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Sample records for dioxide no2 exposures

  1. Social factors associated with nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure during pregnancy: the INMA-Valencia project in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llop, Sabrina; Ballester, Ferran; Estarlich, Marisa; Iñiguez, Carmen; Ramón, Rosa; Gonzalez, Ma Carmen; Murcia, Mario; Esplugues, Ana; Rebagliato, Marisa

    2011-03-01

    Numerous studies have focused on the effects of exposure to air pollution on health; however, certain subsets of the population tend to be more exposed to such pollutants depending on their social or demographic characteristics. In addition, exposure to toxicants during pregnancy may play a deleterious role in fetal development as fetuses are especially vulnerable to external insults. The present study was carried out within the framework of the INMA (Infancia y Medio Ambiente or Childhood and the Environment) multicenter cohort study with the objective of identifying the social, demographic, and life-style factors associated with nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) exposure in the subjects in the cohort. The study comprised 785 pregnant women who formed part of the INMA cohort in Valencia, Spain. Outdoor levels of NO(2) were measured at 93 sampling sites spread over the study area during four different sampling periods lasting 7 days each. Multiple regression models were used for mapping outdoor NO(2) throughout the area. Individual exposure was assigned as: 1) the estimated outdoor NO(2) levels at home, and 2) the average of estimated outdoor NO(2) levels at home and work, weighted according to the time spent in each environment. The subjects' socio-demographic and life-style information was obtained through a questionnaire. In the multiple linear analyses, the outdoor NO(2) levels assigned to each home were taken to be the dependent variable. Other variables included in the model were: age, country of origin, smoking during pregnancy, parity, season of the year, and social class. These same variables remained in the model when the dependent variable was changed to the NO(2) levels adjusted for the subjects' time-activity patterns. We found that younger women, those coming from Latin American countries, and those belonging to the lower social strata were exposed to higher NO(2) levels, both as measured outside their homes as well as when time-activity patterns were taken

  2. Socioeconomic position and outdoor nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure in Western Europe : A multi-city analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temam, Sofia; Burte, Emilie; Adam, Martin; Antó, Josep M; Basagaña, Xavier; Bousquet, Jean; Carsin, Anne-Elie; Galobardes, Bruna; Keidel, Dirk; Künzli, Nino; Le Moual, Nicole; Sanchez, Margaux; Sunyer, Jordi; Bono, Roberto; Brunekreef, Bert; Heinrich, Joachim; de Hoogh, Kees; Jarvis, Debbie; Marcon, Alessandro; Modig, Lars; Nadif, Rachel; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Pin, Isabelle; Siroux, Valérie; Stempfelet, Morgane; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Jacquemin, Bénédicte

    BACKGROUND: Inconsistent associations between socioeconomic position (SEP) and outdoor air pollution have been reported in Europe, but methodological differences prevent any direct between-study comparison. OBJECTIVES: Assess and compare the association between SEP and outdoor nitrogen dioxide (NO2)

  3. HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) Zonal Fourier Coefficients V007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The "HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) Zonal Fourier Coefficients" version 7 data product (H3ZFCNO2) contains the entire mission (~3 years) of HIRDLS data...

  4. Field investigations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2 exchange between plants and the atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kesselmeier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The nitrogen dioxide (NO2 exchange between the atmosphere and needles of Picea abies L. (Norway Spruce was studied under uncontrolled field conditions using a dynamic chamber system. This system allows measurements of the flux density of the reactive NO-NO2-O3 triad and additionally of the non-reactive trace gases CO2 and H2O. For the NO2 detection a highly NO2 specific blue light converter was used, which was coupled to chemiluminescence detection of the photolysis product NO. This NO2 converter excludes known interferences with other nitrogen compounds, which occur by using more unspecific NO2 converters. Photo-chemical reactions of NO, NO2, and O3 inside the dynamic chamber were considered for the determination of NO2 flux densities, NO2 deposition velocities, as well as NO2 compensation point concentrations. The calculations are based on a bi-variate weighted linear regression analysis (y- and x-errors considered. The NO2 deposition velocities for spruce, based on projected needle area, ranged between 0.07 and 0.42 mm s−1. The calculated NO2 compensation point concentrations ranged from 2.4 ± 9.63 to 29.0 ± 16.30 nmol m−3 (0.05–0.65 ppb but the compensation point concentrations were all not significant in terms of compensation point concentration is unequal to zero. These data challenge the existence of a NO2 compensation point concentration for spruce. Our study resulted in lower values of NO2 gas exchange flux densities, NO2 deposition velocities and NO2 compensation point concentrations in comparison to most previous studies. It is essential to use a more specific NO2 analyzer than used in previous studies and to consider photo-chemical reactions between NO, NO2, and O3 inside the chamber.

  5. Epigenome-wide meta-analysis of methylation in children related to prenatal NO2 air pollution exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruzieva, O.; Xu, C.J.; Breton, C.V.; Annesi-Maesano, I.; Antó, J.M.; Auffray, C.; Ballereau, S.; Bellander, T.; Bousquet, J.; Bustamante, M.; Charles, M.A.; de Kluizenaar, Y.; Den Dekker, H.T.; Duijts, L.; Felix, J.F.; Gehring, U.; Guxens, M.; Jaddoe, V.V.W.; Jankipersadsing, S.A.; Merid, S.K.; Kere, J.; Kumar, A.; Lemonnier, N.; Lepeule, J.; Nystad, W.; Page, C.M.; Panasevich, S.; Postma, D.; Slama, R.; Sunyer, J.; Söderhäll, C.; Yao, J.; London, S.J.; Pershagen, G.; Koppelman, G.H.; Melén, E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Prenatal exposure to air pollution is considered to be associated with adverse effects on child health. This may partly be mediated by mechanisms related to DNA methylation. Objectives: We investigated associations between exposure to air pollution, using nitrogen dioxide (NO2) as

  6. Simulation of Population-Based Commuter Exposure to NO2 Using Different Air Pollution Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina S. Ragettli

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We simulated commuter routes and long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution during commute in a representative population sample in Basel (Switzerland, and evaluated three air pollution models with different spatial resolution for estimating commute exposures to nitrogen dioxide (NO2 as a marker of long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution. Our approach includes spatially and temporally resolved data on actual commuter routes, travel modes and three air pollution models. Annual mean NO2 commuter exposures were similar between models. However, we found more within-city and within-subject variability in annual mean (±SD NO2 commuter exposure with a high resolution dispersion model (40 ± 7 µg m−3, range: 21–61 than with a dispersion model with a lower resolution (39 ± 5 µg m−3; range: 24–51, and a land use regression model (41 ± 5 µg m−3; range: 24–54. Highest median cumulative exposures were calculated along motorized transport and bicycle routes, and the lowest for walking. For estimating commuter exposure within a city and being interested also in small-scale variability between roads, a model with a high resolution is recommended. For larger scale epidemiological health assessment studies, models with a coarser spatial resolution are likely sufficient, especially when study areas include suburban and rural areas.

  7. Spatial associations between socioeconomic groups and NO2 air pollution exposure within three large Canadian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinault, Lauren; Crouse, Daniel; Jerrett, Michael; Brauer, Michael; Tjepkema, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies of environmental justice in Canadian cities have linked lower socioeconomic status to greater air pollution exposures at coarse geographic scales, (i.e., Census Tracts). However, studies that examine these associations at finer scales are less common, as are comparisons among cities. To assess differences in exposure to air pollution among socioeconomic groups, we assigned estimates of exposure to ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2), a marker for traffic-related pollution, from city-wide land use regression models to respondents of the 2006 Canadian census long-form questionnaire in Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver. Data were aggregated at a finer scale than in most previous studies (i.e., by Dissemination Area (DA), which includes approximately 400-700 persons). We developed simultaneous autoregressive (SAR) models, which account for spatial autocorrelation, to identify associations between NO2 exposure and indicators of social and material deprivation. In Canada's three largest cities, DAs with greater proportions of tenants and residents who do not speak either English or French were characterised by greater exposures to ambient NO2. We also observed positive associations between NO2 concentrations and indicators of social deprivation, including the proportion of persons living alone (in Toronto), and the proportion of persons who were unmarried/not in a common-law relationship (in Vancouver). Other common measures of deprivation (e.g., lone-parent families, unemployment) were not associated with NO2 exposures. DAs characterised by selected indicators of deprivation were associated with higher concentrations of ambient NO2 air pollution in the three largest cities in Canada. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Global 3-Year Running Mean Ground-Level Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) Grids from GOME, SCIAMACHY and GOME-2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global 3-Year Running Mean Ground-Level Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) Grids from GOME, SCIAMACHY and GOME-2 represent a series of three-year running mean grids...

  9. OMPS-NPP L2 NM Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) Total and Tropospheric Column swath orbital V2 (OMPS_NPP_NMNO2_L2) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OMPS-NPP L2 NM Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) Total and Tropospheric Column swath orbital collection 2 version 2.0 product contains the retrieved nitrogen dioxide (NO2)...

  10. Typical meteorological conditions associated with extreme nitrogen dioxide (NO2 pollution events over Scandinavia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Thomas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Characterizing typical meteorological conditions associated with extreme pollution events helps to better understand the role of local meteorology in governing the transport and distribution of pollutants in the atmosphere. The knowledge of their co-variability could further help to evaluate and constrain chemistry transport models. Hence, in this study, we investigate the statistical linkages between extreme nitrogen dioxide (NO2 pollution events and meteorology over Scandinavia using observational and reanalysis data. It is observed that the south-westerly winds dominated during extreme events, accounting for 50–65 % of the total events depending on the season, while the second largest annual occurrence was from south-easterly winds, accounting for 17 % of total events. The specific humidity anomalies showed an influx of warmer and moisture-laden air masses over Scandinavia in the free troposphere. Two distinct modes in the persistency of circulation patterns are observed. The first mode lasts for 1–2 days, dominated by south-easterly winds that prevailed during 78 % of total extreme events in that mode, while the second mode lasted for 3–5 days, dominated by south-westerly winds that prevailed during 86 % of the events. The combined analysis of circulation patterns, their persistency, and associated changes in humidity and clouds suggests that NO2 extreme events over Scandinavia occur mainly due to long-range transport from the southern latitudes.

  11. Farraj_NO2-O3 Sequential exposure study_All data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Cardiovascular Physiologic and Systemic Responses to Sequential Exposure to Nitrogen Dioxide and Ozone in Rats. This dataset is associated with the following...

  12. Driver exposure to volatile organic compounds, CO, ozone, and NO2 under different driving conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changchuan Chan; Oezkaynak, H.; Spengler, J.D.; Sheldon, L.

    1991-01-01

    The in-vehicle concentrations of 24 gasoline-related volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and three criteria air pollutants, ozone, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen dioxide, were measured in the summer of 1988, in Raleigh, NC. Two four-door sedan of different ages were used to evaluate in-vehicle concentrations of these compounds under different driving conditions. Factors that could influence driver exposure, such as different traffic patterns, car model, vehicle ventilation conditions, and driving periods, were evaluated. Isopentane was the most abundant aliphatic hydrocarbon and toluene was the most abundant aromatic VOC measured inside the vehicles. In-vehicle VOC and CO concentrations were highest for the urban roadway, second highest for the interstate highway, and lowest for the rural road. The median concentration ratio of urban/interstate/rural for each VOC was about 10/6/1. No differences in in-vehicle VOC concentrations were found between morning and afternoon rush hour driving, but higher in-vehicle ozone and NO 2 concentrations were found during afternoon driving. In-vehicle VOC levels were lowest with the air conditioner on and highest when the vent was open with the fan on. The in-vehicle/car exterior concentration ratio for VOCs, CO, and NO 2 was slightly higher than 1. The VOC concentration measured by a pedestrian on the urban sidewalk was lower than the in-vehicle measurements but higher than the fixed-site measurements but higher than the fixed-site measurements on urban roadways 50 m from streets. The VOC measurements were positively correlated with the CO measurement and negatively correlated with the ozone measurement

  13. Morning NO2 Exposure Sensitizes Hypertensive Rats to the Cardiovascular Effects of Same Day O3 Exposure in the Afternoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Within urban air sheds specific ambient air pollutants typically peak at predictable times throughout the day. For example, in environments dominated by mobile sources, peak nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter levels coincide with morning and afternoon rush hours , whil...

  14. Morning NO2 Exposure Sensitizes Hypertensive Rats to the Cardiovascular Effects of O3 Exposure in the Afternoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although ambient air sheds vary in composition, specific pollutants typically peak at predictable times throughout the course of a day. For example, in urban environments, peak nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter levels coincide with rush hour traffic in the morning and...

  15. Personal exposure to PM2.5, black smoke and NO2 in Copenhagen: relationship to bedroom and outdoor concentrations covering seasonal variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; Loft, Steffen; Andersen, Helle Vibeke

    2005-01-01

    concentrations of PM(2.5), black smoke (BS), and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) were measured during 2-day periods in 30 subjects (20-33 years old) living and studying in central parts of Copenhagen. The measurements were repeated in the four seasons. Information on indoor exposure sources such as environmental...... factor. Seasons were defined as a dichotomised grouping of outdoor temperature (above and below 8 degrees C). For NO(2) there was a significant association between personal exposure and both the bedroom, the front door and the background concentrations, whereas for PM(2.5) and BS only the bedroom...... three measurements, and the association between the front door and the background concentrations was significant for PM(2.5) and NO(2), but not for BS, indicating greater spatial variation for BS than for PM(2.5) and NO(2). For NO(2), the relationship between the personal exposure and the front door...

  16. Interaction of nitrogen dioxide with sulfonamide-substituted phthalocyanines: Towards NO2 gas sensor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pochekailov, Sergii; Nožár, Juraj; Nešpůrek, Stanislav; Rakušan, J.; Karásková, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 169, 5 July (2012), s. 1-9 ISSN 0925-4005 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN400720701; GA MPO FR-TI1/144 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : phthalocyanine * sulfonamide * nitrogen dioxide Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 3.535, year: 2012

  17. 77 FR 9532 - Air Quality Designations for the 2010 Primary Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ...) 551-7606. Monica Morales, Leader, Air Quality Colorado, Montana, North Planning Unit, EPA Region 8... NAAQS and design values have not exceeded 42 percent of the 2010 NO 2 NAAQS. After considering state and...

  18. Individual exposure to NO2 in relation to spatial and temporal exposure indices in Stockholm, Sweden: the INDEX study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Bellander

    Full Text Available Epidemiology studies of health effects from air pollution, as well as impact assessments, typically rely on ambient monitoring data or modelled residential levels. The relationship between these and personal exposure is not clear. To investigate personal exposure to NO(2 and its relationship with other exposure metrics and time-activity patterns in a randomly selected sample of healthy working adults (20-59 years living and working in Stockholm. Personal exposure to NO(2 was measured with diffusive samplers in sample of 247 individuals. The 7-day average personal exposure was 14.3 µg/m(3 and 12.5 µg/m(3 for the study population and the inhabitants of Stockholm County, respectively. The personal exposure was significantly lower than the urban background level (20.3 µg/m(3. In the univariate analyses the most influential determinants of individual exposure were long-term high-resolution dispersion-modelled levels of NO(2 outdoors at home and work, and concurrent NO(2 levels measured at a rural location, difference between those measured at an urban background and rural location and difference between those measured in busy street and at an urban background location, explaining 20, 16, 1, 2 and 4% (R(2 of the 7-day personal NO(2 variation, respectively. A regression model including these variables explained 38% of the variation in personal NO(2 exposure. We found a small improvement by adding time-activity variables to the latter model (R(2 = 0.44. The results adds credibility primarily to long-term epidemiology studies that utilise long-term indices of NO(2 exposure at home or work, but also indicates that such studies may still suffer from exposure misclassification and dilution of any true effects. In contrast, urban background levels of NO(2 are poorly related to individual exposure.

  19. The effect of dietary vitamin A on NO2 exposure on the hamster lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of dietary vitamin A and NO2 exposure on the hamster lung was evaluated by histopathology, electron microscopy, and thymidine uptake studies. Hamsters were maintained on deficient (0 micrograms), adequate (100 micrograms), and high (200 micrograms) dose levels of vitamin A while being exposed repeatedly to 10 ppm of NO2 for 5 hours once a week over an 8-week period. Hamsters of the deficient group exhibited clinical and morphologic changes characteristic of vitamin A deficiency. Animals maintained on adequate and high dose levels of vitamin A were not affected by vitamin A deficiency. Hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the epithelial cells of the terminal bronchiolar alveolar region of lungs of adequately and highly dosed animals were greater than those observed in the deficient animals, when NO2 exposure was given. However, the extent of the lesions observed in all three groups was less than that seen in normal hamsters given a single, 5-hour NO2 exposure. Ultrastructural changes observed in vitamin A-deficient hamsters exposed to NO2 were hypertrophy and hyperplasia of bronchiolar epithelial cells, diffuse loss of cilia, membrane damage, and mitochondrial damage manifested by calcium deposition. Tritiated thymidine uptake studies of lungs of animals exposed repeatedly revealed a rather erratic cell renewal pattern following NO2 exposure in comparison to the group of animals exposed singly

  20. OMI/Aura Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) Total and Tropospheric Column 1-orbit L2 Swath 13x24 km V003 (OMNO2) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Version 3 Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) Standard Product (OMNO2) is now available from the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and...

  1. HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) 1deg Lat Zonal Fourier Coefficients V007 (H3ZFCNO2) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The "HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) Zonal Fourier Coefficients" version 7 data product (H3ZFCNO2) contains the entire mission (~3 years) of HIRDLS data...

  2. Personal exposure to PM2.5, black smoke and NO2 in Copenhagen: relationship to bedroom and outdoor concentrations covering seasonal variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Mette; Loft, Steffen; Andersen, Helle Vibeke; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Skovgaard, Lene Theil; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Nielsen, Ivan V; Hertel, Ole

    2005-09-01

    Epidemiological studies have found negative associations between human health and particulate matter in urban air. In most studies outdoor monitoring of urban background has been used to assess exposure. In a field study, personal exposure as well as bedroom, front door and background concentrations of PM(2.5), black smoke (BS), and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) were measured during 2-day periods in 30 subjects (20-33 years old) living and studying in central parts of Copenhagen. The measurements were repeated in the four seasons. Information on indoor exposure sources such as environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and burning of candles was collected by questionnaires. The personal exposure, the bedroom concentration and the front door concentration was set as outcome variable in separate models and analysed by mixed effect model regression methodology, regarding subject levels as a random factor. Seasons were defined as a dichotomised grouping of outdoor temperature (above and below 8 degrees C). For NO(2) there was a significant association between personal exposure and both the bedroom, the front door and the background concentrations, whereas for PM(2.5) and BS only the bedroom and the front door concentrations, and not the background concentration, were significantly associated to the personal exposure. The bedroom concentration was the strongest predictor of all three pollution measurements. The association between the bedroom and front door concentrations was significant for all three measurements, and the association between the front door and the background concentrations was significant for PM(2.5) and NO(2), but not for BS, indicating greater spatial variation for BS than for PM(2.5) and NO(2). For NO(2), the relationship between the personal exposure and the front door concentration was dependent upon the "season", with a stronger association in the warm season compared with the cold season, and for PM(2.5) and BS the same tendency was seen. Time exposed to

  3. Uranium dioxide behaviour in gaseous dissociating system N2O4 reversible 2NO2 reversible 2NO + O2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobets, L.V.; Klavsut', G.N.; Dolgov, V.M.; Umrejko, D.S.

    1985-01-01

    Behaviour of uranium dioxide in gaseous dissociating system N 2 O 4 reversible 2NO 2 reversible 2NO+O 2 in the temperature range 25-800 deg C and under pressures 0.1-10.0 MPa is investigated. It is shown, that at atmospheric pressure and temperatures 25-150 deg C nitrosonium trinitratouranylate NO(UO 2 (NO 3 ) 3 ) (NTNU) is the final product. Influence of UO 2 sample dispersion on the kinetics of the compound formation is studied, and suppositions are made on the process mechanism. It is ascertained, that NTNU formation is realized via intermediate stage of epsilon-UO 3 formation. It is detected, that with an increase in pressure the process accelerates and the range of NTNU formation and stability is expanded. At temperatures above 150 deg C uranium oxides with oxidation states more than four are the main products of the interaction. In the temperature range 150-450 deg C and at atmospheric pressure oxides of the composition UOsub(2+x)(x=0.3-1.0) are formed, and at higher temperatures - onlyU 3 O 8 . An increase in pressure in the system shifts theexistence boundaries of the oxides formed to the side of higher temperatures

  4. [Exposure to nitrogen dioxide and respiratory health at 2 years in the INMA-Valencia cohort].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez Oyarce, Alejandra; Ferrero, Amparo; Estarlich, Marisa; Esplugues, Ana; Iñiguez, Carmen; Ballester, Ferran

    2017-07-25

    To analyze the association between exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) during pregnancy and the postnatal period up to the age of 2 years old and the incidence of respiratory problems in children from the INMA-Valencia cohort. The study population included 624 children from the INMA-Valencia cohort. Individual exposure to NO 2 was estimated in different environments outside the home during pregnancy and up to the age of 2 using empirical measurement and data from geo-statistical methods. Respiratory symptoms were obtained from a questionnaire applied at the age of two. The association between NO 2 exposure and respiratory symptoms was performed using multivariate logistic regression. The cumulative incidence was 16.3% for persistent cough, 34.9% for wheezing and 27.6% for lower respiratory tract infections. No association was found between respiratory symptoms and exposure to NO 2 in any of the children. However an association between NO 2 exposure and persistent cough was found at two years of life in the children with a parental history of allergy. NO 2 exposure would lead to persistent cough in children with a parental history of allergies. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Health Risk Assessment of Nitrogen Dioxide and Sulfur Dioxide Exposure from a New Developing Coal Power Plant in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tin Thongthammachart

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Krabi coal-fired power plant is the new power plant development project of the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT. This 800 megawatts power plant is in developing process. The pollutants from coal-fired burning emissions were estimated and included in an environmental impact assessment report. This study aims to apply air quality modeling to predict nitrogen dioxide (NO2 and sulfur dioxide (SO2 concentration which could have health impact to local people. The health risk assessment was studied following U.S. EPA regulatory method. The hazard maps were created by ArcGIS program. The results indicated the influence of the northeast and southwest monsoons and season variation to the pollutants dispersion. The daily average and annual average concentrations of NO2 and SO2 were lower than the NAAQS standard. The hazard quotient (HQ of SO2 and NO2 both short-term and long-term exposure were less than 1. However, there were some possibly potential risk areas indicating in GIS based map. The distribution of pollutions and high HI values were near this power plant site. Although the power plant does not construct yet but the environment health risk assessment was evaluated to compare with future fully developed coal fire plant.

  6. Dose-response relationships of acute exposure to sulfur dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Englehardt, F.R.; Holliday, M.G.

    1981-01-01

    Acute toxicity effects of sulphur dioxide are reviewed, and the derivation of a dose-lethality curve (presented as LC 50 vs. time) for human exposure to sulphur dioxide is attempted for periods ranging from ten seconds to two hours. As an aid to assessment of the hazards involved in operating heavy water manufacturing facilities, the fact that sulphur dioxide would be produced by the combustion of hydrogen sulphide was briefly considered in an appendix. It is suggested that sulphuric acid, a much more toxic substance than sulphur dioxide, may also be formed in such an event. It is concluded, therefore, that an overall hazard evaluation may have to address the contributory effects of sulphuric acid. (author)

  7. Long-term exposure models for traffic related NO 2 across geographically diverse areas over separate years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sally Liu, L.-J.; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Keidel, Dirk; Gemperli, Armin; Ineichen, Alex; Hazenkamp-von Arx, Marianne; Bayer-Oglesby, Lucy; Rochat, Thierry; Künzli, Nino; Ackermann-Liebrich, Ursula; Straehl, Peter; Schwartz, Joel; Schindler, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Although recent air pollution epidemiologic studies have embraced land-use regression models for estimating outdoor traffic exposure, few have examined the spatio-temporal variability of traffic related pollution over a long term period and the optimal methods to take these factors into account for exposure estimates. We used home outdoor NO 2 measurements taken from eight geographically diverse areas to examine spatio-temporal variations, construct, and evaluate models that could best predict the within-city contrasts in observations. Passive NO 2 measurements were taken outside of up to 100 residences per area over three seasons in 1993 and 2003 as part of the Swiss cohort study on air pollution and lung and heart disease in adults (SAPALDIA). The spatio-temporal variation of NO 2 differed by area and year. Regression models constructed using the annual NO 2 means from central monitoring stations and geographic parameters predicted home outdoor NO 2 levels better than a dispersion model. However, both the regression and dispersion models underestimated the within-city contrasts of NO 2 levels. Our results indicated that the best models should be constructed for individual areas and years, and would use the dispersion estimates as the urban background, geographic information system (GIS) parameters to enhance local characteristics, and temporal and meteorological variables to capture changing local dynamics. Such models would be powerful tools for assessing health effects from long-term exposure to air pollution in a large cohort.

  8. Room-temperature sensitivity to NO2 exposure of electrochemically-deposited nanostructured ZnO layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovchinov, K; Petrov, M; Ganchev, M; Nichev, H; Georgieva, B; Dimova-Malinovska, D; Georgieva, V

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports studies on the sensitivity of ZnO layers to NO 2 exposure. ZnO layers were fabricated by electrochemical deposition on the surface of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) with Au electrodes. The sensitivity was estimated using the frequency-time characteristics of the QCM. For this purpose, the resonance frequency shift was measured. The sorption process was investigated in a NO 2 gas flow. The change in the resonance frequency, f of the QCM as a function of the loaded mass of NO 2 was followed for a NO 2 concentration of 500 ppm. Under gas exposure, the frequency decreased and reached saturation in five min. A frequency shift of 38 Hz was measured and a mass loading of 8.39 ng was calculated. The resonance frequency showed a very good recovery within two minutes after the NO 2 flow was switched off. The results demonstrate that the electrodeposited nanostructured ZnO layers have a potential for application as NO 2 gas sensors.

  9. Measurement and modelling of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emissions: a marker for traffic-related air pollution in Doha, Qatar

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Naimi, Noora; Balakrishnan, Perumal; Goktepe, Ipek

    2015-01-01

    In the State of Qatar, recent statistics show a continued increase in the motor-vehicle fleet commensurate with population growth and economic development. This trend, together with the rapid expansion of urban areas and the increased dependence on automobiles, has resulted in an increase in pollution near traffic sources, indicating that the risk of exposure to vehicles’ emissions is higher and that these emissions must be considered in terms of their spatial and temporal occurrence. So far,...

  10. High resolution spatio-temporal mapping of NO2 pollution for estimating personal exposures of the Dutch population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenario, Ivan; Helbich, Marco; Schmitz, Oliver; Strak, Maciek; Hoek, Gerard; Karssenberg, Derek

    2017-04-01

    Air pollution has been associated with adverse health effects (e.g., cardiovascular and respiration diseases) in the urban environments. Therefore, the assessment of people's exposure to air pollution is central in epidemiological studies. The estimation of exposures on an individual level can be done by combining location information across space and over time with spatio-temporal data on air pollution concentrations. When detailed information on peoples' space-time paths (e.g. commuting patterns calculated by means of spatial routing algorithms or tracked through GPS) and peoples' major activity locations (e.g. home location, work location) are available, it is possible to calculate more precise personal exposure levels depending on peoples' individual space-time mobility patterns. This requires air pollution values not only at a high level of spatial accuracy and high temporal granularity but such data also needs to be available on a nation-wide scale. As current data is seriously limited in this respect, we introduce a novel data set of NO2 levels across the Netherlands. The provided NO2 concentrations are accessible on hourly timestamps on a 5 meter grid cell resolution for weekdays and weekends, and each month of the year. We modeled a single Land Use Regression model using a five year average of NO2 data from the Dutch NO2 measurement network consisting of N=46 sampling locations distributed over the country. Predictor variables for this model were selected in a data-driven manner using an Elastic Net and Best Subset Selection procedure from 70 candidate predictors including traffic, industry, infrastructure and population-based variables. Subsequently, to model NO2 for each time scale (hour, week, month), the LUR coefficients were fitted using the NO2 data, aggregated per time scale. Model validation was grounded on independent data collected in an ad hoc measurement campaign. Our results show a considerable difference in urban concentrations between

  11. Maternal Exposure to Nitrogen Dioxide, Intake of Methyl Nutrients, and Congenital Heart Defects in Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stingone, Jeanette A; Luben, Thomas J; Carmichael, Suzan L; Aylsworth, Arthur S; Botto, Lorenzo D; Correa, Adolfo; Gilboa, Suzanne M; Langlois, Peter H; Nembhard, Wendy N; Richmond-Bryant, Jennifer; Shaw, Gary M; Olshan, Andrew F

    2017-09-15

    Nutrients that regulate methylation processes may modify susceptibility to the effects of air pollutants. Data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (United States, 1997-2006) were used to estimate associations between maternal exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2), dietary intake of methyl nutrients, and the odds of congenital heart defects in offspring. NO2 concentrations, a marker of traffic-related air pollution, averaged across postconception weeks 2-8, were assigned to 6,160 nondiabetic mothers of cases and controls using inverse distance-squared weighting of air monitors within 50 km of maternal residences. Intakes of choline, folate, methionine, and vitamins B6 and B12 were assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Hierarchical regression models, which accounted for similarities across defects, were constructed, and relative excess risks due to interaction were calculated. Relative to women with the lowest NO2 exposure and high methionine intake, women with the highest NO2 exposure and lowest methionine intake had the greatest odds of offspring with a perimembranous ventricular septal defect (odds ratio = 3.23, 95% confidence interval: 1.74, 6.01; relative excess risk due to interaction = 2.15, 95% confidence interval: 0.39, 3.92). Considerable departure from additivity was not observed for other defects. These results provide modest evidence of interaction between nutrition and NO2 exposure during pregnancy. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Socioeconomic status and exposure to outdoor NO2 and benzene in the Asturias INMA birth cohort, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Tardon, Adonina

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that low socioeconomic levels are associated with greater exposure to pollution, but this is not necessarily valid. Our goal was to examine how individual socioeconomic characteristics are associated with exposure levels in a Spanish region included in the INfancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA) cohort. The study population comprised 430 pregnant women from the Asturias INMA cohort. Air pollution exposure was estimated using land-use regression techniques. Information about the participants' lifestyle and socioeconomic variables was collected through questionnaires. In multivariate analysis, the levels of NO2 and benzene assigned to each woman were considered as dependent variables. Other variables included in the models were residential zone, age, education, parity, smoking, season, working status during pregnancy and social class. The average NO2 level was 23.60 (SD=6.50) μg/m(3). For benzene, the mean value was 2.31 (SD=1.32) μg/m(3). We found no association of any pollutant with education. We observed an association between social class and benzene levels. Social classes I and II had the highest levels. The analysed socioeconomic and lifestyle variables accounted for little variability in air pollution in the models; this variability was explained mainly by residential zone (adjusted R(2): 0.27 for NO2; 0.09 for benzene). Education and social class were not clearly associated with pollution. Administrations should monitor the environment of residential areas regardless of the socioeconomic level, and they should increase the distances between housing and polluting sources to prevent settlements at distances that are harmful to health.

  13. Relative sensitivity of greenhouse pot plants to long-term exposures of NO- and NO2-containing air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxe, H

    1994-01-01

    Thirty-five cultivars of pot plants of 20 families were exposed for 50-64 days in a greenhouse facility to either 1 microl litre(-1) NO with 0.5 microl litre(-1) NO2, or 1 microl litre(-1) NO2 with 0.1 microl litre(-1) NO for 15 h each day, with air which was free from these gases as the reference. A sensitivity ranking of the pot plants was compiled, with the highest priority on visible injuries, followed by growth reductions, primarily as a response to the NO-dominated exposures, simulating the NOx-polluted environment in direct-fired, CO2-enriched greenhouses. This treatment reduced the leaf dry weight more than the number and area of the leaves. Twenty-two cultivars were significantly injured, while two (Hibicus sp, Epipremnum pinnatum, green) were significantly improved. The NOx-sensitivity of pot plants was highest in cultivars with variegated, small or narrow leaves, and in the Moraceae family. Nine cultivars (Ficus elastica 'Robusta', F. benjamina, F. pumila 'Sonny', Dieffenbachia maculata 'Camilla', F. elastica 'Tineke', Epipremnum pinnatum 'Marble Queen', Begonia elatior 'Nelson', Cyclamen persica, Poinsettia 'Mini') were specifically sensitive to the NO-containing exposure; six were specifically sensitive to the NO2-containing exposure (F. elastica 'Robusta', Asparagus den. 'Sprengeri', Hedera helix 'Shamrock', Aspledium nidus, Aster novo-belgii, Hypoestes phyl. 'Betina'); and 12 (Soleirolia soleirolii, Asparagus den. 'Sprengeri', H. helix 'Ester', Codiaeum 'Pictum', Rosa 'Minimo Red', F. benjamina 'Starlight', Saintpaulia ionantha 'light blue', F. pumila, Rhododendron simsii, H. helix 'Shamrock', Hibiscus sp., E. pinnatum) were equally sensitive to mixtures dominated by either gas, as measured by at least one response parameter.

  14. Land use regression models for estimating individual NOx and NO2 exposures in a metropolis with a high density of traffic roads and population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Jui-Huan; Wu, Chang-Fu; Hoek, Gerard; de Hoogh, Kees; Beelen, Rob; Brunekreef, Bert; Chan, Chang-Chuan

    2014-01-01

    This study is conducted to characterize the intra-urban distribution of NOx and NO2; develop land use regression (LUR) models to assess outdoor NOx and NO2 concentrations, using the ESCAPE modeling approach with locally specific land use data; and compare NOx and NO2 exposures for children in the

  15. Exposure experiments of trees to sulfur dioxide gas. Part I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otani, A.

    1974-12-01

    The effects of gaseous sulfur dioxide on trees were studied. Twenty species of plant seedlings (70 cm in height) including Cedrus deodara, Metasequoia glyptostroboides, Ginkgo biloba, Celmus parvifolia var. albo-marginata, Pinus thumbergii, P. densiflora, Cryptomeria japonica, and Quercus myrsinaefolia, were exposed in a room to gaseous sulfur dioxide at 0.8 ppm for 7.5 hr/day (from 9 am to 4:30 pm) for 24 days at a temperature of 20-35 deg C and RH of 55-75%. Visible damage to plants was lighter in C.j. and Chamae cyparis obtusa, more severe in P.t., G.b., and C.d. The damage appeared earlier in G.b., Cinnamomum camphona, and Ilex rotunda, and the change of early symptoms was smaller in P.t., C.j., and C.o. The leaves of the 4-5th positions from the sprout were apt to be damaged. Although the sulfur content of exposed leaves increased markedly, that in other parts did not increase. Because of the high concentration of the gas and the short period of exposure, the absorption of sulfur into leaves should have differed from the situation in fields where longer exposure to lower concentrations of the gas would be expected. 6 references.

  16. Developmental and hematological responses to low level continuous exposure of nitrogen dioxide in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, J.

    1977-01-01

    Young healthy mice were continuously exposed to 0ppm, 0.5ppm, 1.0ppm and 5ppm nitrogen dioxide gas for eight weeks. Nitrogen dioxide exposure for eight weeks decreased the average weight of mice, increased the average weight of lungs, heart, and brain and decreased the average weight of liver. Nitrogen dioxide exposure did not have any effects on the WBC and RBC in mice blood but it increased the HCT and HGB in mice blood. Nitrogen dioxide exposure increased the MCV and decreased the MCH and MCHC in mice blood.

  17. Measurements of children's exposures to particles and nitrogen dioxide in Santiago, Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas-Bracho, Leonora; Suh, Helen H.; Koutrakis, Petros; Oyola, Pedro

    2002-01-01

    An exposure study of children (aged 10-12 years) living in Santiago, Chile, was conducted. Personal, indoor and outdoor fine and inhalable particulate matter ( 2.5 and 10 , respectively), and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) were measured during pilot (N=8) and main (N=20) studies, which were conducted during the winters of 1998 and 1999, respectively. For the main study, personal indoor and outdoor 24-h samples were collected for five consecutive days. Similar mean personal, indoor and outdoor PM 2.5 concentrations (69.5, 68.5 and 68.1 μg m -3 , respectively) were found. However, for coarse particles (calculated as the difference between measured PM 10 and PM 2.5 , PM 2.5-10 ) indoor and outdoor levels (35.4 and 47.4 μg m -3 ) were lower than their corresponding personal exposures (76.3 μg m -3 ). Indoor and outdoor NO 2 concentrations were comparable (35.8 and 36.9 ppb) and higher than personal exposures (25.9 ppb). Very low ambient indoor and personal O 3 levels were found, which were mostly below the method's limit of detection (LOD). Outdoor particles contributed significantly to indoor concentrations, with effective penetration efficiencies of 0.61 and 0.30 for PM 2.5 and PM 2.5-10 , respectively. Personal exposures were strongly associated with indoor and outdoor concentrations for PM 2.5 , but weakly associated for PM 2.5-10 . For NO 2 , weak associations were obtained for indoor-outdoor and personal-outdoor relationships. This is probably a result of the presence of gas cooking stoves in all the homes. Median I/O, P/I and P/O ratios for PM 2.5 were close to unity, and for NO 2 they ranged between 0.64 and 0.95. These ratios were probably due to high ambient PM 2.5 and NO 2 levels in Santiago, which diminished the relative contribution of indoor sources and subjects' activities to indoor and personal PM 2.5 and NO 2 levels

  18. Titanium Dioxide Exposure Induces Acute Eosinophilic Lung Inflammation in Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHOI, Gil Soon; OAK, Chulho; CHUN, Bong-Kwon; WILSON, Donald; JANG, Tae Won; KIM, Hee-Kyoo; JUNG, Mannhong; TUTKUN, Engin; PARK, Eun-Kee

    2014-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is increasingly widely used in industrial, commercial and home products. TiO2 aggravates respiratory symptoms by induction of pulmonary inflammation although the mechanisms have not been well investigated. We aimed to investigate lung inflammation in rabbits after intratracheal instillation of P25 TiO2. One ml of 10, 50 and 250 µg of P25 TiO2 was instilled into one of the lungs of rabbits, chest computed-tomography was performed, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was collected before, at 1 and 24 h after P25 TiO2 exposure. Changes in inflammatory cells in the BAL fluids were measured. Lung pathological assay was also carried out at 24 h after P25 TiO2 exposure. Ground glass opacities were noted in both lungs 1 h after P25 TiO2 and saline (control) instillation. Although the control lung showed complete resolution at 24 h, the lung exposed to P25 TiO2 showed persistent ground glass opacities at 24 h. The eosinophil counts in BAL fluid were significantly increased after P25 TiO2 exposure. P25 TiO2 induced a dose dependent increase of eosinophils in BAL fluid but no significant differences in neutrophil and lymphocyte cell counts were detected. The present findings suggest that P25 TiO2 induces lung inflammation in rabbits which is associated with eosinophilic inflammation. PMID:24705802

  19. Diesel Exhaust Exposure Assessment Among Tunnel Construction Workers-Correlations Between Nitrogen Dioxide, Respirable Elemental Carbon, and Particle Number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedmer, Maria; Wierzbicka, Aneta; Li, Huiqi; Albin, Maria; Tinnerberg, Håkan; Broberg, Karin

    2017-06-01

    Occupational exposure to diesel exhaust is common due the widespread use of diesel-powered combustion engines. Diesel exhaust is chemically complex and consists of thousands of compounds present as gases and particulate matter. Both nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and elemental carbon (EC) have been used as markers for diesel exhaust exposure. Currently EC is regarded as the best surrogate of diesel exhaust. The objective was to quantify the occupational exposure to diesel exhaust in underground tunnel construction work using a multi-metric approach, and to investigate the correlations between NO2, respirable EC, respirable organic carbon (OC), respirable total carbon (TC), respirable dust (RD), and particle number. Also, the use of NO2 as a proxy for diesel exhaust was evaluated, how much of the variability in the diesel exhaust exposure was attributed to within and between individual factors and if there was a difference between expert and self-administered measurements of NO2. The personal exposure to diesel exhaust was assessed by expert supervised measurements of NO2, EC, OC, TC, RD and particle number in the breathing zones of underground tunnel workers. Stationary sampling of NO2, EC, OC, TC, RD, size-fractioned mass concentration, and particle number were conducted. The personal and stationary measurements were conducted on three occasions simultaneously. The workers measured their exposure by repeated self-administered measurements of NO2. The self-administered measurements were performed twice for each worker with at least one month lag between the samplings. In the simultaneous sampling of diesel exhaust, the geometric mean (GM) concentration of NO2 and respirable EC were 72 µg m-3 (10th-90th percentile 34-140 µg m-3) and 2.6 µg m-3 (10th-90th percentile 1.6-7.3 µg m-3), respectively. The GM for OC and TC was 28 µg m-3 (10th-90th percentile 20-42 µg m-3) and 31 µg m-3 (10th-90th percentile 20-50 µg m-3), respectively. The GM for RD and particle number was

  20. Assessing the Health and Performance Risks of Carbon Dioxide Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.; Meyers, V. E.; Alexander, D.

    2010-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is an anthropogenic gas that accumulates in spacecraft to much higher levels than earth-normal levels. Controlling concentrations of this gas to acceptable levels to ensure crew health and optimal performance demands major commitment of resources. NASA has many decades of experience monitoring and controlling CO2, yet we are uncertain of the levels at which subtle performance decrements develop. There is limited evidence from ground-based studies that visual disturbances can occur during brief exposures and visual changes have been noted in spaceflight crews. These changes may be due to CO2 alone or in combination with other known spaceflight factors such as increased intracranial pressure due to fluid shifts. Discerning the comparative contribution of each to performance decrements is an urgent issue if we hope to optimize astronaut performance aboard the ISS. Long-term, we must know the appropriate control levels for exploration-class missions to ensure that crewmembers can remain cooperative and productive in a highly stressful environment. Furthermore, we must know the magnitude of interindividual variability in susceptibility to the adverse effects of CO2 so that the most tolerant crewmembers can be identified. Ground-based studies have been conducted for many years to set exposure limits for submariners; however, these studies are typically limited and incompletely reported. Nonetheless, NASA, in cooperation with the National Research Council, has set exposure limits for astronauts using this limited database. These studies do not consider the interactions of spaceflight-induced fluid shifts and CO2 exposures. In an attempt to discern whether CO2 levels affect the incidence of headache and visual disturbances in astronauts we performed a retrospective study comparing average CO2 levels and the prevalence of headache and visual disturbances. Our goal is to narrow gaps in the risk profile for in-flight CO2 exposures. Such studies can

  1. Differing response of asthmatics to sulfur dioxide exposure with continuous and intermittent exercise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kehrl, H.R.; Roger, L.J.; Hazucha, M.J.; Horstman, D.H.

    1986-08-29

    Ten mild asthmatics were initially exposed in an environmental chamber (26 C, 70% RH) to clean air and 1.0 ppm sulfur dioxide while performing three sets of 10 minutes treadmill exercise (ventilation = 41 1/min) and 15 minutes rest. To evaluate the effects of the pattern and duration of exercise on the response to sulfur dioxide exposure, the subjects were then exposed to the same environmental conditions, while exercising continuously for 30 minutes. Specific airways resistance (SRaw) was measured by body plethysmography prior to exposures and after each exercise. All SRaw responses with sulfur dioxide exposure were significantly different than the clean air responses. It appears that asthmatics show an attenuated response to repetitive exercise in a 1.00 ppm sulfur dioxide atmosphere and that the response to sulfur dioxide exposure develops rapidly and is maintained during 30 minutes continuous exercise.

  2. Air pollution exposure in Oslo, Drammen, Bergen and Trondheim. Calculations of NO2, PM10 and PM2,5 for the winter 1995 to 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sloerdal, Leif Haavard

    1998-07-01

    The Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU) commissioned by the Norwegian Pollution Control Authority (Statens forurensningstilsyn), has calculated human exposure values to NO 2 , PM 1 0 and PM 2 ,5 in the cities of Oslo, Drammen, Bergen and Trondheim. In Oslo, Drammen and Bergen the calculations are made for the winter 1995 to 1996. For Trondheim the necessary meteorological data were missing and the calculations are therefore made for the winter of 1994 to 1995. In the project only simplified exposure calculations are carried out where estimated ground concentrations and population distribution information at the km 2 level are connected. The calculations are then made as if everyone have been outside at the home address during the entire estimation period, termed ''potential exposure''. The population exposure load is estimated for excesses of various air quality criteria and the results are presented. In addition values for the worst hour and/or the worst day of exposure for each of the four cities are presented. The term worst is defined as the hour or the day in the simulation period where the most number of people are exposed to concentrations exceeding the threshold values for air quality recommended by the Norwegian Pollution Control Authority. For NO 2 these threshold figures are 100 microgram/m 3 for hour values and 75 microgram/m 3 for day values. For PM 1 0 and PM 2 ,5 criteria for hour values do not exist while day values are now stipulated as 35 microgram/m 3 for PM 1 0 and 20 microgram/m 3 for PM 2 ,5. The calculated maximum concentrations may not coincide with these values. The report gives results for exposure estimates for NO 2 , PM 1 0 and PM 2 ,5 in the cities and evaluates the significance of regional background levels, traffic and heating emissions in contributions to the total population exposure load. The exposure to NO 2 is largest in Bergen. The PM 1 0 and PM 2 ,5 i.e. particle exposure, is greater than for NO 2 and is largest in Oslo

  3. Quantification of deaths attributed to air pollution in Sweden using estimated population exposure to nitrogen dioxide as indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, Bertil; Sjoeberg, Karin

    2005-08-01

    In the previous phase of this project a model was provided for quantifying the general population exposure to air pollution. From that work interpolated yearly mean concentrations of nitrogen dioxide were provided for the Swedish population. To be applied in the health impact assessment we selected an ecological study from Auckland, New Zealand, which reported a 13 % increase in non-accidental mortality (all ages) for 10 μg/m 3 increase in NO 2 . Based on official national data we assumed a baseline rate of 1,010 deaths per 100,000 persons and year at the population weighted mean level of approximately 10 μg NO 2 /m 3 . We then calculated the death rate and the yearly number of deaths expected at the population weighted mean exposure in each of four exposure classes above 10 μg/m 3 . Using the modelled levels of NO 2 as an indicator of air pollution levels from transportation and combustion, and calculating effects on mortality only above the yearly mean 10 μg/m 3 , we estimated excess exposure to result in 2,837 (95% CI 2400-3273) deaths per year. A recent paper presenting similar calculations estimated the local contribution to urban levels of PM in Sweden to result in around 1,800 deaths per year, but the authors questioned the use of risk coefficients for regional PM to assess the effect of local traffic pollutants. The new results obtained, using locally produced nitrogen dioxide as the basis for the risk assessment, resulted in an impact estimate 55 % higher than the published estimate based on PM

  4. [The effect of short-term exposure to ambient NO(2) on lung function and fractional exhaled nitric oxide in 33 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, J; Ni, Y; Dong, W; Xu, J H; Pan, L; Li, H Y; Yang, X; Wu, S W; Chen, Y H; Deng, F R; Guo, X B

    2017-06-06

    Objectives: To investigate the effect of short-term exposure to ambient NO(2) has influence on lung function and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. Methods: A panel of doctor-diagnosed stable COPD patients ( n =33) were recruited and repeatedly measured for lung function and FeNO from December 2013 to October 2014. The patients who lived in Beijing for more than one year and aged between 60 and 85 years old were included in the study. We excluded patients with asthma, bronchial tensor, lung cancer and other respiratory disorders other than chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and occupational exposure and chest trauma surgery patients. Because the frequency of each subject visiting to the hospital was different, a total of 170 times of lung function measurements and 215 times of FeNO measurements were conducted. At the same time, the atmospheric NO(2) data of Beijing environmental monitoring station near the residence of each patient during the study period were collected from 1 day to 7 days lag before the measurement. Effects of short-term NO(2) exposure on lung function and FeNO in COPD patients were estimated by linear mixed-effects models. Results: The subjects' forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1)), peak expiratory flow (PEF), and exhaled NO of subjects were (3.26±0.83) L, (1.66±0.61) L, (4.13±1.77) L/s, and (48.99±14.30) μg/m(3), respectively. The concentration of NO(2) was (70.3±34.2) μg/m(3) and the interquartile range (IQR) was 39.0 μg/m(3). Short-term exposure to NO(2) resulted in a significant decrease in FVC among COPD patients' which was most obvious in 2 days lag. Every quartile range increased in NO(2) (39 μg/m(3), 2 day) would cause a 1.84% (95 %CI : -3.20%- -0.48%) reduction in FVC. The effects of exposure to higher concentration of NO(2) (≥58.0 μg/m(3)) on FVC estimate was -2.32% (95 %CI : -4.15%- -0.48%)( P =0.02). No significant

  5. Exposure to chlorine dioxide gas for 4 hours renders Syphacia ova nonviable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarra, Jane A; Adams, Joleen K; Carter, Christopher L; Hill, William A; Coan, Patricia N

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of chlorine dioxide gas for environmental decontamination of Syphacia spp. ova. We collected Syphacia ova by perianal cellophane tape impression of pinworm-infected mice. Tapes with attached ova were exposed to chlorine dioxide gas for 1, 2, 3, or 4 h. After gas exposure, ova were incubated in hatching medium for 6 h to promote hatching. For controls, tapes with attached ova were maintained at room temperature for 1, 2, 3, and 4 h without exposure to chlorine dioxide gas and similarly incubated in hatch medium for 6 h. Ova viability after incubation was assessed by microscopic examination. Exposure to chlorine dioxide gas for 4 h rendered 100% of Syphacia spp. ova nonviable. Conversely, only 17% of ova on the 4-h control slide were nonviable. Other times of exposure to chlorine dioxide gas resulted in variable effectiveness. These data suggest that exposure to chlorine dioxide gas for at least 4 h is effective for surface decontamination of Syphacia spp. ova.

  6. Ambient levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) may reduce pollen viability in Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) trees--correlative evidence from a field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottardini, Elena; Cristofori, Antonella; Cristofolini, Fabiana; Maccherini, Simona; Ferretti, Marco

    2008-09-01

    A fully randomized sampling design was adopted to test whether pollen viability of Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) was impacted by NO(2) pollution. Spatial strata (500500 m each) with high (41.9-44.6 microg m(-3)) and low (15.4-21.0 microg m(-3)) NO(2) were selected from a defined population in a small area (236.5 km(2), germination (P<0.01) and tube length (P<0.01). This suggested a possible impact of NO(2) on the regeneration of Austrian pine in polluted environments.

  7. Effects of Acute Exposures to Carbon Dioxide Upon Cognitive Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, R. R.; Alexander, D. J.; Ryder, V. E.; Lam, C. W.; Statish, U.; Basner, M.

    2016-01-01

    Large quantities of carbon dioxide (CO2) originate from human metabolism and typically, within spacecraft, remain about 10-fold higher in concentration than at the earth's surface. There have been recurring complaints by crew members of episodes of "mental viscosity" adversely affecting their performance, and there is evidence from the International Space Station (ISS) that associates CO2 levels with reports of headaches by crewmembers. Additionally, there is concern that CO2 may contribute to vision impairment and intracranial pressure that has been observed in some crewmembers. Consequently, flight rules have been employed to control the level of CO2 below 4 mm Hg, which is well below the existing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentration (SMAC) of 10 mm Hg for 24-hour exposures, and 5.3 mm Hg for exposures of 7 to 180 days. However, the flight rule imposed limit, which places additional demands upon resources and current technology, still exceeds the lower bound of the threshold range for reportable headaches (2 - 5 mm Hg). Headaches, while sometime debilitating themselves, are also symptoms that can provide evidence that physiological defense mechanisms have been breached. The causes of the headaches may elicit other subtle adverse effects that occur at CO2 levels well below that for headaches. The concern that CO2 may have effects at levels below the threshold for headaches appears to be substantiated in unexpected findings that CO2 at concentrations below 2 mm Hg substantially reduced some cognitive functions that are associated with the ability to make complex decisions in conditions that are characterized by volatility, uncertainty, complexity, ambiguity, and delayed feedback. These are conditions that could be encountered by crews in off-nominal situations or during the first missions beyond low earth orbit. If findings of the earlier study are confirmed in crew-like subjects, our findings would provide additional evidence that CO2 may need to be

  8. Mortality and morbidity due to exposure to Ambient NO2, SO2, and O3in Isfahan in 2013–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abdolahnejad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The presence of air pollutants such as CO, NO2, SO2, O3, and PM in the ambient air mainly emitted from fossil fuels combustion has become a major health concern. The aims of this study were to estimate the attribution of NO2, SO2, and O3 in the premature deaths and prevalence of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases in Isfahan in 2013–2014. Methods: In this study, short-term health effects (total mortality, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and acute myocardial infarction of exposure NO2, SO2, and O3 on the population of Isfahan were assessed using AirQ 2.2.3 software suggested by the World Health Organization (WHO. Results: The result showed that from nonaccident total mortality in 2013–2014 in Isfahan, the attributable proportion related to NO2, SO2, and O3 were 1.03% (109 cases, 3.46% (365 cases, and 1.29% (136 cases, respectively. The percentage of days that people were exposed to the highest concentration of NO2 (40–49 μg/m3, SO2 (60–69 μg/m3, and O3 (40–49 μg/m3 was 34.46%, 16.85%, and 42.74% of a year, respectively. Total mortality attributed to NO2, SO2, and O3exposure was 0.36%, 0.79%, and 0.83%, respectively. Conclusions: The concentrations of NO2and SO2were upper than the WHO guidelines. The Air-Q software in spite of its limitations can provide useful information regarding the health outcome of the air pollutants. The results estimated in this study were considerable. This information can help the health authorities and policy makers to draw suitable strategies and fulfill effective emission control programs.

  9. Long-term residential road traffic noise and NO2 exposure in relation to risk of incident myocardial infarction - A Danish cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roswall, Nina; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Ketzel, Matthias; Gammelmark, Anders; Overvad, Kim; Olsen, Anja; Sørensen, Mette

    2017-07-01

    Road traffic is a source of both air pollution and noise; two environmental hazards both found to increase the risk of ischemic heart disease. Given the high correlation between these pollutants, it is important to investigate combined effects, in relation to myocardial infarction (MI). Among 50,744 middle-aged Danes enrolled into the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort from 1993 to 97, we identified 2403 cases of incident MI during a median follow-up of 14.5 years. Present and historical residential addresses from 1987 to 2011 were found in national registries, and traffic noise (L den ) and air pollution (NO 2 ) were modelled for all addresses. Analyses were performed using Cox proportional hazard models. Road traffic noise and NO 2 were both individually associated with a higher risk of MI, with hazard ratios of 1.14 (1.07-1.21) and 1.08 (1.03-1.12) per inter-quartile range higher 10-year mean of road traffic noise and NO 2 , respectively. Mutual exposure adjustment reduced the association with 10-year NO 2 exposure (1.02 (0.96-1.08)), whereas the association with road traffic noise remained: 1.12 (1.03-1.21). For fatal incident MI, the pattern was similar, but the associations for both pollutants were stronger. In analyses of tertiles across both pollutants, the strongest effects were seen for combined medium/high exposure, especially for fatal MI's. Both road traffic noise and NO 2 were associated with a higher risk of MI in single-pollutant models. In two-pollutant models, mainly noise was associated with MI. Combined exposure to both pollutants was associated with the highest risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Physiological responses to exposure to carbon dioxide and human bioeffluents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaojing; Wargocki, Pawel; Lian, Zhiwei

    2015-01-01

    with bioeffluents, the performance of Tsai-Partington test was reduced, and diastolic blood pressure and alpha-amylase increased after exposure compared with their levels before exposure, which may suggest higher arousal/stress. During exposure to CO2 without bioeffluents, the performance of Tsai-Partington test...... also was lower, which may suggest higher stress/arousal, too. However, no effects on blood pressure and alpha-amylase were seen for this exposure....

  11. A case-control study of medium-term exposure to ambient nitrogen dioxide pollution and hospitalization for stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Julie Y M; Rowe, Brian H; Allen, Ryan W; Peters, Paul A; Villeneuve, Paul J

    2013-04-19

    There are several plausible mechanisms whereby either short or long term exposure to pollution can increase the risk of stroke. Over the last decade, several studies have reported associations between short-term (day-to-day) increases in ambient air pollution and stroke. The findings from a smaller number of studies that have looked at long-term exposure to air pollution and stroke have been mixed. Most of these epidemiological studies have assigned exposure to air pollution based on place of residence, but these assignments are typically based on relatively coarse spatial resolutions. To date, few studies have evaluated medium-term exposures (i.e, exposures over the past season or year). To address this research gap, we evaluated associations between highly spatially resolved estimates of ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2), a marker of traffic pollution, and emergency department visits for stroke in Edmonton, Canada. This was a case-control study with cases defined as those who presented to an Edmonton area hospital emergency department between 2007 and 2009 with an acute ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, or transient ischemic attack. Controls were patients who presented to the same emergency departments for lacerations, sprains, or strains. A land-use regression model provided estimates of NO2 that were assigned to the place of residence. Logistic regression methods were used to estimate odds ratios for stroke in relation to an increase in the interquartile range of NO2 (5 ppb), adjusted for age, sex, meteorological variables, and neighborhood effects. The study included 4,696 stroke (cases) and 37,723 injury patients (controls). For all strokes combined, there was no association with NO2. Namely, the odds ratio associated with an interquartile increase in NO2 was 1.01 (95% confidence interval {CI}: 0.94-1.08). No associations were evident for any of the stroke subtypes examined. When combined with our earlier work in Edmonton, our findings suggest that day

  12. OMI/Aura Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) Total and Tropospheric Column 1-orbit L2 Swath 13x24 km V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The second release of collection 3 OMI/Aura Level-2 NO2 data product OMNO2 is now available (http://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov/Aura/OMI/omno2_v003.shtml ) to public and...

  13. Physiological responses to exposure to carbon dioxide and human bioeffluents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaojing; Wargocki, Pawel; Lian, Zhiwei

    2015-01-01

    Present paper describes physiological responses as a result of exposures to CO2 (between 500 ppm to 3,000 ppm) with and without bioeffluents. Twenty-five subjects participated. They were exposed in the climate chamber for 255 minutes in groups of five at a time. During exposure, they performed...

  14. Long-Term Exposure to Road Traffic Noise and Nitrogen Dioxide and Risk of Heart Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; Wendelboe Nielsen, Olav; Sajadieh, Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although air pollution and road traffic noise have been associated with higher risk of cardiovascular diseases, associations with heart failure have received only little attention. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate whether long-term exposure to road traffic noise and nitrogen dioxid...

  15. THE EXPOSURE OF GUINEA PIGS TO PRESSURE-PULSES GENERATED DURING THE END-TO-END TEST (NO. 2) OF ATLAS MISSILE 8-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    THE EXPOSURE OF GUINEA PIGS TO PRESSURE-PULSES GENERATED DURING THE END-TO-END TEST (NO. 2) OF ATLAS MISSILE 8-D (MARCH 3) extent of the blast hazard...charge. Three guinea pigs were placed on the pressure control unit which was located beneath the ramp 90 ft from the missile. In addition, ten guinea pigs were...pressure pulse was slow rising (9-14 msec) and endured for about 25 msec. The three guinea pigs at that location were unharmed. At the 30-ft ranges

  16. Exposure to Chlorine Dioxide Gas for 4 Hours Renders Syphacia Ova Nonviable

    OpenAIRE

    Czarra, Jane A; Adams, Joleen K; Carter, Christopher L; Hill, William A; Coan, Patricia N

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of chlorine dioxide gas for environmental decontamination of Syphacia spp. ova. We collected Syphacia ova by perianal cellophane tape impression of pinworm-infected mice. Tapes with attached ova were exposed to chlorine dioxide gas for 1, 2, 3, or 4 h. After gas exposure, ova were incubated in hatching medium for 6 h to promote hatching. For controls, tapes with attached ova were maintained at room temperature for 1, 2, 3, and 4 h without ...

  17. Heterogeneous Vascular Bed Responses to Pulmonary Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticle Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaeddin B. Abukabda

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of research links engineered nanomaterial (ENM exposure to adverse cardiovascular endpoints. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of ENM exposure on vascular reactivity in discrete segments so that we may determine the most sensitive levels of the vasculature where these negative cardiovascular effects are manifest. We hypothesized that acute nano-TiO2 exposure differentially affects reactivity with a more robust impairment in the microcirculation. Sprague-Dawley rats (8–10 weeks were exposed to nano-TiO2via intratracheal instillation (20, 100, or 200 µg suspended per 250 µL of vehicle 24 h prior to vascular assessments. A serial assessment across distinct compartments of the vascular tree was then conducted. Wire myography was used to evaluate macrovascular active tension generation specifically in the thoracic aorta, the femoral artery, and third-order mesenteric arterioles. Pressure myography was used to determine vascular reactivity in fourth- and fifth-order mesenteric arterioles. Vessels were treated with phenylephrine, acetylcholine (ACh, and sodium nitroprusside. Nano-TiO2 exposure decreased endothelium-dependent relaxation in the thoracic aorta and femoral arteries assessed via ACh by 53.96 ± 11.6 and 25.08 ± 6.36%, respectively. Relaxation of third-order mesenteric arterioles was impaired by 100 and 20 µg nano-TiO2 exposures with mean reductions of 50.12 ± 8.7 and 68.28 ± 8.7%. Cholinergic reactivity of fourth- and fifth-order mesenteric arterioles was negatively affected by nano-TiO2 with diminished dilations of 82.86 ± 12.6% after exposure to 200 µg nano-TiO2, 42.6 ± 12.6% after 100 µg nano-TiO2, and 49.4 ± 12.6% after 20 µg nano-TiO2. Endothelium-independent relaxation was impaired in the thoracic aorta by 34.05 ± 25% induced by exposure to 200 µg nano-TiO2 and a reduction in response of 49.31 ± 25% caused by 100 µg nano-TiO2

  18. Health benefits of a reduction of PM10 and NO2 exposure after implementing a clean air plan in the Agglomeration Lausanne-Morges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Alberto; Künzli, Nino; Götschi, Thomas

    2017-07-01

    Exposure to urban air pollution has been associated with adverse effects on cardio-vascular and respiratory health, both short and long term. Consequently, governments have applied policies to reduce air pollution. Quantitative health impact assessments of hypothetic changes in air pollution have been conducted at national and global level, but assessments of observed air pollution changes associated with specific clean air policies at a local or regional scale remain scarce. This study estimates health impacts attributable to a decrease in PM 10 and NO 2 exposure in the Agglomeration of Lausanne-Morges (ALM), Switzerland, between 2005 and 2015, corresponding to the implementation period of a supra-municipal plan of measures to reduce air pollution in different sectors such as transport, energy, and industry (called Plan OPair 05). The health impact assessment compares health effects attributed to air pollution exposure levels in 2015 (reference case) with those in 2005 (counterfactual scenario), using 2015 as baseline for all other input data. In the ALM, the modeled PM 10 exposure reduction of 3.3μg/m 3 from 2005 to 2015 prevents 26 premature deaths (equivalent to around 290 years of life lost), 215 hospitalization days due to cardio-vascular and respiratory diseases as well as approximately 47,000 restricted activity days annually. Monetized health impacts of the reduction of PM 10 exposure are valued at approximately CHF 36 million annually. Immaterial costs, mainly related to the economic valuation of years of life lost, dominate the monetized health impacts (90% of total value), while savings at the workplace (net loss in production and reoccupation costs) amount to about CHF 1.9 million, and savings in health care costs to about CHF 0.5 million. The assessment is sensitive to the value assigned to immaterial costs and to uncertainties in the relative risk estimates, whereas variations in the baseline year (i.e. using 2005 data instead of 2015 data) affect

  19. Changes in Transportation-Related Air Pollution Exposures by Race-Ethnicity and Socioeconomic Status: Outdoor Nitrogen Dioxide in the United States in 2000 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Lara P; Millet, Dylan B; Marshall, Julian D

    2017-09-14

    Disparities in exposure to air pollution by race-ethnicity and by socioeconomic status have been documented in the United States, but the impacts of declining transportation-related air pollutant emissions on disparities in exposure have not been studied in detail. This study was designed to estimate changes over time (2000 to 2010) in disparities in exposure to outdoor concentrations of a transportation-related air pollutant, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), in the United States. We combined annual average NO2 concentration estimates from a temporal land use regression model with Census demographic data to estimate outdoor exposures by race-ethnicity, socioeconomic characteristics (income, age, education), and by location (region, state, county, urban area) for the contiguous United States in 2000 and 2010. Estimated annual average NO2 concentrations decreased from 2000 to 2010 for all of the race-ethnicity and socioeconomic status groups, including a decrease from 17.6 ppb to 10.7 ppb (-6.9 ppb) in nonwhite [non-(white alone, non-Hispanic)] populations, and 12.6 ppb to 7.8 ppb (-4.7 ppb) in white (white alone, non-Hispanic) populations. In 2000 and 2010, disparities in NO2 concentrations were larger by race-ethnicity than by income. Although the national nonwhite-white mean NO2 concentration disparity decreased from a difference of 5.0 ppb in 2000 to 2.9 ppb in 2010, estimated mean NO2 concentrations remained 37% higher for nonwhites than whites in 2010 (40% higher in 2000), and nonwhites were 2.5 times more likely than whites to live in a block group with an average NO2 concentration above the WHO annual guideline in 2010 (3.0 times more likely in 2000). Findings suggest that absolute NO2 exposure disparities by race-ethnicity decreased from 2000 to 2010, but relative NO2 exposure disparities persisted, with higher NO2 concentrations for nonwhites than whites in 2010. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP959.

  20. Evaluation of relative risk and attributed proportion due to exposure to Nitrogen dioxide in Ahwaz, Kermanshah, Iran (western half of Iran during 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaheh Zalaghi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds and Objectives: Air pollution is very important because of every human being inhales an average of 10 m3 air and its impact on human health. The objective of this study was to evaluating the compare to relative risk and attributed proportion exposure to Nitrogen dioxide in the western half of Iran during 2013. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was conducted in Ahvaz, Kermanshah and Bushehr during 2012. In the present study, Data’s was taken from Department of Environment (ADoE and meteorological organizations of the studied cities. After processing and modification on the basis of meteorological data, data were converted as input file to the Air Q model. Finally, by using epidemiologic formulas such as relative risk (RR and attributed proportion (AP estimated the health effects of NO2 in the three studied cites were estimated. Results: Based on result, the total accumulative number of cardiovascular death attributed to exposure with NO2 in the studied cities was in Ahvaz, Kermanshah Bushehr 45,51 and 6, respectively . According to the research findings, the relative risk of NO2 were estimated attributed to cardiovascular death 1.002. Results showed that the maximum and minimum number of obstructive pulmonary disease attributed to NO2 were observed in Kermanshah and Bushehr with 26 and 5 cases. Conclusions: The high percentage of cardiovascular mortality and respiratory mortality in Kermanshah can result due to this higher average NO2 in comparison with Ahvaz and Bushehr.

  1. Saskatoon serviceberry and ambient sulfur dioxide exposures: study sites re-visited, 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupa, S.V.; Legge, A.H.

    2001-01-01

    Field surveys for symptoms of foliar injury in a regional airshed that is influenced by a number of point sources of SO x , NO x and hydrocarbons, combined with foliar and soil sulfur analyses, confirmed earlier results that Saskatoon serviceberry (Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt.) cv. Smokey can be used as a biological indicator of chronic sulfur dioxide exposures, in the presence of other phytotoxic air pollutants such as ozone. (Author)

  2. NO2 possible effects on human health in French Guiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobinddass, Marie-Line; Dendele, Beatrice; Molinie, Jack; panechou-pulcherie, Kathy; Gatineau, Alexandre

    2016-04-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) recently declared air pollution carcinogenic to humans. Humans are continuously exposed to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emissions, a strong oxidizing pollutant commonly found in urban air and homes with unvented combustion appliances. Children and Individuals with asthma have been reported to be more sensitive to NO2exposure. Long-term exposure to NO2 pollution has been reported to induce defective pulmonary function, inflammation, irritations, respiratory infections like bronchitis, lung fibrosis, asthma exacerbation and an increase in inhalational allergies. Pollution peaks are responsible for older people premature death in city. According to W H O guideline values for NO2 emissions, a 1-hour level of 200 μg/m3 (0.1 ppm) and daily annual average of 40 μg/m3 (0.02 ppm) can be a real danger to human health. In general, current exposures in Europe are below this range. However, climate warming changes NO2 emissions and can become a real public health problem in few years. We will study here the temporal series of NO2 variation from data measurement campaigns of 2010 and 2014 in Cayenne city, the French Guiana capital. In this urban zone, NO2 is mainly created by cars traffic. Only 40% comes from combustion in thermal electric plan. A statistical approach will be used to compare NO2 Cayenne level to the daily and the annual threshold. Finally the NO2 evolution related to the climate warming and the growth of road traffic in French Guiana for the next year will be discussed.

  3. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles: occupational exposure assessment in the photocatalytic paving production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinazzè, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.spinazze@uninsubria.it; Cattaneo, Andrea; Limonta, Marina [Università degli studi dell’Insubria, Dipartimento di Scienza e Alta Tecnologia (Italy); Bollati, Valentina; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto [Università degli Studi di Milano, EPIGET-Epidemiology, Epigenetics and Toxicology Lab, Dipartimento di Scienze Cliniche e di Comunità (Italy); Cavallo, Domenico M. [Università degli studi dell’Insubria, Dipartimento di Scienza e Alta Tecnologia (Italy)

    2016-06-15

    Limited data are available regarding occupational exposure assessment to nano-sized titanium dioxide (nano-TiO{sub 2}). The objective of this study is to assess the occupational exposure of workers engaged in the application of nano-TiO{sub 2} onto concrete building materials, by means of a multi-metric approach (mean diameter, number, mass and surface area concentrations). The measurement design consists of the combined use of (i) direct-reading instruments to evaluate the total particle number concentrations relative to the background concentration and the mean size-dependent characteristics of particles (mean diameter and surface area concentration) and to estimate the 8-h time-weighted average (8-h TWA) exposure to nano-TiO{sub 2} for workers involved in different working tasks; and (ii) filter-based air sampling, used for the determination of size-resolved particle mass concentrations. A further estimation was performed to obtain the mean 8-h TWA exposure values expressed as mass concentrations (µg nano-TiO{sub 2}/m{sup 3}). The multi-metric characterization of occupational exposure to nano-TiO{sub 2} was significantly different both for different work environments and for each work task. Generally, workers were exposed to engineered nanoparticles (ENPs; <100 nm) mean levels lower than the recommended reference values and proposed occupational exposure limits (40,000 particle/cm{sup 3}; 300 µg/m{sup 3}) and relevant exposures to peak concentration were not likely to be expected. The estimated 8-h TWA exposure showed differences between the unexposed and exposed subjects. For these last, further differences were defined between operators involved in different work tasks. This study provides information on nano-TiO{sub 2} number and mass concentration, size distribution, particles diameter and surface area concentrations, which were used to obtain work shift-averaged exposures.

  4. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles: occupational exposure assessment in the photocatalytic paving production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinazzè, Andrea; Cattaneo, Andrea; Limonta, Marina; Bollati, Valentina; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Cavallo, Domenico M.

    2016-01-01

    Limited data are available regarding occupational exposure assessment to nano-sized titanium dioxide (nano-TiO 2 ). The objective of this study is to assess the occupational exposure of workers engaged in the application of nano-TiO 2 onto concrete building materials, by means of a multi-metric approach (mean diameter, number, mass and surface area concentrations). The measurement design consists of the combined use of (i) direct-reading instruments to evaluate the total particle number concentrations relative to the background concentration and the mean size-dependent characteristics of particles (mean diameter and surface area concentration) and to estimate the 8-h time-weighted average (8-h TWA) exposure to nano-TiO 2 for workers involved in different working tasks; and (ii) filter-based air sampling, used for the determination of size-resolved particle mass concentrations. A further estimation was performed to obtain the mean 8-h TWA exposure values expressed as mass concentrations (µg nano-TiO 2 /m 3 ). The multi-metric characterization of occupational exposure to nano-TiO 2 was significantly different both for different work environments and for each work task. Generally, workers were exposed to engineered nanoparticles (ENPs; <100 nm) mean levels lower than the recommended reference values and proposed occupational exposure limits (40,000 particle/cm 3 ; 300 µg/m 3 ) and relevant exposures to peak concentration were not likely to be expected. The estimated 8-h TWA exposure showed differences between the unexposed and exposed subjects. For these last, further differences were defined between operators involved in different work tasks. This study provides information on nano-TiO 2 number and mass concentration, size distribution, particles diameter and surface area concentrations, which were used to obtain work shift-averaged exposures.

  5. Long-Term Exposure to Road Traffic Noise and Nitrogen Dioxide and Risk of Heart Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; Wendelboe Nielsen, Olav; Sajadieh, Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    (NO2) were associated with incident heart failure. METHODS: In a cohort of 57,053 people 50-64 y of age at enrollment in the period 1993-1997, we identified 2,550 cases of first-ever hospital admission for heart failure during a mean follow-up time of 13.4 y. Present and historical residential...... addresses from 1987 to 2011 were found in national registers, and road traffic noise (Lden) and NO2 were modeled for all addresses. Analyses were done using Cox proportional hazard model. RESULTS: An interquartile range higher 10-y time-weighted mean exposure for Lden and NO2 was associated with incidence...... rate ratios (IRR) for heart failure of 1.14 (1.08-1.21) and 1.11 (1.07-1.16), respectively, in models adjusted for gender, lifestyle, and socioeconomic status. In models with mutual exposure adjustment, IRRs were 1.08 (1.00-1.16) for Lden and 1.07 (1.01-1.14) for NO2. We found statistically significant...

  6. Physiological responses during exposure to carbon dioxide and bioeffluents at levels typically occurring indoors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, X.; Wargocki, Pawel; Lian, Z.

    2017-01-01

    and heart rate decreased less than the changes that occurred in the reference condition. Exposure to bioeffluents, when metabolically generated CO2 was at 3000 ppm, significantly increased diastolic blood pressure and salivary α-amylase level compared with pre-exposure levels, and reduced the performance......Twenty-five subjects were exposed to different levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) and bioeffluents. The ventilation rate was set high enough to create a reference condition of 500 ppm CO2 with subjects present; additional CO2 was then added to supply air to reach levels of 1000 or 3000 ppm......, or the ventilation rate was reduced to allow metabolically generated CO2 to reach the same two levels (bioeffluents increased as well). Heart rate, blood pressure, end-tidal CO2 (ETCO2), oxygen saturation of blood (SPO2), respiration rate, nasal peak flow, and forced expiration were monitored, and the levels...

  7. Changes in the carbon dioxide expirogram in response to ozone exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Adekemi B.; Lee, Genea M.; Nellore, Kavitha; Ben-Jebria, Abdellaziz; Ultman, James S.

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to quantify pulmonary responses to ozone (O 3 ) exposure by parameters computed from the carbon dioxide expirogram and to compare these responses to decrements in forced expired spirometry. Anatomical dead space (V D ) was determined from the pure dead space and transition regions of the expirogram. Four alternative parameters were computed from the alveolar plateau: slope (S), normalized slope (NS), peripheral cross-sectional area (A P ) and well-mixed peripheral volume (V MP ). Forty-seven healthy nonsmokers (25 men and 22 women) participated in two research sessions in which they exercised on a cycle ergometer for 1 h while orally inhaling either room air at a minute ventilation of 30.6 ± 3.6 L or room air mixed with 0.252 ± 0.029 ppm O 3 at a minute ventilation of 29.9 ± 3.7 L. Carbon dioxide expirograms were measured before exposure, 10 min after exposure and 70 min after exposure. Percent changes (mean ± SD) in expirogram parameters were significant (P ≤ 0.002) at both 10 and 70 min after O 3 exposure: V D (-4.2 ± 5.1, -3.3 ± 6.9), S(16.4 ± 17.9, +15.1 ± 20.2), NS(17.5 ± 15.4, +15.9 ± 19.2), A P (-8.1 ± 7.6, -7.7 ± 9.8) and V MP (-15.4 ± 13.0, -13.0 ± 15.2). Percent decrements of forced expired volume in one second (FEV 1 ) were also significant at both 10 min (-13.3 ± 13.4) and 70 min (-11.1 ± 9.2) following O 3 exposure. Changes in the expirogram as well as decrements in FEV 1 were not significant at either time point after air exposure. Thus, the CO 2 expirogram is useful for characterizing the effect of O 3 exposure on gas transport, and for supplementing forced expired spirometry that is frequently used to quantify lung mechanics

  8. Effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles exposure on parkinsonism in zebrafish larvae and PC12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qinglian; Guo, Fengliang; Zhao, Fenghui; Fu, Zhengwei

    2017-04-01

    Nanomaterials hold significant potential for industrial and biomedical application these years. Therefore, the relationship between nanoparticles and neurodegenerative disease is of enormous interest. In this contribution, zebrafish embryos and PC12 cell lines were selected for studying neurotoxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO 2 NPs). After exposure of different concentrations of TiO 2 NPs to embryos from fertilization to 96 hpf, the hatching time of zebrafish was decreased, accompanied by an increase in malformation rate. However, no significant increases in mortality relative to control were observed. These results indicated that TiO 2 NPs exposure hold a risk for premature of zebrafish embryos, but not fatal. The further investigation confirmed that TiO 2 NPs could accumulate in the brain of zebrafish larvae, resulting in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and cell death of hypothalamus. Meanwhile, q-PCR analysis showed that TiO 2 NPs exposure increased the pink1, parkin, α-syn and uchl1 gene expression, which are related with the formation of Lewy bodies. We also observed loss of dopaminergic neurons in zebrafish and in vitro. These remarkable hallmarks are all linked to these Parkinson's disease (PD) symptoms. Our results indicate that TiO 2 NPs exposure induces neurotoxicity in vivo and in vitro, which poses a significant risk factor for the development of PD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of nano titanium dioxide exposure on cellular structure of Anabaena variabilis and evidence of internalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherchi, Carla; Chernenko, Tatyana; Diem, Max; Gu, April Z

    2011-04-01

    The present study investigated the impact of nano titanium dioxide (nTiO(2) ) exposure on the cellular structures of the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria Anabaena variabilis. Results of the present study showed that nTiO(2) exposure led to observable alteration in various intracellular structures and induced a series of recognized stress responses, including production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), appearance and increase in the abundance of membrane crystalline inclusions, membrane mucilage layer formation, opening of intrathylakoidal spaces, and internal plasma membrane disruption. The production of total ROS in A. variabilis cells increased with increasing nTiO(2) doses and exposure time, and the intracellular ROS contributed to only a small fraction (structure and increase in the cellular turgor pressure likely resulted from the structural membrane damage mediated by the ROS production. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of nTiO(2) aggregates size distribution seems to suggest possible disaggregation of nTiO(2) aggregates when in close contact with microbial cells, potentially as a result of biomolecules such as DNA excreted by organisms that may serve as a biodispersant. The present study also showed, for the first time, with both TEM and Raman imaging that internalization of nTiO(2) particles through multilayered membranes in algal cells is possible. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2011; 30:861-869. © 2010 SETAC. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  10. Effects of prenatal exposure to surface-coated nanosized titanium dioxide (UV-Titan). A study in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Karin S.; Jackson, Petra; Jensen, Keld A.

    2010-01-01

    neurofunction and fertility. Physicochemical particle properties were determined to provide information on specific exposure and deposition. Results: Particles consisted of mainly elongated rutile titanium dioxide (TiO2) with an average crystallite size of 21 nm, modified with Al, Si and Zr, and coated...

  11. Exposure assessment and heart rate variability monitoring in workers handling titanium dioxide particles: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihara, Sahoko; Li, Weihua; Omura, Seiichi; Fujitani, Yuji; Liu, Ying; Wang, Qiangyi; Hiraku, Yusuke; Hisanaga, Naomi; Wakai, Kenji; Ding, Xuncheng; Kobayashi, Takahiro; Ichihara, Gaku

    2016-03-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles are used for surface coating and in a variety of products such as inks, fibers, food, and cosmetics. The present study investigated possible respiratory and cardiovascular effects of TiO2 particles in workers exposed to this particle at high concentration in a factory in China. The diameter of particles collected on filters was measured by scanning electron microscopy. Real-time size-dependent particle number concentration was monitored in the nostrils of four workers using condensation particle counter and optical particle counter. Electrocardiogram was recorded using Holter monitors for the same four workers to record heart rate variability. Sixteen workers underwent assessment of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. Mass-based individual exposure levels were also measured with personal cascade impactors. The primary particle diameter ranged from 46 to 562 nm. Analysis of covariance of the pooled data of the four workers showed that number of particles with a diameter particles with a diameter particles. The results highlight the need to investigate the possible impact of exposure to nano-scaled particles on the autonomic nervous system.

  12. Acute effects of low-level sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide exposures on the respiratory tract of susceptible subjects in cold environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salonen, R.O.; Randell, J.T.; Haelinen, A.I.; Pennanen, A.S. [National Public Health Inst., Kuopio (Finland). Div. of Environmental Health; Kosma, V.M. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Pathology; Pekkarinen, H. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physiology; Ruuskanen, J. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Sciences; Tukiainen, H. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Pulmonary Diseases

    1995-12-31

    Several recent epidemiological studies from Finland have suggested that sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) cause adverse health effects in susceptible population groups, such as children and asthmatic patients, at much smaller concentrations than the present guideline values of the World Health Organization. One possible explanation of these findings is that the relatively long winter-time increases the sensitivity of the respiratory tract to irritant pollutants. This hypothesis is supported by experimental human and animal studies, which have shown obstruction and inflammatory changes in the conducting airways after ventilation of cold and dry air. Asthmatic patients are much more sensitive than healthy subjects to the irritating effects of cold and dry air and of air pollutants. The airways of many non-asthmatic a topic subjects are also sensitive to cold air, but these subjects are poorly defined as a potential susceptible population group to air pollutants. The aims of this project are: (1) to construct experimental human and animal facilities and protocols for short-term studies on SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2} exposures at subfreezing temperatures, (2) to apply advanced lung function methodologies and symptom assessment for characterisation of short-term respiratory responses of asthmatic and a topic subjects to these exposures, (3) to apply well-established pulmonary physiological, cytological and morphological methods for characterisation of short-term responses to and mechanisms of these exposures in the guinea-pig lower airways. (author)

  13. Exposure assessment and heart rate variability monitoring in workers handling titanium dioxide particles: a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichihara, Sahoko [Mie University, Graduate School of Regional Innovation Studies (Japan); Li, Weihua [WHO Collaborating Centre for Research in Human Reproduction, Shanghai Institute of Planned Parenthood Research (China); Omura, Seiichi [Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan); Fujitani, Yuji [National Institute for Environmental Studies (Japan); Liu, Ying; Wang, Qiangyi [WHO Collaborating Centre for Research in Human Reproduction, Shanghai Institute of Planned Parenthood Research (China); Hiraku, Yusuke [Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Environmental and Molecular Medicine (Japan); Hisanaga, Naomi [Aichi Gakusen University, Faculty of Human Science and Design (Japan); Wakai, Kenji [Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Preventive Medicine (Japan); Ding, Xuncheng [WHO Collaborating Centre for Research in Human Reproduction, Shanghai Institute of Planned Parenthood Research (China); Kobayashi, Takahiro, E-mail: takakoba@airies.or.jp [Association for International Research Initiatives for Environmental Studies (Japan); Ichihara, Gaku, E-mail: gak@rs.tus.ac.jp [Tokyo University of Science, Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) particles are used for surface coating and in a variety of products such as inks, fibers, food, and cosmetics. The present study investigated possible respiratory and cardiovascular effects of TiO{sub 2} particles in workers exposed to this particle at high concentration in a factory in China. The diameter of particles collected on filters was measured by scanning electron microscopy. Real-time size-dependent particle number concentration was monitored in the nostrils of four workers using condensation particle counter and optical particle counter. Electrocardiogram was recorded using Holter monitors for the same four workers to record heart rate variability. Sixteen workers underwent assessment of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. Mass-based individual exposure levels were also measured with personal cascade impactors. The primary particle diameter ranged from 46 to 562 nm. Analysis of covariance of the pooled data of the four workers showed that number of particles with a diameter <300 nm was associated positively with total number of N–N and negatively with total number of increase or decrease in successive RR intervals greater than 50 ms (RR50+/−) or percentage of RR 50+/− that were parameters of parasympathetic function. The total mass concentration was 9.58–30.8 mg/m{sup 3} during work, but significantly less before work (0.36 mg/m{sup 3}). The clear abnormality in respiratory function was not observed in sixteen workers who had worked for 10 months to 13 years in the factory. The study showed that exposure to particles with a diameter <300 nm might affect HRV in workers handling TiO{sub 2} particles. The results highlight the need to investigate the possible impact of exposure to nano-scaled particles on the autonomic nervous system.

  14. Measurements of children's exposures to particles and nitrogen dioxide in Santiago, Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas-Bracho, Leonora; Suh, Helen H.; Koutrakis, Petros [Harvard University, School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, 02115 Boston, MA (United States); Oyola, Pedro [Comision Nacional del Medio Ambiente CONAMA, Santiago (Chile)

    2002-03-27

    An exposure study of children (aged 10-12 years) living in Santiago, Chile, was conducted. Personal, indoor and outdoor fine and inhalable particulate matter (<2.5 {mu}m in diameter, PM{sub 2.5} and <10 {mu}m in diameter, PM{sub 10}, respectively), and nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) were measured during pilot (N=8) and main (N=20) studies, which were conducted during the winters of 1998 and 1999, respectively. For the main study, personal indoor and outdoor 24-h samples were collected for five consecutive days. Similar mean personal, indoor and outdoor PM{sub 2.5} concentrations (69.5, 68.5 and 68.1 {mu}g m{sup -3}, respectively) were found. However, for coarse particles (calculated as the difference between measured PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5}, PM{sub 2.5-10}) indoor and outdoor levels (35.4 and 47.4 {mu}g m{sup -3}) were lower than their corresponding personal exposures (76.3 {mu}g m{sup -3}). Indoor and outdoor NO{sub 2} concentrations were comparable (35.8 and 36.9 ppb) and higher than personal exposures (25.9 ppb). Very low ambient indoor and personal O{sub 3} levels were found, which were mostly below the method's limit of detection (LOD). Outdoor particles contributed significantly to indoor concentrations, with effective penetration efficiencies of 0.61 and 0.30 for PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 2.5-10}, respectively. Personal exposures were strongly associated with indoor and outdoor concentrations for PM{sub 2.5}, but weakly associated for PM{sub 2.5-10}. For NO{sub 2}, weak associations were obtained for indoor-outdoor and personal-outdoor relationships. This is probably a result of the presence of gas cooking stoves in all the homes. Median I/O, P/I and P/O ratios for PM{sub 2.5} were close to unity, and for NO{sub 2} they ranged between 0.64 and 0.95. These ratios were probably due to high ambient PM{sub 2.5} and NO{sub 2} levels in Santiago, which diminished the relative contribution of indoor sources and subjects' activities to indoor and personal PM

  15. Workplace Exposure to Titanium Dioxide Nanopowder Released from a Bag Filter System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ho Ji

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers who use laboratory-scale synthesis systems to manufacture nanomaterials could be easily exposed to airborne nanomaterials during the research and development stage. This study used various real-time aerosol detectors to investigate the presence of nanoaerosols in a laboratory used to manufacture titanium dioxide (TiO2. The TiO2 nanopowders were produced via flame synthesis and collected by a bag filter system for subsequent harvesting. Highly concentrated nanopowders were released from the outlet of the bag filter system into the laboratory. The fractional particle collection efficiency of the bag filter system was only 20% at particle diameter of 100 nm, which is much lower than the performance of a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA filter. Furthermore, the laboratory hood system was inadequate to fully exhaust the air discharged from the bag filter system. Unbalanced air flow rates between bag filter and laboratory hood systems could result in high exposure to nanopowder in laboratory settings. Finally, we simulated behavior of nanopowders released in the laboratory using computational fluid dynamics (CFD.

  16. Workplace Exposure to Titanium Dioxide Nanopowder Released from a Bag Filter System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jun Ho; Kim, Jong Bum; Lee, Gwangjae; Noh, Jung-Hun; Yook, Se-Jin; Cho, So-Hye; Bae, Gwi-Nam

    2015-01-01

    Many researchers who use laboratory-scale synthesis systems to manufacture nanomaterials could be easily exposed to airborne nanomaterials during the research and development stage. This study used various real-time aerosol detectors to investigate the presence of nanoaerosols in a laboratory used to manufacture titanium dioxide (TiO2). The TiO2 nanopowders were produced via flame synthesis and collected by a bag filter system for subsequent harvesting. Highly concentrated nanopowders were released from the outlet of the bag filter system into the laboratory. The fractional particle collection efficiency of the bag filter system was only 20% at particle diameter of 100 nm, which is much lower than the performance of a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter. Furthermore, the laboratory hood system was inadequate to fully exhaust the air discharged from the bag filter system. Unbalanced air flow rates between bag filter and laboratory hood systems could result in high exposure to nanopowder in laboratory settings. Finally, we simulated behavior of nanopowders released in the laboratory using computational fluid dynamics (CFD).

  17. Foliar response and growth of apple trees following exposure to ozone and sulfur dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shertz, R.D.; Kender, W.J.; Musselman, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    Three cultivars of greenhouse-grown apple trees (Malus domestica, Borkh.) were fumigated for single, 4-hour exposures with ozone (O/sub 3/) and/or sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) at 0.40 and 0.80 ppm. Fumigations were performed in a plexiglass chamber situated within a controlled environment walk-in growth chamber. All 3 cultivars responded to treatments in a similar manner. When applied separately both gases induced characteristic foliar injury. In general, apple trees were more sensitive to 0.40 ppm O/sub 3/ than to 0.40 ppm SO/sub 2/; but they responded similarly to 0.80 ppm O/sub 3/ or SO/sub 2/. Foliar injury, leaf abscission, and shoot growth reduction were greatest when 0.80 ppm O/sub 3/ and 0.80 ppm SO/sub 2/ were combined. The data showed a less-than additive response when the 2 pollutants were combined; a response due, in part, to the high amount of injury induced by single pollutants at these concentrations. All O/sub 3/ and/or SO/sub 2/ fumigations resulted in stomatal closure.

  18. The effects of carbon dioxide exposure on permeation behavior in silicone rubber and glassy polycarbonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, S.M.

    1989-01-01

    Permeation measurements are reported for both rubbery and glassy polymers in the presence of various pure (He, CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}) and mixed gas (O{sub 2}/N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4}, He/CO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2}) feed streams up to 1000 psia. The polymers studied were silicone rubber and glassy bisphenol-A polycarbonate, tetramethyl polycarbonate and hexafluoro polycarbonate. Large hysteresis was observed in permeation when comparing the pressurization and depressurization responses of the glassy samples in the presence of carbon dioxide above 300 psia exposure pressure. The magnitude of the hysteresis was related to the maximum CO{sub 2} conditioning pressure used. The conditioning treatment resulted in long-lived increases in the permeability of the conditioned films and appeared to be semi-permanent if the conditioning agent was not totally removed. For CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} mixed gas feed streams, the conditioning treatment resulted in enhancements in flux without a significant loss in permselectivity. For the silicone rubber sample, no permeability hysteresis was observed. Exchange experiments showed that it was possible to condition a glassy polymer with CO{sub 2} to increase its permeability and to maintain a state of increased permeability even if the CO{sub 2} was replaced by another gas of sufficient solubility such as methane or air. The CO{sub 2} conditioning treatment was not apparent if the CO{sub 2} was replaced by helium without any intervening exposure to vacuum. The inability of helium to detect the effects of the CO{sub 2}-induced conditioning sensed by larger penetrants is discussed and hypothetical explanations for these unexpected results are given.

  19. Comparative toxicities of bismuth oxybromide and titanium dioxide exposure on human skin keratinocyte cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoya; Wang, Yawen; Peng, Shiqi; Yue, Bin; Fan, Caimei; Chen, Weiyi; Li, Xiaona

    2015-09-01

    Nano-sized bismuth oxybromide (BiOBr) particles are being considered for applications within the semiconductor industry. However, little is known about their potential impact on human health. In this study, we comparatively investigated the cytotoxicity of BiOBr and titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) using human skin keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT) as a research model. Results indicate that lamellar-shaped BiOBr (length: 200 nm, width: 150 nm, and an average thickness: around 15 nm) has less toxic effects on cell viability and intracellular organelles than TiO2 (P25) NPs. BiOBr mainly induced late cell apoptosis, while for TiO2, both early apoptosis and late apoptosis were involved. Cell cycle arrest was found in cells on both NPs exposure, and more prominent in TiO2-treated cells. More cellular uptake was achieved after TiO2 exposure, particularly at 10 μg mL(-1), presence of TiO2 resulted in more than 2-fold increase in cellular granularity compared with BiOBr. Furthermore, TiO2 had a high potential to generate intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells, where a 2.7-fold increase in TiO2 group and 2.0-fold increase in BiOBr group at the same concentration of 25 μg mL(-1). Higher cellular uptake and ROS stimulation should contribute to the more hazards of TiO2 than BiOBr NPs. This knowledge is a crucial component in the environmental and human hazard assessment of BiOBr and TiO2 NPs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. IDEA papers no 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassou, O.

    2002-09-01

    The Information network on the Economic Development in Aquitaine (IDEA) aims to collect and spread the environmental information concerning the Aquitaine, in order to implement an observatory of the regional environment and of the sustainable development. The IDEA paper no. 2 is devoted to the IDEA missions and their cooperation with ''Alliance pour la qualite et la performance''. This association groups actors for the development and the promotion of the quality. (A.L.B.)

  1. Marginalia no. 2

    OpenAIRE

    Library, Merrill-Cazier

    1997-01-01

    Volume 1, Number 2 (Issue no. 2): Winter issue 1997 INTO A BRAVE NEW WORLD?-Guest commentator, Prof. Larry Cannon on the loss of the card catalogue INTERNET WIZARDRY- Kevin Brewer describes interesting Web sites and how to access them. BETTER THAN CASH-Giving Through capital gains profits “FRIENDSHIP FOR LIBRARIES”-What Friends offer & what it members get back JOIN FRIENDS COUPON & REPLY ENVELOPE EUPHORIA OF READING-Fungus on old paper & ‘enlightening’ drug-like euphoria ...

  2. Projected carbon dioxide to increase grass pollen and allergen exposure despite higher ozone levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M Albertine

    Full Text Available One expected effect of climate change on human health is increasing allergic and asthmatic symptoms through changes in pollen biology. Allergic diseases have a large impact on human health globally, with 10-30% of the population affected by allergic rhinitis and more than 300 million affected by asthma. Pollen from grass species, which are highly allergenic and occur worldwide, elicits allergic responses in 20% of the general population and 40% of atopic individuals. Here we examine the effects of elevated levels of two greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide (CO2, a growth and reproductive stimulator of plants, and ozone (O3, a repressor, on pollen and allergen production in Timothy grass (Phleum pratense L.. We conducted a fully factorial experiment in which plants were grown at ambient and/or elevated levels of O3 and CO2, to simulate present and projected levels of both gases and their potential interactive effects. We captured and counted pollen from flowers in each treatment and assayed for concentrations of the allergen protein, Phl p 5. We found that elevated levels of CO2 increased the amount of grass pollen produced by ∼50% per flower, regardless of O3 levels. Elevated O3 significantly reduced the Phl p 5 content of the pollen but the net effect of rising pollen numbers with elevated CO2 indicate increased allergen exposure under elevated levels of both greenhouse gases. Using quantitative estimates of increased pollen production and number of flowering plants per treatment, we estimated that airborne grass pollen concentrations will increase in the future up to ∼200%. Due to the widespread existence of grasses and the particular importance of P. pratense in eliciting allergic responses, our findings provide evidence for significant impacts on human health worldwide as a result of future climate change.

  3. Effects of chronic and acute exposure to sulphur dioxide on the growth of hybrid poplar cuttings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon S. Dochinger; Keith F. Jensen

    1975-01-01

    Hybrid poplar clones were fumigated in controlled-environment chambers with either 5 ppm sulphur dioxide for 1½, 3, and 6 h or with 0.25 ppm sulphur dioxide for six weeks. Multivariate analyses were made from shoot-growth data before and after treatment and on the foliar injury induced by S02. Both short- and long-term fumigation produced similar...

  4. Nitrogen dioxide exposure studies. Volume 1. Summary of the Gas Research Institute/Harvard indoor air quality and exposure studies on nitrigen dioxide. Topical report, 1985-1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spengler, J.D.

    1995-08-10

    This report summarizes the key findings of the studies described in GRI reports Volumes 2-7. The study found that gas-range homes, a gas furnace contributes approximately 8-16 ppb to indoor bedroom NO2 concentrations. In electric-range homes, a gas furnace contributes approximately 2 ppb to indoor levels; a fossilfuel space heater, approx 3 ppb in the winter.

  5. Effect of combined nitrogen dioxide and carbon nanoparticle exposure on lung function during ovalbumin sensitization in Brown Norway rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skander Layachi

    Full Text Available The interaction of particulate and gaseous pollutants in their effects on the severity of allergic inflammation and airway responsiveness are not well understood. We assessed the effect of exposure to NO(2 in the presence or absence of repetitive treatment with carbon nanoparticle (CNP during allergen sensitization and challenges in Brown-Norway (BN rat, in order to assess their interactions on lung function and airway responses (AR to allergen and methacholine (MCH, end-expiratory lung volume (EELV, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF cellular content, serum and BALF cytokine levels and histological changes. Animals were divided into the following groups (n = 6: Control; CNP (Degussa-FW2: 13 nm, 0.5 mg/kg instilled intratracheally ×3 at 7-day intervals; OVA: ovalbumin-sensitised; OVA+CNP: both sensitized and exposed to CNP. Rats were divided into equal groups exposed either to air or to NO(2, 10 ppm, 6 h/d, 5d/wk for 4 weeks. Exposure to NO(2, significantly enhanced lung inflammation and airway reactivity, with a significantly larger effect in animals sensitized to allergen, which was related to a higher expression of TH1 and TH2-type cytokines. Conversely, exposure to NO(2 in animals undergoing repeated tracheal instillation of CNP alone, increased BALF neutrophilia and enhanced the expression of TH1 cytokines: TNF-α and IFN-γ, but did not show an additive effect on airway reactivity in comparison to NO(2 alone. The exposure to NO(2 combined with CNP treatment and allergen sensitization however, unexpectedly resulted in a significant decrease in both airway reactivity to allergen and to methacholine, and a reduction in TH2-type cytokines compared to allergen sensitization alone. EELV was significantly reduced with sensitization, CNP treatment or both. These data suggest an immunomodulatory effect of repeated tracheal instillation of CNP on the proinflammatory effects of NO(2 exposure in sensitized BN rat. Furthermore, our findings suggest

  6. Effects of the biosynthesis and signaling pathway of ecdysterone on silkworm (Bombyx mori) following exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fanchi; Gu, Zhiya; Wang, Binbin; Xie, Yi; Ma, Lie; Xu, Kaizun; Ni, Min; Zhang, Hua; Shen, Weide; Li, Bing

    2014-08-01

    Silkworm (Bombyx mori), a model Lepidoptera insect, is economically important. Its growth and development are regulated by endogenous hormones. During the process of transition from larvae to pupae, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) plays an important role. The recent surge in consumer products and applications using metallic nanoparticles has increased the possibility of human or ecosystem exposure due to their unintentional release into the environment. We investigated the effects of exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) on the action of 20E in B. mori. Titanium dioxide nanoparticle treatment shortened the molting duration by 8 hr and prolonged the molting peak period by 10 %. Solexa sequencing profiled the changes in gene expression in the brain of fifth-instar B. mori in response to TiO2NPS exposure for 72 hr, to address the effects on hormone metabolism and regulation. Thirty one genes were differentially expressed. The transcriptional levels of pi3k and P70S6K, which are involved in the target of the rapamycin (TOR) signaling pathway, were up-regulated. Transcriptional levels of four cytochrome P450 genes, which are involved in 20E biosynthesis, at different developmental stages (48, 96, 144, and 192 hr) at 5th instars of all displayed trends of increasing expression. Simultaneously, the ecdysterone receptors, also displayed increasing trends. The 20E titers at four developmental stages during the 5th instar were 1.26, 1.23, 1.72, and 2.16 fold higher, respectively, than the control group. These results indicate that feeding B. mori with TiO2 NPs stimulates 20E biosynthesis, shortens the developmental progression, and reduces the duration of molting. Thus, application of TiO2 NPs is of high significance for saving the labor force in sericulture, and our research provides a reference for the ecological problems in the field of Lepidoptera exposured to titanium dioxide nanoparticles.

  7. Effect of acute nitrogen dioxide exposure on the composition of fatty acid associated with phospholipids in alveolar lavage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, T.; Noguchi, T.; Kikuno, M.; Kubota, K.

    1984-01-01

    In vivo exposure of rats to 10 ppm nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/) for 12 h caused changes in fatty acids composition of alveolar lavage phospholipids. Among the fatty acid species, the relative ratio of palmitic acid, myristic acid and palmitoleic acid increased significantly. While the relative ratio of stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and arachidonic acid decreased significantly. Both the increase in the incorporation of palmitic acid in phosphatidylcholine which would be released into the alveoli and the increase in the release of phosphatidylcholine into the alveoli may account for the changes in the fatty acid composition of the present findings. 12 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  8. Effect of acute nitrogen dioxide exposure on the composition of fatty acid associated with phospholipids in alveolar lavage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, T.; Noguchi, T.; Kikuno, M.; Kubota, K.

    1984-01-01

    In vivo exposure of rats to 10 ppm nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/) for 12 h caused changes in fatty acids composition of alveolar lavage phospholipids. Among the fatty acid species, the relative ratio of palmitic acid, myristic acid and palmitoleic acid increased significantly. While the relative ratio of stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and arachidonic acid decreased significantly. Both the increase in the incorporation of palmitic acid in phosphatidylcholine which would be released into the alveoli and the increase in the release of phosphatidylcholine into the alveoli may account for the changes in the fatty acid composition of the present findings.

  9. National-scale exposure prediction for long-term concentrations of particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun-Young; Song, Insang

    2017-07-01

    The limited spatial coverage of the air pollution data available from regulatory air quality monitoring networks hampers national-scale epidemiological studies of air pollution. The present study aimed to develop a national-scale exposure prediction model for estimating annual average concentrations of PM 10 and NO 2 at residences in South Korea using regulatory monitoring data for 2010. Using hourly measurements of PM 10 and NO 2 at 277 regulatory monitoring sites, we calculated the annual average concentrations at each site. We also computed 322 geographic variables in order to represent plausible local and regional pollution sources. Using these data, we developed universal kriging models, including three summary predictors estimated by partial least squares (PLS). The model performance was evaluated with fivefold cross-validation. In sensitivity analyses, we compared our approach with two alternative approaches, which added regional interactions and replaced the PLS predictors with up to ten selected variables. Finally, we predicted the annual average concentrations of PM 10 and NO 2 at 83,463 centroids of residential census output areas in South Korea to investigate the population exposure to these pollutants and to compare the exposure levels between monitored and unmonitored areas. The means of the annual average concentrations of PM 10 and NO 2 for 2010, across regulatory monitoring sites in South Korea, were 51.63 μg/m3 (SD = 8.58) and 25.64 ppb (11.05), respectively. The universal kriging exposure prediction models yielded cross-validated R 2 s of 0.45 and 0.82 for PM 10 and NO 2 , respectively. Compared to our model, the two alternative approaches gave consistent or worse performances. Population exposure levels in unmonitored areas were lower than in monitored areas. This is the first study that focused on developing a national-scale point wise exposure prediction approach in South Korea, which will allow national exposure assessments and

  10. Effects of Exposure to Carbon Dioxide and Bioeffluents on Perceived Air Quality, Self-assessed Acute Health Symptoms and Cognitive Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaojing; Wargocki, Pawel; Lian, Zhiwei

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects on humans of exposure to carbon dioxide (CO2) and bioeffluents. In three of the five exposures, the outdoor air supply rate was high enough to remove bioeffluents, resulting in a CO2 level of 500 ppm. Chemically pure CO2 was added to this refer...

  11. Risk assessment strategies for nanoscale and fine-sized titanium dioxide particles: Recognizing hazard and exposure issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warheit, David B; Donner, E Maria

    2015-11-01

    The basic tenets for assessing health risks posed by nanoparticles (NP) requires documentation of hazards and the corresponding exposures that may occur. Accordingly, this review describes the range and types of potential human exposures that may result from interactions with titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles or NP - either in the occupational/workplace environment, or in consumer products, including food materials and cosmetics. Each of those applications has a predominant route of exposure. Very little is known about the human impact potential from environmental exposures to NP - thus this particular issue will not be discussed further. In the workplace or occupational setting inhalation exposure predominates. Experimental toxicity studies demonstrate low hazards in particle-exposed rats. Only at chronic overload exposures do rats develop forms of lung pathology. These findings are not supported by multiple epidemiology studies in heavily-exposed TiO2 workers which demonstrate a lack of correlation between chronic particle exposures and adverse health outcomes including lung cancer and noncancerous chronic respiratory effects. Cosmetics and sunscreens represent the major application of dermal exposures to TiO2 particles. Experimental dermal studies indicate a lack of penetration of particles beyond the epidermis with no consequent health risks. Oral exposures to ingested TiO2 particles in food occur via passage through the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), with studies indicating negligible uptake of particles into the bloodstream of humans or rats with subsequent excretion through the feces. In addition, standardized guideline-mandated subchronic oral toxicity studies in rats demonstrate very low toxicity effects with NOAELs of >1000 mg/kg bw/day. Additional issues which are summarized in detail in this review are: 1) Methodologies for implementing the Nano Risk Framework - a process for ensuring the responsible development of products containing nanoscale

  12. Effects of prenatal exposure to nanoparticles titanium dioxide and carbon black on female germline DNA stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boisen, Anne Mette Zenner

    are actively dividing. The aim of this PhD study was to determine if two widely used nanoparticles titanium dioxide UV-Titan and carbon black Printex 90 induce ESTR mutations in the germ cells of prenatally exposed females. Pregnant generation P mice were exposed to ~42 mg UV-Titan/m3/1 h/d during gestation...

  13. Exposure to titanium dioxide and other metallic oxide nanoparticles induces cytotoxicity on human neural cells and fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C K Lai

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available James C K Lai1, Maria B Lai1, Sirisha Jandhyam1, Vikas V Dukhande1, Alok Bhushan1, Christopher K Daniels1, Solomon W Leung21Department of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, and Biomedical Research Institute; 2Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering and Biomedical Research Institute, Idaho State University, Pocatello, ID, USAAbstract: The use of titanium dioxide (TiO2 in various industrial applications (eg, production of paper, plastics, cosmetics, and paints has been expanding thereby increasing the occupational and other environmental exposure of these nanoparticles to humans and other species. However, the health effects of exposure to TiO2 nanoparticles have not been systematically assessed even though recent studies suggest that such exposure induces inflammatory responses in lung tissue and cells. Because the effects of such nanoparticles on human neural cells are unknown, we have determined the putative cytotoxic effects of these nanoparticles on human astrocytes-like astrocytoma U87 cells and compared their effects on normal human fibroblasts. We found that TiO2 micro- and nanoparticles induced cell death on both human cell types in a concentration-related manner. We further noted that zinc oxide (ZnO nanoparticles were the most effective, TiO2 nanoparticles the second most effective, and magnesium oxide (MgO nanoparticles the least effective in inducing cell death in U87 cells. The cell death mechanisms underlying the effects of TiO2 micro- and nanoparticles on U87 cells include apoptosis, necrosis, and possibly apoptosis-like and necrosis-like cell death types. Thus, our findings may have toxicological and other pathophysiological implications on exposure of humans and other mammalian species to metallic oxide nanoparticles.Keywords: cytotoxicity of titanium dioxide micro- and nanoparticles, cytotoxicity of zinc oxide and magnesium oxide nanoparticles, human neural cells

  14. Satellite NO2 data improve national land use regression models for ambient NO2 in a small densely populated country

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, G.; Eeftens, M.; Beelen, R.; Fischer, P.; Brunekreef, B.; Boersma, K.F.; Veefkind, P.

    2015-01-01

    Land use regression (LUR) modelling has increasingly been applied to model fine scale spatial variation of outdoor air pollutants including nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Satellite observations of tropospheric NO2 improved LUR model in very large study areas, including Canada, United States and Australia.

  15. Satellite NO2 data improve national land use regression models for ambient NO2 in a small densely populated country

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, Gerard; Eeftens, Marloes; Beelen, Rob; Fischer, Paul; Brunekreef, Bert; Boersma, K. Folkert; Veefkind, Pepijn

    Land use regression (LUR) modelling has increasingly been applied to model fine scale spatial variation of outdoor air pollutants including nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Satellite observations of tropospheric NO2 improved LUR model in very large study areas, including Canada, United States and Australia.

  16. How to measure hazards/risks following exposures to nanoscale or pigment-grade titanium dioxide particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warheit, David B

    2013-07-04

    Due to its multifunctional applications, titanium dioxide particles have widespread use in commerce. The particle-types function as sources of pigment color, in food products, anti-bacterial components, ultraviolet radiation scavengers, catalysts, as well as in cosmetics. Because of its inherent properties in a diverse number of products, exposures may occur via any of the major point-of-entry routes, i.e., inhalation, oral or dermal. Although the majority of TiO2 applications are known to exist in the pigment-grade form, nanoscale forms of TiO2 are also common components in several products. This brief review is designed to identify relevant toxicology and risk-related issues which inform health effects assessments on the various forms of titanium dioxide particles. While there has been an abundance of hazard data generated on titanium dioxide particulates, many of the published reports have limited informational value for assessing health effects due, in large part, to shortcomings in experimental design issues, such as: (1) inadequate material characterization of test samples; (2) questionable relevance of experimental systems employed to simulate human exposures; (3) applications of generally high doses, exclusive focus on acute toxicity endpoints, and a lack of reference benchmark control materials, to afford interpretation of measured results; and/or (4) failure to recognize fundamental differences between hazard and risk concepts. Accordingly, a number of important toxicology issues are identified and integrated herein to provide a more comprehensive assessment of the health risks of different forms of pigment-grade and nanoscale titanium dioxide particles. It is important to note that particle-types of different TiO2 compositions may have variable toxicity potencies, depending upon crystal structure, particle size, particle surface characteristics and surface coatings. In order to develop a more robust health risk evaluation of TiO2 particle exposures, this

  17. Analysis of the distributions of hourly NO2 concentrations contributing to annual average NO2 concentrations across the European monitoring network between 2000 and 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malley, Christopher S.; von Schneidemesser, Erika; Moller, Sarah; Braban, Christine F.; Hicks, W. Kevin; Heal, Mathew R.

    2018-03-01

    Exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is associated with negative human health effects, both for short-term peak concentrations and from long-term exposure to a wider range of NO2 concentrations. For the latter, the European Union has established an air quality limit value of 40 µg m-3 as an annual average. However, factors such as proximity and strength of local emissions, atmospheric chemistry, and meteorological conditions mean that there is substantial variation in the hourly NO2 concentrations contributing to an annual average concentration. The aim of this analysis was to quantify the nature of this variation at thousands of monitoring sites across Europe through the calculation of a standard set of chemical climatology statistics. Specifically, at each monitoring site that satisfied data capture criteria for inclusion in this analysis, annual NO2 concentrations, as well as the percentage contribution from each month, hour of the day, and hourly NO2 concentrations divided into 5 µg m-3 bins were calculated. Across Europe, 2010-2014 average annual NO2 concentrations (NO2AA) exceeded the annual NO2 limit value at 8 % of > 2500 monitoring sites. The application of this chemical climatology approach showed that sites with distinct monthly, hour of day, and hourly NO2 concentration bin contributions to NO2AA were not grouped into specific regions of Europe, furthermore, within relatively small geographic regions there were sites with similar NO2AA, but with differences in these contributions. Specifically, at sites with highest NO2AA, there were generally similar contributions from across the year, but there were also differences in the contribution of peak vs. moderate hourly NO2 concentrations to NO2AA, and from different hours across the day. Trends between 2000 and 2014 for 259 sites indicate that, in general, the contribution to NO2AA from winter months has increased, as has the contribution from the rush-hour periods of the day, while the contribution from

  18. Reactive oxygen species damage drives cardiac and mitochondrial dysfunction following acute nano-titanium dioxide inhalation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Cody E; Shepherd, Danielle L; Hathaway, Quincy A; Durr, Andrya J; Thapa, Dharendra; Abukabda, Alaeddin; Yi, Jinghai; Nurkiewicz, Timothy R; Hollander, John M

    2018-02-01

    Nanotechnology offers innovation in products from cosmetics to drug delivery, leading to increased engineered nanomaterial (ENM) exposure. Unfortunately, health impacts of ENM are not fully realized. Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) is among the most widely produced ENM due to its use in numerous applications. Extrapulmonary effects following pulmonary exposure have been identified and may involve reactive oxygen species (ROS). The goal of this study was to determine the extent of ROS involvement on cardiac function and the mitochondrion following nano-TiO 2 exposure. To address this question, we utilized a transgenic mouse model with overexpression of a novel mitochondrially-targeted antioxidant enzyme (phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase; mPHGPx) which provides protection against oxidative stress to lipid membranes. MPHGPx mice and littermate controls were exposed to nano-TiO 2 aerosols (Evonik, P25) to provide a calculated pulmonary deposition of 11 µg/mouse. Twenty-four hours following exposure, we observed diastolic dysfunction as evidenced by E/A ratios greater than 2 and increased radial strain during diastole in wild-type mice (p nano-TiO 2 exposure. To investigate the cellular mechanisms associated with the observed cardiac dysfunction, we focused our attention on the mitochondrion. We observed a significant increase in ROS production (p nano-TiO 2 exposure which were attenuated in mPHGPx transgenic mice. In summary, nano-TiO 2 inhalation exposure is associated with cardiac diastolic dysfunction and mitochondrial functional alterations, which can be mitigated by the overexpression of mPHGPx, suggesting ROS contribution in the development of contractile and bioenergetic dysfunction.

  19. Route-dependent systemic and local immune effects following exposure to solutions prepared from titanium dioxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auttachoat, Wimolnut; McLoughlin, Colleen E; White, Kimber L; Smith, Matthew J

    2014-01-01

    Nanoparticle titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2) is a white pigment widely used in foods, sunscreens, and other cosmetic products. However, it remains unclear whether exposure to nano-TiO2 results in immunosuppressive effects or induces a contact hypersensitivity response. To address these data gaps, studies were conducted with the hypothesis that nano-TiO2 exposure could alter immune responses. After 28 days of oral gavage, nano-TiO2 (1.25-250 mg/kg in 0.5% methylcellulose) produced no significant effects on innate, humoral, or cell-mediated immune functions in female B6C3F1 mice. Furthermore, there were no effects on the weights of selected organs (spleen, thymus, liver, lung, and kidneys with adrenals). Following dermal exposure on the ears for 3 days, nano-TiO2 (2.5-10% w/v in 4:1 acetone:olive oil) did not affect auricular lymph node cell proliferation, although an irritancy response was observed following treatment with 5% and 10% nano-TiO2. Dermal sensitization (2.5-10%) on the back and subsequent challenge (10%) on the right ear with nano-TiO2 produced no significant effects on percentage ear swelling in the Mouse Ear Swelling Test (MEST). However, when nano-TiO2 was injected subcutaneously along the mid-line on top of the head at 125-250 mg/kg (in 0.5% methylcellulose), significant increases in auricular lymph node cell proliferation resulted. These results demonstrate that immune effects of nano-TiO2 exposure are route-of-exposure dependent, and they suggest that irritancy and/or potential hypersensitivity responses may occur following parenteral exposure or dermal administration of nano-TiO2 to compromised skin.

  20. Response of photosynthesis in second-generation Pinus radiata trees to long-term exposure to elevated carbon dioxide partial pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenep, H.; Turnbull, M. H. [Canterbury Univ., Dept. of Plant and Microbial Sciences, Christchurch (New Zealand); Whitehead, D. [Landcare Research, Lincoln (New Zealand)

    2003-06-01

    Second generation pine trees were propagated from cuttings previously grown at ambient and elevated carbon dioxide partial pressure, grown under the same conditions in open-top chambers for an additional year. The objective was to test the effect of tree size independently of age and duration of exposure. Results showed no change in total non-structural carbohydrate concentration, area-based nitrogen concentration, leaf mass per unit area, and chlorophyll concentration. No evidence was found of photosynthetic down-regulation in trees grown at elevated carbon dioxide concentration. Water-use efficiency, as determined by stable carbon isotope analysis, was 49 per cent higher in foliage in the elevated carbon dioxide treatment than in the treatment in ambient carbon dioxide. Since stomatal conductance was the same regardless of the treatment, the entire increase was attributed to photosynthetic enhancement. Based on these results, it was concluded that down-regulation of photosynthesis at elevated carbon dioxide partial pressure is a function of tree size and is independent of tree age or duration of exposure. The capacity for enhanced photosynthetic rates in trees growing at elevated carbon dioxide partial pressures appears unlikely to be lost in subsequent generations. 46 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  1. Effect of nitrogen dioxide on Swiss albino mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilado, C. J.; Machado, A. M.

    1977-01-01

    Times to incapacitation and death and LC50 values were determined for male Swiss albino mice exposed to different concentrations of nitrogen dioxide in a 4.2 liter hemispherical chamber. The LC50 for a 10 minute exposure was about 1000 ppm NO2.

  2. Contribution of the in-vehicle microenvironment to individual ambient-source nitrogen dioxide exposure: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazlehurst, Marnie F; Spalt, Elizabeth W; Nicholas, Tyler P; Curl, Cynthia L; Davey, Mark E; Burke, Gregory L; Watson, Karol E; Vedal, Sverre; Kaufman, Joel D

    2018-03-06

    Exposure estimates that do not account for time in-transit may underestimate exposure to traffic-related air pollution, but exact contributions have not been studied directly. We conducted a 2-week monitoring, including novel in-vehicle sampling, in a subset of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution cohort in two cities. Participants spent the majority of their time indoors and only 4.4% of their time (63 min/day) in-vehicle, on average. The mean ambient-source NO 2 concentration was 5.1 ppb indoors and 32.3 ppb in-vehicle during drives. On average, indoor exposure contributed 69% and in-vehicle exposure contributed 24% of participants' ambient-source NO 2 exposure. For participants in the highest quartile of time in-vehicle (≥1.3 h/day), indoor and in-vehicle contributions were 60 and 31%, respectively. Incorporating infiltrated indoor and measured in-vehicle NO 2 produced exposure estimates 5.6 ppb lower, on average, than using only outdoor concentrations. The indoor microenvironment accounted for the largest proportion of ambient-source exposure in this older population, despite higher concentrations of NO 2 outdoors and in vehicles than indoors. In-vehicle exposure was more influential among participants who drove the most and for participants residing in areas with lower outdoor air pollution. Failure to characterize exposures in these microenvironments may contribute to exposure misclassification in epidemiologic studies.

  3. Effects of prenatal exposure to surface-coated nanosized titanium dioxide (UV-Titan. A study in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibenholt Anni

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Engineered nanoparticles are smaller than 100 nm and designed to improve or achieve new physico-chemical properties. Consequently, also toxicological properties may change compared to the parent compound. We examined developmental and neurobehavioral effects following maternal exposure to a nanoparticulate UV-filter (UV-titan L181. Methods Time-mated mice (C57BL/6BomTac were exposed by inhalation 1h/day to 42 mg/m3 aerosolized powder (1.7·106 n/cm3; peak-size: 97 nm on gestation days 8-18. Endpoints included: maternal lung inflammation; gestational and litter parameters; offspring neurofunction and fertility. Physicochemical particle properties were determined to provide information on specific exposure and deposition. Results Particles consisted of mainly elongated rutile titanium dioxide (TiO2 with an average crystallite size of 21 nm, modified with Al, Si and Zr, and coated with polyalcohols. In exposed adult mice, 38 mg Ti/kg was detected in the lungs on day 5 and differential cell counts of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid revealed lung inflammation 5 and 26-27 days following exposure termination, relative to control mice. As young adults, prenatally exposed offspring tended to avoid the central zone of the open field and exposed female offspring displayed enhanced prepulse inhibition. Cognitive function was unaffected (Morris water maze test. Conclusion Inhalation exposure to nano-sized UV Titan dusts induced long term lung inflammation in time-mated adult female mice. Gestationally exposed offspring displayed moderate neurobehavioral alterations. The results are discussed in the light of the observed particle size distribution in the exposure atmosphere and the potential pathways by which nanoparticles may impart changes in fetal development.

  4. Effects of prenatal exposure to surface-coated nanosized titanium dioxide (UV-Titan). A study in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hougaard, Karin S; Jackson, Petra; Jensen, Keld A; Sloth, Jens J; Löschner, Katrin; Larsen, Erik H; Birkedal, Renie K; Vibenholt, Anni; Boisen, Anne-Mette Z; Wallin, Håkan; Vogel, Ulla

    2010-06-14

    Engineered nanoparticles are smaller than 100 nm and designed to improve or achieve new physico-chemical properties. Consequently, also toxicological properties may change compared to the parent compound. We examined developmental and neurobehavioral effects following maternal exposure to a nanoparticulate UV-filter (UV-titan L181). Time-mated mice (C57BL/6BomTac) were exposed by inhalation 1h/day to 42 mg/m(3) aerosolized powder (1.7.10(6) n/cm(3); peak-size: 97 nm) on gestation days 8-18. Endpoints included: maternal lung inflammation; gestational and litter parameters; offspring neurofunction and fertility. Physicochemical particle properties were determined to provide information on specific exposure and deposition. Particles consisted of mainly elongated rutile titanium dioxide (TiO2) with an average crystallite size of 21 nm, modified with Al, Si and Zr, and coated with polyalcohols. In exposed adult mice, 38 mg Ti/kg was detected in the lungs on day 5 and differential cell counts of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid revealed lung inflammation 5 and 26-27 days following exposure termination, relative to control mice. As young adults, prenatally exposed offspring tended to avoid the central zone of the open field and exposed female offspring displayed enhanced prepulse inhibition. Cognitive function was unaffected (Morris water maze test). Inhalation exposure to nano-sized UV Titan dusts induced long term lung inflammation in time-mated adult female mice. Gestationally exposed offspring displayed moderate neurobehavioral alterations. The results are discussed in the light of the observed particle size distribution in the exposure atmosphere and the potential pathways by which nanoparticles may impart changes in fetal development.

  5. The AOTF-Based NO2 Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekemper, E.; Fussen, D.; Vanhellemont, F.; Vanhamel, J.; Pieroux, D.; Berkenbosch, S.

    2017-12-01

    In an urban environment, nitrogen dioxide is emitted by a multitude of static and moving point sources (cars, industry, power plants, heating systems,…). Air quality models generally rely on a limited number of monitoring stations which do not capture the whole pattern, neither allow for full validation. So far, there has been a lack of instrument capable of measuring NO2 fields with the necessary spatio-temporal resolution above major point sources (power plants), or more extended ones (cities). We have developed a new type of passive remote sensing instrument aiming at the measurement of 2-D distributions of NO2 slant column densities (SCDs) with a high spatial (meters) and temporal (minutes) resolution. The measurement principle has some similarities with the popular filter-based SO2 camera (used in volcanic and industrial sulfur emissions monitoring) as it relies on spectral images taken at wavelengths where the molecule absorption cross section is different. But contrary to the SO2 camera, the spectral selection is performed by an acousto-optical tunable filter (AOTF) capable of resolving the target molecule's spectral features. A first prototype was successfully tested with the plume of a coal-firing power plant in Romania, revealing the dynamics of the formation of NO2 in the early plume. A lighter version of the NO2 camera is now being tested on other targets, such as oil refineries and urban air masses.

  6. Exposure to nano-size titanium dioxide causes oxidative damages in human mesothelial cells: The crystal form rather than size of particle contributes to cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Kenji; Nakadate, Kazuhiko; Morii, Akane; Noguchi, Takumi; Ogasawara, Yuki; Ishii, Kazuyuki

    2017-10-14

    Exposure to nanoparticles such as carbon nanotubes has been shown to cause pleural mesothelioma similar to that caused by asbestos, and has become an environmental health issue. Not only is the percutaneous absorption of nano-size titanium dioxide particles frequently considered problematic, but the possibility of absorption into the body through the pulmonary route is also a concern. Nevertheless, there are few reports of nano-size titanium dioxide particles on respiratory organ exposure and dynamics or on the mechanism of toxicity. In this study, we focused on the morphology as well as the size of titanium dioxide particles. In comparing the effects between nano-size anatase and rutile titanium dioxide on human-derived pleural mesothelial cells, the anatase form was shown to be actively absorbed into cells, producing reactive oxygen species and causing oxidative damage to DNA. In contrast, we showed for the first time that the rutile form is not easily absorbed by cells and, therefore, does not cause oxidative DNA damage and is significantly less damaging to cells. These results suggest that with respect to the toxicity of titanium dioxide particles on human-derived mesothelial cells, the crystal form rather than the particle size has a greater effect on cellular absorption. Also, it was indicated that the difference in absorption is the primary cause of the difference in the toxicity against mesothelial cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Stroke and Long-Term Exposure to Outdoor Air Pollution From Nitrogen Dioxide A Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Kristiansen, Luise Cederkvist; Andersen, Klaus K.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose-Years of exposure to tobacco smoke substantially increase the risk for stroke. Whether long-term exposure to outdoor air pollution can lead to stroke is not yet established. We examined the association between long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and incident...... to traffic-related air pollution may contribute to the development of ischemic but not hemorrhagic stroke, especially severe ischemic strokes leading to death within 30 days....... and fatal stroke in a prospective cohort study.Methods-We followed 57 053 participants of the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort in the Hospital Discharge Register for the first-ever hospital admission for stroke (incident stroke) between baseline (1993-1997) and 2006 and defined fatal strokes as death...

  8. Effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticle exposure in Mytilus galloprovincialis gills and digestive gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gornati, Rosalba; Longo, Arturo; Rossi, Federica; Maisano, Maria; Sabatino, Giuseppe; Mauceri, Angela; Bernardini, Giovanni; Fasulo, Salvatore

    2016-08-01

    Despite the wide use of nanoscale materials in several fields, some aspects of the nanoparticle behavior have to be still investigated. In this work, we faced the aspect of environmental effects of increasing concentrations of TiO2NPs using the Mytilus galloprovincialis as an animal model and carrying out a multidisciplinary approach to better explain the results. Bioaccumulation suggested that the gills and digestive gland are the most sensitive organs to TiO2NP exposure. Histological observations have evidenced an altered tissue organization and a consistent infiltration of hemocytes, as a consequence of the immune system activation, even though an increase in lipid peroxidation is uncertain and DNA damage became relevant only at high exposure dose (10 mg/L) or for longer exposure time (96 h). However, the over expression of SOD1 mRNA strengthen the concept that the toxicity of TiO2NPs could occur indirectly by ROS production. TEM analysis showed the presence of multilamellar bodies, RER fragmentation, and cytoplasmic vacuolization within relevant presence of dense granules, residual bodies, and lipid inclusions. These findings support the evidence of an initial inflammatory response by the cells of the target organs leading to apoptosis. In conclusion, we can state that certainly the exposure to TiO2NPs has affected our animal model from cellular to molecular levels. Interestingly, the same responses are caused by lower TiO2NP concentration and longer exposure time as well as higher doses and shorter exposure. We do not know if some of the conditions detected are reversible, then further studies are required to clarify this aspect.

  9. Internal exposure to neutron-activated {sup 56}Mn dioxide powder in Wistar rats. Pt. 1. Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepanenko, Valeriy; Kaprin, Andrey; Galkin, Vsevolod; Ivanov, Sergey; Kolyzhenkov, Timofey; Petukhov, Aleksey; Yaskova, Elena; Belukha, Irina; Khailov, Artem; Skvortsov, Valeriy; Ivannikov, Alexander; Akhmedova, Umukusum; Bogacheva, Viktoria [Medical Radiological Research Center (MRRC) named after A.F. Tsyb - National Medical Research Radiological Center of the Health Ministry of the Russian Federation, Obninsk, Kaluga Region (Russian Federation); Rakhypbekov, Tolebay; Dyussupov, Altay; Chaizhunusova, Nailya; Sayakenov, Nurlan; Uzbekov, Darkhan; Saimova, Aisulu; Shabdarbaeva, Dariya; Kairkhanova, Yankar [Semey State Medical University, Semey (Kazakhstan); Otani, Keiko; Endo, Satoru; Satoh, Kenichi; Kawano, Noriyuki; Fujimoto, Nariaki; Hoshi, Masaharu [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Shichijo, Kazuko; Nakashima, Masahiro; Takatsuji, Toshihiro [Nagasaki University, Nagasaki (Japan); Sakaguchi, Aya; Kato, Hiroaki; Onda, Yuichi [University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Toyoda, Shin [Okayama University of Science, Okayama (Japan); Sato, Hitoshi [Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Science, Ibaraki (Japan); Skakov, Mazhin; Vurim, Alexandr; Gnyrya, Vyacheslav; Azimkhanov, Almas; Kolbayenkov, Alexander [National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Kurchatov (Kazakhstan); Zhumadilov, Kasym [Eurasian National University named after L.N. Gumilyov, Astana (Kazakhstan)

    2017-03-15

    There were two sources of ionizing irradiation after the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki: (1) initial gamma-neutron irradiation at the moment of detonation and (2) residual radioactivity. Residual radioactivity consisted of two components: radioactive fallout containing fission products, including radioactive fissile materials from nuclear device, and neutron-activated radioisotopes from materials on the ground. The dosimetry systems DS86 and DS02 were mainly devoted to the assessment of initial radiation exposure to neutrons and gamma rays, while only brief considerations were given for the estimation of doses caused by residual radiation exposure. Currently, estimation of internal exposure of atomic bomb survivors due to dispersed radioactivity and neutron-activated radioisotopes from materials on the ground is a matter of some interest, in Japan. The main neutron-activated radionuclides in soil dust were {sup 24}Na, {sup 28}Al, {sup 31}Si, {sup 32}P, {sup 38}Cl, {sup 42}K, {sup 45}Ca, {sup 46}Sc, {sup 56}Mn, {sup 59}Fe, {sup 60}Co, and {sup 134}Cs. The radionuclide {sup 56}Mn (T{sub 1/2} = 2.58 h) is known as one of the dominant beta- and gamma emitters during the first few hours after neutron irradiation of soil and other materials on ground, dispersed in the form of dust after a nuclear explosion in the atmosphere. To investigate the peculiarities of biological effects of internal exposure to {sup 56}Mn in comparison with external gamma irradiation, a dedicated experiment with Wistar rats exposed to neutron-activated {sup 56}Mn dioxide powder was performed recently by Shichijo and coworkers. The dosimetry required for this experiment is described here. Assessment of internal radiation doses was performed on the basis of measured {sup 56}Mn activity in the organs and tissues of the rats and of absorbed fractions of internal exposure to photons and electrons calculated with the MCNP-4C Monte Carlo using a mathematical rat phantom. The first results of

  10. Hemocyte responses of Dreissena polymorpha following a short-term in vivo exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles: Preliminary investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couleau, Nicolas; Techer, Didier [Universite de Lorraine, Laboratoire des Interactions Ecotoxicologie, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes (LIEBE), CNRS UMR 7146, IUT Thionville-Yutz, Espace Cormontaigne, Yutz, F-57970 (France); Pagnout, Christophe [Universite de Lorraine, Laboratoire des Interactions Ecotoxicologie, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes (LIEBE), UMR 7146, Campus Bridoux, rue du General Delestraint, Metz, F-57070 (France); International Consortium for the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology, iCEINT, http://www.i-ceint.org (France); Jomini, Stephane [Universite de Lorraine, Laboratoire des Interactions Ecotoxicologie, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes (LIEBE), UMR 7146, Campus Bridoux, rue du General Delestraint, Metz, F-57070 (France); Foucaud, Laurent; Laval-Gilly, Philippe; Falla, Jairo [Universite de Lorraine, Laboratoire des Interactions Ecotoxicologie, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes (LIEBE), CNRS UMR 7146, IUT Thionville-Yutz, Espace Cormontaigne, Yutz, F-57970 (France); Bennasroune, Amar, E-mail: amar.bennasroune@univ-metz.fr [Universite de Lorraine, Laboratoire des Interactions Ecotoxicologie, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes (LIEBE), CNRS UMR 7146, IUT Thionville-Yutz, Espace Cormontaigne, Yutz, F-57970 (France)

    2012-11-01

    The widespread use of titanium-based nanoparticles and their environmental release may pose a significant risk to aquatic organisms within freshwater ecosystems. Suspension-feeder invertebrates like bivalve molluscs represent a unique target group for nanoparticle toxicology. The aim of this work was to investigate the short-term responses of Dreissena polymorpha hemocytes after in vivo exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO{sub 2} NP). For this purpose, freshwater mussels were exposed to P25 TiO{sub 2} NP at the concentrations of 0.1, 1, 5 and 25 mg/L during 24 h. Viability, phagocytosis activity and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation level of ERK 1/2 and p38 in hemocytes extracted from exposed mussels were compared to those from control specimens. Results demonstrated an inhibition of the phagocytosis activity after exposure to TiO{sub 2} NP at 0.1 and 1 mg/L. Similar trends, albeit less pronounced, were reported for higher concentrations of NP. Transmission electron microscopy showed for the first time the internalization of TiO{sub 2} NP into Dreissena polymorpha hemocytes. Besides, exposure to NP increased the ERK 1/2 phosphorylation levels in all treatments. Concerning the phosphorylation level of p38, only exposures to 5 and 25 mg/L of NP induced significant p38 activation in comparison to that of the control. Finally, these short-term effects observed at environmentally relevant concentrations highlighted the need for further studies concerning ecotoxicological evaluation of nanoparticle release into an aquatic environment. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phagocytosis inhibition at TiO{sub 2} NP exposure concentrations of 0.1 and 1 mg/L. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Internalization of TiO{sub 2} NP in freshwater mussel hemocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increased phosphorylation level of p38 and ERK 1/2 after in vivo exposure to TiO{sub 2} NP.

  11. Assessing the Health and Performance Risks of Reduced Carbon Dioxide Exposures and Resource Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.

    2012-01-01

    There have been a cluster of anecdotal reports that ISS crews are experiencing adverse health effects from on orbit exposure to CO2 levels well below the current Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentration (SMAC), which is 5.3 mmHg for 180 days of exposure. Developing evidence that this standard should be reduced to protect crew health is not a simple process. Dr. John James' team looked at the reports of headaches by the crew during private medical conferences and matched these with CO2 levels around the time of these reports. They then compared these to CO2 levels when there were no reports of headache. Using benchmark dose modeling, they found that the risk of headache could be predicted in concentration ranges from 2 to 5 mmHg. However, the data are incomplete because there were insufficient data when crews were exposed to concentrations below 2 mmHg. James' team also asked whether neuro-cognitive effects could be identified with CO2 exposure levels and found that these could not be associated with CO2 levels. Finally, they addressed the question of resource use to meet various levels of CO2 control if the SMACs were lowered. They estimated that CO2 restrictions approaching 2 mmHg would require substantial increases in power use and up-mass resources. They are refining their data on CO2 and headaches, and are looking at potential interactions of intracranial pressure and CO2 levels in eliciting ocular effects.

  12. Photodissociation constant of NO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nootebos, M.A.; Bange, P.

    1992-01-01

    The velocity of the dissociation of NO 2 into ozone and NO mainly depends on the ultraviolet sunlight quantity, and with that the cloudiness. A correct value for this reaction constant is important for the accurate modelling of O 3 - and NO 2 -concentrations in plumes of electric power plants, in particular in the case of determination of the amount of photochemical summer smog. An advanced signal processing method (deconvolution, correlation) was applied on the measurements. The measurements were carried out from aeroplanes

  13. Effects of Exposure to Carbon Dioxide and Human Bioeffluents on Cognitive Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaojing; Wargocki, Pawel; Lian, Zhiwei

    2015-01-01

    including proof-reading, addition, subtraction, text typing, neurobehavioral tests, Tsai-Partington task, and d2 attention task. Subjective ratings of comfort and experienced acute health symptoms were collected, physiological responses of subjects were monitored and the saliva samples were collected...... to analyze stress biomarkers. The results show that during exposure to bioeffluents with CO2 reaching 3,000 ppm speed of addition was significantly reduced, subjects responded significantly quicker in redirection task and completed significantly less correct links in Tsai-partington test, which may imply...

  14. Combined exposure of F344 rats to beryllium metal and plutonium-239 dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finch, G.L.; Carlton, W.W.; Rebar, A.H. [Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    Nuclear weapons industry workers have the potential for inhalation exposures to plutonium (Pu) and other agents, such as beryllium (Be) metal. The purpose of this ongoing study is to investigate potential interactions between Pu and Be in the production of lung tumors in rats exposed by inhalation to particles of {sup 239}PuO{sub 2}, Be metal, or these agents in combination. Inhaled Pu deposited in the lung delivers high-linear-energy transfer, alpha-particle radiation and is known to induce pulmonary cancer in laboratory animals. Although the epidemiological evidence implicating Be in the induction of human lung cancer is weak and controversial, various studies in laboratory animals have demonstrated the pulmonary carcinogenicity of Be. As a result, Be is classified as a suspect human carcinogen in the United STates and as a demonstrated human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. This study is in progress.

  15. Symbiodinium community composition in scleractinian corals is not affected by life-long exposure to elevated carbon dioxide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam H C Noonan

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification (OA is expected to negatively affect coral reefs, however little is known about how OA will change the coral-algal symbiosis on which reefs ultimately depend. This study investigated whether there would be differences in coral Symbiodinium types in response to OA, potentially improving coral performance. We used denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2 region of ribosomal DNA to investigate the dominant types of Symbiodinium associating with six species of scleractinian coral that were exposed to elevated partial pressures of carbon dioxide (pCO2 in situ from settlement and throughout their lives. The study was conducted at three naturally occurring volcanic CO2 seeps (pCO2 ∼500 to 900 ppm, pHTotal 7.8 - 7.9 and adjacent control areas (pCO2 ∼390 ppm, pHTotal ∼8.0 - 8.05 in Papua New Guinea. The Symbiodinium associated with corals living in an extreme seep site (pCO2 >1000 ppm were also examined. Ten clade C types and three clade D types dominated the 443 coral samples. Symbiodinium types strongly contrasted between coral species, however, no differences were observed due to CO2 exposure. Within five species, 85 - 95% of samples exhibited the same Symbiodinium type across all sites, with remaining rare types having no patterns attributable to CO2 exposure. The sixth species of coral displayed site specific differences in Symbiodinium types, unrelated to CO2 exposure. Symbiodinium types from the coral inhabiting the extreme CO2 seep site were found commonly throughout the moderate seeps and control areas. Our finding that symbiotic associations did not change in response to CO2 exposure suggest that, within the six coral hosts, none of the investigated 13 clade C and D Symbiodinium types had a selective advantage at high pCO2. Acclimatisation through changing symbiotic association therefore does not seem to be an option for Indo-Pacific corals to deal with future OA.

  16. Dose-dependent biodistribution of prenatal exposure to rutile-type titanium dioxide nanoparticles on mouse testis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo-Irie, Miyoko; Uchida, Hiroki; Mastuzawa, Shotaro; Yoshida, Yasuko; Shinkai, Yusuke; Suzuki, Kenichiro; Yokota, Satoshi; Oshio, Shigeru; Takeda, Ken

    2014-02-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2), believed to be inert and safe, are used in many products especially rutile-type in cosmetics. Detection, localization, and count of nanoparticles in tissue sections are of considerable current interest. Here, we evaluate the dose-dependent biodistribution of rutile-type nano-TiO2 exposure during pregnancy on offspring testes. Pregnant mice were subcutaneously injected five times with 0.1 ml of sequentially diluted of nano-TiO2 powder, 35 nm with primary diameter, suspensions (1, 10, 100, or 1,000 μg/ml), and received total doses of 0.5, 5, 50, and 500 μg, respectively. Prior to injection, the size distribution of nano-TiO2 was analyzed by dynamic light scattering measurement. The average diameter was increased in a dose-dependent manner. The most diluted concentration, 1 μg/ml suspension, contained small agglomerates averaging 193.3 ± 5.4 nm in diameter. The offspring testes were examined at 12 weeks postpartum. Individual particle analysis in testicular sections under scanning and transmission electron microscopy enabled us to understand the biodistribution. The correlation between nano-TiO2 doses injected to pregnant mice, and the number of agglomerates in the offspring testes was demonstrated to be dose-dependent by semiquantitative evaluation. However, the agglomerate size was below 200 nm in the testicular sections of all recipient groups, independent from the injected dose during pregnancy.

  17. Volume 7 No. 2 2007

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ROP4

    communities in Butere, and three of the eight communities, in Khwisero. The ... 3. Volume 7 No. 2 2007. INTRODUCTION. Micronutrient malnutrition is recognized as a serious threat to the health and productivity of people. Deficiencies in three major ... They also have uncontested advantage of allowing for the natural.

  18. Gestational exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles impairs the placentation through dysregulation of vascularization, proliferation and apoptosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Xie, Xingxing; Zhou, Yigang; Yu, Dainan; Deng, Yu; Ouyang, Jiexiu; Yang, Bei; Luo, Dan; Zhang, Dalei; Kuang, Haibin

    2018-01-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO 2 NPs) have recently found applications in a wide variety of consumer goods. TiO 2 NPs exposure significantly increases fetal deformities and mortality. However, the potential toxicity of TiO 2 NPs on the growth and development of placenta has been rarely studied during mice pregnancy. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of maternal exposure of TiO 2 NPs on the placentation. Mice were administered TiO 2 NPs by gavage at 0, 1 and 10 mg/kg/day from gestational day (GD) 1 to GD 13. Uteri and placentas from these mice were collected and counted the numbers of implanted and resorbed embryo and measured the placental weight on GD 13. Placental morphometry was observed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. The levels of Hand1, Esx1 , Eomes , Hand2 , Ascl2 and Fra1 mRNA were assessed by qRT-PCR. Uterine NK (uNK) cells were detected by using DBA lectin. Laminin immunohistochemical staining was to identify fetal vessels. Western blotting and transmission electron micrograph (TEM) were used to assess the apoptosis of placenta. No treatment-related difference was observed in the numbers of implanted and resorbed embryos and weight of placenta between the groups. However, 1 mg/kg/day TiO 2 NPs treatment significantly reduced the ratio of placenta/body weight on GD 13. The proportion of spongiotrophoblast in the 10 mg/kg/day dose group became higher than that in the control group, yet that of labyrinth was significantly lower in 10 mg/kg/day mice. The expression levels of Hand1 , Esx1 , Eomes , Hand2 , Ascl2 and Fra1 mRNA markedly decreased in TiO 2 NP treated placentas. Furthermore, TiO 2 NPs treatment impaired the formation of intricate networks of fetal vessels and reduced the number of uNK cells, and inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis of placenta by nuclear pyknosis, the activation of caspase-3 and upregulation of Bax protein and downregulation of Bcl-2 protein on GD 13. Gestational exposure to TiO 2 NPs

  19. Review of the health risks associated with nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide in indoor air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brauer, M.; Henderson, S.; Kirkham, T.; Lee, K.S.; Rich, R.; Teschke, K.

    2002-01-01

    The scientific literature on the health effects of nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) were reviewed with particular focus on the chemical and physical properties of the 2 gases and the toxicological characteristics identified in animal studies at exposure concentrations near the rate of ambient human exposures. The study also examined the expected levels of non-industrial indoor exposure of Canadians compared to other regions with similar climates. The sources of indoor pollution were also reviewed, along with the contribution of outdoor pollution to indoor levels. Results from epidemiological studies of indoor exposures in homes, offices and schools were also presented. For each pollutant, the study identified anthropogenic sources, indoor sources, toxicological characteristics, biochemistry, pulmonary effects, immune response, and other effects. Indoor sources of NO 2 include gas-fired appliances, pilot lights, hot water heaters, kerosene heaters, and tobacco smoke. The impact of ventilation on both NO 2 and SO 2 levels was also examined. Outdoor sources such as traffic can also contribute to indoor levels, particularly in urban areas. In the case of SO 2 , coal heating and cooling appear to be associated in increased indoor levels. The epidemiological studies that were reviewed failed in general to indicate an association between NO 2 exposure and a wide range of health impacts. The studies, however, indicate that asthmatics are more susceptible to the effects of NO 2 exposure. In the case of SO 2 , evidence suggests that it has a chronic effect on lung function and respiratory symptoms and disease. 243 refs., 13 tabs

  20. Exposure of Danish children to traffic exhaust fumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, O; Olsen, J H; Hertel, O

    1996-01-01

    This exposure study addresses the validity of the exposure assessment method of an epidemiological study of traffic-related air pollution and childhood cancer. In particular, this paper concerns the question of whether the concentration of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) outside the front door is a valid ...

  1. Global Land Use Regression Model for Nitrogen Dioxide Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Andrew; Geddes, Jeffrey A; Martin, Randall V; Xiao, Qingyang; Liu, Yang; Marshall, Julian D; Brauer, Michael; Hystad, Perry

    2017-06-20

    Nitrogen dioxide is a common air pollutant with growing evidence of health impacts independent of other common pollutants such as ozone and particulate matter. However, the worldwide distribution of NO 2 exposure and associated impacts on health is still largely uncertain. To advance global exposure estimates we created a global nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) land use regression model for 2011 using annual measurements from 5,220 air monitors in 58 countries. The model captured 54% of global NO 2 variation, with a mean absolute error of 3.7 ppb. Regional performance varied from R 2 = 0.42 (Africa) to 0.67 (South America). Repeated 10% cross-validation using bootstrap sampling (n = 10,000) demonstrated a robust performance with respect to air monitor sampling in North America, Europe, and Asia (adjusted R 2 within 2%) but not for Africa and Oceania (adjusted R 2 within 11%) where NO 2 monitoring data are sparse. The final model included 10 variables that captured both between and within-city spatial gradients in NO 2 concentrations. Variable contributions differed between continental regions, but major roads within 100 m and satellite-derived NO 2 were consistently the strongest predictors. The resulting model can be used for global risk assessments and health studies, particularly in countries without existing NO 2 monitoring data or models.

  2. Intragastric exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles induced nephrotoxicity in mice, assessed by physiological and gene expression modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Numerous studies have demonstrated that titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) induced nephrotoxicity in animals. However, the nephrotoxic multiple molecular mechanisms are not clearly understood. Methods Mice were exposed to 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg TiO2 NPs by intragastric administration for 90 consecutive days, and their growth, element distribution, and oxidative stress in kidney as well as kidney gene expression profile were investigated using whole-genome microarray analysis technique. Results Our findings suggest that TiO2 NPs resulted in significant reduction of renal glomerulus number, apoptosis, infiltration of inflammatory cells, tissue necrosis or disorganization of renal tubules, coupled with decreased body weight, increased kidney indices, unbalance of element distribution, production of reactive oxygen species and peroxidation of lipid, protein and DNA in mouse kidney tissue. Furthermore, microarray analysis showed significant alterations in the expression of 1, 246 genes in the 10 mg/kg TiO2 NPs-exposed kidney. Of the genes altered, 1006 genes were associated with immune/inflammatory responses, apoptosis, biological processes, oxidative stress, ion transport, metabolic processes, the cell cycle, signal transduction, cell component, transcription, translation and cell differentiation, respectively. Specifically, the vital up-regulation of Bcl6, Cfi and Cfd caused immune/ inflammatory responses, the significant alterations of Axud1, Cyp4a12a, Cyp4a12b, Cyp4a14, and Cyp2d9 expression resulted in severe oxidative stress, and great suppression of Birc5, Crap2, and Tfrc expression led to renal cell apoptosis. Conclusions Axud1, Bcl6, Cf1, Cfd, Cyp4a12a, Cyp4a12b, Cyp2d9, Birc5, Crap2, and Tfrc may be potential biomarkers of kidney toxicity caused by TiO2 NPs exposure. PMID:23406204

  3. Zeeman effect in NO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonilla, I.R.

    1984-01-01

    The gyromagnetic factors of the molecule NO 2 , in the Zeeman Effect, is measured under high resolution spectroscopy. The values 0.103 + - 0.007; 0.060 + - 0.005 and 0.045 + - 0.004 are found for the components α, β and γ respectively, by applying a magnetic field of 40 Gauss. For fields greater than 1 kilogauss decoupling of the electronic spin to the rotational angular momentum of the molecule is observed. Under this condition the value 1.86 + - 0.25 is obtained for the gyromagnetic factor. (Author) [pt

  4. 2014-12-19_PASSIVE NO2 STUDY_final data_kovalcik.xlsx

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations relative to near road sites in Research Triangle area of North Carolina. This dataset is associated with the following...

  5. Retrieval of stratospheric O3 and NO2 vertical profiles using zenith ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    profiles of ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) from ground-based measurements using the. Chahine iteration method. ... Ozone; nitrogen dioxide; vertical profile; total column density; air mass factor; solar zenith angle. J. Earth Syst. Sci. 115, No. .... SZA, initial guess profile, tropospheric pollution and the errors in the ...

  6. Aura OMI observations of regional SO2 and NO2 pollution changes from 2005 to 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krotkov, Nickolay A.; McLinden, Chris A.; Li, Can; Lamsal, Lok N.; Celarier, Edward A.; Marchenko, Sergey V.; Swartz, William H.; Bucsela, Eric J.; Joiner, Joanna; Duncan, Bryan N.; Boersma, Folkert; Veefkind, J.P.; Levelt, Pieternel F.; Fioletov, Vitali E.; Dickerson, Russell R.; He, Hao; Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David G.

    2016-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) onboard NASA's Aura satellite has been providing global observations of the ozone layer and key atmospheric pollutant gases, such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2), since October 2004. The data products from the same instrument provide

  7. Effects of exposure to carbon dioxide and bioeffluents on perceived air quality, self-assessed acute health symptoms, and cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X; Wargocki, P; Lian, Z; Thyregod, C

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects on humans of exposure to carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and bioeffluents. In three of the five exposures, the outdoor air supply rate was high enough to remove bioeffluents, resulting in a CO 2 level of 500 ppm. Chemically pure CO 2 was added to this reference condition to create exposure conditions with CO 2 at 1000 or 3000 ppm. In two further conditions, the outdoor air supply rate was restricted so that the bioeffluent CO 2 reached 1000 or 3000 ppm. The same 25 subjects were exposed for 255 min to each condition. Subjective ratings, physiological responses, and cognitive performance were measured. No statistically significant effects on perceived air quality, acute health symptoms, or cognitive performance were seen during exposures when CO 2 was added. Exposures to bioeffluents with CO 2 at 3000 ppm reduced perceived air quality; increased the intensity of reported headache, fatigue, sleepiness, and difficulty in thinking clearly; and reduced speed of addition, the response time in a redirection task, and the number of correct links made in the cue-utilization test. This suggests that moderate concentrations of bioeffluents, but not pure CO 2 , will result in deleterious effects on occupants during typical indoor exposures. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Proteome Profiling Reveals Potential Toxicity and Detoxification Pathways Following Exposure of BEAS-2B Cells to Engineered Nanoparticle Titanium Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Identification of toxicity pathways linked to chemical -exposure is critical for a better understanding of biological effects of the exposure, toxic mechanisms, and for enhancement of the prediction of chemical toxicity and adverse health outcomes. To identify toxicity pathways a...

  9. Exposure to titanium dioxide and other metallic oxide nanoparticles induces cytotoxicity on human neural cells and fibroblasts

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, Solomon

    2008-01-01

    James C K Lai1, Maria B Lai1, Sirisha Jandhyam1, Vikas V Dukhande1, Alok Bhushan1, Christopher K Daniels1, Solomon W Leung21Department of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, and Biomedical Research Institute; 2Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering and Biomedical Research Institute, Idaho State University, Pocatello, ID, USAAbstract: The use of titanium dioxide (TiO2) in various industrial applications (eg, production of paper, plast...

  10. Monitoring, exposure and risk assessment of sulfur dioxide residues in fresh or dried fruits and vegetables in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Tiantian; Huang, Weisu; Wu, Xiaodan; Wang, Mengmeng; Zhou, Liying; Lu, Baiyi; Zheng, Lufei; Hu, Yinzhou

    2017-06-01

    Sulfur dioxide residues in 20 kinds of products collected from 23 provinces of China (Jilin, Beijing, Shanxi, Shandong, Henan, Hebei, Jiangsu, Anhui, Shanghai, Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Yunnan, Guizhou, Hunan, Hubei, Chongqing, Sichuan, Gansu, Neimenggu, Xinjiang and Hainan) were analysed, and a health risk assessment was performed. The detection rates of sulfur dioxide residues in fresh vegetables, fresh fruits, dried vegetables and dried fruits were 11.1-95.9%, 12.6-92.3%, 70.3-80.0% and 26.0-100.0%, respectively; the mean concentrations of residues were 2.7-120.8, 3.8-35.7, 26.9-99.1 and 12.0-1120.4 mg kg -1 , respectively. The results indicated that fresh vegetables and dried products are critical products; the daily intakes (EDIs) for children were higher than others; the hazard indexes (HI) for four groups were 0.019-0.033, 0.001-0.005, 0.007-0.016 and 0.002-0.005 at P50, respectively. But the HI was more than 1 at P99 by intake dried fruits and vegetables. Although the risk for consumers was acceptable on the whole, children were the most vulnerable group. Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses indicated that the level of sulfur dioxide residues was the most influential variable in this model. Thus, continuous monitoring and stricter regulation of sulfites using are recommended in China.

  11. Mass or total surface area with aerosol size distribution as exposure metrics for inflammatory, cytotoxic and oxidative lung responses in rats exposed to titanium dioxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noël, A; Truchon, G; Cloutier, Y; Charbonneau, M; Maghni, K; Tardif, R

    2017-04-01

    There is currently no consensus on the best exposure metric(s) for expressing nanoparticle (NP) dose. Although surface area has been extensively studied for inflammatory responses, it has not been as thoroughly validated for cytotoxicity or oxidative stress effects. Since inhaled NPs deposit and interact with lung cells based on agglomerate size, we hypothesize that mass concentration combined with aerosol size distribution is suitable for NP risk assessment. The objective of this study was to evaluate different exposure metrics for inhaled 5 nm titanium dioxide aerosols composed of small (SA 100 nm) agglomerates at 2, 7, and 20 mg/m 3 on rat lung inflammatory, cytotoxicity, and oxidative stress responses. We found a significant positive correlation ( r = 0.98, p 0.91, p 0.97, p < 0.01). These data show that mass or total surface area concentrations alone are insufficient to adequately predict oxidant and cytotoxic pulmonary effects. Overall, our study indicates that considering NP size distribution along with mass or total surface area concentrations contributes to a more mechanistic discrimination of pulmonary responses to NP exposure.

  12. Photosynthetic responses of forest understory tree species to long-term exposure to elevated carbon dioxide concentration at the Duke Forest FACE experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, C.J. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Thomas, R.B. [Kansas Univ., Lawrence, KS (United States). Dept. of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

    2007-01-15

    Tree species growing within the forest understory contribute to the overall carbon balance of forest ecosystems in addition to representing many of the species that occur in the overstory of mature ecosystems. This article described a 7 year study investigating the responses of forest understory tree species to increasing concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). The study examined the photosynthetic responses of Acer rubrum L., Carya glabra Mill., Cercis Canadensis L., and Liquidambar styraciflua L. during their seventh year of exposure to elevated CO{sub 2} at the Duke Forest Free Air Carbon Enrichment (FACE) experiment to determine whether photosynthetic down-regulation had occurred, as well as to determine whether the enhancement of photosynthesis observed during the first year of exposure to elevated CO{sub 2} was sustained. The study was conducted to test a previous hypothesis that significant photosynthetic down-regulation would be observed after 7 years of exposure to elevated CO{sub 2}. Photosynthetic CO{sub 2} response and light response curves were measured, as well as chlorophyll fluorescence, chlorophyll concentration and foliar nitrogen (N). Results showed that exposure to elevated CO{sub 2} increased photosynthesis in all species measured after 7 years of treatment. The greatest photosynthetic increase was observed near saturating irradiances. In all species, elevated CO{sub 2} increased electron transport efficiency but did not significantly alter carboxylation efficiency. Quantum yield as estimated by light curves, chlorophyll concentration, and foliar N concentrations was unaffected by elevated CO{sub 2}. It was concluded that there was scant evidence of progressive N limitation of leaf-level processes in the understory species after 7 years of exposure to elevated CO{sub 2} in the experiment. 42 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  13. Contribution of nitrogen oxide and sulfur dioxide exposure from power plant emissions on respiratory symptom and disease prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amster, Eric D; Haim, Maayan; Dubnov, Jonathan; Broday, David M

    2014-03-01

    This study investigates the association between exposure to ambient NOx and SO2 originating from power plant emissions and prevalence of obstructive pulmonary disease and related symptoms. The Orot Rabin coal-fired power plant is the largest power generating facility in the Eastern Mediterranean. Two novel methods assessing exposure to power plant-specific emissions were estimated for 2244 participants who completed the European Community Respiratory Health Survey. The "source approach" modeled emissions traced back to the power plant while the "event approach" identified peak exposures from power plant plume events. Respiratory symptoms, but not prevalence of asthma and COPD, were associated with estimates of power plant NOx emissions. The "source approach" yielded a better estimate of exposure to power plant emissions and showed a stronger dose-response relationship with outcomes. Calculating the portion of ambient pollution attributed to power plants emissions can be useful for air quality management purposes and targeted abatement programs. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Estimating daily surface NO2 concentrations from satellite data - a case study over Hong Kong using land use regression models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Jasdeep S.; Monks, Paul S.

    2017-07-01

    Land use regression (LUR) models have been used in epidemiology to determine the fine-scale spatial variation in air pollutants such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in cities and larger regions. However, they are often limited in their temporal resolution, which may potentially be rectified by employing the synoptic coverage provided by satellite measurements. In this work a mixed-effects LUR model is developed to model daily surface NO2 concentrations over the Hong Kong SAR during the period 2005-2015. In situ measurements from the Hong Kong Air Quality Monitoring Network, along with tropospheric vertical column density (VCD) data from the OMI, GOME-2A, and SCIAMACHY satellite instruments were combined with fine-scale land use parameters to provide the spatiotemporal information necessary to predict daily surface concentrations. Cross-validation with the in situ data shows that the mixed-effects LUR model using OMI data has a high predictive power (adj. R2 = 0. 84), especially when compared with surface concentrations derived using the MACC-II reanalysis model dataset (adj. R2 = 0. 11). Time series analysis shows no statistically significant trend in NO2 concentrations during 2005-2015, despite a reported decline in NOx emissions. This study demonstrates the utility in combining satellite data with LUR models to derive daily maps of ambient surface NO2 for use in exposure studies.

  15. Bisphosphine dioxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moloy, Kenneth G. (Charleston, WV)

    1990-01-01

    A process for the production of organic bisphosphine dioxides from organic bisphosphonates. The organic bisphosphonate is reacted with a Grignard reagent to give relatively high yields of the organic bisphosphine dioxide.

  16. Bisphosphine dioxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moloy, K.G.

    1990-02-20

    A process is described for the production of organic bisphosphine dioxides from organic bisphosphonates. The organic bisphosphonate is reacted with a Grignard reagent to give relatively high yields of the organic bisphosphine dioxide.

  17. Global Trends of Tropospheric NO2 Observed From Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, P.; van der A, R. J.

    2012-04-01

    Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) is one of the major atmospheric pollutants and is primarily emitted by industrial activity and transport. While observations of NO2 are frequently being carried out at air quality stations, such measurements are not able to provide a global perspective of spatial patterns in NO2 concentrations and their associated trends due to the stations' limited spatial representativity and an extremely sparse and often completely non-existent station coverage in developing countries. Satellite observations of tropospheric NO2 are able to overcome this issue and provide an unprecedented global view of spatial patterns in NO2 levels and due to their homogeneity are well suited for studying trends. Here we present results of a global trend analysis from nearly a decade of NO2 observations made by the SCIAMACHY (SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CartograpHY) instrument onboard the Envisat satellite platform. Using only SCIAMACHY data allows for mapping global and regional trends at an unprecedented spatial resolution since no aggregation to the coarser resolution of other sensors is necessary. Monthly average tropospheric NO2 column data was acquired for the period between August 2002 and August 2011. A trend analysis was subsequently performed by fitting a statistical model including a seasonal cycle and linear trend to the time series extracted at each grid cell. The linear trend component and the trend uncertainty were then mapped spatially at both regional and global scales. The results show that spatially contiguous areas of significantly increasing NO2 levels are found primarily in Eastern China, with absolute trends of up to 4.05 (± 0.41) - 1015 molecules cm-2 yr-1 at the gridcell level and large areas showing rapid relative increases of 10-20 percent per year. In addition, many urban agglomerations in Asia and the Middle East similarly exhibit significantly increasing trends, with Dhaka in Bangladesh being the megacity with

  18. Exposure of Danish children to traffic exhaust fumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, O; Olsen, J H; Hertel, O

    1996-01-01

    This exposure study addresses the validity of the exposure assessment method of an epidemiological study of traffic-related air pollution and childhood cancer. In particular, this paper concerns the question of whether the concentration of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) outside the front door is a valid...... marker of the exposure of the child living at the address. The study includes 100 children living on streets with dense traffic in central parts of Copenhagen and 100 children living in rural areas. Preliminary results, based on 25% of the study subjects, suggest that both the outdoor NO2-concentration...... and the exposure of the children are two to three times higher in Copenhagen than in the rural districts. Moreover, the results suggest that the NO2-concentration outside the front door is a poor marker of the exposure of the children in Copenhagen, but a marker of some relevance for the exposure of the children...

  19. The version 3 OMI NO2 standard product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Krotkov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe the new version 3.0 NASA Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI standard nitrogen dioxide (NO2 products (SPv3. The products and documentation are publicly available from the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (https://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov/datasets/OMNO2_V003/summary/. The major improvements include (1 a new spectral fitting algorithm for NO2 slant column density (SCD retrieval and (2 higher-resolution (1° latitude and 1.25° longitude a priori NO2 and temperature profiles from the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI chemistry–transport model with yearly varying emissions to calculate air mass factors (AMFs required to convert SCDs into vertical column densities (VCDs. The new SCDs are systematically lower (by ∼ 10–40 % than previous, version 2, estimates. Most of this reduction in SCDs is propagated into stratospheric VCDs. Tropospheric NO2 VCDs are also reduced over polluted areas, especially over western Europe, the eastern US, and eastern China. Initial evaluation over unpolluted areas shows that the new SPv3 products agree better with independent satellite- and ground-based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR measurements. However, further evaluation of tropospheric VCDs is needed over polluted areas, where the increased spatial resolution and more refined AMF estimates may lead to better characterization of pollution hot spots.

  20. The version 3 OMI NO2 standard product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Lamsal, Lok N.; Celarier, Edward A.; Swartz, William H.; Marchenko, Sergey V.; Bucsela, Eric J.; Chan, Ka Lok; Wenig, Mark; Zara, Marina

    2017-09-01

    We describe the new version 3.0 NASA Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) standard nitrogen dioxide (NO2) products (SPv3). The products and documentation are publicly available from the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (https://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov/datasets/OMNO2_V003/summary/). The major improvements include (1) a new spectral fitting algorithm for NO2 slant column density (SCD) retrieval and (2) higher-resolution (1° latitude and 1.25° longitude) a priori NO2 and temperature profiles from the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) chemistry-transport model with yearly varying emissions to calculate air mass factors (AMFs) required to convert SCDs into vertical column densities (VCDs). The new SCDs are systematically lower (by ˜ 10-40 %) than previous, version 2, estimates. Most of this reduction in SCDs is propagated into stratospheric VCDs. Tropospheric NO2 VCDs are also reduced over polluted areas, especially over western Europe, the eastern US, and eastern China. Initial evaluation over unpolluted areas shows that the new SPv3 products agree better with independent satellite- and ground-based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) measurements. However, further evaluation of tropospheric VCDs is needed over polluted areas, where the increased spatial resolution and more refined AMF estimates may lead to better characterization of pollution hot spots.

  1. Internal exposure to neutron-activated {sup 56}Mn dioxide powder in Wistar rats. Pt. 2. Pathological effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shichijo, Kazuko; Mussazhanova, Zhanna; Niino, Daisuke; Nakashima, Masahiro; Tomonaga, Masao [Nagasaki University, Nagasaki (Japan); Fujimoto, Nariaki; Hoshi, Masaharu [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Uzbekov, Darkhan; Kairkhanova, Ynkar; Saimova, Aisulu; Chaizhunusova, Nailya; Sayakenov, Nurlan; Shabdarbaeva, Dariya; Aukenov, Nurlan; Rakhypbekov, Tolebay [Semey State Medical University, Semey (Kazakhstan); Azimkhanov, Almas; Kolbayenkov, Alexander [National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Kurchatov (Kazakhstan); Zhumadilov, Kassym [L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University, Astana (Kazakhstan); Stepanenko, Valeriy [A. Tsyb Medical Radiological Research Center, National Medical Research Radiological Center, Ministry of Health of Russian Federation, Obninsk, Kaluga region (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    To fully understand the radiation effects of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki among the survivors, radiation from neutron-induced radioisotopes in soil and other materials should be considered in addition to the initial radiation directly received from the bombs. This might be important for evaluating the radiation risks to the people who moved to these cities soon after the detonations and probably inhaled activated radioactive ''dust.'' Manganese-56 is known to be one of the dominant radioisotopes produced in soil by neutrons. Due to its short physical half-life, {sup 56}Mn emits residual radiation during the first hours after explosion. Hence, the biological effects of internal exposure of Wistar rats to {sup 56}Mn were investigated in the present study. MnO{sub 2} powder was activated by a neutron beam to produce radioactive {sup 56}Mn. Rats were divided into four groups: those exposed to {sup 56}Mn, to non-radioactive Mn, to {sup 60}Co γ rays (2 Gy, whole body), and those not exposed to any additional radiation (control). On days 3, 14, and 60 after exposure, the animals were killed and major organs were dissected and subjected to histopathological analysis. As described in more detail by an accompanying publication, the highest internal radiation dose was observed in the digestive system of the rats, followed by the lungs. It was found that the number of mitotic cells increased in the small intestine on day 3 after {sup 56}Mn and {sup 60}Co exposure, and this change persisted only in {sup 56}Mn-exposed animals. Lung tissue was severely damaged only by exposure to {sup 56}Mn, despite a rather low radiation dose (less than 0.1 Gy). These data suggest that internal exposure to {sup 56}Mn has a significant biological impact on the lungs and small intestine. (orig.)

  2. Ovarian dysfunction and gene-expressed characteristics of female mice caused by long-term exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Guodong; Ze, Yuguan; Li, Bing; Zhao, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Ting; Sheng, Lei; Hu, Ringhu; Gui, Suxin; Sang, Xuezi; Sun, Qingqing; Cheng, Jie; Cheng, Zhe; Wang, Ling; Tang, Meng; Hong, Fashui

    2012-12-01

    Although numerous studies have described the accumulation of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO(2) NPs) in the liver, kidneys, lung, spleen, and brain, and the corresponding damage, it is unclear whether or not TiO(2) NPs can be translocated to the ovary and cause ovarian injury, thus impairing fertility. In the current study, ovarian injury and gene-expressed characteristics in female mice induced by intragastric administration of TiO(2) NPs (10mg/kg) for 90 consecutive days were investigated. Our findings indicated that TiO(2) NPs can accumulate in the ovary and result in ovarian damage, cause an imbalance of mineral element distribution and sex hormones, decrease fertility or the pregnancy rate and oxidative stress in mice. Microarray analysis showed that in ovaries from mice treated with TiO(2) NPs compared to controls, 223 genes of known function were up-regulated, while 65 ovarian genes were down-regulated. The increased expression of Cyp17a1 following TiO(2) NPs treatment suggested that the increase in estradiol biosynthesis may be a consequence of increased TiO(2) NPs. In addition, the elevated expression of Akr1c18 implied that progesterone metabolism was accelerated, thus causing a decrease in the progesterone concentration. Taken together, the apparent regulation of key ovarian genes supports the hypothesis that TiO(2) NPs directly affects ovarian function. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Cell-based cytotoxicity assays for engineered nanomaterials safety screening: exposure of adipose derived stromal cells to titanium dioxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Hadjiargyrou, M; Rafailovich, Miriam; Mironava, Tatsiana

    2017-07-11

    Increasing production of nanomaterials requires fast and proper assessment of its potential toxicity. Therefore, there is a need to develop new assays that can be performed in vitro, be cost effective, and allow faster screening of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). Herein, we report that titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanoparticles (NPs) can induce damage to adipose derived stromal cells (ADSCs) at concentrations which are rated as safe by standard assays such as measuring proliferation, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels. Specifically, we demonstrated that low concentrations of TiO 2 NPs, at which cellular LDH, ROS, or proliferation profiles were not affected, induced changes in the ADSCs secretory function and differentiation capability. These two functions are essential for ADSCs in wound healing, energy expenditure, and metabolism with serious health implications in vivo. We demonstrated that cytotoxicity assays based on specialized cell functions exhibit greater sensitivity and reveal damage induced by ENMs that was not otherwise detected by traditional ROS, LDH, and proliferation assays. For proper toxicological assessment of ENMs standard ROS, LDH, and proliferation assays should be combined with assays that investigate cellular functions relevant to the specific cell type.

  4. HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 daily gridded 1 x 1 deg. stratospheric columns of NO2 V007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — HIR3SCOL is the EOS High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS/Aura) level 3 daily gridded 1 x 1 deg. stratospheric columns of NO2 (nitrogen dioxide) data...

  5. Evaluation of submarine atmospheres: effects of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and oxygen on general toxicology, neurobehavioral performance, reproduction and development in rats. I. Subacute exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardt, Daniel J; James, R Arden; Gut, Chester P; McInturf, Shawn M; Sweeney, Lisa M; Erickson, Richard P; Gargas, Michael L

    2015-02-01

    The inhalation toxicity of submarine contaminants is of concern to ensure the health of men and women aboard submarines during operational deployments. Due to a lack of adequate prior studies, potential general, neurobehavioral, reproductive and developmental toxicity was evaluated in male and female rats exposed to mixtures of three critical submarine atmospheric components: carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2; levels elevated above ambient), and oxygen (O2; levels decreased below ambient). In a 14-day, 23 h/day, whole-body inhalation study of exposure to clean air (0.4 ppm CO, 0.1% CO2 and 20.6% O2), low-dose, mid-dose and high-dose gas mixtures (high dose of 88.4 ppm CO, 2.5% CO2 and 15.0% O2), no adverse effects on survival, body weight or histopathology were observed. Reproductive, developmental and neurobehavioral performance were evaluated after a 28-day exposure in similar atmospheres. No adverse effects on estrus phase, mating, gestation or parturition were observed. No developmental or functional deficits were observed in either exposed parents or offspring related to motor activity, exploratory behavior or higher-level cognitive functions (learning and memory). Only minimal effects were discovered in parent-offspring emotionality tests. While statistically significant increases in hematological parameters were observed in the offspring of exposed parents compared to controls, these parameters remained within normal clinical ranges for blood cells and components and were not considered adverse. In summary, subacute exposures to elevated concentrations of the submarine atmosphere gases did not affect the ability of rats to reproduce and did not appear to have any significant adverse health effects.

  6. Effects of carbon dioxide exposure on intensively cultured rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss: Physiological responses and fillet attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danley, M.L.; Kenney, P.B.; Mazik, P.M.; Kiser, R.; Hankins, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (261.6 ?? 24.7 g initial weight, mean ?? SEM) at 13.1 ?? 0.2 C were exposed for 94 d to one of three CO2 treatments: control (22.1 ?? 2.8 mg/L), medium (34.5 ?? 3.8 mg/L), or high (48.7 ?? 4.4 mg/L). Trout were checked daily for survival, and fish were sampled at 0, 28, 56, and 84 d for physiological responses, growth, and fillet quality assessments. Trout were also challenged to a 15-min crowding stress at 93 d to assess their ability to initiate a stress response during hypercapnia. Chronically exposed trout showed nearly 100% survival through 84 d exposure (1 of 1,500 fish died). Growth and physiological results showed that increasing elevated CO2 concentrations result in corresponding decreased growth rates and CO2-specific physiological parameters: The medium and high CO2 treatments had significantly slower growth and subsequently smaller fish by 84 d. Exposed trout also showed significantly (P smoked fillet weights. Chronic CO2 exposure did not result in notable changes in ultimate muscle pH. Exposure to 15-min crowding stress at 93 d resulted in significant changes in hematocrit, plasma cortisol, glucose, and chloride for all treatment groups. CO2-specific changes were detected in hematocrit, plasma cortisol, and plasma chloride responses following the 15-min crowding stress. ?? Copyright by the World Aquaculture Society 2005.

  7. Mercury accumulation in grass and forb species as a function of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and mercury exposures in air and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millhollen, A G; Obrist, D; Gustin, M S

    2006-10-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the potential for atmospheric Hg degrees uptake by grassland species as a function of different air and soil Hg exposures, and to specifically test how increasing atmospheric CO(2) concentrations may influence foliar Hg concentrations. Four common tallgrass prairie species were germinated and grown for 7 months in environmentally controlled chambers using two different atmospheric elemental mercury (Hg major; 3.7+/-2.0 and 10.2+/-3.5 ng m(-3)), soil Hg (atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO(2)) (390+/-18, 598+/-22 micro mol mol(-1)) exposures. Species used included two C4 grasses and two C3 forbs. Elevated CO(2) concentrations led to lower foliar Hg concentrations in plants exposed to low (i.e., ambient) air Hg degrees concentrations, but no CO(2) effect was apparent at higher air Hg degrees exposure. The observed CO(2) effect suggests that leaf Hg uptake might be controlled by leaf physiological processes such as stomatal conductance which is typically reduced under elevated CO(2). Foliar tissue exposed to elevated air Hg degrees concentrations had higher concentrations than those exposed to low air Hg degrees , but only when also exposed to elevated CO(2). The relationships for foliar Hg concentrations at different atmospheric CO(2) and Hg degrees exposures indicate that these species may have a limited capacity for Hg storage; at ambient CO(2) concentrations all Hg absorption sites in leaves may have been saturated while at elevated CO(2) when stomatal conductance was reduced saturation may have been reached only at higher concentrations of atmospheric Hg degrees . Foliar Hg concentrations were not correlated to soil Hg exposures, except for one of the four species (Rudbeckia hirta). Higher soil Hg concentrations resulted in high root Hg concentrations and considerably increased the percentage of total plant Hg allocated to roots. The large shifts in Hg allocation patterns-notably under soil conditions only slightly above

  8. In-vehicle nitrogen dioxide concentrations in road tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ashley N.; Boulter, Paul G.; Roddis, Damon; McDonough, Liza; Patterson, Michael; Rodriguez del Barco, Marina; Mattes, Andrew; Knibbs, Luke D.

    2016-11-01

    There is a lack of knowledge regarding in-vehicle concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) during transit through road tunnels in urban environments. Furthermore, previous studies have tended to involve a single vehicle and the range of in-vehicle NO2 concentrations that vehicle occupants may be exposed to is not well defined. This study describes simultaneous measurements of in-vehicle and outside-vehicle NO2 concentrations on a route through Sydney, Australia that included several major tunnels, minor tunnels and busy surface roads. Tests were conducted on nine passenger vehicles to assess how vehicle characteristics and ventilation settings affected in-vehicle NO2 concentrations and the in-vehicle-to-outside vehicle (I/O) concentration ratio. NO2 was measured directly using a cavity attenuated phase shift (CAPS) technique that gave a high temporal and spatial resolution. In the major tunnels, transit-average in-vehicle NO2 concentrations were lower than outside-vehicle concentrations for all vehicles with cabin air recirculation either on or off. However, markedly lower I/O ratios were obtained with recirculation on (0.08-0.36), suggesting that vehicle occupants can significantly lower their exposure to NO2 in tunnels by switching recirculation on. The highest mean I/O ratios for NO2 were measured in older vehicles (0.35-0.36), which is attributed to older vehicles having higher air exchange rates. The results from this study can be used to inform the design and operation of future road tunnels and modelling of personal exposure to NO2.

  9. Effects of combined exposure of F344 rats to inhaled Plutonium-239 dioxide and a chemical carcinogen (NNK)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundgren, D.L.; Carlton, W.W.; Griffith, W.C.

    1995-01-01

    Workers in nuclear weapons facilities have a significant potential for exposure to chemical carcinogens and to radiation from external sources or from internally deposited radionuclides such as 239 Pu. Although the carcinogenic effects of inhaled 239 Pu and many chemicals have been studied individually, very little information is available on their combined effects. One chemical carcinogen that workers could be exposed to via tobacco smoke is the tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(N-methyl-n-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), a product of tobacco curing and the pyrolysis of nicotine in tobacco. NNK causes lung tumors in rats, regardless of the route of administration and to a lesser extent liver, nasal, and pancreatic tumors. From the results presented, it can be concluded that exposure to a chemical carcinogen (NNK) in combination with α-particle radiation from inhaled 239 PuO 2 acts in, at best, an additive manner in inducing lung cancer in rats

  10. Effects of combined exposure of F344 rats to inhaled Plutonium-239 dioxide and a chemical carcinogen (NNK)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundgren, D.L.; Carlton, W.W. [Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States); Griffith, W.C. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Workers in nuclear weapons facilities have a significant potential for exposure to chemical carcinogens and to radiation from external sources or from internally deposited radionuclides such as {sup 239}Pu. Although the carcinogenic effects of inhaled {sup 239}Pu and many chemicals have been studied individually, very little information is available on their combined effects. One chemical carcinogen that workers could be exposed to via tobacco smoke is the tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(N-methyl-n-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), a product of tobacco curing and the pyrolysis of nicotine in tobacco. NNK causes lung tumors in rats, regardless of the route of administration and to a lesser extent liver, nasal, and pancreatic tumors. From the results presented, it can be concluded that exposure to a chemical carcinogen (NNK) in combination with {alpha}-particle radiation from inhaled {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} acts in, at best, an additive manner in inducing lung cancer in rats.

  11. Posttranslational modification of bioaerosol protein by common gas pollutants: NO2 and O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullahi Mahmood, Marliyyah; Bloss, William; Pope, Francis

    2016-04-01

    Air pollution can exacerbate several medical conditions, for example, hay fever and asthma. The global incidence of hay fever has been rising for decades; however, the underlying reasons behind this rise remain unclear. It is hypothesized that the exposure of pollen to common gas phase pollutants, such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3), increases the allergenicity of the pollen and thus increases hay fever incidence (Reinmuth-Selzle et al., 2014, Franze, et al., 2005). Since atmospheric pollutants often have greater concentrations within urban areas (in particular NO2) the hypothesis suggests that greater allergenicity should occur in urban areas. Certainly, several studies do suggest higher hay fever incidence within urban areas compared to rural areas (Schröder et al., 2015). Previous published work suggests a link between increased allergies and changes in the chemical composition of pollen protein via posttranslational modification of the protein (Reinmuth-Selzle et al., 2014). This study investigates the posttranslational modification of two highly allergenic pollen species (Birch and Ragweed) that are common in Europe. Within the laboratory, we expose pollen grains to atmospherically relevant exposures of gas phase NO2, O3 and other common gas phase oxidants under a range of environmentally relevant conditions. The effects of the exposures on the biochemistry of the pollen grains were probed using a proteomic approach (liquid chromatography coupled ultra-high resolution spectrometer). Our findings indicate the interaction between gas phase pollutants and pollen cause protein specific modifications; in particular nitration that occurs upon tyrosine residues and nitrosylation on cysteine residues. These modifications may affect human immune response to the pollen protein, which may suggest a possible reason for increased allergies in reaction to such chemically altered protein. Quantification of the relative degree of PTMs, from a variety of

  12. Impact of NO2 Profile Shape in OMI Tropospheric NO2 Retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamsal, Lok; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Pickering, K.; Schwartz, W. H.; Celarier, E. A.; Bucsela, E. J.; Gleason, J. F.; Philip, S.; Nowlan, C.; Martin, R. V.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx NO + NO2) are key actors in air quality and climate change. Tropospheric NO2 columns from the nadir-viewing satellite sensors have been widely used to understand sources and chemistry of NOx. We have implemented several improvements to the operational algorithm developed at NASA GSFC and retrieved tropospheric NO2 columns. We present tropospheric NO2 validation studies of the new OMI Standard Product version 2.1 using ground-based and in-situ aircraft measurements. We show how vertical profile of scattering weight and a-priori NO2 profile shapes, which are taken from chemistry-transport models, affect air mass factor (AMF) and therefore tropospheric NO2 retrievals. Users can take advantage of scattering weights information that is made available in the operational NO2 product. Improved tropospheric NO2 data retrieved using thoroughly evaluated high spatial resolution NO2 profiles are helpful to test models.

  13. Relative performance of different exposure modeling approaches for sulfur dioxide concentrations in the air in rural western Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Hyang-Mi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main objective of this paper is to compare different methods for predicting the levels of SO2 air pollution in oil and gas producing area of rural western Canada. Month-long average air quality measurements were collected over a two-year period (2001–2002 at multiple locations, with some side-by-side measurements, and repeated time-series at selected locations. Methods We explored how accurately location-specific mean concentrations of SO2 can be predicted for 2002 at 666 locations with multiple measurements. Means of repeated measurements on the 666 locations in 2002 were used as the alloyed gold standard (AGS. First, we considered two approaches: one that uses one measurement from each location of interest; and the other that uses context data on proximity of monitoring sites to putative sources of emission in 2002. Second, we imagined that all of the previous year's (2001's data were also available to exposure assessors: 9,464 measurements and their context (month, proximity to sources. Exposure prediction approaches we explored with the 2001 data included regression modeling using either mixed or fixed effects models. Third, we used Bayesian methods to combine single measurements from locations in 2002 (not used to calculate AGS with different priors. Results The regression method that included both fixed and random effects for prediction (Best Linear Unbiased Predictor had the best agreement with the AGS (Pearson correlation 0.77 and the smallest mean squared error (MSE: 0.03. The second best method in terms of correlation with AGS (0.74 and MSE (0.09 was the Bayesian method that uses normal mixture prior derived from predictions of the 2001 mixed effects applied in the 2002 context. Conclusion It is likely that either collecting some measurements from the desired locations and time periods or predictions of a reasonable empirical mixed effects model perhaps is sufficient in most epidemiological applications. The

  14. Maternal exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles during pregnancy and lactation alters offspring hippocampal mRNA BAX and Bcl-2 levels, induces apoptosis and decreases neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimzadeh Bideskan, Alireza; Mohammadipour, Abbas; Fazel, Alireza; Haghir, Hossein; Rafatpanah, Houshang; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Rajabzadeh, Aliakbar

    2017-07-05

    The usage of Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO 2 -NPs) covers a vast area in different fields ranging from cosmetics and food to the production of drugs. Maternal exposure to TiO 2 -NPs during developmental period has been associated with hippocampal injury and with a decrease in learning and memory status of the offspring. However, little is known about its injury mechanism. This paper describes the in vivo neurotoxic effects of TiO 2 -NPs on rat offspring hippocampus during developmental period. Pregnant and lactating Wistar rats received intragastric TiO 2 -NPs (100mg/kg body weight) daily from gestational day (GD) 2 to (GD) 21 and postnatal day (PD) 2 to (PD) 21 respectively. Animals in the control groups received an equal volume of distilled water via gavage. At the end of the treatment process, offspring were deeply anesthetized and sacrificed. Then brains of each group were collected and sections of the rat offspring's brains were stained using TUNEL staining (for detection of apoptotic cells) and immunostaining (for neurogenesis). Moreover, the right hippocampus (n=6 per each group) were removed from the right hemisphere for evaluating the expression of Bax and Bcl-2 level. Results of histopatological examination by TUNEL staining showed that maternal exposure to TiO 2 -NPs during pregnancy and lactation periods increased apoptotic cells significantly (P<0.01) in the offspring hippocampus. The immunolabeling of double cortin (DCX) protein as neurogenesis marker also showed that TiO 2 -NPs reduced neurogenesis in the hippocampus of the offspring (P<0.05). Moreover, in comparison with the control group, the mRNA levels of Bax and Bcl-2 in the TiO 2 -NPs group significantly increased and decreased, respectively (P<0.01). These findings provide strong evidence that maternal exposure to TiO 2 -NPs significantly impact hippocampal neurogenesis and apoptosis in the offspring. The potential impact of nanoparticle exposure for millions of pregnant mothers and

  15. Asthma in children exposed to nitrogen dioxide in ice arenas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thunqvist, P; Lilja, G; Wickman, M; Pershagen, G

    2002-09-01

    Very high concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) have been measured in arenas using combustion engine-powered resurfacing machines. This study was performed to compare the occurrence of asthma in children playing ice hockey in arenas using propane-powered machines and in children attending arenas using electric machines. Children regularly playing hockey in the arenas (nine propane, six electric) were sent a questionnaire, including questions on allergic disease and risk factors. Measurements of NO2 were performed with passive diffusion samplers during 3 consecutive days. The mean NO2 concentration in the propane arenas was 276 microg x m(-3) (range 28-1015 microg x m(-3)) and 11 microg x m(-3) (2-30) in the electric arenas. Questionnaires were answered by 1,536 children (78%), with an overall prevalence of asthma of 16%. The odds ratio (OR) for asthma was 0.9 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7-1.2) comparing propane arenas to electric. However, children in propane arenas with higher than median concentration of NO2 reported more wheezing (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.0-1.9) and nasal symptoms (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.3-2.3) than children in propane arenas with lower concentrations. In conclusion, children playing ice hockey in indoor arenas have a high prevalence of asthma, but it appears unlikely that increased exposure to combustion products, including nitrogen dioxide, is a major contributor to this excess risk.

  16. Posttranslational modification of Birch and Ragweed allergen proteins by common gas phase pollutants, NO2 and O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, M. A.; Pope, F.; Bloss, W.

    2015-12-01

    The global incidence of hay fever has been rising for decades, however, the underlying reasons behind this rise remain unclear. It is hypothesized that exposure of pollen to common gas phase pollutants, such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3), increases the allergenicity of the pollen and thus increases hay fever incidence. Since atmospheric pollutants tend to have greater concentrations within urban areas (in particular NO2) the hypothesis suggests that greater allergenicity should occur in urban areas. Indeed, several studies do suggest higher hay fever incidence within urban areas compared to rural areas. Previous published work suggests a link between increased allergies with changes in the chemical composition of the pollen protein via posttranslational modification of the protein. This study investigates the posttranslational modification of two highly allergenic pollen species (Birch and Ragweed) that are common in Europe. Within the laboratory, we expose pollen grains to atmospherically relevant exposures of gas phase NO2, O3 and other common gas phase oxidants under a range of environmentally relevant conditions. The effects of the environmentally relevant exposures on the biochemistry of the pollen grains were probed using a proteomic approach (liquid chromatography coupled ultra-high resolution spectrometer). Our findings indicate the interaction between gas phase pollutants and pollen cause protein specific modifications; in particular, nitration occurs upon tyrosine residues and nitrosylation on cysteine residues. Possibly, these modifications may affect the immune response of the pollen protein, which may suggest a possible reason for increased allergies in reaction to such biologically altered protein. The laboratory-derived results will be supported with a time series analysis of asthma incidence rates for the London area, which take into account the pollen count, and pollutant concentrations. The implications of the results will be discussed

  17. Evaluation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) attributed to atmospheric O3, NO2, and SO2 using Air Q Model (2011-2012 year).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari Ghozikali, Mohammad; Heibati, Behzad; Naddafi, Kazem; Kloog, Itai; Oliveri Conti, Gea; Polosa, Riccardo; Ferrante, Margherita

    2016-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an important disease worldwide characterized by chronically poor airflow. The economic burden of COPD on any society can be enormous if not managed. We applied the approach proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO) using the AirQ2.2.3 software developed by the WHO European Center for Environment and Health on air pollutants in Tabriz (Iran) (2011-2012 year). A 1h average of concentrations of ozone (O3), daily average concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) were used to assess human exposure and health effect in terms of attributable proportion of the health outcome and annual number of excess cases of Hospital Admissions for COPD (HA COPD). The results of this study showed that 2% (95% CI: 0.8-3.1%) of HA COPD were attributed to O3 concentrations over 10 μg/m(3). In addition, 0.7 % (95% CI: 0.1-1.8%) and 0.5% (95% CI: 0-1%) of HA COPD were attributed to NO2 and SO2 concentrations over 10 μg/m(3) respectively. In this study, we have shown that O3, NO2 and SO2 have a significant impact on COPD hospitalization. Given these results the policy decisions are needed in order to reduce the chronic pulmonary diseases caused by air pollution and furthermore better quantification studies are recommended. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Retrieval of stratospheric O 3 and NO 2 vertical profiles using zenith ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An algorithm has been developed to retrieve vertical profiles of ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) from ground-based measurements using the Chahine iteration method.This retrieval method has been checked using measured and recalculated slant column densities (SCDs)and they are found to be well matching.

  19. Gate-bias controlled charge trapping as a mechanism for NO2 detection with field-effect transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andringa, A.-M.; Meijboom, J.R.; Smits, E.C.P.; Mathijssen, S.G.J.; Blom, P.W.M.; Leeuw, D.M. de

    2011-01-01

    Detection of nitrogen dioxide, NO2, is required to monitor the air-quality for human health and safety. Commercial sensors are typically chemiresistors, however field-effect transistors are being investigated. Although numerous investigations have been reported, the NO2 sensing mechanism is not

  20. Gate-Bias Controlled Charge Trapping as a Mechanism for NO2 Detection with Field-Effect Transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andringa, Anne-Marije; Meijboom, Juliaan R.; Smits, Edsger C. P.; Mathijssen, Simon G. J.; Blom, Paul W. M.; de Leeuw, Dago M.

    2011-01-01

    Detection of nitrogen dioxide, NO2, is required to monitor the air-quality for human health and safety. Commercial sensors are typically chemiresistors, however field-effect transistors are being investigated. Although numerous investigations have been reported, the NO2 sensing mechanism is not

  1. Nitrogen Dioxide pollution and hazardous household environment: what impacts more congenital malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, D; Novack, L; Yitshak-Sade, M; Sarov, B; Kloog, I; Hershkovitz, R; Grotto, I; Karakis, I

    2015-11-01

    Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) is a product of fuel combustion originating mainly from industry and transportation. Studies suggest an association between NO2 and congenital malformations (CM). We investigated an independent effect of NO2 on CM by adjusting to individual factors and household environment in 1024 Bedouin-Arab pregnant women in southern Israel. This population is characterised by high rates of CMs, frequent consanguineous marriages, paternal smoking, temporary housing and usage of open fire for heat cooking. Information on household risk factors was collected during an interview. Ambient measurements of 24-h average NO2 and meteorological conditions were obtained from 13 local monitors. Median value of daily NO2 measured in the area was 6.78ppb. CM was diagnosed in 8.0% (82) of offspring. Maternal NO2 exposure during the 1st trimester >8.6ppb was significantly associated with minor CM (RR=2.68, p=0.029). Major CM were independently associated with maternal juvenile diabetes (RR=9.97, p-value=0.002) and heating by open fire (RR=2.00, p-value=0.049), but not NO2 exposure. We found that NO2 emissions had an independent impact only on minor malformations, whereas major malformations depended mostly on the household environment. Antepartum deaths were associated by maternal morbidity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of GOME tropospheric NO2 columns with NO2 profiles deduced from ground-based in situ measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Schaub

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen dioxide (NO2 vertical tropospheric column densities (VTCs retrieved from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME are compared to coincident ground-based tropospheric NO2 columns. The ground-based columns are deduced from in situ measurements at different altitudes in the Alps for 1997 to June 2003, yielding a unique long-term comparison of GOME NO2 VTC data retrieved by a collaboration of KNMI (Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute and BIRA/IASB (Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy with independently derived tropospheric NO2 profiles. A first comparison relates the GOME retrieved tropospheric columns to the tropospheric columns obtained by integrating the ground-based NO2 measurements. For a second comparison, the tropospheric profiles constructed from the ground-based measurements are first multiplied with the averaging kernel (AK of the GOME retrieval. The second approach makes the comparison independent from the a priori NO2 profile used in the GOME retrieval. This allows splitting the total difference between the column data sets into two contributions: one that is due to differences between the a priori and the ground-based NO2 profile shapes, and another that can be attributed to uncertainties in both the remaining retrieval parameters (such as, e.g., surface albedo or aerosol concentration and the ground-based in situ NO2 profiles. For anticyclonic clear sky conditions the comparison indicates a good agreement between the columns (n=157, R=0.70/0.74 for the first/second comparison approach, respectively. The mean relative difference (with respect to the ground-based columns is −7% with a standard deviation of 40% and GOME on average slightly underestimating the ground-based columns. Both data sets show a similar seasonal behaviour with a distinct maximum of spring NO2 VTCs. Further analysis indicates small GOME columns being systematically smaller than the ground-based ones. The influence of different shapes in the a

  3. Experience with novel technologies for direct measurement of atmospheric NO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueglin, Christoph; Hundt, Morten; Mueller, Michael; Schwarzenbach, Beat; Tuzson, Bela; Emmenegger, Lukas

    2017-04-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is an air pollutant that has a large impact on human health and ecosystems, and it plays a key role in the formation of ozone and secondary particulate matter. Consequently, legal limit values for NO2 are set in the EU and elsewhere, and atmospheric observation networks typically include NO2 in their measurement programmes. Atmospheric NO2 is principally measured by chemiluminescence detection, an indirect measurement technique that requires conversion of NO2 into nitrogen monoxide (NO) and finally calculation of NO2 from the difference between total nitrogen oxides (NOx) and NO. Consequently, NO2 measurements with the chemiluminescence method have a relatively high measurement uncertainty and can be biased depending on the selectivity of the applied NO2 conversion method. In the past years, technologies for direct and selective measurement of NO2 have become available, e.g. cavity attenuated phase shift spectroscopy (CAPS), cavity enhanced laser absorption spectroscopy and quantum cascade laser absorption spectrometry (QCLAS). These technologies offer clear advantages over the indirect chemiluminescence method. We tested the above mentioned direct measurement techniques for NO2 over extended time periods at atmospheric measurement stations and report on our experience including comparisons with co-located chemiluminescence instruments equipped with molybdenum as well as photolytic NO2 converters. A still open issue related to the direct measurement of NO2 is instrument calibration. Accurate and traceable reference standards and NO2 calibration gases are needed. We present results from the application of different calibration strategies based on the use of static NO2 calibration gases as well as dynamic NO2 calibration gases produced by permeation and by gas-phase titration (GPT).

  4. Comparison of SO2 and NO2 observations from OMI and OMPS from 2012 to 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Wang, J.; Xu, X.; Yang, K.

    2017-12-01

    Both Sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) are precursors of PM2.5 which has significant impacts on human health. We compare observations from Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) which has data gap due to row anomaly and Ozone Mapping Profiler Suite (OMPS) that is currently the only operational UV satellite sensor providing contiguous daily global coverage. In this study, we examine changes of SO2 and NO2 in several polluted regions and see both upward trends and downward trends in different areas but trends observed by the two sensors are consistent in general. Some of these upward and downward trends are associated with economic development and implementation of emission control policy. In addition, we analyzed probability distribution function of SO2 and NO2 from the two sensors and how row anomaly effect the intercomparison.

  5. Combining Bayesian methods and aircraft observations to constrain the HO. + NO2 reaction rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Carlton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropospheric ozone is the third strongest greenhouse gas, and has the highest uncertainty in radiative forcing of the top five greenhouse gases. Throughout the troposphere, ozone is produced by radical oxidation of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2. In the upper troposphere (8–10 km, current chemical transport models under-estimate nitrogen dioxide (NO2 observations. Improvements to simulated NOx production from lightning have increased NO2 predictions, but the predictions in the upper troposphere remain biased low. The upper troposphere has low temperatures (T 2 and radicals, is currently over-estimated by 22% in the upper troposphere. The results from this study suggest that the temperature sensitivity of nitric acid formation is lower than currently recommended. Since the formation of nitric acid removes nitrogen dioxide and radicals that drive the production of ozone, the revised reaction rate will affect ozone concentrations in upper troposphere impacting climate and air quality in the lower troposphere.

  6. Volume 8 No. 2 2008 June 2008

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    but eaten raw as fresh fruits. Coconuts contain ... beverage and food industries and this has stimulated interest in their formation and stability. Foams are .... Volume 8 No. 2 2008. June 2008. 176. Fig 1. Effect of PH on nitrogen solubility of fullfat Coconut protein concentrate (FFC-PC) at different salt concentrations. (%). 0. 10.

  7. JUST Vol. 28 No. 2, August, 2007

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    level of the soil may account for the lack of sig- nificant soil improvement even in plots mulched and/or treated with fertilizer. This confirms re- ports on a Leucaena alley cropping trials in Zam-. 66 Journal of Science and Technology, Volume 27 no. 2, August, 2007. Evaluation of the effect of hedgerow intercropping .

  8. JUST Vol. 28 No. 2 Aug 2008

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ben

    2008-08-02

    Aug 2, 2008 ... 1848 when it became possible to think of the world as one unified economy. Keywords: world history, world society, capital, working class. Journal of Science and Technology, Vol. 28, No. 2, August, 2008 ..... These were the communication media for integrating the world into a single economy and hence a ...

  9. JUST Vol. 28 No. 2, August, 2007

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Science and Technology, Volume 27 no. 2, August, 2007. Nitrogen use efficiency of poultry manure. Boateng et. al. PDF Created with deskPDF PDF .... Experimental design. The trial consisted of eight treatments replicated five times in a randomized complete block de- sign. Each plot measured 5.0 m x 6.0 m ...

  10. Volume 8 No. 2 2008 June 2008

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    Volume 8 No. 2 2008. June 2008. 221. INTRODUCTION. Poverty followed by malnutrition and starvation is the growing and common phenomena mostly in .... The great majority of the farmers in Eritrea operate agriculture on small scale. ... Most small farmers operate on an independent basis, either as independent land.

  11. JUST Vol. 28 No. 2, August, 2007

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    132 Journal of Science and Technology, Volume 27 no. 2, August, 2007 .... To make an im- pact on the market price there should be waiver ... TOURISM. Tourism will be greatly improved if tourists are able to locate their positions through the use of navigation systems, or if a control centre can plan and monitor the trips of ...

  12. JUST Vol. 28 No. 2 Aug 2008

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ben

    2008-08-02

    Aug 2, 2008 ... Machine learn. 5: 313 – 321. Schapire, R. and Singer, Y. (1999). Improved boosting algorithm using confidence rated prediction. Machine learn. 37: 297 – 336. Journal of Science and Technology, Vol. 28, No. 2, August, 2008 73. A meshsize boosting algorithm in kernel density estimation. Ishiekwene et al.

  13. JUST Vol. 28 No. 2 Aug 2008

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ben

    2008-08-02

    Aug 2, 2008 ... appearances, but they do not know the right out- fits that are suitable for their body proportions and figure types. Some of the common com- plaints are “my legs are too skinny”; “I am thin and flat chested”; “my shoulders are too broad”;. Journal of Science and Technology, Vol. 28, No. 2, August, 2008 133.

  14. Lower vehicular primary emissions of NO2 in Europe than assumed in policy projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grange, Stuart K.; Lewis, Alastair C.; Moller, Sarah J.; Carslaw, David C.

    2017-12-01

    Many European countries do not meet legal air quality standards for ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2) near roads; a problem that has been forecasted to persist to 2030. Although European air quality standards regulate NO2 concentrations, emissions standards for new vehicles instead set limits for NOx—the combination of nitric oxide (NO) and NO2. From around 1990 onwards, the total emissions of NOx declined significantly in Europe, but roadside concentrations of NO2—a regulated species—declined much less than expected. This discrepancy has been attributed largely to the increasing usage of diesel vehicles in Europe and more directly emitted tailpipe NO2. Here we apply a data-filtering technique to 130 million hourly measurements of NOx, NO2 and ozone (O3) from roadside monitoring stations across 61 urban areas in Europe over the period 1990-2015 to estimate the continent-wide trends of directly emitted NO2. We find that the ratio of NO2 to NOx emissions increased from 1995 to around 2010 but has since stabilized at a level that is substantially lower than is assumed in some key emissions inventories. The proportion of NOx now being emitted directly from road transport as NO2 is up to a factor of two smaller than the estimates used in policy projections. We therefore conclude that there may be a faster attainment of roadside NO2 air quality standards across Europe than is currently expected.

  15. Anatase titanium dioxide nanoparticles in mice: evidence for induced structural and functional sperm defects after short-, but not long-, term exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michelle A; Michael, Rowan; Aravindan, Rolands G; Dash, Soma; Shah, Syed I; Galileo, Deni S; Martin-DeLeon, Patricia A

    2015-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (TNPs) are widely used commercially and exist in a variety of products. To determine if anatase TNPs (ATNPs) in doses smaller than previously used reach the scrotum after entry in the body at a distant location and induce sperm defects, 100% ATNP (2.5 or 5 mg kg−1 body weight) was administered intraperitoneally to adult males for three consecutive days, followed by sacrifice 1, 2, 3, or 5 weeks later (long-) or 24, 48 or 120 h (short-term exposure). Transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of ANTP in scrotal adipose tissues collected 120 h postinjection when cytokine evaluation showed an inflammatory response in epididymal tissues and fluid. At 120 h and up to 3 weeks postinjection, testicular histology revealed enlarged interstitial spaces. Significantly increased numbers of terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling-positive (apoptotic) germ (P = 0.002) and interstitial space cells (P = 0.04) were detected in treated males. Caudal epididymal sperm from the short-term, but not a long-term, arm showed significantly (P < 0.001) increased frequencies of flagellar abnormalities, excess residual cytoplasm (ERC), and unreacted acrosomes in treated versus controls (dose-response relationship). A novel correlation between ERC and unreacted acrosomes was uncovered. At 120 h, there were significant decreases in hyperactivated motility (P < 0.001) and mitochondrial membrane potential (P < 0.05), and increased reactive oxygen species levels (P < 0.00001) in treated versus control sperm. These results indicate that at 4–8 days postinjection, ANTP induce structural and functional sperm defects associated with infertility, and DNA damage via oxidative stress. Sperm defects were transient as they were not detected 10 days to 5 weeks postinjection. PMID:25370207

  16. Formation of indoor nitrous acid (HONO) by light-induced NO2 heterogeneous reactions with white wall paint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolomei, Vincent; Sörgel, Matthias; Gligorovski, Sasho; Alvarez, Elena Gómez; Gandolfo, Adrien; Strekowski, Rafal; Quivet, Etienne; Held, Andreas; Zetzsch, Cornelius; Wortham, Henri

    2014-01-01

    Gaseous nitrogen dioxide (NO2) represents an oxidant that is present in relatively high concentrations in various indoor settings. Remarkably increased NO2 levels up to 1.5 ppm are associated with homes using gas stoves. The heterogeneous reactions of NO2 with adsorbed water on surfaces lead to the generation of nitrous acid (HONO). Here, we present a HONO source induced by heterogeneous reactions of NO2 with selected indoor paint surfaces in the presence of light (300 nmpaint surfaces to generate HONO within indoor environments by light-induced NO2 heterogeneous reactions.

  17. NO2 and Cancer Incidence in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Al-Ahmadi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution exposure has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of specific cancers. This study investigated whether the number and incidence of the most common cancers in Saudi Arabia were associated with urban air pollution exposure, specifically NO2. Overall, high model goodness of fit (GOF was observed in the Eastern, Riyadh and Makkah regions. The significant coefficients of determination (r2 were higher at the regional level (r2 = 0.32–0.71, weaker at the governorate level (r2 = 0.03–0.43, and declined slightly at the city level (r2 = 0.17–0.33, suggesting that an increased aggregated spatial level increased the explained variability and the model GOF. However, the low GOF at the lowest spatial level suggests that additional variation remains unexplained. At different spatial levels, associations between NO2 concentration and the most common cancers were marginally improved in geographically weighted regression (GWR analysis, which explained both global and local heterogeneity and variations in cancer incidence. High coefficients of determination were observed between NO2 concentration and lung and breast cancer incidences, followed by prostate, bladder, cervical and ovarian cancers, confirming results from other studies. These results could be improved using individual explanatory variables such as environmental, demographic, behavioral, socio-economic, and genetic risk factors.

  18. Exposure to air pollution and pulmonary function in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yun-Chul; Leem, Jong-Han; Lee, Kwan-Hee; Park, Dong-Hyun; Jang, Jae-Yeon; Kim, Sun-Tae; Ha, Eun-Hee

    2005-03-01

    Exposure to air pollution has been reported to be associated with increase in pulmonary disease. The aims of the present study were to examine the use of personal nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) samplers as a means of measuring exposure to air pollution and to investigate the relationship between personal exposure to air pollution and pulmonary function. We measured individual exposures to NO(2) using passive personal NO(2) samplers for 298 healthy university students. Questionnaire interview was conducted for traffic-related factors, and spirometry was performed when the samplers were returned after 1 day. Personal NO(2) concentrations varied, depending on the distance between residence and a main road (P=0.029). Students who used transportation for more than 1 h were exposed to higher levels of NO(2) than those using transportation for less than 1 h (P=0.032). In terms of transportation, riding in a bus or subway caused significantly higher exposure than not using them (P=0.046). NO(2) exposure was not significantly associated with forced vital capacity (FVC) or forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) but was associated with the ratio of FEV(1)/FVC and mid-expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of the forced vital capacity (FEF(25-75)) (Ppollution and are associated with decreased pulmonary function.

  19. High NO2/NOx emissions downstream of the catalytic diesel particulate filter: An influencing factor study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chao; Li, Jiaqiang; Ma, Zhilei; Tan, Jianwei; Zhao, Longqing

    2015-09-01

    Diesel vehicles are responsible for most of the traffic-related nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions, including nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The use of after-treatment devices increases the risk of high NO2/NOx emissions from diesel engines. In order to investigate the factors influencing NO2/NOx emissions, an emission experiment was carried out on a high pressure common-rail, turbocharged diesel engine with a catalytic diesel particulate filter (CDPF). NO2 was measured by a non-dispersive ultraviolet analyzer with raw exhaust sampling. The experimental results show that the NO2/NOx ratios downstream of the CDPF range around 20%-83%, which are significantly higher than those upstream of the CDPF. The exhaust temperature is a decisive factor influencing the NO2/NOx emissions. The maximum NO2/NOx emission appears at the exhaust temperature of 350°C. The space velocity, engine-out PM/NOx ratio (mass based) and CO conversion ratio are secondary factors. At a constant exhaust temperature, the NO2/NOx emissions decreased with increasing space velocity and engine-out PM/NOx ratio. When the CO conversion ratios range from 80% to 90%, the NO2/NOx emissions remain at a high level. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Horizontal and temporal evolution of tropospheric NO2 in Vienna as inferred from car DOAS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, Stefan F.; Richter, Andreas; Li, Zheng; Burrows, John P.

    2016-04-01

    Zenith-sky measurements were performed with a car DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) instrument to obtain tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) distributions within the metropolitan area of Vienna, Austria, on nine days in April, September, October, and November 2015. Several single car journeys having an approximate distance of 110 km and covering known emission sources of nitrogen oxides (NOx) as well as a background region north of Vienna were carried out. The spectral measurements are analyzed using the DOAS technique applying a nonlinear least-squares fitting algorithm. The obtained NO2 differential slant column densities (DSCDs) are based on the 425-490 nm fitting window and the inclusion of relevant high resolution absorption cross-sections. Tropospheric NO2 vertical column densities (VCDs) are extracted from the NO2 DSCDs by making assumptions on the diurnal variation of stratospheric NO2 VCDs and determining a tropospheric NO2 airmass factor. Additional meteorological (wind speed and wind direction) and air quality (surface NO2 concentrations) data from nearby measurement stations is used to interpret the horizontal and temporal evolution of NO2 pollution. Our results show that elevated NO2 pollution originating from rush-hour traffic over busy highways is transported along the Danube River to the Northwest of Vienna under certain meteorological conditions.

  1. Development of a microscale land use regression model for predicting NO2concentrations at a heavy trafficked suburban area in Auckland, NZ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissert, L F; Salmond, J A; Miskell, G; Alavi-Shoshtari, M; Williams, D E

    2018-04-01

    Land use regression (LUR) analysis has become a key method to explain air pollutant concentrations at unmeasured sites at city or country scales, but little is known about the applicability of LUR at microscales. We present a microscale LUR model developed for a heavy trafficked section of road in Auckland, New Zealand. We also test the within-city transferability of LUR models developed at different spatial scales (local scale and city scale). Nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) was measured during summer at 40 sites and a LUR model was developed based on standard criteria. The results showed that LUR models are able to capture the microscale variability with the model explaining 66% of the variability in NO 2 concentrations. Predictor variables identified at this scale were street width, distance to major road, presence of awnings and number of bus stops, with the latter three also being important determinants at the local scale. This highlights the importance of street and building configurations for individual exposure at the street level. However, within-city transferability was limited with the number of bus stops being the only significant predictor variable at all spatial scales and locations tested, indicating the strong influence of diesel emissions related to bus traffic. These findings show that air quality monitoring is necessary at a high spatial density within cities in capturing small-scale variability in NO 2 concentrations at the street level and assessing individual exposure to traffic related air pollutants. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Testing of cavity attenuation phase shift technology for siting near-road NO2 monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Recent research has identified the public health importance of air pollution exposures : near busy roadways. As a result, EPA significantly revised its NO2 air quality standard in 2010. : The current regulatory focus has shifted from assessment of lo...

  3. Ergonomics SA - Vol 24, No 2 (2012)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development of a Modular Test Stand for the Measuring of Dynamic Muscular Strain of Test Persons for the Simulation in Digital Human Models · EMAIL FULL TEXT ... Ergonomic intervention for reducing the exposure to musculoskeletal disorders risk factors in pharmaceutical production centre · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL ...

  4. Changes in SO2 and NO2 Pollution over the Past Decade Observed by Aura OMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krotkov, N. A.; Li, C.; Lamsal, L. N.; Celarier, E. A.; Marchenko, S. V.; Swartz, W.; Bucsela, E. J.; Fioletov, V.; McLinden, C. A.; Joiner, J.; Bhartia, P. K.; Duncan, B. N.; Dickerson, R. R.

    2014-12-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), a NASA partnership with the Netherlands and Finland, flies on the EOS Aura satellite and uses reflected sunlight to measure two critical atmospheric trace gases, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2), characterizing daily air quality. Both gases and the secondary pollutants they produce (particulate matter, PM2.5, and tropospheric ozone) are among USEPA designated criteria pollutants, posing serious threats to human health and the environment (e.g., acid rain, plant damage, and reduced visibility). A new generation of the OMI standard SO2 and NO2 products (based on critically improved DOAS spectral fitting for NO2 and innovative Principal Component Analysis method for SO2) provides a valuable dataset for studying anthropogenic pollution on local to global scales. Here we highlight some of the OMI observed long-term changes in air quality over several regions. Over the US, average NO2 and SO2 pollution levels have decreased dramatically as a result of both technological improvements (e.g., catalytic converters on cars) and stricter regulations of emissions. We see continued decline in NO2 and SO2 pollution over Europe. Over China OMI observed a ~ 60% increase in NO2 pollution between 2005 and 2013, despite a temporary reversal of the growing trend due to both 2008 Olympic Games and the economic recession in 2009. Chinese SO2 pollution seems to have stabilized since peaking in 2007, probably due to government efforts to curb SO2 emissions from the power sector. We have also observed large increases in both SO2 and NO2 pollution particularly in Eastern India where a number of new large coal power plants have been built in recent years. We expect that further improvements in the OMI NO2 and SO2 products will allow more robust quantification of long-term trends in local to global air quality.

  5. Quantification of the effect of modeled lightning NO2 on UV–visible air mass factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Laughner

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Space-borne measurements of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2 columns are up to 10x more sensitive to upper tropospheric (UT NO2 than near-surface NO2 over low-reflectivity surfaces. Here, we quantify the effect of adding simulated lightning NO2 to the a priori profiles for NO2 observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI using modeled NO2 profiles from the Weather Research and Forecasting–Chemistry (WRF-Chem model. With observed NO2 profiles from the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3 aircraft campaign as observational truth, we quantify the bias in the NO2 column that occurs when lightning NO2 is not accounted for in the a priori profiles. Focusing on late spring and early summer in the central and eastern United States, we find that a simulation without lightning NO2 underestimates the air mass factor (AMF by 25 % on average for common summer OMI viewing geometry and 35 % for viewing geometries that will be encountered by geostationary satellites. Using a simulation with 500 to 665 mol NO flash−1 produces good agreement with observed NO2 profiles and reduces the bias in the AMF to  <  ±4 % for OMI viewing geometries. The bias is regionally dependent, with the strongest effects in the southeast United States (up to 80 % and negligible effects in the central US. We also find that constraining WRF meteorology to a reanalysis dataset reduces lightning flash counts by a factor of 2 compared to an unconstrained run, most likely due to changes in the simulated water vapor profile.

  6. Scaling relationship for NO2 pollution and urban population size: a satellite perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamsal, L N; Martin, R V; Parrish, D D; Krotkov, N A

    2013-07-16

    Concern is growing about the effects of urbanization on air pollution and health. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) released primarily from combustion processes, such as traffic, is a short-lived atmospheric pollutant that serves as an air-quality indicator and is itself a health concern. We derive a global distribution of ground-level NO2 concentrations from tropospheric NO2 columns retrieved from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). Local scaling factors from a three-dimensional chemistry-transport model (GEOS-Chem) are used to relate the OMI NO2 columns to ground-level concentrations. The OMI-derived surface NO2 data are significantly correlated (r = 0.69) with in situ surface measurements. We examine how the OMI-derived ground-level NO2 concentrations, OMI NO2 columns, and bottom-up NOx emission inventories relate to urban population. Emission hot spots, such as power plants, are excluded to focus on urban relationships. The correlation of surface NO2 with population is significant for the three countries and one continent examined here: United States (r = 0.71), Europe (r = 0.67), China (r = 0.69), and India (r = 0.59). Urban NO2 pollution, like other urban properties, is a power law scaling function of the population size: NO2 concentration increases proportional to population raised to an exponent. The value of the exponent varies by region from 0.36 for India to 0.66 for China, reflecting regional differences in industrial development and per capita emissions. It has been generally established that energy efficiency increases and, therefore, per capita NOx emissions decrease with urban population; here, we show how outdoor ambient NO2 concentrations depend upon urban population in different global regions.

  7. National patterns in environmental injustice and inequality: outdoor NO2 air pollution in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Lara P; Millet, Dylan B; Marshall, Julian D

    2014-01-01

    We describe spatial patterns in environmental injustice and inequality for residential outdoor nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations in the contiguous United States. Our approach employs Census demographic data and a recently published high-resolution dataset of outdoor NO2 concentrations. Nationally, population-weighted mean NO2 concentrations are 4.6 ppb (38%, penvironmental health implications of that concentration disparity are compelling. For example, we estimate that reducing nonwhites' NO2 concentrations to levels experienced by whites would reduce Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD) mortality by ∼7,000 deaths per year, which is equivalent to 16 million people increasing their physical activity level from inactive (0 hours/week of physical activity) to sufficiently active (>2.5 hours/week of physical activity). Inequality for NO2 concentration is greater than inequality for income (Atkinson Index: 0.11 versus 0.08). Low-income nonwhite young children and elderly people are disproportionately exposed to residential outdoor NO2. Our findings establish a national context for previous work that has documented air pollution environmental injustice and inequality within individual US metropolitan areas and regions. Results given here can aid policy-makers in identifying locations with high environmental injustice and inequality. For example, states with both high injustice and high inequality (top quintile) for outdoor residential NO2 include New York, Michigan, and Wisconsin.

  8. Interferences of commercial NO2 instruments in the urban atmosphere and in a smog chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kleffmann

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliable measurements of atmospheric trace gases are necessary for both, a better understanding of the chemical processes occurring in the atmosphere, and for the validation of model predictions. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2 is a toxic gas and is thus a regulated air pollutant. Besides, it is of major importance for the oxidation capacity of the atmosphere and plays a pivotal role in the formation of ozone and acid precipitation. Detection of NO2 is a difficult task since many of the different commercial techniques used are affected by interferences. The chemiluminescence instruments that are used for indirect NO2 detection in monitoring networks and smog chambers use either molybdenum or photolytic converters and are affected by either positive (NOy or negative interferences (radical formation in the photolytic converter. Erroneous conclusions on NO2 can be drawn if these interferences are not taken into consideration. In the present study, NO2 measurements in the urban atmosphere, in a road traffic tunnel and in a smog-chamber using different commercial techniques, i.e. chemiluminescence instruments with molybdenum or photolytic converters, a Luminol based instrument and a new NO2-LOPAP, were compared with spectroscopic techniques, i.e. DOAS and FTIR. Interferences of the different instruments observed during atmospheric measurements were partly characterised in more detail in the smog chamber experiments. Whereas all the commercial instruments showed strong interferences, excellent agreement was obtained between a new NO2-LOPAP instrument and the FTIR technique for the measurements performed in the smog chamber.

  9. Validation of SCIAMACHY limb NO2 profiles using solar occultation measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bovensmann

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The increasing amounts of reactive nitrogen in the stratosphere necessitate accurate global measurements of stratospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2. Over the past decade, the SCIAMACHY (SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY instrument on ENVISAT (European Environmental Satellite has been providing global coverage of stratospheric NO2 every 6 days. In this study, the vertical distributions of NO2 retrieved from SCIAMACHY limb measurements of the scattered solar light are validated by comparison with NO2 products from three different satellite instruments (SAGE II, HALOE and ACE-FTS. The retrieval algorithm based on the information operator approach is discussed, and the sensitivity of the SCIAMACHY NO2 limb retrievals is investigated. The photochemical corrections needed to make this validation feasible, and the chosen collocation criteria are described. For each instrument, a time period of two years is analyzed with several hundreds of collocation pairs for each year. As NO2 is highly variable, the comparisons are performed for five latitudinal bins and four seasons. In the 20 to 40 km altitude range, mean relative differences between SCIAMACHY and other instruments are found to be typically within 20 to 30%. The mean partial NO2 columns in this altitude range agree typically within 15% (both global monthly and zonal annual means. Larger differences are seen for SAGE II comparisons, which is consistent with the results presented by other authors. For SAGE II and ACE-FTS, the observed differences can be partially attributed to the diurnal effect error.

  10. High-resolution NO2 observations from the Airborne Compact Atmospheric Mapper: Retrieval and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamsal, L. N.; Janz, S. J.; Krotkov, N. A.; Pickering, K. E.; Spurr, R. J. D.; Kowalewski, M. G.; Loughner, C. P.; Crawford, J. H.; Swartz, W. H.; Herman, J. R.

    2017-02-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a short-lived atmospheric pollutant that serves as an air quality indicator and is itself a health concern. The Airborne Compact Atmospheric Mapper (ACAM) was flown on board the NASA UC-12 aircraft during the Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality Maryland field campaign in July 2011. The instrument collected hyperspectral remote sensing measurements in the 304-910 nm range, allowing daytime observations of several tropospheric pollutants, including nitrogen dioxide (NO2), at an unprecedented spatial resolution of 1.5 × 1.1 km2. Retrievals of slant column abundance are based on the differential optical absorption spectroscopy method. For the air mass factor computations needed to convert these retrievals to vertical column abundance, we include high-resolution information for the surface reflectivity by using bidirectional reflectance distribution function data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer. We use high-resolution simulated vertical distributions of NO2 from the Community Multiscale Air Quality and Global Modeling Initiative models to account for the temporal variation in atmospheric NO2 to retrieve middle and lower tropospheric NO2 columns (NO2 below the aircraft). We compare NO2 derived from ACAM measurements with in situ observations from NASA's P-3B research aircraft, total column observations from the ground-based Pandora spectrometers, and tropospheric column observations from the space-based Ozone Monitoring Instrument. The high-resolution ACAM measurements not only give new insights into our understanding of atmospheric composition and chemistry through observation of subsampling variability in typical satellite and model resolutions, but they also provide opportunities for testing algorithm improvements for forthcoming geostationary air quality missions.

  11. Pajanan NO2 Bulan Pertama dan Kedua Kehamilan terhadap Bayi dengan Berat Badan Lahir Rendah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunga Oktora

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pajanan pencemar udara selama kehamilan berhubungan dengan bayi berat badan lahir rendah (BBLR. Untuk menghubungkan konsentrasi NO2 dalam udara ambien, telah dilakukan studi ekologi di Jakarta. Konsentrasi NO2 didapat dari data monitoring BPLHD DKI Jakarta 2009 – 2011, sedangkan kasus-kasus bayi BBLR diperoleh dari Dinas Kesehatan Provinsi DKI Jakarta. Data dianalisis dengan Anova, uji korelasi, dan regresi linier dan berganda. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa konsentrasi NO2 dalam bulan pertama dan kedua kehamilan berhubungan bermakna dengan BBLR (masing-masing dengan R = 0,464, nilai p = 0,0001 dan R = 0,243, nilai p = 0,013. Regresi linier berganda menunjukkan bahwa konsentrasi NO2 dapat meramalkan 25% kasus BBLR (R = 0,5; R2 = 0,25; nilai p = 0,0001. Variabel yang paling memengaruhi BBLR adalah pajanan terhadap NO2 pada bulan pertama gestasi (B = 259. Disimpulkan, pajanan NO2 pada bulan pertama dan kedua kehamilan dan tempat wilayah tinggal berhubungan dengan BBLR, dengan pajanan NO2 pada bulan pertama kehamilan merupakan faktor utama BBLR. It has been known that exposure to air pollutant during pregnancy was associated with low birth weight. To correlate NO2 concentration in ambient air with baby with low birth weight (LBW, an ecological study has been carried in Jakarta. NO2 concentration was obtained from 2009 – 2011 monitoring data (Jakarta BPLHD, while low birth weight data were obtained from Jakarta Provincial Health Office. Anova, correlation, linear and multiple linear regressions were employed to analyze NO2 concentration with LBW. It showed that NO2 concentrations during first and second month of pregnancy were significantly correlated with the LBW (R = 0.464, p value = 0.0001 and R = 0.243, p value = 0.013. Multiple linear regression showed that the concentration of NO2 in the first and second month of pregnancy can predict 25% of LBW cases (R = 0.5, R2 = 0.25; p value = 0.0001. The most influence variable on LBW is exposure

  12. Absorption of carbon dioxide in waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, D.T.

    1987-01-01

    Air flow rates and carbon dioxide concentrations of air entering and exiting eight H-Area waste tanks were monitored for a period of one year. The average instanteous concentration of carbon dioxide in air is within the range reported offsite, and therefore is not affect by operation of the coal-fired power plant adjacent to the tank farm. Waste solutions in each of the tanks were observed to be continuously absorbing carbon dioxide. The rate of absorption of carbon dioxide decreased linearly with the pH of the solution. Personnel exposure associated with the routine sampling and analysis of radioactive wastes stored at SRP to determine the levels of corrosion inhibitors in solution could be reduced by monitoring the absorption of carbon dioxide and using the relationship between pH and carbon dioxide absorption to determine the free hydroxide concentration in solution

  13. Dynamics of charge carrier trapping in NO2 sensors based on ZnO field-effect transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andringa, A.; Vlietstra, N.; Smits, E.C.P.; Spijkman, M.J.; Gomes, H.L.; Klootwijk, J.H.; Blom, P.W.M.; Leeuw, D.M. de

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) detection with ZnO field-effect transistors is based on changes in the threshold voltage caused by charge carriertrapping. Here we investigate the dynamics of charge trapping and recovery as a function of temperature. The threshold voltage shifts for both trapping and recovery

  14. Modification of a commercial cavity ring-down spectroscopy NO2 detector for enhanced sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellanos, Patricia; Ehrman, Sheryl H.; Luke, Winston T.; Kelley, Paul; Stehr, Jeffrey W.; Dickerson, Russell R.

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) plays a central role in atmospheric chemistry, air pollution, and biogeochemical cycles. Many analytical techniques have been developed to detect NO 2 , but only chemiluminescence-based instruments are commonly, commercially available. There remains a need for a fast, light, and simple method to directly measure NO 2 . In this work we describe the modification and characterization of a small, commercially available cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) NO 2 detector suitable for surface and aircraft monitoring. A metal oxide scrubber was added to remove NO 2 , and provide a chemical zero, improving the detection limit (3σ of the background noise) from several parts per billion by volume (ppbv) to 0.06 ppbv, integrated over 60 s. Known interferences by water and particles were removed using Nafion tubing and a 1 μm Teflon filter, respectively. A 95% response time of 18±1 s was observed for a step change in concentration. The CRDS detector was run in parallel to an ozone chemiluminescence device with photolytic conversion of NO 2 to NO. The two instruments measured ambient air in suburban Maryland. A least-squares fit to the comparison data resulted a slope of 0.960±0.002 and R of 0.995, showing agreement within experimental uncertainty.

  15. KONTRIBUSI PARAMETER METEOROLOGI DAN KONDISI LALU LINTAS TERHADAP KONSENTRASI PENCEMAR NO2 DI KOTA SEMARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titik Istirokhatun

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution and its public health effects are drawing increasing concern from the environmental health research community, environmental regulatory agencies, industries as well as public. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2 is one of those common air pollutants that potentially major cause health problems. Transportation contributed most of the air pollution. In addition, the number of vehicles that are passing and queuing on the crossroads because of traffic light can affect the concentration of NO2. Besides, in these places there are a lot of road users which are potentially exposed by contaminants, so information about the concentration of NO2 on road side is important to know. This study aimed to investigate the impact of meteorological factors and the number of vehicles on NO2 concentrations. Impinger fritted bubler was used for air sampling, and Griess Saltzman method was used for determining NO2 concentration. Sampling and calculation of the number of passing vehicles were performed 3 times ie in the morning, afternoon and evening. Based on the results of the study, the highest concentrations of NO2 were on the range of 0.7-4.2 mg/Nm3.

  16. National patterns in environmental injustice and inequality: outdoor NO2 air pollution in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara P Clark

    Full Text Available We describe spatial patterns in environmental injustice and inequality for residential outdoor nitrogen dioxide (NO2 concentrations in the contiguous United States. Our approach employs Census demographic data and a recently published high-resolution dataset of outdoor NO2 concentrations. Nationally, population-weighted mean NO2 concentrations are 4.6 ppb (38%, p2.5 hours/week of physical activity. Inequality for NO2 concentration is greater than inequality for income (Atkinson Index: 0.11 versus 0.08. Low-income nonwhite young children and elderly people are disproportionately exposed to residential outdoor NO2. Our findings establish a national context for previous work that has documented air pollution environmental injustice and inequality within individual US metropolitan areas and regions. Results given here can aid policy-makers in identifying locations with high environmental injustice and inequality. For example, states with both high injustice and high inequality (top quintile for outdoor residential NO2 include New York, Michigan, and Wisconsin.

  17. Rapid economic growth leads to boost in NO2 pollution over India, as seen from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilboll, Andreas; Richter, Andreas; Burrows, John P.

    2016-04-01

    Over the past decades, the Indian economy has been growing at an exceptional pace. This growth was induced and accompanied by a strong increase of the Indian population. Consequently, traffic, electricity consumption, and industrial production have soared over the past decades, leading to a strong increase in fuel consumption and thus pollutant emissions. Nitrogen oxides (NO+NO2) are a major component of anthropogenic air pollution, playing key part in reaction cycles leading to the formation of tropospheric ozone. They are mainly emitted by the combustion of fossil fuels; other sources include production by lightning, biomass burning, and microbial activity in soils. Since the mid-1990s, space-borne measurements of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) have been conducted by the GOME, SCIAMACHY, GOME-2, and OMI instruments. These instruments perform hyperspectral measurements of scattered and reflected sunlight. Their measurements are then analyzed using differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) to yield vertically integrated columnar trace gas abundances. Here, we will present the results of 20 years of NO2 measurements over the Indian subcontinent. After showing the spatial distribution of NO2 pollution over India, we will present time series for individual states and urban agglomerations. These time series will then be related to various indicators of economic development. Finally, we will highlight several instances where single industrial pollution sources and their development can clearly be identified from the NO2 maps and estimate their NO2 emissions.

  18. Linking exposure to environmental pollutants with biological effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; Autrup, Herman; Møller, Peter

    2003-01-01

    exposure to PM(2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and benzene has been measured in groups of 40-50 subjects. Measured biomarkers included 1-hydroxypyrene, benzene metabolites (phenylmercapturic acid (PMA) and trans-trans-muconic acid (ttMA)), 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) in urine, DNA strand....... With respect to exposure to PM, biomarkers of oxidative damage showed significant positive association with the individual exposure. Thus, 8-oxodG in lymphocyte DNA and markers of oxidative damage to lipids and protein in plasma associated with PM(2.5) exposure. Several types of DNA damage showed seasonal......, biological effects of air pollutants appear mainly related to oxidative stress via personal exposure and not to urban background levels. Future developments include personal time-resolved monitors for exposure to ultrafine PM and PM(2.5,) use of GPS, as well as genomics and proteomics based biomarkers....

  19. Modeling the intraurban variation in nitrogen dioxide in urban areas in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurung, Anobha; Levy, Jonathan I; Bell, Michelle L

    2017-05-01

    With growing urbanization, traffic has become one of the main sources of air pollution in Nepal. Understanding the impact of air pollution on health requires estimation of exposure. Land use regression (LUR) modeling is widely used to investigate intraurban variation in air pollution for Western cities, but LUR models are relatively scarce in developing countries. In this study, we developed LUR models to characterize intraurban variation of nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) in urban areas of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, one of the fastest urbanizing areas in South Asia. Over the study area, 135 monitoring sites were selected using stratified random sampling based on building density and road density along with purposeful sampling. In 2014, four sampling campaigns were performed, one per season, for two weeks each. NO 2 was measured using duplicate Palmes tubes at 135 sites, with additional information on nitric oxide (NO), NO 2 , and nitrogen oxide (NOx) concentrations derived from Ogawa badges at 28 sites. Geographical variables (e.g., road network, land use, built area) were used as predictor variables in LUR modeling, considering buffers 25-400m around each monitoring site. Annual average NO 2 by site ranged from 5.7 to 120ppb for the study area, with higher concentrations in the Village Development Committees (VDCs) of Kathmandu and Lalitpur than in Kirtipur, Thimi, and Bhaktapur, and with variability present within each VDC. In the final LUR model, length of major road, built area, and industrial area were positively associated with NO 2 concentration while normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was negatively associated with NO 2 concentration (R 2 =0.51). Cross-validation of the results confirmed the reliability of the model. The combination of passive NO 2 sampling and LUR modeling techniques allowed for characterization of nitrogen dioxide patterns in a developing country setting, demonstrating spatial variability and high pollution levels. Copyright © 2017

  20. Sequential changes in canine pulmonary epithelial and endothelial cell functions after nitrogen dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Man, S.F.; Williams, D.J.; Amy, R.A.; Man, G.C.; Lien, D.C.

    1990-01-01

    Through its ability to cause lipid peroxidation, nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) may affect the functional properties of both the pulmonary epithelium and endothelium. We evaluated this possibility in 13 mongrel dogs by exposing these animals to 200 or 400 ppm NO 2 for 1 h. The changes in pulmonary epithelial permeability (using a radioaerosol technique), FRC, and endothelial function (the removal of radiolabeled serotonin, [ 14 C]5-HT, and prostaglandin E1, [3H]PGE1, from the pulmonary circulation) were measured at 1 h and at 2, 7, or 14 days after NO 2 exposure. In another six dogs, we evaluated changes in cell population and albumin in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid caused by NO 2 . In the first two days after NO 2 exposure, focal pulmonary edema was documented on microscopy, radioaerosol clearance was delayed, and FRC decreased slightly. BAL showed a marked increase in albumin, but the removal of trace amounts of 5-HT and PGE1 by the endothelium was not altered. All physiologic abnormalities returned to normal with time

  1. Land use regression modeling of oxidative potential of fine particles, NO2, PM2.5 mass and association to type two diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellack, Bryan; Sugiri, Dorothea; Schins, Roel P. F.; Schikowski, Tamara; Krämer, Ursula; Kuhlbusch, Thomas A. J.; Hoffmann, Barbara

    2017-12-01

    While land use regression models (LUR) are commonly used, e.g. for the prediction of spatially variable air pollutant mass concentrations, they are scarcely used for predicting the oxidative potential (OP), a suggested unifying predictor of health effects. Therefore a LUR model was developed to examine if long-term OP of fine particulate exposure can be reasonably predicted by LUR modeling and whether it is related to health effects in a study region comprised of urban and rural areas. Four 14-day sampling periods over 1 year at 40 sites in the western Ruhr Area and adjacent northern rural area, Germany, in 2002/2003 were conducted and annual Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2), fine particles (PM2.5), and OP were calculated. LUR models were developed to estimate spatially-resolved annual OP, NO2 and PM2.5 concentrations. The model performance was checked by leave-one-out cross validation (LOOCV) and cox regression was used to analyze the association of modeled residential OP and NO2 with incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in 1784 elderly women during a mean follow-up of 16 years (baseline 1985-1994). The measured OP and NO2 concentrations were moderately correlated (rSpearman 0.57). The LUR models explained 62% and 92% of the OP and NO2 variance (adjusted LOOCV R2 57% and 90%). PM10 emission from combustion in a 5000 m buffer was the most important predictor for OP and NO2. Modeled pollutants were highly correlated (rSpearman 0.87). Model quality for OP was sensitive to the inclusion of a single influential measurement site. For PM2.5 mass only an insufficient model with a low explained variance of 22% (adjusted R2) was developed so no health effects analyses were conducted with estimated PM2.5. Increases in OP and NO2 were associated with an increase in risk of T2DM by a hazard ratio of 1.38 (95% CI 1.06-1.80) and 1.39 (95% CI 1.07-1.81) per interquartile range of OP and NO2, respectively. We conclude that spatially-resolved OP can be predicted by LUR modeling, but

  2. Air quality assessment of carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Air quality in urban areas is a cause of concern because of increased industrial activities that contribute to large quantities of emissions. The study assess levels and variations of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) in Blantyre, Malawi using a stationary environmental monitoring station ...

  3. SO2 and NO2 over major urban regions of India: a tempo-spatial perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, C.; Lal, S.

    2012-12-01

    Demographic projections show that by the year 2025, 16 of the world's 29 megacities will be located in Asia, many of which have very basic problems in terms of air quality. Apart from being home to a burgeoning population, these regions of the globe are also major players in atmospheric chemistry as a result of myriad emission patterns combined with intense photochemistry. Like most of these Asian megacities, fast-paced development in some of the Indian cities has ramifications in increased emissions from industrial and transport sectors. These emissions release sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), in addition to several pollutants, into the ambient air and have the potential to impact the chemistry and radiative balance on a regional scale. Surface measurements of these two criteria pollutants by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), India during 2005-2010 from 13 urban locations in India have been analyzed to get an insight into their temporal and spatial variability. Stations are chosen to represent the entire Indian region: Indo-Gangetic plain or 'IGP' (Jalandhar, Delhi, Kanpur, Durgapur, Kolkata, Guwahati), western India (Jodhpur, Ahmedabad, Surat), central India (Nagpur, Hyderabad) and southern India (Chennai, Trivandrum). The monthly averaged surface level SO2 and NO2 have also been compared with monthly columnar averages of these gases as detected by the Ozone monitoring Instrument (OMI) over these station grids. Mean SO2 concentrations are found to be the highest for Surat (7.5 ppbv), located in a highly industrialized region. Elevated levels of NO2, observed for Durgapur and Kolkata (31 ppbv each), are close to the 24-hour 'National Ambient Air Quality' standard (30 ppbv). The surface concentrations for both SO2 and NO2 concentrations are found to be the highest during winter. Columnar SO2 over many stations show a maximum during summer monsoon. For most IGP stations, columnar NO2 values are elevated during winter. Wavelet analyses

  4. A comparison of NO2 absorption measurements from an FTIR spectrometer and the OSIRIS spectrograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puckrin, E.; Evans, W.F.J.

    2007-01-01

    The optical spectrograph and infrared imager system (OSIRIS) aboard the Odin satellite was part of Canada's contribution to the international joint venture of this satellite project. OSIRIS is used for aeronomic studies, including the study of stratospheric ozone (O 3 ) depletion and transport dynamics. It collects limb-view spectra of the scattered sunlight in the ultraviolet-visible region and measures the column abundance of ozone, nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and other trace constituents in the atmosphere. Vertical concentration profiles are then generated for these gases. In this study, spectral measurements of the transmission of a gas cell filled with various amounts of NO 2 were obtained with two instruments, a Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer and the OSIRIS spectrograph of the grating type. Five different gas-cell concentrations were examined in an effort to calibrate the OSIRIS instrument in the 400 to 700 nm region where NO 2 absorbs visible radiation. The NO 2 column amounts derived from the OSIRIS measurements ranged from 6.05 x 10 17 to 1.17 x 10 16 molecules/cm 2 , and agreed within 10 per cent of the values determined from the FTIR measurements. It was concluded that the OSIRIS spectrograph is well suited for the remote sensing of atmospheric NO 2 . 13 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs

  5. Effects of ozone exposure on `Golden' papaya fruit by photoacoustic phase-resolved method: Physiological changes associated with carbon dioxide and ethylene emission rates during ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Savio Figueira; Mota, Leonardo; Paiva, Luisa Brito; Couto, Flávio Mota do; Silva, Marcelo Gomes da; Oliveira, Jurandi Gonçalves de; Sthel, Marcelo Silva; Vargas, Helion; Miklós, András

    2011-06-01

    This work addresses the effects of ozone activity on the physiology of `Golden' papaya fruit. Depth profile analysis of double-layer biological samples was accomplished using the phase-resolved photoacoustic spectroscopy. The feasibility of the method was demonstrated by singling out the spectra of the cuticle and the pigment layers of papaya fruit. The same approach was used to monitor changes occurring on the fruit during ripening when exposed to ozone. In addition, one has performed real time studies of fluorescence parameters and the emission rates of carbon dioxide and ethylene. Finally, the amount of pigments and the changes in waxy cuticle have been monitored. Results indicate that a fruit deliberately subjected to ozone at a level of 6 ppmv underwent ripening sooner (at least 24-48 h) than a fruit stored at ambient conditions. Moreover, ozone caused a reduction in the maximum quantum yield of photosynthetic apparatus located within the skin of papaya fruit.

  6. Svendsen Symphony No. 2 in B flat / Robert Layton

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Layton, Robert

    1994-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Svendsen Symphony No. 2 in B flat, Op. 15... Stavanger Symphony Orchestra / Grant Llewellyn. Chatsworth CD FCM 1002; Symphony No. 2 - selected comparisons: Gothenburg SO, Järvi (11/87)(BIS) CD 347

  7. Degenerate four-wave mixing and polarization spectroscopy in NO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Dominicis, Luigi; Fantoni, Roberta; Giorgi, Mariano

    2002-05-01

    Degenerate Four Wave Mixing (DFWM) and polarization spectroscopy (PS) have been used to detect traces of nitric dioxide in a static cell at room temperature and in a small flame from a laboratory Bunsen burner. The high resolution spectrum of the Douglas-Huber band has been recorded with both techniques. The role played by population and thermal gratings in the DFWM case has been investigated under various experimental conditions. PS measurements performed with 'orientation' and 'alignment' configurations allowed to resolve NO2 composite spectral features.

  8. Satellite-Derived NO2 as an Indicator of Urban Air Quality and Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, T.; Penn, E.; Harkey, M.

    2016-12-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is the satellite-derived constituent with the most direct connection to fossil fuel emissions. At present the Ozone Monitoring Instrument aboard the NASA Aura satellite offers the highest resolution NO2retrievals, and new missions under development (TropOMI, TEMPO, GEMS, Sentinel-4) offer the potential for improved data in coming years. We present results applying satellite-derived NO2data to characterize air quality and emissions in U.S. cities. We highlight research findings geared toward increasing the relevance of satellite data to evaluate urban-scale air quality issues. This work reflects activities under the NASA Air Quality Applied Sciences Team (AQAST), and emerging work under the NASA Health and Air Quality Applied Sciences Team (H-AQAST). Among our results is a characterization of the diurnal cycle of nitrogen oxides using ground-based observations and satellite data. In situ monitoring from the U.S. EPA Air Quality System (AQS) shows that most locations have two daily peaks in NO2 (morning and evening) and a single daily peak in NO (morning). Spaced-based observations from the ESA Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2), with a mid-morning overpass, and the NASA OMI, with an early afternoon overpass, support a complementary analysis for characterizing diurnal variability in NO2. Both ground-based monitors and satellite data show a reduction in the amplitude of the diurnal NO2 cycle. In the Western U.S., satellite data showed evidence of higher NO2 in urban centers in the afternoon (OMI) and higher NO2 in suburban areas in the morning (GOME-2), consistent with diurnal traffic patterns associated with commuting. Some power plants in the Western U.S. showed an increase in NO2in the afternoon, consistent with peak power demand associated with building air conditioning use. We extend this city-focused analysis satellite-derived HCHO:NO2 ratios as an indicator of ozone production regime, comparing modeled and measured ratios

  9. Estimating Western U.S. Oil & Gas Emissions with OMI NO2 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, O. E.; Holloway, T.; Oberman, J.

    2012-12-01

    In the last ten years, there has been a steep increase in the number natural gas and oil extraction facilities in the United States due to hydraulic fracturing ("fracking"). Each facility requires a large range of equipment, such as drilling rigs, compressor engines, heaters, and pneumatic devices. These activities can lead to elevated nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emissions in rural areas, often in regions without routine NO2 surface monitoring. Furthermore, permitting rules vary from state to state, and many new extraction facilities are unpermitted and exact emissions unknown. On April 18, 2012, the EPA announced air pollution standards for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions from the oil and gas industry. Until 2015, when these standards must be in effect, NOx (NO2 + NO) will continue to react with VOCs to form unhealthy levels of tropospheric ozone in regions with heavy use of hydraulic fracturing. In order to identify areas of elevated NO2 emissions and constrain associated on-road and off-road sources in areas with prominent shale basins and known drilling, we employ remote sensing estimates of column NO2 from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aboard NASA's Aura satellite. OMI NO2 is sensitive to the planetary boundary layer and to surface air pollution and thus has high temporal and spatial variation. These Level-2 satellite data are processed with the Wisconsin Horizontal Interpolation Program for Satellites (WHIPS), developed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. We interpolate the data to allow further ease in mapping change in NO2 associated with drilling, and the quantification of pollution trends attributable to hydraulic-fracturing in the Western U.S. from 2004 to the present.

  10. Aura OMI Observations of Global SO2 and NO2 Pollution from 2005 to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krotkov, Nickolay; Li, Can; Lamsal, Lok; Celarier, Edward; Marchenko, Sergey; Swartz, William H.; Bucsela, Eric; Fioletov, Vitali; McLinden, Chris; Joiner, Joanna; hide

    2014-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), a NASA partnership with the Netherlands and Finland, flies on the NASA Aura satellite and uses reflected sunlight to measure the two critical atmospheric trace gases: nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) characterizing daily air quality. Both gases and the secondary pollutants they produce (particulate matter, PM2.5, and tropospheric ozone) are USEPA designated criteria pollutants, posing serious threats to human health and the environment (e.g., acid rain, plant damage and reduced visibility). Our group at NASA GSFC has developed and maintained OMI standard SO2 and NO2 data products. We have recently released an updated version of the standard NO2 L2 and L3 products (SP v2.1) and continue improving the algorithm. We are currently in the process of releasing next generation pollution SO2 product, based on an innovative Principal Component Analysis (PCA) algorithm, which greatly reduces the noise and biases. These new standard products provide valuable datasets for studying anthropogenic pollution on local to global scales. Here we highlight some of the OMI observed changes in air quality over several regions. Over the US average NO2 and SO2 pollution levels had decreased dramatically as a result of both technological improvements (e.g., catalytic converters on cars) and stricter regulations of emissions. We see continued decline in pollution over Europe. Over China OMI observed an increase of about 60 percent in NO2 pollution between 2005 and 2013, despite a temporal reversal of the growing trend due to both 2008 Olympic Games and the economic recession in 2009. Chinese SO2 pollution seems to have stabilized since peaking in 2007, probably due to government efforts to curb SO2 emissions from the power sector. We have also observed large increases in both SO2 and NO2 pollution particularly in Eastern India where a number of large new coal power plants had been built in recent years. We expect that further

  11. Nitrogen dioxide levels estimated from land use regression models several years apart and association with mortality in a large cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesaroni Giulia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Land Use Regression models (LUR are useful to estimate the spatial variability of air pollution in urban areas. Few studies have evaluated the stability of spatial contrasts in outdoor nitrogen dioxide (NO2 concentration over several years. We aimed to compare measured and estimated NO2 levels 12 years apart, the stability of the exposure estimates for members of a large cohort study, and the association of the exposure estimates with natural mortality within the cohort. Methods We measured NO2 at 67 locations in Rome in 1995/96 and 78 sites in 2007, over three one-week-long periods. To develop LUR models, several land-use and traffic variables were used. NO2 concentration at each residential address was estimated for a cohort of 684,000 adults. We used Cox regression to analyze the association between the two estimated exposures and mortality. Results The mean NO2 measured concentrations were 45.4 μg/m3 (SD 6.9 in 1995/96 and 44.6 μg/m3 (SD 11.0 in 2007, respectively. The correlation of the two measurements was 0.79. The LUR models resulted in adjusted R2 of 0.737 and 0.704, respectively. The correlation of the predicted exposure values for cohort members was 0.96. The association of each 10 μg/m3 increase in NO2 with mortality was 6 % for 1995/96 and 4 % for 2007 LUR models. The increased risk per an inter-quartile range change was identical (4 %, 95 % CI:3–6 % for both estimates of NO2. Conclusions Measured and predicted NO2 values from LUR models, from samples collected 12 years apart, had good agreement, and the exposure estimates were similarly associated with mortality in a large cohort study.

  12. Vasomotor function in rat arteries after ex vivo and intragastric exposure to food-grade titanium dioxide and vegetable carbon particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ditte Marie; Christophersen, Daniel Vest; Sheykhzade, Majid

    2018-01-01

    Background: Humans are continuously exposed to particles in the gastrointestinal tract. Exposure may occur directly through ingestion of particles via food or indirectly by removal of inhaled material from the airways by the mucociliary clearance system. We examined the effects of food-grade part...

  13. Effects of cerium dioxide nanoparticles in Oncorhynchus mykiss liver after an acute exposure: assessment of oxidative stress, genotoxicity and histological alterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Nunes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available At present cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NP have numerous applications ranging from industry to the household, leading to its wide distribution namely in the aquatic environment. The hereby study aimed to assess the toxic effects of CeO2 NPs in Oncorhynchus mykiss liver following an acute exposure (96h to three different concentrations (0.25, 2.5 and 25 mg/L in terms of the genotoxicity (comet assay, oxidative stress response (Catalase CAT; Glutathione S-Transferases GSTs; Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances TBARS and histopathology. CeO2 NP exposure resulted in genotoxic damage in all exposure treatments, inhibition of CAT in the highest concentration and histopathological changes in all exposure concentrations with predominance of progressive and circulatory alterations. However TBARS and GSTs showed no significant differences comparatively to the control (unexposed group. The results suggest that CeO2 NP are able to cause genotoxicity, biochemical impairment and histological alterations in the liver of rainbow trout.

  14. Molecular and physiological responses to titanium dioxide and cerium oxide nanoparticles in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    - Changes in tissue transcriptomes and productivity of Arabidopsis thaliana were investigated during exposure of plants to two widely-used engineered metal oxide nanoparticles, titanium dioxide (nano-titanium) and cerium dioxide (nano-cerium). Microarray analyses confirmed that e...

  15. Short- and long-term consequences of larval stage exposure to constantly and ephemerally elevated carbon dioxide for marine bivalve populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Gobler

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available While larval bivalves are highly sensitive to ocean acidification, the basis for this sensitivity and the longer-term implications of this sensitivity are unclear. Experiments were performed to assess the short-term (days and long-term (months consequences of larval stage exposure to varying CO2 concentrations for calcifying bivalves. Higher CO2 concentrations depressed both calcification rates assessed using 45Ca uptake and RNA : DNA ratios in Mercenaria mercenaria and Argopecten irradians larvae with RNA : DNA ratios being highly correlated with larval growth rates (r2>0.9. These findings suggested that high CO2 has a cascading negative physiological impact on bivalve larvae stemming in part from lower calcification rates. Exposure to elevated CO2 during the first four days of larval development significantly depressed A. irradians larval survival rates, while a 10-day exposure later in larval development did not, demonstrating the extreme CO2 sensitivity of bivalve larvae during first days of development. Short- (weeks and long-term (10 month experiments revealed that individuals surviving exposure to high CO2 during larval development grew faster when exposed to normal CO2 as juveniles compared to individuals reared under ambient CO2 as larvae. These increased growth rates could not, however, overcome size differences established during larval development, as size deficits of individuals exposed to even moderate levels of CO2 as larvae were evident even after 10 months of growth under normal CO2 concentrations. This "legacy effect" emphasizes the central role larval stage CO2 exposure can play in shaping the success of modern-day bivalve populations.

  16. Application of a high-efficiency cabin air filter for simultaneous mitigation of ultrafine particle and carbon dioxide exposures inside passenger vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eon S; Zhu, Yifang

    2014-02-18

    Modern passenger vehicles are commonly equipped with cabin air filters but their filtration efficiency for ultrafine particle (UFP) is rather low. Although setting the vehicle ventilation system to recirculation (RC) mode can reduce in-cabin UFPs by ∼ 90%, passenger-exhaled carbon dioxide (CO2) can quickly accumulate inside the cabin. Using outdoor air (OA) mode instead can provide sufficient air exchange to prevent CO2 buildup, but in-cabin UFP concentrations would increase. To overcome this dilemma, we developed a simultaneous mitigation method for UFP and CO2 using high-efficiency cabin air (HECA) filtration in OA mode. Concentrations of UFP and other air pollutants were simultaneously monitored in and out of 12 different vehicles under 3 driving conditions: stationary, on local roadways, and on freeways. Under each experimental condition, data were collected with no filter, in-use original equipment manufacturer (OEM) filter, and two types of HECA filters. The HECA filters offered an average in-cabin UFP reduction of 93%, much higher than the OEM filters (∼ 50% on average). Throughout the measurements, the in-cabin CO2 concentration remained in the range of 620-930 ppm, significantly lower than the typical level of 2500-4000 ppm observed in the RC mode.

  17. Effects of gradual exposure to carbon dioxide gas on the blood pressure status of workers in coal mines of Kerman province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodabandeh-Shahraki, Sadigheh; Azizzadeh-Forouzi, Mansoureh

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the probable changes in blood pressure of workers in coal mines. In this study 91 workers, who worked in forwarding, preparation and exploitation units of coal mines and were in direct contact with carbon dioxide gas (from fireworks), have been selected as the case group, and 70 workers, who did not have direct contact with this gas, from other units were selected as the control group by simple random sampling method. The inclusion criteria were over 10 years of work experience and the age range of 30 to 45 years. The blood pressure values and their classification were determined based on the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention of Hypertension. Statistical analysis was performed using t-test. The results of this study showed that mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures in the case group were significantly lower than the control group (P mines is less than other people due to the CO2 gas. A greater control of the existing gas in mines by relevant factors is required. Necessary medical care and support measures should also be considered.

  18. Analysis of the temporal evolution of total column nitrogen dioxide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Concurrent measurement and analysis of Nitrogen dioxide (NO2)and Ozone (O3) are essential for improved understanding of ozone distribution. This study sought to analyse the temporal evolution of total column NO2 and O3 over Nairobi using satellite-derived daily data between 2009 and 2013. Seasonality is observed ...

  19. Room temperature detection of NO2 using InSb nanowire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Rajat Kanti; Badhulika, Sushmee; Mulchandani, Ashok

    2011-07-01

    Room temperature detection of NO2 down to one part-per-million (ppm) using single crystalline n-type InSb nanowires (NWs) chemiresistive gas sensor is presented. These sensors were synthesized and fabricated by the combination of chemical vapor deposition and dielectrophoresis alignment techniques. The sensor devices showed an increase in resistance upon exposure to successive increments of NO2 concentration up to 10 ppm. The reduction in conductance of n-type InSb NWs when exposed to NO2 is made possible due to the charge transfer from the InSb NW surface to the adsorbed electron acceptor NO2 molecules. The demonstrated results suggest InSb NW as a promising candidate in sensing applications as well as being environmental friendly over existing arsenic and/or phosphorous-based III-V NW sensors.

  20. Land-use regression panel models of NO2 concentrations in Seoul, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngkook; Guldmann, Jean-Michel

    2015-04-01

    Transportation and land-use activities are major air pollution contributors. Since their shares of emissions vary across space and time, so do air pollution concentrations. Despite these variations, panel data have rarely been used in land-use regression (LUR) modeling of air pollution. In addition, the complex interactions between traffic flows, land uses, and meteorological variables, have not been satisfactorily investigated in LUR models. The purpose of this research is to develop and estimate nitrogen dioxide (NO2) panel models based on the LUR framework with data for Seoul, Korea, accounting for the impacts of these variables, and their interactions with spatial and temporal dummy variables. The panel data vary over several scales: daily (24 h), seasonally (4), and spatially (34 intra-urban measurement locations). To enhance model explanatory power, wind direction and distance decay effects are accounted for. The results show that vehicle-kilometers-traveled (VKT) and solar radiation have statistically strong positive and negative impacts on NO2 concentrations across the four seasonal models. In addition, there are significant interactions with the dummy variables, pointing to VKT and solar radiation effects on NO2 concentrations that vary with time and intra-urban location. The results also show that residential, commercial, and industrial land uses, and wind speed, temperature, and humidity, all impact NO2 concentrations. The R2 vary between 0.95 and 0.98.

  1. Visualization of NO2 emission sources using temporal and spatial pattern analysis in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütt, A. M. N.; Kuhlmann, G.; Zhu, Y.; Lipkowitsch, I.; Wenig, M.

    2016-12-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is an indicator for population density and level of development, but the contributions of the different emission sources to the overall concentrations remains mostly unknown. In order to allocate fractions of OMI NO2 to emission types, we investigate several temporal cycles and regional patterns.Our analysis is based on daily maps of tropospheric NO2 vertical column densities (VCDs) from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). The data set is mapped to a high resolution grid by a histopolation algorithm. This algorithm is based on a continuous parabolic spline, producing more realistic smooth distributions while reproducing the measured OMI values when integrating over ground pixel areas.In the resulting sequence of zoom in maps, we analyze weekly and annual cycles for cities, countryside and highways in China, Japan and Korea Republic and look for patterns and trends and compare the derived results to emission sources in Middle Europe and North America. Due to increased heating in winter compared to summer and more traffic during the week than on Sundays, we dissociate traffic, heating and power plants and visualized maps with different sources. We will also look into the influence of emission control measures during big events like the Olympic Games 2008 and the World Expo 2010 as a possibility to confirm our classification of NO2 emission sources.

  2. Measurement of atmospheric NO2 profile using three-wavelength dual-differential absorption lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiuwu; Chen, Yafeng; Wang, Jie; Huang, Jian; Hu, Shunxing

    2017-11-01

    Lidar instruments are efficient detectors of air pollutants such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2). However, the measurement errors are not negligible due to the influence of the aerosol in the atmosphere. We present a novel lidar for measuring tropospheric NO2 vertical profiles. For improving the received powers, the emitter unit consists of two pulsed pump laser - dye laser combination, and use three wavelengths of 448.10nm, 447.20nm and 446.60 nm corresponding to the strong, medium and weak absorption of NO2 respectively. The effects of aerosol on tropospheric NO2 measurements by three - wavelength (448.10 -447.20 -446.60 nm) dual differential absorption lidar (dual-DIAL) and conventional two - wave length (448.10- 446.60nm) differential absorption lidar (DIAL) are theoretical analyzed, and their system err are computer simulated. Experimental results show that the three - wavelength dual - DIAL method is more effective to reduce the effects of aerosol than the two - wavelength DIAL method, and its system error is no more than 4% without correcting the aerosol effect.

  3. Potential reductions in ambient NO2 concentrations from meeting diesel vehicle emissions standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Schneidemesser, Erika; Kuik, Friderike; Mar, Kathleen A.; Butler, Tim

    2017-11-01

    Exceedances of the concentration limit value for ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2) at roadside sites are an issue in many cities throughout Europe. This is linked to the emissions of light duty diesel vehicles which have on-road emissions that are far greater than the regulatory standards. These exceedances have substantial implications for human health and economic loss. This study explores the possible gains in ambient air quality if light duty diesel vehicles were able to meet the regulatory standards (including both emissions standards from Europe and the United States). We use two independent methods: a measurement-based and a model-based method. The city of Berlin is used as a case study. The measurement-based method used data from 16 monitoring stations throughout the city of Berlin to estimate annual average reductions in roadside NO2 of 9.0 to 23 µg m-3 and in urban background NO2 concentrations of 1.2 to 2.7 µg m-3. These ranges account for differences in fleet composition assumptions, and the stringency of the regulatory standard. The model simulations showed reductions in urban background NO2 of 2.0 µg m-3, and at the scale of the greater Berlin area of 1.6 to 2.0 µg m-3 depending on the setup of the simulation and resolution of the model. Similar results were found for other European cities. The similarities in results using the measurement- and model-based methods support our ability to draw robust conclusions that are not dependent on the assumptions behind either methodology. The results show the significant potential for NO2 reductions if regulatory standards for light duty diesel vehicles were to be met under real-world operating conditions. Such reductions could help improve air quality by reducing NO2 exceedances in urban areas, but also have broader implications for improvements in human health and other benefits.

  4. Upgrade of the DAUMOD atmospheric dispersion model to estimate urban background NO2 concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda Rojas, Andrea L.; Venegas, Laura E.

    2013-02-01

    Ambient concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) resulting from the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in an urban area may cause adverse impacts on the human health and the natural environment if they exceed the air quality standards. The evaluation of NO2 can be achieved through the application of air quality models including photochemical reactions. DAUMOD is a simple urban scale atmospheric dispersion model which was originally developed to estimate urban background concentrations of inert species. In order to allow the estimation of NO2 concentrations in an urban atmosphere, the DAUMOD model has been recently coupled to the Generic Reaction Set (GRS), a simplified photochemical scheme. This work presents the development of the DAUMOD-GRS model and its first application in the city of Buenos Aires considering high resolution area source NOx and VOC emissions recently obtained for the area. Estimated hourly NO2 concentrations are compared with the observations from a campaign carried out at a green open area within the city in winter 2001. Results show a good model performance, with NMSE = 0.49, FA2 = 0.676 and FB = - 0.097. DAUMOD-GRS is applied to obtain the spatial distribution of annual NO2 concentrations in the city. The maximum value is 36 ppb, indicating that annual NO2 concentrations in Buenos Aires are below the Air Quality Standard (53 ppb). In addition, hourly ozone concentrations estimated by DAUMOD-GRS are compared with observed values, giving NMSE = 0.38, FA2 = 0.684 and FB = - 0.225.

  5. Quantum Yields of Nitrite (NO2-) from the Photolysis of Nitrate (NO3-) in Ice at 313 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Katherine B; Anastasio, Cort

    2017-11-09

    Photochemical reactions of nitrate in snow release reactive nitrogen species via two channels, which produce (1) nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and hydroxyl radical ( • OH) and (2) nitrite (NO 2 - ) and oxygen atom (O( 3 P)). Quantum yields (Φ) for these channels are generally well characterized, except for channel 2 in ice. In this study, we quantify Φ(NO 2 - ) in water ices and examine the impacts of pH and organic scavengers of • OH. Compared to solution results, we find that nitrite quantum yields in ice are more sensitive to pH and that • OH scavengers are less effective, although 2-propanol appears to work well. The temperature dependence (-30 to 25 °C) of Φ(NO 2 - ) in samples containing 2-propanol is well described by a single regression line, ln(Φ(NO 2 - )) = -(1330 ± 100)(1/T(K)) + (0.09 ± 0.39). At -10 °C, the resulting quantum yield is 4.6 times larger than the previously reported (and recommended) value without an • OH scavenger. Although some reports suggest nitrite is a minor product from nitrate photolysis, based on our current and past results, rates of photoproduction of NO 2 - and NO 2 are similar at room temperature, while NO 2 - production dominates at lower temperatures in solution and ice.

  6. OMI NO2 column densities over North American urban cities: the effect of satellite footprint resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Cheol; Lee, Pius; Judd, Laura; Pan, Li; Lefer, Barry

    2016-03-01

    Nitrogen dioxide vertical column density (NO2 VCD) measurements via satellite are compared with a fine-scale regional chemistry transport model, using a new approach that considers varying satellite footprint sizes. Space-borne NO2 VCD measurement has been used as a proxy for surface nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission, especially for anthropogenic urban emission, so accurate comparison of satellite and modeled NO2 VCD is important in determining the future direction of NOx emission policy. The NASA Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) NO2 VCD measurements, retrieved by the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI), are compared with a 12 km Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) simulation from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. We found that the OMI footprint-pixel sizes are too coarse to resolve urban NO2 plumes, resulting in a possible underestimation in the urban core and overestimation outside. In order to quantify this effect of resolution geometry, we have made two estimates. First, we constructed pseudo-OMI data using fine-scale outputs of the model simulation. Assuming the fine-scale model output is a true measurement, we then collected real OMI footprint coverages and performed conservative spatial regridding to generate a set of fake OMI pixels out of fine-scale model outputs. When compared to the original data, the pseudo-OMI data clearly showed smoothed signals over urban locations, resulting in roughly 20-30 % underestimation over major cities. Second, we further conducted conservative downscaling of OMI NO2 VCDs using spatial information from the fine-scale model to adjust the spatial distribution, and also applied averaging kernel (AK) information to adjust the vertical structure. Four-way comparisons were conducted between OMI with and without downscaling and CMAQ with and without AK information. Results show that OMI and CMAQ NO2 VCDs show the best agreement when both downscaling and AK methods are applied, with the correlation

  7. Vital improvements to the retrieval of tropospheric NO2 columns from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maasakkers, Joannes D.; Folkert Boersma, K.; Williams, Jason E.; van Geffen, Jos; Vinken, Geert C. M.; Sneep, Maarten; Hendrick, Francois; van Roozendael, Michel; Pepijn Veefkind, J.

    2013-04-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) play an important role in tropospheric chemistry, they catalyze the production of ozone (O3) and contribute to aerosol formation. NOx is linked to the oxidizing efficiency of the atmosphere since O3 plays an important role in the formation of OH. Satellite observations of NO2 are important for monitoring and studying concentrations of nitrogen oxides, but considerable uncertainties on the accuracy and robustness of the retrievals, and their fitness for model evaluation still persist. These uncertainties pertain to all aspects of the retrieval: (1) spectral fitting, (2) stratospheric background correction, and (3) air mass factor calculation. Here we present a number of relevant improvements to the tropospheric nitrogen dioxide column retrieval algorithm from OMI (DOMINO v3). We revisit the 405-465 nm spectral fitting window for the OMI NO2 slant column retrievals, and suggest adaptations to this window to improve agreement with (stratospheric) columns obtained from SCIAMACHY and GOME-2, as validated with independent FTIR NO2 columns observed from the ground at Jungfraujoch. Furthermore, stronger nudging of the stratospheric O3:HNO3 ratios in the TM5 chemistry transport model (used to estimate the stratospheric background NO2) with those observed by the ODIN instrument, enables us to improve stratospheric NO2 simulations with substantial benefits for the assimilation and stratospheric NO2 corrections in the retrieval. A third important innovation is the coupling of the Dutch OMI NO2 retrieval to the TM5 model with a global resolution of 1°×1°. As suggested previously by Boersma et al. [2007] and demonstrated by Heckel et al. [2011], the better resolved a priori profile shapes lead to a much better understanding of pollution gradients observed from space. In addition to the increased resolution, updated chemistry and emissions (improved soil and ship NOx emissions) in TM5 make the OMI retrieved tropospheric NO2 columns

  8. Indoor NO2 air pollution and lung function of professional cooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbex, M A; Martins, L C; Pereira, L A A; Negrini, F; Cardoso, A A; Melchert, W R; Arbex, R F; Saldiva, P H N; Zanobetti, A; Braga, A L F

    2007-04-01

    Studies of cooking-generated NO2 effects are rare in occupational epidemiology. In the present study, we evaluated the lung function of professional cooks exposed to NO2 in hospital kitchens. We performed spirometry in 37 cooks working in four hospital kitchens and estimated the predicted FVC, FEV1 and FEF(25-75), based on age, sex, race, weight, and height, according to Knudson standards. NO2 measurements were obtained for 4 consecutive days during 4 different periods at 20-day intervals in each kitchen. Measurements were performed inside and outside the kitchens, simultaneously using Palm diffusion tubes. A time/exposure indicator was defined as representative of the cumulative exposure of each cook. No statistically significant effect of NO2 exposure on FVC was found. Each year of work as a cook corresponded to a decrease in predicted FEV1 of 2.5% (P = 0.046) for the group as a whole. When smoking status and asthma were included in the analysis the effect of time/exposure decreased about 10% and lost statistical significance. On predicted FEF(25-75), a decrease of 3.5% (P = 0.035) was observed for the same group and the inclusion of controllers for smoking status and asthma did not affect the effects of time/exposure on pulmonary function parameter. After a 10-year period of work as cooks the participants of the study may present decreases in both predicted FEV1 and FEF(25-75) that can reach 20 and 30%, respectively. The present study showed small but statistically significant adverse effects of gas stove exposure on the lung function of professional cooks.

  9. Indoor NO2 air pollution and lung function of professional cooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Arbex

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies of cooking-generated NO2 effects are rare in occupational epidemiology. In the present study, we evaluated the lung function of professional cooks exposed to NO2 in hospital kitchens. We performed spirometry in 37 cooks working in four hospital kitchens and estimated the predicted FVC, FEV1 and FEF25-75, based on age, sex, race, weight, and height, according to Knudson standards. NO2 measurements were obtained for 4 consecutive days during 4 different periods at 20-day intervals in each kitchen. Measurements were performed inside and outside the kitchens, simultaneously using Palm diffusion tubes. A time/exposure indicator was defined as representative of the cumulative exposure of each cook. No statistically significant effect of NO2 exposure on FVC was found. Each year of work as a cook corresponded to a decrease in predicted FEV1 of 2.5% (P = 0.046 for the group as a whole. When smoking status and asthma were included in the analysis the effect of time/exposure decreased about 10% and lost statistical significance. On predicted FEF25-75, a decrease of 3.5% (P = 0.035 was observed for the same group and the inclusion of controllers for smoking status and asthma did not affect the effects of time/exposure on pulmonary function parameter. After a 10-year period of work as cooks the participants of the study may present decreases in both predicted FEV1 and FEF25-75 that can reach 20 and 30%, respectively. The present study showed small but statistically significant adverse effects of gas stove exposure on the lung function of professional cooks.

  10. Effect of concentration, exposure time, temperature, and relative humidity on the toxicity of sulfur dioxide to the spores of Botrytis cinerea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couey, H.M.; Uota, M.

    1961-12-01

    When spores of Botrytis cinerea are exposed to SO/sub 2/ gas, the subsequent reduction in spore germination is quantitatively proportional to the SO/sub 2/ concentration and the exposure time. The toxicity of SO/sub 2/ increases with increasing relative humidity. In an atmosphere of 96% RH, SO/sub 2/ is more than 20 times as effective as at 75% RH. The toxicity also increases about 1.5 times for each 10/sup 0/C rise in temperature between 0/sup 0/ and 30/sup 0/C. 8 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  11. Investigation of the Nitrogen Dioxide Pollution in Urban Areas using a New Portable ICAD Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horbanski, Martin; Pöhler, Denis; Adler, Tim; Lampel, Johannes; Kanatschnig, Florian; Oesterle, Tobias; Reh, Miriam; Platt, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx) and especially nitrogen dioxide (NO2), are still among of the most problematic pollutants in urban areas not only in developing, but also in industrialized countries. Despite the measures taken to reduce their emissions, NO2 concentrations in many urban areas exceed the WHO recommended limits of 40 μg/m3 for annual mean and 200 μg/m3 for 1 hour mean. Additionally it is known that the NO2 concentration in urban areas has a strong spatial and temporal variability, due to the large number of NOx emitting point sources (mainly traffic) found in densely populated areas. However, the layout of air monitoring networks in most urban areas, installed to continuously monitor the officially prescribed NO2 limits, does not reflect the high spatial variability because they only conduct measurements at a single or few selected sampling points, mainly on major roads, which are often not representative for the whole urban area. At present these uncertainties about the spatial NO2 distribution constitute severe limitations for the assessment of health risks, for the quality of chemical model calculations, and for developing effective measures to reduce NOx emissions. We developed a new light-weight and portable ICAD (Iterative Cavity Enhanced DOAS) instrument which detects NO2 at a detection limit as low as 0.2 μg/m3 with a high time resolution of seconds. The instrument is based on the Cavity Enhanced (CE-) DOAS technique, which directly identifies and quantifies NO2 by its differential optical absorption. Therefore, it does not suffer from interferences by other trace gas species like O3 or NOy. This is a great advantage over other NO2 instruments (e.g. solid state detectors or chemiluminescence instruments). We present the result of ICAD NO2 measurements, which we recently performed in more than 10 German cities. The ICAD instrument was mounted on mobile platforms like cars and bicycles, measuring the NO2 concentrations along carefully selected tracks

  12. Health risks of NO 2, SPM and SO 2 in Delhi (India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Jai Shanker; Kumar, Rakesh; Devotta, Sukumar

    There is increasingly growing evidence linking urban air pollution to acute and chronic illnesses amongst all age groups. Therefore, monitoring of ambient concentrations of various air pollutants as well as quantification of the dose inhaled becomes quite important, specially in view of the fact that in many countries, policy decisions for reducing pollutant concentrations are mainly taken on the basis of their health impacts. The dose when gets combined with the likely responses, indicates the ultimate health risk (HR). Thus, as an extension of our earlier studies, HR has been estimated for three pollutants, namely, suspended particulate matter (SPM), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) and sulfur dioxide (SO 2) for Delhi City in India. For estimation and analyses, three zones have been considered, namely, residential, industrial and commercial. The total population has been divided into three age classes (infants, children and adults) with different body weights and breathing rates. The exercise takes into account age-specific breathing rates, body weights for different age categories and occupancy factors for different zones. Results indicate that health risks due to air pollution in Delhi are highest for children. For all age categories, health risks due to SO 2 (HR_SO 2) are the lowest. Hence, HR_SO 2 has been taken as the reference with respect to which HR values due to SPM and NO 2 have been compared. Taking into account all the age categories and their occupancy in different zones, average HR values for NO 2 and SPM turn out to be respectively 22.11 and 16.13 times more than that for SO 2. The present study can be useful in generating public awareness as well as in averting and mitigating the health risks.

  13. Obstetrics and Gynaecology Forum - Vol 12, No 2 (2002)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obstetrics and Gynaecology Forum - Vol 12, No 2 (2002). Journal Home > Archives > Vol 12, No 2 (2002). Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  14. 7 CFR 51.1002 - U.S. No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946.... No. 2 grade requirements only because of blanching shall be designated as “U.S. No. 2, Mixed Color...

  15. African Journal of Reproductive Health - Vol 4, No 2 (2000)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Reproductive Health. ... African Journal of Reproductive Health - Vol 4, No 2 (2000). Journal Home > Archives > Vol 4, No 2 (2000). Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Editorial: Female Genital Mutilation: A Model for Research on Sexual and Reproductive Rights. OA Olatunbosun ...

  16. 40 CFR 1065.376 - Chiller NO2 penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chiller NO2 penetration. 1065.376... CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calibrations and Verifications Nox and N2o Measurements § 1065.376 Chiller NO2 penetration. (a) Scope and frequency. If you use a chiller to dry a sample upstream of a NOX...

  17. 7 CFR 51.686 - U.S. No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946....686 U.S. No. 2. “U.S. No. 2” consists of oranges which meet the following requirements: (a) Basic...

  18. Personal exposure to ultrafine particles and oxidative DNA damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinzents, Peter S; Møller, Peter; Sørensen, Mette

    2005-01-01

    10), nitrous oxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and/or number concentration of UFPs at urban background or busy street monitoring stations was not a significant predictor of DNA damage, although personal UFP exposure was correlated with urban background concentrations of CO and NO2...... the morning after exposure measurement. Cumulated outdoor and cumulated indoor exposures to UFPs each were independent significant predictors of the level of purine oxidation in DNA but not of strand breaks. Ambient air concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of ..., particularly during bicycling in traffic. The results indicate that biologic effects of UFPs occur at modest exposure, such as that occurring in traffic, which supports the relationship of UFPs and the adverse health effects of air pollution....

  19. Response of photosynthesis in second-generation Pinus radiata trees to long-term exposure to elevated carbon dioxide partial pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenep, H; Turnbull, M H; Whitehead, D

    2003-06-01

    Second-generation Pinus radiata D. Don trees, propagated from cuttings of 4-year-old trees previously grown at ambient (36 Pa) and elevated (65 Pa) CO2 partial pressure (Ca) were grown under the same conditions in open-top chambers for a further year. As cuttings of the original trees, these second-generation trees were physiologically the same age as the first-generation trees with the only difference between the two being size. This allowed us to test the effects of tree size independently of age or duration of exposure. Total non-structural carbohydrate concentration, area-based nitrogen concentration, leaf mass per unit area and chlorophyll concentration measured in three foliage age cohorts were unaffected by either age or Ca. There were no signs of photosynthetic down-regulation in trees grown at elevated Ca. When measured at the growth Ca, photosynthetic rate in young needles during summer, autumn and spring was 34, 43 and 38% higher, respectively, in trees grown at elevated Ca than in trees grown at ambient Ca. In older needles, the corresponding photosythetic rate increases were 26, 47 and 49%. Water-use efficiency, determined by stable carbon isotope analysis, was 49% higher in foliage in the elevated Ca treatment than in foliage in the ambient Ca treatment. This increase was entirely due to photosynthetic enhancement, because stomatal conductance did not differ between treatments. We conclude that down-regulation of photosynthesis at elevated Ca is related to tree size rather than tree age or duration of exposure, and that enhanced photosynthetic rates can be maintained while sink strength is high enough to use the excess photosynthates.elevated CO2, needle age, photosynthetic down-regulation, photosynthetic enhancement, sink strength, water-use efficiency.

  20. Satellite observations and model simulations of tropospheric NO2 columns over south-eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. van Roozendael

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Satellite observations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2 tropospheric columns over south-eastern Europe are analyzed to study the characteristics of the spatial and temporal variability of pollution in the area. The interannual variability of the tropospheric NO2 columns is presented over urban, rural and industrial locations based on measurements from four satellite instruments, GOME/ERS-2, SCIAMACHY/Envisat, OMI/Aura and GOME-2/MetOp spanning a period of over twelve years. The consistency between the different datasets over the area is investigated. Two operational algorithms for the retrieval of tropospheric NO2 are considered, the one developed jointly by the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute and Belgian Institute for Space Astronomy and the one developed by the University of Bremen. The tropospheric NO2 columns for the area under study have been simulated for the period 1996–2001 with the Comprehensive Air Quality Model (CAMx and are compared with GOME measurements. Over urban and industrial locations the mean tropospheric NO2 columns range between 3 and 7.0×1015 molecules/cm2, showing a seasonal variability with a peak to peak amplitude of about 6.0×1015 molecules/cm2, while the background values over rural sites are close to 1.1×1015 molecules/cm2. Differences in the overpass time and spatial resolution of the different satellites, as well as differences in the algorithms, introduce significant differences in the estimated columns however the correlation between the different estimates is higher than 0.8. It is found that the model simulations reveal similar spatial patterns as the GOME observations, a result which is consistent with both algorithms. Although the model simulations show a mean bias of −0.1×1015 molecules/cm2 under clean conditions, the modeled temporal correlation of 0.5 is poor in absence of biogenic and biomass burning emissions.

  1. Aura OMI observations of regional SO2 and NO2 pollution changes from 2005 to 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krotkov, Nickolay A.; McLinden, Chris A; Li, Can; Lamsal, Lok N.; Celarier, Edward A.; Marchenko, Sergey V.; Swartz, William H.; Bucsela, Eric J.; Joiner, Joanna; Duncan, Bryan N.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) onboard NASA's Aura satellite has been providing global observations of the ozone layer and key atmospheric pollutant gases, such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2/ and sulfur dioxide (SO2/, since October 2004. The data products from the same instrument provide consistent spatial and temporal coverage and permit the study of anthropogenic and natural emissions on local-to-global scales. In this paper, we examine changes in SO2 and NO2 over some of the world's most polluted industrialized regions during the first decade of OMI observations. In terms of regional pollution changes, we see both upward and downward trends, sometimes in opposite directions for NO2 and SO2, for different study areas. The trends are, for the most part, associated with economic and/or technological changes in energy use, as well as regional regulatory policies. Over the eastern US, both NO2 and SO2 levels decreased dramatically from 2005 to 2015, by more than 40 and 80 %, respectively, as a result of both technological improvements and stricter regulations of emissions. OMI confirmed large reductions in SO2 over eastern Europe's largest coal-fired power plants after installation of flue gas desulfurization devices. The North China Plain has the world's most severe SO2 pollution, but a decreasing trend has been observed since 2011, with about a 50% reduction in 2012- 2015, due to an economic slowdown and government efforts to restrain emissions from the power and industrial sectors. In contrast, India's SO2 and NO2 levels from coal power plants and smelters are growing at a fast pace, increasing by more than 100 and 50 %, respectively, from 2005 to 2015. Several SO2 hot spots observed over the Persian Gulf are probably related to oil and gas operations and indicate a possible underestimation of emissions from these sources in bottom-up emission inventories. Overall, OMI observations have proved valuable in documenting rapid changes in air quality over different

  2. Aura OMI observations of regional SO2 and NO2 pollution changes from 2005 to 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Krotkov

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI onboard NASA's Aura satellite has been providing global observations of the ozone layer and key atmospheric pollutant gases, such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2 and sulfur dioxide (SO2, since October 2004. The data products from the same instrument provide consistent spatial and temporal coverage and permit the study of anthropogenic and natural emissions on local-to-global scales. In this paper, we examine changes in SO2 and NO2 over some of the world's most polluted industrialized regions during the first decade of OMI observations. In terms of regional pollution changes, we see both upward and downward trends, sometimes in opposite directions for NO2 and SO2, for different study areas. The trends are, for the most part, associated with economic and/or technological changes in energy use, as well as regional regulatory policies. Over the eastern US, both NO2 and SO2 levels decreased dramatically from 2005 to 2015, by more than 40 and 80 %, respectively, as a result of both technological improvements and stricter regulations of emissions. OMI confirmed large reductions in SO2 over eastern Europe's largest coal-fired power plants after installation of flue gas desulfurization devices. The North China Plain has the world's most severe SO2 pollution, but a decreasing trend has been observed since 2011, with about a 50 % reduction in 2012–2015, due to an economic slowdown and government efforts to restrain emissions from the power and industrial sectors. In contrast, India's SO2 and NO2 levels from coal power plants and smelters are growing at a fast pace, increasing by more than 100 and 50 %, respectively, from 2005 to 2015. Several SO2 hot spots observed over the Persian Gulf are probably related to oil and gas operations and indicate a possible underestimation of emissions from these sources in bottom-up emission inventories. Overall, OMI observations have proved valuable in documenting rapid changes in air

  3. Trend analysis of urban NO2 concentrations and the importance of direct NO2 emissions versus ozone/NOx equilibrium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keuken, M.; Roemer, M.; Elshout, S. van den

    2009-01-01

    The annual air quality standard of NO2 is often exceeded in urban areas near heavy traffic locations. Despite significant decrease of NOx emissions in 1986-2005 in the industrial and harbour area near Rotterdam, NO2 concentrations at the urban background remain at the same level since the end of the

  4. Absorption of atmospheric NO2 by plants and soils, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumaru, Tsuneo; Shiratori, Koji; Yoneyama, Tadakatsu; Totsuka, Tsumugu.

    1979-01-01

    Tomato, sunflower and corn plants were grown in culture solution containing three different concentrations of 15 N-labelled KNO 3 (260 ppm N, 105 ppm N, and 26 ppm N) as a nitrogen nutrient, and fumigated with 0.3 ppm NO 2 for 2 weeks during their vegetative stages. The amount of NO 2 nitrogen absorbed into the plants was estimated by ''difference method'' and '' 15 N method.'' '' 15 N method'' was found to give more probable values than ''difference method.'' According to '' 15 N method,'' the nitrogen derived from NO 2 was about 16% (tomato), 22% (sunflower), and 14% (corn) of the increased amount of total nitrogen in the whole plants in the 105 ppm N plot, and these percentages increased in the 26 ppm N plot. Difference in nitrogen concentration of the culture solution resulted in big change in the dry-weight increase of the tomato and sunflower plants, but the absorption rate of NO 2 nitrogen based on the dry weight changed slightly. The absorption rate of NO 2 nitrogen was around 0.8 mg (gDW) -1 day -1 in tomato and sunflower plants, and 0.3 mg (gDW) -1 day -1 in corn plant. Leaves were found to be an active sink of NO 2 and the nitrogen of NO 2 seemed to be rapidly transformed into compounds of high molecules in the leaf cells. (author)

  5. NO2 measurements in Hong Kong using LED based long path differential optical absorption spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Wenig

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study we present the first long term measurements of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2 using a LED based Long Path Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (LP-DOAS instrument. This instrument is measuring continuously in Hong Kong since December 2009, first in a setup with a 550 m absorption path and then with a 3820 m path at about 30 m to 50 m above street level. The instrument is using a high power blue light LED with peak intensity at 450 nm coupled into the telescope using a Y-fibre bundle. The LP-DOAS instrument measures NO2 levels in the Kowloon Tong and Mongkok district of Hong Kong and we compare the measurement results to mixing ratios reported by monitoring stations operated by the Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department in that area. Hourly averages of coinciding measurements are in reasonable agreement (R = 0.74. Furthermore, we used the long-term data set to validate the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI NO2 data product. Monthly averaged LP-DOAS and OMI measurements correlate well (R = 0.84 when comparing the data for the OMI overpass time. We analyzed weekly patterns in both data sets and found that the LP-DOAS detects a clear weekly cycle with a reduction on weekends during rush hour peaks, whereas OMI is not able to observe this weekly cycle due to its fix overpass time (13:30–14:30 LT – local time.

  6. Preparation of nanostructured PbS thin films as sensing element for NO2 gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaci, S.; Keffous, A.; Hakoum, S.; Trari, M.; Mansri, O.; Menari, H.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we demonstrate that semiconducting films of A IV B VI compounds, in particular, of nanostructured lead sulfide (PbS) which prepared by chemical bath deposition (CBD), can be used as a sensing element for nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) gas. The CBD method is versatile, simple in implementation and gives homogeneous semiconductor structures. We have prepared PbS nanocrystalline thin film at different reaction baths and temperatures. In the course of deposition, variable amounts of additives, such as organic substances among them, were introduced into the baths. The energy dispersive analysis (EDX) confirms the chemical composition of PbS films. A current–voltage (I–V) characterization of Pd/nc-PbS/a-SiC:H pSi(100)/Al Schottky diode structures were studied in the presence of NO 2 gas. The gas sensing behavior showed that the synthesized PbS nanocrystalline thin films were influenced by NO 2 gas at room temperature. The results can be used for developing an experimental sensing element based on chemically deposited nanostructured PbS films which can be applicable in gas sensors.

  7. What You Need to Know About the OMI NO2 Data Product for Air Quality Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celarier, E. A.; Gleason, J. F.; Bucsela, E. J.; Brinksma, E.; Veefkind, J. P.

    2007-01-01

    The standard nitrogen dioxide (NO2) data product, produced from measurements by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), are publicly available online from the NASA GESDISC facility. Important data fields include total and tropospheric column densities, as well as collocated data for cloud fraction and cloud top height, surface albedo and snow/ice coverage, at the resolution of the OMI instrument (12 km x 26 km, at nadir). The retrieved NO2 data have been validated, principally under clear-sky conditions. The first public-release version has been available since September 2006. An improved version of the data product, which includes a number of new data fields, and improved estimates of the retrieval uncertainties will be released by the end of 2007. This talk will describe the standard NO2 data product, including details that are essential for the use of the data for air quality studies. We will also describe the principal improvements with the new version of the data product.

  8. Effect of high pressurized carbon dioxide on Escherichia coli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carbon dioxide at high pressure can retard microbial growth and sometimes kill microorganisms depending on values of applied pressure, temperature and exposure time. In this study the effect of high pressurised carbon dioxide (HPCD) on Escherichia coli was investigated. Culture of E. coli was subjected to high ...

  9. Characterization of tellurium-based films for NO2 detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsiulyanu, D.; Tsiulyanu, A.; Liess, H.-D.; Eisele, I.

    2005-01-01

    Sensing characteristics of tellurium-based thin films for NO 2 monitoring was studied systematically. The influence of contact materials, thermal treatment, temperature and thickness of the samples on the electrical conductivity and sensitivity to NO 2 with respect to scanning electron microscopy analyses is given. The possibility is shown to optimize the properties of the films for the development of a simple and stable NO 2 sensor device with rapid response/recovery time and low operating temperature. The sensing mechanism is discussed for the direct interaction of gaseous species with lone-pair electrons of chalcogen atoms

  10. A Decade of Change in NO2 and SO2 over the Canadian Oil Sands As Seen from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclinden, Chris A.; Fioletov, Vitali; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Li, Can; Boersma, K. Folkert; Adams, Cristen

    2015-01-01

    A decade (20052014) of observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) were used to examine trends in nitrogen dioxide(NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) over a large region of western Canada and the northern United States, with a focus on the Canadian oil sands. In the oil sands, primarily over an area of intensive surface mining, NO2 tropospheric vertical column densities (VCDs) are seen to be increasing by as much as 10year, with the location of the largest trends in a newly developing NO2 lobe well removed from surface monitoring stations. SO2 VCDs in the oil sands have remained approximately constant. The only other significant increase in the region was seen in NO2 over Bakken gas fields in North Dakota which showed increases of up to5yr. By contrast, other locations in the region show substantial declines in both pollutants, providing strong evidence to the efficacy of environmental pollution control measures implemented by both nations. The OMI-derived trends were found to be consistent with those from the Canadian surface monitoring network, although in the case of SO2, it was necessary to apply a correction in order to remove the residual signal from volcanic eruptions present in the OMI data.

  11. The Effect of Solvent, Hydrogen Peroxide and Dioxide Titanium on Degradation of PCBs, Using Microwave Radiation in Order to Reduce Occupational Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajik Reza

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are one group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs that are of international concern because of global distribution, persistence, and toxicity. Removal of these compounds from the environment remains a very difficult challenge because the compounds are highly hydrophobic and have very low solubility in water. A 900 W domestic microwave oven, pyrex vessel reactor, pyrex tube connector and condensing system were used in this experiment. Radiation was discontinuous and ray powers were 540, 720 and 900 W. The PCBS were analyzed by GC-ECD. The application of microwave radiation and H2O2/TiO2 agents for the degradation of polychlorinated biphenyl contaminated oil was explored in this study. PCB – contaminated oil was treated in a pyrex reactor by microwave irradiation at 2450 MHz with the addition of H2O2/TiO2. A novel grain TiO2 (GT01 was used. The determination of PCB residues in oil by gas chromatography (GC revealed that rates of PCB decomposition were highly dependent on microwave power, exposure time, ratio to solvent with transformer oil in 3:1, the optimal amount of GT01 (0.2 g and 0.116 mol of H2O2 were used in the study. It was suggested that microwave irradiation with the assistance of H2O2/TiO2 might be a potential technology for the degradation of PCB – contaminated oil. The experiments show that MW irradiation, H2O2 oxidant and TiO2 catalyst lead to a degradation efficiency of PCBs only in the presence of ethanol. The results showed that the addition of ethanol significantly enhanced degradation efficiency of PCBs.

  12. Raid, Kaljo: Symphony No. 2, "Stockholm" / Guy S. Rickards

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rickards, Guy S.

    1996-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Raid, Kaljo: Symphony No. 2, "Stockholm"; Tubin, Eduard: Elegy for Strings (arr. Raid). Symphony No. 11 (orch. Raid). Estonian State Symphony Orchestra, Arvo Volmer". Koch International Classics 37291-2 (48 minutes:DDD)

  13. TES/Aura L2 NO2 Limb V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TES Aura L2 NO2 data consist of information for one molecular species for an entire Global Survey or Special Observation. TES Level 2 data contain retrieved...

  14. Power Company No 2. Activity Report 1992 - 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Power Company No.2 is in charge of power generation and distribution for the southern area of Vietnam. Status and development plans of the Company is presented in the report. (NHA). 10 figs, 2 tabs, 17 photos, 2 maps

  15. Fieldable, Real-Time NO2 Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovative Research Phase I proposal seeks to develop a compact, autonomous NO2 sensor for air monitoring applications based on laser induced...

  16. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles cause genotoxicity in human lung epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of engineered nanoparticles in consumer products is steadily increasing. However, the health effects of exposure to these nanoparticles are not thoroughly understood. This study investigated the genotoxicity of six titanium dioxide and two cerium oxide nanoparticles of va...

  17. Induction of ovoviviparity in Rhabditis by sulfur dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, J.T.; Tsui, R.K.

    1968-01-01

    While investigating the influence of atmospheric pollutants on soil and plant microbiotas, ovoviviparity was observed in the saprophagous nematode, Rhabditis sp., after exposure to various concentrations of sulfur dioxide.

  18. Exposure assessment for nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide in German hard coal mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahmann, Dirk; Morfeld, Peter; Monz, Christian; Noll, Birgit; Gast, Frank

    2009-11-01

    The exposure situation of German hard coal miners with respect to the components nitrogen monoxide and nitrogen dioxide. Carbon monoxide was measured additionally and the results are displayed but not discussed in detail in this paper. The data were used to estimate personal long-term exposures in an inception cohort. For all three components, time weighted 8-h shift values were determined for typical groups of coalminers according to the European measurement standard. An expert panel from the coal mining company made an effort to estimate major potential changes in the exposure situation. The main sources of nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide in hard coal mining were the diesel engines. Blasting fumes contributed only to a lesser degree and with different exposure characteristics, e.g. much reduced NO(2) levels compared to the mines' rear areas. As rough 8 h-shift averages describing the current exposure situation, we found 1.35 ppm NO and 0.21 ppm NO(2) for the diesel engine drivers. Blasting specialists were more difficult to evaluate but rough 8 h-shift averages of 0.84 ppm NO and 0.014 ppm NO(2) could be estimated from our measurement series. By applying these data and the estimates of experts about the retrospective exposure situation to a cohort of 1,369 coalminers, we derived mean (max) cumulative exposures in ppm x number of shifts of 1,748 (5,928) for NO and 19.6 (1,013) for NO(2) when summarizing over the follow-up period from 1974 until 1998. Especially for the diesel engine drivers, exposure can be regarded as rather high, in particular, when compared to recommended limits by SCOEL and MAK, though the exposures have been in line with the enforced German occupational exposure limits. Whether this exposure situation has caused adverse health effects will be investigated epidemiologically.

  19. OMI NO2 in the Central US Great Plains: How Well Do We Interpret NO2 Trends?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollonige, D. E.; Duncan, B. N.; Thompson, A. M.; Lamsal, L. N.

    2017-12-01

    Several areas over the Central US show statistically significant increases in OMI NO2 levels of 10-30% in the last 10 years versus the generally decreasing trends over most of CONUS. Are these changes in OMI NO2 a result of human activity, meteorology, or a combination of both? To answer this, we examine regions in the Central US Great Plains that have multiple plausible sources for the observed trends, considering impacts of land surface changes, agriculture growth, oil and gas operations, and drought conditions. We find that changes to the land surface appear to contribute to some of the observed anomalies due to tree removal in the Black Hills National Forest, South Dakota, and additional livestock farming in the Sandhills of Nebraska. However, increasing OMI NO2 also corresponds to several areas with growing agriculture business (ex. South Dakota and Nebraska) and oil and gas activity (ex. Williston Basin in North Dakota and Permian Basin in TX). To understand the relationship between the observed NO2 variability and the regional meteorological conditions over the last decade, we analyze the time series and correlations between OMI NO2, NH3 (an agriculture tracer), surface temperature, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from Landsat, and the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI). In 2012, drought conditions affect NO2, NH3 and NDVI observations across the Central US. Areas where dryland farming and livestock grazing are predominant (Central SD, ND, KS, and NE) are less sensitive to drought and changes in temperature. This suggests positive OMI NO2 trends are caused by increased production in wheats and livestock in the Northern Great Plains. These study regions in the Central US, impacted by local emissions and meteorology, are valuable for evaluating future trend analyses including the continuation of OMI-type NO2 retrievals from the TROPOMI and TEMPO satellite instruments.

  20. Mass spectrometric determination of partial electron impact ionization cross sections of No, No2, and N2O from threshold up to 180 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. B.

    1982-01-01

    Electron impact ionization of nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) has been studied as a function of electron energy up to 180 eV with a double focussing mass spectrometer Varian MAT CH5 and an improved Nier type electron impact ion source. Relative partial ionization cross sections were measured for the processes NO + + 2e, NO ++ + 3e, and NO 2 + e -> NO + 2 + 2e, NO ++ + 3e and N 2 O + e -> N 2 O + + 2e. An accurate measurement of the cross section ratios q(NO 2+ /NO)/q(NO + /NO) and q(NO 2 2 /NO 2 )/q(NO + 2 /NO 2 ) has been made. Relative cross section functions were calibrated absolutely with two different normalization methods. Moreover, both metastable and collision induced dissociations of N 2 O + were studied quantitatively using the technique of decoupling the acceleration and deflection electric fields. Using the n- th root extrapolation the following ionization potentials have been derived from the cross section functions near threshold: NO + (X 1 Σ + ); NO ++ ; NO + 2 ; NO 2 ++ ; N 2 O + (X 2 π). These results are compared with previous measurements and theoretical calculations, where available. Part of the results presented have been already published in seven papers by the author. (Author)

  1. In vitro exposure of haemocytes of the clam Ruditapes philippinarum to titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles: nanoparticle characterisation, effects on phagocytic activity and internalisation of nanoparticles into haemocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marisa, Ilaria; Marin, Maria Gabriella; Caicci, Federico; Franceschinis, Erica; Martucci, Alessandro; Matozzo, Valerio

    2015-02-01

    The continuous growth of nanotechnology and nano-industries, the considerable increase of products containing nanoparticles (NPs) and the potential release of NPs in aquatic environments suggest a need to study NP effects on aquatic organisms. In this context, in vitro assays are commonly used for evaluating or predicting the negative effects of chemicals and for understanding their mechanisms of action. In this study, a physico-chemical characterisation of titanium dioxide NPs (n-TiO2) was performed, and an in vitro approach was used to investigate the effects of n-TiO2 on haemocytes of the clam Ruditapes philippinarum. In particular, the effects on haemocyte phagocytic activity were evaluated in two different experiments (with and without pre-treatment of haemocytes) by exposing cells to P25 n-TiO2 (0, 1 and 10 μg/mL). In addition, the capability of n-TiO2 to interact with clam haemocytes was evaluated with a transmission electron microscope (TEM). In this study, n-TiO2 particles showed a mean diameter of approximately 21 nm, and both anatase (70%) and rutile (30%) phases were revealed. In both experiments, n-TiO2 significantly decreased the phagocytic index compared with the control, suggesting that NPs are able to interfere with cell functions. The results of the TEM analysis support this hypothesis. Indeed, we observed that TiO2 NPs interact with cell membranes and enter haemocyte cytoplasm and vacuoles after 60 min of exposure. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating the internalisation of TiO2 NPs into R. philippinarum haemocytes. The present study can contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms of action of TiO2 NPs in bivalve molluscs, at least at the haemocyte level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Analysis of Nitrogen Dioxide and Sulphur Dioxide in Lima, Peru: Trends and Seasonal Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacsi, S.; Rappenglueck, B.

    2007-12-01

    This research was carried out to show a general analysis of the monthly and yearly variation (1996-2002) and the tendency of the nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) for the 5 stations of the air quality network of Lima. The SO2 and NO2 concentrations were measured by the Dirección General de Salud Ambiental (DIGESA), using the active sampling method and the chemical analysis has been determined by Turbidimetry and Colorimetry for the SO2 and NO2 respectively. The monthly average variation (1996-2001) of SO2 in the Lima Center station has a small annual range (32,4 mikrograms/m3) with maximum values in autumn (April) and minimum in winter (June). The NO2 presents a higher annual range (128,2 mikrograms/m3) and its minimum values occur in the summer and the maximum in spring. The annual averages analysis (2000-2002) of the air quality monitoring network of Lima shows that the SO2 and NO2 values are maximum in the Lima Center station and exceed the Peruvian air quality standard (ECAs) in 30% and 75% respectively. The yearly variation (1996-2001) in the Lima Center station show an increasing tendency in the SO2 (significant) and NO2 (not significant) values, which indicates the critical level of the air quality in Lima, therefore the implementation of the air pollution control programs is urgent.

  3. Murine respiratory mycoplasmosis (MRM) in C57BL/6N and C3H/HeN mice: strain differences in early host responses and exacerbation by nitrogen dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    The studies reported here used genetic differences in susceptibility of C57BL/6N and C3H/HeN mice and exacerbation of the disease by nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) as tools in assessing the role of early host responses in the pathogenesis of MRM. The two strains did not differ in susceptibility to infection, but C3H/HeN mice were more susceptible to and had increased severity of lung lesions 14 days after intranasal inoculation as determined by 50% biological endpoints and morphometric analysis of tissues. Exposure to NO 2 for 4 hours prior to exposure to infectious aerosols exacerbated murine respiratory mycoplasmosis (MRM) by 7 days after exposure in both mouse strains. NO 2 appeared to affect host lung defense mechanisms responsible for limiting mycoplasmal growth in the lungs. The NO 2 exposure concentration required for this effect varied with the genetic background of the host, the dose of mycoplasmas administered, and the endpoint measured. Pulmonary clearance of radiolabeled M. pulmonis was determined in both mouse strains, and in C57BL/6N mice exposed to NO 2

  4. Cu-modified carbon spheres/reduced graphene oxide as a high sensitivity of gas sensor for NO2 detection at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhibin; Tan, Li; Yang, Ruiqiang; Zhang, Yu; Tao, Jin; Zhang, Nan; Wen, Fusheng

    2018-03-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) as one of the most serious air pollution is harmful to people's health, therefore high-performance gas sensors is critically needed. Here, Cu-modified carbon spheres/reduced graphene oxide (Cu@CS/RGO) composite have been prepared as NO2 gas sensor material. Carbon sphere in the interlayer of RGO can increase the specific surface area of RGO. Copper nanoparticles decorated on the surface of CS can effectively enhance the adsorption activity of RGO as supplier of free electrons. The experimental results showed that its particular structure improved the gas sensitivity of RGO at different NO2 concentrations at room temperature.

  5. Carbon dioxide as chemical feedstock

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aresta, M

    2010-01-01

    ... Dioxide as an Inert Solvent for Chemical Syntheses 15 Alessandro Galia and Giuseppe Filardo Introduction 15 Dense Carbon Dioxide as Solvent Medium for Chemical Processes 15 Enzymatic Catalysis in Dense Carbon Dioxide 18 Other Reactions in Dense Carbon Dioxide 19 Polymer Synthesis in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide 20 Chain Polymerizations: Synt...

  6. NO2 DOAS Measurements of Traffic Emissions by Chasing Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ying; Lipkowitsch, Ivo; Chan, Ka Lok; Bräu, Melanie; Wenig, Mark

    2016-04-01

    On this poster we present NO2 measurements using a Cavity-Enhanced DOAS on a measurement bus which we used to chase other vehicles to measure their NO2 emissions. Emissions of nitrogen oxides from on-road vehicles have received highly attention recently due to the increasing trend of ambient NOx level. It is particularly important to identify and quantify the direct emission and secondary formation of NO2 contributed by traffic emissions, in order to study the impact to the local air quality. We sampled on-road emissions in different environments and different driving conditions (e.g. urban, highway, different speeds). We analyse the data set in terms of spatial and temporal variability to search for temporal and spatial patterns. We present mean values sorted for different vehicle types, distance to the target car and travelling speeds to provide an emission data base from this measurement study.

  7. Electron transport in NH3/NO2 sensed buckled antimonene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Anurag; Khan, Md. Shahzad; Ahuja, Rajeev

    2018-04-01

    The structural and electronic properties of buckled antimonene have been analysed using density functional theory based ab-initio approach. Geometrical parameters in terms of bond length and bond angle are found close to the single ruffle mono-layer of rhombohedral antimony. Inter-frontier orbital analyses suggest localization of lone pair electrons at each atomic centre. Phonon dispersion along with high symmetry point of Brillouin zone does not signify any soft mode. With an electronic band gap of 1.8eV, the quasi-2D nano-surface has been further explored for NH3/NO2 molecules sensing and qualities of interaction between NH3/NO2 gas and antimonene scrutinized in terms of electronic charges transfer. A current-voltage characteristic has also been analysed, using Non Equilibrium Green's function (NEGF), for antimonene, in presence of incoming NH3/NO2 molecules.

  8. Early-lifetime exposure to air pollution and allergic sensitization in children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortimer, Kathleen; Neugebauer, Romain; Lurmann, Frederick; Alcorn, Siana; Balmes, John; Tager, Ira

    2008-12-01

    Observations on the association between exposure to common outdoor air pollutants and allergic sensitization have not been consistent. Little research has been done on the effects of prenatal exposure or the effect among asthmatics. The association between prenatal and early-life exposures and outdoor air pollutants with allergic sensitization was examined within a cohort of 170 children ages 6-11 years with asthma, living in the Central Valley of California. Allergic sensitization was ascertained by skin-prick tests to 14 allergens. Prenatal and early-life exposure to ozone (O(3)), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter with a median aerodynamic diameter pollutants were seen for sensitization to allergens in general or to at least one indoor allergen. Exposure to traffic-related pollutants during pregnancy may increase the risk of sensitization to outdoor allergens among asthmatic children.

  9. Associations of gestational and early life exposures to ambient air pollution with childhood respiratory diseases in Shanghai, China: A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Huang, Chen; Hu, Yu; Fu, Qingyan; Zou, Zhijun; Sun, Chanjuan; Shen, Li; Wang, Xueying; Cai, Jiao; Pan, Jun; Huang, Yanmin; Chang, Jing; Sun, Yuexia; Sundell, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Associations of ambient air pollutants with respiratory health are inconsistent. We analyzed the associations of gestational and early life exposures to air pollutants with doctor-diagnosed asthma, allergic rhinitis, and pneumonia in children. We selected 3358 preschool children who did not alter residences after birth from a cross-sectional study in 2011-2012 in Shanghai, China. Parents reported children's respiratory health history, home environment, and family lifestyle behaviors. We collected daily concentrations of sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10μm (PM10) during the child's total lifetime (2006-2012) for each district where the children lived. We analyzed the associations using logistic regression models. After adjusting for covariates and the other studied pollutants, we found that exposure to NO2 (increment of 20μg/m(3)) during the first year of life was significantly associated with asthma [odds ratio (OR)=1.77; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.29-2.43] and allergic rhinitis (OR=1.67; 95% CI: 1.07-2.61). Exposure to NO2 during gestation, the first two and three years, and over total lifetimewas all consistently associated with increased odds of allergic rhinitis. Quartiles of NO2 concentration during different exposure periods showed a slight dose-response relationship with the studied diseases. These diseases had significant associations with pollutant mixtures that included NO2, but had no significant association with exposures to SO2 and PM10 individually or in mixtures. Gestational and early life exposures to ambient NO2 are risk factors for childhood respiratory diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Health risk of inhalation exposure to sub-10 µm particulate matter and gaseous pollutants in an urban-industrial area in South Africa: an ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morakinyo, Oyewale Mayowa; Adebowale, Ayo Stephen; Mokgobu, Matlou Ingrid; Mukhola, Murembiwa Stanley

    2017-03-13

    To assess the health risks associated with exposure to particulate matter (PM 10 ), sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), carbon monoxide (CO) and ozone (O 3 ). The study is an ecological study that used the year 2014 hourly ambient pollution data. The study was conducted in an industrial area located in Pretoria West, South Africa. The area accommodates a coal-fired power station, metallurgical industries such as a coke plant and a manganese smelter. Estimate of possible health risks from exposure to airborne PM 10 , SO 2 , NO 2 , CO and O 3 was performed using the US Environmental Protection Agency human health risk assessment framework. A scenario-assessment approach where normal (average exposure) and worst-case (continuous exposure) scenarios were developed for intermediate (24-hour) and chronic (annual) exposure periods for different exposure groups (infants, children, adults). The normal acute (1-hour) exposure to these pollutants was also determined. Presence or absence of adverse health effects from exposure to airborne pollutants. Average annual ambient concentration of PM 10 , NO 2 and SO 2 recorded was 48.3±43.4, 11.50±11.6 and 18.68±25.4 µg/m 3 , respectively, whereas the South African National Ambient Air Quality recommended 40, 40 and 50 µg/m 3 for PM 10 , NO 2 and SO 2 , respectively. Exposure to an hour's concentration of NO 2 , SO 2 , CO and O 3 , an 8-hour concentration of CO and O 3 , and a 24-hour concentration of PM 10 , NO 2 and SO 2 will not likely produce adverse effects to sensitive exposed groups. However, infants and children, rather than adults, are more likely to be affected. Moreover, for chronic annual exposure, PM 10 , NO 2 and SO 2 posed a health risk to sensitive individuals, with the severity of risk varying across exposed groups. Long-term chronic exposure to airborne PM 10 , NO 2 and SO 2 pollutants may result in health risks among the study population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  11. Al-Sn doped ZnO thin film nanosensor for monitoring NO2 concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.S. Hikku

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The metal oxide semiconductor gas sensor technology is robust and has quick response times. In this work, aluminium and tin co-doped zinc oxide (ASZO thin films were synthesized by a sol–gel dip-coating process as sensors for the greenhouse gas nitrogen dioxide (NO2. The prepared ASZO thin films were characterized using such techniques as X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM and photoluminescence (PL emission studies in order to analyze the elemental confirmation, particle size, surface roughness and optical emission properties, respectively. The XRD data reveals the hexagonal structure of ASZO and that the preferential orientation is along 2θ = 36.19°. SEM images of the ASZO thin film exhibit rod-like formations of ASZO on the substrate. The ASZO films show enhanced sensing behaviour, sensing NO2 gas even at 2 ppm at an operating temperature of 170 °C. The response and recovery times were determined to be 30 and 20 s, respectively.

  12. NO2 Vertical Column Density at the Marambio Antarctic Station as Retrieved by DOAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raponi, Marcelo M.; Jiménez, Rodrigo; Tocho, Jorge O.; Quel, Eduardo J.

    2009-03-01

    A number of chemical species present in the stratosphere in very small concentrations (parts per billion and even smaller) contribute significantly to its chemical balance. One of the main stratospheric trace gases is nitrogen dioxide (NO2). This species acts as a restrictive agent for stratospheric ozone destruction (due to the chlorine monoxide), hence the importance of its study. We present a preliminary analysis of passive remote sensing measurements carry out at the Marambio Argentinean Antarctic Base (64.233° S; 56.616° W; 197 m amsl) during the months of January—February of 2008. The spectroscopy system consists of an optical fiber (400 μm core diameter and 6 m of longitude) and a portable spectral analyzer (spectrometer HR4000, Ocean Optics). The device analyzes diffuse solar spectral irradiance in the UV-visible range (290-650 nm), collected and transferred by a zenith-pointing optical fiber. The NO2 vertical column density (VCD) is derived from the radiance spectra using the DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) technique. The system and technique allow for simultaneous measurements of different species of interest on a variety of meteorological conditions. The vertical columns obtained are compared with co-located measurements performed with EVA, a visible absorption spectrometer operated by the Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial (INTA), Spain.

  13. Eleven years of tropospheric NO2 measured by GOME, SCIAMACHY and OMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskes, H.; Boersma, F.; Dirksen, R.; van der A, R.; Veefkind, P.; Levelt, P.; Brinksma, E.; van Roozendael, M.; de Smedt, I.; Gleason, J.

    2006-12-01

    Based on measurements of GOME on ESA ERS-2, SCIAMACHY on ESA-ENVISAT, and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the NASA EOS-Aura satellite there is now a unique 11-year dataset of global tropospheric nitrogen dioxide measurements from space. The retrieval approach consists of two steps. The first step is an application of the DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) approach which delivers the total absorption optical thickness along the light path (the slant column). For GOME and SCIAMACHY this is based on the DOAS implementation developed by BIRA/IASB. For OMI the DOAS implementation was developed in a collaboration between KNMI and NASA. The second retrieval step, developed at KNMI, estimates the tropospheric vertical column of NO2 based on the slant column, cloud fraction and cloud top height retrieval, stratospheric column estimates derived from a data assimilation approach and vertical profile estimates from space-time collocated profiles from the TM chemistry-transport model. The second step was applied with only minor modifications to all three instruments to generate a uniform 11-year data set. In our talk we will address the following topics: - A short summary of the retrieval approach and results - Comparisons with other retrievals - Comparisons with global and regional-scale models - OMI-SCIAMACHY and SCIAMACHY-GOME comparisons - Validation with independent measurements - Trend studies of NO2 for the past 11 years

  14. Ebonyi Medical Journal - Vol 10, No 2 (2011)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ebonyi Medical Journal - Vol 10, No 2 (2011). Journal Home ... How Many Physicians Prescribe Quinine For The Treatment Of Malaria In The First Trimester Of Pregnancy? EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL ... Case report - Lassa Fever Mimicking Ectopic Pregnancy: A Report Of Three Cases · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  15. Benchmark Simulation Model No 2 in Matlab-Simulink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrecko, Darko; Gernaey, Krist; Rosen, Christian

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, implementation of the Benchmark Simulation Model No 2 (BSM2) within Matlab-Simulink is presented. The BSM2 is developed for plant-wide WWTP control strategy evaluation on a long-term basis. It consists of a pre-treatment process, an activated sludge process and sludge treatment...

  16. Afican Health Sciences Vol 10 No 2.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    African Health Sciences Vol 10 No 2 June 2010. 172. Indoor air mycoflora of residential dwellings in Jos metropolis. *Ayanbimpe GM1, Wapwera SD3, Kuchin D3. 1 Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Jos, Plateau State Nigeria,. 2 Department of Geography and Planning, University of Jos, Plateau State ...

  17. Tribromoisocyanuric Acid/NaNO 2 : a New Reagent for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nitrophenols can be obtained via direct nitration of phenols with tribromoisocyanuric acid,NaNO2 and wet SiO2 at room temperature in good to high yields. KEYWORDS: Tribromoisocyanuric acid, nitrophenols, heterogeneous conditions, sodium nitrite, nitration of phenols.

  18. Ghana Medical Journal - Vol 47, No 2 (2013)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ghana Medical Journal - Vol 47, No 2 (2013). Journal Home > Archives ... DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. AB Olokoba, W Gashau, S Bwala, A Adamu, FK Salawu, 79-81 ... DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. EY Bonney, NA Addo, NAA Ntim, F Addo-Yobo, P Bondzie, KE Aryee, J Barnor, J brandful, V Bekoe, SA Ohene, W Ampofo, 82-86 ...

  19. 75 FR 65471 - Combined Notice of Filings No. 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings No. 2 Tuesday, September 7, 2010. Take notice that the Commission has received the following Natural Gas Pipeline Rate and... Tuesday, September 14, 2010. Docket Numbers: RP10-922-001. Applicants: Venice Gathering System, L.L.C...

  20. Mizan Law Review - Vol 5, No 2 (2011)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mizan Law Review - Vol 5, No 2 (2011) ... Ethiopian Law of International Carriage by Air: An Overview · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ... Comment: Overview of the Core Changes in the New Ethiopian Urban Land Leasehold Proclamation · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  1. 7 CFR 51.2835 - U.S. No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946.... 2. U.S. No. 2 consists of onions which meet the following requirements: (a) Basic requirements: (1...

  2. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 12: Developer's Manual No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Developer's Manual No. 2 is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each of…

  3. Classification of titanium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macias B, L.R.; Garcia C, R.M.; Maya M, M.E.; Ita T, A. De; Palacios G, J.

    2002-01-01

    In this work the X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (Sem) and the X-ray Dispersive Energy Spectroscopy techniques are used with the purpose to achieve a complete identification of phases and mixture of phases of a crystalline material as titanium dioxide. The problem for solving consists of being able to distinguish a sample of titanium dioxide being different than a titanium dioxide pigment. A standard sample of titanium dioxide with NIST certificate is used, which indicates a purity of 99.74% for the TiO 2 . The following way is recommended to proceed: a)To make an analysis by means of X-ray diffraction technique to the sample of titanium dioxide pigment and on the standard of titanium dioxide waiting not find differences. b) To make a chemical analysis by the X-ray Dispersive Energy Spectroscopy via in a microscope, taking advantage of the high vacuum since it is oxygen which is analysed and if it is concluded that the aluminium oxide appears in a greater proportion to 1% it is established that is a titanium dioxide pigment, but if it is lesser then it will be only titanium dioxide. This type of analysis is an application of the nuclear techniques useful for the tariff classification of merchandise which is considered as of difficult recognition. (Author)

  4. Uranium dioxide pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zawidzki, T.W.

    1979-01-01

    Sintered uranium dioxide pellets composed of particles of size > 50 microns suitable for power reactor use are made by incorporating a small amount of sulphur into the uranium dioxide before sintering. The increase in grain size achieved results in an improvement in overall efficiency when such pellets are used in a power reactor. (author)

  5. Quantifying the contribution of individual vehicles to NO2 pollution in an urban area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöhler, Denis; Kanatschnig, Florian; Horbanski, Martin; Friedrich, Axel; Lampel, Johannes; Platt, Ulrich

    2015-04-01

    Nitrogen Dioxide (NOx) emissions by road vehicles are the mayor contributor for poor air quality in urban areas. High NOx concentrations, and especially NO2, are typically the most problematic pollutant in mega and other cities. However emissions vary significantly depending on the type of vehicle and its engine, the age and condition of the vehicle, driving properties and many more. Even if data of the manufacturer exists how much NOx different vehicle types emit, reliable data under real driving conditions are rare and often missing. Especially data showing the degree to which different cars contribute to observed NOx levels are missing. Significant reduction of NOx concentrations can be achieved by identifying the strong emitting vehicles and excluding / replacing these. As this is only a small amount of vehicles (typically less than 10% of the vehicles make 90% of the emissions), such a small investment can significantly improve air quality. In order to perform measurements of NOx we applied a high speed NO2 CE-DOAS (Cavity-Enhanced DOAS) instrument in a car which was modified for this application. It measured directly the NO2 concentration behind followed vehicles while driving, with a time resolution of 2 s and an accuracy of ~1ppb. Even if such observations depend on many parameters like mixing-in of ambient air, distance, solar radiation, ozone concentration, background concentration etc., it delivers valuable data under real driving conditions. The instrument was applied in the city of Mainz, Germany to investigate within 7 days (March / April 2014) the NOx emission of 728 vehicles and to quantify the main emitters. Therefore the measured NO2 concentration in comparison to the background concentrations was quantified. Observed vehicles were separated in 4 categories: cars, busses, trucks, and motorcycles. We observed NO2 levels from a few ppb (within the background variation) up to 7000ppb NO2 above the background level. Strong variations within the same

  6. Population Intervention Models to Estimate Ambient NO2 Health Effects in Children with Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Jonathan M.; Mortimer, Kathleen M.; Dufour, Mi-Suk Kang; Tager, Ira B.

    2015-01-01

    Health effects of ambient air pollution are most frequently expressed in individual studies as responses to a standardized unit of air pollution changes (e.g., an interquartile interval), which is thought to enable comparison of findings across studies. However, this approach does not necessarily convey health effects in terms of a real-world air pollution scenario. In the present study, we employ population intervention modeling to estimate the effect of an air pollution intervention that makes explicit reference to the observed exposure data and is identifiable in those data. We calculate the association between ambient summertime NO2 and forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of forced vital capacity (FEF25–75) in a cohort of children with asthma in Fresno, California. We scale the effect size to reflect NO2 abatement on a majority of summer days. The effect estimates were small, imprecise, and consistently indicated improved pulmonary function with decreased NO2. The effects ranged from −0.8% of mean FEF25–75 (95% Confidence Interval: −3.4 , 1.7) to −3.3% (95% CI: −7.5, 0.9). We conclude by discussing the nature and feasibility of the exposure change analyzed here given the observed air pollution profile, and we propose additional applications of the population intervention model in environmental epidemiology. PMID:25182844

  7. Radon and NO2levels and related environmental factors in 100 underground subway platforms over two-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sung Ho; Park, Jae Bum; Park, Wha Me

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the environmental factors that affect radon (Rn) and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) levels in subway-station underground platforms are evaluated, and the outdoor NO 2 levels are compared with those obtained for the underground platforms. The Rn and NO 2 levels from May 2013 to September 2015 are determined for lines 1-4 of the Seoul Metro, via calculation of the arithmetic means of the Rn and NO 2 levels with their standard deviations (SDs). The underground Rn levels in 2013 are found to be significantly higher than those recorded in 2015 for the Seoul Metro. In addition, the Rn levels are related to the station depth and construction year. Further, the underground NO 2 levels are shown to be significantly higher than the outdoor levels for all four Seoul Metro subway lines. The Rn levels are also found to vary significantly between months, and are shown to increase gradually with depth from 8 to 20 m. The Rn levels are also higher for stations constructed in the 1980s. Therefore, stricter monitoring of Rn level may be required for stations constructed in the 1980s and/or having platform depths within the 8-20 m range. Island-type platform stations based on granite areas may also require careful attention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Enhanced NO2 abatement by alkaline-earth modified g-C3N4 nanocomposites for efficient air purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papailias, Ilias; Todorova, Nadia; Giannakopoulou, Tatiana; Karapati, Sofia; Boukos, Nikos; Dimotikali, Dimitra; Trapalis, Christos

    2018-02-01

    The emission of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a major problem encountered in photocatalytic NOx removal for air purification. Although the oxidation of nitric oxide (NO) has been extensively studied, the elimination of NO2 byproduct is still in preliminary stage. In this work, alkaline-earth modified graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) is proposed for efficient NOx removal by minimizing the emission of NO2 during the NO oxidation process. The novel photocatalysts were synthesized by annealing mixtures of melamine and various alkaline-earth acetates (magnesium, calcium and barium acetate) at 550 °C for 3 h. The specific surface area of the photocatalysts varied between 4.65 and 11.81 m2/g. The formation of MgO, CaCO3 and BaCO3 was demonstrated by XPS and FT-IR analyses. The initial concentration of each alkaline-earth precursor was 5 and 10 wt%, while the final metal concentration in the nanocomposites was in the range of 7.19-22.39 wt%. The modified photocatalysts showed slightly reduced NO oxidation ability. However, the overall air quality was significantly improved by restraining the NO2 emission. The results were related to the basic character of the nanocomposites due to the presence of alkaline-earths and their enhanced NO2 adsorption capability.

  9. NO2inhalation causes tauopathy by disturbing the insulin signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wei; Ku, Tingting; Yue, Huifeng; Li, Guangke; Sang, Nan

    2016-12-01

    Air pollution has been evidenced as a risk factor for neurodegenerative tauopathies. NO 2 , a primary component of air pollution, is negatively linked to neurodegenerative disorders, but its independent and direct association with tau lesion remains to be elucidated. Considering the fact that the insulin signaling pathway can be targeted by air pollutants and regulate tau function, this study focused on the role of insulin signaling in this NO 2 -induced tauopathy. Using a dynamic inhalation treatment, we demonstrated that exposure to NO 2 induced a disruption of insulin signaling in skeletal muscle, liver, and brain, with associated p38 MAPK and/or JNK activation. We also found that in parallel with these kinase signaling cascades, the compensatory hyperinsulinemia triggered by whole-body insulin resistance (IR) further attenuated the IRS-1/AKT/GSK-3β signaling pathway in the central nervous system, which consequently increased the phosphorylation of tau and reduced the expression of synaptic proteins that contributed to the development of the tau pathology. These findings provide new insight into the possible mechanisms involved in the etiopathogenesis of NO 2 -induced tauopathy, suggesting that the targeting of insulin signaling may be a promising therapeutic strategy to prevent this disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Field calibration of electrochemical NO2 sensors in a citizen science context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijling, Bas; Jiang, Qijun; de Jonge, Dave; Bocconi, Stefano

    2018-03-01

    In many urban areas the population is exposed to elevated levels of air pollution. However, real-time air quality is usually only measured at few locations. These measurements provide a general picture of the state of the air, but they are unable to monitor local differences. New low-cost sensor technology is available for several years now, and has the potential to extend official monitoring networks significantly even though the current generation of sensors suffer from various technical issues.Citizen science experiments based on these sensors must be designed carefully to avoid generation of data which is of poor or even useless quality. This study explores the added value of the 2016 Urban AirQ campaign, which focused on measuring nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Sixteen low-cost air quality sensor devices were built and distributed among volunteers living close to roads with high traffic volume for a 2-month measurement period. Each electrochemical sensor was calibrated in-field next to an air monitoring station during an 8-day period, resulting in R2 ranging from 0.3 to 0.7. When temperature and relative humidity are included in a multilinear regression approach, the NO2 accuracy is improved significantly, with R2 ranging from 0.6 to 0.9. Recalibration after the campaign is crucial, as all sensors show a significant signal drift in the 2-month measurement period. The measurement series between the calibration periods can be corrected for after the measurement period by taking a weighted average of the calibration coefficients.Validation against an independent air monitoring station shows good agreement. Using our approach, the standard deviation of a typical sensor device for NO2 measurements was found to be 7 µg m-3, provided that temperatures are below 30 °C. Stronger ozone titration on street sides causes an underestimation of NO2 concentrations, which 75 % of the time is less than 2.3 µg m-3.Our findings show that citizen science

  11. Explicit and Observation-based Aerosol Treatment in Tropospheric NO2 Retrieval over China from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, M.; Lin, J.; Boersma, F.; Pinardi, G.; Wang, Y.; Chimot, J.; Wagner, T.; Xie, P.; Eskes, H.; Van Roozendael, M.; Hendrick, F.

    2017-12-01

    Satellite retrieval of vertical column densities (VCDs) of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is influenced by aerosols substantially. Aerosols affect the retrieval of "effective cloud fraction (CF)" and "effective cloud top pressure (CP)" that are used in the subsequent NO2 retrieval to account for the presentence of clouds. And aerosol properties and vertical distributions directly affect the NO2 air mass factor (AMF) calculations. Our published POMINO algorithm uses a parallelized LIDORT-driven AMFv6 code to derive CF, CP and NO2 VCD. Daily information on aerosol optical properties are taken from GEOS-Chem simulations, with aerosol optical depth (AOD) further constrained by monthly MODIS AOD. However, the published algorithm does not include an observation-based constraint of aerosol vertical distribution. Here we construct a monthly climatological observation dataset of aerosol extinction profiles, based on Level-2 CALIOP data over 2007-2015, to further constrain aerosol vertical distributions. GEOS-Chem captures the temporal variations of CALIOP aerosol layer heights (ALH) but has an overall underestimate by about 0.3 km. It tends to overestimate the aerosol extinction by 10% below 2 km but with an underestimate by 30% above 2 km, leading to a low bias by 10-30% in the retrieved tropospheric NO2 VCD. After adjusting GEOS-Chem aerosol extinction profiles by the CALIOP monthly ALH climatology, the retrieved NO2 VCDs increase by 4-16% over China on a monthly basis in 2012. The improved NO2 VCDs are better correlated to independent MAX-DOAS observations at three sites than POMINO and DOMINO are - especially for the polluted cases, R2 reaches 0.76 for the adjusted POMINO, much higher than that for the published POMINO (0.68) and DOMINO (0.38). The newly retrieved CP increases by 60 hPa on average, because of a stronger aerosol screening effect. Compared to the CF used in DOMINO, which implicitly includes aerosol information, our improved CF is much lower and can

  12. Disintegration of Carbon Dioxide Molecules in a Microwave Plasma Torch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Hyoung S.; Uhm, Han S.; Hong, Yong C.; Choi, Eun H.

    2015-12-01

    A pure carbon dioxide torch is generated by making use of 2.45 GHz microwave. Carbon dioxide gas becomes the working gas and produces a stable carbon dioxide torch. The torch volume is almost linearly proportional to the microwave power. Temperature of the torch flame is measured by making use of optical spectroscopy and thermocouple. Two distinctive regions are exhibited, a bright, whitish region of high-temperature zone and a bluish, dimmer region of relatively low-temperature zone. Study of carbon dioxide disintegration and gas temperature effects on the molecular fraction characteristics in the carbon dioxide plasma of a microwave plasma torch under atmospheric pressure is carried out. An analytical investigation of carbon dioxide disintegration indicates that substantial fraction of carbon dioxide molecules disintegrate and form other compounds in the torch. For example, the normalized particle densities at center of plasma are given by nCO2/nN = 6.12 × 10-3, nCO/nN = 0.13, nC/nN = 0.24, nO/nN = 0.61, nC2/nN = 8.32 × 10-7, nO2/nN = 5.39 × 10-5, where nCO2, nCO, nC, nO, nC2, and nO2 are carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, carbon and oxygen atom, carbon and oxygen molecule densities, respectively. nN is the neutral particle density. Emission profiles of the oxygen and carbon atom radicals and the carbon monoxide molecules confirm the theoretical predictions of carbon dioxide disintegration in the torch.

  13. Disintegration of Carbon Dioxide Molecules in a Microwave Plasma Torch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Hyoung S; Uhm, Han S; Hong, Yong C; Choi, Eun H

    2015-12-17

    A pure carbon dioxide torch is generated by making use of 2.45 GHz microwave. Carbon dioxide gas becomes the working gas and produces a stable carbon dioxide torch. The torch volume is almost linearly proportional to the microwave power. Temperature of the torch flame is measured by making use of optical spectroscopy and thermocouple. Two distinctive regions are exhibited, a bright, whitish region of high-temperature zone and a bluish, dimmer region of relatively low-temperature zone. Study of carbon dioxide disintegration and gas temperature effects on the molecular fraction characteristics in the carbon dioxide plasma of a microwave plasma torch under atmospheric pressure is carried out. An analytical investigation of carbon dioxide disintegration indicates that substantial fraction of carbon dioxide molecules disintegrate and form other compounds in the torch. For example, the normalized particle densities at center of plasma are given by nCO2/nN = 6.12 × 10(-3), nCO/nN = 0.13, nC/nN = 0.24, nO/nN = 0.61, nC2/nN = 8.32 × 10(-7), nO2/nN = 5.39 × 10(-5), where nCO2, nCO, nC, nO, nC2, and nO2 are carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, carbon and oxygen atom, carbon and oxygen molecule densities, respectively. nN is the neutral particle density. Emission profiles of the oxygen and carbon atom radicals and the carbon monoxide molecules confirm the theoretical predictions of carbon dioxide disintegration in the torch.

  14. Disintegration of Carbon Dioxide Molecules in a Microwave Plasma Torch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Hyoung S.; Uhm, Han S.; Hong, Yong C.; Choi, Eun H.

    2015-01-01

    A pure carbon dioxide torch is generated by making use of 2.45 GHz microwave. Carbon dioxide gas becomes the working gas and produces a stable carbon dioxide torch. The torch volume is almost linearly proportional to the microwave power. Temperature of the torch flame is measured by making use of optical spectroscopy and thermocouple. Two distinctive regions are exhibited, a bright, whitish region of high-temperature zone and a bluish, dimmer region of relatively low-temperature zone. Study of carbon dioxide disintegration and gas temperature effects on the molecular fraction characteristics in the carbon dioxide plasma of a microwave plasma torch under atmospheric pressure is carried out. An analytical investigation of carbon dioxide disintegration indicates that substantial fraction of carbon dioxide molecules disintegrate and form other compounds in the torch. For example, the normalized particle densities at center of plasma are given by nCO2/nN = 6.12 × 10−3, nCO/nN = 0.13, nC/nN = 0.24, nO/nN = 0.61, nC2/nN = 8.32 × 10−7, nO2/nN = 5.39 × 10−5, where nCO2, nCO, nC, nO, nC2, and nO2 are carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, carbon and oxygen atom, carbon and oxygen molecule densities, respectively. nN is the neutral particle density. Emission profiles of the oxygen and carbon atom radicals and the carbon monoxide molecules confirm the theoretical predictions of carbon dioxide disintegration in the torch. PMID:26674957

  15. Activated sludge model No. 2d, ASM2d

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henze, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Activated Sludge Model No. 2d (ASM2d) presents a model for biological phosphorus removal with simultaneous nitrification-denitrification in activated sludge systems. ASM2d is based on ASM2 and is expanded to include the denitrifying activity of the phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs......). This extension of ASM2 allows for improved modeling of the processes, especially with respect to the dynamics of nitrate and phosphate. (C) 1999 IAWQ Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  16. Metastable states in NO2+ probed with Auger spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Püttner, R.; Sekushin, V.; Fukuzawa, H.; Uhlíková, T.; Špirko, Vladimír; Asahina, T.; Kuze, N.; Kato, H.; Hoshino, M.; Tanaka, H.; Thomas, T. D.; Kukk, E.; Tamenori, Y.; Kaindl, G.; Ueda, K.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 41 (2011), s. 18436-18446 ISSN 1463-9076 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GP203/09/P306; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA400400504; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06071 Program:IA; LC Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : NO2+metastable states * Auger spectroscopy * vibrational energies Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.573, year: 2011

  17. Sol-gel TiO2 films as NO2 gas sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgieva, V; Gadjanova, V; Grechnikov, A; Donkov, N; Sendova-Vassileva, M; Kirilov, R; Stefanov, P

    2014-01-01

    TiO 2 films were prepared by a sol-gel technique with commercial TiO 2 powder as a source material (P25 Degussa AG). After a special treatment, printing paste was prepared. The TiO 2 layers were formed by means of drop-coating on Si-control wafers and on the Au-electrodes of quartz resonators. The surface morphology of the films was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Their structure was studied by Raman spectroscopy and the surface composition was determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The layers had a grain-like surface morphology and consisted mainly of anatase TiO 2 phase. The sensitivity of the TiO 2 films to NO 2 was assessed by the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) technique. To this end, the films were deposited on both sides of a 16-MHz QCM. The sensing characteristic of the TiO 2 -QCM structure was investigated by measuring the resonant frequency shift (ΔF) of the QCM due to the mass loading caused by NO 2 adsorption. The Sauerbrey equation was applied to establish the correlation between the QCM frequency changes measured after exposure to different NO 2 concentrations and the mass-loading of the QCM. The experiments were carried out in a dynamic mode on a special laboratory setup with complete control of the process parameters. The TiO 2 films were tested in the NO 2 concentration interval from 10 ppm to 5000 ppm. It was found that a TiO 2 loading of the QCM by 5.76 kHz corresponded to a system sensitive to NO 2 concentrations above 250 ppm. On the basis of the frequency-time characteristics (FTCs) measured, AF at different NO 2 concentrations was defined, the adsorption/desorption cycles were studied and the response and recovery times were estimated. The results obtained show that the process is reversible in the NO 2 interval investigated. The results further suggested that TiO 2 films prepared by a sol-gel method on a QCM can be used as a sensor element for NO 2 detection.

  18. The Utility of the OMI HCHO and NO2 Data Products in Air Quality Decision- Making Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Bryan N.

    2010-01-01

    We will present three related air quality applications of the OMI HCHO (formaldehyde) and NO2 (nitrogen dioxide) data products, which we us to support mission planning of an OMI-like instrument for the proposed GEO-CAPE satellite that has as one of its objectives to study air quality from space. First, we will discuss a novel and practical application of the data products to the "weight of evidence" in the air quality decision-making process (e.g., State Implementation Plan (SIP)) for a city, region, or state to demonstrate that it is making progress toward attainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for ozone. Any trend, or lack thereof, in the observed OMI HCHO/NO2, which we use as an air quality indicator, may support that an emission control strategy implemented to reduce ozone is or is not occurring for a metropolitan area. Second, we will discuss how we use variations in the OMI HCHO product as a proxy for variability in the biogenic hydrocarbon, isoprene, which is an important player for the formation of high levels of ozone and the dominant source of HCHO in the eastern U.S. Third, we will discuss the variability of NO2 in the U.S. as indicated by the OMI NO2 product. In addition, we will show the impact of the 2005 hurricanes on pollutant emissions, including those associated with the intensive oil extraction and refining activities, in the Gulf of Mexico region using the OMI NO2 product. The variability of HCHO and NO2 as indicated by OMI helps us to understand changes in the OMI HCHO/NO2 and the implications for ozone formation.

  19. Air Pollution and Lung Function in Dutch Children: A Comparison of Exposure Estimates and Associations Based on Land Use Regression and Dispersion Exposure Modeling Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Gehring, Ulrike; Hoek, Gerard; Keuken, Menno; Jonkers, Sander; Beelen, Rob; Eeftens, Marloes; Postma, Dirkje S; Brunekreef, Bert

    2015-08-01

    There is limited knowledge about the extent to which estimates of air pollution effects on health are affected by the choice for a specific exposure model. We aimed to evaluate the correlation between long-term air pollution exposure estimates using two commonly used exposure modeling techniques [dispersion and land use regression (LUR) models] and, in addition, to compare the estimates of the association between long-term exposure to air pollution and lung function in children using these exposure modeling techniques. We used data of 1,058 participants of a Dutch birth cohort study with measured forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and peak expiratory flow (PEF) measurements at 8 years of age. For each child, annual average outdoor air pollution exposure [nitrogen dioxide (NO2), mass concentration of particulate matter with diameters ≤ 2.5 and ≤ 10 μm (PM2.5, PM10), and PM2.5 soot] was estimated for the current addresses of the participants by a dispersion and a LUR model. Associations between exposures to air pollution and lung function parameters were estimated using linear regression analysis with confounder adjustment. Correlations between LUR- and dispersion-modeled pollution concentrations were high for NO2, PM2.5, and PM2.5 soot (R = 0.86-0.90) but low for PM10 (R = 0.57). Associations with lung function were similar for air pollutant exposures estimated using LUR and dispersion modeling, except for associations of PM2.5 with FEV1 and FVC, which were stronger but less precise for exposures based on LUR compared with dispersion model. Predictions from LUR and dispersion models correlated very well for PM2.5, NO2, and PM2.5 soot but not for PM10. Health effect estimates did not depend on the type of model used to estimate exposure in a population of Dutch children.

  20. Interaction of sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide with clean silver in ultrahigh vacuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassiter, W. S.

    1972-01-01

    It is shown that when a clean polycrystalline silver surface is subjected to sulfur dioxide at a pressure of 1 nanotorr, sulfur is chemisorbed to the silver. Heating the contaminated silver leads to an estimation of the minimum heat of desorption of 59 kcal/mol. Sulfur Auger peak height and relative function measurements of the surface during exposure show that adsorption occurs during 6 microtorr/sec exposure at 1 nanotorr.

  1. Physisorption-Based Charge Transfer in Two-Dimensional SnS2 for Selective and Reversible NO2 Gas Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Jian Zhen; Ge, Wanyin; Carey, Benjamin; Daeneke, Torben; Rotbart, Asaf; Shan, Wei; Wang, Yichao; Fu, Zhengqian; Chrimes, Adam F; Wlodarski, Wojtek; Russo, Salvy P; Li, Yong Xiang; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kourosh

    2015-10-27

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a gas species that plays an important role in certain industrial, farming, and healthcare sectors. However, there are still significant challenges for NO2 sensing at low detection limits, especially in the presence of other interfering gases. The NO2 selectivity of current gas-sensing technologies is significantly traded-off with their sensitivity and reversibility as well as fabrication and operating costs. In this work, we present an important progress for selective and reversible NO2 sensing by demonstrating an economical sensing platform based on the charge transfer between physisorbed NO2 gas molecules and two-dimensional (2D) tin disulfide (SnS2) flakes at low operating temperatures. The device shows high sensitivity and superior selectivity to NO2 at operating temperatures of less than 160 °C, which are well below those of chemisorptive and ion conductive NO2 sensors with much poorer selectivity. At the same time, excellent reversibility of the sensor is demonstrated, which has rarely been observed in other 2D material counterparts. Such impressive features originate from the planar morphology of 2D SnS2 as well as unique physical affinity and favorable electronic band positions of this material that facilitate the NO2 physisorption and charge transfer at parts per billion levels. The 2D SnS2-based sensor provides a real solution for low-cost and selective NO2 gas sensing.

  2. Catalytic Activation of Nitrogen Dioxide for Selective Synthesis of Nitroorganics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-15

    reactivity from electrophilic nitration to ipso nitro-deboronation. Catalysis ; nitrogen dioxide; oxidative addition; reductive elimination; nitroarenes. U U...Brown, University of Notre Dame FINAL PERFORMANCE REPORT 1 Reductive Elimination to Form Carbon-NO2 Bonds. Contemporary methods in homogeneous ...Activation. One of the most significant recent developments in organometallic catalysis is the successful functionalization of hydrocarbons under

  3. Spatial analysis of air pollution and childhood asthma in Hamilton, Canada: comparing exposure methods in sensitive subgroups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arain Altaf

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variations in air pollution exposure within a community may be associated with asthma prevalence. However, studies conducted to date have produced inconsistent results, possibly due to errors in measurement of the exposures. Methods A standardized asthma survey was administered to children in grades one and eight in Hamilton, Canada, in 1994–95 (N ~1467. Exposure to air pollution was estimated in four ways: (1 distance from roadways; (2 interpolated surfaces for ozone, sulfur dioxide, particulate matter and nitrous oxides from seven to nine governmental monitoring stations; (3 a kriged nitrogen dioxide (NO2 surface based on a network of 100 passive NO2 monitors; and (4 a land use regression (LUR model derived from the same monitoring network. Logistic regressions were used to test associations between asthma and air pollution, controlling for variables including neighbourhood income, dwelling value, state of housing, a deprivation index and smoking. Results There were no significant associations between any of the exposure estimates and asthma in the whole population, but large effects were detected the subgroup of children without hayfever (predominately in girls. The most robust effects were observed for the association of asthma without hayfever and NO2LUR OR = 1.86 (95%CI, 1.59–2.16 in all girls and OR = 2.98 (95%CI, 0.98–9.06 for older girls, over an interquartile range increase and controlling for confounders. Conclusion Our findings indicate that traffic-related pollutants, such as NO2, are associated with asthma without overt evidence of other atopic disorders among female children living in a medium-sized Canadian city. The effects were sensitive to the method of exposure estimation. More refined exposure models produced the most robust associations.

  4. A Tropical Lake Breeze System : The Effect on Surface NO, NO2, O3, and CO2 Mixing Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima Moura, M. A.; Eça D'Almeida Rocha, C. H.; Trebs, I.; Andreae, M. O.; Meixner, F. X.

    2003-04-01

    During the Cooperative LBA Airborne Regional Experiment 2001 (CLAIRE2001, July 2001), we investigated diel variations of nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO_2), ozone (O_3) and carbon dioxide (CO_2) mixing ratios at Balbina Limnological Station (01^o55'994''S, 59^o28'071''W, Amazonia,Brazil). We applied sensitive and species-specific chemiluminescence (NO, NO_2, O_3) and NDIR (CO_2) analysers to record ambient mixing ratios on 1 min intervals. Simultaneously, we extensively monitored (micro-)meteorological qauntities (air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and -direction, thermal stratification, rainfall intensity, soil temperatures and moisture, as well as radiation fluxes (global, net, short wave, NO_2 photolysis, and photosynthetic active)). Balbina Limnological Station is located just a few hundred meters south of a 2.360 km^2 hydroelectric power dam (Usina Hidrelétrica de Balbina) and about 100m north from the edge of a primary rainforest. Marked differences in surface albedo and heat storage capacity generate a local wind system, the lake breeze, which advects air from the dam (09:00 to 15:00 local) and from the rainforest (18:00 to 06:00 local), respectively. Generally, we observed marked diel variations of NO, NO_2, O_3, and CO_2 (high/low levels during night/day) and O_3 (low/high levels during night/day). Especially in the tropics, this behaviour is usually related to (a) accumulation of soil emissions (NO, CO_2), chemical reactions (NO, from NO_2-O_3 reaction) and surface destruction (O_3) in a shallow and strong nocturnal boundary layer inversion, and (b) to soil emission (NO), photochemical reactions (NO-NO_2-O_3), dry deposition/plant uptake (NO_2, O_3, and CO_2) and strong turbulent vertical mixing in the daytime mixed layer. However, under the specific conditions of the lake breeze soil emission and dry deposition/ plant uptake can be neglected during daytime. Consequently, the investigation of daytime mixing ratios can be confined to

  5. Validation of MIPAS-ENVISAT NO2 operational data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ruhnke

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS instrument was launched aboard the environmental satellite ENVISAT into its sun-synchronous orbit on 1 March 2002. The short-lived species NO2 is one of the key target products of MIPAS that are operationally retrieved from limb emission spectra measured in the stratosphere and mesosphere. Within the MIPAS validation activities, a large number of independent observations from balloons, satellites and ground-based stations have been compared to European Space Agency (ESA version 4.61 operational NO2 data comprising the time period from July 2002 until March 2004 where MIPAS measured with full spectral resolution. Comparisons between MIPAS and balloon-borne observations carried out in 2002 and 2003 in the Arctic, at mid-latitudes, and in the tropics show a very good agreement below 40 km altitude with a mean deviation of roughly 3%, virtually without any significant bias. The comparison to ACE satellite observations exhibits only a small negative bias of MIPAS which appears not to be significant. The independent satellite instruments HALOE, SAGE II, and POAM III confirm in common for the spring-summer time period a negative bias of MIPAS in the Arctic and a positive bias in the Antarctic middle and upper stratosphere exceeding frequently the combined systematic error limits. In contrast to the ESA operational processor, the IMK/IAA retrieval code allows accurate inference of NO2 volume mixing ratios under consideration of all important non-LTE processes. Large differences between both retrieval results appear especially at higher altitudes, above about 50 to 55 km. These differences might be explained at least partly by non-LTE under polar winter conditions but not at mid-latitudes. Below this altitude region mean differences between both processors remain within 5% (during night and up to 10% (during day under undisturbed (September 2002 conditions and up to 40% under perturbed

  6. Airborne measurements of spatial NO2 distributions during AROMAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Andreas Carlos; Seyler, André; Schönhardt, Anja; Richter, Andreas; Ruhtz, Thomas; Lindemann, Carsten; Burrows, John P.

    2015-04-01

    Nitrogen oxides, NOx (NOx = NO + NO2) play a key role in tropospheric chemistry. In addition to their directly harmful effects on the respiratory system of living organisms, they influence the levels of tropospheric ozone and contribute to acid rain and eutrophication of ecosystems. As they are produced in combustion processes, they can serve as an indicator for anthropogenic air pollution. In September 2014 several European research groups conducted the ESA funded Airborne ROmanian Measurements of Aerosols and Trace gases (AROMAT) campaign to test and intercompare newly developed airborne observation sytsems dedicated to air quality satellite validation studies. The IUP Bremen contributed to this campaign with its Airborne imaging DOAS instrument for Measurements of Atmospheric Pollution (AirMAP) on board a Cessna 207 turbo, operated by the FU Berlin. AirMAP allows the retrieval of integrated NO2 column densities in a stripe below the aircraft at a fine spatial resolution of up to 30 x 80 m2, at a typical flight altitude. Measurements have been performed over the city of Bucharest, creating for the first time high spatial resolution maps of Bucharest's NO2 distribution in a time window of approx. 2 hours. The observations were synchronised with ground-based car MAX-DOAS measurements for comparison. In addition, measurements were taken over the city of Berlin, Germany and at the Rovinari power plant, Romania. In this work the results of the research flights will be presented and conclusions will be drawn on the quality of the measurements, their applicability for satellite data validation and possible improvements for future measurements.

  7. Pengakuan Biaya Riset dan Pengembangan : Tinjauan terhadap SFAS No. 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inon Listyorini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available SFAS No. 2 requires that research and development costs to be recognized as an expense in the period of issuance of such costs. Such treatment caused problems matching revenue with expenses can not be met, the concept of grouping resources as assets applied inconsistently and the trade off between the qualitative characteristics of relevance with reliability in the presentation of research and development costs. Capitalization of research and development costs can be done to overcome these problems, with the capitalization requirements made after the technical feasibility test.

  8. Ornithological Survey of the Proposed Geothermal Well Site No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey, Jack

    1990-08-16

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS 1983) and the State of Hawaii (DLNR 1986) have listed as endangered six forest bird species for the Island of Hawaii. Two of these birds, the O'u (Psittirostra psittacea) and the Hawaiian hawk (Buteo solitarius) may be present within the Geothermal resource sub-zone (Scott et al. 1986). Thus, their presence could impact future development within the resource area. This report presents the results of a bird survey conducted August 11 and 12, 1990 in the sub-zone in and around the proposed well site and pad for True/Mid Pacific Geothermal Well No.2.

  9. DWPF Melter No.2 Prototype Bus Bar Test Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, J.

    2003-01-01

    Characterization and performance testing of a prototype DWPF Melter No.2 Dome Heater Bus Bar are described. The prototype bus bar was designed to address the design features of the existing system which may have contributed to water leaks on Melter No.1. Performance testing of the prototype revealed significant improvement over the existing design in reduction of both bus bar and heater connection maximum temperature, while characterization revealed a few minor design and manufacturing flaws in the bar. The prototype is recommended as an improvement over the existing design. Recommendations are also made in the area of quality control to ensure that critical design requirements are met

  10. Where are the radioactive wastes in France? Brochure no 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This document is one of the 6 regional brochures which make the geographical inventory of radioactive wastes in France. For each region, a table lists the recorded sites and a regional map localizes those having a detailed descriptive file. These files mention the most important waste owners (medical, research, nuclear and military industries), the type of waste and the type of management. The polluted sites are also mentioned, even if they are already decontaminated. The volume no 2 concerns the Bretagne (Brittany), Pays de la Loire, Haute-Normandie, Basse-Normandie and Centre regions. (J.S.)

  11. Variation of NO2 and NOx concentrations between and within 36 European study areas: Results from the ESCAPE study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cyrys, J.; Eeftens, M.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/315028300; Heinrich, J.; Ampe, C.; Armengaud, A.; Beelen, R.; Bellander, T.; Beregszaszi, T.; Birk, M.; Cesaroni, G.; Cirach, M.; de Hoogh, K.; de Nazelle, A.; de Vocht, F.; Declercq, C.; Dėdelė, A.; Dimakopoulou, K.; Eriksen, K.; Galassi, C.; Grąulevičienė, R.; Grivas, G.; Gruzieva, O.; Gustafsson, A.H.; Hoffmann, B.; Iakovides, M.; Ineichen, A.; Krämer, U.; Lanki, T.; Lozano, P.; Madsen, C.; Meliefste, K.; Modig, L.; Mölter, A.; Mosler, G.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.; Nonnemacher, M.; Oldenwening, M.; Peters, A.; Pontet, S.; Probst-Hensch, N.; Quass, U.; Raaschou-Nielsen, O.; Ranzi, A.; Sugiri, D.; Stephanou, E.G.; Taimisto, P.; Tsai, M-Y.; Vaskövi, É.; Villani, S.; Wang, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/345480279; Brunekreef, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/067548180; Hoek, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069553475

    2012-01-01

    The ESCAPE study (European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects) investigates long-term effects of exposure to air pollution on human health in Europe. This paper documents the spatial variation of measured NO2 and NOx concentrations between and within 36 ESCAPE study areas across Europe. In

  12. Carbon dioxide removal process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Richard W.; Da Costa, Andre R.; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

    2003-11-18

    A process and apparatus for separating carbon dioxide from gas, especially natural gas, that also contains C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons. The invention uses two or three membrane separation steps, optionally in conjunction with cooling/condensation under pressure, to yield a lighter, sweeter product natural gas stream, and/or a carbon dioxide stream of reinjection quality and/or a natural gas liquids (NGL) stream.

  13. Nuclear materials 1993 annual report. Volume 8, No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    This annual report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) describes activities conducted during 1993. The report is published in two parts. NUREG-1272, Vol. 8, No. 1, covers power reactors and presents an overview of the operating experience of the nuclear power industry from the NRC perspective, including comments about the trends of some key performance measures. The report also includes the principal findings and issues identified in AEOD studies over the past year and summarizes information from such sources as licensee event reports, diagnostic evaluations, and reports to the NRC's Operations Center. NUREG-1272, Vol. 8, No. 2, covers nuclear materials and presents a review of the events and concerns during 1993 associated with the use of licensed material in nonreactor applications, such as personnel overexposures and medical misadministrations. Note that the subtitle of No. 2 has been changed from ''Nonreactors'' to ''Nuclear Materials.'' Both reports also contain a discussion of the Incident Investigation Team program and summarize both the Incident Investigation Team and Augmented Inspection Team reports. Each volume contains a list of the AEOD reports issued from 1980 through 1993

  14. Nuclear materials 1993 annual report. Volume 8, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    This annual report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) describes activities conducted during 1993. The report is published in two parts. NUREG-1272, Vol. 8, No. 1, covers power reactors and presents an overview of the operating experience of the nuclear power industry from the NRC perspective, including comments about the trends of some key performance measures. The report also includes the principal findings and issues identified in AEOD studies over the past year and summarizes information from such sources as licensee event reports, diagnostic evaluations, and reports to the NRC`s Operations Center. NUREG-1272, Vol. 8, No. 2, covers nuclear materials and presents a review of the events and concerns during 1993 associated with the use of licensed material in nonreactor applications, such as personnel overexposures and medical misadministrations. Note that the subtitle of No. 2 has been changed from ``Nonreactors`` to ``Nuclear Materials.`` Both reports also contain a discussion of the Incident Investigation Team program and summarize both the Incident Investigation Team and Augmented Inspection Team reports. Each volume contains a list of the AEOD reports issued from 1980 through 1993.

  15. Trees in urban parks and forests reduce O3, but not NO2 concentrations in Baltimore, MD, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yli-Pelkonen, Vesa; Scott, Anna A.; Viippola, Viljami; Setälä, Heikki

    2017-10-01

    Trees and other vegetation absorb and capture air pollutants, leading to the common perception that they, and trees in particular, can improve air quality in cities and provide an important ecosystem service for urban inhabitants. Yet, there has been a lack of empirical evidence showing this at the local scale with different plant configurations and climatic regions. We studied the impact of urban park and forest vegetation on the levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ground-level ozone (O3) while controlling for temperature during early summer (May) using passive samplers in Baltimore, USA. Concentrations of O3 were significantly lower in tree-covered habitats than in adjacent open habitats, but concentrations of NO2 did not differ significantly between tree-covered and open habitats. Higher temperatures resulted in higher pollutant concentrations and NO2 and O3 concentration were negatively correlated with each other. Our results suggest that the role of trees in reducing NO2 concentrations in urban parks and forests in the Mid-Atlantic USA is minor, but that the presence of tree-cover can result in lower O3 levels compared to similar open areas. Our results further suggest that actions aiming at local air pollution mitigation should consider local variability in vegetation, climate, micro-climate, and traffic conditions.

  16. Changes in NO2 Concentration from Major Cities and Provinces in Korea: A Case Study from 1998 to 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Thi Nguyen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the spatio-temporal distribution characteristics of nitrogen dioxide (NO2 were investigated using data obtained routinely from air quality monitoring stations located in seven major cities and nine provinces in Korea for the period 1998 to 2003. The results indicate that annual trends in NO2 concentrations generally reflect changes in environmental conditions, while exhibiting cyclic and systematic patterns across seasons. Its wintertime concentrations were most prominent, with concentrations decreasing gradually across spring, fall, and summer. If concentration patterns are examined among different cities and/or provinces, the highest mean values were found from the Capital city, Seoul (34.7 ppb and the surrounding province, Gyunggi (30.2 ppb. In contrast, remarkably reduced NO2 concentrations were seen in such regions as the remote island, Jeju and Jeonnam province with mean values of 17.5 and 16.5 ppb, respectively. The overall results of our study indicate that there are strong geographical gradients in NO2 distributions to exhibit strongly polluted patterns consistently in densely populated urban areas (e.g., major city, compared to large rural areas (e.g., province.

  17. Annals of African Medicine - Vol 10, No 2 (2011)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Secondhand smoke exposure among non smoking adults in two Nigerian cities · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ... Ultrasound guided percutaneous fine needle aspiration biopsy/automated needle core biopsy of abdominal lesions: Effect on management and cost effectiveness · EMAIL FREE FULL ...

  18. Health SA Gesondheid - Vol 12, No 2 (2007)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post-traumatic stress disorder and exposure to violence among Venda and Northern Sotho adolescents · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. K.G.F Esterhuyse, D.A Louw, J.M Bach. http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/hsag.v12i2.250 ...

  19. TropJrnal Vol 30 No 2 PDF

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mr Olusoji

    growth restriction, delayed speech, dyslexia, and non-right-handedness associated with. 3,4 ultrasound exposure. The number of USS done in pregnancy can therefore be said not to be limitless. Communication with mothers and appropriate information about the benefits and limitations of ultrasound are essential to ...

  20. Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences - Vol 31, No 2 (2016)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morphological Characterization of the African Giant Rat (Cricetomys gambianus, Waterhouse) Brain Across Age Groups: Gross Features of Cortices · EMAIL FREE ... Repeated acute oral exposure to cannabis sativa impaired neurocognitive behaviours and cortico-hippocampal architectonics in wistar rats · EMAIL FREE ...

  1. South African Medical Journal - Vol 108, No 2 (2018)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Early-life exposures to environmental tobacco smoke and indoor air pollution in the Drakenstein Child Health Study: Impact on child health · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. A Vanker, R.P. Gie, H.J. Zar, 71-72 ...

  2. Malawi Medical Journal - Vol 21, No 2 (2009)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Presentation of child sexual abuse cases to Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital following the establishment of an HIV post-exposure prophylaxis programme · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. E Chesshyre, EM Molyneux.

  3. High resolution satellite retrievals of NO2 and Aerosol Optical Depth for health impact studies on urban scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, D. L.; Lu, Z.; Lamsal, L. N.; Loughner, C.; Levy, R. C.; Gupta, P.; Zhang, Y.; Streets, D. G.

    2016-12-01

    Satellite measurements provide greater spatial coverage than any other observing platform. Despite this advantage, the horizontal resolution of operational products is often considered a major weakness when conducting health impact studies on urban scales. Improving the spatial resolution and accuracy of satellite data products may spur their use in the health and policy communities. This work presents a new high resolution nitrogen dioxide (NO2) dataset derived from the standard NASA Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) NO2 v2.1 product. The standard product uses NO2 vertical profile shape factors from a 2.5° × 2° resolution NASA Global Model Initiative (GMI) model simulation to calculate air mass factors, a critical value used to determine tropospheric NO2 vertical columns. While GMI can provide global coverage and is extremely useful in an operational setting due to its quick runtime, the shape factors generated on a 2.5° × 2° grid are not representative of regions with large spatial heterogeneities, such as near major urban areas and large power plants. To better estimate vertical profile shape factors, we use regional air quality simulations to recalculate tropospheric air mass factors and tropospheric NO2 columns. Results show that retrievals using these new air mass factors capture the fine-scale gradients near urban areas and large point sources. We also use re-processed 10 km Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) data from MODIS and regional model simulations to provide a first-order estimate of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations in urban areas. Although the current work focuses on urban areas in the eastern United States, the methodology developed in this work can be applied to other world regions to produce high-quality region-specific NO2 and PM2.5 satellite retrievals.

  4. Effects of long-term (10 years) exposure to elevated CO2 and O3 on trembling Aspen carbon and nitrogen metabolism at the aspen FACE (Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment) study site [Abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Minocha; S. Long; S. Minocha; P Marquardt; M. Kubiske

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the long-term (10 years) effects of elevated CO2 and O3 on the carbon and nitrogen metabolism of aspen trees. The study was conducted at the Aspen Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FACE) experimental site, Rhinelander, WI, (USA).

  5. Effects of long-term (10 years) exposure to elevated CO2 and O3 on trembling Aspen carbon and nitrogen metabolism at the aspen FACE (Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment) study site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakesh Minocha; Stephanie Long; Subhash Minocha; Paula Marquardt; Neil Nelson; Mark. Kubiske

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted at the Aspen Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FACE) experimental site, Rhinelander, WI, (USA). Since 1998, 12 experimental rings planted in 1997 underwent four different treatments: control; elevated CO2 (560 ppm); elevated O3 (1.5X ambient) and elevated CO2 (560 ppm) + O...

  6. The effects of long-term 20 mg/L carbon dioxide exposure on the health and performance of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar post-smolts in water recirculation aquaculture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous research and experience has linked elevated dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2) to reduced growth performance, poor feed conversion, and a variety of health issues in farm-raised fish, including Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. Supplemental control measures in water recirculation aquaculture systems...

  7. Where are the radioactive wastes in France? Brochure no 2; Ou sont les dechets radioactifs en France? Brochure no 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This document is one of the 6 regional brochures which make the geographical inventory of radioactive wastes in France. For each region, a table lists the recorded sites and a regional map localizes those having a detailed descriptive file. These files mention the most important waste owners (medical, research, nuclear and military industries), the type of waste and the type of management. The polluted sites are also mentioned, even if they are already decontaminated. The volume no 2 concerns the Bretagne (Brittany), Pays de la Loire, Haute-Normandie, Basse-Normandie and Centre regions. (J.S.)

  8. Assessing theEffects of Nitrogen Dioxide in Urban Air on Health of West and Southwest Cities of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zallaghi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Nitrogen dioxide (NO2 is a corrosive, strong oxidant and a physiologic stimulant of lower respiratory tract. Every human being inhales an average of 10-m3 air per day; therefore, assessment of the effect of inhaled air on health is a vital issue. The main source NO2 in urban regions is intra-urban public transport system. The annual average of determined air quality for NO2 is 40 μg/m3. Objectives The present study aimed to estimate and compare epidemiologic indices attributed to the pollutant NO2 in the urban air of southwest cities of Iran, namely, Ahvaz, Kermanshah, and Bushehr, in 2011. Materials and Methods In the present study, data relevant to the air-pollutant NO2 in 2011 was obtained from the Iranian Department of Environment and meteorological organizations of the studied cities. Raw data processing by Excel software included instruction set correction of averaging, coding, and filtering. Then the meteorological parameters were converted as input file to the Air Q model. Finally, by using epidemiologic formulas, relative risk (RR and attributed part to NO2 in the three studied cites were estimated. Results The results showed that in summer, winter, and the whole year, Kermanshah and Bushehr had on average the maximum and minimum NO2 concentration, respectively, in 2011. In addition, accumulative number of cases attributed to exposure with NO2 in the studied cities was maximum in Kermanshah (21 cases and minimum in Bushehr (one case. The results revealed that approximately, the maximum number of death cases attributed to NO2 were observed in Kermanshah due to heart problems (1.06%, acute infarction (1.8%, and obstructive pulmonary disease (1.9% with concentration > 20 μg/m3. Conclusions Every 10 μg/m3 increase in the concentration of the pollutant NO2 in the studied cities led to increase in the RR of myocardial infarction, cardiovascular diseases, and obstructive pulmonary disease by 0.4%, 0.2%, and 0.4%, respectively, in

  9. LMFBR Blanket Physics Project progress report No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, I.A.; Driscoll, M.J.; Rasmussen, N.C.; Lanning, D.D.; Kaplan, I.

    1971-01-01

    This is the second annual report of an experimental program for the investigation of the neutronics of benchmark mock-ups of LMFBR blankets. Work was devoted primarily to measurements on Blanket Mock-Up No. 2, a simulation of a typical large LMFBR radial blanket and its steel reflector. Activation traverses and neutron spectra were measured in the blanket; calculations of activities and spectra were made for comparison with the measured data. The heterogeneous self-shielding effect for 238 U capture was found to be the most important factor affecting the comparison. Optimization and economic studies were made which indicate that the use of a high-albedo reflector material such as BeO or graphite may improve blanket neutronics and economics

  10. Production of electronically excited NO via DEA to NO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gope, Krishnendu; Tadsare, Vishvesh; Prabhudesai, Vaibhav S.; Krishnakumar, E.

    2017-12-01

    Dissociative electron attachment (DEA) to NO2 in the 7-11 eV range is studied using velocity slice imaging technique. Two distinct channels are observed in the DEA corresponding to O- + NO(A 2Σ+) and O- + NO(C 2Π and/or D 2Σ+). While NO(A 2Σ+) is found to be formed only in very high vibrational levels, NO(C 2Π and/or D 2Σ+) is found to be formed with vibrational distribution starting from v = 0. From the angular distribution of the O- ions leading to the NO(C 2Π and/or D 2Σ+) channel, we obtain the symmetry of the negative ion resonance to be dominantly B1 with small contribution from B2. Contribution to the Topical Issue: "Low Energy Positron and Electron Interactions", edited by James Sullivan, Ron White, Michael Bromley, Ilya Fabrikant, and David Cassidy.

  11. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of NO2 and SO2 in Inner Mongolia Urban Agglomeration Obtained from the Combination of Satellite Remote Sensing and Ground Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, C.; Zhao, C.

    2017-12-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) are important influential factors to the urban air quality, atmospheric chemistry and climate change. Based on the combination of tropospheric NO2 and SO2 column density product derived from OMI satellite with the ground station observations, this study analyzed the spatial-temporal distribution characteristic of NO2 and SO2 in Inner Mongolia urban agglomerations. In terms of long-term changing trend, NO2 increased continually from 2005 to 2011 at 14.3% per year and then decreased from 2011 to 2016 (8.1% per year). As for SO2, there is a consistent increase from 2005 to 2007 at 9.7% per year. During the period of 2007 to 2016, despite of a peak value in 2011, it showed a decreasing trend (1.6% per year) as a whole. With regard to the spatial pattern of NO2, the highest levels of pollution occur in Hohhot and Baotou, followed by Wuhai and Ordos, the least polluted area is in Bayannur. Compared with NO2, the SO2 spatial distribution is slightly different. The pollution of SO2 is the most serious in Wuhai, followed by Hohhot and Baotou, and it is the lightest in Ordos and Bayannur. The diurnal variation of NO2 and SO2 is basically the same, which shows a decrease from 0:00 to 6:00, then rises, and reaches a peak at 8:00, and decreases from 8:00 to 15:00, which is highly related to the diurnal variation of anthropogenic emission and boundary layer height. The long-term spatial-temporal distribution of NO2 and SO2 are closely related to human activities, while meteorology also plays an important role for their diurnal and seasonal variations.

  12. High resolution mapping of the tropospheric NO2 distribution in three Belgian cities based on airborne APEX remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tack, Frederik; Merlaud, Alexis; Fayt, Caroline; Danckaert, Thomas; Iordache, Daniel; Meuleman, Koen; Deutsch, Felix; Adriaenssens, Sandy; Fierens, Frans; Van Roozendael, Michel

    2015-04-01

    An approach is presented to retrieve tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) vertical column densities (VCDs) and to map the NO2 two dimensional distribution at high resolution, based on Airborne Prism EXperiment (APEX) observations. APEX, developed by a Swiss-Belgian consortium on behalf of ESA (European Space Agency), is a pushbroom hyperspectral imager with a high spatial (approximately 3 m at 5000 m ASL), spectral (413 to 2421 nm in 533 narrow, contiguous spectral bands) and radiometric (14-bit) resolution. VCDs are derived, following a similar approach as described in the pioneering work of Popp et al. (2012), based on (1) spectral calibration and spatial binning of the observed radiance spectra in order to improve the spectral resolution and signal-to-noise ratio, (2) Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) analysis of the pre-processed spectra in the visible wavelength region, with a reference spectrum containing low NO2 absorption, in order to quantify the abundance of NO2 along the light path, based on its molecular absorption structures and (3) radiative transfer modeling for air mass factor calculation in order to convert slant to vertical columns. This study will be done in the framework of the BUMBA (Belgian Urban NO2 Monitoring Based on APEX hyperspectral data) project. Dedicated flights with APEX mounted in a Dornier DO-228 airplane, operated by Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), are planned to be performed in Spring 2015 above the three largest and most heavily polluted Belgian cities, i.e. Brussels, Antwerp and Liège. The retrieved VCDs will be validated by comparison with correlative ground-based and car-based DOAS observations. Main objectives are (1) to assess the operational capabilities of APEX to map the NO2 field over an urban area at high spatial and spectral resolution in a relatively short time and cost-effective way, and to characterise all aspects of the retrieval approach; (2) to use the APEX NO2 measurements

  13. Biological Effects of Short, High-Level Exposure to Gases: Nitrogen Oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    vehicles of nitrous oxide (N20), or the trioxide and pentoxide (N203 and N0 5 ) although the latter is important in air pollution as a photochemical... miners with emphysema. Ann Occup Hyg 15:285-300, 1972 53.* Kleinerman J: Effects of nitrogen dioxide on elastin and collagen contents of lung. Arch...of the initial count. Results of a previously reported study of continuous exposure to 0.5 ppm NO2 for 7 days to 9 months were aggregated with the 24

  14. Ambient Air Pollution and Risk for Ischemic Stroke: A Short-Term Exposure Assessment in South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pi Guo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Data on the association between air pollution and risk of ischemic stroke in China are still limited. This study aimed to investigate the association between short-term exposure to ambient air pollution and risk of ischemic strokes in Guangzhou, the most densely-populated city in south China, using a large-scale multicenter database of stroke hospital admissions. Daily counts of ischemic stroke admissions over the study years 2013–2015 were obtained from the Guangzhou Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease Event Surveillance System. Daily particulate matter <2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5, sulfur dioxide (SO2, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, ozone (O3, and meteorological data were collected. The associations between air pollutants and hospital admissions for stroke were examined using relative risks (RRs and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs based on time-series Poisson regression models, adjusting for temperature, public holiday, day of week, and temporal trends in stroke. Ischemic stroke admissions increased from 27,532 to 35,279 through 2013 to 2015, increasing by 28.14%. Parameter estimates for NO2 exposure were robust regardless of the model used. The association between same-day NO2 (RR = 1.0509, 95% CI: 1.0353–1.0668 exposure and stroke risk was significant when accounting for other air pollutants, day of the week, public holidays, temperature, and temporal trends in stroke events. Overall, we observed a borderline significant association between NO2 exposure modeled as an averaged lag effect and ischemic stroke risk. This study provides data on air pollution exposures and stroke risk, and contributes to better planning of clinical services and emergency contingency response for stroke.

  15. Remote sensing of stratospheric O3 and NO2 using a portable and compact DOAS spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raponi, M. M.; Jiménez, R.; Wolfram, E.; Tocho, J. O.; Quel, E. J.

    2011-01-01

    The use of passive and active remote sensing systems has largely contributed to advance our understanding of important atmospheric phenomena. Here we present a compact and portable passive DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) system, developed for measuring the vertical column density (VCD) of multiple atmospheric trace gases. We highlight the main characteristics of the system components: a mini-spectrometer (HR4000, Ocean Optics), two optical fibers (400 μm of core, 6 m and 25 cm of longitude), an external shutter and the control/data processing software. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3) VCDs are derived from solar spectra acquired during twilights (87° - 91° zenithal angles) using the DOAS technique. The analysis is carried out by solving the Beer-Lambert-Bouger (BLB) law for the main atmospheric absorbers at selected wavelength ranges. The algorithm minimizes the fitting residuals to the BLB law, having as unknown the slant column density (SCD) of the species to determine. We present measurements carried out at the Marambio Antarctic Base (64° 14' 25'' S; 56° 37' 21'' W, 197 m asl) during January - February 2008. In addition, we compare our results with co-located measurements performed with EVA, a visible absorption spectrometer of Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial (INTA, Spain), a Dobson spectrophotometer of Servicio Meteorológico Nacional (SMN, Argentine) and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), on board AURA satellite.

  16. Annoyance Caused by Noise and Air Pollution during Pregnancy: Associated Factors and Correlation with Outdoor NO2 and Benzene Estimations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Fernández-Somoano

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to describe the degree of annoyance among pregnant women in a Spanish cohort and to examine associations with proximity to traffic, NO2 and benzene exposure. We included 2457 participants from the Spanish Childhood and Environment study. Individual exposures to outdoor NO2 and benzene were estimated, temporally adjusted for pregnancy. Interviews about sociodemographic variables, noise and air pollution were carried out. Levels of annoyance were assessed using a scale from 0 (none to 10 (strong and unbearable; a level of 8 to 10 was considered high. The reported prevalence of high annoyance levels from air pollution was 11.2% and 15.0% from noise; the two variables were moderately correlated (0.606. Significant correlations between NO2 and annoyance from air pollution (0.154 and that from noise (0.181 were observed. Annoyance owing to noise and air pollution had a low prevalence in our Spanish population compared with other European populations. Both factors were associated with proximity to traffic. In multivariate models, annoyance from air pollution was related to NO2, building age, and country of birth; annoyance from noise was only related to the first two. The health burden of these exposures can be increased by stress caused by the perception of pollution sources.

  17. Annoyance Caused by Noise and Air Pollution during Pregnancy: Associated Factors and Correlation with Outdoor NO2 and Benzene Estimations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Llop, Sabrina; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Tamayo-Uria, Ibon; Martínez, María Dolores; Foraster, Maria; Ballester, Ferran; Tardón, Adonina

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the degree of annoyance among pregnant women in a Spanish cohort and to examine associations with proximity to traffic, NO2 and benzene exposure. We included 2457 participants from the Spanish Childhood and Environment study. Individual exposures to outdoor NO2 and benzene were estimated, temporally adjusted for pregnancy. Interviews about sociodemographic variables, noise and air pollution were carried out. Levels of annoyance were assessed using a scale from 0 (none) to 10 (strong and unbearable); a level of 8 to 10 was considered high. The reported prevalence of high annoyance levels from air pollution was 11.2% and 15.0% from noise; the two variables were moderately correlated (0.606). Significant correlations between NO2 and annoyance from air pollution (0.154) and that from noise (0.181) were observed. Annoyance owing to noise and air pollution had a low prevalence in our Spanish population compared with other European populations. Both factors were associated with proximity to traffic. In multivariate models, annoyance from air pollution was related to NO2, building age, and country of birth; annoyance from noise was only related to the first two. The health burden of these exposures can be increased by stress caused by the perception of pollution sources. PMID:26095869

  18. Annoyance Caused by Noise and Air Pollution during Pregnancy: Associated Factors and Correlation with Outdoor NO2 and Benzene Estimations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Llop, Sabrina; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Tamayo-Uria, Ibon; Martínez, María Dolores; Foraster, Maria; Ballester, Ferran; Tardón, Adonina

    2015-06-18

    This study aimed to describe the degree of annoyance among pregnant women in a Spanish cohort and to examine associations with proximity to traffic, NO2 and benzene exposure. We included 2457 participants from the Spanish Childhood and Environment study. Individual exposures to outdoor NO2 and benzene were estimated, temporally adjusted for pregnancy. Interviews about sociodemographic variables, noise and air pollution were carried out. Levels of annoyance were assessed using a scale from 0 (none) to 10 (strong and unbearable); a level of 8 to 10 was considered high. The reported prevalence of high annoyance levels from air pollution was 11.2% and 15.0% from noise; the two variables were moderately correlated (0.606). Significant correlations between NO2 and annoyance from air pollution (0.154) and that from noise (0.181) were observed. Annoyance owing to noise and air pollution had a low prevalence in our Spanish population compared with other European populations. Both factors were associated with proximity to traffic. In multivariate models, annoyance from air pollution was related to NO2, building age, and country of birth; annoyance from noise was only related to the first two. The health burden of these exposures can be increased by stress caused by the perception of pollution sources.

  19. Molecular and physiological responses to titanium dioxide ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    - Changes in tissue transcriptomes and productivity of Arabidopsis thaliana were investigated during exposure of plants to two widely-used engineered metal oxide nanoparticles, titanium dioxide (nano-titanium) and cerium dioxide (nano-cerium). Microarray analyses confirmed that exposure to either nanoparticle altered the transcriptomes of rosette leaves and roots, with comparatively larger numbers of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) found under nano-titania exposure. Nano-titania induced more DEGs in rosette leaves, whereas roots had more DEGs under nano-ceria exposure. MapMan analyses indicated that while nano-titania up-regulated overall and secondary metabolism in both tissues, metabolic processes under nano-ceria remained mostly unchanged. Gene enrichment analysis indicated that both nanoparticles mainly enriched ontology groups such as responses to stress (abiotic and biotic), and defense responses (pathogens), and responses to endogenous stimuli (hormones). Nano-titania specifically induced genes associated with photosynthesis, whereas nano-ceria induced expression of genes related to activating transcription factors, most notably those belonging to the ethylene responsive element binding protein family. Interestingly, there were also increased numbers of rosette leaves and plant biomass under nano-ceria exposure, but not under nano-titania. Other transcriptomic responses did not clearly relate to responses observed at the organism level. This may b

  20. Uranium dioxide preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watt, G.W.; Baugh, D.W. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    An actinide dioxide, e.g., uranium dioxide, is prepared by reacting an actinide nitrate or hydrate or tetrahydrofuranate thereof, e.g., uranyl nitrate, a hydrate of uranyl nitrate, or a tetrahydrofuranate of uranyl nitrate with an alkali or alkaline earth metal adduct of a monocyclic or polycyclic hydrocarbon in the presence of an inert organic solvent. Typically, the starting material may be uranyl nitrate dihydrate or uranyl nitrate ditetrahydrofuranate (the latter material is a novel composition of matter) with a reactant such as the sodium adduct of naphthalene in the presence of a solvent such as tetrahydrofuran. The resultant uranium dioxide may be further purified by heating it in the presence of hydrogen. 15 claims

  1. Catalytic oxidation of NO to NO2 on activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhancheng Guo; Yusheng Xie

    2001-01-01

    Catalytic oxidation of NO to NO 2 over activated carbons PAN-ACF, pitch-ACF and coconut-AC at room temperature (30 o C) were studied to develop a method based on oxidative removal of NO from flue gases. For a dry gas, under the conditions of a gas space flow rate 1500 h -1 in the presence of oxygen of 2-20% in volume concentration, the activated coconut carbon with a surface area 1200 m 2 /g converted about 81-94% of NO with increasing oxygen concentration, the pitch based activated carbon fiber with a surface area 1000 m 2 /g about 44-75%, and the polyacrylonitrile-based activated carbon fiber with a surface area 1810 m 2 /g about 25-68%. The order of activity of the activated carbons was PAN-ACF c P NO P O2 β (F/W), where β is 0.042, 0.16, 0.31 for the coconut-AC, the pitch-ACF and the PAN-ACF respectively, and k c is 0.94 at 30 o C. (author)

  2. Evaluation of failure of high lift diesel No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loundagin, R.L.

    1976-01-01

    At 6:30 a.m., September 21, 1976, the No. 2 Emergency High Lift Pump Diesel Engine was remotely started from the N Reactor Control Room to provide water for flushing the N Reactor Emergency Cooling System piping. The engine is a General Motors Diesel Engine Model 16-278A, 2 cycle V type, 16 cylinder, developing 1600 horsepower at 750 revolutions per minute. During the flush, water was observed to be overflowing the engine's jacket cooling water expansion tank. The N Reactor Control Room was notified, and the engine was shut down after having run for approximately 15 minutes. Examination of the engine found the No. 5 cylinder liner had ruptured, causing air to be forced into the cooling system. When the engine was stopped, cooling water was admitted to the engine air box and crankcase. All 16 cylinder heads were removed and the cylinder liners were examined using liquid penetrant to detect cracks. A cracked cylinder liner was found in cylinder No. 6, and the cylinder head of cylinder No. 1 was also found to be cracked. An adherent scale and light pitting were observed on the heads of the pistons in cylinders No. 1, 5, and 6, but not in any other cylinders. All damaged parts were replaced, and the engine was reassembled, tested, and declared serviceable

  3. The rate coefficient for the reaction NO2 + NO3 yielding NO + NO2 + O2 from 273 to 313 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, Chris A.; Shetter, Richard E.; Mcdaniel, Anthony H.; Calvert, Jack G.

    1990-01-01

    The ratio of rate constants for the reaction NO3 + NO yielding 2 NO2 (k3) and the reaction NO2 + NO3 yielding NO + NO2 + O2 (k4) were determined by measuring of NO and NO2 concentrations of NO and NO2 in an N2O5/NO2/N2 mixture over the temperature range 273-313 K. The measured ratio was found to be expressed by the equation k3/k4 = 387 exp(-1375/T). The results are consistent with those of Hammer et al. (1986).

  4. Carbon dioxide and climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    Global climate change is a serious environmental concern, and the US has developed ''An Action Agenda'' to deal with it. At the heart of the US effort is the US Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), which has been developed by the Committee on Earth and Environmental Sciences (CEES) of the Federal Coordinating Council for Sciences, Engineering, and Technology (FCCSET). The USGCRP will provide the scientific basis for sound policy making on the climate-change issue. The DOE contribution to the USGCRP is the Carbon Dioxide Research Program, which now places particular emphasis on the rapid improvement of the capability to predict global and regional climate change. DOE's Carbon Dioxide Research Program has been addressing the carbon dioxide-climate change connection for more than twelve years and has provided a solid scientific foundation for the USGCRP. The expansion of the DOE effort reflects the increased attention that the Department has placed on the issue and is reflected in the National Energy Strategy (NES) that was released in 1991. This Program Summary describes projects funded by the Carbon Dioxide Research Program during FY 1991 and gives a brief overview of objectives, organization, and accomplishments. The Environmental Sciences Division of the Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of Energy Research supports a Carbon Dioxide Research Program to determine the scientific linkage between the rise of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, especially carbon dioxide, and climate and vegetation change. One facet is the Core CO 2 Program, a pioneering program that DOE established more than 10 years ago to understand and predict the ways that fossil-fuel burning could affect atmospheric CO 2 concentration, global climate, and the Earth's biosphere. Major research areas are: global carbon cycle; climate detection and models of climate change; vegetation research; resource analysis; and, information and integration

  5. Nitrogen dioxide solubility and permeation in lipid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorelli, Santiago; Möller, Matías N; Coitiño, E Laura; Denicola, Ana

    2011-08-15

    Nitrogen dioxide (()NO(2)) is an important oxidant molecule in biology that is produced by several biological processes, and it is also an important air pollutant. It can oxidize proteins and lipids with important consequences on their biological functions. Despite its relevance, the interaction of ()NO(2) with the cell barrier, the lipid membrane, is poorly understood. For instance, can lipid membranes limit ()NO(2) diffusion? To estimate the permeability of lipid membranes to ()NO(2) it is necessary to learn more about its solubility in the lipid phase. However, experimental data on ()NO(2) solubility is very limited. To improve our knowledge on this matter, we used a mixed approach consisting in calculating the solubility of ()NO(2) and related diatomic and triatomic gases (()NO, O(2), CO(2), etc.) in different solvents using quantum calculations and Tomasi's Polarizable Continuum Model and validating and correcting these results using experimental data available for the related gases. This approach led to an estimated partition coefficient for ()NO(2) of 2.7 between n-octanol and water, and 1.5 between lipid membranes and water, meaning that ()NO(2) is a moderately hydrophobic molecule (less than ()NO, more than CO(2)). Based on the solubility-diffusion permeability theory, the permeability coefficient was estimated to be 5 cms(-1), up to 4000 times higher than that of peroxynitrous acid. It is concluded that lipid membranes are not significant barriers to ()NO(2) transport. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Carbon dioxide recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recycling of carbon dioxide to methanol and dimethyl ether is seen to offer a substantial route to renewable and environmentally carbon neutral fuels. One of the authors has championed the “Methanol Economy" in articles and a book. By recycling ambient CO2, the authors argue ...

  7. Bench Remarks: Carbon Dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, Henry A.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the properties of carbon dioxide in its solid "dry ice" stage. Suggests several demonstrations and experiments that use dry ice to illustrate Avogadro's Law, Boyle's Law, Kinetic-Molecular Theory, and the effects of dry ice in basic solution, in limewater, and in acetone. (TW)

  8. Balancing atmospheric carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goreau, T.J. (Discovery Bay Marine Laboratory, Univ. of the West Indies (JM))

    1990-01-01

    Rising carbon dioxide and global temperatures are causing increasing worldwide concern, and pressure towards an international law of the atmosphere is rapidly escalating, yet widespread misconceptions about the greenhouse effect's inevitability, time scale, and causes have inhibited effective consensus and action. Observations from Antarctic ice cores, Amazonian rain forests, and Carribean coral reefs suggest that the biological effects of climate change may be more severe than climate models predict. Efforts to limit emissions from fossil-fuel combustion alone are incapable of stabilizing levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Stabilizing atmospheric carbon dioxide requires coupled measures to balance sources and sinks of the gas, and will only be viable with large-scale investments in increased sustainable productivity on degraded tropical soils, and in long-term research on renewable energy and biomass product development in the developing countries. A mechanism is outlined which directly links fossil-fuel combustion sources of carbon dioxide to removal via increasing biotic productivity and storage. A preliminary cost-benefit analysis suggests that such measures are very affordable, costing far less than inaction. (With 88 refs.).

  9. Gestational diabetes mellitus and exposure to ambient air pollution and road traffic noise: A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Marie; Olsen, Sjurdur F; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Zhang, Cuilin; Hjortebjerg, Dorrit; Ketzel, Matthias; Grandström, Charlotta; Sørensen, Mette; Damm, Peter; Langhoff-Roos, Jens; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2017-11-01

    Road traffic is a main source of air pollution and noise. Both exposures have been associated with type 2 diabetes, but associations with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have been studied less. We aimed to examine single and joint associations of exposure to air pollution and road traffic noise on GDM in a prospective cohort. We identified GDM cases from self-reports and hospital records, using two different criteria, among 72,745 singleton pregnancies (1997-2002) from the Danish National Birth Cohort. We modeled nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and noise from road traffic (L den ) exposure at all pregnancy addresses. According to the two diagnostic criteria: the Danish clinical guidelines, which was our main outcome, and the WHO standard during recruitment period, a total of 565 and 210 women, respectively, had GDM. For both exposures no risk was evident for the common Danish criterion of GDM. A 10-μg/m 3 increase in NO 2 exposure during first trimester was, however, associated with an increased risk of WHO-GDM (adjusted odds ratio (OR)=1.24; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03, 1.49). The corresponding OR associated with a 10-dB higher road traffic noise level was 1.15 (0.94 to 1.18). In mutually adjusted models the OR for NO 2 remained similar 1.22 (0.98, 1.53) whereas that for road traffic noise decreased to 1.03 (0.80, 1.32). Significant associations were also observed for exposure averaged over the 2nd and 3rd trimesters and the full pregnancy. No risk was evident for the common Danish criterion of GDM. NO 2 was associated with higher risk for GDM according to the WHO criterion, which might be due to selection bias. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of No. 2 fuel oil on hatchability of marine and estuarine bird eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Donald H.; King, Kirke A.; Coon, Nancy C.

    1979-01-01

    Oil spills and discharges may kill birds directly by destroying the insulation that their feathers provide so that they die of exposure; by poisoning them if they ingest oil; and by stressing them so that they starve to death. But oil pollution has more subtle effects, too. Nesting birds exposed to sublethal quantities of oil may transfer the oil to eggs in their nests, thereby causing failure of the eggs to hatch (RITTINGHAUS 1956). Laboratory studies have shown that very small quantities of oil, when applied to eggs of waterfowl, significantly reduced hatchability (HARTUNG 1965, ALBERS 1977a, SZARO and ALBERS 1977). The objective of this study was to determine the effects of external applications of No. 2 fuel oil on embryo survival of naturally and of artificially incubated eggs of marine and estuarine birds.

  11. [Air pollutant exposure during pregnancy and fetal and early childhood development. Research protocol of the INMA (Childhood and Environment Project)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esplugues, Ana; Fernández-Patier, Rosalía; Aguilera, Inma; Iñíguez, Carmen; García Dos Santos, Saúl; Aguirre Alfaro, Amelia; Lacasaña, Marina; Estarlich, Marisa; Grimalt, Joan O; Fernández, Marieta; Rebagliato, Marisa; Sala, María; Tardón, Adonina; Torrent, Maties; Martínez, María Dolores; Ribas-Fitó, Núria; Sunyer, Jordi; Ballester, Ferran

    2007-01-01

    The INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente [Spanish for Environment and Childhood]) project is a cooperative research network. This project aims to study the effects of environment and diet on fetal and early childhood development. This article aims to present the air pollutant exposure protocol during pregnancy and fetal and early childhood development of the INMA project. The information to assess air pollutant exposure during pregnancy is based on outdoor measurement of air pollutants (nitrogen dioxide [NO2], volatile organic compounds [VOC], ozone, particulate matter [PM10, PM2,5 ] and of their composition [polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons]); measurement of indoor and personal exposure (VOC and NO2); urinary measurement of a biological marker of hydrocarbon exposure (1-hydroxypyrene); and data gathered by questionnaires and geographic information systems. These data allow individual air pollutant exposure indexes to be developed, which can then be used to analyze the possible effects of exposure on fetal development and child health. This protocol and the type of study allow an approximation to individual air pollutant exposure to be obtained. Finally, the large number of participants (N = 4,000), as well as their geographic and social diversity, increases the study's potential.

  12. Carbon dioxide dangers demonstration model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venezky, Dina; Wessells, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is a dangerous volcanic gas. When carbon dioxide seeps from the ground, it normally mixes with the air and dissipates rapidly. However, because carbon dioxide gas is heavier than air, it can collect in snowbanks, depressions, and poorly ventilated enclosures posing a potential danger to people and other living things. In this experiment we show how carbon dioxide gas displaces oxygen as it collects in low-lying areas. When carbon dioxide, created by mixing vinegar and baking soda, is added to a bowl with candles of different heights, the flames are extinguished as if by magic.

  13. Effect of sequences of ozone and nitrogen dioxide on chlorophyll ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sequences involved different combinations of exposures to NO2 from 06:00 to 10:00h and/or 18:00 to 22:00hr and O3 from 10:00 to 18:00hr. Relative to the control, early and early + late NO2 resulted in stimulations of quantum yield (Y) and photochemical quenching (qP), with late NO2 resulting in little or no change.

  14. Modeling annual benzene, toluene, NO2, and soot concentrations on the basis of road traffic characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, David; Ehrenstein, Ondine von; Weiland, Stephan; Wagner, Claudia; Wellie, Oliver; Nicolai, Thomas; Mutius, Erika von

    2002-01-01

    The investigation of potential adverse health effects of urban traffic-related air pollution is hampered by difficulties encountered with exposure assessment. Usually public measuring sites are few and thereby do not adequately describe spatial variation of pollutant levels over an urban area. In turn, individual monitoring of pollution exposure among study subjects is laborious and expensive. We therefore investigated whether traffic characteristics can be used to adequately predict benzene, NO 2 , and soot concentrations at individual addresses of study subjects in the city area of Munich, Germany. For all road segments with expected traffic volumes of at least 4000 vehicles a day (n=1840), all vehicles were counted manually or a single weekday in 1995. The proportion of vehicles in 'stop-go' mode, n estimate of traffic jam, was determined. Furthermore, annual concentrations of benzene, NO 2 , and soot from 18 high-concentration sites means: 8.7, 65.8, and 12.9 μg/m 3 , respectively) and from 16 school sites with moderate concentrations (means: 2.6, 32.2, and 5.7 μg/m 3 , respectively) were measured from 1996 to 1998. Statistical analysis of the data was performed using components of two different statistical models recently used to predict air pollution levels in comparable settings. Two traffic characteristics, traffic volume and traffic jam percentage, adequately described air pollutant concentrations (R 2 : 0.76-0.80, P=0.0001). This study shows that air pollutant concentrations can be accurately predicted by two traffic characteristics and that these models compare favorably with other more complex models in the literature

  15. Improving the detection limit of airborne NO2 remote sensing by using DOAS in a wide spectral window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, Gerrit; Brunner, Dominik

    2017-04-01

    Airborne imaging spectrometers such as the Airborne Prism Experiment (APEX) instrument can be used for mapping the spatial distribution of air pollutants such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2) with a high spatial resolution of a few tens of meters. The detection limit of the NO2 retrieval is limited by the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and other characteristics of the sensor. For airborne imaging spectrometers the SNR can be small, because the radiance signal obtained for a combination of small ground pixel and short observation time is small. As a result, NO2 fitting errors can be large and the detection limit correspondingly low. Here we demonstrate that the detection limit for NO2 can be improved if the DOAS fit is applied to a wide spectral window from 410 to 510 nm. However, retrieving over such a wide window required several modifications of the standard DOAS approach. In particular, we replaced the standard low-order polynomial with a cubic spline and computed wavelength-dependent air mass factors instead of a single air mass factor with the SCIATRAN radiative transfer model. The algorithm was implemented with a new custom-made library flexDOAS which allows for flexible development of DOAS retrievals in Python and supports non-linear parameter fitting and integration of a priori information. The retrieval was tested both with synthetic spectra and applied to real observations from an APEX campaign conducted over Zurich. For the retrieval with wide spectral window (410-510 nm), the fitting error was significantly reduced by about 20% compared to a retrieval with a narrow window (470-510 nm). In conclusion, fitting over a wider spectral window has the potential to significantly reduce the fitting error and thereby improve the detection limit but requires a more advanced treatment of the smooth background radiance and the application of wavelength-dependent air mass factors.

  16. Spatial variations in nitrogen dioxide concentrations in urban Ljubljana, Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vintar Mally Katja

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2 concentrations are regularly measured at only two monitoring stations in the city centre of Ljubljana, and such scanty data are inadequate for drawing conclusions about spatial patterns of pollution within the city, or to decide on effective measures to further improve air quality. In order to determine the spatial distribution of NO2 concentrations in different types of urban space in Ljubljana, two measuring campaigns throughout the city were carried out, during the summer of 2013 and during the winter of 2014. The main source of NO2 in Ljubljana is road transport. Accordingly, three types of urban space have been identified (urban background, open space along roads, and street canyon, and their NO2 pollution level was measured using Palmes diffusive samplers at a total of 108 measuring spots. This article analyses the results of both measuring campaigns and compares the pollution levels of different types of urban space.

  17. Impact of bicycle route type on exposure to traffic-related air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNaughton, Piers; Melly, Steven; Vallarino, Jose; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Spengler, John D

    2014-08-15

    Cyclists are exposed to traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) during their commutes due to their proximity to vehicular traffic. Two of the main components of TRAP are black carbon (BC) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), which have both been causally associated with increased mortality. To assess the impact of cyclists' exposure to TRAP, a battery-powered mobile monitoring station was designed to sample air pollutants along five bike routes in Boston, Massachusetts. The bike routes were categorized into three types: bike paths, which are separated from vehicle traffic; bike lanes, which are adjacent to traffic; and designated bike lanes, which are shared traffic lanes for buses and cyclists. Bike lanes were found to have significantly higher concentrations of BC and NO2 than bike paths in both adjusted and unadjusted generalized linear models. Higher concentrations were observed in designated bike lanes than bike paths; however, this association was only significant for NO2. After adjusting for traffic density, background concentration, and proximity to intersections, bike lanes were found to have concentrations of BC and NO2 that were approximately 33% higher than bike paths. Distance from the road, vegetation barriers, and reduced intersection density appear to influence these variations. These findings suggest that cyclists can reduce their exposure to TRAP during their commute by using bike paths preferentially over bike lanes regardless of the potential increase of traffic near these routes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. CARBON DIOXIDE FIXATION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FUJITA,E.

    2000-01-12

    Solar carbon dioxide fixation offers the possibility of a renewable source of chemicals and fuels in the future. Its realization rests on future advances in the efficiency of solar energy collection and development of suitable catalysts for CO{sub 2} conversion. Recent achievements in the efficiency of solar energy conversion and in catalysis suggest that this approach holds a great deal of promise for contributing to future needs for fuels and chemicals.

  19. Nitrogen dioxide and ozone exposures in a population sample from Ile-de-France; Expositions au dioxyde d'azote et a l'ozone d'une population de l'Ile-de-France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saintot, M.; Bernard, N.; Astre, C.; Gerber, M. [Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM-CRLC), Centre de Recherches en Cancerologie, Groupe d' Epidemiologie Metabolique, 34 - Montpellier (France); Galan, P.; Hercberg, S. [Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers (CNAM-ISNA), 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-08-01

    Individual exposure to NO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} has been estimated in an urban population sample in southern France and the determinants identified. The present study was conducted to evaluated individual exposure to NO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} and to identify the environmental determinants of exposure in a larger population living in different environmental conditions. Two hundred ninety-four volunteers were recruited from the SUVIMAX sample in Ile-de-France. The study covered 2 periods of 5 consecutive days, one in winter and the other in the fall of 1998. Passive monitors were used to estimate individual exposure and indoor concentration at the participant's dwelling. Background atmosphere concentrations were obtained for the AIRPARIF surveillance network. Single and multiple ANOVA were used for statistical analysis. Individual exposures were low, especially for O{sub 3} in the considered periods of time. Mean NO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} concentrations were 41 {mu}g/m{sup 3}/h and 16{mu}g/m{sup 3}/h, respectively. The NO{sub 2} individual exposure increased with the time spent in traffic and indoor concentration. The correlation coefficient between indoor and individual levels was r=0.73, and indoor concentration explained 50% of the variance in individual exposure. The site of the dwelling with regard to high traffic street, and most strongly, the presence of a gas stove influenced indoor concentration. However, mechanical air extraction decreased the mean indoor NO{sub 2} level of the dwellings. This study allowed identification of the environmental determinants of NO{sub 2} exposure in an urban sample. These data, together with those obtained previously, well be used to establish an exposure matrix for NO{sub 2}. (author)

  20. [Research progress about the relationship between nanoparticles silicon dioxide and lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Chun; Huang, Yunchao; Zhou, Yongchun

    2014-10-20

    Nano-silicon dioxide widely distributed in plastic, rubber, ceramics, paint, adhesives, and many other fields, and it is the product of coal combustion. A growing evidence shows that nano-silicon dioxide has certain correlation with respiratory system disease. In this paper, we synthesized existing researches of domestic and abroad, summarized the lung toxicity of nanoparticles. This article are reviewed from the physical and chemical properties of nanoparticles silicon dioxide, exposure conditions and environment, and the pathogenic mechanism of nano-silicon dioxide.

  1. Research Progress about the Relationship between Nanoparticles Silicon Dioxide and Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun DAI

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nano-silicon dioxide widely distributed in plastic, rubber, ceramics, paint, adhesives, and many other fields, and it is the product of coal combustion. A growing evidence shows that nano-silicon dioxide has certain correlation with respiratory system disease. In this paper, we synthesized existing researches of domestic and abroad, summarized the lung toxicity of nanoparticles. This article are reviewed from the physical and chemical properties of nanoparticles silicon dioxide, exposure conditions and environment, and the pathogenic mechanism of nano-silicon dioxide.

  2. High-resolution mapping of the NO2 spatial distribution over Belgian urban areas based on airborne APEX remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tack, Frederik; Merlaud, Alexis; Iordache, Marian-Daniel; Danckaert, Thomas; Yu, Huan; Fayt, Caroline; Meuleman, Koen; Deutsch, Felix; Fierens, Frans; Van Roozendael, Michel

    2017-05-01

    We present retrieval results of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) vertical column densities (VCDs), mapped at high spatial resolution over three Belgian cities, based on the DOAS analysis of Airborne Prism EXperiment (APEX) observations. APEX, developed by a Swiss-Belgian consortium on behalf of ESA (European Space Agency), is a pushbroom hyperspectral imager characterised by a high spatial resolution and high spectral performance. APEX data have been acquired under clear-sky conditions over the two largest and most heavily polluted Belgian cities, i.e. Antwerp and Brussels on 15 April and 30 June 2015. Additionally, a number of background sites have been covered for the reference spectra. The APEX instrument was mounted in a Dornier DO-228 aeroplane, operated by Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR). NO2 VCDs were retrieved from spatially aggregated radiance spectra allowing urban plumes to be resolved at the resolution of 60 × 80 m2. The main sources in the Antwerp area appear to be related to the (petro)chemical industry while traffic-related emissions dominate in Brussels. The NO2 levels observed in Antwerp range between 3 and 35 × 1015 molec cm-2, with a mean VCD of 17.4 ± 3.7 × 1015 molec cm-2. In the Brussels area, smaller levels are found, ranging between 1 and 20 × 1015 molec cm-2 and a mean VCD of 7.7 ± 2.1 × 1015 molec cm-2. The overall errors on the retrieved NO2 VCDs are on average 21 and 28 % for the Antwerp and Brussels data sets. Low VCD retrievals are mainly limited by noise (1σ slant error), while high retrievals are mainly limited by systematic errors. Compared to coincident car mobile-DOAS measurements taken in Antwerp and Brussels, both data sets are in good agreement with correlation coefficients around 0.85 and slopes close to unity. APEX retrievals tend to be, on average, 12 and 6 % higher for Antwerp and Brussels, respectively. Results demonstrate that the NO2 distribution in an urban environment, and its fine

  3. Potential ozone impacts of excess NO2 emissions from diesel particulate filters for on- and off-road diesel engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-llan, Amnon; Johnson, Jeremiah R; Denbleyker, Allison; Chan, Lit-Mian; Yarwood, Gregory; Hitchcock, David; Pinto, Joseph P

    2010-08-01

    This study considers potential impacts of increased use of diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs) and catalyzed diesel particulate filters (DPFs) on ozone formation in the Dallas/ Fort Worth (DFW) area. There is concern that excess nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emissions from vehicles equipped with these devices could increase ambient ozone levels. The approach involved developing two scenarios for use of these devices, quantifying excess NO2 emissions in each scenario, and using a photochemical model to estimate the resulting ozone changes. In the "maximum penetration" scenario, DOC/DPF devices in a 2009 fleet of heavy-duty on-road trucks, school buses, and construction equipment were significantly increased by accelerating turnover of these vehicles and equipment to models that would require DOCs/DPFs. In the "realistic" scenario, current fractional usage of these devices was assessed for 2009. For both scenarios, excess NO2 emissions from DOCs/DPFs were estimated using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's MOBILE6 and NONROAD emissions inventory modeling tools. The emissions analyses were used to adjust the DFW photochemical modeling emissions inventories and the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions air quality model was rerun for the DFW area to determine the impact of these two scenarios on ozone formation. The maximum penetration scenario, which showed an overall reduction in oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)) because of the accelerated turnover of equipment to cleaner models, resulted in a net decrease in daily maximum 8-hr ozone of 4-5 parts per billion (ppb) despite the increase in NO2 emissions. The realistic scenario resulted in a small increase in daily maximum 8-hr ozone of less than 1 ppb for the DFW area. It was concluded that the excess NO2 emissions from DOC/DPF devices result in very small ozone impacts, particularly for the realistic scenario, in the DFW area. There are noticeable decreases in ozone for the maximum penetration scenario because NO

  4. Validation of GOME (ERS-2) NO2 vertical column data with ground-based measurements at Issyk-Kul (Kyrgyzstan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionov, D.; Sinyakov, V.; Semenov, V.

    Starting from 1995 the global monitoring of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide is carried out by the measurements of nadir-viewing GOME spectrometer aboard ERS-2 satellite. Continuous validation of that data by means of comparisons with well-controlled ground-based measurements is important to ensure the quality of GOME data products and improve related retrieval algorithms. At the station of Issyk-Kul (Kyrgyzstan) the ground-based spectroscopic observations of NO2 vertical column have been started since 1983. The station is located on the northern shore of Issyk-Kul lake, 1650 meters above the sea level (42.6 N, 77.0 E). The site is equipped with grating spectrometer for the twilight measurements of zenith-scattered solar radiation in the visible range, and applies the DOAS technique to retrieve NO2 vertical column. It is included in the list of NDSC stations as a complementary one. The present study is focused on validation of GOME NO2 vertical column data, based on 8-year comparison with correlative ground-based measurements at Issyk-Kul station in 1996-2003. Within the investigation, an agreement of both individual and monthly averaged GOME measurements with corresponding twilight ground-based observations is examined. Such agreement is analyzed with respect to different conditions (season, sun elevation), temporal/spatial criteria choice (actual overpass location, correction for diurnal variation) and data processing (GDP version 2.7, 3.0). In addition, NO2 vertical columns were integrated from simultaneous stratospheric profile measurements by NASA HALOE and SAGE-II/III satellite instruments and introduced to explain the differences with ground-based observations. In particular cases, NO2 vertical profiles retrieved from the twilight ground-based measurements at Issuk-Kul were also included into comparison. Overall, summertime GOME NO2 vertical columns were found to be systematicaly lower than ground-based data. This work was supported by International Association

  5. Disease and Health Inequalities Attributable to Air Pollutant Exposure in Detroit, Michigan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheena E. Martenies

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The environmental burden of disease is the mortality and morbidity attributable to exposures of air pollution and other stressors. The inequality metrics used in cumulative impact and environmental justice studies can be incorporated into environmental burden studies to better understand the health disparities of ambient air pollutant exposures. This study examines the diseases and health disparities attributable to air pollutants for the Detroit urban area. We apportion this burden to various groups of emission sources and pollutants, and show how the burden is distributed among demographic and socioeconomic subgroups. The analysis uses spatially-resolved estimates of exposures, baseline health rates, age-stratified populations, and demographic characteristics that serve as proxies for increased vulnerability, e.g., race/ethnicity and income. Based on current levels, exposures to fine particulate matter (PM2.5, ozone (O3, sulfur dioxide (SO2, and nitrogen dioxide (NO2 are responsible for more than 10,000 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs per year, causing an annual monetized health impact of $6.5 billion. This burden is mainly driven by PM2.5 and O3 exposures, which cause 660 premature deaths each year among the 945,000 individuals in the study area. NO2 exposures, largely from traffic, are important for respiratory outcomes among older adults and children with asthma, e.g., 46% of air-pollution related asthma hospitalizations are due to NO2 exposures. Based on quantitative inequality metrics, the greatest inequality of health burdens results from industrial and traffic emissions. These metrics also show disproportionate burdens among Hispanic/Latino populations due to industrial emissions, and among low income populations due to traffic emissions. Attributable health burdens are a function of exposures, susceptibility and vulnerability (e.g., baseline incidence rates, and population density. Because of these dependencies, inequality

  6. Correlation among NO2, HNO3 and PSCs observed with ILAS - Related to PSC composition -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashida, S.

    2001-05-01

    The Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer (ILAS) on board the Advanced Earth Observing Satellite (ADEOS) successfully observed the profiles of ozone, nitric acid, nitric dioxide, and aerosol simultaneously [Sasano et al., 2000]. It.captured about 60 polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) profiles during the winter and early spring of 1997 in the Northern Hemisphere [Hayashida et al., 2000]. Saitoh et al. [2001] tried to infer the composition of the PSC particles from ILAS aerosol and nitric acid data. The typical type 1b PSCs (Supercooled Ternary Solution) were observed in mid-January, and most of the PSCs observed late in the PSC season had features of type 1a PSCs.: Nitric Acid Dihydrate (NAD)/ Nitric Acid Trihydrate (NAT). The PSC events from mid-February to early March were observed with significantly lower nitric acid values than the theoretical values that is expected from their extinction coefficients. Close examination of the temperature histories of these PSC events makes it clear that they had experienced temperatures around the ice frost point (T(ice)) or lower for a fairly long time before the measurements. Kondo et al. [2000] reported significant denitrification in an analysis of ILAS nitric acid data for the period. They showed that the exposure to very low temperature below T(ice) caused denitrification. In fact, the nitric acid levels inside the polar vortex in February and March were much lower than in January. A photochemical box model was applied to understand the time development of nitric acid and nitric dioxide during the period. It shows that the effect of photo-dissociation of nitric acid should be taken into account to understand the decrease in nitric acid, as well as sedimentation of PSC particles. References Hayashida, et. al., Arctic Polar Stratospheric Clouds Observed with the Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer during Winter 1996/1997, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 24,715-24,730, 2000. Kondo et al., Denitrification and nitrification in the

  7. Effect of sulfur dioxide on Swiss albino mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilado, C. J.; Machado, A. M.

    1977-01-01

    Times to incapacitation and death and LC50 values were determined for male Swiss albino mice exposed to different concentrations of sulfur dioxide in a 4.2 liter hemispherical chamber. The LC50 for a 30 minute exposure was about 3000 ppm SO2.

  8. Use of passive diffusion sampling method for defining NO2 concentrations gradient in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meliefste Kees

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Air pollution in São Paulo is constantly being measured by the State of Sao Paulo Environmental Agency, however there is no information on the variation between places with different traffic densities. This study was intended to identify a gradient of exposure to traffic-related air pollution within different areas in São Paulo to provide information for future epidemiological studies. Methods We measured NO2 using Palmes' diffusion tubes in 36 sites on streets chosen to be representative of different road types and traffic densities in São Paulo in two one-week periods (July and August 2000. In each study period, two tubes were installed in each site, and two additional tubes were installed in 10 control sites. Results Average NO2 concentrations were related to traffic density, observed on the spot, to number of vehicles counted, and to traffic density strata defined by the city Traffic Engineering Company (CET. Average NO2concentrations were 63μg/m3 and 49μg/m3 in the first and second periods, respectively. Dividing the sites by the observed traffic density, we found: heavy traffic (n = 17: 64μg/m3 (95% CI: 59μg/m3 – 68μg/m3; local traffic (n = 16: 48μg/m3 (95% CI: 44μg/m3 – 52μg/m3 (p Conclusion The differences in NO2 levels between heavy and local traffic sites are large enough to suggest the use of a more refined classification of exposure in epidemiological studies in the city. Number of vehicles counted, traffic density observed on the spot and traffic density strata defined by the CET might be used as a proxy for traffic exposure in São Paulo when more accurate measurements are not available.

  9. The immunomodulatory effects of titanium dioxide and silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappas, Courtney M

    2015-11-01

    Due to their characteristic physical, chemical and optical properties, titanium dioxide and silver nanoparticles are attractive tools for use in a wide range of applications. The use of nanoparticles for biological applications is, however, dependent upon their biocompatibility with living cells. Because of the importance of inflammation as a modulator of human health, the safe and efficacious in vivo use of titanium dioxide and silver nanoparticles is inherently linked to a favorable interaction with immune system cells. However, both titanium dioxide and silver nanoparticles have demonstrated potential to exert immunomodulatory and immunotoxic effects. Titanium dioxide and silver nanoparticles are readily internalized by immune system cells, may accumulate in peripheral lymphoid organs, and can influence multiple manifestations of immune cell activity. Although the factors influencing the biocompatibility of titanium dioxide and silver nanoparticles with immune system cells have not been fully elucidated, nanoparticle core composition, size, concentration and the duration of cell exposure seem to be important. Because titanium dioxide and silver nanoparticles are widely utilized in pharmaceutical, commercial and industrial products, it is vital that their effects on human health and immune system function be more thoroughly evaluated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Early life exposure to ambient air pollution and childhood asthma in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Qihong; Lu, Chan; Norbäck, Dan; Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf; Zhang, Yinping; Liu, Weiwei; Yuan, Hong; Sundell, Jan

    2015-11-01

    Early life is suggested to be a critical time in determining subsequent asthma development, but the extent to which the effect of early-life exposure to ambient air pollution on childhood asthma is unclear. We investigated doctor-diagnosed asthma in preschool children due to exposure to ambient air pollution in utero and during the first year of life. In total 2490 children aged 3-6 years participated in a questionnaire study regarding doctor-diagnosed asthma between September 2011 and January 2012 in China. Children's exposure to critical air pollutants, sulfur dioxide (SO2) as proxy of industrial air pollution, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) as proxy of traffic pollution, and particulate matter≤10µm in diameter (PM10) as a mixture, was estimated from the concentrations measured at the ambient air quality monitoring stations by using an inverse distance weighted (IDW) method. Logistic regression analysis was employed to determine the relationship between early-life exposure and childhood asthma in terms of odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Association between early-life exposure to air pollutants and childhood asthma was observed. SO2 and NO2 had significant associations with adjusted OR (95% CI) of 1.45 (1.02-2.07) and 1.74 (1.15-2.62) in utero and 1.62 (1.01-2.60) and 1.90 (1.20-3.00) during the first year for per 50 µg/m(3) and 15 µg/m(3) increase respectively. Exposure to the combined high level of SO2 and NO2 in China significantly elevated the asthmatic risk with adjusted OR (95% CI) of 1.76 (1.18-2.64) in utero and 1.85 (1.22-2.79) during the first year compared to the low level exposure. The associations were higher for males and the younger children aged 3-4 than females and the older children aged 5-6. Early-life exposure to ambient air pollution is associated with childhood asthma during which the level and source of air pollution play important roles. The high level and nature of combined industrial and traffic air pollution in China may

  11. The human circulating miRNome reflects multiple organ disease risks in association with short-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauskopf, Julian; Caiment, Florian; van Veldhoven, Karin; Chadeau-Hyam, Marc; Sinharay, Rudy; Chung, Kian Fan; Cullinan, Paul; Collins, Peter; Barratt, Benjamin; Kelly, Frank J; Vermeulen, Roel; Vineis, Paolo; de Kok, Theo M; Kleinjans, Jos C

    2018-04-01

    Traffic-related air pollution is a complex mixture of particulate matter (PM) and gaseous pollutants, such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2). PM exposure contributes to the pathogenesis of many diseases including several types of cancer, as well as pulmonary, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Also exposure to NO2 has been related to increased cardiovascular mortality. In search of an early diagnostic biomarker for improved air pollution-associated health risk assessment, recent human studies have shown that certain circulating miRNAs are altered upon exposure to traffic-related air pollutants. Here, we present for the first time a global analysis of the circulating miRNA genome in an experimental cross-over study of a human population exposed to traffic-related air pollution. By utilizing next-generation sequencing technology and detailed real-time exposure measurements we identified 54 circulating miRNAs to be dose- and pollutant species-dependently associated with PM10, PM2.5, black carbon, ultrafine particles and NO2 already after 2 h of exposure. Bioinformatics analysis suggests that these circulating miRNAs actually reflect the adverse consequences of traffic pollution-induced toxicity in target tissues including the lung, heart, kidney and brain. This study shows the strong potential of circulating miRNAs as novel biomarkers for environmental health risk assessment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Retrieval of NO2 stratospheric profiles from ground-based zenith-sky uv-visible measurements at 60°N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrick, F.; van Roozendael, M.; Lambert, J.-C.; Fayt, C.; Hermans, C.; de Mazière, M.

    2003-04-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO_2) plays an important role in controlling ozone abundances in the stratosphere, either directly through the NOx (NO+NO_2) catalytic cycle, either indirectly by reaction with the radical ClO to form the reservoir species ClONO_2. In this presentation, NO_2 stratospheric profiles are retrieved from ground-based UV-visible NO_2 slant column abundances measured since 1998 at the complementary NDSC station of Harestua (Norway, 60^oN). The retrieval algorithm is based on the Rodgers optimal estimation inversion method and a forward model consisting in the IASB-BIRA stacked box photochemical model PSCBOX coupled to the radiative transfer package UVspec/DISORT. This algorithm has been applied to a set of about 50 sunrises and sunsets for which spatially and temporally coincident NO_2 measurements made by the HALOE (Halogen Occultation Experiment) instrument on board the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) are available. The consistency between retrieved and HALOE profiles is discussed in term of the different seasonal conditions investigated which are spring with and without chlorine activation, summer, and fall.

  13. Trends of NO-, NO 2-, and NH 3-emissions from gasoline-fueled Euro-3- to Euro-4-passenger cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeb, Norbert V.; Saxer, Christian J.; Forss, Anna-Maria; Brühlmann, Stefan

    Vehicular emissions of reactive nitrogen compounds (RNCs) such as nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2), and ammonia (NH 3) have a substantial impact on urban air quality. NO and NO 2 support the photochemical formation of ozone, and NH 3 is involved in the atmospheric formation of secondary aerosols. Vehicular NO is mainly formed during combustion, whereas NO 2 and NH 3 are both secondary pollutants of the catalytic converter systems. Herein we report on tail-pipe RNC emissions of gasoline-fueled Euro-3- and Euro-4-passenger cars at transient driving from 0 to 150 km h -1. Two sets of 10 in-use vehicles with comparable engine size and mileage were studied with time-resolved chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (CI-MS). Each vehicle was tested in 7 different driving cycles including the legislative European (EDC) and the US FTP-75 driving cycles. Mean emission factors (EFs) for different traffic situations are reported and effects of cold start, velocity, acceleration, and deceleration are discussed. Furthermore, critical operating conditions supporting the de novo formation of NH 3 have been identified. In the EDC, mean NO- and NH 3-EFs of 57±26 and 16±12 mg km -1 were obtained for Euro-3-vehicles; those of the Euro-4-technology were lower by about 25% and 33% at the levels of 43±46 and 10±7 mg km -1, respectively. NO 2 emissions of the investigated three-way catalyst (TWC) vehicles accounted for detected RNCs, whereas NH 3 was found to be the dominant RNC for most vehicle conditions. Molar NH 3 proportions varied from about 0.4-0.8, as soon as catalyst light-off occurred. NO was found in large excess only during the cold-start period. Catalyst light-off is indicated by a fast transition from NO- to NH 3-rich exhaust. Velocity and acceleration had pronounced effects on the RNC emission characteristics. Mean velocity-dependent EFs for NO and NH 3 varied by about one order of magnitude from 10 to 74 and 15 to 161 mg km -1 for Euro-3-vehicles and from 12 to

  14. Long-term exposure to air pollution and the risk of suicide death: A population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Jin-Young; Kim, Hye-Jin; Min, Kyoung-Bok

    2018-07-01

    Suicide is a major public health problem. Previous studies have reported a significant association between acute exposure to air pollution and suicide; little attention has been paid to the long-term effects of air pollution on risk of suicide. We investigated whether long-term exposure to particulate matter of ≤10μm in diameter (PM 10 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), and sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) would be associated with a greater risk of death by suicide. The study sample comprised 265,749 adults enrolled in the National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort (2002-2013) in South Korea. Suicide death was defined as per ICD-10 code. Data on air pollution exposure used nationwide monitoring data, and individual exposure levels were assigned using geographic information systems. Air pollution exposure was categorized as the interquartile range (IQR) and quartiles. Hazards ratios (HRs) were calculated for the occurrence of suicide death after adjusting for potential covariates. During the study period, 564 (0.2%) subjects died from suicide. Increases in IQR pollutants (7.5μg/m 3 for PM 10 , 11.8ppb for NO 2 , and 0.8ppb for SO 2 ) significantly increased HR for suicide death [PM 10 : HR=3.09 (95% CI: 2.63-3.63); NO 2 : HR=1.33 (95% CI: 1.09-1.64); and SO 2 : HR=1.15 (95% CI: 1.07-1.24)]. Compared with the lowest level of air pollutants (Quartile 1), the risk of suicide significantly increased in the highest quartile level (Quartile 4) for PM 10 (HR=4.03; 95% CI: 2.97-5.47) and SO 2 (HR=1.65; 95% CI: 1.29-2.11) and in the third quartile for NO 2 (HR=1.52; 95% CI: 1.17-1.96). HRs for subjects with a physical or mental disorder were higher than that those for subjects without the disorder. Subjects living in metropolitan areas were more vulnerable to long-term PM 10 exposure than those living in non-metropolitan areas. Long-term exposure to air pollution was associated with a significantly increased risk of suicide death. People having underlying diseases or

  15. Biomarkers used in studying air pollution exposure during pregnancy and perinatal outcomes: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Gauri; Chu, Li; Guo, Yanjun; Myneni, Ajay A; Mu, Lina

    2017-09-01

    This review focuses on studies among pregnant women that used biomarkers to assess air pollution exposure, or to understand the mechanisms by which it affects perinatal outcomes. We searched PubMed and Google scholar databases to find articles. We found 29 articles, mostly consisting of cohort studies. Interpolation models were most frequently used to assess exposure. The most consistent positive association was between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure during entire pregnancy and cord blood PAH DNA adducts. Exposure to particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) showed consistent inverse associations with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content, particularly in the third trimester of pregnancy. No single pollutant showed strong associations with all the biomarkers included in this review. C-reactive proteins (CRPs) and oxidative stress markers increased, whereas telomere length decreased with increasing air pollution exposure. Placental global DNA methylation and mtDNA methylation showed contrasting results with air pollution exposure, the mechanism behind which is unclear. Most studies except those on PAH DNA adducts and mtDNA content provided insufficient evidence for characterizing a critical exposure window. Further research using biomarkers is warranted to understand the relationship between air pollution and perinatal outcomes.

  16. Eddy Covariance Fluxes of the NO-O3-NO2 Triad above the Forest Canopy at the ATTO Site in the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsokankunku, A.; Wolff, S.; Berger, M.; Zelger, M.; Dlugi, R. J. W.; Andreae, M. O.; Sörgel, M.

    2017-12-01

    Nitrogen monoxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) (denoted together as NOx) determine the abundance of the tropospheric oxidants OH, O3 and NO3 that regulate atmospheric self-cleaning. The three reactive trace gases NO, NO2 and O3 undergo a series of interconnected photochemical reactions and are therefore often referred to as the NO-O3-NO2 triad. Ozone deposition is mainly controlled by stomatal uptake, therefore resulting in oxidative stress for the plants. Similarly, nitrogen dioxide from above or below the canopy is deposited to leaves through stomatal uptake. NO emissions from soils contribute to above canopy O3 formation and accelerate OH recycling. Therefore, quantification of the biosphere-atmosphere exchange fluxes of these species is important for atmospheric chemistry and ecosystem research. The eddy covariance method is state of the art for direct measurements of ecosystem fluxes of trace gases. Eddy covariance measurements of NOx in pristine environments are rare because of lack of availability of instruments with the required precision to resolve concentrations characteristic of these environments with the required high time resolution. The Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO) is located in a pristine rainforest environment in the Amazon basin about 150 km northeast of the city of Manaus. It is the ideal site for studying the biosphere-atmosphere exchange of the NO-O3-NO2 triad, because of the absence of nearby anthropogenic sources. During an intensive measurement campaign in November 2015 at the ATTO site, measurements of NO, NO2 and O3 were carried out at 42 m above ground level on the 80 m walk-up tower with a fast (5 Hz) and sensitive (< 30 ppt) instrument (CLD790SR2, Eco Physics) for NO and NO2 and with 10 Hz for O3 (Enviscope GmbH). Additionally, a suite of micrometeorological instruments was installed, including a profile of 3-dimensional sonic anemometers and meteorological sensors. Vertical concentration profile measurements of NO, NO2 and O

  17. Carbon dioxide and climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-01

    Scientific and public interest in greenhouse gases, climate warming, and global change virtually exploded in 1988. The Department's focused research on atmospheric CO{sub 2} contributed sound and timely scientific information to the many questions produced by the groundswell of interest and concern. Research projects summarized in this document provided the data base that made timely responses possible, and the contributions from participating scientists are genuinely appreciated. In the past year, the core CO{sub 2} research has continued to improve the scientific knowledge needed to project future atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations, to estimate climate sensitivity, and to assess the responses of vegetation to rising concentrations of CO{sub 2} and to climate change. The Carbon Dioxide Research Program's goal is to develop sound scientific information for policy formulation and governmental action in response to changes of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. The Program Summary describes projects funded by the Carbon Dioxide Research Program during FY 1990 and gives a brief overview of objectives, organization, and accomplishments.

  18. The implementation of the NO2 emission regulation of the European Union; Realisering EU-norm voor stikstofdioxide nog niet in zicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folkert, R. [Milieu- en Natuurplanbureau, RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    2003-02-01

    New national emission and traffic policy has a key role in solving local bottlenecks for nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Realization of such policy in 2010 appears to be difficult and adjusting the infrastructure is expensive. The Netherlands pleads for postponement of the implementation date of 2010 to 2015. [Dutch] Nieuw nationaal emissie- en verkeersbeleid heeft een sleutelrol in het oplossen van lokale knelpunten voor NOx. Realisatie van dit beleid in 2010 lijkt moeilijk en aanpassingen aan de infrastructuur zijn als oplossing duur. Nederland bepleit uitstel van de invoeringsdatum van 2010 naar 2015.

  19. Projections of concentration levels of NO2 and PM10 for Oslo for 2005 and 2010. A sensitivity and initiative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sloerdal, Leiv Haavard; Toennesen, Dag

    1999-10-01

    The Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU) has performed model projections and calculated the effect of different abatement measures for the air quality of Oslo towards 2010. The calculations have been performed for the components of nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and airborne particulate matter (PM 1 0). The aim of the work has been to find out what types of measures are needed in order to reach the National goals on future local air quality set by the authorities. The results of the model simulations reveal that substantial abatement measures are needed if all of the residential buildings in Oslo shall reach the proposed goals. (author)

  20. Alberta ambient air quality objectives : sulphur dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-02-01

    Sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) is a colourless, non-flammable gas with a pungent odour. Exposure to SO 2 can result in numerous effects to the pulmonary system. This paper outlined current Alberta ambient air quality objectives in relation to SO 2 . The 1-hour average Alberta ambient air quality objective for SO 2 is currently 450 μg per m 3 . Studies conducted with healthy humans showed increased airway resistance and bronchoconstriction, as well as decreased maximum expiratory flow. Exercise can increase the severity of response to SO 2 in healthy and asthmatic individuals. Long-term exposure to SO 2 levels can also impact the metabolic activity of vegetation. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently announced their intention to reduce the 1-hour SO 2 standard to between 131 to 262 μg per m 3 . 7 refs.

  1. Maternal exposure to low-level air pollution and pregnancy outcomes: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazuleviciene Regina

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent reports have shown that air pollution may increase the risk of adverse birth outcomes. We have evaluated the relationship between ambient air pollution and the occurrence of low birth weight and preterm delivery using routinely collected data in Lithuania. Methods This epidemiological study comprised all singleton newborns (N = 3,988, born to women in 1998, who resided in the City of Kaunas. Birth data and information on maternal characteristics were obtained from the Lithuanian National Birth Register. To estimate residential exposure levels, we used measurements of ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2 and formaldehyde, which were collected at 12 monitoring posts. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the effect that each pollutant would have on low birth weight (LBW and premature birth while controlling for potential confounders. Results Adjusted odds ratios (OR for LBW increased with increasing formaldehyde exposure (OR2nd tertile = 1.86, 95% CI 1.10–3.16; OR3rd tertile = 1.84, 95% CI 1.12–3.03. Adjusted ORs of preterm birth for the medium and high NO2 tertile exposures were OR = 1.14 (95% CI 0.77–1.68 and OR = 1.68 (95% CI 1.15–2.46, respectively. The risk of preterm birth increased by 25% (adjusted OR = 1.25, 95% CI 1.07–1.46 per 10 μg/m3 increase in NO2 concentrations. An analysis by trimester showed that pregnancy outcomes were associated with first-trimester exposure to air pollutants. However, there were no significant relationships in other pregnancy periods between preterm birth and exposure to formaldehyde or between LBW and NO2 exposure. Conclusion Our findings suggest that in the City of Kaunas there might be a relationship between maternal exposure to ambient formaldehyde and the risk of LBW, as well as between NO2 exposure and the risk of preterm birth.

  2. Chemsensor of NO2 gas based on porphyrin of 5, 10, 15, 20-tetraphenylporphyrin LB films and LS films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelício Faria de Sales

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of 5, 10, 15, 20-tetraphenylporphyrin (H2TPP to the presence of NO2 gas in diluted solutions and in Langmuir-Blodgett (LB and Langmuir-Schaefer (LS films was investigated by UV-visible spectroscopy. The shift of Soret and Q bands were analyzed and the energies involved were calculated. The exposure of LB porphyrin films deposited onto glass slides to NO2 has performed as an active chemsensor with 7000 ppm gas concentration. Furthermore, the UV-vis dichroism absorption results associated with the Soret bands have given evidence of the tilt angle of the macrocycle related to the substrate. H2TPP in LB film was tilted by an angle of 51 ± 5° and in the LS film was tilted by an angle of 36° ± 5° indicating the formation of a preferential organization of the molecular films depending on the deposition method.

  3. Euthanasia of neonatal mice with carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchett, K.; Corrow, D.; Stockwell, J.; Smith, A.

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most prevalent method used to euthanize rodents in biomedical research. The purpose of this study was to determine the time of CO2 exposure required to euthanize neonatal mice (0 to 10 days old). Multiple groups of mice were exposed to 100% CO 2 for time periods between 5 and 60 min. Mice were placed in room air for 10 or 20 min after CO2 exposure, to allow for the chance of recovery. If mice recovered at one time point, a longer exposure was examined. Inbred and outbred mice were compared. Results of the study indicated that time to death varied with the age of the animals and could be as long as 50 min on the day of birth and differed between inbred and outbred mice. Institutions euthanizing neonatal mice with CO2 may wish to adjust their CO 2 exposure time periods according the age of the mice and their genetic background. Copyright 2005 by the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science.

  4. An innovative land use regression model incorporating meteorology for exposure analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jason G; Brauer, Michael; Ainslie, Bruce; Steyn, Douw; Larson, Timothy; Buzzelli, Michael

    2008-02-15

    The advent of spatial analysis and geographic information systems (GIS) has led to studies of chronic exposure and health effects based on the rationale that intra-urban variations in ambient air pollution concentrations are as great as inter-urban differences. Such studies typically rely on local spatial covariates (e.g., traffic, land use type) derived from circular areas (buffers) to predict concentrations/exposures at receptor sites, as a means of averaging the annual net effect of meteorological influences (i.e., wind speed, wind direction and insolation). This is the approach taken in the now popular land use regression (LUR) method. However spatial studies of chronic exposures and temporal studies of acute exposures have not been adequately integrated. This paper presents an innovative LUR method implemented in a GIS environment that reflects both temporal and spatial variability and considers the role of meteorology. The new source area LUR integrates wind speed, wind direction and cloud cover/insolation to estimate hourly nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) concentrations from land use types (i.e., road network, commercial land use) and these concentrations are then used as covariates to regress against NO and NO(2) measurements at various receptor sites across the Vancouver region and compared directly with estimates from a regular LUR. The results show that, when variability in seasonal concentration measurements is present, the source area LUR or SA-LUR model is a better option for concentration estimation.

  5. OMI Satellite and Ground-Based Pandora Observations and Their Application to Surface NO2 Estimations at Terrestrial and Marine Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollonige, Debra E.; Thompson, Anne M.; Josipovic, Miroslav; Tzortziou, Maria; Beukes, Johan P.; Burger, Roelof; Martins, Douglas K.; van Zyl, Pieter G.; Vakkari, Ville; Laakso, Lauri

    2018-01-01

    The Pandora spectrometer that uses direct-Sun measurements to derive total column amounts of gases provides an approach for (1) validation of satellite instruments and (2) monitoring of total column (TC) ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). We use for the first time Pandora and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) observations to estimate surface NO2 over marine and terrestrial sites downwind of urban pollution and compared with in situ measurements during campaigns in contrasting regions: (1) the South African Highveld (at Welgegund, 26°34'10″S, 26°56'21″E, 1,480 m asl, 120 km southwest of the Johannesburg-Pretoria megacity) and (2) shipboard U.S. mid-Atlantic coast during the 2014 Deposition of Atmospheric Nitrogen to Coastal Ecosystems (DANCE) cruise. In both cases, there were no local NOx sources but intermittent regional pollution influences. For TC NO2, OMI and Pandora difference is 20%, with Pandora higher most times. Surface NO2 values estimated from OMI and Pandora columns are compared to in situ NO2 for both locations. For Welgegund, the planetary boundary layer (PBL) height, used in converting column to surface NO2 value, has been estimated by three methods: co-located Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) observations; a model simulation; and radiosonde data from Irene, 150 km northeast of the site. AIRS PBL heights agree within 10% of radiosonde-derived values. Absolute differences between Pandora- and OMI-estimated surface NO2 and the in situ data are better at the terrestrial site ( 0.5 ppbv and 1 ppbv or greater, respectively) than under clean marine air conditions, with differences usually >3 ppbv. Cloud cover and PBL variability influence these estimations.

  6. A Study on the Impact of Poly(3-hexylthiophene Chain Length and Other Applied Side-Chains on the NO2 Sensing Properties of Conducting Graft Copolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Procek

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The detection and concentration measurements of low concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2 are important because of its negative effects on human health and its application in many fields of industry and safety systems. In our approach, conducting graft copolymers based on the poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT conducting polymer and other side-chains, polyethylene glycol (PEG and dodec-1-en, grafted on a poly(methylhydrosiloxane backbone, were investigated. The grafts containing PEG (PEGSil and dodec-1-en (DodecSil in two variants, namely, fractions with shorter (hexane fraction -H and longer (chloroform fraction -CH side-chains of P3HT, were tested as receptor structures in NO2 gas sensors. Their responses to NO2, within the concentration range of 1–20 ppm, were investigated in an nitrogen atmosphere at different operating temperatures—room temperature (RT = 25 °C, 50 °C, and 100 °C. The results indicated that both of the copolymers with PEG side-chains had higher responses to NO2 than the materials with dodec-1-en side-chains. Furthermore, the results indicated that, in both cases, H fractions were more sensitive than CH fractions. The highest response to 1 ppm of NO2, from the investigated graft copolymers, had PEGSil H, which indicated a response of 1330% at RT and 1980% at 100 °C. The calculated lower-limit of the detection of this material is lower than 300 ppb of NO2 at 100 °C. This research indicated that graft copolymers of P3HT had great potential for low temperature NO2 sensing, and that the proper choice of other side-chains in graft copolymers can improve their gas sensing properties.

  7. 7 CFR 51.2754 - U.S. No. 2 Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. No. 2 Virginia. 51.2754 Section 51.2754... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Shelled Virginia Type Peanuts Grades § 51.2754 U.S. No. 2 Virginia. “U.S. No. 2 Virginia” consists of shelled Virginia type peanut kernels of similar varietal...

  8. Synergistic Effects of Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Exposure to Violence on Urban Asthma Etiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clougherty, Jane E.; Levy, Jonathan I.; Kubzansky, Laura D.; Ryan, P. Barry; Suglia, Shakira Franco; Canner, Marina Jacobson; Wright, Rosalind J.

    2007-01-01

    Background Disproportionate life stress and consequent physiologic alteration (i.e., immune dysregulation) has been proposed as a major pathway linking socioeconomic position, environmental exposures, and health disparities. Asthma, for example, disproportionately affects lower-income urban communities, where air pollution and social stressors may be elevated. Objectives We aimed to examine the role of exposure to violence (ETV), as a chronic stressor, in altering susceptibility to traffic-related air pollution in asthma etiology. Methods We developed geographic information systems (GIS)–based models to retrospectively estimate residential exposures to traffic-related pollution for 413 children in a community-based pregnancy cohort, recruited in East Boston, Massachusetts, between 1987 and 1993, using monthly nitrogen dioxide measurements for 13 sites over 18 years. We merged pollution estimates with questionnaire data on lifetime ETV and examined the effects of both on childhood asthma etiology. Results Correcting for potential confounders, we found an elevated risk of asthma with a 1-SD (4.3 ppb) increase in NO2 exposure solely among children with above-median ETV [odds ratio (OR) = 1.63; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.14–2.33)]. Among children always living in the same community, with lesser exposure measurement error, this association was magnified (OR = 2.40; 95% CI, 1.48–3.88). Of multiple exposure periods, year-of-diagnosis NO2 was most predictive of asthma outcomes. Conclusions We found an association between traffic-related air pollution and asthma solely among urban children exposed to violence. Future studies should consider socially patterned susceptibility, common spatial distributions of social and physical environmental factors, and potential synergies among these. Prospective assessment of physical and social exposures may help determine causal pathways and critical exposure periods. PMID:17687439

  9. Spectrophotometric determination of sulphur dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parashar, D C; Raman, V; Singh, M

    1987-01-01

    Sulphur dioxide, an important industrial gas and air pollutant, is usually estimated using mercury salts. The authors have developed a method in which hazardous mercury salts are avoided. Sulphur dioxide is trapped in aqueous morpholine and mixed with the excess of dichromate solution in acidic medium. The hexavalent chromium in dichromate is reduced to trivalent chromium by sulphur dioxide and the excess of hexavalent chromium is determined with diphenylcarbazide which yields a soluble red-violet complex with an absorption maximum at 540 nm. The decrease in the absorbance values of the red-violet complex formed after reduction, when compared to that of a reagent control, is proportional to the concentration of sulphur dioxide used for reduction. Beer's law operates between 0.4 and 4 microg ml(-1) concentration of sulphur dioxide in solution.

  10. Long-term exposure to air pollution and mammographic density in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huynh, Stephanie; von Euler-Chelpin, My; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Growing evidence suggests that air pollution may be a risk factor for breast cancer, but the biological mechanism remains unknown. High mammographic density (MD) is one of the strongest predictors and biomarkers of breast cancer risk, but it has yet to be linked to air pollution. We...... investigated the association between long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and MD in a prospective cohort of women 50 years and older. METHODS: For the 4,769 women (3,930 postmenopausal) participants in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort (1993-1997) who attended mammographic screening...... in Copenhagen (1993-2001), we used MD assessed at the first screening after cohort entry. MD was defined as mixed/dense or fatty. Traffic-related air pollution at residence was assessed by modeled levels of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The association between mean NOx and NO2 levels since...

  11. Efficacy of passive sampler collection for atmospheric NO2 isotopes under simulated environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Justin G; Yu, Zhongjie; Elliott, Emily M

    2017-07-30

    Nitrogen oxides or NO x (NO x = NO + NO 2 ) play an important role in air quality, atmospheric chemistry, and climate. The isotopic compositions of anthropogenic and natural NO 2 sources are wide-ranging, and they can be used to constrain sources of ambient NO 2 and associated atmospheric deposition of nitrogen compounds. While passive sample collection of NO 2 isotopes has been used in field studies to determine NO x source influences on atmospheric deposition, this approach has not been evaluated for accuracy or precision under different environmental conditions. The efficacy of NO 2 passive sampler collection for NO 2 isotopes was evaluated under varied temperature and relative humidity (RH) conditions in a dynamic flux chamber. The precision and accuracy of the filter NO 2 collection as nitrite (NO 2 - ) for isotopic analysis were determined using a reference NO 2 gas tank and through inter-calibration with a modified EPA Method 7. The bacterial denitrifer method was used to convert 20 μM of collected NO 2 - or nitrate (NO 3 - ) into N 2 O and was carried out on an Isoprime continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometer. δ 15 N-NO 2 values determined from passive NO 2 collection, in conditions of 11-34 °C, 1-78% RH, have an overall accuracy and precision of ±2.1 ‰, and individual run precision of ±0.6 ‰. δ 18 O-NO 2 values obtained from passive NO 2 sampler collection, under the same conditions, have an overall precision of ± 1.3 ‰. Suitable conditions for passive sampler collection of NO 2 isotopes are in environments ranging from 11 to 34 °C and 1 to 78% RH. The passive NO 2 isotope measurement technique provides an accurate method to determine variations in atmospheric δ 15 N-NO 2 values and a precise method for determining atmospheric δ 18 O-NO 2 values. The ability to measure NO 2 isotopes over spatial gradients at the same temporal resolution provides a unique perspective on the extent and seasonality of fluctuations in atmospheric NO 2

  12. LIFAC Demonstration at Richmond Power and Light Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2 Volume II: Project Performance and Economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1998-04-01

    The C1ean Coal Technology (CCT) Program has been recognized in the National Energy Strategy as a major initiative whereby coal will be able to reach its full potential as a source of energy for the nation and the international marketplace. Attainment of this goal depends upon the development of highly efficient, environmentally sound, competitive coal utilization technologies responsive to diverse energy markets and varied consumer needs. The CCT Program is an effort jointly funded by government and industry whereby the most promising of the advanced coal-based technologies are being moved into the marketplace through demonstration. The CCT Program is being implemented through a total of five competitive solicitations. LIFAC North America, a joint venture partnership of ICF Kaiser Engineers, Inc., and Tampella Power Corporation, is currently demonstrating the LIFAC flue gas desulfurization technology developed by Tampella Power. This technology provides sulfur dioxide emission control for power plants, especially existing facilities with tight space limitations. Sulfur dioxide emissions are expected to be reduced by up to 85% by using limestone as a sorbent. The LIFAC technology is being demonstrated at Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2, a 60-MW coal-fired power plant owned and operated by Richmond Power and Light (RP&L) and located in Richmond, Indiana. The Whitewater plant consumes high-sulfur coals, with sulfur contents ranging from 2.0-2.9 $ZO. The project, co-funded by LIFAC North America and DOE, is being conducted with the participation of Richmond Power and Light, the State of Indiana, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and the Black Beauty Coal Company. The project has a total cost of $21.4 million and a duration of 48 months from the preliminary design phase through the testing program.

  13. Uranium dioxide electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willit, James L [Batavia, IL; Ackerman, John P [Prescott, AZ; Williamson, Mark A [Naperville, IL

    2009-12-29

    This is a single stage process for treating spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors. The spent nuclear fuel, uranium oxide, UO.sub.2, is added to a solution of UCl.sub.4 dissolved in molten LiCl. A carbon anode and a metallic cathode is positioned in the molten salt bath. A power source is connected to the electrodes and a voltage greater than or equal to 1.3 volts is applied to the bath. At the anode, the carbon is oxidized to form carbon dioxide and uranium chloride. At the cathode, uranium is electroplated. The uranium chloride at the cathode reacts with more uranium oxide to continue the reaction. The process may also be used with other transuranic oxides and rare earth metal oxides.

  14. Production of uranium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knudsen, I.E.

    1977-01-01

    A three stage fluidized bed process is described for converting uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) to a ceramic-grade uranium dioxide (UO 2 ) powder by first, reacting hydrogen and steam with UF 6 in a first fluidized bed in a temperature range of from about 475 to 600 0 C to form solid intermediate products UO 2 F 2 and U 3 O 8 ; second, reacting hydrogen and steam with the intermediate products in a second fluidized bed at a temperature ranging from about 575 to about 675 0 C to produce a second group of intermediate products including UO 2 F 2 , U 3 O 8 , and UO 2 ; and, third, reacting hydrogen and steam with the second group of intermediate products in a third fluidized bed as a temperature of 575 to 675 0 C to produce ceramic grade UO 2 powder having low residual content of fluorides and other foreign materials. 9 claims, 1 figure

  15. Uranium dioxide pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zawidzki, T.W.

    1982-01-01

    A process for the preparation of a sintered, high density, large crystal grain size uranium dioxide pellet is described which involves: (i) reacting a uranyl nitrate of formula UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 .6H 2 O with a sulphur source, at a temperature of from about 300 deg. C to provide a sulphur-containing uranium trioxide; (ii) reacting the thus-obtained modified uranium trioxide with ammonium nitrate to form an insoluble sulphur-containing ammonium uranate; (iii) neutralizing the thus-formed slurry with ammonium hydroxide to precipitate out as an insoluble ammonium uranate the remaining dissolved uranium; (iv) recovering the thus-formed precipitates in a dry state; (v) reducing the dry precipitate to UO 2 , and forming it into 'green' pellets; and (vi) sintering the pellets in a hydrogen atmosphere at an elevated temperature

  16. Forecasting carbon dioxide emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaobing; Du, Ding

    2015-09-01

    This study extends the literature on forecasting carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by applying the reduced-form econometrics approach of Schmalensee et al. (1998) to a more recent sample period, the post-1997 period. Using the post-1997 period is motivated by the observation that the strengthening pace of global climate policy may have been accelerated since 1997. Based on our parameter estimates, we project 25% reduction in CO2 emissions by 2050 according to an economic and population growth scenario that is more consistent with recent global trends. Our forecasts are conservative due to that we do not have sufficient data to fully take into account recent developments in the global economy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Ability of the MAX-DOAS method to derive profile information for NO2: can the boundary layer and free troposphere be separated?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Wang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Multiple Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS instruments can measure from the ground the absorption by nitrogen dioxide (NO2 of scattered sunlight seen in multiple viewing directions. This paper studies the potential of this technique to derive the vertical distribution of NO2 in the troposphere. Such profile information is essential for detailed comparisons of MAX-DOAS retrievals with other measurement techniques for NO2, e.g. with a lidar or from space. The retrieval algorithm used is based on a pre-calculated look-up table and assumes homogeneous mixing of aerosols and NO2 in layers extending from the surface to a variable height. Two retrieval models are compared: one including and one excluding an elevated NO2 layer at a fixed altitude in the free troposphere. An ensemble technique is applied to derive retrieval uncertainties. Sensitivity studies demonstrate that NO2 in the free troposphere can only be retrieved accurately if: (i the retrieved boundary layer profiles for aerosols and NO2 correspond to the real ones, (ii if the right a-priori choice is made for the (average height of free tropospheric NO2, and (iii if all other error sources are very low. It is shown that retrieval models that are capable of accurate NO2 retrievals in the free troposphere, i.e. models not constrained too much by a-priori assumptions, have as a major disadvantage that they will frequently find free tropospheric NO2, also when it is not present in reality. This is a consequence of the fact that NO2 in the free troposphere is poorly constrained by the MAX-DOAS observations, especially for high aerosol optical thickness values in the boundary layer. Retrieval of free tropospheric NO2 is therefore sensitive to a large number of error sources. For this reason it is advised to firmly constrain free tropospheric NO2 in MAX-DOAS retrieval models used for applications such as satellite validation. This effectively makes free tropospheric NO2 a

  18. Eddy covariance fluxes of the NO-O3-NO2 triad above the forest canopy at the ATTO Site in the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsokankunku, Anywhere; Wolff, Stefan; Sörgel, Matthias; Berger, Martina; Zelger, Michael; Dlugi, Ralf

    2017-04-01

    Nitrogen monoxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) (denoted together as NOx) determine the abundance of the tropospheric oxidants OH, O3 and NO3 that regulate atmospheric self-cleaning. The three reactive trace gases NO, NO2 and O3 undergo a series of interconnected photochemical reactions and are often referred to as the NO-O3-NO2 triad. Ozone deposition is mainly controlled by stomatal uptake, thus contributes to oxidative stress for the plants. Similarly, nitrogen dioxide from above or below the canopy is deposited to leaves through stomatal uptake. NO emissions from soils contribute to above canopy O3 formation and accelerate OH recycling. Therefore, quantification of the exchange fluxes of these species between the atmosphere and the biosphere are important for atmospheric chemistry and ecosystem research as well. The eddy covariance method is state of the art for direct measurements of ecosystem fluxes of trace gases. Eddy covariance measurements of NOx in pristine environments are rare because of lack of availability of instruments with the required precision to resolve concentrations characteristic of these environments. The Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO) is located in a pristine rainforest environment in the Amazon basin about 150 km northeast of the city of Manaus. It is the ideal site for studying the biosphere-atmosphere exchange of the NO-O3-NO2 triad, being largely undisturbed by anthropogenic sources. During an intensive measurement campaign in November 2015 at the ATTO site, measurements of NO, NO2 and O3 were carried out at 42 m above ground level on the 80 m walk-up tower with a fast (5 Hz) and sensitive (gas profile system which has been operational at the site since 2012. From these measurements, we present eddy covariance fluxes of the NO-O3-NO2 triad. We relate the fluxes to the canopy-atmosphere exchange of the trace gases and other scalars using the profile data along the tower. Chemical and turbulent transport timescales of the triad

  19. A Bayesian kriging model for estimating residential exposure to air pollution of children living in a high-risk area in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Vicedo-Cabrera

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A core challenge in epidemiological analysis of the impact of exposure to air pollution on health is assessment of the individual exposure for subjects at risk. Geographical information systems (GIS-based pollution mapping, such as kriging, has become one of the main tools for evaluating individual exposure to ambient pollutants. We applied universal Bayesian kriging to estimate the residential exposure to gaseous air pollutants for children living in a high-risk area (Milazzo- Valle del Mela in Sicily, Italy. Ad hoc air quality monitoring campaigns were carried out: 12 weekly measurements for sulphur dioxide (SO2 and nitrogen dioxide (NO2 were obtained from 21 passive dosimeters located at each school yard of the study area from November 2007 to April 2008. Universal Bayesian kriging was performed to predict individual exposure levels at each residential address for all 6- to 12-years-old children attending primary school at various locations in the study area. Land use, altitude, distance to main roads and population density were included as covariates in the models. A large geographical heterogeneity in air quality was recorded suggesting complex exposure patterns. We obtained a predicted mean level of 25.78 (±10.61 μg/m3 of NO2 and 4.10 (±2.71 μg/m3 of SO2 at 1,682 children’s residential addresses, with a normalised root mean squared error of 28% and 25%, respectively. We conclude that universal Bayesian kriging approach is a useful tool for the assessment of realistic exposure estimates with regard to ambient pollutants at home addresses. Its prediction uncertainty is highly informative and can be used for both designing subsequent campaigns and for improved modelling of epidemiological associations.

  20. Possible causes of stratospheric NO2 trends observed at Lauder, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, D. J.; Roscoe, H. K.; Johnston, P. V.

    2000-10-01

    A recently published analysis of slant columns of NO2 observed at twilight at 45°S has identified trends of about 5%/decade between 1980 and 1998. This is twice the trend in tropospheric N2O, which is the source of stratospheric NO2. By means of a column photochemical model, we explore the sensitivity of NO2 to the observed trends in stratospheric temperature, O3 and H2O. The resulting calculated trends in NO2 are smaller than observed, and we cannot force agreement by varying the ozone or temperature trends. The calculated sensitivity of NO2 to stratospheric aerosol is large, and a 20% per decade decrease in aerosol surface area creates agreement. We conclude that a small residual in the statistical fit of aerosol to the NO2 measurements may remain, and is a likely cause of the trends found in the NO2 measurements.

  1. Health Endpoint Attributed to Sulfur Dioxide Air Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geravandi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Sulfur dioxide is a colorless gas, released from burning of coal, high-sulfur coal,s and diesel fuel. Sulfur dioxide harms human health by reacting with the moisture in the nose, nasal cavity and throat and this is the way by which it destroys the nerves in the respiratory system. Objectives The aim of this study was to focus on identifying the effects associated with sulfur dioxide on health in Ahvaz, Iran. Materials and Methods Data collections were performed by Ahvaz meteorological organization and the department of environment. Sampling was performed for 24 hours in four stations. Methods of sampling and analysis were according to US environmental protection agency (EPA guideline. Afterwards, we processed the raw data including instruction set correction of averaging, coding and filtering by Excel software and then, the impact of meteorological parameters were converted as the input file to the AirQ model. Finally, we calculated the health effects of exposure to sulfur dioxide. Results According to the findings, the concentration of sulfur dioxide in Ahvaz had an annual average of 51 μg/m3. Sum of the numbers of hospital admissions for respiratory diseases attributed to sulfur dioxide was 25 cases in 2012. Approximately, 5% of the total hospital admissions for respiratory disease and respiratory mortality happened when sulfur dioxide concentration was more than 10 mg/m3. Conclusions According to the results of this study, this increase could be due to higher fuel consumption, usage of gasoline in vehicles, oil industry, and steel and heavy industries in Ahwaz. The risk of mortality and morbidity were detected at the current concentrations of air pollutants.

  2. Long-term exposure to air pollution and asthma hospitalisations in older adults: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Hvidberg, Martin; Jensen, Steen S; Ketzel, Matthias; Loft, Steffen; Sørensen, Mette; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to air pollution in early life contributes to the burden of childhood asthma, but it is not clear whether long-term exposure to air pollution can lead to asthma onset or progression in adulthood. The authors studied the effect of exposure to traffic-related air pollution over 35 years on the risk for asthma hospitalisation in older people. 57 053 participants in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort, aged 50-65 years at baseline (1993-1997), were followed up for first hospital admission for asthma until 2006, and the annual nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) levels were estimated as a proxy of the exposure to traffic-related air pollution at the residential addresses of the participants since 1971. The association between NO(2) and hospitalisation for asthma was modelled using Cox regression, for the full cohort and in people with and without previous hospitalisations for asthma, and the effect modification by comorbid conditions was assessed. During 10.2 years' median follow-up, 977 (1.9%) of 53 695 eligible people were admitted to hospital for asthma: 821 were first-ever admissions and 176 were readmissions. NO(2) levels were associated with risk for asthma hospitalisation in the full cohort (HR and 95% CI per IQR, 5.8 μg/m(3): 1.12; 1.04-1.22), and for first-ever admissions (1.10; 1.01-1.20), with the highest risk in people with a history of asthma (1.41; 1.15-2.07) or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (1.30; 1.07-1.52) hospitalisation. Long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution increases the risk for asthma hospitalisation in older people. People with previous asthma or COPD hospitalisations are most susceptible.

  3. A national satellite-based land-use regression model for air pollution exposure assessment in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knibbs, Luke D; Hewson, Michael G; Bechle, Matthew J; Marshall, Julian D; Barnett, Adrian G

    2014-11-01

    Land-use regression (LUR) is a technique that can improve the accuracy of air pollution exposure assessment in epidemiological studies. Most LUR models are developed for single cities, which places limitations on their applicability to other locations. We sought to develop a model to predict nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations with national coverage of Australia by using satellite observations of tropospheric NO2 columns combined with other predictor variables. We used a generalised estimating equation (GEE) model to predict annual and monthly average ambient NO2 concentrations measured by a national monitoring network from 2006 through 2011. The best annual model explained 81% of spatial variation in NO2 (absolute RMS error=1.4 ppb), while the best monthly model explained 76% (absolute RMS error=1.9 ppb). We applied our models to predict NO2 concentrations at the ~350,000 census mesh blocks across the country (a mesh block is the smallest spatial unit in the Australian census). National population-weighted average concentrations ranged from 7.3 ppb (2006) to 6.3 ppb (2011). We found that a simple approach using tropospheric NO2 column data yielded models with slightly better predictive ability than those produced using a more involved approach that required simulation of surface-to-column ratios. The models were capable of capturing within-urban variability in NO2, and offer the ability to estimate ambient NO2 concentrations at monthly and annual time scales across Australia from 2006-2011. We are making our model predictions freely available for research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Conducting Polymers Functionalized with Phthalocyanine as Nitrogen Dioxide Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Deshpande

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available The conducting polymers such as polyaniline, polypyrrole and polythiophene were functionalized with copper phthalocyanine using chemical oxidation method. The obtained polymers viz. PANI-CuPc, PPy-CuPc and PT-CuPc were studied as chemical sensors by their response characteristics after exposure to various chemical vapors such as methanol, ammonia and nitrogen dioxide. The results obtained showed that these polymers have moderate sensitivity towards the methanol as well as ammonia vapors whereas they show tremendous sensitivity towards nitrogen dioxide vapors. The sensitivity factor of as high as 50,000 was obtained for PT-CuPc polymers in nitrogen dioxide. In comparison to this, the sensitivity factors of about 100 and 40 were obtained, when these polymers were exposed to ammonia and methanol vapors. The very high selectivity towards the nitrogen dioxide was explained on the basis of charge transfer complex formed between, the phthalocyanine donor and nitrogen dioxide acceptor molecules. On the other hand, ammonia becomes a competing electron donor in CuPc containing conducting polymers. The very low response towards the methanol may be explained on the basis very little charge transfer / interaction between CuPc containing polymers and methanol. Thus, CuPc incorporated conducting polymers have much higher selectivity than their original homopolymer.

  5. Effect of sequences of ozone and nitrogen dioxide on plant dry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ozone (O3) is the most important gaseous air pollutant in the world because of its adverse effects on vegetation in general and crop plants in particular. Since nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a precursor of ozone, studying the implication of sequences of these two gases is very important. Hence, the effects of sequences of ...

  6. effect of sequences of ozone and nitrogen dioxide on plant dry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    Ozone (O3) is the most important gaseous air pollutant in the world because of its adverse effects on vegetation in general and crop plants in particular. Since nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a precursor of ozone, studying the implication of sequences of these two gases is very important. Hence, the effects of sequences of ...

  7. Assessing traffic and industrial contributions to ambient nitrogen dioxide and volatile organic compounds in a low pollution urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oiamo, Tor H; Johnson, Markey; Tang, Kathy; Luginaah, Isaac N

    2015-10-01

    Land use regression (LUR) modeling is an effective method for estimating fine-scale distributions of ambient air pollutants. The objectives of this study are to advance the methodology for use in urban environments with relatively low levels of industrial activity and provide exposure assessments for research on health effects of air pollution. Intraurban distributions of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) benzene, toluene and m- and p-xylene were characterized based on spatial monitoring and LUR modeling in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Passive samplers were deployed at 50 locations throughout Ottawa for two consecutive weeks in October 2008 and May 2009. Land use variables representing point, area and line sources were tested as predictors of pooled pollutant distributions. LUR models explained 96% of the spatial variability in NO2 and 75-79% of the variability in the VOC species. Proximity to highways, green space, industrial and residential land uses were significant in the final models. More notably, proximity to industrial point sources and road network intersections were significant predictors for all pollutants. The strong contribution of industrial point sources to VOC distributions in Ottawa suggests that facility emission data should be considered whenever possible. The study also suggests that proximity to road network intersections may be an effective proxy in areas where reliable traffic data are not available. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Air pollution exposure and daily clinical visits for allergic rhinitis in a subtropical city: Taipei, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Cheng; Chiu, Hui-Fen; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2016-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether there was an association between air pollutant level exposure and daily clinic visits for allergic rhinitis (AR) in Taipei, Taiwan. Daily clinic visits for AR and ambient air pollution data for Taipei were obtained for the period of 2006-2011. The relative risk for clinic visits for AR was estimated using a case-crossover approach, controlling for weather variables, day of the week, seasonality, and long-term time trends. In the single-pollutant models, on warm days (>23ºC) significant positive associations were found for increased rate of AR occurrence and ambient levels of particulate matter (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone (O3). On cool days (<23ºC), all air pollutants were significantly associated with elevated number of AR visits except SO2. For the two-pollutant models, PM10, O3, and NO2 were significantly associated with higher rate of AR visits in combination with each of the other four pollutants on cool days. On warm days, CO levels remained significantly related with increased AR visits in all two-pollutant models. This study provides evidence that higher levels of ambient air contaminants enhance the risk of elevated frequency of clinic visits for AR.

  9. Evaluation of a regional air quality forecast model for tropospheric NO2 columns using the OMI/Aura satellite tropospheric NO2 product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Vaughan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Results from a regional air quality forecast model, AIRPACT-3, are compared to OMI tropospheric NO2 integrated column densities for an 18 month period over the Pacific Northwest. AIRPACT column densities are well correlated (r=0.75 to cloud-free (2 for monthly averages without wildfires, but are poorly correlated (r=0.21 with significant model over-predictions for months with wildfires when OMI and AIRPACT are compared over the entire domain. AIRPACT predicts higher NO2 in some northwestern US urban areas, and lower NO2 in the Vancouver, BC urban area, when compared to OMI. Model results are spatially averaged to the daily OMI swath. The Dutch KNMI (DOMINO and NASA (Standard Product retrievals of tropospheric NO2 from OMI (Collection-3 are compared. The NASA product is shown to be significantly different than the KNMI tropospheric NO2 product. The average difference in tropospheric columns, after applying the averaging kernels of the respective products to the model results, is shown to be larger in the summer (±50% than winter (±20%.

  10. Mobile Column Measurements of HCHO, NO2, NH3, and C2H6 in Colorado during FRAPPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kille, N.; Volkamer, R. M.; Baidar, S.; Ortega, I.; Sinreich, R.; Hannigan, J. W.; Cooper, O. R.; Nussbaumer, E.; Pfister, G.

    2015-12-01

    Gases from anthropogenic sources have the potential to have a profound impact on air quality. Emissions from large cattle feedlots and ONG (Oil and Natural Gas) sites are comprised of NH3 (ammonia) and C2H6 (ethane) as pollutants. C2H6 contributes to photochemical ozone (O3) production and oxidation production of HCHO (formaldehyde). NH3 is a major source for reactive nitrogen to form particulate matter 2.5, which negatively affects human health. NO2 (nitrogen dioxide), emitted during combustion, is considered a large-scale pollutant and contributes to the formation of O3. Deploying an innovative suite of remote sensing instruments in a mobile laboratory, a Multi Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectrometer (MAX-DOAS), a UV-Vis Spectrometer, and a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer, we obtain mobile column measurements at high spatial and temporal resolution, 2 seconds for the UV-Vis and IR spectrometers and 20 seconds for the MAX-DOAS. Within the scope of the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPE) we measure total columns of HCHO, NO2, NH3, and C2H6 using the University of Colorado mobile laboratory. Emissions of urban areas, agriculture, and ONG sites were studied. For the measurement of total columns the solar occultation flux method has been applied. We measured significant variability in the columns. The measurement of total columns allows one to determine the emission flux and source strength when driving a closed box around or upwind and downwind of a source with the mobile laboratory. We present results from select research drives.

  11. Air pollution exposure during pregnancy and reduced birth size: a prospective birth cohort study in Valencia, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Llop Sabrina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal exposure to air pollution has been related to fetal growth in a number of recent scientific studies. The objective of this study was to assess the association between exposure to air pollution during pregnancy and anthropometric measures at birth in a cohort in Valencia, Spain. Methods Seven hundred and eighty-five pregnant women and their singleton newborns participated in the study. Exposure to ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2 was estimated by means of land use regression. NO2 spatial estimations were adjusted to correspond to relevant pregnancy periods (whole pregnancy and trimesters for each woman. Outcome variables were birth weight, length, and head circumference (HC, along with being small for gestational age (SGA. The association between exposure to residential outdoor NO2 and outcomes was assessed controlling for potential confounders and examining the shape of the relationship using generalized additive models (GAM. Results For continuous anthropometric measures, GAM indicated a change in slope at NO2 concentrations of around 40 μg/m3. NO2 exposure >40 μg/m3 during the first trimester was associated with a change in birth length of -0.27 cm (95% CI: -0.51 to -0.03 and with a change in birth weight of -40.3 grams (-96.3 to 15.6; the same exposure throughout the whole pregnancy was associated with a change in birth HC of -0.17 cm (-0.34 to -0.003. The shape of the relation was seen to be roughly linear for the risk of being SGA. A 10 μg/m3 increase in NO2 during the second trimester was associated with being SGA-weight, odds ratio (OR: 1.37 (1.01-1.85. For SGA-length the estimate for the same comparison was OR: 1.42 (0.89-2.25. Conclusions Prenatal exposure to traffic-related air pollution may reduce fetal growth. Findings from this study provide further evidence of the need for developing strategies to reduce air pollution in order to prevent risks to fetal health and development.

  12. NO2 Total and Tropospheric Vertical Column Densities from OMI on EOS Aura: Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, J.F.; Bucsela, E.J.; Celarier, E.A.; Veefkind, J.P.; Kim, S.W.; Frost, G.F.

    2009-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), which is on the EOS AURA satellite, retrieves vertical column densities (VCDs) of NO2, along with those of several other trace gases. The relatively high spatial resolution and daily global coverage of the instrument make it particularly well-suited to monitoring tropospheric pollution at scales on the order of 20 km. The OMI NO2 algorithm distinguishes polluted regions from background stratospheric NO2 using a separation algorithm that relies on the smoothly varying stratospheric NO2 and estimations of both stratospheric and tropospheric air mass factors (AMFs). Version 1 of OMI NO2 data has been released for public use. An overview of OMI NO2 data, some recent results and a description of the improvements for version 2 of the algorithm will be presented.

  13. Global Free-tropospheric NO2 Abundances Derived Using a Cloud Slicing Technique from AURA OMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, S.; Joiner, J.; Choi, Y.; Duncan, B.N.; Vasilkov, A.; Krotkov, N.; Bucsela, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    We derive free-tropospheric NO2 volume mixing ratios (VMRs) by applying a cloud-slicing technique to data from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the Aura satellite. In the cloud-slicing approach, the slope of the above-cloud NO2 column versus the cloud scene pressure is proportional to the NO2 VMR. In this work, we use a sample of nearby OMI pixel data from a single orbit for the linear fit. The OMI data include cloud scene pressures from the rotational-Raman algorithm and above-cloud NO2 vertical column density (VCD) (defined as the NO2 column from the cloud scene pressure to the top of the atmosphere) from a differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) algorithm. We compare OMI-derived NO2 VMRs with in situ aircraft profiles measured during the NASA Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment Phase B (INTEX-B) campaign in 2006. The agreement is generally within the estimated uncertainties when appropriate data screening is applied. We then derive a global seasonal climatology of free-tropospheric NO2 VMR in cloudy conditions. Enhanced NO2 in the free troposphere commonly appears near polluted urban locations where NO2 produced in the boundary layer may be transported vertically out of the boundary layer and then horizontally away from the source. Signatures of lightning NO2 are also shown throughout low and middle latitude regions in summer months. A profile analysis of our cloud-slicing data indicates signatures of lightning-generated NO2 in the upper troposphere. Comparison of the climatology with simulations from the global modeling initiative (GMI) for cloudy conditions (cloud optical depth less than10) shows similarities in the spatial patterns of continental pollution outflow. However, there are also some differences in the seasonal variation of free-tropospheric NO2 VMRs near highly populated regions and in areas affected by lightning-generated NOx.

  14. 21 CFR 74.102 - FD&C Blue No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false FD&C Blue No. 2. 74.102 Section 74.102 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.102 FD&C Blue No. 2. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive FD&C...-1H-indole-5-sulfonic acid (CAS Reg. No. 605-18-5). Additionally, FD&C Blue No. 2 is obtained by...

  15. 21 CFR 74.3102 - FD&C Blue No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false FD&C Blue No. 2. 74.3102 Section 74.3102 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 74.3102 FD&C Blue No. 2. (a) Identity. The color additive FD&C Blue No. 2 shall conform in identity to the requirements of § 74.102(a)(1). (b...

  16. 21 CFR 74.1102 - FD&C Blue No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false FD&C Blue No. 2. 74.1102 Section 74.1102 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1102 FD&C Blue No. 2. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive FD... mixtures for use in ingested drugs made with FD&C Blue No. 2 may contain only those diluents that are...

  17. 21 CFR 82.102 - FD&C Blue No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false FD&C Blue No. 2. 82.102 Section 82.102 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Foods, Drugs, and Cosmetics § 82.102 FD&C Blue No. 2. The color additive FD&C Blue No. 2 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.102(a)(1...

  18. 7 CFR 51.2732 - U.S. No. 2 Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. No. 2 Spanish. 51.2732 Section 51.2732... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Spanish Type Peanuts Grades § 51.2732 U.S. No. 2 Spanish. “U.S. No. 2 Spanish” consists of shelled Spanish type peanut kernels which may be split or broken...

  19. Recuperative supercritical carbon dioxide cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Sprouse, Kenneth M; Subbaraman, Ganesan; O'Connor, George M; Johnson, Gregory A

    2014-11-18

    A power plant includes a closed loop, supercritical carbon dioxide system (CLS-CO.sub.2 system). The CLS-CO.sub.2 system includes a turbine-generator and a high temperature recuperator (HTR) that is arranged to receive expanded carbon dioxide from the turbine-generator. The HTR includes a plurality of heat exchangers that define respective heat exchange areas. At least two of the heat exchangers have different heat exchange areas.

  20. Method for carbon dioxide sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yifeng; Bryan, Charles R.; Dewers, Thomas; Heath, Jason E.

    2017-12-05

    A method for geo-sequestration of a carbon dioxide includes selection of a target water-laden geological formation with low-permeability interbeds, providing an injection well into the formation and injecting supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO.sub.2) and water or bine into the injection well under conditions of temperature, pressure and density selected to cause the fluid to enter the formation and splinter and/or form immobilized ganglia within the formation.

  1. Comparison of tropospheric NO2 observations by GOME and ground stations over Tokyo, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, K.; Itoh, H.; Shibasaki, T.; Hayashida, S.; Uno, I.; Ohara, T.; Richter, A.; Burrows, J. P.

    2009-04-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) are anthropogenically emitted as a form of NO in the high-temperature burning processes of fossil fuels mainly in energy generations and vehicles. Because NOx is a precursor of ozone, which is composed of a so-called photochemical smog, and is a health-hazard matter, the monitoring of NO2 is important to control air quality. The satellite observation is one of the most suitable methods for the monitoring of air pollution because satellite observations can obtain a global distribution of the pollutants. However, the observation of tropospheric gases by satellites still includes technically challenging problems, and the field is developing. To test whether satellite observations could successfully detect the behavior of tropospheric NO2, we compared satellite and ground-based observations of tropospheric NO2 over the Tokyo region. The satellite data were tropospheric NO2 vertical column density (VCD) derived from Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) spectrometer measurements (hereafter GOME-NO2) [Richter et al., 2005], and the ground-based data were surface NO2 volume mixing ratio (VMR) observed by the network of air-quality monitoring stations in Tokyo. The analysis was performed for the data from January 1996 to June 2003. We found a strong correlation between GOME-NO2 and the surface VMR. They showed a similar seasonal variation with a maximum in winter and a minimum in summer. The result suggested that GOME was observing the behavior of NO2 near the surface in the Tokyo region. A more rigorous comparison was conducted by scaling the surface NO2 VMR to the tropospheric VCD with vertical NO2 VMR profiles. The NO2 profiles were calculated by using the chemical transport model CMAQ/REAS [Uno et al., 2007; Ohara et al., 2007]. This second comparison indicated that the GOME observations represent the behavior of NO2 more closely at the relatively unpolluted ground stations than at the highly polluted ground stations of the air

  2. Effects of Nitrogen Dioxide on Pulmonary Cell Population1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Donald E.; Holzman, Robert S.; Coffin, David L.

    1969-01-01

    Studies from this laboratory have shown that ozone produces changes in the number and function of cells obtained by pulmonary lavage. In similar experiments, rabbits exposed to levels of NO2 from ambient to 60 ppm demonstrated increased numbers of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the lung washings. This phenomenon persisted for more than 72 hr after a single 3-hr exposure. When streptococci were instilled in the lungs of NO2-exposed anesthetized rabbits 30 min before lavage, a pronounced inhibition of phagocytic activity was observed. With these criteria, NO2 appeared less effective than ozone as a pulmonary irritant. PMID:5788696

  3. Field evaluation of a tailor-made new passive sampler for the determination of NO2 levels in ambient air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozden, Ozlem; Dogeroglu, Tuncay

    2008-07-01

    This study describes the field evaluation of a tailor-made new glass passive sampler developed for the determination of NO(2), based on the collection on triethanolemine (TEA)-coated fibre filter paper. The sampler has been derived from a Palmes design. The overall uncertainty of the sampler was determined by using Griess-Saltzman ASTM D 1607 standard test method as a reference method. The agreement between the results of the passive sampler and the reference method was +/-7.90% with the correlation coefficient of 0.90. Method precision in terms of coefficient of variance (CV) for three simultaneously applied passive samplers was 8.80%. The uptake rate of NO(2) was found to be 2.49 ml/min in a very good agreement with the value calculated from theory (2.63 ml/min). Sampler detection limit was 1.99 microg/m(3) for an exposure period of 1 week and the sampler can be stored safely for a period of up to 6 weeks before exposure. A comparison of the sampler performance was conducted against a commercially available diffusion tube (Gradko diffusion tube). The results from the applied statistical paired t test indicated that there was no significant difference between the performances of two passive samplers (R (2) > 0.90). Also, another statistical comparison was carried out between the dark and transparent glass passive samplers. The results from the dark-colour sampler were higher than that from the transparent sampler (approximately 25%) during the summer season because of the possible photodegradation of NO(2)-TEA complex.

  4. Sterilization of hydrogen peroxide resistant bacterial spores with stabilized chlorine dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedline, Anthony; Zachariah, Malcolm; Middaugh, Amy; Heiser, Matt; Khanna, Neeraj; Vaishampayan, Parag; Rice, Charles V

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 spores isolated from a clean room environment are known to exhibit enhanced resistance to peroxide, desiccation, UV radiation and chemical disinfection than other spore-forming bacteria. The survival of B. pumilus SAFR-032 spores to standard clean room sterilization practices requires development of more stringent disinfection agents. Here, we report the effects of a stabilized chlorine dioxide-based biocidal agent against spores of B. pumilus SAFR-032 and Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6051. Viability was determined via CFU measurement after exposure. Chlorine dioxide demonstrated efficacy towards sterilization of spores of B. pumilus SAFR-032 equivalent or better than exposure to hydrogen peroxide. These results indicate efficacy of chlorine dioxide delivered through a stabilized chlorine dioxide product as a means of sterilization of peroxide- and UV-resistant spores.

  5. Ranking current and prospective NO2 pollution mitigation strategies: An environmental and economic modelling investigation in Oxford Street, London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanjean, A P R; Gallagher, J; Monks, P S; Leigh, R J

    2017-06-01

    Air pollution continues to be a problem in the urban environment. A range of different pollutant mitigation strategies that promote dispersion and deposition exist, but there is little evidence with respect to their comparative performance from both an environmental and economic perspective. This paper focuses on examining different NO 2 mitigation strategies such as trees, buildings facades coated with photocatalytic paint and solid barriers in Oxford Street in London. The case study findings will support ranking the environmental and economic impacts of these different strategies to improve personal exposure conditions on the footpath and on the road in a real urban street canyon. CFD simulations of airflow and NO 2 dispersion in Oxford Street in London were undertaken using the OpenFOAM software platform with the k-ε model, taking into account local prevailing wind conditions. Trees are shown to be the most cost-effective strategy, with a small reduction in NO 2 concentrations of up to 0.7% on the road. However, solid barriers with and without the application of photocatalytic paint and an innovative material (20 times more expensive than trees) can improve air quality on the footpaths more substantially, up to 7.4%, yet this has a significant detrimental impact on NO 2 concentrations (≤23.8%) on the road. Photocatalytic paint on building surfaces presented a minimal environmental reductions (1.2%) and economic (>100 times more expensive than trees) mitigation strategy. The findings recognised the differences between footpath and road concentrations occurred and that a focused examination of three pollution hotspots can provide more cost effective pollution mitigation. This study considers how a number of pollutant mitigation measures can be applied in a single street canyon and demonstrates the strengths and weaknesses of these strategies from economic and environmental perspectives. Further research is required to extrapolate the findings presented here to

  6. Modified Graphene with SnO2 Nanocomposites Using Thermal Decomposition Method and Sensing Behavior Towards NO2 Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vikram

    2017-11-01

    This is the first time the graphene sample has been functionalized with metal oxide nanoparticles by thermal decomposition process. In this paper, graphene has been synthesized from natural resources using flower petals as carbon feedstock by thermal exfoliation technique at temperatures 1300 °C and the synthesis of graphene-tin oxide (SnO2) nanocomposites has been done using chemical treatment followed by thermal decomposition method. The response versus time condition has been investigated for the fabricated sample. The electrical resistance w.r.t. temperature could be explained by the thermal generation of electron-hole pairs and carrier scattering by acoustic phonons. The structural, morphological and chemical composition studies of the nanocomposites were carried out by the Raman spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The evidence of good-quality graphene is obtained from Raman spectroscopy studies. The SEM and HRTEM images have shown that SnO2 nanoparticles are well distributed in the multilayer electron transparent graphene films. The sensor response was found to lie between 8.25 and 9.36% at 500 ppm of nitrogen dioxide, and also resistance recovered quickly without any application of heat. We believe such chemical treatment of graphene could potentially be used to manufacture a new generation of low-power nano-NO2 sensors.

  7. CNG acid gas removal process. Technical progress report No. 2, 1 February-30 April 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, R.J.; Auyang, L.; Brown, W.R.; Cook, W.J.; Gardner, N.C.; Keyvani, M.; Liu, Y.C.

    1981-01-01

    During the second quarter of the CNG Acid Gas Removal Project, 4 subtasks were active. Within Subtask 1.1, melter design studies were performed to identify methods of improving melting rates in the CNG crystallizer. Greatly enhanced melting rates are thought possible with a melter configuration that excludes liquid carbon dioxide from the melting region and allows more intimate contact of the vapor and solid carbon dioxide. Also within Subtask 1.1, a review of triple-point desalination process literature was completed. Within Subtask 2.2, reconstruction and testing of the vapor-liquid solid equilibrium apparatus is nearly complete. Test operation with the carbon dioxide - ethylene binary system produced data in excellent agreement with published data for this system. The increased sample volume permitted minimum disturbance of the equilibrium states, and vapor-recirculation agitation permitted rapid attainment of equilibrium. Within Subtask 2.3, the original CNG crystallizer is being reactivated to measure separation factors for carbonyl sulfide and trace contaminants. Primary efforts to date have focused on reactivation of the crystallizer. However, a successful run with pure carbon dioxide was achieved late in April. Within Subtask 3.1, conceptual studies to assess treatment of low carbon dioxide crude gases focused on three processes: (1) a precompression process to boost the partial pressure of carbon dioxide; (2) a modified non-selective physical absorption process; and (3) a modified non-selective physical absorption process with solvent slurry. None of these three processes are as attractive as the modified physical absorption process incorporating the CNG crystallizer reported in the fist quarterly report. 12 references, 6 figures, 1 table.

  8. Long-Term Exposure to Primary Traffic Pollutants and Lung Function in Children: Cross-Sectional Study and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone-Adesi, Francesco; Dent, Jennifer E.; Dajnak, David; Beevers, Sean; Anderson, H Ross; Kelly, Frank J.; Cook, Derek G.; Whincup, Peter H.

    2015-01-01

    Background There is widespread concern about the possible health effects of traffic-related air pollution. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a convenient marker of primary pollution. We investigated the associations between lung function and current residential exposure to a range of air pollutants (particularly NO2, NO, NOx and particulate matter) in London children. Moreover, we placed the results for NO2 in context with a meta-analysis of published estimates of the association. Methods and Findings Associations between primary traffic pollutants and lung function were investigated in 4884 children aged 9–10 years who participated in the Child Heart and Health Study in England (CHASE). A systematic literature search identified 13 studies eligible for inclusion in a meta-analysis. We combined results from the meta-analysis with the distribution of the values of FEV1 in CHASE to estimate the prevalence of children with abnormal lung function (FEV1<80% of predicted value) expected under different scenarios of NO2 exposure. In CHASE, there were non-significant inverse associations between all pollutants except ozone and both FEV1 and FVC. In the meta-analysis, a 10 μg/m3 increase in NO2 was associated with an 8 ml lower FEV1 (95% CI: -14 to -1 ml; p: 0.016). The observed effect was not modified by a reported asthma diagnosis. On the basis of these results, a 10 μg/m3 increase in NO2 level would translate into a 7% (95% CI: 4% to 12%) increase of the prevalence of children with abnormal lung function. Conclusions Exposure to traffic pollution may cause a small overall reduction in lung function and increase the prevalence of children with clinically relevant declines in lung function. PMID:26619227

  9. High blood pressure and long-term exposure to indoor noise and air pollution from road traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foraster, Maria; Künzli, Nino; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Rivera, Marcela; Agis, David; Vila, Joan; Bouso, Laura; Deltell, Alexandre; Marrugat, Jaume; Ramos, Rafel; Sunyer, Jordi; Elosua, Roberto; Basagaña, Xavier

    2014-11-01

    Traffic noise has been associated with prevalence of hypertension, but reports are inconsistent for blood pressure (BP). To ascertain noise effects and to disentangle them from those suspected to be from traffic-related air pollution, it may be essential to estimate people's noise exposure indoors in bedrooms. We analyzed associations between long-term exposure to indoor traffic noise in bedrooms and prevalent hypertension and systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) BP, considering long-term exposure to outdoor nitrogen dioxide (NO2). We evaluated 1,926 cohort participants at baseline (years 2003-2006; Girona, Spain). Outdoor annual average levels of nighttime traffic noise (Lnight) and NO2 were estimated at postal addresses with a detailed traffic noise model and a land-use regression model, respectively. Individual indoor traffic Lnight levels were derived from outdoor Lnight with application of insulations provided by reported noise-reducing factors. We assessed associations for hypertension and BP with multi-exposure logistic and linear regression models, respectively. Median levels were 27.1 dB(A) (indoor Lnight), 56.7 dB(A) (outdoor Lnight), and 26.8 μg/m3 (NO2). Spearman correlations between outdoor and indoor Lnight with NO2 were 0.75 and 0.23, respectively. Indoor Lnight was associated both with hypertension (OR = 1.06; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.13) and SBP (β = 0.72; 95% CI: 0.29, 1.15) per 5 dB(A); and NO2 was associated with hypertension (OR = 1.16; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.36), SBP (β = 1.23; 95% CI: 0.21, 2.25), and DBP (β⊇= 0.56; 95% CI: -0.03, 1.14) per 10 μg/m3. In the outdoor noise model, Lnight was associated only with hypertension and NO2 with BP only. The indoor noise-SBP association was stronger and statistically significant with a threshold at 30 dB(A). Long-term exposure to indoor traffic noise was associated with prevalent hypertension and SBP, independently of NO2. Associations were less consistent for outdoor traffic Lnight and likely affected by

  10. Inhaled americium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    This project includes experiments to determine the effects of Zn-DTPA therapy on the retention, translocation and biological effects of inhaled 241 AmO 2 . Beagle dogs that received inhalation exposure to 241 AmO 2 developed leukopenia, clincial chemistry changes associated with hepatocellular damage, and were euthanized due to respiratory insufficiency caused by radiation pneumonitis 120 to 131 days after pulmonary deposition of 22 to 65 μCi 241 Am. Another group of dogs that received inhalation exposure to 241 AmO 2 and were treated daily with Zn-DTPA had initial pulmonary deposition of 19 to 26 μCi 241 Am. These dogs did not develop respiratory insufficiency, and hematologic and clinical chemistry changes were less severe than in the non-DTPA-treated dogs

  11. Novel Base Metal-Palladium Catalytic Diesel Filter Coating with NO2 Reducing Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, K.; Dahl, S.; Mogensen, G.

    2007-01-01

    A novel alternative base metal/palladium coat has been developed that has limited NO2 formation and which even removes NO2 in a wide temperature range.Soot combustion, HC conversion and CO conversion properties are comparable to current platinum based solutions but the coating has a more attracti...

  12. Observation of slant column NO2 using the super-zoom mode of AURA-OMI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valin, L.C.; Russell, A.R.; Bucsela, E.J.; Veefkind, J.P.; Cohen, R.C.

    2011-01-01

    We retrieve slant column NO2 from the superzoom mode of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) to explore its utility for understanding NOx emissions and variability. Slant column NO2 is operationally retrieved from OMI (Boersma et al., 2007; Bucsela et al., 2006) with a nadir footprint of 13×24 km2,

  13. NO2 gas sorption studies of Ge33Se67 films using quartz crystal microbalance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgieva, Velichka; Mitkova, Maria; Chen, Ping; Tenne, Dmitri; Wolf, Kasandra; Gadjanova, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    A study on the NO 2 gas sorption ability of amorphous Ge 33 Se 67 coated quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) is presented. The thin films have been characterized before and after sorption/desorption processes of NO 2 by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), grazing angle X-ray diffraction (GAXRD), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atom force microscopy (AFM) measurements. These studies indicated that physisorption occurs when NO 2 gas molecules are introduced into the chalcogenide film and the thin film composition or structure do not change. The mass loading due to NO 2 gas sorption was calculated by the resonator’s frequency shift. At the conditions of our experiment, up to 6.8 ng of the gas was sorbed into 200 nm thick Ge 33 Se 67 film at 5000 ppm NO 2 concentration. It has been established that the process of gas molecules sorption is reversible. Highlights: ► Ge 33 Se 67 thin film and quartz crystal microbalance for NO 2 gas sensing. ► Physisorption of NO 2 in Ge 33 Se 67 thin films. ► Reversibility of the NO 2 sorption in Ge 33 Se 67 thin films. ► Pure physical effect of gas sorption revealed by Raman, XPS, AFM. ► Large free volume of the thin films encountered through GAXRD.

  14. Gettering of carbon dioxide by erbium thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrhoff, T.K.

    1980-01-01

    The interaction of carbon dioxide and erbium thin films is characterized at 300 to 900 0 C and 5 x 10 -7 torr. Temperature ramp experiments with thin erbium films indicated a significant reaction above 300 0 C, preceded by desorption of water vapor, hydrogen and nitrogen and/or carbon monoxide from the film surface. The sticking coefficients were plotted as a function of Langmuirs of carbon dioxide exposure. Between 400 and 600 0 C, the length of the exposure was found to be more important than the temperature of the exposure in determining the sticking coefficient. Some evolution of carbon monoxide was noted particularly in the 400 to 500 0 C region. An 80% conversion of carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide was measured at 500 0 C. The film pumping speeds were compared with published vapor pressure data for erbium. This comparison indicated that a significant portion of the pumping action observed at temperatures of 800 0 C and above was due to evaporation of erbium metal

  15. Evaluation of a regional chemistry transport model using a newly developed regional OMI NO2 retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, G.; Lam, Y. F.; Cheung, H. M.; Hartl, A.; Fung, J. C. H.; Chan, P. W.; Wenig, M. O.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we evaluate a high-resolution chemistry transport model (CTM) (3 km x 3 km spatial resolution) with the new Hong Kong (HK) NO2 retrieval developed for the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on-board the Aura satellite. The three-dimensional atmospheric chemistry was modelled in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region in southern China by the Models-3 Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modelling system from October 2006 to January 2007. In the HK NO2 retrieval, tropospheric air mass factors (AMF) were recalculated using high-resolution ancillary parameters of surface reflectance, NO2 profile shapes and aerosol profiles of which the latter two were taken from the CMAQ simulation. We also tested four different aerosol parametrizations. Ground level measurements by the PRD Regional Air Quality Monitoring (RAQM) network were used as additional independent measurements. The HK NO2 retrieval increases the NO2 vertical column densities (VCD) by (+31 ± 38) %, when compared to NASA's standard product (SP2), and reduces the mean bias (MB) between satellite and ground measurements by 26 percentage points from -41 to -15 %. The correlation coefficient r is low for both satellite datasets (r = 0.35) due to the high spatial variability of NO2 concentrations. The correlation between CMAQ and the RAQM network is low (r ≈ 0.3) and the model underestimates the NO2 concentrations in the north-western model domain (Foshan and Guangzhou). We compared the CMAQ NO2 time series of the two main plumes with our regional OMI NO2 product. The model overestimates the NO2 VCDs by about 15 % in Hong Kong and Shenzhen, while the correlation coefficient is satisfactory (r = 0.56). In Foshan and Guangzhou, the correlation is low (r = 0.37) and the model underestimates the VCDs strongly (MB = -40 %). In addition, we estimated that the OMI VCDs are also underestimated by about 10 to 20 % in Foshan and Guangzhou because of the influence of the model parameters on the AMF. In this study

  16. Carbon Dioxide Physiological Training at NASA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Jennifer; Young, Millennia; Alexander, David; Mason, Sara S; Wear, Mary L; Méndez, Claudia M; Stanley, David; Ryder, Valerie Meyers; Van Baalen, Mary

    2017-10-01

    Astronauts undergo CO2 exposure training to recognize their symptoms that can arise acutely both on the ground and in spaceflight. This article describes acute CO2 exposure training at NASA and examines the symptoms reported by astronauts during training. In a controlled training environment, astronauts are exposed to up to 8% CO2 (60 mmHg) by a rebreathing apparatus. Symptoms are reported using a standard form. Symptom documentation forms between April 1994 and February 2012 were obtained for 130 astronauts. The number of symptoms reported per session out of the possible 24 was related to age and sex, with those older slightly more likely to report symptoms. Women reported more symptoms on average than men (men: 3.7, women: 4.7). Respiratory symptoms (90%), flushing sensation/sweating (56%), and dizziness/feeling faint/lightheadedness (43%) were the top symptoms. Only headache reached statistical significance in differences between men (13%) and women (37%) after adjustment for multiple testing. Among those with multiple training sessions, respiratory symptoms were the most consistently reported. CO2 exposure training is an important tool to educate astronauts about their potential acute CO2 symptoms. Wide interindividual and temporal variations were observed in symptoms reported during astronaut CO2 exposure training. Headache could not be relied on as a marker of acute exposure during testing since fewer than half the subjects reported it. Our results support periodic refresher training since symptoms may change over time. Further study is needed to determine the optimal interval of training to maximize symptom recognition and inform operational decisions.Law J, Young M, Alexander D, Mason SS, Wear ML, Méndez CM, Stanley D, Meyers Ryder V, Van Baalen M. Carbon dioxide physiological training at NASA. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(10):897-902.

  17. Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and mortality due to cardiovascular disease and cerebrovascular disease in Shenyang, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The relationship between ambient air pollution exposure and mortality of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in human is controversial, and there is little information about how exposures to ambient air pollution contribution to the mortality of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases among Chinese. The aim of the present study was to examine whether exposure to ambient-air pollution increases the risk for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study among humans to examine the association between compound-air pollutants [particulate matter <10 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM(10, sulfur dioxide (SO(2 and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2] and mortality in Shenyang, China, using 12 years of data (1998-2009. Also, stratified analysis by sex, age, education, and income was conducted for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular mortality. The results showed that an increase of 10 µg/m(3 in a year average concentration of PM(10 corresponds to 55% increase in the risk of a death cardiovascular disease (hazard ratio [HR], 1.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.51 to 1.60 and 49% increase in cerebrovascular disease (HR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.45 to 1.53, respectively. The corresponding figures of adjusted HR (95%CI for a 10 µg/m(3 increase in NO(2 was 2.46 (2.31 to 2.63 for cardiovascular mortality and 2.44 (2.27 to 2.62 for cerebrovascular mortality, respectively. The effects of air pollution were more evident in female that in male, and nonsmokers and residents with BMI<18.5 were more vulnerable to outdoor air pollution. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution is associated with the death of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases among Chinese populations.

  18. Nocturnal uptake and assimilation of nitrogen dioxide by C3 and CAM plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Misa; Konaka, Daisuke; Sakamoto, Atsushi; Morikawa, Hiromichi

    2005-01-01

    In order to investigate nocturnal uptake and assimilation of NO2 by C3 and crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants, they were fumigated with 4 microl l(-1) 15N-labeled nitrogen dioxide (NO2) for 8 h. The amount of NO2 and assimilation of NO2 by plants were determined by mass spectrometry and Kjeldahl-nitrogen based mass spectrometry, respectively. C3 plants such as kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and ground cherry (Physalis alkekengi) showed a high uptake and assimilation during daytime as high as 1100 to 2700 ng N mg(-1) dry weight. While tobacco and ground cherry strongly reduced uptake and assimilation of NO2 during nighttime, kenaf kept high nocturnal uptake and assimilation of NO2 as high as about 1500 ng N mg(-1) dry weight. Stomatal conductance measurements indicated that there were no significant differences to account for the differences in the uptake of NO2 by tobacco and kenaf during nighttime. CAM plants such as Sedum sp., Kalanchoe blossfeldiana (kalanchoe) and Aloe arborescens exhibited nocturnal uptake and assimilation of NO2. However, the values of uptake and assimilation of NO2 both during daytime and nighttime was very low (at most about 500 ng N mg(-1) dry weight) as compared with those of above mentioned C3 plants. The present findings indicate that kenaf is an efficient phytoremediator of NO2 both during daytime and nighttime.

  19. A high-resolution and observationally constrained OMI NO2 satellite retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Daniel L.; Lamsal, Lok N.; Loughner, Christopher P.; Swartz, William H.; Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David G.

    2017-09-01

    This work presents a new high-resolution NO2 dataset derived from the NASA Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) NO2 version 3.0 retrieval that can be used to estimate surface-level concentrations. The standard NASA product uses NO2 vertical profile shape factors from a 1.25° × 1° (˜ 110 km × 110 km) resolution Global Model Initiative (GMI) model simulation to calculate air mass factors, a critical value used to determine observed tropospheric NO2 vertical columns. To better estimate vertical profile shape factors, we use a high-resolution (1.33 km × 1.33 km) Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model simulation constrained by in situ aircraft observations to recalculate tropospheric air mass factors and tropospheric NO2 vertical columns during summertime in the eastern US. In this new product, OMI NO2 tropospheric columns increase by up to 160 % in city centers and decrease by 20-50 % in the rural areas outside of urban areas when compared to the operational NASA product. Our new product shows much better agreement with the Pandora NO2 and Airborne Compact Atmospheric Mapper (ACAM) NO2 spectrometer measurements acquired during the DISCOVER-AQ Maryland field campaign. Furthermore, the correlation between our satellite product and EPA NO2 monitors in urban areas has improved dramatically: r2 = 0.60 in the new product vs. r2 = 0.39 in the operational product, signifying that this new product is a better indicator of surface concentrations than the operational product. Our work emphasizes the need to use both high-resolution and high-fidelity models in order to recalculate satellite data in areas with large spatial heterogeneities in NOx emissions. Although the current work is focused on the eastern US, the methodology developed in this work can be applied to other world regions to produce high-quality region-specific NO2 satellite retrievals.

  20. [Individual exposure to air pollution in urban areas: the example of Marseille].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, Frédérique; Viala, Alain

    2007-01-01

    We examined the exposure of an urban population to the following air pollutants, in the home and outdoors: nitrogen dioxide, benzene and its derivative BTXE, carbon monoxide, ozone, aldehydes and particulate matter (PM)2,5. Measurements were made continuously during 48-hour periods in summer and in winter, in non-smoking volunteers, using passive and active samplers and appropriate analytical methods. NO2 concentrations were relatively low (lower in summer than in winter). Individual overall exposure correlated strongly with levels in the home. Benzene levels were high both outdoors and in the home, and were higher in winter than in summer; 47% of the volunteers were exposed to mean values up to 5 microg x m(-3) (annual mean value outdoors). Benzene derivative levels were also higher in winter than in summer. Personal exposure to CO was low and related to determinants such as trafic and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Mean concentrations of O3 were low in winter and higher in summer, owing to higher outdoor photochemical pollution. The most abundant aldehydes were formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein ; personal exposure was low. Overall personal exposure to formaldehyde correlated with concentrations in the home. PM2,5 reached high levels in the home in winter and outdoors in summer.

  1. Effects of working posture and exposure to traffic pollutants on sperm quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggia, B; Carbone, U; Farinaro, E; Zarrilli, S; Lombardi, G; Colao, A; De Rosa, N; De Rosa, M

    2009-05-01

    An increasing difficulty of couples in achieving pregnancy related to male infertility has been reported. Several factors have been implicated as possible causes of this decrease, including the exposure to the endocrine disruptors and the environmental toxicants, the changes in lifestyle and the exposure to heat. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of working posture when associated to nitrogen oxides exposure. Three hundred and seven male workers, employed in a motorway company, were enrolled into the study, underwent a complete physical examination and laboratory evaluations, endocrine screening and sperm analysis. Taking into account the exposure to fuel combustion gases and the working posture, sitting or free, the study population was divided in 4 groups. In the subjects occupationally exposed to NO2, a significant lower sperm total motility was observed than in not exposed workers. In the workers with obliged sitting working posture, lower sperm motility was also observed than in the workers with free working posture. Differences in sperm quality were strong when chemical and postural risk factors were associated. The findings of this study confirmed detrimental effects of nitrogen dioxide as a marker of traffic pollutants, showing alterations of sperm quality even if the environmental concentration of gas is very low according to the limits established by the Italian legislation. They suggest, also, the possible interaction between chemical exposure and obliged sitting position.

  2. Satellite-Based Tropospheric NO2 Column Trends in the Last 10 Years Over Mexican Urban Areas Measured by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, C. I.; Stremme, W.; Grutter, M.

    2015-12-01

    Population density and economic activities in urban agglomerations have drastically increased in many cities in Mexico during the last decade. Several factors are responsible for increased urbanization such as a shift of people from rural to urban areas while looking for better education, services and job opportunities as well as the natural growth of the urban areas themselves. Urbanization can create great social, economic and environmental pressures and changes which can easily be observed in most urban agglomerations in the world. In this study, we have focused on analyzing tropospheric NO2 (nitrogen dioxide) column trends over Mexican urban areas that have a population of at least one million inhabitants according to the latest 2010 population census. Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) measurements of NO2 conducted by the space-borne Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on board the Aura satellite between 2005 and 2014 have been used for this analysis. This dataset has allowed us to obtain a satellite-based 10-year tropospheric NO2 column trend over the most populated Mexican cities which include the dominating metropolitan area of Mexico City with more than twenty million inhabitants as well as ten other Mexican cities with a population ranging between one to five million inhabitants with a wide range of activities (commercial, agricultural or heavily industrialized) as well as two important border crossings. Distribution maps of tropospheric NO2 columns above the studied urban agglomerations were reconstructed from the analyzed OMI dataset, allowing to identify areas of interest due to clear NO2 enhancements inside these urban regions.

  3. Intercomparison of four airborne imaging DOAS systems for tropospheric NO2 mapping - First results of the AROMAPEX campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tack, Frederik; Merlaud, Alexis; Meier, Andreas; Ge, Xinrui; Meuleman, Koen; Ruhtz, Thomas; van der Wal, Len; Van Roozendael, Michel; Iordache, Daniel; Schönhardt, Anja; Richter, Andreas; Vlemmix, Tim; de Goeij, Bryan; Ardelean, Magdalena; Boscornea, Andreea; Constantin, Daniel; Shaifangar, Reza; Wagner, Thomas; Lampel, Johannes; Schuettemeyer, Dirk

    2017-04-01

    The AROMAPEX campaign took place in Berlin in April, 2016, co-funded by the EU (EUFAR) and ESA, with the primary objective to intercompare experimental airborne atmospheric imagers dedicated to the mapping of the spatial distribution of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2). AROMAPEX is also a preparatory step for forthcoming intercomparison/validation campaigns of satellite air quality sensors, such as TROPOMI (TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument). The instruments were operated from two planes, performing synchronized flights: APEX (VITO/BIRA-IASB) was operated from DLR's DO-228 D-CFFU plane at 6.1 km altitude while AirMAP (IUP Bremen), and the small, lightweight SWING (BIRA-IASB) and Spectrolite (TNO/TU Delft) instruments were operated from the FUB Cessna 207T D-EAFU at 3 km. Two synchronized flights took place on 21 April, 2016, the only cloud-free day during the campaign, in the morning from 09:34 to 12:01 LT and in the afternoon from 14:24 to 16:39 LT. APEX, AirMAP and SWING have a comparable swath width of 3 km, while Spectrolite has a swath of 450 m due to the fact that the field-of-view had to be reduced from 40° to 8.3° for practical reasons. The spatial resolution is approximately 100 m after spatial aggregation for APEX, AirMAP and Spectrolite (pushbroom scanning), and 300 m for SWING (whiskbroom scanning). The airborne Sunphotometer FUBISS-ASA2 was installed and operated during the ascent and descent of the FUB aircraft to derive aerosol optical depth (AOD). During the overpass of the imagers, simultaneous car mobile-DOAS observations were performed with three systems covering transects from north to south and west to east. The ground-based instrumental set-up was completed by a DOAS instrument, an Aeronet station and a ceilometer installed at the rooftop of FUB, located in the southwest of Berlin. The AROMAPEX experiment builds on the experience gained during the AROMAT campaigns held in September, 2014 and August, 2015 in Romania, and the BUMBA

  4. NO2 intercomparison at the Euphore simulation chambers during the Fiona campaign

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ródenas, M.; Muñoz, A.; Vázquez, M.; Clemente, E.; Mikuška, Pavel; Večeřa, Zbyněk; Venables, D.; Chen, J.; Daniels, M.; Ball, S.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 13, - (2011) ISSN 1607-7962. [European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2011. 03.04.2011-08.04.2011, Vienna] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : nitrogen dioxide * nitrous acid * interferences Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  5. Interferences in photolytic NO2 measurements: explanation for an apparent missing oxidant?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Reed

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of NO2 at low concentrations (tens of ppts is non-trivial. A variety of techniques exist, with the conversion of NO2 into NO followed by chemiluminescent detection of NO being prevalent. Historically this conversion has used a catalytic approach (molybdenum; however, this has been plagued with interferences. More recently, photolytic conversion based on UV-LED irradiation of a reaction cell has been used. Although this appears to be robust there have been a range of observations in low-NOx environments which have measured higher NO2 concentrations than might be expected from steady-state analysis of simultaneously measured NO, O3, jNO2, etc. A range of explanations exist in the literature, most of which focus on an unknown and unmeasured “compound X” that is able to convert NO to NO2 selectively. Here we explore in the laboratory the interference on the photolytic NO2 measurements from the thermal decomposition of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN within the photolysis cell. We find that approximately 5 % of the PAN decomposes within the instrument, providing a potentially significant interference. We parameterize the decomposition in terms of the temperature of the light source, the ambient temperature, and a mixing timescale ( ∼ 0.4 s for our instrument and expand the parametric analysis to other atmospheric compounds that decompose readily to NO2 (HO2NO2, N2O5, CH3O2NO2, IONO2, BrONO2, higher PANs. We apply these parameters to the output of a global atmospheric model (GEOS-Chem to investigate the global impact of this interference on (1 the NO2 measurements and (2 the NO2 : NO ratio, i.e. the Leighton relationship. We find that there are significant interferences in cold regions with low NOx concentrations such as the Antarctic, the remote Southern Hemisphere, and the upper troposphere. Although this interference is likely instrument-specific, the thermal decomposition to NO2 within the instrument's photolysis

  6. Maternal exposure to air pollution before and during pregnancy related to changes in newborn's cord blood lymphocyte subpopulations. The EDEN study cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baïz Nour

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxicants can cross the placenta and expose the developing fetus to chemical contamination leading to possible adverse health effects, by potentially inducing alterations in immune competence. Our aim was to investigate the impacts of maternal exposure to air pollution before and during pregnancy on newborn's immune system. Methods Exposure to background particulate matter less than 10 μm in diameter (PM10 and nitrogen dioxide (NO2 was assessed in 370 women three months before and during pregnancy using monitoring stations. Personal exposure to four volatile organic compounds (VOCs was measured in a subsample of 56 non-smoking women with a diffusive air sampler during the second trimester of pregnancy. Cord blood was analyzed at birth by multi-parameter flow cytometry to determine lymphocyte subsets. Results Among other immunophenotypic changes in cord blood, decreases in the CD4+CD25+ T-cell percentage of 0.82% (p = 0.01, 0.71% (p = 0.04, 0.88% (p = 0.02, and 0.59% (p = 0.04 for a 10 μg/m3 increase in PM10 levels three months before and during the first, second and third trimester of pregnancy, respectively, were observed after adjusting for confounders. A similar decrease in CD4+CD25+ T-cell percentage was observed in association with personal exposure to benzene. A similar trend was observed between NO2 exposure and CD4+CD25+ T-cell percentage; however the association was stronger between NO2 exposure and an increased percentage of CD8+ T-cells. Conclusions These data suggest that maternal exposure to air pollution before and during pregnancy may alter the immune competence in offspring thus increasing the child's risk of developing health conditions later in life, including asthma and allergies.

  7. Solvothermally synthesized tungsten oxide nanowires/nanorods for NO2 gas sensor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Yuxiang; Li Xiao; Wang Fei; Hu Ming

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Tungsten oxide nanowires and nanorods were solvothermally synthesized by changing reaction solvent. → The sensing characteristics of the tungsten oxide nanowires and nanorods sensors to NO 2 gas were evaluated in detail. → The response time and recovery time for the nanowires or nanorods sensors are much shorter than the oxide nanoparticles or sputtered films. → The nanowires sensor shows a much shorter response time and a relative higher response value to NO 2 gas than the nanorods one. → The NO 2 -sensing mechanism and the possible reason for the better gas sensing properties of the nanowires are analyzed. - Abstract: One-dimensional nanorods or nanowires of W 18 O 49 were synthesized by solvothermal method at 200 deg. C with tungsten hexachloride (WCl 6 ) as precursor and cyclohexanol or 1-propanol as reaction solvent. Their morphology and structure properties were systematically characterized. The NO 2 -sensing properties of the sensors based on nanowires and nanorods were investigated at 100 deg. C up to 250 deg. C over NO 2 concentration ranging from 1 ppm to 20 ppm. The results indicate that both nanowires and nanorods exhibit reversible response to different concentrations of NO 2 , and the highest gas response is achieved at 150 deg. C. In comparison with nanorods, nanowires showed a much quicker response characteristic and a relative higher response value to the same concentration of NO 2 gas due to the smaller diameter and larger specific surface area.

  8. First-principles investigation on defect-induced silicene nanoribbons - A superior media for sensing NH3, NO2 and NO gas molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walia, Gurleen Kaur; Randhawa, Deep Kamal Kaur

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, the electronic and transport properties of armchair silicene nanoribbons (ASiNRs) are analyzed for their application as highly selective and sensitive gas molecule sensors. The study is focused on sensing three nitrogen based gases; ammonia (NH3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and nitric oxide (NO), which depending upon their adsorption energy and charge transfer, form bonds of varying strength with ASiNRs. The negligible band gap of ASiNRs is tuned by adding a defect in ASiNRs. Adsorption of NH3 leads to the opening of band gap whereas on adsorption of NO2 and NO, ASiNRs exhibit metallic nature. Distinctly divergent electronic and transport properties of ASiNRs are observed and on adsorption of NH3, NO2 and NO, renders them suitable for sensing them. All gas molecules show stronger adsorption on defective ASiNRs (D-ASiNRs) as compared to pristine ASiNRs (P-ASiNRs). The work reveals that introduction of defect can drastically improve the sensitivity of ASiNRs.

  9. Re-evaluating the NO 2 hotspot over the South African Highveld

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra S.M. Lourens

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Globally, numerous pollution hotspots have been identified using satellite-based instruments. One of these hotspots is the prominent NO2hotspot over the South African Highveld. The tropospheric NO2column density of this area is comparable to that observed for central and northern Europe, eastern North America and south-east Asia. The most well-known pollution source in this area is a large array of coal-fired power stations. Upon closer inspection, long-term means of satellite observations also show a smaller area, approximately 100 km west of the Highveld hotspot, with a seemingly less substantial NO2column density. This area correlates with the geographical location of the Johannesburg–Pretoria conurbation or megacity, one of the 40 largest metropolitan areas in the world. Ground-based measurements indicate that NO2concentrations in the megacity have diurnal peaks in the early morning and late afternoon, which coincide with peak traffic hours and domestic combustion. During these times, NO2concentrations in the megacity are higher than those in the Highveld hotspot. These diurnal NO2 peaks in the megacity have generally been overlooked by satellite observations because the satellites have fixed local overpass times that do not coincide with these peak periods. Consequently, the importance of NO2 over the megacity has been underestimated. We examined the diurnal cycles of NO2 ground-based measurements for the two areas – the megacity and the Highveld hotspot – and compared them with the satellite-based NO2 observations. Results show that the Highveld hotspot is accompanied by a second hotspot over the megacity, which is of significance for the more than 10 million people living in this megacity.

  10. Association between prenatal exposure to traffic-related air pollution and preterm birth in the PELAGIE mother-child cohort, Brittany, France. Does the urban-rural context matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, Mélanie; Chevrier, Cécile; Serrano, Tania; Monfort, Christine; Rouget, Florence; Cordier, Sylvaine; Viel, Jean-François

    2015-10-01

    Evidence has accumulated that exposure to ambient air pollution during pregnancy may influence preterm birth (PTB) in urban settings. Conversely, this relation has barely been investigated in rural areas where individual characteristics (demographic, socioeconomic, and psychosocial factors) and environmental co-exposures may differ. We examined the association between prenatal exposure to traffic-related air pollution and PTB among pregnant women from the PELAGIE mother-child cohort (Brittany, France, 2002-2006) living in urban (n=1550) and rural (n=959) settings. Women's residences were classified as either urban or rural according to the French census bureau rural-urban definitions. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations at home addresses were estimated from adjusted land-use regression models as a marker of traffic-related pollution. Associations between NO2 concentrations and PTB were assessed with logistic regression models. Prevalence of PTB was similar among women living in urban (3.2%) and in rural (3.5%) settings. More positive socioeconomic characteristics and health behaviors but more single-parent families were observed among urban women. NO2 exposure averaged 20.8±6.6 µg m(-3) for women residing in urban areas and 18.8±5.6 µg m(-3) for their rural counterparts. A statistically significant increased risk of PTB was observed among women exposed to NO2 concentrations ≥16.4 µg m(-3) and residing in urban areas but not among their rural counterparts. The results of this study, conducted in a region with interspersed urban-rural areas, are in line with previous findings suggesting an increased risk of PTB associated with higher NO2 concentrations for women living in urban areas. The absence of association among their rural counterparts for whom exposure levels were similar suggests that environmental mixtures and psychosocial inequalities might play a role in this heterogeneity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Chopin: Concerto for piano and orchestra No. 2 in F minor / Christopher Headington

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Headington, Christopher

    1992-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Chopin: Concerto for piano and orchestra No. 2 in F minor, Op. 21; Schumann: Concerto for piano and orchestra in A minor Op. 54. Philharmonia Orchestra, Neeme Järvi". Chandos CHAN9061 (62 minutes:DDD)

  12. TES/Aura L2 NO2 Limb Special Observation V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TES Aura L2 NO2 data consist of information for one molecular species for an entire Global Survey or Special Observation. TES Level 2 data contain retrieved...

  13. On the use of Satellite Remote Sensing and GIS to detect NO2 in the Troposphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Zebitz

    2012-01-01

    This thesis studies the spatio-temporal patterns and trends in NO2 air pollution over Denmark using the satellite remote sensing product OMNO2e retrieved from the OMI instrument on the NASA AURA satellite. These data are related to in situ measurements of NO2 made at four rural and four urban...... are conducted, and it is shown that plumes from major Danish source areas can be detected in all wind directions, and that pollution transported from Europe is seen when the wind has a southern component. Examples of day to day tracking of transport of NO2 are also given to explain two pollution episodes...... measured in Denmark. Trends in the data are assessed and declining trends are seen over several European cities, whereas no significant trends are found in the Danish area. The mean distribution of NO2 from the satellite data is also used to evaluate the NOx emission inventory....

  14. Comparison of NO2 and HCHO Vertical Columns Over Mexico City from Ground and Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda Lerma, Z.; Grutter, M.; Stremme, W.; Rivera, C.; Friedrich, M. M.; Bezanilla Morlot, A.

    2017-12-01

    Here we present the analysis of spectra measured by the MAX-DOAS (Multi Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) instruments, wich form part of a monitoring network located in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). The spectra are processed using the MMF (Mexican Maxdoas Fit) retrieval code which is based on least square fitting and uses optimal estimation and Tikhonov regularization for trace gas and aerosol retrieval, respectively. The retrieved vertical columns densities of NO2 and the methodology used for the statistical calculation of the errors are presented. We compare the NO2 vertical columns densities from the MAX-DOAS measurements with the tropospheric vertical columns from the OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) satellite sensor, using both the DOMINO (Dutch OMI NO2) and the Standard Products V003. The variability observed in the time series of NO2 and HCHO are anlyzed in terms of known patterns of the emission sources, photochemistry and seasonality.

  15. Measurement and distribution of nitrogen dioxide in urban environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, C.

    1999-06-01

    In this study (i) the accuracy of NO 2 diffusion tube measurement and (ii) micro-scale variations in urban NO 2 formation are shown to be strongly influenced by prevailing O 3 concentrations, modified by site and season. The first part of the thesis is an evaluation of NO 2 diffusion tubes for ambient measurement. A review of previous studies highlights uncertainties in sampler behaviour which are followed up by laboratory and field investigations. In the laboratory, the stability of triethanolamine absorbent for NO 2 collection is not impaired by low temperatures (down to -10 deg C) or by long-term exposure (up to 42 days). Extensive field trials at a site in Cambridge compare NO 2 measurements by diffusion tubes to the alternative chemiluminescence technique to determine (i) precision and accuracy, (ii) effects of exposure length and (iii) origin of a systematic positive bias. A 22-month study confirms a positive bias in NO 2 measurement, for 2-week exposures, of 16%. The bias increases to 24% for concurrent 1-week exposures and decreases to 6% for 4-week exposures. These results indicate the presence of two opposing systematic biases, a time-independent overestimation and a time-dependent reduction in NO 2 . The nature of the overestimation is investigated further using sets of acrylic and quartz samplers, of a range of lengths, at three different urban locations. Results strongly support a chemical overestimation, due to absorption of UV radiation by the acrylic tube walls preventing NO 2 photolysis within the tube. Excess NO 2 , formed from the fast reaction of NO and O 3 , accumulates at the absorbent. Furthermore, for standard length samplers, no evidence is found for enhancement of NO 2 by wind-driven turbulence at the mouth of the tube. The magnitude of the overestimation varies both within and between different locations because of short-term variability in NO, NO 2 and O 3 concentrations. NO 2 measurements by diffusion tubes cannot readily be corrected

  16. Determination of the NO2 concentration and its distribution with different DOAS techniques - a study in the metropolitan area of Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horbanski, M.; Chan, K. L.; Pöhler, D.; Wenig, M. O.; Platt, U.

    2012-04-01

    In Hong Kong, like in other urban areas, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emissions still remain one of the most problematic pollutions. Even though a lot of effort has already been made towards their reduction, concentrations are often much above the recommended limits. Therefore, the Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department continuously monitors the NO2 concentration levels. These stations only give in-situ information at a few fixed locations, which are unable to capture the strong spatial gradients that are present in urban areas. These gradients are mainly caused by differences in automobile traffic, the population densities and industries that are found in the individual city areas. The gradients are further enhanced by street canyon effects. Hence, it can be assumed that there are areas with much higher pollution compared to the values at the official measuring sites. At present the uncertainties about the spatial NO2 distribution place a limitation on the assessment of health risks and on the quality of chemical model calculations. We applied a new Cavity Enhanced (CE-) DOAS instrument to car based measurements in the city of Hong Kong for eight days in December 2010. Measurements on mobile platforms like cars give the opportunity to create a map of the NO2 for a whole city area with high spatial resolution. The CE-DOAS instrument is distinguished by its compact and robust setup. It directly measures NO2 by its optical absorption and therefore it does not have interferences with other trace gas species like O3 or NOy. This is a great advantage over other NO2 instruments (e.g. solid state detectors or chemiluminescence instruments which have such known problems). For our measurements a van travels along carefully selected tracks to give a representative coverage of the area of interest. The mobile measurements are corrected for the varying meteorological conditions and traffic variations during the different measurements by comparing them to a fixed measurement

  17. Maternal exposure to ambient air pollution and fetal growth in North-East Scotland: A population-based study using routine ultrasound scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Tom; Turner, Steve; Dibben, Chris

    2017-10-01

    Maternal ambient air pollution exposure is associated with reduced birthweight. Few studies have examined the effect on growth in utero and none have examined the effect of exposure to particulates less than 2.5µm (PM 2.5 ) and possible effect modification by smoking status. Examine the effect of maternal exposure to ambient concentrations of PM 10 , PM 2.5 and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) for in utero fetal growth, size at birth and effect modification by smoking status. Administratively acquired second and third trimester fetal measurements (bi-parietal diameter, femur length and abdominal circumference), birth outcomes (weight, crown heel length and occipito-frontal circumference) and maternal details were obtained from routine fetal ultrasound scans and maternity records (period 1994-2009). These were modelled against residential annual pollution concentrations (calendar year mean) adjusting for covariates and stratifying by smoking status. In the whole sample (n=13,775 pregnancies), exposure to PM 10 , PM 2.5 and NO 2 was associated with reductions in measurements at birth and biparietal diameter from late second trimester onwards. Among mothers who did not smoke at all during pregnancy (n=11,075), associations between biparietal diameter and pollution exposure remained significant but were insignificant among those who did smoke (n=2700). Femur length and abdominal circumference were not significantly associated with pollution exposure. Fetal growth is strongly associated with particulates exposure from later in second trimester onwards but the effect appears to be subsumed by smoking. Typical ambient exposures in this study were relatively low compared to other studies and given these results, it may be necessary to consider reducing recommended "safe" ambient air exposures. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Two Catacombs of Late Sarmatian Time From Pashkovsky Burial Mound no. 2

    OpenAIRE

    Limberis Natalya Yuryevna; Marchenko Ivan Ivanovich

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with two burials from the Kuban basin region excavated in Pashkovsky burial mound no. 2 belonging to Maeotian Pashkovskoe ancient settlement. The burials were made in catacombs of similar construction and orientation. The narrow grave entrances and grave chambers are situated in-line. The grave chambers of the catacombs adjoin one other that probably was the reason for plunder of a little earlier burial no. 2. There were the complete horse skeleton, the cow skull and the she...

  19. In optics humidity compensation in NDIR exhaust gas measurements of NO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolberg-Rohr, Thomine Kirstine; Buchner, Rainer; Clausen, Sønnik

    2015-01-01

    NDIR is proposed for monitoring of air pollutants emitted by ship engines. Careful optical filtering overcomes the challenge of optical detection of NO2 in humid exhaust gas, despite spectroscopic overlap with the water vapour band. © 2014 OSA.......NDIR is proposed for monitoring of air pollutants emitted by ship engines. Careful optical filtering overcomes the challenge of optical detection of NO2 in humid exhaust gas, despite spectroscopic overlap with the water vapour band. © 2014 OSA....

  20. Validation of NO2 and NO from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schneider

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Vertical profiles of NO2 and NO have been obtained from solar occultation measurements by the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE, using an infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS and (for NO2 an ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared spectrometer, MAESTRO (Measurement of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere Retrieved by Occultation. In this paper, the quality of the ACE-FTS version 2.2 NO2 and NO and the MAESTRO version 1.2 NO2 data are assessed using other solar occultation measurements (HALOE, SAGE II, SAGE III, POAM III, SCIAMACHY, stellar occultation measurements (GOMOS, limb measurements (MIPAS, OSIRIS, nadir measurements (SCIAMACHY, balloon-borne measurements (SPIRALE, SAOZ and ground-based measurements (UV-VIS, FTIR. Time differences between the comparison measurements were reduced using either a tight coincidence criterion, or where possible, chemical box models. ACE-FTS NO2 and NO and the MAESTRO NO2 are generally consistent with the correlative data. The ACE-FTS and MAESTRO NO2 volume mixing ratio (VMR profiles agree with the profiles from other satellite data sets to within about 20% between 25 and 40 km, with the exception of MIPAS ESA (for ACE-FTS and SAGE II (for ACE-FTS (sunrise and MAESTRO and suggest a negative bias between 23 and 40 km of about 10%. MAESTRO reports larger VMR values than the ACE-FTS. In comparisons with HALOE, ACE-FTS NO VMRs typically (on average agree to ±8% from 22 to 64 km and to +10% from 93 to 105 km, with maxima of 21% and 36%, respectively. Partial column comparisons for NO2 show that there is quite good agreement between the ACE instruments and the FTIRs, with a mean difference of +7.3% for ACE-FTS and +12.8% for MAESTRO.

  1. Alteration in reactor installation (reactor facility) in the Tokai No.2 Power Station of the Japan Atomic Power Company (report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    A report to the Ministry of International Trade and Industry by the Nuclear Safety Commission, concerning the alteration of reactor facility in Tokai No.2 Power Station, JAPC, was presented; the technical capability and the safety after the alteration were confirmed by NSC. The alteration was the employment of new type 8x8 fuel as the replacement fuel and of average enrichment of about 2.9 wt.% from the previous 2.7 wt.% for the replacement fuel assemblies. The safety examination made by the Committee on Examination of Reactor Safety of NSC is described: meteorology, the safety design of reactor facility, exposure dose evaluation in normal operation, abnormal transient analysis in operation, accident analysis, and the credible accident analysis for site evaluation. (Mori, K.)

  2. Dye-assisted dispersion of single-walled carbon nanotubes for solution fabrication of NO2 sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Ramli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Direct golden orange dye molecules were used as a dispersing agent to produce suspensions of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs in water. Uniform, thin film networks were fabricated by vacuum filtration using different concentrations of SWCNT and transferred subsequently to glass substrates. The dispersion efficiency was compared to other surfactants. Measurement of the sheet resistance as a function of SWCNT concentration showed a transition from 2D percolation to 3D conduction behaviour when the concentration of SWCNTs exceeded 0.001 mg/mL. The electrical response to NO2 gas exposure was investigated as a function of temperature and an optimum response was observed at 200°C.

  3. Evaluation of the United States National Air Quality Forecast Capability experimental real-time predictions in 2010 using Air Quality System ozone and NO2 measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Chai

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The National Air Quality Forecast Capability (NAQFC project provides the US with operational and experimental real-time ozone predictions using two different versions of the three-dimensional Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ modeling system. Routine evaluation using near-real-time AIRNow ozone measurements through 2011 showed better performance of the operational ozone predictions. In this work, quality-controlled and -assured Air Quality System (AQS ozone and nitrogen dioxide (NO2 observations are used to evaluate the experimental predictions in 2010. It is found that both ozone and NO2 are overestimated over the contiguous US (CONUS, with annual biases of +5.6 and +5.1 ppbv, respectively. The annual root mean square errors (RMSEs are 15.4 ppbv for ozone and 13.4 ppbv for NO2. For both species the overpredictions are most pronounced in the summer. The locations of the AQS monitoring sites are also utilized to stratify comparisons by the degree of urbanization. Comparisons for six predefined US regions show the highest annual biases for ozone predictions in Southeast (+10.5 ppbv and for NO2 in the Lower Middle (+8.1 ppbv and Pacific Coast (+7.1 ppbv regions. The spatial distributions of the NO2 biases in August show distinctively high values in the Los Angeles, Houston, and New Orleans areas. In addition to the standard statistics metrics, daily maximum eight-hour ozone categorical statistics are calculated using the current US ambient air quality standard (75 ppbv and another lower threshold (70 ppbv. Using the 75 ppbv standard, the hit rate and proportion of correct over CONUS for the entire year are 0.64 and 0.96, respectively. Summertime biases show distinctive weekly patterns for ozone and NO2. Diurnal comparisons show that ozone overestimation is most severe in the morning, from 07:00 to 10:00 local time. For NO2, the morning predictions agree with the AQS observations reasonably well, but nighttime concentrations are overpredicted

  4. Measurements of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) and NO2 at the South Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeon, J.; Song, D.; Lee, J. S.; Rhee, T. S.; Park, K.; Lee, G.

    2014-12-01

    We measured peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) and NO2 in remote marine boundary area during the SHIPPO (Shipborne Pole to Pole Observation). The measurements were made on the R/V Araon from Christ church, New Zealand to Gwangyang, South Korea along the western Pacific Ocean from March 30th to April 25th, 2014. Both PAN and NO2 were analyzed every 2 minute by a fast chromatograph with luminol-based chemiluminescence detection. In order to improve their detection limits, random noise from PMT has been successfully reduced by ensembled chromatograms with every 30 samples. Additionally, we replaced Nylon membrane surface with reflective aluminum surface and applied the new Luminol solution, which enhanced the signals significantly with detection limits of 6 pptv and 40 ppbv for PAN and NO2, respectively. Average concentrations of PAN and NO2 were 8 pptv for PAN and 80 pptv for NO2 during the experiment. The back trajectory analysis showed that the directly influenced air masses from anthropogenic activities were rare except the latitudes higher than 20°N. Relatively good correlations between PAN and NO2 were consistently observed, while PAN and O3 were not clearly correlated except in the air masses recently originated from land masses.

  5. A New Retrieval Algorithm for OMI NO2: Tropospheric Results and Comparisons with Measurements and Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, W. H.; Bucesla, E. J.; Lamsal, L. N.; Celarier, E. A.; Krotkov, N. A.; Bhartia, P, K,; Strahan, S. E.; Gleason, J. F.; Herman, J.; Pickering, K.

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx =NO+NO2) are important atmospheric trace constituents that impact tropospheric air pollution chemistry and air quality. We have developed a new NASA algorithm for the retrieval of stratospheric and tropospheric NO2 vertical column densities using measurements from the nadir-viewing Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on NASA's Aura satellite. The new products rely on an improved approach to stratospheric NO2 column estimation and stratosphere-troposphere separation and a new monthly NO2 climatology based on the NASA Global Modeling Initiative chemistry-transport model. The retrieval does not rely on daily model profiles, minimizing the influence of a priori information. We evaluate the retrieved tropospheric NO2 columns using surface in situ (e.g., AQS/EPA), ground-based (e.g., DOAS), and airborne measurements (e.g., DISCOVER-AQ). The new, improved OMI tropospheric NO2 product is available at high spatial resolution for the years 200S-present. We believe that this product is valuable for the evaluation of chemistry-transport models, examining the spatial and temporal patterns of NOx emissions, constraining top-down NOx inventories, and for the estimation of NOx lifetimes.

  6. Absorption of NO and NO2in Caprolactam Tetrabutyl Ammonium Halide Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Erhong; Guo, Bin; Zhang, Dandan; Shi, Long; Sun, Hua; Wang, Yanan

    2011-12-01

    To explore environmentally benign solvents for the absorption of NO and NO 2 , a series of caprolactam tetrabutyl ammonium halide ionic liquids were synthesized. The solubility of NO and NO 2 was measured at temperatures ranging from 298.2 to 363.2 K and atmospheric pressure, and the following trend in the solubility of NO and NO 2 in ionic liquids with various halide anions was observed, respectively: F > Br > Cl and Br > Cl > F. Moreover, as the temperature increased from 308.15 to 363.15 K and the mole ratio of caprolactam increased from 2:1 to 6:1, the solubility of NO increased. Alternatively, the solubility of NO 2 decreased as the temperature increased from 298.15 to 363.15 K, and the mole ratio of caprolactam increased from 2:1 to 6:1. The absorption and desorption of NO and NO 2 was practically reversible in the ionic liquids, which was characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance. The method, which is at least partially reversible, offers interesting possibilities for the removal of NO and NO 2 . [Box: see text].

  7. Study of quartz crystal microbalance NO2 sensor coated with sputtered indium tin oxide film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgieva, V; Gadjanova, V; Angelov, Ts; Aleksandrova, M; Acad. Georgi Bonchev str.bl. 11, 1113, Sofia (Bulgaria))" data-affiliation=" (Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. Georgi Bonchev str.bl. 11, 1113, Sofia (Bulgaria))" >Stefanov, P; Acad. Georgi Bonchev str.bl. 11, 1113, Sofia (Bulgaria))" data-affiliation=" (Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. Georgi Bonchev str.bl. 11, 1113, Sofia (Bulgaria))" >Dilova, T; Grechnikov, A

    2014-01-01

    A study of NO 2 gas sorption ability of thin indium tin oxide (ITO) deposited on 16 MHz quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) is presented. ITO films are grown by RF sputtering of indium/tin target with weight proportion 95:5 in oxygen environment. The ITO films have been characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. The ITO surface composition in atomic % is defined to be: In-40.6%, Sn-4.3% and O-55%. The thickness and refractive index of the films are determined by ellipsometric method. The frequency shift of QCM-ITO is measured at different NO 2 concentrations. The QCM-ITO system becomes sensitive at NO 2 concentration ≥ 500 ppm. The sorbed mass for each concentration is calculated according the Sauerbrey equation. The results indicated that the 1.09 ng of the gas is sorbed into 150 nm thick ITO film at 500 ppm NO 2 concentration. When the NO 2 concentration increases 10 times the calculated loaded mass is 5.46 ng. The sorption process of the gas molecules is defined as reversible. The velocity of sorbtion /desorption processes are studied, too. The QCM coated with thin ITO films can be successfully used as gas sensors for detecting NO 2 in the air at room temperature

  8. Socio-economic inequalities in exposure to industrial air pollution emissions in Quebec public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batisse, Emmanuelle; Goudreau, Sophie; Baumgartner, Jill; Smargiassi, Audrey

    2018-01-22

    We aimed to assess the relationships between deprivation at Quebec public schools, their proximity to polluting industries, and their exposure to industrial air emission sources including ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). We obtained four indicators of school deprivation using data from the 2006 Canadian census called the low-income threshold indicator, the neighbourhood SES indicator, and the social and material deprivation indicators of Pampalon. Using proximity spatial tools, we constructed three buffers of 2.5, 5 and 7.5 km around each school and summed up total emissions of PM2.5, SO2 and NO2 for each school. Industrial air emissions were estimated using data from the 2006 Canadian National Pollutant Release Inventory. The Pearson correlations and LOESS regressions and natural log-transformed industrial air emissions were evaluated for Quebec public schools within the three buffers. Of the 2189 public schools in Quebec, 608 (27.8%), 1108 (50.6%) and 1384 (63.2%) schools were located near at least one industry emitting one or more pollutants of interest in buffers of 2.5 km, 5 km and 7.5 km of schools respectively. Weak positive Pearson correlations (r) were found between log-transformed tons of industrial emissions of PM2.5, SO2 and NO2 and both the social deprivation (r = {0.23; 0.33}) and low-income threshold (r = {0.17; 0.29}) indicators in a buffer of 2.5 km. However, we found negative associations between emissions and the neighbourhood SES (r = {0.06; 0.16}) and material deprivation (r = {-0.04; 0.08}) indicators. Our study suggests that schools in Quebec with higher rates of socio-economic deprivation among their students may be more likely to be exposed to higher emissions of industrial air pollutants.

  9. Preventive Effect of Residential Green Space on Infantile Atopic Dermatitis Associated with Prenatal Air Pollution Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Young Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Few birth cohort studies have examined the role of traffic-related air pollution (TRAP in the development of infantile atopic dermatitis (AD, but none have investigated the role of preventive factors such as green spaces. The aim of this study was to investigate whether exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2 and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of <10 μm (PM10 during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of development of AD in 6-month-old children and also to examine how this association changes with residential green space. This study used prospective data from 659 participants of the Mothers and Children’s Environmental Health study. Subjects were geocoded to their residential addresses and matched with air pollution data modeled using land-use regression. Information on infantile AD was obtained by using a questionnaire administered to the parents or guardians of the children. The association between infantile AD and exposure to NO2 and PM10 was determined using logistic regression models. We assessed the effects of residential green spaces using stratified analyses and by entering product terms into the logistic regression models. The risk of infantile AD significantly increased with an increase in air pollution exposure during the first trimester of pregnancy. The adjusted odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI were 1.219 (1.023–1.452 per 10 μg/m3 increase in PM10 and 1.353 (1.027–1.782 per 10 ppb increase in NO2. An increase in the green space within 200 m of residence was associated with a decreased risk of AD (OR = 0.996, 95% CI: 0.993–0.999. The stratified analysis of residential green space revealed stronger associations between infantile AD and PM10 and NO2 exposure during the first trimester in the areas in the lower tertiles of green space. This study indicated that exposure to TRAP during the first trimester of pregnancy is associated with infantile AD. Less residential green space may intensify

  10. Diurnal and seasonal variations of NO, NO2 and PM2.5 mass as a function of traffic volumes alongside an urban arterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Christine M.; Koonce, Peter; George, Linda A.

    2015-12-01

    Urban arterial corridors are landscapes that give rise to short and long-term exposures to transportation-related pollution. With high traffic volumes and a wide mix of road users, urban arterial environments are important targets for improved exposure assessment to traffic-related pollution. A common method to estimate exposure is to use traffic volumes as a proxy. The study presented here analyzes a unique yearlong dataset of simultaneous roadside air quality and traffic observations for a U.S. arterial to assess the reliability of using traffic volumes as a proxy for traffic-related exposure. Results show how the relationships of traffic volumes with NO and NO2 vary not only by time of day and season but also by time aggregation. At short-term aggregations (15 min) nitrogen oxides were found to have a significant linear relationship with traffic volumes during morning hours for all seasons although variability was still high (r2 = 0.1-0.45 NO, r2 = 0.14-0.27 NO2), and little to no relationship during evening periods (r2 road users, these results show when traffic volumes alone can be a reliable proxy for exposure and when this approach is not warranted.

  11. 21 CFR 573.940 - Silicon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Silicon dioxide. 573.940 Section 573.940 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Listing § 573.940 Silicon dioxide. The food additive silicon dioxide may be safely used in animal feed in...

  12. 21 CFR 172.480 - Silicon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Silicon dioxide. 172.480 Section 172.480 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Agents § 172.480 Silicon dioxide. The food additive silicon dioxide may be safely used in food in...

  13. 21 CFR 73.1575 - Titanium dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Titanium dioxide. 73.1575 Section 73.1575 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1575 Titanium dioxide. (a) Identity and specifications. (1) The color additive titanium dioxide shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements...

  14. 40 CFR 180.1195 - Titanium dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Titanium dioxide. 180.1195 Section 180.1195 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS... Titanium dioxide. Titanium dioxide is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance for residues in or on...

  15. 21 CFR 73.2575 - Titanium dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Titanium dioxide. 73.2575 Section 73.2575 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2575 Titanium dioxide. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive titanium dioxide shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements...

  16. 21 CFR 73.575 - Titanium dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Titanium dioxide. 73.575 Section 73.575 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.575 Titanium dioxide. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive titanium dioxide is synthetically prepared TiO2, free from admixture with other substances. (2) Color...

  17. 21 CFR 73.3126 - Titanium