time saving for the recognition of leads is also possible with this application. To probe the binding studies, a hydroethanolic fraction of crude extract (1 mg) from natural product (Rauia resinous) was used for the initial assessment with BSA protein. The docking simulation was performed with BSA in the region of Thr190, Arg198, Arg217, Trp213, Arg256, Ala290 and Tyr451 to further refine the active compound towards the leads. Docking results mimic binding as identified by STD, Tr-NOESY and STD-TOCSY. Isovetexine-2-rhamnosoide (2) was found to be most active through group epitope mapping results as well as the docking simulation with relative free energy of -7.2770. This experiment provided excellent results through the direct NMR screening method. Using Bovine Serum Albumin as a reference, we illustrate that this approach offers an excellent way for the first hand detection of the active constituents/inhibitors from natural remedies used in folk medicinal treatments.
Row, Jeffrey R.; Knick, Steven T.; Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Lougheed, Stephen C.; Fedy, Bradley C.
2017-01-01
Dispersal can impact population dynamics and geographic variation, and thus, genetic approaches that can establish which landscape factors influence population connectivity have ecological and evolutionary importance. Mixed models that account for the error structure of pairwise datasets are increasingly used to compare models relating genetic differentiation to pairwise measures of landscape resistance. A model selection framework based on information criteria metrics or explained variance may help disentangle the ecological and landscape factors influencing genetic structure, yet there are currently no consensus for the best protocols. Here, we develop landscape-directed simulations and test a series of replicates that emulate independent empirical datasets of two species with different life history characteristics (greater sage-grouse; eastern foxsnake). We determined that in our simulated scenarios, AIC and BIC were the best model selection indices and that marginal R2 values were biased toward more complex models. The model coefficients for landscape variables generally reflected the underlying dispersal model with confidence intervals that did not overlap with zero across the entire model set. When we controlled for geographic distance, variables not in the underlying dispersal models (i.e., nontrue) typically overlapped zero. Our study helps establish methods for using linear mixed models to identify the features underlying patterns of dispersal across a variety of landscapes.
A cell-based computational modeling approach for developing site-directed molecular probes.
Jing-Yu Yu
Full Text Available Modeling the local absorption and retention patterns of membrane-permeant small molecules in a cellular context could facilitate development of site-directed chemical agents for bioimaging or therapeutic applications. Here, we present an integrative approach to this problem, combining in silico computational models, in vitro cell based assays and in vivo biodistribution studies. To target small molecule probes to the epithelial cells of the upper airways, a multiscale computational model of the lung was first used as a screening tool, in silico. Following virtual screening, cell monolayers differentiated on microfabricated pore arrays and multilayer cultures of primary human bronchial epithelial cells differentiated in an air-liquid interface were used to test the local absorption and intracellular retention patterns of selected probes, in vitro. Lastly, experiments involving visualization of bioimaging probe distribution in the lungs after local and systemic administration were used to test the relevance of computational models and cell-based assays, in vivo. The results of in vivo experiments were consistent with the results of in silico simulations, indicating that mitochondrial accumulation of membrane permeant, hydrophilic cations can be used to maximize local exposure and retention, specifically in the upper airways after intratracheal administration.
Row, Jeffrey R; Knick, Steven T; Oyler-McCance, Sara J; Lougheed, Stephen C; Fedy, Bradley C
2017-06-01
Dispersal can impact population dynamics and geographic variation, and thus, genetic approaches that can establish which landscape factors influence population connectivity have ecological and evolutionary importance. Mixed models that account for the error structure of pairwise datasets are increasingly used to compare models relating genetic differentiation to pairwise measures of landscape resistance. A model selection framework based on information criteria metrics or explained variance may help disentangle the ecological and landscape factors influencing genetic structure, yet there are currently no consensus for the best protocols. Here, we develop landscape-directed simulations and test a series of replicates that emulate independent empirical datasets of two species with different life history characteristics (greater sage-grouse; eastern foxsnake). We determined that in our simulated scenarios, AIC and BIC were the best model selection indices and that marginal R(2) values were biased toward more complex models. The model coefficients for landscape variables generally reflected the underlying dispersal model with confidence intervals that did not overlap with zero across the entire model set. When we controlled for geographic distance, variables not in the underlying dispersal models (i.e., nontrue) typically overlapped zero. Our study helps establish methods for using linear mixed models to identify the features underlying patterns of dispersal across a variety of landscapes.
A Direct Solution Approach to the Inverse Shallow-Water Problem
Alelign Gessese
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The study of open channel flow modelling often requires an accurate representation of the channel bed topography to accurately predict the flow hydrodynamics. Experimental techniques are the most widely used approaches to measure the bed topographic elevation of open channels. However, they are usually cost and time consuming. Free surface measurement is, on the other hand, relatively easy to obtain using airborne photographic techniques. We present in this work an easy to implement and fast to solve numerical technique to identify the underlying bedrock topography from given free surface elevation data in shallow open channel flows. The main underlying idea is to derive explicit partial differential equations which govern this inverse reconstruction problem. The technique described here is a “one-shot technique” in the sense that the solution of the partial differential equation provides the solution to the inverse problem directly. The idea is tested on a set of artificial data obtained by first solving the forward problem governed by the shallow-water equations. Numerical results show that the channel bed topographic elevation can be reconstructed with a level of accuracy less than 3%. The method is also shown to be robust when noise is present in the input data.
Gim Aw, T.; Howe, Adina S.; Rose, J. B.; Bullock, JaQuel A.
2014-12-15
Genomic-based molecular techniques are emerging as powerful tools that allow a comprehensive characterization of water and wastewater microbiomes. Most recently, next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies which produce large amounts of sequence data are beginning to impact the field of environmental virology. In this study, NGS and bioinformatics have been employed for the direct detection and characterization of viruses in wastewater and of viruses isolated after cell culture. Viral particles were concentrated and purified from sewage samples by polyethylene glycol precipitation. Viral nucleic acid was extracted and randomly amplified prior to sequencing using Illumina technology, yielding a total of 18 million sequence reads. Most of the viral sequences detected could not be characterized, indicating the great viral diversity that is yet to be discovered. This sewage virome was dominated by bacteriophages and contained sequences related to known human pathogenic viruses such as adenoviruses (species B, C and F), polyomaviruses JC and BK and enteroviruses (type B). An array of other animal viruses was also found, suggesting unknown zoonotic viruses. This study demonstrated the feasibility of metagenomic approaches to characterize viruses in complex environmental water samples.
Andes, D; Lepak, A; Pitula, A; Marchillo, K; Clark, J
2005-09-01
Gene expression analysis after the host-pathogen interaction is revolutionizing our understanding of the host response to infection. Numerous studies have utilized microarray analysis to follow host cell transcriptome alterations in response to interactions with infectious pathogens. However, similar analyses of pathogen transcriptional adaptation at the infection site have been limited. Understanding the nature of this interaction from the pathogen perspective at different sites and stages of infection is central to strategies for development of new anti-infective therapies. Toward this end, we developed a protocol to analyze changes in gene expression for a eukaryotic pathogen, Candida albicans, during systemic infection in mice. The experimental approach takes advantage of the resistance of the cell wall of many fungal pathogens to cell lysis, relative to mammalian cells. After lysis of mammalian cells, the tissue mixture containing fungal cells is depleted of mammalian RNA by centrifugation, followed by enzymatic digestion. RNA-digesting enzymes are then inhibited before eukaryotic cell lysis and RNA isolation. The protocol provides a reproducible quantity of RNA based on pathogen cell number. The quality of the RNA allowed reliable downstream transcriptional analysis using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and microarrays. The in vivo gene expression data confirmed involvement of several putative pathogenesis genes. More importantly, the results provided a wealth of biologically interesting hypotheses to direct future investigation.
Directed flow in heavy-ion collisions from PHSD transport approach
Cassing, Wolfgang; Konchakovski, Volodya; Palmese, Alessia [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Justus-Liebig-Universitaet, Giessen (Germany)
2015-07-01
We study the proton and kaon directed and elliptic flows for Au+Au collisions at AGS energies (E{sub Lab}=2-8 AGeV) and low SPS energies up to √(s{sub NN})=7.7 GeV within the Parton-Hadron-String-Dynamics (PHSD/HSD) transport models. PHSD is a microscopic off-shell transport approach, which successfully describes heavy-ion collisions in a wide range of energies, and HSD represents the hadronic sector of PHSD. We compare our results with data from the E895 and STAR Collaborations and we investigate the sensitivity of the flow observables with respect to momentum-dependent hadronic potentials. This analysis can provide important information on these potentials, since they are known from the G-matrix theory approximately up to twice nuclear matter density and consequently extrapolations at higher baryon densities and large momenta have to been probed. We also explore the possibility that the flow observables are influenced by chiral symmetry restoration, that is expected to occur at high density and/or temperature.
Maktedar, Shrikant S; Mehetre, Shantilal S; Singh, Man; Kale, R K
2014-07-01
Sonochemical waves as mechanochemical energy was employed to exfoliate graphite oxide and functionalized graphene oxide (GrO), through a reaction of solvent and accountable for top-down and bottom-up approach respectively. The in situ formation of ester intermediate was inferred and a polymeric surface of GrO was further functionalized with 6-Aminoindazole (6-AIND) through sonochemical nucleophilic substitution reaction. As compared to conventional method the effect of ultrasound was verified for the direct functionalization of GrO. The conventional hazardous acylation step for functionalization of GrO was deleted in ultrasound assisted formation of f-(6-AIND) GrO nanocomposite, prepared by stereoselective exploitation of carboxyl groups at edges of GrO. The characterization has ascertained a covalent attachment of 6-AIND onto GrO surface with ATR-FTIR, XPS, SSNMR, TGA, DSC, XRD, AFM, RAMAN, EDX, SEM, BET and elemental analyzer. A weight loss in TGA depicts enhanced thermal stability of f-(6-AIND) GrO and a thermally sensitive behavior. The f-(6-AIND) GrO was studied for in vitro antimicrobial activity to ensure health and environmental safety. Antibacterial activity was identified against human pathogenic gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus; ATCC 25923) and gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli; ATCC 25922). The antifungal activity was observed against Candida albicans (ATCC 10231).
Kurata, A.; Suzuki, S.; Iwamoto, K.; Miyazaki, T.; Inukai, M.; Abe, K.; Niki, J.; Yamada, M.; Fujii, K. [Kitasato University School of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Kanagawa (Japan); Kan, S. [Kitasato University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Kanagawa (Japan)
2009-11-15
The transvenous approach via the superior ophthalmic vein (SOV) is an available approach for carotid cavernous fistula (CCF), especially in the event that there is no other suitable approach route to the fistula. Surgical exposure of the peripheral roots of the SOV is commonly used; however, often, the SOV is often not accessible because of anatomical problems and/or complications. In this paper, we present and discuss our original direct-puncture approach to the extraconal portion of the SOV. An attempt on three patients with traumatic CCF failed with the transarterial approach and the conventional venous approach via the inferior petrosal sinus; therefore, the patients were treated with the direct-puncture approach to the extraconal portion of the SOV using two-dimensional digital subtraction angiography with local anesthesia. All cases that had tortuous and partially stenotic division of the SOV were treated successfully with this approach and without complications. This approach will become an alternate approach, especially when the peripheral roots of the SOV are focally narrowed and tortuous, making it impossible to insert a catheter. (orig.)
Operator Decomposition Framework for Perturbation Theory
Abdel-Khalik, Hany S.; Wang, Congjian; Bang, Young Suk [North Carolina State University, Raleigh (United States)
2012-05-15
This summary describes a new framework for perturbation theory intended to improve its performance, in terms of the associated computational cost and the complexity of implementation, for routine reactor calculations in support of design, analysis, and regulation. Since its first introduction in reactor analysis by Winger, perturbation theory has assumed an aura of sophistication with regard to its implementation and its capabilities. Only few reactor physicists, typically mathematically proficient, have contributed to its development, with the general body of the nuclear engineering community remaining unaware of its current status, capabilities, and challenges. Given its perceived sophistication and the small body of community users, the application of perturbation theory has been limited to investigatory analyses only. It is safe to say that the nuclear community is split into two groups, a small one which understands the theory and, and a much bigger group with the perceived notion that perturbation theory is nothing but a fancy mathematical approach that has very little use in practice. Over the past three years, research has demonstrated two goals. First, reduce the computational cost of perturbation theory in order to enable its use for routine reactor calculations. Second, expose some of the myth about perturbation theory and present it in a form that is simple and relatable in order to stimulate the interest of nuclear practitioners, especially those who are currently working on the development of next generation reactor design and analysis tools. The operator decomposition approach has its roots in linear algebra and can be easily understood by code developers, especially those involved in the design of iterative numerical solution strategies
Gauge Invariant Cosmological Perturbation Theory
Durrer, R
1993-01-01
After an introduction to the problem of cosmological structure formation, we develop gauge invariant cosmological perturbation theory. We derive the first order perturbation equations of Einstein's equations and energy momentum ``conservation''. Furthermore, the perturbations of Liouville's equation for collisionless particles and Boltzmann's equation for Compton scattering are worked out. We fully discuss the propagation of photons in a perturbed Friedmann universe, calculating the Sachs--Wolfe effect and light deflection. The perturbation equations are extended to accommodate also perturbations induced by seeds. With these general results we discuss some of the main aspects of the texture model for the formation of large scale structure in the Universe (galaxies, clusters, sheets, voids). In this model, perturbations in the dark matter are induced by texture seeds. The gravitational effects of a spherically symmetric collapsing texture on dark matter, baryonic matter and photons are calculated in first orde...
Catalina, Adrian V.; Sen, S.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
The evolution of cellular solid/liquid interfaces from an initially unstable planar front was studied by means of a two-dimensional computer simulation. The developed numerical model makes use of an interface tracking procedure and has the capability to describe the dynamics of the interface morphology based on local changes of the thermodynamic conditions. The fundamental physics of this formulation was validated against experimental microgravity results and the predictions of the analytical linear stability theory. The performed simulations revealed that in certain conditions, based on a competitive growth mechanism, an interface could become unstable to random perturbations of infinitesimal amplitude even at wavelengths smaller than the neutral wavelength, lambda(sub c), predicted by the linear stability theory. Furthermore, two main stages of spacing selection have been identified. In the first stage, at low perturbations amplitude, the selection mechanism is driven by the maximum growth rate of instabilities while in the second stage the selection is influenced by nonlinear phenomena caused by the interactions between the neighboring cells. Comparison of these predictions with other existing theories of pattern formation and experimental results will be discussed.
牛晓花; 潘祖梁
2006-01-01
A new method based on Lie-B(a)cklund symmetry method to solve the perturbed nonlinear evolution equations is presented. New approximate solutions of perturbed nonlinear evolution equations stemming from the exact solutions of unperturbed equations are obtained.This method is a generalization of Burde's Lie point symmetry technique.
The Complex Outgassing of Comets and the Resulting Coma, a Direct Simulation Monte-Carlo Approach
Fougere, Nicolas
During its journey, when a comet gets within a few astronomical units of the Sun, solar heating liberates gases and dust from its icy nucleus forming a rarefied cometary atmosphere, the so-called coma. This tenuous atmosphere can expand to distances up to millions of kilometers representing orders of magnitude larger than the nucleus size. Most of the practical cases of coma studies involve the consideration of rarefied gas flows under non-LTE conditions where the hydrodynamics approach is not valid. Then, the use of kinetic methods is required to properly study the physics of the cometary coma. The Direct Simulation Monte-Carlo (DSMC) method is the method of choice to solve the Boltzmann equation, giving the opportunity to study the cometary atmosphere from the inner coma where collisions dominate and is in thermodynamic equilibrium to the outer coma where densities are lower and free flow conditions are verified. While previous studies of the coma used direct sublimation from the nucleus for spherically symmetric 1D models, or 2D models with a day/night asymmetry, recent observations of comets showed the existence of local small source areas such as jets, and extended sources via sublimating icy grains, that must be included into cometary models for a realistic representation of the physics of the coma. In this work, we present, for the first time, 1D, 2D, and 3D models that can take into account the full effects of conditions with more complex sources of gas with jets and/or icy grains. Moreover, an innovative work in a full 3D description of the cometary coma using a kinetic method with a realistic nucleus and outgassing is demonstrated. While most of the physical models used in this study had already been developed, they are included in one self-consistent coma model for the first time. The inclusion of complex cometary outgassing processes represents the state-of-the-art of cometary coma modeling. This provides invaluable information about the coma by
Engineered Biosynthesis of Plant Polyketides: Structure-Based and Precursor-Directed Approach
Abe, Ikuro
benzoyl-CoA as a starter substrate. These results suggested that the engineered biosynthesis of plant polyketides by combination of the structure-based and the precursor-directed approach would lead to further production of chemically and structurally divergent unnatural novel polyketides.
Radiative forcing of the direct aerosol effect using a multi-observation approach
G. Myhre
2008-07-01
Full Text Available A high-resolution global aerosol model (Oslo CTM2 driven by meteorological data and allowing a comparison with a variety of aerosol observations is used to simulate radiative forcing (RF of the direct aerosol effect. The model simulates all main aerosol components, including several secondary components such as nitrate and secondary organic carbon. The model reproduces the main chemical composition and size features observed during large aerosol campaigns. Although the chemical composition compares best with ground-based measurement over land for modelled sulphate, no systematic differences are found for other compounds. The modelled aerosol optical depth (AOD is compared to remote sensed data from AERONET ground and MODIS and MISR satellite retrievals. To gain confidence in the aerosol modelling, we have tested its ability to reproduce daily variability in the aerosol content, and this is performing well in many regions; however, we also identified some locations where model improvements are needed. The annual mean regional pattern of AOD from the aerosol model is broadly similar to the AERONET and the satellite retrievals (mostly within 10–20%. We notice a significant improvement from MODIS Collection 4 to Collection 5 compared to AERONET data. Satellite derived estimates of aerosol radiative effect over ocean for clear sky conditions differs significantly on regional scales (almost up to a factor two, but also in the global mean. The Oslo CTM2 has an aerosol radiative effect close to the mean of the satellite derived estimates. We derive a radiative forcing (RF of the direct aerosol effect of −0.35 Wm^{−2} in our base case. Implementation of a simple approach to consider internal black carbon (BC mixture results in a total RF of −0.28 Wm^{−2}. Our results highlight the importance of carbonaceous particles, producing stronger individual RF than considered in the recent IPCC estimate; however, net RF is less different
Characterizing heterogeneous cellular responses to perturbations.
Slack, Michael D; Martinez, Elisabeth D; Wu, Lani F; Altschuler, Steven J
2008-12-01
Cellular populations have been widely observed to respond heterogeneously to perturbation. However, interpreting the observed heterogeneity is an extremely challenging problem because of the complexity of possible cellular phenotypes, the large dimension of potential perturbations, and the lack of methods for separating meaningful biological information from noise. Here, we develop an image-based approach to characterize cellular phenotypes based on patterns of signaling marker colocalization. Heterogeneous cellular populations are characterized as mixtures of phenotypically distinct subpopulations, and responses to perturbations are summarized succinctly as probabilistic redistributions of these mixtures. We apply our method to characterize the heterogeneous responses of cancer cells to a panel of drugs. We find that cells treated with drugs of (dis-)similar mechanism exhibit (dis-)similar patterns of heterogeneity. Despite the observed phenotypic diversity of cells observed within our data, low-complexity models of heterogeneity were sufficient to distinguish most classes of drug mechanism. Our approach offers a computational framework for assessing the complexity of cellular heterogeneity, investigating the degree to which perturbations induce redistributions of a limited, but nontrivial, repertoire of underlying states and revealing functional significance contained within distinct patterns of heterogeneous responses.
Plasma-satellite interaction driven magnetic field perturbations
Saeed-ur-Rehman, E-mail: surehman@ualberta.ca [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E1 (Canada); Theoretical Physics Division, PINSTECH, Nilore Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Marchand, Richard, E-mail: Richard.Marchand@ualberta.ca [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E1 (Canada)
2014-09-15
We report the first fully kinetic quantitative estimate of magnetic field perturbations caused by the interaction of a spacecraft with space environment. Such perturbations could affect measurements of geophysical magnetic fields made with very sensitive magnetometers on-board satellites. Our approach is illustrated with a calculation of perturbed magnetic fields near the recently launched Swarm satellites. In this case, magnetic field perturbations do not exceed 20 pT, and they are below the sensitivity threshold of the on-board magnetometers. Anticipating future missions in which satellites and instruments would be subject to more intense solar UV radiation, however, it appears that magnetic field perturbations associated with satellite interaction with space environment, might approach or exceed instruments' sensitivity thresholds.
Rudolph, Nathanael; Selvi, Ali Fuad; Yazan, Bedrettin
2015-01-01
This article examines inequity as conceptualized and approached within and through the non-native English speakers in TESOL (NNEST) "movement." The authors unpack critical approaches to the NNEST experience, conceptualized via binaries (NS/NNS; NEST/NNEST). The authors then explore postmodern and poststructural approaches to identity and…
Introduction to perturbation methods
Holmes, M
1995-01-01
This book is an introductory graduate text dealing with many of the perturbation methods currently used by applied mathematicians, scientists, and engineers. The author has based his book on a graduate course he has taught several times over the last ten years to students in applied mathematics, engineering sciences, and physics. The only prerequisite for the course is a background in differential equations. Each chapter begins with an introductory development involving ordinary differential equations. The book covers traditional topics, such as boundary layers and multiple scales. However, it also contains material arising from current research interest. This includes homogenization, slender body theory, symbolic computing, and discrete equations. One of the more important features of this book is contained in the exercises. Many are derived from problems of up- to-date research and are from a wide range of application areas.
Direct CP violation in hadronic B decays
HONG Bihai; L(U) Caidian
2006-01-01
There are different approaches for the hadronic B decay calculations, recently. In this paper, we upgrade three of them, namely factorization, QCD factorization and the perturbative QCD approach based on kT factorization, using new parameters and full wave functions. Although they get similar results for many of the branching ratios,the direct CP asymmetries predicted by them are different, which can be tested by recent experimental measurements of B factories.
Ma, Ai-Jun; Wang, Wen-Fei; Xiao, Zhen-Jun
2016-01-01
In this paper, we study the $B_{(s)} \\to (D_{(s)},\\bar{D}_{(s)}) \\rho \\to (D_{(s)}, \\bar{D}_{(s)})\\pi \\pi$ decays by employing a framework for the quasi-two-body decays in the perturbative QCD(PQCD) factorization approach. We use the two-pion distribution amplitudes $\\Phi_{\\pi\\pi}$, which contains both resonant and nonresonant contributions from the pion pair to explain the final-state interactions between the pions in the resonant regions. We found that (a) for the four $B\\to (\\bar{D}^0,D^-) \\rho \\to (\\bar{D}^0,D^-) \\pi\\pi$ and $B_s \\to D_s^- \\rho^+ \\to D_s^- \\pi^+\\pi^0$ decays, the PQCD predictions for their branching ratios can be as large as $10^{-4}-10^{-2}$; (b) for other ten considered decays, the PQCD predictions for their decay rates are around $10^{-8}$ to $10^{-5}$ mainly due to strong CKM suppressions; and (c) the PQCD predictions based on the quasi-two-body and the two-body framework agree well with each other, and also be consistent with currently available experimental measurements.
Time-angle sensitivity kernels for sound-speed perturbations in a shallow ocean.
Aulanier, Florian; Nicolas, Barbara; Roux, Philippe; Mars, Jérôme I
2013-07-01
Acoustic waves traveling in a shallow-water waveguide produce a set of multiple paths that can be characterized as a geometric approximation by their travel time (TT), direction of arrival (DOA), and direction of departure (DOD). This study introduces the use of the DOA and DOD as additional observables that can be combined to the classical TT to track sound-speed perturbations in an oceanic waveguide. To model the TT, DOA, and DOD variations induced by sound-speed perturbations, the three following steps are used: (1) In the first-order Born approximation, the Fréchet kernel provides a linear link between the signal fluctuations and the sound-speed perturbations; (2) a double-beamforming algorithm is used to transform the signal fluctuations received on two source-receiver arrays in the time, receiver-depth, and source-depth domain into the eigenray equivalent measured in the time, reception-angle and launch angle domain; and finally (3) the TT, DOA, and DOD variations are extracted from the double-beamformed signal variations through a first-order Taylor development. As a result, time-angle sensitivity kernels are defined and used to build a linear relationship between the observable variations and the sound-speed perturbations. This approach is validated with parabolic-equation simulations in a shallow-water ocean context.
A Perturbation Approach to Robot Calibration.
1985-04-01
Robotica 2(4):205-209. 12. Lenarcic, J. 1984. Kinematic Equations of Robot Manipulator. Digital Systems for Industrial Automation 2(2):133-151. - 13. Luh...manipulators. 12th Int. Symp. on Industrial Robots, Paris, France. Bedford: IFS Publications, pp. 469-478. * 15. Mooring, B. W. 1983 (August 7-11). The...Society of Manufacturing Engineers, pp. 147-152. - 25. Whitney, D. E., and Lozinski, C. A. 1984. Industrial Robot Calibration Methods and Results
Rachakonda Sreekar; Suhel Quader
2013-12-01
Animals often evaluate the degree of risk posed by a predator and respond accordingly. Since many predators orient their eyes towards prey while attacking, predator gaze and directness of approach could serve as conspicuous indicators of risk to prey. The ability to perceive these cues and discriminate between high and low predation risk should benefit prey species through both higher survival and decreased energy expenditure. We experimentally examined whether Indian rock lizards (Psammophilus dorsalis) can perceive these two indicators of predation risk by measuring the variation in their fleeing behaviour in response to type of gaze and approach by a human predator. Overall, we found that the gaze and approach of the predator influenced flight initiation distance, which also varied with attributes of the prey (i.e. size/sex and tail-raise behaviour). Flight initiation distance (FID) was 43% longer during direct approaches with direct gaze compared with tangential approaches with averted gaze. In further, exploratory, analyses, we found that FID was 23% shorter for adult male lizards than for female or young male (FYM) lizards. In addition, FYM lizards that showed a tail-raise display during approach had a 71% longer FID than those that did not. Our results suggest that multiple factors influence the decision to flee in animals. Further studies are needed to test the generality of these factors and to investigate the proximate mechanisms underlying flight decisions.
Kevin Y Yip
Full Text Available We performed computational reconstruction of the in silico gene regulatory networks in the DREAM3 Challenges. Our task was to learn the networks from two types of data, namely gene expression profiles in deletion strains (the 'deletion data' and time series trajectories of gene expression after some initial perturbation (the 'perturbation data'. In the course of developing the prediction method, we observed that the two types of data contained different and complementary information about the underlying network. In particular, deletion data allow for the detection of direct regulatory activities with strong responses upon the deletion of the regulator while perturbation data provide richer information for the identification of weaker and more complex types of regulation. We applied different techniques to learn the regulation from the two types of data. For deletion data, we learned a noise model to distinguish real signals from random fluctuations using an iterative method. For perturbation data, we used differential equations to model the change of expression levels of a gene along the trajectories due to the regulation of other genes. We tried different models, and combined their predictions. The final predictions were obtained by merging the results from the two types of data. A comparison with the actual regulatory networks suggests that our approach is effective for networks with a range of different sizes. The success of the approach demonstrates the importance of integrating heterogeneous data in network reconstruction.
Applications of Cosmological Perturbation Theory
Christopherson, Adam J
2011-01-01
Cosmological perturbation theory is crucial for our understanding of the universe. The linear theory has been well understood for some time, however developing and applying the theory beyond linear order is currently at the forefront of research in theoretical cosmology. This thesis studies the applications of perturbation theory to cosmology and, specifically, to the early universe. Starting with some background material introducing the well-tested 'standard model' of cosmology, we move on to develop the formalism for perturbation theory up to second order giving evolution equations for all types of scalar, vector and tensor perturbations, both in gauge dependent and gauge invariant form. We then move on to the main result of the thesis, showing that, at second order in perturbation theory, vorticity is sourced by a coupling term quadratic in energy density and entropy perturbations. This source term implies a qualitative difference to linear order. Thus, while at linear order vorticity decays with the expan...
Applications Of Chiral Perturbation Theory
Mohta, V
2005-01-01
Effective field theory techniques are used to describe the spectrum and interactions of hadrons. The mathematics of classical field theory and perturbative quantum field theory are reviewed. The physics of effective field theory and, in particular, of chiral perturbation theory and heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory are also reviewed. The geometry underlying heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory is described in detail. Results by Coleman et. al. in the physics literature are stated precisely and proven. A chiral perturbation theory is developed for a multiplet containing the recently- observed exotic baryons. A small coupling expansion is identified that allows the calculation of self-energy corrections to the exotic baryon masses. Opportunities in lattice calculations are discussed. Chiral perturbation theory is used to study the possibility of two multiplets of exotic baryons mixed by quark masses. A new symmetry constraint on reduced partial widths is identified. Predictions in the literature based ...
Direct Marketing and the Structure of Farm Sales: An Unconditional Quantile Regression Approach
Park, Timothy A.
2015-01-01
This paper examines the impact of participation in direct marketing on the entire distribution of farm sales using the unconditional quantile regression (UQR) estimator. Our analysis yields unbiased estimates of the unconditional impact of direct marketing on farm sales and reveals the heterogeneous effects that occur across the distribution of farm sales. The impacts of direct marketing efforts are uniformly negative across the UQR results, but declines in sales tend to grow smaller as sales...
Direct Marketing and the Structure of Farm Sales: An Unconditional Quantile Regression Approach
Park, Timothy A.
2015-01-01
This paper examines the impact of participation in direct marketing on the entire distribution of farm sales using the unconditional quantile regression (UQR) estimator. Our analysis yields unbiased estimates of the unconditional impact of direct marketing on farm sales and reveals the heterogeneous effects that occur across the distribution of farm sales. The impacts of direct marketing efforts are uniformly negative across the UQR results, but declines in sales tend to grow smaller as sales...
Chen, Yue; Cunningham, Gregory; Henderson, Michael
2016-09-01
This study aims to statistically estimate the errors in local magnetic field directions that are derived from electron directional distributions measured by Los Alamos National Laboratory geosynchronous (LANL GEO) satellites. First, by comparing derived and measured magnetic field directions along the GEO orbit to those calculated from three selected empirical global magnetic field models (including a static Olson and Pfitzer 1977 quiet magnetic field model, a simple dynamic Tsyganenko 1989 model, and a sophisticated dynamic Tsyganenko 2001 storm model), it is shown that the errors in both derived and modeled directions are at least comparable. Second, using a newly developed proxy method as well as comparing results from empirical models, we are able to provide for the first time circumstantial evidence showing that derived magnetic field directions should statistically match the real magnetic directions better, with averaged errors ˜ 5°. In addition, our results suggest that the errors in derived magnetic field directions do not depend much on magnetospheric activity, in contrast to the empirical field models. Finally, as applications of the above conclusions, we show examples of electron pitch angle distributions observed by LANL GEO and also take the derived magnetic field directions as the real ones so as to test the performance of empirical field models along the GEO orbits, with results suggesting dependence on solar cycles as well as satellite locations. This study demonstrates the validity and value of the method that infers local magnetic field directions from particle spin-resolved distributions.
Cosmological perturbations in massive bigravity
Lagos, Macarena; Ferreira, Pedro G., E-mail: m.lagos13@imperial.ac.uk, E-mail: p.ferreira1@physics.ox.ac.uk [Astrophysics, University of Oxford, DWB, Keble road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)
2014-12-01
We present a comprehensive analysis of classical scalar, vector and tensor cosmological perturbations in ghost-free massive bigravity. In particular, we find the full evolution equations and analytical solutions in a wide range of regimes. We show that there are viable cosmological backgrounds but, as has been found in the literature, these models generally have exponential instabilities in linear perturbation theory. However, it is possible to find stable scalar cosmological perturbations for a very particular choice of parameters. For this stable subclass of models we find that vector and tensor perturbations have growing solutions. We argue that special initial conditions are needed for tensor modes in order to have a viable model.
Qi, Huan
Direct metal deposition (DMD), a laser-cladding based solid freeform fabrication technique, is capable of depositing multiple materials at desired composition which makes this technique a flexible method to fabricate heterogeneous components or functionally-graded structures. The inherently rapid cooling rate associated with the laser cladding process enables extended solid solubility in nonequilibrium phases, offering the possibility of tailoring new materials with advanced properties. This technical advantage opens the area of synthesizing a new class of materials designed by topology optimization method which have performance-based material properties. For better understanding of the fundamental phenomena occurring in multi-material laser cladding with coaxial powder injection, a self-consistent 3-D transient model was developed. Physical phenomena including laser-powder interaction, heat transfer, melting, solidification, mass addition, liquid metal flow, and species transportation were modeled and solved with a controlled-volume finite difference method. Level-set method was used to track the evolution of liquid free surface. The distribution of species concentration in cladding layer was obtained using a nonequilibrium partition coefficient model. Simulation results were compared with experimental observations and found to be reasonably matched. Multi-phase material microstructures which have negative coefficients of thermal expansion were studied for their DMD manufacturability. The pixel-based topology-optimal designs are boundary-smoothed by Bezier functions to facilitate toolpath design. It is found that the inevitable diffusion interface between different material-phases degrades the negative thermal expansion property of the whole microstructure. A new design method is proposed for DMD manufacturing. Experimental approaches include identification of laser beam characteristics during different laser-powder-substrate interaction conditions, an
Hyman, Richard J.
1971-01-01
The validity of the direct shelf approach as a concept for organizing library materials, with special reference to its component, browsing" is investigated by this survey. Findings implied policy recommendations for library management and library school curricula. (33 references) (Author/NH)
den Uyl, T.E.; Gladwin, T.E.; Wiers, R.W.
2016-01-01
BACKGROUND: Cognitive bias modification (CBM) can be used to retrain automatic approach tendencies for alcohol. We investigated whether changing cortical excitability with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) could enhance CBM effects in hazardous drinkers. We also studied the underlying
J.C. Bos (Jan); R. Stoeckart (Rob); A. Klooswijk (Aij); B. van Linge (Bert); R. Bahadoer (R.)
1994-01-01
textabstractIn view of the increasing popularity of the direct lateral approach to the hip joint for hemi- or total hip arthroplasty, the location of the superior gluteal nerve (SGN) was studied. This nerve is in danger when using a transgluteal incision. In 20 embalmed specimens the relation of the
Mingo, J.; Erramuzpe, A.; Luna, S.; Aurtenetxe, O.; Amo, L.; Diez, I.; Schepens, J.T.G.; Hendriks, W.J.A.J.; Cortes, J.M.; Pulido, R.
2016-01-01
Site-directed mutagenesis (SDM) is a powerful tool to create defined collections of protein variants for experimental and clinical purposes, but effectiveness is compromised when a large number of mutations is required. We present here a one-tube-only standardized SDM approach that generates compreh
Di Salvo, Vincent S.; Larsen, Janet K.
1987-01-01
Examines the impact of direction and occupation on the importance of communication skills for entry-level positions in finance, management, engineering, and law. Results substantiate a three-dimensional model (based on direction, occupation, and position) for the examination and application of communication skill importance in organization. (JD)
Different buckling regimes in direct electrospinning: A comparative approach to rope buckling
Shariatpanahi, S.P.; Etesami, Z.; Iraji zad, A.; Bonn, D.; Ejtehadi, M.R.
2015-01-01
Understanding the dynamics of direct electrospinning is the key to control fiber morphologies that are critical for the development of new electrospinning methods and novel materials. Here, we propose the theory for direct electrospinning based on theories for (liquid) "rope coiling" and experimenta
General Analysis Tool Box for Controlled Perturbation
Osbild, Ralf
2012-01-01
The implementation of reliable and efficient geometric algorithms is a challenging task. The reason is the following conflict: On the one hand, computing with rounded arithmetic may question the reliability of programs while, on the other hand, computing with exact arithmetic may be too expensive and hence inefficient. One solution is the implementation of controlled perturbation algorithms which combine the speed of floating-point arithmetic with a protection mechanism that guarantees reliability, nonetheless. This paper is concerned with the performance analysis of controlled perturbation algorithms in theory. We answer this question with the presentation of a general analysis tool box. This tool box is separated into independent components which are presented individually with their interfaces. This way, the tool box supports alternative approaches for the derivation of the most crucial bounds. We present three approaches for this task. Furthermore, we have thoroughly reworked the concept of controlled per...
Understanding Theoretical Uncertainties in Perturbative QCD Computations
Jenniches, Laura Katharina
effective field theories and perturbative QCD to predict the effect of New Physics on measurements at the LHC and at other future colliders. We use heavy-quark, heavy-scalar and soft-collinear effective theory to calculate a three-body cascade decay at NLO QCD in the expansion-by-regions formalism...... discuss an extension of the Cacciari-Houdeau approach to observables with hadrons in the initial state....
Perturbational analysis of plasmon decay in jellium
Bachlechner, Martina E.; Macke, Wilhelm; Miesenböck, Helga M.; Schinner, Andreas
1991-02-01
Plasmon damping in the three-dimensional homogeneous electron gas is investigated within second order perturbation theory for the density-density response function. The equivalence of several existing approaches that take into account lowest order two-pair excitations is shown explicitly. Finally, a complete Monte-Carlo analysis of the multi-dimensional integrals for the dielectric function is made for arbitrary densities.
2011-06-01
The present research chose three approaches representing distinct pedagogies and developed the instructional design and training materials for each...present research chose three approaches representing distinct pedagogies and developed the instructional design and training materials for each...4) • Group, hands on discussion in sharing of ideas (1) • Conducting the OPORD which allowed for autonomy and freedom (1) • Quality of
TERPRETATION-BASED APPROACH TO GRAMMAR TEACHING: NEW DIRECTIONS IN THEORY AND PRACTICE
Setiono Sugiharto
2005-01-01
Full Text Available A substantial body of empirical research has revealed that the application of a purely communicative approach in the EFL setting is inadequate in helping learners attain high levels of grammatical competence. In fact, it has been found in the previous studies that communicative methodology produced learners with low levels of accuracy. Drawing on the contemporary literature related to grammar pedagogy, this article finds it useful to offer an alternative approach to grammar teaching in the EFL setting an approach that is based on task interpretation. This approach emphasizes the learnerâ€™s comprehension of the specific grammatical features in communicative content. Specifically, it stresses the importance of input processing rather than output processing. In so doing, the approach allows learnersâ€™ awareness of the grammatical features to develop so as to facilitate and eventually accelerate the acquisition process.
Toward controlling perturbations in robotic sensor networks
Banerjee, Ashis G.; Majumder, Saikat R.
2014-06-01
Robotic sensor networks (RSNs), which consist of networks of sensors placed on mobile robots, are being increasingly used for environment monitoring applications. In particular, a lot of work has been done on simultaneous localization and mapping of the robots, and optimal sensor placement for environment state estimation1. The deployment of RSNs, however, remains challenging in harsh environments where the RSNs have to deal with significant perturbations in the forms of wind gusts, turbulent water flows, sand storms, or blizzards that disrupt inter-robot communication and individual robot stability. Hence, there is a need to be able to control such perturbations and bring the networks to desirable states with stable nodes (robots) and minimal operational performance (environment sensing). Recent work has demonstrated the feasibility of controlling the non-linear dynamics in other communication networks like emergency management systems and power grids by introducing compensatory perturbations to restore network stability and operation2. In this paper, we develop a computational framework to investigate the usefulness of this approach for RSNs in marine environments. Preliminary analysis shows promising performance and identifies bounds on the original perturbations within which it is possible to control the networks.
A cross-language study of compensation in response to real-time formant perturbation
Mitsuya, Takashi; MacDonald, Ewen; Purcell, David W.;
2011-01-01
Past studies have shown that when formants are perturbed in real time, speakers spontaneously compensate for the perturbation by changing their formant frequencies in the opposite direction to the perturbation. Further, the pattern of these results suggests that the processing of auditory feedbac...
Inversion of the perturbation series
Amore, Paolo [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal DIaz del Castillo 340, Colima, Colima (Mexico); Fernandez, Francisco M [INIFTA (Conicet, UNLP), Division Quimica Teorica, Diag 113 S/N, Sucursal 4, Casilla de Correo 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)
2008-01-18
We investigate the inversion of the perturbation series and its resummation, and prove that it is related to a recently developed parametric perturbation theory. Results for some illustrative examples show that in some cases series reversion may improve the accuracy of the results.
Propagation of Ion Acoustic Perturbations
Pécseli, Hans
1975-01-01
Equations describing the propagation of ion acoustic perturbations are considered, using the assumption that the electrons are Boltzman distributed and isothermal at all times. Quasi-neutrality is also considered.......Equations describing the propagation of ion acoustic perturbations are considered, using the assumption that the electrons are Boltzman distributed and isothermal at all times. Quasi-neutrality is also considered....
Path integral for inflationary perturbations
Prokopec, T.; Rigopoulos, G.
2010-01-01
The quantum theory of cosmological perturbations in single-field inflation is formulated in terms of a path integral. Starting from a canonical formulation, we show how the free propagators can be obtained from the well-known gauge-invariant quadratic action for scalar and tensor perturbations, and
Advance medical directives: a proposed new approach and terminology from an Islamic perspective.
Al-Jahdali, Hamdan; Baharoon, Salim; Al Sayyari, Abdullah; Al-Ahmad, Ghiath
2013-05-01
Advance directives are specific competent consumers' wishes about future medical plans in the event that they become incompetent. Awareness of a patient's autonomy particularly, in relation to their right to refuse or withdraw treatment, a right for the patient to die from natural causes and interest in end of life issues were among the main reasons for developing and legalizing advance medical directives in developed countries. However, in many circumstances cultural and religious aspects are among many factors that can hamper implementation of advance directives. Islam and Muslims in general have a good understanding of death and dying. Islam allows the withholding or withdrawal of treatments in some cases where the intervention is considered futile. However, there is lack of literature and debate about such issues from an Islamic point of view. This article provides the Islamic perspective with regards to advance medical directive with the hope that it will generate more thoughts and evoke further discussion on this important topic.
A simplified approach to directly consider intact rock anisotropy in HoekeBrown failure criterion
Mohamed AIsmael; Hassan FImam; Yasser El-Shayeb
2014-01-01
Many rock types have naturally occurring inherent anisotropic planes, such as bedding planes, foliation, or flow structures. Such characteristic induces directional features and anisotropy in rocks’ strength and deformational properties. The HoekeBrown (HeB) failure criterion is an empirical strength criterion widely applied to rock mechanics and engineering. A direct modification to HeB failure criterion to account for rock anisotropy is considered as the base of the research. Such modification introduced a new definition of the anisotropy as direct parameter named the anisotropic parameter (Kb). However, the computation of this parameter takes much experimental work and cannot be calculated in a simple way. The aim of this paper is to study the trend of the relation between the degree of anisotropy (Rc) and the minimum value of anisotropic parameter (Kmin), and to predict the Kmin directly from the uniaxial compression tests instead of triaxial tests, and also to decrease the amount of experimental work.
Arbatani, Siamak; Callejo, Alfonso; Kövecses, József; Kalantari, Masoud; Marchand, Nick R.; Dargahi, Javad
2016-06-01
Directional drilling is a popular technique for oil well drilling. Accurate prediction of the directional performance is critical in order to achieve the desired well profile. Simplified geometry methods are, to date, the industry standard for predicting directional performance. A comprehensive, high-fidelity method for the simulation of directional drilling is presented here. It consists of a detailed discretization of the actual geometry and a rigorous application of two modeling techniques: the finite element and the finite segment methods. By doing so, the dynamic problem is addressed from two different yet complementary perspectives: structural mechanics and rigid-body motion. Collision detection and contact dynamics algorithms are also presented. Results show that both methods agree in terms of the dynamic response, and that the build rate estimations are consistent with available experimental data. Owing to the framework efficiency and physics-based nature, the presented tools are very well-suited for design engineering and real-time simulation.
Policy directions in urban health in developing countries--the slum improvement approach.
Harpham, T; Stephens, C
1992-07-01
The urban development, or housing, sector has a longer experience of addressing the problems of the urban poor in developing countries than the health sector. In recent years the policy of 'slum improvement', which involves both sectors, has attracted the support of international donors. This article documents the development of the slum improvement approach and addresses key issues of the approach which have implications for health planning: covering the poorest dwellers; relocation; land tenure; gentrification; debt burdens and the impact on women. Questions about the approach which still need answering are defined and a summary of the constraints in slum improvement and potential solutions is presented.
Junction conditions of cosmological perturbations
Tomita, K
2004-01-01
The behavior of perturbations is studied in cosmological models which consist of two different homogeneous regions connected in a spherical shell boundary. The junction conditions for the metric perturbations and the displacements of the shell boundary are analyzed and the surface densities of the perturbed energy and momentum in the shell are derived, using Mukohyama's gauge-invariant formalism and the Israel discontinuity condition. In both homogeneous regions the perturbations of scalar, vector and tensor types are expanded using the 3-dimensional harmonic functions, but the model coupling among them is caused in the shell by the inhomogeneity. By treating the perturbations with odd and even parities separately, it is found, however, that we can have consistent displacements and surface densities for given metric parturbations
Perturbations in Massive Gravity Cosmology
Crisostomi, Marco; Pilo, Luigi
2012-01-01
We study cosmological perturbations for a ghost free massive gravity theory formulated with a dynamical extra metric that is needed to massive deform GR. In this formulation FRW background solutions fall in two branches. In the dynamics of perturbations around the first branch solutions, no extra degree of freedom with respect to GR ispresent at linearized level, likewise what is found in the Stuckelberg formulation of massive gravity where the extra metric isflat and non dynamical. In the first branch, perturbations are probably strongly coupled. On the contrary, for perturbations around the second branch solutions all expected degrees of freedom propagate. While tensor and vector perturbations of the physical metric that couples with matter follow closely the ones of GR, scalars develop an exponential Jeans-like instability on sub-horizon scales. On the other hand, around a de Sitter background there is no instability. We argue that one could get rid of the instabilities by introducing a mirror dark matter ...
Multiplicative perturbations of local -semigroups
Chung-Cheng Kuo
2015-02-01
In this paper, we establish some left and right multiplicative perturbation theorems concerning local -semigroups when the generator of a perturbed local -semigroup $S(\\cdot)$ may not be densely defined and the perturbation operator is a bounded linear operator from $\\overline{D(A)}$ into () such that = on $\\overline{D(A)}$, which can be applied to obtain some additive perturbation theorems for local -semigroups in which is a bounded linear operator from $[D(A)]$ into () such that = on $\\overline{D(A)}$. We also show that the perturbations of a (local) -semigroup $S(\\cdot)$ are exponentially bounded (resp., norm continuous, locally Lipschitz continuous, or exponentially Lipschitz continuous) if $S(\\cdot)$ is.
Nichols, James D.; Hines, James E.
2002-01-01
We first consider the estimation of the finite rate of population increase or population growth rate, u i , using capture-recapture data from open populations. We review estimation and modelling of u i under three main approaches to modelling openpopulation data: the classic approach of Jolly (1965) and Seber (1965), the superpopulation approach of Crosbie & Manly (1985) and Schwarz & Arnason (1996), and the temporal symmetry approach of Pradel (1996). Next, we consider the contributions of different demographic components to u i using a probabilistic approach based on the composition of the population at time i + 1 (Nichols et al., 2000b). The parameters of interest are identical to the seniority parameters, n i , of Pradel (1996). We review estimation of n i under the classic, superpopulation, and temporal symmetry approaches. We then compare these direct estimation approaches for u i and n i with analogues computed using projection matrix asymptotics. We also discuss various extensions of the estimation approaches to multistate applications and to joint likelihoods involving multiple data types.
Perturbative unitarity of Lee-Wick quantum field theory
Anselmi, Damiano; Piva, Marco
2017-08-01
We study the perturbative unitarity of the Lee-Wick models, formulated as nonanalytically Wick rotated Euclidean theories. The complex energy plane is divided into disconnected regions and the values of a loop integral in the various regions are related to one another by a nonanalytic procedure. We show that the one-loop diagrams satisfy the expected, unitary cutting equations in each region: only the physical d.o.f. propagate through the cuts. The goal can be achieved by working in suitable subsets of each region and proving that the cutting equations can be analytically continued as a whole. We make explicit calculations in the cases of the bubble and triangle diagrams and address the generality of our approach. We also show that the same higher-derivative models violate unitarity if they are formulated directly in Minkowski spacetime.
Ji, Fei-Yu; Zhang, Shun-Li
2013-11-01
In this paper, the generalized diffusion equation with perturbation ut = A(u;ux)uII+eB(u;ux) is studied in terms of the approximate functional variable separation approach. A complete classification of these perturbed equations which admit approximate functional separable solutions is presented. Some approximate solutions to the resulting perturbed equations are obtained by examples.
A hybrid variational-perturbational nuclear motion algorithm
Fábri, Csaba; Furtenbacher, Tibor; Császár, Attila G.
2014-09-01
A hybrid variational-perturbational nuclear motion algorithm based on the perturbative treatment of the Coriolis coupling terms of the Eckart-Watson kinetic energy operator following a variational treatment of the rest of the operator is described. The algorithm has been implemented in the quantum chemical code DEWE. Performance of the hybrid treatment is assessed by comparing selected numerically exact variational vibration-only and rovibrational energy levels of the C2H4, C2D4, and CH4 molecules with their perturbatively corrected counterparts. For many of the rotational-vibrational states examined, numerical tests reveal excellent agreement between the variational and even the first-order perturbative energy levels, whilst the perturbative approach is able to reduce the computational cost of the matrix-vector product evaluations, needed by the iterative Lanczos eigensolver, by almost an order of magnitude.
Mizuno, Yuta; Arasaki, Yasuki; Takatsuka, Kazuo, E-mail: kaztak@mns2.c.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Basic Science, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Komaba, 153-8902 Tokyo (Japan)
2016-01-14
A complicated yet interesting induced photon emission can take place by a nonadiabatic intramolecular electron transfer system like LiF under an intense CW laser [Y. Arasaki, S. Scheit, and K. Takatsuka, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 161103 (2013)]. Behind this phenomena, the crossing point between two potential energy curves of covalent and ionic natures in diabatic representation is forced to oscillate, since only the ionic potential curve is shifted significantly up and down repeatedly (called the Dynamical Stark effect). The wavepacket pumped initially to the excited covalent potential curve frequently encounters such a dynamically moving crossing point and thereby undergoes very complicated dynamics including wavepacket bifurcation and deformation. Intramolecular electron transfer thus driven by the coupling between nonadiabatic state-mixing and laser fields induces irregular photon emission. Here in this report we discuss the complicated spectral features of this kind of photon emission induced by infrared laser. In the low frequency domain, the photon emission is much more involved than those of ultraviolet/visible driving fields, since many field-dressed states are created on the ionic potential, which have their own classical turning points and crossing points with the covalent counterpart. To analyze the physics behind the phenomena, we develop a perturbation theoretic approach to the Riccati equation that is transformed from coupled first-order linear differential equations with periodic coefficients, which are supposed to produce the so-called Floquet states. We give mathematical expressions for the Floquet energies, frequencies, and intensities of the photon emission spectra, and the cutoff energy of their harmonic generation. Agreement between these approximate quantities and those estimated with full quantum calculations is found to be excellent. Furthermore, the present analysis provides with notions to facilitate deeper understanding for the physical and
Mizuno, Yuta; Arasaki, Yasuki; Takatsuka, Kazuo
2016-01-01
A complicated yet interesting induced photon emission can take place by a nonadiabatic intramolecular electron transfer system like LiF under an intense CW laser [Y. Arasaki, S. Scheit, and K. Takatsuka, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 161103 (2013)]. Behind this phenomena, the crossing point between two potential energy curves of covalent and ionic natures in diabatic representation is forced to oscillate, since only the ionic potential curve is shifted significantly up and down repeatedly (called the Dynamical Stark effect). The wavepacket pumped initially to the excited covalent potential curve frequently encounters such a dynamically moving crossing point and thereby undergoes very complicated dynamics including wavepacket bifurcation and deformation. Intramolecular electron transfer thus driven by the coupling between nonadiabatic state-mixing and laser fields induces irregular photon emission. Here in this report we discuss the complicated spectral features of this kind of photon emission induced by infrared laser. In the low frequency domain, the photon emission is much more involved than those of ultraviolet/visible driving fields, since many field-dressed states are created on the ionic potential, which have their own classical turning points and crossing points with the covalent counterpart. To analyze the physics behind the phenomena, we develop a perturbation theoretic approach to the Riccati equation that is transformed from coupled first-order linear differential equations with periodic coefficients, which are supposed to produce the so-called Floquet states. We give mathematical expressions for the Floquet energies, frequencies, and intensities of the photon emission spectra, and the cutoff energy of their harmonic generation. Agreement between these approximate quantities and those estimated with full quantum calculations is found to be excellent. Furthermore, the present analysis provides with notions to facilitate deeper understanding for the physical and
Tian, Chao; Chen, Jia; Zhang, Bo; Shan, Lianqiang; Zhou, Weimin; Liu, Dongxiao; Bi, Bi; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Weiwu; Zhang, Baohan; Gu, Yuqiu
2015-05-04
The uniformity of the compression driver is of fundamental importance for inertial confinement fusion (ICF). In this paper, the illumination uniformity on a spherical capsule during the initial imprinting phase directly driven by laser beams has been considered. We aim to explore methods to achieve high direct drive illumination uniformity on laser facilities designed for indirect drive ICF. There are many parameters that would affect the irradiation uniformity, such as Polar Direct Drive displacement quantity, capsule radius, laser spot size and intensity distribution within a laser beam. A novel approach to reduce the root mean square illumination non-uniformity based on multi-parameter optimizing approach (particle swarm optimization) is proposed, which enables us to obtain a set of optimal parameters over a large parameter space. Finally, this method is applied to improve the direct drive illumination uniformity provided by Shenguang III laser facility and the illumination non-uniformity is reduced from 5.62% to 0.23% for perfectly balanced beams. Moreover, beam errors (power imbalance and pointing error) are taken into account to provide a more practical solution and results show that this multi-parameter optimization approach is effective.
Borgersen, Nanna Jo; Henriksen, Mikael Johannes Vuokko; Konge, Lars; Sørensen, Torben Lykke; Thomsen, Ann Sofia Skou; Subhi, Yousif
2016-01-01
Background Direct ophthalmoscopy is well-suited for video-based instruction, particularly if the videos enable the student to see what the examiner sees when performing direct ophthalmoscopy. We evaluated the pedagogical effectiveness of instructional YouTube videos on direct ophthalmoscopy by evaluating their content and approach to visualization. Methods In order to synthesize main themes and points for direct ophthalmoscopy, we formed a broad panel consisting of a medical student, junior and senior physicians, and took into consideration book chapters targeting medical students and physicians in general. We then systematically searched YouTube. Two authors reviewed eligible videos to assess eligibility and extract data on video statistics, content, and approach to visualization. Correlations between video statistics and contents were investigated using two-tailed Spearman’s correlation. Results We screened 7,640 videos, of which 27 were found eligible for this study. Overall, a median of 12 out of 18 points (interquartile range: 8–14 key points) were covered; no videos covered all of the 18 points assessed. We found the most difficulties in the approach to visualization of how to approach the patient and how to examine the fundus. Time spent on fundus examination correlated with the number of views per week (Spearman’s ρ=0.53; P=0.029). Conclusion Videos may help overcome the pedagogical issues in teaching direct ophthalmoscopy; however, the few available videos on YouTube fail to address this particular issue adequately. There is a need for high-quality videos that include relevant points, provide realistic visualization of the examiner’s view, and give particular emphasis on fundus examination. PMID:27574393
Perturbation to Lie Symmetry and Adiabatic Invariants for General Holonomic Mechanical Systems
DING Ning; FANG Jian-Hui; WANG Peng; ZHANG Xiao-Ni
2007-01-01
Based on the concept of adiabatic invariant, the perturbation to the Lie symmetry and adiabatic invariants for general holonomic mechanical systems are studied. The exact invariants induced directly from the Lie symmetry of the system without perturbation are given. The perturbation to the Lie symmetry is discussed and the adiabatic invariants that have the different form from that in [Act. Phys. Sin. 55 (2006) 3236 (in Chinese)] of the perturbed system, are obtained.
The perturbative ghost propagator in Landau gauge from numerical stochastic perturbation theory
Di Renzo, F; Perlt, H; Schiller, A; Torrero, C
2008-01-01
We present one- and two-loop results for the ghost propagator in Landau gauge calculated in Numerical Stochastic Perturbation Theory (NSPT). The one-loop results are compared with available standard Lattice Perturbation Theory in the infinite-volume limit. We discuss in detail how to perform the different necessary limits in the NSPT approach and discuss a recipe to treat logarithmic terms by introducing ``finite-lattice logs''. We find agreement with the one-loop result from standard Lattice Perturbation Theory and estimate, from the non-logarithmic part of the ghost propagator in two-loop order, the unknown constant contribution to the ghost self-energy in the RI'-MOM scheme in Landau gauge. That constant vanishes within our numerical accuracy.