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Sample records for diplodiploid collembolan folsomia

  1. Antibiotic treatment leads to the elimination of Wolbachia endosymbionts and sterility in the diplodiploid collembolan Folsomia candida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingcombe Rachel

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wolbachia is an extremely widespread bacterial endosymbiont of arthropods and nematodes that causes a variety of reproductive peculiarities. Parthenogenesis is one such peculiarity but it has been hypothesised that this phenomenon may be functionally restricted to organisms that employ haplodiploid sex determination. Using two antibiotics, tetracycline and rifampicin, we attempted to eliminate Wolbachia from the diplodiploid host Folsomia candida, a species of springtail which is a widely used study organism. Results Molecular assays confirmed that elimination of Wolbachia was successfully achieved through continuous exposure of populations (over two generations and several weeks to rifampicin administered as 2.7% dry weight of their yeast food source. The consequence of this elimination was total sterility of all individuals, despite the continuation of normal egg production. Conclusion Microbial endosymbionts play an obligatory role in the reproduction of their diplodiploid host, most likely one in which the parthenogenetic process is facilitated by Wolbachia. A hitherto unknown level of host-parasite interdependence is thus recorded.

  2. Toxicity testing with the collembolans Folsomia fimetaria and Folsomia candida and the results of a ringtest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Paul Henning

    A ringtest was performed to introduce collembolans for the OECD test guideline programme. One species, the parthenogenetic Folsomia candida, is already an approved ISO standard while the sexually reproducing Folsomia fimetaria is introduced in the draft test guideline as an alternative to F. cand...

  3. Toxicity Determinations for Five Energetic Materials, Weathered and Aged in Soil, to the Collembolan Folsomia Candida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    obtained from the Soil Fauna and Ecotoxicology Research Unit, Department of Terrestrial Ecology, National Environmental Research Institute (Silkeborg...AND AGED IN SOIL , TO THE COLLEMBOLAN FOLSOMIA CANDIDA ECBC-TR-1273 Carlton T. Phillips Ronald T. Checkai Roman G. Kuperman Michael Simini...for Five Energetic Materials, Weathered and Aged in Soil , to the Collembolan Folsomia candida 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  4. Toxicity of copper to the collembolan Folsomia fimetaria in relation to the age of soil contamination.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruus Pedersen, M.; van Gestel, C.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    The toxicity of copper to the collembolan Folsomia fimetaria L. was studied in soil incubated with copper sulfate for different periods before the introduction of collembolans, to assess the effect of aging of contamination on the toxicity of copper. Adult survival, reproduction, and juvenile size

  5. The comet assay in Folsomia candida: A suitable approach to assess genotoxicity in collembolans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Diogo N; Silva, Ana Rita R; Cruz, Andreia; Lourenço, Joana; Neves, Joana; Malheiro, Catarina; Mendo, Sónia; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana

    2017-09-01

    The present study shows the comet assay technique being successfully applied for the first time to one of the most widely used soil organisms in standardized ecotoxicological tests, Folsomia candida, providing a step forward in assessing the genotoxicity induced by xenobiotics. Because collembolans have a high content of chitin, a new methodology was developed in which the heads of the collembolans were separated from the rest of the body, allowing the hemolymph to leak out. This procedure allows the cells to be released, and after lysis the genetic material is available for the comet assay. Among other key procedures, the use of 30 organisms (20- to 22-d-old adults) per replicate and the correct amount of cells with genetic material (translated as 10 μL of suspension) applied on the agarose gel were determinants for the success of the results obtained. The methodology was validated by exposing F. candida to a representative metallic element (cadmium) and a representative of organophosphates, the insecticide dimethoate, for a shorter time period of 10 d, compared with the 28 d for the International Organization for Standardization 11267 method. Within this method, the relatively low percentage of DNA damage (30%) observed in controls and the significant increase in terms of percentage of DNA damage for almost all the concentrations of dimethoate and Cd (reaching 52% and 56% of damage in the highest concentrations, respectively) confirmed the genotoxic effect of both compounds and validated this technique. The comet assay proved to be a sensitive technique to detect DNA strand breaks in collembolans' cells. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2514-2520. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  6. Effects of acute gamma-irradiation on reproduction of the collembolan (Folsomia candida) in a standard laboratory test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamori, Taizo; Yoshida, Satoshi; Kubota, Yoshihisa; Ban-nai, Tadaaki

    2006-01-01

    The abstract of this study was to provide data for radiological protection of the environment, the dose-effect relationship of acute gamma irradiation on the reproduction of the soil invertebrate Folsomia candida (Collembola) was studied according to a standard laboratory test. Juvenile collembolans were exposed to 137 Cs gamma-radiation at a dose range of 4-110 Gy. After four weeks' rearing, the number of neonate juveniles was compared with that of the non-irradiated control. The value of the 10% effective dose for reproduction was estimated to be 7.1 Gy. (author)

  7. Chlorpyrifos reduces nickel-induced growth retardation of the soil dwelling Collembolan Folsomia candida.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broerse, M.; van Gestel, C.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    For 7 weeks, we studied the effects on body size and growth rate of Folsomia candida exposed to nickel and chlorpyrifos and their mixtures in a natural Lufa 2.2 soil. Nickel significantly reduced the development of body size of the springtails, although no complete dose-response curve was obtained.

  8. Does lipophilicity of toxic compounds determine effects on drought tolerance of the soil collembolan Folsomia candida?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skovlund, Gitte; Damgaard, Christian; Bayley, Mark; Holmstrup, Martin

    2006-01-01

    The ability of Collembola to survive drought stress is crucial for their distribution in the terrestrial environment. Previous studies have suggested that several toxic compounds affect the drought tolerance of Folsomia candida in a synergistic manner and that these compounds have the feature in common that they elicit their toxicity by causing membrane damage. We hypothesised that the detrimental effect of toxic chemicals on drought tolerance in F. candida depends on the lipophilicity (log K ow ) of the compound because a higher log K ow would mean a closer interaction with membranes. In this study the three chemicals 4-nonylphenol, pyrene and p,p'-DDE were tested. Surprisingly, 4-nonylphenol, with the lowest log K ow , was the most potent with respect to reducing drought tolerance followed by pyrene, suggesting that interactions between drought tolerance and chemical stress do not depend on lipophilicity alone. - Toxic stress may reduce drought tolerance of Collembola

  9. mRNA expression of a cadmium-responsive gene is a sensitive biomarker of cadmium exposure in the soil collembolan Folsomia candida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamori, Taizo; Fujimori, Akira; Kinoshita, Keiji; Ban-nai, Tadaaki; Kubota, Yoshihisa; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2010-01-01

    The gene expression of environmental organisms is useful as a biomarker of environmental pollution. One of its advantages is high sensitivity. We identified the cDNA of a novel cadmium-responsive gene in the soil collembolan Folsomia candida. The deduced protein, designated 'metallothionein-like motif containing protein' (MTC), was cysteine-rich and contained a metallothionein-like motif with similarity to metallothionein, but had a much longer sequence than metallothionein and contained repeated sequences of amino acids. Expression of MTC mRNA was sensitively induced by cadmium exposure at 0.3 mg/kg of dry food, a concentration at which toxic effects are not observed, but expression was not affected by γ-ray exposure (an inducer of oxidative stress). These findings suggest that MTC is involved in cadmium-binding processes rather than in oxidative-stress responses. In conclusion, we suggest that gene expression of MTC may be a candidate biomarker for detecting low levels of cadmium contamination in soil. - The mRNA expression of a gene potentially encoding a metallothionein-like motif containing protein is sensitively induced by cadmium exposure in the soil collembolan Folsomia candida.

  10. mRNA expression of a cadmium-responsive gene is a sensitive biomarker of cadmium exposure in the soil collembolan Folsomia candida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamori, Taizo, E-mail: taizo@ynu.ac.j [Environmental Radiation Effects Research Group, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Fujimori, Akira [Heavy-Ion Radiobiology Research Group, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Kinoshita, Keiji [Nagoya University Avian Bioscience Research Centre, Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Ban-nai, Tadaaki; Kubota, Yoshihisa; Yoshida, Satoshi [Environmental Radiation Effects Research Group, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2010-05-15

    The gene expression of environmental organisms is useful as a biomarker of environmental pollution. One of its advantages is high sensitivity. We identified the cDNA of a novel cadmium-responsive gene in the soil collembolan Folsomia candida. The deduced protein, designated 'metallothionein-like motif containing protein' (MTC), was cysteine-rich and contained a metallothionein-like motif with similarity to metallothionein, but had a much longer sequence than metallothionein and contained repeated sequences of amino acids. Expression of MTC mRNA was sensitively induced by cadmium exposure at 0.3 mg/kg of dry food, a concentration at which toxic effects are not observed, but expression was not affected by gamma-ray exposure (an inducer of oxidative stress). These findings suggest that MTC is involved in cadmium-binding processes rather than in oxidative-stress responses. In conclusion, we suggest that gene expression of MTC may be a candidate biomarker for detecting low levels of cadmium contamination in soil. - The mRNA expression of a gene potentially encoding a metallothionein-like motif containing protein is sensitively induced by cadmium exposure in the soil collembolan Folsomia candida.

  11. Effects of deltamethrin, dimethoate, and chlorpyrifos on survival and reproduction of the collembolan Folsomia candida and the predatory mite Hypoaspis aculeifer in two African and two European soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaabiri Kamoun, Ikram; Jegede, Olukayode O; Owojori, Olugbenga J; Bouzid, Jalel; Gargouri, Radhia; Römbke, Jörg

    2018-01-01

    Indiscriminate use of pesticides is rampant in most parts of Africa, but only scanty ecotoxicological data exist for the protection of soil organisms-and these data were usually obtained under temperate conditions, including the use of Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) standard test protocols. In order to assess the effects of 3 commonly used pesticides (deltamethrin, dimethoate, chlorpyrifos) on soil fauna in Africa, noncontaminated natural soils were collected from Nigeria and Tunisia. In addition, 2 common test soils, OECD artificial soil and European (Landwirtschaftliche Untersichungs- und Forschungsanstalt [LUFA]) 2.3 soil, were used in OECD standard reproduction tests. Two microarthropod species, the springtail Folsomia candida and the predatory mite Hypoaspis aculeifer, were exposed in these 4 soils spiked individually with the 3 insecticides. Results show that the collembolan F. candida was more sensitive than the mite H. aculeifer for all 3 insecticides. The toxicity of each insecticide in the 4 soils differed, with few exceptions, by less than an order of magnitude. However, the pattern of toxicity was not consistent, that is, the lowest toxicity was often but not always found in OECD artificial soil. Soil- and pesticide-specific patterns of toxicity to F. candida and H. aculeifer might be related to the physicochemical properties of the soils and thus the availability of the 3 pesticides. Following the rules laid down in the European Union for the registration of pesticides and using standard European exposure scenarios, neither an acute nor a chronic risk of dimethoate and chlorpyrifos can be excluded (with few exceptions) in all 4 soils. Lower risks were identified for deltamethrin. For pesticide used in Africa, an environmental risk assessment based on data gained in tests with at least 1 additional natural field soil, preferably of African origin, should be performed using the same risk assessment principles as in the

  12. Effects of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn on soil Folsomia fimetaria, Folsomia candida (Collembola), Hypoaspis aculeifer (Acarina) and Enchytraeus crypticus (Oligochaeta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ke, X.; Krogh, P. H.

    The effects of the Cry1Ab toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis (corn variety Cascade Bt MON810 and DeKalb variety 618 Bt) were studied on survival and reproduction of the soil collembolan Folsomia fimetaria, Folsomia candida, the collembolan predator mite Hypoaspis aculeifer and enchytraeids....... There was a weak significant reduction by 30% on the reproduction of F. fimetaria fed Bt corn in Petri dishes for 21 days. Likewise there was a weak significant reduction by 40% of the reproduction of H. aculeifer by Bt corn in amounts corresponding to 20 g plant material kg-1 soil in the two species soil......-litter microcosm systems. There were no effects of Bt corn materials on the reproduction of F. fimetaria and E. crypticus in the single species soil-litter microcosms. No effects of Bt corn materials on mortality of all the 4 species were observed in all treatments. The tendency of effects of the Bt corn...

  13. Population performance of collembolans feeding on soil fungi from different ecological niches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, J.; Johansen, A.; Larsen, S.E.

    2008-01-01

    The potential reproductive value of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Gloinus intraradices and Glomus invermaium), root pathogenic fungi (Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium culmorum) and saprotrophic fungi (Penicillium hordei and Trichoderma harzianum) were examined for the collembolans Folsomia candida....... Different quality indicators such as the C:N ratio of the fungal food sources as well as other biological parameters are discussed in relation to their reproductive value and Collembola preferential feeding. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  14. Transport of microplastics by two collembolan species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maaß, Stefanie; Daphi, Daniel; Lehmann, Anika; Rillig, Matthias C

    2017-06-01

    Plastics, despite their great benefits, have become a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, with microplastic particles having come into focus most recently. Microplastic effects have been intensely studied in aquatic, especially marine systems; however, there is lack of studies focusing on effects on soil and its biota. A basic question is if and how surface-deposited microplastic particles are transported into the soil. We here wished to test if soil microarthropods, using Collembola, can transport these particles over distances of centimeters within days in a highly controlled experimental set-up. We conducted a fully factorial experiment with two collembolan species of differing body size, Folsomia candida and Proisotoma minuta, in combination with urea-formaldehyde particles of two different particle sizes. We observed significant differences between the species concerning the distance the particles were transported. F. candida was able to transport larger particles further and faster than P. minuta. Using video, we observed F. candida interacting with urea-formaldehyde particles and polyethylene terephthalate fibers, showing translocation of both material types. Our data clearly show that microplastic particles can be moved and distributed by soil microarthropods. Although we did not observe feeding, it is possible that microarthropods contribute to the accumulation of microplastics in the soil food web. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Reactions of collembolans inhabiting different strata to selected pesticides and their ingredients in toxicity- and behavioural tests

    OpenAIRE

    Heupel, Kristina

    2010-01-01

    In this study, side-effects of various pesticides on collembolan species covering different life forms (Isotoma anglicana, Lepidocyrtus violaceus, Folsomia fimetaria, Heteromurus nitidus and Onychiurus armatus) were examined in laboratory and field experiments. The principal aim of the study was to develop choice experiments with Collembola for the quantitative assessment of avoidance behaviour. Avoidance can potentially lead to population declines due to inhibited immigration or escape from ...

  16. Decrease in catalase activity of Folsomia candida fed a Bt rice diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan Yiyang, E-mail: yuanyy@ioz.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Pest and Rodents, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1 Beichen West Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101 (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Ke Xin, E-mail: xinke@sibs.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 300 Fenglin Road, Shanghai 200032 (China); Chen Fajun, E-mail: fajunchen@njau.edu.cn [College of Plant Protection, Department of Entomology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Krogh, Paul Henning, E-mail: phk@dmu.dk [Department of Bioscience, University of Aarhus, P.O. Box 314, Vejlsoevej 25, DK-8600 Silkeborg (Denmark); Ge Feng, E-mail: gef@ioz.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Pest and Rodents, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1 Beichen West Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101 (China)

    2011-12-15

    Here we report the effects of three Bt-rice varieties and their non-Bt conventional isolines on biological traits including survival, reproduction, and the activities of three antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase, in the Collembolan, Folsomia candida. The reproduction was significantly lower when fed Kemingdao and Huahui1 than those feeding on their non-GM near-isogenic varieties Xiushui and Minghui63 respectively, this can be explained by the differences of plant compositions depended on variety of rice. The catalase activity of F. candida was significantly lower when fed the Bt-rice variety Kemingdao compared to the near-isogenic non-Bt-rice variety Xiushui. This suggests that some Bt-rice varieties may impose environmental stress to collembolans. We emphasize that changes in activity of antioxidant enzymes of non-target organisms are important in understanding the ecological consequences for organisms inhabiting transgenic Bt-rice plantations. - Highlights: > We examine the effects of Bt-rice on Folsomia candida with laboratory test. > The reproduction of F. candida was decreased by two Bt-rice varieties. > Decreased reproduction caused by the differences of varieties or C/N ratio of rice. > The catalase activity was decreased by Bt-rice Kemingdao. > Some Bt-rice may impose environmental stress on NTOs. - The catalase of the collembolan (Folsomia candida) was decreased when fed Bt-rice, Kemingdao.

  17. Decrease in catalase activity of Folsomia candida fed a Bt rice diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Yiyang; Ke Xin; Chen Fajun; Krogh, Paul Henning; Ge Feng

    2011-01-01

    Here we report the effects of three Bt-rice varieties and their non-Bt conventional isolines on biological traits including survival, reproduction, and the activities of three antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase, in the Collembolan, Folsomia candida. The reproduction was significantly lower when fed Kemingdao and Huahui1 than those feeding on their non-GM near-isogenic varieties Xiushui and Minghui63 respectively, this can be explained by the differences of plant compositions depended on variety of rice. The catalase activity of F. candida was significantly lower when fed the Bt-rice variety Kemingdao compared to the near-isogenic non-Bt-rice variety Xiushui. This suggests that some Bt-rice varieties may impose environmental stress to collembolans. We emphasize that changes in activity of antioxidant enzymes of non-target organisms are important in understanding the ecological consequences for organisms inhabiting transgenic Bt-rice plantations. - Highlights: → We examine the effects of Bt-rice on Folsomia candida with laboratory test. → The reproduction of F. candida was decreased by two Bt-rice varieties. → Decreased reproduction caused by the differences of varieties or C/N ratio of rice. → The catalase activity was decreased by Bt-rice Kemingdao. → Some Bt-rice may impose environmental stress on NTOs. - The catalase of the collembolan (Folsomia candida) was decreased when fed Bt-rice, Kemingdao.

  18. OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals, Test No. 232: Collembolan Reproduction Test in Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Paul Henning; Scott-Fordsmand, Janeck James; Ahtianen, Jukka

    2009-01-01

    This Test Guideline is designed for assessing the effects of chemicals on the reproduction of collembolans in soil. The parthenogenetic Folsomia candida is the recommended species for use, but an alternative species such as sexually reproducing Folsomia fimetaria could also be used if they meet...... the validity criteria. This Guideline can be used for testing both water soluble and insoluble substances but it is not applicable to volatile ones. The Guideline aims to determine toxic effects of the test substance on adult mortality and reproductive output expressed as LCx and ECx respectively, or NOEC....../LOEC value. The number of treatment concentrations varies depending on endpoints to be determined. For a combined approach to examine both the NOEC/LOEC and ECx, eight concentrations in a geometric series with four replicates for each concentration as well as eight control replicates should be used. In each...

  19. Grazing preference and utilization of soil fungi by Folsomia candida (Collembola)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedenec, Petr; Frouz, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Soil fungi are important food resources for soil fauna. Here we ask whether the collembolan Folsomia candida shows selectivity in grazing between four saprophytic fungi (Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium expansum, Absidia glauca, and Cladosporium herbarum), whether grazing preference corresponds to effects on collembolan reproduction, and whether the effects of fungi on grazing and reproduction depends on the fungal substrate, which included three kinds of litter (Alnus glutinosa, Salix caprea, and Quercus robur) and one kind of agar (yeast extract). On agar, Cladosporium herbarum and Absidia glauca were the most preferred fungi and supported the highest collembolan reproduction. On fungal-colonized litter, grazing preference was more affected by litter type than by fungal species whereas collembolan reproduction was affected by both litter type and fungal species. On fungal-colonized litter, the litter type that was most preferred for grazing did not support the highest reproduction, i.e., there was an inconsistency between food preference and suitability. Alder and willow were preferred over oak for grazing, but alder supported the least reproduction.

  20. Decrease in catalase activity of Folsomia candida fed a Bt rice diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Yiyang; Ke, Xin; Chen, Fajun

    2011-01-01

    Here we report the effects of three Bt-rice varieties and their non-Bt conventional isolines on biological traits including survival, reproduction, and the activities of three antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase, in the Collembolan, Folsomia candida. The reproduction...... was significantly lower when fed Kemingdao and Huahui1 than those feeding on their non-GM near-isogenic varieties Xiushui and Minghui63 respectively, this can be explained by the differences of plant compositions depended on variety of rice. The catalase activity of F. candida was significantly lower when fed...

  1. Hsp70 expression and metabolite composition in response to short-term thermal changes in Folsomia candida (Collembola)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waagner, Dorthe; Heckmann, Lars-Henrik; Malmendal, Anders

    2010-01-01

    In the present study the joint transcriptomic and metabolomic responses in Folsomia candida (Collembola) to temperature changes on a short-term scale were studied. Change in heat tolerance was examined as survival after a 35 degrees C heat shock (2h) in the course of either a fluctuating temperat......In the present study the joint transcriptomic and metabolomic responses in Folsomia candida (Collembola) to temperature changes on a short-term scale were studied. Change in heat tolerance was examined as survival after a 35 degrees C heat shock (2h) in the course of either a fluctuating...... analysed in F. candida using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H NMR). A significant metabolomic divergence between pre-treated and control collembolans was evident; partly due to a significantly reduced relative concentration of five free amino acids (arginine, leucine, lysine, phenylalanine...

  2. Toxicity of Selenium, Weathered and Aged in Soil, to the Collembolan Folsomia candida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Roman G. Kuperman Ronald T. Checkai Michael Simini Carlton T. Phillips RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY DIRECTORATE Richard M. Higashi Teresa W...ecotoxicological benchmarks for developing the ecological soil screening levels ( Eco -SSLs) for risk assessments of contaminated soils. For this study, we...benchmarks established in this study were submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Eco -SSL Workgroup, and the EC20 value was used in

  3. Trophic predator-prey relationships promote transport of microplastics compared with the single Hypoaspis aculeifer and Folsomia candida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dong; Bi, Qing-Fang; Xiang, Qian; Chen, Qing-Lin; Christie, Peter; Ke, Xin; Wu, Long-Hua; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2018-04-01

    Although the roles of earthworms and soil collembolans in the transport of microplastics have been studied previously, the effects of the soil biota at different trophic levels and interspecific relationships remain poorly understood. Here, we examine three soil microarthropod species to explore their effects on the transport of microplastics. The selected Folsomia candida and Hypoaspis aculeifer are extensively used model organisms, and Damaeus exspinosus is a common and abundant indigenous species in China. A model food chain (prey-collembolan and predator-mite) was structured to test the role of the predator-prey relationship in the transport of microplastics. Commercial Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) particles (Diameter: 80-250 μm) were selected as the test microplastics, because large amounts of PVC have persisted and accumulated in the environment. Synchronized soil microarthropods were held in plates for seven days to determine the movement of microplastics. The 5000 microplastic particles were carefully placed in the center of each plate prior to the introduction of the animals. Our results clearly show that all three microarthropod species moved and dispersed the microplastics in the plates. The 0.54%, 1.8% and 4.6% of the added microplastic particles were moved by collembolan, predatory mite and oribatid mite, respectively. Soil microarthropods (microplastic particles up to 9 cm. The avoidance behavior was observed in the collembolans in respect of the microplastics. The predatory -prey relationship did promote the transport of microplastics in the plates, increasing transport by 40% compared with the effects of adding single species (P microplastics by soil microarthropods may influence the exposure of other soil biota to microplastics and change the physical properties of soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. QSAR development and bioavailability determination: the toxicity of chloroanilines to the soil dwelling springtail Folsomia candida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesen, Daniel; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2013-03-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) are an established tool in environmental risk assessment and a valuable alternative to the exhaustive use of test animals under REACH. In this study a QSAR was developed for the toxicity of a series of six chloroanilines to the soil-dwelling collembolan Folsomia candida in standardized natural LUFA2.2 soil. Toxicity endpoints incorporated in the QSAR were the concentrations causing 10% (EC10) and 50% (EC50) reduction in reproduction of F. candida. Toxicity was based on concentrations in interstitial water estimated from nominal concentrations in the soil and published soil-water partition coefficients. Estimated effect concentrations were negatively correlated with the lipophilicity of the compounds. Interstitial water concentrations for both the EC10 and EC50 for four compounds were determined by using solid-phase microextraction (SPME). Measured and estimated concentrations were comparable only for tetra- and pentachloroaniline. With decreasing chlorination the disparity between modelled and actual concentrations increased. Optimisation of the QSAR therefore could not be accomplished, showing the necessity to move from total soil to (bio)available concentration measurements. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Different influences of field aging on nickel toxicity to Folsomia candida in two types of soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Rong; Li, Jing; He, Ji-Zheng; Ma, Yi-Bing; Zheng, Yuan-Ming

    2015-06-01

    Metal aging in soils has been considered an important factor influencing its availability and toxicity to organisms. In this study, we report the influence of 5 years field aging on the nickel (Ni) toxicity to collembolan Folsomia candida based on two different types of soil from Dezhou (DZ) and Qiyang (QY) counties in China. Acute and chronic toxicity of Ni to F. candida was assessed in both freshly spiked and field aging contaminated soils. We found that 5 years field aging increased the EC50 and 2d-LC50 values of Ni to F. candida in the DZ soil, while little influence on the Ni toxicity was observed in the QY soil. There was no adverse effect of the long-term field aging on the Ni toxicity to the survival of F. candida in the two tested soils. In addition, field aging of the two soils impacted differently the water-soluble Ni concentrations, which were significantly correlated to the juvenile production of F. candida based on a logistic model. Our study highlights different effects of long-term field aging on the Ni toxicity to F. candida between divergent types of soil, and this should be taken into account in future toxicity testing and risk assessment practices.

  6. Risk assessment of linear alkylbenzene sulphonates, LAS, in agricultural soil revisited: Robust chronic toxicity tests for Folsomia candida (Collembola), Aporrectodea caliginosa (Oligochaeta) and Enchytraeus crypticus (Enchytraeidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, P. H.; Lopez, C. V.; Cassani, G.

    2007-01-01

    To obtain robust data on the toxicity of LAS, tests with the collembolan Folsomia candida L., the oligochaetes Aporrectodea caliginosa Savigny (earthworm) and Enchytraeus crypticus Westheide and Graefe (enchytraeid) were performed in a sandy loam soil. Additionally limited tests with LAS spiked...... to sewage sludge, and subsequently mixed into soil, were performed. For the endpoint of interest, reproduction in soil, we found an EC10 of 205 mg LAS kg-1 soil [8.6-401] [95% confidence limits] for F. candida and an EC10 of 46 mg LAS kg-1 soil [13-80] for A. caliginosa after 28 days. E. crypticus...... was not affected by concentrations up to 120 mg LAS kg-1 soil. When adding (low contaminated) non-spiked sludge to soil, high stimulation of reproduction was ob-served for E. crypticus and A. caliginosa but not for F. candida. We argue that this difference in stimulative response between the tested species...

  7. Microarray detection and qPCR screening of potential biomarkers of Folsomia candida (Collembola: Isotomidae) exposed to Bt proteins (Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Yiyang; Krogh, Paul Henning; Bai, Xue; Roelofs, Dick; Chen, Fajun; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan; Liang, Yuyong; Sun, Yucheng; Ge, Feng

    2014-01-01

    The impact of Bt proteins on non-target arthropods is less understood than their effects on target organisms where the mechanism of toxic action is known. Here, we report the effects of two Bt proteins, Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac, on gene expression in the non-target collembolan, Folsomia candida. A customized microarray was used to study gene expression in F. candida specimens that were exposed to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac. All selected transcripts were subsequently confirmed by qPCR. Eleven transcripts were finally verified, and three of them were annotated. The responses of all eleven transcripts were tested in specimens for both Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac at a series of concentrations. These transcripts were separated into two and three groups for Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac, respectively, depend on their expression levels. However, those eleven transcripts did not respond to the Bt proteins in Bt-rice residues. -- Highlights: • We examined the effects of Bt proteins on gene expression of Folsomia candida. • Eleven transcripts were up-regulated by Bt proteins (Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac). • Only three of the eleven transcripts were annotated. • The responses of 11 transcripts were tested on both Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac. • These transcripts did not respond to the Bt proteins in Bt-rice residues. -- Eleven potential molecular biomarkers of Folsomia candida to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac were screened by microarray and qPCR analysis

  8. Toxicity of four veterinary pharmaceuticals on the survival and reproduction of Folsomia candida in tropical soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zortéa, Talyta; Segat, Julia C; Maccari, Ana Paula; Sousa, José Paulo; Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Baretta, Dilmar

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of veterinary pharmaceuticals (VPs) used to control endo- and ectoparasites in ruminants, on the survival and reproduction of the collembolan species Folsomia candida. Standard ecotoxicological tests were conducted in Tropical Artificial Soil and the treatments consisted of increasing dosages of four commercial products with different active ingredients: ivermectin, fipronil, fluazuron and closantel. Ecotoxicological effects were related to the class and mode of action of the different compounds. Fipronil and ivermectin were the most toxic compounds causing a significant reduction in the number of juveniles at the lowest doses tested (LOEC reprod values of 0.3 and 0.2 mg kg -1 of dry soil, respectively) and similar low EC 50 values (fipronil: 0.19 mg kg -1 dry soil, CL 95% 0.16-0.22; ivermectin: 0.43 mg kg -1 dry soil, CL 95% 0.09-0.77), although the effects observed in the former compound were possibly related to a low adult survival (LC 50 of 0.62 mg kg -1 dry soil; CL 95% : 0.25-1.06). For the latter compound no significant lethal effects were observed. Fluazuron caused an intermediate toxicity (EC 50 of 3.07 mg kg -1 dry soil, CL 95% : 2.26-3.87), and also here a decrease in adult survival could explain the effects observed at reproduction. Closantel, despite showing a significant reduction on the number of juveniles produced, no dose-response relationship nor effects higher than 50% were observed. Overall, all tested compounds, especially ivermectin, when present in soil even at sub-lethal concentrations, can impair the reproduction of collembolans and possibly other arthropods. However, the actual risk to arthropod communities should be further investigated performing tests under a more realistic exposure (e.g., by testing the dung itself as the contaminated matrix) and by deriving ecotoxicologically relevant exposure concentration in soil derived from the presence of cattle dung. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  9. Multigeneration toxicity of imidacloprid and thiacloprid to Folsomia candida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gestel, Cornelis A.M.; de Lima e Silva, Claudia; Lam, Thao; Koekkoek, Jacco C.; Lamoree, Marja H.; Verweij, Rudo A.

    2017-01-01

    In a recent study, we showed that the springtail Folsomia candida was quite sensitive the neonicotinoid insecticides imidacloprid and thiacloprid. This study aimed at determining the toxicity of both compounds to F. candida following exposure over three generations, in natural LUFA 2.2 standard

  10. Expression of mtc in Folsomia candida indicative of metal pollution.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nota, B.; Vooijs, H.; van Straalen, N.M.; Roelofs, D.

    2011-01-01

    The soil-living springtail Folsomia candida is frequently used in reproduction bioassays to assess soil contamination. Alternatively, the response of genes to contamination is assessed. In this study the expression of F. candida's gene encoding the deduced metallothionein-like motif containing

  11. Microarray detection and qPCR screening of potential biomarkers of Folsomia candida (Collembola: Isotomidae) exposed to Bt proteins (Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Yiyang; Krogh, Paul Henning; Bai, Xue

    2014-01-01

    The impact of Bt proteins on non-target arthropods is less understood than their effects on target organisms where the mechanism of toxic action is known. Here, we report the effects of two Bt proteins, Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac, on gene expression in the non-target collembolan, Folsomia candida....... A customized microarray was used to study gene expression in F. candida specimens that were exposed to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac. All selected transcripts were subsequently confirmed by qPCR. Eleven transcripts were finally verified, and three of them were annotated. The responses of all eleven transcripts were...... tested in specimens for both Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac at a series of concentrations. These transcripts were separated into two and three groups for Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac, respectively, depend on their expression levels. However, those eleven transcripts did not respond to the Bt proteins in Bt-rice residues....

  12. Toxicities of RDX or TNT Freshly Amended or Weathered-and-Aged in Five Natural Soils to the Collembolan Folsomia candida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Explosive 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 2002, 51, 133–144. 65 Gorontzy, T.; Drzyga, O.; Kahl, M.W.; Bruns- Nigel , D.; Breitung, J... Taylor and Francis Group: Boca Raton, FL, 2009; pp 5–33. Monteil-Rivera, F.; Paquet, L.; Deschamps, S.; Balakrishnan, V.K.; Beaulieu, C.; Hawari, J

  13. Collembolan trait patterns with climate modifications along a European gradient: the VULCAN case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonfanti, Jonathan; Cortet, Jérôme; Hedde, Mickaël

    In a climate change context, soil ecosystem services can be threatened, notably through impacts on soil fauna. Collembola can be therefore used for bioindication of soil mesofauna functionality. Here we aim (i) to link distribution of the collembolan communities with their functional traits...

  14. Is ornithogenic fertilization important for collembolan communities in Arctic terrestrial ecosystems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Zmudczyńska-Skarbek

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the Arctic, areas close to seabird colonies are often characterized by exceptionally rich vegetation communities linked with the high nutrient subsidies transported by seabirds from the marine environment to the land. These areas also support soil invertebrate communities of which springtails (Collembola often represent the most abundant and diverse group. Our study focused on springtail community composition in the vicinity of seabird (little auk, great skua and glaucous gull nesting areas in different parts of Svalbard (Magdalenefjorden, Isfjorden and Bjørnøya, and on their comparison with adjacent areas not impacted by seabirds. Out of a total of 35 springtail species recorded, seven were found only within the ornithogenically influenced sites. Although geographical location was the strongest factor differentiating these springtail communities, ornithogenic influence was also significant regardless of the location. When each location was considered separately, seabirds were responsible for a relatively small but strongly significant proportion (8.6, 5.2 and 3.9%, respectively, for each site of total springtail community variability. Species whose occurrence was positively correlated with seabird presence were Folsomia coeruleogrisea, Friesea quinquespinosa, Lepidocyrtus lignorum and Oligaphorura groenlandica near Magdalenefjorden, Arrhopalites principalis, Folsomia bisetosella and Protaphorura macfadyeni in Isfjorden, and Folsomia quadrioculata on Bjørnøya.

  15. Coping with living in the soil: : the genome of the parthenogenetic springtail Folsomia candida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faddeeva-Vakhrusheva, Anna; Kraaijeveld, Ken; Derks, Martijn F L; Anvar, Seyed Yahya; Agamennone, Valeria; Suring, Wouter; Kampfraath, Andries A.; Ellers, Jacintha; Le Ngoc, Giang; van Gestel, Cornelis A.M.; Mariën, Janine; Smit, Sandra; van Straalen, Nico M.; Roelofs, Dick

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Folsomia candida is a model in soil biology, belonging to the family of Isotomidae, subclass Collembola. It reproduces parthenogenetically in the presence of Wolbachia, and exhibits remarkable physiological adaptations to stress. To better understand these features and adaptations to

  16. Environmental Toxicity of the Explosives RDX and TNT in Soil to the Soil Invertebrate Folsomia candida

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Phillips, Carlton T; Checkai, Ronald T; Kuperman, Roman G; Simini, Michael; Kolakowski, Jan E; Kurnas, Carl W

    2004-01-01

    ...; medium for RCL and KCL; and relatively low or WCL soil. We investigated whether soil type affects the toxicity of RDX or TNT in soil to Collembola by adapting a standardized Folsomia reproduction test (ISO 11267:1998...

  17. Application of bioassays with Enchytraeus crypticus and Folsomia candida to evaluate the toxicity of a metal-contaminated soil, before and after remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Veronica; Simon, Mariano [Univ. de Almeria (Spain). Dept. de Edafologia y Quimica Agricola; Dietz-Ortiz, Maria; Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van [VU Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Animal Ecology

    2011-10-15

    A contaminated soil was amended to reduce bioavailability of metals (As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) and to modify its potential environmental impacts. Reproduction toxicity tests using two different soil invertebrates, Enchytraeus crypticus and Folsomia candida, were used to evaluate efficiency of soil amendments to reduce metal availability. This study has been carried out on a very contaminated soil from El Arteal mining district (SE Spain). The amendments used were marble sludge from the cutting and polishing of marble, compost from greenhouse wastes, and synthetic iron oxides. Soils were analyzed for cation exchange capacity, organic carbon and calcium carbonate content, particle size distribution, pH, electrical conductivity, and total metal content. Porewater and 0.01 M CaCl{sub 2}-extractable concentrations were measured in unamended and amended soils. Soil organisms were exposed to all treatments and to untreated soil. The parameters evaluated in both bioassays were survival and reproduction. All treatments decreased the porewater and CaCl{sub 2}-extractable concentrations of Zn, Pb, Cd, and Cu. The amendments increased survival and reproduction of E. crypticus, reducing toxicity. Survival of F. candida was also increased by the treatments; its reproduction did, however, not improve. These differences may be due to other factors that may affect collembolan reproduction. The different sensitivity of each test organism to some soil properties such as pH and electrical conductivity, which can affect reproduction, should be considered before interpreting results from bioassays focussed on toxicity due to pollutants. Reproduction toxicity bioassays with soil invertebrates are a good complement of chemical analysis to properly assess the ecological risk of remediation processes. Organisms with different exposure routes and different sensitivities to soil properties should be used simultaneously to assess the environmental risk of metal-contaminated sites and to evaluate

  18. Chronic exposure to chlorpyrifos reveals two modes of action in the springtail Folsomia candida.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, D.T.; Crommentuijn, T.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; Kooijman, S.A.L.M.

    2007-01-01

    Organophosphates are popular insecticides, but relatively little is known about their chronic effects on ecologically relevant endpoints. In this paper, we examine a life-cycle experiment with the springtail Folsomia candida, exposed via food to chlorpyrifos (CPF). The results for all endpoints

  19. Draft genome sequence of Bacillus toyonensis VU-DES13, isolated from Folsomia candida (Collembola: Entomobryidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, T.K.S.; de Boer, T.E.; Agamennone, V.; Zaagman, N.; van Straalen, N.M.; Roelofs, T.F.M.

    2017-01-01

    We present here the draft genome of Bacillus toyonensis VU-DES13, which was isolated from the midgut of the soil-living springtail Folsomia candida. Previous research revealed the presence of gene clusters for the biosynthesis of various secondary metabolites, including -lactam antibiotics, in the

  20. Temperature influences the toxicity of deltamethrin, chlorpyrifos and dimethoate to the predatory mite Hypoaspis aculeifer (Acari) and the springtail Folsomia candida (Collembola).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegede, O O; Owojori, O J; Römbke, J

    2017-06-01

    In order to assess the influence of temperature on pesticide toxicity to soil fauna, specimens of the predatory mite Hypoaspis aculeifer and the springtail Folsomia candida were exposed in artificial soil spiked with different concentrations of three pesticides (dimethoate, chlorpyrifos and deltamethrin) at 20°C vs 28°C for the mites and 20°C vs 26°C for the springtails. All tests were carried out according to OECD guidelines. In the mite tests, the toxic effects of dimethoate and chlorpyrifos on survival was about two orders of magnitude more at 28°C than at 20°C. Mite reproduction decreased in the tests with chlorpyrifos and deltamethrin by about four to five orders of magnitude at 28°C than at 20°C. (EC50 28 ° C =1.42 and 2.52mg/kg vs EC50 20 ° C =6.18 and 10.09mg/kg) In the collembolan tests, the toxicity of dimethoate on survival was higher at 26°C than at 20°C (LC50 26 ° C =0.17mg/kg vs LC50 20 ° C =0.36mg/kg), while the opposite was detected for deltamethrin (LC50 26 ° C =11.27mg/kg vs LC50 20 ° C =6.84mg/kg). No difference was found in the test with chlorpyrifos. Effects of dimethoate and chlorpyrifos on reproduction were higher at 26°C than at 20°C (EC50 26 ° C =0.11 and 0.018mg/kg vs EC50 20 ° C =0.29 and 0.031mg/kg respectively), but in the case of deltamethrin the opposite was observed (EC50 26 ° C =12.85mg/kg vs EC50 20 ° C =2.77mg/kg). A preliminary risk assessment of the three pesticides at the two temperature regimes based on the Toxicity Exposure Ratio (TER) approach of the European Union, shows that in general there are few different outcomes when comparing data gained at different temperatures. However, in the light of the few comparisons made data gained in temperate regions should be used with caution in the tropics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Expression of mtc in Folsomia candida indicative of metal pollution in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nota, Benjamin; Vooijs, Riet; Straalen, Nico M. van; Roelofs, Dick

    2011-01-01

    The soil-living springtail Folsomia candida is frequently used in reproduction bioassays to assess soil contamination. Alternatively, the response of genes to contamination is assessed. In this study the expression of F. candida's gene encoding the deduced metallothionein-like motif containing protein (MTC) was assessed, using quantitative PCR, in response to six different metals, each at two concentrations in soil. The expression of mtc was induced after exposure to all metals, except for one chromium concentration. Exposure to soil originating from metal-contaminated field sites also induced mtc, while the expression did not change in response to a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. Since this transcript is induced by most of the tested metals, it may potentially be a good indicator of metal contamination. The presented gene expression assay might become a useful tool to screen potentially polluted sites, in order to identify the ones that need further ecotoxicological investigation. - Highlights: → mtc expression in the springtail Folsomia candida is measured in response to different metals. → Expression of this gene changed in response to all tested metals, except for one. → Metal-contaminated field soils also changed the expression of mtc significantly. → The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon phenanthrene did not change mtc's expression. → mtc expression may be a specific indicator of metal soil contamination. - Exposure to metal containing soil induces the expression of mtc in the springtail Folsomia candida.

  2. The effect of counterion and percolation on the toxicity of lead for the springtail Folsomia candida in soil.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, M.C.G.; Rusch, B.; van Gestel, C.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    In standard soil toxicity tests, heavy metals are amended as water-soluble salts. The role of the counterion in metal salt toxicity is scarcely looked into. In this study, we assessed the contribution of nitrate and chloride to the toxicity of lead to Folsomia candida in a natural standard soil.

  3. Acute toxicity test for terrestrial hazard assessment with exposure of Folsomia candida to pesticides in an aqueous medium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houx, N.W.H.; Dekker, A.; Kammen-Polman, van A.M.M.; Ronday, R.

    1996-01-01

    An acute-toxicty test is described in which the springtail Folsomia candida was exposed to pesticides in water for four days. The test method has been designed for the direct and economical chemical analyses of all the concentrations during the execution of the test. The 96-hour EC50 values

  4. Avoidance tests with Folsomia candida for the assessment of copper contamination in agricultural soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boiteau, G.; Lynch, D.H.; MacKinley, P.

    2011-01-01

    The feasibility of assessing copper accumulation in agricultural soils using avoidance tests with a Canadian strain of Folsomia candida was investigated under laboratory conditions. The avoidance response to nominal copper sulfate concentrations of 0, 200, 800, 1600 and 3200 mg kg -1 in OECD soil was inconsistent between trials with the standard plastic cup or a modified Petri dish method requiring less soil. However, combined results from three Petri dish trials decreased variability and provided a 75% avoidance level, close to the 80% criterion proposed for avoidance tests. A Copper avoidance EC 50s of 18 mg kg -1 was obtained using the Petri dish method whether tests were conducted with or without light. While Petri dish tests have potential as a cheap tool to distinguish metal contaminated soils from uncontaminated soils they would be unsuitable for tracking or quantifying changes in metal concentrations. throughout remediation. Advantages and limitations of the method have been presented. - Research highlights: → Avoidance cup test using Folsomia candida detects Cu independently of concentration. → Improved avoidance Petri dish test detects Cu in soil in function of concentration. → Cu voidance tests had similar EC50 values whether conducted with or without light. → Combining Cu avoidance test trials in OECD soil reduced the variability of results. - Improved avoidance tests having an EC 50 value similar to the background Cu concentration in uncontaminated agricultural soils can distinguish Cu contaminated and Cu free OECD soil.

  5. Synergistic sub-lethal effects of a biocide mixture on the springtail Folsomia fimetaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnug, Lisbeth; Leinaas, Hans Petter; Jensen, John

    2014-01-01

    The toxicity of three biocides, esfenvalerate, picoxystrobin and triclosan, on adult survival and recruitment of juveniles was studied in the springtail Folsomia fimetaria, both in single and mixture experiments. Recruitment of juveniles was more sensitive to biocide exposure than adult survival. The concepts of concentration addition and independent action returned almost identical toxicity predictions, though both models failed to predict the observed toxicity due to synergistic deviations at high exposure concentrations. A comparison with a similar study on earthworms showed that response-patterns were species-specific. Consequently, there is no single reference concept which is applicable for all species of one ecosystem, which in turn questions the usefulness of such mixture prediction concepts in ecological risk assessment. -- Highlights: • Toxicity of esfenvalerate, picoxystrobin and triclosan to Folsomia fimetaria was assessed. • Both, the single biocides and the mixture affected recruitment stronger than survival. • Concentration addition and independent action predictions were almost identical. • Inhibition of recruitment after mixture exposure was stronger than predicted. • Comparison with an earthworm study showed that responses are species-specific. -- The concepts of concentration addition and independent action failed to predict mixture toxicity due to dose-dependent synergistic effects

  6. Chronic exposure to chlorpyrifos reveals two modes of action in the springtail Folsomia candida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager, Tjalling; Crommentuijn, Trudie; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Kooijman, Sebastiaan A L M

    2007-01-01

    Organophosphates are popular insecticides, but relatively little is known about their chronic effects on ecologically relevant endpoints. In this paper, we examine a life-cycle experiment with the springtail Folsomia candida, exposed via food to chlorpyrifos (CPF). The results for all endpoints (survival, growth and reproduction) were analyzed using the DEBtox model. Growth was unaffected by CPF, even at concentrations causing severe effects on survival and reproduction. Model analysis suggests that CPF directly affects the process of egg production. For the short-term response (45 days), this single mode of action accurately agreed with the data. However, the full data set (120 days) revealed a dose-related decrease in reproduction at low concentrations after prolonged exposure, not covered by the same mechanism. It appears that CPF interacts with senescence by increasing oxidative damage. This assumption fits the data well, but has little consequences for the predicted response at the population level.

  7. The life-history of a springtail Folsomia candida living in soil contaminated with nonylphenol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Widarto, T. H.; Krogh, P. H.; Forbes, V.

    Nonylphenol (NP) has been known for long time as a suspected endocrine disruptor in animals. We have conducted an experiment to look at the effect of NP on the life-history of the parthenogenetic springtail, Folsomia candida. Six sub-lethal concentrations (0, 8,16, 24, 32, 40 mg/kg dry soil......) were applied to 6 replicates of soil containing an individual of 0-1 day old juvenile. During continuous exposure (63 days), we assessed springtail life-history traits such as: survival, growth rate, molting time, time between molting, time to first reproduction, egg production, and viability...... population growth rate (l). Decomposition analysis to investigate the contribution of each of the affected life-history traits to the effects observed on l, and elasticity analysis to examine the relative sensitivity of l to changes in each of the life history traits provided valuable insight...

  8. Isotomidae of Japan and the Asiatic part of Russia. I. Folsomia ‘inoculata’ group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Potapov

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers blind species of the genus Folsomia having two pairs of macrosetae on both meso- and metathorax and united in so-called ‘inoculata’ group, which is given a new, more laconic definition. Morphological characters important in the group’s taxonomy are discussed and a further division into four subgroups is proposed. Eight new species, i.e., F. amurica Potapov & Kuznetsova, sp. n., F. breviseta Potapov & Kuznetsova, sp. n., F. calcarea Potapov, sp. n., F. imparis Potapov & Hasegawa, sp. n., F. laconica Potapov & Kuznetsova, sp. n., F. tertia Potapov, sp. n., F. trisensilla Potapov, sp. n., and F. tubulata Potapov & Babenko, sp. n., are described. F. hidakana Uchida & Tamura and F. inoculata Stach are redescribed basing on new material, for the latter species the Stach’s individuals were also examined. A key to species of the group is given.

  9. Assessing single and joint effects of chemicals on the survival and reproduction of Folsomia candida (Collembola) in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorim, M.J.B.; Pereira, C.; Menezes-Oliveira, V.B.; Campos, B.; Soares, A.M.V.M.; Loureiro, S.

    2012-01-01

    Chemicals are often found in the environment as complex mixtures. There has been a large effort in the last decade to assess the combined effect of chemicals, using the conceptual models of Concentration Addition and Independent Action, but also including synergistic, antagonistic, dose-level and dose–ratio dependent deviations from these models. In the present study, single and mixture toxicity of atrazine, dimethoate, lindane, zinc and cadmium were studied in Folsomia candida, assessing survival and reproduction. Different response patterns were observed for the different endpoints and synergistic patterns were observed when pesticides were present. Compared with the previously tested Enchytraeus albidus and Porcellionides pruinosus, the mixture toxicity pattern for F. candida was species specific. The present study highlights the importance of studying toxicity of chemicals mixtures due to the observed potentiation of effects and confirms that for an adequate ecologically relevant risk assessment different organisms and endpoints should be included. - Highlights: ► Folsomia candida (Collembola) were exposed to binary mixtures of atrazine, dimethoate, lindane, zinc and cadmium. ► Synergistic response patterns were often observed when pesticides were present in the mixtures. ► Response patterns upon mixture exposure differed within endpoints (survival vs. reproduction) in some cases. ► As to single chemical toxicity, response patterns for mixture exposures seem to be also species specific. - Exposure to chemical mixtures in Folsomia candida showed potentiation of effects. Mixture toxicity patterns differ among species and endpoint measured.

  10. Chronic exposure to chlorpyrifos reveals two modes of action in the springtail Folsomia candida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jager, Tjalling [Department of Theoretical Biology, Vrije Universiteit, de Boelelaan 1085, NL-1081 HV, Amsterdam (Netherlands)]. E-mail: tjalling@bio.vu.nl; Crommentuijn, Trudie [Ministry of Spatial Planning, Housing and the Environment (VROM), Rijnstraat 8, P.O. Box 30945, 2500 GX, The Hague (Netherlands); Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van [Department of Animal Ecology, Vrije Universiteit, de Boelelaan 1085, NL-1081 HV, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kooijman, Sebastiaan A.L.M. [Department of Theoretical Biology, Vrije Universiteit, de Boelelaan 1085, NL-1081 HV, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2007-01-15

    Organophosphates are popular insecticides, but relatively little is known about their chronic effects on ecologically relevant endpoints. In this paper, we examine a life-cycle experiment with the springtail Folsomia candida, exposed via food to chlorpyrifos (CPF). The results for all endpoints (survival, growth and reproduction) were analyzed using the DEBtox model. Growth was unaffected by CPF, even at concentrations causing severe effects on survival and reproduction. Model analysis suggests that CPF directly affects the process of egg production. For the short-term response (45 days), this single mode of action accurately agreed with the data. However, the full data set (120 days) revealed a dose-related decrease in reproduction at low concentrations after prolonged exposure, not covered by the same mechanism. It appears that CPF interacts with senescence by increasing oxidative damage. This assumption fits the data well, but has little consequences for the predicted response at the population level. - Exposure to chlorpyrifos in food affects reproduction in springtails according to two distinct toxic mechanisms.

  11. Chronic exposure to chlorpyrifos reveals two modes of action in the springtail Folsomia candida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jager, Tjalling; Crommentuijn, Trudie; Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van; Kooijman, Sebastiaan A.L.M.

    2007-01-01

    Organophosphates are popular insecticides, but relatively little is known about their chronic effects on ecologically relevant endpoints. In this paper, we examine a life-cycle experiment with the springtail Folsomia candida, exposed via food to chlorpyrifos (CPF). The results for all endpoints (survival, growth and reproduction) were analyzed using the DEBtox model. Growth was unaffected by CPF, even at concentrations causing severe effects on survival and reproduction. Model analysis suggests that CPF directly affects the process of egg production. For the short-term response (45 days), this single mode of action accurately agreed with the data. However, the full data set (120 days) revealed a dose-related decrease in reproduction at low concentrations after prolonged exposure, not covered by the same mechanism. It appears that CPF interacts with senescence by increasing oxidative damage. This assumption fits the data well, but has little consequences for the predicted response at the population level. - Exposure to chlorpyrifos in food affects reproduction in springtails according to two distinct toxic mechanisms

  12. Influence of Ca and pH on the uptake and effects of Cd in Folsomia candida exposed to simplified soil solutions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ardestani, M.M.; Diez Ortiz, M.; van Gestel, C.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study sought to quantify the components of a biotic ligand model (BLM) for the effects of Cd on Folsomia candida (Collembola). Assuming that soil porewater is the main route of exposure and to exclude the effects of soil particles on metal availability, animals were exposed for 7 d to

  13. Effects of Biosolids at Varying Rates on Earthworms (Eisenia fetida and Springtails (Folsomia candida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Artuso

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Land spreading is a major option internationally for the disposal/use of treated sewage sludge (biosolids, but effects of this practice on soil organisms are largely unknown. This study investigated the effects of biosolids on two soil invertebrate species, earthworms (Eisenia fetida and Collembola (Folsomia candida, in laboratory tests. Five biosolids from different sewage works were assessed at rates equivalent to 0, 2, 5, 10, and 20 t ha−1. Biosolids applied at 2 and 5 t ha−1 did not cause mortality of adult earthworms but did at 10 and 20 t ha−1. At 5, 10 and 20 t ha−1, all biosolids had significantly fewer juvenile worms relative to controls. Increasing the rates from 2 to 10 t ha−1 did not impact on the number of adult Collembola, but at 20 t ha−1 there were significantly fewer adults. There were significantly fewer juvenile Collembola recorded for biosolids applied at the 2 t ha−1 when compared with controls, and also when biosolids were applied at 5, 10, and 20 t ha−1 relative to 2 t ha−1. Some significant difference between biosolids were observed, but generally, negative effects were not related to heavy metal concentrations in biosolids. It is recommended that possible detrimental mechanisms (e.g., ammonia production, lack of oxygen be investigated in future work. It is concluded that biosolids, applied at legal, low rates (about 2 t ha−1 are unlikely to be detrimental to earthworms or adult Collembola but can be detrimental to Collembola reproduction.

  14. Effects of insect growth regulators on the nontarget soil arthropod Folsomia candida (Collembola).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campiche, S; Becker-van Slooten, K; Ridreau, C; Tarradellas, J

    2006-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of several insect growth regulators (IGRs) on the nontarget soil arthropod Folsomia candida (Collembola). The survival and reproduction rates of F. candida were evaluated after 28 days of exposure to six IGRs (methoprene, fenoxycarb, precocene II, tebufenozide, hexaflumuron and teflubenzuron) and to one herbicide (diuron) in artificial soil. The differences in the sensitivity of F. candida to these different substances are high. The chitin synthesis inhibitors teflubenzuron and hexaflumuron were the most toxic compounds with an EC50 of 0.05 mg/kg (dry weight) for teflubenzuron and an EC50 of 0.6mg/kg for hexaflumuron. Teflubenzuron is toxic for F. candida at concentrations that are probably close to environmental levels of this insecticide. Inhibition of reproduction is strongly related to adult survival for the juvenile hormone agonist methoprene and for the antijuvenile hormone precocene II, with an EC50 of 173 mg/kg and a LC50 of 178mg/kg for methoprene and an EC50 of 15 mg/kg and a LC50 of 26 mg/kg for precocene II. Fenoxycarb, another juvenile hormone analog, showed a dose-response curve for mortality different from that of methoprene; at concentrations such as 3052 mg/kg no effect on adult survival was observed. However, the EC50 value of 113mg/kg is of the same order of magnitude as that obtained for methoprene. A test with compressed soil contaminated with fenoxycarb was conducted to observe parameters such as numbers of eggs laid and juveniles hatched. No differences were observed between these two endpoints for fenoxycarb. An EC50 of 109 mg/kg was obtained for the ecdysone agonist tebufenozide. The herbicide diuron showed a relatively high toxicity for F. candida with an EC50 of 20 mg/kg. Our results show that some of the tested IGRs can have effects on Collembola at environmentally relevant concentrations (toxicity/exposure ratios diuron).

  15. Effects of imidacloprid on detoxifying enzyme glutathione S-transferase on Folsomia candida (Collembola).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillapawattana, Panwad; Schäffer, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Chemical analyses of the environment can document contamination by various xenobiotics, but it is also important to understand the effect of pollutants on living organisms. Thus, in the present work, we investigated the effect of the pesticide imidacloprid on the detoxifying enzyme glutathione S-transferase (GST) from Folsomia candida (Collembola), a standard test organism for estimating the effects of pesticides and environmental pollutants on non-target soil arthropods. Test animals were treated with different concentrations of imidacloprid for 48 h. Changes in steady-state levels of GST messenger RNA (mRNA) and GST enzyme activity were investigated. Extracted proteins were separated according to their sizes by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and the resolved protein bands were detected by silver staining. The size of the glutathione (GSH) pool in Collembola was also determined. A predicted protein sequence of putative GSTs was identified with animals from control group. A 3-fold up-regulation of GST steady-state mRNA levels was detected in the samples treated with 5.0 mg L -1 imidacloprid compared to the control, while a 2.5- and 2.0- fold up-regulation was found in organisms treated with 2.5 and 7.5 mg L -1 imidacloprid, respectively. GST activity increased with increasing imidacloprid amounts from an initial activity of 0.11 μmol min -1  mg -1 protein in the control group up to 0.25 μmol min -1  mg -1 protein in the sample treated with the 5.0 mg L -1 of pesticide. By contrast, the total amount of GSH decreased with increasing imidacloprid concentration. The results suggest that the alteration of GST activity, steady-state level of GST mRNA, and GSH level may be involved in the response of F. candida to the exposure of imidacloprid and can be used as biomarkers to monitor the toxic effects of imidacloprid and other environmental pollutants on Collembola.

  16. Effects of acidity on the energy content of Folsomia candida (Collembola) and Oniscus asellus (Isopoda). Der Einfluss von Saeurestress auf die Energiegehalte von Folsomia candida (Collembola) und Oniscus asellus (Isopoda)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerdsmeier, J.; Greven, H. (Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Zoologisches Inst.)

    1989-01-01

    Microbomb calorimetry according to Phillipson was used to determine the energy content of Folsomia candida (Collembola) and Oniscus asellus (Isopoda) both kept on neutral (pH 7.0) and acidified (pH 2.0 and 3.0) sea sand for various periods. The energy content of F. candida ranged between 4.968 and 5.847 cal/mg dry weight and of O. asellus between 3.305 and 4.192 cal/mg dry weight. Energy content of O. asellus kept at pH 2 and 3 was significantly lower than of those kept at pH 7. This could not be detected in F. candida, which result is supported also by protein determination. (orig.).

  17. The Influence of Soil Characteristics on the Toxicity of Oil Refinery Waste for the Springtail Folsomia candida (Collembola).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinecke, Adriaan J; van Wyk, Mia; Reinecke, Sophie A

    2016-06-01

    We determined the toxicity of oil refinery waste in three soils using the springtail Folsomia candida (Collembola) in bioassays. Sublethal exposure to a concentration series of API-sludge presented EC50's for reproduction of 210 mg/kg in site soil; 880 mg/kg in LUFA2.2- and 3260 mg/kg in OECD-soil. The sludge was the least toxic in the OECD-soil with the highest clay and organic matter content, the highest maximum water holding capacity, and the least amount of sand. It was the most toxic in the reference site soil with the lowest organic matter content and highest sand content. The results emphasized the important role of soil characteristics such as texture and organic matter content in influencing toxicity, possibly by affecting bioavailability of toxicants.

  18. Using a toxicokinetics approach to explain the effect of soil pH on cadmium bioavailability to Folsomia candida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardestani, Masoud M.; Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to improve our understanding of metal bioavailability in soil by linking the biotic ligand approach with toxicokinetics modelling. We determined cadmium bioaccumulation kinetics in Folsomia candida (Collembola) as a function of soil pH. Animals were exposed for 21 days to LUFA 2.2 soil at 5 or 20 μg Cd g −1 dry soil followed by 21 days elimination in clean soil. Internal cadmium concentrations were modelled using a first-order one-compartment model, relating uptake rate constants (k 1 ) to total soil, water or 0.01 M CaCl 2 extractable and porewater concentrations. Based on total soil concentrations, k 1 was independent of soil pH while it strongly increased with increasing pH based on porewater concentrations explaining the reduced competition of H + ions making cadmium more bioavailable in pore water at high pH. This shows that the principles of biotic ligand modelling are applicable to predict cadmium accumulation kinetics in soil-living invertebrates. -- Highlights: •Cadmium uptake and elimination in Folsomia candida were investigated. •Animals were exposed to LUFA 2.2 soil at different pH levels. •Langmuir isotherms were used to describe interaction of Ca and protons with Cd. •pH was the main factor affecting Cd toxicokinetics when pore water was considered. -- Integrating bioaccumulation kinetics with a BLM approach provides novel insights into the bioavailability of cadmium to springtails in soil

  19. Effects of azoxystrobin, chlorothalonil and ethoprophos on the reproduction of three terrestrial invertebrates using a natural Mediterranean soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leitao, S.; Cerejeira, J.; Brink, van den P.J.; Sousa, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    The potential terrestrial toxicity of three pesticides, azoxystrobin, chlorothalonil, and ethoprophos was evaluated using reproduction ecotoxicological tests with different non-target species: the collembolan Folsomia candida, the earthworm Eisenia andrei, and the enchytraeid Enchytraeus crypticus.

  20. CeO2 nanoparticles induce no changes in phenanthrene toxicity to the soil organisms Porcellionides pruinosus and Folsomia candida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourinho, Paula S; Waalewijn-Kool, Pauline L; Zantkuijl, Irene; Jurkschat, Kerstin; Svendsen, Claus; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2015-03-01

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) are used as diesel fuel additives to catalyze oxidation. Phenanthrene is a major component of diesel exhaust particles and one of the most common pollutants in the environment. This study aimed at determining the effect of CeO2 NPs on the toxicity of phenanthrene in Lufa 2.2 standard soil for the isopod Porcellionides pruinosus and the springtail Folsomia candida. Toxicity tests were performed in the presence of CeO2 concentrations of 10, 100 or 1000mg Ce/kg dry soil and compared with results in the absence of CeO2 NPs. CeO2 NPs had no adverse effects on isopod survival and growth or springtail survival and reproduction. For the isopods, LC50s for the effect of phenanthrene ranged from 110 to 143mg/kg dry soil, and EC50s from 17.6 to 31.6mg/kg dry soil. For the springtails, LC50s ranged between 61.5 and 88.3mg/kg dry soil and EC50s from 52.2 to 76.7mg/kg dry soil. From this study it may be concluded that CeO2 NPs have a low toxicity and do not affect toxicity of phenanthrene to isopods and springtails. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The effect of pH on the toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles to Folsomia candida in amended field soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waalewijn-Kool, Pauline L; Ortiz, Maria Diez; Lofts, Stephen; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2013-10-01

    The effect of soil pH on the toxicity of 30 nm ZnO to Folsomia candida was assessed in Dorset field soils with pHCaCl2 adjusted to 4.31, 5.71, and 6.39. To unravel the contribution of particle size and dissolved Zn, 200 nm ZnO and ZnCl2 were tested. Zinc sorption increased with increasing pH, and Freundlich kf values ranged from 98.9 (L/kg)(1/n) to 333 (L/kg)(1/n) for 30 nm ZnO and from 64.3 (L/kg)(1/n) to 187 (L/kg)(1/n) for ZnCl2. No effect of particle size was found on sorption, and little difference was found in toxicity between 30 nm and 200 nm ZnO. The effect on reproduction decreased with increasing pH for all Zn forms, with 28-d median effective concentrations (EC50s) of 553 mg Zn/kg, 1481 mg Zn/kg, and 3233 mg Zn/kg for 30 nm ZnO and 331 mg Zn/kg, 732 mg Zn/kg, and 1174 mg Zn/kg for ZnCl2 at pH 4.31, 5.71, and 6.39, respectively. The EC50s based on porewater Zn concentrations increased with increasing pH for 30 nm ZnO from 4.77 mg Zn/L to 18.5 mg Zn/L, while for ZnCl2 no consistent pH-related trend in EC50s was found (21.0-63.3 mg Zn/L). Porewater calcium levels were 10 times higher in ZnCl2 -spiked soils than in ZnO-spiked soils. The authors' results suggest that the decreased toxicity of ZnCl2 compared with 30 nm ZnO based on porewater concentrations was because of a protective effect of calcium and not a particle effect. © 2013 SETAC.

  2. The effects of repeated applications of the molluscicide metaldehyde and the biocontrol nematode Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita on molluscs, earthworms, nematodes, acarids and collembolans: a two-year study in north-west Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Javier; Castillejo, José; Castro, Ramón

    2003-11-01

    Over two years, six consecutive field experiments were done in which the chemical molluscicide metaldehyde and the nematode biocontrol agent Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita (Schneider) were applied at the standard field rates to replicated mini-plots successively planted with lettuce, Brussels sprouts, leaf beet and cabbage, to compare the effectiveness of different treatments in reducing slug damage to the crops. Soil samples from each plot were taken prior to the start of the experiments, and then monthly, to assess the populations of slugs, snails, earthworms, nematodes, acarids and collembolans. The experiments were done on the same site and each plot received the same treatment in the six experiments. The six treatments were: (1) untreated controls, (2) metaldehyde pellets, (3 and 4) nematodes applied to the planted area 3 days prior to planting without or with previous application of cow manure slurry, (5) nematodes applied to the area surrounding the planted area 3 days prior to planting, and (6) nematodes applied to the planted area once (only in the first of the six consecutive experiments). Only the metaldehyde treatment and the nematodes applied to the planted area at the beginning of each experiment without previous application of manure significantly reduced slug damage to the plants, and only metaldehyde reduced the number of slugs contaminating the harvested plants. The numbers of slugs, snails and earthworms in soil samples were compared among the six treatments tested: with respect to the untreated controls, the numbers of Deroceras reticulatum (Müller) were significantly affected only in the metaldehyde plots, and the numbers of Arion ater L only in the plots treated with nematodes applied to the planted area 3 days prior to planting without previous application of manure; numbers of snails (Ponentina ponentina (Morelet) and Oxychilus helveticus (Blum)) were not affected by the treatment. The total numbers of all earthworm species and of Lumbricus

  3. Effect of a High Dose of Three Antibiotics on the Reproduction of a Parthenogenetic Strain of Folsomia candida (Isotomidae: Collembola)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giordano, R.; Weber, E; Waite, J

    2010-01-01

    Folsomia candida Willem (Isotomidae: Collembola) is an edaphic parthenogenetic species commonly used in ecotoxicity studies. We exposed F. candida to a high dose of three antibiotics, tylosin, ampicillin, and oxytetracycline, that target different bacterial groups. Possible toxic effects were...... assessed through egg production, hatching, and body size. All three antibiotics caused toxic effects. Treatment with oxytetracycline proved the most toxic. This group showed the smallest body size and lowest number of eggs laid, likely the result of a combination of antibiotic toxicity and avoidance...... of the antibiotic spiked food. Active toxin avoidance by F. candida in toxicological assays may play a role in minimizing their exposure to toxic compounds. Despite the administration of high doses of oxytetracycline, F. candida individuals remained infected with the intracellular bacteria Wolbachia indicating...

  4. Chronic toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles, non-nano ZnO and ZnCl2 to Folsomia candida (Collembola) in relation to bioavailability in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kool, Pauline L.; Diez Ortiz, Maria; Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van

    2011-01-01

    The chronic toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NP) to Folsomia candida was determined in natural soil. To unravel the contribution of particle size and free zinc to NP toxicity, non-nano ZnO and ZnCl 2 were also tested. Zinc concentrations in pore water increased with increasing soil concentrations, with Freundlich sorption constants K f of 61.7, 106 and 96.4 l/kg (n = 1.50, 1.34 and 0.42) for ZnO-NP, non-nano ZnO and ZnCl 2 respectively. Survival of F. candida was not affected by ZnO-NP and non-nano ZnO at concentrations up to 6400 mg Zn/kg d.w. Reproduction was dose-dependently reduced with 28-d EC50s of 1964, 1591 and 298 mg Zn/kg d.w. for ZnO-NP, non-nano ZnO and ZnCl 2 , respectively. The difference in EC50s based on measured pore water concentrations was small (7.94-16.8 mg Zn/l). We conclude that zinc ions released from NP determine the observed toxic effects rather than ZnO particle size. - Highlights: → ZnO nanoparticles and non-nano ZnO were equally toxic to Folsomia candida in soil. → Pore water from soil spiked with ZnO nanoparticles showed saturation with zinc suggesting aggregation. → Pore water based EC50 values for ZnO nanoparticles and ZnCl 2 were similar. → ZnO nanoparticle toxicity in soil was most probably due to Zn dissolution from the nanoparticles. - ZnO nanoparticle toxicity to springtails in soil can be explained from Zn dissolution but not from particle size.

  5. Effect of soil organic matter content and pH on the toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles to Folsomia candida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waalewijn-Kool, Pauline L; Rupp, Svenja; Lofts, Stephen; Svendsen, Claus; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2014-10-01

    Organic matter (OM) and pH may influence nanoparticle fate and effects in soil. This study investigated the influence of soil organic matter content and pH on the toxicity of ZnO-NP and ZnCl2 to Folsomia candida in four natural soils, having between 2.37% and 14.7% OM and [Formula: see text] levels between 5.0 and 6.8. Porewater Zn concentrations were much lower in ZnO-NP than in ZnCl2 spiked soils, resulting in higher Freundlich sorption constants for ZnO-NP. For ZnCl2 the porewater Zn concentrations were significantly higher in less organic soils, while for ZnO-NP the highest soluble Zn level (23mgZn/l) was measured in the most organic soil, which had the lowest pH. Free Zn(2+) ion concentrations were higher for ZnCl2 than for ZnO-NP and were greatly dependent on pH (pHpw) and dissolved organic carbon content of the pore water. The 28-d EC50 values for the effect of ZnCl2 on the reproduction of F. candida increased with increasing OM content from 356 to 1592mgZn/kg d.w. For ZnO-NP no correlation between EC50 values and OM content was found and EC50 values ranged from 1695 in the most organic soil to 4446mgZn/kg d.w. in the higher pH soil. When based on porewater and free Zn(2+) concentrations, EC50 values were higher for ZnCl2 than for ZnO-NP, and consistently decreased with increasing pHpw. This study shows that ZnO-NP toxicity is dependent on soil properties, but is mainly driven by soil pH. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Chronic toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles, non-nano ZnO and ZnCl{sub 2} to Folsomia candida (Collembola) in relation to bioavailability in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kool, Pauline L., E-mail: pauline.kool@falw.vu.nl [Department of Animal Ecology, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, VU University, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Diez Ortiz, Maria [Department of Animal Ecology, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, VU University, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pole de Recherche ROVALTAIN en Toxicologie Environnementale et Ecotoxicologie, Batiment Rhovalparc, BP 15173, 26958 Valence Cedex 9 (France); Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van [Department of Animal Ecology, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, VU University, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-10-15

    The chronic toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NP) to Folsomia candida was determined in natural soil. To unravel the contribution of particle size and free zinc to NP toxicity, non-nano ZnO and ZnCl{sub 2} were also tested. Zinc concentrations in pore water increased with increasing soil concentrations, with Freundlich sorption constants K{sub f} of 61.7, 106 and 96.4 l/kg (n = 1.50, 1.34 and 0.42) for ZnO-NP, non-nano ZnO and ZnCl{sub 2} respectively. Survival of F. candida was not affected by ZnO-NP and non-nano ZnO at concentrations up to 6400 mg Zn/kg d.w. Reproduction was dose-dependently reduced with 28-d EC50s of 1964, 1591 and 298 mg Zn/kg d.w. for ZnO-NP, non-nano ZnO and ZnCl{sub 2}, respectively. The difference in EC50s based on measured pore water concentrations was small (7.94-16.8 mg Zn/l). We conclude that zinc ions released from NP determine the observed toxic effects rather than ZnO particle size. - Highlights: > ZnO nanoparticles and non-nano ZnO were equally toxic to Folsomia candida in soil. > Pore water from soil spiked with ZnO nanoparticles showed saturation with zinc suggesting aggregation. > Pore water based EC50 values for ZnO nanoparticles and ZnCl{sub 2} were similar. > ZnO nanoparticle toxicity in soil was most probably due to Zn dissolution from the nanoparticles. - ZnO nanoparticle toxicity to springtails in soil can be explained from Zn dissolution but not from particle size.

  7. Wolbachia endosymbiont is essential for egg hatching in a parthenogenetic arthropod.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, M.J.T.N.; Ellers, J.

    2009-01-01

    Wolbachia pipientis can induce a range of sex ratio distortions including parthenogenesis. Recently Wolbachia has been detected in the diploid, parthenogenetic, collembolan species Folsomia candida. In this paper we address the effect of Wolbachia on reproduction in F. candida. Wolbachia infection

  8. Assessment of toxicity of heavy metal contaminated soils toward Collembola in paddy fields supported by laboratory tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Manping; Xu, Jie; Krogh, Paul Henning

    2018-01-01

    Effects on soil Collembola of Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd pollution from Cu smelters over 40 years were investigated in paddy fields from an area of Eastern China. We compared the field effects to those observed in single-species laboratory tests employing the hemiedaphic collembolan Folsomia candida and ...

  9. Do recommended doses of glyphosate-based herbicides affect soil invertebrates? Field and laboratory screening tests to risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, Júlia Carina; de Santo, Fernanda Benedet; Guerra, Naiara; Ricardo Filho, Altair Maçaneiro; Pech, Tatiani Maria

    2018-05-01

    Despite glyphosate-based herbicides are widely used in agriculture, forestry and gardens, little is known about its effects on non-target organisms. The present work evaluated the ecotoxicity of four formulated products (Roundup ® Original, Trop ® , Zapp ® Qi 620 and Crucial ® ) on soil invertebrates. Screening ecotoxicity tests were carried out with soil and oat straw collected in a field experiment, besides laboratory-spiked soils. Screening tests included avoidance behaviour of earthworms (Eisenia andrei), collembolans (Folsomia candida) and isopods (Porcellio dilatatus) in single and multispecies tests; reproduction of collembolans (F. candida), and bait lamina in field. Non-avoidance behaviour was observed in standard tests (earthworms) in soil, neither in multispecies tests (earthworm + isopods) using oat straw, while for collembolans it occurred for the product Zapp ® Qi 620 even at the recommended dose. Reproduction of F. candida was not impaired even at high doses in laboratory-spiked soils. Feeding activity on bait lamina test was impaired in treatment corresponding to the red label product, Crucial ® . Results showed the relevance of bait lamina test on screening the impact of herbicides in the field. The findings highlight the importance of considering different formulations for the same active ingredient in risk assessment of pesticides. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Love at first sniff : a spermatophore-associated pheromone mediates partner attraction in a collembolan species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zizzari, Z.V.; Engl, T.; Lorenz, S.; van Straalen, N.M.; Ellers, J.; Groot, A.T.

    2017-01-01

    Mate choice is essential in most animals, as a good choice of mating partner largely determines reproductive success. Much evidence shows that olfactory cues play an important role in mate choice. However, the integration of chemical, visual and acoustic cues, often used when both partners meet,

  11. Evaluation of collembolan trait performance as effect indicator of environmental change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Paul Henning; Petersen, Henning

    several significant responses on the species level to the treatments where both taxonomic composition and extent of significant effects varied between the six sites. The basic hypothesis of the present work is that similar groups with respect to traits will respond in a similar manner to environmental...... stress across species of the local community. Furthermore, provided that the composition of traits is similar across Europe the response to environmental stress will also be similar. Hence, traits corresponding to morphological and ecological properties were subject to our analyses of treatment effects...

  12. Evaluation of growth and reproduction as indicators of soil metal toxicity to the Collembolan, Sinella curviseta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jie; Ke, Xin; Krogh, Paul Henning

    2009-01-01

    Laboratory studies evaluated the sensitivity of Sinella curviseta Brook (Collembola: Entomobryidae) to selected heavy metals (Cu, Pb and Zn). Survival, reproduction and growth of S. curviseta were determined in a 4-week exposure test in an agricultural soil amended with metals to concentrations...

  13. Role of soil properties in sewage sludge toxicity to soil collembolans

    OpenAIRE

    Domene, X.

    2010-01-01

    Soil properties are one of the most important factors explaining the different toxicity results found in different soils. Although there is knowledge about the role of soil properties on the toxicity of individual chemicals, not much is known about its relevance for sewage sludge amendments. In particular little is known about the effect of soil properties on the toxicity modulation of these complex wastes. In addition, in most studies on sewage sludges the identity of the main substances lin...

  14. Wood ash application increases pH but does not harm the soil mesofauna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Jiayi; Hovmand, Mads Frederik; Ekelund, Flemming

    2017-01-01

    Application of bioash from biofuel combustion to soil supports nutrient recycling, but may have unwanted and detrimental ecotoxicological side-effects, as the ash is a complex mixture of compounds that could affect soil invertebrates directly or through changes in their food or habitat conditions...... is the likely cause of effects while high pH and heavy metals is of minor importance.......Application of bioash from biofuel combustion to soil supports nutrient recycling, but may have unwanted and detrimental ecotoxicological side-effects, as the ash is a complex mixture of compounds that could affect soil invertebrates directly or through changes in their food or habitat conditions....... To examine this, we performed laboratory toxicity studies of the effects of wood-ash added to an agricultural soil and the organic horizon of a coniferous plantation soil with the detrivore soil collembolans Folsomia candida and Onychiurus yodai, the gamasid predaceous mite Hypoaspis aculeifer...

  15. Collembolans feeding on soil affect carbon and nitrogen mineralization by their influence on microbial and nematode activities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaneda, Satoshi; Kaneko, N.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 3 (2008), s. 435-442 ISSN 0178-2762 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : Collembola * mineral soil * nitrogen mineralization Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.446, year: 2008

  16. Implications of interacting microscale habitat heterogeneity and disturbance events on Folsomia candida (Collembola) population dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meli, Mattia; Palmqvist, Annemette; Forbes, Valery E

    2014-01-01

    human activities that may cause habitat destruction, we focused on agricultural practices. Soil organisms living in a cultivated field are subjected to habitat loss and fragmentation as well as disturbance events generated by the application of agrochemicals and related activities. In addition...

  17. Nonylphenol stimulates fecundity but not population growth rate (λ) of Folsomia candida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Widarto, T. H.; Krogh, P. H.; Forbes, V. E.

    2007-01-01

    of NP on these traits did not result in a statistically significant increase in population growth rate (λ). Decomposition analysis indicated that fecundity was the main contributor to the (non-significant) changes observed in λ However, since the elasticity of fecundity was very low, large changes...... at the population level and that λ is an appropriate endpoint for ecotoxicological studies. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved...

  18. Exploring DNA methylation patterns in copper exposed Folsomia candida and Enchtraeus crypticus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordhoek, J.W.; Koning, Jasper; Mariën, Janine; Kamstra, J.; Amorim, M.J.B.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; van Straalen, N.M.; Roelofs, T.F.M.

    Accumulating evidence shows that epigenetics-mediated phenotypic plasticity plays a role in an organism’s ability to deal with environmental stress. However, to date, the role of epigenetic modifications in response to stress is hardly investigated in soil invertebrates. The main objective of this

  19. Chronic toxicity of polycyclic aromatic compounds to the springtail Folsomia candida and the enchytraeid Enchytraeus crypticus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droge, S.T.J.; Leon Paumen, M; Bleeker, E.A.J.; Kraak, M.H.S.; van Gestel, C.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    An urgent need exists for incorporating heterocyclic compounds and (bio)transformation products in ecotoxicological test schemes and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). The aim of the present study therefore was to determine the chronic effects of (heterocyclic) PACs on two

  20. Grazing preference and utilization of soil fungi by .i.Folsomia candida./i. (Isotomidae: Collembola)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heděnec, Petr; Radochová, P.; Nováková, Alena; Kaneda, S.; Frouz, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 55, Mar.-Apr. (2013), s. 66-70 ISSN 1164-5563 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06066 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/12/1288 Program:GA Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : food preference test * soil microscopic fungi * reproductive test Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.146, year: 2013

  1. Development of QSARS for the toxicity of chlorobenzenes to the soil dwelling springtail Folsomia candida.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesen, D.; Jonker, M.T.O.; van Gestel, C.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    To meet the goals of Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation, and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) as formulated by the European Commission, fast and resource-effective tools are needed to predict the toxicity of compounds in the environment. We developed quantitative structure-activity

  2. Development of QSARs for the toxicity of chlorobenzenes to the soil dwelling springtail Folsomia candida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesen, D.; Jonker, M.T.O.; van Gestel, C.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    To meet the goals of Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation, and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) as formulated by the European Commission, fast and resource-effective tools are needed to predict the toxicity of compounds in the environment. We developed quantitative structure-activity

  3. Effects of essential oils from Eucalyptus globulus leaves on soil organisms involved in leaf degradation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Martins

    Full Text Available The replacement of native Portuguese forests by Eucalyptus globulus is often associated with deleterious effects on terrestrial and aquatic communities. Several studies have suggested that such a phenomenon is linked with the leaf essential oils released into the environment during the Eucalyptus leaf degradation process. However, to date, the way these compounds affect leaf degradation in terrestrial systems i.e. by direct toxic effects to soil invertebrates or indirectly by affecting food of soil fauna, is still unknown. In order to explore this question, the effect of essential oils extracted from E. globulus leaves on terrestrial systems was investigated. Fungal growth tests with species known as leaf colonizers (Mucor hiemalis, Alternaria alternata, Penicillium sp., Penicillium glabrum and Fusarium roseum were performed to evaluate the antifungal effect of essential oils. In addition, a reproduction test with the collembolans Folsomia candida was done using a gradient of eucalyptus essential oils in artificial soil. The influence of essential oils on feeding behaviour of F. candida and the isopods Porcellio dilatatus was also investigated through food avoidance and consumption tests. Eucalyptus essential oils were lethal at concentrations between 2.5-20 µL/mL and inhibited growth of all fungal species between 1.25-5 µL/mL. The collembolan reproduction EC50 value was 35.0 (28.6-41.2 mg/kg and both collembola and isopods preferred leaves without oils. Results suggested that the effect of essential oils in leaf processing is related to direct toxic effects on fungi and soil fauna and to indirect effects on the quality and availability of food to soil invertebrates.

  4. Revealing pancrustacean relationships: Phylogenetic analysis of ribosomal protein genes places Collembola (springtails in a monophyletic Hexapoda and reinforces the discrepancy between mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariën J

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, several new hypotheses on phylogenetic relations among arthropods have been proposed on the basis of DNA sequences. One of the challenged hypotheses is the monophyly of hexapods. This discussion originated from analyses based on mitochondrial DNA datasets that, due to an unusual positioning of Collembola, suggested that the hexapod body plan evolved at least twice. Here, we re-evaluate the position of Collembola using ribosomal protein gene sequences. Results In total 48 ribosomal proteins were obtained for the collembolan Folsomia candida. These 48 sequences were aligned with sequence data on 35 other ecdysozoans. Each ribosomal protein gene was available for 25% to 86% of the taxa. However, the total sequence information was unequally distributed over the taxa and ranged between 4% and 100%. A concatenated dataset was constructed (5034 inferred amino acids in length, of which ~66% of the positions were filled. Phylogenetic tree reconstructions, using Maximum Likelihood, Maximum Parsimony, and Bayesian methods, resulted in a topology that supports monophyly of Hexapoda. Conclusion Although ribosomal proteins in general may not evolve independently, they once more appear highly valuable for phylogenetic reconstruction. Our analyses clearly suggest that Hexapoda is monophyletic. This underpins the inconsistency between nuclear and mitochondrial datasets when analyzing pancrustacean relationships. Caution is needed when applying mitochondrial markers in deep phylogeny.

  5. Revealing pancrustacean relationships: phylogenetic analysis of ribosomal protein genes places Collembola (springtails) in a monophyletic Hexapoda and reinforces the discrepancy between mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, M J T N; Roelofs, D; Mariën, J; van Straalen, N M

    2008-03-12

    In recent years, several new hypotheses on phylogenetic relations among arthropods have been proposed on the basis of DNA sequences. One of the challenged hypotheses is the monophyly of hexapods. This discussion originated from analyses based on mitochondrial DNA datasets that, due to an unusual positioning of Collembola, suggested that the hexapod body plan evolved at least twice. Here, we re-evaluate the position of Collembola using ribosomal protein gene sequences. In total 48 ribosomal proteins were obtained for the collembolan Folsomia candida. These 48 sequences were aligned with sequence data on 35 other ecdysozoans. Each ribosomal protein gene was available for 25% to 86% of the taxa. However, the total sequence information was unequally distributed over the taxa and ranged between 4% and 100%. A concatenated dataset was constructed (5034 inferred amino acids in length), of which ~66% of the positions were filled. Phylogenetic tree reconstructions, using Maximum Likelihood, Maximum Parsimony, and Bayesian methods, resulted in a topology that supports monophyly of Hexapoda. Although ribosomal proteins in general may not evolve independently, they once more appear highly valuable for phylogenetic reconstruction. Our analyses clearly suggest that Hexapoda is monophyletic. This underpins the inconsistency between nuclear and mitochondrial datasets when analyzing pancrustacean relationships. Caution is needed when applying mitochondrial markers in deep phylogeny.

  6. Multigeneration exposure of the springtail Folsomia candida to phenanthrone: from dose-response relationships to threshold concentrations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paumen, M.L.; Steenbergen, E.; Kraak, M.H.S.; Straalen, N.M. van; Gestel, C.A.M. van

    2008-01-01

    Results of life-cycle toxicity experiments are supposed to be indicative for long-term effects of exposure to toxicants. Several studies, however, have shown that adaptation or extinction of populations exposed for several generations may occur. The aim of this study was therefore to determine if

  7. Multigeneration exposure of the springtail Folsomia candida to phenanthrene: from dose-response relationships to threshold concentrations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leon Paumen, M.; Steenbergen, E.; Kraak, M.H.S.; van Straalen, N.M.; van Gestel, C.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Results of life-cycle toxicity experiments are supposed to be indicative for long-term effects of exposure to toxicants. Several studies, however, have shown that adaptation or extinction of populations exposed for several generations may occur. The aim of this study was therefore to determine if

  8. Multigeneration exposure of the springtail Folsomia candida to phenanthrene: From dose-response relationships to threshold concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leon Paumen, M.; Steenbergen, E.; Kraak, M.H.S.; van Straalen, N.M.; van Gestel, C.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Results of life-cycle toxicity experiments are supposed to be indicative for long-term effects of exposure to toxicants. Several studies, however, have shown that adaptation or extinction of populations exposed for several generations may occur. The aim of this study was therefore to determine if

  9. Toxicity to Eisenia andrei and Folsomia candida of a metal mixture applied to soil directly or via an organic matrix.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Natal da Luz, T.; Ojeda, G.; Pratas, J.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; Sousa, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory limits for chemicals and ecological risk assessment are usually based on the effects of single compounds, not taking into account mixture effects. The ecotoxicity of metal-contaminated sludge may, however, not only be due to its metal content. Both the sludge matrix and the presence of

  10. Mixture effects of nickel and chlorpyrifos on Folsomia candida (Collembola) explained from development of toxicity in time.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broerse, M.; van Gestel, C.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Two reference models are commonly used to predict mixture toxicity, Concentration Addition and Independent Action. For accurately predicting mixture effects, both reference models need a full description of the dose-response curve for all single chemicals present in the mixture. We studied the

  11. Toxicity of Nitro-Heterocyclic and Nitroaromatic Energetic Materials to Folsomia candida in a Natural Sandy Loam Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    these tests. Acetone (CAS: 67-64-1; high-performance liquid chromatography [HPLC] grade) was used for preparing EM solutions during the soil amendments... chromatography grade, purity: 99.9%) was used in the HPLC determinations. Certified standards of the energetics (AccuStandard, Inc., New Haven, CT) were used...H.; Van Gestel, C.A.M. Handbook of Soil Invertebrate Toxicity Tests; John Wiley & Sons: Hoboken, NJ, 1998. McLellan, W.L.; Hartley, W.R.; Brower

  12. Assessing the toxicity of thiamethoxam, in natural LUFA 2.2 soil, through three generations of Folsomia candida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lima E Silva, Cláudia; Mariette, Justine; Verweij, Rudo A.; van Gestel, Cornelis A.M.

    2018-01-01

    In the field, long-term exposure is a rule rather than an exception. As a consequence, the relatively short-term standard toxicity tests may not be adequate for assessing long-term effects of pesticide exposure. This study determined the toxicity of the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam, both pure and in

  13. Evaluation of the toxicity of two soils from Jales Mine (Portugal) using aquatic bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, Susana; Ferreira, Abel L G; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Nogueira, António J A

    2005-10-01

    Soil contamination can be one path for streams and groundwater contamination. As a complement of chemical analysis and total contaminants determination, bioassays can provide information on the bioavailable fraction of chemical compounds, focusing on the retention and habitat function of soils. In this study the evaluation of the toxicity of two soils from the abandoned Jales Mine (Portugal) regarded both functions. The buffer capacity of soils was tested with bioassays carried out using the cladoceran Daphnia magna and the marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri. The habitat function of soils was evaluated with the reproduction bioassay with the collembolan Folsomia candida. The Microtox solid-phase test was performed with V. fischeri using soil as test medium, and soil elutriates were extracted to perform the Microtox basic test, and an immobilization and reproduction bioassay with D. magna. The marine bacteria showed high sensitivity to the soil with low heavy metal content (JNC soil) and to JNC soil elutriates, while the soil with highest heavy metal content (JC soil) or soil elutriates exposure did not cause any toxic effect. In the bioassays with D. magna, organisms showed sensitivity to JNC and also to JC soil elutriates. Both mobilization and reproduction features were inhibited. The bioassay with F. candida did not reflect any influence of the contaminants on their reproduction. Although JNC soil presented lower heavy metal contents, elutriates showed different patterns of contamination when compared to JC soil and elutriates, which indicates different retention and buffer capacities between soils. Results obtained in this study underlined the sensitivity and importance of soil elutriate bioassays with aquatic organisms in the evaluation strategy in soil ERA processes.

  14. Comparative ecotoxicity of chlorantraniliprole to non-target soil invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavtižar, Vesna; Berggren, Kristina; Trebše, Polonca; Kraak, Michiel H S; Verweij, Rudo A; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2016-09-01

    The insecticide chlorantraniliprole (CAP) is gaining importance in agricultural practice, but data on its possible negative effects on non-target organisms is severely deficient. This study therefore determined CAP toxicity to non-target soil invertebrates playing a crucial role in ecosystem functioning, including springtails (Folsomia candida), isopods (Porcellio scaber), enchytraeids (Enchytraeus crypticus) and oribatid mites (Oppia nitens). In sublethal toxicity tests in Lufa 2.2 soil, chronic exposure to CAP concentrations up to 1000 mg/kgdw did not affect the survival and reproduction of E. crypticus and O. nitens nor the survival, body weight and consumption of P. scaber. In contrast, the survival and reproduction of F. candida was severely affected, with an EC50 for effects on reproduction of 0.14 mg CAP/kgdw. The toxicity of CAP to the reproduction of F. candida was tested in four different soils following OECD guideline 232, and additionally in an avoidance test according to ISO guideline 17512-2. A significantly lower toxicity in soils rich in organic matter was observed, compared to low organic soils. Observations in the avoidance test with F. candida suggest that CAP acted in a prompt way, by affecting collembolan locomotor abilities thus preventing them from escaping contaminated soil. This study shows that CAP may especially pose a risk to non-target soil arthropods closely related to insects, while other soil invertebrates seem rather insensitive. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Molecular evolution of the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone family in ecdysozoans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyez Daniel

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone (CHH family peptides are neurohormones known to regulate several important functions in decapod crustaceans such as ionic and energetic metabolism, molting and reproduction. The structural conservation of these peptides, together with the variety of functions they display, led us to investigate their evolutionary history. CHH family peptides exist in insects (Ion Transport Peptides and may be present in all ecdysozoans as well. In order to extend the evolutionary study to the entire family, CHH family peptides were thus searched in taxa outside decapods, where they have been, to date, poorly investigated. Results CHH family peptides were characterized by molecular cloning in a branchiopod crustacean, Daphnia magna, and in a collembolan, Folsomia candida. Genes encoding such peptides were also rebuilt in silico from genomic sequences of another branchiopod, a chelicerate and two nematodes. These sequences were included in updated datasets to build phylogenies of the CHH family in pancrustaceans. These phylogenies suggest that peptides found in Branchiopoda and Collembola are more closely related to insect ITPs than to crustacean CHHs. Datasets were also used to support a phylogenetic hypothesis about pancrustacean relationships, which, in addition to gene structures, allowed us to propose two evolutionary scenarios of this multigenic family in ecdysozoans. Conclusions Evolutionary scenarios suggest that CHH family genes of ecdysozoans originate from an ancestral two-exon gene, and genes of arthropods from a three-exon one. In malacostracans, the evolution of the CHH family has involved several duplication, insertion or deletion events, leading to neuropeptides with a wide variety of functions, as observed in decapods. This family could thus constitute a promising model to investigate the links between gene duplications and functional divergence.

  16. The potentiation of zinc toxicity by soil moisture in a boreal forest ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owojori, Olugbenga J; Siciliano, Steven D

    2015-03-01

    Northern boreal forests often experience forest dieback as a result of metal ore mining and smelting. The common solution is to lime the soil, which increases pH, reducing metal toxicity and encouraging recovery. In certain situations, however, such as in Flin Flon, Manitoba, Canada, liming has yielded only moderate benefits, with some locations responding well to liming and other locations not at all. In an effort to increase the effectiveness of the ecorestoration strategy, the authors investigated if these differences in liming responsiveness were linked to differences in toxicity. Toxicity of metal-impacted Flin Flon soils on the oribatid mite Oppia nitens and the collembolan Folsomia candida was assessed, with a view toward identifying the metal of concern in the area. The effects of moisture content on metal sorption, uptake, and toxicity to the invertebrates were also investigated. Toxicity tests with the invertebrates were conducted using either Flin Flon soils or artificial soils with moisture content adjusted to 30%, 45%, 60%, or 75% of the maximum water-holding capacity of the soil samples. The Relative to Cd Toxicity Model identified Zn as the metal of concern in the area, and this was confirmed using validation tests with field contaminated soils. Furthermore, increasing the moisture content in soils increased the amount of mobile Zn available for uptake with the ion exchange resin. Survival and reproduction of both invertebrates were reduced under Zn exposure as moisture level increased. Thus, moisture-collecting landforms, which are often also associated with high Zn concentrations at Flin Flon, have, as a result, higher Zn toxicity to the soil ecosystem because of increases in soil moisture. © 2014 SETAC.

  17. Addition of biochar to sewage sludge decreases freely dissolved PAHs content and toxicity of sewage sludge-amended soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefaniuk, Magdalena; Oleszczuk, Patryk

    2016-11-01

    Due to an increased content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) frequently found in sewage sludges, it is necessary to find solutions that will reduce the environmental hazard associated with their presence. The aim of this study was to determine changes of total and freely dissolved concentration of PAHs in sewage sludge-biochar-amended soil. Two different sewage sludges and biochars with varying properties were tested. Biochars (BC) were produced from biogas residues at 400 °C or 600 °C and from willow at 600 °C. The freely dissolved PAH concentration was determined by means of passive sampling using polyoxymethylene (POM). Total and freely dissolved PAH concentration was monitored at the beginning of the experiment and after 90 days of aging of the sewage sludge with the biochar and soil. Apart from chemical evaluation, the effect of biochar addition on the toxicity of the tested materials on bacteria - Vibrio fischeri (Microtox ® ), plants - Lepidium sativum (Phytotestkit F, Phytotoxkit F), and Collembola - Folsomia candida (Collembolan test) was evaluated. The addition of biochar to the sewage sludges decreased the content of C free PAHs. A reduction from 11 to 43% of sewage sludge toxicity or positive effects on plants expressed by root growth stimulation from 6 to 25% to the control was also found. The range of reduction of C free PAHs and toxicity was dependent on the type of biochar. After 90 days of incubation of the biochars with the sewage sludge in the soil, C free PAHs and toxicity were found to further decrease compared to the soil with sewage sludge alone. The obtained results show that the addition of biochar to sewage sludges may significantly reduce the risk associated with their environmental use both in terms of PAH content and toxicity of the materials tested. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of nano-sized zero-valent iron (nZVI) on DDT degradation in soil and its toxicity to collembola and ostracods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Temsah, Yehia S; Joner, Erik J

    2013-06-01

    Nano-sized zero valent iron (nZVI) has been studied for in situ remediation of contaminated soil and ground water. However, little is known about its effects on organisms in soil and aquatic ecosystems. In this study, the effect of nZVI on degradation of DDT and its ecotoxicological effects on collembola (Folsomia candida) and ostracods (Heterocypris incongruens) were investigated. Two soils were used in suspension incubation experiments lasting for 7 and 30 d; a spiked (20 mg DDT kg(-1)) sandy soil and an aged (>50 years) DDT-polluted soil (24 mg DDT kg(-1)). These were incubated with 1 or 10 g nZVI kg(-1), and residual toxicity in soil and the aqueous phase tested using ecotoxicological tests with collembola or ostracods. Generally, addition of either concentration of nZVI to soil led to about 50% degradation of DDT in spiked soil at the end of 7 and 30 d incubation, while the degradation of DDT was less in aged DDT-polluted soil (24%). Severe negative effects of nZVI were observed on both test organisms after 7 d incubation, but prolonged incubation led to oxidation of nZVI which reduced its toxic effects on the tested organisms. On the other hand, DDT had significant negative effects on collembolan reproduction and ostracod development. We conclude that 1 g nZVI kg(-1) was efficient for significant DDT degradation in spiked soil, while a higher concentration was necessary for treating aged pollutants in soil. The adverse effects of nZVI on tested organisms seem temporary and reduced after oxidation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) as a tool to predict the bioavailability and toxicity of pyrene to the springtail, Folsomia candida, under various soil conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Styrishave, Bjarne; Mortensen, Mads; Krogh, Paul Henning

    2008-01-01

    The porewater concentrations of pyrene were estimated by a negligible depletive solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method. The effects of organic matter (OM) and soil aging on the bioavailability of pyrene in soil were investigated by generation of reproductive effect concentrations (EC50...... increased with increasing OM and aging of the soil. The increase of the OM content in the soil reduced the extractability of pyrene by SPME, as well as the toxicity of pyrene. An aging effect was demonstrated in Askov soil, EC50 values increased with increased contact time. The amounts of pyrene extracted...

  20. The cold-adapted population of Folsomia manolachei (Hexapoda, Collembola) from a glaciated karst doline of Central Europe: evidence for a cryptic species?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Raschmanová, N.; Žurovcová, Martina; Kováč, Ľ.; Paučulová, L.; Šustr, Vladimír; Jarošová, Andrea; Chundelová, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 1 (2017), s. 19-28 ISSN 0947-5745 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : DNA barcoding * genetic distance * ecophysiology Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 2.444, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jzs.12150/abstract

  1. Ethoprophos fate on soil-water interface and effects on non-target terrestrial and aquatic biota under Mediterranean crop-based scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitão, Sara; Moreira-Santos, Matilde; Van den Brink, Paul J; Ribeiro, Rui; José Cerejeira, M; Sousa, José Paulo

    2014-05-01

    The present study aimed to assess the environmental fate of the insecticide and nematicide ethoprophos in the soil-water interface following the pesticide application in simulated maize and potato crops under Mediterranean agricultural conditions, particularly of irrigation. Focus was given to the soil-water transfer pathways (leaching and runoff), to the pesticide transport in soil between pesticide application (crop row) and non-application areas (between crop rows), as well as to toxic effects of the various matrices on terrestrial and aquatic biota. A semi-field methodology mimicking a "worst-case" ethoprophos application (twice the recommended dosage for maize and potato crops: 100% concentration v/v) in agricultural field situations was used, in order to mimic a possible misuse by the farmer under realistic conditions. A rainfall was simulated under a slope of 20° for both crop-based scenarios. Soil and water samples were collected for the analysis of pesticide residues. Ecotoxicity of soil and aquatic samples was assessed by performing lethal and sublethal bioassays with organisms from different trophic levels: the collembolan Folsomia candida, the earthworm Eisenia andrei and the cladoceran Daphnia magna. Although the majority of ethoprophos sorbed to the soil application area, pesticide concentrations were detected in all water matrices illustrating pesticide transfer pathways of water contamination between environmental compartments. Leaching to groundwater proved to be an important transfer pathway of ethoprophos under both crop-based scenarios, as it resulted in high pesticide concentration in leachates from Maize (130µgL(-1)) and Potato (630µgL(-1)) crop scenarios, respectively. Ethoprophos application at the Potato crop scenario caused more toxic effects on terrestrial and aquatic biota than at the Maize scenario at the recommended dosage and lower concentrations. In both crop-based scenarios, ethoprophos moved with the irrigation water flow to the

  2. Assessing the ecological long-term impact of wastewater irrigation on soil and water based on bioassays and chemical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Elisabeth; Hecht, Fabian; Schnellbacher, Nadine; Ternes, Thomas A; Wick, Arne; Wode, Florian; Coors, Anja

    2015-11-01

    The reuse of treated wastewater for irrigation and groundwater recharge can counteract water scarcity and reduce pollution of surface waters, but assessing its environmental risk should likewise consider effects associated to the soil. The present study therefore aimed at determining the impact of wastewater irrigation on the habitat quality of water after soil passage and of soil after percolation by applying bioassays and chemical analysis. Lab-scale columns of four different soils encompassing standard European soil and three field soils of varying characteristics and pre-contamination were continuously percolated with treated wastewater to simulate long-term irrigation. Wastewater and its percolates were tested for immobilization of Daphnia magna and growth inhibition of green algae (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata) and water lentils (Lemna minor). The observed phytotoxicity of the treated wastewater was mostly reduced by soil passage, but in some percolates also increased for green algae. Chemical analysis covering an extensive set of wastewater-born organic pollutants demonstrated that many of them were considerably reduced by soil passage, particularly through peaty soils. Taken together, these results indicated that wastewater-born phytotoxic substances may be removed by soil passage, while existing soil pollutants (e.g. metals) may leach and impair percolate quality. Soils with and without wastewater irrigation were tested for growth of plants (Avena sativa, Brassica napus) and soil bacteria (Arthrobacter globiformis) and reproduction of collembolans (Folsomia candida) and oligochaetes (Enchytraeus crypticus, Eisenia fetida). The habitat quality of the standard and two field soils appeared to be deteriorated by wastewater percolation for at least one organism (enchytraeids, plants or bacteria), while for two pre-contaminated field soils it also was improved (for plants and/or enchytraeids). Wastewater percolation did not seem to raise soil concentrations

  3. Repression of fungal plant pathogens and fungal-related contaminants: Selected ecosystem services by soil fauna communities in agroecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Wolfarth, Friederike; Schrader, Stefan; Oldenburg, Elisabeth; Brunotte, Joachim; Weinert, Joachim

    2017-04-01

    In agroecosystems soil-borne fungal plant diseases are major yield-limiting factors which are difficult to control. Fungal plant pathogens, like Fusarium species, survive as a saprophyte in infected tissue like crop residues and endanger the health of the following crop by increasing the infection risk for specific plant diseases. In infected plant organs, these pathogens are able to produce mycotoxins. Mycotoxins like deoxynivalenol (DON) persist during storage, are heat resistant and of major concern for human and animal health after consumption of contaminated food and feed, respectively. Among fungivorous soil organisms, there are representatives of the soil fauna which are obviously antagonistic to a Fusarium infection and the contamination with mycotoxins. Specific members of the soil macro-, meso-, and microfauna provide a wide range of ecosystem services including the stimulation of decomposition processes which may result in the regulation of plant pathogens and the degradation of environmental contaminants. Investigations under laboratory conditions and in field were conducted to assess the functional linkage between soil faunal communities and plant pathogenic fungi (Fusarium culmorum). The aim was to examine if Fusarium biomass and the content of its mycotoxin DON decrease substantially in the presence of soil fauna (earthworms: Lumbricus terrestris, collembolans: Folsomia candida and nematodes: Aphelenchoides saprophilus) in a commercial cropping system managed with conservation tillage located in Northern Germany. The results of our investigations pointed out that the degradation performance of the introduced soil fauna must be considered as an important contribution to the biodegradation of fungal plant diseases and fungal-related contaminants. Different size classes within functional groups and the traits of keystone species appear to be significant for soil function and the provision of ecosystem services as in particular L. terrestris revealed to

  4. Mosaicism may explain the evolution of social characters in haplodiploid Hymenoptera with female workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morpurgo, Giorgio; Babudri, Nora; Fioretti, Bernard; Catacuzzeno, Luigi

    2010-12-01

    The role of haplodiploidy in the evolution of eusocial insects and why in Hymenoptera males do not perform any work is presently unknown. We show here that within-colony conflict caused by the coexistence of individuals of the same caste expressing the same character in different ways can be fundamental in the evolution of social characters in species that have already reached the eusocial condition. Mosaic colonies, composed by individuals expressing either the wild-type or a mutant phenotype, inevitably occurs during the evolution of advantageous social traits in insects. We simulated the evolution of an advantageous social trait increasing colony fitness in haplodiploid and diplodiploid species considering all possible conditions, i.e. dominance/recessivity of the allele determining the new social character, sex of the castes, and influence of mosaicism on the colony fitness. When mosaicism lowered colony fitness below that of the colony homogeneous for the wild type allele, the fixation of an advantageous social character was possible only in haplodiploids with female castes. When mosaicism caused smaller reductions in colony fitness, reaching frequencies of 90% was much faster in haplodiploids with female castes and dominant mutations. Our results suggest that the evolution of social characters is easier in haplodiploid than in diplodiploid species, provided that workers are females.

  5. Apomictic parthenogenesis in a parasitoid wasp Meteorus pulchricornis, uncommon in the haplodiploid order Hymenoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Y; Maeto, K; Hamaguchi, K; Isaki, Y; Takami, Y; Naito, T; Miura, K

    2014-06-01

    Although apomixis is the most common form of parthenogenesis in diplodiploid arthropods, it is uncommon in the haplodiploid insect order Hymenoptera. We found a new type of spontaneous apomixis in the Hymenoptera, completely lacking meiosis and the expulsion of polar bodies in egg maturation division, on the thelytokous strain of a parasitoid wasp Meteorus pulchricornis (Wesmael) (Braconidae, Euphorinae) on pest lepidopteran larvae Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Noctuidae). The absence of the meiotic process was consistent with a non-segregation pattern in the offspring of heterozygous females, and no positive evidence was obtained for the induction of thelytoky by any bacterial symbionts. We discuss the conditions that enable the occurrence of such rare cases of apomictic thelytoky in the Hymenoptera, suggesting the significance of fixed heterosis caused by hybridization or polyploidization, symbiosis with bacterial agents, and occasional sex. Our finding will encourage further genetic studies on parasitoid wasps to use asexual lines more wisely for biological control.

  6. Species composition of a soil invertebrate multi-species test system determines the level of ecotoxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sechi, Valentina; D'Annibale, Alessandra; Maraldo, Kristine

    2014-01-01

    A soil multi-species, SMS, experimental test system consisting of the natural microbial community, five collembolan species and a predatory mite along with either Enchytraeus crypticus or the earthworm Eisenia fetida were exposed to α-cypermethrin. A comparison of the performance of these two typ...

  7. Soil bioassays as tools for sludge compost quality assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domene, Xavier; Sola, Laura; Ramirez, Wilson; Alcaniz, Josep M.; Andres, Pilar

    2011-01-01

    Composting is a waste management technology that is becoming more widespread as a response to the increasing production of sewage sludge and the pressure for its reuse in soil. In this study, different bioassays (plant germination, earthworm survival, biomass and reproduction, and collembolan survival and reproduction) were assessed for their usefulness in the compost quality assessment. Compost samples, from two different composting plants, were taken along the composting process, which were characterized and submitted to bioassays (plant germination and collembolan and earthworm performance). Results from our study indicate that the noxious effects of some of the compost samples observed in bioassays are related to the low organic matter stability of composts and the enhanced release of decomposition endproducts, with the exception of earthworms, which are favored. Plant germination and collembolan reproduction inhibition was generally associated with uncomposted sludge, while earthworm total biomass and reproduction were enhanced by these materials. On the other hand, earthworm and collembolan survival were unaffected by the degree of composting of the wastes. However, this pattern was clear in one of the composting procedures assessed, but less in the other, where the release of decomposition endproducts was lower due to its higher stability, indicating the sensitivity and usefulness of bioassays for the quality assessment of composts.

  8. Ecology of microarthropods in arable soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeken - Buijs, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    Soil microarthropods are all free-living mites and collembolans, living in the soil. The study presented in this thesis formed part of the Dutch Programme on Soil Ecology of Arable Farming Systems, an integrated multidisciplinary research programme, focused on the functioning of two

  9. Consequences for Protaphorura armata (Collembola: Onychiuridae) following exposure to genetically modified Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize and non-Bt maize

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heckmann, Lars-Henrik; Griffiths, Bryan S; Caul, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Studies on the effect of genetically modified Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crops on true soil dwelling non-target arthropods are scarce. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of a 4-week exposure to two Bt maize varieties (Cry1Ab) Cascade and MEB307 on the collembolan Protaphorur...

  10. Dinamika populasi Collembola pada tanaman kelapa sawit di perkebunan Cikasungka Kabupaten Bogor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwinda Erwinda

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Collembola is one of the dominant microarthopods in almost all soils types. They have important function in food webs soil ecosystem. This research was done at Cikasungka oil palm plantation for six months (April until September 2014. The aim of the research was to collect the information of diversity abundance and population fluctuations of Collembola, and their linkages between environmental factors. Collembolans were collected based on four points of soil sample from five trees of oil palm which has similar criteria. Distance of 0, 120, 240 cm from the trees, and compost lane were used to collect the samples. Results showed 37 species from 10.438 individuals with a density of 544 individu/m2. The species belongs to  4 orders and 13 families. Result also showed that are fluctuations in the abundance at the sample sites. The highest abundance of Collembolans was found in base tree zone (920 individu/m2 and compost lane (763 individu/m2. During six months, total populations of Isotomid sp. 5 (Isotomidae was higher than the others species of Collembolans. Based on the correlation analysis, various species of Collembolans are positively correlated with rainfall and soil pH.

  11. Assessment of toxicity of heavy metal contaminated soils for Collembola in the field and laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jie; Krogh, Paul Henning; Luo, Yongming

    2008-01-01

    We present a field and laboratory investigation of effects of increasing levels of heavy metal contamination on the biodiversity and performance of collembolans. A 40 year old pollution with Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd pollution due to Cu smelting over 40 years was investigated in a paddy field area of Zhe...

  12. Ecotoxicogenomic assessment of diclofenac toxicity in soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, G.; den Braver, M.W.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; van Straalen, N.M.; Roelofs, D.

    2015-01-01

    Diclofenac is widely used as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug leaving residues in the environment. To investigate effects on terrestrial ecosystems, we measured dissipation rate in soil and investigated ecotoxicological and transcriptome-wide responses in Folsomia candida. Exposure for 4 weeks to

  13. Coping with living in the soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faddeeva-Vakhrusheva, Anna; Kraaijeveld, Ken; Derks, Martijn F.L.; Anvar, Seyed Yahya; Agamennone, Valeria; Suring, Wouter; Kampfraath, Andries A.; Ellers, Jacintha; Ngoc, Le Giang; Gestel, van Cornelis A.M.; Mariën, Janine; Smit, Sandra; Straalen, van Nico M.; Roelofs, Dick

    2017-01-01

    Background: Folsomia candida is a model in soil biology, belonging to the family of Isotomidae, subclass Collembola. It reproduces parthenogenetically in the presence of Wolbachia, and exhibits remarkable physiological adaptations to stress. To better understand these features and adaptations to

  14. Do fungivores trigger the transfer of protective metabolites from host plants to arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphae?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Duhamel, M.; Pel, R.; Ooms, A.; Buecking, H.; Jansa, Jan; Ellers, J.; van Straalen, N. M.; Wouda, T.; Vandenkoornhuyse, P.; Kiers, E. T.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 9 (2013), s. 2019-2029 ISSN 0012-9658 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP504/12/1665 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : cooperation * defense * Folsomia candida Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 5.000, year: 2013

  15. Molecular and life-history effects of a natural toxin on herbivorous and non-target soil arthropods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Ommen Kloeke, A. E. Elaine; Gestel, Cornelis A. M. van; Styrishave, Bjarne

    2012-01-01

    transcriptional responses to 2-phenylethyl ITC on two soil arthropod species: Folsomia candida and Protaphorura fimata. To that end the standardized ISO guideline for ecotoxicological tests and a microarray for F. candida were used. The dissipation of 2-phenylethyl ITC in natural soil was investigated using GC...

  16. Persistence and toxicological effects of pesticides in topsoil: use of the equilibrium partitioning theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronday, R.; Kammen-Polman, van A.M.M.; Dekker, A.; Houx, N.W.H.; Leistra, M.

    1997-01-01

    The springtail Folsomia candida was exposed to the insecticide parathion in loamy, sandy and peaty soils. The dose-response relationships were measured and used to calculate the 50%-effect (EC50) values. The toxicity of parathion in the three soils could be explained from its bio-availability, as a

  17. Impact of agricultural practices on selected soil decomposers fauna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalatif, M. A.; Alrayah, A.; Azar, W. Z.

    2009-01-01

    Soil decomposers fauna i.e. collembolan, mites and nematodes were studied and compared between and within sites in relation to site, treatment and time of collection in Shambat arable and El Rwakeeb dry land. Comparison of results between sites showed that population density/volume of decomposers fauna sampled from Shambat site exceeded their assemblages sampled from El Rawakeeb site. Treatment application in form of cattle manure and neem leaves powder were observed to induce insignificant changes in the three faunal groups between the two sites. Temporal variations showed significant annual variations and insignificant seasonal variations between the two sites. Within each site, population density/volume of each of collembolan, mites and nematodes increased in response to cattle manure application in both sites. Whereas, neem leaves powder application induced a significant decrease in population density/volume of collembola in both sites. These results are generally attributed to variability of soil properties which may add to the suitability of Shambat soil to El Rawakeeb one for the survival of decomposers fauna. Within each site, increase in population density/volume of these fauna upon cattle manure application was attributed to ability of cattle manure to improve soil properties and to provide food. The negative effect of neem leaves powder on mites and nematodes was attributed to neem toxicity, whereas, its positive effects on collembolan was attributed to the ability of collembolan to withstand neem toxicity, collembolan probably physiologically resistant and the neem powder provided food, thus increasing its numbers compared to the central treatment.(Author)

  18. Soil fauna communities and microbial respiration in high Arctic tundra soils at Zackenberg, Northeast Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Louise I.; Holmstrup, Martin; Maraldo, Kristine

    2006-01-01

    The soil fauna communities were described for three dominant vegetation types in a high arctic site at Zackenberg, Northeast Greenland. Soil samples were extracted to quantify the densities of mites, collembolans, enchytraeids, diptera larvae, nematodes and protozoa. Rates of microbial respiration...... densities (naked amoeba and heterotrophic flagellates) were equal. Respiration rate of unamended soil was similar in soil from the three plots. However, a higher respiration rate increase in carbon + nutrient amended soil and the higher densities of soil fauna (with the exception of mites and protozoa...... were also assessed. Collembolans were found in highest densities in dry heath soil, about 130,000 individuals m-2, more than twice as high as in mesic heath soils. Enchytraeids, diptera larvae and nematodes were also more abundant in the dry heath soil than in mesic heath soils, whereas protozoan...

  19. New Chinese record of the genus Spinonychiurus (Collembola, Onychiuridae), with the description of a new species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xin; Li, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new collembolan species is described, Spinonychiurus sinensis sp. n., which has seven chaetae in the distal row of the tibiotarsi. It is placed in the genus Spinonychiurus due to two important characters: the two subsegments on Abd. III sternum and the absence of d0 on the head. This is the first report of the genus Spinonychiurus in China. The diagnosis of Spinonychiurus is broadened and the key to the world species is provided. PMID:25317055

  20. Species composition of a soil invertebrate multi-species test system determines the level of ecotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sechi, Valentina; D'Annibale, Alessandra; Maraldo, Kristine; Johansen, Anders; Bossi, Rossana; Jensen, John; Krogh, Paul Henning

    2014-01-01

    A soil multi-species, SMS, experimental test system consisting of the natural microbial community, five collembolan species and a predatory mite along with either Enchytraeus crypticus or the earthworm Eisenia fetida were exposed to α-cypermethrin. A comparison of the performance of these two types of SMSs is given to aid the development of a standard test system. E. fetida had a positive effect on the majority of the species, reducing the negative insecticide effect. E. fetida affected the species sensitivity and decreased the degradation of the insecticide due to the organic matter incorporation of earthworm food. After 8 weeks, the EC50 was 0.76 mg kg −1 for enchytraeids and ranged between 2.7 and 18.9 mg kg −1 for collembolans, more sensitive than previously observed with single species. Changes observed in the community structure and function illustrates the strength of a multi-species test system as an ecotoxicological tool compared to single species tests. -- Highlights: • Degradation of alpha-cypermethrin was faster with enchytraeids than with earthworms. • Lumbricid castings and bioturbation explains bioavailability of α-cypermethrin. • Pesticide effects on soil arthropods alter with the community composition. • Multispecies test systems are feasible with either an enchytraeid or a lumbricid. • Collembolans are more sensitive to cypermethrin with enchytraeids than with earthworms. -- Soil ecotoxicological fate and effects in multispecies test systems are affected by earthworm activity

  1. The effect of tributyltin-oxide on earthworms, springtails, and plants in artificial and natural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Römbke, J; Jänsch, S; Junker, T; Pohl, B; Scheffczyk, A; Schallnass, H-J

    2007-05-01

    Chemical bioavailability in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) artificial soil can contrast with bioavailability in natural soils and produce ecotoxicologic benchmarks that are not representative of species' exposure conditions in the field. Initially, reproduction and growth of earthworm and Collembolan species, and early seedling growth of a dicotyledonous plant species, in nine natural soils (with a wide range of physicochemical properties) and in OECD soil were evaluated. Soils that supported reproduction and growth of the test species were then used to investigate the toxicity of tributyltin-oxide (TBT-O). Natural soils caused greater toxicity of TBT-O to earthworms (EC(50) values varied from 0.5 to 4.7 mg/kg soil dry weight [dw]) compared with toxicity in OECD soil (EC(50) = 13.4 mg/kg dw). Collembolans were less sensitive to TBT-O than earthworms in natural soils, with EC(50) values ranging from 23.4 to 177.8 mg/kg dw. In contrast, the toxicity of TBT-O to collembolans in OECD soil (EC(50) = 104.0 mg/kg dw) was within the range of EC(50) values in natural soils. Phytotoxicity tests revealed even greater difference between the effects in natural soils (EC(50) values ranged from 10.7 to 189.2 mg/kg dw) and in OECD soil (EC(50) = 535.5 mg/kg dw) compared with results of the earthworm tests. Studies also showed that EC(50) values were a more robust end point compared with EC(10) values based on comparisons of coefficients of variation. These results show that toxicity testing should include studies with natural soils in addition to OECD soil to better reflect exposure conditions in the field.

  2. Mineral cycling in soil and litter arthropod food chains. Progress report, November 1, 1981-January 31, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crossley, D.A. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Progress is reported for research projects on nutrient dynamics during terrestrial decomposition, as influenced by soil arthropods. Radioactive tracers are used as analogs of nutrients, to measure material movement along food chains and dynamics of processes during decomposition. Forest floor systems from which arthropods were excluded, or in which microfloral activity was depressed, trapped incoming nutrients from canopy throughfall at different rates. Faunal stimulation of microfloral activities could not be demonstrated, but drought conditions disturbed the experiment. Turnover measurements for radionuclides in collembolans are also reported, and compared with information on mites and other arthropods

  3. Soil fauna communities and microbial respiration in high Arctic tundra soils at Zackenberg, Northeast Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Louise I.; Holmstrup, Martin; Maraldo, Kristine

    2006-01-01

    The soil fauna communities were described for three dominant vegetation types in a high arctic site at Zackenberg, Northeast Greenland. Soil samples were extracted to quantify the densities of mites, collembolans, enchytraeids, diptera larvae, nematodes and protozoa. Rates of microbial respiration...... densities (naked amoeba and heterotrophic flagellates) were equal. Respiration rate of unamended soil was similar in soil from the three plots. However, a higher respiration rate increase in carbon + nutrient amended soil and the higher densities of soil fauna (with the exception of mites and protozoa...

  4. Ecotoxicological characterization of biochars: role of feedstock and pyrolysis temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domene, X; Enders, A; Hanley, K; Lehmann, J

    2015-04-15

    Seven contrasting feedstocks were subjected to slow pyrolysis at low (300 or 350°C) and high temperature (550 or 600°C), and both biochars and the corresponding feedstocks tested for short-term ecotoxicity using basal soil respiration and collembolan reproduction tests. After a 28-d incubation, soil basal respiration was not inhibited but stimulated by additions of feedstocks and biochars. However, variation in soil respiration was dependent on both feedstock and pyrolysis temperature. In the last case, respiration decreased with pyrolysis temperature (r=-0.78; pmanagement recommendations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Interspecific Relationships Among Soil Invertebrates Influence Pollutant Effects of Phenanthrene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortet, J.; Joffre, R.; Elmholt, S.

    2006-01-01

    , nitrogen concentration). The effects of each community on the fate of phenanthrene were also assessed. We hypothesize that phenanthrene affects the population dynamics of mesofauna and soil biological functioning depending on exposure duration, type of community, or both. Results show that phenanthrene...... toxic effects of organic pollutants on mesofauna species and soil biological functioning....... exerted an effect on mesofauna and that the effects on some species, like Folsomia fimetaria, were influenced by the species composition in the mesocosms, the soil layer, and the sampling date. However, the effects of phenanthrene on ergosterol content and organic matter decomposition were...

  6. GENEPEASE Genomic tools for assessment of pesticide effects on the agricultural soil ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Carsten Suhr; Feld, Louise; Hjelmsø, Mathis Hjort

    The project focussed on validating RNA based methods as potential genomic tools in assessment of agricultural soil ecosystems. It was shown that the mRNA based technique was very sensitive and the effects was seen in the same situations as when the OECD nitrification assay showed an effect. 16S r......RNA based pyrosequencing of bacterial communities in soil was shown to report different than just DNA based analysis and indicated unlike the DNA measurement that the community was developing. Finally microarray analysis was compared to traditional test for toxicity testing of Folsomia candida and showed...

  7. Study of Acari and Collembola Populations in Four Cultivation Systems in Dourados - MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosilda Mara Mussury

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The impact four cultivation systems on the soil fauna was studied, using Oribatida and Gamasida acarids as bioindicators and collembolan. The research was carried out in experimental fields, located in EMBRAPA - CPAO in Dourados, Centerwest of Brazil from July 1997 to December 1999. The constant pasture system presented smaller impact on the soil fauna followed by agricultural cattle rotation and a direct plantation system. In the conventional plantation series, the populational density of the mesofauna organisms was low, especially collembolan families.O impacto de quatro sistemas de cultivo sobre a fauna de solo foram estudados, utilizando-se como bioindicadores os acari Oribatida e Gamasida e os Collembola. A pesquisa foi conduzida em campos experimentais, localizados na EMBRAPA - CPAO no município de Dourados, MS, no período de julho de 1997 à dezembro de 1999. O sistema de pastagem contínua apresentou menor impacto sobre a fauna de solo seguido da rotação agricultura pecuária e do sistema de plantio direto. Nas sucessões do plantio convencional, a densidade populacional dos organismos da mesofauna foi baixa, em especial as famílias de colembolos.

  8. Metabolic rate of spiders (Pardosa prativage) feed on prey species of different diet quality measured by colorimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Achim; Kynde, Bjarke; Westh, Peter

    The metabolic rate was measured in the wolf spider Pardosa prativaga after preying different species of aphids, collembolans and fruit flies raised on common commercial medium. The activity of detoxification enzyme systems Glutathione S-Transferase (GST), Glutathione Peroxidase (GSTpx) was invest......The metabolic rate was measured in the wolf spider Pardosa prativaga after preying different species of aphids, collembolans and fruit flies raised on common commercial medium. The activity of detoxification enzyme systems Glutathione S-Transferase (GST), Glutathione Peroxidase (GSTpx......) was investigated for spiders preying the different species. The heat production of starved P. prativaga was ca. 1.5 mW per mg fresh weight. For specimens feed on fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) the heat production was appreciable higher whereas feed on the aphids Sitobion avenae and Rhopalosiphum padi...... the heat production was on the same level or lower than in the staved spiders. The variation of the observed metabolic changes was in concordance with the variations in enzyme activities....

  9. Effects of sewage sludge addition to Norway spruce seedlings on nitrogen availability and soil fauna in clear-cut areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieminen, Jouni K.; Räisänen, Mikko

    2013-01-01

    Anaerobically digested and composted sewage sludge (CSS) has been suggested to be a slow-release fertilizer in forestry and an alternative to quick-release inorganic fertilizers. The effects of CSS with or without added carbohydrate on inorganic nitrogen availability and on soil animals were tested in two Norway spruce plantations. Half of the seedlings were individually fertilized with CSS, and the rest were left as controls. Solid sucrose was added to half of the fertilized and untreated seedlings. Soil samples were taken in the autumn in the first and the second year after the treatments. CSS increased soil NH 4 –N (2100%), the proportion of soil NO 3 –N, and the N concentration of spruce needles. CSS greatly reduced the abundances of enchytraeids, tardigrades and collembolans, but increased the proportion and abundance of bacterial-feeding nematodes irrespective of carbohydrate addition. A better stabilization method needs to be developed before CSS can be used as a forest fertilizer. -- Highlights: •Spruces were fertilized with anaerobically digested and composted sewage sludge (CSS). •CSS increased soil N, proportion of NO 3 –N, and N concentration of spruce needles. •CSS reduced the abundances of enchytraeids, tardigrades and collembolans. •CSS increased the proportion and abundance of bacterial-feeding nematodes. •Sucrose did not reduce N pools or counteract negative CSS effects on soil animals. -- Composting and carbohydrate addition do not mitigate the harmful effects of anaerobically digested sewage sludge in boreal forest soil

  10. Comparison of solid-phase bioassays and ecoscores to evaluate the toxicity of contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lors, Christine; Ponge, Jean-Francois; Martinez Aldaya, Maite; Damidot, Denis

    2010-01-01

    Five bioassays (inhibition of lettuce germination and growth, earthworm mortality, inhibition of springtail population growth, avoidance by springtails) were compared, using four coke factory soils contaminated by PAHs and trace elements, before and after biotreatment. For each bioassay, several endpoints were combined in an 'ecoscore', a measure of test sensitivity. Ecoscores pooled over all tested bioassays revealed that most organisms were highly sensitive to the concentration of 3-ring PAHs. When four soils were combined, behavioural tests using the springtail Folsomia candida showed higher ecoscores, i.e. they were most sensitive to soil contamination. However, despite overall higher sensitivity of behavioural tests, which could be used for cheap and rapid assessment of soil toxicity, especially at low levels of contamination, some test endpoints were more sensitive than others, and this may differ from a soil to another, pointing to the need for a battery of bioassays when more itemized results are expected. - The avoidance test using the soil springtail Folsomia candida is globally more sensitive to PAH contamination than acute and chronic toxicity bioassays using plants and animals but a battery of tests could reveal better in detail.

  11. Comparison of solid-phase bioassays and ecoscores to evaluate the toxicity of contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lors, Christine [Universite Lille Nord de France, 1bis rue Georges Lefevre, 59044 Lille Cedex (France); Ecole des Mines de Douai, MPE-GCE, 941 rue Charles-Bourseul, 59500 Douai (France); Centre National de Recherche sur les Sites et Sols Pollues, 930 Boulevard Lahure, BP 537, 59505 Douai Cedex (France); Ponge, Jean-Francois, E-mail: ponge@mnhn.f [Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, CNRS UMR 7179, 4 Avenue du Petit-Chateau, 91800 Brunoy (France); Martinez Aldaya, Maite [Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, CNRS UMR 7179, 4 Avenue du Petit-Chateau, 91800 Brunoy (France); Damidot, Denis [Universite Lille Nord de France, 1bis rue Georges Lefevre, 59044 Lille Cedex (France); Ecole des Mines de Douai, MPE-GCE, 941 rue Charles-Bourseul, 59500 Douai (France)

    2010-08-15

    Five bioassays (inhibition of lettuce germination and growth, earthworm mortality, inhibition of springtail population growth, avoidance by springtails) were compared, using four coke factory soils contaminated by PAHs and trace elements, before and after biotreatment. For each bioassay, several endpoints were combined in an 'ecoscore', a measure of test sensitivity. Ecoscores pooled over all tested bioassays revealed that most organisms were highly sensitive to the concentration of 3-ring PAHs. When four soils were combined, behavioural tests using the springtail Folsomia candida showed higher ecoscores, i.e. they were most sensitive to soil contamination. However, despite overall higher sensitivity of behavioural tests, which could be used for cheap and rapid assessment of soil toxicity, especially at low levels of contamination, some test endpoints were more sensitive than others, and this may differ from a soil to another, pointing to the need for a battery of bioassays when more itemized results are expected. - The avoidance test using the soil springtail Folsomia candida is globally more sensitive to PAH contamination than acute and chronic toxicity bioassays using plants and animals but a battery of tests could reveal better in detail.

  12. Ecotoxicogenomic assessment of diclofenac toxicity in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Guangquan; Braver, Michiel W. den; Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van; Straalen, Nico M. van; Roelofs, Dick

    2015-01-01

    Diclofenac is widely used as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug leaving residues in the environment. To investigate effects on terrestrial ecosystems, we measured dissipation rate in soil and investigated ecotoxicological and transcriptome-wide responses in Folsomia candida. Exposure for 4 weeks to diclofenac reduced both survival and reproduction of F. candida in a dose-dependent manner. At concentrations ≥200 mg/kg soil diclofenac remained stable in the soil during a 21-day incubation period. Microarrays examined transcriptional changes at low and high diclofenac exposure concentrations. The results indicated that development and growth were severely hampered and immunity-related genes, mainly directed against bacteria and fungi, were significantly up-regulated. Furthermore, neural metabolic processes were significantly affected only at the high concentration. We conclude that diclofenac is toxic to non-target soil invertebrates, although its mode of action is different from the mammalian toxicity. The genetic markers proposed in this study may be promising early markers for diclofenac ecotoxicity. - Highlights: • Diclofenac is toxic to the non-target soil invertebrate Folsomia candida. • Diclofenac mainly caused mortality and thus only indirectly affected reproduction. • Diclofenac mode of action in F. candida was checked with gene expression profiling. • Diclofenac significantly affected development, growth and immune related processes. • Diclofenac nervous system activity in F. candida was different from that in mammals. - Diclofenac is toxic to non-target soil invertebrates with a mode of action clearly different from mammalian toxicity

  13. Trophic position of soil nematodes in boreal forests as indicated by stable isotope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudrin, Alexey; Tsurikov, Sergey

    2016-04-01

    Despite the well-developed trophic classification of soil nematodes, their position in soil food webs is still little understood. Observed deviations from the typical feeding strategy indicate that a simplified trophic classification probably does not fully reflect actual trophic interactions. Furthermore, the extent and functional significance of nematodes as prey for other soil animals remains unknown. Stable isotope analysis (SIA) is powerful tool for investigating the structure of soil food webs, but its application to the study of soil nematodes has been limited to only a few studies. We used stable isotope analysis to gain a better understanding of trophic links of several groups of soil nematodes in two boreal forests on albeluvisol. We investigated four taxonomic groups of nematodes: Mononchida, Dorylaimida, Plectidae and Tylenchidae (mostly from the genus Filenchus), that according to the conventional trophic classification represent predators, omnivores, bacterivores and root-fungal feeders, respectively. To assess the trophic position of nematodes, we used a comparison against a set of reference species including herbivorous, saprophagous and predatory macro-invertebrates, oribatid and mesostigmatid mites, and collembolans. Our results suggest that trophic position of the investigated groups of soil nematodes generally corresponds to the conventional classification. All nematodes were enriched in 13C relative to Picea abies roots and litter, and mycorrhizal fungal mycelium. Root-fungal feeders Tylenchidae had δ15N values similar to those of earthworms, enchytraeids and Entomobrya collembolans, but slightly lower δ13C values. Bacterivorous Plectidae were either equal or enriched in 15N compared with saprophagous macroinvertebrates and most mesofauna species. Omnivorous Dorylaimida and predatory Mononchida were further enriched in 15N and their isotopic signature was similar to that of predatory arthropods. These data confirm a clear separation of

  14. A Risk Assessment Example for Soil Invertebrates Using Spatially Explicit Agent-Based Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reed, Melissa; Alvarez, Tania; Chelinho, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Current risk assessment methods for measuring the toxicity of plant protection products (PPPs) on soil invertebrates use standardized laboratory conditions to determine acute effects on mortality and sublethal effects on reproduction. If an unacceptable risk is identified at the lower tier...... population models for ubiquitous soil invertebrates (collembolans and earthworms) as refinement options in current risk assessment. Both are spatially explicit agent-based models (ABMs), incorporating individual and landscape variability. The models were used to provide refined risk assessments for different...... application scenarios of a hypothetical pesticide applied to potato crops (full-field spray onto the soil surface [termed “overall”], in-furrow, and soil-incorporated pesticide applications). In the refined risk assessment, the population models suggest that soil invertebrate populations would likely recover...

  15. Body size, diet and endoparasites of the microhylid frog Chiasmocleis capixaba in an Atlantic Forest area of southern Bahia state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Van Sluys

    Full Text Available We analyzed the diet composition, endoparasites and sexual size dimorphism of the microhylid frog Chiasmocleis capixaba (Microhylidae from a "mussununga" habitat in the municipality of Nova Viçosa, southern Bahia state, Brazil. All the 119 specimens analyzed were collected in a single night of heavy rainfall. Females (mean snout-vent length = 15.7 + 3.0 mm were significantly larger than males (mean snout-vent length = 13.2 + 2.1 mm, and specimens of both sexes were smaller than those of a conspecific population previously reported in Aracruz, state of Espírito Santo state. The diet of C. capixaba was dominated by mites, ants and collembolans. Seventy-nine frogs (66.4% of the total were infected by helminths, all belonging to a single species, Cosmocerca ornata, an intestinal nematode parasite.

  16. Soil microarthropods and their bioindicator value regarding the bio-edaphic conditions in forest ecosystems of Danube Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Călugăr A.,

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to compare soil mesofauna communities in natural and anthropogenic forests from Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve and establish a baseline data in monitoring the disturbed sites. The abundance and diversity of edaphic microarthropods were analyzed in five plots, three of them being natural forests and two plantations (Canada poplar, and respectively willow. The mites from Trombidiformes and Oribatida were closely investigated being identified at family level. Qualitative analysis of edaphic microarthropods evidences numerical dominance of mites, excepting only one stand (Canada poplar plantation. Among mites Oribatida owns the biggest weight (76.6 - 94.1% of the total mites, followed by Trombidiformes or Mesostigmata. Among insects the collembolans hold higher density in the poplar plantation, and the lowest one in the willow plantation. Structure of mites communities differs between the investigated ecosystems both in quantitative and qualitative aspects depending on particular conditions of each plot.

  17. Long-term multifactorial climate change impacts on mesofaunal biomass and nitrogen content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mette Vestergård; Dyrnum, Kristine; Michelsen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    increased at elevated CO2, or tended do so. In contrast, enchytraeid N content decreased at elevated CO2. Soil microbial biomass N pool and litter C:N ratio also increased with elevated CO2, which suggests that mite biomasses are more coupled to microbial biomass, whereas enchytraeid biomass to a larger...... extent is governed by litter nitrogen concentration, i.e. litter quality. Structural equation modelling confirmed the positive coupling between soil microbial N content and oribatid biomass and further between oribatid and mesostigmatic biomass. The SEM also revealed a negative relationship between...... microbial N content and enchytraeid biomass. The biomass of all mesofaunal groups was reduced by spring drought, especially when combined with warming. Enchytraeid and especially collembolan biomass suffered greater drought declines than mite biomasses. We conclude that under long-term elevated CO2 exposure...

  18. Does introduction of clover in an agricultural grassland affect the food base and functional diversity of Collembola?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Annibale, Alessandra; Sechi, Valentina; Larsen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    plots with either perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), whiteclover (Trifolium repens L.) or a mixture of both in a Danish agricultural grassland 6 and 14 months after establishing the leys (September and May, respectively). Diet preferences were investigated via stable isotope analyses (SIA...... in the white clover than ryegrass plots. Changes in taxa specific density and traits distribution as a response to the C:N ratio of plant material, suggest that plant material quality was the main factor affecting the collembolan community,especially when comparing the two sampling occasions. Functional...... richness decreased under conditions of low quality material. In contrast to our hypothesis, population densities did not increase under mixture treatment and functional richness decreased. Our results suggest that habitat changes, via different plant composition, can affect some functional groups, having...

  19. Soil arthropod fauna from natural ecosites and reclaimed oil sands soils in northern Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battigelli, J.P.; Leskiw, L.A. [Paragon Soil and Environmental Consulting Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    An understanding of soil invertebrates may facilitate current reclamation activities in the oil sands region of Alberta. This paper presented the results of a study investigating the density, diversity, and structure of soil arthropod assemblages in natural habitats and reclaimed sites. The purpose of the study was to establish a baseline inventory of soil arthropod assemblages in order to enable long-term monitoring of soil arthropod recolonization in disturbed sites. Nine natural ecosites were sampled for the study, including peat mix over secondary material over tailing sand; direct placement over tailing sand; peat mix over secondary over overburden; direct placement over overburden; peat mix over tailing sand; and peat mix over overburden. Samples were collected from previously established long-term soil and vegetation treatment plots in both natural ecosites and reclaimed soil sites located near Fort McMurray, Alberta. Results showed that densities of mesofauna were significantly higher in samples collected from natural ecosites. Acari and Collembola represented approximately 97 to 98 per cent of the fauna collected. It was also noted that the overall structure of the soil mesofauna community differed between natural soils and reclaimed soils. A significant reduction in the abundance of oribatid mites was observed in soils that had been reclaimed for over 34 years. Changes in the soil mesofauna community structure suggested that reclaimed soils continue to represent disturbed ecosites, as was indicated by higher proportions of prostigmatid mites and some collembolan families. Differences in community structure may influence soil ecosystem functions, including decomposition rates; nutrient recycling; soil structure; and fungal and bacterial biomass. It was concluded that further research is needed to examine oribatid mites and collembolan species diversity and community structure in reclaimed soils. 18 refs., 6 figs.

  20. Ecotoxicological assessment of metal-polluted urban soils using bioassays with three soil invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santorufo, Lucia; Van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Maisto, Giulia

    2012-07-01

    This study aimed at assessing the quality of urban soils by integrating chemical and ecotoxicological approaches. Soils from five sites in downtown Naples, Italy, were sampled and characterized for physical-chemical properties and total and water-extractable metal concentrations. Bioassays with Eisenia andrei, Enchytraeus crypticus and Folsomia candida were performed to assess toxicity of the soils, using survival, reproduction and growth as the endpoints. Metal bioaccumulation in the animals was also measured. The properties and metal concentrations of the soils strongly differed. Metal bioaccumulation was related with total metal concentrations in soil and was highest in E. crypticus, which was more sensitive than E. andrei and F. candida. Responses of the three species to the investigated soils seemed due to both metal contamination and soil properties. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of solid-phase bioassays and ecoscores to evaluate the toxicity of contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lors, Christine; Ponge, Jean-François; Martínez Aldaya, Maite; Damidot, Denis

    2010-08-01

    Five bioassays (inhibition of lettuce germination and growth, earthworm mortality, inhibition of springtail population growth, avoidance by springtails) were compared, using four coke factory soils contaminated by PAHs and trace elements, before and after biotreatment. For each bioassay, several endpoints were combined in an 'ecoscore', a measure of test sensitivity. Ecoscores pooled over all tested bioassays revealed that most organisms were highly sensitive to the concentration of 3-ring PAHs. When four soils were combined, behavioural tests using the springtail Folsomia candida showed higher ecoscores, i.e. they were most sensitive to soil contamination. However, despite overall higher sensitivity of behavioural tests, which could be used for cheap and rapid assessment of soil toxicity, especially at low levels of contamination, some test endpoints were more sensitive than others, and this may differ from a soil to another, pointing to the need for a battery of bioassays when more itemized results are expected. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of new soil metal immobilizing agents on metal toxicity to terrestrial invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lock, K.; Janssen, C.R

    2003-01-01

    Organisms with different exposure routes should be used to simultaneously assess risks of metals in soils. - Application of 5% (w:w) novel metal immobilizing agent reduced the water soluble, the calcium chloride extracted as well as the pore water concentration of zinc in soils from Maatheide, a metal contaminated site in the northeast of Belgium. Addition of the metal immobilizing agents also eliminated acute toxicity to the potworm Enchytraeus albidus and the earthworm Eisenia fetida and chronic toxicity to the springtail Folsomia candida. Cocoon production by E. fetida, however, was still adversely affected. These differences may be explained by the species dependent routes of metal uptake: F. candida is probably mainly exposed via pore water while in E. fetida dietary exposure is probably also important. From these results it is clear that organisms with different exposure routes should be used simultaneously to assess the environmental risk of metal contaminated soils.

  3. Effects of short-chain chlorinated paraffins on soil organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezchlebová, Jitka; Cernohlávková, Jitka; Kobeticová, Klára; Lána, Jan; Sochová, Ivana; Hofman, Jakub

    2007-06-01

    Despite the fact that chlorinated paraffins have been produced in relatively large amounts, and high concentrations have been found in sewage sludge applied to soils, there is little information on their concentrations in soils and the effect on soil organisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the toxicity of chlorinated paraffins in soils. The effects of short-chain chlorinated paraffins (64% chlorine content) on invertebrates (Eisenia fetida, Folsomia candida, Enchytraeus albidus, Enchytraeus crypticus, Caenorhabditis elegans) and substrate-induced respiration of indigenous microorganisms were studied. Differences were found in the sensitivity of the tested organisms to short-chain chlorinated paraffins. F. candida was identified as the most sensitive organism with LC(50) and EC(50) values of 5733 and 1230 mg/kg, respectively. Toxicity results were compared with available studies and the predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) of 5.28 mg/kg was estimated for the soil environment, based on our data.

  4. Physiological and molecular responses of springtails exposed to phenanthrene and drought

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmstrup, Martin; Slotsbo, Stine; Schmidt, Stine N.; Mayer, Philipp; Damgaard, Christian; Sørensen, Jesper G.

    2014-01-01

    Interaction between effects of hazardous chemicals in the environment and adverse climatic conditions is a problem that receives increased attention in the light of climate change. We studied interactive effects of phenanthrene and drought using a test system in which springtails (Folsomia candida Willem) were concurrently exposed to a sublethal phenanthrene level via passive dosing from silicone (chemical activity of 0.010), and sublethal drought from aqueous NaCl solutions (water activity of 0.988). Previous studies have shown that the combined effects of high levels of phenanthrene and drought, respectively, interact synergistically when using lethality as an end-point. Here, we hypothesized that phenanthrene interferes with physiological mechanisms involved in drought tolerance, and that drought influences detoxification of phenanthrene. However, this hypothesis was not supported by data since phenanthrene had no effect on drought-protective accumulation of myo-inositol, and normal water conserving mechanisms of F. candida were functioning despite the near-lethal concentrations of the toxicant. Further, detoxifying induction of cytochrome P 450 and glutathione-S-transferase was not impeded by drought. Both phenanthrene and drought induced transcription of heat shock protein (hsp70) and the combined effect of the two stressors on hsp70 transcription was additive, suggesting that the cellular stress and lethality imposed by these levels of phenanthrene and drought were also additive. -- Highlights: • New methods are needed for physiological studies of multiple stressor effects. • Springtails were exposed to combined stress from phenanthrene and drought. • Induction of CYP 450 and glutathione-S-transferase was not impeded by drought. • Drought-protective accumulation of myo-inositol was not challenged by phenanthrene. • The combined effect of phenanthrene and drought on hsp70 transcription was additive. -- Drought does not hamper detoxification of

  5. Is the red spotted green frog Hypsiboas punctatus (Anura: Hylidae) selecting its preys? The importance of prey availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Javier A; Scarabotti, Pablo A; Medrano, María C; Ghirardi, Romina

    2009-09-01

    The study of the feeding ecology of amphibians is an old issue in herpetology. Notwithstanding, the lack of food resources data in many studies of amphibians feeding has lead to partial understanding of frog feeding strategies. In this study we evaluate the trophic selectivity of a red spotted green frog (Hypsiboas punctatus) population from a Middle Paraná River floodplain pond in Argentina, and discuss the importance of prey availability data when interpreting results from diet analysis. We analyzed the gut contents of 47 H. punctatus adults and compared frog's diet with the environmental food resources. Prey availability was estimated by systematically seep-netting the microhabitat where anurans were localized foraging. We identified 33 taxonomic categories from gastrointestinal contents. Numerically, the most important prey categories were dipterans, followed by hemipterans, homopterans and coleopterans. The diet similarity between males and females was high and no statistical differences in diet composition were found. The most abundant food resources in the environment were dipterans, coleopterans, homopterans and collembolans. In order to assess whether frogs were selecting their preys, we calculated Pianka's niche overlap index and Jacobs' electivity index comparing gut contents to prey availability data. Trophic niche overlap was medium but significantly higher than expected by chance. The electivity index indicated that H. punctatus foraged dipterans slightly above their environmental abundance. Among the secondary preys, hemipterans were foraged selectively, homopterans were consumed in the same proportion to their occurrence in the environment, coleopterans were foraged quite under their availability and collembolans were practically ignored by frogs. Without food resources data, H. punctatus could be classified as a specialist feeder, but dipterans also were quite abundant in the environment. Our results show that H. punctatus fit better as a

  6. Type 'A' and 'B' recovery revisited: The role of field-edge habitats for Collembola and macroarthropod community recovery after insecticide treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frampton, Geoff K. [Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Group, School of Biological Sciences, University of Southampton, Bassett Crescent East, Southampton SO16 7PX (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: gkf@soton.ac.uk; Gould, Philip J.L. [Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Group, School of Biological Sciences, University of Southampton, Bassett Crescent East, Southampton SO16 7PX (United Kingdom); Brink, Paul J. van den [Alterra, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Department of Aquatic Ecology and Water Quality Management, Wageningen University, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Wageningen (Netherlands); Hendy, Eleanor [Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Group, School of Biological Sciences, University of Southampton, Bassett Crescent East, Southampton SO16 7PX (United Kingdom)

    2007-02-15

    Previous work has identified two patterns of arthropod recovery after insecticide applications to arable crops: dispersal-mediated recolonisation from untreated areas (Type A) and recolonisation within treated areas assisted by reduced predation (Type B). In this study, connectivity between field-edge habitats was manipulated using barriers to investigate whether a crop edge and adjacent hedgerow influence recolonisation of an insecticide-treated crop by surface-active Collembola and other arthropods. Collembola recovery patterns differed among closely-related taxa. Epigeic collembolan and macroarthropod communities were more diverse and abundant, and rates of artificial prey predation were higher, in sprayed crop areas connected to both hedgerow and unsprayed crop edge than in sprayed areas connected to the unsprayed edge alone. These findings indicate that effectiveness of unsprayed crop edges as sources of field recolonisation may depend on adjoining field margin habitats. An assumption in risk assessment that unsprayed crop edges assist population recovery within treated areas is not supported. - Collembola recolonisation differs among species; effectiveness of unsprayed crop edges as sources of arthropod recolonisation may depend on adjacent habitat.

  7. Collembola and macroarthropod community responses to carbamate, organophosphate and synthetic pyrethroid insecticides: Direct and indirect effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frampton, Geoff K. [Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Group, School of Biological Sciences, University of Southampton, Bassett Crescent East, Southampton SO16 7PX (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: gkf@soton.ac.uk; Brink, Paul J. van den [Alterra, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Wageningen University, Department of Aquatic Ecology and Water Quality Management, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 8080, 6700 DD Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2007-05-15

    Non-target effects on terrestrial arthropod communities of the broad-spectrum insecticides chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin and the selective insecticide pirimicarb were investigated in winter wheat fields in summer. Effects of chlorpyrifos on arthropod abundance and taxonomic richness were consistently negative whereas effects of cypermethrin were negative for predatory arthropods but positive for soil surface Collembola. Pirimicarb effects were marginal, primarily on aphids and their antagonists, with no effect on the Collembola community. Collembola-predator ratios were significantly higher following cypermethrin treatment, suggesting that cypermethrin-induced increases in collembolan abundance represent a classical resurgence. Observations in other studies suggest Collembola resurgences may be typical after synthetic pyrethroid applications. Collembola responses to insecticides differed among species, both in terms of effect magnitude and persistence, suggesting that coarse taxonomic monitoring would not adequately detect pesticide risks. These findings have implications for pesticide risk assessments and for the selection of indicator species. - Direct and indirect insecticide effects differ among closely-related arthropod taxa; resurgence of Collembola may occur widely after synthetic pyrethroid insecticide applications.

  8. Effects of sewage sludge addition to Norway spruce seedlings on nitrogen availability and soil fauna in clear-cut areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, Jouni K; Räisänen, Mikko

    2013-07-01

    Anaerobically digested and composted sewage sludge (CSS) has been suggested to be a slow-release fertilizer in forestry and an alternative to quick-release inorganic fertilizers. The effects of CSS with or without added carbohydrate on inorganic nitrogen availability and on soil animals were tested in two Norway spruce plantations. Half of the seedlings were individually fertilized with CSS, and the rest were left as controls. Solid sucrose was added to half of the fertilized and untreated seedlings. Soil samples were taken in the autumn in the first and the second year after the treatments. CSS increased soil NH4-N (2100%), the proportion of soil NO3-N, and the N concentration of spruce needles. CSS greatly reduced the abundances of enchytraeids, tardigrades and collembolans, but increased the proportion and abundance of bacterial-feeding nematodes irrespective of carbohydrate addition. A better stabilization method needs to be developed before CSS can be used as a forest fertilizer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Diversity of soil fauna in corn fields in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain of China under effects of conservation tillage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qiang-Gen; Zhu, An-Ning; Zhang, Jia-Bao; Zhang, Huan-Chao; Huang, Ping; Zhang, Cong-Zhi

    2009-10-01

    An investigation was made on the abundance and diversity of soil fauna in the corn fields under conventional and conservation tillage in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain of China. The abundance and diversity of soil fauna were higher at corn maturing (September) than at its jointing stage (July), and higher at jointing stage under conservation tillage than under conventional tillage. Soil fauna mainly distributed in surface soil layer (0-10 cm), but still had a larger number in 10-20 cm layer under conservation tillage. The individuals of acari, diptera, diplura, and microdrile oligochaetes, especially those of acari, were higher under conservation tillage than under conventional tillage. At maturing stage, an obvious effect of straw-returning under conservation tillage was observed, i. e., the more the straw returned, the higher the abundance of soil fauna, among which, the individuals of collembola, acari, coleopteran, and psocoptera, especially those of collembolan, increased significantly. The abundance of collembola at both jointing and maturing stages was significantly positively correlated with the quantity of straw returned, suggesting that collembola played an important role in straw decomposition and nutrient cycling.

  10. Bioavailability and bioaccessibility of petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated site soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, G.; Angell, R.; Strive, E.; Ma, W.

    2010-01-01

    Although the bioavailability and/or bioaccessibility of contaminants in soil can be measured by various ecological receptors, the methods that are suitable for metals do not necessarily work well for petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs). In this study, several biological and chemical methods were used at various PHC contaminated sites to find the most fitting method for different soil types in terms of predicting the biological responses of organisms as measured by standard single species toxicity tests. Organisms such as plants, earthworms, and collembolan were exposed to soils with different PHC concentrations. Multiple endpoints were then measured to evaluate the biological responses. The exposure concentrations for the 4 CCME hydrocarbon fractions were measured using hexane:acetone extraction as well as extractions with cyclodextrin, and a mixture of enzymes to simulate the gastro-intestinal fluid of an earthworm. The estimated exposure concentrations depended on the extraction method. The study showed that existing methodologies must be modified in order to better estimate the biological effect of PHCs in soil. Comparative data was presented and discussed along with proposed methodological modifications.

  11. Soil invertebrates as bioindicators of urban soil quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santorufo, Lucia; Van Gestel, Cornelis A.M.; Rocco, Annamaria; Maisto, Giulia

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at relating the abundance and diversity of invertebrate communities of urban soils to chemical and physical soil characteristics and to identify the taxa most sensitive or tolerant to soil stressors. The invertebrate community of five urban soils in Naples, Italy, was sampled. To assess soil quality invertebrate community indices (Shannon, Simpson, Menhinick and Pielou indices), Acarina/Collembola ratios, and the soil biological quality index (QBS) were calculated. The chemical and physical characteristics of the soils strongly differed. Abundance rather than taxa richness of invertebrates were more affected by soil characteristics. The community was more abundant and diverse in the soils with high organic matter and water content and low metal (Cu, Pb, Zn) concentrations. The taxa more resistant to the urban environment included Acarina, Enchytraeids, Collembola and Nematoda. Collembolans appeared particularly sensitive to changing soil properties. Among the investigated indices, QBS seems most appropriate for soil quality assessment. - Highlights: ► The abundance and diversity of invertebrate communities was related to properties and metal contents of urban soils. ► Several (biodiversity) indices were calculated and compared to evaluate soil quality. ► Metal contamination affected invertebrate density and diversity. ► The taxa more tolerant to metal contamination were Acarina, Enchytraeids, Collembola and Nematoda. ► The soil biological quality index QBS index was most appropriate for soil quality assessment. - Soil metal contamination negatively affected soil invertebrate abundance and diversity.

  12. Comparison of solid-phase and eluate assays to gauge the ecotoxicological risk of organic wastes on soil organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domene, Xavier; Alcaniz, Josep M.; Andres, Pilar

    2008-01-01

    Development of methodologies to assess the safety of reusing polluted organic wastes in soil is a priority in Europe. In this study, and coupled with chemical analysis, seven organic wastes were subjected to different aquatic and soil bioassays. Tests were carried out with solid-phase waste and three different waste eluates (water, methanol, and dichloromethane). Solid-phase assays were indicated as the most suitable for waste testing not only in terms of relevance for real situations, but also because toxicity in eluates was generally not representative of the chronic effects in solid-phase. No general correlations were found between toxicity and waste pollutant burden, neither in solid-phase nor in eluate assays, showing the inability of chemical methods to predict the ecotoxicological risks of wastes. On the contrary, several physicochemical parameters reflecting the degree of low organic matter stability in wastes were the main contributors to the acute toxicity seen in collembolans and daphnids. - Comparison of solid-phase and eluate bioassays for organic waste testing

  13. Type 'A' and 'B' recovery revisited: The role of field-edge habitats for Collembola and macroarthropod community recovery after insecticide treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frampton, Geoff K.; Gould, Philip J.L.; Brink, Paul J. van den; Hendy, Eleanor

    2007-01-01

    Previous work has identified two patterns of arthropod recovery after insecticide applications to arable crops: dispersal-mediated recolonisation from untreated areas (Type A) and recolonisation within treated areas assisted by reduced predation (Type B). In this study, connectivity between field-edge habitats was manipulated using barriers to investigate whether a crop edge and adjacent hedgerow influence recolonisation of an insecticide-treated crop by surface-active Collembola and other arthropods. Collembola recovery patterns differed among closely-related taxa. Epigeic collembolan and macroarthropod communities were more diverse and abundant, and rates of artificial prey predation were higher, in sprayed crop areas connected to both hedgerow and unsprayed crop edge than in sprayed areas connected to the unsprayed edge alone. These findings indicate that effectiveness of unsprayed crop edges as sources of field recolonisation may depend on adjoining field margin habitats. An assumption in risk assessment that unsprayed crop edges assist population recovery within treated areas is not supported. - Collembola recolonisation differs among species; effectiveness of unsprayed crop edges as sources of arthropod recolonisation may depend on adjacent habitat

  14. Cuticular Compounds Bring New Insight in the Post-Glacial Recolonization of a Pyrenean Area: Deutonura deficiens Deharveng, 1979 Complex, a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porco, David; Bedos, Anne; Deharveng, Louis

    2010-01-01

    Background In most Arthropod groups, the study of systematics and evolution rely mostly on neutral characters, in this context cuticular compounds, as non-neutral characters, represent an underexplored but potentially informative type of characters at the infraspecific level as they have been routinely proven to be involved in sexual attraction. Methods and Findings The collembolan species complex Deutonura deficiens was chosen as a model in order to test the utility of these characters for delineating four infraspecific entities of this group. Specimens were collected for three subspecies (D. d. deficiens, D. d. meridionalis, D. d. sylvatica) and two morphotypes (D. d. sylvatica morphoype A and B) of the complex; an additional species D. monticola was added. Cuticular compounds were extracted and separated by gas chromatography for each individual. Our results demonstrate that cuticular compounds succeeded in separating the different elements of this complex. Those data allowed also the reconstruction of the phylogenetic relationships among them. Conclusions The discriminating power of cuticular compounds is directly related to their involvement in sexual attraction and mate recognition. These findings allowed a discussion on the potential involvement of intrinsic and paleoclimatic factors in the origin and the diversification of this complex in the Pyrenean zone. This character type brings the first advance from pattern to process concerning the origin of this species complex. PMID:21209797

  15. Effects of prey size and foraging mode on the ontogenetic change in feeding niche ofColostethus stepheni (Anura: Dendrobatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Albertina P; Moreira, Gloria

    1993-03-01

    The feeding niche ofColostethus stepheni changes during ontogeny. Small individuals eat small arthropods, principally mites and collembolans, and larger frogs eat bigger prey of other types. The shift in prey types is not a passive effect of selection for bigger prey. There is a strong relationship between electivity for prey types and frog size, independent of electivity for prey size. Four indices of general activity during foraging (number of movements, velocity, total area utilized and time spent moving), which are associated with electivity for prey types in adult frogs and lizards, did not predict the ontogenetic change in the diet ofC. stepheni. Apparently, the behavioral changes that cause the ontogenetic change inC. stepheni are more subtle than shifts in general activity during foraging. Studies of niche partitioning in communities of anurans that do not take into consideration ontogenetic changes in diet and seasonal changes in the size structures of populations present a partial and possibly erroneous picture of the potential interactions among species.

  16. Indications for the tracking of elevated nitrogen levels through the fungal route in a soil food web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogervorst, R.F.; Dijkhuis, M.A.J.; Schaar, M.A. van der; Berg, M.P.; Verhoef, H.A.

    2003-01-01

    Elevated levels of N in soil can be tracked via fungi in the soil food web. - The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of elevated N in dead organic matter on the growth of fungi and to establish the consequences for the development of microbivores. Therefore, three fungal species were cultured on Scots pine litter differing in N content. The growth of the soil fungal species Trichoderma koningii, Penicillium glabrum and Cladosporium cladosporioides was directly influenced by the N content (ranging from 1.25 to 2.19% N) of the substrate. For all three fungal species maximum growth was highest at intermediate N content (1.55%) of the substrate. The fungivorous collembolan Orchesella cincta reached highest asymptotic body mass when fed with C. cladosporioides, grown on litter medium with intermediate N content (1.55%). The growth of O. cincta was lower when fed with C. cladosporioides from litter medium with the highest N content (2.19%). Similar results were obtained in mesocosm experiments in which pine litter with three levels of N (1.11, 1.78, 2.03% N) was used as substrate for the fungi. On litter with the highest N content (2.03%) hyphal length and asymptotic body mass of O. cincta were reduced. The results show that the N content of the substrate determines the growth of both fungi and fungivores, and suggest that elevated levels of N in soil track through the fungal part of the soil food web

  17. Gene expression changes governing extreme dehydration tolerance in an Antarctic insect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teets, Nicholas M.; Peyton, Justin T.; Colinet, Herve; Renault, David; Kelley, Joanna L.; Kawarasaki, Yuta; Lee, Richard E.; Denlinger, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Among terrestrial organisms, arthropods are especially susceptible to dehydration, given their small body size and high surface area to volume ratio. This challenge is particularly acute for polar arthropods that face near-constant desiccating conditions, as water is frozen and thus unavailable for much of the year. The molecular mechanisms that govern extreme dehydration tolerance in insects remain largely undefined. In this study, we used RNA sequencing to quantify transcriptional mechanisms of extreme dehydration tolerance in the Antarctic midge, Belgica antarctica, the world’s southernmost insect and only insect endemic to Antarctica. Larvae of B. antarctica are remarkably tolerant of dehydration, surviving losses up to 70% of their body water. Gene expression changes in response to dehydration indicated up-regulation of cellular recycling pathways including the ubiquitin-mediated proteasome and autophagy, with concurrent down-regulation of genes involved in general metabolism and ATP production. Metabolomics results revealed shifts in metabolite pools that correlated closely with changes in gene expression, indicating that coordinated changes in gene expression and metabolism are a critical component of the dehydration response. Finally, using comparative genomics, we compared our gene expression results with a transcriptomic dataset for the Arctic collembolan, Megaphorura arctica. Although B. antarctica and M. arctica are adapted to similar environments, our analysis indicated very little overlap in expression profiles between these two arthropods. Whereas several orthologous genes showed similar expression patterns, transcriptional changes were largely species specific, indicating these polar arthropods have developed distinct transcriptional mechanisms to cope with similar desiccating conditions. PMID:23197828

  18. Consideraciones ecológicas sobre la dieta, la reproducción y el parasitismo de Pseudopaludicola boliviana (Anura, Leptodactylidae de Corrientes, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo I. Kehr

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Ecological aspects of diet, reproduction, and parasitism of Pseudopaludicola boliviana (Anura, Leptodactylidae from Corrientes, Argentina.The main objectives of this paper were to update the distribution range of Pseudopaludicola boliviana in Argentina, to determine its diet composition and the feeding patterns, to analyze some reproductive variables as mature ova count and diameter in relation to female snoutvent length, to describe the advertisement call for Argentinean populations, and to identify and to localize its helminth parasites. Eleven prey types were identified; dipterans were more important both in number (23.53% and in volume (41.30%;other important preys were collembolans, arachnids and coleopterans. The trophic niche width was 7.15 and the standardized trophic niche value was 0.61. Ovarian complement (number of mature ova for female ranged from 50 to 319 (mean 175.3 ± 86.12, while ovum diameter ranged from 0.2 to 0.4 mm (mean 0.27 ± 0.062. The nuptial call is composed by five notes. The dominant frequency ranged from 3.488 to5.927 kHz; emphasized frequency fluctuated between 4.942 and 5.224 kHz. A total of 10 helminth species (larvae and adults were found in 54 (96% infected frogs. Helminths were represented by Trematoda (7 species, Cestoda (1, Nematoda (1, and Acanthocephala (1.

  19. Cuticular compounds bring new insight in the post-glacial recolonization of a Pyrenean area: Deutonura deficiens Deharveng, 1979 complex, a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porco, David; Bedos, Anne; Deharveng, Louis

    2010-12-21

    In most Arthropod groups, the study of systematics and evolution rely mostly on neutral characters, in this context cuticular compounds, as non-neutral characters, represent an underexplored but potentially informative type of characters at the infraspecific level as they have been routinely proven to be involved in sexual attraction. The collembolan species complex Deutonura deficiens was chosen as a model in order to test the utility of these characters for delineating four infraspecific entities of this group. Specimens were collected for three subspecies (D. d. deficiens, D. d. meridionalis, D. d. sylvatica) and two morphotypes (D. d. sylvatica morphoype A and B) of the complex; an additional species D. monticola was added. Cuticular compounds were extracted and separated by gas chromatography for each individual. Our results demonstrate that cuticular compounds succeeded in separating the different elements of this complex. Those data allowed also the reconstruction of the phylogenetic relationships among them. The discriminating power of cuticular compounds is directly related to their involvement in sexual attraction and mate recognition. These findings allowed a discussion on the potential involvement of intrinsic and paleoclimatic factors in the origin and the diversification of this complex in the Pyrenean zone. This character type brings the first advance from pattern to process concerning the origin of this species complex.

  20. Secondary successions of biota in oil-polluted peat soil upon different biological remediation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melekhina, E. N.; Markarova, M. Yu.; Shchemelinina, T. N.; Anchugova, E. M.; Kanev, V. A.

    2015-06-01

    The effects of different bioremediation methods on restoration of the oil-polluted peat soil (Histosol) in the northernmost taiga subzone of European Russia was studied. The population dynamics of microorganisms belonging to different trophic groups (hydrocarbon-oxidizing, ammonifying, nitrifying, and oligonitrophilic) were analyzed together with data on the soil enzyme (catalase and dehydrogenase) activities, population densities of soil microfauna groups, their structures, and states of phytocenoses during a sevenyear-long succession. The remediation with biopreparations Roder composed of oil-oxidizing microorganisms-Roder with Rhodococcus rubber and R. erythropolis and Universal with Rhodotorula glutinis and Rhodococcus sp.-was more efficient than the agrochemical and technical remediation. It was concluded that the biopreparations activate microbiological oil destruction, thereby accelerating restoration succession of phytocenosis and zoocenosis. The succession of dominant microfauna groups was observed: the dipteran larvae and Mesostigmata mites predominant at the early stages were replaced by collembolans at later stages. The pioneer oribatid mite species were Tectocepheus velatus, Oppiella nova, Liochthonius sellnicki, Oribatula tibialis, and Eupelops sp.

  1. Soil Warming Elevates the Abundance of Collembola in the Songnen Plain of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiumin Yan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of soil warming and precipitation control in the context of soil warming on Collembola community was studied in Songnen grassland, China. Treatments included (1 control; (2 soil warming; (3 soil warming with low precipitation; and (4 soil warming with high precipitation. The open top chambers were used to increase the soil temperature, and the low and high precipitation were created by covering 30% of the chamber and artificial addition after rainfall through the three-year long field experiment. Soil samples were taken and collembolans were extracted in the 15th in June, August and October from 2010 to 2012. Abundance of total Collembola and dominant morphospecies Orchesellides sp.1 was significantly increased by soil warming. Total Collembola abundance was not affected by the precipitation. However, the abundance of Mesaphorura sp.1 was significantly increased by warming with low precipitation treatment. Collembola species richness, diversity and evenness were not impacted by any treatment through all the sampling times. These results suggest that more attention should be paid to the Collembola community variation under global warming in the future.

  2. Collembola and macroarthropod community responses to carbamate, organophosphate and synthetic pyrethroid insecticides: Direct and indirect effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frampton, Geoff K.; Brink, Paul J. van den

    2007-01-01

    Non-target effects on terrestrial arthropod communities of the broad-spectrum insecticides chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin and the selective insecticide pirimicarb were investigated in winter wheat fields in summer. Effects of chlorpyrifos on arthropod abundance and taxonomic richness were consistently negative whereas effects of cypermethrin were negative for predatory arthropods but positive for soil surface Collembola. Pirimicarb effects were marginal, primarily on aphids and their antagonists, with no effect on the Collembola community. Collembola-predator ratios were significantly higher following cypermethrin treatment, suggesting that cypermethrin-induced increases in collembolan abundance represent a classical resurgence. Observations in other studies suggest Collembola resurgences may be typical after synthetic pyrethroid applications. Collembola responses to insecticides differed among species, both in terms of effect magnitude and persistence, suggesting that coarse taxonomic monitoring would not adequately detect pesticide risks. These findings have implications for pesticide risk assessments and for the selection of indicator species. - Direct and indirect insecticide effects differ among closely-related arthropod taxa; resurgence of Collembola may occur widely after synthetic pyrethroid insecticide applications

  3. Succession of insects on unreclaimed coal strip mine spoil banks in Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrock, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    Selected sites at a western Indiana unreclaimed coal strip mine and adjacent undisturbed area sampled by Munsee in 1964 were restudied in 1981. Slope and exposure, soil pH and texture, vegetation and tree tallies, on-site rainfall and local weather records were used to characterize 18 spoilbanks and two unmined sites. Surface-active arthropods were sampled by replicated pitfall taps the summer of 1981 at the same locations and dates trapped by Munsee in 1964. Plant cover was sampled by a modified point-contact method. Trees over one inch dbh were tallied and measured for basal area. Clustering by similarity based on chi-square differences was performed for plants, trees, ants, springtails and ground beetles, using the undisturbed forest and a highly acid un-revegetated mined site as the extremes. Soil pH and texture changed rapidly on one moist spoilbank. Soil moisture levels generally decreased between 1964 and 1981 and depth of water penetration generally increased. Ant, springtail and carabid populations changed on revegetating sites. Myrmica spatulata and Smithistruma clypeata were major new ants on the sites in 1981. Iridomyrmex pruinosus analis and Pheidole bicarinata characteristic of barren spoilbanks in 1964 survived on only one remaining barren site in 1981. The collembolan Entomobrya quadrilineata decreased while Hypogastrura denticulata increased on the revegetating sites. Known habitat preference of some of these insects matched their occurrence on the spoilbanks.

  4. Indications for the tracking of elevated nitrogen levels through the fungal route in a soil food web

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogervorst, R.F.; Dijkhuis, M.A.J.; Schaar, M.A. van der; Berg, M.P.; Verhoef, H.A

    2003-11-01

    Elevated levels of N in soil can be tracked via fungi in the soil food web. - The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of elevated N in dead organic matter on the growth of fungi and to establish the consequences for the development of microbivores. Therefore, three fungal species were cultured on Scots pine litter differing in N content. The growth of the soil fungal species Trichoderma koningii, Penicillium glabrum and Cladosporium cladosporioides was directly influenced by the N content (ranging from 1.25 to 2.19% N) of the substrate. For all three fungal species maximum growth was highest at intermediate N content (1.55%) of the substrate. The fungivorous collembolan Orchesella cincta reached highest asymptotic body mass when fed with C. cladosporioides, grown on litter medium with intermediate N content (1.55%). The growth of O. cincta was lower when fed with C. cladosporioides from litter medium with the highest N content (2.19%). Similar results were obtained in mesocosm experiments in which pine litter with three levels of N (1.11, 1.78, 2.03% N) was used as substrate for the fungi. On litter with the highest N content (2.03%) hyphal length and asymptotic body mass of O. cincta were reduced. The results show that the N content of the substrate determines the growth of both fungi and fungivores, and suggest that elevated levels of N in soil track through the fungal part of the soil food web.

  5. Lethal body concentrations and accumulation patterns determine time-dependent toxicity of cadmium in soil arthropods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crommentuijn, T.; Doodeman, C.J.A.M.; Doornekamp, A.; Pol, J.J.C. van der; Bedaux, J.J.M.; Gestel, C.A.M. van (Vrije Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands))

    1994-11-01

    Time-dependent toxicity in bioassays is usually explained in terms of uptake and elimination kinetics of the toxicant. By comparing different species with essentially different accumulation kinetics, a firm test of this concept may be made. This article compares the sensitivity of six soil arthropods, the collembolans Orchesella cincta and Tomocerus minor, the oribatid mite Platynothrus peltifer, the isopods Porcellio scaber and Oniscus asellus, and the diplopod Cylindroiulus britannicus, when exposed to cadmium in the food. Survival was determined at various time intervals; accumulation of cadmium in the animals was measured at one time interval. Kinetic-based toxicity models were fitted to the data, and estimates were obtained for lethal body concentration, uptake rate constant, elimination rate constant, and ultimate LC50. Two different accumulation patterns could be discerned; these were correlated with time-survival relationships. One, species that have the possibility to eliminate cadmium will reach an equilibrium for the internal concentration and also an ultimate LC50. Two, species that are unable to eliminate cadmium but store it in the body will have an ultimate LC50 equal to zero. For these species the time in which the lethal body concentration is reached is more important. Taxonomically related species appeared to have comparable accumulation patterns, but lethal body concentrations differed. It is concluded that knowledge of the accumulation pattern is indispensable for the evaluation of species' sensitivities to toxicants.

  6. Bioavailability and bioaccessibility of petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated site soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephenson, G.; Angell, R.; Strive, E.; Ma, W. [Stantec Consulting Ltd., Surrey, BC (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Although the bioavailability and/or bioaccessibility of contaminants in soil can be measured by various ecological receptors, the methods that are suitable for metals do not necessarily work well for petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs). In this study, several biological and chemical methods were used at various PHC contaminated sites to find the most fitting method for different soil types in terms of predicting the biological responses of organisms as measured by standard single species toxicity tests. Organisms such as plants, earthworms, and collembolan were exposed to soils with different PHC concentrations. Multiple endpoints were then measured to evaluate the biological responses. The exposure concentrations for the 4 CCME hydrocarbon fractions were measured using hexane:acetone extraction as well as extractions with cyclodextrin, and a mixture of enzymes to simulate the gastro-intestinal fluid of an earthworm. The estimated exposure concentrations depended on the extraction method. The study showed that existing methodologies must be modified in order to better estimate the biological effect of PHCs in soil. Comparative data was presented and discussed along with proposed methodological modifications.

  7. Delimiting species of Protaphorura (Collembola: Onychiuridae): integrative evidence based on morphology, DNA sequences and geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xin; Zhang, Feng; Ding, Yinhuan; Davies, Thomas W; Li, Yu; Wu, Donghui

    2017-08-15

    Species delimitation remains a significant challenge when the diagnostic morphological characters are limited. Integrative taxonomy was applied to the genus Protaphorura (Collembola: Onychiuridae), which is one of most difficult soil animals to distinguish taxonomically. Three delimitation approaches (morphology, molecular markers and geography) were applied providing rigorous species validation criteria with an acceptably low error rate. Multiple molecular approaches, including distance- and evolutionary model-based methods, were used to determine species boundaries based on 144 standard barcode sequences. Twenty-two molecular putative species were consistently recovered across molecular and geographical analyses. Geographic criteria were was proved to be an efficient delimitation method for onychiurids. Further morphological examination, based on the combination of the number of pseudocelli, parapseudocelli and ventral mesothoracic chaetae, confirmed 18 taxa of 22 molecular units, with six of them described as new species. These characters were found to be of high taxonomical value. This study highlights the potential benefits of integrative taxonomy, particularly simultaneous use of molecular/geographical tools, as a powerful way of ascertaining the true diversity of the Onychiuridae. Our study also highlights that discovering new morphological characters remains central to achieving a full understanding of collembolan taxonomy.

  8. Effects of ecological flooding on the temporal and spatial dynamics of carabid beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae and springtails (Collembola in a polder habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Lessel

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Within the scope of the Integrated Rhine Program an ecological flood gate and channel was inserted into the polder “Ingelheim” to enhance animal and plant diversity. In 2008, carabid beetles and springtails were collected, using pitfall traps, to measure the effects of ecological flooding and a strong precipitation event at a flood-disturbed and a dry location in this area. At both localities, xerophilic and mesophilic carabid beetle species were dominant throughout the study period. The total number of individuals of hygrophilic species was comparatively constant, while species number increased, partly due to the changed moisture conditions caused by ecological flooding and strong precipitation. Carabid beetle diversity and evenness decreased marginally when ecological flooding was absent. Springtails represent a less mobile arthropod order, and as such the impact of ecological flooding was stronger. An increase in both numbers of species and individuals of hygrophilic and hygrotolerant species occurred in the flood-disturbed location after ecological flooding. After the sites at both locations had dried, the number of individuals belonging to these species declined rapidly. In contrast to carabid species, the strong precipitation event showed no influence on hygrophilic springtail species. Thus, collembolan diversity and evenness decreased markedly in the absence of flooding. We showed that ecological flooding has an influence on the spatial and temporal dynamics of different arthropod groups that inhabit the polder “Ingelheim”. These findings demonstrate the importance of using different arthropod groups as bioindicators in determining the ecological value of a particular polder design.

  9. Do alterations in mesofauna community affect earthworms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uvarov, Alexei V; Karaban, Kamil

    2015-11-01

    Interactions between the saprotrophic animal groups that strongly control soil microbial activities and the functioning of detrital food webs, such as earthworms and mesofauna, are not well understood. Earthworm trophic and engineering activities strongly affect mesofauna abundance and diversity through various direct and indirect pathways. In contrast, mesofauna effects on earthworm populations are less evident; however, their importance may be high, considering the keystone significance of earthworms for the functioning of the soil system. We studied effects of a diverse mesofauna community of a deciduous forest on two earthworm species representing epigeic (Lumbricus rubellus) and endogeic (Aporrectodea caliginosa) ecological groups. In microcosms, the density of total mesofauna or its separate groups (enchytraeids, collembolans, gamasid mites) was manipulated (increased) and responses of earthworms and soil systems were recorded. A rise in mesofauna density resulted in a decrease of biomass and an increased mortality in L. rubellus, presumably due to competition with mesofauna for litter resources. In contrast, similar mesofauna manipulations promoted reproduction of A. caliginosa, suggesting a facilitated exploitation of litter resources due to increased mesofauna activities. Changes of microcosm respiration rates, litter organic matter content and microbial activities across the manipulation treatments indicate that mesofauna modify responses of soil systems in the presence of earthworms. However, similar mesofauna manipulations could induce different responses in soil systems with either epigeic or endogeic lumbricids, which suggests that earthworm/mesofauna interactions are species-specific. Thus, mesofauna impacts should be treated as a factor affecting the engineering activities of epigeic and endogeic earthworms in the soil.

  10. Earthworms drive succession of both plant and Collembola communities in post-mining sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudrák, Ondřej; Uteseny, Karoline; Frouz, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Previous field observations indicated that earthworms promote late-successional plant species and reduce collembolan numbers at post-mining sites in the Sokolov coal mining district (Czech Republic). Here, we established a laboratory pot experiment to test the effect of earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa Savigny and Lumbricus rubellus Hoffm.) and litter of low, medium, and high quality (the grass Calamagrostis epigejos, the willow Salix caprea, and the alder Alnus glutinosa, respectively) on late successional plants (grasses Arrhenatherum elatius and Agrostis capillaris, legumes Lotus corniculatus and Trifolium medium, and non-leguminous dicots Centaurea jacea and Plantago lanceolata) in spoil substrate originating from Sokolov post-mining sites and naturally inhabited by abundant numbers of Collembola. The earthworms increased plant biomass, especially that of the large-seeded A. elatius, but reduced the number of plant individuals, mainly that of the small-seeded A. capillaris and both legumes. Litter quality affected plant biomass, which was highest with S. caprea litter, but did not change the number of plant individuals. Litter quality did not modify the effect of earthworms on plants; the effect of litter quality and earthworms was only additive. Species composition of Collembola community was altered by litter quality, but earthworms reduced the number of individuals, increased the number of species, and increased species evenness consistently across the litter qualities. Because the results of this experiment were consistent with the field observations, we conclude that earthworms help drive succession of both plant and Collembola communities on post-mining sites.

  11. eDNA-based bioassessment of coastal sediments impacted by an oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yuwei; Zhang, Xiaowei; Yang, Jianghua; Kim, Seonjin; Hong, Seongjin; Giesy, John P; Yim, Un Hyuk; Shim, Won Joon; Yu, Hongxia; Khim, Jong Seong

    2018-07-01

    Oil spills offshore can cause long-term ecological effects on coastal marine ecosystems. Despite their important ecological roles in the cycling of energy and nutrients in food webs, effects on bacteria, protists or arthropods are often neglected. Environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding was applied to characterize changes in the structure of micro- and macro-biota communities of surface sediments over a 7-year period since the occurrence of Hebei Spirit oil spill on December 7, 2007. Alterations in diversities and structures of micro- and macro-biota were observed in the contaminated area where concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were greater. Successions of bacterial, protists and metazoan communities revealed long-term ecological effects of residual oil. Residual oil dominated the largest cluster of the community-environment association network. Presence of bacterial families (Aerococcaceae and Carnobacteriaceae) and the protozoan family (Platyophryidae) might have conferred sensitivity of communities to oil pollution. Hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial families (Anaerolinaceae, Desulfobacteraceae, Helicobacteraceae and Piscirickettsiaceae) and algal family (Araphid pennate) were resistant to adverse effects of spilt oil. The protistan family (Subulatomonas) and arthropod families (Folsomia, Sarcophagidae Opomyzoidea, and Anomura) appeared to be positively associated with residual oil pollution. eDNA metabarcoding can provide a powerful tool for assessing effects of anthropogenic pollution, such as oil spills on sediment communities and its long-term trends in coastal marine environments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Biological testing of a digested sewage sludge and derived composts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, R; Sousa, J P; Canhoto, C

    2008-11-01

    Aiming to evaluate a possible loss of soil habitat function after amendment with organic wastes, a digested sewage sludge and derived composts produced with green residues, where biologically tested in the laboratory using soil animals (Eisenia andrei and Folsomia candida) and plants (Brassica rapa and Avena sativa). Each waste was tested mimicking a field application of 6ton/ha or 12ton/ha. Avoidance tests did not reveal any impact of sludge and composts to soil biota. Germination and growth tests showed that application of composts were beneficial for both plants. Composts did not affect earthworm's mass increase or reproduction, but the highest sludge amendment revealed negative effects on both parameters. Only the amendment of composts at the highest dose originated an impairment of springtails reproductive output. We suggest that bioassays using different test species may be an additional tool to evaluate effects of amendment of organic wastes in soil. Biological tests are sensitive to pollutants at low concentrations and to interactions undetected by routine chemical analysis.

  13. All individuals are not created equal; accounting for interindividual variation in fitting life-history responses to toxicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager, Tjalling

    2013-02-05

    The individuals of a species are not equal. These differences frustrate experimental biologists and ecotoxicologists who wish to study the response of a species (in general) to a treatment. In the analysis of data, differences between model predictions and observations on individual animals are usually treated as random measurement error around the true response. These deviations, however, are mainly caused by real differences between the individuals (e.g., differences in physiology and in initial conditions). Understanding these intraspecies differences, and accounting for them in the data analysis, will improve our understanding of the response to the treatment we are investigating and allow for a more powerful, less biased, statistical analysis. Here, I explore a basic scheme for statistical inference to estimate parameters governing stress that allows individuals to differ in their basic physiology. This scheme is illustrated using a simple toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic model and a data set for growth of the springtail Folsomia candida exposed to cadmium in food. This article should be seen as proof of concept; a first step in bringing more realism into the statistical inference for process-based models in ecotoxicology.

  14. A review of metal (Pb and Zn) sensitive and pH tolerant bioassay organisms for risk screening of metal-contaminated acidic soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, E.Emily V.; Dave, Göran; Murimboh, John D.

    2013-01-01

    To improve risk estimates at the screening stage of Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA), short duration bioassays tailored to undisturbed soil cores from the contaminated site could be useful. However, existing standardized bioassays use disturbed soil samples and often pH sensitive organisms. This is a problem as naturally acidic soils are widespread. Changing soil properties to suit the test organism may change metal bioavailability, leading to erroneous risk estimates. For bioassays in undisturbed soil cores to be effective, species able to withstand natural soil properties must be identified. This review presents a critical examination of bioassay species' tolerance of acidic soils and sensitivity to metal contaminants such as Pb and Zn. Promising organisms include; Dendrobaena octaedra, Folsomia candida, Caenorhabditis elegans, Oppia nitens, Brassica rapa, Trifolium pratense, Allium cepa, Quercus rubra and Acer rubrum. The MetSTICK test and the Bait lamina test were also identified as suitable microorganism tests. -- Highlights: •Risk screening of metal contaminated soils should consider metal bioavailability. •Metal bioavailability is dependent on soil properties such as pH. •Many standardized bioassay organisms are sensitive to acidic soils. •This review identifies acid tolerant and metal sensitive bioassays and species. •The identified tests can improve risk screening of acidic metal contaminated soil. -- This review identifies bioassay species able to withstand naturally acidic soils while being sensitive to metal contaminants

  15. Avoidance bio-assays may help to test the ecological significance of soil pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Aldaya, Maite; Lors, Christine; Salmon, Sandrine; Ponge, Jean-Francois

    2006-01-01

    We measured the short-term (100 min) avoidance of a soil heavily polluted by hydrocarbons by the soil springtail Folsomia candida, at six rates of dilution in a control, unpolluted soil. We compared the results with those of long-term (40-day) population tests. Five strains were compared, of varying geographical and ecological origin. When pure, the polluted soil was lethal in the long-term and avoided in the short-term by all strains. Avoidance tests, but not population tests, were able to discriminate between strains. Avoidance thresholds differed among strains. Two ecological consequences of the results were discussed: (i) toxic compounds may kill soil animals or deprive them from food, resulting in death of populations, (ii) pollution spots can be locally deprived of fauna because of escape movements of soil animals. Advantages and limitations of the method have been listed, together with proposals for their wider use in soil ecology and ecotoxicology. - Polluted soils are avoided by soil animals, a phenomenon which can be used as a cheap, sensitive tool for the early detection of environmental risk

  16. Effects of NaCl and seawater induced salinity on survival and reproduction of three soil invertebrate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, C S; Lopes, I; Sousa, J P; Chelinho, S

    2015-09-01

    The increase of global mean temperature is raising serious concerns worldwide due to its potential negative effects such as droughts and melting of glaciers and ice caps leading to sea level rise. Expected impacts on soil compartment include floodings, seawater intrusions and use of saltwater for irrigation, with unknown effects on soil ecosystems and their inhabitants. The present study aimed at evaluating the effects of salinisation on soil ecosystems due to sea level rise. The reproduction and mortality of three standard soil invertebrate species (Folsomia candida, Enchytraeus crypticus, Hypoaspis aculeifer) in standard artificial OECD soil spiked with serial dilutions of seawater/gradient of NaCl were evaluated according to standard guidelines. An increased sensitivity was observed in the following order: H. aculeifer≪E. crypticus≈F. candida consistent with the different exposure pathways: springtails and enchytraeids are exposed by ingestion and contact while mites are mainly exposed by ingestion due to a continuous and thick exoskeleton. Although small differences were observed in the calculated effect electrical conductivity values, seawater and NaCl induced the same overall effects (with a difference in the enchytraeid tests where a higher sensitivity was found in relation to NaCl). The adverse effects described in the present study are observed on soils not considered saline. Therefore, the actual limit to define saline soils (4000 μS cm(-1)) does not reflect the existing knowledge when considering soil fauna. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Toxicity of abamectin and doramectin to soil invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolar, Lucija; Kozuh Erzen, Nevenka; Hogerwerf, Lenny; Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the toxicity of avermectins to soil invertebrates in soil and in faeces from recently treated sheep. Abamectin was more toxic than doramectin. In soil, earthworms (Eisenia andrei) were most affected with LC50s of 18 and 228 mg/kg dry soil, respectively, while LC50s were 67-111 and >300 mg/kg for springtails (Folsomia candida), isopods (Porcellio scaber) and enchytraeids (Enchytraeus crypticus). EC50s for the effect on reproduction of springtails and enchytraeids were 13 and 38 mg/kg, respectively for abamectin, and 42 and 170 mg/kg for doramectin. For earthworms, NOEC was 10 and 8.4 mg/kg for abamectin and doramectin effects on body weight. When exposed in faeces, springtails and enchytraeids gave LC50s and EC50s of 1.0-1.4 and 0.94-1.1 mg/kg dry faeces for abamectin and 2.2->2.4 mg/kg for doramectin. Earthworm reproduction was not affected. This study indicates a potential risk of avermectins for soil invertebrates colonizing faeces from recently treated sheep. - Avermectins may pose a risk to soil invertebrates colonizing faeces from recently treated sheep

  18. Assessment of degradation potential of aliphatic hydrocarbons by autochthonous filamentous fungi from a historically polluted clay soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covino, Stefano; D'Annibale, Alessandro; Stazi, Silvia Rita; Cajthaml, Tomas; Čvančarová, Monika; Stella, Tatiana; Petruccioli, Maurizio

    2015-02-01

    The present work was aimed at isolating and identifying the main members of the mycobiota of a clay soil historically contaminated by mid- and long-chain aliphatic hydrocarbons (AH) and to subsequently assess their hydrocarbon-degrading ability. All the isolates were Ascomycetes and, among them, the most interesting was Pseudoallescheria sp. 18A, which displayed both the ability to use AH as the sole carbon source and to profusely colonize a wheat straw:poplar wood chip (70:30, w/w) lignocellulosic mixture (LM) selected as the amendment for subsequent soil remediation microcosms. After a 60 d mycoaugmentation with Pseudoallescheria sp. of the aforementioned soil, mixed with the sterile LM (5:1 mass ratio), a 79.7% AH reduction and a significant detoxification, inferred by a drop in mortality of Folsomia candida from 90 to 24%, were observed. However, similar degradation and detoxification outcomes were found in the non-inoculated incubation control soil that had been amended with the sterile LM. This was due to the biostimulation exerted by the amendment on the resident microbiota, fungi in particular, the activity and density of which were low, instead, in the non-amended incubation control soil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Tier 2 guidelines and remediation of Tebuthiuron on a native prairie site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bessie, K.; Harckham, N.; Dance, T. [EBA Engineering Consultants Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Burk, A. [EnCana Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada); Stephenson, G. [Stantec Consulting, Guelph, ON (Canada); Corbet, B. [Access Analytical Laboratories Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-10-01

    Tebuthiuron is a sterilant used to control vegetation at upstream and midstream petroleum sites. This article discussed the remediation processes used to reclaim a native prairie site contaminated with tebuthiuron. The site was located within a dry mixed grass natural area. A literature review was conducted to establish soil eco-contact guidelines specific to tebuthiuron. A site-specific ecotoxicity assessment was then conducted using a liquid chromatograph to detect tebuthiuron limits in the contaminated soils. A soil sampling technique was used to delineate the affected areas at the site. Site soils were spiked with various concentrations of tebuthiuron ranging from 0.00003 mg/kg to 3000 mg/kg. Test species included a Folsomia candida, an earthworm, and 4 plant species. The study showed that the invertebrate species were less sensitive to tebuthiuron than the plant species. A groundwater assessment showed that tebuthiuron levels exceeded Tier 1 groundwater remediation guidelines. A multilayer hydro-geological model showed that remediation guidelines were orders of magnitude greater than Tier 1 groundwater remediation. A thermal desorption technique was used to remediate the site. 7 refs., 8 figs.

  20. Toxicity of abamectin and doramectin to soil invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolar, Lucija [Laboratory of Forensic Toxicology and Ecotoxicology, Veterinary Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Gerbiceva 60, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Institute of Ecological Science, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: lucija.kolar@vf.uni-lj.si; Kozuh Erzen, Nevenka [Laboratory of Forensic Toxicology and Ecotoxicology, Veterinary Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Gerbiceva 60, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)], E-mail: nevenka.kozuh@vf.uni-lj.si; Hogerwerf, Lenny [Institute of Ecological Science, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: l.hogerwerf@students.uu.nl; Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van [Institute of Ecological Science, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: kees.van.gestel@ecology.falw.vu.nl

    2008-01-15

    This study aimed at determining the toxicity of avermectins to soil invertebrates in soil and in faeces from recently treated sheep. Abamectin was more toxic than doramectin. In soil, earthworms (Eisenia andrei) were most affected with LC50s of 18 and 228 mg/kg dry soil, respectively, while LC50s were 67-111 and >300 mg/kg for springtails (Folsomia candida), isopods (Porcellio scaber) and enchytraeids (Enchytraeus crypticus). EC50s for the effect on reproduction of springtails and enchytraeids were 13 and 38 mg/kg, respectively for abamectin, and 42 and 170 mg/kg for doramectin. For earthworms, NOEC was 10 and 8.4 mg/kg for abamectin and doramectin effects on body weight. When exposed in faeces, springtails and enchytraeids gave LC50s and EC50s of 1.0-1.4 and 0.94-1.1 mg/kg dry faeces for abamectin and 2.2->2.4 mg/kg for doramectin. Earthworm reproduction was not affected. This study indicates a potential risk of avermectins for soil invertebrates colonizing faeces from recently treated sheep. - Avermectins may pose a risk to soil invertebrates colonizing faeces from recently treated sheep.

  1. An automated image analysis system to measure and count organisms in laboratory microcosms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Mallard

    Full Text Available 1. Because of recent technological improvements in the way computer and digital camera perform, the potential use of imaging for contributing to the study of communities, populations or individuals in laboratory microcosms has risen enormously. However its limited use is due to difficulties in the automation of image analysis. 2. We present an accurate and flexible method of image analysis for detecting, counting and measuring moving particles on a fixed but heterogeneous substrate. This method has been specifically designed to follow individuals, or entire populations, in experimental laboratory microcosms. It can be used in other applications. 3. The method consists in comparing multiple pictures of the same experimental microcosm in order to generate an image of the fixed background. This background is then used to extract, measure and count the moving organisms, leaving out the fixed background and the motionless or dead individuals. 4. We provide different examples (springtails, ants, nematodes, daphnia to show that this non intrusive method is efficient at detecting organisms under a wide variety of conditions even on faintly contrasted and heterogeneous substrates. 5. The repeatability and reliability of this method has been assessed using experimental populations of the Collembola Folsomia candida. 6. We present an ImageJ plugin to automate the analysis of digital pictures of laboratory microcosms. The plugin automates the successive steps of the analysis and recursively analyses multiple sets of images, rapidly producing measurements from a large number of replicated microcosms.

  2. Melaleuca alternifolia Essential Oil against the Lesser Mealworm (Alphitobius diaperinus and Its Possible Effect on the Soil Fauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Volpato

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro bioactivity of tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil against larvae and adult forms of lesser mealworms (Alphitobius diaperinus and its influence on the soil fauna. Tests were performed in triplicate using pure tea tree oil (TTO; 1, 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100%, TTO nanoparticles (1, 3, and 7.5%, or terpinen-4-ol, the main compound of the tea tree oil, at the same concentrations of TTO. Larvae and adult mortality occurred at concentrations up to 10 and 50% of TTO, respectively. No larvicidal or insecticidal effect of TTO nanoparticles was observed. Terpinen-4-ol showed insecticidal and larvicidal effect at concentrations higher than 25%. The evaluation of TTO effect on soil organisms was performed by standard ecotoxicological tests (ISO with the springtail species Folsomia candida. Only TTO was used for ecotoxicological tests in doses of 1, 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 mg kg-1 of soil. TTO had no negative effects on F. candida survival or reproduction. Therefore, it was concluded that M. alternifolia oil may be a new alternative for control of the lesser mealworm.

  3. Collembola of Rapa Nui (Easter Island) with descriptions of five endemic cave-restricted species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Ernest C; Soto-Adames, Felipe N; Wynne, J Judson

    2015-04-24

    Eight species of Collembola are reported from recent collections made in caves on the Polynesian island of Rapa Nui (Easter Island). Five of these species are new to science and apparently endemic to the island: Coecobrya aitorererere n. sp., Cyphoderus manuneru n. sp., Entomobrya manuhoko n. sp., Pseudosinella hahoteana n. sp. and Seira manukio n. sp. The Hawaiian species Lepidocyrtus olena Christiansen & Bellinger and the cosmopolitan species Folsomia candida Willem also were collected from one or more caves. Coecobrya kennethi Jordana & Baquero, recently described from Rapa Nui and identified as endemic, was collected in sympatric association with C. aitorererere n.sp. With the exception of F. candida, all species are endemic to Rapa Nui or greater Polynesia and appear to be restricted to the cave environment on Rapa Nui. A key is provided to separate Collembola species reported from Rapa Nui. We provide recommendations to aid in the conservation and management of these new Collembola, as well as the other presumed cave-restricted arthropods.

  4. Effect of activated carbon or biochars on toxicity of different soils contaminated by mixture of native polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołtowski, Michał; Oleszczuk, Patryk

    2016-05-01

    Activated carbon (AC), biochar from wheat straw (BCS), and biochar from willow (BCW) were added to the soils sampled from areas of strong anthropogenic influence at doses of 0.5%, 1%, 2.5%, or 5% (w/w) and incubated for 2 mo. At the end of this period, the toxicity of the soils was measured. The effect of AC and biochars on the toxicity of the soils varied based on soil, type of amendment, dose, and test organism. For most of the parameters tested, the highest effectiveness of AC in terms of reduction of toxicity was observed in soil POPI (from bitumen processing plant area). In the case of the remaining soils, after the addition of AC varied results were observed, in which a reduction or an increase of toxicity, relative to the control soil, occurred. As in the case of AC, biochars also caused a significant reduction of phytotoxicity of soil POPI. In soils KB (from coking plant area, industrial waste deposit) and KOK (from coking plant area, coking battery), the reduction or increase of toxicity depended on biochar dose. Compared with the biochars, the effectiveness of AC in the reduction of toxicity depended also on soil, type of amendment, dose, and test organism. Generally, the AC was more effective than biochars in relation to mortality and reproduction of Folsomia candida (in all soils) and for reduction of luminescence inhibition of Vibrio fischeri (in POPI soil). © 2015 SETAC.

  5. Passive dosing of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) mixtures to terrestrial springtails: linking mixture toxicity to chemical activities, equilibrium lipid concentrations, and toxic units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Stine N; Holmstrup, Martin; Smith, Kilian E C; Mayer, Philipp

    2013-07-02

    A 7-day mixture toxicity experiment with the terrestrial springtail Folsomia candida was conducted, and the effects were linked to three different mixture exposure parameters. Passive dosing from silicone was applied to tightly control exposure levels and compositions of 12 mixture treatments, containing the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene. Springtail lethality was then linked to sum chemical activities (∑a), sum equilibrium lipid concentrations (∑C(lipid eq.)), and sum toxic units (∑TU). In each case, the effects of all 12 mixture treatments could be fitted to one sigmoidal exposure-response relationship. The effective lethal chemical activity (La50) of 0.027 was well within the expected range for baseline toxicity of 0.01-0.1. Linking the effects to the lipid-based exposure parameter yielded an effective lethal concentration (LC(lipid eq 50)) of 133 mmol kg(-1) lipid in good correspondence with the lethal membrane burden for baseline toxicity (40-160 mmol kg(-1) lipid). Finally, the effective lethal toxic unit (LTU50) of 1.20 was rather close to the expected value of 1. Altogether, passive dosing provided tightly controlled mixture exposure in terms of both level and composition, while ∑a, ∑C(lipid eq.), and ∑TU allowed baseline toxicity to be linked to mixture exposure.

  6. Ecotoxicogenomic assessment of diclofenac toxicity in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guangquan; den Braver, Michiel W; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; van Straalen, Nico M; Roelofs, Dick

    2015-04-01

    Diclofenac is widely used as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug leaving residues in the environment. To investigate effects on terrestrial ecosystems, we measured dissipation rate in soil and investigated ecotoxicological and transcriptome-wide responses in Folsomia candida. Exposure for 4 weeks to diclofenac reduced both survival and reproduction of F. candida in a dose-dependent manner. At concentrations ≥ 200 mg/kg soil diclofenac remained stable in the soil during a 21-day incubation period. Microarrays examined transcriptional changes at low and high diclofenac exposure concentrations. The results indicated that development and growth were severely hampered and immunity-related genes, mainly directed against bacteria and fungi, were significantly up-regulated. Furthermore, neural metabolic processes were significantly affected only at the high concentration. We conclude that diclofenac is toxic to non-target soil invertebrates, although its mode of action is different from the mammalian toxicity. The genetic markers proposed in this study may be promising early markers for diclofenac ecotoxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Sorption, dissolution and pH determine the long-term equilibration and toxicity of coated and uncoated ZnO nanoparticles in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waalewijn-Kool, Pauline L; Diez Ortiz, Maria; van Straalen, Nico M; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2013-07-01

    To assess the effect of long-term dissolution on bioavailability and toxicity, triethoxyoctylsilane coated and uncoated zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NP), non-nano ZnO and ZnCl2 were equilibrated in natural soil for up to twelve months. Zn concentrations in pore water increased with time for all ZnO forms but peaked at intermediate concentrations of ZnO-NP and non-nano ZnO, while for coated ZnO-NP such a clear peak only was seen after 12 months. Dose-related increases in soil pH may explain decreased soluble Zn levels due to fixation of Zn released from ZnO at higher soil concentrations. At T = 0 uncoated ZnO-NP and non-nano ZnO were equally toxic to the springtail Folsomia candida, but not as toxic as coated ZnO-NP, and ZnCl2 being most toxic. After three months equilibration toxicity to F. candida was already reduced for all Zn forms, except for coated ZnO-NP which showed reduced toxicity only after 12 months equilibration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Ecotoxicological standard tests confirm beneficial effects of nitrate capture in organically coated grapewood biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Andreas; Kammann, Claudia; Löhnertz, Otmar

    2017-04-01

    Due to the rising use of mineral N fertilizers and legume use in agriculture, the input of reactive N into the global N cycle has dramatically increased. Therefore new agricultural techniques that increase N use efficiency and reduce the loss of soil mineral N to surface and ground waters are urgently required. Pyrogenic carbon (biochar) produced from biomass may be used as a beneficial soil amendment to sequester carbon (C) in soils, increase soil fertility in the long term, and reduce environmental pollution such as nitrate leaching or N2O emissions. However, reduced nitrate leaching is not a constant finding when using biochar as a soil amendment and the mechanisms are poorly understood. To investigate if biochar is able to reduce nitrate pollution and its subsequent effects on soil and aquatic fauna, we conducted a series of experiments using standard ecotoxicological test methods: (1) the collembolan reproduction test (ISO 11267 (1999)), (2) the earthworm reproduction test (ISO 11268-2 (1998)), (3) the aquatic Daphnia acute test (ISO 6341 (1996)) and (4) a seedling emergence and growth test (ISO 11269-2 (2006)) also involving leaching events. For the tests grapewood biochar produced with a Kon-Tiki kiln (600-700°C) was used which had previously demonstrated nitrate capture; terrestrial tests were carried out with loamy sand standard soil 2.2 (LUFA-Speyer, Germany). The tests included the factors: (A) nitrate addition (using critical values for the test organisms) or no nitrate addition, (B) control (no biochar), pure biochar and organically-coated biochar. In the aquatic test (3), a nitrate amount which caused 50% of the Daphnia-immobilizing toxic nitrate concentration in leachates was applied to the soil or soil-biochar mixtures. Subsequently, soils were incubated overnight and leached on the next day, producing (in the control) the calculated nitrate concentrations. Daphnids were incubated for 48 hours. Test results without nitrate confirmed that soil

  9. DNA barcodes for soil animal taxonomy Código de barras de DNA para a taxonomia de animais do solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolphe Rougerie

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The biodiversity of soil communities remains very poorly known and understood. Soil biological sciences are strongly affected by the taxonomic crisis, and most groups of animals in that biota suffer from a strong taxonomic impediment. The objective of this work was to investigate how DNA barcoding - a novel method using a microgenomic tag for species identification and discrimination - permits better evaluation of the taxonomy of soil biota. A total of 1,152 barcode sequences were analyzed for two major groups of animals, collembolans and earthworms, which presented broad taxonomic and geographic sampling. Besides strongly reflecting the taxonomic impediment for both groups, with a large number of species-level divergent lineages remaining unnamed so far, the results also highlight a high level (15% of cryptic diversity within known species of both earthworms and collembolans. These results are supportive of recent local studies using a similar approach. Within an impeded taxonomic system for soil animals, DNA-assisted identification tools can facilitate and improve biodiversity exploration and description. DNA-barcoding campaigns are rapidly developing in soil animals and the community of soil biologists is urged to embrace these methods.A biodiversidade das comunidades do solo continua muito pouco conhecida e entendida. A biologia do solo é fortemente afetada pela crise taxonômica, e a maior parte dos grupos de animais dessa biota sofre forte impedimento taxonômico. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar como o código de barras de DNA - um método novo que usa uma etiqueta microgenômica para identificação e discriminação de espécies - permite uma melhor avaliação da taxonomia da biota edáfica. Foram analisadas 1.152 sequências de códigos de barras de dois grupos principais de animais, colêmbolos e minhocas, que apresentaram ampla amostragem taxonômica e geográfica. Além de refletir fortemente o impedimento taxonômico de

  10. Intensive agriculture reduces soil biodiversity across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiafouli, Maria A; Thébault, Elisa; Sgardelis, Stefanos P; de Ruiter, Peter C; van der Putten, Wim H; Birkhofer, Klaus; Hemerik, Lia; de Vries, Franciska T; Bardgett, Richard D; Brady, Mark Vincent; Bjornlund, Lisa; Jørgensen, Helene Bracht; Christensen, Sören; Hertefeldt, Tina D'; Hotes, Stefan; Gera Hol, W H; Frouz, Jan; Liiri, Mira; Mortimer, Simon R; Setälä, Heikki; Tzanopoulos, Joseph; Uteseny, Karoline; Pižl, Václav; Stary, Josef; Wolters, Volkmar; Hedlund, Katarina

    2015-02-01

    Soil biodiversity plays a key role in regulating the processes that underpin the delivery of ecosystem goods and services in terrestrial ecosystems. Agricultural intensification is known to change the diversity of individual groups of soil biota, but less is known about how intensification affects biodiversity of the soil food web as a whole, and whether or not these effects may be generalized across regions. We examined biodiversity in soil food webs from grasslands, extensive, and intensive rotations in four agricultural regions across Europe: in Sweden, the UK, the Czech Republic and Greece. Effects of land-use intensity were quantified based on structure and diversity among functional groups in the soil food web, as well as on community-weighted mean body mass of soil fauna. We also elucidate land-use intensity effects on diversity of taxonomic units within taxonomic groups of soil fauna. We found that between regions soil food web diversity measures were variable, but that increasing land-use intensity caused highly consistent responses. In particular, land-use intensification reduced the complexity in the soil food webs, as well as the community-weighted mean body mass of soil fauna. In all regions across Europe, species richness of earthworms, Collembolans, and oribatid mites was negatively affected by increased land-use intensity. The taxonomic distinctness, which is a measure of taxonomic relatedness of species in a community that is independent of species richness, was also reduced by land-use intensification. We conclude that intensive agriculture reduces soil biodiversity, making soil food webs less diverse and composed of smaller bodied organisms. Land-use intensification results in fewer functional groups of soil biota with fewer and taxonomically more closely related species. We discuss how these changes in soil biodiversity due to land-use intensification may threaten the functioning of soil in agricultural production systems. © 2014 John Wiley

  11. Surviving extreme polar winters by desiccation: clues from Arctic springtail (Onychiurus arcticus EST libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kube Michael

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ice, snow and temperatures of -14°C are conditions which most animals would find difficult, if not impossible, to survive in. However this exactly describes the Arctic winter, and the Arctic springtail Onychiurus arcticus regularly survives these extreme conditions and re-emerges in the spring. It is able to do this by reducing the amount of water in its body to almost zero: a process that is called "protective dehydration". The aim of this project was to generate clones and sequence data in the form of ESTs to provide a platform for the future molecular characterisation of the processes involved in protective dehydration. Results Five normalised libraries were produced from both desiccating and rehydrating populations of O. arcticus from stages that had previously been defined as potentially informative for molecular analyses. A total of 16,379 EST clones were generated and analysed using Blast and GO annotation. 40% of the clones produced significant matches against the Swissprot and trembl databases and these were further analysed using GO annotation. Extraction and analysis of GO annotations proved an extremely effective method for identifying generic processes associated with biochemical pathways, proving more efficient than solely analysing Blast data output. A number of genes were identified, which have previously been shown to be involved in water transport and desiccation such as members of the aquaporin family. Identification of these clones in specific libraries associated with desiccation validates the computational analysis by library rather than producing a global overview of all libraries combined. Conclusion This paper describes for the first time EST data from the arctic springtail (O. arcticus. This significantly enhances the number of Collembolan ESTs in the public databases, providing useful comparative data within this phylum. The use of GO annotation for analysis has facilitated the identification of a

  12. Ecotoxicity of the veterinary pharmaceutical ivermectin tested in a soil multi-species (SMS) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, John; Scott-Fordsmand, Janeck J.

    2012-01-01

    The present study tests the effect of antiparasitic compound ivermectin in a constructed food-web system, a soil multi-species (SMS) higher tier test system. Mutualism, competition and predation within the SMS system were introduced by the addition of five collembolan species, one enchytraeid and a predatory mite species. Bait lamina sticks were incorporated as a measure of functional toxicity, attempting to the integrated feeding activity of the invertebrates. The study showed that on the community level all treatments were significantly affecting the community abundance and composition and that the decrease in abundance corresponded well with increasing exposure concentration for all species. Since all concentrations had significant adverse effect on the community structure, the community-based no-effect-concentration is below the lowest test concentration of 0.25 mg kg −1 , whereas the EC10 for the individual species were as low as 0.05 mg kg −1 . The bait lamina respond was only affected at the highest exposure concentration. - Highlights: ► A multi-species test system was used to evaluate the impact of hazardous substances. ► The pharmaceutical ivermectin was toxic to a wide set of soil invertebrates. ► The toxicity to springtails was higher when exposed in co-existence with a predator. ► Structural endpoints were more sensitive than functional ditto measured by Bait lamina. - Hazardous substances are shown more toxic to soil dwelling invertebrates when exposed in co-existence with other species including a predator.

  13. Nonlinear disruption of ecological interactions in response to nitrogen deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Hueso, Raúl

    2016-10-01

    Global environmental change (GEC) is affecting species interactions and causing a rapid decline in biodiversity. In this study, I present a new Ecosystem Disruption Index to quantify the impacts of simulated nitrogen (N) deposition (0, 10, 20, and 50 kg N·ha -1 ·yr -1  + 6-7 kg N·ha -1 ·yr -1 background) on abiotic and biotic ecological interactions. This comparative index is based on pairwise linear and quadratic regression matrices. These matrices, calculated at the N treatment level, were constructed using a range of abiotic and biotic ecosystem constituents: soil pH, shrub cover, and the first component of several separate principal component analyses using soil fertility data (total carbon and N) and community data (annual plants, microorganisms, biocrusts, edaphic fauna) for a total of seven ecosystem constituents. Four years of N fertilization in a semiarid shrubland completely disrupted the network of ecological interactions, with a greater proportional increase in ecosystem disruption at low N addition levels. Biotic interactions, particularly those involving microbes, shrubs, and edaphic fauna, were more prone to be lost in response to N, whereas interactions involving soil properties were more resilient. In contrast, edaphic fauna was the only group directly affected by N addition, with mites and collembolans increasing their abundance with up to 20 kg N·ha -1 ·yr -1 and then decreasing, which supports the idea of higher-trophic-level organisms being more sensitive to disturbance due to more complex links with other ecosystem constituents. Future experimental studies evaluating the impacts of N deposition, and possibly other GEC drivers, on biodiversity and biotic and abiotic interactions may be able to explain results more effectively in the context of ecological networks as a key feature of ecosystem sensitivity. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  14. Agro-ecological potential of the cup plant (Silphium perfoliatum L.) from a biodiversity perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Stefan; Schorpp, Quentin; Lena Müller, Anna; Dauber, Jens

    2017-04-01

    The cup plant (Silphium perfoliatum L.) is an alternative bioenergy crop that may contribute to a more environmentally friendly production of renewable resources. The potential benefits of the cup plant are the perennial cultivation without tillage and its flowering-characteristics. Hence it can be hypothesized that beneficial organisms are promoted which in turn improves the provision of ecosystem services like soil fertility and pollination. To date biomass production in Germany is based mainly on cropping systems like intensive maize cultivation that bear a risk for biodiversity and ecosystem services. The importance to counteract this development increases considering the large land requirements for significant generation of energy from biomass. To what extent cropping of the cup plant meets the expectations of a sustainable biomass production was investigated within a comprehensive assessment of soil fauna communities (earthworms, collembolans, nematodes) including their functional groups as well as pollinating insects (bees and hoverflies) including the quantification of pollen and nectar in cup-plant cultivation systems with a crop management close to agricultural practice. From the results it became obvious that the cup plant as a bioenergy crop has got the necessary potential to mitigate the negative development of biodiversity and ecosystem services, especially in regions with a large share of maize monocultures. This agro-ecological potential can only be reached if certain agronomic requirements are met, i.e. a late harvest and cultivation periods of at least five years. Under these conditions the landscape context has to be considered. Semi-natural habitats in the surrounding landscape are required for nesting and larval development of wild pollinator groups. The development of biological functions in soil is tied to the land use history i.e. previous land use: Positive developments are expected for conversion of intensively managed crop fields to the

  15. Diversity of the soil biota in burned areas of southern taiga forests (Tver oblast)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gongalsky, K. B.; Zaitsev, A. S.; Korobushkin, D. I.; Saifutdinov, R. A.; Yazrikova, T. E.; Benediktova, A. I.; Gorbunova, A. Yu.; Gorshkova, I. A.; Butenko, K. O.; Kosina, N. V.; Lapygina, E. V.; Kuznetsova, D. M.; Rakhleeva, A. A.; Shakhab, S. V.

    2016-03-01

    Relations between soil biota diversity and its contribution to the performance of some ecosystem functions were assessed based on the results obtained in undisturbed and burned spruce forests near the Central Forest Nature Biosphere Reserve (Tver oblast). In August 2014, in two 4-year-old burned areas, abiotic parameters of the soils, indicators of the state of the microbial communities, the number, taxonomic diversity, and the abundance of the main groups of soil invertebrates (testate amoebae, nematodes, enchytraeids, mites, collembolans, and the mesofauna as a whole) were determined. In the soils of the burned areas, higher CO2, CH4, and N2O emissions were observed. The number of bacterial cells remained similar, and the total length of active mycelium was not significantly different. All this implies a certain intensification of biogenic processes promoting the mobilization of carbon and nitrogen after fire. The number of most of the groups of soil animals was lower (not always significantly) in the burned area than that in the soils of the undisturbed forests. The changes in the taxonomic diversity were specific for each taxon studied. Overall, the diversity of invertebrates was related to the litter thickness. However, the high taxonomic diversity of soil fauna did not always correspond to the active functioning of the ecosystem. Thus, for some taxa, a quite close correlation was found, for instance, between the total number of species (of testate amoebae in particular) and the berry crop, as well as between the soil mesofauna population and the dead wood stock. The total diversity of the investigated taxa included in the detrital trophic web was the most reliable indicator of the carbon stock in the burned areas.

  16. Effect of long-term equilibration on the toxicity of molybdenum to soil organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van; McGrath, Steve P.; Smolders, Erik; Diez Ortiz, Maria; Borgman, Eef; Verweij, Rudo A.; Buekers, Jurgen; Oorts, Koen

    2012-01-01

    To determine if long-term equilibration may alleviate molybdenum toxicity, earthworms, enchytraeids, collembolans and four plant species were exposed to three soils freshly spiked with Na 2 MoO 4 .2H 2 O and equilibrated for 6 or 11 months in the field with free drainage. Total Mo concentrations in soil decreased by leaching, most (up to 98%) in sandy soil and less (54–62%) in silty and clayey soils. Changes in residual Mo toxicity with time were inconclusive in sandy soil. In the other two soils, toxicity of residual total Mo was significantly reduced after 11 months equilibration with a median 5.5-fold increase in ED50s. Mo fixation in soil, i.e. the decrease of soil solution Mo concentrations at equivalent residual total soil Mo, was maximally a factor of 2.1 only. This experiment shows natural attenuation of molybdate ecotoxicity under field conditions is related to leaching of excess Mo and other ions as well as to slow ageing reactions. - Highlights: ► Three molybdate-spiked soils were equilibrated for 6 and 11 months outdoors. ► Mo chronic toxicity to earthworms, enchytraeids, Collembola and four plant species was assessed. ► Mo concentrations in all soils decreased due to leaching. ► Based on actual total Mo remaining in the soil, Mo toxicity decreased by a median factor of 5.5. ► Decreased Mo toxicity was due to leaching as well as slow ageing reactions. - Natural attenuation under field conditions is more related to leaching of excess molybdate than to slow ageing reactions

  17. Evaluation of a new battery of toxicity tests for boreal forest soils: assessment of the impact of hydrocarbons and salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Princz, Juliska I; Moody, Mary; Fraser, Christopher; Van der Vliet, Leana; Lemieux, Heather; Scroggins, Rick; Siciliano, Steven D

    2012-04-01

    The ability to assess the toxic potential of soil contamination within boreal regions is currently limited to test species representative of arable lands. This study evaluated the use of six boreal plant species (Pinus banksiana, Picea glauca, Picea mariana, Populus tremuloides, Calamagrostis Canadensis, and Solidago canadensis) and four invertebrate species (Dendrodrilus rubidus, Folsomia nivalis, Proisotoma minuta, and Oppia nitens) and compared their performance to a suite of standard agronomic soil test species using site soils impacted by petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) and salt contamination. To maintain horizon-specific differences, individual soil horizons were collected from impacted sites and relayered within the test vessels. Use of the boreal species was directly applicable to the assessment of the contaminated forest soils and, in the case of the hydrocarbon-impacted soil, demonstrated greater overall sensitivity (25th percentile of estimated species sensitivity distribution [ESSD25] = 5.6% contamination: 10,600 mg/kg fraction 3 [F3; equivalent hydrocarbon range of >C16 to C34] Of/Oh horizon, and 270 mg/kg F3 Ahg horizon) relative to the standard test species (ESSD25 = 23% contamination: 44,000 mg/kg F3 Of/Oh horizon, and 1,100 mg/kg F3 Ahg horizon). For salinity, there was no difference between boreal and standard species with a combined ESSD25 = 2.3%, equating to 0.24 and 0.25 dS/m for the Ah and Ck horizons. The unequal distribution of soil invertebrates within the layered test vessels can confound test results and the interpretation of the toxic potential of a site. The use of test species relevant to boreal eco-zones strengthens the applicability of the data in support of realistic ecological risk assessments applicable to the boreal regions. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  18. Effects of temperature and copper pollution on soil community--extreme temperature events can lead to community extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes-Oliveira, Vanessa B; Scott-Fordsmand, Janeck J; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Amorim, Monica J B

    2013-12-01

    Global warming affects ecosystems and species' diversity. The physiology of individual species is highly influenced by changes in temperature. The effects on species communities are less studied; they are virtually unknown when combining effects of pollution and temperature. To assess the effects of temperature and pollution in the soil community, a 2-factorial soil mesocosms multispecies experiment was performed. Three exposure periods (28 d, 61 d, and 84 d) and 4 temperatures (19 °C, 23 °C, 26 °C, and 29 °C) were tested, resembling the mean annual values for southern Europe countries and extreme events. The soil used was from a field site, clean, or spiked with Cu (100 mg Cu/kg). Results showed clear differences between 29 °C treatment and all other temperature treatments, with a decrease in overall abundance of organisms, further potentiated by the increase in exposure time. Folsomia candida was the most abundant species and Enchytraeus crypticus was the most sensitive to Cu toxicity. Differences in species optimum temperatures were adequately covered: 19 °C for Hypoaspis aculeifer or 26 °C for E. crypticus. The temperature effects were more pronounced the longer the exposure time. Feeding activity decreased with higher temperature and exposure time, following the decrease in invertebrate abundance, whereas for the same conditions the organic matter turnover increased. Hence, negative impacts on ecosystem services because of temperature increase can be expected by changes on soil function and as consequence of biodiversity loss. © 2013 SETAC.

  19. Bioassays with terrestrial and aquatic species as monitoring tools of hydrocarbon degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bori, Jaume; Vallès, Bettina; Ortega, Lina; Riva, Maria Carme

    2016-09-01

    In this study chemical analyses and ecotoxicity tests were applied for the assessment of a heavily hydrocarbon-contaminated soil prior and after the application of a remediation procedure that consisted in the stimulation of soil autochthonous populations of hydrocarbon degraders in static-ventilated biopiles. Terrestrial bioassays were applied in mixtures of test soils and artificial control soil and studied the survival and reproduction of Eisenia fetida and the avoidance response of E. fetida and Folsomia candida. Effects on aquatic organisms were studied by means of acute tests with Vibrio fischeri, Raphidocelis subcapitata, and Daphnia magna performed on aqueous elutriates from test soils. The bioremediation procedure led to a significant reduction in the concentration of hydrocarbons (from 34264 to 3074 mg kg(-1), i.e., 91 % decrease) and toxicity although bioassays were not able to report a percentage decrease of toxicity as high as the percentage reduction. Sublethal tests proved the most sensitive terrestrial bioassays and avoidance tests with earthworms and springtails showed potential as monitoring tools of hydrocarbon remediation due to their high sensitivity and short duration. The concentrations of hydrocarbons in water extracts from test soils were 130 and 100 μg L(-1) before and after remediation, respectively. Similarly to terrestrial tests, most aquatic bioassays detected a significant reduction in toxicity, which was almost negligible at the end of the treatment. D. magna survival was the most affected by soil elutriates although toxicity to the crustacean was associated to the salinity of the samples rather than to the concentration of hydrocarbons. Ecotoxicity tests with aqueous soil elutriates proved less relevant in the assessment of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils due to the low hydrosolubility of hydrocarbons and the influence of the physicochemical parameters of the aquatic medium.

  20. Comparative toxicity of imidacloprid and thiacloprid to different species of soil invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima E Silva, Cláudia; Brennan, Nicola; Brouwer, Jitske M; Commandeur, Daniël; Verweij, Rudo A; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2017-05-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides have come under increasing scrutiny for their impact on non-target organisms, especially pollinators. The current scientific literature is mainly focused on the impact of these insecticides on pollinators and some aquatic insects, leaving a knowledge gap concerning soil invertebrates. This study aimed at filling this gap, by determining the toxicity of imidacloprid and thiacloprid to five species of soil invertebrates: earthworms (Eisenia andrei), enchytraeids (Enchytraeus crypticus), Collembola (Folsomia candida), oribatid mites (Oppia nitens) and isopods (Porcellio scaber). Tests focused on survival and reproduction or growth, after 3-5 weeks exposure in natural LUFA 2.2 standard soil. Imidacloprid was more toxic than thiacloprid for all species tested. F. candida and E. andrei were the most sensitive species, with LC 50 s of 0.20-0.62 and 0.77 mg/kg dry soil for imidacloprid and 2.7-3.9 and 7.1 mg/kg dry soil for thiacloprid. EC 50 s for effects on the reproduction of F. candida and E. andrei were 0.097-0.30 and 0.39 mg/kg dry soil for imidacloprid and 1.7-2.4 and 0.44 mg/kg dry soil for thiacloprid. The least sensitive species were O. nitens and P. scaber. Enchytraeids were a factor of 5-40 less sensitive than the taxonomically related earthworm, depending on the endpoint considered. Although not all the species showed high sensitivity to the neonicotinoids tested, these results raise awareness about the effects these insecticides can have on non-target soil invertebrates.

  1. Collembase: a repository for springtail genomics and soil quality assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klein-Lankhorst Rene M

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Environmental quality assessment is traditionally based on responses of reproduction and survival of indicator organisms. For soil assessment the springtail Folsomia candida (Collembola is an accepted standard test organism. We argue that environmental quality assessment using gene expression profiles of indicator organisms exposed to test substrates is more sensitive, more toxicant specific and significantly faster than current risk assessment methods. To apply this species as a genomic model for soil quality testing we conducted an EST sequencing project and developed an online database. Description Collembase is a web-accessible database comprising springtail (F. candida genomic data. Presently, the database contains information on 8686 ESTs that are assembled into 5952 unique gene objects. Of those gene objects ~40% showed homology to other protein sequences available in GenBank (blastx analysis; non-redundant (nr database; expect-value -5. Software was applied to infer protein sequences. The putative peptides, which had an average length of 115 amino-acids (ranging between 23 and 440 were annotated with Gene Ontology (GO terms. In total 1025 peptides (~17% of the gene objects were assigned at least one GO term (expect-value -25. Within Collembase searches can be conducted based on BLAST and GO annotation, cluster name or using a BLAST server. The system furthermore enables easy sequence retrieval for functional genomic and Quantitative-PCR experiments. Sequences are submitted to GenBank (Accession numbers: EV473060 – EV481745. Conclusion Collembase http://www.collembase.org is a resource of sequence data on the springtail F. candida. The information within the database will be linked to a custom made microarray, based on the Agilent platform, which can be applied for soil quality testing. In addition, Collembase supplies information that is valuable for related scientific disciplines such as molecular ecology

  2. Suitability of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae-based assay to assess the toxicity of pyrimethanil sprayed soils via surface runoff: comparison with standard aquatic and soil toxicity assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Fátima N; Moreira-Santos, Matilde; Chelinho, Sónia; Pereira, Carla; Feliciano, Joana R; Leitão, Jorge H; Sousa, José P; Ribeiro, Rui; Viegas, Cristina A

    2015-02-01

    The present study is aimed at evaluating whether a gene expression assay with the microbial eukaryotic model Saccharomyces cerevisiae could be used as a suitable warning tool for the rapid preliminary screening of potential toxic effects on organisms due to scenarios of soil and water contamination with pyrimethanil. The assay consisted of measuring changes in the expression of the selected pyrimethanil-responsive genes ARG3 and ARG5,6 in a standardized yeast population. Evaluation was held by assessing the toxicity of surface runoff, a major route of pesticide exposure in aquatic systems due to non-point-source pollution, which was simulated with a pyrimethanil formulation at a semifield scale mimicking worst-case scenarios of soil contamination (e.g. accident or improper disposal). Yeast cells 2-h exposure to the runoff samples led to a significant 2-fold increase in the expression of both indicator genes. These results were compared with those from assays with organisms relevant for the aquatic and soil compartments, namely the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (reproduction), the freshwater cladoceran Daphnia magna (survival and reproduction), the benthic midge Chironomus riparius (growth), and the soil invertebrates Folsomia candida and Enchytraeus crypticus (survival and reproduction). Under the experimental conditions used to simulate accidental discharges into soil, runoff waters were highly toxic to the standard test organisms, except for C. elegans. Overall, results point out the usefulness of the yeast assay to provide a rapid preview of the toxicity level in preliminary screenings of environmental samples in situations of inadvertent high pesticide contamination. Advantages and limitations of this novel method are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The toxicity of silver to soil organisms exposed to silver nanoparticles and silver nitrate in biosolids-amended field soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesmer, Alexander H; Velicogna, Jessica R; Schwertfeger, Dina M; Scroggins, Richard P; Princz, Juliska I

    2017-10-01

    The use of engineered silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is widespread, with expected release to the terrestrial environment through the application of biosolids onto agricultural lands. The toxicity of AgNPs and silver nitrate (AgNO 3 ; as ionic Ag + ) to plant (Elymus lanceolatus and Trifolium pratense) and soil invertebrate (Eisenia andrei and Folsomia candida) species was assessed using Ag-amended biosolids applied to a natural sandy loam soil. Bioavailable Ag + in soil samples was estimated using an ion-exchange technique applied to KNO 3 soil extracts, whereas exposure to dispersible AgNPs was verified by single-particle inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis. Greater toxicity to plant growth and earthworm reproduction was observed in AgNP exposures relative to those of AgNO 3 , whereas no difference in toxicity was observed for F. candida reproduction. Transformation products in the AgNP-biosolids exposures resulted in larger pools of extractable Ag + than those from AgNO 3 -biosolids exposures, at similar total Ag soil concentrations. The results of the present study reveal intrinsic differences in the behavior and bioavailability of the 2 different forms of Ag within the biosolids-soils pathway. The present study demonstrates how analytical methods that target biologically relevant fractions can be used to advance the understanding of AgNP behavior and toxicity in terrestrial environments. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2756-2765. © 2017 Crown in the Right of Canada. Published Wiley Periodicals Inc., on behalf of SETAC. © 2017 Crown in the Right of Canada. Published Wiley Periodicals Inc., on behalf of SETAC.

  4. The ecotoxicity of zinc and zinc-containing substances in soil with consideration of metal-moiety approaches and organometal complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Ellyn; Boyd, Patrick; Lawson-Halasz, Annamaria; Hawari, Jalal; Saucier, Stacey; Scroggins, Richard; Princz, Juliska

    2017-12-01

    Within Canada, screening-level assessments for chemical substances are required to determine whether the substances pose a risk to human health and/or the environment, and as appropriate, risk management strategies. In response to the volume of metal and metal-containing substances, process efficiencies were introduced using a metal-moiety approach, whereby substances that contain a common metal moiety are assessed simultaneously as a group, with the moiety of concern consisting of the metal ion. However, for certain subgroups, such as organometals or organic metal salts, the organic moiety or parent substance may be of concern, rather than simply the metal ion. To further investigate the need for such additional consideration, certain substances were evaluated: zinc (Zn)-containing inorganic (Zn chloride [ZnCl2] and Zn oxide) and organic (organometal: Zn diethyldithiocarbamate [Zn(DDC) 2 ] and organic metal salts (Zn stearate [ZnSt] and 4-chloro-2-nitrobenzenediazonium tetrachlorozincate [BCNZ]). The toxicity of the substances were assessed using plant (Trifolium pratense and Elymus lanceolatus) and soil invertebrate (Folsomia candida and Eisenia andrei) tests in a sandy soil. Effect measures were determined based on total metal and total parent analyses (for organic substances). In general, the inorganic Zn substances were less toxic than the organometals and organic metal salts, with 50% effective concentrations ranging from 11 to >5194 mg Zn kg -1 dry soil. The data demonstrate the necessity for alternate approaches in the assessment of organo-metal complexes, with the organic moieties or parent substances warranting consideration rather than the metal ion alone. In this instance, the organometals and organic metal salts were significantly more toxic than other test substances despite their low total Zn content. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:3324-3332. © 2017 Crown in the Right of Canada. Published by Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. © 2017 Crown

  5. Is the risk for soil arthropods covered by new data requirements under the EU PPP Regulation No. 1107/2009?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlschmid, E; Ruf, D

    2016-12-01

    Testing of effects on earthworms and non-target foliar arthropods is an integral part of the ecotoxicological risk assessment for the authorization of plant protection products. According to the new data requirements, which came into force in 2014 for active substances and in 2016 for plant protection products, the chronic earthworm toxicity test with Eisenia fetida based on reproductive, growth, and behavioral effects instead of the acute earthworm toxicity test based on mortality, has to be conducted routinely. Additional testing of effects on soil arthropods (Folsomia candida, Hyposaspis aculeifer) is required if the risk assessment of foliar applications raises concerns regarding non-target foliar arthropods (Aphidius rhopalosiphi, Typhlodromus pyri) or if the product is applied directly on or into the soil. Thus, it was investigated whether the sublethal earthworm endpoint is more sensitive than the sublethal soil arthropod endpoint for different types of pesticides and whether the risk assessment for non-target arthropods would trigger the testing of effects on soil arthropods in the cases where soil arthropods are more sensitive than earthworms. Toxicity data were obtained from Swiss ecotoxicological database, EFSA Conclusions and scientific literature. For insecticides and herbicides, no general conclusion regarding differences in sensitivity of either earthworms or soil arthropods based on sublethal endpoints were possible. For fungicides, the data indicated that in general, earthworms seemed to be more sensitive than soil arthropods. In total, the sublethal F. candida or H. aculeifer endpoint was lower than the sublethal E. fetida endpoint for 23 (34 %) out of 68 active substances. For 26 % of these 23 active substances, testing of soil arthropods would not have been triggered due to the new data requirement. These results based on sublethal endpoints show that earthworms and soil arthropods differ in sensitivity toward certain active substances and

  6. Allelopathic effect of new introduced biofuel crops on the soil biota: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heděnec, Petr; Frouz, Jan; Ustak, Sergej; Novotny, David

    2015-04-01

    Biofuel crops as an alternative to fossil fuels are a component of the energy mix in many countries. Many of them are introduced plants, so they pose a serious threat of biological invasions. Production of allelopathic compounds can increase invasion success by limiting co-occurring species in the invaded environment (novel weapons hypothesis). In this study, we focused on plant chemistry and production of allelopathic compounds by biofuel crops (hybrid sorrel Rumex tianschanicus x Rumex patientia and miscanthus Miscanthus sinensis) in comparison with invasive knotweed (Fallopia sachalinensis) and cultural meadow species. First, we tested the impact of leachates isolated from hybrid sorrel, miscanthus, knotweed and cultural meadow species compared to deionized water, used as a control, on seed germination of mustard (Sinapis arvensis) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivated on sand and soil. Secondly, we studied the effect of leachates on the growth of soil fungal pathogens Fusarium culmorum, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotinia solani and Cochliobolus sativus. Finally, we tested the effect of litter of hybrid sorrel, miscanthus, knotweed and cultural meadow litter mixed with soil on population growth of Enchytraeus crypticus and Folsomia candida. Miscanthus and knotweed litter had a higher C:N ratio than the control meadow and hybrid sorrel litter. Miscanthus and hybrid sorrel litter had a higher content of phenols than knotweed and cultural meadow litter. Leachates from hybrid sorrel, miscanthus and knotweed biomass significantly decreased seed germination of wheat and mustard in both substrates. Soil fungal pathogens grew less vigorously on agar enriched by leachates from both biofuel crops than on agar enriched by knotweed and leachates. Litter from hybrid sorrel, miscanthus and knotweed significantly altered (both ways) the population growth of the soil mesofauna.

  7. Effects of the neonicotinoids acetamiprid and thiacloprid in their commercial formulations on soil fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Mathieu; Akeju, Tolutope; Natal-da-Luz, Tiago; Leston, Sara; Rosa, João; Ramos, Fernando; Sousa, José Paulo; Azevedo-Pereira, Henrique M V S

    2018-03-01

    Neonicotinoids are the most prominent group of insecticides in the world and are commercialized in over 120 countries for the control of agricultural pests mainly due to their broad-spectrum activity and versatility in application. Though non-target soil organisms are likely to be exposed during application, there is paucity of information in scientific literature regarding their sensitivity to neonicotinoids. This study attempts to fill this gap by evaluating, under laboratory conditions, the chronic toxicity of the neonicotinoids thiacloprid and acetamiprid, through their commercial formulations (CF), to the soil invertebrates Folsomia candida, Eisenia andrei and Enchytraeus crypticus. Results obtained indicate that the relative reproductive sensitivity of the test organisms can be expressed as: F. candida = E. andrei > E. crypticus (for acetamiprid CF) and E. andrei > F. candida > E. crypticus (for thiacloprid CF). To extrapolate from laboratory test results to field conditions, predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) and predicted no-effect concentrations were derived. Calculated toxicity-exposure ratios (TER = EC10/PEC) were below trigger values for acetamiprid and thiacloprid, when estimated with initial PEC. While estimated hazard quotients (HQ = PEC/PNEC), were greater than the European Commission trigger value. Therefore, with the current data under standard environmental risk assessment schemes it can be considered that the risk of thiacloprid and acetamiprid to the soil compartment is unacceptable. However, further research into the effects of these substances on different organisms is required to increase the confidence in the risk assessment estimates for instance, by calculating hazardous concentrations using species sensitivity distribution curves. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Petroleum Hydrocarbon Mixture Toxicity and a Trait Based Approach to Soil Invertebrate Species for Site Specific Risk Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainer, Amy; Cousins, Mark; Hogan, Natacha; Siciliano, Steven D

    2018-05-05

    Although petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) released to the environment typically occur as mixtures, PHC remediation guidelines often reflect individual substance toxicity. It is well documented that groups of aliphatic PHCs act via the same mechanism of action, nonpolar narcosis and, theoretically, concentration addition mixture toxicity principles apply. To assess this theory, ten standardized acute and chronic soil invertebrate toxicity tests on a range of organisms (Eisenia fetida, Lumbricus terrestris, Enchytraeus crypticus, Folsomia candida, Oppia nitens and Hypoaspis aculeifer) were conducted with a refined PHC binary mixture. Reference models for concentration addition and independent action were applied to the mixture toxicity data with consideration of synergism, antagonism and dose level toxicity. Both concentration addition and independent action, without further interactions, provided the best fit with observed response to the mixture. Individual fraction effective concentration values were predicted from optimized, fitted reference models. Concentration addition provided a better estimate than independent action of individual fraction effective concentrations based on comparison with available literature and species trends observed in toxic responses to the mixture. Interspecies differences in standardized laboratory soil invertebrate species responses to PHC contaminated soil was reflected in unique traits. Diets that included soil, large body size, permeable cuticle, low lipid content, lack of ability to molt and no maternal transfer were traits linked to a sensitive survival response to PHC contaminated soil in laboratory tests. Traits linked to sensitive reproduction response in organisms tested were long life spans with small clutch sizes. By deriving single fraction toxicity endpoints considerate of mixtures, we reduce resources and time required in conducting site specific risk assessments for the protection of soil organism's exposure pathway. This

  9. Tree species traits influence soil physical, chemical, and biological properties in high elevation forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Ayres

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that plants often have species-specific effects on soil properties. In high elevation forests in the Southern Rocky Mountains, North America, areas that are dominated by a single tree species are often adjacent to areas dominated by another tree species. Here, we assessed soil properties beneath adjacent stands of trembling aspen, lodgepole pine, and Engelmann spruce, which are dominant tree species in this region and are distributed widely in North America. We hypothesized that soil properties would differ among stands dominated by different tree species and expected that aspen stands would have higher soil temperatures due to their open structure, which, combined with higher quality litter, would result in increased soil respiration rates, nitrogen availability, and microbial biomass, and differences in soil faunal community composition. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We assessed soil physical, chemical, and biological properties at four sites where stands of aspen, pine, and spruce occurred in close proximity to one-another in the San Juan Mountains, Colorado. Leaf litter quality differed among the tree species, with the highest nitrogen (N concentration and lowest lignin:N in aspen litter. Nitrogen concentration was similar in pine and spruce litter, but lignin:N was highest in pine litter. Soil temperature and moisture were highest in aspen stands, which, in combination with higher litter quality, probably contributed to faster soil respiration rates from stands of aspen. Soil carbon and N content, ammonium concentration, and microbial biomass did not differ among tree species, but nitrate concentration was highest in aspen soil and lowest in spruce soil. In addition, soil fungal, bacterial, and nematode community composition and rotifer, collembolan, and mesostigmatid mite abundance differed among the tree species, while the total abundance of nematodes, tardigrades, oribatid mites, and prostigmatid

  10. Macroinvertebrate Prey Availability and Fish Diet Selectivity in Relation to Environmental Variables in Natural and Restoring North San Francisco Bay Tidal Marsh Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily R. Howe

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tidal marsh wetlands provide important foraging habitat for a variety of estuarine fishes. Prey organisms include benthic–epibenthic macroinvertebrates, neustonic arthropods, and zooplankton. Little is known about the abundance and distribution of interior marsh macroinvertebrate communities in the San Francisco Estuary (estuary. We describe seasonal, regional, and site variation in the composition and abundance of neuston and benthic–epibenthic macroinvertebrates that inhabit tidal marsh channels, and relate these patterns to environmental conditions. We also describe spatial and temporal variation in diets of marsh-associated inland silverside, yellowfin goby, and western mosquitofish. Fish and invertebrates were sampled quarterly from October 2003 to June 2005 at six marsh sites located in three river systems of the northern estuary: Petaluma River, Napa River, and  the west Delta. Benthic/epibenthic macroinvertebrates and neuston responded to environmental variables related to seasonal changes (i.e., temperature, salinity, as well as those related to marsh structure (i.e., vegetation, channel edge. The greatest variation in abundance occurred seasonally for neuston and spatially for benthic–epibenthic organisms, suggesting that each community responds to different environmental drivers. Benthic/epibenthic invertebrate abundance and diversity was lowest in the west Delta, and increased with increasing salinity. Insect abundance increased during the spring and summer, while Collembolan (springtail abundance increased during the winter. Benthic/epibenthic macroinvertebrates dominated fish diets, supplemented by insects, with zooplankton playing a minor role. Diet compositions of the three fish species overlapped considerably, with strong selection indicated for epibenthic crustaceans—a surprising result given the typical classification of Menidia beryllina as a planktivore, Acanthogobius flavimanus as a benthic predator, and Gambusia

  11. Study of microarthropod communities to assess soil quality in different managed vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnarli, Elena; Vignozzi, Nadia; Valboa, Giuseppe; Bouneb, Mabrouk; Corino, Lorenzo; Goggioli, Donatella; Guidi, Silvia; Lottero, Mariarosa; Tarchi, Franca; Simoni, Sauro

    2014-05-01

    conventional/IPM management). The mites represented about 50% of the arthropodofauna recorded, collembolans 30%, and 20% other microarthropods (Blattaria, Chilopoda, Coleoptera, Diplopoda, Diplura, Diptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Isopoda, Homoptera, Pauropoda, Protura, Pseudoscopionida, Psocoptera, Symphyla, Thysanoptera). The mesofauna abundance was affected by the type of management (P=0.015) and soil texture (P=0.029). At the identification level considered, the biological indices calculated showed no substantial differences between different crop managements (H'=1.26, D=0.97 in organic vineyard, H'=1.30, D=0.89 in IPM vineyard). The analysis of microarthropod communities by QBSar, however, showed higher values in organic compared to IPM managed vineyards (QBSar 199 vs 98 in 2011 and 205 vs 188 in 2012, respectively) which are close to figures characteristic of preserved soils.

  12. Efeito de restos da cultura do abacaxizeiro e de agrobio na fauna do solo Effect of residues of pineaplle plant and agrobio in the soil fauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alecsandra de Almeida

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de restos culturais de abacaxizeiro (Ananas comosus L. 'Smooth Cayenne' na fauna de artrópodes,em cultivos em campo. As mudas, do tipo filhote, foram plantadas no mês de junho, em um Latossolo Vermelho Amarelo, que recebeu 0, 30 e 60t/ha de restos de abacaxizeiro, aplicados superficialmente e incorporados a 10cm de profundidade, com e sem a adição do biofertilizante-Agrobio10% (v/v. Foram coletadas amostras a 05 cm de profundidade aos 90, 210, 330 e 450 dias após a aplicação dos resíduos. Identificou-se, durante os 15 meses de avaliações, o predomínio de Acari e Collembola. A maior densidade de animais foi observada na primeira amostragem, aos 90 dias após a adição dos restos. No entanto, diferenças na abundância da fauna de solo só foram observadas, 330 dias após a adição dos resíduos.This study was conducted under field conditions, in order to determine the effect of pineapple crop (Ananas comosus L. residues on the edaphic arthropod fauna. Slips were planted in June, in Red-Yellow Latossol , with crop residues in amounts of 0, 30 and 60 t/ha, placed on the surface or tilled under 10cm, with and without 10% (v/v Agrobio biofertilizer applied along with the residues and sprayed monthly at 3% (v/v two months after planting. Soil samples were collected from the top 5.0 cm of soil at 90, 210, 330 and 450 days after the application of residues. Over 15 months, the predominance of Acari and Collembolan was observed. The highest density of animals was observed in the first sample, at 90 days after the addition of residues. Nevertheless, differences in soil fauna abundance between treatments were not detected until 330 days after soil management with crop residues.

  13. Aboveground vertebrate and invertebrate herbivore impact on net N mineralization in subalpine grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, Anita C; Schotz, Martin; Vandegehuchte, Martijn L; Van Der Putten, Wim H; Duyts, Henk; Raschein, Ursina; Gwiazdowicz, Dariusz J; Busse, Matt D; Page-dumroese, Deborah S; Zimmermann, Stephan

    2015-12-01

    Aboveground herbivores have strong effects on grassland nitrogen (N) cycling. They can accelerate or slow down soil net N mineralization depending on ecosystem productivity and grazing intensity. Yet, most studies only consider either ungulates or invertebrate herbivores, but not the combined effect of several functionally different vertebrate and invertebrate herbivore species or guilds. We assessed how a diverse herbivore community affects net N mineralization in subalpine grasslands. By using size-selective fences, we progressively excluded large, medium, and small mammals, as well as invertebrates from two vegetation types, and assessed how the exclosure types (ET) affected net N mineralization. The two vegetation types differed in long-term management (centuries), forage quality, and grazing history and intensity. To gain a more mechanistic understanding of how herbivores affect net N mineralization, we linked mineralization to soil abiotic (temperature; moisture; NO3-, NH4+, and total inorganic N concentrations/pools; C, N, P concentrations; pH; bulk density), soil biotic (microbial biomass; abundance of collembolans, mites, and nematodes) and plant (shoot and root biomass; consumption; plant C, N, and fiber content; plant N pool) properties. Net N mineralization differed between ET, but not between vegetation types. Thus, short-term changes in herbivore community composition and, therefore, in grazing intensity had a stronger effect on net N mineralization than long-term management and grazing history. We found highest N mineralization values when only invertebrates were present, suggesting that mammals had a negative effect on net N mineralization. Of the variables included in our analyses, only mite abundance and aboveground plant biomass explained variation in net N mineralization among ET. Abundances of both mites and leaf-sucking invertebrates were positively correlated with aboveground plant biomass, and biomass increased with progressive exclusion

  14. Ecological impacts of long-term application of biosolids to a radiata pine plantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Jianming; Kimberley, Mark O.; Ross, Craig; Gielen, Gerty; Tremblay, Louis A.; Champeau, Olivier; Horswell, Jacqui; Wang, Hailong

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of the ecological impact of applying biosolids is important for determining both the risks and benefits. This study investigated the impact on soil physical, chemical and biological properties, tree nutrition and growth of long-term biosolids applications to a radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) plantation growing on a Sandy Raw Soil in New Zealand. Biosolids were applied to the trial site every 3 years from tree age 6 to 19 years at three application rates: 0 (Control), 300 (Standard) and 600 (High) kg nitrogen (N) ha −1 , equivalent to 0, 3 and 6 Mg ha −1 of dry biosolids, respectively. Tree nutrition status and growth have been monitored annually. Soil samples were collected 13 years after the first biosolids application to assess the soil properties and functioning. Both the Standard and High biosolids treatments significantly increased soil (0–50 cm depth) total carbon (C), N, and phosphorus (P), Olsen P and cation exchange capacity (CEC), reduced soil pH, but had no significant effects on soil (0–20 cm depth) physical properties including bulk density, total porosity and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. The High biosolids treatment also increased concentrations of soil total cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) at 25–50 cm depth, but these concentrations were still considered very low for a soil. Ecotoxicological assessment showed no significant adverse effects of biosolids application on either the reproduction of springtails (Folsomia candida) or substrate utilisation ability of the soil microbial community, indicating no negative ecological impact of bisolids-derived heavy metals or triclosan. This study demonstrated that repeated application of biosolids to a plantation forest on a poor sandy soil could significantly improve soil fertility, tree nutrition and pine productivity. However, the long-term fate of biosolids-derived N, P and litter-retained heavy metals needs to be further monitored in the receiving

  15. Ecological impacts of long-term application of biosolids to a radiata pine plantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Jianming, E-mail: jianming.xue@scionresearch.com [Scion, Private Bag 29237, Christchurch (New Zealand); Kimberley, Mark O., E-mail: mark.kimberley@scionresearch.com [Scion, Private Bag 3020, Rotorua (New Zealand); Ross, Craig, E-mail: rossc@landcareresearch.co.nz [Landcare, Private Bag 11052, Palmerston North (New Zealand); Gielen, Gerty, E-mail: gerty.gielen@scionresearch.com [Scion, Private Bag 3020, Rotorua (New Zealand); Tremblay, Louis A., E-mail: louis.tremblay@cawthron.org.nz [Cawthron Institute, Private Bag 2, Nelson (New Zealand); School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, PO Box 92019, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Champeau, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.champeau@cawthron.org.nz [Cawthron Institute, Private Bag 2, Nelson (New Zealand); Horswell, Jacqui, E-mail: jacqui.horswell@esr.cri.nz [ESR, P O Box 50-348, Porirua (New Zealand); Wang, Hailong, E-mail: hailong@zafu.edu.cn [Scion, Private Bag 3020, Rotorua (New Zealand); Key Laboratory of Soil Contamination Bioremediation of Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang Agricultural and Forestry University, Lin' an, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province 311300 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Assessment of the ecological impact of applying biosolids is important for determining both the risks and benefits. This study investigated the impact on soil physical, chemical and biological properties, tree nutrition and growth of long-term biosolids applications to a radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) plantation growing on a Sandy Raw Soil in New Zealand. Biosolids were applied to the trial site every 3 years from tree age 6 to 19 years at three application rates: 0 (Control), 300 (Standard) and 600 (High) kg nitrogen (N) ha{sup −1}, equivalent to 0, 3 and 6 Mg ha{sup −1} of dry biosolids, respectively. Tree nutrition status and growth have been monitored annually. Soil samples were collected 13 years after the first biosolids application to assess the soil properties and functioning. Both the Standard and High biosolids treatments significantly increased soil (0–50 cm depth) total carbon (C), N, and phosphorus (P), Olsen P and cation exchange capacity (CEC), reduced soil pH, but had no significant effects on soil (0–20 cm depth) physical properties including bulk density, total porosity and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. The High biosolids treatment also increased concentrations of soil total cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) at 25–50 cm depth, but these concentrations were still considered very low for a soil. Ecotoxicological assessment showed no significant adverse effects of biosolids application on either the reproduction of springtails (Folsomia candida) or substrate utilisation ability of the soil microbial community, indicating no negative ecological impact of bisolids-derived heavy metals or triclosan. This study demonstrated that repeated application of biosolids to a plantation forest on a poor sandy soil could significantly improve soil fertility, tree nutrition and pine productivity. However, the long-term fate of biosolids-derived N, P and litter-retained heavy metals needs to be further monitored in the

  16. Phosphogypsum as a soil fertilizer: Ecotoxicity of amended soil and elutriates to bacteria, invertebrates, algae and plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hentati, Olfa, E-mail: olfa_hentati@yahoo.fr [High Institute of Biotechnology of Sfax, University of Sfax, Route de Soukra Km 4.5 P.O. Box 1175, 3038 Sfax (Tunisia); Abrantes, Nelson [Departamento de Ambiente da Universidade de Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); CESAM - Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Caetano, Ana Luísa [Departamento de Biologia da Universidade de Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); CESAM - Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Bouguerra, Sirine [High Institute of Biotechnology of Sfax, University of Sfax, Route de Soukra Km 4.5 P.O. Box 1175, 3038 Sfax (Tunisia); Departamento de Biologia da Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre s/n, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR/CIMAR), University of Porto, Rua dos Bragas 289, P 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Gonçalves, Fernando [Departamento de Biologia da Universidade de Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); CESAM - Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Römbke, Jörg [ECT Oekotoxikologie GmbH, Böttgerstrasse 2-14, D-65439 Flörsheim am Main (Germany); Pereira, Ruth [Departamento de Biologia da Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre s/n, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR/CIMAR), University of Porto, Rua dos Bragas 289, P 4050-123 Porto (Portugal)

    2015-08-30

    Highlights: • Assessment of the impact of Tunisian phosphogypsum on soil biota was performed. • A battery of terrestrial and aquatic species was tested. • E. andrei and D. magna were the most sensitive species in amended soil and elutriate. • The high levels of Ca in PG, suggest that it was responsible for the ecotoxicity. • Serious efforts should be made to set clear limits for PG application in soils. - Abstract: Phosphogypsum (PG) is a metal and radionuclide rich-waste produced by the phosphate ore industry, which has been used as soil fertilizer in many parts of the world for several decades. The positive effects of PG in ameliorating some soil properties and increasing crop yields are well documented. More recently concerns are emerging related with the increase of metal/radionuclide residues on soils and crops. However, few studies have focused on the impact of PG applications on soil biota, as well as the contribution to soils with elements in mobile fractions of PG which may affect freshwater species as well. In this context the main aim of this study was to assess the ecotoxicity of soils amended with different percentages of Tunisian phosphogypsum (0.0, 4.9, 7.4, 11.1, 16.6 and 25%) and of elutriates obtained from PG – amended soil (0.0, 6.25, 12.5 and 25% of PG) to a battery of terrestrial (Eisenia andrei, Enchytraeus crypticus, Folsomia candida, Hypoaspis aculeifer, Zea mays, Lactuca sativa) and aquatic species (Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia magna, Raphidocelis subcapitata, Lemna minor). Both for amended soils and elutriates, invertebrates (especially D. magna and E. andrei) were the most sensitive species, displaying acute (immobilization) and chronic (reproduction inhibition) effects, respectively. Despite the presence of some concerning metals in PG and elutriates (e.g., zinc and cadmium), the extremely high levels of calcium found in both test mediums, suggest that this element was the mainly responsible for the ecotoxicological effects

  17. Biocontrol of the toxigenic plant pathogen Fusarium culmorum by soil fauna in an agroecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Wolfarth, Friederike; Schrader, Stefan; Oldenburg, Elisabeth; Weinert, Joachim; Brunotte, Joachim

    2017-08-01

    In 2011 and 2013, a field experiment was conducted in a winter wheat field at Adenstedt (northern Germany) to investigate biocontrol and interaction effects of important members of the soil food web (Lumbricus terrestris, Annelida; Folsomia candida, Collembola and Aphelenchoides saprophilus, Nematoda) on the phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium culmorum in wheat straw. Therefore, soil fauna was introduced in mesocosms in defined numbers and combinations and exposed to either Fusarium-infected or non-infected wheat straw. L. terrestris was introduced in all faunal treatments and combined either with F. candida or A. saprophilus or both. Mesocosms filled with a Luvisol soil, a cover of different types of wheat straw and respective combinations of faunal species were established outdoors in the topsoil of a winter wheat field after harvest of the crop. After a time span of 4 and 8 weeks, the degree of wheat straw coverage of mesocosms was quantified to assess its attractiveness for the soil fauna. The content of Fusarium biomass in residual wheat straw and soil was determined using a double-antibody sandwich (DAS)-ELISA method. In both experimental years, the infected wheat straw was incorporated more efficiently into the soil than the non-infected control straw due to the presence of L. terrestris in all faunal treatments than the non-infected control straw. In addition, Fusarium biomass was reduced significantly in all treatments after 4 weeks (2011: 95-99%; 2013:15-54%), whereupon the decline of fungal biomass was higher in faunal treatments than in non-faunal treatments and differed significantly from them. In 2011, Fusarium biomass of the faunal treatments was below the quantification limit after 8 weeks. In 2013, a decline of Fusarium biomass was observed, but the highest content of Fusarium biomass was still found in the non-faunal treatments after 8 weeks. In the soil of all treatments, Fusarium biomass was below the quantification limit. The earthworm species

  18. Chemical signaling and insect attraction is a conserved trait in yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becher, Paul G; Hagman, Arne; Verschut, Vasiliki; Chakraborty, Amrita; Rozpędowska, Elżbieta; Lebreton, Sébastien; Bengtsson, Marie; Flick, Gerhard; Witzgall, Peter; Piškur, Jure

    2018-03-01

    Yeast volatiles attract insects, which apparently is of mutual benefit, for both yeasts and insects. However, it is unknown whether biosynthesis of metabolites that attract insects is a basic and general trait, or if it is specific for yeasts that live in close association with insects. Our goal was to study chemical insect attractants produced by yeasts that span more than 250 million years of evolutionary history and vastly differ in their metabolism and lifestyle. We bioassayed attraction of the vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster to odors of phylogenetically and ecologically distinct yeasts grown under controlled conditions. Baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae , the insect-associated species Candida californica , Pichia kluyveri and Metschnikowia andauensis , wine yeast Dekkera bruxellensis , milk yeast Kluyveromyces lactis , the vertebrate pathogens Candida albicans and Candida glabrata , and oleophilic Yarrowia lipolytica were screened for fly attraction in a wind tunnel. Yeast headspace was chemically analyzed, and co-occurrence of insect attractants in yeasts and flowering plants was investigated through a database search. In yeasts with known genomes, we investigated the occurrence of genes involved in the synthesis of key aroma compounds. Flies were attracted to all nine yeasts studied. The behavioral response to baker's yeast was independent of its growth stage. In addition to Drosophila , we tested the basal hexapod Folsomia candida (Collembola) in a Y-tube assay to the most ancient yeast, Y. lipolytica, which proved that early yeast signals also function on clades older than neopteran insects. Behavioral and chemical data and a search for selected genes of volatile metabolites underline that biosynthesis of chemical signals is found throughout the yeast clade and has been conserved during the evolution of yeast lifestyles. Literature and database reviews corroborate that yeast signals mediate mutualistic interactions between insects and yeasts

  19. Phosphogypsum as a soil fertilizer: Ecotoxicity of amended soil and elutriates to bacteria, invertebrates, algae and plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hentati, Olfa; Abrantes, Nelson; Caetano, Ana Luísa; Bouguerra, Sirine; Gonçalves, Fernando; Römbke, Jörg; Pereira, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Assessment of the impact of Tunisian phosphogypsum on soil biota was performed. • A battery of terrestrial and aquatic species was tested. • E. andrei and D. magna were the most sensitive species in amended soil and elutriate. • The high levels of Ca in PG, suggest that it was responsible for the ecotoxicity. • Serious efforts should be made to set clear limits for PG application in soils. - Abstract: Phosphogypsum (PG) is a metal and radionuclide rich-waste produced by the phosphate ore industry, which has been used as soil fertilizer in many parts of the world for several decades. The positive effects of PG in ameliorating some soil properties and increasing crop yields are well documented. More recently concerns are emerging related with the increase of metal/radionuclide residues on soils and crops. However, few studies have focused on the impact of PG applications on soil biota, as well as the contribution to soils with elements in mobile fractions of PG which may affect freshwater species as well. In this context the main aim of this study was to assess the ecotoxicity of soils amended with different percentages of Tunisian phosphogypsum (0.0, 4.9, 7.4, 11.1, 16.6 and 25%) and of elutriates obtained from PG – amended soil (0.0, 6.25, 12.5 and 25% of PG) to a battery of terrestrial (Eisenia andrei, Enchytraeus crypticus, Folsomia candida, Hypoaspis aculeifer, Zea mays, Lactuca sativa) and aquatic species (Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia magna, Raphidocelis subcapitata, Lemna minor). Both for amended soils and elutriates, invertebrates (especially D. magna and E. andrei) were the most sensitive species, displaying acute (immobilization) and chronic (reproduction inhibition) effects, respectively. Despite the presence of some concerning metals in PG and elutriates (e.g., zinc and cadmium), the extremely high levels of calcium found in both test mediums, suggest that this element was the mainly responsible for the ecotoxicological effects

  20. Trophic and microhabitat niche overlap in two sympatric dendrobatids from La Selva, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cajade, Rodrigo

    2010-11-01

    both dendrobatids were recorded by the analysed stomach flushing technique. Microhabitats uses were defined as the site where each individual was captured. The influence of microhabitat on diets was evaluated by the dietary (prey proportions and volume and microhabitat overlapsusing Pianka’s (Ojk overlap index calculated with EcoSim software. Diets of both dendrobatids were principally characterized by the preference of hymenopterans (ants, acarines and collembolans, resulted in a high overlapping in prey proportions and prey volume. However, diets overlaps were not significant, suggesting the absence of negative feeding interactions.Microhabitat use was low overlapped and also not significant, suggesting a differentiation on theuse of spatial resource. The absence of negative feeding interactions between Dendrobates auratus and Oophaga pumilio could be due to segregation in microhabitat use and possible by the abundance of trophic resource in the area. The great large volumes of formicids andacarines in the diet of this dendrobatids are in agreement with the hypothesis of these arthropods as a dietary source of alkaloids.

  1. The complete mitochondrial sequence of the"living fossil" Tricholepidion gertschi: structure, phylogenetic implications, and the description of a novel A/T asymmetrical bias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nardi, F.; Frati, F.; Carapelli, A.; Dallai, R.; Boore, J.

    2002-06-23

    mitochondrial genome sequences to study the evolution and differentiation of the most basal hexapod groups, including Tricholepidion. Mitochondrial genomics, that is analysis of various features of the mitochondrial genome such as gene order and the analysis of the concatenated sequence of its genes, has proved to be a very powerful tool for the study of ancient phylogenetic relationships (Boore, 2000; Boore and Brown, 1995; Boore and Brown, 1998; Garcia-Machado et al., 1999; Hwang et al., 2001; Nardi et al., 2001), and its application seems to be appropriate for the problem under study ((Nardi et al., 2001), this study). In addition, complete mitochondrial sequences, with the advent of automatic sequencing tools, are accumulating rapidly, but there is a strong bias towards the better known or economically important groups, while only two sequences have been produced for the more basal, and evolutionarily more intriguing, hexapod orders. The complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of Tricholepidion gertschi is the second among apterygotans, following the collembolan T.bielanensis (Nardi et al., 2001).

  2. Metais pesados, agrotóxicos e combustíveis: efeito na população de colêmbolos no solo Heavy metal, pesticides and fuels: effect in the population of collembola in the soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaida Inês Antoniolli

    2013-06-01

    increase of the collembola population and the soil pH decreased as the Cd, Zn and Cu doses in the soil increased. In the presence on fuels the collembola presented incapacity to procreate regardless the dose applied in the soil. The number of collembola showed an increase with increasing glyphosate and epoxiconazole level. The heavy metal Cu and Zn have negative impact over the collembola population and just Cd (1mg kg-1 soil offers increase on their population in the soil. The presence of burned oil and diesel in the soil inhibit the collembolan development in the soil. The pesticides glyphosate, epoxiconazol and epoxiconazol + piraclostrobina do not negatively influence the collembola population in the soil.