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Sample records for dirac matrices

  1. Dirac matrices for Chern-Simons gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izaurieta, Fernando; Ramirez, Ricardo; Rodriguez, Eduardo [Departamento de Matematica y Fisica Aplicadas, Universidad Catolica de la Santisima Concepcion, Alonso de Ribera 2850, 4090541 Concepcion (Chile)

    2012-10-06

    A genuine gauge theory for the Poincare, de Sitter or anti-de Sitter algebras can be constructed in (2n- 1)-dimensional spacetime by means of the Chern-Simons form, yielding a gravitational theory that differs from General Relativity but shares many of its properties, such as second order field equations for the metric. The particular form of the Lagrangian is determined by a rank n, symmetric tensor invariant under the relevant algebra. In practice, the calculation of this invariant tensor can be reduced to the computation of the trace of the symmetrized product of n Dirac Gamma matrices {Gamma}{sub ab} in 2n-dimensional spacetime. While straightforward in principle, this calculation can become extremely cumbersome in practice. For large enough n, existing computer algebra packages take an inordinate long time to produce the answer or plainly fail having used up all available memory. In this talk we show that the general formula for the trace of the symmetrized product of 2n Gamma matrices {Gamma}{sub ab} can be written as a certain sum over the integer partitions s of n, with every term being multiplied by a numerical cofficient {alpha}{sub s}. We then give a general algorithm that computes the {alpha}-coefficients as the solution of a linear system of equations generated by evaluating the general formula for different sets of tensors B{sup ab} with random numerical entries. A recurrence relation between different coefficients is shown to hold and is used in a second, 'minimal' algorithm to greatly speed up the computations. Runtime of the minimal algorithm stays below 1 min on a typical desktop computer for up to n = 25, which easily covers all foreseeable applications of the trace formula.

  2. Dirac Matrices and Feynman’s Rest of the Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young S. Kim

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available There are two sets of four-by-four matrices introduced by Dirac. The first set consists of fifteen Majorana matrices derivable from his four γ matrices. These fifteen matrices can also serve as the generators of the group SL(4, r. The second set consists of ten generators of the Sp(4 group which Dirac derived from two coupled harmonic oscillators. It is shown possible to extend the symmetry of Sp(4 to that of SL(4, r if the area of the phase space of one of the oscillators is allowed to become smaller without a lower limit. While there are no restrictions on the size of phase space in classical mechanics, Feynman’s rest of the universe makes this Sp(4-to-SL(4, r transition possible. The ten generators are for the world where quantum mechanics is valid. The remaining five generators belong to the rest of the universe. It is noted that the groups SL(4, r and Sp(4 are locally isomorphic to the Lorentz groups O(3, 3 and O(3, 2 respectively. This allows us to interpret Feynman’s rest of the universe in terms of space-time symmetry.

  3. A new method for calculation of traces of Dirac γ-matrices in Minkowski space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondarev, Alexander L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents some relations for orthonormal bases in the Minkowski space and isotropic tetrads constructed from the vectors of these bases. As an example of an application of the obtained formulae, in particular recursion relations, a new method is proposed to calculate traces of Dirac γ-matrices in the Minkowski space. Compared to the classical algorithms, the new method results in more compact expressions for the traces. Specifically, it may be easily implemented as a simple yet efficient computer algorithm

  4. Dirac, Weyl, Majorana, a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uschersohn, J.

    1982-05-01

    The Dirac equation and the properties of Dirac matrices are presented and discussed. A large number of representations of the Dirac matrices is identified. Special emphasis is put on aspects rarely treated or neglected in textbooks

  5. Connecting Dirac and Majorana neutrino mass matrices in the minimal left-right symmetric model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemevšek, Miha; Senjanović, Goran; Tello, Vladimir

    2013-04-12

    Probing the origin of neutrino mass by disentangling the seesaw mechanism is one of the central issues of particle physics. We address it in the minimal left-right symmetric model and show how the knowledge of light and heavy neutrino masses and mixings suffices to determine their Dirac Yukawa couplings. This in turn allows one to make predictions for a number of high and low energy phenomena, such as decays of heavy neutrinos, neutrinoless double beta decay, electric dipole moments of charged leptons, and neutrino transition moments. We also discuss a way of reconstructing the neutrino Dirac Yukawa couplings at colliders such as the LHC.

  6. On Parametrization of the Linear GL(4,C) and Unitary SU(4) Groups in Terms of Dirac Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Red'Kov, Victor M.; Bogush, Andrei A.; Tokarevskaya, Natalia G.

    2008-02-01

    Parametrization of 4 × 4-matrices G of the complex linear group GL(4,C) in terms of four complex 4-vector parameters (k,m,n,l) is investigated. Additional restrictions separating some subgroups of GL(4,C) are given explicitly. In the given parametrization, the problem of inverting any 4 × 4 matrix G is solved. Expression for determinant of any matrix G is found: det G = F(k,m,n,l). Unitarity conditions G+ = G-1 have been formulated in the form of non-linear cubic algebraic equations including complex conjugation. Several simplest solutions of these unitarity equations have been found: three 2-parametric subgroups G1, G2, G3 - each of subgroups consists of two commuting Abelian unitary groups; 4-parametric unitary subgroup consis! ting of a product of a 3-parametric group isomorphic SU(2) and 1-parametric Abelian group. The Dirac basis of generators Λk, being of Gell-Mann type, substantially differs from the basis λi used in the literature on SU(4) group, formulas relating them are found - they permit to separate SU(3) subgroup in SU(4). Special way to list 15 Dirac generators of GL(4,C) can be used {Λk} = {μiÅνjÅ(μiVνj = KÅL ÅM )}, which permit to factorize SU(4) transformations according to S = eiaμ eibνeikKeilLeimM, where two first factors commute with each other and are isomorphic to SU(2) group, the three last ones are 3-parametric groups, each of them consisting of three Abelian commuting unitary subgroups. Besides, the structure of fifteen Dirac matrices Λk permits to separate twenty 3-parametric subgroups in SU(4) isomorphic to SU(2); those subgroups might be used as bigger elementary blocks in constructing of a general transformation SU(4). It is shown how one can specify the present approach for the pseudounitary group SU(2,2) and SU(3,1).

  7. DIRAC MATRICES IN CHIRAL REPRESENTATION AND THE CONNECTION WITH THE ELECTRIC FIELD PARALLEL TO THE MAGNETIC FIELD MATRICES DE DIRAC EN REPRESENTACIÓN QUIRAL Y LA CONEXIÓN CON EL CAMPO ELÉCTRICO PARALELO AL CAMPO MAGNÉTICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Torres-Silva

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we offer an expression of the general Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation in the chiral representation of Dirac matrices interacting with fermion field. Our hypothesis is that through the multiplication of the Pauli matrix and Maxwell's chiral equations in the case of ,one obtains the Dirac's chiral equation. This is the proof of the theorem that the wave mechanics of quantum particles represent a specialized electrodynamic.En este trabajo se presenta una expresión de la transformación general de Foldy-Wouthuysen a la representación quiral de las matrices de Dirac interactuando con un campo de fermión. La hipótesis es que a través de la multiplicación de la matriz de Pauli por las ecuaciones quirales de Maxwell en el caso de , se obtiene la ecuación quiral de Dirac. Esta es la prueba del teorema de que la mecánica de ondas de partícula cuántica representa una electrodinámica especializada.

  8. Paul Dirac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pais, Abraham; Jacob, Maurice; Olive, David I.; Atiyah, Michael F.

    2005-09-01

    Preface Peter Goddard; Dirac memorial address Stephen Hawking; 1. Paul Dirac: aspects of his life and work Abraham Pais; 2. Antimatter Maurice Jacob; 3. The monopole David Olive; 4. The Dirac equation and geometry Michael F. Atiyah.

  9. Dirac materials

    OpenAIRE

    Wehling, T. O.; Black-Schaffer, A. M.; Balatsky, A. V.

    2014-01-01

    A wide range of materials, like d-wave superconductors, graphene, and topological insulators, share a fundamental similarity: their low-energy fermionic excitations behave as massless Dirac particles rather than fermions obeying the usual Schrodinger Hamiltonian. This emergent behavior of Dirac fermions in condensed matter systems defines the unifying framework for a class of materials we call "Dirac materials''. In order to establish this class of materials, we illustrate how Dirac fermions ...

  10. Alternatives to the Dirac equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girvin, S.M.; Brownstein, K.R.

    1975-01-01

    Recent work by Biedenharn, Han, and van Dam (BHvD) has questioned the uniqueness of the Dirac equation. BHvD have obtained a two-component equation as an alternate to the Dirac equation. Although they later show their alternative to be unitarily equivalent to the Dirac equation, certain physical differences were claimed. BHvD attribute the existence of this alternate equation to the fact that their factorizing matrices were position-dependent. To investigate this, we factor the Klein-Gordon equation in spherical coordinates allowing the factorizing matrices to depend arbitrarily upon theta and phi. It is shown that despite this additional freedom, and without involving any relativistic covariance, the conventional four-component Dirac equation is the only possibility

  11. New symmetries for the Dirac equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linhares, C.A.; Mignaco, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    The Dirac equation in four dimension is studied describing fermions, both as 4 x 4 matrices and differential forms. It is discussed in both formalisms its properties under transformations of the group SU(4). (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  12. The Dirac equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thaller, B.

    1992-01-01

    This monograph treats most of the usual material to be found in texts on the Dirac equation such as the basic formalism of quantum mechanics, representations of Dirac matrices, covariant realization of the Dirac equation, interpretation of negative energies, Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation, Klein's paradox, spherically symmetric interactions and a treatment of the relativistic hydrogen atom, etc., and also provides excellent additional treatments of a variety of other relevant topics. The monograph contains an extensive treatment of the Lorentz and Poincare groups and their representations. The author discusses in depth Lie algebaic and projective representations, covering groups, and Mackey's theory and Wigner's realization of induced representations. A careful classification of external fields with respect to their behavior under Poincare transformations is supplemented by a basic account of self-adjointness and spectral properties of Dirac operators. A state-of-the-art treatment of relativistic scattering theory based on a time-dependent approach originally due to Enss is presented. An excellent introduction to quantum electrodynamics in external fields is provided. Various appendices containing further details, notes on each chapter commenting on the history involved and referring to original research papers and further developments in the literature, and a bibliography covering all relevant monographs and over 500 articles on the subject, complete this text. This book should satisfy the needs of a wide audience, ranging from graduate students in theoretical physics and mathematics to researchers interested in mathematical physics

  13. Dirac matter

    CERN Document Server

    Rivasseau, Vincent; Fuchs, Jean-Nöel

    2017-01-01

    This fifteenth volume of the Poincare Seminar Series, Dirac Matter, describes the surprising resurgence, as a low-energy effective theory of conducting electrons in many condensed matter systems, including graphene and topological insulators, of the famous equation originally invented by P.A.M. Dirac for relativistic quantum mechanics. In five highly pedagogical articles, as befits their origin in lectures to a broad scientific audience, this book explains why Dirac matters. Highlights include the detailed "Graphene and Relativistic Quantum Physics", written by the experimental pioneer, Philip Kim, and devoted to graphene, a form of carbon crystallized in a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, from its discovery in 2004-2005 by the future Nobel prize winners Kostya Novoselov and Andre Geim to the so-called relativistic quantum Hall effect; the review entitled "Dirac Fermions in Condensed Matter and Beyond", written by two prominent theoreticians, Mark Goerbig and Gilles Montambaux, who consider many other mater...

  14. DIRAC Security

    CERN Document Server

    Casajús Ramo, A

    2006-01-01

    DIRAC is the LHCb Workload and Data Management System. Based on a service-oriented architecture, it enables generic distributed computing with lightweight Agents and Clients for job execution and data transfers. DIRAC implements a client-server architecture exposing server methods through XML Remote Procedure Call (XML-RPC) protocol. DIRAC is mostly coded in python. DIRAC security infrastructure has been designed to be a completely generic XML-RPC transport over a SSL tunnel. This new security layer is able to handle standard X509 certificates as well as grid-proxies to authenticate both sides of the connection. Serve and client authentication relies over OpenSSL and py-Open SSL, but to be able to handle grid proxies some modifications have been added to those libraries. DIRAC security infrastructure handles authorization and authorization as well as provides extended capabilities like secure connection tunneling and file transfer. Using this new security infrastructure all LHCb users can safely make use o...

  15. Dirac experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, F.; Adeva, B.; Afanasev, L.; Benayoun, M.; Brekhovskikh, V.; Caragheorgheopol, G.; Cechak, T.; Chiba, M.; Constantinescu, S.; Doudarev, A.; Dreossi, D.; Drijard, D.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Gallas, M.V.; Gerndt, J.; Giacomich, R.; Gianotti, P.; Goldin, D.; Gorin, A.; Gortchakov, O.; Guaraldo, C.; Hansroul, M.; Hosek, R.; Iliescu, M.; Jabitski, M.; Kalinina, N.; Karpoukhine, V.; Kluson, J.; Kobayashi, M.; Kokkas, P.; Komarov, V.; Koulikov, A.; Kouptsov, A.; Krouglov, V.; Krouglova, L.; Kuroda, K.-I.; Lanaro, A.; Lapshine, V.; Lednicky, R.; Leruste, P.; Levisandri, P.; Lopez Aguera, A.; Lucherini, V.; Maki, T.; Manuilov, I.; Montanet, L.; Narjoux, J.-L.; Nemenov, L.; Nikitin, M.; Nunez Pardo, T.; Okada, K.; Olchevskii, V.; Pazos, A.; Pentia, M.; Penzo, A.; Perreau, J.-M.; Petrascu, C.; Plo, M.; Ponta, T.; Pop, D.; Riazantsev, A.; Rodriguez, J.M.; Rodriguez Fernandez, A.; Rykaline, V.; Santamarina, C.; Saborido, J.; Schacher, J.; Sidorov, A.; Smolik, J.; Takeutchi, F.; Tarasov, A.; Tauscher, L.; Tobar, M.J.; Trusov, S.; Vazquez, P.; Vlachos, S.; Yazkov, V.; Yoshimura, Y.; Zrelov, P.

    2001-01-01

    The main objective of DIRAC experiment is the measurement of the lifetime τ of the exotic hadronic atom consisting of π + and π - mesons. The lifetime of this atom is determined by the decay mode π + π - → π 0 π 0 due to the strong interaction. Through the precise relationship between the lifetime and the S-wave pion-pion scattering length difference |a 0 - a 2 | for isospin 0 and 2 (respectively), a measurement of τ with an accuracy of 10% will allow a determination of |a 0 - a 2 | at a 5% precision level. Pion-pion scattering lengths have been calculated in the framework of chiral perturbation theory with an accuracy below 5%. In this way DIRAC experiment will provide a crucial test of the chiral symmetry breaking scheme in QCD effective theories at low energies

  16. Dirac experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, F.; Adeva, B.; Afanasev, L.; Benayoun, M.; Brekhovskikh, V.; Caragheorgheopol, G.; Cechak, T.; Chiba, M.; Constantinescu, S.; Doudarev, A.; Dreossi, D.; Drijard, D.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Gallas, M.V.; Gerndt, J.; Giacomich, R.; Gianotti, P.; Goldin, D.; Gorin, A.; Gortchakov, O.; Guaraldo, C.; Hansroul, M.; Hosek, R.; Iliescu, M.; Jabitski, M.; Kalinina, N.; Karpoukhine, V.; Kluson, J.; Kobayashi, M.; Kokkas, P.; Komarov, V.; Koulikov, A.; Kouptsov, A.; Krouglov, V.; Krouglova, L.; Kuroda, K.-I.; Lanaro, A.; Lapshine, V.; Lednicky, R.; Leruste, P.; Levisandri, P.; Lopez Aguera, A.; Lucherini, V.; Maki, T.; Manuilov, I.; Montanet, L.; Narjoux, J.-L.; Nemenov, L.; Nikitin, M.; Nunez Pardo, T.; Okada, K.; Olchevskii, V.; Pazos, A.; Pentia, M.; Penzo, A.; Perreau, J.-M.; Petrascu, C.; Plo, M.; Ponta, T.; Pop, D.; Riazantsev, A.; Rodriguez, J.M.; Rodriguez Fernandez, A.; Rykaline, V.; Santamarina, C.; Saborido, J.; Schacher, J.; Sidorov, A.; Smolik, J.; Takeutchi, F.; Tarasov, A.; Tauscher, L.; Tobar, M.J.; Trusov, S.; Vazquez, P.; Vlachos, S.; Yazkov, V.; Yoshimura, Y.; Zrelov, P

    2001-04-01

    The main objective of DIRAC experiment is the measurement of the lifetime {tau} of the exotic hadronic atom consisting of {pi}{sup +} and {pi}{sup -} mesons. The lifetime of this atom is determined by the decay mode {pi}{sup +} {pi}{sup -} {yields} {pi}{sup 0} {pi}{sup 0} due to the strong interaction. Through the precise relationship between the lifetime and the S-wave pion-pion scattering length difference |a{sub 0} - a{sub 2}| for isospin 0 and 2 (respectively), a measurement of {tau} with an accuracy of 10% will allow a determination of |a{sub 0} - a{sub 2}| at a 5% precision level. Pion-pion scattering lengths have been calculated in the framework of chiral perturbation theory with an accuracy below 5%. In this way DIRAC experiment will provide a crucial test of the chiral symmetry breaking scheme in QCD effective theories at low energies.

  17. A matricial approach for the Dirac-Kahler formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, M.

    1987-01-01

    A matricial approach for the Dirac-Kahler formalism is considered. It is shown that the matrical approach i) brings a great computational simplification compared to the common use of differential forms and that ii) by an appropriate choice of notation, it can be extended to the lattice, including a matrix Dirac-Kahler equation. (author) [pt

  18. Covariant differential calculus on quantum Minkowski space and the q-analogue of Dirac equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Xingchang; Academia Sinica, Beijing

    1992-01-01

    The covariant differential calculus on the quantum Minkowski space is presented with the help of the generalized Wess-Zumino method and the quantum Pauli matrices and quantum Dirac matrices are constructed parallel to those in the classical case. Combining these two aspects a q-analogue of Dirac equation follows directly. (orig.)

  19. From a world-sheet supersymmetry to the Dirac equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankoc Borstnik, N.

    1991-10-01

    Starting from a classical action for a point particle with a local world-sheet supersymmetry, the Dirac equation follows with operators α-vector, β-vector γ-vector being defined in the Grassmann space as differential operators and having all the properties of the corresponding Dirac matrices except that α-vector and β-vector are anti-Hermitian rather than Hermitian. Such a particle interacts with an external field as expected. (author). 7 refs

  20. Lie algebras for the Dirac-Clifford ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mignaco, J.A.; Linhares, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    It is shown in a general way that the Dirac-Clifford ring formed by the Dirac matrices and all their products, for all even and odd spacetime dimensions D, span the cumulation algebras SU(2 D/2 ) for even D and SU(2 (D- 1 )/2 ) + SU(2 (D-1)/2 ) for odd D. Some physical consequences of these results are discussed. (author)

  1. Loop diagrams without γ matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKeon, D.G.C.; Rebhan, A.

    1993-01-01

    By using a quantum-mechanical path integral to compute matrix elements of the form left-angle x|exp(-iHt)|y right-angle, radiative corrections in quantum-field theory can be evaluated without encountering loop-momentum integrals. In this paper we demonstrate how Dirac γ matrices that occur in the proper-time ''Hamiltonian'' H lead to the introduction of a quantum-mechanical path integral corresponding to a superparticle analogous to one proposed recently by Fradkin and Gitman. Direct evaluation of this path integral circumvents many of the usual algebraic manipulations of γ matrices in the computation of quantum-field-theoretical Green's functions involving fermions

  2. DIRAC distributed secure framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casajus, A; Graciani, R

    2010-01-01

    DIRAC, the LHCb community Grid solution, provides access to a vast amount of computing and storage resources to a large number of users. In DIRAC users are organized in groups with different needs and permissions. In order to ensure that only allowed users can access the resources and to enforce that there are no abuses, security is mandatory. All DIRAC services and clients use secure connections that are authenticated using certificates and grid proxies. Once a client has been authenticated, authorization rules are applied to the requested action based on the presented credentials. These authorization rules and the list of users and groups are centrally managed in the DIRAC Configuration Service. Users submit jobs to DIRAC using their local credentials. From then on, DIRAC has to interact with different Grid services on behalf of this user. DIRAC has a proxy management service where users upload short-lived proxies to be used when DIRAC needs to act on behalf of them. Long duration proxies are uploaded by users to a MyProxy service, and DIRAC retrieves new short delegated proxies when necessary. This contribution discusses the details of the implementation of this security infrastructure in DIRAC.

  3. DIRAC RESTful API

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casajus Ramo, A; Graciani Diaz, R; Tsaregorodtsev, A

    2012-01-01

    The DIRAC framework for distributed computing has been designed as a flexible and modular solution that can be adapted to the requirements of any community. Users interact with DIRAC via command line, using the web portal or accessing resources via the DIRAC python API. The current DIRAC API requires users to use a python version valid for DIRAC. Some communities have developed their own software solutions for handling their specific workload, and would like to use DIRAC as their back-end to access distributed computing resources easily. Many of these solutions are not coded in python or depend on a specific python version. To solve this gap DIRAC provides a new language agnostic API that any software solution can use. This new API has been designed following the RESTful principles. Any language with libraries to issue standard HTTP queries may use it. GSI proxies can still be used to authenticate against the API services. However GSI proxies are not a widely adopted standard. The new DIRAC API also allows clients to use OAuth for delegating the user credentials to a third party solution. These delegated credentials allow the third party software to query to DIRAC on behalf of the users. This new API will further expand the possibilities communities have to integrate DIRAC into their distributed computing models.

  4. Photoconductivity in Dirac materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, J. M.; Yang, G. W.

    2015-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) Dirac materials including graphene and the surface of a three-dimensional (3D) topological insulator, and 3D Dirac materials including 3D Dirac semimetal and Weyl semimetal have attracted great attention due to their linear Dirac nodes and exotic properties. Here, we use the Fermi’s golden rule and Boltzmann equation within the relaxation time approximation to study and compare the photoconductivity of Dirac materials under different far- or mid-infrared irradiation. Theoretical results show that the photoconductivity exhibits the anisotropic property under the polarized irradiation, but the anisotropic strength is different between 2D and 3D Dirac materials. The photoconductivity depends strongly on the relaxation time for different scattering mechanism, just like the dark conductivity

  5. A compact expression for bilinear combination of Dirac spinors via world tensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogalev, R.N.

    1994-01-01

    A compact expression for a product of two Dirac spinors is obtained as a linear combination of 16 Dirac γ-matrices. The result is presented in a convenient from, which can give rise to using it for analytical calculations of multiparticle amplitudes. It has been shown that a bilinear combination of Dirac spinors can be expressed by momentum and spin vectors of the corresponding particles up to a phase factor. 8 refs

  6. Basic quantum mechanics for three Dirac equations in a curved spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arminjon, Mayeul

    2010-01-01

    We study the basic quantum mechanics for a fully general set of Dirac matrices in a curved spacetime by extending Pauli's method. We further extend this study to three versions of the Dirac equation: the standard (Dirac-Fock-Weyl or DFW) equation, and two alternative versions, both of which are based on the recently proposed linear tensor representations of the Dirac field (TRD). We begin with the current conservation: we show that the latter applies to any solution of the Dirac equation, if the field of Dirac matrices γμ satisfies a specific PDE. This equation is always satisfied for DFW with its restricted choice for the γμ matrices. It similarly restricts the choice of the γμ matrices for TRD. However, this restriction can be achieved. The frame dependence of a general Hamiltonian operator is studied. We show that in any given reference frame with minor restrictions on the spacetime metric, the axioms of quantum mechanics impose a unique form for the Hilbert space scalar product. Finally, the condition for the general Dirac Hamiltonian operator to be Hermitian is derived in a general curved spacetime. For DFW, the validity of this hermeticity condition depends on the choice of the γμ matrices. (author)

  7. Fermi–Dirac Statistics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Pauli exclusion principle, Fermi–. Dirac statistics, identical and in- distinguishable particles, Fermi gas. Fermi–Dirac Statistics. Derivation and Consequences. S Chaturvedi and Shyamal Biswas. (left) Subhash Chaturvedi is at University of. Hyderabad. His current research interests include phase space descriptions.

  8. The Dirac Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Dimock, J.

    2010-01-01

    We give an alternate definition of the free Dirac field featuring an explicit construction of the Dirac sea. The treatment employs a semi-infinite wedge product of Hilbert spaces. We also show that the construction is equivalent to the standard Fock space construction.

  9. Bohr and Dirac*

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    We present an account of the work of Niels Bohr and Paul Dirac, their interactions and personal- ities. 1. Introduction. In this essay I would like to convey to my readers some- thing about the personalities and work of Niels Bohr and Paul Dirac, juxtaposed against one another. Let me hope that the portraits I will paint of these ...

  10. On the Dirac oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, R. de Lima

    2007-01-01

    In the present work we obtain a new representation for the Dirac oscillator based on the Clifford algebra C 7. The symmetry breaking and the energy eigenvalues for our model of the Dirac oscillator are studied in the non-relativistic limit. (author)

  11. P A M Dirac

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. P A M Dirac. Articles written in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 8 Issue 8 August 2003 pp 102-110 Classics. XI. The Relation between Mathematics and Physics · P A M Dirac · More Details Fulltext PDF ...

  12. Three Dimensional Dirac Semimetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaheer, Saad

    2014-03-01

    Dirac points on the Fermi surface of two dimensional graphene are responsible for its unique electronic behavior. One can ask whether any three dimensional materials support similar pseudorelativistic physics in their bulk electronic spectra. This possibility has been investigated theoretically and is now supported by two successful experimental demonstrations reported during the last year. In this talk, I will summarize the various ways in which Dirac semimetals can be realized in three dimensions with primary focus on a specific theory developed on the basis of representations of crystal spacegroups. A three dimensional Dirac (Weyl) semimetal can appear in the presence (absence) of inversion symmetry by tuning parameters to the phase boundary separating a bulk insulating and a topological insulating phase. More generally, we find that specific rules governing crystal symmetry representations of electrons with spin lead to robust Dirac points at high symmetry points in the Brillouin zone. Combining these rules with microscopic considerations identifies six candidate Dirac semimetals. Another method towards engineering Dirac semimetals involves combining crystal symmetry and band inversion. Several candidate materials have been proposed utilizing this mechanism and one of the candidates has been successfully demonstrated as a Dirac semimetal in two independent experiments. Work carried out in collaboration with: Julia A. Steinberg, Steve M. Young, J.C.Y. Teo, C.L. Kane, E.J. Mele and Andrew M. Rappe.

  13. Analytical solutions for Dirac and Klein-Gordon equations using Backlund transformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabadal, Jorge R.; Borges, Volnei, E-mail: jorge.zabadal@ufrgs.br, E-mail: borges@ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica; Ribeiro, Vinicius G., E-mail: vinicius_ribeiro@uniritter.edu.br [Centro Universitario Ritter dos Reis (UNIRITTER), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Santos, Marcio, E-mail: marciophd@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Centro de Estudos Interdisciplinares

    2015-07-01

    This work presents a new analytical method for solving Klein-Gordon type equations via Backlund transformations. The method consists in mapping the Klein-Gordon model into a first order system of partial differential equations, which contains a generalized velocity field instead of the Dirac matrices. This system is a tensor model for quantum field theory whose space solution is wider than the Dirac model in the original form. Thus, after finding analytical expressions for the wave functions, the Maxwell field can be readily obtained from the Dirac equations, furnishing a self-consistent field solution for the Maxwell-Dirac system. Analytical and numerical results are reported. (author)

  14. Equazione di Dirac

    CERN Document Server

    Monti, Dalida

    1996-01-01

    Relativamente poco noto al gran pubblico, il premio Nobel Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac appartiene a quel gruppo di uomini di ingegno che nei primi decenni del secolo contribuirono a dare alla nostra concezione del mondo fisico la sua impronta attuale. Assolutamente cruciali, per una valutazione dell'opera di Dirac, sono gli anni compresi tra il 1925 e il 1931: un periodo in cui il fisico fornisce la prima spiegazione chiara e coerente delle proprietà di spin dell'elettrone (equazione di Dirac) e perviene, in forza della pura deduzione matematica, alla scoperta dell'esistenza dell'elettrone positivo o positrone.

  15. In the Dirac tradition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1988-04-15

    It was Paul Dirac who cast quantum mechanics into the form we now use, and many generations of theoreticians openly acknowledge his influence on their thinking. When Dirac died in 1984, St. John's College, Cambridge, his base for most of his lifetime, instituted an annual lecture in his memory at Cambridge. The first lecture, in 1986, attracted two heavyweights - Richard Feynman and Steven Weinberg. Far from using the lectures as a platform for their own work, in the Dirac tradition they presented stimulating material on deep underlying questions.

  16. In the Dirac tradition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    It was Paul Dirac who cast quantum mechanics into the form we now use, and many generations of theoreticians openly acknowledge his influence on their thinking. When Dirac died in 1984, St. John's College, Cambridge, his base for most of his lifetime, instituted an annual lecture in his memory at Cambridge. The first lecture, in 1986, attracted two heavyweights - Richard Feynman and Steven Weinberg. Far from using the lectures as a platform for their own work, in the Dirac tradition they presented stimulating material on deep underlying questions

  17. DIRAC distributed computing services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsaregorodtsev, A

    2014-01-01

    DIRAC Project provides a general-purpose framework for building distributed computing systems. It is used now in several HEP and astrophysics experiments as well as for user communities in other scientific domains. There is a large interest from smaller user communities to have a simple tool like DIRAC for accessing grid and other types of distributed computing resources. However, small experiments cannot afford to install and maintain dedicated services. Therefore, several grid infrastructure projects are providing DIRAC services for their respective user communities. These services are used for user tutorials as well as to help porting the applications to the grid for a practical day-to-day work. The services are giving access typically to several grid infrastructures as well as to standalone computing clusters accessible by the target user communities. In the paper we will present the experience of running DIRAC services provided by the France-Grilles NGI and other national grid infrastructure projects.

  18. Executor Framework for DIRAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casajus Ramo, A.; Graciani Diaz, R.

    2012-12-01

    DIRAC framework for distributed computing has been designed as a group of collaborating components, agents and servers, with persistent database back-end. Components communicate with each other using DISET, an in-house protocol that provides Remote Procedure Call (RPC) and file transfer capabilities. This approach has provided DIRAC with a modular and stable design by enforcing stable interfaces across releases. But it made complicated to scale further with commodity hardware. To further scale DIRAC, components needed to send more queries between them. Using RPC to do so requires a lot of processing power just to handle the secure handshake required to establish the connection. DISET now provides a way to keep stable connections and send and receive queries between components. Only one handshake is required to send and receive any number of queries. Using this new communication mechanism DIRAC now provides a new type of component called Executor. Executors process any task (such as resolving the input data of a job) sent to them by a task dispatcher. This task dispatcher takes care of persisting the state of the tasks to the storage backend and distributing them among all the Executors based on the requirements of each task. In case of a high load, several Executors can be started to process the extra load and stop them once the tasks have been processed. This new approach of handling tasks in DIRAC makes Executors easy to replace and replicate, thus enabling DIRAC to further scale beyond the current approach based on polling agents.

  19. Executor Framework for DIRAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casajus Ramo, A; Graciani Diaz, R

    2012-01-01

    DIRAC framework for distributed computing has been designed as a group of collaborating components, agents and servers, with persistent database back-end. Components communicate with each other using DISET, an in-house protocol that provides Remote Procedure Call (RPC) and file transfer capabilities. This approach has provided DIRAC with a modular and stable design by enforcing stable interfaces across releases. But it made complicated to scale further with commodity hardware. To further scale DIRAC, components needed to send more queries between them. Using RPC to do so requires a lot of processing power just to handle the secure handshake required to establish the connection. DISET now provides a way to keep stable connections and send and receive queries between components. Only one handshake is required to send and receive any number of queries. Using this new communication mechanism DIRAC now provides a new type of component called Executor. Executors process any task (such as resolving the input data of a job) sent to them by a task dispatcher. This task dispatcher takes care of persisting the state of the tasks to the storage backend and distributing them among all the Executors based on the requirements of each task. In case of a high load, several Executors can be started to process the extra load and stop them once the tasks have been processed. This new approach of handling tasks in DIRAC makes Executors easy to replace and replicate, thus enabling DIRAC to further scale beyond the current approach based on polling agents.

  20. DIRAC optimized workload management

    CERN Document Server

    Paterson, S K

    2008-01-01

    The LHCb DIRAC Workload and Data Management System employs advanced optimization techniques in order to dynamically allocate resources. The paradigms realized by DIRAC, such as late binding through the Pilot Agent approach, have proven to be highly successful. For example, this has allowed the principles of workload management to be applied not only at the time of user job submission to the Grid but also to optimize the use of computing resources once jobs have been acquired. Along with the central application of job priorities, DIRAC minimizes the system response time for high priority tasks. This paper will describe the recent developments to support Monte Carlo simulation, data processing and distributed user analysis in a consistent way across disparate compute resources including individual PCs, local batch systems, and the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid. The Grid environment is inherently unpredictable and whilst short-term studies have proven to deliver high job efficiencies, the system performance over ...

  1. easyDiracGauginos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abel, Steven [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. for Particle Physics Phenomenology; CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Goodsell, Mark [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-02-15

    A simple and natural model is presented that gives Dirac gauginos. The configuration is related to ''deconstructed gaugino mediation''. A high energy completion is provided based on existing ISS-like models of deconstructed gaugino mediation. This provides a complete picture of Dirac gauginos that includes the necessary extra adjoint fermions (generated as magnetic quarks of the ISS theory) and supersymmetry breaking (via the ISS mechanism). Moreover the screening of the scalar masses means that they can similar to or less than the gaugino masses, even though the supersymmetry breaking is driven by F-terms. (orig.)

  2. easyDiracGauginos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abel, Steven; Goodsell, Mark

    2011-02-01

    A simple and natural model is presented that gives Dirac gauginos. The configuration is related to ''deconstructed gaugino mediation''. A high energy completion is provided based on existing ISS-like models of deconstructed gaugino mediation. This provides a complete picture of Dirac gauginos that includes the necessary extra adjoint fermions (generated as magnetic quarks of the ISS theory) and supersymmetry breaking (via the ISS mechanism). Moreover the screening of the scalar masses means that they can similar to or less than the gaugino masses, even though the supersymmetry breaking is driven by F-terms. (orig.)

  3. Formal matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Krylov, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    This monograph is a comprehensive account of formal matrices, examining homological properties of modules over formal matrix rings and summarising the interplay between Morita contexts and K theory. While various special types of formal matrix rings have been studied for a long time from several points of view and appear in various textbooks, for instance to examine equivalences of module categories and to illustrate rings with one-sided non-symmetric properties, this particular class of rings has, so far, not been treated systematically. Exploring formal matrix rings of order 2 and introducing the notion of the determinant of a formal matrix over a commutative ring, this monograph further covers the Grothendieck and Whitehead groups of rings. Graduate students and researchers interested in ring theory, module theory and operator algebras will find this book particularly valuable. Containing numerous examples, Formal Matrices is a largely self-contained and accessible introduction to the topic, assuming a sol...

  4. Quantum tunneling effect of Dirac particles in a Schwarzschild-Godel space-time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, D.-J.; Li, S.-M., E-mail: qidejiang0504@126.com [Shenyang Inst. of Engineering, Shenyang (China); Ru, H.-Q. [Northeastern Univ., Shenyang (China)

    2010-11-15

    In this paper, motivated by the Kerner and Man fermion tunneling method of 4-dimensional black holes, we further improve the analysis to investigate the quantum tunneling effect of Dirac particles from the five-dimensional Schwarzschild-Godel black hole. We successfully construct a set of appropriate matrices γ{sup μ} for the general covariant Dirac equation and derive the tunneling probability and Hawking temperature, which is exactly the same as that obtained by other methods. (author)

  5. Averaging operations on matrices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-07-03

    Jul 3, 2014 ... Role of Positive Definite Matrices. • Diffusion Tensor Imaging: 3 × 3 pd matrices model water flow at each voxel of brain scan. • Elasticity: 6 × 6 pd matrices model stress tensors. • Machine Learning: n × n pd matrices occur as kernel matrices. Tanvi Jain. Averaging operations on matrices ...

  6. How (not) to teach Lorentz covariance of the Dirac equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolić, Hrvoje

    2014-01-01

    In the textbook proofs of the Lorentz covariance of the Dirac equation, one treats the wave function as a spinor and gamma matrices as scalars, leading to a quite complicated formalism with several pedagogic drawbacks. As an alternative, I propose to teach the Dirac equation and its Lorentz covariance by using a much simpler, but physically equivalent formalism, in which these drawbacks do not appear. In this alternative formalism, the wave function transforms as a scalar and gamma matrices as components of a vector, such that the standard physically relevant bilinear combinations do not change their transformation properties. The alternative formalism allows also a natural construction of some additional non-standard bilinear combinations with well-defined transformation properties. (paper)

  7. Nonlinear Dirac Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Khim Ng

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available We construct nonlinear extensions of Dirac's relativistic electron equation that preserve its other desirable properties such as locality, separability, conservation of probability and Poincaré invariance. We determine the constraints that the nonlinear term must obey and classify the resultant non-polynomial nonlinearities in a double expansion in the degree of nonlinearity and number of derivatives. We give explicit examples of such nonlinear equations, studying their discrete symmetries and other properties. Motivated by some previously suggested applications we then consider nonlinear terms that simultaneously violate Lorentz covariance and again study various explicit examples. We contrast our equations and construction procedure with others in the literature and also show that our equations are not gauge equivalent to the linear Dirac equation. Finally we outline various physical applications for these equations.

  8. Three Dirac neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshipura, A.S.; Rindani, S.D.

    1991-01-01

    The consequences of imposing an exact L e +L τ -L μ symmetry on a 6x6 matrix describing neutrino masses are discussed. The presence of right-handed neutrinos avoids the need of introducing any SU(2) Higgs triplet. Hence the conflict with the CERN LEP data on the Z width found in earlier models with L e +L τ -L μ symmetry is avoided. The L e +L τ -L μ symmetry provides an interesting realization of a recent proposal of Glashow to accommodate the 17-keV Dirac neutrino in the SU(2)xU(1) theory. All the neutrinos in this model are Dirac particles. The solar-neutrino problem can be solved in an extension of the model which generates a large (∼10 -11 μ B ) magnetic moment for the electron neutrino

  9. Dirac Material Graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Sheka, Elena F.

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the author view on spin-rooted properties of graphene supported by numerous experimental and calculation evidences. Dirac fermions of crystalline graphene and local spins of graphene molecules are suggested to meet a strict demand - different orbitals for different spins- which leads to a large spectrum of effects caused by spin polarization of electronic states. The consequent topological non-triviality, making graphene topological insulator, and local spins, imaging graph...

  10. Potential scattering of Dirac particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thaller, B.

    1981-01-01

    A quantum mechanical interpretation of the Dirac equation for particles in external electromagnetic potentials is discussed. It is shown that a consequent development of the Stueckelberg-Feynman theory into a probabilistic interpretation of the Dirac equation corrects some prejudices concerning negative energy states, Zitterbewegung and bound states in repulsive potentials and yields the connection between propagator theory and scattering theory. Limits of the Dirac equation, considered as a wave mechanical equation, are considered. (U.K.)

  11. Local moment formation in Dirac electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashkoori, M; Mahyaeh, I; Jafari, S A

    2015-01-01

    Elemental bismuth and its compounds host strong spin-orbit interaction which is at the heart of topologically non-trivial alloys based on bismuth. These class of materials are described in terms of 4x4 matrices at each v point where spin and orbital labels of the underlying electrons are mixed. In this work we investigate the single impurity Anderson model (SIAM) within a mean field approximation to address the nature of local magnetic moment formation in a generic Dirac Hamiltonian. Despite the spin-mixing in the Hamiltonian, within the Hartree approximation it turns out that the impuritys Green function is diagonal in spin label. In the three dimensional Dirac materials defined over a bandwidth D and spin-orbit parameter γ, that hybridizes with impurity through V, a natural dimensionless parameter V 2 D/2πγ 3 emerges. So neither the hybridization strength, V, nor the spin-orbit coupling γ, but a combination thereof governs the phase diagram. By tuning chemical potential and the impurity level, we present phase diagram for various values of Hubbard U. Numerical results suggest that strong spin-orbit coupling enhances the local moment formation both in terms of its strength and the area of the local moment region. In the case that we tune the chemical potential in a similar way as normal metal we find that magnetic region is confined to μ ≥ ε 0 , in sharp contrast to 2D Dirac fermions. If one fixes the chemical potential and tunes the impurity level, phase diagram has two magnetic regions which corresponds to hybridization of impurity level with lower and upper bands. (paper)

  12. Planar Dirac diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leo, Stefano de; Rotelli, Pietro

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of the planar diffusion of a Dirac particle by step and barrier potentials, when the incoming wave impinges at an arbitrary angle with the potential. Except for right-angle incidence this process is characterized by the appearance of spin flip terms. For the step potential, spin flip occurs for both transmitted and reflected waves. However, we find no spin flip in the transmitted barrier result. This is surprising because the barrier result may be derived directly from a two-step calculation. We demonstrate that the spin flip cancellation indeed occurs for each ''particle'' (wave packet) contribution. (orig.)

  13. Dirac particle on S2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, P.L.; Palladino, B.E.

    1985-01-01

    The problem of a Dirac particle in stationary motion on S 2 - a two dimensional sphere embedded in Euclidean space E 3 - is discussed. It provides a particularly simple case of an exactly solvable constrained Dirac particle whose properties are here studied, with emphasis on its magnetic moment. (Author) [pt

  14. LHCb: DIRAC Secure Distributed Platform

    CERN Multimedia

    Casajus, A

    2009-01-01

    DIRAC, the LHCb community grid solution, provides access to a vast amount of computing and storage resources to a large number of users. In DIRAC users are organized in groups with different needs and permissions. In order to ensure that only allowed users can access the resources and to enforce that there are no abuses, security is mandatory. All DIRAC services and clients use secure connections that are authenticated using certificates and grid proxies. Once a client has been authenticated, authorization rules are applied to the requested action based on the presented credentials. These authorization rules and the list of users and groups are centrally managed in the DIRAC Configuration Service. Users submit jobs to DIRAC using their local credentials. From then on, DIRAC has to interact with different Grid services on behalf of this user. DIRAC has a proxy management service where users upload short-lived proxies to be used when DIRAC needs to act on behalf of them. Long duration proxies are uploaded by us...

  15. DIRAC: data production management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A C; Tsaregorodtsev, A

    2008-01-01

    The LHCb Computing Model describes the dataflow for all stages in the processing of real and simulated events, and defines the role of LHCb associated Tier-1 and Tier-2 computing centers. The WLCG 'Dress Rehearsal' exercise aims to allow LHC experiments to deploy the full chain of their Computing Models, making use of all underlying WLCG services and resources, in preparation for real data taking. During this exercise simulated RAW physics data, matching the properties of eventual real data, will be uploaded from the LHCb Online storage system to Grid enabled storage. This data will then be replicated to LHCb Tier-1 centers and subsequently processed (reconstructed and stripped). The product of this processing is user analysis data that are distributed to all LHCb Tier-1 centers. DIRAC, LHCbs Workload and Data Management System, supports the implementation of the Computing Model in a data driven, real time and coordinated fashion. In this paper the LHCb Computing Model will be reviewed and the DIRAC components providing the needed functionality to support the Computing Model will be detailed. An evaluation of the preparedness for real data taking will also be given

  16. DIRAC: data production management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, A C [CERN, CH-1211, Geneva (Switzerland); Tsaregorodtsev, A [CPPM, Marseille (France)], E-mail: a.smith@cern.ch, E-mail: atsareg@in2p3.fr

    2008-07-15

    The LHCb Computing Model describes the dataflow for all stages in the processing of real and simulated events, and defines the role of LHCb associated Tier-1 and Tier-2 computing centers. The WLCG 'Dress Rehearsal' exercise aims to allow LHC experiments to deploy the full chain of their Computing Models, making use of all underlying WLCG services and resources, in preparation for real data taking. During this exercise simulated RAW physics data, matching the properties of eventual real data, will be uploaded from the LHCb Online storage system to Grid enabled storage. This data will then be replicated to LHCb Tier-1 centers and subsequently processed (reconstructed and stripped). The product of this processing is user analysis data that are distributed to all LHCb Tier-1 centers. DIRAC, LHCbs Workload and Data Management System, supports the implementation of the Computing Model in a data driven, real time and coordinated fashion. In this paper the LHCb Computing Model will be reviewed and the DIRAC components providing the needed functionality to support the Computing Model will be detailed. An evaluation of the preparedness for real data taking will also be given.

  17. Status of the DIRAC Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casajus, A; Ciba, K; Fernandez, V; Graciani, R; Hamar, V; Mendez, V; Poss, S; Sapunov, M; Stagni, F; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Ubeda, M

    2012-01-01

    The DIRAC Project was initiated to provide a data processing system for the LHCb Experiment at CERN. It provides all the necessary functionality and performance to satisfy the current and projected future requirements of the LHCb Computing Model. A considerable restructuring of the DIRAC software was undertaken in order to turn it into a general purpose framework for building distributed computing systems that can be used by various user communities in High Energy Physics and other scientific application domains. The CLIC and ILC-SID detector projects started to use DIRAC for their data production system. The Belle Collaboration at KEK, Japan, has adopted the Computing Model based on the DIRAC system for its second phase starting in 2015. The CTA Collaboration uses DIRAC for the data analysis tasks. A large number of other experiments are starting to use DIRAC or are evaluating this solution for their data processing tasks. DIRAC services are included as part of the production infrastructure of the GISELA Latin America grid. Similar services are provided for the users of the France-Grilles and IBERGrid National Grid Initiatives in France and Spain respectively. The new communities using DIRAC started to provide important contributions to its functionality. Among recent additions can be mentioned the support of the Amazon EC2 computing resources as well as other Cloud management systems; a versatile File Replica Catalog with File Metadata capabilities; support for running MPI jobs in the pilot based Workload Management System. Integration with existing application Web Portals, like WS-PGRADE, is demonstrated. In this paper we will describe the current status of the DIRAC Project, recent developments of its framework and functionality as well as the status of the rapidly evolving community of the DIRAC users.

  18. Inverse m-matrices and ultrametric matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Dellacherie, Claude; San Martin, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    The study of M-matrices, their inverses and discrete potential theory is now a well-established part of linear algebra and the theory of Markov chains. The main focus of this monograph is the so-called inverse M-matrix problem, which asks for a characterization of nonnegative matrices whose inverses are M-matrices. We present an answer in terms of discrete potential theory based on the Choquet-Deny Theorem. A distinguished subclass of inverse M-matrices is ultrametric matrices, which are important in applications such as taxonomy. Ultrametricity is revealed to be a relevant concept in linear algebra and discrete potential theory because of its relation with trees in graph theory and mean expected value matrices in probability theory. Remarkable properties of Hadamard functions and products for the class of inverse M-matrices are developed and probabilistic insights are provided throughout the monograph.

  19. Large leptonic Dirac CP phase from broken democracy with random perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Shao-Feng; Kusenko, Alexander; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.

    2018-06-01

    A large value of the leptonic Dirac CP phase can arise from broken democracy, where the mass matrices are democratic up to small random perturbations. Such perturbations are a natural consequence of broken residual S3 symmetries that dictate the democratic mass matrices at leading order. With random perturbations, the leptonic Dirac CP phase has a higher probability to attain a value around ± π / 2. Comparing with the anarchy model, broken democracy can benefit from residual S3 symmetries, and it can produce much better, realistic predictions for the mass hierarchy, mixing angles, and Dirac CP phase in both quark and lepton sectors. Our approach provides a general framework for a class of models in which a residual symmetry determines the general features at leading order, and where, in the absence of other fundamental principles, the symmetry breaking appears in the form of random perturbations.

  20. DIRAC data production management

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, A C

    2008-01-01

    The LHCb Computing Model describes the dataflow for all stages in the processing of real and simulated events, and defines the role of LHCb associated Tier-1 and Tier-2 computing centers. The WLCG 'Dress Rehearsal' exercise aims to allow LHC experiments to deploy the full chain of their Computing Models, making use of all underlying WLCG services and resources, in preparation for real data taking. During this exercise simulated RAW physics data, matching the properties of eventual real data, will be uploaded from the LHCb Online storage system to Grid enabled storage. This data will then be replicated to LHCb Tier-1 centers and subsequently processed (reconstructed and stripped). The product of this processing is user analysis data that are distributed to all LHCb Tier-1 centers. DIRAC, LHCbs Workload and Data Management System, supports the implementation of the Computing Model in a data driven, real time and coordinated fashion.

  1. DIRAC Data Management System

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, A C

    2007-01-01

    The LHCb experiment being built to utilize CERN’s flagship Large Hadron Collider will generate data to be analysed by a community of over 600 physicists worldwide. DIRAC, LHCb’s Workload and Data Management System, facilitates the use of underlying EGEE Grid resources to generate, process and analyse this data in the distributed environment. The Data Management System, presented here, provides real-time, data-driven distribution in accordance with LHCb’s Computing Model. The data volumes produced by the LHC experiments are unprecedented, rendering individual institutes and even countries, unable to provide the computing and storage resources required to make full use of the produced data. EGEE Grid resources allow the processing of LHCb data possible in a distributed fashion and LHCb’s Computing Model is based on this approach. Data Management in this environment requires reliable and high-throughput transfer of data, homogeneous access to storage resources and the cataloguing of data replicas, all of...

  2. DIRAC universal pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagni, F.; McNab, A.; Luzzi, C.; Krzemien, W.; Consortium, DIRAC

    2017-10-01

    In the last few years, new types of computing models, such as IAAS (Infrastructure as a Service) and IAAC (Infrastructure as a Client), gained popularity. New resources may come as part of pledged resources, while others are in the form of opportunistic ones. Most but not all of these new infrastructures are based on virtualization techniques. In addition, some of them, present opportunities for multi-processor computing slots to the users. Virtual Organizations are therefore facing heterogeneity of the available resources and the use of an Interware software like DIRAC to provide the transparent, uniform interface has become essential. The transparent access to the underlying resources is realized by implementing the pilot model. DIRAC’s newest generation of generic pilots (the so-called Pilots 2.0) are the “pilots for all the skies”, and have been successfully released in production more than a year ago. They use a plugin mechanism that makes them easily adaptable. Pilots 2.0 have been used for fetching and running jobs on every type of resource, being it a Worker Node (WN) behind a CREAM/ARC/HTCondor/DIRAC Computing element, a Virtual Machine running on IaaC infrastructures like Vac or BOINC, on IaaS cloud resources managed by Vcycle, the LHCb High Level Trigger farm nodes, and any type of opportunistic computing resource. Make a machine a “Pilot Machine”, and all diversities between them will disappear. This contribution describes how pilots are made suitable for different resources, and the recent steps taken towards a fully unified framework, including monitoring. Also, the cases of multi-processor computing slots either on real or virtual machines, with the whole node or a partition of it, is discussed.

  3. The Dirac equation for accountants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ord, G.N.

    2006-01-01

    In the context of relativistic quantum mechanics, derivations of the Dirac equation usually take the form of plausibility arguments based on experience with the Schroedinger equation. The primary reason for this is that we do not know what wavefunctions physically represent, so derivations have to rely on formal arguments. There is however a context in which the Dirac equation in one dimension is directly related to a classical generating function. In that context, the derivation of the Dirac equation is an exercise in counting. We provide this derivation here and discuss its relationship to quantum mechanics

  4. Kinks and the Dirac equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skyrme, T.H.R.

    1994-01-01

    In a model quantum theory of interacting mesons, the motion of certain conserved particle-like structures is discussed. It is shown how collective coordinates may be introduced to describe them, leading, in lowest approximation, to a Dirac equation. (author)

  5. Paul Dirac lectures at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    When a group of physicists entered the Main Auditorium, during the evening of 29 June, they felt they had opened a time portal.   Paul Dirac in front of a blackboard showing his formula. ©Sandra Hoogeboom An attentive audience, dressed in early 1900 costumes, were watching a lecture by the elusive Paul Dirac, presenting for the first time his famous formula on the blackboard. Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac (1902-1984) was a British mathematical physicist at Cambridge, and one of the "fathers" of quantum mechanics. When he first wrote it, in 1928, Dirac was not sure what his formula really meant. As demonstrated by Andersson four year later, what Dirac had written on the blackboard was the first definition of a positron, hence he is credited with having anticipated the existence of antimatter. The actor John Kohl performs as Paul Dirac. ©Sandra Hoogeboom What the group of puzzled physicists were really observing when they entered the CERN Auditorium was the shoo...

  6. Introduction into Hierarchical Matrices

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander

    2013-12-05

    Hierarchical matrices allow us to reduce computational storage and cost from cubic to almost linear. This technique can be applied for solving PDEs, integral equations, matrix equations and approximation of large covariance and precision matrices.

  7. Introduction into Hierarchical Matrices

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Hierarchical matrices allow us to reduce computational storage and cost from cubic to almost linear. This technique can be applied for solving PDEs, integral equations, matrix equations and approximation of large covariance and precision matrices.

  8. LHCb: LHCbDirac is a DIRAC extension to support LHCb specific workflows

    CERN Multimedia

    Stagni, Federico

    2012-01-01

    We present LHCbDIRAC, an extension of the DIRAC community Grid solution to handle the LHCb specificities. The DIRAC software has been developed for many years within LHCb only. Nowadays it is a generic software, used by many scientific communities worldwide. Each community wanting to take advantage of DIRAC has to develop an extension, containing all the necessary code for handling their specific cases. LHCbDIRAC is an actively developed extension, implementing the LHCb computing model and workflows. LHCbDIRAC extends DIRAC to handle all the distributed computing activities of LHCb. Such activities include real data processing (reconstruction, stripping and streaming), Monte-Carlo simulation and data replication. Other activities are groups and user analysis, data management, resources management and monitoring, data provenance, accounting for user and production jobs. LHCbDIRAC also provides extensions of the DIRAC interfaces, including a secure web client, python APIs and CLIs. While DIRAC and LHCbDIRAC f...

  9. An algebraic model for quark mass matrices with heavy top

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolikowski, W.; Warsaw Univ.

    1991-01-01

    In terms of an intergeneration U(3) algebra, a numerical model is constructed for quark mass matrices, predicting the top-quark mass around 170 GeV and the CP-violating phase around 75 deg. The CKM matrix is nonsymmetric in moduli with |V ub | being very small. All moduli are consistent with their experimental limits. The model is motivated by the author's previous work on three replicas of the Dirac particle, presumably resulting into three generations of leptons and quarks. The paper may be also viewed as an introduction to a new method of intrinsic dynamical description of lepton and quark mass matrices. (author)

  10. Quasi-Dirac neutrino oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anamiati, Gaetana; Fonseca, Renato M.; Hirsch, Martin

    2018-05-01

    Dirac neutrino masses require two distinct neutral Weyl spinors per generation, with a special arrangement of masses and interactions with charged leptons. Once this arrangement is perturbed, lepton number is no longer conserved and neutrinos become Majorana particles. If these lepton number violating perturbations are small compared to the Dirac mass terms, neutrinos are quasi-Dirac particles. Alternatively, this scenario can be characterized by the existence of pairs of neutrinos with almost degenerate masses, and a lepton mixing matrix which has 12 angles and 12 phases. In this work we discuss the phenomenology of quasi-Dirac neutrino oscillations and derive limits on the relevant parameter space from various experiments. In one parameter perturbations of the Dirac limit, very stringent bounds can be derived on the mass splittings between the almost degenerate pairs of neutrinos. However, we also demonstrate that with suitable changes to the lepton mixing matrix, limits on such mass splittings are much weaker, or even completely absent. Finally, we consider the possibility that the mass splittings are too small to be measured and discuss bounds on the new, nonstandard lepton mixing angles from current experiments for this case.

  11. The Dirac medals of the ICTP. 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The Dirac Medals of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) were instituted in 1985. These are awarded yearly to outstanding physicists, on Dirac`s birthday - 8th August- for contributions to theoretical physics. The document includes the lectures of the three Dirac Medalists for 1993: Professor Sergio Ferrara, Professor Daniel Z. Freedman, and Professor Peter van Nieuwenhuizen. A separate abstract was prepared for each lecture

  12. A Dirac algebraic approach to supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guersey, F.

    1984-01-01

    The power of the Dirac algebra is illustrated through the Kaehler correspondence between a pair of Dirac spinors and a 16-component bosonic field. The SO(5,1) group acts on both the fermion and boson fields, leading to a supersymmetric equation of the Dirac type involving all these fields. (author)

  13. Interlayer magnetoresistance in multilayer Dirac electron systems: motion and merging of Dirac cones

    OpenAIRE

    Assili, Mohamed; Haddad, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    We theoretically study the effect of the motion and the merging of Dirac cone on the interlayer magnetoresistance in multilayer graphene like systems. This merging, which could be induced by a uniaxial strain, gives rise in monolayer Dirac electron system to a topological transition from a semi-metallic phase to an insulating phase where Dirac points disappear. Based on a universal Hamiltonian proposed to describe the motion and the merging of Dirac points in two dimensional Dirac electron cr...

  14. Dirac, Prof. Paul Adrien Maurice

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Fellowship. Fellow Profile. Elected: 1935 Honorary. Dirac, Prof. Paul Adrien Maurice Nobel Laureate (Physics) - 1933. Date of birth: 8 August 1902. Date of death: 20 October 1984. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. 29th Mid-year meeting. Posted on 19 January 2018. The 29th Mid-year ...

  15. Dirac, Jordan and quantum fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darrigol, O.

    1985-01-01

    The case of two principal physicists of quantum mechanics is specially chose: Paul Dirac and Pascual Jordan. They gave a signification and an importance very different to the notion of quantum field, and in particular to the quantized matter wave one. Through their formation and motivation differences, such as they are expressed in their writings, this deep difference is tentatively understood [fr

  16. about the Dirac Delta Function(?)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Balakrishnan is in the. Department of ... and sweet as befits this impatient age. It said (in its en- ... to get down to real work by shutting down the system and reverting to ... the Dirac delta function" - but do note the all-important question mark in ...

  17. Superconductivity in doped Dirac semimetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Tatsuki; Kobayashi, Shingo; Tanaka, Yukio; Sato, Masatoshi

    2016-07-01

    We theoretically study intrinsic superconductivity in doped Dirac semimetals. Dirac semimetals host bulk Dirac points, which are formed by doubly degenerate bands, so the Hamiltonian is described by a 4 ×4 matrix and six types of k -independent pair potentials are allowed by the Fermi-Dirac statistics. We show that the unique spin-orbit coupling leads to characteristic superconducting gap structures and d vectors on the Fermi surface and the electron-electron interaction between intra and interorbitals gives a novel phase diagram of superconductivity. It is found that when the interorbital attraction is dominant, an unconventional superconducting state with point nodes appears. To verify the experimental signature of possible superconducting states, we calculate the temperature dependence of bulk physical properties such as electronic specific heat and spin susceptibility and surface state. In the unconventional superconducting phase, either dispersive or flat Andreev bound states appear between point nodes, which leads to double peaks or a single peak in the surface density of states, respectively. As a result, possible superconducting states can be distinguished by combining bulk and surface measurements.

  18. Dirac Magnons in Honeycomb Ferromagnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey S. Pershoguba

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of the Dirac electron dispersion in graphene [A. H. Castro Neto, et al., The Electronic Properties of Graphene, Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 109 (2009RMPHAT0034-686110.1103/RevModPhys.81.109] led to the question of the Dirac cone stability with respect to interactions. Coulomb interactions between electrons were shown to induce a logarithmic renormalization of the Dirac dispersion. With a rapid expansion of the list of compounds and quasiparticle bands with linear band touching [T. O. Wehling, et al., Dirac Materials, Adv. Phys. 63, 1 (2014ADPHAH0001-873210.1080/00018732.2014.927109], the concept of bosonic Dirac materials has emerged. We consider a specific case of ferromagnets consisting of van der Waals-bonded stacks of honeycomb layers, e.g., chromium trihalides CrX_{3} (X=F, Cl, Br and I, that display two spin wave modes with energy dispersion similar to that for the electrons in graphene. At the single-particle level, these materials resemble their fermionic counterparts. However, how different particle statistics and interactions affect the stability of Dirac cones has yet to be determined. To address the role of interacting Dirac magnons, we expand the theory of ferromagnets beyond the standard Dyson theory [F. J. Dyson, General Theory of Spin-Wave Interactions, Phys. Rev. 102, 1217 (1956PHRVAO0031-899X10.1103/PhysRev.102.1217, F. J. Dyson, Thermodynamic Behavior of an Ideal Ferromagnet, Phys. Rev. 102, 1230 (1956PHRVAO0031-899X10.1103/PhysRev.102.1230] to the case of non-Bravais honeycomb layers. We demonstrate that magnon-magnon interactions lead to a significant momentum-dependent renormalization of the bare band structure in addition to strongly momentum-dependent magnon lifetimes. We show that our theory qualitatively accounts for hitherto unexplained anomalies in nearly half-century-old magnetic neutron-scattering data for CrBr_{3} [W. B. Yelon and R. Silberglitt, Renormalization of Large-Wave-Vector Magnons in

  19. Dirac Magnons in Honeycomb Ferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pershoguba, Sergey S.; Banerjee, Saikat; Lashley, J. C.; Park, Jihwey; Ågren, Hans; Aeppli, Gabriel; Balatsky, Alexander V.

    2018-01-01

    The discovery of the Dirac electron dispersion in graphene [A. H. Castro Neto, et al., The Electronic Properties of Graphene, Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 109 (2009), 10.1103/RevModPhys.81.109] led to the question of the Dirac cone stability with respect to interactions. Coulomb interactions between electrons were shown to induce a logarithmic renormalization of the Dirac dispersion. With a rapid expansion of the list of compounds and quasiparticle bands with linear band touching [T. O. Wehling, et al., Dirac Materials, Adv. Phys. 63, 1 (2014), 10.1080/00018732.2014.927109], the concept of bosonic Dirac materials has emerged. We consider a specific case of ferromagnets consisting of van der Waals-bonded stacks of honeycomb layers, e.g., chromium trihalides CrX3 (X =F , Cl, Br and I), that display two spin wave modes with energy dispersion similar to that for the electrons in graphene. At the single-particle level, these materials resemble their fermionic counterparts. However, how different particle statistics and interactions affect the stability of Dirac cones has yet to be determined. To address the role of interacting Dirac magnons, we expand the theory of ferromagnets beyond the standard Dyson theory [F. J. Dyson, General Theory of Spin-Wave Interactions, Phys. Rev. 102, 1217 (1956), 10.1103/PhysRev.102.1217, F. J. Dyson, Thermodynamic Behavior of an Ideal Ferromagnet, Phys. Rev. 102, 1230 (1956), 10.1103/PhysRev.102.1230] to the case of non-Bravais honeycomb layers. We demonstrate that magnon-magnon interactions lead to a significant momentum-dependent renormalization of the bare band structure in addition to strongly momentum-dependent magnon lifetimes. We show that our theory qualitatively accounts for hitherto unexplained anomalies in nearly half-century-old magnetic neutron-scattering data for CrBr3 [W. B. Yelon and R. Silberglitt, Renormalization of Large-Wave-Vector Magnons in Ferromagnetic CrBr3 Studied by Inelastic Neutron Scattering: Spin-Wave Correlation

  20. Matrices and linear transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Cullen, Charles G

    1990-01-01

    ""Comprehensive . . . an excellent introduction to the subject."" - Electronic Engineer's Design Magazine.This introductory textbook, aimed at sophomore- and junior-level undergraduates in mathematics, engineering, and the physical sciences, offers a smooth, in-depth treatment of linear algebra and matrix theory. The major objects of study are matrices over an arbitrary field. Contents include Matrices and Linear Systems; Vector Spaces; Determinants; Linear Transformations; Similarity: Part I and Part II; Polynomials and Polynomial Matrices; Matrix Analysis; and Numerical Methods. The first

  1. Graphene based d-character Dirac Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanchang; Zhang, S. B.; Duan, Wenhui

    From graphene to topological insulators, Dirac material continues to be the hot topics in condensed matter physics. So far, almost all of the theoretically predicted or experimentally observed Dirac materials are composed of sp -electrons. By using first-principles calculations, we find the new Dirac system of transition-metal intercalated epitaxial graphene on SiC(0001). Intrinsically different from the conventional sp Dirac system, here the Dirac-fermions are dominantly contributed by the transition-metal d-electrons, which paves the way to incorporate correlation effect with Dirac-cone physics. Many intriguing quantum phenomena are proposed based on this system, including quantum spin Hall effect with large spin-orbital gap, quantum anomalous Hall effect, 100% spin-polarized Dirac fermions and ferromagnet-to-topological insulator transition.

  2. The Dirac equation in the local representation - contributions to the quantum electrodynamics of strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlueter, P.

    1985-05-01

    In this work three topics related to the theory of positron creation in heavy ion collisions are investigated. The first of these is concerned with the local representation of the Dirac matrices. It consists of a space dependent similarity transformation of the Dirac matrices which is chosen in such a way that for certain orthogonal coordinate systems the Dirac equation assumes a simple standardized form. This form is well suited for analytical as well as numerical calculations. For all generally used coordinate systems the transformation can be given in closed form. The application of this idea is not restricted to the solution of the two-centre Dirac equation but may be used also for different electro-magnetic potentials. In the second of the above mentioned problems, the question is discussed, whether the recently observed peak structures in positron spectra from U-U collisions can originate from nuclear conversion processes. It is demonstrated that, taking this hypothesis at face value, in the photon or delta-electron spectrum corresponding structures should be observed. Moreover, rather large nuclear excitation probabilities in the order of percents are needed to make this explanation plausible. Finally, the third topic is concerned with a more fundamental question: May it be possible that the interaction of the strongly bound electrons in a critical electric field with the radiation field leads to an energy shift which is big enough to prevent the diving of the 1s-state into the negative energy continuum. (orig./HSI) [de

  3. DIRAC pilot framework and the DIRAC Workload Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casajus, Adrian; Graciani, Ricardo; Paterson, Stuart; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei

    2010-01-01

    DIRAC, the LHCb community Grid solution, has pioneered the use of pilot jobs in the Grid. Pilot Jobs provide a homogeneous interface to an heterogeneous set of computing resources. At the same time, Pilot Jobs allow to delay the scheduling decision to the last moment, thus taking into account the precise running conditions at the resource and last moment requests to the system. The DIRAC Workload Management System provides one single scheduling mechanism for jobs with very different profiles. To achieve an overall optimisation, it organizes pending jobs in task queues, both for individual users and production activities. Task queues are created with jobs having similar requirements. Following the VO policy a priority is assigned to each task queue. Pilot submission and subsequent job matching are based on these priorities following a statistical approach.

  4. DIRAC pilot framework and the DIRAC Workload Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casajus, Adrian; Graciani, Ricardo [Universitat de Barcelona (Spain); Paterson, Stuart [CERN (Switzerland); Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei, E-mail: adria@ecm.ub.e, E-mail: graciani@ecm.ub.e, E-mail: stuart.paterson@cern.c, E-mail: atsareg@in2p3.f [CPPM Marseille (France)

    2010-04-01

    DIRAC, the LHCb community Grid solution, has pioneered the use of pilot jobs in the Grid. Pilot Jobs provide a homogeneous interface to an heterogeneous set of computing resources. At the same time, Pilot Jobs allow to delay the scheduling decision to the last moment, thus taking into account the precise running conditions at the resource and last moment requests to the system. The DIRAC Workload Management System provides one single scheduling mechanism for jobs with very different profiles. To achieve an overall optimisation, it organizes pending jobs in task queues, both for individual users and production activities. Task queues are created with jobs having similar requirements. Following the VO policy a priority is assigned to each task queue. Pilot submission and subsequent job matching are based on these priorities following a statistical approach.

  5. DIRAC in Large Particle Physics Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagni, F.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Arrabito, L.; Sailer, A.; Hara, T.; Zhang, X.; Consortium, DIRAC

    2017-10-01

    The DIRAC project is developing interware to build and operate distributed computing systems. It provides a development framework and a rich set of services for both Workload and Data Management tasks of large scientific communities. A number of High Energy Physics and Astrophysics collaborations have adopted DIRAC as the base for their computing models. DIRAC was initially developed for the LHCb experiment at LHC, CERN. Later, the Belle II, BES III and CTA experiments as well as the linear collider detector collaborations started using DIRAC for their computing systems. Some of the experiments built their DIRAC-based systems from scratch, others migrated from previous solutions, ad-hoc or based on different middlewares. Adaptation of DIRAC for a particular experiment was enabled through the creation of extensions to meet their specific requirements. Each experiment has a heterogeneous set of computing and storage resources at their disposal that were aggregated through DIRAC into a coherent pool. Users from different experiments can interact with the system in different ways depending on their specific tasks, expertise level and previous experience using command line tools, python APIs or Web Portals. In this contribution we will summarize the experience of using DIRAC in particle physics collaborations. The problems of migration to DIRAC from previous systems and their solutions will be presented. An overview of specific DIRAC extensions will be given. We hope that this review will be useful for experiments considering an update, or for those designing their computing models.

  6. Halogenated arsenenes as Dirac materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Wencheng; Sun, Minglei; Ren, Qingqiang; Wang, Sake; Yu, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We have revealed the presence of Dirac cone in fully-halogenated arsenene compounds. • All fully-halogenated arsenene except As_2I_2 would spontaneously form and stable in defending the thermal fluctuation in room temperature. - Abstract: Arsenene is the graphene-like arsenic nanosheet, which has been predicted very recently [S. Zhang, Z. Yan, Y. Li, Z. Chen, and H. Zeng, Angewandte Chemie, 127 (2015) 3155–3158]. Using first-principles calculations, we systematically investigate the structures and electronic properties of fully-halogenated arsenenes. Formation energy analysis reveals that all the fully-halogenated arsenenes except iodinated arsenene are energetically favorable and could be synthesized. We have revealed the presence of Dirac cone in fully-halogenated arsenene compounds. They may have great potential applications in next generation of high-performance devices.

  7. DIRAC: Secure web user interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casajus Ramo, A; Sapunov, M

    2010-01-01

    Traditionally the interaction between users and the Grid is done with command line tools. However, these tools are difficult to use by non-expert users providing minimal help and generating outputs not always easy to understand especially in case of errors. Graphical User Interfaces are typically limited to providing access to the monitoring or accounting information and concentrate on some particular aspects failing to cover the full spectrum of grid control tasks. To make the Grid more user friendly more complete graphical interfaces are needed. Within the DIRAC project we have attempted to construct a Web based User Interface that provides means not only for monitoring the system behavior but also allows to steer the main user activities on the grid. Using DIRAC's web interface a user can easily track jobs and data. It provides access to job information and allows performing actions on jobs such as killing or deleting. Data managers can define and monitor file transfer activity as well as check requests set by jobs. Production managers can define and follow large data productions and react if necessary by stopping or starting them. The Web Portal is build following all the grid security standards and using modern Web 2.0 technologies which allow to achieve the user experience similar to the desktop applications. Details of the DIRAC Web Portal architecture and User Interface will be presented and discussed.

  8. Double Dirac cones in phononic crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yan

    2014-07-07

    A double Dirac cone is realized at the center of the Brillouin zone of a two-dimensional phononic crystal (PC) consisting of a triangular array of core-shell-structure cylinders in water. The double Dirac cone is induced by the accidental degeneracy of two double-degenerate Bloch states. Using a perturbation method, we demonstrate that the double Dirac cone is composed of two identical and overlapping Dirac cones whose linear slopes can also be accurately predicted from the method. Because the double Dirac cone occurs at a relatively low frequency, a slab of the PC can be mapped onto a slab of zero refractive index material by using a standard retrieval method. Total transmission without phase change and energy tunneling at the double Dirac point frequency are unambiguously demonstrated by two examples. Potential applications can be expected in diverse fields such as acoustic wave manipulations and energy flow control.

  9. Data Management System of the DIRAC Project

    CERN Multimedia

    Haen, Christophe; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    The DIRAC Interware provides a development framework and a complete set of components for building distributed computing systems. The DIRAC Data Management System (DMS) offers all the necessary tools to ensure data handling operations for small and large user communities. It supports transparent access to storage resources based on multiple technologies, and is easily expandable. The information on data files and replicas is kept in a File Catalog of which DIRAC offers a powerful and versatile implementation (DFC). Data movement can be performed using third party services including FTS3. Bulk data operations are resilient with respect to failures due to the use of the Request Management System (RMS) that keeps track of ongoing tasks. In this contribution we will present an overview of the DIRAC DMS capabilities and its connection with other DIRAC subsystems such as the Transformation System. The DIRAC DMS is in use by several user communities now. The contribution will present the experience of the LHCb exper...

  10. The DIRAC Data Management System (poster)

    CERN Document Server

    Haen, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    The DIRAC Interware provides a development framework and a complete set of components for building distributed computing systems. The DIRAC Data Management System (DMS) offers all the necessary tools to ensure data handling operations for small and large user communities. It supports transparent access to storage resources based on multiple technologies, and is easily expandable. The information on data files and replicas is kept in a File Catalog of which DIRAC offers a powerful and versatile implementation (DFC). Data movement can be performed using third party services including FTS3. Bulk data operations are resilient with respect to failures due to the use of the Request Management System (RMS) that keeps track of ongoing tasks. In this contribution we will present an overview of the DIRAC DMS capabilities and its connection with other DIRAC subsystems such as the Transformation System. The DIRAC DMS is in use by several user communities now. The contribution will present the experience of the LHCb exper...

  11. Double Dirac cones in phononic crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yan; Wu, Ying; Mei, Jun

    2014-01-01

    A double Dirac cone is realized at the center of the Brillouin zone of a two-dimensional phononic crystal (PC) consisting of a triangular array of core-shell-structure cylinders in water. The double Dirac cone is induced by the accidental degeneracy of two double-degenerate Bloch states. Using a perturbation method, we demonstrate that the double Dirac cone is composed of two identical and overlapping Dirac cones whose linear slopes can also be accurately predicted from the method. Because the double Dirac cone occurs at a relatively low frequency, a slab of the PC can be mapped onto a slab of zero refractive index material by using a standard retrieval method. Total transmission without phase change and energy tunneling at the double Dirac point frequency are unambiguously demonstrated by two examples. Potential applications can be expected in diverse fields such as acoustic wave manipulations and energy flow control.

  12. The Dirac medals of the ICTP. 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Dirac Medals of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) were instituted in 1985. These are awarded yearly to outstanding physicists, on Dirac's birthday - 8th August- for contributions to theoretical physics. The document includes the lectures of the three Dirac Medalists for 1993: Professor Sergio Ferrara, Professor Daniel Z. Freedman, and Professor Peter van Nieuwenhuizen. A separate abstract was prepared for each lecture

  13. LHCbDIRAC as Apache Mesos microservices

    OpenAIRE

    Haen, Christophe; Couturier, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    The LHCb experiment relies on LHCbDIRAC, an extension of DIRAC, to drive its offline computing. This middleware provides a development framework and a complete set of components for building distributed computing systems. These components are currently installed and run on virtual machines (VM) or bare metal hardware. Due to the increased workload, high availability is becoming more and more important for the LHCbDIRAC services, and the current installation model is showing its limitations. A...

  14. LHCbDIRAC as Apache Mesos microservices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haen, Christophe; Couturier, Benjamin

    2017-10-01

    The LHCb experiment relies on LHCbDIRAC, an extension of DIRAC, to drive its offline computing. This middleware provides a development framework and a complete set of components for building distributed computing systems. These components are currently installed and run on virtual machines (VM) or bare metal hardware. Due to the increased workload, high availability is becoming more and more important for the LHCbDIRAC services, and the current installation model is showing its limitations. Apache Mesos is a cluster manager which aims at abstracting heterogeneous physical resources on which various tasks can be distributed thanks to so called “frameworks” The Marathon framework is suitable for long running tasks such as the DIRAC services, while the Chronos framework meets the needs of cron-like tasks like the DIRAC agents. A combination of the service discovery tool Consul together with HAProxy allows to expose the running containers to the outside world while hiding their dynamic placements. Such an architecture brings a greater flexibility in the deployment of LHCbDirac services, allowing for easier deployment maintenance and scaling of services on demand (e..g LHCbDirac relies on 138 services and 116 agents). Higher reliability is also easier, as clustering is part of the toolset, which allows constraints on the location of the services. This paper describes the investigations carried out to package the LHCbDIRAC and DIRAC components into Docker containers and orchestrate them using the previously described set of tools.

  15. Realm of Matrices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    harmonic analysis and complex analysis, in ... gebra describes not only the study of linear transforma- tions and .... special case of the Jordan canonical form of matrices. ..... Richard Bronson, Schaum's Outline Series Theory And Problems Of.

  16. Integrating out the Dirac sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karbstein, Felix

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a new method for dealing with fermionic quantum field theories amenable to a mean-field-type approximation. In this work we focus on the relativistic Hartree approximation. Our aim is to integrate out the Dirac sea and derive a no-sea effective theory'' with positive energy single particle states only. As the derivation of the no-sea effective theory involves only standard Feynman diagrams, our approach is quite general and not restricted to particular space-time dimensions. We develop and illustrate the approach in the ''large N'' limit of the Gross-Neveu model family in 1+1 dimensions. As the Gross-Neveu model has been intensely studied and several analytical solutions are known for this model, it is an ideal testing ground for our no-sea effective theory approach. The chiral Gross-Neveu model, also referred to as 1+1 dimensional Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model, turns out to be of particular interest. In this case, we explicitly derive a consistent effective theory featuring both elementary ''π meson'' fields and (positive energy) ''quark'' fields, starting from a purely fermionic quantum field theory. In the second part of this work, we apply our approach to the Walecka model in 1+1 and 3+1 dimensions. As the Dirac sea caused considerable difficulties in attempts to base nuclear physics on field theoretic models like the Walecka model, mean-field calculations were typically done without the sea. We confront several of these mean-field theory results with our no-sea effective theory approach. The potential of our approach is twofold. While the no-sea effective theory can be utilized to provide new analytical insights in particular parameter regimes, it also sheds new light on more fundamental issues as the explicit emergence of effective, Dirac-sea induced multi-fermion interactions in an effective theory with positive energy states only. (orig.)

  17. Dirac tensor with heavy photon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bytev, V.V.; Kuraev, E.A. [Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, Moscow (Russian Federation). Bogoliubov Lab. of Theoretical Physics; Scherbakova, E.S. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 1. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2012-01-15

    For the large-angles hard photon emission by initial leptons in process of high energy annihilation of e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} to hadrons the Dirac tensor is obtained, taking into account the lowest order radiative corrections. The case of large-angles emission of two hard photons by initial leptons is considered. This result is being completed by the kinematics case of collinear hard photons emission as well as soft virtual and real photons and can be used for construction of Monte-Carlo generators. (orig.)

  18. The Dirac equation in classical statistical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ord, G.N.

    2002-01-01

    The Dirac equation, usually obtained by 'quantizing' a classical stochastic model is here obtained directly within classical statistical mechanics. The special underlying space-time geometry of the random walk replaces the missing analytic continuation, making the model 'self-quantizing'. This provides a new context for the Dirac equation, distinct from its usual context in relativistic quantum mechanics

  19. Dirac and Weyl semimetals with holographic interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, V.P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Dirac and Weyl semimetals are states of matter exhibiting the relativistic physics of, respectively, the Dirac and Weyl equation in a three-dimensional bulk material. These three-dimensional semimetals have recently been realized experimentally in various crystals. Theoretically, especially the

  20. A fractional Dirac equation and its solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muslih, Sami I; Agrawal, Om P; Baleanu, Dumitru

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a fractional Dirac equation and its solution. The fractional Dirac equation may be obtained using a fractional variational principle and a fractional Klein-Gordon equation; both methods are considered here. We extend the variational formulations for fractional discrete systems to fractional field systems defined in terms of Caputo derivatives. By applying the variational principle to a fractional action S, we obtain the fractional Euler-Lagrange equations of motion. We present a Lagrangian and a Hamiltonian for the fractional Dirac equation of order α. We also use a fractional Klein-Gordon equation to obtain the fractional Dirac equation which is the same as that obtained using the fractional variational principle. Eigensolutions of this equation are presented which follow the same approach as that for the solution of the standard Dirac equation. We also provide expressions for the path integral quantization for the fractional Dirac field which, in the limit α → 1, approaches to the path integral for the regular Dirac field. It is hoped that the fractional Dirac equation and the path integral quantization of the fractional field will allow further development of fractional relativistic quantum mechanics.

  1. New solitons connected to the Dirac equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosse, H.

    1984-01-01

    Imposing isospectral invariance for the one dimensional Dirac operator leads to systems of nonlinear partial differential equations. By constructing reflectionless potentials of the Dirac equation we obtain a new type of solitons for a system of modified Korteweg-de Vries equations. (Author)

  2. Effects of acceleration through the Dirac sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacyan, S.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of acceleration through massive scalar and spin-1/2 fields are investigated. It is shown that the density-of-states factor in a uniformly accelerated frame takes a complicated form, but the energy spectrum exhibits a Bose-Einstein or Fermi-Dirac distribution function. In particular, the Dirac sea shows thermal-like effects

  3. Semi-Dirac points in phononic crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiujuan; Wu, Ying

    2014-01-01

    of rubber, in which the acoustic wave velocity is lower than that in water, the semi-Dirac dispersion can be characterized by an effective medium theory. The effective medium parameters link the semi-Dirac point to a topological transition in the iso

  4. LHCbDIRAC as Apache Mesos microservices

    CERN Multimedia

    Couturier, Ben

    2016-01-01

    The LHCb experiment relies on LHCbDIRAC, an extension of DIRAC, to drive its offline computing. This middleware provides a development framework and a complete set of components for building distributed computing systems. These components are currently installed and ran on virtual machines (VM) or bare metal hardware. Due to the increased load of work, high availability is becoming more and more important for the LHCbDIRAC services, and the current installation model is showing its limitations. Apache Mesos is a cluster manager which aims at abstracting heterogeneous physical resources on which various tasks can be distributed thanks to so called "framework". The Marathon framework is suitable for long running tasks such as the DIRAC services, while the Chronos framework meets the needs of cron-like tasks like the DIRAC agents. A combination of the service discovery tool Consul together with HAProxy allows to expose the running containers to the outside world while hiding their dynamic placements. Such an arc...

  5. Dirac operators on coset spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balachandran, A.P.; Immirzi, Giorgio; Lee, Joohan; Presnajder, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The Dirac operator for a manifold Q, and its chirality operator when Q is even dimensional, have a central role in noncommutative geometry. We systematically develop the theory of this operator when Q=G/H, where G and H are compact connected Lie groups and G is simple. An elementary discussion of the differential geometric and bundle theoretic aspects of G/H, including its projective modules and complex, Kaehler and Riemannian structures, is presented for this purpose. An attractive feature of our approach is that it transparently shows obstructions to spin- and spin c -structures. When a manifold is spin c and not spin, U(1) gauge fields have to be introduced in a particular way to define spinors, as shown by Avis, Isham, Cahen, and Gutt. Likewise, for manifolds like SU(3)/SO(3), which are not even spin c , we show that SU(2) and higher rank gauge fields have to be introduced to define spinors. This result has potential consequences for string theories if such manifolds occur as D-branes. The spectra and eigenstates of the Dirac operator on spheres S n =SO(n+1)/SO(n), invariant under SO(n+1), are explicitly found. Aspects of our work overlap with the earlier research of Cahen et al

  6. Gauge fixing and classical dynamical r-matrices in (2+1)-gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenfeld, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    We apply the Dirac gauge fixing procedure to the combinatorial description of the moduli space of flat ISO(2,1)-connections. This is motivated by two goals: one originates from physics while the other is of a mathematical nature. The first goal is to investigate the application of gauge fixing in Lorentzian (2+1)-gravity with vanishing cosmological constant, whose phase space is closely related to the moduli space of flat ISO(2,1)-connections. To this end, we first show that specifying gauge fixing conditions amounts to introducing an observer into the theory. Then we determine explicit expressions for the Dirac brackets of specific sets of gauge fixing conditions and give a physical interpretation of the results in terms of the geometry of spacetimes and their effective symmetries. To investigate the mathematical structures underlying the Dirac gauge fixing procedure we then consider general gauge fixing conditions. We first show that the resulting Dirac brackets are in one-to-one correspondence with solutions of the classical dynamical Yang-Baxter equation. We then analyze the relation between the Dirac brackets associated with two different sets of gauge fixing conditions. We find that this relation is given by the action of certain dynamical Poincare transformations which generalize the gauge transformations of classical dynamical r-matrices. Using these transformations, we give a classification of all resulting Dirac brackets and the associated solutions of the classical dynamical Yang-Baxter equation.

  7. Gauge fixing and classical dynamical r-matrices in (2+1)-gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenfeld, Torsten

    2012-11-20

    We apply the Dirac gauge fixing procedure to the combinatorial description of the moduli space of flat ISO(2,1)-connections. This is motivated by two goals: one originates from physics while the other is of a mathematical nature. The first goal is to investigate the application of gauge fixing in Lorentzian (2+1)-gravity with vanishing cosmological constant, whose phase space is closely related to the moduli space of flat ISO(2,1)-connections. To this end, we first show that specifying gauge fixing conditions amounts to introducing an observer into the theory. Then we determine explicit expressions for the Dirac brackets of specific sets of gauge fixing conditions and give a physical interpretation of the results in terms of the geometry of spacetimes and their effective symmetries. To investigate the mathematical structures underlying the Dirac gauge fixing procedure we then consider general gauge fixing conditions. We first show that the resulting Dirac brackets are in one-to-one correspondence with solutions of the classical dynamical Yang-Baxter equation. We then analyze the relation between the Dirac brackets associated with two different sets of gauge fixing conditions. We find that this relation is given by the action of certain dynamical Poincare transformations which generalize the gauge transformations of classical dynamical r-matrices. Using these transformations, we give a classification of all resulting Dirac brackets and the associated solutions of the classical dynamical Yang-Baxter equation.

  8. Chemiluminescence in cryogenic matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotnik, S. V.; Kazakov, Valeri P.

    1989-04-01

    The literature data on chemiluminescence (CL) in cryogenic matrices have been classified and correlated for the first time. The role of studies on phosphorescence and CL at low temperatures in the development of cryochemistry is shown. The features of low-temperature CL in matrices of nitrogen and inert gases (fine structure of spectra, matrix effects) and the data on the mobility and reactivity of atoms and radicals at very low temperatures are examined. The trends in the development of studies on CL in cryogenic matrices, such as the search for systems involving polyatomic molecules and extending the forms of CL reactions, are followed. The reactions of active nitrogen with hydrocarbons that are accompanied by light emission and CL in the oxidation of carbenes at T >= 77 K are examined. The bibliography includes 112 references.

  9. Matrices in Engineering Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Tobias, Marvin

    2011-01-01

    This book is intended as an undergraduate text introducing matrix methods as they relate to engineering problems. It begins with the fundamentals of mathematics of matrices and determinants. Matrix inversion is discussed, with an introduction of the well known reduction methods. Equation sets are viewed as vector transformations, and the conditions of their solvability are explored. Orthogonal matrices are introduced with examples showing application to many problems requiring three dimensional thinking. The angular velocity matrix is shown to emerge from the differentiation of the 3-D orthogo

  10. SARAH 3.2: Dirac gauginos, UFO output, and more

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staub, Florian

    2013-07-01

    SARAH is a Mathematica package optimized for the fast, efficient and precise study of supersymmetric models beyond the MSSM: a new model can be defined in a short form and all vertices are derived. This allows SARAH to create model files for FeynArts/FormCalc, CalcHep/CompHep and WHIZARD/O'Mega. The newest version of SARAH now provides the possibility to create model files in the UFO format which is supported by MadGraph 5, MadAnalysis 5, GoSam, and soon by Herwig++. Furthermore, SARAH also calculates the mass matrices, RGEs and 1-loop corrections to the mass spectrum. This information is used to write source code for SPheno in order to create a precision spectrum generator for the given model. This spectrum-generator-generator functionality as well as the output of WHIZARD and CalcHep model files has seen further improvement in this version. Also models including Dirac gauginos are supported with the new version of SARAH, and additional checks for the consistency of the implementation of new models have been created. Program summaryProgram title:SARAH Catalogue identifier: AEIB_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEIB_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3 22 411 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3 629 206 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Mathematica. Computer: All for which Mathematica is available. Operating system: All for which Mathematica is available. Classification: 11.1, 11.6. Catalogue identifier of previous version: AEIB_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 182 (2011) 808 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes, the new version includes all known features of the previous version but also provides the new features mentioned below

  11. Integrating out the Dirac sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karbstein, Felix

    2009-07-08

    We introduce a new method for dealing with fermionic quantum field theories amenable to a mean-field-type approximation. In this work we focus on the relativistic Hartree approximation. Our aim is to integrate out the Dirac sea and derive a no-sea effective theory'' with positive energy single particle states only. As the derivation of the no-sea effective theory involves only standard Feynman diagrams, our approach is quite general and not restricted to particular space-time dimensions. We develop and illustrate the approach in the ''large N'' limit of the Gross-Neveu model family in 1+1 dimensions. As the Gross-Neveu model has been intensely studied and several analytical solutions are known for this model, it is an ideal testing ground for our no-sea effective theory approach. The chiral Gross-Neveu model, also referred to as 1+1 dimensional Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model, turns out to be of particular interest. In this case, we explicitly derive a consistent effective theory featuring both elementary ''{pi} meson'' fields and (positive energy) ''quark'' fields, starting from a purely fermionic quantum field theory. In the second part of this work, we apply our approach to the Walecka model in 1+1 and 3+1 dimensions. As the Dirac sea caused considerable difficulties in attempts to base nuclear physics on field theoretic models like the Walecka model, mean-field calculations were typically done without the sea. We confront several of these mean-field theory results with our no-sea effective theory approach. The potential of our approach is twofold. While the no-sea effective theory can be utilized to provide new analytical insights in particular parameter regimes, it also sheds new light on more fundamental issues as the explicit emergence of effective, Dirac-sea induced multi-fermion interactions in an effective theory with positive energy states only. (orig.)

  12. Paul Dirac: the purest soul in physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, M.

    1998-01-01

    Paul Dirac published the first of his papers on ''The Quantum Theory of the Electron'' seventy years ago this month. Published in the Proceedings of the Royal Society (London) in February and March 1928, the papers contained one of the greatest leaps of imagination in 20th century physics. The Dirac equation, derived in those papers, is one of the most important equations in physics. Dirac showed that the simplest wave satisfying the requirements of quantum mechanics and relativity was not a simple number but had four components. He found that the logic that led to the theory was, although deeply sophisticated, in a sense beautifully simple. Much later, when someone asked him ''How did you find the Dirac equation?'' he is said to have replied: ''I found it beautiful''. In addition to explaining the magnetic and spin properties of the electron, the equation also predicts the existence of antimatter. Because Dirac was a quiet man - famously quiet, indeed - he is not well known outside physics, although this is slowly changing. In 1995 a plaque to Dirac was unveiled at Westminster Abbey in London and last year Institute of Physics Publishing, which is based in Bristol, named its new building Dirac House. In this article the author recalls the achievements of the greatest physicists of the 20th century. (UK)

  13. Dirac fermions in blue-phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yuanchang; Chen, Xiaobin

    2014-01-01

    We propose that Dirac cones can be engineered in phosphorene with fourfold-coordinated phosphorus atoms. The key is to separate the energy levels of the in-plane (s, p x , and p y ) and out-of-plane (p z ) oribtals through the sp 2 configuration, yielding respective σ- and π-character Dirac cones, and then quench the latter. As a proof-of-principle study, we create σ-character Dirac cones in hydrogenated and fluorinated phosphorene with a honeycomb lattice. The obtained Dirac cones are at K-points, slightly anisotropic, with Fermi velocities of 0.91 and 1.23 times that of graphene along the ΓK and KM direction, and maintain good linearity up to ∼2 eV for holes. A substantive advantage of a σ-character Dirac cone is its convenience in tuning the Dirac gap via in-plane strain. Our findings pave the way for development of high-performance electronic devices based on Dirac materials. (letter)

  14. Dirac cones in isogonal hexagonal metallic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kang

    2018-03-01

    A honeycomb hexagonal metallic lattice is equivalent to a triangular atomic one and cannot create Dirac cones in its electromagnetic wave spectrum. We study in this work the low-frequency electromagnetic band structures in isogonal hexagonal metallic lattices that are directly related to the honeycomb one and show that such structures can create Dirac cones. The band formation can be described by a tight-binding model that allows investigating, in terms of correlations between local resonance modes, the condition for the Dirac cones and the consequence of the third structure tile sustaining an extra resonance mode in the unit cell that induces band shifts and thus nonlinear deformation of the Dirac cones following the wave vectors departing from the Dirac points. We show further that, under structure deformation, the deformations of the Dirac cones result from two different correlation mechanisms, both reinforced by the lattice's metallic nature, which directly affects the resonance mode correlations. The isogonal structures provide new degrees of freedom for tuning the Dirac cones, allowing adjustment of the cone shape by modulating the structure tiles at the local scale without modifying the lattice periodicity and symmetry.

  15. The Dirac-Milne cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit-Lévy, Aurélien; Chardin, Gabriel

    2014-05-01

    We study an unconventional cosmology, in which we investigate the consequences that antigravity would pose to cosmology. We present the main characteristics of the Dirac-Milne Universe, a cosmological model where antimatter has a negative active gravitational mass. In this non-standard Universe, separate domains of matter and antimatter coexist at our epoch without annihilation, separated by a gravitationally induced depletion zone. We show that this cosmology does not require a priori the Dark Matter and Dark Energy components of the standard model of cosmology. Additionally, inflation becomes an unnecessary ingredient. Investigating this model, we show that the classical cosmological tests such as primordial nucleosynthesis, Type Ia supernovæ and Cosmic Microwave Background are surprisingly concordant.

  16. Infinite matrices and sequence spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Cooke, Richard G

    2014-01-01

    This clear and correct summation of basic results from a specialized field focuses on the behavior of infinite matrices in general, rather than on properties of special matrices. Three introductory chapters guide students to the manipulation of infinite matrices, covering definitions and preliminary ideas, reciprocals of infinite matrices, and linear equations involving infinite matrices.From the fourth chapter onward, the author treats the application of infinite matrices to the summability of divergent sequences and series from various points of view. Topics include consistency, mutual consi

  17. Capture Matrices Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    materials, the affinity ligand would need identification , as well as chemistries that graft the affinity ligand onto the surface of magnetic...ACTIVE CAPTURE MATRICES FOR THE DETECTION/ IDENTIFICATION OF PHARMACEUTICALS...6 As shown in Figure 2.3-1a, the spectra exhibit similar baselines and the spectral peaks lineup . Under these circumstances, the spectral

  18. The Dirac equation and its solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagrov, Vladislav G. [Tomsk State Univ., Tomsk (Russian Federation). Dept. of Quantum Field Theroy; Gitman, Dmitry [Sao Paulo Univ. (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Tomsk State Univ., Tomsk (Russian Federation). Faculty of Physics

    2013-07-01

    The Dirac equation is of fundamental importance for relativistic quantum mechanics and quantum electrodynamics. In relativistic quantum mechanics, the Dirac equation is referred to as one-particle wave equation of motion for electron in an external electromagnetic field. In quantum electrodynamics, exact solutions of this equation are needed to treat the interaction between the electron and the external field exactly. In particular, all propagators of a particle, i.e., the various Green's functions, are constructed in a certain way by using exact solutions of the Dirac equation.

  19. The Dirac equation and its solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Bagrov, Vladislav G

    2014-01-01

    Dirac equations are of fundamental importance for relativistic quantum mechanics and quantum electrodynamics. In relativistic quantum mechanics, the Dirac equation is referred to as one-particle wave equation of motion for electron in an external electromagnetic field. In quantum electrodynamics, exact solutions of this equation are needed to treat the interaction between the electron and the external field exactly.In particular, all propagators of a particle, i.e., the various Green's functions, are constructed in a certain way by using exact solutions of the Dirac equation.

  20. Counter-diabatic driving for Dirac dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qi-Zhen; Cheng, Xiao-Hang; Chen, Xi

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate the fast quantum control of Dirac equation dynamics by counter-diabatic driving, sharing the concept of shortcut to adiabaticity. We systematically calculate the counter-diabatic terms in different Dirac systems, like graphene and trapped ions. Specially, the fast and robust population inversion processes are achieved in Dirac system, taking into account the quantum simulation with trapped ions. In addition, the population transfer between two bands can be suppressed by counter-diabatic driving in graphene system, which might have potential applications in opt-electric devices.

  1. Quantum geometry of the Dirac fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korchemskij, G.P.

    1989-01-01

    The bosonic path integral formalism is developed for Dirac fermions interacting with a nonabelian gauge field in the D-dimensional Euclidean space-time. The representation for the effective action and correlation functions of interacting fermions as sums over all bosonic paths on the complex projective space CP 2d-1 , (2d=2 [ D 2] is derived where all the spinor structure is absorbed by the one-dimensional Wess-Zumino term. It is the Wess-Zumino term that ensures all necessary properties of Dirac fermions under quantization. i.e., quantized values of the spin, Dirac equation, Fermi statistics. 19 refs

  2. The Dirac equation and its solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagrov, Vladislav G.; Gitman, Dmitry; P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow; Tomsk State Univ., Tomsk

    2013-01-01

    The Dirac equation is of fundamental importance for relativistic quantum mechanics and quantum electrodynamics. In relativistic quantum mechanics, the Dirac equation is referred to as one-particle wave equation of motion for electron in an external electromagnetic field. In quantum electrodynamics, exact solutions of this equation are needed to treat the interaction between the electron and the external field exactly. In particular, all propagators of a particle, i.e., the various Green's functions, are constructed in a certain way by using exact solutions of the Dirac equation.

  3. Scalar potentials and the Dirac equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergerhoff, B.; Soff, G.

    1994-01-01

    The Dirac equation is solved for various types of scalar potentials. Energy eigenvalues and normalized bound-state wave functions are calculated analytically for a scalar 1/r-potential as well as for a mixed scalar and Coulomb 1/r-potential. Also continuum wave functions for positive and negative energies are derived. Similarly, we investigate the solutions of the Dirac equation for a scalar square-well potential. Relativistic wave functions for scalar Yukawa and exponential potentials are determined numerically. Finally, we also discuss solutions of the Dirac equation for scalar linear and quadratic potentials which are frequently used to simulate quark confinement. (orig.)

  4. Wigner function for the Dirac oscillator in spinor space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Kai; Wang Jianhua; Yuan Yi

    2011-01-01

    The Wigner function for the Dirac oscillator in spinor space is studied in this paper. Firstly, since the Dirac equation is described as a matrix equation in phase space, it is necessary to define the Wigner function as a matrix function in spinor space. Secondly, the matrix form of the Wigner function is proven to support the Dirac equation. Thirdly, by solving the Dirac equation, energy levels and the Wigner function for the Dirac oscillator in spinor space are obtained. (authors)

  5. Introduction to matrices and vectors

    CERN Document Server

    Schwartz, Jacob T

    2001-01-01

    In this concise undergraduate text, the first three chapters present the basics of matrices - in later chapters the author shows how to use vectors and matrices to solve systems of linear equations. 1961 edition.

  6. Dirac equation in magnetic-solenoid field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavrilov, S.P. [Dept. Fisica e Quimica, UNESP, Campus de Guaratingueta (Brazil); Gitman, D.M.; Smirnov, A.A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    We consider the Dirac equation in the magnetic-solenoid field (the field of a solenoid and a collinear uniform magnetic field). For the case of Aharonov-Bohm solenoid, we construct self-adjoint extensions of the Dirac Hamiltonian using von Neumann's theory of deficiency indices. We find self-adjoint extensions of the Dirac Hamiltonian and boundary conditions at the AB solenoid. Besides, for the first time, solutions of the Dirac equation in the magnetic-solenoid field with a finite radius solenoid were found. We study the structure of these solutions and their dependence on the behavior of the magnetic field inside the solenoid. Then we exploit the latter solutions to specify boundary conditions for the magnetic-solenoid field with Aharonov-Bohm solenoid. (orig.)

  7. SU(4) proprerties of the Dirac equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linhares, C.A.; Mignaco, J.A.

    1985-09-01

    The Dirac equation in four dimensions has an intimate connection with the representations of the group SU(4). This connection is shown in detail and subsequent properties are displayed in the continuum as well as in the lattice description [pt

  8. On the level order for Dirac operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosse, H.

    1987-01-01

    We start from the Dirac operator for the Coulomb potential and prove within first order perturbation theory that degenerate levels split in a definite way depending on the sign of the Laplacian of the perturbing potential. 9 refs. (Author)

  9. Data acquisition software for DIRAC experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ol'shevskij, V.G.; Trusov, S.V.

    2000-01-01

    The structure and basic processes of data acquisition software of DIRAC experiment for the measurement of π + π - atom life-time are described. The experiment is running on PS accelerator of CERN. The developed software allows one to accept, record and distribute to consumers up to 3 Mbytes of data in one accelerator supercycle of 14.4 s duration. The described system is used successfully in the DIRAC experiment starting from 1998 year

  10. New exact solutions of the Dirac equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagrov, V.G.; Gitman, D.M.; Zadorozhnyj, V.N.; Lavrov, P.M.; Shapovalov, V.N.

    1980-01-01

    Search for new exact solutions of the Dirac and Klein-Gordon equations are in progress. Considered are general properties of the Dirac equation solutions for an electron in a purely magnetic field, in combination with a longitudinal magnetic and transverse electric fields. New solutions for the equations of charge motion in an electromagnetic field of axial symmetry and in a nonstationary field of a special form have been found for potentials selected concretely

  11. Deuteron stripping reactions using dirac phenomenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, E. A.; McNeil, J. A.

    2001-04-01

    In this work deuteron stripping reactions are studied using the distorted wave born approximation employing dirac phenomenological potentials. In 1982 Shepard and Rost performed zero-range dirac phenomenological stripping calculations and found a dramatic reduction in the predicted cross sections when compared with similar nonrelativistic calculations. We extend the earlier work by including full finite range effects as well as the deuteron's internal D-state. Results will be compared with traditional nonrelativistic approaches and experimental data at low energy.

  12. Solvable linear potentials in the Dirac equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez-Adame, F.; Gonzalez, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    The Dirac equation for some linear potentials leading to Schroedinger-like oscillator equations for the upper and lower components of the Dirac spinor have been solved. Energy levels for the bound states appear in pairs, so that both particles and antiparticles may be bound with the same energy. For weak coupling, the spacing between levels is proportional to the coupling constant while in the strong limit those levels are depressed compared to the nonrelativistic ones

  13. Leptons as systems of Dirac particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borstnik, N.M.; Kaluza, M.

    1988-03-01

    Charged leptons are treated as systems of three equal independent Dirac particles in an external static effective potential which has a vector and a scalar term. The potential is constructed to reproduce the experimental mass spectrum of the charged leptons. The Dirac covariant equation for three interacting particles is discussed in order to comment on the magnetic moment of leptons. (author). 9 refs, 2 figs, 4 tabs

  14. Graphs and matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Bapat, Ravindra B

    2014-01-01

    This new edition illustrates the power of linear algebra in the study of graphs. The emphasis on matrix techniques is greater than in other texts on algebraic graph theory. Important matrices associated with graphs (for example, incidence, adjacency and Laplacian matrices) are treated in detail. Presenting a useful overview of selected topics in algebraic graph theory, early chapters of the text focus on regular graphs, algebraic connectivity, the distance matrix of a tree, and its generalized version for arbitrary graphs, known as the resistance matrix. Coverage of later topics include Laplacian eigenvalues of threshold graphs, the positive definite completion problem and matrix games based on a graph. Such an extensive coverage of the subject area provides a welcome prompt for further exploration. The inclusion of exercises enables practical learning throughout the book. In the new edition, a new chapter is added on the line graph of a tree, while some results in Chapter 6 on Perron-Frobenius theory are reo...

  15. Dirac equation on a curved surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, F.T., E-mail: fbrandt@usp.br; Sánchez-Monroy, J.A., E-mail: antosan@usp.br

    2016-09-07

    The dynamics of Dirac particles confined to a curved surface is examined employing the thin-layer method. We perform a perturbative expansion to first-order and split the Dirac field into normal and tangential components to the surface. In contrast to the known behavior of second order equations like Schrödinger, Maxwell and Klein–Gordon, we find that there is no geometric potential for the Dirac equation on a surface. This implies that the non-relativistic limit does not commute with the thin-layer method. Although this problem can be overcome when second-order terms are retained in the perturbative expansion, this would preclude the decoupling of the normal and tangential degrees of freedom. Therefore, we propose to introduce a first-order term which rescues the non-relativistic limit and also clarifies the effect of the intrinsic and extrinsic curvatures on the dynamics of the Dirac particles. - Highlights: • The thin-layer method is employed to derive the Dirac equation on a curved surface. • A geometric potential is absent at least to first-order in the perturbative expansion. • The effects of the extrinsic curvature are included to rescue the non-relativistic limit. • The resulting Dirac equation is consistent with the Heisenberg uncertainty principle.

  16. The DIRAC Web Portal 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathe, Z.; Casajus Ramo, A.; Lazovsky, N.; Stagni, F.

    2015-12-01

    For many years the DIRAC interware (Distributed Infrastructure with Remote Agent Control) has had a web interface, allowing the users to monitor DIRAC activities and also interact with the system. Since then many new web technologies have emerged, therefore a redesign and a new implementation of the DIRAC Web portal were necessary, taking into account the lessons learnt using the old portal. These new technologies allowed to build a more compact, robust and responsive web interface that enables users to have better control over the whole system while keeping a simple interface. The web framework provides a large set of “applications”, each of which can be used for interacting with various parts of the system. Communities can also create their own set of personalised web applications, and can easily extend already existing ones with a minimal effort. Each user can configure and personalise the view for each application and save it using the DIRAC User Profile service as RESTful state provider, instead of using cookies. The owner of a view can share it with other users or within a user community. Compatibility between different browsers is assured, as well as with mobile versions. In this paper, we present the new DIRAC Web framework as well as the LHCb extension of the DIRAC Web portal.

  17. Dirac Fermions in an Antiferromagnetic Semimetal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Peizhe; Zhou, Quan; Xu, Gang; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; Shou-Cheng Zhang's Group Team, Prof.

    Analogues of the elementary particles have been extensively searched for in condensed matter systems for both scientific interest and technological applications. Recently, massless Dirac fermions were found to emerge as low energy excitations in materials now known as Dirac semimetals. All the currently known Dirac semimetals are nonmagnetic with both time-reversal symmetry  and inversion symmetry "". Here we show that Dirac fermions can exist in one type of antiferromagnetic systems, where both  and "" are broken but their combination "" is respected. We propose orthorhombic antiferromagnet CuMnAs as a candidate, analyze the robustness of the Dirac points under symmetry protections, and demonstrate its distinctive bulk dispersions as well as the corresponding surface states by ab initio calculations. Our results provide a possible platform to study the interplay of Dirac fermion physics and magnetism. We acknowledge the DOE, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, under contract DE-AC02-76SF00515, NSF under Grant No.DMR-1305677 and FAME, one of six centers of STARnet.

  18. Hierarchical quark mass matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasin, A.

    1998-02-01

    I define a set of conditions that the most general hierarchical Yukawa mass matrices have to satisfy so that the leading rotations in the diagonalization matrix are a pair of (2,3) and (1,2) rotations. In addition to Fritzsch structures, examples of such hierarchical structures include also matrices with (1,3) elements of the same order or even much larger than the (1,2) elements. Such matrices can be obtained in the framework of a flavor theory. To leading order, the values of the angle in the (2,3) plane (s 23 ) and the angle in the (1,2) plane (s 12 ) do not depend on the order in which they are taken when diagonalizing. We find that any of the Cabbibo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix parametrizations that consist of at least one (1,2) and one (2,3) rotation may be suitable. In the particular case when the s 13 diagonalization angles are sufficiently small compared to the product s 12 s 23 , two special CKM parametrizations emerge: the R 12 R 23 R 12 parametrization follows with s 23 taken before the s 12 rotation, and vice versa for the R 23 R 12 R 23 parametrization. (author)

  19. Viability of Dirac phase leptogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anisimov, Alexey; Blanchet, Steve; Di Bari, Pasquale

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the conditions for a non-vanishing Dirac phase δ and mixing angle θ 13 , sources of CP violation in neutrino oscillations, to be uniquely responsible for the observed matter–antimatter asymmetry of the Universe through leptogenesis. We show that this scenario, that we call δ-leptogenesis, is viable when the degenerate limit for the heavy right-handed (RH) neutrino spectrum is considered. We derive an interesting joint condition on sinθ 13 and the absolute neutrino mass scale that can be tested in future neutrino oscillation experiments. In the limit of the hierarchical heavy RH neutrino spectrum, we strengthen the previous result that δ-leptogenesis is only very marginally allowed, even when the production from the two heavier RH neutrinos is taken into account. An improved experimental upper bound on sinθ 13 and/or an account of quantum kinetic effects could completely rule out this option in the future. Therefore, δ-leptogenesis can be also regarded as motivation for models with degenerate heavy neutrino spectrum

  20. First-principles study of Dirac and Dirac-like cones in phononic and photonic crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Mei, Jun; Wu, Ying; Chan, C. T.; Zhang, Zhao-Qing

    2012-01-01

    By using the k•p method, we propose a first-principles theory to study the linear dispersions in phononic and photonic crystals. The theory reveals that only those linear dispersions created by doubly degenerate states can be described by a reduced Hamiltonian that can be mapped into the Dirac Hamiltonian and possess a Berry phase of -π. Linear dispersions created by triply degenerate states cannot be mapped into the Dirac Hamiltonian and carry no Berry phase, and, therefore should be called Dirac-like cones. Our theory is capable of predicting accurately the linear slopes of Dirac and Dirac-like cones at various symmetry points in a Brillouin zone, independent of frequency and lattice structure. © 2012 American Physical Society.

  1. First-principles study of Dirac and Dirac-like cones in phononic and photonic crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Mei, Jun

    2012-07-24

    By using the k•p method, we propose a first-principles theory to study the linear dispersions in phononic and photonic crystals. The theory reveals that only those linear dispersions created by doubly degenerate states can be described by a reduced Hamiltonian that can be mapped into the Dirac Hamiltonian and possess a Berry phase of -π. Linear dispersions created by triply degenerate states cannot be mapped into the Dirac Hamiltonian and carry no Berry phase, and, therefore should be called Dirac-like cones. Our theory is capable of predicting accurately the linear slopes of Dirac and Dirac-like cones at various symmetry points in a Brillouin zone, independent of frequency and lattice structure. © 2012 American Physical Society.

  2. Dirac Sea and its Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volfson, Boris

    2013-09-01

    The hypothesis of transition from a chaotic Dirac Sea, via highly unstable positronium, into a Simhony Model of stable face-centered cubic lattice structure of electrons and positrons securely bound in vacuum space, is considered. 13.75 Billion years ago, the new lattice, which, unlike a Dirac Sea, is permeable by photons and phonons, made the Universe detectable. Many electrons and positrons ended up annihilating each other producing energy quanta and neutrino-antineutrino pairs. The weak force of the electron-positron crystal lattice, bombarded by the chirality-changing neutrinos, may have started capturing these neutrinos thus transforming from cubic crystals into a quasicrystal lattice. Unlike cubic crystal lattice, clusters of quasicrystals are "slippery" allowing the formation of centers of local torsion, where gravity condenses matter into galaxies, stars and planets. In the presence of quanta, in a quasicrystal lattice, the Majorana neutrinos' rotation flips to the opposite direction causing natural transformations in a category comprised of three components; two others being positron and electron. In other words, each particle-antiparticle pair "e-" and "e+", in an individual crystal unit, could become either a quasi- component "e- ve e+", or a quasi- component "e+ - ve e-". Five-to-six six billion years ago, a continuous stimulation of the quasicrystal aetherial lattice by the same, similar, or different, astronomical events, could have triggered Hebbian and anti-Hebbian learning processes. The Universe may have started writing script into its own aether in a code most appropriate for the quasicrystal aether "hardware": Eight three-dimensional "alphabet" characters, each corresponding to the individual quasi-crystal unit shape. They could be expressed as quantum Turing machine qubits, or, alternatively, in a binary code. The code numerals could contain terminal and nonterminal symbols of the Chomsky's hierarchy, wherein, the showers of quanta, forming the

  3. Lectures on matrices

    CERN Document Server

    M Wedderburn, J H

    1934-01-01

    It is the organization and presentation of the material, however, which make the peculiar appeal of the book. This is no mere compendium of results-the subject has been completely reworked and the proofs recast with the skill and elegance which come only from years of devotion. -Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society The very clear and simple presentation gives the reader easy access to the more difficult parts of the theory. -Jahrbuch über die Fortschritte der Mathematik In 1937, the theory of matrices was seventy-five years old. However, many results had only recently evolved from sp

  4. Matrices and linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Hans

    1989-01-01

    Linear algebra is one of the central disciplines in mathematics. A student of pure mathematics must know linear algebra if he is to continue with modern algebra or functional analysis. Much of the mathematics now taught to engineers and physicists requires it.This well-known and highly regarded text makes the subject accessible to undergraduates with little mathematical experience. Written mainly for students in physics, engineering, economics, and other fields outside mathematics, the book gives the theory of matrices and applications to systems of linear equations, as well as many related t

  5. Intermittency and random matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokoloff, Dmitry; Illarionov, E. A.

    2015-08-01

    A spectacular phenomenon of intermittency, i.e. a progressive growth of higher statistical moments of a physical field excited by an instability in a random medium, attracted the attention of Zeldovich in the last years of his life. At that time, the mathematical aspects underlying the physical description of this phenomenon were still under development and relations between various findings in the field remained obscure. Contemporary results from the theory of the product of independent random matrices (the Furstenberg theory) allowed the elaboration of the phenomenon of intermittency in a systematic way. We consider applications of the Furstenberg theory to some problems in cosmology and dynamo theory.

  6. Dimension from covariance matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, T L; Byers, J M

    2017-02-01

    We describe a method to estimate embedding dimension from a time series. This method includes an estimate of the probability that the dimension estimate is valid. Such validity estimates are not common in algorithms for calculating the properties of dynamical systems. The algorithm described here compares the eigenvalues of covariance matrices created from an embedded signal to the eigenvalues for a covariance matrix of a Gaussian random process with the same dimension and number of points. A statistical test gives the probability that the eigenvalues for the embedded signal did not come from the Gaussian random process.

  7. Semi-Dirac points in phononic crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiujuan

    2014-01-01

    A semi-Dirac cone refers to a peculiar type of dispersion relation that is linear along the symmetry line but quadratic in the perpendicular direction. It was originally discovered in electron systems, in which the associated quasi-particles are massless along one direction, like those in graphene, but effective-mass-like along the other. It was reported that a semi-Dirac point is associated with the topological phase transition between a semi-metallic phase and a band insulator. Very recently, the classical analogy of a semi-Dirac cone has been reported in an electromagnetic system. Here, we demonstrate that, by accidental degeneracy, two-dimensional phononic crystals consisting of square arrays of elliptical cylinders embedded in water are also able to produce the particular dispersion relation of a semi-Dirac cone in the center of the Brillouin zone. A perturbation method is used to evaluate the linear slope and to affirm that the dispersion relation is a semi-Dirac type. If the scatterers are made of rubber, in which the acoustic wave velocity is lower than that in water, the semi-Dirac dispersion can be characterized by an effective medium theory. The effective medium parameters link the semi-Dirac point to a topological transition in the iso-frequency surface of the phononic crystal, in which an open hyperbola is changed into a closed ellipse. This topological transition results in drastic change in wave manipulation. On the other hand, the theory also reveals that the phononic crystal is a double-zero-index material along the x-direction and photonic-band-edge material along the perpendicular direction (y-direction). If the scatterers are made of steel, in which the acoustic wave velocity is higher than that in water, the effective medium description fails, even though the semi-Dirac dispersion relation looks similar to that in the previous case. Therefore different wave transport behavior is expected. The semi-Dirac points in phononic crystals described in

  8. Strain engineering of Dirac cones in graphyne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Gaoxue; Kumar, Ashok; Pandey, Ravindra, E-mail: pandey@mtu.edu [Department of Physics, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, Michigan 49931 (United States); Si, Mingsu [Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of the Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2014-05-26

    6,6,12-graphyne, one of the two-dimensional carbon allotropes with the rectangular lattice structure, has two kinds of non-equivalent anisotropic Dirac cones in the first Brillouin zone. We show that Dirac cones can be tuned independently by the uniaxial compressive strain applied to graphyne, which induces n-type and p-type self-doping effect, by shifting the energy of the Dirac cones in the opposite directions. On the other hand, application of the tensile strain results into a transition from gapless to finite gap system for the monolayer. For the AB-stacked bilayer, the results predict tunability of Dirac-cones by in-plane strains as well as the strain applied perpendicular to the plane. The group velocities of the Dirac cones show enhancement in the resistance anisotropy for bilayer relative to the case of monolayer. Such tunable and direction-dependent electronic properties predicted for 6,6,12-graphyne make it to be competitive for the next-generation electronic devices at nanoscale.

  9. Interlayer magnetoresistance in multilayer Dirac electron systems: motion and merging of Dirac cones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assili, M; Haddad, S

    2013-01-01

    We theoretically study the effect of the motion and the merging of Dirac cones on the interlayer magnetoresistance in multilayer graphene-like systems. This merging, which can be induced by a uniaxial strain, gives rise in a monolayer Dirac electron system to a topological transition from a semi-metallic phase to an insulating phase whereby Dirac points disappear. Based on a universal Hamiltonian, proposed to describe the motion and the merging of Dirac points in two-dimensional Dirac electron crystals, we calculate the interlayer conductivity of a stack of deformed graphene-like layers using the Kubo formula in the quantum limit where only the contribution of the n = 0 Landau level is relevant. A crossover from a negative to a positive interlayer magnetoresistance is found to take place as the merging is approached. This sign change of the magnetoresistance can also result from a coupling between the Dirac valleys, which is enhanced as the magnetic field amplitude increases. Our results describe the behavior of the magnetotransport in the organic conductor α-(BEDT) 2 I 3 and in a stack of deformed graphene-like systems. The latter can be simulated by optical lattices or microwave experiments in which the merging of Dirac cones can be observed. (paper)

  10. Interlayer magnetoresistance in multilayer Dirac electron systems: motion and merging of Dirac cones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assili, M.; Haddad, S.

    2013-09-01

    We theoretically study the effect of the motion and the merging of Dirac cones on the interlayer magnetoresistance in multilayer graphene-like systems. This merging, which can be induced by a uniaxial strain, gives rise in a monolayer Dirac electron system to a topological transition from a semi-metallic phase to an insulating phase whereby Dirac points disappear. Based on a universal Hamiltonian, proposed to describe the motion and the merging of Dirac points in two-dimensional Dirac electron crystals, we calculate the interlayer conductivity of a stack of deformed graphene-like layers using the Kubo formula in the quantum limit where only the contribution of the n = 0 Landau level is relevant. A crossover from a negative to a positive interlayer magnetoresistance is found to take place as the merging is approached. This sign change of the magnetoresistance can also result from a coupling between the Dirac valleys, which is enhanced as the magnetic field amplitude increases. Our results describe the behavior of the magnetotransport in the organic conductor α-(BEDT)2I3 and in a stack of deformed graphene-like systems. The latter can be simulated by optical lattices or microwave experiments in which the merging of Dirac cones can be observed.

  11. Interlayer magnetoresistance in multilayer Dirac electron systems: motion and merging of Dirac cones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assili, M; Haddad, S

    2013-09-11

    We theoretically study the effect of the motion and the merging of Dirac cones on the interlayer magnetoresistance in multilayer graphene-like systems. This merging, which can be induced by a uniaxial strain, gives rise in a monolayer Dirac electron system to a topological transition from a semi-metallic phase to an insulating phase whereby Dirac points disappear. Based on a universal Hamiltonian, proposed to describe the motion and the merging of Dirac points in two-dimensional Dirac electron crystals, we calculate the interlayer conductivity of a stack of deformed graphene-like layers using the Kubo formula in the quantum limit where only the contribution of the n = 0 Landau level is relevant. A crossover from a negative to a positive interlayer magnetoresistance is found to take place as the merging is approached. This sign change of the magnetoresistance can also result from a coupling between the Dirac valleys, which is enhanced as the magnetic field amplitude increases. Our results describe the behavior of the magnetotransport in the organic conductor α-(BEDT)2I3 and in a stack of deformed graphene-like systems. The latter can be simulated by optical lattices or microwave experiments in which the merging of Dirac cones can be observed.

  12. Dirac operator on spaces with conical singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, A.W.

    1982-01-01

    The Dirac operator on compact spaces with conical singularities is studied via the separation of variables formula and the functional calculus of the Dirac Laplacian on the cone. A Bochner type vanishing theorem which gives topological obstructions to the existence of non-negative scalar curvature k greater than or equal to 0 in the singular case is proved. An index formula relating the index of the Dirac operator to the A-genus and Eta-invariant similar to that of Atiyah-Patodi-Singer is obtained. In an appendix, manifolds with boundary with non-negative scalar curvature k greater than or equal to 0 are studied, and several new results on constructing complete metrics with k greater than or equal to on them are obtained

  13. LHCb: Monitoring the DIRAC Distribution System

    CERN Multimedia

    Nandakumar, R; Santinelli, R

    2009-01-01

    DIRAC is the LHCb gateway to any computing grid infrastructure (currently supporting WLCG) and is intended to reliably run large data mining activities. The DIRAC system consists of various services (which wait to be contacted to perform actions) and agents (which carry out periodic activities) to direct jobs as required. An important part of ensuring the reliability of the infrastructure is the monitoring and logging of these DIRAC distributed systems. The monitoring is done collecting information from two sources - one is from pinging the services or by keeping track of the regular heartbeats of the agents, and the other from the analysis of the error messages generated by both agents and services and collected by the logging system. This allows us to ensure that he components are running properly and to collect useful information regarding their operations. The process status monitoring is displayed using the SLS sensor mechanism which also automatically allows one to plot various quantities and also keep ...

  14. DIRAC - Distributed Infrastructure with Remote Agent Control

    CERN Document Server

    Tsaregorodtsev, A; Closier, J; Frank, M; Gaspar, C; van Herwijnen, E; Loverre, F; Ponce, S; Graciani Diaz, R.; Galli, D; Marconi, U; Vagnoni, V; Brook, N; Buckley, A; Harrison, K; Schmelling, M; Egede, U; Bogdanchikov, A; Korolko, I; Washbrook, A; Palacios, J P; Klous, S; Saborido, J J; Khan, A; Pickford, A; Soroko, A; Romanovski, V; Patrick, G N; Kuznetsov, G; Gandelman, M

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes DIRAC, the LHCb Monte Carlo production system. DIRAC has a client/server architecture based on: Compute elements distributed among the collaborating institutes; Databases for production management, bookkeeping (the metadata catalogue) and software configuration; Monitoring and cataloguing services for updating and accessing the databases. Locally installed software agents implemented in Python monitor the local batch queue, interrogate the production database for any outstanding production requests using the XML-RPC protocol and initiate the job submission. The agent checks and, if necessary, installs any required software automatically. After the job has processed the events, the agent transfers the output data and updates the metadata catalogue. DIRAC has been successfully installed at 18 collaborating institutes, including the DataGRID, and has been used in recent Physics Data Challenges. In the near to medium term future we must use a mixed environment with different types of grid mid...

  15. DIRAC - The Distributed MC Production and Analysis for LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Tsaregorodtsev, A

    2004-01-01

    DIRAC is the LHCb distributed computing grid infrastructure for MC production and analysis. Its architecture is based on a set of distributed collaborating services. The service decomposition broadly follows the ARDA project proposal, allowing for the possibility of interchanging the EGEE/ARDA and DIRAC components in the future. Some components developed outside the DIRAC project are already in use as services, for example the File Catalog developed by the AliEn project. An overview of the DIRAC architecture will be given, in particular the recent developments to support user analysis. The main design choices will be presented. One of the main design goals of DIRAC is the simplicity of installation, configuring and operation of various services. This allows all the DIRAC resources to be easily managed by a single Production Manager. The modular design of the DIRAC components allows its functionality to be easily extended to include new computing and storage elements or to handle new tasks. The DIRAC system al...

  16. Cloud flexibility using DIRAC interware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albor, Víctor Fernandez; Miguelez, Marcos Seco; Silva, Juan Jose Saborido; Pena, Tomas Fernandez; Muñoz, Victor Mendez; Diaz, Ricardo Graciani

    2014-01-01

    Communities of different locations are running their computing jobs on dedicated infrastructures without the need to worry about software, hardware or even the site where their programs are going to be executed. Nevertheless, this usually implies that they are restricted to use certain types or versions of an Operating System because either their software needs an definite version of a system library or a specific platform is required by the collaboration to which they belong. On this scenario, if a data center wants to service software to incompatible communities, it has to split its physical resources among those communities. This splitting will inevitably lead to an underuse of resources because the data centers are bound to have periods where one or more of its subclusters are idle. It is, in this situation, where Cloud Computing provides the flexibility and reduction in computational cost that data centers are searching for. This paper describes a set of realistic tests that we ran on one of such implementations. The test comprise software from three different HEP communities (Auger, LHCb and QCD phenomelogists) and the Parsec Benchmark Suite running on one or more of three Linux flavors (SL5, Ubuntu 10.04 and Fedora 13). The implemented infrastructure has, at the cloud level, CloudStack that manages the virtual machines (VM) and the hosts on which they run, and, at the user level, the DIRAC framework along with a VM extension that will submit, monitorize and keep track of the user jobs and also requests CloudStack to start or stop the necessary VM's. In this infrastructure, the community software is distributed via the CernVM-FS, which has been proven to be a reliable and scalable software distribution system. With the resulting infrastructure, users are allowed to send their jobs transparently to the Data Center. The main purpose of this system is the creation of flexible cluster, multiplatform with an scalable method for software distribution for

  17. Cloud flexibility using DIRAC interware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez Albor, Víctor; Seco Miguelez, Marcos; Fernandez Pena, Tomas; Mendez Muñoz, Victor; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo

    2014-06-01

    Communities of different locations are running their computing jobs on dedicated infrastructures without the need to worry about software, hardware or even the site where their programs are going to be executed. Nevertheless, this usually implies that they are restricted to use certain types or versions of an Operating System because either their software needs an definite version of a system library or a specific platform is required by the collaboration to which they belong. On this scenario, if a data center wants to service software to incompatible communities, it has to split its physical resources among those communities. This splitting will inevitably lead to an underuse of resources because the data centers are bound to have periods where one or more of its subclusters are idle. It is, in this situation, where Cloud Computing provides the flexibility and reduction in computational cost that data centers are searching for. This paper describes a set of realistic tests that we ran on one of such implementations. The test comprise software from three different HEP communities (Auger, LHCb and QCD phenomelogists) and the Parsec Benchmark Suite running on one or more of three Linux flavors (SL5, Ubuntu 10.04 and Fedora 13). The implemented infrastructure has, at the cloud level, CloudStack that manages the virtual machines (VM) and the hosts on which they run, and, at the user level, the DIRAC framework along with a VM extension that will submit, monitorize and keep track of the user jobs and also requests CloudStack to start or stop the necessary VM's. In this infrastructure, the community software is distributed via the CernVM-FS, which has been proven to be a reliable and scalable software distribution system. With the resulting infrastructure, users are allowed to send their jobs transparently to the Data Center. The main purpose of this system is the creation of flexible cluster, multiplatform with an scalable method for software distribution for several

  18. Stationary solutions of the Maxwell-Dirac and the Klein-Gordon-Dirac equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteban, M.J.; Georgiev, V.; Sere, E.

    1995-01-01

    The Maxwell-Dirac system describes the interaction of an electron with its own electromagnetic field. We prove the existence of soliton-like solutions of Maxwell-Dirac in (3+1)-Minkowski space-time. The solutions obtained are regular, stationary in time, and localized in space. They are found by a variational method, as critical points of an energy functional. This functional is strongly indefinite and presents a lack of compactness. We also find soliton-like solutions for the Klein-Gordon-Dirac system, arising in the Yukawa model. (author). 32 refs

  19. All-Metallic Vertical Transistors Based on Stacked Dirac Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yangyang; Ni, Zeyuan; Liu, Qihang; Quhe, Ruge; Zheng, Jiaxin; Ye, Meng; Yu, Dapeng; Shi, Junjie; Yang, Jinbo; Lu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    It is an ongoing pursuit to use metal as a channel material in a field effect transistor. All metallic transistor can be fabricated from pristine semimetallic Dirac materials (such as graphene, silicene, and germanene), but the on/off current ratio is very low. In a vertical heterostructure composed by two Dirac materials, the Dirac cones of the two materials survive the weak interlayer van der Waals interaction based on density functional theory method, and electron transport from the Dirac ...

  20. On Huygens' principle for Dirac operators associated to electromagnetic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHALUB FABIO A.C.C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the behavior of massless Dirac particles, i.e., solutions of the Dirac equation with m = 0 in the presence of an electromagnetic field. Our main result (Theorem 1 is that for purely real or imaginary fields any Huygens type (in Hadamard's sense Dirac operators is equivalent to the free Dirac operator, equivalence given by changes of variables and multiplication (right and left by nonzero functions.

  1. Dirac equations for generalised Yang-Mills systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lechtenfeld, O.; Nahm, W.; Tchrakian, D.H.

    1985-06-01

    We present Dirac equations in 4p dimensions for the generalised Yang-Mills (GYM) theories introduced earlier. These Dirac equations are related to the self-duality equations of the GYM and are checked to be elliptic in a 'BPST' background. In this background these Dirac equations are integrated exactly. The possibility of imposing supersymmetry in the GYM-Dirac system is investigated, with negative results. (orig.)

  2. A framework for unified Dirac gauginos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benakli Karim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We identify the Minimal Dirac Gaugino Supersymmetric Standard Model (MDGSSM as the minimal field content with Dirac gauginos allowing unification of gauge coupling. We stress that its parameter space describes also other most popular models as the MSSM, NMSSM and MRSSM. We discuss the generation of trilinear couplings in models of gauge mediation that has been overlooked in the past. We study the different source of Higgs mixings and constraints from the ƿ parameter. Finally, we provide new experimental limits on the masses of the scalar octets.

  3. Dirac particle tunneling from black rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Qingquan

    2008-01-01

    Recent research shows that Hawking radiation can be treated as a quantum tunneling process, and Hawking temperatures of Dirac particles across the horizon of a black hole can be correctly recovered via the fermion tunneling method. In this paper, motivated by the fermion tunneling method, we attempt to apply the analysis to derive Hawking radiation of Dirac particles via tunneling from black ring solutions of 5-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton gravity theory. Finally, it is interesting to find that, as in the black hole case, fermion tunneling can also result in correct Hawking temperatures for the rotating neutral, dipole, and charged black rings.

  4. Kapitza–Dirac effect with traveling waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayrapetyan, Armen G; Götte, Jörg B; Grigoryan, Karen K; Petrosyan, Rubik G

    2015-01-01

    We report on the possibility of diffracting electrons from light waves traveling inside a dielectric medium. We show that, in the frame of reference which moves with the group velocity of light, the traveling wave acts as a stationary diffraction grating from which electrons can diffract, similar to the conventional Kapitza–Dirac effect. To characterize the Kapitza–Dirac effect with traveling light waves, we make use of the Hamiltonian Analogy between electron optics and quantum mechanics and apply the Helmholtz–Kirchhoff theory of diffraction. (fast track communication)

  5. Are Dirac electrons faster than light?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Angelis, G.F.

    1986-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of path integral solutions of the Dirac equation. The path integral construction of the Dirac propagator which extends Fynman's checkerboard rule in more than one space dimension is discussed. A distinguished feature of such extension is the fact that the speed of a relativistic electron is actually greater than the speed of light when the space has more than one dimension. A technique employed in obtaining an extension to higher space dimension is described which consists in comparing continuity equations of quantum mechanical origin with forward Kolmogorov equations for suitable chosen classes of random processes

  6. Complex Wedge-Shaped Matrices: A Generalization of Jacobi Matrices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hnětynková, Iveta; Plešinger, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 487, 15 December (2015), s. 203-219 ISSN 0024-3795 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-06684S Keywords : eigenvalues * eigenvector * wedge-shaped matrices * generalized Jacobi matrices * band (or block) Krylov subspace methods Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.965, year: 2015

  7. New exact solutions of the Dirac equation. 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagrov, V.G.; Gitman, D.M.; Zadorozhnyj, V.N.; Sukhomlin, N.B.; Shapovalov, V.N.

    1978-01-01

    The paper continues the investigation into the exact solutions of the Dirac, Klein-Gordon, and Lorentz equations for a charge in an external electromagnetic field. The fields studied do not allow for separation of variables in the Dirac equation, but solutions to the Dirac equation are obtained

  8. Kondo effect in three-dimensional Dirac and Weyl systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitchell, Andrew K.; Fritz, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic impurities in three-dimensional Dirac and Weyl systems are shown to exhibit a fascinatingly diverse range of Kondo physics, with distinctive experimental spectroscopic signatures. When the Fermi level is precisely at the Dirac point, Dirac semimetals are in fact unlikely candidates for a

  9. Dirac cones beyond the honeycomb lattice : a symmetry based approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miert, G. van; de Morais Smith, Cristiane

    2016-01-01

    Recently, several new materials exhibiting massless Dirac fermions have been proposed. However, many of these do not have the typical graphene honeycomb lattice, which is often associated with Dirac cones. Here, we present a classification of these different two-dimensional Dirac systems based on

  10. Generalisations of Fisher Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Heavens

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fisher matrices play an important role in experimental design and in data analysis. Their primary role is to make predictions for the inference of model parameters—both their errors and covariances. In this short review, I outline a number of extensions to the simple Fisher matrix formalism, covering a number of recent developments in the field. These are: (a situations where the data (in the form of ( x , y pairs have errors in both x and y; (b modifications to parameter inference in the presence of systematic errors, or through fixing the values of some model parameters; (c Derivative Approximation for LIkelihoods (DALI - higher-order expansions of the likelihood surface, going beyond the Gaussian shape approximation; (d extensions of the Fisher-like formalism, to treat model selection problems with Bayesian evidence.

  11. Random volumes from matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuma, Masafumi; Sugishita, Sotaro; Umeda, Naoya [Department of Physics, Kyoto University,Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2015-07-17

    We propose a class of models which generate three-dimensional random volumes, where each configuration consists of triangles glued together along multiple hinges. The models have matrices as the dynamical variables and are characterized by semisimple associative algebras A. Although most of the diagrams represent configurations which are not manifolds, we show that the set of possible diagrams can be drastically reduced such that only (and all of the) three-dimensional manifolds with tetrahedral decompositions appear, by introducing a color structure and taking an appropriate large N limit. We examine the analytic properties when A is a matrix ring or a group ring, and show that the models with matrix ring have a novel strong-weak duality which interchanges the roles of triangles and hinges. We also give a brief comment on the relationship of our models with the colored tensor models.

  12. VanderLaan Circulant Type Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Pan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Circulant matrices have become a satisfactory tools in control methods for modern complex systems. In the paper, VanderLaan circulant type matrices are presented, which include VanderLaan circulant, left circulant, and g-circulant matrices. The nonsingularity of these special matrices is discussed by the surprising properties of VanderLaan numbers. The exact determinants of VanderLaan circulant type matrices are given by structuring transformation matrices, determinants of well-known tridiagonal matrices, and tridiagonal-like matrices. The explicit inverse matrices of these special matrices are obtained by structuring transformation matrices, inverses of known tridiagonal matrices, and quasi-tridiagonal matrices. Three kinds of norms and lower bound for the spread of VanderLaan circulant and left circulant matrix are given separately. And we gain the spectral norm of VanderLaan g-circulant matrix.

  13. Diagonalization of the mass matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, S.S.

    1984-01-01

    It is possible to make 20 types of 3x3 mass matrices which are hermitian. We have obtained unitary matrices which could diagonalize each mass matrix. Since the three elements of mass matrix can be expressed in terms of the three eigenvalues, msub(i), we can also express the unitary matrix in terms of msub(i). (Author)

  14. Enhancing Understanding of Transformation Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Jonathan; Childrey, Maria

    2012-01-01

    With the Common Core State Standards' emphasis on transformations, teachers need a variety of approaches to increase student understanding. Teaching matrix transformations by focusing on row vectors gives students tools to create matrices to perform transformations. This empowerment opens many doors: Students are able to create the matrices for…

  15. Dirac's aether in relativistic quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petroni, N.C.; Bari Univ.; Vigier, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    The paper concerns Dirac's aether model, based on a stochastic covariant distribution of subquantum motions. Stochastic derivation of the relativistic quantum equations; deterministic nonlocal interpretation of the Aspect-Rapisarda experiments on the EPR paradox; and photon interference with itself; are all discussed. (U.K.)

  16. Dirac's minimum degree condition restricted to claws

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersma, Haitze J.; Ryjacek, Z.; Schiermeyer, I.

    1997-01-01

    Let G be a graph on n 3 vertices. Dirac's minimum degree condition is the condition that all vertices of G have degree at least . This is a well-known sufficient condition for the existence of a Hamilton cycle in G. We give related sufficiency conditions for the existence of a Hamilton cycle or a

  17. On the Dirac groups of rank n

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, P.L.; Alcaras, J.A.C.

    1980-01-01

    The group theoretical properties of the Dirac groups of rank n are discussed together with the properties and construction of their IR's. The cases n even and n odd show distinct features. Furthermore, for n odd, the cases n=4K+1 and n=4K+3 exhibit some different properties too. (Author) [pt

  18. Higher dimensional supersymmetric quantum mechanics and Dirac ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We exhibit the supersymmetric quantum mechanical structure of the full 3+1 dimensional Dirac equation considering `mass' as a function of coordinates. Its usefulness in solving potential problems is discussed with specific examples. We also discuss the `physical' significance of the supersymmetric states in this formalism.

  19. Applications of Dirac's Delta Function in Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuri, Andre

    2004-01-01

    The Dirac delta function has been used successfully in mathematical physics for many years. The purpose of this article is to bring attention to several useful applications of this function in mathematical statistics. Some of these applications include a unified representation of the distribution of a function (or functions) of one or several…

  20. On Kaehler's geometric description of dirac fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeckeler, M.; Joos, H.

    1983-12-01

    A differential geometric generalization of the Dirac equation due to E. Kaehler seems to be an appropriate starting point for the lattice approximation of matter fields. It is the purpose of this lecture to illustrate several aspects of this approach. (orig./HSI)

  1. SU(4) properties of the Dirac equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linhares, C.A.; Mignaco, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    The Dirac equation in four dimensions has an intimate connection with the representations of the group SU(4). This connection is shown in detail and subsequente properties are displayed in the continuum as well as in the lattice description. (author) [pt

  2. The Dirac operator on the Fuzzy sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosse, H.

    1994-01-01

    We introduce the Fuzzy analog of spinor bundles over the sphere on which the non-commutative analog of the Dirac operator acts. We construct the complete set of eigenstates including zero modes. In the commutative limit we recover known results. (authors)

  3. Mass and oscillations of Dirac neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collot, J.

    1989-01-01

    In the most economical extension of the standard model, we have presented the theory of massive Dirac neutrinos. We have particularly emphasized that, in this model, a complete analogy between quarks and leptons can be erected and predicts neutrino flavor oscillations. We have reviewed the last experimental results concerning kinetic neutrino mass experiments and neutrino oscillation investigations

  4. First level trigger of the DIRAC experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanas'ev, L.G.; Karpukhin, V.V.; Kulikov, A.V.; Gallas, M.

    2001-01-01

    The logic of the first level trigger of the DIRAC experiment at CERN is described. A parallel running of different trigger modes with tagging of events and optional independent prescaling is realized. A CAMAC-based trigger system is completely computer controlled

  5. Evolution kernel for the Dirac field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baaquie, B.E.

    1982-06-01

    The evolution kernel for the free Dirac field is calculated using the Wilson lattice fermions. We discuss the difficulties due to which this calculation has not been previously performed in the continuum theory. The continuum limit is taken, and the complete energy eigenfunctions as well as the propagator are then evaluated in a new manner using the kernel. (author)

  6. Probabilistic solution of the Dirac equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, P.; Combe, P.

    1985-01-01

    Various probabilistic representations of the 2, 3 and 4 dimensional Dirac equation are given in terms of expectation with respect to stochastic jump processes and are used to derive the nonrelativistic limit even in the presence of an external electromagnetic field. (orig.)

  7. Poisson geometry from a Dirac perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinrenken, Eckhard

    2018-03-01

    We present proofs of classical results in Poisson geometry using techniques from Dirac geometry. This article is based on mini-courses at the Poisson summer school in Geneva, June 2016, and at the workshop Quantum Groups and Gravity at the University of Waterloo, April 2016.

  8. Hierarchical matrices algorithms and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Hackbusch, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    This self-contained monograph presents matrix algorithms and their analysis. The new technique enables not only the solution of linear systems but also the approximation of matrix functions, e.g., the matrix exponential. Other applications include the solution of matrix equations, e.g., the Lyapunov or Riccati equation. The required mathematical background can be found in the appendix. The numerical treatment of fully populated large-scale matrices is usually rather costly. However, the technique of hierarchical matrices makes it possible to store matrices and to perform matrix operations approximately with almost linear cost and a controllable degree of approximation error. For important classes of matrices, the computational cost increases only logarithmically with the approximation error. The operations provided include the matrix inversion and LU decomposition. Since large-scale linear algebra problems are standard in scientific computing, the subject of hierarchical matrices is of interest to scientists ...

  9. Intrinsic character of Stokes matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Jean-François; Rousseau, Christiane

    2017-02-01

    Two germs of linear analytic differential systems x k + 1Y‧ = A (x) Y with a non-resonant irregular singularity are analytically equivalent if and only if they have the same eigenvalues and equivalent collections of Stokes matrices. The Stokes matrices are the transition matrices between sectors on which the system is analytically equivalent to its formal normal form. Each sector contains exactly one separating ray for each pair of eigenvalues. A rotation in S allows supposing that R+ lies in the intersection of two sectors. Reordering of the coordinates of Y allows ordering the real parts of the eigenvalues, thus yielding triangular Stokes matrices. However, the choice of the rotation in x is not canonical. In this paper we establish how the collection of Stokes matrices depends on this rotation, and hence on a chosen order of the projection of the eigenvalues on a line through the origin.

  10. A Route to Dirac Liquid Theory: A Fermi Liquid Description for Dirac Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gochan, Matthew; Bedell, Kevin

    Since the pioneering work developed by L.V. Landau sixty years ago, Fermi Liquid Theory has seen great success in describing interacting Fermi systems. While much interest has been generated over the study of non-Fermi Liquid systems, Fermi Liquid theory serves as a formidable model for many systems and offers a rich amount of of results and insight. The recent classification of Dirac Materials, and the lack of a unifying theoretical framework for them, has motivated our study. Dirac materials are a versatile class of materials in which an abundance of unique physical phenomena can be observed. Such materials are found in all dimensions, with the shared property that their low-energy fermionic excitations behave as massless Dirac fermions and are therefore governed by the Dirac equation. The most popular Dirac material, graphene, is the focus of this work. We present our Fermi Liquid description of Graphene. We find many interesting results, specifically in the transport and dynamics of the system. Additionally, we expand on previous work regarding the Virial Theorem and its impact on the Fermi Liquid parameters in graphene. Finally, we remark on viscoelasticity of Dirac Materials and other unusual results that are consequences of AdS-CFT.

  11. The GridPP DIRAC project - DIRAC for non-LHC communities

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, D; Currie, R; Fayer, S; Huffman, A; Martyniak, J; Rand, D; Richards, A

    2015-01-01

    The GridPP consortium in the UK is currently testing a multi-VO DIRAC service aimed at non-LHC VOs. These VOs (Virtual Organisations) are typically small and generally do not have a dedicated computing support post. The majority of these represent particle physics experiments (e.g. NA62 and COMET), although the scope of the DIRAC service is not limited to this field. A few VOs have designed bespoke tools around the EMI-WMS & LFC, while others have so far eschewed distributed resources as they perceive the overhead for accessing them to be too high. The aim of the GridPP DIRAC project is to provide an easily adaptable toolkit for such VOs in order to lower the threshold for access to distributed resources such as Grid and cloud computing. As well as hosting a centrally run DIRAC service, we will also publish our changes and additions to the upstream DIRAC codebase under an open-source license. We report on the current status of this project and show increasing adoption of DIRAC within the non-LHC communiti...

  12. The GridPP DIRAC project - DIRAC for non-LHC communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, D.; Colling, D.; Currie, R.; Fayer, S.; Huffman, A.; Martyniak, J.; Rand, D.; Richards, A.

    2015-12-01

    The GridPP consortium in the UK is currently testing a multi-VO DIRAC service aimed at non-LHC VOs. These VOs (Virtual Organisations) are typically small and generally do not have a dedicated computing support post. The majority of these represent particle physics experiments (e.g. NA62 and COMET), although the scope of the DIRAC service is not limited to this field. A few VOs have designed bespoke tools around the EMI-WMS & LFC, while others have so far eschewed distributed resources as they perceive the overhead for accessing them to be too high. The aim of the GridPP DIRAC project is to provide an easily adaptable toolkit for such VOs in order to lower the threshold for access to distributed resources such as Grid and cloud computing. As well as hosting a centrally run DIRAC service, we will also publish our changes and additions to the upstream DIRAC codebase under an open-source license. We report on the current status of this project and show increasing adoption of DIRAC within the non-LHC communities.

  13. Identifying Dirac cones in carbon allotropes with square symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jinying [College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Huang, Huaqing; Duan, Wenhui [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Liu, Zhirong, E-mail: LiuZhiRong@pku.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); State Key Laboratory for Structural Chemistry of Unstable and Stable Species and Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences (BNLMS), Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2013-11-14

    A theoretical study is conducted to search for Dirac cones in two-dimensional carbon allotropes with square symmetry. By enumerating the carbon atoms in a unit cell up to 12, an allotrope with octatomic rings is recognized to possess Dirac cones under a simple tight-binding approach. The obtained Dirac cones are accompanied by flat bands at the Fermi level, and the resulting massless Dirac-Weyl fermions are chiral particles with a pseudospin of S = 1, rather than the conventional S = 1/2 of graphene. The spin-1 Dirac cones are also predicted to exist in hexagonal graphene antidot lattices.

  14. Special matrices of mathematical physics stochastic, circulant and Bell matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Aldrovandi, R

    2001-01-01

    This book expounds three special kinds of matrices that are of physical interest, centering on physical examples. Stochastic matrices describe dynamical systems of many different types, involving (or not) phenomena like transience, dissipation, ergodicity, nonequilibrium, and hypersensitivity to initial conditions. The main characteristic is growth by agglomeration, as in glass formation. Circulants are the building blocks of elementary Fourier analysis and provide a natural gateway to quantum mechanics and noncommutative geometry. Bell polynomials offer closed expressions for many formulas co

  15. The invariant theory of matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Concini, Corrado De

    2017-01-01

    This book gives a unified, complete, and self-contained exposition of the main algebraic theorems of invariant theory for matrices in a characteristic free approach. More precisely, it contains the description of polynomial functions in several variables on the set of m\\times m matrices with coefficients in an infinite field or even the ring of integers, invariant under simultaneous conjugation. Following Hermann Weyl's classical approach, the ring of invariants is described by formulating and proving the first fundamental theorem that describes a set of generators in the ring of invariants, and the second fundamental theorem that describes relations between these generators. The authors study both the case of matrices over a field of characteristic 0 and the case of matrices over a field of positive characteristic. While the case of characteristic 0 can be treated following a classical approach, the case of positive characteristic (developed by Donkin and Zubkov) is much harder. A presentation of this case...

  16. Quantum matrices in two dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewen, H.; Ogievetsky, O.; Wess, J.

    1991-01-01

    Quantum matrices in two-dimensions, admitting left and right quantum spaces, are classified: they fall into two families, the 2-parametric family GL p,q (2) and a 1-parametric family GL α J (2). Phenomena previously found for GL p,q (2) hold in this general situation: (a) powers of quantum matrices are again quantum and (b) entries of the logarithm of a two-dimensional quantum matrix form a Lie algebra. (orig.)

  17. Dirac phenomenology and hyperon-nucleus interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mares, J; Jennings, B K [TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Cooper, E D [Fraser Valley Univ. College, Chilliwack, British Columbia (Canada). Dept. of Physics

    1993-05-01

    We discuss various aspects of hyperon-nucleus interactions in the relativistic mean field theory. First, characteristics of {Lambda}, {Sigma} and {identical_to} hypernuclei, as well as multi strange baryonic objects, are investigated. The spin-orbit splittings and magnetic moments are shown to be very sensitive to the value of the tensor coupling f{omega}y. Second, optical potentials for {Lambda} and {Sigma} scattering off nuclei are developed based on a global nucleon-nucleon Dirac optical potential and SU(3) symmetry. The tensor coupling has a large effect on the predictions for the analyzing power. Third, the Dirac approach is used in the calculations of the non-mesonic decay of {Lambda} hypernuclei. The large discrepancy between the decay rates and data suggests the need for additional meson exchanges. (authors). 62 refs.,7 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Classical electromagnetic radiation of the Dirac electron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanyi, G.

    1973-01-01

    A wave-function-dependent four-vector potential is added to the Dirac equation in order to achieve conservation of energy and momentum for a Dirac electron and its emitted electromagnetic field. The resultant equation contains solutions which describe transitions between different energy states of the electron. As a consequence it is possible to follow the space-time evolution of such a process. This evolution is shown in the case of the spontaneous emission of an electromagnetic field by an electron bound in a hydrogen-like atom. The intensity of the radiation and the spectral distribution are calculated for transitions between two eigenstates. The theory gives a self-consistent deterministic description of some simple radiation processes without using quantum electrodynamics or the correspondence principle.

  19. Dirac neutrino masses from generalized supersymmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demir, D.A.; Everett, L.L.; Langacker, P.

    2007-12-01

    We demonstrate that Dirac neutrino masses in the experimentally preferred range are generated within supersymmetric gauge extensions of the Standard Model with a generalized supersymmetry breaking sector. If the usual superpotential Yukawa couplings are forbidden by the additional gauge symmetry (such as a U(1) ' ), effective Dirac mass terms involving the ''wrong Higgs'' field can arise either at tree level due to hard supersymmetry breaking fermion Yukawa couplings, or at one-loop due to nonanalytic or ''nonholomorphic'' soft supersymmetry breaking trilinear scalar couplings. As both of these operators are naturally suppressed in generic models of supersymmetry breaking, the resulting neutrino masses are naturally in the sub-eV range. The neutrino magnetic and electric dipole moments resulting from the radiative mechanism also vanish at one-loop order. (orig.)

  20. Floquet-Engineered Valleytronics in Dirac Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Arijit; Fertig, H A; Seradjeh, Babak

    2016-01-08

    Valley degrees of freedom offer a potential resource for quantum information processing if they can be effectively controlled. We discuss an optical approach to this problem in which intense light breaks electronic symmetries of a two-dimensional Dirac material. The resulting quasienergy structures may then differ for different valleys, so that the Floquet physics of the system can be exploited to produce highly polarized valley currents. This physics can be utilized to realize a valley valve whose behavior is determined optically. We propose a concrete way to achieve such valleytronics in graphene as well as in a simple model of an inversion-symmetry broken Dirac material. We study the effect numerically and demonstrate its robustness against moderate disorder and small deviations in optical parameters.

  1. Crucial test of the Dirac cosmologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steigman, G.

    1978-01-01

    In a cosmology consistent with the Cosmological Principle (large scale, statistical isotropy and homogeneity of the universe), a Planck spectrum is not preserved as the universe evolves unless the number of photons in a comoving volume is conserved. It is shown that a large class of cosmological models based on Dirac's Large Numbers Hypothesis (LNH) violate this constraint. The observed isotropy and spectral distribution of the microwave background radiation thus provide a crucial test of such cosmologies. After reviewing the LNH, the general evolution of radiation spectra in cosmologies consistent with the cosmological principle is outlined. It is shown that the predicted deviations from a Planck spectrum for Dirac cosmologies (as well as for ''tired-light'' cosmologies) are enormous. The Planckian (or near-Planckian) spectral form for the microwave radiation provides a crucial test, failed by such cosmologies

  2. Excitation spectrum of correlated Dirac fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Z.; Jafari, S. A.

    2015-04-01

    Motivated by the puzzling optical conductivity measurements in graphene, we speculate on the possible role of strong electronic correlations on the two-dimensional Dirac fermions. In this work we employ the slave-particle method to study the excitations of the Hubbard model on honeycomb lattice, away from half-filling. Since the ratio U/t ≈ 3.3 in graphene is not infinite, double occupancy is not entirely prohibited and hence a finite density of doublonscan be generated. We therefore extend the Ioff-Larkin composition rule to include a finite density of doublons. We then investigate the role played by each of these auxiliary particles in the optical absorption of strongly correlated Dirac fermions.

  3. Dirac gauginos in low scale supersymmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodsell, Mark D.; Tziveloglou, Pantelis

    2014-01-01

    It has been claimed that Dirac gaugino masses are necessary for realistic models of low-scale supersymmetry breaking, and yet very little attention has been paid to the phenomenology of a light gravitino when gauginos have Dirac masses. We begin to address this deficit by investigating the couplings and phenomenology of the gravitino in the effective Lagrangian approach. We pay particular attention to the phenomenology of the scalar octets, where new decay channels open up. This leads us to propose a new simplified effective scenario including only light gluinos, sgluons and gravitinos, allowing the squarks to be heavy – with the possible exception of the third generation. Finally, we comment on the application of our results to Fake Split Supersymmetry

  4. Dirac operator, chirality and random matrix theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pullirsch, R.

    2001-05-01

    Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) is considered to be the correct theory which describes quarks and gluons and, thus, all strong interaction phenomena from the fundamental forces of nature. However, important properties of QCD such as the physical mechanism of color confinement and the spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry are still not completely understood and under extensive discussion. Analytical calculations are limited, because in the low-energy regime where quarks are confined, application of perturbation theory is restricted due to the large gluon coupling. A powerful tool to investigate numerically and analytically the non-perturbative region is provided by the lattice formulation of QCD. From Monte Carlo simulations of lattice QCD we know that chiral symmetry is restored above a critical temperature. As the chiral condensate is connected to the spectral density of the Dirac operator via the Banks-Casher relation, the QCD Dirac spectrum is an interesting object for detailed studies. In search for an analytical expression of the infrared limit of the Dirac spectrum it has been realized that chiral random-matrix theory (chRMT) is a suitable tool to compare with the distribution and the correlations of the small Dirac eigenvalues. Further, it has been shown that the correlations of eigenvalues on the scale of mean level spacings are universal for complex physical systems and are given by random-matrix theory (Rm). This has been formulated as the Baghouse-Giannoni-Schmit conjecture which states that spectral correlations of a classically chaotic system are given by RMT on the quantum level. The aim of this work is to analyze the relationship between chiral phase transitions and chaos to order transitions in quantum field theories. We study the eigenvalues of the Dirac operator for Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) with compact gauge group U(1) on the lattice. This theory shows chiral symmetry breaking and confinement in the strong coupling region. Although being

  5. Renormalization group evolution of Dirac neutrino masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindner, Manfred; Ratz, Michael; Schmidt, Michael Andreas

    2005-01-01

    There are good reasons why neutrinos could be Majorana particles, but there exist also a number of very good reasons why neutrinos could have Dirac masses. The latter option deserves more attention and we derive therefore analytic expressions describing the renormalization group evolution of mixing angles and of the CP phase for Dirac neutrinos. Radiative corrections to leptonic mixings are in this case enhanced compared to the quark mixings because the hierarchy of neutrino masses is milder and because the mixing angles are larger. The renormalization group effects are compared to the precision of current and future neutrino experiments. We find that, in the MSSM framework, radiative corrections of the mixing angles are for large tan β comparable to the precision of future experiments

  6. Dirac equation in Kerr space-time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyer, B R; Kumar, Arvind [Bombay Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics

    1976-06-01

    The weak-field low-velocity approximation of Dirac equation in Kerr space-time is investigated. The interaction terms admit of an interpretation in terms of a 'dipole-dipole' interaction in addition to coupling of spin with the angular momentum of the rotating source. The gravitational gyro-factor for spin is identified. The charged case (Kerr-Newman) is studied using minimal prescription for electromagnetic coupling in the locally intertial frame and to the leading order the standard electromagnetic gyro-factor is retrieved. A first order perturbation calculation of the shift of the Schwarzchild energy level yields the main interesting result of this work: the anomalous Zeeman splitting of the energy level of a Dirac particle in Kerr metric.

  7. On an uninterpretated tensor in Dirac's theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa de Beauregard, O.

    1989-01-01

    Franz, in 1935, deduced systematically from the Dirac equation 10 tensorial equations, 5 with a mechanical interpretation, 5 with an electromagnetic interpretation, which are also consequences of Kemmer's formalism for spins 1 and 0; Durand, in 1944, operating similarly with the second order Dirac equation, obtained, 10 equations, 5 of which expressing the divergences of the Gordon type tensors. Of these equations, together with the tensors they imply, some are easily interpreted by reference to the classical theories, some other remain uniterpreted. Recently (1988) we proposed a theory of the coupling between Einstein's gravity field and the 5 Franz mechanical equations, yielding as a bonus the complete interpretation of the 5 Franz mechanical equations. This is an incitation to reexamine the 5 electromagnetic equations. We show here that two of these, together with one of the Durand equations, implying the same tensor, remain uninterpreted. This is proposed as a challenge to the reader's sagacity [fr

  8. LHCb: Pilot Framework and the DIRAC WMS

    CERN Multimedia

    Graciani, R; Casajus, A

    2009-01-01

    DIRAC, the LHCb community Grid solution, has pioneered the use of pilot jobs in the Grid. Pilot jobs provide a homogeneous interface to an heterogeneous set of computing resources. At the same time, pilot jobs allow to delay the scheduling decision to the last moment, thus taking into account the precise running conditions at the resource and last moment requests to the system. The DIRAC Workload Management System provides one single scheduling mechanism for jobs with very different profiles. To achieve an overall optimisation, it organizes pending jobs in task queues, both for individual users and production activities. Task queues are created with jobs having similar requirements. Following the VO policy a priority is assigned to each task queue. Pilot submission and subsequent job matching are based on these priorities following a statistical approach. Details of the implementation and the security aspects of this framework will be discussed.

  9. Transversal Dirac families in Riemannian foliations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glazebrook, J.F.; Kamber, F.W.

    1991-01-01

    We describe a family of differential operators parametrized by the transversal vector potentials of a Riemannian foliation relative to the Clifford algebra of the foliation. This family is non-elliptic but in certain ways behaves like a standard Dirac family in the absolute case as a result of its elliptic-like regularity properties. The analytic and topological indices of this family are defined as elements of K-theory in the parameter space. We indicate how the cohomology of the parameter space is described via suitable maps to Fredholm operators. We outline the proof of a theorem of Vafa-Witten type on uniform bounds for the eigenvalues of this family using a spectral flow argument. A determinant operator is also defined with the appropriate zeta function regularization dependent on the codimension of the foliation. With respect to a generalized coupled Dirac-Yang-Mills system, we indicate how chiral anomalies are located relative to the foliation. (orig.)

  10. Permanent Magnet Dipole for DIRAC Design Report

    CERN Document Server

    Vorozhtsov, Alexey

    2012-01-01

    Two dipole magnets including one spare unit are needed for the for the DIRAC experiment. The proposed design is a permanent magnet dipole. The design based on Sm2Co17 blocks assembled together with soft ferromagnetic pole tips. The magnet provides integrated field strength of 24.6 10-3 T×m inside the aperture of 60 mm. This Design Report summarizes the main magnetic and mechanic design parameters of the permanent dipole magnets.

  11. Dirac monopole without strings: monopole harmonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, T.T.; Yang, C.N.

    1983-01-01

    Using the ideas developed in a previous paper which are borrowed from the mathematics of fiber bundles, it is shown that the wave function psi of a particle of charge Ze around a Dirac monopole of strength g should be regarded as a section. The section is without discontinuities. Thus the monopole does not possess strings of singularities in the field around it. The eigensections of the angular momentum operators are monopole harmonics which are explicitly exhibited. 7 references, 2 figures, 1 table

  12. Dispersionless wave packets in Dirac materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakubský, Vít; Tušek, Matěj

    2017-01-01

    We show that a wide class of quantum systems with translational invariance can host dispersionless, soliton-like, wave packets. We focus on the setting where the effective, two-dimensional Hamiltonian acquires the form of the Dirac operator. The proposed framework for construction of the dispersionless wave packets is illustrated on silicene-like systems with topologically nontrivial effective mass. Our analytical predictions are accompanied by a numerical analysis and possible experimental realizations are discussed.

  13. Dirac operators and Killing spinors with torsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker-Bender, Julia

    2012-01-01

    On a Riemannian spin manifold with parallel skew torsion, we use the twistor operator to obtain an eigenvalue estimate for the Dirac operator with torsion. We consider the equality case in dimensions four and six. In odd dimensions we describe Sasaki manifolds on which equality in the estimate is realized by Killing spinors with torsion. In dimension five we characterize all Killing spinors with torsion and obtain certain naturally reductive spaces as exceptional cases.

  14. Data acquisition software for DIRAC experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Olshevsky, V G

    2001-01-01

    The structure and basic processes of data acquisition software of the DIRAC experiment for the measurement of pi /sup +/ pi /sup -/ atom lifetime are described. The experiment is running on the PS accelerator of CERN. The developed software allows one to accept, record and distribute up to 3 Mbytes of data to consumers in one accelerator supercycle of 14.4 s duration. The described system is successfully in use in the experiment since its startup in 1998. (13 refs).

  15. Data acquisition software for DIRAC experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olshevsky, V.; Trusov, S.

    2001-08-01

    The structure and basic processes of data acquisition software of the DIRAC experiment for the measurement of π +π - atom lifetime are described. The experiment is running on the PS accelerator of CERN. The developed software allows one to accept, record and distribute up to 3 Mbytes of data to consumers in one accelerator supercycle of 14.4 s duration. The described system is successfully in use in the experiment since its startup in 1998.

  16. Data acquisition software for DIRAC experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olshevsky, V.; Trusov, S.

    2001-01-01

    The structure and basic processes of data acquisition software of the DIRAC experiment for the measurement of π + π - atom lifetime are described. The experiment is running on the PS accelerator of CERN. The developed software allows one to accept, record and distribute up to 3 Mbytes of data to consumers in one accelerator supercycle of 14.4 s duration. The described system is successfully in use in the experiment since its startup in 1998

  17. Quantum transport through 3D Dirac materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salehi, M. [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 11155-9161 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jafari, S.A., E-mail: jafari@physics.sharif.edu [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 11155-9161 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Center of Excellence for Complex Systems and Condensed Matter (CSCM), Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 1458889694 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Bismuth and its alloys provide a paradigm to realize three dimensional materials whose low-energy effective theory is given by Dirac equation in 3+1 dimensions. We study the quantum transport properties of three dimensional Dirac materials within the framework of Landauer–Büttiker formalism. Charge carriers in normal metal satisfying the Schrödinger equation, can be split into four-component with appropriate matching conditions at the boundary with the three dimensional Dirac material (3DDM). We calculate the conductance and the Fano factor of an interface separating 3DDM from a normal metal, as well as the conductance through a slab of 3DDM. Under certain circumstances the 3DDM appears transparent to electrons hitting the 3DDM. We find that electrons hitting the metal-3DDM interface from metallic side can enter 3DDM in a reversed spin state as soon as their angle of incidence deviates from the direction perpendicular to interface. However the presence of a second interface completely cancels this effect.

  18. Quantum transport through 3D Dirac materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salehi, M.; Jafari, S.A.

    2015-01-01

    Bismuth and its alloys provide a paradigm to realize three dimensional materials whose low-energy effective theory is given by Dirac equation in 3+1 dimensions. We study the quantum transport properties of three dimensional Dirac materials within the framework of Landauer–Büttiker formalism. Charge carriers in normal metal satisfying the Schrödinger equation, can be split into four-component with appropriate matching conditions at the boundary with the three dimensional Dirac material (3DDM). We calculate the conductance and the Fano factor of an interface separating 3DDM from a normal metal, as well as the conductance through a slab of 3DDM. Under certain circumstances the 3DDM appears transparent to electrons hitting the 3DDM. We find that electrons hitting the metal-3DDM interface from metallic side can enter 3DDM in a reversed spin state as soon as their angle of incidence deviates from the direction perpendicular to interface. However the presence of a second interface completely cancels this effect

  19. Manin matrices and Talalaev's formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chervov, A; Falqui, G

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we study properties of Lax and transfer matrices associated with quantum integrable systems. Our point of view stems from the fact that their elements satisfy special commutation properties, considered by Yu I Manin some 20 years ago at the beginning of quantum group theory. These are the commutation properties of matrix elements of linear homomorphisms between polynomial rings; more explicitly these read: (1) elements of the same column commute; (2) commutators of the cross terms are equal: [M ij , M kl ] [M kj , M il ] (e.g. [M 11 , M 22 ] = [M 21 , M 12 ]). The main aim of this paper is twofold: on the one hand we observe and prove that such matrices (which we call Manin matrices in short) behave almost as well as matrices with commutative elements. Namely, the theorems of linear algebra (e.g., a natural definition of the determinant, the Cayley-Hamilton theorem, the Newton identities and so on and so forth) have a straightforward counterpart in the case of Manin matrices. On the other hand, we remark that such matrices are somewhat ubiquitous in the theory of quantum integrability. For instance, Manin matrices (and their q-analogs) include matrices satisfying the Yang-Baxter relation 'RTT=TTR' and the so-called Cartier-Foata matrices. Also, they enter Talalaev's remarkable formulae: det(∂ z -L gaudin (z)), det(1-e -∂z T Yangian (z)) for the 'quantum spectral curve', and appear in the separation of variables problem and Capelli identities. We show that theorems of linear algebra, after being established for such matrices, have various applications to quantum integrable systems and Lie algebras, e.g. in the construction of new generators in Z(U crit (gl-hat n )) (and, in general, in the construction of quantum conservation laws), in the Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov equation, and in the problem of Wick ordering. We propose, in the appendix, a construction of quantum separated variables for the XXX-Heisenberg system

  20. Spectrum of the Wilson Dirac operator at finite lattice spacings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akemann, G.; Damgaard, Poul Henrik; Splittorff, Kim

    2011-01-01

    We consider the effect of discretization errors on the microscopic spectrum of the Wilson Dirac operator using both chiral Perturbation Theory and chiral Random Matrix Theory. A graded chiral Lagrangian is used to evaluate the microscopic spectral density of the Hermitian Wilson Dirac operator...... as well as the distribution of the chirality over the real eigenvalues of the Wilson Dirac operator. It is shown that a chiral Random Matrix Theory for the Wilson Dirac operator reproduces the leading zero-momentum terms of Wilson chiral Perturbation Theory. All results are obtained for fixed index...... of the Wilson Dirac operator. The low-energy constants of Wilson chiral Perturbation theory are shown to be constrained by the Hermiticity properties of the Wilson Dirac operator....

  1. On reflectionless equi-transmitting matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Kurasov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reflectionless equi-transmitting unitary matrices are studied in connection to matching conditions in quantum graphs. All possible such matrices of size 6 are described explicitly. It is shown that such matrices form 30 six-parameter families intersected along 12 five-parameter families closely connected to conference matrices.

  2. Wave Functions for Time-Dependent Dirac Equation under GUP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng-Yao; Long, Chao-Yun; Long, Zheng-Wen

    2018-04-01

    In this work, the time-dependent Dirac equation is investigated under generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) framework. It is possible to construct the exact solutions of Dirac equation when the time-dependent potentials satisfied the proper conditions. In (1+1) dimensions, the analytical wave functions of the Dirac equation under GUP have been obtained for the two kinds time-dependent potentials. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11565009

  3. Full utilization of semi-Dirac cones in photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasa, Utku G.; Turduev, Mirbek; Giden, Ibrahim H.; Kurt, Hamza

    2018-05-01

    In this study, realization and applications of anisotropic zero-refractive-index materials are proposed by exposing the unit cells of photonic crystals that exhibit Dirac-like cone dispersion to rotational symmetry reduction. Accidental degeneracy of two Bloch modes in the Brillouin zone center of two-dimensional C2-symmetric photonic crystals gives rise to the semi-Dirac cone dispersion. The proposed C2-symmetric photonic crystals behave as epsilon-and-mu-near-zero materials (ɛeff≈ 0 , μeff≈ 0 ) along one propagation direction, but behave as epsilon-near-zero material (ɛeff≈ 0 , μeff≠ 0 ) for the perpendicular direction at semi-Dirac frequency. By extracting the effective medium parameters of the proposed C4- and C2-symmetric periodic media that exhibit Dirac-like and semi-Dirac cone dispersions, intrinsic differences between isotropic and anisotropic materials are investigated. Furthermore, advantages of utilizing semi-Dirac cone materials instead of Dirac-like cone materials in photonic applications are demonstrated in both frequency and time domains. By using anisotropic transmission behavior of the semi-Dirac materials, photonic application concepts such as beam deflectors, beam splitters, and light focusing are proposed. Furthermore, to the best of our knowledge, semi-Dirac cone dispersion is also experimentally demonstrated for the first time by including negative, zero, and positive refraction states of the given material.

  4. Quasiparticle dynamics in reshaped helical Dirac cone of topological insulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Lin; Wang, Z F; Ming, Wenmei; Yao, Meng-Yu; Wang, Meixiao; Yang, Fang; Song, Y R; Zhu, Fengfeng; Fedorov, Alexei V; Sun, Z; Gao, C L; Liu, Canhua; Xue, Qi-Kun; Liu, Chao-Xing; Liu, Feng; Qian, Dong; Jia, Jin-Feng

    2013-02-19

    Topological insulators and graphene present two unique classes of materials, which are characterized by spin-polarized (helical) and nonpolarized Dirac cone band structures, respectively. The importance of many-body interactions that renormalize the linear bands near Dirac point in graphene has been well recognized and attracted much recent attention. However, renormalization of the helical Dirac point has not been observed in topological insulators. Here, we report the experimental observation of the renormalized quasiparticle spectrum with a skewed Dirac cone in a single Bi bilayer grown on Bi(2)Te(3) substrate from angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. First-principles band calculations indicate that the quasiparticle spectra are likely associated with the hybridization between the extrinsic substrate-induced Dirac states of Bi bilayer and the intrinsic surface Dirac states of Bi(2)Te(3) film at close energy proximity. Without such hybridization, only single-particle Dirac spectra are observed in a single Bi bilayer grown on Bi(2)Se(3), where the extrinsic Dirac states Bi bilayer and the intrinsic Dirac states of Bi(2)Se(3) are well separated in energy. The possible origins of many-body interactions are discussed. Our findings provide a means to manipulate topological surface states.

  5. Spectra of sparse random matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehn, Reimer

    2008-01-01

    We compute the spectral density for ensembles of sparse symmetric random matrices using replica. Our formulation of the replica-symmetric ansatz shares the symmetries of that suggested in a seminal paper by Rodgers and Bray (symmetry with respect to permutation of replica and rotation symmetry in the space of replica), but uses a different representation in terms of superpositions of Gaussians. It gives rise to a pair of integral equations which can be solved by a stochastic population-dynamics algorithm. Remarkably our representation allows us to identify pure-point contributions to the spectral density related to the existence of normalizable eigenstates. Our approach is not restricted to matrices defined on graphs with Poissonian degree distribution. Matrices defined on regular random graphs or on scale-free graphs, are easily handled. We also look at matrices with row constraints such as discrete graph Laplacians. Our approach naturally allows us to unfold the total density of states into contributions coming from vertices of different local coordinations and an example of such an unfolding is presented. Our results are well corroborated by numerical diagonalization studies of large finite random matrices

  6. THE PHENOMENON OF HALF-INTEGER SPIN, QUATERNIONS, AND PAULI MATRICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FERNANDO R. GONZÁLEZ DÍAZ

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the phenomenon of half-integer spin exemplification Paul AM Dirac made with a pair of scissors, an elastic cord and chair play. Four examples in which the same phenomenon appears and the algebraic structure of quaternions is related to one of the examples are described. Mathematical proof of the phenomenon using known topological and algebraic results are explained. The basic results of algebraic structures are described quaternions H , and an intrinsic relationship with the phenomenon half-integer spin and the Pauli matrices is established.

  7. Free probability and random matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Mingo, James A

    2017-01-01

    This volume opens the world of free probability to a wide variety of readers. From its roots in the theory of operator algebras, free probability has intertwined with non-crossing partitions, random matrices, applications in wireless communications, representation theory of large groups, quantum groups, the invariant subspace problem, large deviations, subfactors, and beyond. This book puts a special emphasis on the relation of free probability to random matrices, but also touches upon the operator algebraic, combinatorial, and analytic aspects of the theory. The book serves as a combination textbook/research monograph, with self-contained chapters, exercises scattered throughout the text, and coverage of important ongoing progress of the theory. It will appeal to graduate students and all mathematicians interested in random matrices and free probability from the point of view of operator algebras, combinatorics, analytic functions, or applications in engineering and statistical physics.

  8. Chequered surfaces and complex matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, T.R.; Southampton Univ.

    1991-01-01

    We investigate a large-N matrix model involving general complex matrices. It can be reinterpreted as a model of two hermitian matrices with specific couplings, and as a model of positive definite hermitian matrices. Large-N perturbation theory generates dynamical triangulations in which the triangles can be chequered (i.e. coloured so that neighbours are opposite colours). On a sphere there is a simple relation between such triangulations and those generated by the single hermitian matrix model. For the torus (and a quartic potential) we solve the counting problem for the number of triangulations that cannot be quechered. The critical physics of chequered triangulations is the same as that of the hermitian matrix model. We show this explicitly by solving non-perturbatively pure two-dimensional ''chequered'' gravity. The interpretative framework given here applies to a number of other generalisations of the hermitian matrix model. (orig.)

  9. Correlation of Dirac potentials and atomic inversion in cavity quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trisetyarso, Agung

    2010-01-01

    Controlling the time evolution of the population of two states in cavity quantum electrodynamics is necessary by tuning the modified Rabi frequency in which the extra classical effect of electromagnetic field is taken into account. The theoretical explanation underlying the perturbation of potential on spatial regime of bloch sphere is by the use of Bagrov-Baldiotti-Gitman-Shamshutdinova-Darboux transformations [Bagrov et al., 'Darboux transformation for two-level system', Ann. Phys. 14, 390 (2005)] on the electromagnetic field potential in one-dimensional stationary Dirac model in which the Pauli matrices are the central parameters for controlling the collapse and revival of the Rabi oscillations. It is shown that by choosing σ 1 in the transformation generates the parabolic potential causing the total collapse of oscillations, while (σ 2 ,σ 3 ) yield the harmonic oscillator potentials ensuring the coherence of qubits.

  10. A semi-classical analysis of Dirac fermions in 2+1 dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maiti, Moitri; Shankar, R

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the semi-classical dynamics of massless Dirac fermions in 2+1 dimensions in the presence of external electromagnetic fields. By generalizing the α matrices by two generators of the SU(2) group in the (2S + 1)-dimensional representation and doing a certain scaling, we formulate an S → ∞ limit where the orbital and the spinor degrees become classical. We solve for the classical trajectories for a free particle on a cylinder and a particle in a constant magnetic field. We compare the semi-classical spectrum, obtained by Bohr–Sommerfeld quantization with the exact quantum spectrum for low values of S. For the free particle, the semi-classical spectrum is exact. For the particle in a constant magnetic field, the semi-classical spectrum reproduces all the qualitative features of the exact quantum spectrum at all S. The quantitative fit for S = 1/2 is reasonably good. (paper)

  11. Immanant Conversion on Symmetric Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purificação Coelho M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Letr Σn(C denote the space of all n χ n symmetric matrices over the complex field C. The main objective of this paper is to prove that the maps Φ : Σn(C -> Σn (C satisfying for any fixed irre- ducible characters X, X' -SC the condition dx(A +aB = dχ·(Φ(Α + αΦ(Β for all matrices A,В ε Σ„(С and all scalars a ε C are automatically linear and bijective. As a corollary of the above result we characterize all such maps Φ acting on ΣИ(С.

  12. The Dirac distorted wave Born approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, T.; Sherif, H.S.; Johansson, J.; Sawafta, R.I.

    1985-02-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to illuminate the assumptions which are made when one writes down a Dirac DWBA matrix element. Due to the strong nature of the nucleon-nucleon potentials it is difficult to justify some of the steps involved in the general case; however by limiting ourselves to situations where only one (interacting) nucleon is present we can side-step this difficulty. We conclude the excellent agreement with the experiment justifies, a posteriori, the procedure, however we would like to remind the reader that, at least for proton inelastic scattering to collective states, the same quality of agreement can be obtained purely within a Schrodinger formalism

  13. Dirac gauginos, gauge mediation and unification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benakli, K.

    2010-03-01

    We investigate the building of models with Dirac gauginos and perturbative gauge coupling unification. Here, in contrast to the MSSM, additional fields are required for unification, and these can naturally play the role of the messengers of supersymmetry breaking. We present a framework within which such models can be constructed, including the constraints that the messenger sector must satisfy; and the renormalisation group equations for the soft parameters, which differ from those of the MSSM. For illustration, we provide the spectrum at the electroweak scale for explicit models whose gauge couplings unify at the scale predicted by heterotic strings. (orig.)

  14. Total angular momentum from Dirac eigenspinors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabados, Laszlo B

    2008-01-01

    The eigenvalue problem for Dirac operators, constructed from two connections on the spinor bundle over closed spacelike 2-surfaces, is investigated. A class of divergence-free vector fields, built from the eigenspinors, are found, which, for the lowest eigenvalue, reproduce the rotation Killing vectors of metric spheres, and provide rotation BMS vector fields at future null infinity. This makes it possible to introduce a well-defined, gauge invariant spatial angular momentum at null infinity, which reduces to the standard expression in stationary spacetimes. The general formula for the angular momentum flux carried away by the gravitational radiation is also derived

  15. Dirac gauginos, gauge mediation and unification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benakli, K. [UPMC Univ. Paris 06 (France). Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Hautes Energies, CNRS; Goodsell, M.D. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    We investigate the building of models with Dirac gauginos and perturbative gauge coupling unification. Here, in contrast to the MSSM, additional fields are required for unification, and these can naturally play the role of the messengers of supersymmetry breaking. We present a framework within which such models can be constructed, including the constraints that the messenger sector must satisfy; and the renormalisation group equations for the soft parameters, which differ from those of the MSSM. For illustration, we provide the spectrum at the electroweak scale for explicit models whose gauge couplings unify at the scale predicted by heterotic strings. (orig.)

  16. Dirac Gauginos, Gauge Mediation and Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Benakli, K

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the building of models with Dirac gauginos and perturbative gauge coupling unification. Here, in contrast to the MSSM, additional fields are required for unification, and these can naturally play the role of the messengers of supersymmetry breaking. We present a framework within which such models can be constructed, including the constraints that the messenger sector must satisfy; and the renormalisation group equations for the soft parameters, which differ from those of the MSSM. For illustration, we provide the spectrum at the electroweak scale for explicit models whose gauge couplings unify at the scale predicted by heterotic strings.

  17. Incomplete Dirac reduction of constrained Hamiltonian systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandre, C., E-mail: chandre@cpt.univ-mrs.fr

    2015-10-15

    First-class constraints constitute a potential obstacle to the computation of a Poisson bracket in Dirac’s theory of constrained Hamiltonian systems. Using the pseudoinverse instead of the inverse of the matrix defined by the Poisson brackets between the constraints, we show that a Dirac–Poisson bracket can be constructed, even if it corresponds to an incomplete reduction of the original Hamiltonian system. The uniqueness of Dirac brackets is discussed. The relevance of this procedure for infinite dimensional Hamiltonian systems is exemplified.

  18. Dispersionless wave packets in Dirac materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jakubský, Vít; Tušek, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 378, MAR (2017), s. 171-182 ISSN 0003-4916 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GJ15-07674Y; GA ČR GA17-01706S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : quantum systems * wave packets * dispersion * dirac materials Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics OBOR OECD: Atomic, molecular and chemical physics ( physics of atoms and molecules including collision, interaction with radiation, magnetic resonances, Mössbauer effect) Impact factor: 2.465, year: 2016

  19. Dirac's equation and the nature of quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plotnitsky, Arkady

    2012-01-01

    This paper re-examines the key aspects of Dirac's derivation of his relativistic equation for the electron in order advance our understanding of the nature of quantum field theory. Dirac's derivation, the paper argues, follows the key principles behind Heisenberg's discovery of quantum mechanics, which, the paper also argues, transformed the nature of both theoretical and experimental physics vis-à-vis classical physics and relativity. However, the limit theory (a crucial consideration for both Dirac and Heisenberg) in the case of Dirac's theory was quantum mechanics, specifically, Schrödinger's equation, while in the case of quantum mechanics, in Heisenberg's version, the limit theory was classical mechanics. Dirac had to find a new equation, Dirac's equation, along with a new type of quantum variables, while Heisenberg, to find new theory, was able to use the equations of classical physics, applied to different, quantum-mechanical variables. In this respect, Dirac's task was more similar to that of Schrödinger in his work on his version of quantum mechanics. Dirac's equation reflects a more complex character of quantum electrodynamics or quantum field theory in general and of the corresponding (high-energy) experimental quantum physics vis-à-vis that of quantum mechanics and the (low-energy) experimental quantum physics. The final section examines this greater complexity and its implications for fundamental physics.

  20. Special function solutions of the free particle Dirac equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strange, P

    2012-01-01

    The Dirac equation is one of the fundamental equations in physics. Here we present and discuss two novel solutions of the free particle Dirac equation. These solutions have an exact analytical form in terms of Airy or Mathieu functions and exhibit unexpected properties including an enhanced Doppler effect, accelerating wavefronts and solutions with a degree of localization. (paper)

  1. On oscillations of neutrinos with Dirac and Majorana masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilenky, S.M.; Hosek, J.; Petcov, S.T.; Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia)

    1980-01-01

    Pontecorvo neutrino beam oscillations are discussed assuming both Dirac and Majorana neutrino mass terms. It is proved that none of possible experiments on neutrino oscillations, including those on effects of CP violation, can distinguish between these two possibilities. Neutrino oscillations with concomitant Dirac and Majorana mass terms are also considered

  2. Equivalence of Dirac quantization and Schwinger's action principle quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, A.; Scherer, W.

    1987-01-01

    We show that the method of Dirac quantization is equivalent to Schwinger's action principle quantization. The relation between the Lagrange undetermined multipliers in Schwinger's method and Dirac's constraint bracket matrix is established and it is explicitly shown that the two methods yield identical (anti)commutators. This is demonstrated in the non-trivial example of supersymmetric quantum mechanics in superspace. (orig.)

  3. Upper-Division Student Difficulties with the Dirac Delta Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Bethany R.; Pollock, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    The Dirac delta function is a standard mathematical tool that appears repeatedly in the undergraduate physics curriculum in multiple topical areas including electrostatics, and quantum mechanics. While Dirac delta functions are often introduced in order to simplify a problem mathematically, students still struggle to manipulate and interpret them.…

  4. Multi-component bi-Hamiltonian Dirac integrable equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Wenxiu [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620-5700 (United States)], E-mail: mawx@math.usf.edu

    2009-01-15

    A specific matrix iso-spectral problem of arbitrary order is introduced and an associated hierarchy of multi-component Dirac integrable equations is constructed within the framework of zero curvature equations. The bi-Hamiltonian structure of the obtained Dirac hierarchy is presented be means of the variational trace identity. Two examples in the cases of lower order are computed.

  5. Relativistic Spinning Particle without Grassmann Variables and the Dirac Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Deriglazov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the relativistic particle model without Grassmann variables which, being canonically quantized, leads to the Dirac equation. Classical dynamics of the model is in correspondence with the dynamics of mean values of the corresponding operators in the Dirac theory. Classical equations for the spin tensor are the same as those of the Barut-Zanghi model of spinning particle.

  6. The algebraic manipulation program DIRAC on IBM personal computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grozin, A.G.; Perlt, H.

    1989-01-01

    The version DIRAC (2.2) for IBM compatible personal computers is described. It is designed to manipulate algebraically with polynomials and tensors. After a short introduction concerning implementation and usage on personal computers an example program is given. It contains a detailed user's guide to DIRAC (2.2) and, additionally some useful applications. 4 refs

  7. Dirac in 20th century physics: a centenary assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanyuk, Valerii I; Sukhanov, Alexander D

    2003-01-01

    Current views on Dirac's creative heritage and on his role in the formation and development of quantum physics and in shaping the physical picture of the world are discussed. Dirac's fundamental ideas in later life (1948 - 1984) and their current development are given considerable attention. (from the history of physics)

  8. Remarks about singular solutions to the Dirac equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlir, M.

    1975-01-01

    In the paper singular solutions of the Dirac equation are investigated. They are derived in the Lorentz-covariant way of functions proportional to static multipole fields of scalar and (or) electromagnetic fields and of regular solutions of the Dirac equations. The regularization procedure excluding divergences of total energy, momentum and angular momentum of the spinor field considered is proposed

  9. On families of anticommuting matrices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrubeš, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 493, March 15 (2016), s. 494-507 ISSN 0024-3795 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 339691 - FEALORA Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : anticommuting matrices * sum-of-squares formulas Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.973, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0024379515007296

  10. On families of anticommuting matrices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrubeš, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 493, March 15 (2016), s. 494-507 ISSN 0024-3795 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 339691 - FEALORA Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : anticommuting matrices * sum -of-squares formulas Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.973, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0024379515007296

  11. Graphene Dirac point tuned by ferroelectric polarization field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xudong; Chen, Yan; Wu, Guangjian; Wang, Jianlu; Tian, Bobo; Sun, Shuo; Shen, Hong; Lin, Tie; Hu, Weida; Kang, Tingting; Tang, Minghua; Xiao, Yongguang; Sun, Jinglan; Meng, Xiangjian; Chu, Junhao

    2018-04-01

    Graphene has received numerous attention for future nanoelectronics and optoelectronics. The Dirac point is a key parameter of graphene that provides information about its carrier properties. There are lots of methods to tune the Dirac point of graphene, such as chemical doping, impurities, defects, and disorder. In this study, we report a different approach to tune the Dirac point of graphene using a ferroelectric polarization field. The Dirac point can be adjusted to near the ferroelectric coercive voltage regardless its original position. We have ensured this phenomenon by temperature-dependent experiments, and analyzed its mechanism with the theory of impurity correlation in graphene. Additionally, with the modulation of ferroelectric polymer, the current on/off ratio and mobility of graphene transistor both have been improved. This work provides an effective method to tune the Dirac point of graphene, which can be readily used to configure functional devices such as p-n junctions and inverters.

  12. Optical analogue of relativistic Dirac solitons in binary waveguide arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Truong X., E-mail: truong.tran@mpl.mpg.de [Department of Physics, Le Quy Don University, 236 Hoang Quoc Viet str., 10000 Hanoi (Viet Nam); Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Günther-Scharowsky str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Longhi, Stefano [Department of Physics, Politecnico di Milano and Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Piazza L. da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Biancalana, Fabio [Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Günther-Scharowsky str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, EH14 4AS Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-15

    We study analytically and numerically an optical analogue of Dirac solitons in binary waveguide arrays in the presence of Kerr nonlinearity. Pseudo-relativistic soliton solutions of the coupled-mode equations describing dynamics in the array are analytically derived. We demonstrate that with the found soliton solutions, the coupled mode equations can be converted into the nonlinear relativistic 1D Dirac equation. This paves the way for using binary waveguide arrays as a classical simulator of quantum nonlinear effects arising from the Dirac equation, something that is thought to be impossible to achieve in conventional (i.e. linear) quantum field theory. -- Highlights: •An optical analogue of Dirac solitons in nonlinear binary waveguide arrays is suggested. •Analytical solutions to pseudo-relativistic solitons are presented. •A correspondence of optical coupled-mode equations with the nonlinear relativistic Dirac equation is established.

  13. Bosonic Analogue of Dirac Composite Fermi Liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mross, David; Alicea, Jason; Motrunich, Olexei

    The status of particle-hole symmetry has long posed a challenge to the theory of the quantum Hall effect. It is expected to be present in the half-filled Landau level, but is absent in the conventional field theory, i.e., the composite Fermi liquid. Recently, Son proposed an alternative, explicitly particle-hole symmetric theory which features composite fermions that exhibit a Dirac dispersion. In my talk, I will introduce an analogous particle-hole-symmetric metallic state of bosons at odd-integer filling. This state hosts composite fermions whose energy dispersion features a quadratic band touching and corresponding 2 Ï Berry flux, protected by particle-hole and discrete rotation symmetries. As in the Dirac composite Fermi liquid introduced by Son, breaking particle-hole symmetry recovers the familiar Chern-Simons theory. I will discuss realizations of this phase both in 2D and on bosonic topological insulator surfaces, as well as its signatures in experiments and simulations.

  14. Veselago focusing of anisotropic massless Dirac fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu-Hui; Yang, Wen; Peeters, F. M.

    2018-05-01

    Massless Dirac fermions (MDFs) emerge as quasiparticles in various novel materials such as graphene and topological insulators, and they exhibit several intriguing properties, of which Veselago focusing is an outstanding example with a lot of possible applications. However, up to now Veselago focusing merely occurred in p-n junction devices based on the isotropic MDF, which lacks the tunability needed for realistic applications. Here, motivated by the emergence of novel Dirac materials, we investigate the propagation behaviors of anisotropic MDFs in such a p-n junction structure. By projecting the Hamiltonian of the anisotropic MDF to that of the isotropic MDF and deriving an exact analytical expression for the propagator, precise Veselago focusing is demonstrated without the need for mirror symmetry of the electron source and its focusing image. We show a tunable focusing position that can be used in a device to probe masked atom-scale defects. This study provides an innovative concept to realize Veselago focusing relevant for potential applications, and it paves the way for the design of novel electron optics devices by exploiting the anisotropic MDF.

  15. White dwarfs, the galaxy and Dirac's cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stothers, R.

    1976-01-01

    Reference is made to the apparent absence, or deficiency, of white dwarfs fainter than about 10 -4 L solar mass. An explanation is here proposed on the basis of Dirac's cosmological hypothesis that the gravitational constant, G, has varied with the time elapsed since the beginning of the expansion of the Universe as t -1 and the number of particles in the Universe has increases as t 2 , if the measurements are made in atomic units. For a white dwarf the Chandrasekhar mass limit is a collection of fundamental constants proportional to Gsup(-3/2) and therefore increases with time as tsup(3/2). In the 'additive' version of Dirac's theory the actual mass, M, of a relatively small object like a star remains essentially unchanged by the creation of new matter in the Universe and hence a white dwarf will become more stable with the course of time; but in the 'multiplicative' version of the theory, M increases as t 2 and may eventually exceed the Chandrasekhar limit, and if this happens, gravitational collapse of the white dwarf into an invisible black hole or neutron star will quickly occur. It is considered interesting to find whether the 'multiplicative' theory may have a bearing on the apparent deficiency of faint white dwarfs, and to consider whether there are any possible consequences for galactic evolution. This is here discussed. (U.K.)

  16. White dwarfs, the galaxy and Dirac's cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stothers, R [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, Md. (USA). Goddard Space Flight Center

    1976-08-05

    Reference is made to the apparent absence, or deficiency, of white dwarfs fainter than about 10/sup -4/L solar mass. An explanation is here proposed on the basis of Dirac's cosmological hypothesis that the gravitational constant, G, has varied with the time elapsed since the beginning of the expansion of the Universe as t/sup -1/ and the number of particles in the Universe has increases as t/sup 2/, if the measurements are made in atomic units. For a white dwarf the Chandrasekhar mass limit is a collection of fundamental constants proportional to Gsup(-3/2) and therefore increases with time as tsup(3/2). In the 'additive' version of Dirac's theory the actual mass, M, of a relatively small object like a star remains essentially unchanged by the creation of new matter in the Universe and hence a white dwarf will become more stable with the course of time; but in the 'multiplicative' version of the theory, M increases as t/sup 2/ and may eventually exceed the Chandrasekhar limit, and if this happens, gravitational collapse of the white dwarf into an invisible black hole or neutron star will quickly occur. It is considered interesting to find whether the 'multiplicative' theory may have a bearing on the apparent deficiency of faint white dwarfs, and to consider whether there are any possible consequences for galactic evolution. This is here discussed.

  17. The modified Gauss diagonalization of polynomial matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, K.

    1982-10-01

    The Gauss algorithm for diagonalization of constant matrices is modified for application to polynomial matrices. Due to this modification the diagonal elements become pure polynomials rather than rational functions. (author)

  18. Double stochastic matrices in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louck, J.D.

    1997-01-01

    The general set of doubly stochastic matrices of order n corresponding to ordinary nonrelativistic quantum mechanical transition probability matrices is given. Lande's discussion of the nonquantal origin of such matrices is noted. Several concrete examples are presented for elementary and composite angular momentum systems with the focus on the unitary symmetry associated with such systems in the spirit of the recent work of Bohr and Ulfbeck. Birkhoff's theorem on doubly stochastic matrices of order n is reformulated in a geometrical language suitable for application to the subset of quantum mechanical doubly stochastic matrices. Specifically, it is shown that the set of points on the unit sphere in cartesian n'-space is subjective with the set of doubly stochastic matrices of order n. The question is raised, but not answered, as to what is the subset of points of this unit sphere that correspond to the quantum mechanical transition probability matrices, and what is the symmetry group of this subset of matrices

  19. Virial expansion for almost diagonal random matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yevtushenko, Oleg; Kravtsov, Vladimir E.

    2003-08-01

    Energy level statistics of Hermitian random matrices hat H with Gaussian independent random entries Higeqj is studied for a generic ensemble of almost diagonal random matrices with langle|Hii|2rangle ~ 1 and langle|Hi\

  20. Phenomenological mass matrices with a democratic warp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleppe, A.

    2018-01-01

    Taking into account all available data on the mass sector, we obtain unitary rotation matrices that diagonalize the quark matrices by using a specific parametrization of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa mixing matrix. In this way, we find mass matrices for the up- and down-quark sectors of a specific, symmetric form, with traces of a democratic texture.

  1. Dirac operators and Killing spinors with torsion; Dirac-Operatoren und Killing-Spinoren mit Torsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker-Bender, Julia

    2012-12-17

    On a Riemannian spin manifold with parallel skew torsion, we use the twistor operator to obtain an eigenvalue estimate for the Dirac operator with torsion. We consider the equality case in dimensions four and six. In odd dimensions we describe Sasaki manifolds on which equality in the estimate is realized by Killing spinors with torsion. In dimension five we characterize all Killing spinors with torsion and obtain certain naturally reductive spaces as exceptional cases.

  2. S-matrices and integrability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bombardelli, Diego

    2016-01-01

    In these notes we review the S-matrix theory in (1+1)-dimensional integrable models, focusing mainly on the relativistic case. Once the main definitions and physical properties are introduced, we discuss the factorization of scattering processes due to integrability. We then focus on the analytic properties of the two-particle scattering amplitude and illustrate the derivation of the S-matrices for all the possible bound states using the so-called bootstrap principle. General algebraic structures underlying the S-matrix theory and its relation with the form factors axioms are briefly mentioned. Finally, we discuss the S-matrices of sine-Gordon and SU (2), SU (3) chiral Gross–Neveu models. (topical review)

  3. Axial anomaly and index theorem for Dirac-Kaehler fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca Junior, C.A.L. da.

    1985-02-01

    Some aspects of topological influence on gauge field theory are analysed, considering the geometry and differential topology methods. A review of concepts of differential forms, fibered spaces, connection and curvature, showing an interpretation of gauge theory in this context, is presented. The question of fermions, analysing in details the Dirac-Kaehler which fermionic particle is considered a general differential form, is studied. It is shown how the explicit expressions in function of the Dirac spinor components vary with the Dirac matrix representation. The Dirac-Kahler equation contains 4 times (in 4 dimensions) the Dirac equation, each particle being associated an ideal at left of the algebra of general differential forms. These ideals and the SU(4) symmetry among them are also studied on the point of view of spinors and, the group of reduction to one of the ideals is identified as the Cartan subalgebra of this SU(4). Finally, the axial anomaly is calculated through the functional determinant given by the Dirac-Kaehler operator. The regularization method is the Seeley's coefficients. From that results a comparison of the index theorems for the twisted complexes of signature and spin, which proportionality is given by the number of the algebra ideals contained in the Dirac-Kaehler equation and which also manifests in the respective axial anomaly equations. (L.C.) [pt

  4. Particles and Dirac-type operators on curved spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visinescu, Mihai

    2003-01-01

    We review the geodesic motion of pseudo-classical particles in curved spaces. Investigating the generalized Killing equations for spinning spaces, we express the constants of motion in terms of Killing-Yano tensors. Passing from the spinning spaces to the Dirac equation in curved backgrounds we point out the role of the Killing-Yano tensors in the construction of the Dirac-type operators. The general results are applied to the case of the four-dimensional Euclidean Taub-Newman-Unti-Tamburino space. From the covariantly constant Killing-Yano tensors of this space we construct three new Dirac-type operators which are equivalent with the standard Dirac operator. Finally the Runge-Lenz operator for the Dirac equation in this background is expressed in terms of the fourth Killing-Yano tensor which is not covariantly constant. As a rule the covariantly constant Killing-Yano tensors realize certain square roots of the metric tensor. Such a Killing-Yano tensor produces simultaneously a Dirac-type operator and the generator of a one-parameter Lie group connecting this operator with the standard Dirac one. On the other hand, the not covariantly constant Killing-Yano tensors are important in generating hidden symmetries. The presence of not covariantly constant Killing-Yano tensors implies the existence of non-standard supersymmetries in point particle theories on curved background. (author)

  5. Synthesised standards in natural matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, D.G.

    1980-01-01

    The problem of securing the most reliable standards for the accurate analysis of radionuclides is discussed in the paper and in the comment on the paper. It is contended in the paper that the best standards can be created by quantitative addition of accurately known spiking solutions into carefully selected natural matrices. On the other hand it is argued that many natural materials can be successfully standardized for numerous trace constituents. Both points of view are supported with examples. (U.K.)

  6. Topological insulators Dirac equation in condensed matter

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Shun-Qing

    2017-01-01

    This new edition presents a unified description of these insulators from one to three dimensions based on the modified Dirac equation. It derives a series of solutions of the bound states near the boundary, and describes the current status of these solutions. Readers are introduced to topological invariants and their applications to a variety of systems from one-dimensional polyacetylene, to two-dimensional quantum spin Hall effect and p-wave superconductors, three-dimensional topological insulators and superconductors or superfluids, and topological Weyl semimetals, helping them to better understand this fascinating field. To reflect research advances in topological insulators, several parts of the book have been updated for the second edition, including: Spin-Triplet Superconductors, Superconductivity in Doped Topological Insulators, Detection of Majorana Fermions and so on. In particular, the book features a new chapter on Weyl semimetals, a topic that has attracted considerable attention and has already b...

  7. New experimental proposals for testing Dirac equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camacho, Abel; Macias, Alfredo

    2004-01-01

    The advent of phenomenological quantum gravity has ushered us in the search for experimental tests of the deviations from general relativity predicted by quantum gravity or by string theories, and as a by-product of this quest the possible modifications that some field equations, for instance, the motion equation of spin-1/2-particles, have already been considered. In the present Letter a modified Dirac equation, whose extra term embraces a second-order time derivative, is taken as mainstay, and three different experimental proposals to detect it are put forward. The novelty in these ideas is that two of them do not fall within the extant approaches in this context, to wit, red-shift, atomic interferometry, or Hughes-Drever type-like experiments

  8. Topological Insulators Dirac Equation in Condensed Matters

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Shun-Qing

    2012-01-01

    Topological insulators are insulating in the bulk, but process metallic states around its boundary owing to the topological origin of the band structure. The metallic edge or surface states are immune to weak disorder or impurities, and robust against the deformation of the system geometry. This book, Topological insulators, presents a unified description of topological insulators from one to three dimensions based on the modified Dirac equation. A series of solutions of the bound states near the boundary are derived, and the existing conditions of these solutions are described. Topological invariants and their applications to a variety of systems from one-dimensional polyacetalene, to two-dimensional quantum spin Hall effect and p-wave superconductors, and three-dimensional topological insulators and superconductors or superfluids are introduced, helping readers to better understand this fascinating new field. This book is intended for researchers and graduate students working in the field of topological in...

  9. DIRAC reliable data management for LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, A C

    2008-01-01

    DIRAC, LHCb's Grid Workload and Data Management System, utilizes WLCG resources and middleware components to perform distributed computing tasks satisfying LHCb's Computing Model. The Data Management System (DMS) handles data transfer and data access within LHCb. Its scope ranges from the output of the LHCb Online system to Grid-enabled storage for all data types. It supports metadata for these files in replica and bookkeeping catalogues, allowing dataset selection and localization. The DMS controls the movement of files in a redundant fashion whilst providing utilities for accessing all metadata. To do these tasks effectively the DMS requires complete self integrity between its components and external physical storage. The DMS provides highly redundant management of all LHCb data to leverage available storage resources and to manage transient errors in underlying services. It provides data driven and reliable distribution of files as well as reliable job output upload, utilizing VO Boxes at LHCb Tier1 sites ...

  10. Dark matter asymmetry in supersymmetric Dirac leptogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Ki-Young; Chun, Eung Jin; Shin, Chang Sub

    2013-01-01

    We discuss asymmetric or symmetric dark matter candidate in the supersymmetric Dirac leptogenesis scenario. By introducing a singlet superfield coupling to right-handed neutrinos, the overabundance problem of dark matter can be evaded and various possibilities for dark matter candidate arise. If the singlino is the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP), it becomes naturally asymmetric dark matter. On the other hand, the right-handed sneutrino is a symmetric dark matter candidate whose relic density can be determined by the usual thermal freeze-out process. The conventional neutralino or gravitino LSP can be also a dark matter candidate as its non-thermal production from the right-handed sneutrino can be controlled appropriately. In our scenario, the late-decay of heavy supersymmetric particles mainly produces the right-handed sneutrino and neutrino which is harmless to the standard prediction of the Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis

  11. Topology-optimized dual-polarization Dirac cones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zin; Christakis, Lysander; Li, Yang; Mazur, Eric; Rodriguez, Alejandro W.; Lončar, Marko

    2018-02-01

    We apply a large-scale computational technique, known as topology optimization, to the inverse design of photonic Dirac cones. In particular, we report on a variety of photonic crystal geometries, realizable in simple isotropic dielectric materials, which exhibit dual-polarization Dirac cones. We present photonic crystals of different symmetry types, such as fourfold and sixfold rotational symmetries, with Dirac cones at different points within the Brillouin zone. The demonstrated and related optimization techniques open avenues to band-structure engineering and manipulating the propagation of light in periodic media, with possible applications to exotic optical phenomena such as effective zero-index media and topological photonics.

  12. Majorana mass term, Dirac neutrinos and selective neutrino oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, C.N.

    1987-01-01

    In a theory of neutrino mixing via a Majorana mass term involving only the left-handed neutrinos there exist selection rules for neutrino oscillations if true Dirac and/or exactly zero mass eigenstates are present. In the case of three neutrino flavours no oscillation is allowed if the mass spectrum contains one Dirac and one nondegenerate Majorana massive neutrino. The origin of these selection rules and their implications are discussed and the number of possible CP-violating phases in the lepton mixing matrix when Dirac and Majorana mass eigenstates coexist is given. (orig.)

  13. Strangest man the hidden life of Paul Dirac, quantum genius

    CERN Document Server

    Farmelo, Graham

    2009-01-01

    Paul Dirac was among the great scientific geniuses of the modern age. One of the discoverers of quantum mechanics, the most revolutionary theory of the past century, his contributions had a unique insight, eloquence, clarity, and mathematical power. His prediction of antimatter was one of the greatest triumphs in the history of physics. One of Einstein's most admired colleagues, Dirac was in 1933 the youngest theoretician ever to win the Nobel Prize in physics. Dirac's personality is legendary. He was an extraordinarily reserved loner, relentlessly literal-minded and appeared to have no empath

  14. [p,q] {ne} i{Dirac_h}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costella, J P

    1995-05-22

    In this short note, it is argued that [p, q] {ne} i{Dirac_h}, contrary to the oiginal claims of Born and Jordan, and Dirac. Rather, [p, q] is equal to something that is infinitesimally different from i{Dirac_h}. While this difference is usually harmless, it does provide the solution of the Born-Jordan `trace paradox` of [p, q]. More recently, subtleties of a very similar form have been found to be of fundamental importance in quantum field theory. 3 refs.

  15. A strong-topological-metal material with multiple Dirac cones

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Huiwen; Pletikosić, I; Gibson, Q. D.; Sahasrabudhe, Girija; Valla, T.; Cava, R. J.

    2015-01-01

    We report a new, cleavable, strong-topological-metal, Zr2Te2P, which has the same tetradymite-type crystal structure as the topological insulator Bi2Te2Se. Instead of being a semiconductor, however, Zr2Te2P is metallic with a pseudogap between 0.2 and 0.7 eV above the fermi energy (EF). Inside this pseudogap, two Dirac dispersions are predicted: one is a surface-originated Dirac cone protected by time-reversal symmetry (TRS), while the other is a bulk-originated and slightly gapped Dirac cone...

  16. Dirac particle in a box, and relativistic quantum Zeno dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, Govind; Belyi, Sergey

    2004-01-01

    After developing a complete set of eigenfunctions for a Dirac particle restricted to a box, the quantum Zeno dynamics of a relativistic system is considered. The evolution of a continuously observed quantum mechanical system is governed by the theorem put forth by Misra and Sudarshan. One of the conditions for quantum Zeno dynamics to be manifest is that the Hamiltonian is semi-bounded. This Letter analyzes the effects of continuous observation of a particle whose time evolution is generated by the Dirac Hamiltonian. The theorem by Misra and Sudarshan is not applicable here since the Dirac operator is not semi-bounded

  17. Pseudoclassical supergauge model for a (2 + 1) Dirac particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gitman, D.M.; Gonsalves, A.E.; Tyhtin, I.V.

    1997-01-01

    A new pseudo-classical supergauge model of the Dirac particle in 2 + 1 dimensions is proposed. Two ways of its quantization are discussed. Both reproduce the minimal quantum theory of the particle. 24 refs

  18. Magnetotransport in Layered Dirac Fermion System Coupled with Magnetic Moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Yoshiki; Morinari, Takao

    2018-03-01

    We theoretically investigate the magnetotransport of Dirac fermions coupled with localized moments to understand the physical properties of the Dirac material EuMnBi2. Using an interlayer hopping form, which simplifies the complicated interaction between the layers of Dirac fermions and the layers of magnetic moments in EuMnBi2, the theory reproduces most of the features observed in this system. The hysteresis observed in EuMnBi2 can be caused by the valley splitting that is induced by the spin-orbit coupling and the external magnetic field with the molecular field created by localized moments. Our theory suggests that the magnetotransport in EuMnBi2 is due to the interplay among Dirac fermions, localized moments, and spin-orbit coupling.

  19. Using OSG Computing Resources with (iLC)Dirac

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)683529; Petric, Marko

    2017-01-01

    CPU cycles for small experiments and projects can be scarce, thus making use of all available resources, whether dedicated or opportunistic, is mandatory. While enabling uniform access to the LCG computing elements (ARC, CREAM), the DIRAC grid interware was not able to use OSG computing elements (GlobusCE, HTCondor-CE) without dedicated support at the grid site through so called 'SiteDirectors', which directly submit to the local batch system. This in turn requires additional dedicated effort for small experiments on the grid site. Adding interfaces to the OSG CEs through the respective grid middleware is therefore allowing accessing them within the DIRAC software without additional sitespecific infrastructure. This enables greater use of opportunistic resources for experiments and projects without dedicated clusters or an established computing infrastructure with the DIRAC software. To allow sending jobs to HTCondor-CE and legacy Globus computing elements inside DIRAC the required wrapper classes were develo...

  20. Invariance properties of the Dirac equation with external electro ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . Introduction. The objective of this short paper is to investigate the invariance properties of the Dirac equation with external electro-magnetic field. There exists a large number of literatures on the problem beginning almost from the formulation ...

  1. LHCb: Analysing DIRAC's Behavior using Model Checking with Process Algebra

    CERN Multimedia

    Remenska, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    DIRAC is the Grid solution designed to support LHCb production activities as well as user data analysis. Based on a service-oriented architecture, DIRAC consists of many cooperating distributed services and agents delivering the workload to the Grid resources. Services accept requests from agents and running jobs, while agents run as light-weight components, fulfilling specific goals. Services maintain database back-ends to store dynamic state information of entities such as jobs, queues, staging requests, etc. Agents use polling to check for changes in the service states, and react to these accordingly. A characteristic of DIRAC's architecture is the relatively low complexity in the logic of each agent; the main source of complexity lies in their cooperation. These agents run concurrently, and communicate using the services' databases as a shared memory for synchronizing the state transitions. Although much effort is invested in making DIRAC reliable, entities occasionally get into inconsistent states, leadi...

  2. Dirac Mass Dynamics in Multidimensional Nonlocal Parabolic Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Lorz, Alexander

    2011-01-17

    Nonlocal Lotka-Volterra models have the property that solutions concentrate as Dirac masses in the limit of small diffusion. Is it possible to describe the dynamics of the limiting concentration points and of the weights of the Dirac masses? What is the long time asymptotics of these Dirac masses? Can several Dirac masses coexist? We will explain how these questions relate to the so-called "constrained Hamilton-Jacobi equation" and how a form of canonical equation can be established. This equation has been established assuming smoothness. Here we build a framework where smooth solutions exist and thus the full theory can be developed rigorously. We also show that our form of canonical equation comes with a kind of Lyapunov functional. Numerical simulations show that the trajectories can exhibit unexpected dynamics well explained by this equation. Our motivation comes from population adaptive evolution a branch of mathematical ecology which models Darwinian evolution. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  3. Dirac directional emission in anisotropic zero refractive index photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xin-Tao; Zhong, Yao-Nan; Zhou, You; Zhong, Zhi-Chao; Dong, Jian-Wen

    2015-08-14

    A certain class of photonic crystals with conical dispersion is known to behave as isotropic zero-refractive-index medium. However, the discrete building blocks in such photonic crystals are limited to construct multidirectional devices, even for high-symmetric photonic crystals. Here, we show multidirectional emission from low-symmetric photonic crystals with semi-Dirac dispersion at the zone center. We demonstrate that such low-symmetric photonic crystal can be considered as an effective anisotropic zero-refractive-index medium, as long as there is only one propagation mode near Dirac frequency. Four kinds of Dirac multidirectional emitters are achieved with the channel numbers of five, seven, eleven, and thirteen, respectively. Spatial power combination for such kind of Dirac directional emitter is also verified even when multiple sources are randomly placed in the anisotropic zero-refractive-index photonic crystal.

  4. Dark matter scenarios in a constrained model with Dirac gauginos

    CERN Document Server

    Goodsell, Mark D.; Müller, Tobias; Porod, Werner; Staub, Florian

    2015-01-01

    We perform the first analysis of Dark Matter scenarios in a constrained model with Dirac Gauginos. The model under investigation is the Constrained Minimal Dirac Gaugino Supersymmetric Standard model (CMDGSSM) where the Majorana mass terms of gauginos vanish. However, $R$-symmetry is broken in the Higgs sector by an explicit and/or effective $B_\\mu$-term. This causes a mass splitting between Dirac states in the fermion sector and the neutralinos, which provide the dark matter candidate, become pseudo-Dirac states. We discuss two scenarios: the universal case with all scalar masses unified at the GUT scale, and the case with non-universal Higgs soft-terms. We identify different regions in the parameter space which fullfil all constraints from the dark matter abundance, the limits from SUSY and direct dark matter searches and the Higgs mass. Most of these points can be tested with the next generation of direct dark matter detection experiments.

  5. Elastic gauge fields and Hall viscosity of Dirac magnons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreiros, Yago; Vozmediano, María A. H.

    2018-02-01

    We analyze the coupling of elastic lattice deformations to the magnon degrees of freedom of magnon Dirac materials. For a honeycomb ferromagnet we find that, as happens in the case of graphene, elastic gauge fields appear coupled to the magnon pseudospinors. For deformations that induce constant pseudomagnetic fields, the spectrum around the Dirac nodes splits into pseudo-Landau levels. We show that when a Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction is considered, a topological gap opens in the system and a Chern-Simons effective action for the elastic degrees of freedom is generated. Such a term encodes a phonon Hall viscosity response, entirely generated by quantum fluctuations of magnons living in the vicinity of the Dirac points. The magnon Hall viscosity vanishes at zero temperature, and grows as temperature is raised and the states around the Dirac points are increasingly populated.

  6. Science in culture the life of Paul Dirac

    CERN Multimedia

    Abbott, A

    2000-01-01

    The life of Paul Dirac has been used as the theme of a show held underground at the Delphi experiment at CERN. The 'Oracle of Delphi' was created as an outreach project and has been extremely successful (1 p).

  7. Large optical conductivity of Dirac semimetal Fermi arc surface states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Li-kun; Song, Justin C. W.

    2017-08-01

    Fermi arc surface states, a hallmark of topological Dirac semimetals, can host carriers that exhibit unusual dynamics distinct from that of their parent bulk. Here we find that Fermi arc carriers in intrinsic Dirac semimetals possess a strong and anisotropic light-matter interaction. This is characterized by a large Fermi arc optical conductivity when light is polarized transverse to the Fermi arc; when light is polarized along the Fermi arc, Fermi arc optical conductivity is significantly muted. The large surface spectral weight is locked to the wide separation between Dirac nodes and persists as a large Drude weight of Fermi arc carriers when the system is doped. As a result, large and anisotropic Fermi arc conductivity provides a novel means of optically interrogating the topological surfaces states of Dirac semimetals.

  8. The confluent supersymmetry algorithm for Dirac equations with pseudoscalar potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contreras-Astorga, Alonso; Schulze-Halberg, Axel

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the confluent version of the quantum-mechanical supersymmetry formalism for the Dirac equation with a pseudoscalar potential. Application of the formalism to spectral problems is discussed, regularity conditions for the transformed potentials are derived, and normalizability of the transformed solutions is established. Our findings extend and complement former results [L. M. Nieto, A. A. Pecheritsin, and B. F. Samsonov, “Intertwining technique for the one-dimensional stationary Dirac equation,” Ann. Phys. 305, 151–189 (2003)

  9. Topological Crystalline Insulators and Dirac Octets in Anti-perovskites

    OpenAIRE

    Hsieh, Timothy H.; Liu, Junwei; Fu, Liang

    2014-01-01

    We predict a new class of topological crystalline insulators (TCI) in the anti-perovskite material family with the chemical formula A$_3$BX. Here the nontrivial topology arises from band inversion between two $J=3/2$ quartets, which is described by a generalized Dirac equation for a "Dirac octet". Our work suggests that anti-perovskites are a promising new venue for exploring the cooperative interplay between band topology, crystal symmetry and electron correlation.

  10. Relativistic Photoionization Computations with the Time Dependent Dirac Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-12

    Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/6795--16-9698 Relativistic Photoionization Computations with the Time Dependent Dirac... Photoionization Computations with the Time Dependent Dirac Equation Daniel F. Gordon and Bahman Hafizi Naval Research Laboratory 4555 Overlook Avenue, SW...Unclassified Unlimited Unclassified Unlimited 22 Daniel Gordon (202) 767-5036 Tunneling Photoionization Ionization of inner shell electrons by laser

  11. Dirac and Weyl fermion dynamics on two-dimensional surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavalov, A.R.; Sedrakyan, A.G.; Kostov, I.K.

    1986-01-01

    Fermions on 2-dimensional surface, embedded into a 3-dimensional space are investigated. The determinant of induced Dirac operator for the Dirac and Weyl fermions is calculated. The reparametrization-invariant effective action is determined by conformal anomaly (giving Liouville action) and also by Lorentz anomaly leading to Wess-Zumino term, the structure of which at d=3 is determined by the Hopf topological invariant of the S 3 → S 2 map

  12. Einstein-Cartan-Dirac theory in (1+2)-dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dereli, Tekin [Koc University, Department of Physics, Istanbul (Turkey); Oezdemir, Nese [Istanbul Technical University, Department of Physics Engineering, Istanbul (Turkey); Sert, Oezcan [Pamukkale University, Department of Physics, Denizli (Turkey)

    2013-01-15

    Einstein-Cartan theory is formulated in (1+2) dimensions using the algebra of exterior differential forms. A Dirac spinor is coupled to gravity and the field equations are obtained by a variational principle. The space-time torsion is found to be given algebraically in terms of a quadratic spinor condensate field. Circularly symmetric, exact solutions that collapse to AdS{sub 3} geometry in the absence of the Dirac condensate are found. (orig.)

  13. Neural network real time event selection for the DIRAC experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Kokkas, P; Tauscher, Ludwig; Vlachos, S

    2001-01-01

    The neural network first level trigger for the DIRAC experiment at CERN is presented. Both the neural network algorithm used and its actual hardware implementation are described. The system uses the fast plastic scintillator information of the DIRAC spectrometer. In 210 ns it selects events with two particles having low relative momentum. Such events are selected with an efficiency of more than 0.94. The corresponding rate reduction for background events is a factor of 2.5. (10 refs).

  14. The confluent supersymmetry algorithm for Dirac equations with pseudoscalar potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras-Astorga, Alonso, E-mail: aloncont@iun.edu; Schulze-Halberg, Axel, E-mail: axgeschu@iun.edu, E-mail: xbataxel@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics and Actuarial Science and Department of Physics, Indiana University Northwest, 3400 Broadway, Gary, Indiana 46408 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    We introduce the confluent version of the quantum-mechanical supersymmetry formalism for the Dirac equation with a pseudoscalar potential. Application of the formalism to spectral problems is discussed, regularity conditions for the transformed potentials are derived, and normalizability of the transformed solutions is established. Our findings extend and complement former results [L. M. Nieto, A. A. Pecheritsin, and B. F. Samsonov, “Intertwining technique for the one-dimensional stationary Dirac equation,” Ann. Phys. 305, 151–189 (2003)].

  15. The Dirac equation in the Lobachevsky space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paramonov, D.V.; Paramonova, N.N.; Shavokhina, N.S.

    2000-01-01

    The product of the Lobachevsky space and the time axis is termed the Lobachevsky space-time. The Lobachevsky space is considered as a hyperboloid's sheet in the four-dimensional pseudo-Euclidean space. The Dirac-Fock-Ivanenko equation is reduced to the Dirac equation in two special forms by passing from Lame basis in the Lobachevsky space to the Cartesian basis in the enveloping pseudo-Euclidean space

  16. Simulation of Zitterbewegung by modelling the Dirac equation in Metamaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Ahrens, Sven; Jiang, Jun; Sun, Yong; Zhu, Shi-Yao

    2015-01-01

    We develop a dynamic description of an effective Dirac theory in metamaterials, in which the wavefunction is modeled by the corresponding electric and magnetic field in the metamaterial. This electro-magnetic field can be probed in the experimental setup, which means that the wavefunction of the effective theory is directly accessible by measurement. Our model is based on a plane wave expansion, which ravels the identification of Dirac spinors with single-frequency excitations of the electro-...

  17. Nonlinear Excitations in Strongly-Coupled Fermi-Dirac Plasmas

    OpenAIRE

    Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we use the conventional quantum hydrodynamics (QHD) model in combination with the Sagdeev pseudopotential method to explore the effects of Thomas-Fermi nonuniform electron distribution, Coulomb interactions, electron exchange and ion correlation on the large-amplitude nonlinear soliton dynamics in Fermi-Dirac plasmas. It is found that in the presence of strong interactions significant differences in nonlinear wave dynamics of Fermi-Dirac plasmas in the two distinct regimes of no...

  18. Revivals of zitterbewegung of a bound localized Dirac particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romera, Elvira

    2011-01-01

    In this paper a bound localized Dirac particle is shown to exhibit a revival of the zitterbewegung (ZB) oscillation amplitude. These revivals go beyond the known quasiclassical regenerations in which the ZB oscillation amplitude is decreasing from period to period. This phenomenon is studied in a Dirac oscillator and it is shown that it is possible to set up wave packets in which there is a regeneration of the initial ZB amplitude.

  19. Bound-state Dirac eigenvalues for scalar potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ram, B.; Arafah, M.

    1981-01-01

    The Dirac equation is solved with a linear and a quadratic scalar potential using an approach in which the Dirac equation is first transformed to a one-dimensional Schroedinger equation with an effective potential. The WKB method is used to obtain the energy eigenvalues. The eigenvalues for the quadratic scalar potential are real just as they are for the linear potential. The results with the linear potential agree well with those obtained by Critchfield. (author)

  20. [P.A.M. Dirac and antimatter applied to medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulenović, Fahrudin; Vobornik, Slavenka; Dalagija, Faruk

    2003-01-01

    Regarding to the hundredth anniversary of P. Dirac birth, it was made review on life and work of this genius in the history of physics and science generally. His ingenious scientific work, that significantly marked contemporary time, was presented in the simplest way with aim to approach more number of readers. Special accent was put on application of Dirac's ideas about antiparticles in medical practice.

  1. Sparse Matrices in Frame Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemvig, Jakob; Krahmer, Felix; Kutyniok, Gitta

    2014-01-01

    Frame theory is closely intertwined with signal processing through a canon of methodologies for the analysis of signals using (redundant) linear measurements. The canonical dual frame associated with a frame provides a means for reconstruction by a least squares approach, but other dual frames...... yield alternative reconstruction procedures. The novel paradigm of sparsity has recently entered the area of frame theory in various ways. Of those different sparsity perspectives, we will focus on the situations where frames and (not necessarily canonical) dual frames can be written as sparse matrices...

  2. The Inverse of Banded Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    indexed entries all zeros. In this paper, generalizing a method of Mallik (1999) [5], we give the LU factorization and the inverse of the matrix Br,n (if it...r ≤ i ≤ r, 1 ≤ j ≤ r, with the remaining un-indexed entries all zeros. In this paper generalizing a method of Mallik (1999) [5...matrices and applications to piecewise cubic approximation, J. Comput. Appl. Math. 8 (4) (1982) 285–288. [5] R.K. Mallik , The inverse of a lower

  3. Fusion algebra and fusing matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yihong; Li Miao; Yu Ming.

    1989-09-01

    We show that the Wilson line operators in topological field theories form a fusion algebra. In general, the fusion algebra is a relation among the fusing (F) matrices. In the case of the SU(2) WZW model, some special F matrix elements are found in this way, and the remaining F matrix elements are then determined up to a sign. In addition, the S(j) modular transformation of the one point blocks on the torus is worked out. Our results are found to agree with those obtained from the quantum group method. (author). 24 refs

  4. Transfer matrices for multilayer structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baquero, R.

    1988-08-01

    We consider four of the transfer matrices defined to deal with multilayer structures. We deduce algorithms to calculate them numerically, in a simple and neat way. We illustrate their application to semi-infinite systems using SGFM formulae. These algorithms are of fast convergence and allow a calculation of bulk-, surface- and inner-layers band structure in good agreement with much more sophisticated calculations. Supermatrices, interfaces and multilayer structures can be calculated in this way with a small computational effort. (author). 10 refs

  5. Orthogonal polynomials and random matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Deift, Percy

    2000-01-01

    This volume expands on a set of lectures held at the Courant Institute on Riemann-Hilbert problems, orthogonal polynomials, and random matrix theory. The goal of the course was to prove universality for a variety of statistical quantities arising in the theory of random matrix models. The central question was the following: Why do very general ensembles of random n {\\times} n matrices exhibit universal behavior as n {\\rightarrow} {\\infty}? The main ingredient in the proof is the steepest descent method for oscillatory Riemann-Hilbert problems.

  6. Particle creation and Dirac's large number hypothesis; and Reply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canuto, V.; Adams, P.J.; Hsieh, S.H.; Tsiang, E.; Steigman, G.

    1976-01-01

    The claim made by Steigman (Nature; 261:479 (1976)), that the creation of matter as postulated by Dirac (Proc. R. Soc.; A338:439 (1974)) is unnecessary, is here shown to be incorrect. It is stated that Steigman's claim that Dirac's large Number Hypothesis (LNH) does not require particle creation is wrong because he has assumed that which he was seeking to prove, that is that rho does not contain matter creation. Steigman's claim that Dirac's LNH leads to nonsensical results in the very early Universe is superficially correct, but this only supports Dirac's contention that the LNH may not be valid in the very early Universe. In a reply Steigman points out that in Dirac's original cosmology R approximately tsup(1/3) and using this model the results and conclusions of the present author's paper do apply but using a variation chosen by Canuto et al (T approximately t) Dirac's LNH cannot apply. Additionally it is observed that a cosmological theory which only predicts the present epoch is of questionable value. (U.K.)

  7. The Lorentz-Dirac equation in light of quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikishov, A.I.

    1996-01-01

    To high accuracy, an electron in ultrarelativistic motion 'sees' an external field in its rest frame as a crossed field (E=H, E·H=0). In this case, quantum expressions allow the introduction of a local intensity of the radiation, which determines the radiative term of the force of radiative reaction. For γ=(1-v2)-1/2>> 1 this term is much larger than the mass term, i.e., the term with xd3do. Under these conditions, the reduced Lorentz-Dirac equation, which is obtained from the full Lorentz-Dirac equation by eliminating the terms xd3do and xe on the right side using the equation of motion without taking into account the force of radiative reaction, is equivalent to good accuracy to the original Lorentz-Dirac equation. Exact solutions to the reduced Lorentz-Dirac equation are obtained for a constant field and the field of a plane wave. For γ∼1 a local expression for the radiative term cannot be obtained quantitatively from the quantum expressions. In this case the mass (Lorentz-Dirac) terms in the original and reduced Lorentz-Dirac equations are not small compared to the radiative term. The predictions of these equations, which depend appreciably on the mass terms, are therefore less reliable

  8. The DIRAC Data Management System and the Gaudi dataset federation

    CERN Document Server

    Haen, Christophe; Frank, Markus; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    The DIRAC Interware provides a development framework and a complete set of components for building distributed computing systems. The DIRAC Data Management System (DMS) offers all the necessary tools to ensure data handling operations for small and large user communities. It supports transparent access to storage resources based on multiple technologies, and is easily expandable. The information on data files and replicas is kept in a File Catalog of which DIRAC offers a powerful and versatile implementation (DFC). Data movement can be performed using third party services including FTS3. Bulk data operations are resilient with respect to failures due to the use of the Request Management System (RMS) that keeps track of ongoing tasks.In this contribution we will present an overview of the DIRAC DMS capabilities and its connection with other DIRAC subsystems such as the Transformation System. This paper also focuses on the DIRAC File Catalog, for which a lot of new developments have been carried out, so that LH...

  9. Split Dirac Supersymmetry: An Ultraviolet Completion of Higgsino Dark Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Patrick J. [Fermilab; Kribs, Graham D. [Oregon U.; Martin, Adam [Notre Dame U.

    2014-10-07

    Motivated by the observation that the Higgs quartic coupling runs to zero at an intermediate scale, we propose a new framework for models of split supersymmetry, in which gauginos acquire intermediate scale Dirac masses of $\\sim 10^{8-11}$ GeV. Scalar masses arise from one-loop finite contributions as well as direct gravity-mediated contributions. Like split supersymmetry, one Higgs doublet is fine-tuned to be light. The scale at which the Dirac gauginos are introduced to make the Higgs quartic zero is the same as is necessary for gauge coupling unification. Thus, gauge coupling unification persists (nontrivially, due to adjoint multiplets), though with a somewhat higher unification scale $\\gtrsim 10^{17}$ GeV. The $\\mu$-term is naturally at the weak scale, and provides an opportunity for experimental verification. We present two manifestations of Split Dirac Supersymmetry. In the "Pure Dirac" model, the lightest Higgsino must decay through R-parity violating couplings, leading to an array of interesting signals in colliders. In the "Hypercharge Impure" model, the bino acquires a Majorana mass that is one-loop suppressed compared with the Dirac gluino and wino. This leads to weak scale Higgsino dark matter whose overall mass scale, as well as the mass splitting between the neutral components, is naturally generated from the same UV dynamics. We outline the challenges to discovering pseudo-Dirac Higgsino dark matter in collider and dark matter detection experiments.

  10. Dirac equation in low dimensions: The factorization method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez-Monroy, J.A., E-mail: antosan@if.usp.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, 05508-090, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Quimbay, C.J., E-mail: cjquimbayh@unal.edu.co [Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, D. C. (Colombia); CIF, Bogotá (Colombia)

    2014-11-15

    We present a general approach to solve the (1+1) and (2+1)-dimensional Dirac equations in the presence of static scalar, pseudoscalar and gauge potentials, for the case in which the potentials have the same functional form and thus the factorization method can be applied. We show that the presence of electric potentials in the Dirac equation leads to two Klein–Gordon equations including an energy-dependent potential. We then generalize the factorization method for the case of energy-dependent Hamiltonians. Additionally, the shape invariance is generalized for a specific class of energy-dependent Hamiltonians. We also present a condition for the absence of the Klein paradox (stability of the Dirac sea), showing how Dirac particles in low dimensions can be confined for a wide family of potentials. - Highlights: • The low-dimensional Dirac equation in the presence of static potentials is solved. • The factorization method is generalized for energy-dependent Hamiltonians. • The shape invariance is generalized for energy-dependent Hamiltonians. • The stability of the Dirac sea is related to the existence of supersymmetric partner Hamiltonians.

  11. The complex Laguerre symplectic ensemble of non-Hermitian matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akemann, G.

    2005-01-01

    We solve the complex extension of the chiral Gaussian symplectic ensemble, defined as a Gaussian two-matrix model of chiral non-Hermitian quaternion real matrices. This leads to the appearance of Laguerre polynomials in the complex plane and we prove their orthogonality. Alternatively, a complex eigenvalue representation of this ensemble is given for general weight functions. All k-point correlation functions of complex eigenvalues are given in terms of the corresponding skew orthogonal polynomials in the complex plane for finite-N, where N is the matrix size or number of eigenvalues, respectively. We also allow for an arbitrary number of complex conjugate pairs of characteristic polynomials in the weight function, corresponding to massive quark flavours in applications to field theory. Explicit expressions are given in the large-N limit at both weak and strong non-Hermiticity for the weight of the Gaussian two-matrix model. This model can be mapped to the complex Dirac operator spectrum with non-vanishing chemical potential. It belongs to the symmetry class of either the adjoint representation or two colours in the fundamental representation using staggered lattice fermions

  12. P A M Dirac meets M G Krein: matrix orthogonal polynomials and Dirac's equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, Antonio J; Gruenbaum, F Alberto

    2006-01-01

    The solution of several instances of the Schroedinger equation (1926) is made possible by using the well-known orthogonal polynomials associated with the names of Hermite, Legendre and Laguerre. A relativistic alternative to this equation was proposed by Dirac (1928) involving differential operators with matrix coefficients. In 1949 Krein developed a theory of matrix-valued orthogonal polynomials without any reference to differential equations. In Duran A J (1997 Matrix inner product having a matrix symmetric second order differential operator Rocky Mt. J. Math. 27 585-600), one of us raised the question of determining instances of these matrix-valued polynomials going along with second order differential operators with matrix coefficients. In Duran A J and Gruenbaum F A (2004 Orthogonal matrix polynomials satisfying second order differential equations Int. Math. Res. Not. 10 461-84), we developed a method to produce such examples and observed that in certain cases there is a connection with the instance of Dirac's equation with a central potential. We observe that the case of the central Coulomb potential discussed in the physics literature in Darwin C G (1928 Proc. R. Soc. A 118 654), Nikiforov A F and Uvarov V B (1988 Special Functions of Mathematical Physics (Basle: Birkhauser) and Rose M E 1961 Relativistic Electron Theory (New York: Wiley)), and its solution, gives rise to a matrix weight function whose orthogonal polynomials solve a second order differential equation. To the best of our knowledge this is the first instance of a connection between the solution of the first order matrix equation of Dirac and the theory of matrix-valued orthogonal polynomials initiated by M G Krein

  13. Understanding quaternions and the Dirac belt trick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staley, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The Dirac belt trick is often employed in physics classrooms to show that a 2π rotation is not topologically equivalent to the absence of rotation whereas a 4π rotation is, mirroring a key property of quaternions and their isomorphic cousins, spinors. The belt trick can leave the student wondering if a real understanding of quaternions and spinors has been achieved, or if the trick is just an amusing analogy. The goal of this paper is to demystify the belt trick and to show that it suggests an underlying four-dimensional parameter space for rotations that is simply connected. An investigation into the geometry of this four-dimensional space leads directly to the system of quaternions, and to an interpretation of three-dimensional vectors as the generators of rotations in this larger four-dimensional world. The paper also shows why quaternions are the natural extension of complex numbers to four dimensions. The level of the paper is suitable for undergraduate students of physics.

  14. DIRAC: reliable data management for LHCb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A C; Tsaregorodtsev, A

    2008-01-01

    DIRAC, LHCb's Grid Workload and Data Management System, utilizes WLCG resources and middleware components to perform distributed computing tasks satisfying LHCb's Computing Model. The Data Management System (DMS) handles data transfer and data access within LHCb. Its scope ranges from the output of the LHCb Online system to Grid-enabled storage for all data types. It supports metadata for these files in replica and bookkeeping catalogues, allowing dataset selection and localization. The DMS controls the movement of files in a redundant fashion whilst providing utilities for accessing all metadata. To do these tasks effectively the DMS requires complete self integrity between its components and external physical storage. The DMS provides highly redundant management of all LHCb data to leverage available storage resources and to manage transient errors in underlying services. It provides data driven and reliable distribution of files as well as reliable job output upload, utilizing VO Boxes at LHCb Tier1 sites to prevent data loss. This paper presents several examples of mechanisms implemented in the DMS to increase reliability, availability and integrity, highlighting successful design choices and limitations discovered

  15. Hypercyclic Abelian Semigroups of Matrices on Cn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayadi, Adlene; Marzougui, Habib

    2010-07-01

    We give a complete characterization of existence of dense orbit for any abelian semigroup of matrices on C n . For finitely generated semigroups, this characterization is explicit and is used to determine the minimal number of matrices in normal form over C which forms a hypercyclic abelian semigroup on C n . In particular, we show that no abelian semigroup generated by n matrices on C n can be hypercyclic. (author)

  16. Lambda-matrices and vibrating systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lancaster, Peter; Stark, M; Kahane, J P

    1966-01-01

    Lambda-Matrices and Vibrating Systems presents aspects and solutions to problems concerned with linear vibrating systems with a finite degrees of freedom and the theory of matrices. The book discusses some parts of the theory of matrices that will account for the solutions of the problems. The text starts with an outline of matrix theory, and some theorems are proved. The Jordan canonical form is also applied to understand the structure of square matrices. Classical theorems are discussed further by applying the Jordan canonical form, the Rayleigh quotient, and simple matrix pencils with late

  17. Dirac and non-Dirac conditions in the two-potential theory of magnetic charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, John; Evans, Timothy J.; Singleton, Douglas; Dzhunushaliev, Vladimir; Folomeev, Vladimir

    2018-05-01

    We investigate the Cabbibo-Ferrari, two-potential approach to magnetic charge coupled to two different complex scalar fields, Φ _1 and Φ _2, each having different electric and magnetic charges. The scalar field, Φ _1, is assumed to have a spontaneous symmetry breaking self-interaction potential which gives a mass to the "magnetic" gauge potential and "magnetic" photon, while the other "electric" gauge potential and "electric" photon remain massless. The magnetic photon is hidden until one reaches energies of the order of the magnetic photon rest mass. The second scalar field, Φ _2, is required in order to make the theory non-trivial. With only one field one can always use a duality rotation to rotate away either the electric or magnetic charge, and thus decouple either the associated electric or magnetic photon. In analyzing this system of two scalar fields in the Cabbibo-Ferrari approach we perform several duality and gauge transformations, which require introducing non-Dirac conditions on the initial electric and magnetic charges. We also find that due to the symmetry breaking the usual Dirac condition is altered to include the mass of the magnetic photon. We discuss the implications of these various conditions on the charges.

  18. The chiral Gaussian two-matrix ensemble of real asymmetric matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akemann, G; Phillips, M J; Sommers, H-J

    2010-01-01

    We solve a family of Gaussian two-matrix models with rectangular N x (N + ν) matrices, having real asymmetric matrix elements and depending on a non-Hermiticity parameter μ. Our model can be thought of as the chiral extension of the real Ginibre ensemble, relevant for Dirac operators in the same symmetry class. It has the property that its eigenvalues are either real, purely imaginary or come in complex conjugate eigenvalue pairs. The eigenvalue joint probability distribution for our model is explicitly computed, leading to a non-Gaussian distribution including K-Bessel functions. All n-point density correlation functions are expressed for finite N in terms of a Pfaffian form. This contains a kernel involving Laguerre polynomials in the complex plane as a building block which was previously computed by the authors. This kernel can be expressed in terms of the kernel for complex non-Hermitian matrices, generalizing the known relation among ensembles of Hermitian random matrices. Compact expressions are given for the density at finite N as an example, as well as its microscopic large-N limits at the origin for fixed ν at strong and weak non-Hermiticity.

  19. Double Dirac Point Semimetal in Two-Dimensional Material: Ta2Se3

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Yandong; Jing, Yu; Heine, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Here, we report by first-principles calculations one new stable 2D Dirac material, Ta2Se3 monolayer. For this system, stable layered bulk phase exists, and exfoliation should be possible. Ta2Se3 monolayer is demonstrated to support two Dirac points close to the Fermi level, achieving the exotic 2D double Dirac semimetal. And like 2D single Dirac and 2D node-line semimetals, spin-orbit coupling could introduce an insulating state in this new class of 2D Dirac semimetals. Moreover, the Dirac fe...

  20. Pathological rate matrices: from primates to pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knight Rob

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Continuous-time Markov models allow flexible, parametrically succinct descriptions of sequence divergence. Non-reversible forms of these models are more biologically realistic but are challenging to develop. The instantaneous rate matrices defined for these models are typically transformed into substitution probability matrices using a matrix exponentiation algorithm that employs eigendecomposition, but this algorithm has characteristic vulnerabilities that lead to significant errors when a rate matrix possesses certain 'pathological' properties. Here we tested whether pathological rate matrices exist in nature, and consider the suitability of different algorithms to their computation. Results We used concatenated protein coding gene alignments from microbial genomes, primate genomes and independent intron alignments from primate genomes. The Taylor series expansion and eigendecomposition matrix exponentiation algorithms were compared to the less widely employed, but more robust, Padé with scaling and squaring algorithm for nucleotide, dinucleotide, codon and trinucleotide rate matrices. Pathological dinucleotide and trinucleotide matrices were evident in the microbial data set, affecting the eigendecomposition and Taylor algorithms respectively. Even using a conservative estimate of matrix error (occurrence of an invalid probability, both Taylor and eigendecomposition algorithms exhibited substantial error rates: ~100% of all exonic trinucleotide matrices were pathological to the Taylor algorithm while ~10% of codon positions 1 and 2 dinucleotide matrices and intronic trinucleotide matrices, and ~30% of codon matrices were pathological to eigendecomposition. The majority of Taylor algorithm errors derived from occurrence of multiple unobserved states. A small number of negative probabilities were detected from the Pad�� algorithm on trinucleotide matrices that were attributable to machine precision. Although the Pad

  1. Relativistic space-charge-limited current for massive Dirac fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Y. S.; Zubair, M.; Ang, L. K.

    2017-04-01

    A theory of relativistic space-charge-limited current (SCLC) is formulated to determine the SCLC scaling, J ∝Vα/Lβ , for a finite band-gap Dirac material of length L biased under a voltage V . In one-dimensional (1D) bulk geometry, our model allows (α ,β ) to vary from (2,3) for the nonrelativistic model in traditional solids to (3/2,2) for the ultrarelativistic model of massless Dirac fermions. For 2D thin-film geometry we obtain α =β , which varies between 2 and 3/2, respectively, at the nonrelativistic and ultrarelativistic limits. We further provide rigorous proof based on a Green's-function approach that for a uniform SCLC model described by carrier-density-dependent mobility, the scaling relations of the 1D bulk model can be directly mapped into the case of 2D thin film for any contact geometries. Our simplified approach provides a convenient tool to obtain the 2D thin-film SCLC scaling relations without the need of explicitly solving the complicated 2D problems. Finally, this work clarifies the inconsistency in using the traditional SCLC models to explain the experimental measurement of a 2D Dirac semiconductor. We conclude that the voltage scaling 3 /2 <α <2 is a distinct signature of massive Dirac fermions in a Dirac semiconductor and is in agreement with experimental SCLC measurements in MoS2.

  2. Quantum Hilbert matrices and orthogonal polynomials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Berg, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Using the notion of quantum integers associated with a complex number q≠0 , we define the quantum Hilbert matrix and various extensions. They are Hankel matrices corresponding to certain little q -Jacobi polynomials when |q|<1 , and for the special value they are closely related to Hankel matrice...

  3. The construction of factorized S-matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudnovsky, D.V.

    1981-01-01

    We study the relationships between factorized S-matrices given as representations of the Zamolodchikov algebra and exactly solvable models constructed using the Baxter method. Several new examples of symmetric and non-symmetric factorized S-matrices are proposed. (orig.)

  4. Skew-adjacency matrices of graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cavers, M.; Cioaba, S.M.; Fallat, S.; Gregory, D.A.; Haemers, W.H.; Kirkland, S.J.; McDonald, J.J.; Tsatsomeros, M.

    2012-01-01

    The spectra of the skew-adjacency matrices of a graph are considered as a possible way to distinguish adjacency cospectral graphs. This leads to the following topics: graphs whose skew-adjacency matrices are all cospectral; relations between the matchings polynomial of a graph and the characteristic

  5. On Investigating GMRES Convergence using Unitary Matrices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Duintjer Tebbens, Jurjen; Meurant, G.; Sadok, H.; Strakoš, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 450, 1 June (2014), s. 83-107 ISSN 0024-3795 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) M100301201; GA MŠk(CZ) LL1202 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : GMRES convergence * unitary matrices * unitary spectra * normal matrices * Krylov residual subspace * Schur parameters Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.939, year: 2014

  6. Exact Inverse Matrices of Fermat and Mersenne Circulant Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanpeng Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The well known circulant matrices are applied to solve networked systems. In this paper, circulant and left circulant matrices with the Fermat and Mersenne numbers are considered. The nonsingularity of these special matrices is discussed. Meanwhile, the exact determinants and inverse matrices of these special matrices are presented.

  7. Dirac equation and optical wave propagation in one dimension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Gabriel [Catedras CONACYT, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Coordinacion para la Innovacion y la Aplicacion de la Ciencia y la Tecnologia, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico)

    2018-02-15

    We show that the propagation of transverse electric (TE) polarized waves in one-dimensional inhomogeneous settings can be written in the form of the Dirac equation in one space dimension with a Lorentz scalar potential, and consequently perform photonic simulations of the Dirac equation in optical structures. In particular, we propose how the zero energy state of the Jackiw-Rebbi model can be generated in an optical set-up by controlling the refractive index landscape, where TE-polarized waves mimic the Dirac particles and the soliton field can be tuned by adjusting the refractive index. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Shot noise in systems with semi-Dirac points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai, Feng; Wang, Juan

    2014-01-01

    We calculate the ballistic conductance and shot noise of electrons through a two-dimensional stripe system (width W ≫ length L) with semi-Dirac band-touching points. We find that the ratio between zero-temperature noise power and mean current (the Fano factor) is highly anisotropic. When the transport is along the linear-dispersion direction and the Fermi energy is fixed at the semi-Dirac point, the Fano factor has a universal value F = 0.179 while a minimum conductivity exists and scales with L 1∕2 . Along the parabolic dispersion direction, the Fano factor at the semi-Dirac point has a contact-independent limit exceeding 0.9, which varies weakly with L due to the common-path interference of evanescent waves. Our findings suggest a way to discern the type of band-touching points

  9. Spin-1 Dirac-Weyl fermions protected by bipartite symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Zeren [College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Liu, Zhirong, E-mail: LiuZhiRong@pku.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for Nanochemistry, Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences (BNLMS), Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2015-12-07

    We propose that bipartite symmetry allows spin-1 Dirac-Weyl points, a generalization of the spin-1/2 Dirac points in graphene, to appear as topologically protected at the Fermi level. In this spirit, we provide methodology to construct spin-1 Dirac-Weyl points of this kind in a given 2D space group and get the classification of the known spin-1 systems in the literature. We also apply the workflow to predict two new systems, P3m1-9 and P31m-15, to possess spin-1 at K/K′ in the Brillouin zone of hexagonal lattice. Their stability under various strains is investigated and compared with that of T{sub 3}, an extensively studied model of ultracold atoms trapped in optical lattice with spin-1 also at K/K′.

  10. New approaches for searching for the Dirac magnetic monopole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukhtin, V.V.; Krivokhizhin, V.G.; Stetsenko, S.G.; Cheplakov, A.P.

    2012-01-01

    Three new approaches, not applied earlier, are proposed to search for the Dirac monopole - an object whose existence was proposed by P.Dirac more than 80 years ago to explain the electrical charge quantization. The first approach assumes that the monopole must be accelerated by a magnetic field, and such acceleration is constant in the magnetic field which is homogeneous and constant. The conclusion about the object movement nature can be drawn by measuring the time marks for equidistant registering planes. The second approach is supposed to reconstruct the movement trajectory in the homogeneous and permanent electrical field, which is the circle or its part for the magnetic monopole. The third approach is based on the constancy of energy losses by Dirac monopole due to medium ionization in the multilayer passive dielectric tracking detectors placed in the homogeneous and permanent electrical field

  11. Time-dependent massless Dirac fermions in graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khantoul, Boubakeur, E-mail: bobphys@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, City University London, Northampton Square, London EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, University of Jijel, BP 98, Ouled Aissa, 18000 Jijel (Algeria); Fring, Andreas, E-mail: a.fring@city.ac.uk [Department of Mathematics, City University London, Northampton Square, London EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-30

    Using the Lewis–Riesenfeld method of invariants we construct explicit analytical solutions for the massless Dirac equation in 2+1 dimensions describing quasi-particles in graphene. The Hamiltonian of the system considered contains some explicit time-dependence in addition to one resulting from being minimally coupled to a time-dependent vector potential. The eigenvalue equations for the two spinor components of the Lewis–Riesenfeld invariant are found to decouple into a pair of supersymmetric invariants in a similar fashion as the known decoupling for the time-independent Dirac Hamiltonians. - Highlights: • An explicit analytical solution for a massless 2+1 dimensional time-dependent Dirac equation is found. • All steps of the Lewis–Riesenfeld method have been carried out.

  12. Maxwell-Like Equations for Free Dirac Electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, S. A.

    2018-03-01

    In this article, we show that the wave equation for a free Dirac electron can be represented in a form that is analogous to Maxwell's electrodynamics. The electron bispinor wavefunction is explicitly expressed in terms of its real and imaginary components. This leads us to incorporate into it appropriate scalar and pseudo-scalar fields in advance, so that a full symmetry may be accomplished. The Dirac equation then takes on a form similar to that of a set of inhomogeneous Maxwell's equations involving a particular self-source. We relate plane wave solutions of these equations to waves corresponding to free Dirac electrons, identifying the longitudinal component of the electron motion, together with the corresponding Zitterbewegung ("trembling motion").

  13. Dirac vacuum: Acceleration and external-field effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jauregui, R.; Torres, M.; Hacyan, S.

    1991-01-01

    The quantization of the massive spin-1/2 field in Rindler coordinates is considered, including the effects of a background magnetic field. We calculate the expectation values of conserved quantities such as the stress-energy tensor, current density, and spin distribution, as detected by an accelerated observer. The ratio of the energy and particle densities is given by a Fermi-Dirac distribution, but the spectrum of these quantities takes in general a complicated form that cannot be simply interpreted as a thermal spectrum. For the free-particle case the spectrum of the energy-stress tensor has a Fermi-Dirac form only in the massless limit. In the presence of the magnetic field the Dirac vacuum is magnetized and exhibits plasmalike properties

  14. String effects on Fermi-Dirac correlation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran Delgado, R.M.; Gustafson, G.; Loennblad, L.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate some recent measurements of Fermi-Dirac correlations by the LEP collaborations indicating surprisingly small source radii for the production of baryons in e + e - annihilation at the Z 0 peak. In hadronization models there is besides the Fermi-Dirac correlation effect also a strong dynamical (anti-) correlation. We demonstrate that the extraction of the pure FD effect is highly dependent on a realistic Monte Carlo event generator, both for separation of those dynamical correlations that are not related to Fermi-Dirac statistics, and for corrections of the data and background subtractions. Although the model can be tuned to well reproduce single particle distributions, there are large model uncertainties when it comes to correlations between identical baryons. We therefore, unfortunately, have to conclude that it is at present not possible to draw any firm conclusion about the source radii relevant for baryon production at LEP. (orig.)

  15. Inverse scattering scheme for the Dirac equation at fixed energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leeb, H.; Lehninger, H.; Schilder, C.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Based on the concept of generalized transformation operators a new hierarchy of Dirac equations with spherical symmetric scalar and fourth component vector potentials is presented. Within this hierarchy closed form expressions for the solutions, the potentials and the S-matrix can be given in terms of solutions of the original Dirac equation. Using these transformations an inverse scattering scheme has been constructed for the Dirac equation which is the analog to the rational scheme in the non-relativistic case. The given method provides for the first time an inversion scheme with closed form expressions for the S-matrix for non-relativistic scattering problems with central and spin-orbit potentials. (author)

  16. Luciano Maiani and Jean Iliopoulos awarded the Dirac Medal

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Luciano Maiani, when he was Director-General of CERN. Jean Iliopoulos in 1999. (©CNRS Photothèque - Julien Quideau)On 8 August, the 2007 Dirac Medal, one of the most prestigious prizes in the fields of theoretical physics and mathematics, was awarded to Luciano Maiani, professor at Rome’s La Sapienza University and former Director-General of CERN, and to Jean Iliopoulos, emeritus Director of Research at the CNRS Laboratory of Theoretical Physics. The medal was awarded to both physicists for their joint "work on the physics of the charm quark, a major contribution to the birth of the Standard Model, the modern theory of Elementary Particles." Founded by the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) in 1985, the Dirac Medal is awarded annually on 8 August, the birthday of the famous physicist Paul Dirac, winner of the 1933 Nobel Prize for Physics. It is awarded to ...

  17. Dirac charge dynamics in graphene by infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Michael C; Li, Z.Q.; Henriksen, E.A.; Jiang, Z.; Hao, Z.; Martin, Michael C; Kim, P.; Stormer, H.L.; Basov, Dimitri N.

    2008-01-01

    A remarkable manifestation of the quantum character of electrons in matter is offered by graphene, a single atomic layer of graphite. Unlike conventional solids where electrons are described with the Schroedinger equation, electronic excitations in graphene are governed by the Dirac hamiltonian. Some of the intriguing electronic properties of graphene, such as massless Dirac quasiparticles with linear energy-momentum dispersion, have been confirmed by recent observations. Here, we report an infrared spectromicroscopy study of charge dynamics in graphene integrated in gated devices. Our measurements verify the expected characteristics of graphene and, owing to the previously unattainable accuracy of infrared experiments, also uncover significant departures of the quasiparticle dynamics from predictions made for Dirac fermions in idealized, free-standing graphene. Several observations reported here indicate the relevance of many-body interactions to the electromagnetic response of graphene

  18. Accidental degeneracy of double Dirac cones in a phononic crystal

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Ze-Guo; Ni, Xu; Wu, Ying; He, Cheng; Sun, Xiao-Chen; Zheng, Li-Yang; Lu, Ming-Hui; Chen, Yan-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Artificial honeycomb lattices with Dirac cone dispersion provide a macroscopic platform to study the massless Dirac quasiparticles and their novel geometric phases. In this paper, a quadruple-degenerate state is achieved at the center of the Brillouin zone in a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice phononic crystal, which is a result of accidental degeneracy of two double-degenerate states. In the vicinity of the quadruple-degenerate state, the dispersion relation is linear. Such quadruple degeneracy is analyzed by rigorous representation theory of groups. Using method, a reduced Hamiltonian is obtained to describe the linear Dirac dispersion relations of this quadruple-degenerate state, which is well consistent with the simulation results. Near such accidental degeneracy, we observe some unique properties in wave propagating, such as defect-insensitive propagating character and the Talbot effect.

  19. Accidental degeneracy of double Dirac cones in a phononic crystal

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Ze-Guo

    2014-04-09

    Artificial honeycomb lattices with Dirac cone dispersion provide a macroscopic platform to study the massless Dirac quasiparticles and their novel geometric phases. In this paper, a quadruple-degenerate state is achieved at the center of the Brillouin zone in a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice phononic crystal, which is a result of accidental degeneracy of two double-degenerate states. In the vicinity of the quadruple-degenerate state, the dispersion relation is linear. Such quadruple degeneracy is analyzed by rigorous representation theory of groups. Using method, a reduced Hamiltonian is obtained to describe the linear Dirac dispersion relations of this quadruple-degenerate state, which is well consistent with the simulation results. Near such accidental degeneracy, we observe some unique properties in wave propagating, such as defect-insensitive propagating character and the Talbot effect.

  20. Electronic structure of a graphene superlattice with massive Dirac fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Jonas R. F.

    2015-01-01

    We study the electronic and transport properties of a graphene-based superlattice theoretically by using an effective Dirac equation. The superlattice consists of a periodic potential applied on a single-layer graphene deposited on a substrate that opens an energy gap of 2Δ in its electronic structure. We find that extra Dirac points appear in the electronic band structure under certain conditions, so it is possible to close the gap between the conduction and valence minibands. We show that the energy gap E g can be tuned in the range 0 ≤ E g  ≤ 2Δ by changing the periodic potential. We analyze the low energy electronic structure around the contact points and find that the effective Fermi velocity in very anisotropic and depends on the energy gap. We show that the extra Dirac points obtained here behave differently compared to previously studied systems

  1. PREFACE: International Workshop on Dirac Electrons in Solids 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, M.; Suzumura, Y.; Fuseya, Y.; Matsuura, H.

    2015-04-01

    It is our pleasure to publish the Proceedings of the International Workshop on Dirac Electrons in Solids held in University of Tokyo, Japan, for January 14-15, 2015. The workshop was organized by the entitled project which lasted from April 2012 to March 2015 with 10 theorists. It has been supported by a Grand-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology, Japan. The subjects discussed in the workshop include bismuth, organic conductors, graphene, topological insulators, new materials including Ca3PbO, and new directions in theory (superconductivity, orbital susceptibility, etc). The number of participants was about 70 and the papers presented in the workshop include four invited talks, 16 oral presentations, and 23 poster presentations. Dirac electron systems appear in various systems, such as graphene, quasi-two-dimensional organic conductors, bismuth, surface states in topological insulators, new materials like Ca3PbO. In these systems, characteristic transport properties caused by the linear dispersion of Dirac electrons and topological properties, have been extensively discussed. In addition to these, there are many interesting research fields such as Spin-Hall effect, orbital diamagnetism due to interband effects, Landau levels characteristic to Dirac dispersion, anomalous interlayer transport phenomena and magnetoresistance, the effects of spin-orbit interaction, and electron correlation. The workshop focused on recent developments of theory and experiment of Dirac electron systems in the above materials. We note that all papers published in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series were peer reviewed. Reviews were performed by expert referees with professional knowledge and high scientific standards in this field. Editors made efforts so that the papers may satisfy the criterion of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing. We hope that all the participants of the workshop

  2. Chemistry at the dirac point of graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Santanu

    device mobility. To this end, we find that the organometallic hexahapto metal complexation chemistry of graphene, in which the graphene pi-band constructively hybridizes with the vacant d-orbitals of transition metals, allows the fabrication of field effect devices which retain a high degree of the mobility with enhanced on-off ratio. In summary, we find that the singular electronic structure of graphene at the Dirac point governs the chemical reactivity of graphene and this chemistry will play a vital role in propelling graphene to assume its role as the next generation electronic material beyond silicon.

  3. Out-of-Bounds Hydrodynamics in Anisotropic Dirac Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Julia M.; Narozhny, Boris N.; Kiselev, Egor I.; Schmalian, Jörg

    2018-05-01

    We study hydrodynamic transport in two-dimensional, interacting electronic systems with merging Dirac points at charge neutrality. The dispersion along one crystallographic direction is Dirac-like, while it is Newtonian-like in the orthogonal direction. As a result, the electrical conductivity is metallic in one and insulating in the other direction. The shear viscosity tensor contains six independent components, which can be probed by measuring an anisotropic thermal flow. One of the viscosity components vanishes at zero temperature leading to a generalization of the previously conjectured lower bound for the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio.

  4. Geometric interpretation for the Dirac field in curved space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranganathan, D.

    1987-01-01

    The imposition of the condition of length invariance on a Weyl manifold that does not lead uniquely to general relativity is shown. Rather, in this limit, the Weyl vector field can be interpreted as a Dirac current. The action is also the same as the Einstein Dirac one, if and only if, the spinor field is anticommuting. The allowed interactions are greatly restricted. They are only minimal gauge couplings and Yukawa interactions with a scalar field transforming according to the rules of Utiyama [Prog. Theor. Phys. 53, 565 (1975)

  5. Levinson theorem for Dirac particles in n dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Yu

    2005-01-01

    We study the Levinson theorem for a Dirac particle in an n-dimensional central field by use of the Green function approach, based on an analysis of the n-dimensional radial Dirac equation obtained through a simple algebraic derivation. We show that the zero-momentum phase shifts are related to the number of bound states with |E|< m plus the number of half-bound states of zero momenta--i.e., |E|=m--which are denoted by finite, but not square-integrable, wave functions

  6. Dirac potentials in a coupled channel approach to inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, V.K.; Clark, B.C.; Cooper, E.D.; Mercer, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    It has been shown that there exist transformations that can be used to change the Lorentz transformation character of potentials, which appear in the Dirac equation for elastic scattering. We consider the situation for inelastic scattering described by coupled channel Dirac equations. We examine a two-level problem where both the ground and excited states are assumed to have zero spin. Even in this simple case we have not found an appropriate transformation. However, if the excited state has zero excitation energy it is possible to find a transformation

  7. Adaptive Multigrid Algorithm for the Lattice Wilson-Dirac Operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babich, R.; Brower, R. C.; Rebbi, C.; Brannick, J.; Clark, M. A.; Manteuffel, T. A.; McCormick, S. F.; Osborn, J. C.

    2010-01-01

    We present an adaptive multigrid solver for application to the non-Hermitian Wilson-Dirac system of QCD. The key components leading to the success of our proposed algorithm are the use of an adaptive projection onto coarse grids that preserves the near null space of the system matrix together with a simplified form of the correction based on the so-called γ 5 -Hermitian symmetry of the Dirac operator. We demonstrate that the algorithm nearly eliminates critical slowing down in the chiral limit and that it has weak dependence on the lattice volume.

  8. Radiative heat transfer in 2D Dirac materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-López, Pablo; Tse, Wang-Kong; Dalvit, Diego A R

    2015-01-01

    We compute the radiative heat transfer between two sheets of 2D Dirac materials, including topological Chern insulators and graphene, within the framework of the local approximation for the optical response of these materials. In this approximation, which neglects spatial dispersion, we derive both numerically and analytically the short-distance asymptotic of the near-field heat transfer in these systems, and show that it scales as the inverse of the distance between the two sheets. Finally, we discuss the limitations to the validity of this scaling law imposed by spatial dispersion in 2D Dirac materials. (paper)

  9. Rigid particle revisited: Extrinsic curvature yields the Dirac equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deriglazov, Alexei, E-mail: alexei.deriglazov@ufjf.edu.br [Depto. de Matemática, ICE, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Laboratory of Mathematical Physics, Tomsk Polytechnic University, 634050 Tomsk, Lenin Ave. 30 (Russian Federation); Nersessian, Armen, E-mail: arnerses@ysu.am [Yerevan State University, 1 Alex Manoogian St., Yerevan 0025 (Armenia); Laboratory of Mathematical Physics, Tomsk Polytechnic University, 634050 Tomsk, Lenin Ave. 30 (Russian Federation)

    2014-03-01

    We reexamine the model of relativistic particle with higher-derivative linear term on the first extrinsic curvature (rigidity). The passage from classical to quantum theory requires a number of rather unexpected steps which we report here. We found that, contrary to common opinion, quantization of the model in terms of so(3.2)-algebra yields massive Dirac equation. -- Highlights: •New way of canonical quantization of relativistic rigid particle is proposed. •Quantization made in terms of so(3.2) angular momentum algebra. •Quantization yields massive Dirac equation.

  10. Job monitoring on DIRAC for Belle II distributed computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yuji; Hayasaka, Kiyoshi; Hara, Takanori; Miyake, Hideki; Ueda, Ikuo

    2015-12-01

    We developed a monitoring system for Belle II distributed computing, which consists of active and passive methods. In this paper we describe the passive monitoring system, where information stored in the DIRAC database is processed and visualized. We divide the DIRAC workload management flow into steps and store characteristic variables which indicate issues. These variables are chosen carefully based on our experiences, then visualized. As a result, we are able to effectively detect issues. Finally, we discuss the future development for automating log analysis, notification of issues, and disabling problematic sites.

  11. Zero-energy eigenstates for the Dirac boundary problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hortacsu, M.; Rothe, K.D.; Schroer, B.

    1980-01-01

    As an alternative to the method of spherical compactification for the Dirac operator in instanton background fields we study the correct method of 'box-quantization': the Atiyah-Patodi-Singer spectral boundary condition. This is the only self-adjoint boundary condition which respects the charge conjugation property and the γ 5 symmetry, apart form the usual breaking due to zero modes. We point out the relevance of this approach to the computation of instanton determinants and other problems involving Dirac spinors. (orig.)

  12. Dispersive estimates for massive Dirac operators in dimension two

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdoğan, M. Burak; Green, William R.; Toprak, Ebru

    2018-05-01

    We study the massive two dimensional Dirac operator with an electric potential. In particular, we show that the t-1 decay rate holds in the L1 →L∞ setting if the threshold energies are regular. We also show these bounds hold in the presence of s-wave resonances at the threshold. We further show that, if the threshold energies are regular then a faster decay rate of t-1(log ⁡ t) - 2 is attained for large t, at the cost of logarithmic spatial weights. The free Dirac equation does not satisfy this bound due to the s-wave resonances at the threshold energies.

  13. Hole doped Dirac states in silicene by biaxial tensile strain

    KAUST Repository

    Kaloni, Thaneshwor P.; Cheng, Yingchun; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2013-01-01

    The effects of biaxial tensile strain on the structure, electronic states, and mechanical properties of silicene are studied by ab-initio calculations. Our results show that up to 5% strain the Dirac cone remains essentially at the Fermi level, while higher strain induces hole doped Dirac states because of weakened Si–Si bonds. We demonstrate that the silicene lattice is stable up to 17% strain. It is noted that the buckling first decreases with the strain (up to 10%) and then increases again, which is accompanied by a band gap variation. We also calculate the Grüneisen parameter and demonstrate a strain dependence similar to that of graphene.

  14. Hole doped Dirac states in silicene by biaxial tensile strain

    KAUST Repository

    Kaloni, Thaneshwor P.

    2013-03-11

    The effects of biaxial tensile strain on the structure, electronic states, and mechanical properties of silicene are studied by ab-initio calculations. Our results show that up to 5% strain the Dirac cone remains essentially at the Fermi level, while higher strain induces hole doped Dirac states because of weakened Si–Si bonds. We demonstrate that the silicene lattice is stable up to 17% strain. It is noted that the buckling first decreases with the strain (up to 10%) and then increases again, which is accompanied by a band gap variation. We also calculate the Grüneisen parameter and demonstrate a strain dependence similar to that of graphene.

  15. Dirac neutrinos and hybrid inflation from string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antusch, Stefan; Eyton-Williams, Oliver J.; King, Steve F.

    2005-01-01

    We consider a possible scenario for the generation of Dirac neutrino masses motivated by type-I string theory. The smallness of the neutrino Yukawa couplings is explained by an anisotropic compactification with one compactification radius larger than the others. In addition to this we utilise small Yukawa couplings to develop strong links between the origin of neutrino masses and the physics driving inflation. We construct a minimal model which simultaneously accommodates small Dirac neutrino masses leading to bi-large lepton mixing as well as an inflationary solution to the strong CP and to the μ problem

  16. Twisting dirac fermions: circular dichroism in bilayer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez Morell, E.; Chico, Leonor; Brey, Luis

    2017-09-01

    Twisted bilayer graphene is a chiral system which has been recently shown to present circular dichroism. In this work we show that the origin of this optical activity is the rotation of the Dirac fermions’ helicities in the top and bottom layer. Starting from the Kubo formula, we obtain a compact expression for the Hall conductivity that takes into account the dephasing of the electromagnetic field between the top and bottom layers and gathers all the symmetries of the system. Our results are based in both a continuum and a tight-binding model, and they can be generalized to any two-dimensional Dirac material with a chiral stacking between layers.

  17. Community Detection for Correlation Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mel MacMahon

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A challenging problem in the study of complex systems is that of resolving, without prior information, the emergent, mesoscopic organization determined by groups of units whose dynamical activity is more strongly correlated internally than with the rest of the system. The existing techniques to filter correlations are not explicitly oriented towards identifying such modules and can suffer from an unavoidable information loss. A promising alternative is that of employing community detection techniques developed in network theory. Unfortunately, this approach has focused predominantly on replacing network data with correlation matrices, a procedure that we show to be intrinsically biased because of its inconsistency with the null hypotheses underlying the existing algorithms. Here, we introduce, via a consistent redefinition of null models based on random matrix theory, the appropriate correlation-based counterparts of the most popular community detection techniques. Our methods can filter out both unit-specific noise and system-wide dependencies, and the resulting communities are internally correlated and mutually anticorrelated. We also implement multiresolution and multifrequency approaches revealing hierarchically nested subcommunities with “hard” cores and “soft” peripheries. We apply our techniques to several financial time series and identify mesoscopic groups of stocks which are irreducible to a standard, sectorial taxonomy; detect “soft stocks” that alternate between communities; and discuss implications for portfolio optimization and risk management.

  18. Community Detection for Correlation Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMahon, Mel; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2015-04-01

    A challenging problem in the study of complex systems is that of resolving, without prior information, the emergent, mesoscopic organization determined by groups of units whose dynamical activity is more strongly correlated internally than with the rest of the system. The existing techniques to filter correlations are not explicitly oriented towards identifying such modules and can suffer from an unavoidable information loss. A promising alternative is that of employing community detection techniques developed in network theory. Unfortunately, this approach has focused predominantly on replacing network data with correlation matrices, a procedure that we show to be intrinsically biased because of its inconsistency with the null hypotheses underlying the existing algorithms. Here, we introduce, via a consistent redefinition of null models based on random matrix theory, the appropriate correlation-based counterparts of the most popular community detection techniques. Our methods can filter out both unit-specific noise and system-wide dependencies, and the resulting communities are internally correlated and mutually anticorrelated. We also implement multiresolution and multifrequency approaches revealing hierarchically nested subcommunities with "hard" cores and "soft" peripheries. We apply our techniques to several financial time series and identify mesoscopic groups of stocks which are irreducible to a standard, sectorial taxonomy; detect "soft stocks" that alternate between communities; and discuss implications for portfolio optimization and risk management.

  19. Tilted Dirac Cone Effect on Interlayer Magnetoresistance in α-(BEDT-TTF)2I3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Naoya; Morinari, Takao

    2018-04-01

    We report the effect of Dirac cone tilting on interlayer magnetoresistance in α-(BEDT-TTF)2I3, which is a Dirac semimetal under pressure. Fitting of the experimental data by the theoretical formula suggests that the system is close to a type-II Dirac semimetal.

  20. The Antitriangular Factorization of Saddle Point Matrices

    KAUST Repository

    Pestana, J.

    2014-01-01

    Mastronardi and Van Dooren [SIAM J. Matrix Anal. Appl., 34 (2013), pp. 173-196] recently introduced the block antitriangular ("Batman") decomposition for symmetric indefinite matrices. Here we show the simplification of this factorization for saddle point matrices and demonstrate how it represents the common nullspace method. We show that rank-1 updates to the saddle point matrix can be easily incorporated into the factorization and give bounds on the eigenvalues of matrices important in saddle point theory. We show the relation of this factorization to constraint preconditioning and how it transforms but preserves the structure of block diagonal and block triangular preconditioners. © 2014 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  1. Polynomial sequences generated by infinite Hessenberg matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verde-Star Luis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We show that an infinite lower Hessenberg matrix generates polynomial sequences that correspond to the rows of infinite lower triangular invertible matrices. Orthogonal polynomial sequences are obtained when the Hessenberg matrix is tridiagonal. We study properties of the polynomial sequences and their corresponding matrices which are related to recurrence relations, companion matrices, matrix similarity, construction algorithms, and generating functions. When the Hessenberg matrix is also Toeplitz the polynomial sequences turn out to be of interpolatory type and we obtain additional results. For example, we show that every nonderogative finite square matrix is similar to a unique Toeplitz-Hessenberg matrix.

  2. Neutrino mass priors for cosmology from random matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Andrew J.; Raveri, Marco; Hu, Wayne; Dodelson, Scott

    2018-02-01

    Cosmological measurements of structure are placing increasingly strong constraints on the sum of the neutrino masses, Σ mν, through Bayesian inference. Because these constraints depend on the choice for the prior probability π (Σ mν), we argue that this prior should be motivated by fundamental physical principles rather than the ad hoc choices that are common in the literature. The first step in this direction is to specify the prior directly at the level of the neutrino mass matrix Mν, since this is the parameter appearing in the Lagrangian of the particle physics theory. Thus by specifying a probability distribution over Mν, and by including the known squared mass splittings, we predict a theoretical probability distribution over Σ mν that we interpret as a Bayesian prior probability π (Σ mν). Assuming a basis-invariant probability distribution on Mν, also known as the anarchy hypothesis, we find that π (Σ mν) peaks close to the smallest Σ mν allowed by the measured mass splittings, roughly 0.06 eV (0.1 eV) for normal (inverted) ordering, due to the phenomenon of eigenvalue repulsion in random matrices. We consider three models for neutrino mass generation: Dirac, Majorana, and Majorana via the seesaw mechanism; differences in the predicted priors π (Σ mν) allow for the possibility of having indications about the physical origin of neutrino masses once sufficient experimental sensitivity is achieved. We present fitting functions for π (Σ mν), which provide a simple means for applying these priors to cosmological constraints on the neutrino masses or marginalizing over their impact on other cosmological parameters.

  3. Dirac's Conception of the Magnetic Monopole, and its Modern Avatars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 12. Dirac's Conception of the Magnetic Monopole, and its Modern Avatars. Sunil Mukhi. Volume 10 Issue 12 December 2005 pp 193-202. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  4. Spinors, tensors and the covariant form of Dirac's equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, W.Q.; Cook, A.H.

    1986-01-01

    The relations between tensors and spinors are used to establish the form of the covariant derivative of a spinor, making use of the fact that certain bilinear combinations of spinors are vectors. The covariant forms of Dirac's equation are thus obtained and examples in specific coordinate systems are displayed. (author)

  5. U matrix construction for Quantum Chromodynamics through Dirac brackets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, M.A. dos.

    1987-09-01

    A procedure for obtaining the U matrix using Dirac brackets, recently developed by Kiefer and Rothe, is applied for Quantum Chromodynamics. The correspondent interaction Lagrangian is the same obtained by Schwinger, Christ and Lee, using independent methods. (L.C.J.A.)

  6. Dirac particle in a constant magnetic field: path integral treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merdaci, A.; Boudiaf, N.; Chetouani, L. [Univ. Mentouri, Constantine (Algeria). Dept. de Physique

    2008-05-15

    The Green functions related to a Dirac particle in a constant magnetic field are calculated via two methods, global and local, by using the supersymmetric formalism of Fradkin and Gitman. The energy spectrum as well as the corresponding wave functions are extracted following these two approaches. (orig.)

  7. Dirac particle in a constant magnetic field: path integral treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merdaci, A.; Boudiaf, N.; Chetouani, L.

    2008-01-01

    The Green functions related to a Dirac particle in a constant magnetic field are calculated via two methods, global and local, by using the supersymmetric formalism of Fradkin and Gitman. The energy spectrum as well as the corresponding wave functions are extracted following these two approaches. (orig.)

  8. A rational interpretation of the Dirac equation for the electron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koga, T.

    1975-01-01

    Rationalization of the interpretation of the Dirac equation for the electron lies beyond the conventional scope of quantum mechanics. This difficulty motivates a revision of the system of quantum mechanics through which the indeterministic trait is eliminated from the system. (author)

  9. Holographic interaction effects on transport in Dirac semimetals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, V.P.J.; Vandoren, S.; Stoof, H.T.C.

    2014-01-01

    Strongly interacting Dirac semimetals are investigated using a holographic model especially geared to compute the single-particle correlation function for this case, including both interaction effects and non-zero temperature. We calculate the (homogeneous) optical conductivity at zero chemical

  10. Common origin of neutrino mass, dark matter and Dirac leptogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borah, Debasish [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Assam 781039 (India); Dasgupta, Arnab, E-mail: dborah@iitg.ernet.in, E-mail: arnab.d@iopb.res.in [Institute of Physics, HBNI, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneshwar 751005 (India)

    2016-12-01

    We study the possibility of generating tiny Dirac neutrino masses at one loop level through the scotogenic mechanism such that one of the particles going inside the loop can be a stable cold dark matter (DM) candidate. Majorana mass terms of singlet fermions as well as tree level Dirac neutrino masses are prevented by incorporating the presence of additional discrete symmetries in a minimal fashion, which also guarantee the stability of the dark matter candidate. Due to the absence of total lepton number violation, the observed baryon asymmetry of the Universe is generated through the mechanism of Dirac leptogenesis where an equal and opposite amount of leptonic asymmetry is generated in the left and right handed sectors which are prevented from equilibration due to tiny Dirac Yukawa couplings. Dark matter relic abundance is generated through its usual freeze-out at a temperature much below the scale of leptogenesis. We constrain the relevant parameter space from neutrino mass, baryon asymmetry, Planck bound on dark matter relic abundance, and latest LUX bound on spin independent DM-nucleon scattering cross section. We also discuss the charged lepton flavour violation (μ → e γ) and electric dipole moment of electron in this model in the light of the latest experimental data and constrain the parameter space of the model.

  11. Survey on Dirac equation in general relativity theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paillere, P.

    1984-10-01

    Starting from an infinitesimal transformation expressed with a Killing vector and using systematically the formalism of the local tetrades, we show that, in the area of the general relativity, the Dirac equation may be formulated only versus the four local vectors which determine the gravitational potentials, their gradients and the 4-vector potential of the electromagnetic field [fr

  12. Dirac electronics states in graphene systems: optical spectroscopy studies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Orlita, Milan; Potemski, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 6 (2010), 063001/1-063001/22 ISSN 0268-1242 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN400100652 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : graphene * Dirac fermions Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.323, year: 2010

  13. A new derivation of Dirac's magnetic monopole strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panat, P V

    2003-01-01

    A new derivation of the strength of Dirac's magnetic monopole is presented which does not require an explicit form of the magnetic induction in terms of g, the magnetic pole strength. The derivation essentially uses a modification of Faraday's law of induction and quantization of angular momentum

  14. LHCb : The DIRAC Web Portal 2.0

    CERN Multimedia

    Mathe, Zoltan; Lazovsky, N; Stagni, Federico

    2015-01-01

    For many years the DIRAC interware (Distributed Infrastructure with Remote Agent Control) has had a web interface, allowing the users to monitor DIRAC activities and also interact with the system. Since then many new web technologies have emerged, therefore a redesign and a new implementation of the DIRAC Web portal were necessary, taking into account the lessons learnt using the old portal. These new technologies allowed to build a more compact and more responsive web interface that is robust and that enables users to have more control over the whole system while keeping a simple interface. The framework provides a large set of "applications", each of which can be used for interacting with various parts of the system. Communities can also create their own set of personalised web applications, and can easily extend already existing web applications with a minimal effort. Each user can configure and personalise the view for each application and save it using the DIRAC User Profile service as RESTful state prov...

  15. On the representation of generalized Dirac (Clifford) algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, T.

    1981-10-01

    Some results of Brauer and Weyl and of Jordan and Wigner on irreducible representations of generalized Dirac (Clifford) algebras have been proved, adopting a new and simple approach which (i) makes the whole subject straightforward for physicists and (ii) simplifies the demonstration of the fundamental theorem of Pauli. (author)

  16. Chiral Tricritical Point: A New Universality Class in Dirac Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shuai; Jian, Shao-Kai; Yao, Hong

    2018-05-01

    Tricriticality, as a sister of criticality, is a fundamental and absorbing issue in condensed-matter physics. It has been verified that the bosonic Wilson-Fisher universality class can be changed by gapless fermionic modes at criticality. However, the counterpart phenomena at tricriticality have rarely been explored. In this Letter, we study a model in which a tricritical Ising model is coupled to massless Dirac fermions. We find that the massless Dirac fermions result in the emergence of a new tricritical point, which we refer to as the chiral tricritical point (CTP), at the phase boundary between the Dirac semimetal and the charge-density wave insulator. From functional renormalization group analysis of the effective action, we obtain the critical behaviors of the CTP, which are qualitatively distinct from both the tricritical Ising universality and the chiral Ising universality. We further extend the calculations of the chiral tricritical behaviors of Ising spins to the case of Heisenberg spins. The experimental relevance of the CTP in two-dimensional Dirac semimetals is also discussed.

  17. Hydrogenated arsenenes as planar magnet and Dirac material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shengli; Cai, Bo; Zeng, Haibo, E-mail: Huziyu@csrc.ac.cn, E-mail: zeng.haibo@njust.edu.cn [Institute of Optoelectronics and Nanomaterials, Herbert Gleiter Institute of Nanoscience, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Hu, Yonghong [Institute of Optoelectronics and Nanomaterials, Herbert Gleiter Institute of Nanoscience, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); School of Nuclear Technology and Chemistry and Biology, Hubei University of Science and Technology, Xianning 437100 (China); Hu, Ziyu, E-mail: Huziyu@csrc.ac.cn, E-mail: zeng.haibo@njust.edu.cn [Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-07-13

    Arsenene and antimonene are predicted to have 2.49 and 2.28 eV band gaps, which have aroused intense interest in the two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors for nanoelectronic and optoelectronic devices. Here, the hydrogenated arsenenes are reported to be planar magnet and 2D Dirac materials based on comprehensive first-principles calculations. The semi-hydrogenated (SH) arsenene is found to be a quasi-planar magnet, while the fully hydrogenated (FH) arsenene is a planar Dirac material. The buckling height of pristine arsenene is greatly decreased by the hydrogenation, resulting in a planar and relatively low-mass-density sheet. The electronic structures of arsenene are also evidently altered after hydrogenating from wide-band-gap semiconductor to metallic material for SH arsenene, and then to Dirac material for FH arsenene. The SH arsenene has an obvious magnetism, mainly contributed by the p orbital of the unsaturated As atom. Such magnetic and Dirac materials modified by hydrogenation of arsenene may have potential applications in future optoelectronic and spintronic devices.

  18. Hydrogenated arsenenes as planar magnet and Dirac material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shengli; Cai, Bo; Zeng, Haibo; Hu, Yonghong; Hu, Ziyu

    2015-01-01

    Arsenene and antimonene are predicted to have 2.49 and 2.28 eV band gaps, which have aroused intense interest in the two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors for nanoelectronic and optoelectronic devices. Here, the hydrogenated arsenenes are reported to be planar magnet and 2D Dirac materials based on comprehensive first-principles calculations. The semi-hydrogenated (SH) arsenene is found to be a quasi-planar magnet, while the fully hydrogenated (FH) arsenene is a planar Dirac material. The buckling height of pristine arsenene is greatly decreased by the hydrogenation, resulting in a planar and relatively low-mass-density sheet. The electronic structures of arsenene are also evidently altered after hydrogenating from wide-band-gap semiconductor to metallic material for SH arsenene, and then to Dirac material for FH arsenene. The SH arsenene has an obvious magnetism, mainly contributed by the p orbital of the unsaturated As atom. Such magnetic and Dirac materials modified by hydrogenation of arsenene may have potential applications in future optoelectronic and spintronic devices

  19. Hydrogenated arsenenes as planar magnet and Dirac material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengli; Hu, Yonghong; Hu, Ziyu; Cai, Bo; Zeng, Haibo

    2015-07-01

    Arsenene and antimonene are predicted to have 2.49 and 2.28 eV band gaps, which have aroused intense interest in the two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors for nanoelectronic and optoelectronic devices. Here, the hydrogenated arsenenes are reported to be planar magnet and 2D Dirac materials based on comprehensive first-principles calculations. The semi-hydrogenated (SH) arsenene is found to be a quasi-planar magnet, while the fully hydrogenated (FH) arsenene is a planar Dirac material. The buckling height of pristine arsenene is greatly decreased by the hydrogenation, resulting in a planar and relatively low-mass-density sheet. The electronic structures of arsenene are also evidently altered after hydrogenating from wide-band-gap semiconductor to metallic material for SH arsenene, and then to Dirac material for FH arsenene. The SH arsenene has an obvious magnetism, mainly contributed by the p orbital of the unsaturated As atom. Such magnetic and Dirac materials modified by hydrogenation of arsenene may have potential applications in future optoelectronic and spintronic devices.

  20. Fermi-Dirac statistics and the number theory

    OpenAIRE

    Kubasiak, A.; Korbicz, J.; Zakrzewski, J.; Lewenstein, M.

    2005-01-01

    We relate the Fermi-Dirac statistics of an ideal Fermi gas in a harmonic trap to partitions of given integers into distinct parts, studied in number theory. Using methods of quantum statistical physics we derive analytic expressions for cumulants of the probability distribution of the number of different partitions.

  1. Axial anomaly and index theorem for Dirac-Kaehler fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linhares, C.A.; Mignaco, J.A.; Monteiro, M.A.R.

    1985-01-01

    We present the calculation of the axial anomaly for Dirac-Kaehler fermions in two and four dimensions applying the procedure developed by Seeley to the signature operator in the twisted complex. The result is equal to the one for the twisted spin complex times 2 n/2 (n:number of dimensions) and agrees with the expressions from the index theorem. (author) [pt

  2. Axial anomaly and index theorem for Dirac-Kaehler fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linhares, C.A.; Mignaco, J.A.; Rego Monteiro, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    We present a calculation of the axial anomaly for Dirac-Kaehler fermions in two and four dimensions applying the procedure developed by Seeley to the signature operator in the twisted complex. The result is equal to the one for the twisted spin complex times 2sup(π/2) (n: number of dimensions) and agrees with the expressions from the index theorem. (orig.)

  3. New exact solutions of the Dirac equation. 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagrov, V.G.; Noskov, M.D.

    1984-01-01

    Investigations into determining new exact solutions of relativistic wave equations started in another paper were continued. Exact solutions of the Dirac, Klein-Gordon equations and classical relativistic equations of motion in four new types of external electromagnetic fields were found

  4. Majorana zero modes in Dirac semimetal Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuan; de Boer, Jorrit; de Ronde, Bob; Huang, Yingkai; Golden, Mark; Brinkman, Alexander

    We have realized proximity-induced superconductivity in a Dirac semimetal and revealed the topological nature of the superconductivity by the observation of Majorana zero modes. As a Dirac semimetal, Bi0.97Sb0.03 is used, where a three-dimensional Dirac cone exists in the bulk due to an accidental touching between conduction and valence bands. Electronic transport measurements on Hall-bars fabricated out of Bi0.97Sb0.03 flakes consistently show negative magnetoresistance for magnetic fields parallel to the current, which is associated with the chiral anomaly. In perpendicular magnetic fields, we see Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations that indicate very low carrier densities. The low Fermi energy and protection against backscattering in our Dirac semimetal Josephson junctions provide favorable conditions for a large contribution of Majorana zero modes to the supercurrent. In radiofrequency irradiation experiments, we indeed observe these Majorana zero modes in Nb-Bi0.97Sb0.03-Nb Josephson junctions as a 4 π periodic contribution to the current-phase relation.

  5. Dirac Magnon Nodal Loops in Quasi-2D Quantum Magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owerre, S A

    2017-07-31

    In this report, we propose a new concept of one-dimensional (1D) closed lines of Dirac magnon nodes in two-dimensional (2D) momentum space of quasi-2D quantum magnetic systems. They are termed "2D Dirac magnon nodal-line loops". We utilize the bilayer honeycomb ferromagnets with intralayer coupling J and interlayer coupling J L , which is realizable in the honeycomb chromium compounds CrX 3 (X ≡ Br, Cl, and I). However, our results can also exist in other layered quasi-2D quantum magnetic systems. Here, we show that the magnon bands of the bilayer honeycomb ferromagnets overlap for J L  ≠ 0 and form 1D closed lines of Dirac magnon nodes in 2D momentum space. The 2D Dirac magnon nodal-line loops are topologically protected by inversion and time-reversal symmetry. Furthermore, we show that they are robust against weak Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction Δ DM  magnon edge modes.

  6. Radiationless Zitterbewegung of Dirac particles and mass formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noboru Hokkyo.

    1987-06-01

    The Zitterbewegung of the Dirac particle is given a visual representation by solving the two-component difference form of the Dirac equation. It is seen that the space-time trajectory of a Dirac particle can be pictured as a correlated whole of a network of zigzags of left- and right-handed chiral neutrino-like line elements. These zigzags can feel the curl of the external electromagnetic vector potential and give rise to the spin magnetic interaction, confirming Schroedinger's earlier intuitive picture of the spin as the orbital angular momentum of the Zitterbewegung. The network of zigzags associated with an electron splits and reunites in passing through the slits in the electron beam interference experiment. It is proposed to interpret Nambu's empirical mass formula m n =(n/2)137m e =(n/2)((h/2π)/cL), n=integer, as a radiationless condition for the Zitterbewegung of the hadronic Dirac particle of the linear spatial extension of the order of the classical electron radius L=e 2 /m e c 2 . (author). 20 refs, 4 figs

  7. Qualitative analysis of trapped Dirac fermions in graphene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jakubský, Vít; Krejčiřík, David

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 349, OCT (2014), s. 268-287 ISSN 0003-4916 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-06818S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : graphene * Dirac fermion * confinement * Varitional principle Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 2.103, year: 2014

  8. Dirac fermions in nontrivial topology black hole backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gozdz, Marek; Nakonieczny, Lukasz; Rogatko, Marek

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the behavior of the Dirac fermions in a general spherically symmetric black hole background with a nontrivial topology of the event horizon. Both massive and massless cases are taken into account. We will conduct an analytical study of intermediate and late-time behavior of massive Dirac hair in the background of a black hole with a global monopole and dilaton black hole pierced by a cosmic string. In the case of a global monopole swallowed by a static black hole, the intermediate late-time behavior depends on the mass of the Dirac field, the multiple number of the wave mode, and the global monopole parameter. The late-time behavior is quite independent of these factors and has a decay rate proportional to t -5/6 . As far as the black hole pierced by a cosmic string is concerned, the intermediate late-time behavior depends only on the hair mass and the multipole number of the wave mode, while the late-time behavior dependence is the same as in the previous case. The main modification stems from the topology of the S 2 sphere pierced by a cosmic string. This factor modifies the eigenvalues of the Dirac operator acting on the transverse manifold.

  9. Synchronous correlation matrices and Connes’ embedding conjecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykema, Kenneth J., E-mail: kdykema@math.tamu.edu [Department of Mathematics, Texas A& M University, College Station, Texas 77843-3368 (United States); Paulsen, Vern, E-mail: vern@math.uh.edu [Department of Mathematics, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    In the work of Paulsen et al. [J. Funct. Anal. (in press); preprint arXiv:1407.6918], the concept of synchronous quantum correlation matrices was introduced and these were shown to correspond to traces on certain C*-algebras. In particular, synchronous correlation matrices arose in their study of various versions of quantum chromatic numbers of graphs and other quantum versions of graph theoretic parameters. In this paper, we develop these ideas further, focusing on the relations between synchronous correlation matrices and microstates. We prove that Connes’ embedding conjecture is equivalent to the equality of two families of synchronous quantum correlation matrices. We prove that if Connes’ embedding conjecture has a positive answer, then the tracial rank and projective rank are equal for every graph. We then apply these results to more general non-local games.

  10. Discrete canonical transforms that are Hadamard matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, John J; Wolf, Kurt Bernardo

    2011-01-01

    The group Sp(2,R) of symplectic linear canonical transformations has an integral kernel which has quadratic and linear phases, and which is realized by the geometric paraxial optical model. The discrete counterpart of this model is a finite Hamiltonian system that acts on N-point signals through N x N matrices whose elements also have a constant absolute value, although they do not form a representation of that group. Those matrices that are also unitary are Hadamard matrices. We investigate the manifolds of these N x N matrices under the Sp(2,R) equivalence imposed by the model, and find them to be on two-sided cosets. By means of an algorithm we determine representatives that lead to collections of mutually unbiased bases.

  11. ESTIMATION OF FUNCTIONALS OF SPARSE COVARIANCE MATRICES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianqing; Rigollet, Philippe; Wang, Weichen

    High-dimensional statistical tests often ignore correlations to gain simplicity and stability leading to null distributions that depend on functionals of correlation matrices such as their Frobenius norm and other ℓ r norms. Motivated by the computation of critical values of such tests, we investigate the difficulty of estimation the functionals of sparse correlation matrices. Specifically, we show that simple plug-in procedures based on thresholded estimators of correlation matrices are sparsity-adaptive and minimax optimal over a large class of correlation matrices. Akin to previous results on functional estimation, the minimax rates exhibit an elbow phenomenon. Our results are further illustrated in simulated data as well as an empirical study of data arising in financial econometrics.

  12. The Antitriangular Factorization of Saddle Point Matrices

    KAUST Repository

    Pestana, J.; Wathen, A. J.

    2014-01-01

    Mastronardi and Van Dooren [SIAM J. Matrix Anal. Appl., 34 (2013), pp. 173-196] recently introduced the block antitriangular ("Batman") decomposition for symmetric indefinite matrices. Here we show the simplification of this factorization for saddle

  13. Hawking radiation of Dirac particles in the hot NUT-Kerr-Newman spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.

    1991-01-01

    The Hawking radiation of charged Dirac particles on the horizons of the hot NUT-Kerr-Newman spacetime is studied in this paper. To this end, we obtain the radial decoupled Dirac equation for the electron in the hot NUT-Kerr-Newman spacetime. Next we solve the Dirac equation near the horizons. Finally, by analytic continuation, the Hawking thermal spectrum formula of Dirac particles is obtained. The problem of the Hawking evaporation of Dirac particles in the hot NUT-Kerr-Newman background is thus solved. (orig.)

  14. Flux Jacobian Matrices For Equilibrium Real Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinokur, Marcel

    1990-01-01

    Improved formulation includes generalized Roe average and extension to three dimensions. Flux Jacobian matrices derived for use in numerical solutions of conservation-law differential equations of inviscid flows of ideal gases extended to real gases. Real-gas formulation of these matrices retains simplifying assumptions of thermodynamic and chemical equilibrium, but adds effects of vibrational excitation, dissociation, and ionization of gas molecules via general equation of state.

  15. Supercritical fluid extraction behaviour of polymer matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sujatha, K.; Kumar, R.; Sivaraman, N.; Srinivasan, T.G.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.

    2007-01-01

    Organic compounds present in polymeric matrices such as neoprene, surgical gloves and PVC were co-extracted during the removal of uranium using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) technique. Hence SFE studies of these matrices were carried out to establish the extracted species using HPLC, IR and mass spectrometry techniques. The initial study indicated that uranium present in the extract could be purified from the co-extracted organic species. (author)

  16. Analysis of DIRAC's behavior using model checking with process algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remenska, Daniela; Templon, Jeff; Willemse, Tim; Bal, Henri; Verstoep, Kees; Fokkink, Wan; Charpentier, Philippe; Lanciotti, Elisa; Roiser, Stefan; Ciba, Krzysztof; Diaz, Ricardo Graciani

    2012-01-01

    DIRAC is the grid solution developed to support LHCb production activities as well as user data analysis. It consists of distributed services and agents delivering the workload to the grid resources. Services maintain database back-ends to store dynamic state information of entities such as jobs, queues, staging requests, etc. Agents use polling to check and possibly react to changes in the system state. Each agent's logic is relatively simple; the main complexity lies in their cooperation. Agents run concurrently, and collaborate using the databases as shared memory. The databases can be accessed directly by the agents if running locally or through a DIRAC service interface if necessary. This shared-memory model causes entities to occasionally get into inconsistent states. Tracing and fixing such problems becomes formidable due to the inherent parallelism present. We propose more rigorous methods to cope with this. Model checking is one such technique for analysis of an abstract model of a system. Unlike conventional testing, it allows full control over the parallel processes execution, and supports exhaustive state-space exploration. We used the mCRL2 language and toolset to model the behavior of two related DIRAC subsystems: the workload and storage management system. Based on process algebra, mCRL2 allows defining custom data types as well as functions over these. This makes it suitable for modeling the data manipulations made by DIRAC's agents. By visualizing the state space and replaying scenarios with the toolkit's simulator, we have detected race-conditions and deadlocks in these systems, which, in several cases, were confirmed to occur in the reality. Several properties of interest were formulated and verified with the tool. Our future direction is automating the translation from DIRAC to a formal model.

  17. Analysis of DIRAC's behavior using model checking with process algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remenska, Daniela; Templon, Jeff; Willemse, Tim; Bal, Henri; Verstoep, Kees; Fokkink, Wan; Charpentier, Philippe; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Lanciotti, Elisa; Roiser, Stefan; Ciba, Krzysztof

    2012-12-01

    DIRAC is the grid solution developed to support LHCb production activities as well as user data analysis. It consists of distributed services and agents delivering the workload to the grid resources. Services maintain database back-ends to store dynamic state information of entities such as jobs, queues, staging requests, etc. Agents use polling to check and possibly react to changes in the system state. Each agent's logic is relatively simple; the main complexity lies in their cooperation. Agents run concurrently, and collaborate using the databases as shared memory. The databases can be accessed directly by the agents if running locally or through a DIRAC service interface if necessary. This shared-memory model causes entities to occasionally get into inconsistent states. Tracing and fixing such problems becomes formidable due to the inherent parallelism present. We propose more rigorous methods to cope with this. Model checking is one such technique for analysis of an abstract model of a system. Unlike conventional testing, it allows full control over the parallel processes execution, and supports exhaustive state-space exploration. We used the mCRL2 language and toolset to model the behavior of two related DIRAC subsystems: the workload and storage management system. Based on process algebra, mCRL2 allows defining custom data types as well as functions over these. This makes it suitable for modeling the data manipulations made by DIRAC's agents. By visualizing the state space and replaying scenarios with the toolkit's simulator, we have detected race-conditions and deadlocks in these systems, which, in several cases, were confirmed to occur in the reality. Several properties of interest were formulated and verified with the tool. Our future direction is automating the translation from DIRAC to a formal model.

  18. Protein matrices for wound dressings =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Andreia Joana Costa

    Fibrous proteins such as silk fibroin (SF), keratin (K) and elastin (EL) are able to mimic the extracellular matrix (ECM) that allows their recognition under physiological conditions. The impressive mechanical properties, the environmental stability, in combination with their biocompatibility and control of morphology, provide an important basis to use these proteins in biomedical applications like protein-based wound dressings. Along time the concept of wound dressings has changed from the traditional dressings such as honey or natural fibres, used just to protect the wound from external factors, to the interactive dressings of the present. Wounds can be classified in acute that heal in the expected time frame, and chronic, which fail to heal because the orderly sequence of events is disrupted at one or more stages of the healing process. Moreover, chronic wound exudates contain high levels of tissue destructive proteolytic enzymes such as human neutrophil elastase (HNE) that need to be controlled for a proper healing. The aim of this work is to exploit the self-assemble properties of silk fibroin, keratin and elastin for the development of new protein materials to be used as wound dressings: i) evaluation of the blending effect on the physical and chemical properties of the materials; ii) development of materials with different morphologies; iii) assessment of the cytocompatibility of the protein matrices; iv) ultimately, study the ability of the developed protein matrices as wound dressings through the use of human chronic wound exudate; v) use of innovative short peptide sequences that allow to target the control of high levels of HNE found on chronic wounds. Chapter III reports the preparation of silk fibroin/keratin (SF/K) blend films by solvent casting evaporation. Two solvent systems, aqueous and acidic, were used for the preparation of films from fibroin and keratin extracted from the respective silk and wool fibres. The effect of solvent system used was

  19. MERSENNE AND HADAMARD MATRICES CALCULATION BY SCARPIS METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Balonin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The paper deals with the problem of basic generalizations of Hadamard matrices associated with maximum determinant matrices or not optimal by determinant matrices with orthogonal columns (weighing matrices, Mersenne and Euler matrices, ets.; calculation methods for the quasi-orthogonal local maximum determinant Mersenne matrices are not studied enough sufficiently. The goal of this paper is to develop the theory of Mersenne and Hadamard matrices on the base of generalized Scarpis method research. Methods. Extreme solutions are found in general by minimization of maximum for absolute values of the elements of studied matrices followed by their subsequent classification according to the quantity of levels and their values depending on orders. Less universal but more effective methods are based on structural invariants of quasi-orthogonal matrices (Silvester, Paley, Scarpis methods, ets.. Results. Generalizations of Hadamard and Belevitch matrices as a family of quasi-orthogonal matrices of odd orders are observed; they include, in particular, two-level Mersenne matrices. Definitions of section and layer on the set of generalized matrices are proposed. Calculation algorithms for matrices of adjacent layers and sections by matrices of lower orders are described. Approximation examples of the Belevitch matrix structures up to 22-nd critical order by Mersenne matrix of the third order are given. New formulation of the modified Scarpis method to approximate Hadamard matrices of high orders by lower order Mersenne matrices is proposed. Williamson method is described by example of one modular level matrices approximation by matrices with a small number of levels. Practical relevance. The efficiency of developing direction for the band-pass filters creation is justified. Algorithms for Mersenne matrices design by Scarpis method are used in developing software of the research program complex. Mersenne filters are based on the suboptimal by

  20. A Brief Historical Introduction to Matrices and Their Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the ancient origin of matrices, and the system of linear equations. Included are algebraic properties of matrices, determinants, linear transformations, and Cramer's Rule for solving the system of algebraic equations. Special attention is given to some special matrices, including matrices in graph theory and electrical…

  1. Bayesian Nonparametric Clustering for Positive Definite Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherian, Anoop; Morellas, Vassilios; Papanikolopoulos, Nikolaos

    2016-05-01

    Symmetric Positive Definite (SPD) matrices emerge as data descriptors in several applications of computer vision such as object tracking, texture recognition, and diffusion tensor imaging. Clustering these data matrices forms an integral part of these applications, for which soft-clustering algorithms (K-Means, expectation maximization, etc.) are generally used. As is well-known, these algorithms need the number of clusters to be specified, which is difficult when the dataset scales. To address this issue, we resort to the classical nonparametric Bayesian framework by modeling the data as a mixture model using the Dirichlet process (DP) prior. Since these matrices do not conform to the Euclidean geometry, rather belongs to a curved Riemannian manifold,existing DP models cannot be directly applied. Thus, in this paper, we propose a novel DP mixture model framework for SPD matrices. Using the log-determinant divergence as the underlying dissimilarity measure to compare these matrices, and further using the connection between this measure and the Wishart distribution, we derive a novel DPM model based on the Wishart-Inverse-Wishart conjugate pair. We apply this model to several applications in computer vision. Our experiments demonstrate that our model is scalable to the dataset size and at the same time achieves superior accuracy compared to several state-of-the-art parametric and nonparametric clustering algorithms.

  2. Realization of non-symmorphic Dirac cones in PbFCl materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoop, Leslie

    While most 3D Dirac semimetals require two bands with different orbital character to be protected, there is also the possibility to find 3D Dirac semimetals that are guaranteed to exist in certain space groups. Those are resulting from the non-symmoprhic symmetry of the space group, which forces the bands to degenerate at high symmetry points in the Brillouin zone. Non-symmorphic space groups can force three- four, six and eight fold degeneracies which led to the proposal to find 3D Dirac Semimetals as well as new quasiparticles in such space groups. Problematic for realizing this types of Dirac materials is that they require and odd band filling in order to have the Fermi level located at or also near by the band crossing points. Therefore, although the first prediction for using non-symmoprhic symmetry to create a Dirac material was made in 2012, it took almost four years for an experimental verification of this type of Dirac crossing. In this talk I will introduce the material ZrSiS that has, besides other Dirac features, a Dirac cone protected by non-symmorphic symmetry at about 0.5 eV below the Fermi level and was the first material where this type of Dirac cone was imaged with ARPES. I will then proceed to discuss ways to shift this crossing to the Fermi edge and finally show an experimental verification of a fourfold Dirac crossing, protected by non-symmorphic symmetry, at the Fermi energy.

  3. New correct solutions of the Dirac equation. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagrov, V.G.; Byzov, N.N.; Gitman, D.M.; Klimenko, Yu.I.; Meshkov, A.G.; Shapovalov, V.N.; Shakhmatov, V.M.

    1975-01-01

    Some exact solutions for the Dirac equation, Klein-Gordon equation and classical relativistic equations of motion of an electron in external electromagnetic fields of a special type are considered. When fields E vector and H vector are related by the expression H vector=[n vector E vector]+n vector H 3 , where n vector is a constant unit vector, it turns out that among fields permitting the separation of variables in the Klein-Gordon equation more than half satisfy this relationship. For such fields the solution of the Dirac equation may be simplified considerably. Four specific kinds of fields are examined. The character of electron motion in such fields is peculiar but in the mathematical aspect, part of the problem is reduced to those considered previously

  4. Chirality correlation within Dirac eigenvectors from domain wall fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, T.; Christ, N.; Cristian, C.; Liao, X.; Liu, G.; Mawhinney, R.; Wu, L.; Zhestkov, Y.; Dawson, C.

    2002-01-01

    In the dilute instanton gas model of the QCD vacuum, one expects a strong spatial correlation between chirality and the maxima of the Dirac eigenvectors with small eigenvalues. Following Horvath et al. we examine this question using lattice gauge theory within the quenched approximation. We extend the work of those authors by using weaker coupling, β=6.0, larger lattices, 16 4 , and an improved fermion formulation, domain wall fermions. In contrast with this earlier work, we find a striking correlation between the magnitudes of the chirality density, |ψ † (x)γ 5 ψ(x)|, and the normal density, ψ † (x)ψ(x), for the low-lying Dirac eigenvectors

  5. Spin-polarized gapped Dirac spectrum of unsupported silicene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podsiadły-Paszkowska, A., E-mail: agata.podsiadly@gmail.com; Krawiec, M., E-mail: mariusz.krawiec@umcs.pl

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • Effects of spin–orbit interaction and atomic reconstruction of silicene on its electronic properties have been studied. • Spin-polarized gapped Dirac spectrum has been revealed. • Two different AFM phases have been obtained. - Abstract: We study effects of the spin–orbit interaction and the atomic reconstruction of silicene on its electronic spectrum. As an example we consider unsupported silicene pulled off from Pb(111) substrate. Using first principles density functional theory we show that the inversion symmetry broken arrangement of atoms and the spin–orbit interaction generate a spin-polarized electronic spectrum with an energy gap in the Dirac cone. These findings are particularly interesting in view of the quantum anomalous and quantum valley Hall effects and should be observable in weakly interacting silicene-substrate systems.

  6. Dynamical class of a two-dimensional plasmonic Dirac system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Érica de Mello

    2015-10-01

    A current goal in plasmonic science and technology is to figure out how to manage the relaxational dynamics of surface plasmons in graphene since its damping constitutes a hinder for the realization of graphene-based plasmonic devices. In this sense we believe it might be of interest to enlarge the knowledge on the dynamical class of two-dimensional plasmonic Dirac systems. According to the recurrence relations method, different systems are said to be dynamically equivalent if they have identical relaxation functions at all times, and such commonality may lead to deep connections between seemingly unrelated physical systems. We employ the recurrence relations approach to obtain relaxation and memory functions of density fluctuations and show that a two-dimensional plasmonic Dirac system at long wavelength and zero temperature belongs to the same dynamical class of standard two-dimensional electron gas and classical harmonic oscillator chain with an impurity mass.

  7. Stability of Dirac Liquids with Strong Coulomb Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupitsyn, Igor S; Prokof'ev, Nikolay V

    2017-01-13

    We develop and apply the diagrammatic Monte Carlo technique to address the problem of the stability of the Dirac liquid state (in a graphene-type system) against the strong long-range part of the Coulomb interaction. So far, all attempts to deal with this problem in the field-theoretical framework were limited either to perturbative or random phase approximation and functional renormalization group treatments, with diametrically opposite conclusions. Our calculations aim at the approximation-free solution with controlled accuracy by computing vertex corrections from higher-order skeleton diagrams and establishing the renormalization group flow of the effective Coulomb coupling constant. We unambiguously show that with increasing the system size L (up to ln(L)∼40), the coupling constant always flows towards zero; i.e., the two-dimensional Dirac liquid is an asymptotically free T=0 state with divergent Fermi velocity.

  8. The strangest man. The hidden life of Paul Dirac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmelo, Graham

    2016-01-01

    The Strangest Man is the Costa Biography Award-winning account of Paul Dirac, the famous physicist sometimes called the British Einstein. He was one of the leading pioneers of the greatest revolution in twentieth-century science: quantum mechanics. The youngest theoretician ever to win the Nobel Prize for Physics, he was also pathologically reticent, strangely literal-minded and legendarily unable to communicate or empathize. Through his greatest period of productivity, his postcards home contained only remarks about the weather. Based on a previously undiscovered archive of family papers, Graham Farmelo celebrates Dirac's massive scientific achievement while drawing a compassionate portrait of his life and work. Farmelo shows a man who, while hopelessly socially inept, could manage to love and sustain close friendship. The Strangest Man is an extraordinary and moving human story, as well as a study of one of the most exciting times in scientific history.

  9. Analysis of DIRAC's behavior using model checking with process algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Remenska, Daniela; Willemse, Tim; Bal, Henri; Verstoep, Kees; Fokkink, Wan; Charpentier, Philippe; Diaz, Ricardo Graciani; Lanciotti, Elisa; Roiser, Stefan; Ciba, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    DIRAC is the grid solution developed to support LHCb production activities as well as user data analysis. It consists of distributed services and agents delivering the workload to the grid resources. Services maintain database back-ends to store dynamic state information of entities such as jobs, queues, staging requests, etc. Agents use polling to check and possibly react to changes in the system state. Each agent's logic is relatively simple, the main complexity lies in their cooperation. Agents run concurrently, and collaborate using the databases as shared memory. The databases can be accessed directly by the agents if running locally or through a DIRAC service interface if necessary. This shared-memory model causes entities to occasionally get into inconsistent states. Tracing and fixing such problems becomes formidable due to the inherent parallelism present. We propose more rigorous methods to cope with this. Model checking is one such technique for analysis of an abstract model of a system. Unlike con...

  10. Dirac bound states of anharmonic oscillator in external fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamzavi, Majid; Ikhdair, Sameer M.; Falaye, Babatunde J.

    2014-01-01

    We explore the effect of the external magnetic and Aharonov–Bohm (AB) flux fields on the energy levels of Dirac particle subjects to mixed scalar and vector anharmonic oscillator field in the two-dimensional (2D) space. We calculate the exact energy eigenvalues and the corresponding un-normalized two-spinor-components wave functions in terms of the chemical potential parameter, magnetic field strength, AB flux field and magnetic quantum number by using the Nikiforov–Uvarov (NU) method. -- Highlights: • Effect of the external fields on the energy levels of Dirac particle with the anharmonic oscillator is investigated. • The solutions are discussed in view of spin and pseudospin symmetries limits. • The energy levels and wave function are presented by the Nikiforov–Uvarov method

  11. Performance of combined production and analysis WMS in DIRAC

    CERN Document Server

    Paterson, S

    2010-01-01

    DIRAC, the LHCb community Grid solution, uses generic pilot jobs to obtain a virtual pool of resources for the VO community. In this way agents can request the highest priority user or production jobs from a central task queue and VO policies can be applied with full knowledge of current and previous activities. In this paper the performance of the DIRAC WMS will be presented with emphasis on how the system copes with many varied job requirements. In order to ensure traceability of jobs as well as security, the actual users identity has to be established before running the actual payload workflow. Generic pilot jobs take advantage of the deployment of the gLExec utility in order to achieve this. Experience with gLExec will be described.

  12. Phase diagram of the Dirac spectrum at nonzero chemical potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborn, J. C.; Splittorff, K.; Verbaarschot, J. J. M.

    2008-01-01

    The Dirac spectrum of QCD with dynamical fermions at nonzero chemical potential is characterized by three regions: a region with a constant eigenvalue density, a region where the eigenvalue density shows oscillations that grow exponentially with the volume and the remainder of the complex plane where the eigenvalue density is zero. In this paper we derive the phase diagram of the Dirac spectrum from a chiral Lagrangian. We show that the constant eigenvalue density corresponds to a pion condensed phase while the strongly oscillating region is given by a kaon condensed phase. The normal phase with nonzero chiral condensate but vanishing Bose condensates coincides with the region of the complex plane where there are no eigenvalues.

  13. Surface regulated arsenenes as Dirac materials: From density functional calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Junhui; Xie, Qingxing; Yu, Niannian; Wang, Jiafu

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The presence of Dirac cones in chemically decorated buckled arsenene AsX (X = CN, NC, NCO, NCS, and NCSe) has been revealed. • First-principles calculations show that all these chemically decorated arsenenes are kinetically stable in defending thermal fluctuations in room temperature. - Abstract: Using first principle calculations based on density functional theory (DFT), we have systematically investigated the structure stability and electronic properties of chemically decorated arsenenes, AsX (X = CN, NC, NCO, NCS and NCSe). Phonon dispersion and formation energy analysis reveal that all the five chemically decorated buckled arsenenes are energetically favorable and could be synthesized. Our study shows that wide-bandgap arsenene would turn into Dirac materials when functionalized by -X (X = CN, NC, NCO, NCS and NCSe) groups, rendering new promises in next generation high-performance electronic devices.

  14. Photon-Assisted Spectroscopy of Dirac Electrons in Graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelrazek A. S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The quantum Goos-Hanchen effect in graphene is investigated. The Goos-Hanchen phase shift is derived by solving the Dirac eigenvalue differential equation. This phase shift varies with the angle of incidence of the quasiparticle Dirac fermions on the bar- rier. Calculations show that the dependence of the phase shift on the angle of incidence is sensitive to the variation of the energy gap of graphene, the applied magnetic field and the frequency of the electromagnetic waves. The present results show that the con- ducting states in the sidebands is very effective in the phase shift for frequencies of the applied electromagnetic field. This investigation is very important for the application of graphene in nanoelectronics and nanophotonics.

  15. Three-dimensional periodic dielectric structures having photonic Dirac points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Abad, Jorge; Joannopoulos, John D.; Soljacic, Marin

    2015-06-02

    The dielectric, three-dimensional photonic materials disclosed herein feature Dirac-like dispersion in quasi-two-dimensional systems. Embodiments include a face-centered cubic (fcc) structure formed by alternating layers of dielectric rods and dielectric slabs patterned with holes on respective triangular lattices. This fcc structure also includes a defect layer, which may comprise either dielectric rods or a dielectric slab with patterned with holes. This defect layer introduces Dirac cone dispersion into the fcc structure's photonic band structure. Examples of these fcc structures enable enhancement of the spontaneous emission coupling efficiency (the .beta.-factor) over large areas, contrary to the conventional wisdom that the .beta.-factor degrades as the system's size increases. These results enable large-area, low-threshold lasers; single-photon sources; quantum information processing devices; and energy harvesting systems.

  16. Dark energy from pNGB mediated Dirac neutrino condensate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ujjal Kumar Dey

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We consider an extension of the Standard Model that provide an unified description of eV scale neutrino mass and dark energy. An explicit model is presented by augmenting the Standard Model with an SU(2L doublet scalar, a singlet scalar and right handed neutrinos where all of them are assumed to be charged under a global U(1X symmetry. A light pseudo-Nambu–Goldstone Boson, associated with the spontaneously broken U(1X symmetry, acts as a mediator of an attractive force leading to a Dirac neutrino condensate, with large correlation length, and a non-zero gap in the right range providing a cosmologically feasible dark energy scenario. The neutrino mass is generated through the usual Dirac seesaw mechanism. Parameter space, reproducing viable dark energy scenario while having neutrino mass in the right ballpark, is presented.

  17. The causal perturbation expansion revisited: Rescaling the interacting Dirac sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finster, Felix; Grotz, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    The causal perturbation expansion defines the Dirac sea in the presence of a time-dependent external field. It yields an operator whose image generalizes the vacuum solutions of negative energy and thus gives a canonical splitting of the solution space into two subspaces. After giving a self-contained introduction to the ideas and techniques, we show that this operator is, in general, not idempotent. We modify the standard construction by a rescaling procedure giving a projector on the generalized negative-energy subspace. The resulting rescaled causal perturbation expansion uniquely defines the fermionic projector in terms of a series of distributional solutions of the Dirac equation. The technical core of the paper is to work out the combinatorics of the expansion in detail. It is also shown that the fermionic projector with interaction can be obtained from the free projector by a unitary transformation. We finally analyze the consequences of the rescaling procedure on the light-cone expansion.

  18. Particlelike solutions of the Einstein-Dirac equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finster, Felix; Smoller, Joel; Yau, Shing-Tung

    1999-05-01

    The coupled Einstein-Dirac equations for a static, spherically symmetric system of two fermions in a singlet spinor state are derived. Using numerical methods, we construct an infinite number of solitonlike solutions of these equations. The stability of the solutions is analyzed. For weak coupling (i.e., small rest mass of the fermions), all the solutions are linearly stable (with respect to spherically symmetric perturbations), whereas for stronger coupling, both stable and unstable solutions exist. For the physical interpretation, we discuss how the energy of the fermions and the (ADM) mass behave as functions of the rest mass of the fermions. Although gravitation is not renormalizable, our solutions of the Einstein-Dirac equations are regular and well behaved even for strong coupling.

  19. A spatially homogeneous and isotropic Einstein-Dirac cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finster, Felix; Hainzl, Christian

    2011-04-01

    We consider a spatially homogeneous and isotropic cosmological model where Dirac spinors are coupled to classical gravity. For the Dirac spinors we choose a Hartree-Fock ansatz where all one-particle wave functions are coherent and have the same momentum. If the scale function is large, the universe behaves like the classical Friedmann dust solution. If however the scale function is small, quantum effects lead to oscillations of the energy-momentum tensor. It is shown numerically and proven analytically that these quantum oscillations can prevent the formation of a big bang or big crunch singularity. The energy conditions are analyzed. We prove the existence of time-periodic solutions which go through an infinite number of expansion and contraction cycles.

  20. The causal perturbation expansion revisited: Rescaling the interacting Dirac sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finster, Felix; Grotz, Andreas

    2010-07-01

    The causal perturbation expansion defines the Dirac sea in the presence of a time-dependent external field. It yields an operator whose image generalizes the vacuum solutions of negative energy and thus gives a canonical splitting of the solution space into two subspaces. After giving a self-contained introduction to the ideas and techniques, we show that this operator is, in general, not idempotent. We modify the standard construction by a rescaling procedure giving a projector on the generalized negative-energy subspace. The resulting rescaled causal perturbation expansion uniquely defines the fermionic projector in terms of a series of distributional solutions of the Dirac equation. The technical core of the paper is to work out the combinatorics of the expansion in detail. It is also shown that the fermionic projector with interaction can be obtained from the free projector by a unitary transformation. We finally analyze the consequences of the rescaling procedure on the light-cone expansion.

  1. Spectral density and a family of Dirac operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemi, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    The spectral density for a class Dirac operators is investigated by relating its even and odd parts to the Riemann zeta-function and to the eta-invariant by Atiyah, Padoti and Singer. Asymptotic expansions are studied and a 'hidden' supersymmetry is revealed and used to relate the Dirac operator to a supersymmetric quantum mechanics. A general method for the computation of the odd spectral density is developed, and various applications are discussed. In particular the connection to the fermion number and a relation between the odd spectral density and some ratios of Jost functions and relative phase shifts are pointed out. Chiral symmetry breaking is investigated using methods analogous to those applied in the investigation of the fermion number, and related to supersymmetry breaking in the corresponding quantum mechanical model. (orig.)

  2. Disordered Dirac fermions: the marriage of three different approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhaseen, Miraculous J. E-mail: bhaseen@thphys.ox.ac.uk; Caux, J.-S. E-mail: caux@thphys.ox.ac.uk; Kogan, Ian I. E-mail: kogan@thphys.ox.ac.uk; Tsvelik, Alexei M. E-mail: tsvelik@thphys.ox.ac.uk

    2001-12-17

    We compare the critical multipoint correlation functions for two-dimensional (massless) Dirac fermions in the presence of a random su(N) (non-Abelian) gauge potential, obtained by three different methods. We critically reexamine previous results obtained using the replica approach and in the limit of infinite disorder strength and compare them to new results (presented here) obtained using the supersymmetric approach to the N=2 case. We demonstrate that this menage a trois of different approaches leads to identical results. Remarkable relations between apparently different conformal field theories (CFTs) are thereby obtained. We further establish a connection between the random Dirac fermion problem and the c=-2 theory of dense polymers. The presence of the c=-2 theory may be seen in all three different treatments of the disorder.

  3. Disordered Dirac fermions: the marriage of three different approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhaseen, Miraculous J.; Caux, J.-S.; Kogan, Ian I.; Tsvelik, Alexei M.

    2001-01-01

    We compare the critical multipoint correlation functions for two-dimensional (massless) Dirac fermions in the presence of a random su(N) (non-Abelian) gauge potential, obtained by three different methods. We critically reexamine previous results obtained using the replica approach and in the limit of infinite disorder strength and compare them to new results (presented here) obtained using the supersymmetric approach to the N=2 case. We demonstrate that this menage a trois of different approaches leads to identical results. Remarkable relations between apparently different conformal field theories (CFTs) are thereby obtained. We further establish a connection between the random Dirac fermion problem and the c=-2 theory of dense polymers. The presence of the c=-2 theory may be seen in all three different treatments of the disorder

  4. Three-dimensional periodic dielectric structures having photonic Dirac points

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo-Abad, Jorge; Joannopoulos, John D.; Soljacic, Marin

    2015-06-02

    The dielectric, three-dimensional photonic materials disclosed herein feature Dirac-like dispersion in quasi-two-dimensional systems. Embodiments include a face-centered cubic (fcc) structure formed by alternating layers of dielectric rods and dielectric slabs patterned with holes on respective triangular lattices. This fcc structure also includes a defect layer, which may comprise either dielectric rods or a dielectric slab with patterned with holes. This defect layer introduces Dirac cone dispersion into the fcc structure's photonic band structure. Examples of these fcc structures enable enhancement of the spontaneous emission coupling efficiency (the .beta.-factor) over large areas, contrary to the conventional wisdom that the .beta.-factor degrades as the system's size increases. These results enable large-area, low-threshold lasers; single-photon sources; quantum information processing devices; and energy harvesting systems.

  5. Peccei-Quinn symmetry for Dirac seesaw and leptogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Pei-Hong [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University,800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2016-07-04

    We extend the DFSZ invisible axion model to simultaneously explain small Dirac neutrino masses and cosmic matter-antimatter asymmetry. After the Peccei-Quinn and electroweak symmetry breaking, the effective Yukawa couplings of the Dirac neutrinos to the standard model Higgs scalar can be highly suppressed by the ratio of the vacuum expectation value of an iso-triplet Higgs scalar over the masses of some heavy gauge-singlet fermions, iso-doublet Higgs scalars or iso-triplet fermions. The iso-triplet fields can carry a zero or nonzero hypercharge. Through the decays of the heavy gauge-singlet fermions, iso-doublet scalars or iso-triplet fermions, we can obtain a lepton asymmetry in the left-handed leptons and an opposite lepton asymmetry in the right-handed neutrinos. Since the right-handed neutrinos do not participate in the sphaleron processes, the left-handed lepton asymmetry can be partially converted to a baryon asymmetry.

  6. Dirac equation in noncommutative space for hydrogen atom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adorno, T.C., E-mail: tadorno@nonada.if.usp.b [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 66318, CEP 05508-090 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Baldiotti, M.C., E-mail: baldiott@fma.if.usp.b [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 66318, CEP 05508-090 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Chaichian, M., E-mail: Masud.Chaichian@helsinki.f [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki and Helsinki Institute of Physics, PO Box 64, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Gitman, D.M., E-mail: gitman@dfn.if.usp.b [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 66318, CEP 05508-090 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Tureanu, A., E-mail: Anca.Tureanu@helsinki.f [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki and Helsinki Institute of Physics, PO Box 64, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2009-11-30

    We consider the energy levels of a hydrogen-like atom in the framework of theta-modified, due to space noncommutativity, Dirac equation with Coulomb field. It is shown that on the noncommutative (NC) space the degeneracy of the levels 2S{sub 1/2}, 2P{sub 1/2} and 2P{sub 3/2} is lifted completely, such that new transition channels are allowed.

  7. Dirac equation in noncommutative space for hydrogen atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adorno, T.C.; Baldiotti, M.C.; Chaichian, M.; Gitman, D.M.; Tureanu, A.

    2009-01-01

    We consider the energy levels of a hydrogen-like atom in the framework of θ-modified, due to space noncommutativity, Dirac equation with Coulomb field. It is shown that on the noncommutative (NC) space the degeneracy of the levels 2S 1/2 , 2P 1/2 and 2P 3/2 is lifted completely, such that new transition channels are allowed.

  8. Two-loop Dirac neutrino mass and WIMP dark matter

    OpenAIRE

    Bonilla, Cesar; Ma, Ernest; Peinado, Eduardo; Valle, Jose W.F.

    2018-01-01

    We propose a "scotogenic" mechanism relating small neutrino mass and cosmological dark matter. Neutrinos are Dirac fermions with masses arising only in two--loop order through the sector responsible for dark matter. Two triality symmetries ensure both dark matter stability and strict lepton number conservation at higher orders. A global spontaneously broken U(1) symmetry leads to a physical $Diracon$ that induces invisible Higgs decays which add up to the Higgs to dark matter mode. This enhan...

  9. The overlap Dirac operator as a continued fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenger, U.; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron

    2004-03-01

    We use a continued fraction expansion of the sign-function in order to obtain a five dimensional formulation of the overlap lattice Dirac operator. Within this formulation the inverse of the overlap operator can be calculated by a single Krylov space method and nested conjugate gradient procedures are avoided. We point out that the five dimensional linear system can be made well conditioned using equivalence transformations on the continued fractions. (orig.)

  10. The time-of-flight detector of the DIRAC experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeva, B.; Gallas, M.V.; Gomez, F.; Lopez-Agueera, A.; Nunez-Pardo, T.; Plo, M.; Rodriguez, A.M.; Rodriguez, X.M.; Saborido, J.J.; Santamarina, C.; Tobar, M.J.; Vazquez, P.

    2002-01-01

    The construction and performance of a large area time-of-flight detector for the DIRAC experiment at CERN is reported. With an average time resolution of 123 ps per counter at rates up to 1 MHz, it allows excellent separation of pπ - from π + π - pairs up to 4.6 GeV/c momentum, as well as of Coulomb-correlated pion pairs from accidentals. The optimization of scintillator material, photomultiplier performance and readout electronics is described

  11. A toy model for higher spin Dirac operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eelbode, D.; Van de Voorde, L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the higher spin Dirac operator Q 2,1 acting on functions taking values in an irreducible representation space for so(m) with highest weight (5/2, 3/2, 1/2,..., 1/2). . This operator acts as a toy model for generalizations of the classical Rarita-Schwinger equations in Clifford analysis. Polynomial null solutions for this operator are studied in particular.

  12. General method for reducing the two-body Dirac equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galeao, A.P.; Ferreira, P.L.

    1992-01-01

    A semi relativistic two-body Dirac equation with an enlarged set of phenomenological potentials, including Breit-type terms, is investigated for the general case of unequal masses. Solutions corresponding to definite total angular momentum and parity are shown to fall into two classes, each one being obtained by solving a system of four coupled first-order radial differential equations. The reduction of each of these systems to a pair of coupled Schroedinger-type equations is also discussed. (author)

  13. The Dirac-Kaehler equation and fermions on the lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becher, P.

    1982-05-01

    The geometrical description of spinor fields by E. Kaehler is used to formulate a consistent lattice approximation of fermions. The relation to free simple Dirac fields as well as to Susskind's description of lattice fermions is clarified. The first steps towards a quantized interacting theory are given. The correspondence between the calculus of differential forms and concepts of algebraic topology is shown to be a useful method for a completely analogous treatment of the problems in the continuum and on the lattice. (orig.)

  14. Algebraic and Dirac-Hestenes spinors and spinor fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Waldyr A. Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Almost all presentations of Dirac theory in first or second quantization in physics (and mathematics) textbooks make use of covariant Dirac spinor fields. An exception is the presentation of that theory (first quantization) offered originally by Hestenes and now used by many authors. There, a new concept of spinor field (as a sum of nonhomogeneous even multivectors fields) is used. However, a careful analysis (detailed below) shows that the original Hestenes definition cannot be correct since it conflicts with the meaning of the Fierz identities. In this paper we start a program dedicated to the examination of the mathematical and physical basis for a comprehensive definition of the objects used by Hestenes. In order to do that we give a preliminary definition of algebraic spinor fields (ASF) and Dirac-Hestenes spinor fields (DHSF) on Minkowski space-time as some equivalence classes of pairs (Ξ u ,ψ Ξ u ), where Ξ u is a spinorial frame field and ψ Ξ u is an appropriate sum of multivectors fields (to be specified below). The necessity of our definitions are shown by a careful analysis of possible formulations of Dirac theory and the meaning of the set of Fierz identities associated with the bilinear covariants (on Minkowski space-time) made with ASF or DHSF. We believe that the present paper clarifies some misunderstandings (past and recent) appearing on the literature of the subject. It will be followed by a sequel paper where definitive definitions of ASF and DHSF are given as appropriate sections of a vector bundle called the left spin-Clifford bundle. The bundle formulation is essential in order to be possible to produce a coherent theory for the covariant derivatives of these fields on arbitrary Riemann-Cartan space-times. The present paper contains also Appendixes A-E which exhibits a truly useful collection of results concerning the theory of Clifford algebras (including many tricks of the trade) necessary for the intelligibility of the text

  15. Fermi-Dirac statistics plus liquid description of quark partons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buccella, F.; Migliore, G.; Tibullo, V.

    1995-01-01

    A previous approach with Fermi-Dirac distributions for fermion partons is here improved to comply with the expected low x behaviour of structure functions. We are so able to get a fair description of the unpolarized and polarized structure functions of the nucleons as well as of neutrino data. We cannot reach definite conclusions, but confirm our suspicion of a relationship between the defects in Gottfried and spin sum rules. (orig.)

  16. Noncommutativity into Dirac Equation with mass dependent on the position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastos, Samuel Batista; Almeida, Carlos Alberto Santos; Nunes, Luciana Angelica da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full text: In recent years, there is growing interest in the study of theories in non-commutative spaces. Non-commutative fields theories are related with compactifications of M theory, string theory and the quantum Hall effect. Moreover, the role of the non-commutativity of theories of a particle finds large applications when analyzed in scenarios of quantum mechanics and relativistic quantum mechanics. In these contexts investigations on the Schrodinger and Dirac equations with mass depending on the position (MDP) has attracted much attention in the literature. Systems endowed with MDP models are useful for the study of many physical problems. In particular, they are used to study the energy density in problems of many bodies, determining the electronic properties of semiconductor heterostructures and also to describe the properties of heterojunctions and quantum dots. In particular, the investigation of relativistic effects it is important for systems containing heavy atoms or doping by heavy ions. For these types of materials, the study of the properties of the Dirac equation, in the case where the mass becomes variable is of great interest. In this paper, we seek for the non-relativistic limit of the Dirac Hamiltonian in the context of a theory of effective mass, through a Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation. We analyse the Dirac equation with mass dependent on the position, in a smooth step shape mass distribution, in non-commutative space (NC). This potential type kink was recently discussed by several authors in the commutative context and now we present our results in the non-commutative context. (author)

  17. Electric-dipole-induced universality for Dirac fermions in graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Martino, Alessandro; Klöpfer, Denis; Matrasulov, Davron; Egger, Reinhold

    2014-05-09

    We study electric dipole effects for massive Dirac fermions in graphene and related materials. The dipole potential accommodates towers of infinitely many bound states exhibiting a universal Efimov-like scaling hierarchy. The dipole moment determines the number of towers, but there is always at least one tower. The corresponding eigenstates show a characteristic angular asymmetry, observable in tunnel spectroscopy. However, charge transport properties inferred from scattering states are highly isotropic.

  18. Algebraic solution for the vector potential in the Dirac equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booth, H.S. [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Tasmania, Hobart Tas (Australia); Centre for Mathematics and its Applications, Australian National University (Australia)]. E-mail: hbooth@wintermute.anu.edu.au; Legg, G.; Jarvis, P.D. [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Tasmania, Hobart Tas (Australia)

    2001-07-20

    The Dirac equation for an electron in an external electromagnetic field can be regarded as a singular set of linear equations for the vector potential. Radford's method of algebraically solving for the vector potential is reviewed, with attention to the additional constraints arising from non-maximality of the rank. The extension of the method to general spacetimes is illustrated by examples in diverse dimensions with both c- and a-number wavefunctions. (author)

  19. Random matrices and random difference equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uppuluri, V.R.R.

    1975-01-01

    Mathematical models leading to products of random matrices and random difference equations are discussed. A one-compartment model with random behavior is introduced, and it is shown how the average concentration in the discrete time model converges to the exponential function. This is of relevance to understanding how radioactivity gets trapped in bone structure in blood--bone systems. The ideas are then generalized to two-compartment models and mammillary systems, where products of random matrices appear in a natural way. The appearance of products of random matrices in applications in demography and control theory is considered. Then random sequences motivated from the following problems are studied: constant pulsing and random decay models, random pulsing and constant decay models, and random pulsing and random decay models

  20. Quantum Entanglement and Reduced Density Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwanto, Agus; Sukamto, Heru; Yuwana, Lila

    2018-05-01

    We investigate entanglement and separability criteria of multipartite (n-partite) state by examining ranks of its reduced density matrices. Firstly, we construct the general formula to determine the criterion. A rank of origin density matrix always equals one, meanwhile ranks of reduced matrices have various ranks. Next, separability and entanglement criterion of multipartite is determined by calculating ranks of reduced density matrices. In this article we diversify multipartite state criteria into completely entangled state, completely separable state, and compound state, i.e. sub-entangled state and sub-entangledseparable state. Furthermore, we also shorten the calculation proposed by the previous research to determine separability of multipartite state and expand the methods to be able to differ multipartite state based on criteria above.

  1. Forecasting Covariance Matrices: A Mixed Frequency Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halbleib, Roxana; Voev, Valeri

    This paper proposes a new method for forecasting covariance matrices of financial returns. The model mixes volatility forecasts from a dynamic model of daily realized volatilities estimated with high-frequency data with correlation forecasts based on daily data. This new approach allows for flexi......This paper proposes a new method for forecasting covariance matrices of financial returns. The model mixes volatility forecasts from a dynamic model of daily realized volatilities estimated with high-frequency data with correlation forecasts based on daily data. This new approach allows...... for flexible dependence patterns for volatilities and correlations, and can be applied to covariance matrices of large dimensions. The separate modeling of volatility and correlation forecasts considerably reduces the estimation and measurement error implied by the joint estimation and modeling of covariance...

  2. Advanced incomplete factorization algorithms for Stiltijes matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Il`in, V.P. [Siberian Division RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-31

    The modern numerical methods for solving the linear algebraic systems Au = f with high order sparse matrices A, which arise in grid approximations of multidimensional boundary value problems, are based mainly on accelerated iterative processes with easily invertible preconditioning matrices presented in the form of approximate (incomplete) factorization of the original matrix A. We consider some recent algorithmic approaches, theoretical foundations, experimental data and open questions for incomplete factorization of Stiltijes matrices which are {open_quotes}the best{close_quotes} ones in the sense that they have the most advanced results. Special attention is given to solving the elliptic differential equations with strongly variable coefficients, singular perturbated diffusion-convection and parabolic equations.

  3. New and old symmetries of the Maxwell and Dirac equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fushchich, V.I.; Nikitin, A.G.

    1983-01-01

    The symmetry properties of Maxwell's equations for the electromagnetic field and also of the Dirac and Kemmer-Duffin-Petiau equations are analyzed. In the framework of a ''non-Lie'' approach it is shown that, besides the well-known invariance with respect to the conformal group and the Heaviside-Larmor-Rainich transformations, Maxwell's equations have an additional symmetry with respect to the group U(2)xU(2) and with respect to the 23-dimensional Lie algebra A 23 . The transformations of the additional symmetry are given by nonlocal (integro-differential) operators. The symmetry of the Dirac equation in the class of differential and integro-differential transformations is investigated. It is shown that this equation is invariant with respect to an 18-parameter group, which includes the Poincare group as a subgroup. A 28-parameter invariance group of the Kemmer-Duffin-Petiau equation is found. Finite transformations of the conformal group for a massless field with arbitrary spin are obtained. The explicit form of conformal transformations for the electromagnetic field and also for the Dirac and Weyl fields is given

  4. On new and old symmetries of Maxwell and Dirac equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fushchich, V.I.; Nikitin, A.G.

    1983-01-01

    Symmetry properties of the Maxwell equation for the electromagnetic field are analysed as well as of the Dirac and Kemmer-Duffin-Petiau one. In the frame of the non-geometrical approach it is demonstrated, that besides to the well-known invariance under the conformal group and Heaviside-Larmor-Rainich transformation, Maxwell equation possess the additional symmetry under the group U(2)xU(2) and under the 23-dimensional Lie algebra A 23 . The additional symmetry transformations are realized by the non-local (integro-differential) operators. The symmetry of the Dirac. equation under the differential and integro-differential transformations is investio.ated. It is shown that this equation is invariant under the 18-parametrical group, which includes the Poincare group as a subgroup. The 28-parametrical invariance group of the Kemmer-Duffin-Petiau equation is found. The finite conformal group transformations for a massless field of any spin are obtained. The explicit form of the conformal transformations for the electromagnetic field as well as for the Dirac and Weyl fields is given

  5. Topological transport in Dirac nodal-line semimetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, W. B.; Zhao, Y. X.; Schnyder, Andreas P.

    2018-04-01

    Topological nodal-line semimetals are characterized by one-dimensional Dirac nodal rings that are protected by the combined symmetry of inversion P and time-reversal T . The stability of these Dirac rings is guaranteed by a quantized ±π Berry phase and their low-energy physics is described by a one-parameter family of (2+1)-dimensional quantum field theories exhibiting the parity anomaly. Here we study the Berry-phase supported topological transport of P T -invariant nodal-line semimetals. We find that small inversion breaking allows for an electric-field-induced anomalous transverse current, whose universal component originates from the parity anomaly. Due to this Hall-like current, carriers at opposite sides of the Dirac nodal ring flow to opposite surfaces when an electric field is applied. To detect the topological currents, we propose a dumbbell device, which uses surface states to filter charges based on their momenta. Suggestions for experiments and device applications are discussed.

  6. MPI support in the DIRAC Pilot Job Workload Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsaregorodtsev, A; Hamar, V

    2012-01-01

    Parallel job execution in the grid environment using MPI technology presents a number of challenges for the sites providing this support. Multiple flavors of the MPI libraries, shared working directories required by certain applications, special settings for the batch systems make the MPI support difficult for the site managers. On the other hand the workload management systems with Pilot Jobs became ubiquitous although the support for the MPI applications in the Pilot frameworks was not available. This support was recently added in the DIRAC Project in the context of the GISELA Latin American Grid Initiative. Special services for dynamic allocation of virtual computer pools on the grid sites were developed in order to deploy MPI rings corresponding to the requirements of the jobs in the central task queue of the DIRAC Workload Management System. Pilot Jobs using user space file system techniques install the required MPI software automatically. The same technique is used to emulate shared working directories for the parallel MPI processes. This makes it possible to execute MPI jobs even on the sites not supporting them officially. Reusing so constructed MPI rings for execution of a series of parallel jobs increases dramatically their efficiency and turnaround. In this contribution we describe the design and implementation of the DIRAC MPI Service as well as its support for various types of MPI libraries. Advantages of coupling the MPI support with the Pilot frameworks are outlined and examples of usage with real applications are presented.

  7. Manipulation of Dirac cones in metal-intercalated epitaxial graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Kim, Minsung; Tringides, Michael; Ho, Kai-Ming

    Graphene is one of the most attractive materials from both fundamental and practical points of view due to its characteristic Dirac cones. The electronic property of graphene can be modified through the interaction with substrate or another graphene layer as illustrated in few-layer epitaxial graphene. Recently, metal intercalation became an effective method to manipulate the electronic structure of graphene by modifying the coupling between the constituent layers. In this work, we show that the Dirac cones of epitaxial graphene can be manipulated by intercalating rare-earth metals. We demonstrate that rare-earth metal intercalated epitaxial graphene has tunable band structures and the energy levels of Dirac cones as well as the linear or quadratic band dispersion can be controlled depending on the location of the intercalation layer and density. Our results could be important for applications and characterizations of the intercalated epitaxial graphene. Supported by the U.S. DOE-BES under Contract No. DE-AC02-07CH11358.

  8. Upper-division student difficulties with the Dirac delta function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany R. Wilcox

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Dirac delta function is a standard mathematical tool that appears repeatedly in the undergraduate physics curriculum in multiple topical areas including electrostatics, and quantum mechanics. While Dirac delta functions are often introduced in order to simplify a problem mathematically, students still struggle to manipulate and interpret them. To characterize student difficulties with the delta function at the upper-division level, we examined students’ responses to traditional exam questions and a standardized conceptual assessment, and conducted think-aloud interviews. Our analysis was guided by an analytical framework that focuses on how students activate, construct, execute, and reflect on the Dirac delta function in the context of problem solving in physics. Here, we focus on student difficulties using the delta function to express charge distributions in the context of junior-level electrostatics. Common challenges included invoking the delta function spontaneously, translating a description of a charge distribution into a mathematical expression using delta functions, integrating 3D or non-Cartesian delta function expressions, and recognizing that the delta function can have units. We also briefly discuss implications of these difficulties for instruction.

  9. Evidence for $\\pi K$ -atoms with DIRAC-II

    CERN Document Server

    Allkofer, Yves

    2008-01-01

    DIRAC-II is a fixed-target experiment at the CERN Proton Synchroton (PS) which has been designed to search for piK atoms, a bound state of a pi±K± pair, and measure their lifetime. These atoms are observed through an excess of low energetic piK pairs over the background, detected in the two spectrometer arms. This excess comes from the ionization of piK atoms in the target and can be related to their mean life. The piK S-wave scattering length combination |a1/2 - a3/2| (for isospin 1/2 and 3/2) can be related to the latter. The aim of the upgraded DIRAC-II experiment is a measurement of the scattering length combination |a1/2 - a3/2| with a precision of 5%. piK atoms have not been observed so far. The original DIRAC experiment was designed to measure the scattering lengths of pipi atoms. So far, close to 15 000 atoms have been detected, leading to a precision on |a0 - a2| which is better than 10%. In chiral perturbation theories (ChPT) the pipi scattering lengths have been calculated with 2% precision a...

  10. Pilots 2.0: DIRAC pilots for all the skies

    CERN Document Server

    Stagni, F; McNab, A; Luzzi, C

    2015-01-01

    In the last few years, new types of computing infrastructures, such as IAAS (Infrastructure as a Service) and IAAC (Infrastructure as a Client), gained popularity. New resources may come as part of pledged resources, while others are opportunistic. Most of these new infrastructures are based on virtualization techniques. Meanwhile, some concepts, such as distributed queues, lost appeal, while still supporting a vast amount of resources. Virtual Organizations are therefore facing heterogeneity of the available resources and the use of an Interware software like DIRAC to hide the diversity of underlying resources has become essential. The DIRAC WMS is based on the concept of pilot jobs that was introduced back in 2004. A pilot is what creates the possibility to run jobs on a worker node. Within DIRAC, we developed a new generation of pilot jobs, that we dubbed Pilots 2.0. Pilots 2.0 are not tied to a specific infrastructure; rather they are generic, fully configurable and extendible pilots. A Pilot 2.0 can be s...

  11. Theory of Coulomb drag for massless Dirac fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrega, M; Principi, A; Polini, M; Tudorovskiy, T; Katsnelson, M I

    2012-01-01

    Coulomb drag between two unhybridized graphene sheets separated by a dielectric spacer has recently attracted considerable theoretical interest. We first review, for the sake of completeness, the main analytical results which have been obtained by other authors. We then illustrate pedagogically the minimal theory of Coulomb drag between two spatially separated two-dimensional systems of massless Dirac fermions which are both away from the charge-neutrality point. This relies on second-order perturbation theory in the screened interlayer interaction and on Boltzmann-transport theory. In this theoretical framework and in the low-temperature limit, we demonstrate that, to leading (i.e. quadratic) order in temperature, the drag transresistivity is completely insensitive to the precise intralayer momentum-relaxation mechanism (i.e. to the functional dependence of the transport scattering time on energy). We also provide analytical results for the low-temperature drag transresistivity for both cases of ‘thick’ and ‘thin’ spacers and for arbitrary values of the dielectric constants of the media surrounding the two Dirac-fermion layers. Finally, we present numerical results for the low-temperature drag transresistivity for the case when one of the media surrounding the Dirac-fermion layers has a frequency-dependent dielectric constant. We conclude by suggesting an experiment that can potentially allow for the observation of departures from the canonical quadratic-in-temperature behavior of the transresistivity. (paper)

  12. Wishart and anti-Wishart random matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janik, Romuald A; Nowak, Maciej A

    2003-01-01

    We provide a compact exact representation for the distribution of the matrix elements of the Wishart-type random matrices A † A, for any finite number of rows and columns of A, without any large N approximations. In particular, we treat the case when the Wishart-type random matrix contains redundant, non-random information, which is a new result. This representation is of interest for a procedure for reconstructing the redundant information hidden in Wishart matrices, with potential applications to numerous models based on biological, social and artificial intelligence networks

  13. Topological expansion of the chain of matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eynard, B.; Ferrer, A. Prats

    2009-01-01

    We solve the loop equations to all orders in 1/N 2 , for the Chain of Matrices matrix model (with possibly an external field coupled to the last matrix of the chain). We show that the topological expansion of the free energy, is, like for the 1 and 2-matrix model, given by the symplectic invariants of [19]. As a consequence, we find the double scaling limit explicitly, and we discuss modular properties, large N asymptotics. We also briefly discuss the limit of an infinite chain of matrices (matrix quantum mechanics).

  14. Partitioning sparse rectangular matrices for parallel processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolda, T.G.

    1998-05-01

    The authors are interested in partitioning sparse rectangular matrices for parallel processing. The partitioning problem has been well-studied in the square symmetric case, but the rectangular problem has received very little attention. They will formalize the rectangular matrix partitioning problem and discuss several methods for solving it. They will extend the spectral partitioning method for symmetric matrices to the rectangular case and compare this method to three new methods -- the alternating partitioning method and two hybrid methods. The hybrid methods will be shown to be best.

  15. The strangest man. The hidden life of Paul Dirac; Der seltsamste Mensch. Das verborgene Leben des Quantengenies Paul Dirac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmelo, Graham

    2016-07-01

    The Strangest Man is the Costa Biography Award-winning account of Paul Dirac, the famous physicist sometimes called the British Einstein. He was one of the leading pioneers of the greatest revolution in twentieth-century science: quantum mechanics. The youngest theoretician ever to win the Nobel Prize for Physics, he was also pathologically reticent, strangely literal-minded and legendarily unable to communicate or empathize. Through his greatest period of productivity, his postcards home contained only remarks about the weather. Based on a previously undiscovered archive of family papers, Graham Farmelo celebrates Dirac's massive scientific achievement while drawing a compassionate portrait of his life and work. Farmelo shows a man who, while hopelessly socially inept, could manage to love and sustain close friendship. The Strangest Man is an extraordinary and moving human story, as well as a study of one of the most exciting times in scientific history.

  16. Avoid the tsunami of the Dirac sea in the imaginary time step method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ying; Liang, Haozhao; Meng, Jie

    2010-01-01

    The discrete single-particle spectra in both the Fermi and Dirac sea have been calculated by the imaginary time step (ITS) method for the Schroedinger-like equation after avoiding the "tsunami" of the Dirac sea, i.e. the diving behavior of the single-particle level into the Dirac sea in the direct application of the ITS method for the Dirac equation. It is found that by the transform from the Dirac equation to the Schroedinger-like equation, the single-particle spectra, which extend from the positive to the negative infinity, can be separately obtained by the ITS evolution in either the Fermi sea or the Dirac sea. Identical results with those in the conventional shooting method have been obtained via the ITS evolution for the equivalent Schroedinger-like equation, which demonstrates the feasibility, practicality and reliability of the present algorithm and dispels the doubts on the ITS method in the relativistic system. (author)

  17. Double Dirac point semimetal in 2D material: Ta2Se3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yandong; Jing, Yu; Heine, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    Here, we report by first-principles calculations one new stable 2D Dirac material, Ta2Se3 monolayer. For this system, stable layered bulk phase exists, and exfoliation should be possible. Ta2Se3 monolayer is demonstrated to support two Dirac points close to the Fermi level, achieving the exotic 2D double Dirac semimetal. And like 2D single Dirac and 2D node-line semimetals, spin-orbit coupling could introduce an insulating state in this new class of 2D Dirac semimetals. Moreover, the Dirac feature in this system is layer-dependent and a metal-to-insulator transition is identified in Ta2Se3 when reducing the layer-thickness from bilayer to monolayer. These findings are of fundamental interests and of great importance for nanoscale device applications.

  18. Self-Assembled Si(111) Surface States: 2D Dirac Material for THz Plasmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z. F.; Liu, Feng

    2015-07-01

    Graphene, the first discovered 2D Dirac material, has had a profound impact on science and technology. In the last decade, we have witnessed huge advances in graphene related fundamental and applied research. Here, based on first-principles calculations, we propose a new 2D Dirac band on the Si(111) surface with 1 /3 monolayer halogen coverage. The s p3 dangling bonds form a honeycomb superstructure on the Si(111) surface that results in an anisotropic Dirac band with a group velocity (˜106 m /s ) comparable to that in graphene. Most remarkably, the Si-based surface Dirac band can be used to excite a tunable THz plasmon through electron-hole doping. Our results demonstrate a new way to design Dirac states on a traditional semiconductor surface, so as to make them directly compatible with Si technology. We envision this new type of Dirac material to be generalized to other semiconductor surfaces with broad applications.

  19. On the confinement of a Dirac particle to a two-dimensional ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakke, K.; Furtado, C.

    2012-01-01

    In this contribution, we propose a new model for studying the confinement of a spin-half particle to a two-dimensional quantum ring for systems described by the Dirac equation by introducing a new coupling into the Dirac equation. We show that the introduction of this new coupling into the Dirac equation yields a generalization of the two-dimensional quantum ring model proposed by Tan and Inkson [W.-C. Tan, J.C. Inkson, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 11 (1996) 1635] for relativistic spin-half quantum particles. -- Highlights: ► Two-dimensional ring model for condensed matter systems described by the Dirac equation. ► Exact solutions of the Dirac equation. ► Persistent currents for Dirac-like systems confined to a two-dimensional quantum ring.

  20. Dirac cone protected by non-symmorphic symmetry and three-dimensional Dirac line node in ZrSiS

    OpenAIRE

    Schoop, Leslie M.; Ali, Mazhar N.; Straßer, Carola; Topp, Andreas; Varykhalov, Andrei; Marchenko, Dmitry; Duppel, Viola; Parkin, Stuart S. P.; Lotsch, Bettina V.; Ast, Christian R.

    2016-01-01

    Materials harboring exotic quasiparticles, such as Dirac and Weyl fermions\\cite{xu2015discovery,borisenko2015time,weng2015weyl,xu2015observation}, have garnered much attention from the physics and material science communities. These fermions are massless and, in some materials, have shown exceptional physical properties such as ultrahigh mobility and extremely large magnetoresistances \\cite{liang2015ultrahigh,ali2014large,du2015unsaturated,shekhar2015large}. Recently, new materials have been ...

  1. Dirac mechanics and Landau two-fluid model in /sup 4/HeII

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Gomez, J [Instituto Universitario Pedagogico de Caracas (Venezuela). Dept. de Matematica y Fisica

    1980-07-01

    This paper is devoted to the development of the Dirac formalism for singular systems when applied to the Landau two-fluid model in superfluid helium. Notably, the Hamiltonian density is weakly zero (in the sense of Dirac). We obtain the physical and gauge variables and show that all the constraints are of first class and hence that the Dirac bracket coincides with the Poisson bracket. The quantization of this system is left for a future paper.

  2. Considerations concering the generalization of the Dirac equations to unstable fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kniehl, Bernd A.; Sirlin, Alberto

    2014-08-01

    We discuss the generalization of the Dirac equations and spinors in momentum space to free unstable spin-1/2 fermions taking into account the fundamental requirement of Lorentz covariance. We derive the generalized adjoint Dirac equations and spinors, and explain the very simple relation that exists, in our formulation, between the unstable and stable cases. As an application of the generalized spinors, we evaluate the probability density. We also discuss the behavior of the generalized Dirac equations under time reversal.

  3. Hierarchical matrix approximation of large covariance matrices

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander; Genton, Marc G.; Sun, Ying

    2015-01-01

    We approximate large non-structured Matérn covariance matrices of size n×n in the H-matrix format with a log-linear computational cost and storage O(kn log n), where rank k ≪ n is a small integer. Applications are: spatial statistics, machine learning and image analysis, kriging and optimal design.

  4. Theoretical origin of quark mass matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, R.N.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents the theoretical origin of specific quark mass matrices in the grand unified theories. The author discusses the first natural derivation of the Stech-type mass matrix in unified gauge theories. A solution to the strong CP-problem is provided

  5. Malware Analysis Using Visualized Image Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KyoungSoo Han

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel malware visual analysis method that contains not only a visualization method to convert binary files into images, but also a similarity calculation method between these images. The proposed method generates RGB-colored pixels on image matrices using the opcode sequences extracted from malware samples and calculates the similarities for the image matrices. Particularly, our proposed methods are available for packed malware samples by applying them to the execution traces extracted through dynamic analysis. When the images are generated, we can reduce the overheads by extracting the opcode sequences only from the blocks that include the instructions related to staple behaviors such as functions and application programming interface (API calls. In addition, we propose a technique that generates a representative image for each malware family in order to reduce the number of comparisons for the classification of unknown samples and the colored pixel information in the image matrices is used to calculate the similarities between the images. Our experimental results show that the image matrices of malware can effectively be used to classify malware families both statically and dynamically with accuracy of 0.9896 and 0.9732, respectively.

  6. Moment matrices, border bases and radical computation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Mourrain; J.B. Lasserre; M. Laurent (Monique); P. Rostalski; P. Trebuchet (Philippe)

    2013-01-01

    htmlabstractIn this paper, we describe new methods to compute the radical (resp. real radical) of an ideal, assuming it complex (resp. real) variety is nte. The aim is to combine approaches for solving a system of polynomial equations with dual methods which involve moment matrices and

  7. Moment matrices, border bases and radical computation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lasserre, J.B.; Laurent, M.; Mourrain, B.; Rostalski, P.; Trébuchet, P.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we describe new methods to compute the radical (resp. real radical) of an ideal, assuming its complex (resp. real) variety is finite. The aim is to combine approaches for solving a system of polynomial equations with dual methods which involve moment matrices and semi-definite

  8. Moment matrices, border bases and radical computation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Mourrain; J.B. Lasserre; M. Laurent (Monique); P. Rostalski; P. Trebuchet (Philippe)

    2011-01-01

    htmlabstractIn this paper, we describe new methods to compute the radical (resp. real radical) of an ideal, assuming it complex (resp. real) variety is nte. The aim is to combine approaches for solving a system of polynomial equations with dual methods which involve moment matrices and

  9. Malware analysis using visualized image matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, KyoungSoo; Kang, BooJoong; Im, Eul Gyu

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel malware visual analysis method that contains not only a visualization method to convert binary files into images, but also a similarity calculation method between these images. The proposed method generates RGB-colored pixels on image matrices using the opcode sequences extracted from malware samples and calculates the similarities for the image matrices. Particularly, our proposed methods are available for packed malware samples by applying them to the execution traces extracted through dynamic analysis. When the images are generated, we can reduce the overheads by extracting the opcode sequences only from the blocks that include the instructions related to staple behaviors such as functions and application programming interface (API) calls. In addition, we propose a technique that generates a representative image for each malware family in order to reduce the number of comparisons for the classification of unknown samples and the colored pixel information in the image matrices is used to calculate the similarities between the images. Our experimental results show that the image matrices of malware can effectively be used to classify malware families both statically and dynamically with accuracy of 0.9896 and 0.9732, respectively.

  10. Generation speed in Raven's Progressive Matrices Test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verguts, T.; Boeck, P. De; Maris, E.G.G.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the role of response fluency on a well-known intelligence test, Raven's (1962) Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM) test. Critical in solving this test is finding rules that govern the items. Response fluency is conceptualized as generation speed or the speed at which a

  11. Inversion of General Cyclic Heptadiagonal Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Karawia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a reliable symbolic computational algorithm for inverting general cyclic heptadiagonal matrices by using parallel computing along with recursion. The computational cost of it is operations. The algorithm is implementable to the Computer Algebra System (CAS such as MAPLE, MATLAB, and MATHEMATICA. Two examples are presented for the sake of illustration.

  12. Hierarchical matrix approximation of large covariance matrices

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander

    2015-11-30

    We approximate large non-structured Matérn covariance matrices of size n×n in the H-matrix format with a log-linear computational cost and storage O(kn log n), where rank k ≪ n is a small integer. Applications are: spatial statistics, machine learning and image analysis, kriging and optimal design.

  13. Spin symmetry in the Dirac sea derived from the bare nucleon-nucleon interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shihang; Liang, Haozhao; Meng, Jie; Ring, Peter; Zhang, Shuangquan

    2018-06-01

    The spin symmetry in the Dirac sea has been investigated with relativistic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock theory using the bare nucleon-nucleon interaction. Taking the nucleus 16O as an example and comparing the theoretical results with the data, the definition of the single-particle potential in the Dirac sea is studied in detail. It is found that if the single-particle states in the Dirac sea are treated as occupied states, the ground state properties are in better agreement with experimental data. Moreover, in this case, the spin symmetry in the Dirac sea is better conserved and it is more consistent with the findings using phenomenological relativistic density functionals.

  14. Granular superconductor in a honeycomb lattice as a realization of bosonic Dirac material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, S.; Fransson, J.; Black-Schaffer, A. M.; Ågren, H.; Balatsky, A. V.

    2016-04-01

    We examine the low-energy effective theory of phase oscillations in a two-dimensional granular superconducting sheet where the grains are arranged in a honeycomb lattice structure. Using the example of graphene, we present evidence for the engineered Dirac nodes in the bosonic excitations: the spectra of the collective bosonic modes cross at the K and K' points in the Brillouin zone and form Dirac nodes. We show how two different types of collective phase oscillations are obtained and that they are analogous to the Leggett and the Bogoliubov-Anderson-Gorkov modes in a two-band superconductor. We show that the Dirac node is preserved in the presence of an intergrain interaction, despite induced changes of the qualitative features of the two collective modes. Finally, breaking the sublattice symmetry by choosing different on-site potentials for the two sublattices leads to a gap opening near the Dirac node, in analogy with fermionic Dirac materials. The Dirac node dispersion of bosonic excitations is thus expanding the discussion of the conventional Dirac cone excitations to the case of bosons. We call this case as a representative of bosonic Dirac materials (BDM), similar to the case of Fermionic Dirac materials extensively discussed in the literature.

  15. Do neutron stars disprove multiplicative creation in Dirac's large number hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qadir, A.; Mufti, A.A.

    1980-07-01

    Dirac's cosmology, based on his large number hypothesis, took the gravitational coupling to be decreasing with time and matter to be created as the square of time. Since the effects predicted by Dirac's theory are very small, it is difficult to find a ''clean'' test for it. Here we show that the observed radiation from pulsars is inconsistent with Dirac's multiplicative creation model, in which the matter created is proportional to the density of matter already present. Of course, this discussion makes no comment on the ''additive creation'' model, or on the revised version of Dirac's theory. (author)

  16. Vacuum state of the Dirac field in de Sitter space and entanglement entropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanno, Sugumi [Department of Theoretical Physics and History of Science,University of the Basque Country,48080 Bilbao (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science,Maria Diaz de Haro 3, 48013, Bilbao (Spain); Sasaki, Misao [Center for Gravitational Physics,Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University,Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Tanaka, Takahiro [Department of Physics, Kyoto University,Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Center for Gravitational Physics,Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University,Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2017-03-13

    We compute the entanglement entropy of a free massive Dirac field between two causally disconnected open charts in de Sitter space. We first derive the Bunch-Davies vacuum mode functions of the Dirac field. We find there exists no supercurvature mode for the Dirac field. We then give the Bogoliubov transformation between the Bunch-Davies vacuum and the open chart vacua that makes the reduced density matrix diagonal. We find that the Dirac field becomes more entangled than a scalar field as m{sup 2}/H{sup 2} becomes small, and the difference is maximal in the massless limit.

  17. Decay Rates and Probability Estimatesfor Massive Dirac Particlesin the Kerr-Newman Black Hole Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finster, F.; Kamran, N.; Smoller, J.; Yau, S.-T.

    The Cauchy problem is considered for the massive Dirac equation in the non-extreme Kerr-Newman geometry, for smooth initial data with compact support outside the event horizon and bounded angular momentum. We prove that the Dirac wave function decays in L∞ {loc} at least at the rate t-5/6. For generic initial data, this rate of decay is sharp. We derive a formula for the probability p that the Dirac particle escapes to infinity. For various conditions on the initial data, we show that p = 0, 1 or 0 < p < 1. The proofs are based on a refined analysis of the Dirac propagator constructed in [4].

  18. Itinerant quantum multicriticality of two-dimensional Dirac fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Bitan; Goswami, Pallab; Juričić, Vladimir

    2018-05-01

    We analyze emergent quantum multicriticality for strongly interacting, massless Dirac fermions in two spatial dimensions (d =2 ) within the framework of Gross-Neveu-Yukawa models, by considering the competing order parameters that give rise to fully gapped (insulating or superconducting) ground states. We focus only on those competing orders which can be rotated into each other by generators of an exact or emergent chiral symmetry of massless Dirac fermions, and break O(S1) and O(S2) symmetries in the ordered phase. Performing a renormalization-group analysis by using the ɛ =(3 -d ) expansion scheme, we show that all the coupling constants in the critical hyperplane flow toward a new attractive fixed point, supporting an enlarged O(S1+S2) chiral symmetry. Such a fixed point acts as an exotic quantum multicritical point (MCP), governing the continuous semimetal-insulator as well as insulator-insulator (for example, antiferromagnet to valence bond solid) quantum phase transitions. In comparison with the lower symmetric semimetal-insulator quantum critical points, possessing either O(S1) or O(S2) chiral symmetry, the MCP displays enhanced correlation length exponents, and anomalous scaling dimensions for both fermionic and bosonic fields. We discuss the scaling properties of the ratio of bosonic and fermionic masses, and the increased dc resistivity at the MCP. By computing the scaling dimensions of different local fermion bilinears in the particle-hole channel, we establish that most of the four fermion operators or generalized density-density correlation functions display faster power-law decays at the MCP compared to the free fermion and lower symmetric itinerant quantum critical points. Possible generalization of this scenario to higher-dimensional Dirac fermions is also outlined.

  19. Two-body Dirac equations for nucleon-nucleon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Bin; Crater, Horace

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the nucleon-nucleon interaction by using the meson exchange model and the two-body Dirac equations of constraint dynamics. This approach to the two-body problem has been successfully tested for QED and QCD relativistic bound states. An important question we wish to address is whether or not the two-body nucleon-nucleon scattering problem can be reasonably described in this approach as well. This test involves a number of related problems. First we must reduce our two-body Dirac equations exactly to a Schroedinger-like equation in such a way that allows us to use techniques to solve them already developed for Schroedinger-like systems in nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. Related to this, we present a new derivation of Calogero's variable phase shift differential equation for coupled Schroedinger-like equations. Then we determine if the use of nine meson exchanges in our equations gives a reasonable fit to the experimental scattering phase shifts for n-p scattering. The data involve seven angular momentum states including the singlet states 1 S 0 , 1 P 1 , 1 D 2 and the triplet states 3 P 0 , 3 P 1 , 3 S 1 , 3 D 1 . Two models that we have tested give us a fairly good fit. The parameters obtained by fitting the n-p experimental scattering phase shift give a fairly good prediction for most of the p-p experimental scattering phase shifts examined (for the singlet states 1 S 0 , 1 D 2 and triplet states 3 P 0 , 3 P 1 ). Thus the two-body Dirac equations of constraint dynamics present us with a fit that encourages the exploration of a more realistic model. We outline generalizations of the meson exchange model for invariant potentials that may possibly improve the fit

  20. Drift chamber readout system of the DIRAC experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Afanasiev, L G

    2002-01-01

    A drift chamber readout system of the DIRAC experiment at CERN is presented. The system is intended to read out the signals from planar chambers operating in a high current mode. The sense wire signals are digitized in the 16-channel time-to-digital converter boards which are plugged in the signal plane connectors. This design results in a reduced number of modules, a small number of cables and high noise immunity. The system has been successfully operating in the experiment since 1999.

  1. Chiral condensate from the twisted mass Dirac operator spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cichy, Krzysztof [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Poznan Univ. (Poland). Faculty of Physics; Garcia-Ramos, Elena [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany); Jansen, Karl [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Cyprus Univ., Nicosia (Cyprus). Dept. of Physics; Collaboration: European Twisted Mass Collaboration

    2013-03-15

    We present the results of our computation of the chiral condensate with N{sub f}=2 and N{sub f}=2+1+1 flavours of maximally twisted mass fermions. The condensate is determined from the Dirac operator spectrum, applying the spectral projector method proposed by Giusti and Luescher. We use 3 lattice spacings and several quark masses at each lattice spacing to reliably perform the chiral and continuum extrapolations. We study the effect of the dynamical strange and charm quarks by comparing our results for N{sub f}=2 and N{sub f}=2+1+1 dynamical flavours.

  2. Kaehler-Dirac ghosts for self-dual fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labastida, J.M.F.; Pernici, M.

    1988-01-01

    We present the generalization to spacetime dimension D=4n+2 of the Lorentz covariant quadratic lagrangian for pairs of (anti)self-dual fields previously obtained by the authors in D=2. In the process of BRST quantizing this lagrangian a first-order quadratic lagrangian for ghost (anti)self-dual fields is found which, after gauge fixing, can be written in terms of bispinors and it turns out to be a Kaehler-Dirac lagrangian. The coupling to gravity is straightforward and the gravitational anomaly due to (anti)self-dual fields is obtained directly from an action principle. (orig.)

  3. The supersymmetric Dirac equation the application to hydrogenic atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Hirshfeld, Allen

    2012-01-01

    The solution of the Dirac equation for an electron in a Coulomb field is systematically treated here by utilizing new insights provided by supersymmetry. It is shown that each of the concepts has its analogue in the non-relativistic case. Indeed, the non-relativistic case is developed first, in order to introduce the new concepts in a familiar context. The symmetry of the non-relativistic model is already present in the classical limit, so the classical Kepler problem is first discussed in order to bring out the role played by the Laplace vector, one of the central concepts of the whole book.

  4. DIRAC: A high resolution spectrometer for pionium detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adeva, B. E-mail: adevab@usc.es; Afanasyev, L.; Benayoun, M.; Benelli, A.; Berka, Z.; Brekhovskikh, V.; Caragheorgheopol, G.; Cechak, T.; Chiba, M.; Cima, E.; Constantinescu, S.; Detraz, C.; Dreossi, D.; Drijard, D.; Dudarev, A.; Evangelou, I.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Gallas, M.V.; Gerndt, J.; Giacomich, R.; Gianotti, P.; Giardoni, M.; Goldin, D.; Gomez, F.; Gorin, A.; Gortchakov, O.; Guaraldo, C.; Hansroul, M.; Iliescu, M.; Zhabitsky, M.; Karpukhin, V.; Kluson, J.; Kobayashi, M.; Kokkas, P.; Komarov, V.; Kruglov, V.; Kruglova, L.; Kulikov, A.; Kuptsov, A.; Kurochkin, V.; Kuroda, K.-I.; Lamberto, A.; Lanaro, A.; Lapshin, V.; Lednicky, R.; Leruste, P.; Levisandri, P.; Lopez Aguera, A.; Lucherini, V.; Maki, T.; Manthos, N.; Manuilov, I.; Montanet, L.; Narjoux, J.-L.; Nemenov, L.; Nikitin, M.; Nunez Pardo, T.; Okada, K.; Olchevskii, V.; Orecchini, D.; Pazos, A.; Pentia, M.; Penzo, A.; Perreau, J.-M.; Petrascu, C.; Plo, M.; Ponta, T.; Pop, D.; Rappazzo, G.F.; Riazantsev, A.; Rodriguez, J.M.; Rodriguez Fernandez, A.; Romero, A.; Rykalin, V.; Santamarina, C.; Saborido, J.; Schacher, J.; Schuetz, Ch.P.; Sidorov, A.; Smolik, J.; Steinacher, M.; Takeutchi, F.; Tarasov, A.; Tauscher, L.; Tobar, M.J.; Triantis, F.; Trusov, S.; Utkin, V.; Vazquez Doce, O.; Vazquez, P.; Vlachos, S.; Yazkov, V.; Yoshimura, Y.; Zrelov, P

    2003-12-11

    The DIRAC spectrometer has been commissioned at CERN with the aim of detecting {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} atoms produced by a 24 GeV/c high intensity proton beam in thin foil targets. A challenging apparatus is required to cope with the high interaction rates involved, the triggering of pion pairs with very detector efficiency.ation of the imaging sof the latter with resolution around 0.6 MeV/c. The general characteristics of the apparatus are explained and each part is described in some detail. The main features of the trigger system, data-acquisition, monitoring and set-up performances are also given.

  5. DIRAC: A high resolution spectrometer for pionium detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeva, B.; Afanasyev, L.; Benayoun, M.; Benelli, A.; Berka, Z.; Brekhovskikh, V.; Caragheorgheopol, G.; Cechak, T.; Chiba, M.; Cima, E.; Constantinescu, S.; Detraz, C.; Dreossi, D.; Drijard, D.; Dudarev, A.; Evangelou, I.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Gallas, M.V.; Gerndt, J.; Giacomich, R.; Gianotti, P.; Giardoni, M.; Goldin, D.; Gomez, F.; Gorin, A.; Gortchakov, O.; Guaraldo, C.; Hansroul, M.; Iliescu, M.; Zhabitsky, M.; Karpukhin, V.; Kluson, J.; Kobayashi, M.; Kokkas, P.; Komarov, V.; Kruglov, V.; Kruglova, L.; Kulikov, A.; Kuptsov, A.; Kurochkin, V.; Kuroda, K.-I.; Lamberto, A.; Lanaro, A.; Lapshin, V.; Lednicky, R.; Leruste, P.; Levisandri, P.; Lopez Aguera, A.; Lucherini, V.; Maki, T.; Manthos, N.; Manuilov, I.; Montanet, L.; Narjoux, J.-L.; Nemenov, L.; Nikitin, M.; Nunez Pardo, T.; Okada, K.; Olchevskii, V.; Orecchini, D.; Pazos, A.; Pentia, M.; Penzo, A.; Perreau, J.-M.; Petrascu, C.; Plo, M.; Ponta, T.; Pop, D.; Rappazzo, G.F.; Riazantsev, A.; Rodriguez, J.M.; Rodriguez Fernandez, A.; Romero, A.; Rykalin, V.; Santamarina, C.; Saborido, J.; Schacher, J.; Schuetz, Ch.P.; Sidorov, A.; Smolik, J.; Steinacher, M.; Takeutchi, F.; Tarasov, A.; Tauscher, L.; Tobar, M.J.; Triantis, F.; Trusov, S.; Utkin, V.; Vazquez Doce, O.; Vazquez, P.; Vlachos, S.; Yazkov, V.; Yoshimura, Y.; Zrelov, P.

    2003-01-01

    The DIRAC spectrometer has been commissioned at CERN with the aim of detecting π + π - atoms produced by a 24 GeV/c high intensity proton beam in thin foil targets. A challenging apparatus is required to cope with the high interaction rates involved, the triggering of pion pairs with very detector efficiency.ation of the imaging sof the latter with resolution around 0.6 MeV/c. The general characteristics of the apparatus are explained and each part is described in some detail. The main features of the trigger system, data-acquisition, monitoring and set-up performances are also given

  6. Chiral condensate from the twisted mass Dirac operator spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cichy, Krzysztof; Jansen, Karl; Cyprus Univ., Nicosia

    2013-03-01

    We present the results of our computation of the chiral condensate with N f =2 and N f =2+1+1 flavours of maximally twisted mass fermions. The condensate is determined from the Dirac operator spectrum, applying the spectral projector method proposed by Giusti and Luescher. We use 3 lattice spacings and several quark masses at each lattice spacing to reliably perform the chiral and continuum extrapolations. We study the effect of the dynamical strange and charm quarks by comparing our results for N f =2 and N f =2+1+1 dynamical flavours.

  7. Hamiltonian reduction and supersymmetric mechanics with Dirac monopole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellucci, Stefano; Nersessian, Armen; Yeranyan, Armen

    2006-01-01

    We apply the technique of Hamiltonian reduction for the construction of three-dimensional N=4 supersymmetric mechanics specified by the presence of a Dirac monopole. For this purpose we take the conventional N=4 supersymmetric mechanics on the four-dimensional conformally-flat spaces and perform its Hamiltonian reduction to three-dimensional system. We formulate the final system in the canonical coordinates, and present, in these terms, the explicit expressions of the Hamiltonian and supercharges. We show that, besides a magnetic monopole field, the resulting system is specified by the presence of a spin-orbit coupling term. A comparision with previous work is also carried out

  8. Quantized Dirac field interacting with a classical Maxwell field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolsrud, M.

    1987-10-01

    The S operator for the quantized and the s matrix for the unquantized Dirac field, both fields interacting with an unquantized Maxwell field, are shown to be related in the following way: S=exp(-ic†kc) and s=exp(-ik). Here c is the column matrix of the particle operators, and k is a Hermitian matrix. With splitting of c into an electron and a positron part, a corresponding factorization of S is performed. Exact expressions for the probability amplitude for various electron and/or positron processes are then obtained

  9. Connection between Dirac and matrix Schroedinger inverse-scattering transforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaulent, M.; Leon, J.J.P.

    1978-01-01

    The connection between two applications of the inverse scattering method for solving nonlinear equations is established. The inverse method associated with the massive Dirac system (D) : (iσ 3 d/dx - i q 3 σ 1 - q 1 σ 2 + mσ 2 )Y = epsilonY is rediscovered from the inverse method associated with the 2 x 2 matrix Schroedinger equation (S) : Ysub(xx) + (k 2 -Q)Y = 0. Here Q obeys a nonlinear constraint equivalent to a linear constraint on the reflection coefficient for (S). (author)

  10. Dirac cosmology and the onset of galactic nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, P.J.; Canuto, V.

    1976-01-01

    Recently Browne and Berman determined the onset of nucleosynthesis of heavy elements in the galaxy to be about 18 billion years ago based on the weak decay of rhenium 187 to osmium 187. This age is appreciably larger than the 13 billion years determined from the uranium decay chains. It is also larger than the 16 billion year age of the Universe determined from the standard model by the latest values of the Hubble constant and deceleration parameter. This letter points out that this discrepancy is predicted by Dirac's cosmology and derives from a time-varying weak coupling constant. (Auth.)

  11. Lattice approximation of gauge theories with Dirac Kaehler fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joos, H.

    1988-01-01

    A program which tries to overcome the systematic difficulties caused by the lattice fermion problem by the consideration of models which describe Dirac fields by differential forms is reported. In the first lecture the formalism is developped and applied to the formulation of geometric QCD and of a Geometric Standard Model. The second lecture treats the characteristic symmetry problems which appear in the lattice approximation of geometric field theories. In the last lecture strong coupling dynamics of geometric QCD are considered with the final aim of a derivation of the quark model for the hadron spectrum. (author) [pt

  12. From LHC physics to Dirac-Weyl materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raya, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    The quantum field theoretical description of particle physics under extreme conditions, namely, at finite temperature, density and in the presence of external magnetic fields, can naturally be extended to describe phenomenology in other branches of physics. In this contribution, I review some aspects of particle physics in the realm of condensed matter physics, particularly graphene and other Dirac-Weyl materials carried out in Mexico. I explore several features of the dynamics of fermions in (2+1)-dimensions which are relevant to heavy ion experiments, but that can be tested in table top experiments. (paper)

  13. Nonstandard Supersymmetry Breaking and Dirac Gaugino Masses without Supersoftness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Stephen P. [Northern Illinois U.

    2015-08-05

    I consider models in which nonstandard supersymmetry-breaking terms, including Dirac gaugino masses, arise from F-term breaking mediated by operators with a 1/M3 suppression. In these models, the supersoft properties found in the case of D-term breaking are absent in general, but can be obtained as a special case that is a fixed point of the renormalization group equations. The μ term is replaced by three distinct supersymmetry-breaking parameters, decoupling the Higgs scalar potential from the Higgsino masses. Both holomorphic and nonholomorphic scalar cubic interactions with minimal flavor violation are induced in the supersymmetric Standard Model Lagrangian.

  14. An asymptotic formula for Weyl solutions of the dirac equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misyura, T.V.

    1995-01-01

    In the spectral analysis of differential operators and its applications an important role is played by the investigation of the behavior of the Weyl solutions of the corresponding equations when the spectral parameter tends to infinity. Elsewhere an exact asymptotic formula for the Weyl solutions of a large class of Sturm-Liouville equations has been obtained. A decisve role in the proof of this formula has been the semiboundedness property of the corresponding Sturm-Liouville operators. In this paper an analogous formula is obtained for the Weyl solutions of the Dirac equations

  15. Minimax rational approximation of the Fermi-Dirac distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Jonathan E.

    2016-10-01

    Accurate rational approximations of the Fermi-Dirac distribution are a useful component in many numerical algorithms for electronic structure calculations. The best known approximations use O(log(βΔ)log(ɛ-1)) poles to achieve an error tolerance ɛ at temperature β-1 over an energy interval Δ. We apply minimax approximation to reduce the number of poles by a factor of four and replace Δ with Δocc, the occupied energy interval. This is particularly beneficial when Δ ≫ Δocc, such as in electronic structure calculations that use a large basis set.

  16. Geometric phase of neutrinos: Differences between Dirac and Majorana neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capolupo, A.; Giampaolo, S. M.; Hiesmayr, B. C.; Vitiello, G.

    2018-05-01

    We analyze the non-cyclic geometric phase for neutrinos. We find that the geometric phase and the total phase associated to the mixing phenomenon provide a theoretical tool to distinguish between Dirac and Majorana neutrinos. Our results hold for neutrinos propagating in vacuum and through the matter. We feed the values of the experimental parameters in our formulas in order to make contact with experiments. Although it remains an open question how the geometric phase of neutrinos could be detected, our theoretical results may open new scenarios in the investigation of the neutrino nature.

  17. DIRAC: A High Resolution Spectrometer for Pionium Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Afanasiev, L G; Benelli, A; Berka, Z; Brekhovskikh, V; Caragheorgheopol, G; Cechák, T; Chiba, M; Cima, E; Constantinescu, S; Détraz, C; Dreossi, D; Drijard, Daniel; Dudarev, A; Evangelou, I; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Gallas, M V; Gerndt, J; Giacomich, R; Gianotti, P; Giardoni, M; Goldin, D; Gómez, F; Gorin, A; Gortchakov, O E; Guaraldo, C; Hansroul, M; Iliescu, M A; Zhabitsky, V M; Karpukhin, V V; Kluson, J; Kobayashi, M; Kokkas, P; Komarov, V; Kruglov, V; Kruglova, L; Kulikov, A; Kuptsov, A; Kurochkin, V; Kuroda, K I; Lamberto, A; Lanaro, A; Lapshin, V G; Lednicky, R; Leruste, P; Levisandri, P; López-Aguera, A; Lucherini, V; Mäki, T; Manthos, N; Manuilov, I V; Montanet, Lucien; Narjoux, J L; Nemenov, Leonid L; Nikitin, M; Núñez-Pardo de Vera, M T; Okada, K; Olchevskii, V; Orecchini, D; Pazos, A; Pentia, M; Penzo, Aldo L; Perreau, J M; Petrascu, C; Pló, M; Ponta, T; Pop, D; Rappazzo, G F; Riazantsev, A; Rodríguez, J M; Rodríguez-Fernández, A M; Romero, A; Rykalin, V I; Santamarina-Rios, C; Saborido, J; Schacher, J; Schütz, C P; Sidorov, A; Smolik, J; Steinacher, M; Takeutchi, F; Tarasov, A; Tauscher, Ludwig; Tobar, M J; Triantis, F A; Trusov, S V; Utkin, V; Vázquez-Doce, O; Vázquez, P; Vlachos, S; Yazkov, V; Yoshimura, Y; Zrelov, V P

    2003-01-01

    The DIRAC spectrometer has been commissioned at CERN with the aim of detecting $\\pi^+ \\pi^-$ atoms produced by a 24 GeV/$c$ high intensity proton beam in thin foil targets. A challenging apparatus is required to cope with the high interaction rates involved, the triggering of pion pairs with very low relative momentum, and the measurement of the latter with resolution around 0.6 MeV/$c$. The general characteristics of the apparatus are explained and each part is described in some detail. The main features of the trigger system, data-acquisition, monitoring and setup performances are also given.

  18. κ-deformed Dirac oscillator in an external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chargui, Y.; Dhahbi, A.; Cherif, B.

    2018-04-01

    We study the solutions of the (2 + 1)-dimensional κ-deformed Dirac oscillator in the presence of a constant transverse magnetic field. We demonstrate how the deformation parameter affects the energy eigenvalues of the system and the corresponding eigenfunctions. Our findings suggest that this system could be used to detect experimentally the effect of the deformation. We also show that the hidden supersymmetry of the non-deformed system reduces to a hidden pseudo-supersymmetry having the same algebraic structure as a result of the κ-deformation.

  19. Multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock method for atomic structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Ken

    1982-02-01

    The multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock method for calculating the atomic structure is reviewed in some detail. Being more comprehensive than the ones introduced in Desclaux's paper, the mathematical formulae derived in this review are more helpful to trace the thread of ideas and understand the algorithm in Desclaux's computer program which embodied the method. A detailed analysis is made on the restrictions on how the program is used, that is, on the fact that it does not apply to the problem where the configuration mixing occurs via the one-electron Hamiltonian. Finally, in conclusion, a way to overcome the difficulty is suggested. (author)

  20. The bundles of algebraic and Dirac-Hestenes spinor fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosna, Ricardo A.; Rodrigues, Waldyr A. Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Our main objective in this paper is to clarify the ontology of Dirac-Hestenes spinor fields (DHSF) and its relationship with even multivector fields, on a Riemann-Cartan spacetime (RCST) M=(M,g,∇,τ g ,↑) admitting a spin structure, and to give a mathematically rigorous derivation of the so-called Dirac-Hestenes equation (DHE) in the case where M is a Lorentzian spacetime (the general case when M is a RCST will be discussed in another publication). To this aim we introduce the Clifford bundle of multivector fields (Cl(M,g)) and the left (Cl Spin 1,3 e l (M)) and right (Cl Spin 1,3 e r (M)) spin-Clifford bundles on the spin manifold (M,g). The relation between left ideal algebraic spinor fields (LIASF) and Dirac-Hestenes spinor fields (both fields are sections of Cl Spin 1,3 e l (M)) is clarified. We study in detail the theory of covariant derivatives of Clifford fields as well as that of left and right spin-Clifford fields. A consistent Dirac equation for a DHSF Ψ is a member of sec Cl Spin 1,3 e l (M) (denoted DECl l ) on a Lorentzian spacetime is found. We also obtain a representation of the DECl l in the Clifford bundle Cl(M,g). It is such equation that we call the DHE and it is satisfied by Clifford fields ψ Ξ is a member of sec Cl(M,g). This means that to each DHSF Ψ is a member of sec Cl Spin 1,3 e l (M) and spin frame Ξ is a member of sec P Spin 1,3 e (M), there is a well-defined sum of even multivector fields ψ Ξ isa member of sec Cl(M,g) (EMFS) associated with Ψ. Such an EMFS is called a representative of the DHSF on the given spin frame. And, of course, such a EMFS (the representative of the DHSF) is not a spinor field. With this crucial distinction between a DHSF and its representatives on the Clifford bundle, we provide a consistent theory for the covariant derivatives of Clifford and spinor fields of all kinds. We emphasize that the DECl l and the DHE, although related, are equations of different mathematical natures. We study also the